WorldWideScience

Sample records for scenario total ghg

  1. GHG emission scenarios in Asia and the world: The key technologies for significant reduction

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Akashi, Osamu; Hijioka, Yasuaki; Masui, Toshihiko; Hanaoka, Tatsuya; Kainuma, Mikiko

    2012-01-01

    In this paper, we explore GHG emission scenarios up to 2050 in Asia and the world as part of the Asian Modeling Exercise and assess technology options for meeting a 2.6 W/m 2 radiative forcing target using AIM/Enduse[Global] and AIM/Impact[Policy]. Global GHG emissions in 2050 are required to be reduced by 72% relative to a reference scenario, which corresponds to a 57% reduction from the 2005 level, in order to meet the above target. Energy intensity improvement contributes a lot to curbing CO 2 emission in the short-term. Meanwhile, carbon intensity reduction and CO 2 capture play a large role for further emission reduction in the mid to long-term. The top five key technologies in terms of reduction amount are CCS, solar power generation, wind power generation, biomass power generation and biofuel, which, in total, account for about 60% of global GHG emissions reduction in 2050. We implement additional model runs, each of which enforced limited availability of one of the key technology. The result shows that the 2.6 W/m 2 target up to 2050 is achievable even if availability of any one of the key technologies is limited to half the level achieved in the default simulation. However, if the use of CCS or biomass is limited, the cumulative GHG abatement cost until 2050 increases considerably. Therefore CCS and biomass have a vital role in curbing costs to achieve significant emission reductions. - Highlights: ► We explore GHG emission scenarios up to 2050 in Asia and the world. ► Significant GHG emission reduction is required to limit radiative forcing at low level. ► We assess technology options for achieving significant GHG emission reduction. ► CCS, solar power, wind power, and biomass are the key technologies for reduction. ► Especially, CCS and biomass play a vital role in curbing costs to achieve significant emission reductions.

  2. A comparability analysis of global burden sharing GHG reduction scenarios

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Ciscar, Juan-Carlos; Saveyn, Bert; Soria, Antonio; Szabo, Laszlo; Van Regemorter, Denise; Van Ierland, Tom

    2013-01-01

    The distribution of the mitigation burden across countries is a key issue regarding the post-2012 global climate policies. This article explores the economic implications of alternative allocation rules, an assessment made in the run-up to the COP15 in Copenhagen (December 2009). We analyse the comparability of the allocations across countries based on four single indicators: GDP per capita, GHG emissions per GDP, GHG emission trends in the recent past, and population growth. The multi-sectoral computable general equilibrium model of the global economy, GEM-E3, is used for that purpose. Further, the article also compares a perfect carbon market without transaction costs with the case of a gradually developing carbon market, i.e. a carbon market with (gradually diminishing) transaction costs. - Highlights: ► Burden sharing of global mitigation efforts should consider equity and efficiency. ► The comparability of allocations across countries is based on four indicators. ► The four indicators are GDP/capita, GHG/GDP, population growth, and GHG trend. ► Any possible agreement on effort comparability needs a combination of indicators. ► We analyse the role played by the degree of flexibility in global carbon trading

  3. Fuel conservation and GHG (Greenhouse gas) emissions mitigation scenarios for China’s passenger vehicle fleet

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Hao, Han; Wang, Hewu; Ouyang, Minggao

    2011-01-01

    Passenger vehicles are the main consumers of gasoline in China. We established a bottom-up model which focuses on the simulation of energy consumptions and greenhouse gas (GHG) emissions growth by China’s passenger vehicle fleet. The fuel conservation and GHG emissions mitigation effects of five measures including constraining vehicle registration, reducing vehicle travel, strengthening fuel consumption rate (FCR) limits, vehicle downsizing and promoting electric vehicle (EV) penetration were evaluated. Based on the combination of these measures, the fuel conservation and GHG emissions mitigation scenarios for China’s passenger vehicle fleet were analyzed. Under reference scenario with no measures implemented, the fuel consumptions and life cycle GHG emissions will reach 520 million tons of oil equivalent (Mtoe) and 2.15 billion tons in 2050, about 8.1 times the level in 2010. However, substantial fuel conservation can be achieved by implementing the measures. By implementing all five measures together, the fuel consumption will reach 138 Mtoe in 2030 and decrease to 126 Mtoe in 2050, which is only 37.1% and 24.3% of the consumption under reference scenario. Similar potential lies in GHG mitigation. The results and scenarios provided references for the Chinese government’s policy-making. -- Highlights: ► We established a bottom-up model to simulate the fuel consumptions and GHG (Greenhouse gas) emissions growth by China’s passenger vehicle fleet. ► Five measures including constraining vehicle registration, reducing vehicle travel, improving fuel efficiency, vehicle downsizing and promoting EV penetration were evaluated. ► The fuel conservation and GHG emissions mitigation scenarios for China’s passenger vehicle fleet were provided as references for policy-making.

  4. Scenarios for use of biogas for heavy-duty vehicles in Denmark and related GHG emissions impacts

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Jensen, Steen Solvang; Winther, Morten; Jørgensen, Uffe

    2017-01-01

    of biogas is of concern. This study has analysed the potential biomass and biogas production from all Danish organic waste sources under different scenario assumptions for future scenario years. The analysis includes energy demand of the road transportation sector by means of transport and fuel types......, and potential use of the limited biogas resource taking into account alternative fuel options available for transportation (electricity, hydrogen, biofuels). Further, the total differences in fuel consumption and GHG emissions due to the replacement of diesel-powered heavy-duty vehicles by gas-powered heavy...

  5. A core framework and scenario for deep GHG reductions at the city scale

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Lazarus, Michael; Chandler, Chelsea; Erickson, Peter

    2013-01-01

    Trends in increasing urbanization, paired with a lack of ambitious action on larger scales, uniquely position cities to resume leadership roles in climate mitigation. While many cities have adopted ambitious long-term emission reduction goals, few have articulated how to reach them. This paper presents one of the first long-term scenarios of deep greenhouse gas abatement for a major U.S. city. Using a detailed, bottom-up scenario analysis, we investigate how Seattle might achieve its recently stated goal of carbon neutrality by the year 2050. The analysis demonstrates that a series of ambitious strategies could achieve per capita GHG reductions of 34% in 2020, and 91% in 2050 in Seattle's “core” emissions from the buildings, transportation, and waste sectors. We examine the pros and cons of options to get to, or beyond, net zero emissions in these sectors. We also discuss methodological innovations for community-scale emissions accounting frameworks, including a “core” emissions focus that excludes industrial activity and a consumption perspective that expands the emissions footprint and scope of policy solutions. As in Seattle, other communities may find the mitigation strategies and analytical approaches presented here are useful for crafting policies to achieve deep GHG-reduction goals. - Highlights: ► Cities can play a pivotal role in mitigating climate change. ► Strategies modeled achieve per-capita GHG reductions of 91% by 2050 in Seattle. ► We discuss methodological innovations in community-scale accounting frameworks. ► We weigh options for getting to, or beyond, zero GHG emissions. ► Other cities may adapt these measures and analytical approaches to curb emissions

  6. Scenario analysis on alternative fuel/vehicle for China's future road transport: Life-cycle energy demand and GHG emissions

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Ou Xunmin; Zhang Xiliang; Chang Shiyan

    2010-01-01

    The rapid growth of vehicles has resulted in continuing growth in China's oil demand. This paper analyzes future trends of both direct and life cycle energy demand (ED) and greenhouse gas (GHG) emissions in China's road transport sector, and assesses the effectiveness of possible reduction measures by using alternative vehicles/fuels. A model is developed to derive a historical trend and to project future trends. The government is assumed to do nothing additional in the future to influence the long-term trends in the business as usual (BAU) scenario. Four specific scenarios are used to describe the future cases where different alternative fuel/vehicles are applied. The best case scenario is set to represent the most optimized case. Direct ED and GHG emissions would reach 734 million tonnes of oil equivalent and 2384 million tonnes carbon dioxide equivalent by 2050 in the BAU case, respectively, more than 5.6 times of 2007 levels. Compared with the BAU case, the relative reductions achieved in the best case would be 15.8% and 27.6% for life cycle ED and GHG emissions, respectively. It is suggested for future policy implementation to support sustainable biofuel and high efficient electric-vehicles, and the deployment of coal-based fuels accompanied with low-carbon technology.

  7. Evaluating Uncertainty in GHG Emission Scenarios: Mapping IAM Outlooks With an Energy System Phase Space

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ritchie, W. J.; Dowlatabadi, H.

    2017-12-01

    Climate change modeling relies on projections of future greenhouse gas emissions and other phenomena leading to changes in planetary radiative forcing (RF). Pathways for long-run fossil energy use that map to total forcing outcomes are commonly depicted with integrated assessment models (IAMs). IAMs structure outlooks for 21st-century emissions with various theories for developments in demographics, economics, land-use, energy markets and energy service demands. These concepts are applied to understand global changes in two key factors relevant for scenarios of carbon emissions: total energy use (E) this century and the carbon intensity of that energy (F/E). A simple analytical and graphical approach can also illustrate the full range of outcomes for these variables to determine if IAMs provide sufficient coverage of the uncertainty space for future energy use. In this talk, we present a method for understanding uncertainties relevant to RF scenario components in a phase space. The phase space of a dynamic system represents significant factors as axes to capture the full range of physically possible states. A two-dimensional phase space of E and F/E presents the possible system states that can lead to various levels of total 21st-century carbon emissions. Once defined in this way, a phase space of these energy system coordinates allows for rapid characterization of large IAM scenario sets with machine learning techniques. This phase space method is applied to the levels of RF described by the Representative Concentration Pathways (RCPs). The resulting RCP phase space identifies characteristics of the baseline energy system outlooks provided by IAMs for IPCC Working Group III. We conduct a k-means cluster analysis to distinguish the major features of IAM scenarios for each RCP range. Cluster analysis finds the IAM scenarios in AR5 illustrate RCPs with consistent combinations of energy resources. This suggests IAM scenarios understate uncertainty ranges for future

  8. Sustainable passenger road transport scenarios to reduce fuel consumption, air pollutants and GHG (greenhouse gas) emissions in the Mexico City Metropolitan Area

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Chavez-Baeza, Carlos; Sheinbaum-Pardo, Claudia

    2014-01-01

    This paper presents passenger road transport scenarios that may assist the MCMA (Mexico City Metropolitan Area) in achieving lower emissions in both criteria air pollutants (CO, NO x , NMVOC (non-methane volatile organic compounds), and PM 10 ) and GHG (greenhouse gas) (CH 4 , N 2 O and CO 2 ), while also promoting better mobility and quality of life in this region. We developed a bottom-up model to estimate the historical trends of energy demand, criteria air pollutants and GHG emissions caused by passenger vehicles circulating in the Mexico City Metropolitan Area (MCMA) in order to construct a baseline scenario and two mitigation scenarios that project their impact to 2028. Mitigation scenario “eff” considers increasing fuel efficiencies and introducing new technologies for vehicle emission controls. Mitigation scenario “BRT” considers a modal shift from private car trips to a Bus Rapid Transport system. Our results show significant reductions in air pollutants and GHG emissions. Incentives and environmental regulations are needed to enable these scenarios. - Highlights: • More than 4.2 million passenger vehicles in the MCMA (Mexico City Metropolitan Area) that represent 61% of criteria pollutants and 44% of GHG (greenhouse gas) emissions. • Emissions of CO, NO x and NMVOC (non-methane volatile organic compounds) in baseline scenario decrease with respect to its 2008 value because emission standards. • Emissions of PM 10 and GHG increase in baseline scenario. • Emissions of PM 10 and GHG decrease in eff + BRT scenario from year 2020. • Additional reductions are possible with better standards for diesel vehicles and other technologies

  9. Scenarios for the use of GHG-reduction instruments - how can policy-instruments as carbon emission trading and tradable green certificates be used simultaneously to reach a common GHG-reduction target?

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Morthorst, P.E.

    2000-01-01

    According to the agreed burden sharing in the EU, a number of member states have to reduce their emissions of greenhouse gases substantially. To achieve these reductions various policy-instruments - national as well as international - are on hand. Two international instruments are emphasized in this paper: tradable quotas for limiting carbon emissions and tradable green certificates for promoting the deployment of renewable energy technologies. In the analyses of these two instruments two main questions are considered: (1) Will there be any international trade in green certificates, if no GHG-credits are attached to them? (2) Will it make any difference if the EU sets the targets to be achieved by the two instruments or alternatively the individual member countries do? An incentive-analysis in which four scenarios are set up and discussed is performed for the EU member states. The main conclusion is that if no GHG-credits are attached to the green certificates there seems to be limited of no incentives for a permanent international trade in certificates. On the other hand, if GHG-credits are attached to the certificates an efficient international trade will take place regardless of whether the EU or the member countries fix the quotas. Thus, the use of international instruments as tradable green certificates and tradable emissions permits will not lead to an optimal GHG-reduction strategy unless GHG-credits are attached to the certificates. (author)

  10. Uncertainty of forest carbon stock changes. Implications to the total uncertainty of GHG inventory of Finland

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Monni, S.; Savolainen, I.; Peltoniemi, M.; Lehtonen, A.; Makipaa, R.; Palosuo, T.

    2007-01-01

    Uncertainty analysis facilitates identification of the most important categories affecting greenhouse gas (GHG) inventory uncertainty and helps in prioritisation of the efforts needed for development of the inventory. This paper presents an uncertainty analysis of GHG emissions of all Kyoto sectors and gases for Finland consolidated with estimates of emissions/removals from LULUCF categories. In Finland, net GHG emissions in 2003 were around 69 Tg (±15 Tg) CO2 equivalents. The uncertainties in forest carbon sink estimates in 2003 were larger than in most other emission categories, but of the same order of magnitude as in carbon stock change estimates in other land use, land-use change and forestry (LULUCF) categories, and in N2O emissions from agricultural soils. Uncertainties in sink estimates of 1990 were lower, due to better availability of data. Results of this study indicate that inclusion of the forest carbon sink to GHG inventories reported to the UNFCCC increases uncertainties in net emissions notably. However, the decrease in precision is accompanied by an increase in the accuracy of the overall net GHG emissions due to improved completeness of the inventory. The results of this study can be utilised when planning future GHG mitigation protocols and emission trading schemes and when analysing environmental benefits of climate conventions

  11. Scenario analysis on alternative fuel/vehicle for China's future road transport: Life-cycle energy demand and GHG emissions

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Ou Xunmin, E-mail: oxm07@mails.tsinghua.edu.c [Institute of Energy, Environment and Economy (3E), Tsinghua University, Beijing 100084 (China); China Automotive Energy Research Center (CAERC), Tsinghua University, Beijing 100084 (China); School of Public Policy and Management (SPPM), Tsinghua University, Beijing 100084 (China); Zhang Xiliang, E-mail: zhang_xl@tsinghua.edu.c [Institute of Energy, Environment and Economy (3E), Tsinghua University, Beijing 100084 (China); China Automotive Energy Research Center (CAERC), Tsinghua University, Beijing 100084 (China); Chang Shiyan [Institute of Energy, Environment and Economy (3E), Tsinghua University, Beijing 100084 (China); China Automotive Energy Research Center (CAERC), Tsinghua University, Beijing 100084 (China)

    2010-08-15

    The rapid growth of vehicles has resulted in continuing growth in China's oil demand. This paper analyzes future trends of both direct and life cycle energy demand (ED) and greenhouse gas (GHG) emissions in China's road transport sector, and assesses the effectiveness of possible reduction measures by using alternative vehicles/fuels. A model is developed to derive a historical trend and to project future trends. The government is assumed to do nothing additional in the future to influence the long-term trends in the business as usual (BAU) scenario. Four specific scenarios are used to describe the future cases where different alternative fuel/vehicles are applied. The best case scenario is set to represent the most optimized case. Direct ED and GHG emissions would reach 734 million tonnes of oil equivalent and 2384 million tonnes carbon dioxide equivalent by 2050 in the BAU case, respectively, more than 5.6 times of 2007 levels. Compared with the BAU case, the relative reductions achieved in the best case would be 15.8% and 27.6% for life cycle ED and GHG emissions, respectively. It is suggested for future policy implementation to support sustainable biofuel and high efficient electric-vehicles, and the deployment of coal-based fuels accompanied with low-carbon technology.

  12. Scenario analysis on alternative fuel/vehicle for China's future road transport. Life-cycle energy demand and GHG emissions

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Ou, Xunmin [Institute of Energy, Environment and Economy (3E), Tsinghua University, Beijing 100084 (China); China Automotive Energy Research Center (CAERC), Tsinghua University, Beijing 100084 (China); School of Public Policy and Management (SPPM), Tsinghua University, Beijing 100084 (China); Zhang, Xiliang; Chang, Shiyan [Institute of Energy, Environment and Economy (3E), Tsinghua University, Beijing 100084 (China); China Automotive Energy Research Center (CAERC), Tsinghua University, Beijing 100084 (China)

    2010-08-15

    The rapid growth of vehicles has resulted in continuing growth in China's oil demand. This paper analyzes future trends of both direct and life cycle energy demand (ED) and greenhouse gas (GHG) emissions in China's road transport sector, and assesses the effectiveness of possible reduction measures by using alternative vehicles/fuels. A model is developed to derive a historical trend and to project future trends. The government is assumed to do nothing additional in the future to influence the long-term trends in the business as usual (BAU) scenario. Four specific scenarios are used to describe the future cases where different alternative fuel/vehicles are applied. The best case scenario is set to represent the most optimized case. Direct ED and GHG emissions would reach 734 million tonnes of oil equivalent and 2384 million tonnes carbon dioxide equivalent by 2050 in the BAU case, respectively, more than 5.6 times of 2007 levels. Compared with the BAU case, the relative reductions achieved in the best case would be 15.8% and 27.6% for life cycle ED and GHG emissions, respectively. It is suggested for future policy implementation to support sustainable biofuel and high efficient electric-vehicles, and the deployment of coal-based fuels accompanied with low-carbon technology. (author)

  13. PROCESS INNOVATION: HOLISTIC SCENARIOS TO REDUCE TOTAL LEAD TIME

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Alin POSTEUCĂ

    2015-11-01

    Full Text Available The globalization of markets requires continuous development of business holistic scenarios to ensure acceptable flexibility to satisfy customers. Continuous improvement of supply chain supposes continuous improvement of materials and products lead time and flow, material stocks and finished products stocks and increasing the number of suppliers close by as possible. The contribution of our study is to present holistic scenarios of total lead time improvement and innovation by implementing supply chain policy.

  14. Forest carbon response to management scenarios intended to mitigate GHG emissions and reduce fire impacts in the US West Coast region

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hudiburg, T. W.; Law, B. E.; Thornton, P. E.; Luyssaert, S.

    2012-12-01

    US West coast forests are among the most carbon dense biomes in the world and the potential for biomass accumulation in mesic coastal forests is the highest recorded (Waring and Franklin 1979, Hudiburg et al. 2009). Greenhouse gas (GHG) mitigation strategies have recently expanded to include forest woody biomass as bioenergy, with the expectation that this will also reduce forest mortality. We examined forest carbon response and life cycle assessment (LCA) of net carbon emissions following varying combinations of bioenergy management scenarios in Pacific Northwest forests for the period from 2010-2100. We use the NCAR CLM4 model combined with a regional atmospheric forcing dataset and account for future environmental change using the IPCC RCP4.5 and RCP 8.5 scenarios. Bioenergy management strategies include a repeated thinning harvest, a repeated clearcut harvest, and a single salvage harvest in areas with projected insect-related mortality. None of the bioenergy management scenarios reduce net emissions to the atmosphere compared to continued business-as-usual harvest (BAU) by the end of the 21st century. Forest regrowth and reduced fire emissions are not large enough to balance the wood removals from harvest. Moreover, the substitution of wood for fossil fuel energy and products is not large enough to offset the wood losses through decomposition and combustion. However, in some ecoregions (Blue Mountains and East Cascades), emissions from the thinning harvests begin to improve over BAU at the end of the century and could lead to net reductions in those ecoregions over a longer time period (> 100 years). For salvage logging, there is no change compared to BAU emissions by the end of the 21st century because the treatment area is minimal compared to the other treatments and only performed once. These results suggest that managing forests for carbon sequestration will need to include a variety of approaches accounting for forest baseline conditions and in some

  15. Life cycle GHG analysis of rice straw bio-DME production and application in Thailand

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Silalertruksa, Thapat; Gheewala, Shabbir H.; Sagisaka, Masayuki; Yamaguchi, Katsunobu

    2013-01-01

    Highlights: • Life cycle GHG emissions of rice straw bio-DME production in Thailand are assessed. • Bio-DME replaces diesel in engines and supplements LPG for household application. • Rice straw bio-DME in both cases of substitution helps reduce GHG emissions. - Abstract: Thailand is one of the leading countries in rice production and export; an abundance of rice straw, therefore, is left in the field nowadays and is commonly burnt to facilitate quick planting of the next crop. The study assesses the life cycle greenhouse gas (GHG) emissions of using rice straw for bio-DME production in Thailand. The analysis is divided into two scenarios of rice straw bio-DME utilization i.e. used as automotive fuel for diesel engines and used as LPG supplement for household application. The results reveal that that utilization of rice straw for bio-DME in the two scenarios could help reduce GHG emissions by around 14–70% and 2–66%, respectively as compared to the diesel fuel and LPG substituted. In case rice straw is considered as a by-product of rice cultivation, the cultivation of rice straw will be the major source of GHG emission contributing around 50% of the total GHG emissions of rice straw bio-DME production. Several factors that can affect the GHG performance of rice straw bio-DME production are discussed along with measures to enhance GHG performance of rice straw bio-DME production and utilization

  16. Life-Cycle Energy and GHG Emissions for New and Recovered Softwood Framing Lumber and Hardwood Flooring Considering End-of-Life Scenarios

    Science.gov (United States)

    Richard D. Bergman; Robert H. Falk; Hongmei Gu; Thomas R. Napier; Jamie Meil

    2013-01-01

    Within the green building fields is a growing movement to recover and reuse building materials in lieu of demolition and land fill disposal. However, they lack life-cycle data to help quantify environmental impacts. This study quantifies the primary energy and greenhouse gas (GHG) emissions released from the production of wood recovered from an old house and from new...

  17. Russia at GHG Market

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Golub, A.; Strukova, E.

    2004-01-01

    In the first Kyoto commitment period Russia could be the major supplier for the greenhouse gases (GHG) emissions market. Potential Russian supply depends on the ability of Russia to keep GHG emissions lower than the Kyoto target. In the literature there is no common understanding of the total trading potential of Russia at the international carbon market. In this paper we focus on CO2 emission, which constituted nearly 80% of Russian GHG emission. We compare different projections of Russian CO2 emission and analyze the most important factors, which predetermine the CO2 emission growth. In a transition economy these factors are: Gross Domestic Product (GDP) dynamic, changes of GDP structure, innovation activity, transformation of export-import flows and response to the market signals. The input-output macroeconomic model with the two different input-output tables representing old and new production technologies has been applied for the analysis to simulate technological innovations and structural changes in the Russian economy during transition period. The Russian supply at the international GHG market without forest sector may be up to 3 billion metric ton of CO2 equivalent. Earlier actions to reduce CO2 emission are critical to insure the Russian supply at the international carbon market. With regard to the current status of the Russian capital market, the forward trading with OECD countries is only the possibility to raise initial investments to roll no-regret and low-cost GHG reduction. This paper discusses uncertainties of Russian CO2 emission dynamics and analyzes the different incentives to lower the emission pathway

  18. Feature, Event, and Process Screening and Scenario Development for the Yucca Mountain Total System Performance Assessment

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Barnard, R.; Barr, G.; Burch, P.; Freeze, G.; Rechard, R.; Schenker, A.; Swift, P.

    1999-01-01

    Scenario development has two primary purposes in the design and documentation of post-closure performance assessments in a regulatory setting. First, scenario development ensures a sufficiently comprehensive consideration of the possible future states of the system. Second, scenario development identifies the important scenarios that must be considered in quantitative analyses of the total system performance assessment (TSPA). Section 2.0 of this report describes the scenario development process. Steps in the process are described in Section 2.1, and terms introduced in this section are defined in Section 2.2. The electronic database used to document the process is described in Section 3, and Section 4 provides a summary of the current status of the YMP scenario development work. Section 5 contains acknowledgments, and Section 6 contains a list of the references cited

  19. Plug-in hybrid vehicle GHG impacts in California: Integrating consumer-informed recharge profiles with an electricity-dispatch model

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Axsen, Jonn; Kurani, Kenneth S.; McCarthy, Ryan; Yang, Christopher

    2011-01-01

    This paper explores how Plug-in Hybrid Vehicles (PHEVs) may reduce source-to-wheel Greenhouse Gas (GHG) emissions from passenger vehicles. The two primary advances are the incorporation of (1) explicit measures of consumer interest in and potential use of different types of PHEVs and (2) a model of the California electricity grid capable of differentiating hourly and seasonal GHG emissions by generation source. We construct PHEV emissions scenarios to address inherent relationships between vehicle design, driving and recharging behaviors, seasonal and time-of-day variation in GHG-intensity of electricity, and total GHG emissions. A sample of 877 California new vehicle buyers provide data on driving, time of day recharge access, and PHEV design interests. The elicited data differ substantially from the assumptions used in previous analyses. We construct electricity demand profiles scaled to one million PHEVs and input them into an hourly California electricity supply model to simulate GHG emissions. Compared to conventional vehicles, consumer-designed PHEVs cut marginal (incremental) GHG emissions by more than one-third in current California energy scenarios and by one-quarter in future energy scenarios-reductions similar to those simulated for all-electric PHEV designs. Across the emissions scenarios, long-term GHG reductions depends on reducing the carbon intensity of the grid. - Research highlights: → We estimate California Plug-in Hybrid Vehicle (PHEV) GHGs using consumer data and an electricity supply model. → Consumer-designed (mostly 'blended') PHEVs can reduce GHG emissions compared to conventional vehicles. → These PHEVs can also reduce GHG emissions relative to 'all-electric' PHEV designs. → 'All-electric' designs may further reduce GHG emissions as electricity carbon intensity falls. → Ranking of GHG savings from off-peak versus daytime charging scenarios depends on electricity carbon intensity.

  20. GHG emissions from primary aluminum production in China: Regional disparity and policy implications

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Hao, Han; Geng, Yong; Hang, Wen

    2016-01-01

    Highlights: • GHG emissions from primary aluminum production in China were accounted. • The impact of regional disparity of power generation was considered for this study. • GHG emissions factor of China’s primary aluminum production was 16.5 t CO_2e/t Al ingot in 2013. • Total GHG emissions from China’s primary aluminum production were 421 mt CO_2e in 2013. - Abstract: China is the world-leading primary aluminum production country, which contributed to over half of global production in 2014. Primary aluminum production is power-intensive, for which power generation has substantial impact on overall Greenhouse Gas (GHG) emissions. In this study, we explore the impact of regional disparity of China’s power generation system on GHG emissions for the sector of primary aluminum production. Our analysis reveals that the national GHG emissions factor (GEF) of China’s primary aluminum production was 16.5 t CO_2e/t Al ingot in 2013, with province-level GEFs ranging from 8.2 to 21.7 t CO_2e/t Al ingot. There is a high coincidence of provinces with high aluminum productions and high GEFs. Total GHG emissions from China’s primary aluminum production were 421 mt CO_2e in 2013, approximately accounting for 4% of China’s total GHG emissions. Under the 2020 scenario, GEF shows a 13.2% reduction compared to the 2013 level, but total GHG emissions will increase to 551 mt CO_2e. Based on our analysis, we recommend that the government should further promote energy efficiency improvement, facilitate aluminum industry redistribution with low-carbon consideration, promote secondary aluminum production, and improve aluminum industry data reporting and disclosure.

  1. Assessment of GHG mitigation and CDM technology in urban transport sector of Chandigarh, India.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bhargava, Nitin; Gurjar, Bhola Ram; Mor, Suman; Ravindra, Khaiwal

    2018-01-01

    The increase in number of vehicles in metropolitan cities has resulted in increase of greenhouse gas (GHG) emissions in urban environment. In this study, emission load of GHGs (CO, N 2 O, CO 2 ) from Chandigarh road transport sector has been estimated using Vehicular Air Pollution Inventory (VAPI) model, which uses emission factors prevalent in Indian cities. Contribution of 2-wheelers (2-w), 3-wheelers (3-w), cars, buses, and heavy commercial vehicles (HCVs) to CO, N 2 O, CO 2 , and total GHG emissions was calculated. Potential for GHG mitigation through clean development mechanism (CDM) in transport sector of Chandigarh under two scenarios, i.e., business as usual (BAU) and best estimate scenario (BES) using VAPI model, has been explored. A major contribution of GHG load (~ 50%) in Chandigarh was from four-wheelers until 2011; however, it shows a declining trend after 2011 until 2020. The estimated GHG emission from motor vehicles in Chandigarh has increased more than two times from 1065 Gg in 2005 to 2486 Gg by 2011 and is expected to increase to 4014 Gg by 2020 under BAU scenario. Under BES scenario, 30% of private transport has been transformed to public transport; GHG load was possibly reduced by 520 Gg. An increase of 173 Gg in GHGs load is projected from additional scenario (ADS) in Chandigarh city if all the diesel buses are transformed to CNG buses by 2020. Current study also offers potential for other cities to plan better GHG reduction strategies in transport sector to reduce their climate change impacts.

  2. Reduction potentials of energy demand and GHG emissions in China's road transport sector

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Yan Xiaoyu; Crookes, Roy J.

    2009-01-01

    Rapid growth of road vehicles, private vehicles in particular, has resulted in continuing growth in China's oil demand and imports, which has been widely accepted as a major factor effecting future oil availability and prices, and a major contributor to China's GHG emission increase. This paper is intended to analyze the future trends of energy demand and GHG emissions in China's road transport sector and to assess the effectiveness of possible reduction measures. A detailed model has been developed to derive a reliable historical trend of energy demand and GHG emissions in China's road transport sector between 2000 and 2005 and to project future trends. Two scenarios have been designed to describe the future strategies relating to the development of China's road transport sector. The 'Business as Usual' scenario is used as a baseline reference scenario, in which the government is assumed to do nothing to influence the long-term trends of road transport energy demand. The 'Best Case' scenario is considered to be the most optimized case where a series of available reduction measures such as private vehicle control, fuel economy regulation, promoting diesel and gas vehicles, fuel tax and biofuel promotion, are assumed to be implemented. Energy demand and GHG emissions in China's road transport sector up to 2030 are estimated in these two scenarios. The total reduction potentials in the 'Best Case' scenario and the relative reduction potentials of each measure have been estimated

  3. Greenhouse gas emissions for the EU in four future scenarios

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Lesschen, J.P.; Rienks, W.; Staritsky, I. [Alterra, Wageningen-UR, Wageningen (Netherlands); Eickhout, B.; Prins, A.G. [Netherlands Environmental Assessment Agency PBL, Bilthoven (Netherlands)

    2009-12-15

    The European Common Agricultural Policy (CAP) will be revised in the near future. A proposed agricultural policy reform will affect many dimensions of the sustainable development of agriculture. One of these dimensions are greenhouse gas (GHG) emissions. The objective of this study was to assess the impact of four scenarios of the future, from the Eururalis study, and the effects of CAP options on GHG emissions from agriculture. The results provide an indication of the range of GHG emissions between the four diverging base scenarios and the differences with current emission levels in Member States and on EU level. Analysis of the possible impact of the measures on GHG emissions showed that this would be much larger from mitigation measures than from CAP options. Full implementation of the mitigation measures could lead to a reduction in GHG emissions from agriculture of 127 Mt CO2 equivalents. This is about a quarter of current GHG emissions from agriculture. Promoting mitigation measures, therefore, is more effective for reducing GHG emissions from agriculture, than influencing income and price subsidies within the CAP. On the global scale, CAP options hardly play a role in total GHG emissions from land use. Much more important are developments in global population, economic growth, policies and technological developments, as depicted in the various scenarios.

  4. Scenarios

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Pérez-Soba, Marta; Maas, Rob

    2015-01-01

    We cannot predict the future with certainty, but we know that it is influenced by our current actions, and that these in turn are influenced by our expectations. This is why future scenarios have existed from the dawn of civilization and have been used for developing military, political and economic

  5. Feature, event, and process screening and scenario development for the yucca mountain total system performance assessment

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Swift, P.; Barr, G.; Barnard, R.; Rechard, R.; Schenker, A.; Freeze, G.; Burck, P.

    2001-01-01

    Scenario development has two primary purposes in the design and documentation of postclosure performance assessments in a regulatory setting. First, scenario development ensures a sufficiently comprehensive consideration of the possible future states of the system. Second, scenario development identifies the important scenarios that must be considered in quantitative analyses of the total system performance assessment (TSPA). To ensure clear documentation of the treatment of potentially relevant future states of the system in the Yucca Mountain license application (LA), the US Department of Energy (DOE) has chosen to adopt a scenario development process based on the methodology developed by Cranwell et al. (1990) for the US Nuclear Regulatory Commission (NRC). Although the process, described below, has been modified somewhat as a result of experience gained in the last decade, the underlying methodology is consistent with that outlined by the DOE in the 1988 Site Characterization Plan for the Yucca Mountain Project (YMP) (U.S. DOE, 1988). The approach is fundamentally the same as that used in many performance assessments, including the most recent analysis of the Yucca Mountain repository by the NRC (Wescott et al., 1995). The approach has also been used by the DOE for the Waste Isolation Pilot Plant (WIPP) (U.S. DOE, 1996), by the Nuclear Energy Agency (NEA) of the Organisation for Economic Co-Operation and Development (OECD), and by other radioactive waste programs internationally. Section 2.0 of this report describes the scenario development process. Steps in the process are described in Section 2.1, and terms introduced in this section are defined in Section 2.2. The electronic database used to document the process is described in Section 3, and Section 4 provides a summary of the current status of the YMP scenario development work. Section 5 contains acknowledgments, and Section 6 contains a list of the references cited. (authors)

  6. Comparative evaluation of GHG emissions from the use of Miscanthus for bio-hydrocarbon production via fast pyrolysis and bio-oil upgrading

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Shemfe, Mobolaji B.; Whittaker, Carly; Gu, Sai; Fidalgo, Beatriz

    2016-01-01

    Highlights: • GHG emissions from the upgrading of pyrolysis-derived bio-oil is quantified.. • Soil organic carbon sequestration rate had a significant effect on GHG emission. • Increasing plant scale could improve the environmental performance of the system. • Nitrogen to the pyrolysis reactor had significant impact on GHG emissions. - Abstract: This study examines the GHG emissions associated with producing bio-hydrocarbons via fast pyrolysis of Miscanthus. The feedstock is then upgraded to bio-oil products via hydroprocessing and zeolite cracking. Inventory data for this study were obtained from current commercial cultivation practices of Miscanthus in the UK and state-of-the-art process models developed in Aspen Plus®. The system boundary considered spans from the cultivation of Miscanthus to conversion of the pyrolysis-derived bio-oil into bio-hydrocarbons up to the refinery gate. The Miscanthus cultivation subsystem considers three scenarios for soil organic carbon (SOC) sequestration rates. These were assumed as follows: (i) excluding (SOC), (ii) low SOC and (iii) high (SOC) for best and worst cases. Overall, Miscanthus cultivation contributed moderate to negative values to GHG emissions, from analysis of excluding SOC to high SOC scenarios. Furthermore, the rate of SOC in the Miscanthus cultivation subsystem has significant effects on total GHG emissions. Where SOC is excluded, the fast pyrolysis subsystem shows the highest positive contribution to GHG emissions, while the credit for exported electricity was the main ‘negative’ GHG emission contributor for both upgrading pathways. Comparison between the bio-hydrocarbons produced from the two upgrading routes and fossil fuels indicates GHG emission savings between 68% and 87%. Sensitivity analysis reveals that bio-hydrocarbon yield and nitrogen gas feed to the fast pyrolysis reactor are the main parameters that influence the total GHG emissions for both pathways.

  7. Target-aimed versus wishful-thinking in designing efficient GHG reduction strategies for a metropolitan city: Taipei

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Liu, C.-M.; Liou, M.-L.; Yeh, S.-C.; Shang, N.-C.

    2009-01-01

    In recent years, many national and local governments claim for a specific GHG (greenhouse gas) reduction goal targeted for many years later. In 2005, the Taipei City government announced that Taipei's total GHG emission in 2015 will reach the same level as that in 2005 and then down to 75% of that level at year 2030. However, based on the estimated energy consumption and GHG emission and the proposed emission reduction plans from the local government, it is clear that these goals are not going to be accomplished. In Taipei, the residential and commercial sector contributes more than 78% of the total GHG emission. Thus, in a business as usual scenario, the total GHG emission in 2030 would be 79% more than that in 2005, far more than the target value proclaimed. As many key factors are uncontrollable by the local government, a target-aimed strategy designing process by looking into changes in Taipei and identifying major targets is proposed in this study. It is demonstrated that such a universally applicable approach will give more confidence to the public on working toward the expected GHG reduction goal

  8. Total cost estimates for large-scale wind scenarios in UK

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Dale, Lewis; Milborrow, David; Slark, Richard; Strbac, Goran

    2004-01-01

    The recent UK Energy White Paper suggested that the Government should aim to secure 20% of electricity from renewable sources by 2020. A number of estimates of the extra cost of such a commitment have been made, but these have not necessarily included all the relevant cost components. This analysis sets out to identify these and to calculate the extra cost to the electricity consumer, assuming all the renewable electricity is sourced from wind energy. This enables one of the more controversial issues--the implications of wind intermittency--to be addressed. The basis of the assumptions associated with generating costs, extra balancing costs and distribution and transmission system reinforcement costs are all clearly identified and the total costs of a '20% wind' scenario are compared with a scenario where a similar amount of energy is generated by gas-fired plant. This enables the extra costs of the renewables scenario to be determined. The central estimate of the extra costs to electricity consumers is just over 0.3 p/kW h in current prices (around 5% extra on average domestic unit prices). Sensitivity analyses examine the implications of differing assumptions. The extra cost would rise if the capital costs of wind generation fall slower than anticipated, but would fall if gas prices rise more rapidly than has been assumed, or if wind plant are more productive. Even if it is assumed that wind has no capacity displacement value, the added cost to the electricity consumer rises by less than 0.1 p/kW h. It is concluded that there does not appear to be any technical reason why a substantial proportion of the country's electricity requirements could not be delivered by wind

  9. Assessment and comparison of total RF-EMF exposure in femtocell and macrocell base station scenarios.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Aerts, Sam; Plets, David; Verloock, Leen; Martens, Luc; Joseph, Wout

    2014-12-01

    The indoor coverage of a mobile service can be drastically improved by deployment of an indoor femtocell base station (FBS). However, the impact of its proximity on the total exposure of the human body to radio-frequency (RF) electromagnetic fields (EMFs) is unknown. Using a framework designed for the combination of near-field and far-field exposure, the authors assessed and compared the RF-EMF exposure of a mobile-phone (MP) user that is either connected to an FBS or a conventional macrocell base station while in an office environment. It is found that, in average macrocell coverage and MP use-time conditions and for Universal Mobile Telecommunications System technology, the total exposure can be reduced by a factor of 20-40 by using an FBS, mostly due to the significant decrease in the output power of the MP. In general, the framework presented in this study can be used for any exposure scenario, featuring any number of technologies, base stations and/or access points, users and duration. © The Author 2013. Published by Oxford University Press. All rights reserved. For Permissions, please email: journals.permissions@oup.com.

  10. Programs and measures to reduce GHG emissions in agriculture and waste treatment in Slovakia

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Mareckova, K.; Bratislava, S.; Kucirek, S.

    1996-12-31

    Slovakia is a UN FCCC Annex I country and is obliged to limit its anthropogenic GHG emissions in the year 2000 to 1990 level. The key greenhouse gas in Slovakia is CO{sub 2} resulting mainly from fuel combustion processes. However the share of CH{sub 4} and N{sub 2}O is approximately 20% of the total emissions on GWP basis. These gases are occurring mainly in non-energy sectors. The construction of the non-CO{sub 2} emission scenarios to reduce GHG and the uncertainty in N{sub 2}O and CH{sub 4} emission estimation are discussed focusing on agriculture and waste treatment. The presentation will also include information on emission trends of CH{sub 4} and N{sub 2}O since 1988. There are already implemented measures reducing GHG emissions in Slovakia, however, not motivated by global warming. A short view of implemented measures with an assessment of their benefit concerning non-CO{sub 2} GHG emissions reduction and some proposed mitigation options for agriculture and waste treatment are shown. Expected difficulties connected with preparing scenarios and with implementation of reducing measures are discussed.

  11. Simulating greenhouse gas (GHG) allowance cost and GHG emission reduction in Western Europe

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Delarue, Erik; Lamberts, Hans; D'haeseleer, William

    2007-01-01

    Due to the growing concern for global warming, the EU25 have implemented the European Union Greenhouse Gas Emission Trading Scheme (EU ETS). In the first trading period (2005-2007), part of the targeted GHG emission reductions presumably will have to result from a switch from coal fired electricity generation to gas fired electricity generation. It is possible to calculate the allowance cost necessary to switch a certain coal fired plant with a certain gas fired plant in the merit order. The allowance cost obtained is a so called switching point. When comparing historic European Union Allowance (EUA) prices (2005) with the corresponding historic switching points, the EUA prices were found high enough to cause a certain switch in the summer season. This finding leads to the use of switching points in establishing allowance cost profiles for several scenarios. A variable gas price profile is used in the simulation tool E-Simulate to simulate electricity generation and related GHG emissions in an eight zonal model representing Western Europe. Several GHG allowance cost profile scenarios are examined. For each scenario, electricity generation in the considered countries is clarified. The focus however lies on the GHG emission reduction potentials. These potentials are addressed for each scenario

  12. EV-GHG Mobile Source

    Data.gov (United States)

    U.S. Environmental Protection Agency — The EV-GHG Mobile Source Data asset contains measured mobile source GHG emissions summary compliance information on light-duty vehicles, by model, for certification...

  13. Estimate of Fuel Consumption and GHG Emission Impact on an Automated Mobility District: Preprint

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Chen, Yuche; Young, Stanley; Gonder, Jeff; Qi, Xuewei

    2015-12-11

    This study estimates the range of fuel and emissions impact of an automated-vehicle (AV) based transit system that services campus-based developments, termed an automated mobility district (AMD). The study develops a framework to quantify the fuel consumption and greenhouse gas (GHG) emission impacts of a transit system comprised of AVs, taking into consideration average vehicle fleet composition, fuel consumption/GHG emission of vehicles within specific speed bins, and the average occupancy of passenger vehicles and transit vehicles. The framework is exercised using a previous mobility analysis of a personal rapid transit (PRT) system, a system which shares many attributes with envisioned AV-based transit systems. Total fuel consumption and GHG emissions with and without an AMD are estimated, providing a range of potential system impacts on sustainability. The results of a previous case study based of a proposed implementation of PRT on the Kansas State University (KSU) campus in Manhattan, Kansas, serves as the basis to estimate personal miles traveled supplanted by an AMD at varying levels of service. The results show that an AMD has the potential to reduce total system fuel consumption and GHG emissions, but the amount is largely dependent on operating and ridership assumptions. The study points to the need to better understand ride-sharing scenarios and calls for future research on sustainability benefits of an AMD system at both vehicle and system levels.

  14. Assessment of GHG Emission Reduction Potential from Source-separated Organic Waste (SOW) Management: Case Study in a Higher Educational Institution in Malaysia

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Ng, C.G.; Sumiani Yusoff

    2015-01-01

    In Malaysia, the greenhouse gases (GHGs) emissions reduction via composting of source-separated organic waste (SOW) in municipal solid waste (MSW) has not been assessed. Assessment of GHG emissions reduction via composting of SOW is important as environmental impacts from waste management are waste-specific and local-specific. The study presents the case study for potential carbon reduction via composting of SOW in University of Malaya (UM). In this study, a series of calculations were used to evaluate the GHG emission of different SOW management scenarios. The calculations based on IPCC calculation methods (AM0025) include GHGs emissions from land filling, fuel consumption in transportation and SOW composting activity. The methods were applied to assess the GHG emissions from five alternative SOW management scenarios in UM. From the baseline scenario (S0), a total of 1,636.18 tCO2e was generated. In conjunction with target of 22 % recycling rate, as shown in S1, 14 % reduction in potential GHG emission can be achieved. The carbon reduction can be further enhanced by increasing the SOW composting capacity. The net GHG emission for S1, S2, S3 and S4 were 1,399.52, 1,161.29, 857.70 and 1,060.48 tCO2e, respectively. In general, waste diversion for composting proved a significant net GHG emission reduction as shown in S3 (47 %), S4 (35 %) and S2 (29 %). Despite the emission due to direct on-site activity, the significant reduction in methane generation at landfill has reduced the net GHG emission. The emission source of each scenario was studied and analysed. (author)

  15. Alternative U.S. biofuel mandates and global GHG emissions: The role of land use change, crop management and yield growth

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Mosnier, A.; Havlík, P.; Valin, H.; Baker, J.; Murray, B.; Feng, S.; Obersteiner, M.; McCarl, B.A.; Rose, S.K.; Schneider, U.A.

    2013-01-01

    We investigate the impacts of the U.S. renewable fuel standard (RFS2) and several alternative biofuel policy designs on global GHG emissions from land use change and agriculture over the 2010–2030 horizon. Analysis of the scenarios relies on GLOBIOM, a global, multi-sectoral economic model based on a detailed representation of land use. Our results reveal that RFS2 would substantially increase the portion of agricultural land needed for biofuel feedstock production. U.S. exports of most agricultural products would decrease as long as the biofuel target would increase leading to higher land conversion and nitrogen use globally. In fact, higher levels of the mandate mean lower net emissions within the U.S. but when the emissions from the rest of the world are considered, the US biofuel policy results in almost no change on GHG emissions for the RFS2 level and higher global GHG emissions for higher levels of the mandate or higher share of conventional corn-ethanol in the mandate. Finally, we show that if the projected crop productivity would be lower globally, the imbalance between domestic U.S. GHG savings and additional GHG emissions in the rest of the world would increase, thus deteriorating the net global impact of U.S. biofuel policies. - Highlights: ► We model the impact of the U.S. renewable fuel standard (RFS2). ► RFS2 would require more agricultural land and nitrogen globally. ► Increasing the mandates reduce GHG emissions within the U.S. ► Increasing the mandates increase GHG emissions in the rest of the world. ► Total GHG emissions increase with higher levels of mandate; higher share of corn-ethanol; lower productivity growth

  16. Cradle to grave GHG emissions analysis of shale gas hydraulic fracking in Western Australia

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Bista Sangita

    2017-01-01

    Full Text Available Western Australia has globally significant onshore gas resources, with over 280 trillion cubic feet of economically recoverable gas located in five shale basins. The Western Australian Government and gas industry have promoted the development of these resources as a “clean energy source” that would “help to reduce global carbon emissions” and provide a “transition fuel” to a low carbon economy. This research examines those claims by reviewing existing literature and published data to estimate the life cycle greenhouse gas (GHG pollution that would result from the development of Western Australia’s onshore gas basins using hydraulic fracking. Estimates of carbon pollution from each stage in gas development, processing, transport and end-use are considered in order to establish total life-cycle emissions in tonnes of carbon-dioxide equivalent (CO2e. The emissions estimates draw from published research on emissions from shale gas development in other jurisdictions as well as industry or government reported emissions from current technology for gas processing and end-use as applicable. The current policy and regulatory environment for carbon pollution and likely resulting GHG mitigation measures has also been considered, as well as the potential for the gas to displace or substitute for other energy sources. In areas where there is uncertainty, conservative emissions estimates have been used. Modelling of GHG emissions has been undertaken for two comparison resource development and utilisation scenarios; Australian domestic and 100% export i.e. no domestic use. Each scenario corresponds to a different proportionate allocation of emissions accounted for domestic emissions in Australia and emissions accounted for in other jurisdictions. Emissions estimates for the two scenarios are 245–502 MTCO2e/year respectively over a resource development timeframe of 20 years. This is roughly the same as Australia’s total GHG emissions in 2014

  17. Assessment and comparison of total RF-EMF exposure in femtocell and macrocell base station scenarios

    OpenAIRE

    Aerts, Sam; Plets, David; Verloock, Leen; Martens, Luc; Joseph, Wout

    2014-01-01

    The indoor coverage of a mobile service can be drastically improved by deployment of an indoor femtocell base station (FBS). However, the impact of its proximity on the total exposure of the human body to radio-frequency (RF) electromagnetic fields (EMFs) is unknown. Using a framework designed for the combination of near-field and far-field exposure, the authors assessed and compared the RF-EMF exposure of a mobile-phone (MP) user that is either connected to an FBS or a conventional macrocell...

  18. Influence of Employee Involvement in Total Productive Maintenance Practices on Job Characteristics: The Malaysian Scenario

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Aizzat Mohd. Nasurdin

    2005-09-01

    Full Text Available The main goal of this study is to examine whether the extent of involvement in Total Productive Maintenance (TPM practices has a positive effect on job characteristics. Data was gathered from a sample of 184 respondents derived from manufacturing companies in Malaysia. Results from the regression analyses revealed that the extent of employee’s involvement in TPM practices is positively related to the five core job dimensions (skill variety, task identity, task significance, autonomy, and feedback. Theoretical and managerial implications of the findings are discussed.

  19. Energy and GHG abatement cost curves

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Alvarenga, Rafael [BHP Billiton Base Metals (Australia)

    2010-07-01

    Global warming due to various reasons but especially to emission of green house gases (GHGs) has become a cause for serious concern. This paper discusses the steps taken by BHP Billiton to reduce energy consumption and GHG emissions using cost curves. According to forecasts, global warming is expected to impact Chile badly and the rise in temperature could be between 1 and more than 5 degrees Celsius. Mining in Chile consumes a lot of energy, particularly electricity. Total energy and electricity consumption in 2007 was 13 and 36 % respectively. BHP base metals developed a set of abatement cost curves for energy and GHG in Chile and these are shown in figures. The methodology for the curves consisted of consultant visits to each mine operation. The study also includes mass energy balance and feasibility maps. The paper concludes that it is important to evaluate the potential for reducing emissions and energy and their associated costs.

  20. Improvements in Total Column Ozone in GEOSCCM and Comparisons with a New Ozone-Depleting Substances Scenario

    Science.gov (United States)

    Oman, Luke D.; Douglass, Anne R.

    2014-01-01

    The evolution of ozone is examined in the latest version of the Goddard Earth Observing System Chemistry-Climate Model (GEOSCCM) using old and new ozone-depleting substances (ODS) scenarios. This version of GEOSCCM includes a representation of the quasi-biennial oscillation, a more realistic implementation of ozone chemistry at high solar zenith angles, an improved air/sea roughness parameterization, and an extra 5 parts per trillion of CH3Br to account for brominated very short-lived substances. Together these additions improve the representation of ozone compared to observations. This improved version of GEOSCCM was used to simulate the ozone evolution for the A1 2010 and the newStratosphere-troposphere Processes and their Role in Climate (SPARC) 2013 ODS scenario derived using the SPARC Lifetimes Report 2013. This new ODS scenario results in a maximum Cltot increase of 65 parts per trillion by volume (pptv), decreasing slightly to 60 pptv by 2100. Approximately 72% of the increase is due to the longer lifetime of CFC-11. The quasi-global (60degS-60degN) total column ozone difference is relatively small and less than 1Dobson unit on average and consistent with the 3-4% larger 2050-2080 average Cly in the new SPARC 2013 scenario. Over high latitudes, this small change in Cly compared to the relatively large natural variabilitymakes it not possible to discern a significant impact on ozone in the second half of the 21st century in a single set of simulations.

  1. Patient - implant dimension mismatch in total knee arthroplasty: Is it worth worrying? An Indian scenario

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Jai Thilak

    2016-01-01

    Full Text Available Background: The correct sizing of the components in both anteroposterior and mediolateral (ML dimensions is crucial for the success of a total knee arthroplasty (TKA. The size of the implants selected is based on the intraoperative measurements. The currently used TKA implants available to us are based on morphometric measurements obtained from a Western/Caucasian population. Hence, the risk of component ML mismatch is more common in Asian sub-population, as they are of a smaller built and stature. This study aims to look into the following aspects agnitude of the ML mismatch between the femoral component and the patient′s anatomical dimension, evaluation of gender variations in distal femur dimensions, and gender-wise and implant-wise correlation of ML mismatch. Materials and Methods: Intraoperatively, the distal femoral dimensions were measured using sterile calipers after removing the osteophytes and compared with the ML dimension of the implant used. ML mismatch length thus obtained is correlated with the various parameters. Results: Males showed larger distal femoral dimensions when compared to females. Males had larger ML mismatch. None of the implants used perfectly matched the patient′s anatomical dimensions. Patients with larger mismatch had lower scorings at 2 years postoperative followup. Conclusion: Implant manufacturers need to design more options of femoral implants for a better fit in our subset of patients. The exact magnitude of mismatch which can cause functional implications need to be made out. The mismatch being one of the important factors for the success of the surgery, we should focus more on this aspect.

  2. Developing an optimal energy supply strategy for Syria in view of GHG reduction with least-cost climate protection

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Hainoun, A.; Omar, H.; Almoustafa, A.; Seif Al-din, M.Kh.

    2010-12-01

    for the period up to 2012. In this context the role of renewable energy options in the main energy sector, namely the power sector, is being evaluated. The resulting structure of the proposed alternative Ren S ce compared to the reference scenario could help in reflecting the impact of environmental regulations on the future structure of energy sources and technologies showing the adaptation ability of the national energy system. The achieved results of Mitigation Scenario are compared with those of reference scenario. Accordingly, the GHG emission of electricity generation sector of Ren S ce is doubled 3 times during the study period compared to 3.4 for reference scenario, rising from 18 Mt in 2003 to 54 Mt in 2030 and achieving an annual growth rate of 4.7%. The calculated cumulative GHG emissions over the study period will amount to 895 Mt of CO 2 eq for Ren S ce compared to 970 Mt of CO 2 eq for reference scenario, which means that the potential CO 2 reduction during the study period is about 75 Mt (corresponding to 7.7% of total cumulative CO 2 emissions). To evaluate the potential of CDM projects in Syria, pre-feasibility study for two suggested projects in the energy sector has been carried out. The first one deals with the construction of 100 MW wind farm, whereas the second explores the potential of installing about 1.2 million active solar systems for water heating in the household sector up to the year 2030. The result of the first project has shown that the expected annual electricity generation of about 275 GWh leads to a net annual GHG emission reduction of about 190 kt C0 2 eq corresponding to a cumulative reduction of 3.8 Mt CO 2 eq during the whole life time of the project. The second project leads to an electricity saving of about 19.33 TWh and depicts a GHG reduction of about 11 M ton of CO 2 eq. (author)

  3. GHG emission estimates for road transport in national GHG inventories

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Pulles, M.P.J.; Yang, H.

    2011-01-01

    The annual reporting procedures of the United Nations Framework Convention on Climate Change (UNFCCC) have now produced greenhouse gas (GHG) emission inventories from 40 so-called Annex I countries for 18 years. This article analyses a subset of these data: emissions from road transport. The article

  4. IPCC Special report on Emissions Scenarios (SRES)

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Anon

    2001-01-01

    This special report on emissions scenarios (SRES) is intended to reflect the most recent trends in driving forces of emissions; population projections economic development, and structural and technological change. It serves as an update to IS92 scenarios developed by IPCC in the early 1990s to illustrate a plausible range of future greenhouse gas emissions. This update is based on a review of the literature and the development of a database of over 400 global and regional scenarios; 190 of these extend from 1900 to 2100 and thus fed into the development of the narrative scenarios and storylines. Based on the literature review, a set of four alternative scenario families, having a total of 40 emission scenarios have been developed. Each scenario family includes a narrative storyline which describes a demographic, social. economic, technological, environmental and policy future. Characteristic features of each of the four families are summarized and a comparison is made between the IS92 and SRES. One of the main conclusions of this recent scenario construction effort is the realization that alternative combinations of main scenario driving forces can lead to similar levels of GHG emissions by the end of the 21st century, and that scenarios with different underlying assumptions can result in very similar climate change

  5. GHG emissions and mitigation potential in Indian agriculture

    Science.gov (United States)

    Vetter, Sylvia; Feliciano, Diana; Sapkota, Tek; Hillier, Jon; Smith, Pete; Stirling, Clare

    2016-04-01

    India is one of the world's largest greenhouse gas (GHG) emitter, accounting for about 5% of global emissions with further increases expected in the future. The Government of India aims to reduce emission intensities by 20-25% by 2020 compared with the 2005 level. In a recent departure from past practice the reconvened Council on Climate Change stated that climate change in agriculture would include a component that would focus on reducing emissions in agriculture, particularly methane and nitrous oxide emissions. To develop recommendations for mitigation in agriculture in India, a baseline study is presented to analyse the GHG emissions from agriculture for current management (Directorate of Economics and Statistics of the government of India). This analysis is done for the two states Bihar and Haryana, which differ in their management and practises based on different climate and policies. This first analysis shows were the highest GHG emissions in agriculture is produced and were the highest mitigation potential might be. The GHG emissions and mitigation potential are calculated using the CCAFS Mitigation Option Tool (CCAFS-MOT) (https://ccafs.cgiar.org/mitigation-option-tool-agriculture#.VpTnWL826d4) with modifications for the special modelling. In a second step, stakeholder meetings provided a wide range of possible and definite scenarios (management, policy, technology, costs, etc.) for the future to mitigate emissions in agriculture as well as how to increase productivity. These information were used to create scenarios to give estimates for the mitigation potential in agriculture for India in 2020.

  6. Life cycle GHG emissions of sewage sludge treatment and disposal options in Tai Lake Watershed, China

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Liu, Beibei [State Key Laboratory of Pollution Control and Resource Reuse, School of Environment, Nanjing University, Nanjing 210093 (China); Department of Geography and Environmental Engineering, Whiting School of Engineering, Johns Hopkins University, Baltimore, MD 21218 (United States); Wei, Qi [State Key Laboratory of Pollution Control and Resource Reuse, School of Environment, Nanjing University, Nanjing 210093 (China); Zhang, Bing, E-mail: Zhangb@nju.edu.cn [State Key Laboratory of Pollution Control and Resource Reuse, School of Environment, Nanjing University, Nanjing 210093 (China); Bi, Jun [State Key Laboratory of Pollution Control and Resource Reuse, School of Environment, Nanjing University, Nanjing 210093 (China)

    2013-03-01

    The treatment and disposal of sewage sludge generate considerable amounts of greenhouse gases (GHGs) and pose environmental and economic challenges to wastewater treatment in China. To achieve a more informed and sustainable sludge management, this study conducts a life cycle inventory to investigate the GHG performances of six scenarios involving various sludge treatment technologies and disposal strategies. These scenarios are landfilling (S1), mono-incineration (S2), co-incineration (S3), brick manufacturing (S4), cement manufacturing (S5), and fertilizer for urban greening (S6). In terms of GHG emissions, S2 demonstrates the best performance with its large offset from sludge incineration energy recovery, followed by S4 and S6, whereas S1 demonstrates the poorest performance primarily because of its large quantity of methane leaks. The scenario rankings are affected by the assumptions of GHG offset calculation. In most scenarios, GHG performance could be improved by using waste gas or steam from existing facilities for drying sludge. Furthermore, considering the GHG performance along with economic, health, and other concerns, S6 is recommended. We thus suggest that local governments promote the use of composted sludge as urban greening fertilizers. In addition, the use of sludge with 60% water content, in place of the current standard of 80%, in wastewater treatment plants is proposed to be the new standard for Tai Lake Watershed in China. - Highlights: ► Life-cycle GHG emissions of six sludge handling scenarios are examined. ► Scenario rankings are affected by the assumptions of GHG offset calculation. ► Using heat from existing facilities to dry sludge can improve GHG performance. ► Fertilizer for urban greening is recommended due to its integrated performance. ► The sludge water-content standard is suggested to changed from 80% to 60%.

  7. Life cycle GHG emissions of sewage sludge treatment and disposal options in Tai Lake Watershed, China

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Liu, Beibei; Wei, Qi; Zhang, Bing; Bi, Jun

    2013-01-01

    The treatment and disposal of sewage sludge generate considerable amounts of greenhouse gases (GHGs) and pose environmental and economic challenges to wastewater treatment in China. To achieve a more informed and sustainable sludge management, this study conducts a life cycle inventory to investigate the GHG performances of six scenarios involving various sludge treatment technologies and disposal strategies. These scenarios are landfilling (S1), mono-incineration (S2), co-incineration (S3), brick manufacturing (S4), cement manufacturing (S5), and fertilizer for urban greening (S6). In terms of GHG emissions, S2 demonstrates the best performance with its large offset from sludge incineration energy recovery, followed by S4 and S6, whereas S1 demonstrates the poorest performance primarily because of its large quantity of methane leaks. The scenario rankings are affected by the assumptions of GHG offset calculation. In most scenarios, GHG performance could be improved by using waste gas or steam from existing facilities for drying sludge. Furthermore, considering the GHG performance along with economic, health, and other concerns, S6 is recommended. We thus suggest that local governments promote the use of composted sludge as urban greening fertilizers. In addition, the use of sludge with 60% water content, in place of the current standard of 80%, in wastewater treatment plants is proposed to be the new standard for Tai Lake Watershed in China. - Highlights: ► Life-cycle GHG emissions of six sludge handling scenarios are examined. ► Scenario rankings are affected by the assumptions of GHG offset calculation. ► Using heat from existing facilities to dry sludge can improve GHG performance. ► Fertilizer for urban greening is recommended due to its integrated performance. ► The sludge water-content standard is suggested to changed from 80% to 60%

  8. GHG legislation: Lessons from Taiwan

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Huang, W.M.; Lee, Grace W.M.

    2009-01-01

    Taiwan has drafted a Greenhouse Gas (GHG) Reduction Bill in 2006, which is currently undergoing the legislative process in the Congress. The purpose of this study is to reexamine the legal framework and contents of this Bill, evaluate potential problems and propose recommendations. This study advocates that setting the GHG reduction targets should be settled in this Bill. In addition, based on the analysis of international experiences, it is recommenced that emissions trading scheme in the Bill should be focused on large emission sources and the share of allowance auction should be increased to reduce gratis allocation. Furthermore, from the calculation results based on the long-range energy alternative planning (LEAP) model, a conflict is observed for the existing energy policy and GHG reduction efforts in Taiwan. That is, coal-burning power plants will be the most important source of energy for Taiwan in the future. In order to reduce this conflict, the authors have recommended that the Bill should also be integrated with other relevant existing legislation to achieve a complementary effect.

  9. Sensitivity analysis of GHG emissions from biofuels in Canada

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    2006-01-01

    This report identified key factors influencing the life-cycle greenhouse gas (GHG) emissions of ethanol and biodiesel production pathways in Canada. The report was prepared for use by policy makers in order to facilitate decision making that positively impacts the lifecycle GHG performance of renewable fuels. Four ethanol production pathways were considered: (1) ethanol production from corn; (2) ethanol production from wheat in conventional starch ethanol facilities; (3) ethanol produced from wheat straw using lignocellulosic technology; and (4) ethanol from sugar cane imported into Canada. For the pathway analysis, ethanols were blended at low levels with sulphur gasoline or used as E85 with low levels of gasoline. All ethanol scenarios were modelled for light duty vehicles. Results of the study demonstrated that all 4 pathways showed significant reductions in GHG emissions when compared to low sulphur gasoline. Differences in vehicle operation emissions between gasoline and ethanol-blended gasoline were related to a combination of the difference in the carbon content per unit of energy and the energy efficiency improvement. The study examined land use changes and feedstock production as well as all other lifecycle processes for diesel, canola, soy, palm, tallow, tallow grease, and yellow grease. A variety of transportation distances were considered. It was concluded that the alternative uses of co-products such as combustion to provide thermal energy resulted in improved GHG results. 17 refs., 117 tabs., 13 figs

  10. Fossil energy savings and GHG mitigation potentials of ethanol as a gasoline substitute in Thailand

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Nguyen, Thu Lan T.; Gheewala, Shabbir H.; Garivait, Savitri

    2007-01-01

    One of the Thai government's measures to promote ethanol use is excise tax exemption, making gasohol cheaper than gasoline. The policy in favour of biofuels is being supported by their contribution to fossil energy savings and greenhouse gas (GHG) mitigation. An analysis of energy balance (EnB), GHG balance and GHG abatement cost has been done to evaluate molasses-based ethanol (MoE) in Thailand. A positive EnB of 19.2 MJ/L implies that MoE is a good substitute for gasoline, effective in fossil energy savings. GHG balance assessment based on the baseline scenario shows that emissions are most likely to increase with the substitution. Scenarios using biogas captured from spent wash treatment and rice husk to substitute coal used in ethanol conversion give encouraging results in improving the GHG balance. However, the higher price of MoE over gasoline currently has resulted in high GHG abatement costs, even under the best-case scenario. Compared to the many other climate strategies relevant to Thailand, MoE is much less cost effective. Governed by the rule of supply and demand, a strong fluctuation in molasses price is considered the main cause of volatile MoE price. Once supplies are stable, the trend of price drops would make MoE a reasonable option for national climate policy

  11. Canada's energy future : reference case and scenarios to 2030

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    2007-01-01

    Energy is essential to the comfort and economic prosperity of Canadians. This report highlighted some of the issues that Canada faces with respect to its energy future. The report focused on emerging trends in energy supply and demand, and examined various energy futures that may be available to Canadians up to the year 2030. Three different scenarios were presented: (1) a continuing trends scenario; (2) a triple E scenario in which economic, environmental and energy objectives are balanced; and (3) a fortified islands scenario in which security concerns were coupled with international unrest and protectionist governments. The report determined that energy demand will remain a function of population and economic growth. Automobiles will continue to rely on fossil fuels. Energy efficiency will improve in relation to the effectiveness of government policies, and a move towards natural gas alternatives will occur. However, fossil fuels will remain a dominant source of energy supply. Oil sands production grew in all 3 of the evaluated scenarios. It is expected that total natural gas production will decline and imports of liquefied natural gas (LNG) will increase. In all 3 scenarios greenhouse gas (GHG) emissions increased or only slightly declined. A full spectrum of GHG mitigation strategies will need to be implemented so that Canada can meet its target of a 20 per cent reduction in GHGs by 2020. It was concluded that effective policies are needed to optimize Canada's multiple objectives of economic growth, environment sustainability, and development of energy resources. 6 tabs., 118 figs

  12. National and Sectoral GHG Mitigation Potential

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    NONE

    2009-07-01

    This paper compares model estimates of national and sectoral GHG mitigation potential across six key OECD GHG-emitting economies: Australia, Canada, the EU, Japan, Mexico and the US. It examines the implications of model structure, baseline and policy assumptions, and assesses GHG mitigation potential estimates across a variety of models, including models that are used to inform climate policy-makers in each of these economies.

  13. Fleet view of electrified transportation reveals smaller potential to reduce GHG emissions

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Meinrenken, Christoph J.; Lackner, Klaus S.

    2015-01-01

    Highlights: • Novel framework compares GHG of plugins vs. hybrids for any vehicle type/performance. • Fleet GHG can be compared without forecasting market penetrations of vehicle sizes. • GHG/km for pure electrics must account for limited range using novel, modified Utility Factor. • Applied to the US, this points to smaller GHG reduction at fleet level than traditional fleet analyses. - Abstract: Plugin and hybrid vehicles have been shown to offer possible reductions in greenhouse gas (GHG) emissions, depending on grid-carbon-intensity, range and thus life-cycle battery emissions and vehicle weight, and on trip patterns. We present a framework that enables GHG comparisons (well-to-wheel plus storage manufacturing) for three drivetrains (pure-electric, gasoline-hybrid, and plugin-hybrid), both for individual vehicles and for fleets. The framework captures effects of grid- versus vehicle-based electricity generation, grid transmission and charging losses, and manufacturing and carrying batteries. In contrast to previous work, GHG comparisons can be obtained for heterogeneous fleets of varying vehicle sizes (cars, vans, buses, trucks) and performances, without requiring forecasting of such vehicle specs and their respective market penetrations. Further, we show how a novel adaptation of the Utility Factor concept from plug-in-hybrids to mixed fleets of battery-only and gasoline-hybrids is crucial to quantifying battery-only-vehicles’ impact on fleet-wide GHG. To account for regional variations and possible future technology improvements, we show scenarios over a wide spectrum of grid-carbon-intensities (50–1200 g CO 2 e/kW h at wall), vehicle range (∼5–500 km), battery energy densities, and battery life-cycle GHG. Model uncertainties are quantified via sensitivity tests. Applying the framework to trip patterns of US passenger transportation, we find that owing to the interplay of GHG/km, battery size, all-electric range, and trip patterns, GHG

  14. GHG emissions due to deforestation

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Croezen, H.; Van Valkengoed, M.

    2009-05-01

    An assessment was made for the magnitude of greenhouse gas emissions resulting from deforestation and forest degradation in tropical forests in Malaysia and Indonesia related to Dutch economic activities. Greenhouse gas emissions (GHG) are calculated in relation to (1) the emissions related to vegetation removal sec; and (2) the emissions related to removal and more long term effects related to assimilation of CO2 in forest regrowth and changes in organic material in soils. Emissions related to vegetation removal and aggregated emissions for both vegetation removal and long term effects are reported separately. Soil organic carbon stock changes are considered by Greenpeace as more uncertain, so the emphasis will be on the direct emissions. Changes in carbon stocks and N2O emissions and actually also changes in vegetation all are events that occur gradually, rather than immediately. Only removal of existing vegetation and possible burning of this vegetation and associated emissions related to both activities are immediate by nature. Carbon stocks and N2O emissions change to a new level within several decades after deforestation or forest degradation. Removed vegetation can grow back or be replaced eventually by other vegetation, thereby changing the net greenhouse gas (GHG) emissions related to deforestation or forest degradation. Vegetation extracted for commercial purposes such as timber or pulp will also take years or decades to become waste and be converted into CO2. In IPCC and LCA's all these emissions are taken into account - or at least all emissions occurring within a period of 20 years, as required by IPCC. Soil organic carbon stock changes are also considered by Greenpeace as more uncertain, so the emphasis will be on the direct emmissions.

  15. GHG policies and the role of innovations

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Erdmann, Georg

    1999-01-01

    The recent debate about the use of economic instruments aiming at achieving the GHG goals led to a number of important insights and conclusions. However, the implementation of these instruments is still rather weak. One reason is that the proposed GHG solutions (particularly CO 2 -taxes) are faced with some ambiguities and shortcomings, which require further analysis and discussion. Another reason is that any democratic government has problems to solve problems being identified through scientific analyses but not through daily experience. Any progress in implementing GHG policies requires to convince the larger public about the necessity of an active GHG policy and the unavoidability of costs associated to this policy. In this dilemma situation the change to implement GHG strategies can be improved by a sophisticated combination of voluntary agreements and monetary as well as non-monetary incentives to environmental innovations. According to the game theoretical view, voluntary agreements can't perform better than CO 2 -taxes that will be implemented in case of non-compliance. The paper argues that voluntary agreements can improve the credibility of governmental threats to implement hard measures at a later time. Still voluntary agreement s alone are negligible with respect to GHG emission reductions beyond business as usual. But they may be useful for focusing private business plans on ecological innovations. As far as such innovations become feasible they contribute to the low cost GHG reduction potential as well as the public support for a more active GHG policy. (Author)

  16. Peatland-GHG emissions in Europe

    Science.gov (United States)

    Droesler, Matthias

    2013-04-01

    Managed peatlands are hot spots for CO2, CH4 and N2O emissions. GHG which have been not fully integrated in past European climate projects. Peatlands contribute to European GHG emissions 10 times more per unit area than other terrestrial ecosystems. Peatland management and exploration by drainage, agricultural use and peat extraction turned pristine peatland GHG sinks into sources. Emissions can reach more than 40 t CO2equiv. ha-1 a-1 in intensively managed peatlands. On the other hand, the restoration of degraded peatlands does normally reduce these emissions significantly towards climate neutral levels, once the restoration work is done wisely. But in some cases the net climate effect do not decrease significantly depending on hydrological regimes, fertilization status of the peatlands, climate and vegetation type. In many European countries with significant peatland cover nationally funded projects were set up to investigate peatland GHG fluxes and their drivers. These scattered data and knowledge are currently being brought together under the coverage of the GHG-Europe project (Grant agreement no.: 244122) within a new synthesis to develop the relevant EF, identify the drivers and develop upscaling options for GHG-emissions. The talk will: (1) show a first cut of new Emission Factors for peatlands in Europe and compare these with IPCC-default values. (2) discuss the developed sensible response functions for GHG-fluxes against natural and anthropogenic drivers such as land use intensity, land management with drainage and climate variability. (3) show case studies from Germany show the applicability of response functions for upscaling of GHG-balances. (4) An outlook is given to the future European peatland GHG-Balance.

  17. Optimal scenario balance of reduction in costs and greenhouse gas emissions for municipal solid waste management

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    邓娜; 张强; 陈广武; 齐长青; 崔文谦; 张于峰; 马洪亭

    2015-01-01

    To reduce carbon intensity, an improved management method balancing the reduction in costs and greenhouse gas (GHG) emissions is required for Tianjin’s waste management system. Firstly, six objective functions, namely, cost minimization, GHG minimization, eco-efficiency minimization, cost maximization, GHG maximization and eco-efficiency maximization, are built and subjected to the same constraints with each objective function corresponding to one scenario. Secondly, GHG emissions and costs are derived from the waste flow of each scenario. Thirdly, the range of GHG emissions and costs of other potential scenarios are obtained and plotted through adjusting waste flow with infinitely possible step sizes according to the correlation among the above six scenarios. And the optimal scenario is determined based on this range. The results suggest the following conclusions. 1) The scenarios located on the border between scenario cost minimization and GHG minimization create an optimum curve, and scenario GHG minimization has the smallest eco-efficiency on the curve;2) Simple pursuit of eco-efficiency minimization using fractional programming may be unreasonable; 3) Balancing GHG emissions from incineration and landfills benefits Tianjin’s waste management system as it reduces GHG emissions and costs.

  18. Fossil energy and GHG saving potentials of pig farming in the EU

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Nguyen, Thu Lan T.; Hermansen, John E.; Mogensen, Lisbeth [Department of Agroecology and Environment, Aarhus University, Tjele (Denmark)

    2010-05-15

    In Europe, the highly developed livestock industry places a high burden on resource use and environmental quality. This paper examines pig meat production in North-West Europe as a base case and runs different scenarios to investigate how improvements in terms of energy and greenhouse gas (GHG) savings can be feasibly achieved. As shown in the results of the analysis, pig farming in the EU has a high potential to reduce fossil energy use and GHG emissions by taking improvement measures in three aspects: (i) feed use; (2) manure management; and (3) manure utilization. In particular, a combination of improvements in all mentioned aspects offers the highest savings potential of up to 61% fossil energy and 49% GHG emissions. In weighing these three aspects, manure utilization for energy production is found to be the most important factor in reducing fossil energy use and GHG emissions. However, when GHG implications of land use change and land opportunity cost associated with the production of feed crops (e.g. soy meal, cereals) are considered, reducing feed use becomes the main factor in improving GHG performance of EU pork. (author)

  19. Fossil energy and GHG saving potentials of pig farming in the EU

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Nguyen, Thu Lan T.; Hermansen, John E.; Mogensen, Lisbeth

    2010-01-01

    In Europe, the highly developed livestock industry places a high burden on resource use and environmental quality. This paper examines pig meat production in North-West Europe as a base case and runs different scenarios to investigate how improvements in terms of energy and greenhouse gas (GHG) savings can be feasibly achieved. As shown in the results of the analysis, pig farming in the EU has a high potential to reduce fossil energy use and GHG emissions by taking improvement measures in three aspects: (i) feed use; (ii) manure management; and (iii) manure utilization. In particular, a combination of improvements in all mentioned aspects offers the highest savings potential of up to 61% fossil energy and 49% GHG emissions. In weighing these three aspects, manure utilization for energy production is found to be the most important factor in reducing fossil energy use and GHG emissions. However, when GHG implications of land use change and land opportunity cost associated with the production of feed crops (e.g. soy meal, cereals) are considered, reducing feed use becomes the main factor in improving GHG performance of EU pork.

  20. Assessment of GHG emissions of biomethane from energy cereal crops in Umbria, Italy

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Buratti, C.; Barbanera, M.; Fantozzi, F.

    2013-01-01

    Highlights: • GHG emissions of biomethane from energy crops cultivated in a central Italian farm were investigated. • Electricity consumption of the biogas plant was monitored. • Current scenario does not allow to achieve a GHG saving according to Renewable Energy Directive. • GHG emissions could be reduced by covering the storage tanks of digestate and installing a CHP plant. - Abstract: Biomethane from energy crops is a renewable energy carrier and therefore it potentially contributes to climate change mitigation. However, significant greenhouse gas (GHG) emissions resulting from cultivation and processing must be considered. Among those, the production and use of nitrogen fertilizers, the resulting nitrous oxide (N 2 O) emissions, the methane emissions from digestate storage and the energy consumption of the biogas plant are crucial factors. In the present paper an integrated life cycle assessment (LCA) of GHG emissions from biomethane production is carried out, taking into account own measurements and experience data from a modern biogas plant located in Umbria, Italy. The study is also focused on the electricity consumption of the biogas plant, assessing the specific absorption power of each machinery. The analysis is based on the methodology defined by the European Union Renewable Energy Directive 2009/28/EC (RED). The main result is that the biomethane chain exceeds the minimum value of GHG saving (35%) mainly due to the open storage of digestate. However by varying the system, using heat and electricity from a biogas CHP plant and covering digestate storage tank, a reduction of 68.9% could be obtained

  1. Incorporation of electricity GHG emissions intensity variability into building environmental assessment

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Cubi, Eduard; Doluweera, Ganesh; Bergerson, Joule

    2015-01-01

    Highlights: • Current building assessment does not account for variability in the electric grid. • A new method incorporates hourly grid variability into building assessment. • The method is complementary with peak-shaving policies. • The assessment method can affect building design decisions. - Abstract: Current building energy and GHG emissions assessments do not account for the variable performance of the electric grid. Incorporating hourly grid variability into building assessment methods can help to better prioritize energy efficiency measures that result in the largest environmental benefits. This article proposes a method to incorporate GHG emissions intensity changes due to grid variability into building environmental assessment. The proposed method encourages building systems that reduce electricity use during peak periods while accounting for differences in grid GHG emissions intensity (i.e., peak shaving is more strongly encouraged in grids that have GHG intense peak generation). A set of energy saving building technologies are evaluated in a set of building variants (office, residential) and grid types (hydro/nuclear dominated, coal/gas dominated) to demonstrate the proposed method. Differences between total GHG emissions calculated with the new method compared with the standard (which assumes a constant GHG emissions intensity throughout the year) are in the 5–15% range when the contribution of electricity to total GHG emissions is more significant. The influence of the method on the assessment of the relative performance of some energy efficiency measures is much higher. For example, the estimated GHG emissions savings with heat pumps and photovoltaics can change by −40% and +20%, respectively, using the new assessment method instead of the standard. These differences in GHG emissions estimates can influence building design decisions. The new method could be implemented easily, and would lead to better decision making and more accurate

  2. Management of GHG, a successful business approach

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Gagnier, D.

    2003-01-01

    This PowerPoint presentation provided a brief overview of Alcan, an aluminium producer with operations in Quebec and in several other markets and countries. Alcan's strategy regarding climate change involves both short term and long term objectives and a public commitment to reducing the emissions of greenhouse gases (GHG). Alcan has implemented a company-wide GHG management program called TARGET, which involves measuring, monitoring and better management of emissions inventory. The TARGET program includes: measurement of data, quality assurance and reports; communications and public relations; improved processes; risk management systems; development of emissions trading systems; and support of functional groups. Alcan has also implemented voluntary GHG emissions reductions measures, encourages broad participation of GHG emissions reduction initiatives, and promotes economic growth and long term durability. figs

  3. Vehicle lightweighting vs. electrification: Life cycle energy and GHG emissions results for diverse powertrain vehicles

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Lewis, Anne Marie; Kelly, Jarod C.; Keoleian, Gregory A.

    2014-01-01

    Highlights: • We modeled life cycle energy and greenhouse gas (GHG) emissions from diverse powertrain vehicles. • Lightweight versions of the vehicle models were compared against baseline models. • Maximum energy and GHG emissions occur with aluminum vs. advanced high strength steel. • Design harmonization method shows 0.2–0.3 kg of support required per 1 kg powertrain mass increase. - Abstract: This work assesses the potential of electrified vehicles and mass reduction to reduce life cycle energy and greenhouse gas (GHG) emissions. Life cycle assessment (LCA) is used to account for processes upstream and downstream of the vehicle operation, thereby incorporating regional variation of energy and GHG emissions due to electricity production and distinct energy and GHG emissions due to conventional and lightweight materials. Design harmonization methods developed in previous work are applied to create baseline and lightweight vehicle models of an internal combustion vehicle (ICV), hybrid electric vehicle (HEV) and plug-in hybrid electric vehicle (PHEV). Thus, each vehicle is designed to be functionally equivalent and incorporate the structural support required for heavier powertrains. Lightweight vehicles are designed using body-in-white (BIW) mass reduction scenarios with aluminum and advanced/high strength steel (A/HSS). For the mass reduction scenarios considered in this work, results indicate that the greatest life cycle energy and GHG emissions reductions occur when steel is replaced by aluminum. However, since A/HSS requires less energy to produce as compared to aluminum, the energy and GHG reductions per unit mass removed is greatest for A/HSS. Results of the design harmonization modeling method show that 0.2–0.3 kg of structural support is required per unit increase in powertrain mass, thus extending previous methods

  4. Optimizing production with energy and GHG emission constraints in Greece: An input-output analysis

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Hristu-Varsakelis, D.; Karagianni, S.; Pempetzoglou, M.; Sfetsos, A.

    2010-01-01

    Under its Kyoto and EU obligations, Greece has committed to a greenhouse gas (GHG) emissions increase of at most 25% compared to 1990 levels, to be achieved during the period 2008-2012. Although this restriction was initially regarded as being realistic, information derived from GHG emissions inventories shows that an increase of approximately 28% has already taken place between 1990 and 2005, highlighting the need for immediate action. This paper explores the reallocation of production in Greece, on a sector-by-sector basis, in order to meet overall demand constraints and GHG emissions targets. We pose a constrained optimization problem, taking into account the Greek environmental input-output matrix for 2005, the amount of utilized energy and pollution reduction options. We examine two scenarios, limiting fluctuations in sectoral production to at most 10% and 15%, respectively, compared to baseline (2005) values. Our results indicate that (i) GHG emissions can be reduced significantly with relatively limited effects on GVP growth rates, and that (ii) greater cutbacks in GHG emissions can be achieved as more flexible production scenarios are allowed.

  5. Comparative life cycle GHG emissions from local electricity generation using heavy oil, natural gas, and MSW incineration in Macau

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Song, Qingbin; Wang, Zhishi; Li, Jinhui

    2018-01-01

    Wh, respectively. The mean value for aggregated GHG emissions of the local power grid (imported electricity excluded) was 0.69kg CO2 per kWh, noticeably lower than many neighboring countries and regions, such as mainland China, Taiwan, and Japan. Our scenario analysis indicated that the development of natural gas......, for changing GHG emissions, and should be allocated to the highest priority for GHG reduction. All the obtained results could be useful for decisions makers, with providing a robust support for assessing the environmental performance and drawing up the appropriate improvement planning of power systems....

  6. Climate scenarios for California

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cayan, Daniel R.; Maurer, Ed; Dettinger, Mike; Tyree, Mary; Hayhoe, Katharine; Bonfils, Celine; Duffy, Phil; Santer, Ben

    2006-01-01

    Possible future climate changes in California are investigated from a varied set of climate change model simulations. These simulations, conducted by three state-of-the-art global climate models, provide trajectories from three greenhouse gas (GHG) emission scenarios. These scenarios and the resulting climate simulations are not “predictions,” but rather are a limited sample from among the many plausible pathways that may affect California’s climate. Future GHG concentrations are uncertain because they depend on future social, political, and technological pathways, and thus the IPCC has produced four “families” of emission scenarios. To explore some of these uncertainties, emissions scenarios A2 (a medium-high emissions) and B1 (low emissions) were selected from the current IPCC Fourth climate assessment, which provides several recent model simulations driven by A2 and B1 emissions. The global climate model simulations addressed here were from PCM1, the Parallel Climate Model from the National Center for Atmospheric Research (NCAR) and U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) group, and CM2.1 from the National Oceanic and Atmospheric Administration (NOAA) Geophysical Fluids Dynamics Laboratory (GFDL).

  7. Short-Term Power Plant GHG Emissions Forecasting Model

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Vidovic, D.

    2016-01-01

    In 2010, the share of greenhouse gas (GHG) emissions from power generation in the total emissions at the global level was about 25 percent. From January 1st, 2013 Croatian facilities have been involved in the European Union Emissions Trading System (EU ETS). The share of the ETS sector in total GHG emissions in Croatia in 2012 was about 30 percent, where power plants and heat generation facilities contributed to almost 50 percent. Since 2013 power plants are obliged to purchase all emission allowances. The paper describes the short-term climate forecasting model of greenhouse gas emissions from power plants while covering the daily load diagram of the system. Forecasting is done on an hourly domain typically for one day, it is possible and more days ahead. Forecasting GHG emissions in this way would enable power plant operators to purchase additional or sell surplus allowances on the market at the time. Example that describes the operation of the above mentioned forecasting model is given at the end of the paper.(author).

  8. Voluntary GHG reduction of industrial sectors in Taiwan.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chen, Liang-Tung; Hu, Allen H

    2012-08-01

    The present paper describes the voluntary greenhouse gas (GHG) reduction agreements of six different industrial sectors in Taiwan, as well as the fluorinated gases (F-gas) reduction agreement of the semiconductor and Liquid Crystal Display (LCD) industries. The operating mechanisms, GHG reduction methods, capital investment, and investment effectiveness are also discussed. A total of 182 plants participated in the voluntary energy saving and GHG reduction in six industrial sectors (iron and steel, petrochemical, cement, paper, synthetic fiber, and textile printing and dyeing), with 5.35 Mt reduction from 2004 to 2008, or 33% higher than the target goal (4.02 Mt). The reduction accounts for 1.6% annual emission or 7.8% during the 5-yr span. The petrochemical industry accounts for 49% of the reduction, followed by the cement sector (21%) and the iron and steel industry (13%). The total investment amounted to approximately USD 716 million, in which, the majority of the investment went to the modification of the manufacturing process (89%). The benefit was valued at around USD 472 million with an average payback period of 1.5 yr. Moreover, related energy saving was achieved through different approaches, e.g., via electricity (iron and steel), steam and oil consumption (petrochemical) and coal usage (cement). The cost for unit CO(2) reduction varies per industry, with the steel and iron industrial sector having the highest cost (USD 346 t(-1) CO(2)) compared with the average cost of the six industrial sectors (USD 134 t(-1) CO(2)). For the semiconductor and Thin-Film Transistor LCD industries, F-gas emissions were reduced from approximately 4.1 to about 1.7 Mt CO(2)-eq, and from 2.2 to about 1.1 Mt CO(2)-eq, respectively. Incentive mechanisms for participation in GHG reduction are also further discussed. Copyright © 2012 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  9. Fossil energy and GHG saving potentials of pig farming in the EU

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Nguyen, T Lan T; Mogensen, Lisbeth; Hermansen, John Erik

    2010-01-01

    ) savings can be feasibly achieved. As shown in the results of the analysis, pig farming in the EU has a high potential to reduce fossil energy use and GHG emissions by taking improvement measures in three aspects: (i) feed use; (ii) manure management; and (iii) manure utilization. In particular......In Europe, the highly developed livestock industry places a high burden on resource use and environmental quality. This paper examines pig meat production in North-West Europe as a base case and runs different scenarios to investigate how improvements in terms of energy and greenhouse gas (GHG...

  10. General guidance and procedures for estimating and reporting national GHG emissions for agriculture

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Rypdal, K.

    2002-01-01

    Greenhouse gas (GHG) emissions from agriculture account for a large share of total GHG emissions in most countries. Methane from ruminants, animal manure and rice fields, and nitrous oxide from agricultural soils are among the most important sources. In general, these emission estimates also are more uncertain than most other parts of the GHG emission inventory. IPCC has developed guidelines for estimating and reporting emissions of GHG. These guidelines shall be followed to secure complete, consistent, accurate and transparent reporting of emissions. However, the recommended methodologies are tiered, and choice of methods shall preferably reflect national circumstances, the national importance of a source, and different resources to prepare inventories. A country may also apply a national methodology given that it is well documented and not in conflict with good practice. Emission data reported under the United Nation Framework Convention on Climate Change are subject to external control, and the methodologies are reviewed by experts on agricultural inventories. (au)

  11. Examination of the optimal operation of building scale combined heat and power systems under disparate climate and GHG emissions rates

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Howard, B.; Modi, V.

    2017-01-01

    Highlights: • CHP attributable reductions, not viable by electric generation alone, are defined. • Simplified operating strategy heuristics are optimal under specific circumstances. • Phosphoric acid fuel cells yield the largest reductions except in the extremes. • Changes in baseline emissions affect the optimal system capacity and operating hours. - Abstract: This work aims to elucidate notions concerning the ideal operation and greenhouse gas (GHG) emissions benefits of combined heat and power (CHP) systems by investigating how various metrics change as a function of the GHG emissions from the underlying electricity source, building use type and climate. Additionally, a new term entitled “CHP Attributable” reductions is introduced to quantify the benefits from the simultaneous use of thermal and electric energy, removing benefits achieved solely from fuel switching and generating electricity more efficiently. The GHG emission benefits from implementing internal combustion engine, microturbines, and phosphoric acid (PA) fuel cell based CHP systems were evaluated through an optimization approach considering energy demands of prototypical hospital, office, and residential buildings in varied climates. To explore the effect of electric GHG emissions rates, the ideal operation of the CHP systems was evaluated under three scenarios: “High” GHG emissions rates, “Low” GHG emissions rates, and “Current” GHG emissions rate for a specific location. The analysis finds that PA fuel cells achieve the highest GHG emission reductions in most cases considered, though there are exceptions. Common heuristics, such as electric load following and thermal load following, are the optimal operating strategy under specific conditions. The optimal CHP capacity and operating hours both vary as a function of building type, climate and GHG emissions rates from grid electricity. GHG emissions reductions can be as high as 49% considering a PA fuel cell for a

  12. Modeling Water Resource Systems Accounting for Water-Related Energy Use, GHG Emissions and Water-Dependent Energy Generation in California

    Science.gov (United States)

    Escriva-Bou, A.; Lund, J. R.; Pulido-Velazquez, M.; Medellin-Azuara, J.

    2015-12-01

    Most individual processes relating water and energy interdependence have been assessed in many different ways over the last decade. It is time to step up and include the results of these studies in management by proportionating a tool for integrating these processes in decision-making to effectively understand the tradeoffs between water and energy from management options and scenarios. A simple but powerful decision support system (DSS) for water management is described that includes water-related energy use and GHG emissions not solely from the water operations, but also from final water end uses, including demands from cities, agriculture, environment and the energy sector. Because one of the main drivers of energy use and GHG emissions is water pumping from aquifers, the DSS combines a surface water management model with a simple groundwater model, accounting for their interrelationships. The model also explicitly includes economic data to optimize water use across sectors during shortages and calculate return flows from different uses. Capabilities of the DSS are demonstrated on a case study over California's intertied water system. Results show that urban end uses account for most GHG emissions of the entire water cycle, but large water conveyance produces significant peaks over the summer season. Also the development of more efficient water application on the agricultural sector has increased the total energy consumption and the net water use in the basins.

  13. Assessment of GHG mitigation technology measures in Ukraine

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Raptsoun, N.; Parasiouk, N.

    1996-12-31

    In June 1992 the representatives of 176 countries including Ukraine met in Rio de Janeiro at the UN Conference to coordinate its efforts in protecting and guarding the environment. Signature of the UN Framework Convention on Climate Change by around 150 countries indicates that climate change is potentially a major threat to the world`s environment and economic development. The project {open_quotes}Country Study on Climate Change in Ukraine{close_quotes} coordinated by the Agency for Rational Energy Use and Ecology (ARENIA-ECO) and supported by the US Country Studies Program Support for Climate Change Studies. The aim of the project is to make the information related to climate change in Ukraine available for the world community by using the potential of Ukrainian research institutes for further concerted actions to solve the problem of climate change on the global scale. The project consists of four elements: (1) the development of the GHG Inventory in Ukraine; (2) assessments of ecosystems-vulnerability to climate change and adaptation options; and (3) mitigation options analysis; (4) public education and outreach activities. This paper contains the main results of the third element for the energy and non-energy sectors. Main tasks of the third element were: (1) to select, test and describe or develop the methodology for mitigation options assessment; (2) to analyze the main sources of GHG emissions in Ukraine; (3) to give the macro economic analysis of Ukrainian development and the development of main economical sectors industry, energy, transport, residential, forestry and agriculture; (4) to forecast GHG emissions for different scenarios of the economic development; and (5) to analyze the main measures to mitigate climate change.

  14. Energy savings in drastic climate change policy scenarios

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Isoard, Stephane; Wiesenthal, Tobias

    2005-01-01

    This paper reports a climate change policy scenario compatible with long-term sustainable objectives set at EU level (6th Environment Action Plan). By setting ambitious targets for GHG emissions reduction by 2030, this normative scenario relies on market-based instruments and flexible mechanisms. The integrated policy that is simulated (i.e. addressing energy, transport, agriculture and environmental impacts) constitutes a key outlook for the next 5-year report of the European Environment Agency (EEA). This scenario highlights what it would take to drastically curb EU GHG emissions and how much it might cost. The findings show that such a 'deep reduction' climate policy could work as a powerful catalyst for (1) substantial energy savings, and (2) promoting sustainable energy systems in the long term. The implications of this policy lever on the energy system are many-fold indeed, e.g. a substantial limitation of total energy demand or significant shifts towards energy and environment-friendly technologies on the supply side. Clear and transparent price signals, which are associated with market-based instruments, appear to be a key factor ensuring sufficient visibility for capital investment in energy efficient and environment-friendly options. Finally it is suggested that market-based policy options, which are prone to lead to win-win situations and are of particular interest from an integrated policy-making perspective, would also significantly benefit from an enhanced energy policy framework

  15. Estimating GHG emission mitigation supply curves of large-scale biomass use on a country level

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Dornburg, Veronika; Dam, Jinke van; Faaij, Andre

    2007-01-01

    This study evaluates the possible influences of a large-scale introduction of biomass material and energy systems and their market volumes on land, material and energy market prices and their feedback to greenhouse gas (GHG) emission mitigation costs. GHG emission mitigation supply curves for large-scale biomass use were compiled using a methodology that combines a bottom-up analysis of biomass applications, biomass cost supply curves and market prices of land, biomaterials and bioenergy carriers. These market prices depend on the scale of biomass use and the market volume of materials and energy carriers and were estimated using own-price elasticities of demand. The methodology was demonstrated for a case study of Poland in the year 2015 applying different scenarios on economic development and trade in Europe. For the key technologies considered, i.e. medium density fibreboard, poly lactic acid, electricity and methanol production, GHG emission mitigation costs increase strongly with the scale of biomass production. Large-scale introduction of biomass use decreases the GHG emission reduction potential at costs below 50 Euro /Mg CO 2eq with about 13-70% depending on the scenario. Biomaterial production accounts for only a small part of this GHG emission reduction potential due to relatively small material markets and the subsequent strong decrease of biomaterial market prices at large scale of production. GHG emission mitigation costs depend strongly on biomass supply curves, own-price elasticity of land and market volumes of bioenergy carriers. The analysis shows that these influences should be taken into account for developing biomass implementations strategies

  16. Meat consumption reduction in Italian regions: Health co-benefits and decreases in GHG emissions.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Sara Farchi

    Full Text Available Animal agriculture has exponentially grown in recent decades in response to the rise in global demand for meat, even in countries like Italy that traditionally eat a Mediterranean, plant-based diet. Globalization related dietary changes are contributing to the epidemic of non-communicable diseases and to the global climate crisis, and are associated with huge carbon and water footprints. The objective of the study is to assess inequalities in health impacts and in attributable greenhouse gases-GHG emissions in Italy by hypothesizing different scenarios of reduction in red and processed meat consumption towards healthier consumption patterns more compliant with the recommendations of the Mediterranean food pyramid.We used demographic and food consumption patterns from national surveys and risk relationships between meat intake and cardiovascular and colorectal cancer mortality from IARC and other meta-analyses. From the baseline data (year 2005-2006, average 406 gr/week beef and 245 gr/week processed meat, we considered hypothetical meat reduction scenarios according to international dietary guidelines such as the Mediterranean pyramid targets. For each geographical area (Northwest, Northeast, Centre, and South and gender, we calculated the number of avoidable deaths from colorectal cancer, and cardiovascular disease among the adult population. Moreover, years of life gained by the adult population from 2012 to 2030 and changes in life expectancy of the 2012 birth cohort were quantified using gender-specific life tables. GHG emission reductions under Mediterranean scenario were estimated only for beef by applying the Global Warming Potential (GWP coefficient to total consumption and to a low carbon food substitution in adult diet.The deaths avoidable (as percentage change compared to baseline according to the three reduction scenarios for beef consumption were between 2.3% and 4.5% for colorectal cancer, and between 2.1% and 4.0% for

  17. Meat consumption reduction in Italian regions: Health co-benefits and decreases in GHG emissions.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Farchi, Sara; De Sario, Manuela; Lapucci, Enrica; Davoli, Marina; Michelozzi, Paola

    2017-01-01

    Animal agriculture has exponentially grown in recent decades in response to the rise in global demand for meat, even in countries like Italy that traditionally eat a Mediterranean, plant-based diet. Globalization related dietary changes are contributing to the epidemic of non-communicable diseases and to the global climate crisis, and are associated with huge carbon and water footprints. The objective of the study is to assess inequalities in health impacts and in attributable greenhouse gases-GHG emissions in Italy by hypothesizing different scenarios of reduction in red and processed meat consumption towards healthier consumption patterns more compliant with the recommendations of the Mediterranean food pyramid. We used demographic and food consumption patterns from national surveys and risk relationships between meat intake and cardiovascular and colorectal cancer mortality from IARC and other meta-analyses. From the baseline data (year 2005-2006, average 406 gr/week beef and 245 gr/week processed meat), we considered hypothetical meat reduction scenarios according to international dietary guidelines such as the Mediterranean pyramid targets. For each geographical area (Northwest, Northeast, Centre, and South) and gender, we calculated the number of avoidable deaths from colorectal cancer, and cardiovascular disease among the adult population. Moreover, years of life gained by the adult population from 2012 to 2030 and changes in life expectancy of the 2012 birth cohort were quantified using gender-specific life tables. GHG emission reductions under Mediterranean scenario were estimated only for beef by applying the Global Warming Potential (GWP) coefficient to total consumption and to a low carbon food substitution in adult diet. The deaths avoidable (as percentage change compared to baseline) according to the three reduction scenarios for beef consumption were between 2.3% and 4.5% for colorectal cancer, and between 2.1% and 4.0% for cardiovascular disease

  18. GHG Emissions and Costs of Developing Biomass Energy in Malaysia: Implications on Energy Security in the Transportation and Electricity Sector

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hassan, Mohd Nor Azman

    Malaysia's transportation sector accounts for 48% of the country's total energy use. The country is expected to become a net oil importer by the year 2011. To encourage renewable energy development and relieve the country's emerging oil dependence, in 2006 the government mandated blending 5% palm-oil biodiesel in petroleum diesel. Malaysia produced 16 million tonnes of palm oil in 2007, mainly for food use. This study addresses maximizing bioenergy use from oil-palm to support Malaysia's energy initiative while minimizing greenhouse gas emissions from land use change. When converting primary and secondary forests to oil-palm plantations between 270 - 530 g and 120 -190 g CO2 equivalent (CO2-eq) per MJ of biodiesel produced, respectively, is released. However, converting degraded lands results in the capture of between 23 to 85 g CO2-eq per MJ of biodiesel produced. Using various combinations of land types, Malaysia could meet the 5% biodiesel target with a net GHG savings of about 1.03 million tonnes (4.9% of the transportation sector's diesel emissions) when accounting for the emissions savings from the diesel fuel displaced. Fossil fuels contributed about 93% to Malaysia's electricity generation mix and emit about 65 million tonnes (Mt) or 36% of the country's 2010 Greenhouse Gas (GHG) emissions. The government has set a target to install 330 MW biomass electricity by 2015, which is hoped to avoid 1.3 Mt of GHG emissions annually. The availability of seven types of biomass residues in Peninsular Malaysia is estimated based on residues-to-product ratio, recoverability and accessibility factor and other competing uses. It was found that there are approximately 12.2 Mt/yr of residues. Oil-palm residues contribute about 77% to the total availability with rice and forestry residues at 17%. Electricity from biomass can be produced via direct combustion in dedicated power plants or co-fired with coal. The co-firing of the residues at four existing coal plants in

  19. GHG trading awaits early action credit

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Anon.

    1999-01-01

    The challenges facing the Canadian government in implementing a green house gas (GHG) emissions trading program were discussed. The government of Canada is proposing to establish a program offering credit for early action on GHG reduction. However, the program is proving to be difficult to design because Canada's national implementation strategy for climate change has not yet been defined. The program is intended to reveal how emitters can invest in GHG reduction now, and use them against future regulations limiting emissions. The intention is to design the program on the principle that any company which decreases GHG emissions below its 'business-as-usual' level will receive a credit which can later be sold to another source which wants to offset its emissions. Nevertheless, the government is looking for real reductions in the sense that it is trying to bend the 'business-as-usual' forecast down towards the Kyoto targets, and is trying to ensure that the system is a rigorous one before any credits are issued

  20. National Greenhouse Gas Emission Inventory (EV-GHG)

    Data.gov (United States)

    U.S. Environmental Protection Agency — The EV-GHG Mobile Source Data asset contains measured mobile source GHG emissions summary compliance information on light-duty vehicles, by model, for certification...

  1. Incorporating greenhouse gas (GHG) emissions in long range transportation planning.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2014-05-01

    Greenhouse gas (GHG) emissions continue to be an important focus area for state, local, and federal : agencies. The transportation sector is the second biggest contributor to GHG emissions in the U.S., and : Texas contributes the highest emissions am...

  2. Multiple greenhouse gas feedbacks from the land biosphere under future climate change scenarios

    Science.gov (United States)

    Stocker, Benjamin; Roth, Raphael; Joos, Fortunat; Spahni, Renato; Steinacher, Marco; Zaehle, Soenke; Bouwman, Lex; Xu-Ri, Xu-Ri; Prentice, Colin

    2013-04-01

    Atmospheric concentrations of the three important greenhouse gases (GHG) CO2, CH4, and N2O are mediated by processes in the terrestrial biosphere. The sensitivity of terrestrial GHG emissions to climate and CO2 contributed to the sharp rise in atmospheric GHG concentrations since preindustrial times and leads to multiple feedbacks between the terrestrial biosphere and the climate system. The strength of these feedbacks is determined by (i) the sensitivity of terrestrial GHG emissions to climate and CO2 and (ii) the greenhouse warming potential of the respective gas. Here, we quantify feedbacks from CO2, CH4, N2O, and land surface albedo in a consistent and comprehensive framework based on a large set of simulations conducted with an Earth System Model of Intermediate Complexity. The modeled sensitivities of CH4 and N2O emissions are tested, demonstrating that independent data for non-land (anthropogenic, oceanic, etc.) GHG emissions, combined with simulated emissions from natural and agricultural land reproduces historical atmospheric budgets within their uncertainties. 21st-century scenarios for climate, land use change and reactive nitrogen inputs (Nr) are applied to investigate future GHG emissions. Results suggest that in a business-as-usual scenario, terrestrial N2O emissions increase from 9.0 by today to 9.8-11.1 (RCP 2.6) and 14.2-17.0 TgN2O-N/yr by 2100 (RCP 8.5). Without anthropogenic Nr inputs, the amplification is reduced by 24-32%. Soil CH4 emissions increase from 221 at present to 228-245 in RCP 2.6 and to 303-343 TgCH4/yr in RCP 8.5, and the land becomes a net source of C by 2100 AD. Feedbacks from land imply an additional warming of 1.3-1.5°C by 2300 in RCP 8.5, 0.4-0.5°C of which are due to N2O and CH4. The combined effect of multiple GHGs and albedo represents an increasingly positive total feedback to anthropogenic climate change with positive individual feedbacks from CH4, N2O, and albedo outweighing the diminishing negative feedback from CO2

  3. Reducing GHG emissions while improving diet quality: exploring the potential of reduced meat, cheese and alcoholic and soft drinks consumption at specific moments during the day.

    Science.gov (United States)

    van de Kamp, Mirjam E; Seves, S Marije; Temme, Elisabeth H M

    2018-02-20

    The typical Western diet is associated with high levels of greenhouse gas (GHG) emissions and with obesity and other diet-related diseases. This study aims to determine the impact of adjustments to the current diet at specific moments of food consumption, to lower GHG emissions and improve diet quality. Food consumption in the Netherlands was assessed by two non-consecutive 24-h recalls for adults aged 19-69 years (n = 2102). GHG emission of food consumption was evaluated with the use of life cycle assessments. The population was stratified by gender and according to tertiles of dietary GHG emission. Scenarios were developed to lower GHG emissions of people in the highest tertile of dietary GHG emission; 1) reducing red and processed meat consumed during dinner by 50% and 75%, 2) replacing 50% and 100% of alcoholic and soft drinks (including fruit and vegetable juice and mineral water) by tap water, 3) replacing cheese consumed in between meals by plant-based alternatives and 4) two combinations of these scenarios. Effects on GHG emission as well as nutrient content of the diet were assessed. The mean habitual daily dietary GHG emission in the highest tertile of dietary GHG emission was 6.7 kg CO 2 -equivalents for men and 5.1 kg CO 2 -equivalents for women. The scenarios with reduced meat consumption and/or replacement of all alcoholic and soft drinks were most successful in reducing dietary GHG emissions (ranging from - 15% to - 34%) and also reduced saturated fatty acid intake and/or sugar intake. Both types of scenarios lead to reduced energy and iron intakes. Protein intake remained adequate. Reducing the consumption of red and processed meat during dinner and of soft and alcoholic drinks throughout the day leads to significantly lower dietary GHG emissions of people in the Netherlands in the highest tertile of dietary GHG emissions, while also having health benefits. For subgroups of the population not meeting energy or iron requirements as a

  4. Reducing GHG emissions while improving diet quality: exploring the potential of reduced meat, cheese and alcoholic and soft drinks consumption at specific moments during the day

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Mirjam E. van de Kamp

    2018-02-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background The typical Western diet is associated with high levels of greenhouse gas (GHG emissions and with obesity and other diet-related diseases. This study aims to determine the impact of adjustments to the current diet at specific moments of food consumption, to lower GHG emissions and improve diet quality. Methods Food consumption in the Netherlands was assessed by two non-consecutive 24-h recalls for adults aged 19–69 years (n = 2102. GHG emission of food consumption was evaluated with the use of life cycle assessments. The population was stratified by gender and according to tertiles of dietary GHG emission. Scenarios were developed to lower GHG emissions of people in the highest tertile of dietary GHG emission; 1 reducing red and processed meat consumed during dinner by 50% and 75%, 2 replacing 50% and 100% of alcoholic and soft drinks (including fruit and vegetable juice and mineral water by tap water, 3 replacing cheese consumed in between meals by plant-based alternatives and 4 two combinations of these scenarios. Effects on GHG emission as well as nutrient content of the diet were assessed. Results The mean habitual daily dietary GHG emission in the highest tertile of dietary GHG emission was 6.7 kg CO2-equivalents for men and 5.1 kg CO2-equivalents for women. The scenarios with reduced meat consumption and/or replacement of all alcoholic and soft drinks were most successful in reducing dietary GHG emissions (ranging from − 15% to − 34% and also reduced saturated fatty acid intake and/or sugar intake. Both types of scenarios lead to reduced energy and iron intakes. Protein intake remained adequate. Conclusions Reducing the consumption of red and processed meat during dinner and of soft and alcoholic drinks throughout the day leads to significantly lower dietary GHG emissions of people in the Netherlands in the highest tertile of dietary GHG emissions, while also having health benefits. For subgroups of the

  5. Scenario uncertainties in estimating direct land-use change emissions in biomass-to-energy life cycle assessment

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Curtright, Aimee E.; Johnson, David R.; Willis, Henry H.; Skone, Timothy

    2012-01-01

    The use of biomass for energy production has increasingly been encouraged in the United States, in part motivated by the potential to reduce greenhouse gas (GHG) emissions relative to fossil fuels. However, the GHG-intensity of biomass-derived energy is highly dependent on how the biomass is obtained and used. We explore scenario uncertainty in GHG estimates in the Calculating Uncertainty in Biomass Emissions (CUBE) model and find that direct land-use change emissions that result during the biomass production often dominate the total “farm-to-hopper” GHGs. CUBE represents each land-use change decision as a conversion of land from one of four specified baseline ecosystem to produce one of seven feedstock crops, both distinct by geographic region, and then determines the implied changes in soil organic carbon, root carbon, and above-ground biomass. CUBE therefore synthesizes and organizes the existing literature to represent direct land-use change emissions in a way that can be more readily incorporated into life cycle assessment. Our approach to representing direct land-use change literature has been applied to a specific set of data and offers immediate implications for decisionmakers, but it can also be generalized and replicated in the future, making use of improved scientific data on the magnitude and rates of direct land-use change emissions as it becomes available. -- Highlights: ► The GHG-intensity of bioenergy depends on how the biomass is obtained and used. ► Total GHG emissions may be dominated by direct land-use change emissions. ► There is significant scenario uncertainty in emissions based on the location of production. ► Emissions vary based on time elapsed since land-use change conversions. ► Our approach can be generalized to use improved scientific data in the future.

  6. A feasibility study of microgrids for reducing energy use and GHG emissions in an industrial application

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Li, Mengyu; Zhang, Xiongwen; Li, Guojun; Jiang, Chaoyang

    2016-01-01

    Highlights: • A life cycle assessment is conducted on the microgrids for an industry application. • The effect of renewable energy on the LCA performances of microgrids is illustrated. • The minimal life cycle energy use and GHG emissions of microgrids are evaluated. • The LCA of different pathways for electricity, heat and hydrogen are presented. - Abstract: Microgrids provide a new energy paradigm with the benefits of higher energy supply reliability, lower greenhouse gas (GHG) emissions through a higher penetration of renewable sources, higher energy efficiencies through the use of local waste heat and the avoidance of losses in transmission and distribution. This study reports a life cycle assessment (LCA) of microgrids for an industry application of an ammonia plant in central Inner Mongolia, China. The life cycle energy use and GHG emissions of the microgrids are evaluated and compared to the existing fossil fuel-based energy system. The electricity, heat and hydrogen fuel loads of the ammonia plant are all modelled in the study. An optimization model is developed to estimate the minimum life cycle energy use and GHG emissions with the microgrids under three scenarios (natural gas (NG)-based, optimized, and maximum renewable energy microgrids). The results indicate that the use of wind and solar in the NG-based microgrid can only slightly reduce the energy use and GHG emissions. If there are no land area limitations on the deployment of solar and wind power, the maximum renewable energy microgrid offers significant reductions of fossil fuel energy of up to 56.9% and GHG emissions reductions of up to 66.3% compared to the existing energy system.

  7. Energy and GHG Analysis of Rural Household Biogas Systems in China

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Lixiao Zhang

    2014-02-01

    Full Text Available The Chinese government has taken great efforts to popularize rural household scale biogas digesters, since they are regarded as an effective approach to address energy shortage issues in rural areas and as a potential way of reducing greenhouse gas (GHG emissions. Focusing on a typical rural household biogas system, the aim of this study is to systematically quantify its total direct and indirect energy, concentrating on non-renewable energy and the associated GHG emission cost over the entire life cycle to understand its net dynamic benefits. The results show that the total energetic cost for biogas output is 2.19 J/J, of which 0.56 J is from non-renewable energy sources and the GHG emission cost is 4.54 × 10−5 g CO2-equivalent (CO2-eq, with respect to its design life cycle of 20 years. Correspondingly, a net non-renewable energy saving of 9.89 × 1010 J and GHG emission reduction of 50.45 t CO2-eq can be obtained considering the coal substitution and manure disposal. However, it must be run for at least 10 and 3 years, to obtain positive net non-renewable energy savings and GHG emission reduction benefits, respectively. These results have policy implications for development orientation, follow-up services, program management and even national financial subsidy methods.

  8. Long-term optimal energy mix planning towards high energy security and low GHG emission

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Thangavelu, Sundar Raj; Khambadkone, Ashwin M.; Karimi, Iftekhar A.

    2015-01-01

    .7% reduction in the total energy cost, 53.2% reduction in the GHG emission and guarantees feasibility against 79% of future energy demand scenarios over a 15 year planning horizon

  9. Linking GHG Emission Trading Systems and Markets

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    NONE

    2006-07-01

    Several different types of links are possible between different GHG-mitigation systems. These include: Linking two or more emission trading schemes so that emissions trading can occur both within and between different schemes ('direct links'); and Linking emission trading systems to registries/mechanisms and systems that generate offsets from project based mechanisms or from direct purchases/transfers of AAUs ('indirect links').

  10. Evaluating the effectiveness of urban energy conservation and GHG mitigation measures: The case of Xiamen city, China

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Lin Jianyi; Cao Bin; Cui Shenghui; Wang Wei; Bai Xuemei

    2010-01-01

    To assess the effectiveness of urban energy conservation and GHG mitigation measures, a detailed Long-range Energy Alternatives Planning (LEAP) model is developed and applied to analyze the future trends of energy demand and GHG emissions in Xiamen city. Two scenarios have been designed to describe the future energy strategies in relation to the development of Xiamen city. The 'Business as Usual' scenario assumes that the government will do nothing to influence the long-term trends of urban energy demand. An 'Integrated' scenario, on the other hand, is generated to assess the cumulative impact of a series of available reduction measures: clean energy substitution, industrial energy conservation, combined heat and power generation, energy conservation in building, motor vehicle control, and new and renewable energy development and utilization. The reduction potentials in energy consumption and GHG emissions are estimated for a time span of 2007-2020 under these different scenarios. The calculation results in Xiamen show that the clean energy substitution measure is the most effective in terms of energy saving and GHG emissions mitigation, while the industrial sector has the largest abatement potential.

  11. Projections of US GHG reductions from nuclear power new capacity based on historic levels of investment

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Besmann, Theodore M.

    2010-01-01

    Historical rates of capital investment in nuclear plant construction were used as a guide to estimate the potential rate of future capacity introduction. The total linear rate of capital expenditure over the entire period of historical construction from 1964 to 1990 was determined to equal $11.5 billion/yr, and that for the period of peak construction from 1973 to 1985 was computed as $17.9 billion/yr, all in 2004$. These values were used with a variety of current capital cost estimates for nuclear construction to obtain several scenarios for possible future nuclear capacity additions. These values were used to obtain the effect of projected nuclear generating capacity on GHG emissions assuming nuclear would directly replace coal-fired generation. It was concluded that actual reductions in emissions would not be experienced until 2038, yet growth in emissions from electrical production would be slowed through that period. Due to the significant time to introduce large-scale changes in the utility sector, nuclear energy cannot have a dramatic short-term effect on emissions. Nuclear power, however, can have a major positive longer term impact, particularly under more favorable cost and investment conditions.

  12. Assessment of Air Pollution and GHG Mitigation Strategies in Malaysia using the GAINS Model

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Kumar, M.

    2013-01-01

    Planning for future energy development, taking into account the national obligations to mitigate climate change and air quality pressures is a major challenge faced by Malaysia. This research facilitates the impact assessment of simultaneous control of air pollution and GHG abatement through a set of emission scenarios while considering current and future Malaysian policies. The IIASAs GAINS (Greenhouse Gas-Air Pollution Interactions and Synergies) model is used for the estimation of emissions and costs, and the outputs of the MESSAGE and MAED energy models provide the underlying energy projections by 2050. Results show that current air-quality policies are efficient in keeping emissions growth at moderate rate, however, significant reduction potential exists if best available control technologies are introduced. Malaysian climate policies - modeled here for power sector - aiming at the -40 % decrease in carbon-intensity, result in important reductions of air pollutants, while the overall co-benefits can be substantial if other sectors are tackled by climate strategies. Initial results indicate the reduction of air pollutant control cost due to climate measures is comparable to the invoked cost-increase in power sector by 2030. Thereby, these co-benefits help to moderate total expenditures for meeting national climate policy targets. (author)

  13. Global climate targets and future consumption level: an evaluation of the required GHG intensity

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Girod, Bastien; Van Vuuren, Detlef Peter; Hertwich, Edgar G

    2013-01-01

    Discussion and analysis on international climate policy often focuses on the rather abstract level of total national and regional greenhouse gas (GHG) emissions. At some point, however, emission reductions need to be translated to consumption level. In this article, we evaluate the implications of the strictest IPCC representative concentration pathway for key consumption categories (food, travel, shelter, goods, services). We use IPAT style identities to account for possible growth in global consumption levels and indicate the required change in GHG emission intensity for each category (i.e. GHG emission per calorie, person kilometer, square meter, kilogram, US dollar). The proposed concept provides guidance for product developers, consumers and policymakers. To reach the 2 °C climate target (2.1 tCO 2 -eq. per capita in 2050), the GHG emission intensity of consumption has to be reduced by a factor of 5 in 2050. The climate targets on consumption level allow discussion of the feasibility of this climate target at product and consumption level. In most consumption categories products in line with this climate target are available. For animal food and air travel, reaching the GHG intensity targets with product modifications alone will be challenging and therefore structural changes in consumption patterns might be needed. The concept opens up possibilities for further research on potential solutions on the consumption and product level to global climate mitigation. (letter)

  14. Improved oilfield GHG accounting using a global oilfield database

    Science.gov (United States)

    Roberts, S.; Brandt, A. R.; Masnadi, M.

    2016-12-01

    The definition of oil is shifting in considerable ways. Conventional oil resources are declining as oil sands, heavy oils, and others emerge. Technological advances mean that these unconventional hydrocarbons are now viable resources. Meanwhile, scientific evidence is mounting that climate change is occurring. The oil sector is responsible for 35% of global greenhouse gas (GHG) emissions, but the climate impacts of these new unconventional oils are not well understood. As such, the Oil Climate Index (OCI) project has been an international effort to evaluate the total life-cycle environmental GHG emissions of different oil fields globally. Over the course of the first and second phases of the project, 30 and 75 global oil fields have been investigated, respectively. The 75 fields account for about 25% of global oil production. For the third phase of the project, it is aimed to expand the OCI to contain closing to 100% of global oil production; leading to the analysis of 8000 fields. To accomplish this, a robust database system is required to handle and manipulate the data. Therefore, the integration of the data into the computer science language SQL (Structured Query Language) was performed. The implementation of SQL allows users to process the data more efficiently than would be possible by using the previously established program (Microsoft Excel). Next, a graphic user interface (gui) was implemented, in the computer science language of C#, in order to make the data interactive; enabling people to update the database without prior knowledge of SQL being necessary.

  15. Trends and Projected Estimates of GHG Emissions from Indian Livestock in Comparisons with GHG Emissions from World and Developing Countries

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Amlan Kumar Patra

    2014-04-01

    Full Text Available This study presents trends and projected estimates of methane and nitrous oxide emissions from livestock of India vis-à-vis world and developing countries over the period 1961 to 2010 estimated based on IPCC guidelines. World enteric methane emission (EME increased by 54.3% (61.5 to 94.9 ×109 kg annually from the year 1961 to 2010, and the highest annual growth rate (AGR was noted for goat (2.0%, followed by buffalo (1.57% and swine (1.53%. Global EME is projected to increase to 120×109 kg by 2050. The percentage increase in EME by Indian livestock was greater than world livestock (70.6% vs 54.3% between the years 1961 to 2010, and AGR was highest for goat (1.91%, followed by buffalo (1.55%, swine (1.28%, sheep (1.25% and cattle (0.70%. In India, total EME was projected to grow by 18.8×109 kg in 2050. Global methane emission from manure (MEM increased from 6.81 ×109 kg in 1961 to 11.4×109 kg in 2010 (an increase of 67.6%, and is projected to grow to 15×109 kg by 2050. In India, the annual MEM increased from 0.52×109 kg to 1.1×109 kg (with an AGR of 1.57% in this period, which could increase to 1.54×109 kg in 2050. Nitrous oxide emission from manure in India could be 21.4×106 kg in 2050 from 15.3×106 kg in 2010. The AGR of global GHG emissions changed a small extent (only 0.11% from developed countries, but increased drastically (1.23% for developing countries between the periods of 1961 to 2010. Major contributions to world GHG came from cattle (79.3%, swine (9.57% and sheep (7.40%, and for developing countries from cattle (68.3%, buffalo (13.7% and goat (5.4%. The increase of GHG emissions by Indian livestock was less (74% vs 82% over the period of 1961 to 2010 than the developing countries. With this trend, world GHG emissions could reach 3,520×109 kg CO2-eq by 2050 due to animal population growth driven by increased demands for meat and dairy products in the world.

  16. Global Climate targets and future consumption level: An evaluation of the required GHG intensity

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Girod, B.; van Vuuren, D.P.; Hertwich, E.G.

    2013-01-01

    Discussion and analysis on international climate policy often focuses on the rather abstract level of total national and regional greenhouse gas (GHG) emissions. At some point, however, emission reductions need to be translated to consumption level. In this article, we evaluate the implications of

  17. Modeling of policies for reduction of GHG emissions in energy sector using ANN: case study-Croatia (EU).

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bolanča, Tomislav; Strahovnik, Tomislav; Ukić, Šime; Stankov, Mirjana Novak; Rogošić, Marko

    2017-07-01

    This study describes the development of tool for testing different policies for reduction of greenhouse gas (GHG) emissions in energy sector using artificial neural networks (ANNs). The case study of Croatia was elaborated. Two different energy consumption scenarios were used as a base for calculations and predictions of GHG emissions: the business as usual (BAU) scenario and sustainable scenario. Both of them are based on predicted energy consumption using different growth rates; the growth rates within the second scenario resulted from the implementation of corresponding energy efficiency measures in final energy consumption and increasing share of renewable energy sources. Both ANN architecture and training methodology were optimized to produce network that was able to successfully describe the existing data and to achieve reliable prediction of emissions in a forward time sense. The BAU scenario was found to produce continuously increasing emissions of all GHGs. The sustainable scenario was found to decrease the GHG emission levels of all gases with respect to BAU. The observed decrease was attributed to the group of measures termed the reduction of final energy consumption through energy efficiency measures.

  18. A sustainable scenario for Venezuelan power generation sector in 2050 and its costs

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Bautista, Santiago

    2012-01-01

    The present research study used the quantitative approach to analyze the present and future situation of the Venezuelan power generation sector; to achieve that, the total energy generation costs and GHG emissions of four scenarios in 2050 were estimated and compared, considering two demand groups, high and low demand. For each demand scenario, two supply matrix were considered, a generation matrix based on the existing national power generation plans and trends (these scenarios were referred as BAU) and a configuration based on the renewable energy resources available in Venezuela and without the use of either nuclear or CCS technologies, and these scenarios are referred as Sustainable Scenarios (SUS). In the first section, the present situation is presented, followed by an explanation of the applied methodology and the implemented tools. In the third and fourth sections the available recourses and the applied basic assumptions for the four of scenarios are presented and discussed, respectively, followed by the results. In this study it is shown that Venezuela has all the resources it needs to achieve sustainable development in the power generation sector. It is also proved that an energy efficiency improvement is the easiest path to reduce GHG emissions. - Highlights: ► Venezuela has enough energy resources to supply the energy require for its development. ► A sustainable scenario is posible in Venezuelan power generation sector in 2050. ► The sustainable scenario is technically possible without nuclear power or carbon capture storage technologies. ► The impact over the depleatable resources is higher under the BAU assumptions.

  19. Greenhouse gas emission reduction scenarios for BC : meeting the twin objectives of temperature stabilization and global equity

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Campbell, C.R.

    2008-08-01

    Greenhouse gas (GHG) emissions reduction strategies are needed in order to prevent rises in global temperatures. This report presented 6 GHG emission scenarios conducted to understand the kind of contribution that the province of British Columbia (BC) might make towards reducing global warming in the future. Short, medium, and longer term GHG reduction targets were benchmarked. The University of Victoria earth system climate model was used to calculate emission pathways where global average temperature did not exceed 2 degrees C above pre-industrial values, and where atmospheric GHGs were stabilized at 400 ppm of carbon dioxide equivalent (CO 2 e). Global carbon emission budgets of the total amount of GHG emissions permissible between now and 2100 were identified. A carbon emission budget for 2008 to 2100 was then developed based on the population of BC. Average annual emission reduction rates for the world and for BC were also identified. It was concluded that dramatically reduced emissions will be insufficient to achieve an equilibrium temperature less than 2 degrees C above pre-industrial levels. Global reductions of greater than 80 per cent are needed to prevent unacceptable levels of ocean acidification. Results suggested that carbon sequestration technologies may need to be used to remove CO 2 from the atmosphere by artificial means. 38 refs., 5 tabs., 4 figs

  20. Modelling the dynamics of total precipitation and aboveground net primary production of fescue-feather grass steppe at Askania Nova according to global climate change scenariosModelling the dynamics of total precipitation and aboveground net primary production of fescue-feather grass steppe at Askania Nova according to global climate change scenarios

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    S. O. Belyakov

    2017-01-01

    Full Text Available This article discusses modelling of Aboveground Net Primary Production (ANPP of steppe (arid grassland ecosystems plant species in relation to changes in total precipitation over the previous year at the “Stara” study site, Biosphere Reserve “Askania-Nova”, Khersonregion (Ukraine. To investigate linkages between precipitation and Aboveground Net Primary Production, correlation analysis was chosen and a time series regression analysis was based on the data set for the period 1988–2012. The NPP dependence on quantity of precipitation was found to be more significant for the previous autumn-winter-spring period (AWSP than for the previous 12 month period. A regression model of ANPP’s dependence on AWSP is proposed. This model was further validated by the authors’ samples of ANPP, collected at the “Stara” study site in 2013–2016. The regression model showed a non-linear (quadratic dependence of net primary production of zonal and intrazonal plant coenoses and total precipitation for the autumn-winter-spring period for arid grasslands with a coefficient of determination equal to 0.54 and significance level less than 0.05. The non-linear equation for these relations, visualized by a parabola curve, was calculated using the Nonlinear Least-Squares Regression Method. The data set, based on calculated predicted values, using the calculated equation, had a similar dynamic to the historical data on ANPP, but the model could not predict critical values. For this reason, additional studies are required for critical precipitation events. Non-linear response, investigated according to regression analysis, reveals optimal zones of plant growth, depending on the total precipitation level before the vegetation peak. For research areas where the dominant species are the turf grasses Stipa ucrainica P. Smirn., S. capillata L., S. lessingiana Trin. & Rupr., Festuca valesiaca Gaudin, Koeleria cristata (L. Pers. the optimal precipitation rates

  1. Applying optimization techniques to improve of energy efficiency and GHG (greenhouse gas) emissions of wheat production

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Nabavi-Pelesaraei, Ashkan; Hosseinzadeh-Bandbafha, Homa; Qasemi-Kordkheili, Peyman; Kouchaki-Penchah, Hamed; Riahi-Dorcheh, Farshid

    2016-01-01

    In this study a non-parametric method of DEA (Data Envelopment Analysis) and MOGA (Multi-Objective Genetic Algorithm) were used to estimate the energy efficiency and greenhouse gas emissions reduction of wheat farmers in Ahvaz county of Iran. Data were collected using a face-to-face questionnaire method from 39 farmers. The results showed that based on constant returns to scale model, 41.02% of wheat farms were efficient, though based on variable returns to scale model it was 53.23%. The average of technical, pure technical and scale efficiency of wheat farms were 0.94, 0.95 and 0.98, respectively. By following the recommendations of this study, 3640.90 MJ ha"−"1 could be saved (9.13% of total input energy). Moreover, 42 optimal units were found by MOGA. The total energy required and GHG (greenhouse gas) emissions of the best generation of MOGA were about 23105 MJ ha"−"1 and 340 kgCO_2_e_q_. ha"−"1, respectively. The results revealed that the total energy required of MOGA was less than DEA, significantly. Also, the GHG emissions of present, DEA and MOGA farms were about 903, 837 and 340 kgCO_2_e_q_. ha"−"1, respectively. - Highlights: • We analyze the energy efficiency and GHG emissions of wheat production in Iran. • The technical and pure technical efficiencies were 0.94 and 0.95 respectively. • DEA can be saved total energy and GHG emissions 9.13% and 7.28% respectively. • MOGA can be reduced total energy and GHG emissions more than DEA significantly.

  2. BC Hydro shops for GHG offsets

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Anon.

    2000-01-01

    BC Hydro is reported to have offered to purchase one million tonnes of carbon dioxide reductions in Canada's Greenhouse Gas Emissions Reduction Trading program (GERT). The program uses a baseline and credit system, where emitters purchase measurable quantities of site-specific GHG reductions. Since mid-1998, the program registered five bilateral trades and seven offers to sell. BC Hydro's recent offer is the first offer to buy. BC Hydro has made the offer to buy in expectation of the introduction of the start of the Kyoto Protocol reductions, and expects to be in the game for some time to come if it is to meet its obligations under the Kyoto Protocol. Preference will be given to projects located in Canada, but BC Hydro will consider reductions created anywhere in the world. The financial range of a single trade is between $50,000 and $1 million. (GHG offsets are currently trading in North America for between $.50 and $3.00 Cdn per metric tonne of carbon dioxide equivalent.) At present, offsets are selling at a heavily discounted price because of the uncertainty that investments made now will be credited against future regulations curbing emitters. Consequently, buying now while prices are low, may lead to sizable benefits later, depending on the actual regulations when they are promulgated. Trading now will also give BC Hydro greater credibility and assurance to have its voice heard when discussions about emissions trading and the implementation of emission trading rules reaches the serious stage

  3. Regional disparity of urban passenger transport associated GHG (greenhouse gas) emissions in China: A review

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Hao, Han; Geng, Yong; Wang, Hewu; Ouyang, Minggao

    2014-01-01

    With China’s urbanization and motorization, greenhouse gas (GHG) emissions from urban passenger transport increased rapidly over recent years. As we estimated, China’s urban passenger transport associated motorized travel, energy consumption and lifecycle GHG emissions reached 2815 billion passenger kilometers (pkm), 77 million tons of oil equivalent (toe) and 335 million ton CO 2 equivalent in 2010, over half of which were located in eastern provinces. Over national level, GHG emissions by private passenger vehicles, business passenger vehicles, taxis, motorcycles, E-bikes, transit buses and urban rails accounted for 57.7%, 13.0%, 7.7%, 8.6%, 1.8%, 10.5% and 0.7% of the total. Significant regional disparity was observed. The province-level per capita GHG emissions ranged from 285 kg/capita in Guizhou to 1273 kg/capita in Beijing, with national average of 486 kg/capita. Depending on province context and local policy orientation, the motorization pathways of China’s several highest motorized provinces are quite diverse. We concluded that motorization rate and transport structure were the substantial factors determining urban passenger transport associated GHG emissions. Considering the great potential of urban passenger transport growth in China, policies guiding the optimization of transport structure should be in place with priority in eastern provinces. - Highlights: • Province-leveled motorized travel, energy consumption and GHG emissions in China were studied. • Significant regional disparities on urban passenger transport were observed. • Region-specific sustainable transport energy policies were discussed

  4. Life-cycle analysis of the total Danish energy system. An assessment of the present Danish energy system and selected furture scenarios. Final report

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Kuemmel, B; Soerensen, B

    1997-01-01

    The promise of life-cycle analysis (LCA) is to enable the incorporation of environmental and social impacts into decision-making processes. The challenge is to do it on the basis of the always incomplete and uncertain data available, in a way that is sufficiently transparent to avoid that the modeller introduces any particular bias into the decision process, by the way of selecting and treating the incomplete data. The life-cycle analysis of the currently existing system is to be seen as a reference, against which alternative solutions to the same problem is weighed. However, as it takes time to introduce new systems, the alternative scenarios are for a future situation, which is chosen as the middle of the 21st century. The reason for using a 30-50 year period is a reflection on the time needed for a smooth transition to an energy system based on sources different from the ones used today, with implied differences all the way through the conversion and end-use system. A scenario will only be selected if it has been identified and if there is social support for it, so construction of more exotic scenarios by the researcher would only be meaningful, if its advantages are so convincing that an interest can be created and the necessary social support be forthcoming. One may say that the energy scenarios based on renewable energy sources are in this category, as they were identified by a minority group (of scientists and other individuals) and successfully brought to the attention of the public debate during 1970ies. In any case it should be kept in mind, that no claim of having identified the optimum solution can be made after assessing a finite number of scenarios. (EG) 88 refs.

  5. The diet-related GHG index

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Lund, Thomas Bøker; Watson, David; Smed, Sinne

    2017-01-01

    The aim was to construct and validate a cost-efficient index to measure GHG emissions (GHGe) caused by Danish consumers’ diets to be employed in questionnaire-based surveys. The index was modelled on the basis of actual food purchase data from a panel of ordinary Danish households...... and a questionnaire consisting of food frequency questions issued to the same panel. Based on the purchase data, diet-related GHGe were calculated for 2012. The data was then split into a learning sample and a validation sample. The index was constructed using the learning sample where a scoring procedure...... was calculated from responses to the questionnaire-based food frequency questions that predicted diet-related GHGe. Subsequently, the index scoring procedure was employed on the validation sample and the empirical relevance of the index was examined. In the learning sample, a scoring procedure to construct...

  6. Towards better GHG emissions savings with use of ISO GHG standards

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Chan Kook Weng

    2010-01-01

    The 15th Conference of Parties (COP 15) at Copenhagen, Denmark in December 2009 highlighted the need to combat climate change by facing the challenge of committing to reducing our emissions at all three levels with locally appropriate mitigation actions (LAMAs) at the local level to be linked to the nationally appropriate mitigation actions (NAMAs) and then contribute onwards to globally appropriate mitigation actions (GAMAs). The aim is to find solutions for both adaptation and mitigation by ensuring sufficient means are made available to support such efforts. This is because the world in entering a new phase that will be characterised by green growth in business. Thus be it agriculture that uses local knowledge of specific crop and livestock varieties to help in secure food supply, bio-energy, transport, industries, there must be policies to understand ecosystem-based to link people, biodiversity, energy, water and carbon so as to be more resilient and adaptable to the need for a low carbon economy in todays society.Climate change therefore affects organisations in many areas and they include legal compliance, carbon market, corporate social responsibility and sustainable development. Promoting sustainability requires making efficient use of energy, water and natural resources, decrease in waste load through recycling and streamlining the processes leading to everything that decreases their CO 2 and water footprints. Currently there are many GHG schemes and programmes and the issues centres around compatibility, costs and most importantly credibility. Achieving real GHG emissions reduction requires controlled and verified emissions reductions and quantification that are sound and verifiable. Thanks to the development of the ISO suite of standards on GHG and related matters, the use of these harmonised standards has given the assurance that a tonne of carbon is a tonne of carbon be it in Malaysia, Mali or Mongolia.The use of these standards like ISO 14064 Part 1

  7. GHG emission mitigation measures and technologies in the Czech Republic

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Tichy, M. [Energy Efficiency Center, Prague (Czech Republic)

    1996-12-31

    The paper presents a short overview of main results in two fields: projection of GHG emission from energy sector in the Czech Republic and assessment of technologies and options for GHG mitigation. The last part presents an overview of measures that were prepared for potential inclusion to the Czech Climate Change Action Plan.

  8. A Systems Approach to Reducing Institutional GHG Emissions

    Science.gov (United States)

    Williamson, Sean R.

    2012-01-01

    Purpose: The purpose of this paper is to establish necessity and methods for considering greenhouse gas (GHG) mitigation policies at a system-level. The research emphasizes connecting narrowly focused GHG mitigation objectives (e.g. reduce single occupancy vehicle travel) with broader institutional objectives (e.g. growth in student population) to…

  9. Technology Roadmap: Energy and GHG reductions in the chemical industry via catalytic processes

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    NONE

    2013-06-01

    The chemical industry is a large energy user; but chemical products and technologies also are used in a wide array of energy saving and/or renewable energy applications so the industry has also an energy saving role. The chemical and petrochemical sector is by far the largest industrial energy user, accounting for roughly 10% of total worldwide final energy demand and 7% of global GHG emissions. The International Council of Chemical Associations (ICCA) has partnered with the IEA and DECHEMA (Society for Chemical Engineering and Biotechnology) to describe the path toward further improvements in energy efficiency and GHG reductions in the chemical sector. The roadmap looks at measures needed from the chemical industry, policymakers, investors and academia to press on with catalysis technology and unleash its potential around the globe. The report uncovers findings and best practice opportunities that illustrate how continuous improvements and breakthrough technology options can cut energy use and bring down greenhouse gas (GHG) emission rates. Around 90% of chemical processes involve the use of catalysts – such as added substances that increase the rate of reaction without being consumed by it – and related processes to enhance production efficiency and reduce energy use, thereby curtailing GHG emission levels. This work shows an energy savings potential approaching 13 exajoules (EJ) by 2050 – equivalent to the current annual primary energy use of Germany.

  10. Simulation of a scenario of total loss of external and internal power (Sbo) for different vent pressures of the containment of a BWR-5

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Cardenas V, J.; Mugica R, C. A.; Godinez S, V.

    2014-10-01

    The simulation of a Station Black Out (Sbo) was realized with intervention of the vent containment by means of a rigid vent coming from the dry-well and that discharges directly to the atmosphere, with the MELCOR code version 2.1. This scenario was carried out for a BWR-5 and containment type Mark II, with a thermal power of 2317 MWt similar to the reactor of nuclear power plant of Laguna Verde. For this scenario was considered as only available system for coolant injection to the reactor to the Reactor Core Isolation Cooling (Rcic), which remained operating 4 hours with batteries bank. The Security and Relief Valves (SR V) were considered functional (by simplicity) and that they mechanically do not exceed their capacity to liberate pressure due to the performances in their safety way. The operator maneuver to perform the SR V and to de pressurize the vessel until the pressure (13 kg/cm 2 ) to operate the low pressure systems was modeled. The results cover approximately 48 hours (172000 seconds), time in which was observed the behavior of the level and pressure in the vessel. Also the scenario evolution was analyzed to different vent pressures of the primary containment (2.0, 3.0, 4.5, 6.0, and 10.0 kg/cm 2 ), the temperature profiles of the dry-well, the hydrogen accumulation in the containment, the radio-nuclides liberation through rigid vent to the atmosphere and the inventory of these. In this work an analysis of the pressure behavior in the primary containment is presented, with the purpose of minimizing liberated fission products to the environment. (Author)

  11. A national inventory of greenhouse gas (GHG), criteria air contaminants (CAC) and hydrogen sulphide (H2S) emissions by the upstream oil and gas industry : volume 1, overview of the GHG emissions inventory : technical report

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    2004-09-01

    A detailed inventory of greenhouse gas (GHG) emissions from the upstream oil and gas sector in Canada was presented along with explanations of the methodologies and data sources used. This report is based on previous work done on methane and volatile organic compound emissions from the upstream oil and gas sector for the period of 1990 to 1995, but it includes key improvements in identifying primary types of emissions sources such as emissions from fuel combustion, flaring, venting, fugitive equipment leaks and accidental releases. It also includes criteria air contaminants and hydrogen sulfide emissions, an analysis of GHG emission intensities and a change in the definition of volatile organic compounds from comprising all non-methane hydrocarbons to comprising all non-methane and non-ethane hydrocarbons. The report covers portions of the upstream oil and gas industry in Canada plus the natural gas transmission and natural gas distribution industries with reference to well drilling, oil production, and natural gas production, processing, transmission and distribution. Accidents and equipment failures are also included. The report reveals the total GHG emissions by source type, sub-sector, facility type and sub-type for the year 2000 at the national level. In 2000, the total carbon dioxide equivalent GHG emissions from the entire oil and gas sector were 101,211 kilo tonnes. For the upstream oil and gas sector alone, total GHG emissions were 84,355 kilo tonnes, representing 12 per cent of Canada's total national emissions of GHGs in 2000. This is an increase of about 25 per cent from 1995 levels. The biggest primary source of these emissions is fuel combustion, which accounts for 40.8 per cent of the total. This report also includes a provincial breakdown of GHG emissions for the natural gas transmission, storage and distribution sub-sectors in Canada for the year 2000. refs., tabs., figs

  12. Balance and saving of GHG emissions in thermochemical biorefineries

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Haro, Pedro; Aracil, Cristina; Vidal-Barrero, Fernando; Ollero, Pedro

    2015-01-01

    Highlights: • A simplified methodology for the balance and saving of GHG emissions is provided. • The GHG balance has a physical meaning and does not depend on the fossil reference. • The GHG saving depends on regulation of energy carriers. • The impact of Bio-CCS incorporation and multiproduction is analyzed. • The co-production of chemicals needs to be included in future regulation. - Abstract: In this study, a simplified methodology for the calculation of the balance of greenhouse gas (GHG) emissions and corresponding saving compared with the fossil reference is presented. The proposed methodology allows the estimation of the anthropogenic GHG emissions of thermochemical biorefineries (net emitted to the atmosphere). In the calculation of the GHG balance, all relevant factors have been identified and analyzed including multiproduction, emissions from biogenic carbon capture and storage (Bio-CCS), co-feeding of fossil fuels (secondary feedstock) and possible carbon storage in biomass-derived products (chemicals). Therefore, it is possible to calculate the balance of GHG emissions of a hypothetical thermochemical biorefinery considering different alternatives of land-use, biomass feedstock, co-feeding of fossil fuels, Bio-CCS incorporation and final use of the products. The comparison of the estimated GHG balance with the corresponding fossil reference for each product is of special relevance in the methodology since it is the parameter used in European regulation for the fulfillment of sustainability criteria in biomass-derived fuels and liquids. The proposed methodology is tested using a previously assessed set of different process concepts of thermochemical biorefineries (techno-economic analysis). The resulting GHG balance and saving are analyzed to identify uncertainties and provide recommendations for future regulation. In all process concepts, the GHG savings are above the minimum requirement of GHG emissions for 2018. In the case of incorporating

  13. Applying data envelopment analysis approach to improve energy efficiency and reduce GHG (greenhouse gas) emission of wheat production

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Khoshnevisan, Benyamin; Rafiee, Shahin; Omid, Mahmoud; Mousazadeh, Hossein

    2013-01-01

    In this study, DEA (data envelopment analysis) was applied to analyze the energy efficiency of wheat farms in order to separate efficient and inefficient growers and to calculate the wasteful uses of energy. Additionally, the degrees of TE (technical efficiency), PTE (pure technical efficiency) and SE (scale efficiency) were determined. Furthermore, the effect of energy optimization on GHG (greenhouse gas) emission was investigated and the total amount of GHG emission of efficient farms was compared with inefficient ones. Based on the results it was revealed that 18% of producers were technically efficient and the average of TE was calculated as 0.82. Based on the BCC (Banker–Charnes–Cooper) model 154 growers (59%) were identified efficient and the mean PTE of these farmers was found to be 0.99. Also, it was concluded that 2075.8 MJ ha −1 of energy inputs can be saved if the performance of inefficient farms rises to a high level. Additionally, it was observed that the total GHG emission from efficient and inefficient producers was 2713.3 and 2740.8 kg CO 2eq . ha −1 , respectively. By energy optimization the total GHG emission can be reduced to the value of 2684.29 kg CO 2eq . ha −1 . - Highlights: • 18% of producers were technically efficient and the average of TE was 0.82. • An average 2075.8 MJ ha −1 from energy input could be saved without reducing the yield. • GHG emission of efficient and inefficient producers was 2713.3 and 2740.8 kg CO 2eq. ha −1 . • Total GHG emission can be reduced to the value of 2684.29 kg CO 2eq. ha −1

  14. Modeling GHG emission and energy consumption in selected greenhouses in Iran

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Yousefi, M.; Omid, M.; Rafiee, SH.; Khoshnevisan, B. [Department of Agricultural Machinery Engineering, Faculty of Agricultural Engineering and Technology, University of Tehran, Karaj (Iran, Islamic Republic of)

    2013-07-01

    It is crucial to determine energy efficiency and environmental effects of greenhouse productions. Such study can be a viable solution in probing challenges and existing defects. The aims of this study were to analyze energy consumption and greenhouse gas (GHG) emissions for pepper production using biological method inside greenhouses which used natural gas (NG) heating system in Esfahan province. Data were collected from 22 greenhouse holders using a face to face questionnaire method, in 2010-2011. Also, functional area was selected 1000 m2. Total energy input, total energy output, energy ratio, energy productivity, specific energy, net energy gain and total GHG emissions were calculated as 297799.9 MJ area-1, 3851.84 MJ area-1, 0.013, 0.016 kg MJ-1, 61.85 MJ kg-1, -293948 MJ area-1 and 14390.85 kg CO2 equivalent area-1, respectively. Result revealed that replacing diesel fuel with NG will not be an effective way of reducing energy consumption for greenhouse production. However, it is crucial to focus on energy management in order to enhance the energy and environmental indices. One way to supply adequate input energy and a reduction in GHG emissions is the utilization of renewable and clean energy sources instead of NG and diesel fuel. Also, it is suggested to adopt solar greenhouses in the region and to supply electricity from non-fossil sources seriously.

  15. FUTURE FOSSIL FUEL PRICE IMPACTS ON NDC ACHIEVEMENT; ESTIMATION OF GHG EMISSIONS AND MITIGATION COSTS

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Yosuke Arino

    2017-12-01

    Full Text Available The Shale Revolution in the US, a supply-side innovation in oil and gas production, has been dramatically changing the world’s fossil fuel energy markets – leading to a decrease in oil, gas and coal prices. Some projections suggest that low fossil fuel prices might continue at least over the next few decades. Uncertainty in fossil fuel prices might affect the levels of emission reductions expected from submitted nationally determined contributions (NDCs and/or influence the difficulty of achieving the NDCs. This paper evaluated the impact of different (high, medium, and low fossil fuel prices, sustained through to 2050, on worldwide GHG emissions reductions and associated costs (mainly marginal abatement costs (MACs. Total global GHG emissions were estimated to be 57.5-61.5 GtCO2eq by 2030, with the range shown reflecting uncertainties about fossil fuel prices and the target levels of several NDCs (i.e., whether their upper or lower targets were adopted. It was found that lower fuel prices not only diminished the environmental effectiveness of global NDCs but also widened regional differences of marginal and total abatement costs, thereby generating more room for carbon leakage. One possible policy direction in terms of abatement efficiency, fairness and environmental effectiveness would be to require countries with low marginal and total abatement costs but having a major influence on global GHG emissions (such as China and India to increase their mitigation efforts, especially in a low-fuelprice world.

  16. Scenario planning.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Enzmann, Dieter R; Beauchamp, Norman J; Norbash, Alexander

    2011-03-01

    In facing future developments in health care, scenario planning offers a complementary approach to traditional strategic planning. Whereas traditional strategic planning typically consists of predicting the future at a single point on a chosen time horizon and mapping the preferred plans to address such a future, scenario planning creates stories about multiple likely potential futures on a given time horizon and maps the preferred plans to address the multiple described potential futures. Each scenario is purposefully different and specifically not a consensus worst-case, average, or best-case forecast; nor is scenario planning a process in probabilistic prediction. Scenario planning focuses on high-impact, uncertain driving forces that in the authors' example affect the field of radiology. Uncertainty is the key concept as these forces are mapped onto axes of uncertainty, the poles of which have opposed effects on radiology. One chosen axis was "market focus," with poles of centralized health care (government control) vs a decentralized private market. Another axis was "radiology's business model," with one pole being a unified, single specialty vs a splintered, disaggregated subspecialty. The third axis was "technology and science," with one pole representing technology enabling to radiology vs technology threatening to radiology. Selected poles of these axes were then combined to create 3 scenarios. One scenario, termed "entrepreneurialism," consisted of a decentralized private market, a disaggregated business model, and threatening technology and science. A second scenario, termed "socialized medicine," had a centralized market focus, a unified specialty business model, and enabling technology and science. A third scenario, termed "freefall," had a centralized market focus, a disaggregated business model, and threatening technology and science. These scenarios provide a range of futures that ultimately allow the identification of defined "signposts" that can

  17. Respective roles of direct GHG radiative forcing and induced Arctic sea ice loss on the Northern Hemisphere atmospheric circulation

    Science.gov (United States)

    Oudar, Thomas; Sanchez-Gomez, Emilia; Chauvin, Fabrice; Cattiaux, Julien; Terray, Laurent; Cassou, Christophe

    2017-12-01

    The large-scale and synoptic-scale Northern Hemisphere atmospheric circulation responses to projected late twenty-first century Arctic sea ice decline induced by increasing Greenhouse Gases (GHGs) concentrations are investigated using the CNRM-CM5 coupled model. An original protocol, based on a flux correction technique, allows isolating the respective roles of GHG direct radiative effect and induced Arctic sea ice loss under RCP8.5 scenario. In winter, the surface atmospheric response clearly exhibits opposing effects between GHGs increase and Arctic sea ice loss, leading to no significant pattern in the total response (particularly in the North Atlantic region). An analysis based on Eady growth rate shows that Arctic sea ice loss drives the weakening in the low-level meridional temperature gradient, causing a general decrease of the baroclinicity in the mid and high latitudes, whereas the direct impact of GHGs increase is more located in the mid-to-high troposphere. Changes in the flow waviness, evaluated from sinuosity and blocking frequency metrics, are found to be small relative to inter-annual variability.

  18. Estimating GHG emissions of marine ports-the case of Barcelona

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Villalba, Gara; Gemechu, Eskinder Demisse

    2011-01-01

    In recent years, GHG inventories of cities have expanded to include extra-boundary activities that form part of the city's urban metabolism and economy. This paper centers on estimating the emissions due to seaports, in such a way that they can be included as part of the city's inventory or be used by the port itself to monitor their policy and technology improvements for mitigating climate change. We propose the indicators GHG emissions per ton of cargo handled or per passenger and emissions per value of cargo handled as practical measures for policy making and emission prevention measures to be monitored over time. Adapting existing methodologies to the Port of Barcelona, we calculated a total of 331,390 tons of GHG emissions (CO 2 equivalents) for the year of 2008, half of which were attributed to vessel movement (sea-based emissions) and the other half to port, land related activities (land-based emissions). The highest polluters were auto carriers with 6 kg of GHG emissions per ton of cargo handled. Knowing the highest emitters, the port can take action to improve the ship's activities within the port limits, such as maneuvering and hotelling. With these results, the port and the city can also find ways to reduce the land-based emissions. - Research highlights: → Adapting existing methodologies to the Port of Barcelona (PoB), we calculated a total of 331,390 tons of GHG emissions for the year of 2008, half of which were attributed to vessel movement (sea-based emissions) and the other half to port, land related activities (land-based emissions) → Emissions per ton of cargo handled is proposed as an indicator to pin point high polluting vessels-a measure independent of the city the port belongs to. For 2008, the highest polluters were auto carriers with 6 kg of GHG emissions per ton of cargo handled. → An additional measure of emissions per value of cargo handled is proposed to complement the emissions per weight indicator. For 2008, the volume of cargo

  19. Approximated EU GHG inventory: Early estimates for 2011

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Herold, A. [Oeko-Institut (Oeko), Freiburg (Germany); Fernandez, R. [European Environment Agency (EEA), Copenhagen (Denmark)

    2012-10-15

    The objective of this report is to provide an early estimate of greenhouse gas (GHG) emissions in the EU-15 and EU-27 for the year 2011. The official submission of 2011 data to the United Nations Framework Convention on Climate Change (UNFCCC) will occur in 2013. In recent years, the EEA and its European Topic Centre on Air Pollution and Climate Change Mitigation have developed a methodology to estimate GHG emissions using a bottom up approach - based on data or estimates for individual countries, sectors and gases - to derive EU GHG estimates in the preceding year (t-1). For transparency, this report shows the country-level GHG estimates from which the EU estimates have been derived. The 2011 estimates are based on the latest activity data available at country level and assume no change in emission factors or methodologies as compared to the official 2012 submissions to UNFCCC (which relate to emissions in 2010). Some Member States estimate and publish their own early estimates of GHG emissions for the preceding year. Where such estimates exist they are clearly referenced in this report in order to ensure complete transparency regarding the different GHG estimates available. Member State early estimates were also used for quality assurance and quality control of the EEA's GHG early estimates for 2011. Finally, the EEA has also used the early estimates of 2011 GHG emissions produced by EEA member countries to assess progress towards the Kyoto targets in its annual trends and projections report (due to be published alongside the present report). In that report, the EEA's early estimates for 2011 were only used for countries that lack their own early estimates to track progress towards national and EU targets. (LN)

  20. Approximated EU GHG inventory: Early estimates for 2010

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Herold, A.; Busche, J.; Hermann, H.; Joerss, W.; Scheffler, M. (OEko-Institut, Freiburg (Germany))

    2011-10-15

    The objective of this report is to provide an early estimate of greenhouse gas (GHG) emissions in the EU-15 and EU-27 for the year 2010. The official submission of 2010 data to the United Nations Framework Convention on Climate Change (UNFCCC) will occur in 2012. In recent years, the EEA and its European Topic Centre on Air Pollution and Climate Change Mitigation have developed a methodology to estimate GHG emissions using a bottom up approach - based on data or estimates for individual countries, sectors and gases - to derive EU GHG estimates in the preceding year (t-1). For transparency, this report shows the country-level GHG estimates from which the EU estimates have been derived. The 2010 estimates are based on the latest activity data available at country level and assume no change in emission factors or methodologies as compared to the official 2011 submissions to UNFCCC (which re-late to emissions in 2009). Some Member States estimate and publish their own early estimates of GHG emissions for the preceding year. Where such estimates exist they are clearly referenced in this report in order to ensure complete transparency regarding the different GHG estimates available. Member State early estimates were also used for quality assurance and quality control of the EEA's GHG early estimates for 2010. Finally, EEA has also used the early estimates of 2010 GHG emissions produced by EEA member countries to assess progress towards the Kyoto targets in its annual trends and projections report (due to be published alongside the present report). In that report, the EEA's early estimates for 2010 were only used for countries that lack their own early estimates to track progress towards national and EU targets. (Author)

  1. Aerosol Observing System Greenhouse Gas (AOS GhG) Handbook

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Biraud, S. C. [Lawrence Berkeley National Lab. (LBNL), Berkeley, CA (United States); Reichl, K. [Lawrence Berkeley National Lab. (LBNL), Berkeley, CA (United States)

    2016-03-01

    The Greenhouse Gas (GhG) Measurement system is a combination of two systems in series: (1) the Tower Gas Processing (TGP) System, an instrument rack which pulls, pressurizes, and dries air streams from an atmospheric sampling tower through a series of control and monitoring components, and (2) the Picarro model G2301 cavity ringdown spectrometer (CRDS), which measures CO2, CH4, and H2O vapor; the primary measurements of the GhG system.

  2. Socio-technological impact analysis using an energy IO approach to GHG emissions issues in South Korea

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Chung, Whan-Sam; Tohno, Susumu; Choi, Ki-Hong

    2011-01-01

    Highlights: → Using the Sato-Vartia index for the three periods of 1985-1995, 1995-2000, and 2000-2005, the changes in three factors affecting GHG emissions in South Korea were analyzed. → A total emission matrix including both direct and indirect GHG emissions showed plain shape; however, ripple effects were observed in some sectors. → This process is useful in measuring national energy policies. → Several limitations of the Divisia decomposition analysis were pointed out. -- Abstract: Through energy input-output (E-IO) analyses from 1985 to 2005, the changes in three factors affecting GHG emissions in South Korea were analyzed. Based on the E-IO results, the changes in the direct and total (embodied) GHG emissions from the pertinent sectors were decomposed into three factors-the energy consumption effect, the social effect, and the technological effect-using the Sato-Vartia index for the three periods of 1985-1995, 1995-2000, and 2000-2005. The decomposition analysis demonstrated that a total emission matrix including both direct and indirect GHG emissions showed an evolution pattern that was very similar to the changes in direct GHG emissions; however, ripple effects were observed in the case of emissions from sector number -59 (Synthetic resins, synthetic rubber-p). The results showed that national energy policies such as those pertaining to the diversification of energy sources, shifts in the energy consumption structure (social effect), and the transformation to a low-carbon energy economy (technology effect) were effective. Finally, several limitations of the Divisia decomposition analysis were pointed out.

  3. Scenario? Guilty!

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Kyng, Morten

    1992-01-01

    Robert Campbell categorizes the word "scenario" as a buzzword, identifies four major uses within HCI and suggests that we adopt new terms differentiating these four uses of the word. My first reaction to reading the article was definitely positive, but rereading it gave me enough second thoughts...... to warrant a response. I should probably confess that I searched my latest paper for the word "scenario" and found eight occurrences, none of which fell in the categories described by Campbell....

  4. Management effects on net ecosystem carbon and GHG budgets at European crop sites

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Ceschia, Eric; Bêziat, P; Dejoux, J.F.

    2010-01-01

    The greenhouse gas budgets of 15 European crop sites covering a large climatic gradient and corresponding to 41 site-years were estimated. The sites included a wide range of management practices (organic and/or mineral fertilisation, tillage or ploughing, with or without straw removal....... The variability of the different terms and their relative contributions to the net ecosystem carbon budget (NECB) were analysed for all site-years, and the effect of management on NECB was assessed. To account for greenhouse gas (GHG) fluxes that were not directly measured on site, we estimated the emissions...... caused by field operations (EFO) for each site using emission factors from the literature. The EFO were added to the NECB to calculate the total GHG budget (GHGB) for a range of cropping systems and management regimes. N2O emissions were calculated following the IPCC (2007) guidelines, and CH4 emissions...

  5. Scenarios for a Nordic Power System without Greenhouse Gas Emissions

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Graabak, Ingeborg; Nilsson, Måns; Wu, Qiuwei

    2014-01-01

    The paper presents scenarios for power production without greenhouse gas (GHG) emissions in Denmark, Finland, Norway and Sweden by 2050. The Nordic region already has a high share of renewables in its power production portfolio (about 60% in 2010), and possibilities for further deployment are very...

  6. An Evaluation of the Potential for Shifting of Freight from Truck to Rail and Its Impacts on Energy Use and GHG Emissions

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Zhou, Yan [Argonne National Lab. (ANL), Argonne, IL (United States); Vyas, Anant D. [Argonne National Lab. (ANL), Argonne, IL (United States); Guo, Zhaomiao [Argonne National Lab. (ANL), Argonne, IL (United States)

    2017-06-01

    This report summarizes our evaluation of the potential energy-use and GHG-emissions reduction achieved by shifting freight from truck to rail under a most-likely scenario. A sensitivity analysis is also included. The sensitivity analysis shows changes in energy use and GHG emissions when key parameters are varied. The major contribution and distinction from previous studies is that this study considers the rail level of service (LOS) and commodity movements at the origin-destination (O-D) level. In addition, this study considers the fragility and time sensitivity of each commodity type.

  7. Kyoto Protocol Objectives in Croatia Energy Planning: Nuclear Scenario

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Duic, N.; Bogdan, Z.; Juretic, F.; Zeljko, M.

    2002-01-01

    Croatia as an Annex I country of the United Nations Framework Convention on Climate Change (UNFCCC) and a country that has pledged in the Annex B of the Kyoto Protocol to reduce its greenhouse gases (GHG) emissions by 5% from the pre-transition level by the budget period 2008-12, will have to envisage a new energy strategy. Compared to the energy consumption collapse in some transitional countries like Russia and Ukraine, Croatia has passed through a relatively limited long term reduction of GHG emissions since 1990 because of higher efficiency of its pre-transition economy. It is expected that in case of business as usual scenario it will breach the Kyoto target in 2003 since the demand for energy will be high, especially as the income continues to rise, particularly in domestic use for heating, for transport and for electricity generation. Several scenarios of developing energy system are compared from the point of view of GHG emissions. The energy sector that will most probably be the most influenced by the UNFCCC objectives is electricity generation. Several scenarios are compared. The cost-effective scenario expects a mixture of coal and gas fired power plants to be built to satisfy the new demand and to replace the old power plants that are being decommissioned. More Kyoto friendly scenario envisages the construction of mostly nuclear power plants in the future, while decommissioning the old ones as planned, and is compared to the others from the GHG emissions point of view. The conclusion is that by measures tackling only electricity generation it will not be possible to keep GHG emission under the Kyoto target level, but that choosing the nuclear option might reduce significantly the cost of compliance. (author)

  8. Life cycle GHG evaluation of organic rice production in northern Thailand.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yodkhum, Sanwasan; Gheewala, Shabbir H; Sampattagul, Sate

    2017-07-01

    Greenhouse gas (GHG) emission is one of the serious international environmental issues that can lead to severe damages such as climate change, sea level rise, emerging disease and many other impacts. Rice cultivation is associated with emissions of potent GHGs such as methane and nitrous oxide. Thai rice has been massively exported worldwide however the markets are becoming more competitive than ever since the green market has been hugely promoted. In order to maintain the same level or enhance of competitiveness, Thai rice needs to be considered for environmentally conscious products to meet the international environmental standards. Therefore, it is necessary to evaluate the greenhouse gas emissions throughout the life cycle of rice production in order to identify the major emission sources and possible reduction strategies. In this research, the rice variety considered is Khao Dawk Mali 105 (KDML 105) cultivated by organic practices. The data sources were Don-Chiang Organic Agricultural Cooperative (DCOAC), Mae-teang district, Chiang Mai province, Thailand and the Office of Agricultural Economics (OAE) of Thailand with onsite records and interviews of farmers in 2013. The GHG emissions were calculated from cradle-to-farm by using the Life Cycle Assessment (LCA) approach and the 2006 IPCC Guideline for National Greenhouse Gas Inventories. The functional unit is defined as 1 kg of paddy rice at farm gate. Results showed that the total GHG emissions of organic rice production were 0.58 kg CO 2 -eq per kg of paddy rice. The major source of GHG emission was from the field emissions accounting for 0.48 kg CO 2 -eq per kg of paddy rice, about 83% of total, followed by land preparation, harvesting and other stages (planting, cultivation and transport of raw materials) were 9, 5 and 3% of total, respectively. The comparative results clearly showed that the GHG emissions of organic paddy rice were considerably lower than conventional rice production due to the

  9. Current scenario

    Indian Academy of Sciences (India)

    First page Back Continue Last page Overview Graphics. Current scenario. India , like other parts of the world, is also facing the problem of increase in the incidence of drug resistance in tuberculosis. Multi-drug resistance (MDR, resistance to RIF & INH) and extensively drug resistant strains (X-DR, resistance to RIF, INH, FQs ...

  10. Modelling the impacts of challenging 2020 non-ETS GHG emissions reduction targets on Ireland′s energy system

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Chiodi, Alessandro; Gargiulo, Maurizio; Deane, J.P.; Lavigne, Denis; Rout, Ullash K.; Ó Gallachóir, Brian P.

    2013-01-01

    This paper focuses on Ireland's ambitious target for 2020 to reduce greenhouse gas (GHG) emissions by 20% below 2005 levels for sectors not covered by ETS (Non-ETS). Ireland is an interesting case study due to the role of agriculture (a particularly challenging sector with regard to GHG emissions reduction), that represents 29% of Ireland's GHG emissions compared with less than 10% for the EU. The analysis is carried out with the Irish TIMES model, a bottom-up energy systems modelling tool with detailed characterization of Ireland's energy system. The paper uses scenario analysis to provide pathways that demonstrate how Ireland can meet the non-ETS target at least cost. The paper considers the impacts (in terms of different technology choices and higher marginal abatement costs) arising from higher targets for the energy system to compensate for growth in agriculture activity and low mitigation potential in that sector. The results point to a need to reconsider Ireland's renewable energy focus, with a need for increased effort in renewable transport and renewable heat in particular. The results also point to significant electrification of residential heating. The results also point to a high marginal abatement cost (€213/tCO 2 ), which challenges the analysis carried out at EU level to establish Ireland's non-ETS target. - Highlights: • Techno-economic energy model to deliver EU GHG mitigation target by 2020 in Ireland. • Agriculture represents nearly half of Non-ETS emissions in Ireland. • The target set for Non-ETS GHG for Ireland is far from a cost optimal target. • The results point to a need to reconsider Ireland's renewable energy focus. • Key pathways: electrification of heating in buildings and biofuels in transport

  11. Life cycle assessment of energy consumption and GHG emissions of olefins production from alternative resources in China

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Xiang, Dong; Yang, Siyu; Li, Xiuxi; Qian, Yu

    2015-01-01

    Highlights: • Conduct a life cycle energy use and GHG emissions of olefins production processes. • Analyse effects of carbon capture and efficiency on alternative olefins production. • Analyse life cycle performance of Chinese olefins industry in three key periods. • Present the advantages and challenges of alternative olefins routes. - Abstract: Olefins are important platform chemicals widely used in industry. In terms of the short supply of oil resources, natural gas and coal are two significant alternative feedstocks. In this paper, energy consumption and GHG emissions of olefins production are analysed with life cycle assessment methods. Results showed the energy consumption and GHG emissions of natural gas-to-olefins are roughly equivalent to those of oil-to-olefins, while coal-to-olefins suffers from higher energy consumption and serious GHG emissions, including 5793 kg eq. CO 2 /t olefins of direct emissions and 5714 kg eq. CO 2 /t olefins of indirect emissions. To address the problem, the effect of carbon capture on coal-to-olefins is investigated. In comprehensive consideration of energy utilization, environmental impact, and economic benefit, the coal-to-olefins with 80% CO 2 capture of the direct emissions is found to be an appropriate choice. With this carbon capture configuration, the direct emissions of the coal-to-olefins are reduced to 1161 kg eq. CO 2 /t olefins. However, the indirect emissions are still not captured, which should be strictly monitored and significantly reduced. Finally, a scenario analysis is conducted to estimate resource utilization and GHG emissions of olefins production of China in 2020. Several suggestions are also proposed for policy making on the sustainable development of olefins industry

  12. Energy consumption and GHG emissions from the upstream oil and gas sector in Canada: an overview

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Bhargava, A.; Timilsina, G.

    2004-01-01

    After electricity generation, the oil and gas sector is the most emission intensive industry in Canada. This paper presents statistical data and research by the Canadian Energy Research Institute (CERI). The aim of the research was to provide a comparative evaluation between Alberta's energy consumption and Canada-wide consumption. Data revealed that energy consumption and greenhouse gas (GHG) emissions have increased faster in Alberta in comparison to the rest of Canada, but have slowed since 1997, while emissions in the rest of Canada still continued to increase. Aggregate emission intensities were presented. It was noted that there were no significant changes in fuel mix in either Alberta or the country as a whole. Key factors contributing to rapid increase in energy consumption and GHG emissions after 1996 were: increased energy intensive production and increased use of natural gas. Charts of oil and gas use were presented in energy consumption, economic output and GHG emissions, also indicating that Canadian trends followed Alberta trends. A list of reduction measures in the oil and gas sector were provided, with figures of total reductions and cost. Future actions were outlined and included: ratification of the Kyoto Accord, the negotiation of sectoral agreements, important elements such as cost cap and percentages of reduction; the limited ability to reduce emissions at lower cost per tonne within the oil and gas sector; technology breakthroughs; and adoption of new practices such as the use of alternate fuels in energy intensive processes. tabs, figs

  13. The influence of urban form on GHG emissions in the U.S. household sector

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Lee, Sungwon; Lee, Bumsoo

    2014-01-01

    To better understand the role of sustainable urban development in greenhouse gas (GHG) mitigation, this study examines the paths by which urban form influences an individual household's carbon dioxide emissions in the 125 largest urbanized areas in the U.S. Our multilevel SEM analyses show that doubling population-weighted density is associated with a reduction in CO 2 emissions from household travel and residential energy consumption by 48% and 35%, respectively. Centralized population and polycentric structures have only a moderate impact in our analyses. Given that household travel and residential energy use account for 42% of total U.S. carbon dioxide emissions, these findings highlight the importance of smart growth policies to build more compact and transit friendly cities as a crucial part of any strategic efforts to mitigate GHG emissions and to stabilize climate. - Highlights: • We examine how urban form influences household CO 2 emissions using a multilevel SEM. • Doubling population-weighted density is associated with a 48% reduction in CO 2 emissions from household travel. • Doubling population-weighted density is associated with a 35% reduction in CO 2 emissions from residential energy use. • Doubling per capita transit subsidy is associated with a 46% lower VMT and 18% reduction in transportation CO 2 emissions. • Smart growth policies should be a crucial part of any strategic efforts to mitigate GHG emissions and stabilize climate

  14. Energy consumption and GHG emissions from the upstream oil and gas sector in Canada: an overview

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Bhargava, A.; Timilsina, G. [Canadian Energy Research Inst., Calgary, AB (Canada)

    2004-07-01

    After electricity generation, the oil and gas sector is the most emission intensive industry in Canada. This paper presents statistical data and research by the Canadian Energy Research Institute (CERI). The aim of the research was to provide a comparative evaluation between Alberta's energy consumption and Canada-wide consumption. Data revealed that energy consumption and greenhouse gas (GHG) emissions have increased faster in Alberta in comparison to the rest of Canada, but have slowed since 1997, while emissions in the rest of Canada still continued to increase. Aggregate emission intensities were presented. It was noted that there were no significant changes in fuel mix in either Alberta or the country as a whole. Key factors contributing to rapid increase in energy consumption and GHG emissions after 1996 were: increased energy intensive production and increased use of natural gas. Charts of oil and gas use were presented in energy consumption, economic output and GHG emissions, also indicating that Canadian trends followed Alberta trends. A list of reduction measures in the oil and gas sector were provided, with figures of total reductions and cost. Future actions were outlined and included: ratification of the Kyoto Accord, the negotiation of sectoral agreements, important elements such as cost cap and percentages of reduction; the limited ability to reduce emissions at lower cost per tonne within the oil and gas sector; technology breakthroughs; and adoption of new practices such as the use of alternate fuels in energy intensive processes. tabs, figs.

  15. Analyzing the Effects of Car Sharing Services on the Reduction of Greenhouse Gas (GHG Emissions

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Jiyeon Jung

    2018-02-01

    Full Text Available This study examines the environmental impacts of roundtrip car sharing services by investigating transportation behavior. Car sharing should contribute to reduced greenhouse gas GHG emissions; however, such schemes include both positive and negative environmental effects, including: (1 reduced CO2e (carbon dioxide equivalent from substituting private vehicle use for more fuel-efficient car sharing vehicles, (2 increased CO2e as car-less individuals switch from public transit to car sharing vehicles and (3 reduced CO2e due to fewer vehicles. This study examines the impacts of this modal shift on greenhouse gas (GHG emissions using three types of models: a mixed logit model to analyze car sharing service preferences; a binary logit model to analyze whether individuals are willing to forgo vehicle ownership or planned purchases to use car sharing services; and a linear regression to determine how much private vehicle or public transportation use would be replaced by car sharing and the resulting effects on mobility. Total emissions from the current car sharing market equal 1,025,589.36 t CO2e/year. However, an increase in electric vehicle (EV charging stations to 50% of the number of gasoline-fuel stations would increase the probability of electric car sharing vehicle use, thereby reducing emissions by 655,773 t CO2e. This study shows that forgoing vehicle purchases does not offset the increased GHG emissions caused by the shift from public transportation or private vehicle use to car sharing.

  16. Scenarios for total utilisation of hydrogen as an energy carrier in the future Danish energy system. Final report; Scenarier for samlet udnyttelse af brint som energibaerer i Danmarks fremtidige energisystem. Slutrapport

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Hauge Petersen, A; Engberg Pedersen, T; Joergensen, K [and others

    2001-04-01

    This is the final report from a project performed for the Danish Energy Agency under its Hydrogen Programme. The project, which within the project group goes by the abbreviated title 'Hydrogen as an energy carrier', constructs and analyses different total energy scenarios for introducing hydrogen as an energy carrier, as energy storage medium and as a fuel in the future Danish energy system. The primary aim of the project is to study ways of handling the large deficits and surpluses of electricity from wind energy expected in the future Danish energy system. System-wide aspects of the choice of hydrogen production technologies, distribution methods, infrastructure requirements and conversion technologies are studied. Particularly, the possibility of using in the future the existing Danish natural gas distribution grid for carrying hydrogen will be assessed. For the year 2030, two scenarios are constructed: One using hydrogen primarily in the transportation sector, the other using it as a storage option for the centralised power plants still in operation by this year. For the year 2050, where the existing fossil power plants are expected to have been phased out completely, the scenarios for two possible developments are investigated: Either, there is a complete decentralisation of the use of hydrogen, converting and storing electricity surpluses into hydrogen in individual buildings, for later use in vehicles or regeneration of power and heat. Or, some centralised infrastructure is retained, such as hydrogen cavern stores and a network of vehicle hydrogen filling stations. The analysis is used to identify the components in an implementation strategy, for the most interesting scenarios, including a time sequence of necessary decisions and technology readiness. The report is in Danish, because it is part of the dissemination effort of the Hydrogen Committee, directed at the Danish population in general and the Danish professional community in particular. (au)

  17. Scenarios for total utilisation of hydrogen as an energy carrier in the future Danish energy system. Final report; Scenarier for samlet udnyttelse af brint som energibaerer i Danmarks fremtidige energisystem. Slutrapport

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Hauge Petersen, A.; Engberg Pedersen, T.; Joergensen, K. (and others)

    2001-04-01

    This is the final report from a project performed for the Danish Energy Agency under its Hydrogen Programme. The project, which within the project group goes by the abbreviated title 'Hydrogen as an energy carrier', constructs and analyses different total energy scenarios for introducing hydrogen as an energy carrier, as energy storage medium and as a fuel in the future Danish energy system. The primary aim of the project is to study ways of handling the large deficits and surpluses of electricity from wind energy expected in the future Danish energy system. System-wide aspects of the choice of hydrogen production technologies, distribution methods, infrastructure requirements and conversion technologies are studied. Particularly, the possibility of using in the future the existing Danish natural gas distribution grid for carrying hydrogen will be assessed. For the year 2030, two scenarios are constructed: One using hydrogen primarily in the transportation sector, the other using it as a storage option for the centralised power plants still in operation by this year. For the year 2050, where the existing fossil power plants are expected to have been phased out completely, the scenarios for two possible developments are investigated: Either, there is a complete decentralisation of the use of hydrogen, converting and storing electricity surpluses into hydrogen in individual buildings, for later use in vehicles or regeneration of power and heat. Or, some centralised infrastructure is retained, such as hydrogen cavern stores and a network of vehicle hydrogen filling stations. The analysis is used to identify the components in an implementation strategy, for the most interesting scenarios, including a time sequence of necessary decisions and technology readiness. The report is in Danish, because it is part of the dissemination effort of the Hydrogen Committee, directed at the Danish population in general and the Danish professional community in particular. (au)

  18. Assessment of the potential REDD+ as a new international support measure for GHG reduction

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kim, Y.; Ahn, J.; Kim, H.

    2016-12-01

    As part of the Paris Agreement, the mechanism for reducing emissions from deforestation and forest degradation in developing countries (REDD+) has high potential to simultaneously contribute to greenhouse gas (GHG) mitigation through forest conservation and poverty alleviation. Some of 162 Intended Nationally Determined Contributions (INDCs) submitted by 189 countries representing approximately 98.8% of global GHG emissions include not only unconditional mitigation goals but also conditional goals based on the condition of the provision of international support such as finance, technology transfer and capacity building. Considering REDD+ as one of the main mechanisms to support such work, this study selected ten countries from among Korea's 24 ODA priority partners, taking into consideration their conditional INDC targets alongside sectoral quantified targets such as land use, land-use change and forestry (LULUCF). The ten selected countries are Indonesia, Cambodia, Vietnam, Bangladesh, Sri Lanka, Ghana, Senegal, Colombia, Peru and Paraguay. Of these countries, most REDD+ projects have been conducted in Indonesia mainly due to the fact that 85% of the country's total GHG emissions are caused by forest conversion and peatland degradation. Therefore, GHG reduction rates and associated projected costs of the Indonesia's REDD+ projects were analyzed in order to offer guidance on the potential of REDD+ to contribute to other INDCs' conditional goals. The result showed that about 0.9 t CO2 ha-1 could be reduced at a cost of USD 23 per year. Applying this estimation to the Cambodian case, which has submitted a conditional INDC target of increasing its forest coverage by 60% (currently 57%) by 2030, suggests that financial support of USD 12.8 million would reduce CO2 emissions by about 5.1 million tones by increasing forest coverage. As there is currently no consideration of LULUCF in Cambodia's INDC, this result represents the opportunity for an additional contribution to

  19. Potential for reducing GHG emissions and energy consumption from implementing the aluminum intensive vehicle fleet in China

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Du, J.D.; Han, W.J.; Peng, Y.H.; Gu, C.C.

    2010-01-01

    The automobile industry in China has rapidly developed in recent years which resulted in an increase in gasoline usage and greenhouse gas (GHG) emissions. Focus on climate change has also accelerated to grow pressure on reducing vehicle weight and improving fuel efficiency. Aluminum (Al) as a light metal has demonstrated a great potential for weight savings in applications such as engine blocks, cylinder heads, wheels, hoods, tailgates etc. However, primary Al production requires intensive energy and the cost of Al is more than traditional steel, which may affect the total benefits realized from using Al in automobiles. Therefore, it is very essential to conduct a study to quantify the life cycle GHG emissions and energy consumption if the plan is to achieve fleet-wide Al intensive vehicles. This paper describes a life cycle assessment (LCA) methodology and the general modeling assumptions used to evaluate the impact of Al intensive vehicle on GHG emissions and energy consumption. The results indicated that the reductions in life cycle GHG emissions and energy consumption were not significant when the maximum Al content in an automobile is 145 kg, which is the average level of Al usage in automobiles in North America. A neural network methodology was used to forecast the vehicle stock in China from 2010 to 2020 and a vehicle fleet model was established to track GHG emissions and energy consumption of the vehicle fleet. A material availability factor was also introduced into the LCA methodology to further assist decision makers in providing rational proposals for a widespread implementation of Al in automobiles. A sensitivity analysis was also conducted to study the impact of the Al content in a vehicle on the final outcomes. The GHG emissions and energy consumption could be further reduced when the Al content in an automobile increases.

  20. Scenario dependence of future changes in climate extremes under 1.5 °C and 2 °C global warming.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wang, Zhili; Lin, Lei; Zhang, Xiaoye; Zhang, Hua; Liu, Liangke; Xu, Yangyang

    2017-04-20

    The 2015 Paris Agreement aims to limit global warming below 2 °C and pursue efforts to even limit it to 1.5 °C relative to pre-industrial levels. Decision makers need reliable information on the impacts caused by these warming levels for climate mitigation and adaptation measures. We explore the changes in climate extremes, which are closely tied to economic losses and casualties, under 1.5 °C and 2 °C global warming and their scenario dependence using three sets of ensemble global climate model simulations. A warming of 0.5 °C (from 1.5 °C to 2 °C) leads to significant increases in temperature and precipitation extremes in most regions. However, the projected changes in climate extremes under both warming levels highly depend on the pathways of emissions scenarios, with different greenhouse gas (GHG)/aerosol forcing ratio and GHG levels. Moreover, there are multifold differences in several heavily polluted regions, among the scenarios, in the changes in precipitation extremes due to an additional 0.5 °C warming from 1.5 °C to 2 °C. Our results demonstrate that the chemical compositions of emissions scenarios, not just the total radiative forcing and resultant warming level, must be considered when assessing the impacts of global 1.5/2 °C warming.

  1. Scenario dependence of future changes in climate extremes under 1.5 °C and 2 °C global warming

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wang, Zhili; Lin, Lei; Zhang, Xiaoye; Zhang, Hua; Liu, Liangke; Xu, Yangyang

    2017-01-01

    The 2015 Paris Agreement aims to limit global warming below 2 °C and pursue efforts to even limit it to 1.5 °C relative to pre-industrial levels. Decision makers need reliable information on the impacts caused by these warming levels for climate mitigation and adaptation measures. We explore the changes in climate extremes, which are closely tied to economic losses and casualties, under 1.5 °C and 2 °C global warming and their scenario dependence using three sets of ensemble global climate model simulations. A warming of 0.5 °C (from 1.5 °C to 2 °C) leads to significant increases in temperature and precipitation extremes in most regions. However, the projected changes in climate extremes under both warming levels highly depend on the pathways of emissions scenarios, with different greenhouse gas (GHG)/aerosol forcing ratio and GHG levels. Moreover, there are multifold differences in several heavily polluted regions, among the scenarios, in the changes in precipitation extremes due to an additional 0.5 °C warming from 1.5 °C to 2 °C. Our results demonstrate that the chemical compositions of emissions scenarios, not just the total radiative forcing and resultant warming level, must be considered when assessing the impacts of global 1.5/2 °C warming. PMID:28425445

  2. User-Friendly Predictive Modeling of Greenhouse Gas (GHG) Fluxes and Carbon Storage in Tidal Wetlands

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ishtiaq, K. S.; Abdul-Aziz, O. I.

    2015-12-01

    We developed user-friendly empirical models to predict instantaneous fluxes of CO2 and CH4 from coastal wetlands based on a small set of dominant hydro-climatic and environmental drivers (e.g., photosynthetically active radiation, soil temperature, water depth, and soil salinity). The dominant predictor variables were systematically identified by applying a robust data-analytics framework on a wide range of possible environmental variables driving wetland greenhouse gas (GHG) fluxes. The method comprised of a multi-layered data-analytics framework, including Pearson correlation analysis, explanatory principal component and factor analyses, and partial least squares regression modeling. The identified dominant predictors were finally utilized to develop power-law based non-linear regression models to predict CO2 and CH4 fluxes under different climatic, land use (nitrogen gradient), tidal hydrology and salinity conditions. Four different tidal wetlands of Waquoit Bay, MA were considered as the case study sites to identify the dominant drivers and evaluate model performance. The study sites were dominated by native Spartina Alterniflora and characterized by frequent flooding and high saline conditions. The model estimated the potential net ecosystem carbon balance (NECB) both in gC/m2 and metric tonC/hectare by up-scaling the instantaneous predicted fluxes to the growing season and accounting for the lateral C flux exchanges between the wetlands and estuary. The entire model was presented in a single Excel spreadsheet as a user-friendly ecological engineering tool. The model can aid the development of appropriate GHG offset protocols for setting monitoring plans for tidal wetland restoration and maintenance projects. The model can also be used to estimate wetland GHG fluxes and potential carbon storage under various IPCC climate change and sea level rise scenarios; facilitating an appropriate management of carbon stocks in tidal wetlands and their incorporation into a

  3. A modified GHG intensity indicator: Toward a sustainable global economy based on a carbon border tax and emissions trading

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Farrahi Moghaddam, Reza; Farrahi Moghaddam, Fereydoun; Cheriet, Mohamed

    2013-01-01

    It will be difficult to gain the agreement of all the actors on any proposal for climate change management, if universality and fairness are not considered. In this work, a universal measure of emissions to be applied at the international level is proposed, based on a modification of the Greenhouse Gas Intensity (GHG-INT) measure. It is hoped that the generality and low administrative cost of this measure, which we call the Modified Greenhouse Gas Intensity measure (MGHG-INT), will eliminate any need to classify nations. The core of the MGHG-INT is what we call the IHDI-adjusted Gross Domestic Product (IDHIGDP), based on the Inequality-adjusted Human Development Index (IHDI). The IDHIGDP makes it possible to propose universal measures, such as MGHG-INT. We also propose a carbon border tax applicable at national borders, based on MGHG-INT and IDHIGDP. This carbon tax is supported by a proposed global Emissions Trading System (ETS). The proposed carbon tax is analyzed in a short-term scenario, where it is shown that it can result in a significant reduction in global emissions while keeping the economy growing at a positive rate. In addition to annual GHG emissions, cumulative GHG emissions over two decades are considered with almost the same results. - Highlights: ► An IHDI-adjusted GDP (IHDIGDP) is introduced to universally account the activities of nations. ► A modified GHG emission intensity (MGHG-INT) is introduced based on the IHDIGDP. ► Based on green and red scenarios, admissible emissions and RED percentage are introduced. ► The RED percentage is used to define a border carbon tax (BCT) and emission trading system. ► The MGHG-INT can provide a universal control on emissions while allowing high economical growth

  4. Impact of neighborhood design on energy performance and GHG emissions

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Hachem, Caroline

    2016-01-01

    Highlights: • Energy use and GHG emissions of different neighborhood designs are investigated. • Improving buildings energy performance reduces energy use and GHG emissions by 75%. • Density as isolated factor has limited effect on transport on per capita basis. • Distance to central business district impacts transport GHG emission significantly. - Abstract: This paper presents an innovative and holistic approach to the analysis of the impact of selected design parameters of a new solar community on its environmental performance, in terms of energy efficiency and carbon footprint (green-house gas (GHG) emissions). The design parameters include energy performance level of buildings, density, type of the neighborhood (mixed-use vs residential), location of the commercial center relative to residential areas and the design of the streets. Energy performance is measured as the balance between overall energy consumption for building operations (assuming an all-electric neighborhood) and electricity generation potential through integration of PV panels on available roof surfaces. Greenhouse gas emissions are those associated with building operations and transport. Results of simulations carried out on prototype neighborhoods located in the vicinity of Calgary, Alberta, Canada indicate that, while adopting high-energy efficiency measures can reduce the buildings’ impact by up to 75% in terms of energy consumption and GHG emissions, transport still has a large environmental impact. The parameters of highest impact on transport and its associated GHG emissions are the design of the neighborhood and the distance to the business center. Density, as isolated parameter, has a modest effect on the selected mode of transportation, in terms of using private or public transportation. While this study relates to a specific location and a range of design assumptions, the methodology employed can serve as a template for evaluating design alternatives of new sustainable

  5. Measuring the Regional Availability of Forest Biomass for Biofuels and the Potential of GHG Reduction

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Fengli Zhang

    2018-01-01

    Full Text Available Forest biomass is an important resource for producing bioenergy and reducing greenhouse gas (GHG emissions. The State of Michigan in the United States (U.S. is one region recognized for its high potential of supplying forest biomass; however, the long-term availability of timber harvests and the associated harvest residues from this area has not been fully explored. In this study time trend analyses was employed for long term timber assessment and developed mathematical models for harvest residue estimation, as well as the implications of use for ethanol. The GHG savings potential of ethanol over gasoline was also modeled. The methods were applied in Michigan under scenarios of different harvest solutions, harvest types, transportation distances, conversion technologies, and higher heating values over a 50-year period. Our results indicate that the study region has the potential to supply 0.75–1.4 Megatonnes (Mt dry timber annually and less than 0.05 Mt of dry residue produced from these harvests. This amount of forest biomass could generate 0.15–1.01 Mt of ethanol, which contains 0.68–17.32 GJ of energy. The substitution of ethanol for gasoline as transportation fuel has potential to reduce emissions by 0.043–1.09 Mt CO2eq annually. The developed method is generalizable in other similar regions of different countries for bioenergy related analyses.

  6. Emerging biorefinery technologies for Indian forest industry to reduce GHG emissions.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sharma, Naman; Nainwal, Shubham; Jain, Shivani; Jain, Siddharth

    2015-11-01

    The production of biofuels as alternative energy source over fossil fuels has gained immense interest over the years as it can contribute significantly to reduce the greenhouse gas (GHG) emissions from energy production and utilization. Also with rapidly increasing fuel price and fall in oil wells, the present scenario forces us to look for an alternative source of energy that will help us in the operation of industrial as well as the transportation sector. The pulp mills in India are one of the many options. The pulp mills in India can help us to produce bio-fuels by thermo-chemical/biochemical conversion of black liquor and wood residues. These technologies include extraction of hemi-cellulose from wooden chips and black liquor, lignin from black liquor, methanol from evaporator condensates, biogas production from waste sludge, syngas production from biomass using gasification and bio-oil production from biomass using pyrolysis. The objective of this paper is to overview these emerging bio-refinery technologies that can be implemented in Indian Forest Industry to get bio-fuels, bio-chemicals and bio-energy to reduce GHG emissions. Copyright © 2015 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  7. Cost, energy use and GHG emissions for forest biomass harvesting operations

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Zhang, Fengli; Johnson, Dana M.; Wang, Jinjiang; Yu, Chunxia

    2016-01-01

    For forest-based biomass to become a significant contribution to the United States' energy portfolio, harvesting operations must be physically feasible and economically viable. An assessment of cost, energy and greenhouse gas (GHG) emissions of forest biomass harvesting was conducted. The assessment differentiates harvesting systems by cut-to-length and whole tree; harvest types of 30%, 70%, and 100% cut; and forest types of hardwoods, softwoods, mixed hardwood/softwood, and softwood plantations. Harvesting cost models were developed for economic assessment and life cycle energy and emission assessment was applied to calculate energy and emissions for different harvesting scenarios, considering material and energy inputs (machinery, diesel, etc.) and outputs (GHG emissions) for each harvesting process (felling, forwarding/skidding, etc.). The developed harvesting cost models and the life cycle energy and emission assessment method were applied in Michigan, U.S. using information collected from different sources. A sensitivity analysis was performed for selected input variables for the harvesting operations in order to explore their relative importance. The results indicated that productivity had the largest impact on harvesting cost followed by machinery purchase price, yearly scheduled hours, and expected utilization. Productivity and fuel use, as well as fuel factors, are the most influential environmental impacts of harvesting operations. - Highlights: • Life cycle energy and emissions for forest biomass harvesting operations. • Harvesting cost models were developed for economic assessment. • Productivity had the largest impact on harvesting cost. • Fuel use contributes the most emissions while lubricants contribute the least.

  8. India’s GHG Emission Reduction and Sustainable Development

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Shukla, P.; Dhar, Subash

    2016-01-01

    India has made voluntary commitment for reducing the emission intensity of GDP in the year 2020 by 20–25 % below that in the year 2005. The Indian approach is based on delineating and implementing cost-effective mitigation actions which can contribute to national sustainable development goals while...... an optimal roadmap of actions in India which can maximize net total benefits of carbon emissions mitigation and national sustainable development. A key contribution of the paper is the estimation of the net social value of carbon in India which is an important input for provisioning carbon finance...... model ANSWER-MARKAL, which is embedded within a soft-linked integrated model system (SLIMS). The central themes of the three scenario storylines and assumptions are as follows: first, a business-as-usual (BAU) scenario that assumes the socioeconomic development to happen along the conventional path...

  9. GHG emissions inventory for on-road transportation in the town of Sassari (Sardinia, Italy)

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sanna, Laura; Ferrara, Roberto; Zara, Pierpaolo; Duce, Pierpaolo

    2016-04-01

    The IPCC Fifth Assessment Report (AR5) accounts an increase of the total annual anthropogenic GHG emissions between 2000 and 2010 that directly came from the transport sector. In 2010, 14% of GHG emissions were released by transport and fossil-fuel-related CO2 emissions reached about 32 GtCO2 per year. The report also considers adaptation and mitigation as complementary strategies for reducing the risks of climate change for sustainable development of urban areas. This paper describes the on-road traffic emission estimated in the framework of a Sardinian regional project [1] for the town of Sassari (Sardinia, Italy), one of the Sardinian areas where the fuel consumption for on-road transportation purposes is higher [2]. The GHG emissions have been accounted (a) by a calculation-based methodology founded on a linear relationship between source activity and emission, and (b) by the COPERT IV methodology through the EMITRA (EMIssions from road TRAnsport) software tool [3]. Inventory data for annual fossil fuel consumption associated with on-road transportation (diesel, gasoline, gas) have been collected through the Dogane service, the ATP and ARST public transport services and vehicle fleet data are available from the Public Vehicle Database (PRA), using 2010 as baseline year. During this period, the estimated CO2 emissions accounts for more than 180,000 tCO2. The calculation of emissions due to on-road transport quantitatively estimates CO2 and other GHG emissions and represents a useful baseline to identify possible adaptation and mitigation strategies to face the climate change risks at municipal level. Acknowledgements This research was funded by the Sardinian Regional Project "Development, functional checking and setup of an integrated system for the quantification of CO2 net exchange and for the evaluation of mitigation strategies at urban and territorial scale", (Legge Regionale 7 agosto 2007, No. 7). References [1] Sanna L., Ferrara R., Zara P. & Duce P. (2014

  10. Scenarios of technology adoption towards low-carbon cities

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Mohareb, Eugene A.; Kennedy, Christopher A.

    2014-01-01

    Technological change has often been presented as a readily accepted means by which long-term greenhouse gas (GHG) emission reductions can be achieved. Cities are the future centers of economic growth, with the global population becoming predominantly urban; hence, increases or reductions of GHG emissions are tied to their energy strategies. This research examines the likelihood of a developed world city (the Greater Toronto Area) achieving an 80% reduction in GHG emissions through policy-enabled technological change. Emissions are examined from 3 major sources: light duty passenger vehicles, residential buildings and commercial/institutional buildings. Logistic diffusion curves are applied for the adoption of alternative vehicle technologies, building retrofits and high performance new building construction. This research devises high, low and business-as-usual estimates of future technological adoption and finds that even aggressive scenarios are not sufficient to achieve an 80% reduction in GHG emissions by 2050. This further highlights the challenges faced in maintaining a relatively stable climate. Urban policy makers must consider that the longer the lag before this transition occurs, the greater the share of GHG emissions mitigation that must addressed through behavioural change in order to meet the 2050 target, which likely poses greater political challenges. - Highlights: • Explores policy options in a city targeting an 80% GHG emission reduction target by 2050. • Aggressive building code changes will have minimal impact on GHG mitigation. • Support of low-carbon electricity for the majority of generation necessary by 2050. • Internal combustion engine use must be mostly eliminated from the vehicle stock. • Policies supporting elimination of physical exchange space should be promoted

  11. 40 CFR 98.173 - Calculating GHG emissions.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-07-01

    ... (CONTINUED) MANDATORY GREENHOUSE GAS REPORTING Iron and Steel Production § 98.173 Calculating GHG emissions... for the process as specified in paragraphs (b)(1)(i) through (b)(1)(vii) of this section. The... the gaseous fuel (kg/kg-mole). MVC = Molar volume conversion factor (849.5 scf per kg-mole at standard...

  12. GHG mitigation of agricultural peatlands requires coherent policies

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Regina, Kristina; Budiman, Arif; Greve, Mogens Humlekrog

    2016-01-01

    As soon as peat soil is drained for agricultural production, the peat starts to degrade, which causes emissions to the atmosphere. In countries with large peatland areas, the GHG mitigation potential related to management of these soils is often estimated as the highest amongst the measures...

  13. 40 CFR 98.413 - Calculating GHG emissions.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-07-01

    ... 40 Protection of Environment 20 2010-07-01 2010-07-01 false Calculating GHG emissions. 98.413 Section 98.413 Protection of Environment ENVIRONMENTAL PROTECTION AGENCY (CONTINUED) AIR PROGRAMS (CONTINUED) MANDATORY GREENHOUSE GAS REPORTING Suppliers of Industrial Greenhouse Gases § 98.413 Calculating...

  14. 40 CFR 98.73 - Calculating GHG emissions.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-07-01

    ...). MW = Molecular weight of the gaseous feedstock (kg/kg-mole). MVC = Molar volume conversion factor... stream (kg/kg-mole). MVC = Molar volume conversion factor (849.5 scf per kg-mole at standard conditions... (CONTINUED) MANDATORY GREENHOUSE GAS REPORTING Ammonia Manufacturing § 98.73 Calculating GHG emissions. You...

  15. 40 CFR 98.163 - Calculating GHG emissions.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-07-01

    ... = Molecular weight of the gaseous fuel and feedstock (kg/kg-mole). MVC = Molar volume conversion factor (849.5... (CONTINUED) MANDATORY GREENHOUSE GAS REPORTING Hydrogen Production § 98.163 Calculating GHG emissions. You... = Volume of the gaseous fuel and feedstock used in month n (scf (at standard conditions of 68 °F and...

  16. 40 CFR 98.243 - Calculating GHG emissions.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-07-01

    ... feedstock). (MWf)i = Molecular weight of gaseous feedstock i (kg/kg-mole). MVC = Molar volume conversion... (CONTINUED) MANDATORY GREENHOUSE GAS REPORTING Petrochemical Production § 98.243 Calculating GHG emissions. (a) If you route all process vent emissions and emissions from combustion of process off-gas to one...

  17. FORECASTING MODEL OF GHG EMISSION IN MANUFACTURING SECTORS OF THAILAND

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Pruethsan Sutthichaimethee

    2017-01-01

    Full Text Available This study aims to analyze the modeling and forecasting the GHG emission of energy consumption in manufacturing sectors. The scope of the study is to analysis energy consumption and forecasting GHG emission of energy consumption for the next 10 years (2016-2025 and 25 years (2016-2040 by using ARIMAX model from the Input-output table of Thailand. The result shows that iron and steel has the highest value of energy consumption and followed by cement, fluorite, air transport, road freight transport, hotels and places of loading, coal and lignite, petrochemical products, other manufacturing, road passenger transport, respectively. The prediction results show that these models are effective in forecasting by measured by using RMSE, MAE, and MAPE. The results forecast of each model is as follows: 1 Model 1(2,1,1 shows that GHG emission will be increasing steadily and increasing at 25.17% by the year 2025 in comparison to 2016. 2 Model 2 (2,1,2 shows that GHG emission will be rising steadily and increasing at 41.51% by the year 2040 in comparison to 2016.

  18. Summary of Fast Pyrolysis and Upgrading GHG Analyses

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Snowden-Swan, Lesley J.; Male, Jonathan L.

    2012-12-07

    The Energy Independence and Security Act (EISA) of 2007 established new renewable fuel categories and eligibility requirements (EPA 2010). A significant aspect of the National Renewable Fuel Standard 2 (RFS2) program is the requirement that the life cycle greenhouse gas (GHG) emissions of a qualifying renewable fuel be less than the life cycle GHG emissions of the 2005 baseline average gasoline or diesel fuel that it replaces. Four levels of reduction are required for the four renewable fuel standards. Table 1 lists these life cycle performance improvement thresholds. Table 1. Life Cycle GHG Thresholds Specified in EISA Fuel Type Percent Reduction from 2005 Baseline Renewable fuel 20% Advanced biofuel 50% Biomass-based diesel 50% Cellulosic biofuel 60% Notably, there is a specialized subset of advanced biofuels that are the cellulosic biofuels. The cellulosic biofuels are incentivized by the Cellulosic Biofuel Producer Tax Credit (26 USC 40) to stimulate market adoption of these fuels. EISA defines a cellulosic biofuel as follows (42 USC 7545(o)(1)(E)): The term “cellulosic biofuel” means renewable fuel derived from any cellulose, hemicellulose, or lignin that is derived from renewable biomass and that has lifecycle greenhouse gas emissions, as determined by the Administrator, that are at least 60 percent less than the baseline lifecycle greenhouse gas emissions. As indicated, the Environmental Protection Agency (EPA) has sole responsibility for conducting the life cycle analysis (LCA) and making the final determination of whether a given fuel qualifies under these biofuel definitions. However, there appears to be a need within the LCA community to discuss and eventually reach consensus on discerning a 50–59 % GHG reduction from a ≥ 60% GHG reduction for policy, market, and technology development. The level of specificity and agreement will require additional development of capabilities and time for the sustainability and analysis community, as illustrated

  19. Cosmogonic scenario

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Alfven, H.; Arrhenius, G.

    1985-05-01

    A recent analysis demonstrates that the Saturnian C ring and essential features of the B and A rings agrees with the plasma cosmogony approach with an accuracy of about 1% or even better. This starts a transition of cosmogony from speculation to real science. Based on the monographs by Alfven and Arrhenius on the evolution of the solar system a cosmogonic scenario is tentatively proposed. This outlines the evolution of an interstellar cloud and the formation of stars surrounded by solar nebulae under the combined action of gravitational and electromagnetic forces. Further, matter falling in from the solar nebula towards the sun is processed by newly clarified electromagnetic processes and a plasma-planetesimal transition (PPT) occurs. Planetesimals accrete to planets and around some of them the same process in miniature leads to the formation of satellites. Also the origin of comets is discussed. (author)

  20. 0-6696 : incorporating greenhouse gas (GHG) emissions in long-range transportation planning : [project summary].

    Science.gov (United States)

    2013-08-01

    Greenhouse gas (GHG) emissions continue to be : an important focus area for state, local, and : federal agencies. The transportation sector is the : second biggest contributor to GHG emissions in : the United States, and Texas contributes the : highe...

  1. Scenario Analysis With Economic-Energy Systems Models Coupled to Simple Climate Models

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hanson, D. A.; Kotamarthi, V. R.; Foster, I. T.; Franklin, M.; Zhu, E.; Patel, D. M.

    2008-12-01

    Here, we compare two scenarios based on Stanford University's Energy Modeling Forum Study 22 on global cooperative and non-cooperative climate policies. In the former, efficient transition paths are implemented including technology Research and Development effort, energy conservation programs, and price signals for greenhouse gas (GHG) emissions. In the non-cooperative case, some countries try to relax their regulations and be free riders. Total emissions and costs are higher in the non-cooperative scenario. The simulations, including climate impacts, run to the year 2100. We use the Argonne AMIGA-MARS economic-energy systems model, the Texas AM University's Forest and Agricultural Sector Optimization Model (FASOM), and the University of Illinois's Integrated Science Assessment Model (ISAM), with offline coupling between the FASOM and AMIGA-MARS and an online coupling between AMIGA-MARS and ISAM. This set of models captures the interaction of terrestrial systems, land use, crops and forests, climate change, human activity, and energy systems. Our scenario simulations represent dynamic paths over which all the climate, terrestrial, economic, and energy technology equations are solved simultaneously Special attention is paid to biofuels and how they interact with conventional gasoline/diesel fuel markets. Possible low-carbon penetration paths are based on estimated costs for new technologies, including cellulosic biomass, coal-to-liquids, plug-in electric vehicles, solar and nuclear energy. We explicitly explore key uncertainties that affect mitigation and adaptation scenarios.

  2. Greenhouse gas intensity of palm oil produced in Colombia addressing alternative land use change and fertilization scenarios

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Castanheira, Érica Geraldes; Acevedo, Helmer; Freire, Fausto

    2014-01-01

    Highlights: • A comprehensive evaluation of alternative LUC and fertilization schemes. • The GHG intensity of palm oil greatly depends on the LUC scenario. • Colombian palm area expansion resulted in negative or low palm oil GHG intensity. • GHG emissions from plantation vary significantly with N 2 O emission parameters. - Abstract: The main goal of this article is to assess the life-cycle greenhouse gas (GHG) intensity of palm oil produced in a specific plantation and mill in Colombia. A comprehensive evaluation of the implications of alternative land use change (LUC) scenarios (forest, shrubland, savanna and cropland conversion) and fertilization schemes (four synthetic and one organic nitrogen-fertilizer) was performed. A sensitivity analysis to field nitrous oxide emission calculation, biogas management options at mill, time horizon considered for global warming and multifunctionality approach were also performed. The results showed that the GHG intensity of palm oil greatly depends on the LUC scenario. Significant differences were observed between the LUC scenarios (−3.0 to 5.3 kg CO 2 eq kg −1 palm oil). The highest result is obtained if tropical rainforest is converted and the lowest if palm is planted on previous cropland, savanna and shrubland, in which almost all LUC from Colombian oil palm area expansion occurred between 1990 and 2009. Concerning plantation and oil extraction, it was shown that field nitrous oxide emissions and biogas management options have a high influence on GHG emissions

  3. The political economy of a tradable GHG permit market in the European Union

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Markussen, P.; Svendsen, Gert Tinggaard; Vesterdal, Morten

    2002-01-01

    The EU has committed itself to meet an 8% greenhouse gas (GHG) reduction target level following the Kyoto agreement. Therefore, the EU Commission has just proposed a new directive establishing a framework for GHG emissions trading within the European Union. This proposal is the outcome of a policy...... that the dominant interest groups indeed influenced the final design of an EU GHG market....

  4. The impact of uncertainties on predicted GHG emissions of dairy cow production systems

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Zehetmeier, M.; Gandorfer, M.; Hoffmann, H.; Muller, U.K.; Boer, de I.J.M.

    2014-01-01

    Dairy farms produce significant greenhouse gas (GHG) emissions and are therefore a focal point for GHG-mitigation practices. To develop viable mitigation options, we need robust (insensitive to changes in model parameters and assumptions) predictions of GHG emissions. To this end, we developed a

  5. Greenhouse Gas Mitigation Options Database and Tool - Data repository of GHG mitigation technologies.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Industry and electricity production facilities generate over 50 percent of greenhouse gas (GHG) emissions in the United States. There is a growing consensus among scientists that the primary cause of climate change is anthropogenic greenhouse gas (GHG) emissions. Reducing GHG emi...

  6. Lifecycle greenhouse gas implications of US national scenarios for cellulosic ethanol production

    Science.gov (United States)

    Scown, Corinne D.; Nazaroff, William W.; Mishra, Umakant; Strogen, Bret; Lobscheid, Agnes B.; Masanet, Eric; Santero, Nicholas J.; Horvath, Arpad; McKone, Thomas E.

    2012-03-01

    The Energy Independence and Security Act of 2007 set an annual US national production goal of 39.7 billion l of cellulosic ethanol by 2020. This paper explores the possibility of meeting that target by growing and processing Miscanthus × giganteus. We define and assess six production scenarios in which active cropland and/or Conservation Reserve Program land are used to grow to Miscanthus. The crop and biorefinery locations are chosen with consideration of economic, land-use, water management and greenhouse gas (GHG) emissions reduction objectives. Using lifecycle assessment, the net GHG footprint of each scenario is evaluated, providing insight into the climate costs and benefits associated with each scenario’s objectives. Assuming that indirect land-use change is successfully minimized or mitigated, the results suggest two major drivers for overall GHG impact of cellulosic ethanol from Miscanthus: (a) net soil carbon sequestration or emissions during Miscanthus cultivation and (b) GHG offset credits for electricity exported by biorefineries to the grid. Without these factors, the GHG intensity of bioethanol from Miscanthus is calculated to be 11-13 g CO2-equivalent per MJ of fuel, which is 80-90% lower than gasoline. Including soil carbon sequestration and the power-offset credit results in net GHG sequestration up to 26 g CO2-equivalent per MJ of fuel.

  7. Lifecycle greenhouse gas implications of US national scenarios for cellulosic ethanol production

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Scown, Corinne D; Nazaroff, William W; Strogen, Bret; Santero, Nicholas J; Horvath, Arpad; Mishra, Umakant; Lobscheid, Agnes B; Masanet, Eric; McKone, Thomas E

    2012-01-01

    The Energy Independence and Security Act of 2007 set an annual US national production goal of 39.7 billion l of cellulosic ethanol by 2020. This paper explores the possibility of meeting that target by growing and processing Miscanthus × giganteus. We define and assess six production scenarios in which active cropland and/or Conservation Reserve Program land are used to grow to Miscanthus. The crop and biorefinery locations are chosen with consideration of economic, land-use, water management and greenhouse gas (GHG) emissions reduction objectives. Using lifecycle assessment, the net GHG footprint of each scenario is evaluated, providing insight into the climate costs and benefits associated with each scenario’s objectives. Assuming that indirect land-use change is successfully minimized or mitigated, the results suggest two major drivers for overall GHG impact of cellulosic ethanol from Miscanthus: (a) net soil carbon sequestration or emissions during Miscanthus cultivation and (b) GHG offset credits for electricity exported by biorefineries to the grid. Without these factors, the GHG intensity of bioethanol from Miscanthus is calculated to be 11–13 g CO 2 -equivalent per MJ of fuel, which is 80–90% lower than gasoline. Including soil carbon sequestration and the power-offset credit results in net GHG sequestration up to 26 g CO 2 -equivalent per MJ of fuel. (letter)

  8. EU Transport GHG. Routes to 2050 II. Developing a better understanding of the secondary impacts and key sensitivities for the decarbonisation of the EU's transport sector by 2050. Final report

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Hill, N.; Brannigan, C. [AEA, Didcot, Oxfordshire (United Kingdom); Smokers, R. [TNO, Delft (Netherlands); Schroten, A.; Van Essen, H. [CE Delft, Delft (Netherlands); Skinner, I. [Transport and Environmental Policy Research TEPR, London (United Kingdom)

    2012-07-15

    The purpose of this work was to: (1) Develop an enhanced understanding of the wider potential impacts of transport GHG reduction policies, as well as their possible significance in a critical path to GHG reductions to 2050; (2) Further develop the SULTAN (SUstainabLe TrANsport) illustrative scenarios tool to enhance its usefulness as a policy scoping tool and carry out further scenario analysis in support of the new project; (3) Use the new information in the evaluation of the sensitivities for transport GHG reduction to 2050, in the context of transport's 54-67% reduction target from the European Commission's Roadmap for moving to a competitive low carbon economy in 2050.

  9. U.S. climate mitigation pathways post-2012: Transition scenarios in ADAGE

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Ross, Martin T.; Fawcett, Allen A.; Clapp, Christa S.

    2009-01-01

    The transition from the greenhouse gas (GHG) emission levels currently allowed under the Kyoto Protocol climate agreement to more ambitious, and internationally comprehensive, GHG reduction goals will have important implications for the global economic system. Given the major role that the United States plays in the global economy, and also as a major GHG emitter, this paper examines a range of climate policy pathways for the country in the context of international actions. The ADAGE model is used to examine policy impacts for climate scenarios, focusing on key factors such as emissions, technology deployment, macroeconomic indicators and international trade. In general, the simulations indicate that reductions in GHG emissions can be accomplished with limited economic adjustments, although impacts depend on the future availability of new low-carbon technologies.

  10. Pakistan - Nuclear power for GHG mitigation and sustainable energy development

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Ahmad, Mohammad; Jalal, A.I.; Mumtaz, A.; Latif, M.

    2000-01-01

    Although Pakistan's contribution to global GHG emissions is very small (currently only 0.3% of world-wide emissions), it shares with the world community the concerns of climate change due to the build-up of GHGs. Pakistan is committed to co-operating with global efforts to avert the potential threat of global warming and is already working towards its own socio-economic development in a sustainable manner. However, due to the country's limited technical and financial capabilities, its efforts are diluted and limited to only high priority areas of national interest. There is a large potential for expanding these efforts, if the necessary technical and financial support can be made available, and such an expansion would contribute significantly to the collective global objective of sustainable development. One such step is the reduction of GHG emissions from Pakistan's power sector by introducing advanced cleaner technologies. Nuclear power is one such technology

  11. Hydroelectric dams in Amazon as source of GHG

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Rosa, L.P.; Schaeffer, R.; Santos, M.A.

    1996-01-01

    A recent paper by Fearnside points out that hydroelectric development in Amazonia is a significant source of greenhouse gases (GHG) emissions. This conclusion is in contrast to the common belief that hydroelectric dams are better than fossil fuel use in electric power generation, from the view point of GHG emissions. The authors have considered both CH 4 and CO 2 emissions taking into account the instantaneous radiative forcing due to a unit increase in the concentration of gases, the decay times of gases in the atmosphere and the emissions patterns of emissions vary depending on biomass density and type of the forest area flooded, as well as on depth of flooding. As the Fearnside paper is more concerned with CO 2 emissions from the above water biomass, the authors' focus will be restricted to the formulae for calculating the cumulative effect of CO 2

  12. System expansion for handling co-products in LCA of sugar cane bio-energy systems: GHG consequences of using molasses for ethanol production

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Nguyen, Thu Lan T.; Hermansen, John E.

    2012-01-01

    Highlights: → A challenging issue in LCA is how to account for co-products' environmental burdens. → The two most commonly used procedures are system expansion and allocation. → System expansion appears to be more appropriate than allocation. → Indirect land use change is a consequence of diverting molasses from feed to fuel. → The inclusion of land use change worsens the GHG balance of molasses ethanol. -- Abstract: This study aims to establish a procedure for handling co-products in life cycle assessment (LCA) of a typical sugar cane system. The procedure is essential for environmental assessment of ethanol from molasses, a co-product of sugar which has long been used mainly for feed. We compare system expansion and two allocation procedures for estimating greenhouse gas (GHG) emissions of molasses ethanol. As seen from our results, system expansion yields the highest estimate among the three. However, no matter which procedure is used, a significant reduction of emissions from the fuel stage in the abatement scenario, which assumes implementation of substituting bioenergy for fossil-based energy to reduce GHG emissions, combined with a negligible level of emissions from the use stage, keeps the estimate of ethanol life cycle GHG emissions below that of gasoline. Pointing out that indirect land use change (ILUC) is a consequence of diverting molasses from feed to fuel, system expansion is the most adequate method when the purpose of the LCA is to support decision makers in weighing the options and consequences. As shown in the sensitivity analysis, an addition of carbon emissions from ILUC worsens the GHG balance of ethanol, with deforestation being a worst-case scenario where the fuel is no longer a net carbon saver but carbon emitter.

  13. Electricity price, energy production and emissions impact : evaluating proposed GHG emission reduction frameworks for the Alberta electricity industry : updated reference case and sensitivity results prepared for CASA EPT Greenhouse Gas Allocation Subgroup

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    2004-01-01

    This document presents the results of a study which quantified the potential impact of various greenhouse gas (GHG) policy scenarios on Alberta generators' energy production, airborne emissions and electricity wholesale market price. The study examined proactive policy frameworks compared to business as usual scenarios. A reference case scenario was included to represent the status quo environment where electricity demand continues on its current path. Five additional sensitivity cases were examined, of which 3 evaluated the impact of many key assumptions regarding progressive GHG reduction levels and costs related to meeting GHG requirements. The other two evaluated an all-coal future electricity supply both with and without GHG emission reduction costs. Environmental costs were also evaluated in terms of emissions of nitrous oxides, sulphurous oxides, mercury and particulate matter. The impact of generation retirement and renewable energy source development was also analyzed. Demand and supply forecasts for oil, natural gas, electric energy and energy sales were presented along with generation supply forecasts for the reference case scenario, coal generation and natural gas fired retirements. refs., tabs., figs

  14. Climate mitigation scenarios of drained peat soils

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kasimir Klemedtsson, Åsa; Coria, Jessica; He, Hongxing; Liu, Xiangping; Nordén, Anna

    2014-05-01

    The national inventory reports (NIR) submitted to the UNFCCC show Sweden - which as many other countries has wetlands where parts have been drained for agriculture and forestry purposes, - to annually emit 12 million tonnes carbon dioxide equivalents, which is more GHG'es than industrial energy use release in Sweden. Similar conditions can be found in other northern countries, having cool and wet conditions, naturally promoting peat accumulation, and where land use management over the last centuries have promoted draining activities. These drained peatland, though covering only 2% of the land area, have emissions corresponding to 20% of the total reported NIR emissions. This substantial emission contribution, however, is hidden within the Land Use Land Use Change and Forestry sector (LULUCF) where the forest Carbon uptake is even larger, which causes the peat soil emissions become invisible. The only drained soil emission accounted in the Swedish Kyoto reporting is the N2O emission from agricultural drained organic soils of the size 0.5 million tonnes CO2e yr-1. This lack of visibility has made incentives for land use change and management neither implemented nor suggested, however with large potential. Rewetting has the potential to decrease soil mineralization, why CO2 and N2O emissions are mitigated. However if the soil becomes very wet CH4 emission will increase together with hampered plant growth. By ecological modeling, using the CoupModel the climate change mitigation potential have been estimated for four different land use scenarios; 1, Drained peat soil with Spruce (business as usual scenario), 2, raised ground water level to 20 cm depth and Willow plantation, 3, raised ground water level to 10 cm depth and Reed Canary Grass, and 4, rewetting to an average water level in the soil surface with recolonizing wetland plants and mosses. We calculate the volume of biomass production per year, peat decomposition, N2O emission together with nitrate and DOC

  15. Uncertainty in estimating and mitigating industrial related GHG emissions

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    El-Fadel, M.; Zeinati, M.; Ghaddar, N.; Mezher, T.

    2001-01-01

    Global climate change has been one of the challenging environmental concerns facing policy makers in the past decade. The characterization of the wide range of greenhouse gas emissions sources and sinks as well as their behavior in the atmosphere remains an on-going activity in many countries. Lebanon, being a signatory to the Framework Convention on Climate Change, is required to submit and regularly update a national inventory of greenhouse gas emissions sources and removals. Accordingly, an inventory of greenhouse gases from various sectors was conducted following the guidelines set by the United Nations Intergovernmental Panel on Climate Change (IPCC). The inventory indicated that the industrial sector contributes about 29% to the total greenhouse gas emissions divided between industrial processes and energy requirements at 12 and 17%, respectively. This paper describes major mitigation scenarios to reduce emissions from this sector based on associated technical, economic, environmental, and social characteristics. Economic ranking of these scenarios was conducted and uncertainty in emission factors used in the estimation process was emphasized. For this purpose, theoretical and experimental emission factors were used as alternatives to default factors recommended by the IPCC and the significance of resulting deviations in emission estimation is presented. (author)

  16. Life-cycle environmental and economic impacts of energy-crop fuel-chains: an integrated assessment of potential GHG avoidance in Ireland

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Styles, David; Jones, Michael B.

    2008-01-01

    This paper combines life-cycle analyses and economic analyses for Miscanthus and willow heat and electricity fuel-chains in Ireland. Displaced agricultural land-uses and conventional fuels were considered in fuel-chain permutations. Avoided greenhouse gas (GHG) emissions ranged from 7.7 to 35.2 t CO 2 eq. ha -1 a -1 . Most fuel-chain permutations exhibited positive discounted financial returns, despite losses for particular entities at a farm-gate processed-biomass price of Euro 100 t -1 dry-matter. Attributing a value of Euro 10 t -1 CO 2 eq. to avoided GHG emissions, but subtracting financial returns associated with displaced fuel supplies, resulted in discounted annual national economic benefits (DANEBs) ranging from -457 to 1887 Euro ha -1 a -1 . Extrapolating a plausible combination of fuel-chains up to a national indicative scenario resulted in GHG emission avoidance of 3.56 Mt CO 2 eq. a -1 (5.2% of national emissions), a DANEB of 167 M Euro , and required 4.6% of national agricultural land area. As cost-effective national GHG avoidance options, Miscanthus and willow fuel-chains are robust to variation in yields and CO 2 price, and appear to represent an efficient land-use option (e.g. compared with liquid biofuel production). Policies promoting utilisation of these energy-crops could avoid unnecessary, and environmentally questionable, future purchase of carbon credits, as currently required for national Kyoto compliance

  17. Waste Management Pinch Analysis (WAMPA): Application of Pinch Analysis for greenhouse gas (GHG) emission reduction in municipal solid waste management

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Ho, Wai Shin; Hashim, Haslenda; Lim, Jeng Shiun; Lee, Chew Tin; Sam, Kah Chiin; Tan, Sie Ting

    2017-01-01

    Highlights: • A novel method known as Waste Management Pinch Analysis (WAMPA) is presented. • WAMPA aims to identify waste management strategies based on specific target. • WAMPA is capable to examine the capacity of waste management strategies through graphical representation. - Abstract: Improper waste management happened in most of the developing country where inadequate disposal of waste in landfill is commonly practiced. Apart from disposal, MSW can turn into valuable product through recycling, energy recovery, and biological recovery action as suggested in the hierarchy of waste management. This study presents a method known as Waste Management Pinch Analysis (WAMPA) to examine the implication of a dual-objective – landfill and GHG emission reduction target in sustainable waste management. WAMPA is capable to identify the capacity of each waste processing strategy through graphical representation. A general methodology of WAMPA is presented through a demonstration of a SWM case followed by a detailed representation of WAMPA for five waste types. Application of the WAMPA is then applied on a case study for sustainable waste management planning from year 2015 to 2035. Three waste management strategies are incorporated into the case study – landfill, Waste-to-Energy (WtE), and reduce, reuse, and recycle (3R). The results show a 13.5% of total GHG emission reduction and 54.6% of total reduction of landfill are achieved. The major contributor of GHG emission which are from food waste (landfill emission) and plastic (WtE emission) is reduced.

  18. Emissions reduction scenarios in the Argentinean Energy Sector

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Di Sbroiavacca, Nicolás; Nadal, Gustavo; Lallana, Francisco; Falzon, James; Calvin, Katherine

    2016-01-01

    In this paper the LEAP, TIAM-ECN, and GCAM models were applied to evaluate the impact of a variety of climate change control policies (including carbon pricing and emission constraints relative to a base year) on primary energy consumption, final energy consumption, electricity sector development, and CO_2 emission savings of the energy sector in Argentina over the 2010–2050 period. The LEAP model results indicate that if Argentina fully implements the most feasible mitigation measures currently under consideration by official bodies and key academic institutions on energy supply and demand, such as the ProBiomass program, a cumulative incremental economic cost of 22.8 billion US$(2005) to 2050 is expected, resulting in a 16% reduction in GHG emissions compared to a business-as-usual scenario. These measures also bring economic co-benefits, such as a reduction of energy imports improving the balance of trade. A Low CO_2 price scenario in LEAP results in the replacement of coal by nuclear and wind energy in electricity expansion. A High CO_2 price leverages additional investments in hydropower. By way of cross-model comparison with the TIAM-ECN and GCAM global integrated assessment models, significant variation in projected emissions reductions in the carbon price scenarios was observed, which illustrates the inherent uncertainties associated with such long-term projections. These models predict approximately 37% and 94% reductions under the High CO_2 price scenario, respectively. By comparison, the LEAP model, using an approach based on the assessment of a limited set of mitigation options, predicts an 11.3% reduction. The main reasons for this difference include varying assumptions about technology cost and availability, CO_2 storage capacity, and the ability to import bioenergy. An emission cap scenario (2050 emissions 20% lower than 2010 emissions) is feasible by including such measures as CCS and Bio CCS, but at a significant cost. In terms of technology

  19. Low carbon energy scenarios for sub-Saharan Africa: An input-output analysis on the effects of universal energy access and economic growth

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Hamilton, Thomas Gerard Adam; Kelly, Scott

    2017-01-01

    Meeting Sub-Saharan African (SSA) human development goals will require economic development to be the priority over the coming decades, but economic development ‘at all cost’ may not be acceptable across these goals. This paper aims to explore five development scenarios for the five largest economies in SSA to understand the implications to CO_2-equivalent emissions (CO_2-e) and off-grid energy modernisation in 2030. Within this scope GDP growth; economic structure; availability of energy resources; international trade; and, the development of distributed generation for remote locations are considered. Regional CO_2 emissions were studied using a Multi-Regional Input-Output Model for Africa. Under the scenarios analysed all five nations will be unable to reduce 2030 CO_2-e emissions below 2012 levels, whilst simultaneously achieving forecast GDP growth and universal access to modernised energy services. 100% off-grid modernisation is estimated to require a three-fold increase in Primary Energy Supply and a 26% (1317 Mt) increase in 2030 CO_2-e emissions. Total regional CO_2-e emissions could be reduced from 45% to 35% by meeting a 50% renewable energy supply target by 2030. Climate Change policy would need to focus on multi-sector reform to reduce regional emissions as the agricultural sector is the largest emitter in Nigeria, Ethiopia and Kenya. - Highlights: • GHG"1 emissions were studied with a Multi-Regional Input-Output Model for Africa. • SSA"2 GDP growth is inextricably linked with access to additional energy supply. • SSA will not attain universal energy access and low carbon growth in parallel. • GHG emissions decline needs both renewable energy adoption and agriculture reform. • SSA Climate Change policy would need to target multiple GHG emitting sector reform.

  20. Towards the development of a GHG emissions baseline for the Agriculture, Forestry and Other Land Use (AFOLU sector, South Africa

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Luanne B. Stevens

    2016-12-01

    Full Text Available South Africa is a signatory to the United Nations Framework Convention on Climate Change (UNFCCC and as such is required to report on Greenhouse gas (GHG emissions from the Energy, Transport, Waste and the Agriculture, Forestry and Other Land Use (AFOLU sectors every two years in national inventories. The AFOLU sector is unique in that it comprises both sources and sinks for GHGs. Emissions from the AFOLU sector are estimated to contribute a quarter of the total global greenhouse gas emissions. GHG emissions sources from agriculture include enteric fermentation; manure management; manure deposits on pastures, and soil fertilization. Emissions sources from Forestry and Other Land Use (FOLU include anthropogenic land use activities such as: management of croplands, forests and grasslands and changes in land use cover (the conversion of one land use to another. South Africa has improved the quantification of AFOLU emissions and the understanding of the dynamic relationship between sinks and sources over the past decade through projects such as the 2010 GHG Inventory, the Mitigation Potential Analysis (MPA, and the National Terrestrial Carbon Sinks Assessment (NTCSA. These projects highlight key mitigation opportunities in South Africa and discuss their potentials. The problem remains that South Africa does not have an emissions baseline for the AFOLU sector against which the mitigation potentials can be measured. The AFOLU sector as a result is often excluded from future emission projections, giving an incomplete picture of South Africa’s mitigation potential. The purpose of this project was to develop a robust GHG emissions baseline for the AFOLU sector which will enable South Africa to project emissions into the future and demonstrate its contribution towards the global goal of reducing emissions.

  1. Cost effectiveness of GHG mitigation options and policy implication

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Lim, K. S. [Korea Institute for Industrial Economics and Trade, Seoul (Korea, Republic of)

    1998-04-01

    This paper represents the summary findings and conclusions of several studies implemented about microeconomics and macroeconomics marginal costs of GHG abatement policies. Financial, economic, and, where possible, environmental microeconomics costs of reducing GHGs are estimated by a World Bank team. Six energy-related CO{sub 2} mitigation policy options are applied to estimate the macroeconomics costs of GHG emission reduction, the macroeconomics impacts on the Chinese economy. In terms of policy, conservation is a better option to cope with a restrictive mitigation constraint, assuming a developing country can achieve planned energy-saving targets. Without a CO{sub 2} emission constraint or with less restrictive CO{sub 2} emission constraints, however, the simulation results indicate that a conservation strategy may be less attractive than fuel substitution in a developing country, mainly due to the economic dampening effect of reduced production in the energy sectors. This finding suggests that an often-cited costless or negative-cost energy conservation policy may not be a better option when a less restrictive mitigation target is in force. This does not mean that the potential for energy efficiency improvements in a developing country is not worthwhile, but that the overall macroeconomics impacts should be considered before implementing the policy option. (author). 9 refs., 3 figs., 3 tabs.

  2. BP Canada Energy Company energy efficiency and GHG reduction opportunities

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Forsyth, B. [BP Canada Energy Company, Calgary, AB (Canada)

    2004-07-01

    This paper presented an outline of the BP Canada Energy Company's energy efficiency program, which uses an innovative approach that relies on front line operations staff to generate, evaluate and implement ideas for energy reduction projects. An outline of the organization team was presented, with details of the small central Calgary group responsible for coordination, technical support and tracking of data. Key objectives of the team were identified as: the promotion of energy efficiency; sharing of best practices; and coordination of efforts at operations at both the development and corporate level. An outline of BP upstream operations and emissions reduction strategies was provided along with a timeline of BP Canada greenhouse gas (GHG) emissions and sustainable reductions projects. A chart representing energy savings through conversion to natural gas was also presented, sorted by project type. Results included over 400 GHG or energy reduction projects completed, with an average pay out of 30 months as well as 300,000 tonnes equivalent of GHGs reduced at an estimated value of of $13,000,000. Areas of focus for future projects include: compression; fired equipment; flaring; venting; and fugitive emissions. Strategies to reduce emissions in all areas of future research were also provided. tabs, figs.

  3. The Welfare Costs of GHG Reduction with Renewable Energy Policies in the US

    OpenAIRE

    Khanna, Madhu; Oliver, Anthony

    2013-01-01

    A range of policies have been implemented in the agricultural, transportation, and electric power sectors, which comprise the majority of GHG emissions in the US. Two prominent policy sets are the national RFS and state-level RPSs. The purpose of this research is to examine the GHG implications of the state RPSs and their welfare costs of mitigating GHG emissions. We also analyze the interactions between the RFS and state RPS policies and the extent to which these policies create competition ...

  4. GHG and black carbon emission inventories from Mezquital Valley: The main energy provider for Mexico Megacity

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Montelongo-Reyes, M.M.; Otazo-Sánchez, E.M.; Romo-Gómez, C.; Gordillo-Martínez, A.J.; Galindo-Castillo, E.

    2015-09-15

    The greenhouse gases and black carbon emission inventory from IPCC key category Energy was accomplished for the Mezquital Valley, one of the most polluted regions in Mexico, as the Mexico City wastewater have been continuously used in agricultural irrigation for more than a hundred years. In addition, thermoelectric, refinery, cement and chemistry industries are concentrated in the southern part of the valley, near Mexico City. Several studies have reported air, soil, and water pollution data and its main sources for the region. Paradoxically, these sources contaminate the valley, but boosted its economic development. Nevertheless, no research has been done concerning GHG emissions, or climate change assessment. This paper reports inventories performed by the 1996 IPCC methodology for the baseline year 2005. Fuel consumption data were derived from priority sectors such as electricity generation, refineries, manufacturing & cement industries, transportation, and residential use. The total CO{sub 2} emission result was 13,894.9 Gg, which constituted three-quarters of Hidalgo statewide energy category. The principal CO{sub 2} sources were energy transformation (69%) and manufacturing (19%). Total black carbon emissions were estimated by a bottom-up method at 0.66 Gg. The principal contributor was on-road transportation (37%), followed by firewood residential consumption (26%) and cocked brick manufactures (22%). Non-CO{sub 2} gas emissions were also significant, particularly SO{sub 2} (255.9 Gg), which accounts for 80% of the whole Hidalgo State emissions. Results demonstrated the negative environmental impact on Mezquital Valley, caused by its role as a Megacity secondary fuel and electricity provider, as well as by the presence of several cement industries. - Highlights: • First GHG & black carbon inventory for Mezquital Valley: Mexico City energy supplier • Energy industries caused the largest CO{sub 2} and SO{sub 2} emissions from residual fuel oil. • Diesel

  5. GHG REDUCTION POTENTIAL OF BIOGAS RESOURCE UTILZATION IN HOLBÆK’S HEATING AND ELECTRICITY SECTOR

    OpenAIRE

    DAO, THI THU HUONG DIU

    2013-01-01

    This project is set out to identify the GHG reduction potentials of the 3 identified biogas plants in the Holbæk municipality. The GHG reduction of the 3 plants will be calculated in association with 2 biogas applications, which are CHP and upgrading biogas for individual heating purposes. The GHG reduction potentials of the 3 plants will be reflected to Holbæk’s specific GHG reduction target to see how these potentials contribute to the set goal. Departure from that, future version of biogas...

  6. Ontario demand response scenarios

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Rowlands, I.H.

    2005-09-01

    Strategies for demand management in Ontario were examined via 2 scenarios for a commercial/institutional building with a normal summertime peak load of 300 kW between 14:00 and 18:00 during a period of high electricity demand and high electricity prices. The first scenario involved the deployment of a 150 kW on-site generator fuelled by either diesel or natural gas. The second scenario involved curtailing load by 60 kW during the same periods. Costs and benefits of both scenarios were evaluated for 3 groups: consumers, system operators and society. Benefits included electricity cost savings, deferred transmission capacity development, lower system prices for electricity, as well as environmental changes, economic development, and a greater sense of corporate social responsibility. It was noted that while significant benefits were observed for all 3 groups, they were not substantial enough to encourage action, as the savings arising from deferred generation capacity development do not accrue to individual players. The largest potential benefit was identified as lower prices, spread across all users of electricity in Ontario. It was recommended that representative bodies cooperate so that the system-wide benefits can be reaped. It was noted that if 10 municipal utilities were able to have 250 commercial or institutional customers engaged in distributed response, then a total peak demand reduction of 375 MW could be achieved, representing more than 25 per cent of Ontario's target for energy conservation. It was concluded that demand response often involves the investment of capital and new on-site procedures, which may affect reactions to various incentives. 78 refs., 10 tabs., 5 figs

  7. Demand scenarios, worldwide

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Schaefer, A [Massachusetts Inst. of Technology, Center for Technology, Policy and Industrial Development and the MIT Joint Program on the Science and Policy of Global Change, Cambridge, MA (United States)

    1996-11-01

    Existing methods are inadequate for developing aggregate (regional and global) and long-term (several decades) passenger transport demand scenarios, since they are mainly based on simple extensions of current patterns rather than causal relationships that account for the competition among transport modes (aircraft, automobiles, buses and trains) to provide transport services. The demand scenario presented in this paper is based on two empirically proven invariances of human behavior. First, transport accounts for 10 to 15 percent of household total expenditures for those owning an automobile, and around 5 percent for non-motorized households on average (travel money budget). Second, the mean time spent traveling is approximately one hour per capita per day (travel time budget). These two budgets constraints determine the dynamics of the scenario: rising income increases per capita expenditure on travel which, in turn, increase demand for mobility. Limited travel time constraints travelers to shift to faster transport systems. The scenario is initiated with the first integrated historical data set on traffic volume in 11 world regions and the globe from 1960 to 1990 for all major modes of motorized transport. World average per capita traffic volume, which was 1,800 kilometers in 1960 and 4,2090 in 1990, is estimated to rise to 7,900 kilometers in 2020 - given a modest average increase in Gross World Product of 1.9% per year. Higher economic growth rates in Asian regions result in an increase in regional per capita traffic volume up to a factor of 5.3 from 1990 levels. Modal splits continue shifting to more flexible and faster modes of transport. At one point, passenger cars can no longer satisfy the increasing demand for speed (i.e. rising mobility within a fixed time budget). In North America it is estimated that the absolute traffic volume of automobiles will gradually decline starting in the 2010s. (author) 13 figs., 6 tabs., 35 refs.

  8. Global climate change mitigation scenarios for solid waste management

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Monni, S. [Benviroc Ltd, Espoo (Finland); Pipatti, R. [Statistics Finland, Helsinki (Finland); Lehtilae, A.; Savolainen, I.; Syri, S. [VTT Technical Research Centre of Finland, Espoo (Finland)

    2006-07-15

    The waste sector is an important contributor to climate change. CH{sub 4} produced at solid waste disposal sites contributes approximately 3.4 percent to the annual global anthropogenic greenhouse gas emissions. Emissions from solid waste disposal are expected to increase with increasing global population and GDP. On the other hand, many cost-efficient emission reduction options are available. The rate of waste degradation in landfills depends on waste composition, climate and conditions in the landfill. Because the duration of CH{sub 4} generation is several decades, estimation of emissions from landfills requires modelling of waste disposal prior to the year whose emissions are of interest. In this study, country- or region-specific first-order decay (FOD) models based on the 2006 IPCC Guidelines are used to estimate emissions from municipal solid waste disposal in landfills. In addition, IPCC methodology is used to estimate emissions from waste incineration. Five global scenarios are compiled from 1990 to 2050. These scenarios take into account political decision making and changes in the waste management system. In the Baseline scenario, waste generation is assumed to follow past and current trends using population and GDP as drivers. In the other scenarios, effects of increased incineration, increased recycling and increased landfill gas recovery on greenhouse gas (GHG) emissions are assessed. Economic maximum emission reduction potentials for these waste management options are estimated at different marginal cost levels for the year 2030 by using the Global TIMES model. Global emissions from landfills are projected to increase from 340 Tg CO{sub 2} eq in 1990 to 1500 Tg CO{sub 2} eq by 2030 and 2900 Tg CO{sub 2} eq by 2050 in the Baseline scenario. The emission reduction scenarios give emissions reductions from 5% (9%) to 21% (27%) compared to the Baseline in 2030 (2050). As each scenario considered one mitigation option, the results are largely additive, and

  9. Nitrogen Cycling and GHG Emissions of Natural and Managed Tropical Ecosystems at Mt. Kilimanjaro

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gutlein, A.; Ralf, K.; Gerschlauer, F.; Dannenmann, M.; Butterbach-Bahl, K.; Diaz-Pines, E.

    2016-12-01

    In a rapidly changing world understanding of natural ecosystems response to human perturbations such as land use and climate changes as well as habitat destruction is crucial with respect to sustainability of ecosystem services. This is particularily true for tropical forest ecosystems which have significant effects on the major biogeochemical cycles and global climate. Here we present a comprehensive dataset of nitrogen cycling and GHG emissions of natural and managed ecosystems along land use and climate gradients at Mt. Kilimanjaro, Tanzania including different forest ecosystems, homegardens, and coffee plantations. Soil N turnover rates were highest in the Ocotea forest and progressively decreased with decreasing annual rainfall and increasing land use intensity. Nitrogen production and immobilization rates positively correlated with soil organic C and total N concentrations as well as substrate availability of dissolved organic C and N, but correlated less with soil ammonium and nitrate concentrations. By using indicators of N retention and characteristics of soil nutrient status, we observed a grouping of faster, but tighter N cycling in the (semi-) natural savanna, Helychrysum and Ocotea forest. This contrasted with a more open N cycle in managed systems (homegarden and coffee plantation) where N was more prone to leaching or gaseous losses due to high nitrate production rates. The partly disturbed lower montane forest ranged in between these two groups. These finding could be supported by differences in natural 15N abundance of litter and soil across all sites. Comparing GHG emissions at the land use gradient showed, that with increasing intensification (lower montane forest - homegarden - coffee plantation) N2O emissions increased but at the same time the soil sink for atmospheric CH4 decreased. GHG emission measurements at the climate gradient (savanna, lower montane, Ocotea and Podocarpus forest, Helychrysum) revealed that differences in soil moisture

  10. Potential options to reduce GHG emissions in Venezuela

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Pereira, N.; Bonduki, Y.; Perdomo, M.

    1996-12-31

    The Government of Venezuela ratified the United Nations Framework Convention on Climate Change (UNFCCC) in December, 1994. The Convention requires all parties to develop and publish national inventories of anthropogenic greenhouse gas emissions (GHG) as well as national plans to reduce or control emissions, taking into account their common but differentiated responsibilities and their specific national and regional development priorities, objectives, and circumstances. Within this context, the Ministry of Environment and Renewable Natural Resources and the Ministry of Energy and Mines developed the `Venezuelan Case-Study to Address Climate Change`. The study was initiated in October 1993, with the financial and technical assistance of the Government of United States, through the U.S. Country Studies Program (USCSP), and the Global Environment Facility (GEF), through the United Nations Environment Programme (UNEP).

  11. The liability rules under international GHG emissions trading

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Zhong Xiang Zhang

    2001-01-01

    Article 17 of the Kyoto Protocol authorizes emissions trading, but the rules governing emissions trading have been deferred to subsequent conferences. In designing and implementing an international greenhouse gas (GHG) emissions trading scheme, assigning liability rules has been considered to be one of the most challenging issues. In general, a seller-beware liability works well in a strong enforcement environment. In the Kyoto Protocol, however, it may not always work. By contrast, a buyer-beware liability could be an effective deterrent to non-compliance, but the costs of imposing it are expected to be very high. To strike a middle ground, we suggest a combination of preventive measures with strong but feasible end-of-period punishments to ensure compliance with the Kyoto emissions commitments. Such measures aim to maximize efficiency gains from emissions trading and at the same time, to minimize over-selling risks. (author)

  12. Broadening GHG accounting with LCA: application to a waste management business unit.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Fallaha, Sophie; Martineau, Geneviève; Bécaert, Valérie; Margni, Manuele; Deschênes, Louise; Samson, Réjean; Aoustin, Emmanuelle

    2009-11-01

    In an effort to obtain the most accurate climate change impact assessment, greenhouse gas (GHG) accounting is evolving to include life-cycle thinking. This study (1) identifies similarities and key differences between GHG accounting and life-cycle assessment (LCA), (2) compares them on a consistent basis through a case study on a waste management business unit. First, GHG accounting is performed. According to the GHG Protocol, annual emissions are categorized into three scopes: direct GHG emissions (scope 1), indirect emissions related to electricity, heat and steam production (scope 2) and other indirect emissions (scope 3). The LCA is then structured into a comparable framework: each LCA process is disaggregated into these three scopes, the annual operating activities are assessed, and the environmental impacts are determined using the IMPACT2002+ method. By comparing these two approaches it is concluded that both LCA and GHG accounting provide similar climate change impact results as the same major GHG contributors are determined for scope 1 emissions. The emissions from scope 2 appear negligible whereas emissions from scope 3 cannot be neglected since they contribute to around 10% of the climate change impact of the waste management business unit. This statement is strengthened by the fact that scope 3 generates 75% of the resource use damage and 30% of the ecosystem quality damage categories. The study also shows that LCA can help in setting up the framework for a annual GHG accounting by determining the major climate change contributors.

  13. Pyrolysis and gasification of meat-and-bone-meal: Energy balance and GHG accounting

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Cascarosa, Esther; Boldrin, Alessio; Astrup, Thomas Fruergaard

    2013-01-01

    the main products in the gasification system. These products can be used – eventually after upgrading – for energy production, thereby offsetting energy production elsewhere in the system. Greenhouse gases (GHG) accounting of the technologies showed that all three options provided overall GHG savings...

  14. The relevance of supply chain characteristics in GHG emissions: The carbon footprint of Maltese juices.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Roibás, L; Rodríguez-García, S; Valdramidis, V P; Hospido, A

    2018-05-01

    Foods and drinks are major contributors (17%) to the greenhouse gas (GHG) emissions caused by private consumption in Europe. The carbon footprint (CF) of a certain product expresses the total GHG emissions over its whole life cycle, and its calculation for foodstuff is a necessary first step to reduce their contribution to global warming. The calculation of the CF of Maltese food products is especially relevant for two reasons: the economic characteristics of the island, whose food sector is highly dependent on imports, implying longer transport distances; and the Maltese electricity production mix, based almost exclusively on oil combustion. The CF of ten multi-fruit juices marketed in Malta has been determined, covering all the processes from the agricultural stage to the distribution of the final products. As a functional unit (FU), a 250 ml bottle of packaged product arriving at the retailer has been considered. The Maltese orange juice, the only final product in which only local ingredients are used, presents the lowest CF (0.50 kgCO 2 /FU), while the remaining ones range from 0.67 kgCO 2 /FU to 0.80 kgCO 2 /FU. The major contributor to all the CFs is juice processing at the Maltese plant (0.42 kgCO 2 /FU), mainly due to the use of electricity (78%). The influence of both the electricity mix and the Maltese supply chain in the CF of the final products has been demonstrated. Alternatives to reduce the impacts of the final products have been proposed and evaluated that could lower the average CF of the juices by 32%. The calculation of the CF of Maltese juices represents an innovative case study due to the characteristics of the island, and it is expected to act as a first step to lower their environmental impacts. Copyright © 2018 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  15. Logistics, Costs, and GHG Impacts of Utility-Scale Co-Firing with 20% Biomass

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Nichol, Corrie Ian [Idaho National Lab. (INL), Idaho Falls, ID (United States)

    2013-06-01

    This study analyzes the possibility that biopower in the U.S. is a cost-competitive option to significantly reduce greenhouse gas emissions. In 2009, net greenhouse gas (GHG) emitted in the United States was equivalent to 5,618 million metric tons CO2, up 5.6% from 1990 (EPA 2011). Coal-fired power generation accounted for 1,748 million metric tons of this total. Intuitively, life-cycle CO2 emissions in the power sector could be reduced by substituting renewable biomass for coal. If just 20% of the coal combusted in 2009 had been replaced with biomass, CO2 emissions would have been reduced by 350 million metric tons, or about 6% of net annual GHG emission. This would have required approximately 225 million tons of dry biomass. Such an ambitious fuel substitution would require development of a biomass feedstock production and supply system tantamount to coal. This material would need to meet stringent specifications to ensure reliable conveyance to boiler burners, efficient combustion, and no adverse impact on heat transfer surfaces and flue gas cleanup operations. Therefore, this report addresses the potential cost/benefit tradeoffs of co-firing 20% specification-qualified biomass (on an energy content basis) in large U.S. coal-fired power plants. The dependence and sensitivity of feedstock cost on source of material, location, supply distance, and demand pressure was established. Subsequently, the dependence of levelized cost of electricity (LCOE) on feedstock costs, power plant feed system retrofit, and impact on boiler performance was determined. Overall life-cycle assessment (LCA) of greenhouse gas emissions saving were next evaluated and compared to wind and solar energy to benchmark the leading alternatives for meeting renewable portfolio standards (or RPS).

  16. Greenhouse Gas Implications of Peri-Urban Land Use Change in a Developed City under Four Future Climate Scenarios

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Alison Rothwell

    2016-12-01

    Full Text Available Present decisions about urbanization of peri-urban (PU areas may contribute to the capacity of cities to mitigate future climate change. Comprehensive mitigative responses to PU development should require integration of urban form and food production to realise potential trade-offs. Despite this, few studies examine greenhouse gas (GHG implications of future urban development combined with impacts on PU food production. In this paper, four future scenarios, at 2050 and 2100 time horizons, were developed to evaluate the potential GHG emissions implications of feeding and housing a growing urban population in Sydney, Australia. The scenarios were thematically downscaled from the four relative concentration pathways. Central to the scenarios were differences in population, technology, energy, housing form, transportation, temperature, food production and land use change (LUC. A life cycle assessment approach was used within the scenarios to evaluate differences in GHG impacts. Differences in GHG emissions between scenarios at the 2100 time horizon, per area of PU land transformed, approximated 0.7 Mt CO2-e per year. Per additional resident this equated to 0.7 to 6.1 t CO2-e per year. Indirect LUC has the potential to be significant. Interventions such as carbon capture and storage technology, renewables and urban form markedly reduced emissions. However, incorporating cross-sectoral energy saving measures within urban planning at the regional scale requires a paradigmatic shift.

  17. The impacts of climate change on irrigation and crop production in Northeast China and implications for energy use and GHG Emission

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yan, Tingting; Wang, Jinxia; Huang, Jikun; Xie, Wei; Zhu, Tingju

    2018-06-01

    The water-food-energy-GHG nexus under climate change has been gaining increasing attention from both the research and policy communities, especially over the past several years. However, most existing nexus studies are qualitative and explorative in nature. So far, very few studies provide integrated analysis of this nexus across all the four sectors. The purpose of this paper is to examine this nexus by assessing the effects of climate change on agricultural production through the change in water availability, evaluating the adjustment responses and resulting energy consumption and GHG emission, with the Northeast China as a case study. Based on our simulation results, by 2030, climate change is projected to increase water supply and demand gap for irrigation in Northeast China. Due to the increase in water scarcity, irrigated areas will decrease, and the cropping pattern will be adjusted by increasing maize sown areas and decreasing rice sown areas. As a result, the total output of crops and profits will clearly be reduced. Finally, energy consumption and GHG emission from irrigation will be reduced. This study suggests that climate change impact assessment fully consider the nexus among water, food, energy and GHG; however, more studies need to be conducted in the future.

  18. GHG emissions quantification at high spatial and temporal resolution at urban scale: the case of the town of Sassari (NW Sardinia - Italy)

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sanna, Laura; Ferrara, Roberto; Zara, Pierpaolo; Duce, Pierpaolo

    2014-05-01

    The European Union has set as priorities the fight against climate change related to greenhouse gas releases. The largest source of these emissions comes from human activities in urban areas that account for more than 70% of the world's emissions and several local governments intend to support the European strategic policies in understanding which crucial sectors drive GHG emissions in their city. Planning for mitigation actions at the community scale starts with the compilation of a GHG inventories that, among a wide range of measurement tools, provide information on the current status of GHG emissions across a specific jurisdiction. In the framework of a regional project for quantitative estimate of the net exchange of CO2 (emissions and sinks) at the municipal level in Sardinia, the town of Sassari represents a pilot site where a spatial and temporal high resolution GHG emissions inventory is built in line with European and international standard protocols to establish a baseline for tracking emission trends. The specific purpose of this accurate accounting is to obtain an appropriate allocation of CO2 and other GHG emissions at the fine building and hourly scale. The aim is to test the direct measurements needed to enable the construction of future scenarios of these emissions and for assessing possible strategies to reduce their impact. The key element of the methodologies used to construct this GHG emissions inventory is the Global Protocol for Community-Scale Greenhouse Gas Emissions (GPC) (March 2012) that identifies four main types of emission sources: (i) Stationary Units, (ii) Mobile Units, (iii) Waste, and (iv) Industrial Process and Product Use Emissions. The development of the GHG emissions account in Sassari consists in the collection of a range of alternative data sources (primary data, IPCC emission factors, national and local statistic, etc.) selected on the base on relevance and completeness criteria performed for 2010, as baseline year, using

  19. Exposure scenarios for workers

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Marquart, H.; Northage, C.; Money, C.

    2007-01-01

    The new European chemicals legislation REACH (Registration, Evaluation, Authorisation and restriction of Chemicals) requires the development of Exposure Scenarios describing the conditions and risk management measures needed for the safe use of chemicals. Such Exposure Scenarios should integrate

  20. Atmospheric circulation and hydroclimate impacts of alternative warming scenarios for the Eocene

    Science.gov (United States)

    Carlson, Henrik; Caballero, Rodrigo

    2017-08-01

    Recent work in modelling the warm climates of the early Eocene shows that it is possible to obtain a reasonable global match between model surface temperature and proxy reconstructions, but only by using extremely high atmospheric CO2 concentrations or more modest CO2 levels complemented by a reduction in global cloud albedo. Understanding the mix of radiative forcing that gave rise to Eocene warmth has important implications for constraining Earth's climate sensitivity, but progress in this direction is hampered by the lack of direct proxy constraints on cloud properties. Here, we explore the potential for distinguishing among different radiative forcing scenarios via their impact on regional climate changes. We do this by comparing climate model simulations of two end-member scenarios: one in which the climate is warmed entirely by CO2 (which we refer to as the greenhouse gas (GHG) scenario) and another in which it is warmed entirely by reduced cloud albedo (which we refer to as the low CO2-thin clouds or LCTC scenario) . The two simulations have an almost identical global-mean surface temperature and equator-to-pole temperature difference, but the LCTC scenario has ˜ 11 % greater global-mean precipitation than the GHG scenario. The LCTC scenario also has cooler midlatitude continents and warmer oceans than the GHG scenario and a tropical climate which is significantly more El Niño-like. Extremely high warm-season temperatures in the subtropics are mitigated in the LCTC scenario, while cool-season temperatures are lower at all latitudes. These changes appear large enough to motivate further, more detailed study using other climate models and a more realistic set of modelling assumptions.

  1. Atmospheric circulation and hydroclimate impacts of alternative warming scenarios for the Eocene

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    H. Carlson

    2017-08-01

    Full Text Available Recent work in modelling the warm climates of the early Eocene shows that it is possible to obtain a reasonable global match between model surface temperature and proxy reconstructions, but only by using extremely high atmospheric CO2 concentrations or more modest CO2 levels complemented by a reduction in global cloud albedo. Understanding the mix of radiative forcing that gave rise to Eocene warmth has important implications for constraining Earth's climate sensitivity, but progress in this direction is hampered by the lack of direct proxy constraints on cloud properties. Here, we explore the potential for distinguishing among different radiative forcing scenarios via their impact on regional climate changes. We do this by comparing climate model simulations of two end-member scenarios: one in which the climate is warmed entirely by CO2 (which we refer to as the greenhouse gas (GHG scenario and another in which it is warmed entirely by reduced cloud albedo (which we refer to as the low CO2–thin clouds or LCTC scenario . The two simulations have an almost identical global-mean surface temperature and equator-to-pole temperature difference, but the LCTC scenario has  ∼  11 % greater global-mean precipitation than the GHG scenario. The LCTC scenario also has cooler midlatitude continents and warmer oceans than the GHG scenario and a tropical climate which is significantly more El Niño-like. Extremely high warm-season temperatures in the subtropics are mitigated in the LCTC scenario, while cool-season temperatures are lower at all latitudes. These changes appear large enough to motivate further, more detailed study using other climate models and a more realistic set of modelling assumptions.

  2. India - Nuclear power for GHG mitigation and sustainable energy development

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Nema, A.K.; Pathak, B.K.; Grover, R.B.

    2000-01-01

    The increasing use of the earth's resources to improve our quality of life has led to certain deleterious effects on the environment. The increased concentration of greenhouse gases (GHGs) is one such important effect. GHG emissions have come primarily from industrialized countries. Currently industrialized countries emit 11.4 tonnes of carbon per year per capita. For India the corresponding figure is 1.0, and for China it is 2.7. We recognize the necessity of both meeting the development needs of all the countries in the South, and ensuring that such development is sustainable. The CDM may have an important role to play, although the positions of a number of countries, including India, with respect to the CDM appear to be still evolving. In any event, nuclear energy should be an important energy option under the CDM, if and when the CDM is ready to be implemented. The present study is an attempt to understand the implications of setting up a nuclear power plant (NPP) in India as a CDM project

  3. Interpreting energy scenarios

    Science.gov (United States)

    Iyer, Gokul; Edmonds, James

    2018-05-01

    Quantitative scenarios from energy-economic models inform decision-making about uncertain futures. Now, research shows the different ways these scenarios are subsequently used by users not involved in their initial development. In the absence of clear guidance from modellers, users may place too much or too little confidence in scenario assumptions and results.

  4. Trends for reduction of greenhouse gases (GHG) in Japan; Kokunai no onshitsu koka gas sakugen doko chosa

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    NONE

    1997-03-01

    The purpose of this research is to identify the problems and measures for reduction of GHG emissions by conducting research on the GHG emission trends in the energy-conversion, industry, public and transportation sectors, and policies and regulations. Japan`s total emission of CO2 in FY 1994 was 343 million tons in terms of carbon, and the emission per capita was 2.74 tons. These amounts were 7% increase in total CO2 emissions and 6% increase in the emission per capita compared with those in FY 1990. There were high increases in the public and transportation sectors. This trend is expected to continue in the future. Since more than 90% of CO2 emission is derived from energy origin, the climate change problems mean energy and economic problems. To attain Japan`s goal of the year 2000 with maintaining the appropriate economic growth, it is crucial to accelerate energy-efficiency and introduction of new energy. 19 figs., 28 tabs.

  5. A 1,000 GtC Coal Question for Future Energy Scenarios: How Much Coal Will Renewables Need to Displace?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ritchie, W. J.; Dowlatabadi, H.

    2016-12-01

    Twenty years ago, global coal assessments indicated reserve-to-production (R-P) ratios of more than 300 years. Consequently, most studies of energy futures established coal as a virtually unlimited backstop to meet the world's projected energy needs. Coal was modeled to offset oil and gas production declines and provide a source of energy which renewables and lower carbon supply strategies needed to outcompete. Over the past two decades, increasingly consistent methodologies have been applied globally to assess recoverable coal. Coal production has also witnessed significant mechanization to meet higher demand. Each of these has led to a significant reduction in estimates of economically recoverable coal reserves despite a doubling of market prices over this period. The current reserve to production ratio for coal is now around 100 years. It is time to reconsider coal as the inexhaustible energy backstop The energy models which develop long-term estimates of renewable energy needs and projections of greenhouse gas (GHG) emissions still adopt the characteristics of vintage coal assessments. By convention, baseline GHG emissions used by the IPCC and others, project combustion of most known coal reserves before the year 2100. When vintage assessments are used, this involves extraction of all currently known coal reserves plus twice again from resources invalidated as recoverable for geologic, environmental, social, legal, technical or economic reasons. We provide evidence for rejecting these projections of unbounded growth in coal consumption. Legacy pathways of implausibly high coal use upwardly bias long-term scenarios for total cumulative GHG emissions and subsequent research on climate change. This bias has precluded consideration of much more ambitious climate mitigation targets without significant socio-economic dislocation and unnecessarily diminishes possible future contributions from renewables.

  6. Different scenarios to reduce greenhouse gas emissions of thermal power stations in Canada

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Zabihian, F.; Fung, A.S.

    2009-01-01

    The purpose of this paper is to examine greenhouse gas (GHG) emission reduction potentials in the Canadian electricity generation sector through fuel switching and the adoption of advanced power generation systems. To achieve this purpose, six different scenarios were introduced. In the first scenario existing power stations' fuel was switched to natural gas. Existing power plants were replaced by natural gas combined cycle (NGCC), integrated gasification combined cycle (IGCC), solid oxide fuel cell (SOFC), hybrid SOFC, and SOFC-IGCC hybrid power stations in scenarios number 2 to 6, respectively. (author)

  7. The Effect of a Consumption-Based Accounting Method in National GHG Inventories: A Trilateral Trade System Application

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Bastianoni, Simone, E-mail: bastianoni@unisi.it; Caro, Dario [Ecodynamics Group, Department of Earth, Environmental and Physical Sciences, University of Siena, Siena (Italy); Borghesi, Simone [Department of Political and International Sciences, University of Siena, Siena (Italy); Pulselli, Federico Maria [Ecodynamics Group, Department of Earth, Environmental and Physical Sciences, University of Siena, Siena (Italy)

    2014-01-27

    The allocation of emissions embodied in international trade is crucial to evaluate the real impact that each country has on climate change and its responsibility in greenhouse gas (GHG) emissions. In this paper, we develop a new theoretical framework recently proposed by Caro et al. (2014) that computes the carbon emissions embodied in international trade according to a consumption-based accounting. The method uses the value of the goods traded internationally and the respective carbon intensity as a coefficient of national efficiency. To provide an example of application of the proposed methodology and assess its difference with respect to the current producer-based GHG accounting, we analyze a trilateral trade system composed by three countries (Sweden, Italy, and Poland) with large differences in terms of carbon intensity (low, medium, and high carbon intensity, respectively). From the analysis of the data during the period 2000–2008, it emerges that the proposed consumption-based accounting would imply an increase of Italian and Swedish emission responsibility by 1.4 and 11.8%, respectively, with respect to the conventional GHG accounting, and a decrease of the Polish responsibility by 2.81%. To assess the possible consequences deriving from the application of this new methodology, we also consider the effects of a shift of the Italian imports from Poland to Sweden of Machinery and Transport Equipments, a crucial sector in the trade relations among the three countries, which accounts for about 45% of total exports from Poland and Sweden to Italy. Finally, we discuss some policy implications deriving from the application of the consumption-based accounting, devoting particular attention to the results emerging from its hypothetical adoption in the EU-27. The analysis performed in the paper suggests that the adoption of a consumption-based accounting could be an important tool in the climate change challenge to reduce global emissions.

  8. The Effect of a Consumption-Based Accounting Method in National GHG Inventories: A Trilateral Trade System Application

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Bastianoni, Simone; Caro, Dario; Borghesi, Simone; Pulselli, Federico Maria

    2014-01-01

    The allocation of emissions embodied in international trade is crucial to evaluate the real impact that each country has on climate change and its responsibility in greenhouse gas (GHG) emissions. In this paper, we develop a new theoretical framework recently proposed by Caro et al. (2014) that computes the carbon emissions embodied in international trade according to a consumption-based accounting. The method uses the value of the goods traded internationally and the respective carbon intensity as a coefficient of national efficiency. To provide an example of application of the proposed methodology and assess its difference with respect to the current producer-based GHG accounting, we analyze a trilateral trade system composed by three countries (Sweden, Italy, and Poland) with large differences in terms of carbon intensity (low, medium, and high carbon intensity, respectively). From the analysis of the data during the period 2000–2008, it emerges that the proposed consumption-based accounting would imply an increase of Italian and Swedish emission responsibility by 1.4 and 11.8%, respectively, with respect to the conventional GHG accounting, and a decrease of the Polish responsibility by 2.81%. To assess the possible consequences deriving from the application of this new methodology, we also consider the effects of a shift of the Italian imports from Poland to Sweden of Machinery and Transport Equipments, a crucial sector in the trade relations among the three countries, which accounts for about 45% of total exports from Poland and Sweden to Italy. Finally, we discuss some policy implications deriving from the application of the consumption-based accounting, devoting particular attention to the results emerging from its hypothetical adoption in the EU-27. The analysis performed in the paper suggests that the adoption of a consumption-based accounting could be an important tool in the climate change challenge to reduce global emissions.

  9. Republic of Korea - Nuclear power for GHG mitigation and sustainable energy development

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Lim, Chae-Young; Lee, Keun-Sung

    2000-01-01

    The Republic of Korea occupies the southern half of the Korean Peninsula. Korea's population in 2000 is 47.3 million, and the population density is over 450 persons per km 2 , the third highest in the world. However, the effective implementation of family planning policies has slowed population growth from 3.0% in 1960 to less than 1% currently. Korea's economy has changed markedly in every respect since the government launched a series of economic development plans in the early 1970s. Average economic growth over the last decade was above 8% per year, excluding the financial crisis period. High economic growth has inevitably led to rapid growth in energy consumption. Due to a lack of domestic energy resources, the overseas dependence rate of energy consumption has continuously increased from 47.5% in 1970 to 97.5% in 1997. Especially fossil fuels, such as oil, coal and gas, accounted for 88.2% of total energy consumption in 1997. These also caused a rapid increase in greenhouse gas emissions including CO 2 . In 1997, 140 million tonnes of carbon (MtC) were emitted - 1.8% of total world greenhouse gas (GHG) emissions

  10. Electricity demand and supply scenarios for Maharashtra (India) for 2030: An application of long range energy alternatives planning

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Kale, Rajesh V.; Pohekar, Sanjay D.

    2014-01-01

    Forecasting of electricity demand has assumed a lot of importance to provide sustainable solutions to the electricity problems. LEAP has been used to forecast electricity demand for the target year 2030, for the state of Maharashtra (India). Holt’s exponential smoothing method has been used to arrive at suitable growth rates. Probable projections have been generated using uniform gross domestic product (GDP) growth rate and different values of elasticity of demands. Three scenarios have been generated which include Business as Usual (BAU), Energy Conservation (EC) and Renewable Energy (REN). Subsequent analysis on the basis of energy, environmental influence and cost has been done. In the target year 2030, the projected electricity demand for BAU and REN has increased by 107.3 per cent over the base year 2012 and EC electricity demand has grown by 54.3 per cent. The estimated values of green house gas (GHG) for BAU and EC, in the year 2030, are 245.2 per cent and 152.4 per cent more than the base year and for REN it is 46.2 per cent less. Sensitivity analysis has been performed to study the effect on the total cost of scenarios. Policy implications in view of the results obtained are also discussed. - Highlights: • Forecasted electricity scenarios by Long Range Energy Alternatives Planning (LEAP). • Critically analyzed the demand and supply prior to 2012 for a period of six years. • Used Holt’s exponential smoothing method ARIMA (0,1,1) for finding growth rates. • Devised suitable LEAP model for the generated scenarios. • Discussed policy implications for the generated scenarios

  11. Energy and emissions benefits of renewable energy derived from municipal solid waste: Analysis of a low carbon scenario in Malaysia

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Tan, Sie Ting; Hashim, Haslenda; Lim, Jeng Shiun; Ho, Wai Shin; Lee, Chew Tin; Yan, Jinyue

    2014-01-01

    Highlights: • Feasibility study on the energy and GHG emission reduction for WtE strategies for municipal solid waste (MSW) in Malaysia. • Greenhouse gases (GHG) emissions from WtE strategies analysed using IPCC guideline. • Scenario analysis by comparison of different WtE strategies. • Impact of moisture content of MSW towards energy potential and GHG emission reduction. - Abstract: Ineffective waste management that involves dumping of waste in landfills may degrade valuable land resources and emit methane gas (CH 4 ), a more potent greenhouse gas than carbon dioxide (CO 2 ). The incineration of waste also emits polluted chemicals such as dioxin and particle. Therefore, from a solid waste management perspective, both landfilling and incineration practices pose challenges to the development of a green and sustainable future. Waste-to-energy (WtE) has become a promising strategy catering to these issues because the utilisation of waste reduces the amount of landfilled waste (overcoming land resource issues) while increasing renewable energy production. The goal of this paper is to evaluate the energy and carbon reduction potential in Malaysia for various WtE strategies for municipal solid waste (MSW). The material properties of the MSW, its energy conversion potential and subsequent greenhouse gases (GHG) emissions are analysed based on the chemical compositions and biogenic carbon fractions of the waste. The GHG emission reduction potential is also calculated by considering fossil fuel displacement and CH 4 avoidance from landfilling. In this paper, five different scenarios are analysed with results indicating a integration of landfill gas (LFG) recovery systems and waste incinerator as the major and minor WtE strategies shows the highest economical benefit with optimal GHG mitigation and energy potential. Sensitivity analysis on the effect of moisture content of MSW towards energy potential and GHG emissions are performed. These evaluations of Wt

  12. The role of abatement costs in GHG permit allocations : a global reduction scenario with the World-MARKAL model

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Vaillancourt, K.; Kanudia, A.

    2004-01-01

    The World-MARKAL model was used to examine a permit trading system to stabilize greenhouse gas emissions. The model considered the participation of all countries, including developing countries. Allocation schemes aimed at fair distribution of net abatement costs among world regions were proposed. The net abatement costs for each region are good indicators of where more abatement measures are needed. Equity issues relative to permit allocations and burden sharing were also presented along with the allocation methodology. The gross abatement costs before permit trading were calculated for each region. The main advantages and disadvantages of this approach were listed. It was concluded that permit allocation schemes based on cost distribution make it possible to obtain solutions with equalized net costs per gross domestic product for all regions. 30 refs., 6 tabs., 3 figs

  13. Climate Leadership Award for Excellence in GHG Management (Goal Achievement Award)

    Science.gov (United States)

    Apply to the Climate Leadership Award for Excellence in GHG Management (Goal Achievement Award), which publicly recognizes organizations that achieve publicly-set aggressive greenhouse gas emissions reduction goals.

  14. Climate Leadership Award for Excellence in GHG Management (Goal Setting Certificate)

    Science.gov (United States)

    Apply to the Climate Leadership Award for Excellence in GHG Management (Goal Achievement Award), which publicly recognizes organizations that achieve publicly-set aggressive greenhouse gas emissions reduction goals.

  15. An assessment of urban form and pedestrian and transit improvements as an integrated GHG reduction strategy.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2011-04-01

    In the last several years, Washington State has adopted a series of policy goals intended to : reduce greenhouse gases (GHGs). Because transportation is one of the states largest sources of : GHG emissions, the Washington State Department of Trans...

  16. Effects of forest fertilization on C sequestration and GHG emissions

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Prescott, C.E.; Grayston, S.J.; Basiliko, N.; Seely, B.A.; Weetman, G.F. [British Columbia Univ., Vancouver, BC (Canada). Dept. of Forest Sciences; Bull, G.Q.; Northway, S. [British Columbia Univ., Vancouver, BC (Canada). Dept. of Forest Resources Management; Mohn, W.W. [British Columbia Univ., Vancouver, BC (Canada). Dept. of Microbiology and Immunology

    2005-07-01

    This study evaluated the potential to create carbon credits from the increased storage in all carbon pools on the forest landscape. It was conducted in response to the Kyoto Protocol provision which allows the inclusion of carbon sinks. The productivity of Canada's forest landbase is limited by availability of nutrients, particularly nitrogen (N). Studies have shown that forest fertilization not only increases productivity of many forest type, but offers the associated benefit of increased carbon (C) sequestration in biomass. There is increasing evidence that N fertilization will also increase C sequestration in soil organic matter, since higher N availability appears to interfere with litter decomposition causing more C to become humified. Many long-term fertilization experiments in British Columbia have provided an opportunity to quantify the effects of N addition on C sequestration in vegetation and soil organic matter. It was noted that determining the effects of fertilization on emission of nitrous oxides (N{sub 2}O) and consumption of methane (CH{sub 4}) is critical since the greenhouse warming potential of these gases is much greater than that of carbon dioxide (CO{sub 2}). This study also used state-of-the-art molecular methods to identify the soil microorganisms responsible for N{sub 2}O production and CH{sub 4} oxidation in order to determine the complex and often contradictory effects of fertilizers on N{sub 2}O emission and CH{sub 4} oxidation in forest soils. The actual N{sub 2}O, CO{sub 2}, and CH{sub 4} fluxes from these soils were also measured. The main objective of the project was the development of microbial indicators as tools to detect soil GHG emission activity.

  17. Effects of forest fertilization on C sequestration and GHG emissions

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Prescott, C.E.; Grayston, S.J.; Basiliko, N.; Seely, B.A.; Weetman, G.F.; Bull, G.Q.; Northway, S.; Mohn, W.W.

    2005-01-01

    This study evaluated the potential to create carbon credits from the increased storage in all carbon pools on the forest landscape. It was conducted in response to the Kyoto Protocol provision which allows the inclusion of carbon sinks. The productivity of Canada's forest landbase is limited by availability of nutrients, particularly nitrogen (N). Studies have shown that forest fertilization not only increases productivity of many forest type, but offers the associated benefit of increased carbon (C) sequestration in biomass. There is increasing evidence that N fertilization will also increase C sequestration in soil organic matter, since higher N availability appears to interfere with litter decomposition causing more C to become humified. Many long-term fertilization experiments in British Columbia have provided an opportunity to quantify the effects of N addition on C sequestration in vegetation and soil organic matter. It was noted that determining the effects of fertilization on emission of nitrous oxides (N 2 O) and consumption of methane (CH 4 ) is critical since the greenhouse warming potential of these gases is much greater than that of carbon dioxide (CO 2 ). This study also used state-of-the-art molecular methods to identify the soil microorganisms responsible for N 2 O production and CH 4 oxidation in order to determine the complex and often contradictory effects of fertilizers on N 2 O emission and CH 4 oxidation in forest soils. The actual N 2 O, CO 2 , and CH 4 fluxes from these soils were also measured. The main objective of the project was the development of microbial indicators as tools to detect soil GHG emission activity

  18. The world in scenarios

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    De Jong, A.; Roodenburg, H.

    1992-01-01

    As an introduction to this special issue 'Worlds of difference: Scenarios's for the economy, energy and the environment 1990-2015', an outline is given of the future of the world and the Netherlands, based on four scenarios. These scenarios are published in 'Scanning the future' in May 1992 by the CPB, the Dutch Central Planning Bureau. The Global Shift (GS) scenario is characterized by a very dynamic technological development, the free market perspective, strong economic growth in the Asian economies, and a relative economic regression in Western Europe. In the European Renaissance (ER) scenario the technological development is less dynamic and more gradual than in the GS scenario. The Balanced Growth (BG) scenario is dominated by a sustainable economic development and a strong technological dynamic development. The Global Crisis (GC) scenario shows a downward spiral in many areas, stagnating developments and fragile economies as results of the trends in the eighties. The first three scenarios are elaborated for the Netherlands. Also attention is paid to the aims and meaning of long-term scenarios. 2 figs., 2 tabs., 3 refs

  19. Effect of aeration interval on oxygen consumption and GHG emission during pig manure composting.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zeng, Jianfei; Yin, Hongjie; Shen, Xiuli; Liu, Ning; Ge, Jinyi; Han, Lujia; Huang, Guangqun

    2018-02-01

    To verify the optimal aeration interval for oxygen supply and consumption and investigate the effect of aeration interval on GHG emission, reactor-scale composting was conducted with different aeration intervals (0, 10, 30 and 50 min). Although O 2 was sufficiently supplied during aeration period, it could be consumed to  0.902), suggesting that lengthening the duration of aeration interval to some extent could effectively reduce GHG emission. Copyright © 2017 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  20. Can we trust corporates GHG inventories? An investigation among Canada's large final emitters

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Talbot, David; Boiral, Olivier

    2013-01-01

    In the public sphere and the literature on climate strategies, the measurability of corporate GHG emissions tends to be taken for granted, and few empirical studies have examined the reliability of such data. The present case study, which was conducted among 10 Canadian companies considered as large final emitters and three auditing firms, focuses on the factors which could affect the perceived credibility of GHG inventories and the strategic implications of these. The qualitative, inductive study allows identifying three main factors which affect trust in business inventories: technical issues and complexity of GHG measurements, lack of transparency on the part of the companies and unreliability of verification mechanisms. The study also makes it possible to evaluate the implications of uncertainties concerning GHG inventories which are of strategic importance for companies and policy makers. While the reliability of GHG measurement is taken for granted at the political level, uncertainties in this area can in fact have a huge impact on the establishment of the cap and trade system. The study also contributes to the literature on carbon accounting by shedding light on underexplored ethical issues, including the lack of independence of auditors and its implications. - Highlights: • The complexity of GHG emission measurement is underestimated in the public sphère. • The data disclosed by companies to the different stakeholders lack transparency. • The auditors' lack of competence and independence undermine the credibility of audit reports

  1. Greenhouse gas emissions from different municipal solid waste management scenarios in China: Based on carbon and energy flow analysis.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Liu, Yili; Sun, Weixin; Liu, Jianguo

    2017-10-01

    Waste management is a major source of global greenhouse gas (GHG) emissions and many opportunities exist to reduce these emissions. To identify the GHG emissions from waste management in China, the characteristics of MSW and the current and future treatment management strategies, five typical management scenarios were modeled by EaseTech software following the principles of life cycle inventory and analyzed based on the carbon and energy flows. Due to the high organic fraction (50-70%) and moisture content (>50%) of Chinese municipal solid waste (MSW), the net GHG emissions in waste management had a significant difference from the developed countries. It was found that the poor landfill gas (LFG) collection efficiency and low carbon storage resulted landfilling with flaring and landfilling with biogas recovery scenarios were the largest GHG emissions (192 and 117 kgCO 2 -Eq/t, respectively). In contrast, incineration had the best energy recovery rate (19%), and, by grid emissions substitution, led to a substantial decrease in net GHG emissions (-124 kgCO 2 -Eq/t). Due to the high energy consumption in operation, the unavoidable leakage of CH 4 and N 2 O in treatment, and the further release of CH 4 in disposing of the digested residue or composted product, the scenarios with biological treatment of the organic fractions after sorting, such as composting or anaerobic digestion (AD), did not lead to the outstanding GHG reductions (emissions of 32 and -36 kgCO 2 -Eq/t, respectively) as expected. Copyright © 2017. Published by Elsevier Ltd.

  2. Mathematical Optimization Algorithm for Minimizing the Cost Function of GHG Emission in AS/RS Using Positive Selection Based Clonal Selection Principle

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mahalakshmi; Murugesan, R.

    2018-04-01

    This paper regards with the minimization of total cost of Greenhouse Gas (GHG) efficiency in Automated Storage and Retrieval System (AS/RS). A mathematical model is constructed based on tax cost, penalty cost and discount cost of GHG emission of AS/RS. A two stage algorithm namely positive selection based clonal selection principle (PSBCSP) is used to find the optimal solution of the constructed model. In the first stage positive selection principle is used to reduce the search space of the optimal solution by fixing a threshold value. In the later stage clonal selection principle is used to generate best solutions. The obtained results are compared with other existing algorithms in the literature, which shows that the proposed algorithm yields a better result compared to others.

  3. Food scenarios 2025

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Sundbo, Jon

    2016-01-01

    This article presents the results of a future study of the food sector. Two scenarios have been developed using a combination of: 1) a summary of the relevant scientific knowledge, 2) systematic scenario writing, 3) an expert-based Delphi technique, and 4) an expert seminar assessment. The two...... scenarios present possible futures at global, national (Denmark) and regional (Zealand, Denmark) levels. The main scenario is called ‘Food for ordinary days and celebrations’ (a combination of ‘High-technological food production − The functional society’ and ‘High-gastronomic food − The experience society...

  4. National Framework for GHG Emission Trading in Russia

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Kotov, V.; Nikitina, E.

    2003-01-01

    If Russia ratifies the Kyoto Protocol to the United Nations Framework Convention on Climate Change (UNFCCC), domestic implementation of its international commitments under this international regime will require special national responses, i.e. institutional capacity building for application of its mechanisms. The Kyoto Protocol and its mechanisms, particularly, international emission trading (IET) and joint implementation (JI), mark a turning point, with opportunities for Russia to benefit from an economic and environmental standpoint from international cooperation. Russia might wish to sell to other parties a surplus in its assigned amount for the first commitment period in 2008-2012, as according to existing estimates its GHG emissions are expected to be below their 1990 base level. In order to participate in international emission trading, Russia has to meet several international requirements, including providing national inventory and reporting and establishing national registry compatible with the standard international format. It is to establish a domestic institutional regime defining laws and rules of behaviour for its participants, the administrative frameworks, and designing major schemes for domestic emission trading programme. Russia's emission trading system is not formed yet. This is a challenging innovation for Russia, as in its previous environmental management practices it did not have any experience in domestic emission trading with other air pollutants. The paper examines the key elements suggested in a number of existing proposals, assessments, and approaches of the government, parliamentarians and non-governmental experts for its institutional design which is at the core of ongoing climate policy debates in the country. These approaches and practical suggestions define the current state-of-the-art in domestic emission trading regime formation and channel the paths of its institutional development in the future. This paper analyses peculiarities

  5. Evaluating experience with electricity generating GHG mitigation projects

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Ellis, J.

    2003-07-01

    theoretical and practical level. The paper examines the experience to date with how baselines and additionality have been calculated or assessed for selected electricity-generating GHG mitigation projects. It will focus on CDM and CDM-type projects, including for projects that have been accepted or rejected by particular programmes (e.g. CERUPT) and projects where the associated baseline and monitoring methodologies have been submitted to the CDM's Executive Board. Thus, it will focus on larger-scale (>15MW) and grid-connected projects. The paper will also assess how the baseline methods for projects currently under development 'fit' with the three baseline 'approaches outlined in the Marrakech Accords.

  6. Estimation of greenhouse gas (GHG) emission and energy use efficiency (EUE) analysis in rainfed canola production (case study: Golestan province, Iran)

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Kazemi, Hossein; Bourkheili, Saeid Hassanpour; Kamkar, Behnam; Soltani, Afshin; Gharanjic, Kambiz; Nazari, Noor Mohammad

    2016-01-01

    Increasing the use of energy inputs in agricultural section has been led to numerous environmental concerns such as greenhouse gas (GHG) emissions, high consumption of non-renewable resources, loss of biodiversity and environment pollutions. The study was aimed to analyze the energy use efficiency (EUE) and estimation of GHG emissions from rainfed–based canola production systems (RCPSs) in Iran. In this study, data were collected from 35 farms in Golestan province (northeast of Iran) by a face to face questionnaire performed and statistical yearbooks of 2014. The amount of GHG emissions (per hectare) from inputs used in RCPSs was calculated using CO 2 emissions coefficient of agricultural inputs. Results showed that the EUE and net energy (NE) were as 3.44 and 35,537.81 MJ ha −1 , respectively. The value of these indices for the study area indicated that surveyed fields are approximately efficient in the use of energy for canola production. The highest share of energy consumption belonged to nitrogen fertilizer (42.09%) followed by diesel fuel (39.81%). In production of rainfed canola, GHG emission was estimated as 1009.91 kg CO 2 equivalent per hectare. Based on the results, nitrogen fertilizer (44.15%), diesel fuel (30.16%) and machinery (14.49%) for field operations had the highest share of GHG emission. The total consumed energy by inputs could be classified as direct energy (40.09%), and indirect energy (59.91%) or renewable energy (2.02%) and nonrenewable energy (97.98%). These results demonstrate that the share of renewable energies in canola production is very low in the studied region and agriculture in Iran is very much dependent on non-renewable energies. In this study, the energy use status in RCPSs has analyzed and the main involved causes have been interpreted. - Highlights: • Fertilizers had the highest share in GHG emission. • The share of renewable energy was low in canola production. • Canola production is efficient in Iran.

  7. From scenarios to components

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Fahland, D.

    2010-01-01

    Scenario-based modeling has evolved as an accepted paradigm for developing complex systems of various kinds. Its main purpose is to ensure that a system provides desired behavior to its users. A scenario is generally understood as a behavioral requirement, denoting a course of actions that shall

  8. Nuclear Security Futures Scenarios

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Keller, Elizabeth James Kistin; Warren, Drake Edward; Hayden, Nancy Kay; Passell, Howard D.; Malczynski, Leonard A.; Backus, George A.

    2017-01-01

    This report provides an overview of the scenarios used in strategic futures workshops conducted at Sandia on September 21 and 29, 2016. The workshops, designed and facilitated by analysts in Center 100, used scenarios to enable thought leaders to think collectively about the changing aspects of global nuclear security and the potential implications for the US Government and Sandia National Laboratories.

  9. Scenario-based strategizing

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Lehr, Thomas; Lorenz, Ullrich; Willert, Markus

    2017-01-01

    For over 40 years, scenarios have been promoted as a key technique for forming strategies in uncertain en- vironments. However, many challenges remain. In this article, we discuss a novel approach designed to increase the applicability of scenario-based strategizing in top management teams. Drawi...... Ministry) and a firm affected by disruptive change (Bosch, leading global supplier of technology and solutions)....

  10. Nuclear Security Futures Scenarios.

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Keller, Elizabeth James Kistin [Sandia National Lab. (SNL-NM), Albuquerque, NM (United States); Warren, Drake Edward [Sandia National Lab. (SNL-NM), Albuquerque, NM (United States); Hayden, Nancy Kay [Sandia National Lab. (SNL-NM), Albuquerque, NM (United States); Passell, Howard D. [Sandia National Lab. (SNL-NM), Albuquerque, NM (United States); Malczynski, Leonard A. [Sandia National Lab. (SNL-NM), Albuquerque, NM (United States); Backus, George A. [Sandia National Lab. (SNL-NM), Albuquerque, NM (United States)

    2017-01-01

    This report provides an overview of the scenarios used in strategic futures workshops conducted at Sandia on September 21 and 29, 2016. The workshops, designed and facilitated by analysts in Center 100, used scenarios to enable thought leaders to think collectively about the changing aspects of global nuclear security and the potential implications for the US Government and Sandia National Laboratories.

  11. Integrative Scenario Development

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Joerg A. Priess

    2014-03-01

    Full Text Available Scenarios are employed to address a large number of future environmental and socioeconomic challenges. We present a conceptual framework for the development of scenarios to integrate the objectives of different stakeholder groups. Based on the framework, land-use scenarios were developed to provide a common base for further research. At the same time, these scenarios assisted regional stakeholders to bring forward their concerns and arrive at a shared understanding of challenges between scientific and regional stakeholders, which allowed them to eventually support regional decision making. The focus on the integration of views and knowledge domains of different stakeholder groups, such as scientists and practitioners, required rigorous and repeated measures of quality control. The application of the integrative concept provided products for both stakeholder groups, and the process of scenario development facilitated cooperation and learning within both the scientist and practitioner groups as well as between the two groups.

  12. GHG emission factors developed for the recycling and composting of municipal waste in South African municipalities

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Friedrich, Elena, E-mail: Friedriche@ukzn.ac.za; Trois, Cristina

    2013-11-15

    Highlights: • GHG emission factors for local recycling of municipal waste are presented. • GHG emission factors for two composting technologies for garden waste are included. • Local GHG emission factors were compared to international ones and discussed. • Uncertainties and limitations are presented and areas for new research highlighted. - Abstract: GHG (greenhouse gas) emission factors for waste management are increasingly used, but such factors are very scarce for developing countries. This paper shows how such factors have been developed for the recycling of glass, metals (Al and Fe), plastics and paper from municipal solid waste, as well as for the composting of garden refuse in South Africa. The emission factors developed for the different recyclables in the country show savings varying from −290 kg CO{sub 2} e (glass) to −19 111 kg CO{sub 2} e (metals – Al) per tonne of recyclable. They also show that there is variability, with energy intensive materials like metals having higher GHG savings in South Africa as compared to other countries. This underlines the interrelation of the waste management system of a country/region with other systems, in particular with energy generation, which in South Africa, is heavily reliant on coal. This study also shows that composting of garden waste is a net GHG emitter, releasing 172 and 186 kg CO{sub 2} e per tonne of wet garden waste for aerated dome composting and turned windrow composting, respectively. The paper concludes that these emission factors are facilitating GHG emissions modelling for waste management in South Africa and enabling local municipalities to identify best practice in this regard.

  13. GHG emission factors developed for the recycling and composting of municipal waste in South African municipalities

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Friedrich, Elena; Trois, Cristina

    2013-01-01

    Highlights: • GHG emission factors for local recycling of municipal waste are presented. • GHG emission factors for two composting technologies for garden waste are included. • Local GHG emission factors were compared to international ones and discussed. • Uncertainties and limitations are presented and areas for new research highlighted. - Abstract: GHG (greenhouse gas) emission factors for waste management are increasingly used, but such factors are very scarce for developing countries. This paper shows how such factors have been developed for the recycling of glass, metals (Al and Fe), plastics and paper from municipal solid waste, as well as for the composting of garden refuse in South Africa. The emission factors developed for the different recyclables in the country show savings varying from −290 kg CO 2 e (glass) to −19 111 kg CO 2 e (metals – Al) per tonne of recyclable. They also show that there is variability, with energy intensive materials like metals having higher GHG savings in South Africa as compared to other countries. This underlines the interrelation of the waste management system of a country/region with other systems, in particular with energy generation, which in South Africa, is heavily reliant on coal. This study also shows that composting of garden waste is a net GHG emitter, releasing 172 and 186 kg CO 2 e per tonne of wet garden waste for aerated dome composting and turned windrow composting, respectively. The paper concludes that these emission factors are facilitating GHG emissions modelling for waste management in South Africa and enabling local municipalities to identify best practice in this regard

  14. Pomace waste management scenarios in Québec--impact on greenhouse gas emissions.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gassara, Fatma; Brar, S K; Pelletier, F; Verma, M; Godbout, S; Tyagi, R D

    2011-09-15

    Fruit processing industries generate tremendous amount of solid wastes which is almost 35-40% dry weight of the total produce used for the manufacturing of juices. These solid wastes, referred to as, "pomace" contain high moisture content (70-75%) and biodegradable organic load (high BOD and COD values) so that their management is an important issue. During the management of these pomace wastes by different strategies comprising incineration, landfill, composting, solid-state fermentation to produce high-value enzymes and animal feed, there is production of greenhouse gases (GHG) which must be taken into account. In this perspective, this study is unique that discusses the GHG emission analysis of agro-industrial waste management strategies, especially apple pomace waste management and repercussions of value-addition of these wastes in terms of their sustainability using life cycle assessment (LCA) model. The results of the analysis indicated that, among all the apple pomace management sub-models for a functional unit, solid-state fermentation to produce enzymes was the most effective method for reducing GHG emissions (906.81 tons CO(2) eq. per year), while apple pomace landfill resulted in higher GHG emissions (1841.00 tons CO(2) eq. per year). The assessment and inventory of GHG emissions during solid-state fermentation gave positive indications of environmental sustainability for the use of this strategy to manage apple pomace and other agricultural wastes, particularly in Quebec and also extended to other countries. The analysis and use of parameters in this study were drawn from various analytical approaches and data sources. There was absence of some data in the literature which led to consideration of some assumptions in order to calculate GHG emissions. Hence, supplementary experimental studies will be very important to calculate the GHG emissions coefficients during agro-industrial waste management. Copyright © 2011 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  15. AgMIP Climate Data and Scenarios for Integrated Assessment. Chapter 3

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ruane, Alexander C.; Winter, Jonathan M.; McDermid, Sonali P.; Hudson, Nicholas I.

    2015-01-01

    Climate change presents a great challenge to the agricultural sector as changes in precipitation, temperature, humidity, and circulation patterns alter the climatic conditions upon which many agricultural systems rely. Projections of future climate conditions are inherently uncertain owing to a lack of clarity on how society will develop, policies that may be implemented to reduce greenhouse-gas (GHG) emissions, and complexities in modeling the atmosphere, ocean, land, cryosphere, and biosphere components of the climate system. Global climate models (GCMs) are based on well-established physics of each climate component that enable the models to project climate responses to changing GHG concentration scenarios (Stocker et al., 2013).The most recent iteration of the Coupled Model Intercomparison Project (CMIP5; Taylor et al., 2012) utilized representative concentration pathways (RCPs) to cover the range of plausible GHG concentrations out past the year 2100, with RCP8.5 representing an extreme scenario and RCP4.5 representing a lower concentrations scenario (Moss et al., 2010).

  16. [Synergistic emission reduction of chief air pollutants and greenhouse gases-based on scenario simulations of energy consumptions in Beijing].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Xie, Yuan-bo; Li, Wei

    2013-05-01

    It is one of the common targets and important tasks for energy management and environmental control of Beijing to improve urban air quality while reducing the emissions of greenhouse gases (GHG). Here, based on the interim and long term developmental planning and energy structure of the city, three energy consumption scenarios in low, moderate and high restrictions were designed by taking the potential energy saving policies and environmental targets into account. The long-range energy alternatives planning (LEAP) model was employed to predict and evaluate reduction effects of the chief air pollutants and GHG during 2010 to 2020 under the three given scenarios. The results showed that if urban energy consumption system was optimized or adjusted by exercising energy saving and emission reduction and pollution control measures, the predicted energy uses will be reduced by 10 to 30 million tons of coal equivalents by 2020. Under the two energy scenarios with moderate and high restrictions, the anticipated emissions of SO2, NOx, PM10, PM2.5, VOC and GHG will be respectively reduced to 71 to 100.2, 159.2 to 218.7, 89.8 to 133.8, 51.4 to 96.0, 56.4 to 74.8 and 148 200 to 164 700 thousand tons. Correspondingly, when compared with the low-restriction scenario, the reducing rate will be 53% to 67% , 50% to 64% , 33% to 55% , 25% to 60% , 41% to 55% and 26% to 34% respectively. Furthermore, based on a study of synergistic emission reduction of the air pollutants and GHG, it was proposed that the adjustment and control of energy consumptions shall be intensively developed in the three sectors of industry, transportation and services. In this way the synergistic reduction of the emissions of chief air pollutants and GHG will be achieved; meanwhile the pressures of energy demands may be deliberately relieved.

  17. Kyoto, the oil sands and the GHG emissions market

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Vickers, P.

    2004-01-01

    This paper reviews uncertainties in the oil sands industry in relation to climate change, greenhouse gas emissions and the Kyoto Protocol. Other issues contributing to uncertainties in the industry were also discussed, including water and natural gas issues, refinery capacity and markets, price and exchange rates as well as capital availability and project cost overruns. The potential economic impact of the Kyoto Protocol on oil sands was outlined with prices per barrel. Government regulations were examined in the context of the evolving expectations of the Canadian public. U.S. actions on climate change were examined at the federal and state level. Emissions trading systems were reviewed with reference to a post 2012 regime. The 2005 budget was discussed, along with the Canadian legislative agenda and domestic offsets program, as well as the regulatory agenda in June of 2005. Post 2012 issues were examined, including discussions on the next commitment period, with reference to the fact that there was no support for new commitments among developing countries but that domestic pressures was building in the U.S. for air and climate regulations. Pressures from shareholders and the scientific community were discussed. Emissions trading in the European Union was reviewed. Stabilization goals will mean significant cuts to emissions in order to accommodate growth. Scenario planning and climate change uncertainties were also reviewed. The benefits of scenario planning in complex situations were outlined and were seen to encourage the development of strategic options. Issues concerning environmental stewardship and possible responses by the Unites States were discussed. Three scenarios were outlined: that climate change is not man-made and all the problems will go away; that technology will evolve to accommodate changes; and that policy will be insensitive to the economy, technology will lag and the energy sector will be faced with much higher costs. Various risk management

  18. Contributing to local policy making on GHG emission reduction through inventorying and attribution: A case study of Shenyang, China

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Xi Fengming; Geng Yong; Chen Xudong; Zhang Yunsong; Wang Xinbei; Xue Bing; Dong Huijuan; Liu Zhu; Ren Wanxia; Fujita, Tsuyoshi; Zhu Qinghua

    2011-01-01

    Cities consumed 84% of commercial energy in China, which indicates cities should be the main areas for GHG emissions reduction. Our case study of Shenyang in this paper shows how a clear inventory analysis on GHG emissions at city level can help to identify the major industries and societal sectors for reduction efforts so as to facilitate low-carbon policy-making. The results showed total carbon emission in 2007 was 57 Mt CO 2 equivalents (CO 2 e), of which 41 Mt CO 2 e was in-boundary emissions and 16 Mt CO 2 e was out-of-boundary emissions. The energy sector was dominant in the emission inventory, accounting for 93.1% of total emissions. Within energy sector, emissions from energy production industry, manufacturing and construction industry accounted for 88.4% of this sector. Our analysis showed that comparing with geographical boundary, setting system boundary based on single process standard could provide better information to decision makers for carbon emission reduction. After attributing electricity and heating consumption to final users, the resident and commercial sector became the largest emitter, accounting for 28.5% of total emissions. Spatial analysis of emissions showed that industrial districts such as Shenbei and Tiexi had the large potential to reduce their carbon emissions. Implications of results are finally discussed. - Highlights: → An inventory analysis can help identify key industries and societal sectors for reduction efforts. → Setting system boundary can provide better information for carbon emission reduction. → Urban districts with heavy industrial plants have potential to reduce their carbon emissions. → Policies that support urban energy structure optimization can accelerate low-carbon development.

  19. Transportation Energy Futures Series: Alternative Fuel Infrastructure Expansion: Costs, Resources, Production Capacity, and Retail Availability for Low-Carbon Scenarios

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Melaina, W. [National Renewable Energy Lab. (NREL), Golden, CO (United States); Heath, Garvin [National Renewable Energy Lab. (NREL), Golden, CO (United States); Sandor, Debra [National Renewable Energy Lab. (NREL), Golden, CO (United States); Steward, Darlene [National Renewable Energy Lab. (NREL), Golden, CO (United States); Vimmerstedt, Laura [National Renewable Energy Lab. (NREL), Golden, CO (United States); Warner, Ethan [National Renewable Energy Lab. (NREL), Golden, CO (United States); Webster, Karen W. [National Renewable Energy Lab. (NREL), Golden, CO (United States)

    2013-04-01

    The petroleum-based transportation fuel system is complex and highly developed, in contrast to the nascent low-petroleum, low-carbon alternative fuel system. This report examines how expansion of the low-carbon transportation fuel infrastructure could contribute to deep reductions in petroleum use and greenhouse gas (GHG) emissions across the U.S. transportation sector. Three low-carbon scenarios, each using a different combination of low-carbon fuels, were developed to explore infrastructure expansion trends consistent with a study goal of reducing transportation sector GHG emissions to 80% less than 2005 levels by 2050.These scenarios were compared to a business-as-usual (BAU) scenario and were evaluated with respect to four criteria: fuel cost estimates, resource availability, fuel production capacity expansion, and retail infrastructure expansion.

  20. Crowd-Sourcing Management Activity Data to Drive GHG Emission Inventories in the Land Use Sector

    Science.gov (United States)

    Paustian, K.; Herrick, J.

    2015-12-01

    Greenhouse gas (GHG) emissions from the land use sector constitute the largest source category for many countries in Africa. Enhancing C sequestration and reducing GHG emissions on managed lands in Africa has to potential to attract C financing to support adoption of more sustainable land management practices that, in addition to GHG mitigation, can provide co-benefits of more productive and climate-resilient agroecosystems. However, robust systems to measure and monitor C sequestration/GHG reductions are currently a significant barrier to attracting more C financing to land use-related mitigation efforts.Anthropogenic GHG emissions are driven by a variety of environmental factors, including climate and soil attributes, as well as human-activities in the form of land use and management practices. GHG emission inventories typically use empirical or process-based models of emission rates that are driven by environmental and management variables. While a lack of field-based flux and C stock measurements are a limiting factor for GHG estimation, we argue that an even greater limitation may be availabiity of data on the management activities that influence flux rates, particularly in developing countries in Africa. In most developed countries there is a well-developed infrastructure of agricultural statistics and practice surveys that can be used to drive model-based GHG emission estimations. However, this infrastructure is largely lacking in developing countries in Africa. While some activity data (e.g. land cover change) can be derived from remote sensing, many key data (e.g., N fertilizer practices, residue management, manuring) require input from the farmers themselves. The explosive growth in cellular technology, even in many of the poorest parts of Africa, suggests the potential for a new crowd-sourcing approach and direct engagement with farmers to 'leap-frog' the land resource information model of developed countries. Among the many benefits of this approach

  1. GHG and black carbon emission inventories from Mezquital Valley: The main energy provider for Mexico Megacity.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Montelongo-Reyes, M M; Otazo-Sánchez, E M; Romo-Gómez, C; Gordillo-Martínez, A J; Galindo-Castillo, E

    2015-09-15

    The greenhouse gases and black carbon emission inventory from IPCC key category Energy was accomplished for the Mezquital Valley, one of the most polluted regions in Mexico, as the Mexico City wastewater have been continuously used in agricultural irrigation for more than a hundred years. In addition, thermoelectric, refinery, cement and chemistry industries are concentrated in the southern part of the valley, near Mexico City. Several studies have reported air, soil, and water pollution data and its main sources for the region. Paradoxically, these sources contaminate the valley, but boosted its economic development. Nevertheless, no research has been done concerning GHG emissions, or climate change assessment. This paper reports inventories performed by the 1996 IPCC methodology for the baseline year 2005. Fuel consumption data were derived from priority sectors such as electricity generation, refineries, manufacturing & cement industries, transportation, and residential use. The total CO2 emission result was 13,894.9 Gg, which constituted three-quarters of Hidalgo statewide energy category. The principal CO2 sources were energy transformation (69%) and manufacturing (19%). Total black carbon emissions were estimated by a bottom-up method at 0.66 Gg. The principal contributor was on-road transportation (37%), followed by firewood residential consumption (26%) and cocked brick manufactures (22%). Non-CO2 gas emissions were also significant, particularly SO2 (255.9 Gg), which accounts for 80% of the whole Hidalgo State emissions. Results demonstrated the negative environmental impact on Mezquital Valley, caused by its role as a Megacity secondary fuel and electricity provider, as well as by the presence of several cement industries. Copyright © 2015 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  2. Potential and cost of clean development mechanism options in the energy sector. Inventory of options in non-Annex I countries to reduce GHG-emissions

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Jansen, J.C.; Van der Linden, N.H.; Martens, J.W.; Ormel, F.; Van Rooijen, S.N.M. [ECN Policy Studies, Petten (Netherlands); Heaps, C.; Kartha, S.; Lazarus, M.; Ruth, M. [Stockholm Environment Institute SEI, Boston (United States); Lee, R.; Mendis, M. [Alternative Energy Development, Inc., Silver Spring (United States)

    1999-12-01

    An assessment is presented of the potential and cost of the Clean Development Mechanism as an instrument to partially meet the Greenhouse Gases emission limitation commitments of the Netherlands for the first budget period, 2008-2012. Information about the cost and emission reduction potential in the energy sector has been collected from national mitigation studies. In total, some 300 GHG emission reduction options in 24 non-Annex I countries have been collected Together, these countries account for two-thirds of current non-Annex I GHG emissions. The mitigation potential in non-Annex I countries is significant when compared with Annex I reduction requirements. The inventory of mitigation options suggests that an annual mitigation potential in the first budget period at costs up to 1990 USD 10/ton CO2 is approximately 1.7 Gt CO2 equivalents. However, this estimate should be viewed with caution, as the mitigation studies on which this estimate is based have been carried out as capacity-building exercises and they should not be viewed as definitive, technically rigorous, exhaustive, analysis of national GHG mitigation potential. 15 refs.

  3. GHG emission quantification for pavement construction projects using a process-based approach

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Charinee Limsawasd

    2017-03-01

    Full Text Available Climate change and greenhouse gas (GHG emissions have attracted much attention for their impacts upon the global environment. Initiating of new legislation and regulations for control of GHG emissions from the industrial sectors has been applied to address this problem. The transportation industries, which include operation of road pavement and pavement construction equipment, are the highest GHG-emitting sectors. This study presents a novel quantification model of GHG emissions of pavement construction using process-based analysis. The model is composed of five modules that evaluate GHG emissions. These are: material production and acquisition, (2 material transport to a project site, (3 heavy equipment use, (4 on-site machinery use, and, (5 on-site electricity use. The model was applied to a hypothetical pavement project to compare the environmental impacts of flexible and rigid pavement types during construction. The resulting model can be used for evaluation of environmental impacts, as well as for designing and planning highway pavement construction.

  4. Energy balance and GHG-abatement cost of cassava utilization for fuel ethanol in Thailand

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Nguyen, Thu Lan Thi; Gheewala, Shabbir H.; Garivait, Savitri

    2007-01-01

    Since 2001, in order to enhance ethanol's cost competitiveness with gasoline, the Thai government has approved the exemption of excise tax imposed on ethanol, controlling the retail price of gasohol (a mixture of ethanol and gasoline at a ratio of 1:9) to be less than that of octane 95 gasoline, within a range not exceeding 1.5 baht a litre. The policy to promote ethanol for transport is being supported by its positive effects on energy security and climate change mitigation. An analysis of energy, greenhouse gas (GHG) balances and GHG abatement cost was done to evaluate fuel ethanol produced from cassava in Thailand. Positive energy balance of 22.4 MJ/L and net avoided GHG emission of 1.6 kg CO 2 eq./L found for cassava-based ethanol (CE) proved that it would be a good substitute for gasoline, effective in fossil energy saving and GHG reduction. With a GHG abatement cost of US$99 per tonne of CO 2 , CE is rather less cost effective than the many other climate strategies relevant to Thailand in the short term. Opportunities for improvements are discussed to make CE a reasonable option for national climate policy

  5. Managing GHG emissions : performance to the end of 2003 and forecast to 2008

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    2004-10-01

    This paper presents statistics of greenhouse gas (GHG) emissions for Shell Canada Ltd., one of the largest integrated oil and gas companies in Canada. Strategies for future emissions reductions were also presented. Since 1995, Shell has both set and met targets to reduce emissions in base businesses. They have increased their target reductions to a further 6 per cent by 2008. Strategies included reductions in energy consumption and improvements in energy efficiency. Challenges presented by new governmental regulations were discussed. Alternate energy sources are being considered as a means of expanding the Shell energy business portfolio. Principles and management plans guiding the emissions reduction strategy were presented, as well as details of the Shell management structure and climate change advisory panel. Figures and statistics of emissions reductions were provided in relation to changes in business activity; energy efficiency; formation gas; energy in declining fields; and fuel mix. An emissions forecast to 2010 was presented with newly adjusted goals. In 2003, overall refinery energy efficiency improved by over 4 per cent. Statistics of refinery energy intensity were presented. Exploration and production businesses achieved a reduction of 6 per cent, with energy intensity per unit of production presented. Oil sands projects achieved a GHG emissions intensity of 69 kilograms per barrel of bitumen. In addition, the voluntary GHG management plan introduced a number of offsets including tree planting programs and the purchase of voluntary GHG credits. The methodology used to calculate GHG emissions was also provided. tabs., figs

  6. Connections between population density, energy use, and GHG emissions in water networks

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Filion, Y.R. [Queen' s Univ., Kingston, ON (Canada). Dept. of Civil Engineering

    2007-07-01

    There is a growing concern that urban sprawl and highly dispersed urban infrastructure in cities is posing significant environmental impacts. However, there is no agreement on the suitability of interventions such as population intensification on reducing environmental impacts. This paper investigated the connection between population intensification and environmental impact in water distribution networks. Specifically, it examined the relationship between population density, annual per capita energy use, and annual per capita greenhouse gas (GHG) emissions in water distribution networks. It also examined which population densities produce low levels of annual per capita energy use and GHG emissions. An analytical model of a trunk main was developed to connect population density to energy use and GHG emissions. The model considered energy use in five life activities of the trunk main, namely pipe fabrication, pipe repair, water pumping, and pipe recycling and/or disposal. The energy use model was combined with emission factors and electricity fuel-source mixtures from four Canadian regions (Atlantic Provinces, Quebec, Ontario, and Alberta) to compute representative levels of annual per capita GHGs emitted by the trunk main. It was concluded that increasing population density from 10 ca/ha to 150 ca/ha reduced energy use and GHG emissions by 67per cent and that increasing population density beyond 150 ca/ha produces no significant decrease in annual per capita energy use and GHG emissions. Further analysis on looped networks is required to verify these preliminary findings. 10 refs., 3 tabs., 2 figs.

  7. A consumption-based GHG inventory for the U.S. state of Oregon.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Erickson, Peter; Allaway, David; Lazarus, Michael; Stanton, Elizabeth A

    2012-04-03

    Many U.S. states conduct greenhouse gas (GHG) inventories to inform their climate change planning efforts. These inventories usually follow a production-based method adapted from the Intergovernmental Panel on Climate Change. States could also take a consumption-based perspective, however, and estimate all emissions released to support consumption in their state, regardless of where the emissions occur. In what may be the first such comprehensive inventory conducted for a U.S. state, we find that consumption-based emissions for Oregon are 47% higher than those released in-state. This finding implies that Oregon's contribution to global greenhouse gas emissions (carbon footprint) is considerably higher than traditional production-based methods would suggest. Furthermore, the consumption-based inventory helps highlight the role of goods and services (and associated purchasing behaviors) more so than do production-based methods. Accordingly, a consumption-based perspective opens new opportunities for many states and their local government partners to reduce GHG emissions, such as initiatives to advance lower-carbon public sector or household consumption, that are well within their sphere of influence. State and local governments should consider conducting consumption-based GHG inventories and adopting consumption-based emission reductions targets in order to broaden the reach and effectiveness of state and local actions in reducing global GHG emissions. Consumption-based frameworks should be viewed as a complement to, but not a substitute for, production-based (in-state) GHG emissions inventories and targets.

  8. ON THE STUDY OF GHG (GREENHOUSE GAS EMISSIONS IN RICE PRODUCTION SYSTEMS IN DARGAZ, IRAN

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ghorbanali RASSAM

    2015-12-01

    Full Text Available The most important issue which has attracted the attention of many scientists is the climate change and global warming due to greenhouse gas emission which has caused the world faced with a great human and environmental disaster. In this study, the amount of greenhouse gas (GHG emissions was estimated in the semi-traditional and semi-mechanized rice production systems in Dargaz region, Iran. All the agricultural and consuming inputs procedures responsible for greenhouse gas emissions were collected and recorded in both systems. The amount of GHG emission in semi-traditional and semi-mechanized was 813.17 and 968.31 kg CO2-eq ha-1, respectively. The fuel consumption with the share of 38.22% in semi-traditional method and 43.32% in semi-mechanized system had the largest share in GHG emission and using Nitrogen fertilizer on farms with the share of 31.97% in semi-traditional method and 26.91% in semi-mechanized system is in the second place of GHG emission. The semi-traditional system had greater GHG emissions in the unit of tone of harvested grain and unit of energy output. The use of alternative methods such as conservation tillage and organic fertilizers can be effective in improving the environmental status of the production area.

  9. GHG emissions, GDP growth and the Kyoto Protocol: A revisit of Environmental Kuznets Curve hypothesis

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Huang Weiming; Lee, Grace W.M.; Wu Chihcheng

    2008-01-01

    The Kyoto Protocol attempts through political negotiations to guide participating industrialized countries' greenhouse gas (GHG) emissions from a positive growing trend, to reach a peak point (or turning point), and then be reduced to a negative growth. That means the relationship between decreasing GHG emissions and economic growth may be described by an inverted-U curve (or called a bell-shaped curve), which is consistent with the concept of the Environmental Kuznets Curve (EKC) hypothesis. This research observed that the economic development and GHG emissions in Economies in Transition (EITs) exhibit a hockey-stick curve trend (or called quasi-L-shape curve), that also generates a lot of 'hot air' which is significant to the implementation of the Kyoto Protocol. In addition, through the analysis of single-country time series data and GDP data, this research demonstrated that statistical data for most of the Annex II countries do not possess evidence that supports the EKC hypothesis for GHG emissions. The results from this study also indicated that the 38 industrialized countries are unable to meet their targets under the Kyoto Protocol within the specified time period, which are probably caused by the econometric method's inability to predict accurately the extents and development of innovative technologies and Clean Development Mechanism (CDM) projects. If the international community truly wants to reduce the GHG emissions, the effectiveness of the existing international framework for emissions reduction needs to be reconsidered seriously, and the global cooperation mechanism also needs to be greatly enhanced

  10. Mars base buildup scenarios

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Blacic, J.D.

    1985-01-01

    Two surface base build-up scenarios are presented in order to help visualize the mission and to serve as a basis for trade studies. In the first scenario, direct manned landings on the Martian surface occur early in the missions and scientific investigation is the main driver and rationale. In the second scenario, early development of an infrastructure to exploite the volatile resources of the Martian moons for economic purposes is emphasized. Scientific exploration of the surface is delayed at first, but once begun develops rapidly aided by the presence of a permanently manned orbital station

  11. Accounting for time-dependent changes in GHG emissions in the Ribeiro appellation (NW Spain): Are land use changes an important driver?

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Villanueva-Rey, Pedro; Vázquez-Rowe, Ian; Otero, Marta; Moreira, María Teresa; Feijoo, Gumersindo

    2015-01-01

    Highlights: • The environmental profile of a wine appellation was assessed for a 20 year period. • LUCs and LCA methods were linked to assess the GHG emissions in the appellation. • Winegrowing operations and land use were monitored up to the gate of the winery. • Different trends were found depending on the period assessed. • Demographic and social changes triggered changes in the carbon stocks. - Abstract: Land use changes (LUCs) constitute a crucial source of environmental impact in production systems, which are mostly associated with greenhouse gas (GHG) emissions. This circumstance is especially important for the agricultural sector, since these imply an important proportion of the total GHG emissions occurring worldwide. Wine and grape production is a key sector in Spain, representing the largest surface area at European level. In the past decades, important wine related LUCs have been observed due to changes in farming methods/type, number of Denominations of Origin, and the establishment of larger wineries that have enhanced exports. The current study presents a temporally based Life Cycle Assessment (LCA) study of the Ribeiro appellation in NW Spain, in which the gradual changes in the land use, as well as the technological improvements are analyzed in detail in order to understand how the environmental profile of this specific wine producing area has shifted in the past two decades (i.e., from 1990 to 2009). On the one hand, phenomena such as afforestation and agricultural intensification are analyzed throughout the appellation to estimate the impact due to GHG emissions linked to LUCs, based on IPCC standards. On the other hand, trends linked to technological improvements, operational changes, such as changes in the use and management of plant protection agents or fertilizers or the change in the energy sources for machinery on the vineyards, were assessed in detail

  12. Lifecycle GHG emissions of palm biodiesel: Unintended market effects negate direct benefits of the Malaysian Economic Transformation Plan (ETP)

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Abdul-Manan, Amir F.N.

    2017-01-01

    Biodiesel expansion can lead to unintended effects that offset the direct GHG benefits of biofuels. Two documented unintended effects are the indirect land use change (ILUC) and indirect energy use change (IEUC). ILUC has been included in many lifecycle GHG studies of biofuels, but IEUC has remained relatively elusive. This paper presents an updated assessment of the lifecycle GHG emissions of palm biodiesel from Malaysia and, for the first time, incorporating the two estimated indirect effects simultaneously. Future GHG emissions of palm biodiesel are projected by taking into account of Malaysia's Economic Transformation Programme (ETP) that aims to reform the oil palm industry in order to achieve a high-income nation. Uncertainties associated with lifecycle GHG models were dealt with using Monte Carlo simulation in order to identify the breadth and likelihood of GHG reductions relative to petroleum-based fuels in the context of the European directives. This study has shown that the ETP, if successfully implemented, can significantly improve the direct GHG emissions of palm biodiesel, but the benefits are offset by the rise in global emissions due to ILUC and IEUC. Biofuel policies should also include IEUC, in addition to ILUC, to avoid GHG emissions leakages. - Highlights: • Estimate current and future lifecycle GHG emissions of Malaysian palm biodiesel. • Evaluate the GHG effects of Malaysia's Economic Transformation Plan (ETP). • Direct GHG benefits of biodiesel offset by indirect market effects. • Palm biodiesel unlikely to enable global GHG emissions reductions. • Global biofuel policy must account for indirect effects.

  13. Modeling of energy consumption and related GHG (greenhouse gas) intensity and emissions in Europe using general regression neural networks

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Antanasijević, Davor; Pocajt, Viktor; Ristić, Mirjana; Perić-Grujić, Aleksandra

    2015-01-01

    This paper presents a new approach for the estimation of energy-related GHG (greenhouse gas) emissions at the national level that combines the simplicity of the concept of GHG intensity and the generalization capabilities of ANNs (artificial neural networks). The main objectives of this work includes the determination of the accuracy of a GRNN (general regression neural network) model applied for the prediction of EC (energy consumption) and GHG intensity of energy consumption, utilizing general country statistics as inputs, as well as analysis of the accuracy of energy-related GHG emissions obtained by multiplying the two aforementioned outputs. The models were developed using historical data from the period 2004–2012, for a set of 26 European countries (EU Members). The obtained results demonstrate that the GRNN GHG intensity model provides a more accurate prediction, with the MAPE (mean absolute percentage error) of 4.5%, than tested MLR (multiple linear regression) and second-order and third-order non-linear MPR (multiple polynomial regression) models. Also, the GRNN EC model has high accuracy (MAPE = 3.6%), and therefore both GRNN models and the proposed approach can be considered as suitable for the calculation of GHG emissions. The energy-related predicted GHG emissions were very similar to the actual GHG emissions of EU Members (MAPE = 6.4%). - Highlights: • ANN modeling of GHG intensity of energy consumption is presented. • ANN modeling of energy consumption at the national level is presented. • GHG intensity concept was used for the estimation of energy-related GHG emissions. • The ANN models provide better results in comparison with conventional models. • Forecast of GHG emissions for 26 countries was made successfully with MAPE of 6.4%

  14. Electricity trade and GHG emissions: Assessment of Quebec's hydropower in the Northeastern American market (2006-2008)

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Ben Amor, Mourad; Pineau, Pierre-Olivier; Gaudreault, Caroline; Samson, Rejean

    2011-01-01

    Worldwide electricity sector reforms open up electricity markets and increase trades. This has environmental consequences as exports and imports either increase or decrease local production and consequently greenhouse gas (GHG) emissions. This paper's objective is to illustrate the importance of electricity trade's impact on GHG emissions by providing an estimate of the net GHG emissions resulting from these trades. To achieve this objective, Quebec hourly electricity exchanges with adjacent jurisdictions were examined over the 2006-2008 period. In order to associate a specific GHG emission quantity to electricity trades, hourly marginal electricity production technologies were identified and validated using the Ontario hourly output per power plant and information released in the Quebec adjacent system operator reports. It is estimated that over three years, imports into Quebec were responsible for 7.7 Mt of GHG, while Quebec hydropower exports avoided 28.3 Mt of GHG emissions. Hence, the net result is 20.6 Mt of avoided emissions over 2006-2008, or about 7 Mt per year, which corresponds to more than 8% of the Quebec yearly GHG emissions. When GHG emissions from all life cycle stages (resource extraction to end-of-life) are accounted for, the net avoided GHG emissions increase by 35%, to 27.9 Mt. - Research highlights: → Environmental benefits of hydropower exports are considerable. → Detailed GHG assessment of such electricity trade is missing from the literature. → Net GHG emissions estimate resulting from such trade is provided. → GHG gains are significant in the Northeast American electricity market due to such electricity trade.

  15. JAXA's Space Exploration Scenario

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sato, N. S.

    2018-04-01

    Japan Aerospace Exploration Agency (JAXA) has been studying space exploration scenario, including human exploration for Japan since 2015, which encompasses goals, knowledge gap assessment, and architecture. assessment, and technology roadmap.

  16. Learning Through Scenario Planning

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Balarezo, Jose

    level variables, this research corrects this void by investigating the dynamics of organizational learning through the lenses of a corporate scenario planning process. This enhances our scientific understanding of the role that scenario planning might play in the context of organizational learning......This project investigates the uses and effects of scenario planning in companies operating in highly uncertain and dynamic environments. Whereas previous research on scenario planning has fallen short of providing sufficient evidence of its mechanisms and effects on individual or organizational...... and strategic renewal. Empirical evidence of the various difficulties that learning flows has to overcome as it journeys through organizational and hierarchical levels are presented. Despite various cognitive and social psychological barriers identified along the way, the results show the novel...

  17. Integrated transportation scenario planning.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-07-01

    Regional land usetransportation scenario planning emerged as a planning technique in U.S. : metropolitan areas in the 1990s. Building on prior work by this research team, this study continues : to track the development and expansion of regional sc...

  18. Development forecast of renewable energy power generation in China and its influence on the GHG control strategy of the country

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Liu, Tong; Xu, Gang; Tian, Longhu; Huang, Qili [National Power Generation Engineering Research Center, National Engineering Laboratory for Biomass Power Generation Equipment, School of Energy Power and Mechanical Engineering, North China Electric Power University, Beijing 102206 (China); Cai, Peng [Yantai Longyuan Power Technology Co., LTD, Beijing 100070 (China)

    2011-04-15

    CO{sub 2} emissions of the electricity supply sector in China account for about half of the total volume in the country. Thus, reducing CO{sub 2} emissions in China's electricity supply sector will contribute significantly to the efforts of greenhouse gas (GHG) control in the country and the rest of the world. This paper introduces the development status of renewable energy and other main CO{sub 2} mitigation options in power generation in China and makes a preliminary prediction of the development of renewable energy in the country for future decades. Besides, based on the situation in China, the paper undertakes a comprehensive analysis of CO{sub 2} mitigation costs, mitigation potential, and fossil energy conversation capacity of renewable energy and other mitigation options, through which the influence of renewable energy on the mitigation strategy of China is analyzed. (author)

  19. Simulation of a scenario of total loss of external and internal power (Sbo) for different vent pressures of the containment of a BWR-5; Simulacion de un escenario de perdida total de potencia externa e interna (SBO) para distintas presiones de venteo de la contencion de un reactor BWR-5

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Cardenas V, J.; Mugica R, C. A.; Godinez S, V., E-mail: Jaime.cardenas@cnsns.gob.mx [Comision Nacional de Seguridad Nuclear y Salvaguardias, Dr. Barragan No. 779, Col. Narvarte, 03020 Mexico D. F. (Mexico)

    2014-10-15

    The simulation of a Station Black Out (Sbo) was realized with intervention of the vent containment by means of a rigid vent coming from the dry-well and that discharges directly to the atmosphere, with the MELCOR code version 2.1. This scenario was carried out for a BWR-5 and containment type Mark II, with a thermal power of 2317 MWt similar to the reactor of nuclear power plant of Laguna Verde. For this scenario was considered as only available system for coolant injection to the reactor to the Reactor Core Isolation Cooling (Rcic), which remained operating 4 hours with batteries bank. The Security and Relief Valves (SR V) were considered functional (by simplicity) and that they mechanically do not exceed their capacity to liberate pressure due to the performances in their safety way. The operator maneuver to perform the SR V and to de pressurize the vessel until the pressure (13 kg/cm{sup 2}) to operate the low pressure systems was modeled. The results cover approximately 48 hours (172000 seconds), time in which was observed the behavior of the level and pressure in the vessel. Also the scenario evolution was analyzed to different vent pressures of the primary containment (2.0, 3.0, 4.5, 6.0, and 10.0 kg/cm{sup 2}), the temperature profiles of the dry-well, the hydrogen accumulation in the containment, the radio-nuclides liberation through rigid vent to the atmosphere and the inventory of these. In this work an analysis of the pressure behavior in the primary containment is presented, with the purpose of minimizing liberated fission products to the environment. (Author)

  20. Comparative study of Fischer–Tropsch production and post-combustion CO2 capture at an oil refinery: Economic evaluation and GHG (greenhouse gas emissions) balances

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Johansson, Daniella; Franck, Per-Åke; Pettersson, Karin; Berntsson, Thore

    2013-01-01

    The impact on CO 2 emissions of integrating new technologies (a biomass-to-Fischer–Tropsch fuel plant and a post-combustion CO 2 capture plant) with a complex refinery has previously been investigated separately by the authors. In the present study these designs are integrated with a refinery and evaluated from the point-of-view of economics and GHG (greenhouse gas emissions) emissions and are compared to a reference refinery. Stand-alone Fischer–Tropsch fuel production is included for comparison. To account for uncertainties in the future energy market, the assessment has been conducted for different future energy market conditions. For the post-combustion CO 2 capture process to be profitable, the present study stresses the importance of a high charge for CO 2 emission. A policy support for biofuels is essential for the biomass-to-Fischer–Tropsch fuel production to be profitable. The level of the support, however, differs depending on scenario. In general, a high charge for CO 2 economically favours Fischer–Tropsch fuel production, while a low charge for CO 2 economically favours Fischer–Tropsch fuel production. Integrated Fischer–Tropsch fuel production is most profitable in scenarios with a low wood fuel price. The stand-alone alternative shows no profitability in any of the studied scenarios. Moreover, the high investment costs make all the studied cases sensitive to variations in capital costs. - Highlights: • Comparison of Fischer–Tropsch (FT) fuel production and CO 2 capture at a refinery. • Subsidies for renewable fuels are essential for FT fuel production to be profitable. • A high charge for CO 2 is essential for post-combustion CO 2 capture to be profitable. • A low charge for CO 2 economically favours FT fuel production. • Of the studied cases, CO 2 capture shows the greatest reduction in GHG emissions

  1. Opportunities to integrate solar technologies into the Chilean lithium mining industry - reducing process related GHG emissions of a strategic storage resource

    Science.gov (United States)

    Telsnig, Thomas; Potz, Christian; Haas, Jannik; Eltrop, Ludger; Palma-Behnke, Rodrigo

    2017-06-01

    The arid northern regions of Chile are characterized by an intensive mineral mining industry and high solar irradiance levels. Besides Chile's main mining products, copper, molybdenum and iron, the production of lithium carbonate from lithium containing brines has become strategically important due to the rising demand for battery technologies worldwide. Its energy-intensive production may affect the ecological footprint of the product and the country's climate targets. Thus, the use of solar technologies for electricity and heat production might constitute an interesting option for CO2 mitigation. This study aims to quantify the impacts of the lithium carbonate production processes in Chile on climate change, and to identify site-specific integration options of solar energy technologies to reduce GHG life-cycle emissions. The considered solar integration options include a parabolic trough power plant with a molten salt storage, a solar tower power plant with molten salt receiver and molten salt storage, a one-axis tracking photovoltaic energy system for electricity, and two solar thermal power plants with Ruths storage (steam accumulator) for thermal heat production. CSP plants were identified as measures with the highest GHG mitigation potential reducing the CO2 emissions for the entire production chain and the lithium production between 16% and 33%. In a scenario that combines solar technologies for electricity and thermal energy generation, up to 59% of the CO2 emissions at the lithium production sites in Chile can be avoided. A comparison of the GHG abatement costs of the proposed solar integration options indicates that the photovoltaic system, the solar thermal plant with limited storage and the solar tower power plant are the most cost effective options.

  2. Power generation scenarios for Nigeria: An environmental and cost assessment

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Gujba, H.; Mulugetta, Y.; Azapagic, A.

    2011-01-01

    Exploratory scenarios for the power sector in Nigeria are analysed in this paper using possible pathways within the Nigerian context and then compared against the Government's power expansion plan in the short to medium term. They include two fossil-fuel (FF and CCGT) and two sustainable-development-driven scenarios (SD1 and SD2). The results from the FF scenarios indicate this is the preferred outcome if the aim is to expand electricity access at the lowest capital costs. However, the annual costs and environmental impacts increase significantly as a consequence. The SD1 scenario, characterised by increased penetration of renewables, leads to a reduction of a wide range of environmental impacts while increasing the annual costs slightly. The SD2 scenario, also with an increased share of renewables, is preferred if the aim is to reduce GHG emissions; however, this comes at an increased annual cost. Both the SD1 and SD2 scenarios also show significant increases in the capital investment compared to the Government's plans. These results can be used to help inform future policy in the Nigerian electricity sector by showing explicitly the range of possible trade-offs between environmental impacts and economic costs both in the short and long terms. - Research Highlights: →The power sector in Nigeria is set to grow significantly in near future. →Power sector scenarios are constructed and studied using LCA and economic analysis methods and then compared against the Government's plans. →These include two fossil-fuel and two sustainable-development-driven scenarios. →The results explicitly show the trade-offs between environmental impacts and costs. →Following the fossil fuel paths will reduce capital costs but increase environmental impacts. The renewable energy paths will reduce some environmental impacts but increase the capital costs.

  3. The political economy of a tradable GHG permit market in the European Union

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Markussen, P.; Tinggaard Svendsen, G.; Vesterdal, M.

    2002-01-01

    The EU has committed itself to meet an 8% greenhouse gas (GHG) reduction target level following the Kyoto agreement. Therefore, the EU Commission has just proposed a new directive establishing a framework for GHG emissions trading within the European Union. This proposal is to outcome a policy process started by the EU Commission and its Green Paper from March 2000. The main industrial stake holders all had the opportunity to comment on the Green Paper and from their directive proposal. Here, we find that the dominant interest groups indeed influenced the final design of an EU GHG market. This industrial rent-seeking most prominently lead to a grand fathered permit allocation rule like the one found in the US tradable permit systems. (au)

  4. The political economy of a tradable GHG permit market in the European Union

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Markussen, P; Tinggaard Svendsen, G; Vesterdal, M

    2002-07-01

    The EU has committed itself to meet an 8% greenhouse gas (GHG) reduction target level following the Kyoto agreement. Therefore, the EU Commission has just proposed a new directive establishing a framework for GHG emissions trading within the European Union. This proposal is to outcome a policy process started by the EU Commission and its Green Paper from March 2000. The main industrial stake holders all had the opportunity to comment on the Green Paper and from their directive proposal. Here, we find that the dominant interest groups indeed influenced the final design of an EU GHG market. This industrial rent-seeking most prominently lead to a grand fathered permit allocation rule like the one found in the US tradable permit systems. (au)

  5. Carbon footprint of four different wastewater treatment scenarios

    Science.gov (United States)

    Diafarou, Moumouni; Mariska, Ronteltap, ,, Dr.; Damir, Brdjanovic, ,, Prof.

    2014-05-01

    Since the era of industrialization, concentrations of greenhouse gases (GHGs) have tremendously increased in the atmosphere, as a result of the extensive use of fossil fuels, deforestation, improper waste management, transport, and other economic activities (Boer, 2008).This has led to a great accumulation of greenhouse gases, forming a blanket around the Earth which contributes in the so-called "Global Warming". Over the last decades, wastewater treatment has developed strongly and has become a very important asset in mitigating the impact of domestic and industrial effluents on the environment. There are many different forms of wastewater treatment, and one of the most effective treatment technology in terms COD, N and P removal, activated sludge is often criticized for its high energy use. Some other treatment concepts have a more "green" image, but it is not clear whether this image is justified based on their greenhouse gas emission. This study focuses on the estimation of GHG emissions of four different wastewater treatment configurations, both conventional and innovative systems namely: (1) Harnaschpolder, (2) Sneek, (3) EIER-Ouaga and (4) Siddhipur. This analysis is based on COD mass balance, the Intergovernmental Panel on Climate Change (IPCC) 2006 guidelines for estimating CO2 and CH4, and literature review. Furthermore, the energy requirements for each of the systems were estimated based on energy survey. The study showed that an estimated daily average of 87 g of CO2 equivalent, ranging between 38 to 192 g, was derived to be the per capita CO2 emission for the four different wastewater treatment scenarios. Despite the fact that no electrical energy is used in the treatment process, the GHG emission from EIER Ouaga anaerobic pond systems is found to be the highest compared to the three other scenarios analysed. It was estimated 80% higher than the most favourable scenario (Sneek). Moreover, the results indicate that the GHGs emitted from these WWTPs are

  6. Alternative co-digestion scenarios for efficient fixed-dome reactor biomethanation processes

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Fotidis, Ioannis; Laranjeiro, Tiago; Angelidaki, Irini

    2016-01-01

    where low-tech reactors have been abandoned. Thus, the aims of this study were: a) to identify and evaluate alternative biomasses as anaerobic digestion substrates at a remote rural area site in India; b) to propose an efficient continuous biomethanation scenario for low-tech reactors; c) to assess......-digestion scenario with 45% and 13% higher energy recovery from biomasses' utilization and 69% and 25% less greenhouse gas (GHG) emissions, compared to R30 and R45, respectively. These results indicate that it is possible to operate efficiently low-tech biogas reactors with utilized biomasses as anaerobic digestion...

  7. Accident scenario diagnostics with neural networks

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Guo, Z.

    1992-01-01

    Nuclear power plants are very complex systems. The diagnoses of transients or accident conditions is very difficult because a large amount of information, which is often noisy, or intermittent, or even incomplete, need to be processed in real time. To demonstrate their potential application to nuclear power plants, neural networks axe used to monitor the accident scenarios simulated by the training simulator of TVA's Watts Bar Nuclear Power Plant. A self-organization network is used to compress original data to reduce the total number of training patterns. Different accident scenarios are closely related to different key parameters which distinguish one accident scenario from another. Therefore, the accident scenarios can be monitored by a set of small size neural networks, called modular networks, each one of which monitors only one assigned accident scenario, to obtain fast training and recall. Sensitivity analysis is applied to select proper input variables for modular networks

  8. Introducing renewable energy and industrial restructuring to reduce GHG emission: Application of a dynamic simulation model

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Song, Junnian; Yang, Wei; Higano, Yoshiro; Wang, Xian’en

    2015-01-01

    Highlights: • Renewable energy development is expanded and introduced into socioeconomic activities. • A dynamic optimization simulation model is developed based on input–output approach. • Regional economic, energy and environmental impacts are assessed dynamically. • Industrial and energy structure is adjusted optimally for GHG emission reduction. - Abstract: Specifying the renewable energy development as new energy industries to be newly introduced into current socioeconomic activities, this study develops a dynamic simulation model with input–output approach to make comprehensive assessment of the impacts on economic development, energy consumption and GHG emission under distinct levels of GHG emission constraints involving targeted GHG emission reduction policies (ERPs) and industrial restructuring. The model is applied to Jilin City to conduct 16 terms of dynamic simulation work with GRP as objective function subject to mass, value and energy balances aided by the extended input–output table with renewable energy industries introduced. Simulation results indicate that achievement of GHG emission reduction target is contributed by renewable energy industries, ERPs and industrial restructuring collectively, which reshape the terminal energy consumption structure with a larger proportion of renewable energy. Wind power, hydropower and biomass combustion power industries account for more in the power generation structure implying better industrial prospects. Mining, chemical, petroleum processing, non-metal, metal and thermal power industries are major targets for industrial restructuring. This method is crucial for understanding the role of renewable energy development in GHG mitigation efforts and other energy-related planning settings, allowing to explore the optimal level for relationships among all socioeconomic activities and facilitate to simultaneous pursuit of economic development, energy utilization and environmental preservation

  9. Substitution elasticities between GHG-polluting and nonpolluting inputs in agricultural production: A meta-regression

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Liu, Boying; Richard Shumway, C.

    2016-01-01

    This paper reports meta-regressions of substitution elasticities between greenhouse gas (GHG) polluting and nonpolluting inputs in agricultural production, which is the main feedstock source for biofuel in the U.S. We treat energy, fertilizer, and manure collectively as the “polluting input” and labor, land, and capital as nonpolluting inputs. We estimate meta-regressions for samples of Morishima substitution elasticities for labor, land, and capital vs. the polluting input. Much of the heterogeneity of Morishima elasticities can be explained by type of primal or dual function, functional form, type and observational level of data, input categories, number of outputs, type of output, time period, and country categories. Each estimated long-run elasticity for the reference case, which is most relevant for assessing GHG emissions through life-cycle analysis, is greater than 1.0 and significantly different from zero. Most predicted long-run elasticities remain significantly different from zero at the data means. These findings imply that life-cycle analysis based on fixed proportion production functions could provide grossly inaccurate measures of GHG of biofuel. - Highlights: • This paper reports meta-regressions of substitution elasticities between greenhouse-gas (GHG) polluting and nonpolluting inputs in agricultural production, which is the main feedstock source for biofuel in the U.S. • We estimate meta-regressions for samples of Morishima substitution elasticities for labor, land, and capital vs. the polluting input based on 65 primary studies. • We found that each estimated long-run elasticity for the reference case, which is most relevant for assessing GHG emissions through life-cycle analysis, is greater than 1.0 and significantly different from zero. Most predicted long-run elasticities remain significantly different from zero at the data means. • These findings imply that life-cycle analysis based on fixed proportion production functions could

  10. CLASSIFICATION OF EU COUNTRIES IN TERMS OF THE EVOLUTION OF THE GHG INDICATOR USING CLUSTER ANALYSIS

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    MARINOIU CRISTIAN

    2015-07-01

    Full Text Available Greenhouse gases are one of the main factors that influence the Earth's global temperature variation. As the result of both the beginning of the industrial revolution (the 1750’s and the intensificication and diversification of human activities, the volume of greenhouse gasses increases significantly. The risk of an accelerated global warming can be decreased by reducing the volume of greenhouse gasses emissions resulting from human activities. The annual volume of these emissions is reflected by the Greenhouse gas (GHG indicator. This work carries out a classification of EU countries on the basis of the evolution of the GHG indicator using Partitioning Around Medoids (PAM method.

  11. Urban GHG emissions and resource flows: Methods for understanding the complex functioning of cities

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Yetano Roche, María

    2015-01-01

    This paper sums up the recent developments in concepts and methods being used to measure the impacts of cities on environmental sustainability. It differentiates between a dominant trend in research literature that concentrates on the accounting and allocation of greenhouse gas (GHG) emissions and energy use to cities, and a re-emergence of studies focusing on the direct and indirect urban material and resource flows. The availability of reliable data and standard protocols is greater in the GHG accounting field and continues to grow rapidly

  12. Progress toward an Integrated Global GHG Information System (IG3IS)

    Science.gov (United States)

    DeCola, Philip

    2016-04-01

    Accurate and precise atmospheric measurements of greenhouse gas (GHG) concentrations have shown the inexorable rise of global GHG concentrations due to human socioeconomic activity. Scientific observations also show a resulting rise in global temperatures and evidence of negative impacts on society. In response to this amassing evidence, nations, states, cities and private enterprises are accelerating efforts to reduce emissions of GHGs, and the UNFCCC process recently forged the Paris Agreement. Emission reduction strategies will vary by nation, region, and economic sector (e.g., INDCs), but regardless of the strategies and mechanisms applied, the ability to implement policies and manage them effectively over time will require consistent, reliable and timely information. A number of studies [e.g., Verifying Greenhouse Gas Emissions: Methods to Support International Climate Agreements (2010); GEO Carbon Strategy (2010); IPCC Task Force on National GHG Inventories: Expert Meeting Report on Uncertainty and Validation of Emission Inventories (2010)] have reported on the state of carbon cycle research, observations and models and the ability of these atmospheric observations and models to independently validate and improve the accuracy of self-reported emission inventories based on fossil fuel usage and land use activities. These studies concluded that by enhancing our in situ and remote-sensing observations and atmospheric data assimilation modeling capabilities, a GHG information system could be achieved in the coming decade to serve the needs of policies and actions to reduce GHG emissions. Atmospheric measurements and models are already being used to provide emissions information on a global and continental scale through existing networks, but these efforts currently provide insufficient information at the human-dimensions where nations, states, cities, and private enterprises can take valuable, and additional action that can reduce emissions for a specific GHG

  13. Pomace waste management scenarios in Quebec-Impact on greenhouse gas emissions

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Gassara, Fatma; Brar, S.K.; Pelletier, F.; Verma, M.; Godbout, S.; Tyagi, R.D.

    2011-01-01

    Highlights: → Incineration, landfill, animal feed, enzyme production by fermentation and, composting as apple pomace management strategies. → Reduction of GHG emissions using solid state fermentation of apple pomace → Highest GHG emissions during landfill. - Abstract: Fruit processing industries generate tremendous amount of solid wastes which is almost 35-40% dry weight of the total produce used for the manufacturing of juices. These solid wastes, referred to as, 'pomace' contain high moisture content (70-75%) and biodegradable organic load (high BOD and COD values) so that their management is an important issue. During the management of these pomace wastes by different strategies comprising incineration, landfill, composting, solid-state fermentation to produce high-value enzymes and animal feed, there is production of greenhouse gases (GHG) which must be taken into account. In this perspective, this study is unique that discusses the GHG emission analysis of agro-industrial waste management strategies, especially apple pomace waste management and repercussions of value-addition of these wastes in terms of their sustainability using life cycle assessment (LCA) model. The results of the analysis indicated that, among all the apple pomace management sub-models for a functional unit, solid-state fermentation to produce enzymes was the most effective method for reducing GHG emissions (906.81 tons CO 2 eq. per year), while apple pomace landfill resulted in higher GHG emissions (1841.00 tons CO 2 eq. per year). The assessment and inventory of GHG emissions during solid-state fermentation gave positive indications of environmental sustainability for the use of this strategy to manage apple pomace and other agricultural wastes, particularly in Quebec and also extended to other countries. The analysis and use of parameters in this study were drawn from various analytical approaches and data sources. There was absence of some data in the literature which led to

  14. Pomace waste management scenarios in Quebec-Impact on greenhouse gas emissions

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Gassara, Fatma [INRS-ETE, Universite du Quebec, 490, Rue de la Couronne, Quebec, Canada G1K 9A9 (Canada); Brar, S.K., E-mail: satinder.brar@ete.inrs.ca [INRS-ETE, Universite du Quebec, 490, Rue de la Couronne, Quebec, Canada G1K 9A9 (Canada); Pelletier, F.; Verma, M.; Godbout, S. [Institut de recherche et de developpement en agroenvironnement inc. (IRDA), 2700 rue Einstein, Quebec (Quebec), Canada G1P 3W8 (Canada); Tyagi, R.D. [INRS-ETE, Universite du Quebec, 490, Rue de la Couronne, Quebec, Canada G1K 9A9 (Canada)

    2011-09-15

    Highlights: {yields} Incineration, landfill, animal feed, enzyme production by fermentation and, composting as apple pomace management strategies. {yields} Reduction of GHG emissions using solid state fermentation of apple pomace {yields} Highest GHG emissions during landfill. - Abstract: Fruit processing industries generate tremendous amount of solid wastes which is almost 35-40% dry weight of the total produce used for the manufacturing of juices. These solid wastes, referred to as, 'pomace' contain high moisture content (70-75%) and biodegradable organic load (high BOD and COD values) so that their management is an important issue. During the management of these pomace wastes by different strategies comprising incineration, landfill, composting, solid-state fermentation to produce high-value enzymes and animal feed, there is production of greenhouse gases (GHG) which must be taken into account. In this perspective, this study is unique that discusses the GHG emission analysis of agro-industrial waste management strategies, especially apple pomace waste management and repercussions of value-addition of these wastes in terms of their sustainability using life cycle assessment (LCA) model. The results of the analysis indicated that, among all the apple pomace management sub-models for a functional unit, solid-state fermentation to produce enzymes was the most effective method for reducing GHG emissions (906.81 tons CO{sub 2} eq. per year), while apple pomace landfill resulted in higher GHG emissions (1841.00 tons CO{sub 2} eq. per year). The assessment and inventory of GHG emissions during solid-state fermentation gave positive indications of environmental sustainability for the use of this strategy to manage apple pomace and other agricultural wastes, particularly in Quebec and also extended to other countries. The analysis and use of parameters in this study were drawn from various analytical approaches and data sources. There was absence of some data

  15. Towards a meaningful metric for the quantification of GHG emissions of electric vehicles (EVs)

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Manjunath, Archana; Gross, George

    2017-01-01

    A key motivator for wider deployment of electric vehicles (EVs) – vehicles that are fully powered by battery charged from grid electricity – is to bring about environmental cleanliness. This goal is based on the fact that EVs produce zero tailpipe emissioon the associated carbon emissins. However, the generation and transmission of the charge electricity produce emissions that are not explicitly accounted by current measurement metrics for EV greenhouse gas (GHG) emissions and as such, the notion of environmental cleanliness of EVs becomes questionable. In this paper, we propose a comprehensive metric to quantify the actual environmental impacts of EVs. The new metric that we call the electric vehicle emissions index (EVEI) captures CO_2 emissions in the electricity production to consumption stages. Our metric is the first that provides transparency in the comparison of total emissions among various EV models, as well as in the side-by-side comparison of an EV with a gasoline vehicle (GV). Illustrative results indicate that the actual environmental impacts of an EV may show wide spatial variations and in some case, these impacts may be even greater than that of GV. Such insights that the EVEI provides may be useful in a wide range of applications, particularly in policy and incentive formulation. - Highlights: • We propose the Electric Vehicle Emission Index (EVEI) metric. • EVEI indicates the EV environmental impacts w.r.t gasoline vehicles (GVs). • Fuel economy and resource mix are the major contributors to emissions. • Results indicate EVs may prove to be dirtier than GVs in certain areas of usage. • Insights may prove to be valuable to policy and incentive formulation.

  16. Life-cycle analysis on energy consumption and GHG emission intensities of alternative vehicle fuels in China

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Ou, Xunmin; Yan, Xiaoyu; Zhang, Xiliang; Liu, Zhen

    2012-01-01

    Highlights: ► We analyzed the life cycle energy intensity and GHG emissions of about 40 pathways of alternative vehicle fuels in China. ► Coal-based liquid fuel has higher life cycle energy intensities and first generation technology bio-fuel has relatively lower intensity. ► By 2020 electricity will have significantly lower GHG intensity and second generation technology bio-fuel will have near zero intensities. -- Abstract: Fossil energy consumption (FEC) and greenhouse gas (GHG) emission intensities of major alternative vehicle fuels (AVFs) in China are calculated and compared with conventional fuels by means of full life-cycle analysis. Currently most of the AVFs have not relatively obvious GHG emission reduction when compared to the gasoline pathway: (1) coal-based AVF has higher intensities in terms of both the FEC and GHG emissions; (2) electricity from the average Chinese grid has the GHG emission intensity similar to that of gasoline pathway although relatively lower FEC intensity; and (3) first generation technology bio-fuel has relatively lower GHG emission intensity and substantially lower FEC intensity. It is forecasted that by 2020 when still comparing to the gasoline pathway: (1) coal-based AVF will still have FEC and GHG emission intensities that are 1.5–1.8 and 1.8–2.5 time those of gasoline pathway, and the application of carbon capture and storage technology can reduce the GHG emission intensity of coal-based AVF; (2) electricity will have significantly lower GHG intensity; and (3) second generation technology bio-fuel will have near zero FEC and GHG intensities.

  17. Scenarios and innovative systems

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    2001-11-01

    The purpose of this workshop is to present to the GEDEON community the scenarios for the deployment of innovative nuclear solutions. Both steady state situations and possible transitions from the present to new reactors and fuel cycles are considered. Innovative systems that satisfy improved natural resource utilization and waste minimization criteria will be described as well as the R and D orientations of various partners. This document brings together the transparencies of 17 communications given at this workshop: general policy for transmutation and partitioning; Amster: a molten salt reactor (MSR) concept; MSR capabilities; potentials and capabilities of accelerator driven systems (ADS); ADS demonstrator interest as an experimental facility; innovative systems: gas coolant technologies; Pu management in EPR; scenarios with thorium fuel; scenarios at the equilibrium state; scenarios for transition; partitioning and specific conditioning; management of separated radio-toxic elements; European programs; DOE/AAA (Advanced Accelerator Applications) program; OECD scenario studies; CEA research programs and orientations; partitioning and transmutation: an industrial point of view. (J.S.)

  18. SCENARIO PLANNING AS LEARNING

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Antonio Lourenço Junior

    2010-10-01

    Full Text Available Scenario Planning has been increasingly used, from its introduction to the decision process as effective tools to test decisions, and improve performance in a dynamic environment (Chermack, 2005. The purpose of this article is to demonstrate the potential of an experimental Scenario Planning Model to mobilize, encourage and add more content to the organization’s decision making process – mainly with respect to Strategic Plans of two governmental institutions, a pharmaceutical company and a technology education foundation.  This study describes the application stages of a hybrid scenario-planning model – herein referred to as Planning as Learning – via action-research, showing the scenarios resulting from the experiment and describes the main results of an assessment of such practice. In order to do that, two well-established Scenario Planning models (Prospective school and Shell’s model were analyzed. They were used as a reference for the proposition and application of an experimental model in the two study objects. A questionnaire was used to assess the technique impact. It was possible to obtain high levels of reliability. In-depth interviews were also conducted with the participants. At the end, the results confirmed the model efficiency as a basis for decision making in the competitive environment in which the two institutions are inserted, also to encourage the learning process as a group, as observed throughout the work.

  19. Scenarios for Gluino Coannihilation

    CERN Document Server

    Ellis, John; Luo, Feng; Olive, Keith A

    2016-01-01

    We study supersymmetric scenarios in which the gluino is the next-to-lightest supersymmetric particle (NLSP), with a mass sufficiently close to that of the lightest supersymmetric particle (LSP) that gluino coannihilation becomes important. One of these scenarios is the MSSM with soft supersymmetry-breaking squark and slepton masses that are universal at an input GUT renormalization scale, but with non-universal gaugino masses. The other scenario is an extension of the MSSM to include vector-like supermultiplets. In both scenarios, we identify the regions of parameter space where gluino coannihilation is important, and discuss their relations to other regions of parameter space where other mechanisms bring the dark matter density into the range allowed by cosmology. In the case of the non-universal MSSM scenario, we find that the allowed range of parameter space is constrained by the requirement of electroweak symmetry breaking, the avoidance of a charged LSP and the measured mass of the Higgs boson, in parti...

  20. Scenarios for gluino coannihilation

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Ellis, John [Theoretical Particle Physics and Cosmology Group, Department of Physics, King’s College London, London, WC2R 2LS United Kingdom (United Kingdom); Theory Division, CERN,Geneva 23, CH-1211 (Switzerland); Evans, Jason L. [School of Physics and Astronomy, University of Minnesota,Minneapolis, MN, 55455 (United States); William I. Fine Theoretical Physics Institute, School of Physics and Astronomy, University of Minnesota, Minneapolis, MN, 55455 (United States); Luo, Feng [Theory Division, CERN,Geneva 23, CH-1211 (Switzerland); Olive, Keith A. [School of Physics and Astronomy, University of Minnesota,Minneapolis, MN, 55455 (United States); William I. Fine Theoretical Physics Institute, School of Physics and Astronomy, University of Minnesota, Minneapolis, MN, 55455 (United States)

    2016-02-11

    We study supersymmetric scenarios in which the gluino is the next-to-lightest supersymmetric particle (NLSP), with a mass sufficiently close to that of the lightest supersymmetric particle (LSP) that gluino coannihilation becomes important. One of these scenarios is the MSSM with soft supersymmetry-breaking squark and slepton masses that are universal at an input GUT renormalization scale, but with non-universal gaugino masses. The other scenario is an extension of the MSSM to include vector-like supermultiplets. In both scenarios, we identify the regions of parameter space where gluino coannihilation is important, and discuss their relations to other regions of parameter space where other mechanisms bring the dark matter density into the range allowed by cosmology. In the case of the non-universal MSSM scenario, we find that the allowed range of parameter space is constrained by the requirement of electroweak symmetry breaking, the avoidance of a charged LSP and the measured mass of the Higgs boson, in particular, as well as the appearance of other dark matter (co)annihilation processes. Nevertheless, LSP masses m{sub χ}≲8 TeV with the correct dark matter density are quite possible. In the case of pure gravity mediation with additional vector-like supermultiplets, changes to the anomaly-mediated gluino mass and the threshold effects associated with these states can make the gluino almost degenerate with the LSP, and we find a similar upper bound.

  1. Regional climate change scenarios

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Somot, S.

    2005-01-01

    Because studies of the regional impact of climate change need higher spatial resolution than that obtained in standard global climate change scenarios, developing regional scenarios from models is a crucial goal for the climate modelling community. The zoom capacity of ARPEGE-Climat, the Meteo-France climate model, allows use of scenarios with a horizontal resolution of about 50 km over France and the Mediterranean basin. An IPCC-A2 scenario for the end of the 21. century in France shows higher temperatures in each season and more winter and less summer precipitation than now. Tuning the modelled statistical distributions to observed temperature and precipitation allows us to study changes in the frequency of extreme events between today's climate and that at the end of century. The frequency of very hot days in summer will increase. In particular, the frequency of days with a maximum temperature above 35 deg C will be multiplied by a factor of 10, on average. In our scenario, the Toulouse area and Provence might see one quarter of their summer days with a maximum temperature above 35 deg C. (author)

  2. Energy and greenhouse-gas emissions in irrigated agriculture of SE (southeast) Spain. Effects of alternative water supply scenarios

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Martin-Gorriz, B.; Soto-García, M.; Martínez-Alvarez, V.

    2014-01-01

    Global warming is leading to a water resources decrease in the Mediterranean basin, where future farming resilience depends on incorporating alternative water sources and improving water-energy use efficiency. This paper assesses water and energy consumption when natural water sources are partially replaced by desalinated sea water. Initially, energy consumption, water supply and GHG (greenhouse gas) emissions were recorded for the current farming practices in SE (southeast) Spain. The results of our study indicate that citrus orchards have the lowest energy consumption and GHG emissions. Annual vegetables were the least energy efficient crops. Subsequently, two alternative water supply scenarios were analysed, in which the reduction of natural water resources associated to climate change was compensated with desalinated sea water. The use of 16.8% of desalinated seawater would increase energy consumption by 32.4% and GHG emissions by 19.6%, whereas for the use of 26.5% of desalinated seawater such increases would amount to 50.0% and 30.3%, respectively. Therefore maintaining irrigated agriculture in water-stressed regions by incorporating high energy demanding non-traditional water sources could negatively contribute to combat global warming. - Highlights: • Water supply, energy consumption and GHG (greenhouse gas) emissions in irrigated agriculture are very connected. • The use of desalinated sea water will increase the energy consumption, and GHG emissions will rise. • The use of non-traditional water resources enhances global warming processes. • Citrus orchards are the less sensitive crop to alternative water supplied scenarios. • Artichoke is the most sensitive crop to alternative water supplied scenarios

  3. Biofuels that cause land-use change may have much larger non-GHG air quality emissions than fossil fuels.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tsao, C-C; Campbell, J E; Mena-Carrasco, M; Spak, S N; Carmichael, G R; Chen, Y

    2012-10-02

    Although biofuels present an opportunity for renewable energy production, significant land-use change resulting from biofuels may contribute to negative environmental, economic, and social impacts. Here we examined non-GHG air pollution impacts from both indirect and direct land-use change caused by the anticipated expansion of Brazilian biofuels production. We synthesized information on fuel loading, combustion completeness, and emission factors, and developed a spatially explicit approach with uncertainty and sensitivity analyses to estimate air pollution emissions. The land-use change emissions, ranging from 6.7 to 26.4 Tg PM(2.5), were dominated by deforestation burning practices associated with indirect land-use change. We also found Brazilian sugar cane ethanol and soybean biodiesel including direct and indirect land-use change effects have much larger life-cycle emissions than conventional fossil fuels for six regulated air pollutants. The emissions magnitude and uncertainty decrease with longer life-cycle integration periods. Results are conditional to the single LUC scenario employed here. After LUC uncertainty, the largest source of uncertainty in LUC emissions stems from the combustion completeness during deforestation. While current biofuels cropland burning policies in Brazil seek to reduce life-cycle emissions, these policies do not address the large emissions caused by indirect land-use change.

  4. MIV Project: Mission scenario

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Ravazzotti, Mariolina T.; Jørgensen, John Leif; Thuesen, Gøsta

    1997-01-01

    Under the ESA contract #11453/95/NL/JG(SC), aiming at assessing the feasibility of Rendez-vous and docking of unmanned spacecrafts, a msiision scenario was defined. This report describes the secquence of manouvres and task allocations for such missions.......Under the ESA contract #11453/95/NL/JG(SC), aiming at assessing the feasibility of Rendez-vous and docking of unmanned spacecrafts, a msiision scenario was defined. This report describes the secquence of manouvres and task allocations for such missions....

  5. Scenario group summary

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Thorndike, A.

    1976-01-01

    A scenario is given for ISABELLE which provides a plausible sequence of events from FY 1980 to 1990. No doubt reality will be quite different. The scenario is based on the construction schedule of the 1976 proposal. Assembly and testing of the accelerator will occur until the end of FY 1983, and the next six years will provide pp interactions for the initial high energy physics research. By 1990 any temporary conditions associated with start-up of ISABELLE should be a thing of the past and all experimental capabilities fully utilized

  6. Scenario group summary

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Thorndike, A.

    1976-01-01

    The scenario is given which provides a plausible sequence of events for ISABELLE from FY 1980 to 1990. No doubt reality will be quite different. The scenario is based on the construction schedule of the 1976 proposal. Assembly and testing of the accelerator will occur until the end of FY 1983, and the next six years will provide pp interactions for the initial high energy physics research. By 1990 any temporary conditions associated with start-up of ISABELLE should be a thing of the past and all experimental capabilities fully utilized

  7. JST Thesaurus Headwords and Synonyms: GHG [MeCab user dictionary for science technology term[Archive

    Lifescience Database Archive (English)

    Full Text Available MeCab user dictionary for science technology term GHG 名詞 一般 * * * * 温室効果ガス オンシツコウカガス オンシツコーカガス Thesaurus2015 200906034745287750 C KA01 UNKNOWN_1 GHG

  8. GHG emission factors for bioelectricity, biomethane, and bioethanol quantified for 24 biomass substrates with consequential life-cycle assessment

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Tonini, Davide; Hamelin, Lorie; Alvarado-Morales, Merlin

    2016-01-01

    Greenhouse gas (GHG) emission savings from biofuels dramatically depend upon the source of energy displaced and the effects induced outside the energy sector, for instance land-use changes (LUC). Using consequential life-cycle assessment and including LUC effects, this study provides GHG emission...

  9. Life cycle GHG emissions from Malaysian oil palm bioenergy development: The impact on transportation sector's energy security

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Hassan, Mohd Nor Azman; Jaramillo, Paulina; Griffin, W. Michael

    2011-01-01

    Malaysia's transportation sector accounts for 41% of the country's total energy use. The country is expected to become a net oil importer by the year 2011. To encourage renewable energy development and relieve the country's emerging oil dependence, in 2006 the government mandated blending 5% palm-oil biodiesel in petroleum diesel. Malaysia produced 16 million tonnes of palm oil in 2007, mainly for food use. This paper addresses maximizing bioenergy use from oil-palm to support Malaysia's energy initiative while minimizing greenhouse-gas emissions from land-use change. When converting primary and secondary forests to oil-palm plantations between 270-530 and 120-190 g CO 2 -equivalent per MJ of biodiesel produced, respectively, is released. However, converting degraded lands results in the capture of between 23 and 85 g CO 2 -equivalent per MJ of biodiesel produced. Using various combinations of land types, Malaysia could meet the 5% biodiesel target with a net GHG savings of about 1.03 million tonnes (4.9% of the transportation sector's diesel emissions) when accounting for the emissions savings from the diesel fuel displaced. These findings are used to recommend policies for mitigating GHG emissions impacts from the growth of palm oil use in the transportation sector. - Research highlights: → We modeled greenhouse gas emissions in the production of palm-biodiesel. → Five land types were included to model emissions associated with land-use change. → Land-use change has the biggest impact on the emissions in making palm-biodiesel. → Emissions from fertilizer use and effluent treatment are still significant. → At 5% biodiesel grown on suitable lands Malaysia would obtain an emissions savings.

  10. Life cycle GHG emissions from Malaysian oil palm bioenergy development: The impact on transportation sector's energy security

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Hassan, Mohd Nor Azman, E-mail: mohdnorh@andrew.cmu.ed [Department of Engineering and Public Policy, Carnegie Mellon University, 5000 Forbes Avenue, Pittsburgh, PA 15203 (United States); Jaramillo, Paulina [Department of Engineering and Public Policy, Carnegie Mellon University, 5000 Forbes Avenue, Pittsburgh, PA 15203 (United States); Griffin, W. Michael [Department of Engineering and Public Policy, Carnegie Mellon University, 5000 Forbes Avenue, Pittsburgh, PA 15203 (United States); Tepper School of Business, Carnegie Mellon University, 5000 Forbes Avenue, Pittsburgh, PA 15203 (United States)

    2011-05-15

    Malaysia's transportation sector accounts for 41% of the country's total energy use. The country is expected to become a net oil importer by the year 2011. To encourage renewable energy development and relieve the country's emerging oil dependence, in 2006 the government mandated blending 5% palm-oil biodiesel in petroleum diesel. Malaysia produced 16 million tonnes of palm oil in 2007, mainly for food use. This paper addresses maximizing bioenergy use from oil-palm to support Malaysia's energy initiative while minimizing greenhouse-gas emissions from land-use change. When converting primary and secondary forests to oil-palm plantations between 270-530 and 120-190 g CO{sub 2}-equivalent per MJ of biodiesel produced, respectively, is released. However, converting degraded lands results in the capture of between 23 and 85 g CO{sub 2}-equivalent per MJ of biodiesel produced. Using various combinations of land types, Malaysia could meet the 5% biodiesel target with a net GHG savings of about 1.03 million tonnes (4.9% of the transportation sector's diesel emissions) when accounting for the emissions savings from the diesel fuel displaced. These findings are used to recommend policies for mitigating GHG emissions impacts from the growth of palm oil use in the transportation sector. - Research highlights: {yields} We modeled greenhouse gas emissions in the production of palm-biodiesel. {yields} Five land types were included to model emissions associated with land-use change. {yields} Land-use change has the biggest impact on the emissions in making palm-biodiesel. {yields} Emissions from fertilizer use and effluent treatment are still significant. {yields} At 5% biodiesel grown on suitable lands Malaysia would obtain an emissions savings.

  11. Multiple greenhouse-gas feedbacks from the land biosphere under future climate change scenarios

    Science.gov (United States)

    Stocker, Benjamin D.; Roth, Raphael; Joos, Fortunat; Spahni, Renato; Steinacher, Marco; Zaehle, Soenke; Bouwman, Lex; Xu-Ri; Prentice, Iain Colin

    2013-07-01

    Atmospheric concentrations of the three important greenhouse gases (GHGs) CO2, CH4 and N2O are mediated by processes in the terrestrial biosphere that are sensitive to climate and CO2. This leads to feedbacks between climate and land and has contributed to the sharp rise in atmospheric GHG concentrations since pre-industrial times. Here, we apply a process-based model to reproduce the historical atmospheric N2O and CH4 budgets within their uncertainties and apply future scenarios for climate, land-use change and reactive nitrogen (Nr) inputs to investigate future GHG emissions and their feedbacks with climate in a consistent and comprehensive framework. Results suggest that in a business-as-usual scenario, terrestrial N2O and CH4 emissions increase by 80 and 45%, respectively, and the land becomes a net source of C by AD 2100. N2O and CH4 feedbacks imply an additional warming of 0.4-0.5°C by AD 2300; on top of 0.8-1.0°C caused by terrestrial carbon cycle and Albedo feedbacks. The land biosphere represents an increasingly positive feedback to anthropogenic climate change and amplifies equilibrium climate sensitivity by 22-27%. Strong mitigation limits the increase of terrestrial GHG emissions and prevents the land biosphere from acting as an increasingly strong amplifier to anthropogenic climate change.

  12. A dynamic modelling approach to evaluate GHG emissions from wastewater treatment plants

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Flores-Alsina, Xavier; Arnell, Magnus; Amerlinck, Youri

    2012-01-01

    The widened scope for wastewater treatment plants (WWTP) to consider not only water quality and cost, but also greenhouse gas (GHG) emissions and climate change calls for new tools to evaluate operational strategies/treatment technologies. The IWA Benchmark Simulation Model no. 2 (BSM2) has been ...

  13. Decoupling urban transport from GHG emissions in Indian cities-A critical review and perspectives

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Li Jun

    2011-01-01

    How to sustain rapid economic and urban growth with minimised detriment to environment is a key challenge for sustainable development and climate change mitigation in developing countries, which face constraints of technical and financial resources scarcity as well as dearth of infrastructure governance capacity. This paper attempts to address this question by investigating the driving forces of transport demand and relevant policy measures that facilitate mitigating GHG emissions in the urban transport sector in Indian cities based on a critical review of the literature. Our overview of existing literature and international experiences suggests that it is critical to improve urban governance in transport infrastructure quality and develop efficient public transport, coupled with integrated land use/transport planning as well as economic instruments. This will allow Indian cities to embark on a sustainable growth pathway by decoupling transport services demand of GHG emissions in the longer term. Appropriate policy instruments need to be selected to reconcile the imperatives of economic and urban growth, aspiration to higher quality of life, improvements in social welfare, urban transport-related energy consumption and GHG emissions mitigation target in Indian cities. - Highlights: → Investigating the relevant policies that facilitate mitigating GHG emissions in urban transport in Indian cities. → Determining the factors of increase in energy demand and carbon emissions in transport. → Improving urban governance in transport infrastructure with integrated transport planning. → Designing and implementing the policy and economic instruments for low-carbon urban transport in India.

  14. GHG-emissions for cars with different power trains over the whole life cycle

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Roeder, A [Paul Scherrer Inst. (PSI), Villigen (Switzerland)

    1999-08-01

    The method of life-cycle assessment (LCA) has been applied to cars with different power trains. As an example, the results for greenhouse gas (GHG) emissions are presented. They show possibilities and limits for the reduction of these emissions in the transportation sector by means of advanced technology. (author) 2 figs., 4 refs.

  15. A Study on Portfolio of Domestic Policies and Measures for GHG emission Abatement

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Lim, J.K. [Korea Energy Economics Institute, Euiwang (Korea)

    2001-11-01

    After the climate change negotiation reaches an agreement in COP7, the next main issue to be addressed is the way of involvement of developing countries in emission abatement commitments and the development of domestic policies and measures to achieve GHG emission reduction target. Many Annex I countries have developed and implemented policies and measures to achieve its quantified GHG emission reduction target. The purpose of this paper is to propose a portfolio of policies and measures, that is, which policies and measures Korea will have to take in preparing future commitment for GHG emission reduction as well as in strengthening mitigation of climate change. Various policies and measures can be used, such as regulations, economic instruments, and covenants, etc., but it is desirable to implement them in some portfolio, taking advantage of their characteristics. Among the possible policies and measures, this study found that economic instruments such as carbon tax and domestic emissions trading have attracted considerable interest recently due to their cost effectiveness. This study also found that, in practice, many developed countries have used these policy instruments in achieving their quantified GHG emission reduction target. In order to develop a portfolio of policies and measures, the comprehension of the features of each policy and measure and the synergetic reconciliation with other objectives than climate change is important. (author). 82 refs., 11 figs., 31 tabs.

  16. Contribution of plastic waste recovery to greenhouse gas (GHG) savings in Spain.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sevigné-Itoiz, Eva; Gasol, Carles M; Rieradevall, Joan; Gabarrell, Xavier

    2015-12-01

    This paper concentrates on the quantification of greenhouse gas (GHG) emissions of post-consumer plastic waste recovery (material or energy) by considering the influence of the plastic waste quality (high or low), the recycled plastic applications (virgin plastic substitution or non-plastic substitution) and the markets of recovered plastic (regional or global). The aim is to quantify the environmental consequences of different alternatives in order to evaluate opportunities and limitations to select the best and most feasible plastic waste recovery option to decrease the GHG emissions. The methodologies of material flow analysis (MFA) for a time period of thirteen years and consequential life cycle assessment (CLCA) have been integrated. The study focuses on Spain as a representative country for Europe. The results show that to improve resource efficiency and avoid more GHG emissions, the options for plastic waste management are dependent on the quality of the recovered plastic. The results also show that there is an increasing trend of exporting plastic waste for recycling, mainly to China, that reduces the GHG benefits from recycling, suggesting that a new focus should be introduced to take into account the split between local recycling and exporting. Copyright © 2015 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  17. Assessing GHG emissions, ecological footprint, and water linkage for different fuels.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chavez-Rodriguez, Mauro F; Nebra, Silvia A

    2010-12-15

    Currently, transport is highly dependent on fossil fuels and responsible for about 23% of world energy-related GHG (greenhouse gas) emissions. Ethanol from sugar cane and corn emerges as an alternative for gasoline in order to mitigate GHG emissions. Additionally, deeper offshore drilling projects such as in the Brazilian Pre-Salt reservoirs and mining projects of nonconventional sources like Tar Sands in Canada could be a solution for supplying demand of fossil fuels in the short and midterm. Based on updated literature, this paper presents an assessment of GHG emissions for four different fuels: ethanol from sugar cane and from corn and gasoline from conventional crude oil and from tar sands. An Ecological Footprint analysis is also presented, which shows that ethanol from sugar cane has the lowest GHG emissions and requires the lowest biocapacity per unit of energy produced among these fuels. Finally, an analysis using the Embodied Water concept is made with the introduction of a new concept, the "CO(2)-Water", to illustrate the impacts of releasing carbon from underground to atmosphere and of the water needed to sequestrate it over the life cycle of the assessed fuels. Using this method resulted that gasoline from fossil fuels would indirectly "require" on average as much water as ethanol from sugar cane per unit of fuel energy produced.

  18. A low-carbon scenario creation method for a local-scale economy and its application in Kyoto city

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Gomi, Kei; Shimada, Kouji; Matsuoka, Yuzuru

    2010-01-01

    On May 2008, Kyoto city government set up a low-carbon target of a 50% GHG reduction by 2030 compared to the 1990 level. To contribute to these discussions, we developed a local (city-scale) low-carbon scenario creation method. An estimation model was developed to show a quantitative and consistent future snapshot. The model can explicitly treat the uncertainty of future socio-economic situations, which originate from the openness of local economy. The method was applied to Kyoto city, and countermeasures to achieve the low-carbon target were identified. Without countermeasures, emissions would increase 12% from 2000. Among the measures, the reduction potential of energy efficiency improvements to residential and commercial sectors was found to be relatively large (15% and 18% of total reductions, respectively). The reduction potential of the passenger transport sector, in which the city government's policy is especially important, was 17% of the total amount. A sensitivity analysis showed that a 10% increase in exports leads to an 8.5% increase in CO 2 emissions, and a 20% increase in the share of the commuters from outside the city leads to a 3.5% decrease of CO 2 emissions because of the smaller number of residents in the city.

  19. Energy consumption and GHG emissions of six biofuel pathways by LCA in China

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Ou, Xunmin [School of Public Policy and Management (SPPM), Tsinghua University, Beijing 100084 (China); China Automotive Energy Research Center (CAERC), Tsinghua University, Beijing 100084 (China); Institute of Energy, Environment and Economy (3E), Tsinghua University, Beijing 100084 (China); Zhang, Xiliang; Chang, Shiyan; Guo, Qingfang [China Automotive Energy Research Center (CAERC), Tsinghua University, Beijing 100084 (China); Institute of Energy, Environment and Economy (3E), Tsinghua University, Beijing 100084 (China)

    2009-11-15

    This paper presents life-cycle-analysis (LCA) energy consumption (EC) and greenhouse gas (GHG) emissions of China's current six biofuel pathways, which are: corn-derived ethanol (CE); cassava-derived ethanol (KE); sweet sorghum-derived ethanol (SE); soybean-derived bio-diesel (SB); jatropha fruit-derived bio-diesel (JB); and used cooking oil (UCO)-derived bio-diesel (UB). The tool utilized here is the WTW (Well-to-Wheels) module of Tsinghua-CA3EM model covering the entire lifecycle including: raw materials cultivation (or feedstock collection); fuel production; transportation and distribution; and application in automobile engines, compared with Conventional Petroleum-based gasoline and diesel Pathways (CPP). The results indicate: (1) the fossil energy inputs are about 1.0-1.5 times the energy contained in the fuel for the CE, SE and SB pathways, but 0.5-0.9 times for the KE, UB and JB pathways; (2) compared with CPP, the JB, KE and UB pathways can reduce both fossil fuel consumption and GHG emissions; the CE and SB pathways can only reduce fossil fuel consumption, but increase GHG emission; the SE pathway increases not only fossil fuel consumption but also GHG emission; and (3) the main factors inducing high EC and GHG emission levels include: high EC levels during the fuel production stage and high fertilizer application rates during the planting of raw feedstocks. Conclusions are that of the aforementioned biofuel pathways in China: (1) only the JB, KE and UB pathways have energy-saving merits as indicated by the LCA energy inputs and outputs; (2) compared with CPP, all but the SE pathway reduces fossil fuel consumption. However, the SB and CE pathway increase GHG emission; (3) all six displace petroleum by utilizing more coal; and (4) feedstock productivity levels must be increased, and there must be a reduction in fertilizer utilization and EC consumption during the cultivation and transportation stages in order to achieve the goals of energy balance and

  20. Energy consumption and GHG emissions of six biofuel pathways by LCA in China

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Ou Xunmin; Zhang Xiliang; Chang Shiyan; Guo Qingfang

    2009-01-01

    This paper presents life-cycle-analysis (LCA) energy consumption (EC) and greenhouse gas (GHG) emissions of China's current six biofuel pathways, which are: corn-derived ethanol (CE); cassava-derived ethanol (KE); sweet sorghum-derived ethanol (SE); soybean-derived bio-diesel (SB); jatropha fruit-derived bio-diesel (JB); and used cooking oil (UCO)-derived bio-diesel (UB). The tool utilized here is the WTW (Well-to-Wheels) module of Tsinghua-CA3EM model covering the entire lifecycle including: raw materials cultivation (or feedstock collection); fuel production; transportation and distribution; and application in automobile engines, compared with Conventional Petroleum-based gasoline and diesel Pathways (CPP). The results indicate: (1) the fossil energy inputs are about 1.0-1.5 times the energy contained in the fuel for the CE, SE and SB pathways, but 0.5-0.9 times for the KE, UB and JB pathways; (2) compared with CPP, the JB, KE and UB pathways can reduce both fossil fuel consumption and GHG emissions; the CE and SB pathways can only reduce fossil fuel consumption, but increase GHG emission; the SE pathway increases not only fossil fuel consumption but also GHG emission; and (3) the main factors inducing high EC and GHG emission levels include: high EC levels during the fuel production stage and high fertilizer application rates during the planting of raw feedstocks. Conclusions are that of the aforementioned biofuel pathways in China: (1) only the JB, KE and UB pathways have energy-saving merits as indicated by the LCA energy inputs and outputs; (2) compared with CPP, all but the SE pathway reduces fossil fuel consumption. However, the SB and CE pathway increase GHG emission; (3) all six displace petroleum by utilizing more coal; and (4) feedstock productivity levels must be increased, and there must be a reduction in fertilizer utilization and EC consumption during the cultivation and transportation stages in order to achieve the goals of energy balance and GHG

  1. Emergency exercise scenario tools

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Sjoeblom, K.

    1998-03-01

    Nuclear power plant emergency exercises require a realistically presented accident situation which includes various aspects: plant process, radioactivity, radiation, weather and people. Experiences from nuclear power plant emergency exercises show that preparing accident scenarios even for relatively short exercises is tedious. In the future modern computer technology and past experience could be used for making exercise planning more effective. (au)

  2. HEALTH SCENARIO IN INDIA

    Indian Academy of Sciences (India)

    First page Back Continue Last page Overview Graphics. HEALTH SCENARIO IN INDIA. Health Doctor / Hospital Infant expenditure 1000 beds / 1000 mortality / % GDP 1000. India 0.8 0.47 0.8 71. World 2.6 1.5 3.3 54. Developed 6.1 2.8 7.2 6 Countries.

  3. An economically reliable scenario

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Anon.

    1996-01-01

    Mister Benjamin Dessus, director of the Ecotech programme at the Cnrs and author of the Noe scenario, describes his propositions for energy prospective, supported by an economic analysis. He advocates the energy diversification and the use of renewable energies. (N.C.). 1 ref., 1 tab

  4. The SAFRR Tsunami Scenario

    Science.gov (United States)

    Porter, K.; Jones, Lucile M.; Ross, Stephanie L.; Borrero, J.; Bwarie, J.; Dykstra, D.; Geist, Eric L.; Johnson, L.; Kirby, Stephen H.; Long, K.; Lynett, P.; Miller, K.; Mortensen, Carl E.; Perry, S.; Plumlee, G.; Real, C.; Ritchie, L.; Scawthorn, C.; Thio, H.K.; Wein, Anne; Whitmore, P.; Wilson, R.; Wood, Nathan J.; Ostbo, Bruce I.; Oates, Don

    2013-01-01

    The U.S. Geological Survey and several partners operate a program called Science Application for Risk Reduction (SAFRR) that produces (among other things) emergency planning scenarios for natural disasters. The scenarios show how science can be used to enhance community resiliency. The SAFRR Tsunami Scenario describes potential impacts of a hypothetical, but realistic, tsunami affecting California (as well as the west coast of the United States, Alaska, and Hawaii) for the purpose of informing planning and mitigation decisions by a variety of stakeholders. The scenario begins with an Mw 9.1 earthquake off the Alaska Peninsula. With Pacific basin-wide modeling, we estimate up to 5m waves and 10 m/sec currents would strike California 5 hours later. In marinas and harbors, 13,000 small boats are damaged or sunk (1 in 3) at a cost of $350 million, causing navigation and environmental problems. Damage in the Ports of Los Angeles and Long Beach amount to $110 million, half of it water damage to vehicles and containerized cargo. Flooding of coastal communities affects 1800 city blocks, resulting in $640 million in damage. The tsunami damages 12 bridge abutments and 16 lane-miles of coastal roadway, costing $85 million to repair. Fire and business interruption losses will substantially add to direct losses. Flooding affects 170,000 residents and workers. A wide range of environmental impacts could occur. An extensive public education and outreach program is underway, as well as an evaluation of the overall effort.

  5. Whole farm quantification of GHG emissions within smallholder farms in developing countries

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Seebauer, Matthias

    2014-01-01

    The IPCC has compiled the best available scientific methods into published guidelines for estimating greenhouse gas emissions and emission removals from the land-use sector. In order to evaluate existing GHG quantification tools to comprehensively quantify GHG emissions and removals in smallholder conditions, farm scale quantification was tested with farm data from Western Kenya. After conducting a cluster analysis to identify different farm typologies GHG quantification was exercised using the VCS SALM methodology complemented with IPCC livestock emission factors and the cool farm tool. The emission profiles of four farm clusters representing the baseline conditions in the year 2009 are compared with 2011 where farmers adopted sustainable land management practices (SALM). The results demonstrate the variation in both the magnitude of the estimated GHG emissions per ha between different smallholder farm typologies and the emissions estimated by applying two different accounting tools. The farm scale quantification further shows that the adoption of SALM has a significant impact on emission reduction and removals and the mitigation benefits range between 4 and 6.5 tCO 2  ha −1  yr −1 with significantly different mitigation benefits depending on typologies of the crop–livestock systems, their different agricultural practices, as well as adoption rates of improved practices. However, the inherent uncertainty related to the emission factors applied by accounting tools has substantial implications for reported agricultural emissions. With regard to uncertainty related to activity data, the assessment confirms the high variability within different farm types as well as between different parameters surveyed to comprehensively quantify GHG emissions within smallholder farms. (paper)

  6. How to determine the GHG budget of a pasture field with grazing animals

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ammann, Christof; Neftel, Albrecht; Felber, Raphael

    2016-04-01

    Up to now the scientific investigation and description of the agriculture related greenhouse gas (GHG) exchange has been largely separated into (i) direct animal related and (ii) ecosystem area related processes and measurement methods. An overlap of the two usually separated topics occurs for grazed pastures, where direct animal and pasture area emissions are relevant. In the present study eddy covariance (EC) flux measurements on the field scale were combined with a source location attribution (footprint) model and with GPS position measurements of the individual animals. The experiment was performed on a pasture field in Switzerland under a rotational full grazing regime with dairy cows. The exchange fluxes of CH4, CO2, and N2O were measured simultaneously over the entire year. The observed CH4 emission fluxes correlated well with the presence of cows in the flux footprint. When converted to average emission per cow, the results agreed with published values from respiration chamber experiments with similar cows. For CO2 a sophisticated partitioning algorithm was applied to separate the pasture and animal contributions, because both were in the same order of magnitude. The N2O exchange fully attributable to the pasture soil showed considerable and continuous emissions through the entire seasonal course mainly modulated by soil moisture and temperature. The resulting GHG budget shows that the largest GHG effect of the pasture system was due to enteric CH4 emissions followed by soil N2O emissions, but that the carbon storage change was affected by a much larger uncertainty. The results demonstrate that the EC technique in combination with animal position information allows to consistently quantify the exchange of all three GHG on the pasture and to adequately distinguish between direct animal and diffuse area sources (and sinks). Yet questions concerning a standardized attribution of animal related emissions to the pasture GHG budget still need to be resolved.

  7. GHG emissions, GDP growth and the Kyoto Protocol: A revisit of Environmental Kuznets Curve hypothesis

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Huang, Wei Ming; Lee, Grace W.M. [Graduate Institute of Environmental Engineering, National Taiwan University, 71, Chou-Shan Road, Taipei 106 (China); Wu, Chih Cheng [Energy and Air Pollution Control Section, New Materials R and D Department, China Steel Corporation, 1, Chung-Kang Road, Siaogang District, Kaohsiung 81233 (China)

    2008-01-15

    The Kyoto Protocol attempts through political negotiations to guide participating industrialized countries' greenhouse gas (GHG) emissions from a positive growing trend, to reach a peak point (or turning point), and then be reduced to a negative growth. That means the relationship between decreasing GHG emissions and economic growth may be described by an inverted-U curve (or called a bell-shaped curve), which is consistent with the concept of the Environmental Kuznets Curve (EKC) hypothesis. This research observed that the economic development and GHG emissions in Economies in Transition (EITs) exhibit a hockey-stick curve trend (or called quasi-L-shape curve), that also generates a lot of 'hot air' which is significant to the implementation of the Kyoto Protocol. In addition, through the analysis of single-country time series data and GDP data, this research demonstrated that statistical data for most of the Annex II countries do not possess evidence that supports the EKC hypothesis for GHG emissions. The results from this study also indicated that the 38 industrialized countries are unable to meet their targets under the Kyoto Protocol within the specified time period, which are probably caused by the econometric method's inability to predict accurately the extents and development of innovative technologies and Clean Development Mechanism (CDM) projects. If the international community truly wants to reduce the GHG emissions, the effectiveness of the existing international framework for emissions reduction needs to be reconsidered seriously, and the global cooperation mechanism also needs to be greatly enhanced. (author)

  8. GHG emissions, GDP growth and the Kyoto Protocol: A revisit of Environmental Kuznets Curve hypothesis

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Huang Weiming [Graduate Institute of Environmental Engineering, National Taiwan University, 71, Chou-Shan Road, Taipei 106, Taiwan (China); Lee, Grace W.M. [Graduate Institute of Environmental Engineering, National Taiwan University, 71, Chou-Shan Road, Taipei 106, Taiwan (China)], E-mail: gracelee@ntu.edu.tw; Wu Chihcheng [Energy and Air Pollution Control Section, New Materials R and D Department, China Steel Corporation, 1, Chung-Kang Road, Siaogang District, Kaohsiung 81233, Taiwan (China)

    2008-01-15

    The Kyoto Protocol attempts through political negotiations to guide participating industrialized countries' greenhouse gas (GHG) emissions from a positive growing trend, to reach a peak point (or turning point), and then be reduced to a negative growth. That means the relationship between decreasing GHG emissions and economic growth may be described by an inverted-U curve (or called a bell-shaped curve), which is consistent with the concept of the Environmental Kuznets Curve (EKC) hypothesis. This research observed that the economic development and GHG emissions in Economies in Transition (EITs) exhibit a hockey-stick curve trend (or called quasi-L-shape curve), that also generates a lot of 'hot air' which is significant to the implementation of the Kyoto Protocol. In addition, through the analysis of single-country time series data and GDP data, this research demonstrated that statistical data for most of the Annex II countries do not possess evidence that supports the EKC hypothesis for GHG emissions. The results from this study also indicated that the 38 industrialized countries are unable to meet their targets under the Kyoto Protocol within the specified time period, which are probably caused by the econometric method's inability to predict accurately the extents and development of innovative technologies and Clean Development Mechanism (CDM) projects. If the international community truly wants to reduce the GHG emissions, the effectiveness of the existing international framework for emissions reduction needs to be reconsidered seriously, and the global cooperation mechanism also needs to be greatly enhanced.

  9. SCENARIOS FOR MEETING CALIFORNIA'S 2050 CLIMATE GOALS California's Carbon Challenge Phase II Volume I: Non-Electricity Sectors and Overall Scenario Results

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Wei, Max; Greenblatt, Jeffrey; Donovan, Sally; Nelson, James; Mileva, Ana; Johnston, Josiah; Kammen, Daniel

    2014-06-01

    This study provides an updated analysis of long-term energy system scenarios for California consistent with the State meeting its 2050 climate goal, including detailed analysis and assessment of electricity system build-out, operation, and costs across the Western Electricity Coordinating Council (WECC) region. Four key elements are found to be critical for the State to achieve its 2050 goal of 80 percent greenhouse (GHG) reductions from the 1990 level: aggressive energy efficiency; clean electricity; widespread electrification of passenger vehicles, building heating, and industry heating; and large-scale production of low-carbon footprint biofuels to largely replace petroleum-based liquid fuels. The approach taken here is that technically achievable energy efficiency measures are assumed to be achieved by 2050 and aggregated with the other key elements mentioned above to estimate resultant emissions in 2050. The energy and non-energy sectors are each assumed to have the objective of meeting an 80 percent reduction from their respective 1990 GHG levels for the purposes of analysis. A different partitioning of energy and non-energy sector GHG greenhouse reductions is allowed if emission reductions in one sector are more economic or technically achievable than in the other. Similarly, within the energy or non-energy sectors, greater or less than 80 percent reduction from 1990 is allowed for sub-sectors within the energy or non-energy sectors as long as the overall target is achieved. Overall emissions for the key economy-wide scenarios are considered in this report. All scenarios are compliant or nearly compliant with the 2050 goal. This finding suggests that multiple technical pathways exist to achieve the target with aggressive policy support and continued technology development of largely existing technologies.

  10. Polish country study to address climate change: Strategies of the GHG`s emission reduction and adaptation of the Polish economy to the changed climate. Final report

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    NONE

    1996-01-01

    The Polish Country Study Project was initiated in 1992 as a result of the US Country Study Initiative whose objective was to grant the countries -- signatories of the United Nations` Framework Convention on Climate Change -- assistance that will allow them to fulfill their obligations in terms of greenhouse gases (GHG`s) inventory, preparation of strategies for the reduction of their emission, and adapting their economies to the changed climatic conditions. In February 1993, in reply to the offer from the United States Government, the Polish Government expressed interest in participation in this program. The Study proposal, prepared by the Ministry of Environmental Protection, Natural Resources and Forestry was presented to the US partner. The program proposal assumed implementation of sixteen elements of the study, encompassing elaboration of scenarios for the strategy of mission reduction in energy sector, industry, municipal management, road transport, forestry, and agriculture, as well as adaptations to be introduced in agriculture, forestry, water management, and coastal management. The entire concept was incorporated in macroeconomic strategy scenarios. A complementary element was the elaboration of a proposal for economic and legal instruments to implement the proposed strategies. An additional element was proposed, namely the preparation of a scenario of adapting the society to the expected climate changes.

  11. National greenhouse gas emissions baseline scenarios. Learning from experiences in developing countries

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    NONE

    2013-04-15

    This report reviews national approaches to preparing baseline scenarios of greenhouse-gas (GHG) emissions. It does so by describing and comparing in non-technical language existing practices and choices made by ten developing countries - Brazil, China, Ethiopia, India, Indonesia, Kenya, Mexico, South Africa, Thailand and Vietnam. The review focuses on a number of key elements, including model choices, transparency considerations, choices about underlying assumptions and challenges associated with data management. The aim is to improve overall understanding of baseline scenarios and facilitate their use for policy-making in developing countries more broadly. The findings are based on the results of a collaborative project involving a number of activities undertaken by the Danish Energy Agency, the Organisation for Economic Co-operation and Development (OECD) and the UNEP Risoe Centre (URC), including a series of workshops on the subject. The ten contributing countries account for approximately 40% of current global GHG emissions - a share that is expected to increase in the future. The breakdown of emissions by sector varies widely among these countries. In some countries, the energy sector is the leading source of emissions; for others, the land-use sector and/or agricultural sector dominate emissions. The report underscores some common technical and financial capacity gaps faced by developing countries when preparing baseline scenarios. It does not endeavour to propose guidelines for preparing baseline scenarios. Rather, it is hoped that the report will inform any future attempts at preparing such kind of guidelines. (Author)

  12. Electricity planning in Japan by 2030 through scenario analysis

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Ishihara, Keiichi N.; Qi, Zhang; Mclellan, Benjamin C.; Tezuka, Tetsuo

    2013-01-01

    Under continuing policies of the mitigation of GHG (Green House Gases) emission, it is crucial to consider scenarios for Japan to realize a safe and clean future electricity system after the Fukushima nuclear accident. The development plans of nuclear power and renewable energy - mainly PV and wind power - need to be reconsidered. Therefore, in the present study, three electricity supply scenarios in 2030 are proposed according to different future nuclear power development strategies: (1) negative nuclear power; (2) conservative nuclear power; and (3) active pursuit of nuclear power. On the other side, three electricity demand scenarios are also proposed considering energy saving. The purpose of the study is to propose electricity supply systems with maximum renewable energy penetration under different nuclear power development strategies and demand situations through scenario analysis. The scenario analysis is conducted using an input-output hour-by-hour simulation model subject to constraints from technological, economic and environmental perspectives. The obtained installed capacity mix, power generation mix and CO 2 emissions of the scenarios were compared and analyzed with each other and with historical data. The results show that (1) penetration level of renewable energy is subject to the share of nuclear power as base load; (2) it is very difficult to remove nuclear power absolutely from the electricity system even when a high level of penetration of renewable energy is realized; (3) high level penetration of renewable energy can reduce the dependence on nuclear and thermal power, but there is a need for more flexible power sources to absorb fluctuations; (4) CO 2 emissions reduction compared to 1990 levels can be readily achieved with the help of renewable energy, nuclear power and energy saving in 2030. This is a revised version of the paper that was published in [1]. (author)

  13. Hanford groundwater scenario studies

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Arnett, R.C.; Gephart, R.E.; Deju, R.A.; Cole, C.R.; Ahlstrom, S.W.

    1977-05-01

    This report documents the results of two Hanford groundwater scenario studies. The first study examines the hydrologic impact of increased groundwater recharge resulting from agricultural development in the Cold Creek Valley located west of the Hanford Reservation. The second study involves recovering liquid radioactive waste which has leaked into the groundwater flow system from a hypothetical buried tank containing high-level radioactive waste. The predictive and control capacity of the onsite Hanford modeling technology is used to evaluate both scenarios. The results of the first study indicate that Cold Creek Valley irrigationis unlikely to cause significant changes in the water table underlying the high-level waste areas or in the movement of radionuclides already in the groundwater. The hypothetical tank leak study showed that an active response (in this case waste recovery) can be modeled and is a possible alternative to passive monitoring of radionuclide movement in the unlikely event that high-level waste is introduced into the groundwater

  14. The Scenario Planning Paradox

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Spaniol, Matthew Jon; Rowland, Nicholas James

    2017-01-01

    planning paradox. Contributing fresh theory supposedly attends to the “dismal” state of theory, while contributing new typologies purportedly helps bring order to methodological chaos. Repeated over time, the contribution strategy breaks down. Effort to resolve the theoretical and methodological issue......, foundational theoretical perspective in futures studies. Perceived chaos gives way to typologies, which, as they mount, contribute to the chaos they were meant to resolve. The end result, intended by no one, is that theory remains dismal and methods remain chaotic. This direction for the field is indefensible......For more than a decade, futures studies scholars have prefaced scholarly contributions by repeating the claim that there is insufficient theory to support chaotic scenario methodology. The strategy is formulaic, and the net effect is a curious one, which the authors refer to as the scenario...

  15. Scenarios of energy demand and efficiency potential for Bulgaria

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Tzvetanov, P.; Ruicheva, M.; Denisiev, M.

    1996-12-31

    The paper presents aggregated results on macroeconomic and final energy demand scenarios developed within the Bulgarian Country Study on Greenhouse Gas Emissions Mitigation, supported by US Country Studies Program. The studies in this area cover 5 main stages: (1) {open_quotes}Baseline{close_quotes} and {open_quotes}Energy Efficiency{close_quotes} socioeconomic and energy policy philosophy; (2) Modeling of macroeconomic and sectoral development till 2020; (3) Expert assessments on the technological options for energy efficiency increase and GHG mitigation in the Production, Transport and Households and Services Sectors; (4) Bottom-up modeling of final energy demand; and (5) Sectoral and overall energy efficiency potential and policy. Within the Bulgarian Country Study, the presented results have served as a basis for the final integration stage {open_quotes}Assessment of the Mitigation Policy and Measures in the Energy System of Bulgaria{close_quotes}.

  16. Energy scenario - environmental concerns and some options for the future

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Venkat Raj, V.; Saradhi, I.V.

    2002-01-01

    There is a strong link between energy consumption, particularly in the form of electricity, and economic well being. The substantial increase in energy consumption in the coming decades is expected to be driven principally by the developing world. However it is also well recognized that care should be taken to ensure that the increased energy consumption should not be at the cost of the environment. Of particular concern is the Green House Gas emissions. Reduction of GHGs will call for careful planning and appropriate choice of the energy mix. The expected Global/Indian energy scenario in the coming decades, the associated GHG emissions and some possible options to limit them are presented and discussed in the paper. (author)

  17. Greenhouse gas observations from space: The GHG-CCI project of ESA's Climate Change Initiative

    Science.gov (United States)

    Buchwitz, Michael; Noël, Stefan; Bergamaschi, Peter; Boesch, Hartmut; Bovensmann, Heinrich; Notholt, Justus; Schneising, Oliver; Hasekamp, Otto; Reuter, Maximilian; Parker, Robert; Dils, Bart; Chevallier, Frederic; Zehner, Claus; Burrows, John

    2012-07-01

    The GHG-CCI project (http://www.esa-ghg-cci.org) is one of several projects of ESA's Climate Change Initiative (CCI), which will deliver various Essential Climate Variables (ECVs). The goal of GHG-CCI is to deliver global satellite-derived data sets of the two most important anthropogenic greenhouse gases (GHGs) carbon dioxide (CO2) and methane (CH4) suitable to obtain information on regional CO2 and CH4 surface sources and sinks as needed for better climate prediction. The GHG-CCI core ECV data products are column-averaged mole fractions of CO2 and CH4, XCO2 and XCH4, retrieved from SCIAMACHY on ENVISAT and TANSO on GOSAT. Other satellite instruments will be used to provide constraints in upper layers such as IASI, MIPAS, and ACE-FTS. Which of the advanced algorithms, which are under development, will be the best for a given data product still needs to be determined. For each of the 4 GHG-CCI core data products - XCO2 and XCH4 from SCIAMACHY and GOSAT - several algorithms are being further developed and the corresponding data products are inter-compared to identify which data product is the most appropriate. This includes comparisons with corresponding data products generated elsewhere, most notably with the operational data products of GOSAT generated at NIES and the NASA/ACOS GOSAT XCO2 product. This activity, the so-called "Round Robin exercise", will be performed in the first two years of this project. At the end of the 2 year Round Robin phase (end of August 2012) a decision will be made which of the algorithms performs best. The selected algorithms will be used to generate the first version of the ECV GHG. In the last six months of this 3 year project the resulting data products will be validated and made available to all interested users. In the presentation and overview about this project will be given focussing on the latest results.

  18. The GHG-CCI Project to Deliver the Essential Climate Variable Greenhouse Gases: Current status

    Science.gov (United States)

    Buchwitz, M.; Boesch, H.; Reuter, M.

    2012-04-01

    The GHG-CCI project (http://www.esa-ghg-cci.org) is one of several projects of ESA's Climate Change Initiative (CCI), which will deliver various Essential Climate Variables (ECVs). The goal of GHG-CCI is to deliver global satellite-derived data sets of the two most important anthropogenic greenhouse gases (GHGs) carbon dioxide (CO2) and methane (CH4) suitable to obtain information on regional CO2 and CH4 surface sources and sinks as needed for better climate prediction. The GHG-CCI core ECV data products are column-averaged mole fractions of CO2 and CH4, XCO2 and XCH4, retrieved from SCIAMACHY on ENVISAT and TANSO on GOSAT. Other satellite instruments will be used to provide constraints in upper layers such as IASI, MIPAS, and ACE-FTS. Which of the advanced algorithms, which are under development, will be the best for a given data product still needs to be determined. For each of the 4 GHG-CCI core data products - XCO2 and XCH4 from SCIAMACHY and GOSAT - several algorithms are bing further developed and the corresponding data products are inter-compared to identify which data product is the most appropriate. This includes comparisons with corresponding data products generated elsewhere, most notably with the operational data products of GOSAT generated at NIES and the NASA/ACOS GOSAT XCO2 product. This activity, the so-called "Round Robin exercise", will be performed in the first two years of this project. At the end of the 2 year Round Robin phase (end of August 2012) a decision will be made which of the algorithms performs best. The selected algorithms will be used to generate the first version of the ECV GHG. In the last six months of this 3 year project the resulting data products will be validated and made available to all interested users. In the presentation and overview about this project will be given focussing on the latest results.

  19. GHG emission control and solid waste management for megacities with inexact inputs: A case study in Beijing, China

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Lu, Hongwei, E-mail: luhw@ncepu.edu.cn; Sun, Shichao; Ren, Lixia; He, Li

    2015-03-02

    Highlights: • This study advances an integrated MSW management model under inexact input information. • The model can minimize net system cost and mitigate GHG emissions. • The model is particularly developed for the city of Beijing, China. • It reduces system cost by [45, 61]% and mitigates GHG emissions by [141, 179]%. • It could provide implications to megacities regarding GHG emissions control. - Abstract: This study advances an integrated MSW management model under inexact input information for the city of Beijing, China. The model is capable of simultaneously generating MSW management policies, performing GHG emission control, and addressing system uncertainty. Results suggest that: (1) a management strategy with minimal system cost can be obtained even when suspension of certain facilities becomes unavoidable through specific increments of the remaining ones; (2) expansion of facilities depends only on actual needs, rather than enabling the full usage of existing facilities, although it may prove to be a costly proposition; (3) adjustment of waste-stream diversion ratio directly leads to a change in GHG emissions from different disposal facilities. Results are also obtained from the comparison of the model with a conventional one without GHG emissions consideration. It is indicated that (1) the model would reduce the net system cost by [45, 61]% (i.e., [3173, 3520] million dollars) and mitigate GHG emissions by [141, 179]% (i.e., [76, 81] million tons); (2) increased waste would be diverted to integrated waste management facilities to prevent overmuch CH{sub 4} emission from the landfills.

  20. Total protein

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... page: //medlineplus.gov/ency/article/003483.htm Total protein To use the sharing features on this page, please enable JavaScript. The total protein test measures the total amount of two classes ...

  1. China - Nuclear power for GHG mitigation and sustainable energy development

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Liu Deshun; Zhao Xiusheng; Zheng Jiantao

    2000-01-01

    Coal-fired power plants are the major source of electricity in China, accounting in 1998 for 73% of total installed capacity. However coal-fired plants create serious air pollution problems, and their fuel transport requirements place a heavy burden on the transportation system. Nuclear power plants (NPPs) are therefore a potentially attractive option for China, particularly in the coastal regions, which are both more economically developed and far from the main coal mines in northern and western China. Currently, China has no capability to build large-scale nuclear power plants. Nor would nuclear power plants in China be financially competitive with coal-fired plants under fair market conditions. China does have three NPPs currently in operation, built partly with French and British expertise and assistance, and eight more under construction. These have all benefited from a number of favourable government policies - i.e. exemptions from taxes on imported equipment and from value-added taxes, and an electricity purchase agreement at an artificially high price

  2. Potential GHG mitigation options for agriculture in China

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Erda, Lin; Yue, Li; Hongmin, Dong [Agrometeorology Institute, Beijing (China)

    1996-12-31

    Agriculture contributes more or less to anthropogenic emissions of carbon dioxide (CO{sub 2}), methane (CH{sub 4}), and nitrous oxide (N{sub 2}O). China`s agriculture accounts for about 5-15% of total emissions for these gases. Land-use changes related to agriculture are not major contributors in China. Mitigation options are available that could result in significant decrease in CH{sub 4} and N{sub 2}O emissions from agricultural systems. If implemented, they are likely to increase crop and animal productivity. Implementation has the potential to decrease CH{sub 4} emissions from rice, ruminants, and animal waste by 4-40%. The key to decreasing N{sub 2}O emissions is improving the efficiency of plant utilization of fertilizer N. This could decrease N{sub 2}O emissions from agriculture by almost 20%. Using animal waste to produce CH{sub 4} for energy and digested manure for fertilizer may at some time be cost effective. Economic analyses of options proposed should show positive economic as well as environmental benefits.

  3. Quantitative evaluation of time-series GHG emissions by sector and region using consumption-based accounting

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Homma, Takashi; Akimoto, Keigo; Tomoda, Toshimasa

    2012-01-01

    This study estimates global time-series consumption-based GHG emissions by region from 1990 to 2005, including both CO 2 and non-CO 2 GHG emissions. Estimations are conducted for the whole economy and for two specific sectors: manufacturing and agriculture. Especially in the agricultural sector, it is important to include non-CO 2 GHG emissions because these are the major emissions present. In most of the regions examined, the improvements in GHG intensities achieved in the manufacturing sector are larger than those in the agricultural sector. Compared with developing regions, most developed regions have consistently larger per-capita consumption-based GHG emissions over the whole economy, as well as higher production-based emissions. In the manufacturing sector, differences calculated by subtracting production-based emissions from consumption-based GHG emissions are determined by the regional economic level while, in the agricultural sector, they are dependent on regional production structures that are determined by international trade competitiveness. In the manufacturing sector, these differences are consistently and increasingly positive for the U.S., EU15 and Japan but negative for developing regions. In the agricultural sector, the differences calculated for the major agricultural importers like Japan and the EU15 are consistently positive while those of exporters like the U.S., Australia and New Zealand are consistently negative. - Highlights: ► We evaluate global time-series production-based and consumption-based GHG emissions. ► We focus on both CO 2 and non-CO 2 GHG emissions, broken down by region and by sector. ► Including non-CO 2 GHG emissions is important in agricultural sector. ► In agriculture, differences in accountings are dependent on production structures. ► In manufacturing sector, differences in accountings are determined by economic level.

  4. Hydrological Sensitivity of Land Use Scenarios for Climate Mitigation

    Science.gov (United States)

    Boegh, E.; Friborg, T.; Hansen, K.; Jensen, R.; Seaby, L. P.

    2014-12-01

    Bringing atmospheric concentration to 550 ppm CO2 or below by 2100 will require large-scale changes to global and national energy systems, and potentially the use of land (IPCC, 2013) The Danish government aims at reducing greenhouse gas emissions (GHG) by 40 % in 1990-2020 and energy consumption to be based on 100 % renewable energy by 2035. By 2050, GHG emissions should be reduced by 80-95 %. Strategies developed to reach these goals require land use change to increase the production of biomass for bioenergy, further use of catch crops, reduced nitrogen inputs in agriculture, reduced soil tillage, afforestation and establishment of permanent grass fields. Currently, solar radiation in the growing season is not fully exploited, and it is expected that biomass production for bioenergy can be supported without reductions in food and fodder production. Impacts of climate change on the hydrological sensitivity of biomass growth and soil carbon storage are however not known. The present study evaluates the hydrological sensitivity of Danish land use options for climate mitigation in terms of crop yields (including straw for bioenergy) and net CO2 exchange for wheat, barley, maize and clover under current and future climate conditions. Hydrological sensitivity was evaluated using the agrohydrological model Daisy. Simulations during current climate conditions were in good agreement with measured dry matter, crop nitrogen content and eddy covariance fluxes of water vapour and CO2. Climate scenarios from the European ENSEMBLES database were downscaled for simulating water, nitrogen and carbon balance for 2071-2100. The biomass potential generally increase, but water stress also increases in strength and extends over a longer period, thereby increasing sensitivity to water availability. The potential of different land use scenarios to maximize vegetation cover and biomass for climate mitigation is further discussed in relation to impacts on the energy- and water balance.

  5. Model and algorithm for bi-fuel vehicle routing problem to reduce GHG emissions.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Abdoli, Behroz; MirHassani, Seyed Ali; Hooshmand, Farnaz

    2017-09-01

    Because of the harmful effects of greenhouse gas (GHG) emitted by petroleum-based fuels, the adoption of alternative green fuels such as biodiesel and compressed natural gas (CNG) is an inevitable trend in the transportation sector. However, the transition to alternative fuel vehicle (AFV) fleets is not easy and, particularly at the beginning of the transition period, drivers may be forced to travel long distances to reach alternative fueling stations (AFSs). In this paper, the utilization of bi-fuel vehicles is proposed as an operational approach. We present a mathematical model to address vehicle routing problem (VRP) with bi-fuel vehicles and show that the utilization of bi-fuel vehicles can lead to a significant reduction in GHG emissions. Moreover, a simulated annealing algorithm is adopted to solve large instances of this problem. The performance of the proposed algorithm is evaluated on some random instances.

  6. New power expansion strategy and a low GHG emitting economy in Korea

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Chung, W. S.; Yun, S. W.; Lee, D. S.; Jeong, J. W.

    2008-01-01

    According to mounting environmental concerns and an increased number of environmental restrictions, a new power expansion strategy is being suggested in Korea. Low carbon emitting technologies are a cost- and environment-effective renewable energy technology for producing electricity (except large hydropower) and the fastest growing market after the launch of the 'The 3. Basic Plan for Long-Term Electricity Supply and Demand' in 2006 in Korea. Even though some renewable power plants don't use any fuel or materials during their operation, they still contribute to climate change. This is due to the emission of greenhouse gases (GHG) from the fossil fuels combusted for their components manufacturing, construction, and dismantling. So the aim of this analysis is to assess the Global Warming Potential (GWP) during the whole life cycle for each candidate technology and to estimate how much they contribute to GHG emissions by introducing low-carbon energy sources up to 2020 in Korea. (authors)

  7. Advanced biofuels - GHG emissions and energy balances. A report to IEA bioenergy task 39

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    O' Connor, Don [S and T 2 Consultants Inc., Delta, British Columbia (Canada)

    2013-05-25

    In this work, a number of advanced biofuel pathways were examined with respect to their energy balances and GHG emission performance. Some of these pathways have relatively detailed public techno-economic modelling studies available on which the energy and GHG lifecycle modelling has been based. However there is a continuum in the quality of publicly available data and, for some of the pathways a significant number of assumptions had to be made in order to generate results. Some caution is therefore warranted when the results of different systems are compared. Furthermore, none of the modelling data is based on actual operating systems, as the processes being assessed are not yet in commercial operation; rather, they are each in different stages of research, development and demonstration.

  8. Scenarios for the future

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Haegermark, H.; Bergmark, M.

    1995-06-01

    This project aims primarily to give a basis for the joint R and D program for the Swedish electric utility industry, in the form of pictures of the future up to 2020. The work was performed during four seminars in a group of managers and R and D planners. The four scenarios differ mainly in the assumptions of high or low economic growth and on market or political rule. Assumptions on essential uncertainties about the future have been combined in a consistent manner, e.g. on the structure of the utility industry, the role of nuclear power, the importance of the greenhouse gas issue, the influence of new technology developments and on changes of values in society. Certain other development appear in all scenarios, e.g. the impact of information technology throughout society, the internationalization of business in general and industrial production in particular, considerations for the environment and care for natural resources. The four scenarios are: 'Technology on the throne' (market rule/high growth); 'Intense competition' (market rule/low growth); 'Monopoly takes over' (political rule/high growth); and 'Green local society' (political rule/low growth). Some of the important factors pointed out by the study are: Increased customer mobility between regions and countries; The impact of information technology; Societal value changes; Sustainable development as an important driving force; Structure of the utility industry. Diversifying into new services. New players; Access to knowledge and competence; Ways for handling the greenhouse gas problem; Preparedness for nuclear power phase-out. 12 figs, 6 tabs

  9. Crisis and Crisis Scenarios

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Larsen, Øjvind

    2016-01-01

    This special issue of Nordicum-Mediterraneum contains select proceedings from the third meeting of the Nordic Summer University research circle called “Crisis and Crisis Scenarios: Normativity, Possibilities and Dilemmas”, held April 9th — 12th, 2015 at the Lysebu Conference Centre in Oslo, Norway....... The circle’s research program runs from 2014 to 2016 and is aimed at examining the concept of crisis as it is used today in academia and public discussion. In this collection of papers from the symposium we present some of the different ways in which the topic of the study group was addressed....

  10. Biomass round bales infield aggregation logistic scenarios

    Science.gov (United States)

    Biomass bales often need to be aggregated (collected into groups and transported) to a field-edge stack for temporary storage for feedlots or processing facilities. Aggregating the bales with the least total distance involved is a goal of producers and bale handlers. Several logistics scenarios for ...

  11. The relative magnitude of the impacts and effects of GHG-related emission reductions

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Chiotti, Q.; Urquizo, N.

    2000-01-01

    A preliminary assessment of the current knowledge related to the co-benefits associated with climate change mitigation was provided in this document. One of the benefits of the reduction of greenhouse gas emissions is the reduction of other pollutants like sulphur dioxide, nitrogen oxides, carbon monoxide, volatile organic compounds, particulate matter, ground-level ozone, heavy metals and other toxic pollutants. Since these pollutants have an effect on acid deposition, ozone depletion and air quality, the environment, social welfare and human health, this paper provided an initial outline of the complex processes, interactions and uncertainties associated with this issue. Fossil fuels represent the major source of greenhouse gas (GHG) emissions in Canada. The reduction of emissions of GHG could have an impact on the Long Range Transport of air toxic substances, would help increase oxygen concentrations in the Northern Hemisphere, and lead to less carbon monoxide being released in the atmosphere, among others effects. Reductions of GHG emissions would also have an impact on ecosystems by reducing ground-level ozone concentrations. There would be less acid deposition and more dissolved organic carbon, allowing less ultraviolet-B penetration in aquatic ecosystems. In the case of human health, improved air quality impacts on the avoidance of premature mortality and reduced morbidity. Numerous other co-benefits were listed and discussed in this document. The first section stated the purpose and objectives. In section 2, that authors described the science and policy context and discussed building an analytical framework in section 3. The impact of GHG emission reductions on atmospheric pollution and ecosystems was dealt with in section 4 and section 5 was devoted to providing an assessment of the relative magnitude of effects. In section 6, the significance of scope was reviewed, and the authors concluded with section 7 in which they discussed the next steps: phase II

  12. Time series GHG emission estimates for residential, commercial, agriculture and fisheries sectors in India

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mohan, Riya Rachel

    2018-04-01

    Green House Gas (GHG) emissions are the major cause of global warming and climate change. Carbon dioxide (CO2) is the main GHG emitted through human activities, at the household level, by burning fuels for cooking and lighting. As per the 2006 methodology of the Inter-governmental Panel on Climate Change (IPCC), the energy sector is divided into various sectors like electricity generation, transport, fugitive, 'other' sectors, etc. The 'other' sectors under energy include residential, commercial, agriculture and fisheries. Time series GHG emission estimates were prepared for the residential, commercial, agriculture and fisheries sectors in India, for the time period 2005 to 2014, to understand the historical emission changes in 'other' sector. Sectoral activity data, with respect to fuel consumption, were collected from various ministry reports like Indian Petroleum and Natural Gas Statistics, Energy Statistics, etc. The default emission factor(s) from IPCC 2006 were used to calculate the emissions for each activity and sector-wise CO2, CH4, N2O and CO2e emissions were compiled. It was observed that the residential sector generates the highest GHG emissions, followed by the agriculture/fisheries and commercial sector. In the residential sector, LPG, kerosene, and fuelwood are the major contributors of emissions, whereas diesel is the main contributor to the commercial, agriculture and fisheries sectors. CO2e emissions have been observed to rise at a cumulative annual growth rate of 0.6%, 9.11%, 7.94% and 5.26% for the residential, commercial, agriculture and fisheries sectors, respectively. In addition to the above, a comparative study of the sectoral inventories from the national inventories, published by Ministry of Environment, Forest and Climate Change, for 2007 and 2010 was also performed.

  13. Identifying Factors Causing Variability in Greenhouse Gas (GHG) Fluxes in a Polygonal Tundra Landscape

    Science.gov (United States)

    Arora, B.; Wainwright, H. M.; Vaughn, L. S.; Curtis, J. B.; Torn, M. S.; Dafflon, B.; Hubbard, S. S.

    2017-12-01

    Greenhouse gas (GHG) flux variations in Arctic tundra environments are important to understand because of the vast amount of soil carbon stored in these regions and the potential of these regions to convert from a global carbon sink to a source under warmer conditions. Multiple factors potentially contribute to GHG flux variations observed in these environments, including snowmelt timing, growing season length, active layer thickness, water table variations, and temperature fluctuations. The objectives of this study are to investigate temporal variability in CO2 and CH4 fluxes at Barrow, AK over three successive growing seasons (2012-14) and to determine the factors influencing this variability using a novel entropy-based classification scheme. We analyzed soil, vegetation, and climate parameters as well as GHG fluxes at multiple locations within low-, flat- and high-centered polygons at Barrow, AK as part of the Next Generation Ecosystem Experiment (NGEE) Arctic project. Entropy results indicate that different environmental factors govern variability in GHG fluxes under different spatiotemporal settings. In particular, flat-centered polygons are more likely to become significant sources of CO2 during warm and dry years as opposed to high-centered polygons that contribute considerably to CO2 emissions during cold and wet years. In contrast, the highest CH4 emissions were always associated with low-centered polygons. Temporal variability in CO2 fluxes was primarily associated with factors affecting soil temperature and/or vegetation dynamics during early and late season periods. Temporal variability in CH4 fluxes was primarily associated with changes in vegetation cover and its covariability with primary controls such as seasonal thaw—rather than direct response to changes in soil moisture. Overall, entropy results document which factors became important under different spatiotemporal settings, thus providing clues concerning the manner in which ecosystem

  14. Setting up GHG-based energy efficiency targets in buildings: The Ecolabel

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    José Vinagre Díaz, Juan; Richard Wilby, Mark; Belén Rodríguez González, Ana

    2013-01-01

    The European Union has recently updated the regulations for energy performance of buildings and on the certification of energy-related products. The world is in the process of constructing policy frameworks to underwrite carbon emission reduction targets, best exemplified by the Kyoto Protocol. This requires complex technical and economical concepts to be presented in an understandable, transparent, and justifiable format. A building's energy efficiency was traditionally determined based on its annual consumption relative to some average performance level. Emissions are calculated as a derivative of consumptions and their aggregated values allow verification of the level of fulfillment of the objectives. Here we take a different approach: considering that the greenhouse gas emissions (GHG) objectives must be achieved; hence, we fix the efficiency standard based on emissions objectives, and then derive the corresponding reference values of consumption. Accordingly, we propose a certification scheme for energy efficiency in buildings based on targets of GHG emissions levels. This proposed framework includes both a label, namely the Ecolabel, and a fiche showing a set of indices and complementary information. The Ecolabel is designed to provide a flexible, evolvable, simple to use at the point of application, and transparent framework. - Highlights: • In this paper we consider the interaction between greenhouse gas emission reduction targets and building energy efficiency. • Specifically we propose an ‘‘Ecolabel” for buildings that is a GHG emissions liability index, which forms a labeling process. • The label follows the Kyoto Protocol philosophy and translates national GHG targets to targets for each and every building. • The approach provides both a new form of efficiency rating on which emissions reduction policy can be based

  15. Impact of non-petroleum vehicle fuel economy on GHG mitigation potential

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Luk, Jason M; Saville, Bradley A; MacLean, Heather L

    2016-01-01

    The fuel economy of gasoline vehicles will increase to meet 2025 corporate average fuel economy standards (CAFE). However, dedicated compressed natural gas (CNG) and battery electric vehicles (BEV) already exceed future CAFE fuel economy targets because only 15% of non-petroleum energy use is accounted for when determining compliance. This study aims to inform stakeholders about the potential impact of CAFE on life cycle greenhouse gas (GHG) emissions, should non-petroleum fuel vehicles displace increasingly fuel efficient petroleum vehicles. The well-to-wheel GHG emissions of a set of hypothetical model year 2025 light-duty vehicles are estimated. A reference gasoline vehicle is designed to meet the 2025 fuel economy target within CAFE, and is compared to a set of dedicated CNG vehicles and BEVs with different fuel economy ratings, but all vehicles meet or exceed the fuel economy target due to the policy’s dedicated non-petroleum fuel vehicle incentives. Ownership costs and BEV driving ranges are estimated to provide context, as these can influence automaker and consumer decisions. The results show that CNG vehicles that have lower ownership costs than gasoline vehicles and BEVs with long distance driving ranges can exceed the 2025 CAFE fuel economy target. However, this could lead to lower efficiency CNG vehicles and heavier BEVs that have higher well-to-wheel GHG emissions than gasoline vehicles on a per km basis, even if the non-petroleum energy source is less carbon intensive on an energy equivalent basis. These changes could influence the effectiveness of low carbon fuel standards and are not precluded by the light-duty vehicle GHG emissions standards, which regulate tailpipe but not fuel production emissions. (letter)

  16. Life cycle GHG assessment of fossil fuel power plants with carbon capture and storage

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Odeh, Naser A.; Cockerill, Timothy T.

    2008-01-01

    The evaluation of life cycle greenhouse gas emissions from power generation with carbon capture and storage (CCS) is a critical factor in energy and policy analysis. The current paper examines life cycle emissions from three types of fossil-fuel-based power plants, namely supercritical pulverized coal (super-PC), natural gas combined cycle (NGCC) and integrated gasification combined cycle (IGCC), with and without CCS. Results show that, for a 90% CO 2 capture efficiency, life cycle GHG emissions are reduced by 75-84% depending on what technology is used. With GHG emissions less than 170 g/kWh, IGCC technology is found to be favorable to NGCC with CCS. Sensitivity analysis reveals that, for coal power plants, varying the CO 2 capture efficiency and the coal transport distance has a more pronounced effect on life cycle GHG emissions than changing the length of CO 2 transport pipeline. Finally, it is concluded from the current study that while the global warming potential is reduced when MEA-based CO 2 capture is employed, the increase in other air pollutants such as NO x and NH 3 leads to higher eutrophication and acidification potentials

  17. Pyrolysis and gasification of meat-and-bone-meal: Energy balance and GHG accounting

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Cascarosa, Esther; Boldrin, Alessio; Astrup, Thomas

    2013-01-01

    Highlights: • GHG savings are in the order of 600–1000 kg CO 2 -eq. per Mg of MBM treated. • Energy recovery differed in terms of energy products and efficiencies. • The results were largely determined by use of the products for energy purposes. - Abstract: Meat-and-bone-meal (MBM) produced from animal waste has become an increasingly important residual fraction needing management. As biodegradable waste is routed away from landfills, thermo-chemical treatments of MBM are considered promising solution for the future. Pyrolysis and gasification of MBM were assessed based on data from three experimental lab and pilot-scale plants. Energy balances were established for the three technologies, providing different outcomes for energy recovery: bio-oil was the main product for the pyrolysis system, while syngas and a solid fraction of biochar were the main products in the gasification system. These products can be used – eventually after upgrading – for energy production, thereby offsetting energy production elsewhere in the system. Greenhouse gases (GHG) accounting of the technologies showed that all three options provided overall GHG savings in the order of 600–1000 kg CO 2 -eq. per Mg of MBM treated, mainly as a consequence of avoided fossil fuel consumption in the energy sector. Local conditions influencing the environmental performance of the three systems were identified, together with critical factors to be considered during decision-making regarding MBM management

  18. Macro economic linkages and impacts. Technical and fiscal options in GHG abatement

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Backus, G.; Barker, T.

    1995-01-01

    This paper discusses some of the main macro economic linkages and feedbacks associated with policies for GHG abatement. The linkages in a global model are described when OECD carbon taxes or alternatively OECD/OPEC joint action raises world oil prices with a smaller OECD carbon tax. The results give a world perspective on the GHG abatement problem. The paper continues with a discussion of the linkages and feedbacks associated with three options: demand-side management (DSM), mainly to improve end-use energy efficiency, reductions in subsidies of fossil fuel production and use, and investment in renewable energy supplies, specifically in energy forestry and associated infrastructure. It concludes that DSM and investment in renewables are unlikely on their own to bring about reduction in GHG emissions, and that new supplies may even lead to increased emissions by driving down the price of energy. However, reductions in emissions may be compatible with increased efficiency and development, as well as with improvements in the quality of the local environment and in rural living, with the new supplies replacing fossil fuel supplies, provided that real fossil fuel prices are increased via removal of subsidies and if required carbon taxes. (au) 15 refs

  19. Pyrolysis and gasification of meat-and-bone-meal: Energy balance and GHG accounting

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Cascarosa, Esther [Thermochemical Processes Group, Aragón Institute for Engineering Research (I3A), Universidad de Zaragoza (Spain); Boldrin, Alessio, E-mail: aleb@env.dtu.dk [Department of Environmental Engineering. Technical University of Denmark, Kongens Lyngby (Denmark); Astrup, Thomas [Department of Environmental Engineering. Technical University of Denmark, Kongens Lyngby (Denmark)

    2013-11-15

    Highlights: • GHG savings are in the order of 600–1000 kg CO{sub 2}-eq. per Mg of MBM treated. • Energy recovery differed in terms of energy products and efficiencies. • The results were largely determined by use of the products for energy purposes. - Abstract: Meat-and-bone-meal (MBM) produced from animal waste has become an increasingly important residual fraction needing management. As biodegradable waste is routed away from landfills, thermo-chemical treatments of MBM are considered promising solution for the future. Pyrolysis and gasification of MBM were assessed based on data from three experimental lab and pilot-scale plants. Energy balances were established for the three technologies, providing different outcomes for energy recovery: bio-oil was the main product for the pyrolysis system, while syngas and a solid fraction of biochar were the main products in the gasification system. These products can be used – eventually after upgrading – for energy production, thereby offsetting energy production elsewhere in the system. Greenhouse gases (GHG) accounting of the technologies showed that all three options provided overall GHG savings in the order of 600–1000 kg CO{sub 2}-eq. per Mg of MBM treated, mainly as a consequence of avoided fossil fuel consumption in the energy sector. Local conditions influencing the environmental performance of the three systems were identified, together with critical factors to be considered during decision-making regarding MBM management.

  20. The Padanian LiMeS. Spatial Interpretation of Local GHG Emission Data

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Michèle Pezzagno

    2015-04-01

    Full Text Available The relevant role of spatial planning in the enforcement of climate change mitigation, managing the development of new low-carbon infrastructures and increasing system-wide efficiencies across sectors, has been addressed at global level (IPCC, 2014 WGIII. In this context, local GHG inventories appear a relevant tool toward the definition of a coherent, inter-sectorial background for local planning, mitigation, and adaptation policies.Taking advantage of consistent GHG emissions data availability in the Lombard context, local maps of direct GHG emissions have been linked with geographic data, including municipal boundaries, population data, and land-use information, produced and organized within the research PRIN 2007 From metropolitan city to metropolitan corridor: the case of the Po Valley Corridor.The results of this mapping exercise have been evaluated on the background of consolidated knowledge about northern Italy urban patterns, including the Linear Metropolitan System – LiMeS – and preliminary observations about characteristics, potential, and limits of the tool are proposed.

  1. Strengthening community participation in reducing GHG emission from forest and peatland fire

    Science.gov (United States)

    Thoha, A. S.; Saharjo, B. H.; Boer, R.; Ardiansyah, M.

    2018-02-01

    Strengthening community participation is needed to find solutions to encourage community more participate in reducing Green House Gas (GHG) from forest and peatland fire. This research aimed to identify stakeholders that have the role in forest and peatland fire control and to formulate strengthening model of community participation through community-based early warning fire. Stakeholder mapping and action research were used to determine stakeholders that had potential influence and interest and to formulate strengthening model of community participation in reducing GHG from forest and peatland fire. There was found that position of key players in the mapping of stakeholders came from the government institution. The existence of community-based fire control group can strengthen government institution through collaborating with stakeholders having strong interest and influence. Moreover, it was found several local knowledge in Kapuas District about how communities predict drought that have potential value for developing the community-based early warning fire system. Formulated institutional model in this research also can be further developed as a model institution in the preservation of natural resources based on local knowledge. In conclusion, local knowledge and community-based fire groups can be integrated within strengthening model of community participation in reducing GHG from forest and peatland fire.

  2. Making use of scenarios : supporting scenario use in product design

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Anggreeni, Irene

    2010-01-01

    The discipline of Scenario-Based Product Design (SBPD) guides the use of scenarios in a product design process. As concrete narratives, scenarios could facilitate making explicit how users would use the designed product in their activities, allowing usability studies to be an integrated part of the

  3. ILC Operating Scenarios

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Barklow, T.; Brau, J.; Fujii, K.; Gao, J.; List, J.; Walker, N.; Yokoya, K.; Collaboration: ILC Parameters Joint Working Group

    2015-06-15

    The ILC Technical Design Report documents the design for the construction of a linear collider which can be operated at energies up to 500 GeV. This report summarizes the outcome of a study of possible running scenarios, including a realistic estimate of the real time accumulation of integrated luminosity based on ramp-up and upgrade processes. The evolution of the physics outcomes is emphasized, including running initially at 500 GeV, then at 350 GeV and 250 GeV. The running scenarios have been chosen to optimize the Higgs precision measurements and top physics while searching for evidence for signals beyond the standard model, including dark matter. In addition to the certain precision physics on the Higgs and top that is the main focus of this study, there are scientific motivations that indicate the possibility for discoveries of new particles in the upcoming operations of the LHC or the early operation of the ILC. Follow-up studies of such discoveries could alter the plan for the centre-of-mass collision energy of the ILC and expand the scientific impact of the ILC physics program. It is envisioned that a decision on a possible energy upgrade would be taken near the end of the twenty year period considered in this report.

  4. Erosion scenarios for Wellenberg

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Klemenz, W.

    1993-09-01

    The proposed Wellenberg site for a radioactive waste repository is located between Altzellen in the Engelberger valley and the Oberrickenbach valley, in a thick Valanginian marl series. The marl is generally overlaid with unconsolidated rocks but reaches to the surface in some places. In contrast to the situation in the Oberbauenstock region this marl complex is not protected by an overlying erosion resistant series and exhibits a marked relief. The question therefore arises with respect to the Wellenberg site, to what extent will the marl (i.e. the repository host rock formation) be removed by erosion processes during the 100,000 years interval under consideration and what overburden will remain at the end of this period. This report presents the results of an investigation of the longterm behaviour of the proposed site in respect of those processes of erosion and deposition which can lead to changes in the terrain surface and its location relative to the repository. A wide range of possible scenarios encompassing different developments of climatic conditions during the 100,000 year period of interest, was investigated. In addition to the continuation of the present climate and the occurrence of a new ice age on the scale of the Wuerm glaciation the consequences of altered climatic conditions on erosion removal of the repository overburden were considered. Within the 100,000 year period of interest none of the scenarios considered leads to the exposure of the repository. (author) figs., tabs, refs

  5. Bridging Scales: Developing a Framework to Build a City-Scale Environmental Scenario for Japanese Municipalities

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hashimoto, S.; Fujita, T.; Nakayama, T.; Xu, K.

    2007-12-01

    There is an ongoing project on establishing environmental scenarios in Japan to evaluate middle to long-term environmental policy and technology options toward low carbon society. In this project, the time horizon of the scenarios is set for 2050 on the ground that a large part of social infrastructure in Japan is likely to be renovated by that time, and cities are supposed to play important roles in building low carbon society in Japan. This belief is held because cities or local governments could implement various policies and programs, such as land use planning and promotion of new technologies with low GHG emissions, which produce an effect in an ununiform manner, taking local socio-economic conditions into account, while higher governments, either national or prefectural, could impose environmental tax on electricity and gas to alleviate ongoing GHG emissions, which uniformly covers their jurisdictions. In order for local governments to devise and implement concrete administrative actions equipped with rational policies and technologies, referring the environmental scenarios developed for the entire nation, we need to localize the national scenarios, both in terms of spatial and temporal extent, so that they could better reflect local socio-economic and institutional conditions. In localizing the national scenarios, the participation of stakeholders is significant because they play major roles in shaping future society. Stakeholder participation in the localization process would bring both creative and realistic inputs on how future unfolds on a city scale. In this research, 1) we reviewed recent efforts on international and domestic scenario development to set a practical time horizon for a city-scale environmental scenario, which would lead to concrete environmental policies and programs, 2) designed a participatory scenario development/localization process, drawing on the framework of the 'Story-and-Simulation' or SAS approach, which Alcamo(2001) proposed

  6. Assessment of soil GHG emission in different functional zones of Moscow urbanized areas

    Science.gov (United States)

    Vizirskaya, Maria; Epikhina, Anna; Vasenev, Ivan; Valentini, Riccardo; Mazirov, Il'ya

    2014-05-01

    Atmospheric greenhouse-gas concentrations are increasing rapidly, causing global climate changes. Growing concentrations of CO2, CH4 and N2O are occurring not only as a result of industry activity, but also from changes in land use and type of land management due to urbanization. Up to now there were not so many studies in Russia that dealt with urbanization effects (functional zoning, land-use type, soil contamination etc.) on GHG emission from the soil in spatial-temporal variability at the local and regional scale. The aim of our study is to provide the analysis of soil CO2, N2O and CH4 efflux's response to different biotic and abiotic factors, as well as to management activities and anthropogenic impact in different functional zones of the city. The principal objects of our study are representative urban landscapes with different land-use practices, typical for urbanized area. The varieties of urban ecosystems are represented by urban forest, green lawns with different functional subzoning and agro landscapes (16 sites in total). Forest sites have been studied during 7 years and they are differing in mezorelief (small hill summit and two slopes). Green lawns vary in level of human impact (normal, medium and high) and are represented by managed and non-managed lawns. Agro landscapes are represented by two crop types: barley and grass mixture (oats and vetch) with till and no-till cultivation. In each plot we measured: soil respiration in field conditions using system based on IR-gas analyzer Li- COR 820, CH4 and N2O emission using the method of exposition chamber. Samples were taken from soil exposition chamber by syringe, and then analyzed on gas chromatograph. The measurements with Li-COR have been done on 10 days base since June till October 2013, and till September by exposition chamber in 5 replicas per plot. The conducted research have shown high spatial and temporal variability of CO2, CH4 and N2O fluxes due to functional zoning, slope, vegetation type

  7. 40 Years of Shell Scenarios

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    NONE

    2013-02-15

    Shell has been using scenario planning for four decades. During that time these scenarios have helped the company and governments across the world to make better strategic choices. Scenarios provide lenses that help see future prospects more clearly, make richer judgments and be more sensitive to uncertainties. Discover how the Shell Scenarios team has helped guide decision makers at major moments in history and get a peek at the team future focus, including the intricate relationship between energy, water and food.

  8. Greenhouse Gas CCI Project (GHG-CCI): Overview and current status

    Science.gov (United States)

    Buchwitz, M.; Burrows, J. P.; Reuter, M.; Schneising, O.; Noel, S.; Bovensmann, H.; Notholt, J.; Boesch, H.; Parker, R.; Hasekamp, O. P.; Guerlet, S.; Aben, I.; Lichtenberg, G.; Crevoisier, C. D.; Chedin, A.; Stiller, G. P.; Laeng, A.; Butz, A.; Blumenstock, T.; Orphal, J.; Sussmann, R.; De Maziere, M. M.; Dils, B.; Brunner, D.; Popp, C. T.; Buchmann, B.; Chevallier, F.; Bergamaschi, P. M.; Frankenberg, C.; Zehner, C.

    2011-12-01

    The GHG-CCI project is one of several projects of ESA's Climate Change Initiative (CCI), which will deliver various Essential Climate Variables (ECVs). The goal of GHG-CCI is to deliver global satellite-derived data sets of the two most important anthropogenic greenhouse gases (GHGs) carbon dioxide (CO2) and methane (CH4) suitable to obtain information on regional CO2 and CH4 surface sources and sinks as needed for better climate prediction. The GHG-CCI core ECV data products are column-averaged mole fractions of CO2 and CH4, i.e., XCO2 and XCH4, retrieved from SCIAMACHY on ENVISAT and TANSO on GOSAT. Other satellite instruments will be used to provide constraints in upper layers such as IASI, MIPAS, and ACE-FTS. Which of the advanced algorithms, which are under development, will be the best for a given data product still needs to be determined. For each of the 4 GHG-CCI core data products - XCO2 and XCH4 from SCIAMACHY and GOSAT - several algorithms will be further developed and the corresponding data products will be inter-compared to identify which data product is the most appropriate. This includes comparisons with corresponding data products generated elsewhere, most notably with the operational data products of GOSAT generated at NIES and the NASA/ACOS GOSAT XCO2 product. This activity, the so-called "Round Robin exercise", will be performed in the first two years of this project. At the end of the 2 year Round Robin phase a decision will be made which of the algorithms performs best. The selected algorithms will be used to generate the first version of the ECV GHG. In the last six months of this 3 year project the resulting data products will be validated and made available to all interested users. In the presentation and overview about this project will be given. Focus will be on a discussion and intercomparison of the various data products focusing on CO2.

  9. Alternative policy impacts on US GHG emissions and energy security: A hybrid modeling approach

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Sarica, Kemal; Tyner, Wallace E.

    2013-01-01

    This study addresses the possible impacts of energy and climate policies, namely corporate average fleet efficiency (CAFE) standard, renewable fuel standard (RFS) and clean energy standard (CES), and an economy wide equivalent carbon tax on GHG emissions in the US to the year 2045. Bottom–up and top–down modeling approaches find widespread use in energy economic modeling and policy analysis, in which they differ mainly with respect to the emphasis placed on technology of the energy system and/or the comprehensiveness of endogenous market adjustments. For this study, we use a hybrid energy modeling approach, MARKAL–Macro, that combines the characteristics of two divergent approaches, in order to investigate and quantify the cost of climate policies for the US and an equivalent carbon tax. The approach incorporates Macro-economic feedbacks through a single sector neoclassical growth model while maintaining sectoral and technological detail of the bottom–up optimization framework with endogenous aggregated energy demand. Our analysis is done for two important objectives of the US energy policy: GHG reduction and increased energy security. Our results suggest that the emission tax achieves results quite similar to the CES policy but very different results in the transportation sector. The CAFE standard and RFS are more expensive than a carbon tax for emission reductions. However, the CAFE standard and RFS are much more efficient at achieving crude oil import reductions. The GDP losses are 2.0% and 1.2% relative to the base case for the policy case and carbon tax. That difference may be perceived as being small given the increased energy security gained from the CAFE and RFS policy measures and the uncertainty inherent in this type of analysis. - Highlights: • Evaluates US impacts of three energy/climate policies and a carbon tax (CT) • Analysis done with bottom–up MARKAL model coupled with a macro model • Electricity clean energy standard very close to

  10. Toward a Multi-City Framework for Urban GHG Estimation in the United States: Methods, Uncertainties, and Future Goals

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mueller, K. L.; Callahan, W.; Davis, K. J.; Dickerson, R. R.; Duren, R. M.; Gurney, K. R.; Karion, A.; Keeling, R. F.; Kim, J.; Lauvaux, T.; Miller, C. E.; Shepson, P. B.; Turnbull, J. C.; Weiss, R. F.; Whetstone, J. R.

    2017-12-01

    City and State governments are increasingly interested in mitigating greenhouse gas (GHG) emissions to improve sustainability within their jurisdictions. Estimation of urban GHG emissions remains an active research area with many sources of uncertainty. To support the effort of improving measurement of trace gas emissions in city environments, several federal agencies along with academic, research, and private entities have been working within a handful of domestic metropolitan areas to improve both (1) the assessment of GHG emissions accuracy using a variety of measurement technologies, and (2) the tools that can better assess GHG inventory data at urban mitigation scales based upon these measurements. The National Institute of Standards and Technology (NIST) activities have focused on three areas, or testbeds: Indianapolis (INFLUX experiment), Los Angeles (the LA Megacities project), and the Northeastern Corridor areas encompassing Washington and Baltimore (the NEC/BW GHG Measurements project). These cities represent diverse meteorological, terrain, demographic, and emissions characteristics having a broad range of complexities. To date this research has involved multiple measurement systems and integrated observing approaches, all aimed at advancing development of a robust, science-base upon which higher accuracy quantification approaches can rest. Progress toward such scientifically robust, widely-accepted emissions quantification methods will rely upon continuous performance assessment. Such assessment is challenged by the complexities of cities themselves (e.g., population, urban form) along with the many variables impacting a city's technological ability to estimate its GHG emissions (e.g., meteorology, density of observations). We present the different NIST testbeds and a proposal to initiate conceptual development of a reference framework supporting the comparison of multi-city GHG emissions estimates. Such a reference framework has potential to provide

  11. Life cycle greenhouse gas (GHG) impacts of a novel process for converting food waste to ethanol and co-products

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Ebner, Jacqueline; Babbitt, Callie; Winer, Martin; Hilton, Brian; Williamson, Anahita

    2014-01-01

    Highlights: • Co-fermentation using SSF at ambient temperature has potential as an ethanol pathway. • Bio-refinery GHG emissions are similar to corn and MSW ethanol production processes. • Net production GHG impact is negative with inclusion of waste disposal avoidance. • Food waste diversion from landfills is the largest contributor to GHG benefits. - Abstract: Waste-to-ethanol conversion is a promising technology to provide renewable transportation fuel while mitigating feedstock risks and land use conflicts. It also has the potential to reduce environmental impacts from waste management such as greenhouse gas (GHG) emissions that contribute to climate change. This paper analyzes the life cycle GHG emissions associated with a novel process for the conversion of food processing waste into ethanol (EtOH) and the co-products of compost and animal feed. Data are based on a pilot plant co-fermenting retail food waste with a sugary industrial wastewater, using a simultaneous saccharification and fermentation (SSF) process at room temperature with a grinding pretreatment. The process produced 295 L EtOH/dry t feedstock. Lifecycle GHG emissions associated with the ethanol production process were 1458 gCO 2 e/L EtOH. When the impact of avoided landfill emissions from diverting food waste to use as feedstock are considered, the process results in net negative GHG emissions and approximately 500% improvement relative to corn ethanol or gasoline production. This finding illustrates how feedstock and alternative waste disposal options have important implications in life cycle GHG results for waste-to-energy pathways

  12. Implications of a consumer-based perspective for the estimation of GHG emissions. The illustrative case of Luxembourg

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Caro, Dario, E-mail: caro2@unisi.it [Ecodynamics Group/DEEPS, Department of Environment, Earth and Physical Sciences, University of Siena, Via A. Moro, 2, I-53100 Siena (Italy); Department of Animal Science, University of California, Davis, CA 95616 (United States); Rugani, Benedetto [Public Research Centre Henri Tudor (CRPHT), Resource Centre for Environmental Technologies (CRTE), 6A, avenue des Hauts-Fourneaux, L-4362 Esch-sur-Alzette (Luxembourg); Pulselli, Federico Maria [Ecodynamics Group/DEEPS, Department of Environment, Earth and Physical Sciences, University of Siena, Via A. Moro, 2, I-53100 Siena (Italy); Benetto, Enrico [Public Research Centre Henri Tudor (CRPHT), Resource Centre for Environmental Technologies (CRTE), 6A, avenue des Hauts-Fourneaux, L-4362 Esch-sur-Alzette (Luxembourg)

    2015-03-01

    The Kyoto protocol has established an accounting system for national greenhouse gas (GHG) emissions according to a geographic criterion (producer perspective), such as that proposed by the IPCC guidelines for national GHG inventories. However, the representativeness of this approach is still being debated, because the role of final consumers (consumer perspective) is not considered in the emission allocation system. This paper explores the usefulness of a hybrid analysis, including input–output (IO) and process inventory data, as a complementary tool for estimating and allocating national GHG emissions according to both consumer- and producer-based perspectives. We assess the historical GHG impact profile (from 1995 to 2009) of Luxembourg, which is taken as a case study. The country's net consumption over time is estimated to generate about 28,700 Gg CO{sub 2}e/year on average. Compared to the conventional IPCC inventory, the IO-based framework typically shows much higher emission estimations. This relevant discrepancy is mainly due to the different points of view obtained from the hybrid model, in particular with regard to the contribution of imported goods and services. Detailing the GHG inventory by economic activity and considering a wider system boundary make the hybrid IO method advantageous as compared to the IPCC approach, but its effective implementation is still limited by the relatively complex modeling system, as well as the lack of coordination and scarce availability of datasets at the national level. - Highlights: • GHG emissions for Luxembourg are assessed using hybrid input–output (IO) modeling. • Consumer and producer perspectives are compared for the period 1995–2009. • IO-based GHG profiles are remarkably higher than traditional IPCC inventorying. • IO-based GHG accounting presents some advantages but is limited in implementation. • Key-aspects of IPCC and IO-based methods are extensively investigated and compared.

  13. Implications of a consumer-based perspective for the estimation of GHG emissions. The illustrative case of Luxembourg

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Caro, Dario; Rugani, Benedetto; Pulselli, Federico Maria; Benetto, Enrico

    2015-01-01

    The Kyoto protocol has established an accounting system for national greenhouse gas (GHG) emissions according to a geographic criterion (producer perspective), such as that proposed by the IPCC guidelines for national GHG inventories. However, the representativeness of this approach is still being debated, because the role of final consumers (consumer perspective) is not considered in the emission allocation system. This paper explores the usefulness of a hybrid analysis, including input–output (IO) and process inventory data, as a complementary tool for estimating and allocating national GHG emissions according to both consumer- and producer-based perspectives. We assess the historical GHG impact profile (from 1995 to 2009) of Luxembourg, which is taken as a case study. The country's net consumption over time is estimated to generate about 28,700 Gg CO 2 e/year on average. Compared to the conventional IPCC inventory, the IO-based framework typically shows much higher emission estimations. This relevant discrepancy is mainly due to the different points of view obtained from the hybrid model, in particular with regard to the contribution of imported goods and services. Detailing the GHG inventory by economic activity and considering a wider system boundary make the hybrid IO method advantageous as compared to the IPCC approach, but its effective implementation is still limited by the relatively complex modeling system, as well as the lack of coordination and scarce availability of datasets at the national level. - Highlights: • GHG emissions for Luxembourg are assessed using hybrid input–output (IO) modeling. • Consumer and producer perspectives are compared for the period 1995–2009. • IO-based GHG profiles are remarkably higher than traditional IPCC inventorying. • IO-based GHG accounting presents some advantages but is limited in implementation. • Key-aspects of IPCC and IO-based methods are extensively investigated and compared

  14. Engaging Personas and Narrative Scenarios

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Nielsen, Lene

    2004-01-01

    design ideas. The concept of engaging personas and narrative scenario explores personas in the light of what what it is to identify with and have empathy with a character. The concept of narrative scenarios views the narrative as aid for exploration of design ideas. Both concepts incorporate...... a distinktion between creating, writing and reading. Keywords: personas, scenarios, user-centered design, HCI...

  15. Biomass Scenario Model Scenario Library: Definitions, Construction, and Description

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Inman, D.; Vimmerstedt, L.; Bush, B.; Peterson, S.

    2014-04-01

    Understanding the development of the biofuels industry in the United States is important to policymakers and industry. The Biomass Scenario Model (BSM) is a system dynamics model of the biomass-to-biofuels system that can be used to explore policy effects on biofuels development. Because of the complexity of the model, as well as the wide range of possible future conditions that affect biofuels industry development, we have not developed a single reference case but instead developed a set of specific scenarios that provide various contexts for our analyses. The purpose of this report is to describe the scenarios that comprise the BSM scenario library. At present, we have the following policy-focused scenarios in our library: minimal policies, ethanol-focused policies, equal access to policies, output-focused policies, technological diversity focused, and the point-of-production- focused. This report describes each scenario, its policy settings, and general insights gained through use of the scenarios in analytic studies.

  16. Total algorithms

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Tel, G.

    We define the notion of total algorithms for networks of processes. A total algorithm enforces that a "decision" is taken by a subset of the processes, and that participation of all processes is required to reach this decision. Total algorithms are an important building block in the design of

  17. Emissions implications of downscaled electricity generation scenarios for the western United States

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Nsanzineza, Rene; O’Connell, Matthew; Brinkman, Gregory; Milford, Jana B.

    2017-10-01

    This study explores how emissions from electricity generation in the Western Interconnection region of the U.S. might respond in circa 2030 to contrasting scenarios for fuel prices and greenhouse gas (GHG) emissions fees. We examine spatial and temporal variations in generation mix across the region and year using the PLEXOS unit commitment and dispatch model with a production cost model database adapted from the Western Electricity Coordinating Council. Emissions estimates are computed by combining the dispatch model results with unit-specific, emissions-load relationships. Wind energy displaces natural gas and coal in scenarios with relatively expensive natural gas or with GHG fees. Correspondingly, annual emissions of NOx, SO2, and CO2 are reduced by 20-40% in these cases. NOx emissions, which are a concern as a precursor of ground-level ozone, are relatively high and consistent across scenarios during summer, when peak electricity loads occur and wind resources in the region are comparatively weak. Accounting for the difference in start-up versus stabilized NOx emissions rates for natural gas plants had little impact on region-wide emissions estimates due to the dominant contribution from coal-fired plants, but would be more important in the vicinity of the natural gas units.

  18. Scenario development methodologies

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Eng, T.; Hudson, J.; Stephansson, O.

    1994-11-01

    In the period 1981-1994, SKB has studied several methodologies to systematize and visualize all the features, events and processes (FEPs) that can influence a repository for radioactive waste in the future. All the work performed is based on the terminology and basic findings in the joint SKI/SKB work on scenario development presented in the SKB Technical Report 89-35. The methodologies studied are a) Event tree analysis, b) Influence diagrams and c) Rock Engineering Systems (RES) matrices. Each one of the methodologies is explained in this report as well as examples of applications. One chapter is devoted to a comparison between the two most promising methodologies, namely: Influence diagrams and the RES methodology. In conclusion a combination of parts of the Influence diagram and the RES methodology is likely to be a promising approach. 26 refs

  19. An analysis of long-term scenarios for the transition to renewable energy in the Korean electricity sector

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Park, Nyun-Bae; Yun, Sun-Jin; Jeon, Eui-Chan

    2013-01-01

    This paper analyzes the energy, environmental and economic influences of three electricity scenarios in Korea by 2050 using the “Long-range Energy Alternatives Planning system” (LEAP) model. The reference year was 2008. Scenarios include the baseline (BL), new governmental policy (GP) and sustainable society (SS) scenarios. The growth rate of electricity demand in the GP scenario was higher than that of the BL scenario while the growth rate in the SS scenario was lower than that of the BL scenario. Greenhouse gas emissions from electricity generation in 2050 in the BL and GP scenarios were similar with current emissions. However, emissions in 2050 in the SS scenario were about 80% lower than emissions in 2008, because of the expansion of renewable electricity in spite of the phase-out of nuclear energy. While nuclear and coal-fired power plants accounted for most of the electricity generated in the BL and GP scenarios in 2050, the SS scenario projected that renewable energy would generate the most electricity in 2050. It was found that the discounted cumulative costs from 2009 to 2050 in the SS scenario would be 20 and 10% higher than that of the BL and GP scenarios, respectively. - Highlights: ► This paper analyzed three kinds of electricity scenarios in Korea by 2050 using LEAP model. Baseline and governmental policy scenarios focus on the electricity supply through nuclear expansion. ► Sustainable Society scenario focuses on demand management and renewable electricity. ► The latter improves energy security and reduces more GHG with the affordable cost.

  20. Reducing GHG emissions in agricultural production process for production of biofuels by growing legumes and production-technical measures

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Gurgel, Andreas; Schiemenz, Katja

    2017-01-01

    The reduction of greenhouse gases (GHG) emissions in the supply chain for biofuels is a big challenge especially for the German and European cultivation of energy crops. The production of nitrogen fertilizers and field emissions are the main factors of GHG emissions. The amount of field emissions depends very strongly on the nitrogen effort and the intensity of tillage. The main objective is to reduce GHG emissions in field cropping systems within the biofuel production chains. An inclusion of legumes into crop rotations is particularly important because their cultivation does not require nitrogen fertilizer. Data base for the project is a complex field experiment with the biofuel crops winter rape and winter wheat. Previous crops are winter wheat, peas and lupins. ln each case tilling systems are compared with non-tilling. The first results of the field experiments are nitrogen functions depending on previous crops, sites and tilling system. Calculation models for GHG reduction models were developed on the bases of these results. By growing legumes as previous crops before wheat and rape it is possible to reduce GHG emissions from 2 to 10 g CO_2_e_q per MJ. The best reduction of GHG emissions is possible by combining legumes as previous crops with a reduced nitrogen effort.

  1. Global Warming Potential and Eutrophication Potential of Biofuel Feedstock Crops Produced in Florida, Measured Under Different Scenarios

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Izursa, Jose-Luis; Hanlon, Edward; Amponsah, Nana; Capece, John

    2013-02-15

    The agriculture sector is in a growing need to develop greenhouse gas (GHG) mitigation techniques to reduce the enhanced greenhouse effect. The challenge to the sector is not only to reduce net emissions but also increase production to meet growing demands for food, fiber, and biofuel. This study focuses on the changes in the GHG balance of three biofuel feedstock (biofuel sugarcane, energy-cane and sweet sorghum) considering changes caused by the adoption of conservationist practices such as reduced tillage, use of controlled-release fertilizers or when cultivation areas are converted from burned harvest to green harvest. Based on the Intergovernmental Panel on Climate Change (IPCC) (2006) balance and the Tools for the Reduction and Assessment of Chemical and Other Environmental Impacts (TRACI) characterization factors published by the EPA, the annual emission balance includes use energy (diesel and electricity), equipment, and ancillary materials, according to the mean annual consumption of supplies per hectare. The total amounts of GWP were 2740, 1791, and 1910 kg CO2e ha-1 y-1 for biofuel sugarcane, energy-cane and sweet sorghum, respectively, when produced with conventional tillage and sugarcane was burned prior to harvesting. Applying reduced tillage practices, the GHG emissions reduced to 13% for biofuel sugarcane, 23% for energy-cane and 8% for sweet sorghum. A similar decrease occurs when a controlled-release fertilizer practice is adopted, which helps reduce the total emission balance in 5%, 12% and 19% for biofuel sugarcane, energy-cane and sweet sorghum, respectively and a 31% average reduction in eutrophication potential. Moreover, the GHG emissions for biofuel sugarcane, with the adoption of green harvest, would result in a smaller GHG balance of 1924 kg CO2e ha-1 y-1, providing an effect strategy for GHG mitigation while still providing a profitable yield in Florida.

  2. Reasonable potential for GHG savings by anaerobic biomethane in Germany and UK derived from economic and ecological analyses

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Horschig, Thomas; Adams, Paul W.R.; Röder, Mirjam; Thornley, Patricia; Thrän, Daniela

    2016-01-01

    Highlights: • Biomethane market potential estimation through biogas market analyses. • Country comparison of Germany and the UK in terms of bioenergy. • Assessment of possible greenhouse gas emission savings by biomethane. • Role of biomethane to achieve greenhouse gas reduction goals in Germany and the UK was investigated. - Abstract: This study introduces a new approach to estimate biomethane market potential by analysing biogas markets and their relative environmental and economic advantages. This potential is then combined with greenhouse gas emission values for different feedstock shares (farm-fed and waste-fed systems) and different application share to determine the possible contribution of biomethane to national greenhouse gas emission saving goals. Markets that are considered are Germany and the UK being the biggest emitters of CO_2_e_q in the European Union. The current use was compared with the scenarios (i) market projection, derived from literature study and (ii) reasonable potential, derived from environmental and economic calculations. The current market status is presented to show the past market development until the present date and associated greenhouse gas savings. Additionally the potential of biomethane to contribute to greenhouse gas emission savings is extensively described. Results indicate that the share of application in Germany is more environmental beneficial than the one in the UK achieving higher greenhouse gas savings at comparable feed-in level. In contrast, the UK has a higher share of waste-fed systems to produce biomethane. The use of biomethane in CHP plants achieves the highest GHG emission savings and if organic waste is used as feedstock the possible savings are even higher. With an increase of biomethane used in CHP plants and a decrease of biomethane used for direct heating the savings in the UK could increase up to 52%. Current savings of 2446 kt CO_2_e_q (Germany) and 606 kt CO_2_e_q (UK) can be extended to 4483

  3. Plant diversity affects GHG fluxes in an ecological engineering experiment in a disturbed Sphagnum peatland (La Guette, France)

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gogo, Sébastien; Laggoun-Défarge, Fatima; Leroy, Fabien; Guimbaud, Christophe; Bernard-Jannin, Léonard

    2017-04-01

    Many Sphagnum peatlands are experiencing vegetation change caused mainly by hydrological disturbances. In the context of these direct and indirect modifications, greenhouse gases (GHG) fluxes are affected by peat oxygenation, changes in litter composition (and thus decomposition) and rhizospheric processes (such as root exudates). This could lead a C sink system to switch to a source. To restore peatland functioning, ecological engineering works can be undertaken. Our study site, La Guette peatland (central France) is invaded by Molinia caerulea because a drain at the output decreased the water table depth. It was shown that it functioned as a source of C. In 2014, hydrological works were undertaken: 8 dams were installed, ditches were dug perpendicular to the water flow and back-filled with a mixture of shales and bentonite. In addition, a biodiversity experiment with 2 identical experimental stations was implemented: "downstream", close to the hydraulic works (relatively wet), "upstream", (relatively dry), with types of 3 vegetation plot (2m x 2m, n=4): 1) "control": intact vegetation (Molinia caerulea, Erica tetralix), 2) "bare" peat: vegetation and 5cm of peat were removed, 3) "Sphagnum": bare peat+Sphagnum. Our study aims to assess the effect of the vegetation treatment on the GHG fluxes. CO2 (ecosystem respiration or ER, Gross Primary Production or GPP, and Net Ecosystem Exchange) and CH4 fluxes (manual accumulation chamber), air and soil temperature, water table level, soil moisture were measured. After 18 months, half of the surface of "bare" and "Sphagnum" plots were covered by vegetation (Eriophorum angustifolium, Rynchospora alba, Trichophorum cespitosum). With time, as succession unfolds in these 2 types of station, ER and GPP increased. The sensitivity of ER to temperature increased sharply in "bare" and "Sphagnum" plots with years and became higher than the sensitivity in "control" plots. GPP increased with the total vegetation percentage cover

  4. Comparison of the results of climate change impact assessment between RCP8.5 and SSP2 scenarios

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lee, D. K.; Park, J. H.; Park, C.; Kim, S.

    2017-12-01

    Climate change scenarios are mainly published by the Intergovernmental Panel on Climate Change (IPCC), and include SRES (Special Report on Emission Scenario) scenarios (IPCC Third Report), RCP (Representative Concentration Pathways) scenarios (IPCC 5th Report), and SSP (Shared Socioeconomic Pathways) scenarios. Currently widely used RCP scenarios are based on how future greenhouse gas concentrations will change. In contrast, SSP scenarios are that predict how climate change will change in response to socio-economic indicators such as population, economy, land use, and energy change. In this study, based on RCP 8.5 climate data, we developed a new Korean scenario using the future social and economic scenarios of SSP2. In the development of the scenario, not only Korea's emissions but also China and Japan's emissions were considered in terms of space. In addition, GHG emissions and air pollutant emissions were taken into consideration. Using the newly developed scenarios, the impacts assessments of the forest were evaluated and the impacts were evaluated using the RCP scenarios. The average precipitation is similar to the SSP2 scenario and the RCP8.5 scenario, but the SSP2 scenario shows the maximum value is lower than RCP8.5 scenario. This is because the SSP2 scenario simulates the summer precipitation weakly. The temperature distribution is similar for both scenarios, and it can be seen that the average temperature in the 2090s is higher than that in the 2050s. At present, forest net primary productivity of Korea is 693 tC/km2, and it is 679 tC/km2 when SSP2 scenario is applied. Also, the damage of forest by ozone is about 4.1-5.1%. On the other hand, when SSP2 scenario is applied, the forest net primary productivity of Korea is 607 tC/km2 and the forest net primary productivity of RCP8.5 scenario is 657 tC/km2. The analysis shows that the damage caused by climate change is reduced by 14.2% for the SSP2 scenario and 6.9% for the RCP8.5 scenario. The damage caused

  5. Soil organic carbon changes in the cultivation of energy crops: Implications for GHG balances and soil quality for use in LCA

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Brandao, Miguel; Mila i Canals, Llorenc; Clift, Roland

    2011-01-01

    The environmental impact of different land-use systems for energy, up to the farm or forest 'gate', has been quantified with Life Cycle Assessment (LCA). Four representative crops are considered: OilSeed Rape (OSR), Miscanthus, Short-Rotation Coppice (SRC) willow and forest residues. The focus of the LCA is on changes in Soil Organic Carbon (SOC) but energy use, emissions of GreenHouse Gases (GHGs), acidification and eutrophication are also considered. In addition to providing an indicator of soil quality, changes in SOC are shown to have a dominant effect on total GHG emissions. Miscanthus is the best land-use option for GHG emissions and soil quality as it sequesters C at a higher rate than the other crops, but this has to be weighed against other environmental impacts where Miscanthus performs worse, such as acidification and eutrophication. OSR shows the worst performance across all categories. Because forest residues are treated as a by-product, their environmental impacts are small in all categories. The analysis highlights the need for detailed site-specific modelling of SOC changes, and for consequential LCAs of the whole fuel cycle including transport and use.

  6. Emissions Scenario Portal for Visualization of Low Carbon Pathways

    Science.gov (United States)

    Friedrich, J.; Hennig, R. J.; Mountford, H.; Altamirano, J. C.; Ge, M.; Fransen, T.

    2016-12-01

    This proposal for a presentation is centered around a new project which is developed collaboratively by the World Resources Institute (WRI), Google Inc., and Deep Decarbonization Pathways Project (DDPP). The project aims to develop an online, open portal, the Emissions Scenario Portal (ESP),to enable users to easily visualize a range of future greenhouse gas emission pathways linked to different scenarios of economic and energy developments, drawing from a variety of modeling tools. It is targeted to users who are not modelling experts, but instead policy analysts or advisors, investment analysts, and similar who draw on modelled scenarios to inform their work, and who can benefit from better access to, and transparency around, the wide range of emerging scenarios on ambitious climate action. The ESP will provide information from scenarios in a visually appealing and easy-to-understand manner that enable these users to recognize the opportunities to reduce GHG emissions, the implications of the different scenarios, and the underlying assumptions. To facilitate the application of the portal and tools in policy dialogues, a series of country-specific and potentially sector-specific workshops with key decision-makers and analysts, supported by relevant analysis, will be organized by the key partners and also in broader collaboration with others who might wish to convene relevant groups around the information. This project will provide opportunities for modelers to increase their outreach and visibility in the public space and to directly interact with key audiences of emissions scenarios, such as policy analysts and advisors. The information displayed on the portal will cover a wide range of indicators, sectors and important scenario characteristics such as macroeconomic information, emission factors and policy as well as technology assumptions in order to facilitate comparison. These indicators have been selected based on existing standards (such as the IIASA AR5

  7. Scenario planning and nanotechnological futures

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Farber, Darryl; Lakhtakia, Akhlesh

    2009-01-01

    Scenario planning may assist us in harnessing the benefits of nanotechnology and managing the associated risks for the good of the society. Scenario planning is a way to describe the present state of the world and develop several hypotheses about the future of the world, thereby enabling discussions about how the world ought to be. Scenario planning thus is not only a tool for learning and foresight, but also for leadership. Informed decision making by experts and political leaders becomes possible, while simultaneously allaying the public's perception of the risks of new and emerging technologies such as nanotechnology. Two scenarios of the societal impact of nanotechnology are the mixed-signals scenario and the confluence scenario. Technoscientists have major roles to play in both scenarios.

  8. Strategic Scenario Construction Made Easy

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Duus, Henrik Johannsen

    2016-01-01

    insights from the area of strategic forecasting (of which scenario planning is a proper subset) and experiences gained from a recent course in that area to develop a simpler, more direct, hands-on method for scenario construction and to provide several ideas for scenario construction that can be used......Scenario planning is a well-known way to develop corporate strategy by creating multiple images of alternative futures. Yet although scenario planning grew from very hands-on strategy development efforts in the military and from operations research dedicated to solving practical problems, the use...... of scenarios in business has, in many cases, remained a cumbersome affair. Very often a large group of consultants, employees and staff is involved in the development of scenarios and strategies, thus making the whole process expensive in terms of time, money and human resources. In response, this article uses...

  9. Modeling the Heterogeneous Effects of GHG Mitigation Policies on Global Agriculture and Forestry

    Science.gov (United States)

    Golub, A.; Henderson, B.; Hertel, T. W.; Rose, S. K.; Sohngen, B.

    2010-12-01

    Agriculture and forestry are envisioned as potentially key sectors for climate change mitigation policy, yet the depth of analysis of mitigation options and their economic consequences remains remarkably shallow in comparison to that for industrial mitigation. Farming and land use change - much of it induced by agriculture -account for one-third of global greenhouse gas (GHG) emissions. Any serious attempt to curtail these emissions will involve changes in the way farming is conducted, as well as placing limits on agricultural expansion into areas currently under more carbon-intensive land cover. However, agriculture and forestry are extremely heterogeneous, both in the technology and intensity of production, as well as in the GHG emissions intensity of these activities. And these differences, in turn, give rise to significant changes in the distribution of agricultural production, trade and consumption in the wake of mitigation policies. This paper assesses such distributional impacts via a global economic analysis undertaken with a modified version of the GTAP model. The paper builds on a global general equilibrium GTAP-AEZ-GHG model (Golub et al., 2009). This is a unified modeling framework that links the agricultural, forestry, food processing and other sectors through land, and other factor markets and international trade, and incorporates different land-types, land uses and related CO2 and non-CO2 GHG emissions and sequestration. The economic data underlying this work is the global GTAP data base aggregated up to 19 regions and 29 sectors. The model incorporates mitigation cost curves for different regions and sectors based on information from the US-EPA. The forestry component of the model is calibrated to the results of the state of the art partial equilibrium global forestry model of Sohngen and Mendelson (2007). Forest carbon sequestration at both the extensive and intensive margins are modeled separately to better isolate land competition between

  10. Totally James

    Science.gov (United States)

    Owens, Tom

    2006-01-01

    This article presents an interview with James Howe, author of "The Misfits" and "Totally Joe". In this interview, Howe discusses tolerance, diversity and the parallels between his own life and his literature. Howe's four books in addition to "The Misfits" and "Totally Joe" and his list of recommended books with lesbian, gay, bisexual, transgender,…

  11. A multi-objective programming model for assessment the GHG emissions in MSW management

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Mavrotas, George; Skoulaxinou, Sotiria; Gakis, Nikos; Katsouros, Vassilis; Georgopoulou, Elena

    2013-01-01

    Highlights: • The multi-objective multi-period optimization model. • The solution approach for the generation of the Pareto front with mathematical programming. • The very detailed description of the model (decision variables, parameters, equations). • The use of IPCC 2006 guidelines for landfill emissions (first order decay model) in the mathematical programming formulation. - Abstract: In this study a multi-objective mathematical programming model is developed for taking into account GHG emissions for Municipal Solid Waste (MSW) management. Mathematical programming models are often used for structure, design and operational optimization of various systems (energy, supply chain, processes, etc.). The last twenty years they are used all the more often in Municipal Solid Waste (MSW) management in order to provide optimal solutions with the cost objective being the usual driver of the optimization. In our work we consider the GHG emissions as an additional criterion, aiming at a multi-objective approach. The Pareto front (Cost vs. GHG emissions) of the system is generated using an appropriate multi-objective method. This information is essential to the decision maker because he can explore the trade-offs in the Pareto curve and select his most preferred among the Pareto optimal solutions. In the present work a detailed multi-objective, multi-period mathematical programming model is developed in order to describe the waste management problem. Apart from the bi-objective approach, the major innovations of the model are (1) the detailed modeling considering 34 materials and 42 technologies, (2) the detailed calculation of the energy content of the various streams based on the detailed material balances, and (3) the incorporation of the IPCC guidelines for the CH 4 generated in the landfills (first order decay model). The equations of the model are described in full detail. Finally, the whole approach is illustrated with a case study referring to the application

  12. Assessment of mitigation pathways of GHG emissions from the Korean waste sector through 2050

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Yongjoo Chung

    2018-05-01

    Full Text Available The waste sector may play a significant role in national mitigation policies with further greenhouse gas (GHG reduction opportunities mainly because of its linkage to other sectors. However, the waste sector has not drawn much attention from research community mainly because the amount of GHG emissions from the waste sector is notably smaller than other sectors. This study presents emissions estimation and mitigation potentials of the waste sector in Korea. Emission estimates and business-as-usual emissions through 2050 are estimated based on four different treatment methods, including landfill, incineration, wastewater, and biological treatment by considering country-specific emission parameters of wastes, where available. Different types of wastes for each treatment method are investigated to obtain accurate emission estimates. It is expected that GHG emissions in 2050 are about 12.0 Tg CO2eq, which is 17% less than those in 2010. Mitigation potentials and economic impacts of five different measures are also investigated, and it is revealed that the production of refuse drive fuel from combustible municipal solid wastes may render the greatest benefit with the most mitigation potential of 649 kt CO2eq. An interdependent nature among mitigation measures is further discussed and it is shown that, if implemented together, the accumulated mitigation potentials are far less than the simple sum of individual potentials. It is implied that an aggregate potential of individual measures needs to be examined when implementing several mitigation measures simultaneously. This study outlines how to investigate emissions estimation and mitigation pathways for the waste sector in a national level. Keywords: Greenhouse gas, Emissions estimation, Waste treatment, Mitigation potential, Marginal abatement cost

  13. Decoding the Secrets of Carbon Preservation and GHG Flux in Lower-Latitude Peatlands

    Science.gov (United States)

    Richardson, C. J.; Flanagan, N. E.; Wang, H.; Ho, M.; Hodgkins, S. B.; Cooper, W. T.; Chanton, J.; Winton, S.

    2017-12-01

    The mechanisms regulating peat decomposition and C carbon storage in peatlands are poorly understood, particularly with regard to the importance of the biochemical compounds produced by different plant species and in turn peat quality controls on C storage and GHG flux. To examine the role of carbon quality in C accretion in northern compared to tropical peatlands we completed field and lab studies on bog peats collected in Minnesota, North Carolina, Florida and Peru to answer three fundamental questions; 1) is tropical peat more recalcitrant than northern peat 2) does the addition of aromatic and phenolic C compounds increase towards the tropics 3) do differences in the chemical structure of organic matter explain variances in carbon storage and GHG flux in tropical versus northern peatlands? Our main hypothesize is that high concentrations of phenolics and aromatic C compounds produced in shrub and tree plant communities in peatlands coupled with the fire production of biochar aromatics in peatlands may provide a dual biogeochemical latch mechanism controlling microbial decomposition of peat even under higher temperatures and seasonal drought. By comparing the peat bog soil cores collected from the MN peat bogs, NC Pocosins, FL Everglades and Peru palm swamps we find that the soils in the shrub-dominant Pocosin contain the highest phenolics, which microbial studies indicate have the strongest resistance to microbial decomposition. A chemical comparison of plant driven peat carbon quality along a north to south latitudinal gradient indicates that tropical peatlands have higher aromatic compounds, and enhanced phenolics, especially after light fires, which enhances C storage and affect GHG flux across the latitudinal gradient.

  14. A multi-objective programming model for assessment the GHG emissions in MSW management

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Mavrotas, George, E-mail: mavrotas@chemeng.ntua.gr [National Technical University of Athens, Iroon Polytechniou 9, Zografou, Athens, 15780 (Greece); Skoulaxinou, Sotiria [EPEM SA, 141 B Acharnon Str., Athens, 10446 (Greece); Gakis, Nikos [FACETS SA, Agiou Isidorou Str., Athens, 11471 (Greece); Katsouros, Vassilis [Athena Research and Innovation Center, Artemidos 6 and Epidavrou Str., Maroussi, 15125 (Greece); Georgopoulou, Elena [National Observatory of Athens, Thisio, Athens, 11810 (Greece)

    2013-09-15

    Highlights: • The multi-objective multi-period optimization model. • The solution approach for the generation of the Pareto front with mathematical programming. • The very detailed description of the model (decision variables, parameters, equations). • The use of IPCC 2006 guidelines for landfill emissions (first order decay model) in the mathematical programming formulation. - Abstract: In this study a multi-objective mathematical programming model is developed for taking into account GHG emissions for Municipal Solid Waste (MSW) management. Mathematical programming models are often used for structure, design and operational optimization of various systems (energy, supply chain, processes, etc.). The last twenty years they are used all the more often in Municipal Solid Waste (MSW) management in order to provide optimal solutions with the cost objective being the usual driver of the optimization. In our work we consider the GHG emissions as an additional criterion, aiming at a multi-objective approach. The Pareto front (Cost vs. GHG emissions) of the system is generated using an appropriate multi-objective method. This information is essential to the decision maker because he can explore the trade-offs in the Pareto curve and select his most preferred among the Pareto optimal solutions. In the present work a detailed multi-objective, multi-period mathematical programming model is developed in order to describe the waste management problem. Apart from the bi-objective approach, the major innovations of the model are (1) the detailed modeling considering 34 materials and 42 technologies, (2) the detailed calculation of the energy content of the various streams based on the detailed material balances, and (3) the incorporation of the IPCC guidelines for the CH{sub 4} generated in the landfills (first order decay model). The equations of the model are described in full detail. Finally, the whole approach is illustrated with a case study referring to the

  15. Cover crops mitigate direct greenhouse gases balance but reduce drainage under climate change scenarios in temperate climate with dry summers.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tribouillois, Hélène; Constantin, Julie; Justes, Eric

    2018-02-14

    Cover crops provide ecosystem services such as storing atmospheric carbon in soils after incorporation of their residues. Cover crops also influence soil water balance, which can be an issue in temperate climates with dry summers as for example in southern France and Europe. As a consequence, it is necessary to understand cover crops' long-term influence on greenhouse gases (GHG) and water balances to assess their potential to mitigate climate change in arable cropping systems. We used the previously calibrated and validated soil-crop model STICS to simulate scenarios of cover crop introduction to assess their influence on rainfed and irrigated cropping systems and crop rotations distributed among five contrasted sites in southern France from 2007 to 2052. Our results showed that cover crops can improve mean direct GHG balance by 315 kg CO 2 e ha -1  year -1 in the long term compared to that of bare soil. This was due mainly to an increase in carbon storage in the soil despite a slight increase in N 2 O emissions which can be compensated by adapting fertilization. Cover crops also influence the water balance by reducing mean annual drainage by 20 mm/year but increasing mean annual evapotranspiration by 20 mm/year compared to those of bare soil. Using cover crops to improve the GHG balance may help to mitigate climate change by decreasing CO 2 e emitted in cropping systems which can represent a decrease from 4.5% to 9% of annual GHG emissions of the French agriculture and forestry sector. However, if not well managed, they also could create water management issues in watersheds with shallow groundwater. Relationships between cover crop biomass and its influence on several variables such as drainage, carbon sequestration, and GHG emissions could be used to extend our results to other conditions to assess the cover crops' influence in a wider range of areas. © 2018 John Wiley & Sons Ltd.

  16. Urban-Dome GHG Monitoring: Challenges and Perspectives from the INFLUX Project

    Science.gov (United States)

    Whetstone, J.; Shepson, P. B.; Davis, K. J.; Sweeney, C.; Gurney, K. R.; Miles, N. L.; Richardson, S.; Lauvaux, T.; Razlivanov, I.; Zhou, Y.; Song, Y.; Turnbull, J. C.; Karion, A.; Cambaliza, M. L.; Callahan, W.; Novakovskaia, E.; Crosson, E.; Rella, C.; Possolo, A.

    2012-04-01

    Quantification of carbon dynamics in urban areas using advanced and diverse observing systems enables the development of measurable, reportable, and verifiable (MRV) mitigation strategies as suggested in the Bali Action Plan, agreed upon at the 13th Conference of the Parties of the UNFCCC (COP 13, 2007). The National Institute of Standards and Technology (NIST), supports the Indianapolis Flux Experiment (INFLUX). INFLUX is focused on demonstrating the utility of dense, surface-based observing networks coupled with aircraft-based measurements, advanced atmospheric boundary layer observation and modeling to determine GHG emission source location and strength in urban areas. The ability to correctly model transport and mixing in the atmospheric boundary layer (ABL), responsible for carrying GHGs from their source to the point of measurement, is essential. The observing system design, using multiple instruments and observing methods, is intended to provide multi-scale measurements as a basis for mimicking the complex and evolving dynamics of a city. To better understand such a dynamic system, and incorporate this into models, reliable representations of horizontal and vertical transport, as well as ABL height, GHG mixing ratio measurements are planned for 11 tower locations, 2 are currently in operation with the remaining 9 planned for operational status in early to mid-2012. These observations are complimented by aircraft flights that measure mixing ratio as well as ABL parameters. Although measurements of ABL mixing heights and dynamics are presently only available intermittently, limiting efforts to evaluate ABL model performance and the uncertainties of GHG flux estimates, expansion of them is planned for the near future. INFLUX will significantly benefit from continuous, high resolution measurements of mixing depth, wind speed and direction, turbulence profiles in the boundary layer, as well as measurements of surface energy balance, momentum flux, and short and

  17. Does consideration of GHG reductions change local decision making? A Case Study in Chile

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cifuentes, L. A.; Blumel, G.

    2003-12-01

    While local air pollution has been a public concern in developing countries for some time, climate change is looked upon as a non-urgent, developed world problem. In this work we present a case study of the interaction of measures to abate air pollution and measures to mitigate GHG emissions in Santiago, Chile, with the purpose of determining if the consideration of reductions in GHG affects the decisions taken to mitigate local air pollution. The emissions reductions of both GHG and local air pollutants were estimated from emission factors (some derived locally) and changes in activity levels. Health benefits due to air pollution abatement were computed using figures derived previously for the cost benefit analysis of Santiago's Decontamination Plan, transferred to the different cities taking into consideration local demographic and income data. The Santiago estimates were obtained using the damage function approach, based on some local epidemiological studies, and on local health and demographic data. Unit social values for the effects were estimated locally (for cost of treatment and lost productivity values) or extrapolated from US values (mainly for WTP values) using the ratio of per-capita income and an income elasticity of 1. The average benefits of emission abatement (in 1997 US\\ per ton) are 1,800 (1,200-2300) for NOx, 3,000 (2,100-3900) for SO2, 31,900 (21,900 - 41,900) for PM, and 630 (430 - 830) for resuspended dust. Economic benefits due to carbon reduction were considered at 3.5, 10 and 20 UStCO2. Marginal abatement cost curves were constructed considering private and net costs (private less the potential sales of carbon credits) Due to the bottom-up approach to constructing the marginal cost curve, many abatement measures (like congestion tolls and CNG instead of diesel buses) amounting to 8% reduction of PM2.5 concentration, exhibit a negative private cost. If the health benefits are considered for the decision, a maximum reduction of 22% in PM2

  18. Data supporting the assessment of biomass based electricity and reduced GHG emissions in Cuba.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sagastume Gutiérrez, Alexis; Cabello Eras, Juan J; Vandecasteele, Carlo; Hens, Luc

    2018-04-01

    Assessing the biomass based electricity potential of developing nations like Cuba can help to reduce the fossil fuels dependency and the greenhouse gas emissions. The data included in this study present the evolution of electricity production and greenhouse gas emissions in Cuba. Additionally, the potentialities to produce biomass based electricity by using the most significant biomass sources in Cuba are estimated. Furthermore, estimations of the potential reductions of greenhouse gas emissions, resulting from implementing the biomass based electricity potential of the different sources discussed in the study, are included. Results point to the most promising biomass sources for electricity generation and their potential to reduce GHG emissions.

  19. Accounting for greenhouse gas emissions outside the national borders in FENCH-GHG energy planning

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Vate, J.F. van de

    1996-01-01

    This paper aims at providing guidance to the workshop discussion on the accountability of full-energy-chain greenhouse gas emissions from the use of energy sources if emissions did not take place inside the national borders of a country. Examples of such emissions are those from the generation of imported electricity or from mining and transportation of coal and natural gas. The FENCH-GHG approach, if used in energy planning, would automatically take such greenhouse gas emissions, which are inherent to energy systems, into account. The paper raises the basics, practicality and the feasibility of dealing with extra-boundary emissions in energy planning. (author). 3 refs

  20. CO2 mitigation scenarios in China's road transport sector

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Wang, Can; Cai, Wenjia; Lu, Xuedu; Chen, Jining

    2007-01-01

    China is the world's second largest greenhouse gas emitter, and emissions from the road transport sector represent one of the fastest growing GHG sources in China. Taking previous research on China's projected future vehicle ownership and future CO 2 emissions in the transport sector as a starting point, this paper reviews all recent environmental policies relating to the automobile industry and employs a scenario analysis to estimate different emissions inventories for different development strategies. The new policy scenario considers all possible mitigation options available to the road transport sector from a bottom up perspective and examines the effects for fuel efficiency improvement and the cost of these mitigation options - vehicle technology improvement, bus rapid transit system and fuel switching, through which the carbon dioxide emissions reduction potential is estimated. Not only does this paper indicate that a large emissions reduction potential exists in China's road transport sector, but it implies that vehicle technology improvement, especially engine technology is likely to be the most effective means to meet emissions reduction targets. This paper concludes by identifying key barriers to implementing those options in China and deduces the technical, financial and institutional aspects of the demand in China for national capacity building and international aid in order to achieve the emissions reduction goals

  1. The changing nutrition scenario.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gopalan, C

    2013-09-01

    The past seven decades have seen remarkable shifts in the nutritional scenario in India. Even up to the 1950s severe forms of malnutrition such as kwashiorkar and pellagra were endemic. As nutritionists were finding home-grown and common-sense solutions for these widespread problems, the population was burgeoning and food was scarce. The threat of widespread household food insecurity and chronic undernutrition was very real. Then came the Green Revolution. Shortages of food grains disappeared within less than a decade and India became self-sufficient in food grain production. But more insidious problems arising from this revolution were looming, and cropping patterns giving low priority to coarse grains and pulses, and monocropping led to depletion of soil nutrients and 'Green Revolution fatigue'. With improved household food security and better access to health care, clinical manifestations of severe malnutrition virtually disappeared. But the decline in chronic undernutrition and "hidden hunger" from micronutrient deficiencies was slow. On the cusp of the new century, an added factor appeared on the nutritional scene in India. With steady urban migration, upward mobility out of poverty, and an increasingly sedentary lifestyle because of improvements in technology and transport, obesity rates began to increase, resulting in a dual burden. Measured in terms of its performance in meeting its Millennium Development Goals, India has fallen short. Despite its continuing high levels of poverty and illiteracy, India has a huge demographic potential in the form of a young population. This advantage must be leveraged by investing in nutrition education, household access to nutritious diets, sanitary environment and a health-promoting lifestyle. This requires co-operation from all the stakeholders, including governments, non government organizations, scientists and the people at large.

  2. The changing nutrition scenario

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    C Gopalan

    2013-01-01

    Full Text Available The past seven decades have seen remarkable shifts in the nutritional scenario in India. Even up to the 1950s severe forms of malnutrition such as kwashiorkar and pellagra were endemic. As nutritionists were finding home-grown and common-sense solutions for these widespread problems, the population was burgeoning and food was scarce. The threat of widespread household food insecurity and chronic undernutrition was very real. Then came the Green Revolution. Shortages of food grains disappeared within less than a decade and India became self-sufficient in food grain production. But more insidious problems arising from this revolution were looming, and cropping patterns giving low priority to coarse grains and pulses, and monocropping led to depletion of soil nutrients and ′Green Revolution fatigue′. With improved household food security and better access to health care, clinical manifestations of severe malnutrition virtually disappeared. But the decline in chronic undernutrition and "hidden hunger" from micronutrient deficiencies was slow. On the cusp of the new century, an added factor appeared on the nutritional scene in India. With steady urban migration, upward mobility out of poverty, and an increasingly sedentary lifestyle because of improvements in technology and transport, obesity rates began to increase, resulting in a dual burden. Measured in terms of its performance in meeting its Millennium Development Goals, India has fallen short. Despite its continuing high levels of poverty and illiteracy, India has a huge demographic potential in the form of a young population. This advantage must be leveraged by investing in nutrition education, household access to nutritious diets, sanitary environment and a health-promoting lifestyle. This requires co-operation from all the stakeholders, including governments, non government organizations, scientists and the people at large.

  3. Italian energy scenarios comparative evaluations

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Contaldi, Mario

    2005-01-01

    This paper reviews some representative scenarios of the evolution of the Italian primary energy consumption, updated recently. After an overview of the main macroeconomics assumptions the scenario results are cross checked at sectorial level, with a brief discussion of the underlining data and energy intensity trends. The emissions of CO 2 , SO 2 and NO x resulting from the considered scenarios are also reported and discussed [it

  4. Learning from global emissions scenarios

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    O'Neill, Brian C; Nakicenovic, Nebojsa

    2008-01-01

    Scenarios of global greenhouse gas emissions have played a key role in climate change analysis for over twenty years. Currently, several research communities are organizing to undertake a new round of scenario development in the lead-up to the Fifth Assessment Report of the Intergovernmental Panel on Climate Change (IPCC). To help inform this process, we assess a number of past efforts to develop and learn from sets of global greenhouse gas emissions scenarios. We conclude that while emissions scenario exercises have likely had substantial benefits for participating modeling teams and produced insights from individual models, learning from the exercises taken as a whole has been more limited. Model comparison exercises have typically focused on the production of large numbers of scenarios while investing little in assessing the results or the production process, perhaps on the assumption that later assessment efforts could play this role. However, much of this assessment potential remains untapped. Efforts such as scenario-related chapters of IPCC reports have been most informative when they have gone to extra lengths to carry out more specific comparison exercises, but in general these assessments do not have the remit or resources to carry out the kind of detailed analysis of scenario results necessary for drawing the most useful conclusions. We recommend that scenario comparison exercises build-in time and resources for assessing scenario results in more detail at the time when they are produced, that these exercises focus on more specific questions to improve the prospects for learning, and that additional scenario assessments are carried out separately from production exercises. We also discuss the obstacles to better assessment that might exist, and how they might be overcome. Finally, we recommend that future work include much greater emphasis on understanding how scenarios are actually used, as a guide to improving scenario production.

  5. Water use implications of biofuel scenarios

    Science.gov (United States)

    Teter, J.; Mishra, G. S.; Yeh, S.

    2012-12-01

    (2) irrigation practices, (3) feedstock water use efficiency, and (4) the longer growing season and a predominance of rainfed cultivation of dedicated biofuel feedstocks. National-level total water use is lowest in the BAU scenario and highest in the RFS2 + LCFS scenario. Figure: Million acres converted to growing miscanthus (top) & switchgrass (bottom) under the RFS + LCFS scenario in 2035. Land use classes are crop pasture (blue), idle cropland (red-purple) & prime cropland (brown).

  6. Energy scenarios for New Zealand

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Harris, G. S.; Ellis, M. J.; Scott, G. C.; Wood, J. R.

    1977-10-15

    Three energy scenarios have been formulated for New Zealand. They concentrate on those aspects of society which have a direct bearing on energy, emphasizing three important issues: major shifts in society's values in relation to material wealth, pollution, and resources. The scenarios make assumptions that certain overall social conditions would prevail so that all decisions of government, the private sector, and individuals would be governed by the requirement to conform to the scenario theme in a way not possible under existing social and political conditions. The 3 scenarios are known as Continuation, Low New Zealand Pollution, and Limited Growth.

  7. Public Review Draft: A Method for Assessing Carbon Stocks, Carbon Sequestration, and Greenhouse-Gas Fluxes in Ecosystems of the United States Under Present Conditions and Future Scenarios

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bergamaschi, Brian A.; Bernknopf, Richard; Clow, David; Dye, Dennis; Faulkner, Stephen; Forney, William; Gleason, Robert; Hawbaker, Todd; Liu, Jinxun; Liu, Shu-Guang; Prisley, Stephen; Reed, Bradley; Reeves, Matthew; Rollins, Matthew; Sleeter, Benjamin; Sohl, Terry; Stackpoole, Sarah; Stehman, Stephen; Striegl, Robert G.; Wein, Anne; Zhu, Zhi-Liang; Zhu, Zhi-Liang

    2010-01-01

    The Energy Independence and Security Act of 2007 (EISA), Section 712, authorizes the U.S. Department of the Interior to develop a methodology and conduct an assessment of the Nation's ecosystems focusing on carbon stocks, carbon sequestration, and emissions of three greenhouse gases (GHGs): carbon dioxide, methane, and nitrous oxide. The major requirements include (1) an assessment of all ecosystems (terrestrial systems, such as forests, croplands, wetlands, shrub and grasslands; and aquatic ecosystems, such as rivers, lakes, and estuaries), (2) an estimation of annual potential capacities of ecosystems to increase carbon sequestration and reduce net GHG emissions in the context of mitigation strategies (including management and restoration activities), and (3) an evaluation of the effects of controlling processes, such as climate change, land use and land cover, and wildlfires. The purpose of this draft methodology for public review is to propose a technical plan to conduct the assessment. Within the methodology, the concepts of ecosystems, carbon pools, and GHG fluxes used for the assessment follow conventional definitions in use by major national and international assessment or inventory efforts. In order to estimate current ecosystem carbon stocks and GHG fluxes and to understand the potential capacity and effects of mitigation strategies, the method will use two time periods for the assessment: 2001 through 2010, which establishes a current ecosystem GHG baseline and will be used to validate the models; and 2011 through 2050, which will be used to assess future potential conditions based on a set of projected scenarios. The scenario framework is constructed using storylines of the Intergovernmental Panel on Climate Change (IPCC) Special Report Emission Scenarios (SRES), along with initial reference land-use and land-cover (LULC) and land-management scenarios. An additional three LULC and land-management mitigation scenarios will be constructed for each

  8. Internal wave attractors: different scenarios of instability

    OpenAIRE

    Brouzet, Christophe; Ermanyuk, E. V.; Joubaud, Sylvain; Pillet, Grimaud; Dauxois, Thierry

    2017-01-01

    International audience; This paper presents an experimental study of different instability scenarios in a parallelogram-shaped internal wave attractor in a trapezoidal domain filled with a uniformly stratified fluid.Energy is injected into the system via the oscillatory motion of a vertical wall of the trapezoidal domain. Whole-field velocity measurements are performed with the conventional PIV technique. In the linear regime, the total kinetic energyof the fluid system is used to quantify th...

  9. Optimization of the cultivation GHG balance of selected biofuels; Optimierung der Anbau-THG-Bilanz ausgewaehlter Biokraftstoffe

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Weirauch, Mareike; Gurgel, Andreas [Landesforschungsanstalt fuer Landwirtschaft und Fischerei Mecklenburg-Vorpommern, Guelzow-Pruezen (Germany). Sachgebiet Nachwachsende Rohstoffe; Schiemenz, Katja; Peters, Jana

    2016-08-01

    Biofuels should be produced more sustainable since the inception of the Renewable Energy Directive (EU-RED, 2009128/EG) in 2009. In comparison to fossil fuels biofuels have to achieve now a GHG reduction potential of 35 % (50 % from 2018). In a project at the State Research Center of Agriculture and Fisheries Mecklenburg- Vorpommern the current practical values of GHG emissions during the cultivation of rapeseed and wheat have been calculated. Bases of the calculation are operating agriculture data (harvesting 2011 until2015). The results show that the current GHG reduction potential can only be maintained at 26% of the studied rapeseed harvest quantity or at 75 %of the wheat harvest (own calculation). The default values of the EU-RED and the NUTS2 values cannot be achieved with the current agricultural production. Some calculating and agronomic optimization options for GHG reduction are available and must be implemented (for example: incorporating the oil content and the type of nitrogen fertilizer and reduced nitrogen fertilizer level). The aim is to keep the 50% GHG reduction potential of the EU-RED until 2018 to have a sure sustainable rapeseed and wheat cultivation for biofuel production.

  10. Harmonised GHG accounting of decentralized rapeseed fuel production in Bavaria; Harmonisierte THG-Bilanzierung der dezentralen Rapsoelkraftstoffproduktion in Bayern

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Dressler, Daniela [Technologie- und Foerderzentrum (TFZ), Straubing (Germany); Engelmann, Karsten; Remmele, Edgar; Thuneke, Klaus

    2016-08-01

    The Directive 2009/28/EG (RED) requires a minimum level of greenhouse gas reduction for biofuels to be marketed. Site-specific production conditions are not considered in default values, which are specified by RED for calculating the greenhouse gas emissions. However, calculations of regional and farm specific GHG balances in accordance to the method of ExpRessBio for the production of rape seed show a considerable range of GHG-emissions in CO{sup 2}-eq (25.2-43.6 g MJ{sup -1}). For the complete product system of decentralized rapeseed oil fuel production in Bavaria a GHG reduction of 58 % can be achieved. This is slightly higher than the default value of 57 % as specified in Directive 2009/28/EG. The reason for this is that the default value under Directive 2009/28/EG is based on an industrial oil production process whereas decentralized production leads to less GHG emissions. In comparison to the application of the energy allocation method the substitution method for the assessment of rape seed cake as protein feed leads to a distinct higher GHG reduction rate of 85%.

  11. Assessment of the GHG Reduction Potential from Energy Crops Using a Combined LCA and Biogeochemical Process Models: A Review

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Dong Jiang

    2014-01-01

    Full Text Available The main purpose for developing biofuel is to reduce GHG (greenhouse gas emissions, but the comprehensive environmental impact of such fuels is not clear. Life cycle analysis (LCA, as a complete comprehensive analysis method, has been widely used in bioenergy assessment studies. Great efforts have been directed toward establishing an efficient method for comprehensively estimating the greenhouse gas (GHG emission reduction potential from the large-scale cultivation of energy plants by combining LCA with ecosystem/biogeochemical process models. LCA presents a general framework for evaluating the energy consumption and GHG emission from energy crop planting, yield acquisition, production, product use, and postprocessing. Meanwhile, ecosystem/biogeochemical process models are adopted to simulate the fluxes and storage of energy, water, carbon, and nitrogen in the soil-plant (energy crops soil continuum. Although clear progress has been made in recent years, some problems still exist in current studies and should be addressed. This paper reviews the state-of-the-art method for estimating GHG emission reduction through developing energy crops and introduces in detail a new approach for assessing GHG emission reduction by combining LCA with biogeochemical process models. The main achievements of this study along with the problems in current studies are described and discussed.

  12. GHG reduction potential of changes in consumption patterns and higher quality levels: Evidence from Swiss household consumption survey

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Girod, Bastien, E-mail: bastien.girod@env.ethz.c [ETH Zurich, Institute for Environmental Decisions, Natural and Social Science Interface, Universitaetstrasse 22, CHN J72.1, 8092 Zurich (Switzerland); Haan, Peter de [ETH Zurich, Institute for Environmental Decisions, Natural and Social Science Interface, Universitaetstrasse 22, CHN J72.1, 8092 Zurich (Switzerland)

    2009-12-15

    An effective consumer-oriented climate policy requires knowing the GHG reduction potential of sustainable consumption. The aim of this study is to draw lessons from differences in consumption between households with high and low GHG emissions. We evaluate a survey of 14,500 households and use a method that allows measuring changes in price level of consumption. Comparing the 10% of households with the highest GHG emissions per capita with the lowest 10% - controlling for differences in expenditure level and household structure - we find a range 5-17 tons of CO{sub 2}-equivalent per capita and year. The observed differences stem mainly from heating, electricity use, car use, and travel by aircraft. Consumption patterns with low GHG emissions are characterized by less spending on mobility, but more on leisure and quality oriented consumption (leading to higher prices per unit). Further characteristics are: a higher share of organic food, low meat consumption and fewer detached single family houses. Our findings imply that a significant reduction in GHG emissions would be possible by adopting real-world consumption patterns observable in society. The twin challenge is to shift consumption towards more climate friendly patterns, and to prevent any trend towards high emitting consumption patterns.

  13. GHG reduction potential of changes in consumption patterns and higher quality levels. Evidence from Swiss household consumption survey

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Girod, Bastien; De Haan, Peter [ETH Zurich, Institute for Environmental Decisions, Natural and Social Science Interface, Universitaetstrasse 22, CHN J72.1, 8092 Zurich (Switzerland)

    2009-12-15

    An effective consumer-oriented climate policy requires knowing the GHG reduction potential of sustainable consumption. The aim of this study is to draw lessons from differences in consumption between households with high and low GHG emissions. We evaluate a survey of 14,500 households and use a method that allows measuring changes in price level of consumption. Comparing the 10% of households with the highest GHG emissions per capita with the lowest 10% - controlling for differences in expenditure level and household structure - we find a range 5-17 tons of CO{sub 2}-equivalent per capita and year. The observed differences stem mainly from heating, electricity use, car use, and travel by aircraft. Consumption patterns with low GHG emissions are characterized by less spending on mobility, but more on leisure and quality oriented consumption (leading to higher prices per unit). Further characteristics are: a higher share of organic food, low meat consumption and fewer detached single family houses. Our findings imply that a significant reduction in GHG emissions would be possible by adopting real-world consumption patterns observable in society. The twin challenge is to shift consumption towards more climate friendly patterns, and to prevent any trend towards high emitting consumption patterns. (author)

  14. GHG reduction potential of changes in consumption patterns and higher quality levels: Evidence from Swiss household consumption survey

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Girod, Bastien; Haan, Peter de

    2009-01-01

    An effective consumer-oriented climate policy requires knowing the GHG reduction potential of sustainable consumption. The aim of this study is to draw lessons from differences in consumption between households with high and low GHG emissions. We evaluate a survey of 14,500 households and use a method that allows measuring changes in price level of consumption. Comparing the 10% of households with the highest GHG emissions per capita with the lowest 10% - controlling for differences in expenditure level and household structure - we find a range 5-17 tons of CO 2 -equivalent per capita and year. The observed differences stem mainly from heating, electricity use, car use, and travel by aircraft. Consumption patterns with low GHG emissions are characterized by less spending on mobility, but more on leisure and quality oriented consumption (leading to higher prices per unit). Further characteristics are: a higher share of organic food, low meat consumption and fewer detached single family houses. Our findings imply that a significant reduction in GHG emissions would be possible by adopting real-world consumption patterns observable in society. The twin challenge is to shift consumption towards more climate friendly patterns, and to prevent any trend towards high emitting consumption patterns.

  15. Activities of four bus terminals of Semarang City gateway and the related GHG emission

    Science.gov (United States)

    Huboyo, H. S.; Wardhana, I. W.; Sutrisno, E.; Wangi, L. S.; Lina, R. A.

    2018-01-01

    The activities of the bus terminal, including loading-unloading passengers, bus idling, and bus movements at the terminal, will emit GHG’s emission. This research analyzes GHG emission from four terminals, i.e., Mangkang, Terboyo, Penggaron, and Sukun in Semarang City. The emission was estimated by observing detail activities of public transport means, especially for moving and idling time. The emission was calculated by Tier 2 method based on the vehicle type as well as fuel consumption. The highest CO2e during vehicle movements at Sukun area was contributed by large bus about 2.08 tons/year, while at Terboyo terminal was contributed by medium bus about 347.97 tons/year. At Mangkang terminals, the highest emission for vehicle movements was attributed by medium bus as well of about 53.18 tons/year. At last, Penggaron terminal’s highest GHG emission was attributed by BRT about 26.47 tons/year. During idling time, the highest contributor to CO2e was the large bus at the three terminals, i.e., Sukun of 43.53 tons/year, Terboyo of 196.56 tons/year, and Mangkang of 84.26 tons/year, while at Penggaron, BRT dominated with CO2e of 26.47 tons/year. The management of public transport in terminals is crucial to mitigate the emission related to bus terminals activities.

  16. General equilibrium effects of a supply side GHG mitigation option under the Clean Development Mechanism.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Timilsina, Govinda R; Shrestha, Ram M

    2006-09-01

    The Clean Development Mechanism (CDM) under the Kyoto Protocol to the United Nations Framework Convention on Climate Change is considered a key instrument to encourage developing countries' participation in the mitigation of global climate change. Reduction of greenhouse gas (GHG) emissions through the energy supply and demand side activities are the main options to be implemented under the CDM. This paper analyses the general equilibrium effects of a supply side GHG mitigation option-the substitution of thermal power with hydropower--in Thailand under the CDM. A static multi-sector general equilibrium model has been developed for the purpose of this study. The key finding of the study is that the substitution of electricity generation from thermal power plants with that from hydropower plants would increase economic welfare in Thailand. The supply side option would, however, adversely affect the gross domestic product (GDP) and the trade balance. The percentage changes in economic welfare, GDP and trade balance increase with the level of substitution and the price of certified emission reduction (CER) units.

  17. Climate-Smart Livestock Systems: An Assessment of Carbon Stocks and GHG Emissions in Nicaragua.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Lucía Gaitán

    Full Text Available Livestock systems in the tropics can contribute to mitigate climate change by reducing greenhouse gas (GHG emissions and increasing carbon accumulation. We quantified C stocks and GHG emissions of 30 dual-purpose cattle farms in Nicaragua using farm inventories and lifecycle analysis. Trees in silvo-pastoral systems were the main C stock above-ground (16-24 Mg ha-1, compared with adjacent secondary forests (43 Mg C ha-1. We estimated that methane from enteric fermentation contributed 1.6 kg CO2-eq., and nitrous oxide from excreta 0.4 kg CO2-eq. per kg of milk produced. Seven farms that we classified as climate-smart agriculture (CSA out of 16 farms had highest milk yields (6.2 kg cow-1day-1 and lowest emissions (1.7 kg CO2-eq. per kg milk produced. Livestock on these farms had higher-quality diets, especially during the dry season, and manure was managed better. Increasing the numbers of CSA farms and improving CSA technology will require better enabling policy and incentives such as payments for ecosystem services.

  18. Retail electricity price savings from compliance flexibility in GHG standards for stationary sources

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Burtraw, Dallas; Woerman, Matt; Paul, Anthony

    2012-01-01

    The EPA will issue rules regulating greenhouse gas (GHG) emissions from existing steam boilers and refineries in 2012. A crucial issue affecting the scope and cost of emissions reductions will be the potential introduction of flexibility in compliance, including averaging across groups of facilities. This research investigates the role of compliance flexibility for the most important of these source categories—existing coal-fired power plants—that currently account for one-third of national emissions of carbon dioxide, the most important greenhouse gas. We find a flexible standard, calibrated to achieve the same emissions reductions as a traditional(inflexible) approach, reduces the increase in electricity price by 60 percent and overall costs by two-thirds in 2020. The flexible standard also leads to substantially more investment to improve the operating efficiency of existing facilities, whereas the traditional standard leads to substantially greater retirement of existing facilities. - Highlights: ► The U.S. EPA will regulate GHG emissions from power plants under the Clean Air Act. ► We compare a flexible standard with fleet-wide averaging to a traditional standard. ► Flexible standard reduces the increase in electricity price by 60percent in 2020. ► Flexible standard reduces the increase in overall costs by two-thirds in 2020. ► Flexible standard leads to more efficiency investment and less capacity retirement.

  19. Climate-Smart Livestock Systems: An Assessment of Carbon Stocks and GHG Emissions in Nicaragua.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gaitán, Lucía; Läderach, Peter; Graefe, Sophie; Rao, Idupulapati; van der Hoek, Rein

    2016-01-01

    Livestock systems in the tropics can contribute to mitigate climate change by reducing greenhouse gas (GHG) emissions and increasing carbon accumulation. We quantified C stocks and GHG emissions of 30 dual-purpose cattle farms in Nicaragua using farm inventories and lifecycle analysis. Trees in silvo-pastoral systems were the main C stock above-ground (16-24 Mg ha-1), compared with adjacent secondary forests (43 Mg C ha-1). We estimated that methane from enteric fermentation contributed 1.6 kg CO2-eq., and nitrous oxide from excreta 0.4 kg CO2-eq. per kg of milk produced. Seven farms that we classified as climate-smart agriculture (CSA) out of 16 farms had highest milk yields (6.2 kg cow-1day-1) and lowest emissions (1.7 kg CO2-eq. per kg milk produced). Livestock on these farms had higher-quality diets, especially during the dry season, and manure was managed better. Increasing the numbers of CSA farms and improving CSA technology will require better enabling policy and incentives such as payments for ecosystem services.

  20. Viet Nam - Nuclear power for GHG mitigation and sustainable energy development

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Le Doan Phac; Nguyen Tien Nguyen; Le Van Hong; Nguyen Huu Thanh; Nguyen Anh Tuan

    2000-01-01

    The Government of Viet Nam has recently formulated a national energy programme entitled Strategy and Policy of Sustainable Energy Development. Its aim is to define a development policy for the country for the period from 2000 to 2020. The main objectives of the national energy programme are: 1. Increasing energy efficiency and demand side management (DSM) 2. Expanding rural electrification 3. Defining an energy price policy (e.g. pricing such that revenues cover costs) 4. Minimizing environmental impacts 5. Encouraging private investment in the energy and electricity sectors 6. Energy supply security 7. Diversifying energy sources, and 8. Exploring the potential role of nuclear power in Viet Nam. In formulating this programme, one of the objectives has been to minimize environmental impacts, including those caused by the electricity sector. Nevertheless, the shortage of investment capital in Viet Nam and the difficulty of securing favourable financial arrangements are crucial obstacles to the introduction of new technology options to mitigate GHG emissions. Viet Nam views CDM as an opportunity to find ways to overcome such problems and expects that all GHG mitigating technologies will be considered equally under the CDM

  1. CAP payments and agricultural GHG emissions in Italy. A farm-level assessment.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Coderoni, Silvia; Esposti, Roberto

    2018-06-15

    The Common Agricultural Policy (CAP) is an important external driver of European agricultural production. Nowadays and in its envisioned future structure post-2020, the CAP has among its major objectives tackling climate change, for what concerns both adaptation and mitigation strategies. However, little is known about the link between past CAP reforms and agricultural greenhouse gases (GHG) emissions. This paper investigates the possible role played by the Fischler Reform (FR) on the agricultural GHG emissions at the farm level. The FR represents a major CAP reform for which data availability allows an ex-post analysis about its actual impacts. The empirical analysis concerns a balanced panel of 6542 Italian Farm Accountancy Data Network observed over years the 2003-2007. Multinomial Logit models are estimated in sequence to express how the farm-level production choices, and the respective emissions, vary over time also in response to CAP expenditure. Results suggest that CAP expenditure had a role in the evolution of the farm-level emissions, though the direction of this effect may differ across farms and deserves further investigation. Copyright © 2018 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  2. Windthrow and fallow-forest successions impacts in soil carbon stocks and GHG fluxes spatial variability and dynamics in the Central Russia' reserve spruce ecosystems

    Science.gov (United States)

    Vasenev, Ivan; Ivanov, Alexey; Komarova, Tatyana; Valentini, Riccardo

    2015-04-01

    and cover have been accompanied by researches of soil regimes (temperature, moisture, pH, oxidation-reduction potential, microbiological activity) and transformations of representative topsoil materials at the different stages of windthrow soil successions. Since 2012 soil CO2 fluxes have been analyzed every ten days in situ by method of exposition chambers with infra red gas analyzer (Li-Cor 820). At the same periods soil gas fluxes have been sampled from the exposition chambers into vials with the following CH4 and N2O analysis by gas chromatograph. The carried out researches have shown sharp increase of rates of typomorphic soil forming processes within windthrow hole and mound soil successions: (a) lateral input of organic matter in soils of fresh holes - up to 2-3 kg m-2y-1; (b) fulvic acid formation - up to 100-200 g m-2y-1 in soils of young holes and mounds; (c) Al-Fe-humus migration - up to 0.7-1.2 kg cm m-2y-1; (d) humus-accumulated and eluvial horizon development - up to 1-2 mm y-1. The conducted researches have shown high temporal and spatial variability of CO2 fluxes due to soil cover and windthrow complex patterns, windthrow or fallow-forest succession stage and age, air and soil temperature (up to R = 0.64 for taiga, and R = 0.75 for fallow), soil moisture (up to R = -0.65/0.66 both for taiga and fallow) and some other characteristics of the studied objects. Soil CO2 emission is essentially decreased with fallow-forest age. Maximum CO2 fluxes have been observed between 12:00 and 16:00. Within fallow-forest succession the maximum CH4 emission has been fixed in first (grass) stage, and N2O fluxes increase due to temperature rise and moisture decreasing. Usually there is stronger effect on GHG fluxes by air temperature than soil one due to comparatively thin layer of soil organic and/or humus-accumulative subhorizons with maximum biological activity that usually determines the total rate of GHG principal soil fluxes. Unfavorable seasonal climatic conditions

  3. Amazon peatlands: quantifying ecosytem's stocks, GHG fluxes and their microbial connections

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cadillo-Quiroz, Hinsby; Lähteenoja, Outi; Buessecker, Steffen; van Haren, Joost

    2017-04-01

    Reports of hundreds of peatlands across basins in the West and Central Amazon suggest they play an important, previously not considered regional role in organic carbon (OC) and GHG dynamics. Amazon peatlands store ˜3-6 Gt of OC in their waterlogged soils with strong potential for conversion and release of GHG, in fact our recent, and others', efforts have confirmed variable levels of GHG emissions (CO2, N2O, CH4), as well as variable microbial communities across rich to poor soil peatlands. Here, we report early results of quantification of different components making up the aboveground C stocks, the rates and paths for GHG release, and microbial organisms occurring in three ecologically distinct peatland types in the Pastaza-Marañon region of the Peruvian Amazon. Evaluations were done in duplicated continuous monitoring plots established since 2015 at a "palm swamp" (PS), poor "pole forest" (pPF) and a rich "forested" (rF) peatlands. Although overall vegetation "structure" with a few dominant plus several low frequency species was common across the three sites, their botanical composition and tree density was highly contrasting. Aboveground C stocks content showed the following order among sites: rF>PS>pPF, and hence we tested whether this differences can have a direct effect on CH4 emissions rates. CH4 emissions rates from soils were observed in average at 11, 6, and 0.8 mg-C m-2 h-1for rF, PS, and pPF respectively. However, these estimated fluxes needed to be revised when we develop quantifications of CH4 emissions from tree stems. Tree stem fluxes were detected showing a broad variation with nearly nill emissions in some species all the way to maximum fluxes near to ˜90 mg-C m-2 h-1 in other species. Mauritia flexuosa, a highly dominant palm species in PS and ubiquitous to the region, showed the highest ranges of CH4 flux. In the PS site, overall CH4 flux estimate increased by ˜50% when including stem emission weighted by trees' species, density and heights

  4. Automated Analysis of Infinite Scenarios

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Buchholtz, Mikael

    2005-01-01

    The security of a network protocol crucially relies on the scenario in which the protocol is deployed. This paper describes syntactic constructs for modelling network scenarios and presents an automated analysis tool, which can guarantee that security properties hold in all of the (infinitely many...

  5. Multiscale scenarios for nature futures

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Rosa, Isabel M.D.; Pereira, Henrique Miguel; Ferrier, Simon; Alkemade, J.R.M.; Acosta, Lilibeth A.; Resit Akcakaya, H.; Belder, den E.; Fazel, Asghar M.; Fujimori, Shinichiro; Harfoot, Mike; Harhash, Khaled A.; Harrison, Paula A.; Hauck, Jennifer; Hendriks, Rob J.J.; Hernández, Gladys; Jetz, Walter; Karlsson-Vinkhuyzen, S.I.S.E.; Kim, Hyejin; King, Nicholas; Kok, Marcel; Kolomytsev, Grygoriy O.; Lazarova, Tanya; Leadley, Paul; Lundquist, Carolyn J.; García Márquez, Jaime; Meyer, Carsten; Navarro, Laetitia M.; Nesshöver, Carsten; Ngo, Hien T.; Ninan, Karachepone N.; Palomo, Maria G.; Pereira, Laura; Peterson, G.D.; Pichs, Ramon; Popp, Alexander; Purvis, Andy; Ravera, Federica; Rondinini, Carlo; Sathyapalan, Jyothis; Schipper, Aafke; Seppelt, Ralf; Settele, Josef; Sitas, Nadia; Vuuren, van D.

    2017-01-01

    Targets for human development are increasingly connected with targets for nature, however, existing scenarios do not explicitly address this relationship. Here, we outline a strategy to generate scenarios centred on our relationship
    with nature to inform decision-making at multiple scales.

  6. Multiscale scenarios for nature futures

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Rosa, Isabel M.D.; Pereira, Henrique M.; Ferrier, Simon; Alkemade, Rob; Acosta, Lilibeth A.; Akcakaya, H. Resit; Den Belder, Eefje; Fazel, Asghar M.; Fujimori, Shinichiro; Harfoot, Mike; Harhash, Khaled A.; Harrison, Paula A.; Hauck, Jennifer; Hendriks, Rob J.J.; Hernández, Gladys; Jetz, Walter; Karlsson-Vinkhuyzen, Sylvia I.; Kim, Hyejin; King, Nicholas; Kok, Marcel T.J.; Kolomytsev, Grygoriy O.; Lazarova, Tanya; Leadley, Paul; Lundquist, Carolyn J.; García Márquez, Jaime; Meyer, Carsten; Navarro, Laetitia M.; Nesshöver, Carsten; Ngo, Hien T.; Ninan, Karachepone N.; Palomo, Maria G.; Pereira, Laura M.; Peterson, Garry D.; Pichs, Ramon; Popp, Alexander; Purvis, Andy; Ravera, Federica; Rondinini, Carlo; Sathyapalan, Jyothis; Schipper, Aafke M.; Seppelt, Ralf; Settele, Josef; Sitas, Nadia; Van Vuuren, Detlef|info:eu-repo/dai/nl/11522016X

    2017-01-01

    Targets for human development are increasingly connected with targets for nature, however, existing scenarios do not explicitly address this relationship. Here, we outline a strategy to generate scenarios centred on our relationship with nature to inform decision-making at multiple scales.

  7. Greenhouse gas energy scenarios for Mexico in year 2020, and mitigation potential of renewable technologies

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Sheinbaum, Claudia; Robles, Guillermo; Rodriguez V, Luis [Instituto de Ingenieria de la UNAM, Mexico, D.F. (Mexico); Massera, Omar [UNAM, Michoacan (Mexico)

    2000-07-01

    This paper presents the structure of the Mexican Energy-Emission Scenario Model (MEESM). In explains the importance of developing a bottom-up model for GHG mitigation assessment in Mexico. Also, the paper presents results of CO{sub 2} mitigation scenarios for year 2020 for five renewable energy technologies: solar water heaters, geothermal, biomass, mini/micro hydro and wind power generation. The paper concludes by discussing the importance of simulation accounting bottom-up models as tools for GHG mitigation policies. [Spanish] Este articulo presenta la estructura del Modelo de Escenario de Emision de Energia Mexicano (MEESM). En el se explica la importancia de desarrollar un modelo organizacional de abajo hacia arriba para la evaluacion de la mitigacion del efecto invernadero en Mexico. El articulo presenta tambien los resultados de los escenarios de mitigacion de CO{sub 2} para el ano 2020 utilizando cinco tecnologias de energia renovable: calentadores solares de agua, geotermia, biomasa, y mini/micro generacion de energia por agua y viento. El articulo concluye con el analisis de la importancia de la simulacion tomando en cuenta modelos organizacionales de abajo hacia arriba como herramientas para las politicas de mitigacion del efecto invernadero.

  8. Future energy and emissions policy scenarios in Ireland for private car transport

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Daly, Hannah E.; Ó Gallachóir, Brian P.

    2012-01-01

    In this paper we use a technological model of Ireland's future car stock to simulate the impact of a range of policy measures on the baseline trend in energy demand in the period to 2030. The policies and measures modelled comprise meeting deployment targets for electric vehicles and compressed natural gas vehicles, an EU regulation for the improvement of vehicle efficiency, implementation of a national biofuel obligation, as well as several behavioural measures (encouraging modal shifting and reduced travel demand). The impact of the different measures simulated is measured in terms of their contribution to meeting Ireland's ambitious targets for energy savings, for renewable energy penetration and for greenhouse gas (GHG) emissions reductions. The results point to a possible improvement of 32% in car stock efficiency, the achievement of 7.8% renewable energy share of road and rail transport and a 22% reduction in non-ETS private car CO 2 emissions relative to 2009 levels. A scenario analysis on meeting the EV penetration target shows a significant range of CO 2 emissions reductions depending on the cars (and mileage) displaced and on the electricity generation portfolio. - Highlights: ► Private car policy scenarios for Ireland modelled. ► Impact of vehicle efficiency, fuel switching and behavioural measures evaluated. ► Highlights distance to EU non-ETS emissions and renewable energy targets. ► Analysis of EV target shows that GHG mitigation potential is very sensitive.

  9. Energy scenarios: a prospective outlook

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Salomon, Thierry; Claustre, Raphael; Charru, Madeleine; Sukov, Stephane; Marignac, Yves; Fink, Meike; Bibas, Ruben; Le Saux, Gildas

    2011-01-01

    A set of articles discusses the use of energy scenarios: how useful they can be to describe a possible future and even to gather the involved actors, how they have been used in France in the past (for planning or prediction purposes, with sometimes some over-assessed or contradictory results, without considering any decline of nuclear energy, or by setting an impossible equation in the case of the Grenelle de l'Environnement), how the scenario framework impacts its content (depending on the approach type: standard, optimization, bottom-up, top-down, or hybrid). It also discusses the issue of choice of hypotheses on growth-based and de-growth-based scenarios, outlines how energy saving is a key for a sustainable evolution. Two German scenarios regarding electricity production (centralisation or decentralisation) and French regional scenarios for Nord-Pas-de-Calais are then briefly discussed

  10. Scenarios of hydrogen production from wind power

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Klaric, Mario

    2010-09-15

    Since almost total amount of hydrogen is currently being produced from natural gas, other ways of cleaner and 'more renewable' production should be made feasible in order to make benchmarks for total 'hydrogen economy'. Hydrogen production from wind power combined with electrolysis imposes as one possible framework for new economy development. In this paper various wind-to-hydrogen scenarios were calculated. Cash flows of asset based project financing were used as decision making tool. Most important parameters were identified and strategies for further research and development and resource allocation are suggested.

  11. SO2 emission scenarios of eastern China

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Qi, L.; Hao, J.; Lu, M.

    1995-01-01

    Under the National Key Project in Eighth Five-year Plan, a study was carried out on forecasting SO 2 emission from coal combustion in China, with a special emphasis on the eastern area. 3 scenarios, i.e. 'Optimistic', 'Pessimistic' and 'Business as Usual' scenarios were developed trying to cover changing scale of coal consumption and SO 2 emission from 1990 to 2020. A 'Top-down' approach was employed, and coal consumption elasticity was defined to project future economic growth and coal consumption. SO 2 emission scenarios were outlined, based on coal consumption, estimated sulfur content level and prospective SO 2 control situation. Emission level for each 1 degree longitude x 1 degree latitude grid cell within eastern China was also estimated to show geographical distribution of SO 2 sources. The results show that SO 2 emission in China will increase rapidly, if the current situation for energy saving and SO 2 control is maintained without improvement; measures enhanced reasonably with economic growth could stop further increase of emission by 2010. Realization of more encouraging objective to keep emission at even below 1990 level needs, however, more stringent options. The share of eastern China in the country's total emission would increase until 2000, while the general changing tendency would principally follow the scenarios of the whole country. 4 refs., 5 figs., 1 tab

  12. European Water Footprint Scenarios for 2050

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    A. Ertug Ercin

    2016-05-01

    Full Text Available This study develops water footprint scenarios for Europe for 2050, at the country level, based on projections regarding population and economic growth, production and trade patterns, consumption patterns (diets and bioenergy use and technological development. The objective is to estimate possible future changes in the green, blue and grey water footprint (WF of production and consumption, to analyze the main drivers of projected changes and to assess Europe’s future dependence on water resources elsewhere in the world. We develop four scenarios, considering globalization versus regional self-sufficiency, and development driven by economic objectives versus development driven by social and environmental objectives. The study shows that the most critical driver of change affecting Europe’s future WF is the consumption pattern. The WFs of both production and consumption in Western Europe increase under scenarios with high meat consumption and decrease with low-meat scenarios. Besides, additional water demands from increasing biofuel needs will put further pressure on European water resources. The European countries with a large ratio of external to total WF of consumption in 2000 decrease their dependencies on foreign water resources in 2050.

  13. Assessment of the potential of state-of-the-art biomass technologies in contributing to a sustainable SADC regional mitigation energy scenario[Southern African Development Community

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Yamba, F.D.; Matsika, E. [Centre for Energy, Environment and Engineering Zambia, Lusaka (Zambia)

    2003-09-01

    Southern Africa's energy supply is based on power sector collaboration - the Southern African Power Pool (SAPP). SAPP was created in 1995 through an inter-utility memorandum of understanding among 12 of the Southern African Development Community (SADC) utilities including Congo DR. The aims of SAPP are: To increase regional security of supply; To smoothen load curves; To engender economies of scale in the supply base; To increase revenue for exporting countries by opening up a ready market; To share power to meet national shortfalls and to off set temporary deficits in the medium term, and in the long term to adopt and implement power sharing as an operational strategy aimed at maximising financial and environmental benefits. Currently, SAPP has an operational installed capacity of 45.000 MW, of which 84% is thermal, predominantly coal based, which represents 79% of the total supply. 16% of the total SAPP interconnected supply is hydro, while the contribution from biomass is currently non-existent. The sugar industry in Southern Africa can significantly alter this picture. Increased competitive pressures serve as economic incentives for the sugar industry to diversify their product portfolio by investing in renewable energy applications. Of the new state-of-the-art biomass based technologies available Condensing Extraction Steam Turbine (CEST) is the most promising. Application of CEST technologies in Southern Africa will modestly contribute towards a sustainable energy supply mitigation scenario. If implemented, the contribution of bioenergy will increase from 0.5% for the baseline situation, to 2.5% in 2030 and 3.0% in 2050. This scenario will also yield global environmental benefits potential through saving of GHG reductions to 14 million tonnes CO{sub 2} in 2030 and 20 million tonnes CO{sub 2} in 2050. Furthermore, this paper produces a monogram which will assist investors in making decisions whether to invest in the Kyoto Protocols Clean Development

  14. Biodiesel scenario in India

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Taj, S. [Bangalore Univ., Al-Ameen College, Bangalore (India). Dept. of Chemistry; Prasad, H. [Bangalore Univ., Central College, Bangalore (India). Dept. of Chemistry; Ramesh, N. [Reva College, Bangladore (India); Papavinasam, S. [Natural Resources Canada, Ottawa, ON (Canada). CANMET Materials Technology Lab

    2009-08-15

    This article presented an overview of biodiesel production in India. Biodiesel has gained widespread acceptance in the United States and the European Union as a substitute for diesel. In early 2003, the Indian National Planning Commission launched a program to also foster development of vegetable oil based biofuels in order to address the energy challenges facing India. Approximately 57 per cent of rural Indian households are still not connected to the power grid, and India imports 75 per cent of its total petroleum. The National Planning Commission advocated widespread planting of an inedible, but high-yielding tree-born oilseed known as jatropha curcas that would serve as the primary feedstock for the production of vegetable oil based biofuels. Jatropha and pongamia are widely recognized as the most economically viable and environmentally neutral feedstock options. Both of these tree-borne oilseeds are adaptable to reasonably harsh climatic and growing conditions, enabling them to be cultivated on wastelands that are not currently used in agricultural production. The Commission recommended that 11.2 million hectares of jatropha be cultivated on marginal waste lands which would, over time, replace 20 per cent of total national diesel consumption with biodiesel. Both public and private sector players have begun to act on the Commission's plan. More than a hundred thousand hectares of jatropha have been planted and private firms have begun to build biodiesel processing plants. State-owned petroleum product marketing firms have committed to distributing biodiesel through some existing distribution channels. 8 refs., 6 tabs., 3 figs.

  15. Inventories and reduction scenarios of urban waste-related greenhouse gas emissions for management potential.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yang, Dewei; Xu, Lingxing; Gao, Xueli; Guo, Qinghai; Huang, Ning

    2018-06-01

    Waste-related greenhouse gas (GHG) emissions have been recognized as one of the prominent contributors to global warming. Current urban waste regulations, however, face increasing challenges from stakeholders' trade-offs and hierarchic management. A combined method, i.e., life cycle inventories and scenario analysis, was employed to investigate waste-related GHG emissions during 1995-2015 and to project future scenarios of waste-driven carbon emissions by 2050 in a pilot low carbon city, Xiamen, China. The process-based carbon analysis of waste generation (prevention and separation), transportation (collection and transfer) and disposal (treatment and recycling) shows that the main contributors of carbon emissions are associated with waste disposal processes, solid waste, the municipal sector and Xiamen Mainland. Significant spatial differences of waste-related CO 2e emissions were observed between Xiamen Island and Xiamen Mainland using the carbon intensity and density indexes. An uptrend of waste-related CO 2e emissions from 2015 to 2050 is identified in the business as usual, waste disposal optimization, waste reduction and the integrated scenario, with mean annual growth rates of 8.86%, 8.42%, 6.90% and 6.61%, respectively. The scenario and sensitivity analysis imply that effective waste-related carbon reduction requires trade-offs among alternative strategies, actions and stakeholders in a feasible plan, and emphasize a priority of waste prevention and collection in Xiamen. Our results could benefit to the future modeling of urban multiple wastes and life-cycle carbon control in similar cities within and beyond China. Copyright © 2018 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  16. End-user GHG emissions from energy. Reallocation of emissions from energy industries to end users 2005-2010

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Fernandez, R. [European Environment Agency (EEA), Copenhagen (Denmark); Watterson, J. [AEA Technology plc - EEA' s European Topic Centre on Air Pollution and Climate Change Mitigation (ETC/ACM) (United Kingdom)

    2012-12-15

    The objective of this report is to help improve the understanding of past GHG emission trends in the energy sector from the demand or end-user side. To do this, the report develops a methodology to redistributes emissions from energy industries to the final users (by sector) of that energy. This reallocation is done on the basis of Eurostat's energy balances and GHG inventories for the energy sector as reported to the United Nations Framework Convention on Climate Change (UNFCCC), for the period 2005-2010. (Author)

  17. End-user GHG emissions from energy. Reallocation of emissions from energy industries to end users 2005-2009

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Fernandez, R. (European Environment Agency (EEA), Copenhagen (Denmark)); Watterson, J. (AEA Technology plc - EEA' s European Topic Centre on Air Pollution and Climate Change Mitigation (ETC/ACM) (United Kingdom))

    2011-12-15

    The objective of this report is to help improve the understanding of past greenhouse gas (GHG) emission trends in the energy sector from the demand or end-user side. To do this, the report develops a methodology to redistributes emissions from energy industries to the final users (by sector) of that energy. This reallocation is done on the basis of Eurostat's energy balances and GHG inventories for the energy sector as reported to the United Nations Framework Convention on Climate Change (UNFCCC), for the period 2005-2009. (Author)

  18. GHG emission factors developed for the collection, transport and landfilling of municipal waste in South African municipalities

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Friedrich, Elena, E-mail: Friedriche@ukzn.ac.za [CRECHE Centre for Research in Environmental, Coastal and Hydrological Engineering, School of Engineering, Civil Engineering Programme, University of KwaZulu-Natal, Howard College Campus, Durban (South Africa); Trois, Cristina [CRECHE Centre for Research in Environmental, Coastal and Hydrological Engineering, School of Engineering, Civil Engineering Programme, University of KwaZulu-Natal, Howard College Campus, Durban (South Africa)

    2013-04-15

    Highlights: ► An average GHG emission factor for the collection and transport of municipal solid waste in South Africa is calculated. ► A range of GHG emission factors for different types of landfills (including dumps) in South Africa are calculated. ► These factors are compared internationally and their implications for South Africa and developing countries are discussed . ► Areas for new research are highlighted. - Abstract: Greenhouse gas (GHG) emission factors are used with increased frequency for the accounting and reporting of GHG from waste management. However, these factors have been calculated for developed countries of the Northern Hemisphere and are lacking for developing countries. This paper shows how such factors have been developed for the collection, transport and landfilling of municipal waste in South Africa. As such it presents a model on how international results and methodology can be adapted and used to calculate country-specific GHG emission factors from waste. For the collection and transport of municipal waste in South Africa, the average diesel consumption is around 5 dm{sup 3} (litres) per tonne of wet waste and the associated GHG emissions are about 15 kg CO{sub 2} equivalents (CO{sub 2} e). Depending on the type of landfill, the GHG emissions from the landfilling of waste have been calculated to range from −145 to 1016 kg CO{sub 2} e per tonne of wet waste, when taking into account carbon storage, and from 441 to 2532 kg CO{sub 2} e per tonne of wet waste, when carbon storage is left out. The highest emission factor per unit of wet waste is for landfill sites without landfill gas collection and these are the dominant waste disposal facilities in South Africa. However, cash strapped municipalities in Africa and the developing world will not be able to significantly upgrade these sites and reduce their GHG burdens if there is no equivalent replacement of the Clean Development Mechanism (CDM) resulting from the Kyoto agreement

  19. Dying scenarios improve recall as much as survival scenarios.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Burns, Daniel J; Hart, Joshua; Kramer, Melanie E

    2014-01-01

    Merely contemplating one's death improves retention for entirely unrelated material learned subsequently. This "dying to remember" effect seems conceptually related to the survival processing effect, whereby processing items for their relevance to being stranded in the grasslands leads to recall superior to that of other deep processing control conditions. The present experiments directly compared survival processing scenarios with "death processing" scenarios. Results showed that when the survival and dying scenarios are closely matched on key dimensions, and possible congruency effects are controlled, the dying and survival scenarios produced equivalently high recall levels. We conclude that the available evidence (cf. Bell, Roer, & Buchner, 2013; Klein, 2012), while not definitive, is consistent with the possibility of overlapping mechanisms.

  20. South Africa's greenhouse gas emissions under business-as-usual: The technical basis of 'Growth without Constraints' in the Long-Term Mitigation Scenarios

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Winkler, Harald; Hughes, Alison; Marquard, Andrew; Haw, Mary; Merven, Bruno

    2011-01-01

    This article describes the methodology for projecting business-as-usual GHG trajectory developed in technical work for South Africa's Long-Term Mitigation Scenarios (LTMSs), in particular the 'Growth without Constraints' (GWCs) scenario. Technically rigorous projections are important as developing countries define their commitment to act on mitigation relative to business-as-usual (BAU). The key drivers for the GWC scenario include GDP (both growth rate and composition), population, discount rate and technological change. GDP emerged as an important driver in the research for LTMS and further analysis. If South Africa's economy grows without constraints over the next few decades, GHG emissions will continue to escalate, multiplying more than four-fold by mid-century. There is little gain in energy efficiency, and emissions continue to be dominated by energy use and supply, the latter remaining coal-based in GWC. We analyse the projections (not predictions) in relation to various measures. The LTMS GWC scenario is compared to other projections, nationally and internationally. A broadly comparable projection is being used at national level, for electricity planning. When compared to projections from international models, we find that the assumptions about GDP growth rates are a key factor, and suggest that comparisons of global data-sets against national analyses is important. - Highlights: → Specifies business-as-usual GHG trajectory for South Africa's Long-Term Mitigation Scenarios. → Provides details on methodology, drivers of emissions and key parameters. → In a scenario of Growth without Constraints, emissions would quadruple by 2050. → Analysis of resulting emission projection, not a prediction. → Compares projections from other national and international models.

  1. Global climate-oriented transportation scenarios

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Harvey, L.D.D.

    2013-01-01

    This paper develops scenarios whereby CO 2 emissions from the transportation sector are eliminated worldwide by the end of this century. Data concerning the energy intensity and utilization of different passenger and freight transportation modes in 2005, and per capita income, in 10 different socio-economic regions of the world are combined with scenarios of population and per capita GDP to generate scenarios of future transportation energy demand. The impact of various technical options (improvements in the energy intensity of all transportation modes, changes in the proportions of vehicles with different drive trains, and a shift to biomass or hydrogen for the non-electricity energy requirements) and behavioural options (a shift to less energy-intensive LDV market segments, a reduction in total passenger-km of travel per capita, and an increase in the share of less energy-intensive passenger and freight modes of transport) is assessed. To eliminate transportation fossil fuel emissions within this century while limiting the demand for electricity, biofuels or hydrogen to manageable levels requires the simultaneous application of all the technical and behavioural measures considered here, with improvements in vehicle efficiencies and a shift to plug-in hybrid and battery-electric drive trains for light duty vehicles being the most important measures. - Highlights: ► Scenarios are developed whereby transportation CO 2 emissions reach zero by 2100. ► These scenarios address concerns about peak oil and global warming. ► A comprehensive mix of technical and behavioural changes is considered in 10 world regions. ► Efficiency improvements and a shift to plug-in hybrid vehicles are the most important measures

  2. Genetic mitigation strategies to tackle agricultural GHG emissions: The case for biological nitrification inhibition technology.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Subbarao, G V; Arango, J; Masahiro, K; Hooper, A M; Yoshihashi, T; Ando, Y; Nakahara, K; Deshpande, S; Ortiz-Monasterio, I; Ishitani, M; Peters, M; Chirinda, N; Wollenberg, L; Lata, J C; Gerard, B; Tobita, S; Rao, I M; Braun, H J; Kommerell, V; Tohme, J; Iwanaga, M

    2017-09-01

    Accelerated soil-nitrifier activity and rapid nitrification are the cause of declining nitrogen-use efficiency (NUE) and enhanced nitrous oxide (N 2 O) emissions from farming. Biological nitrification inhibition (BNI) is the ability of certain plant roots to suppress soil-nitrifier activity, through production and release of nitrification inhibitors. The power of phytochemicals with BNI-function needs to be harnessed to control soil-nitrifier activity and improve nitrogen-cycling in agricultural systems. Transformative biological technologies designed for genetic mitigation are needed, so that BNI-enabled crop-livestock and cropping systems can rein in soil-nitrifier activity, to help reduce greenhouse gas (GHG) emissions and globally make farming nitrogen efficient and less harmful to environment. This will reinforce the adaptation or mitigation impact of other climate-smart agriculture technologies. Copyright © 2017 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  3. Understanding the issues around quantifying GHG emissions in the financial sector

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Jacono, Caline; Poivet, Romain; Havette, Didier; Maille, Catherine; Jaubert, Nathalie; Grandjean, Alain; Cottenceau, Jean-Baptiste; Finidori, Esther; Le Teno, Helene; Cochard, Eric; Sanchez, Thomas; Michaux, Elisabeth; Courcier, Jerome; Marie Lapalle; Guez, Herve; Mia, Ladislas; Agnes Guiral; Martinez, Emmanuel; Rose, Antoine; Breton, Herve; Meyssonier, Guillaume; Arndt, Matthew; Saichs, Nancy; Desfosses, Philippe; Bonnet, Olivier; Rouchon, Jean-Philippe; Smart, Lauren; Lenoel, Benjamin; Dupre, Stanislas; Chenet, Hugues; Lavaud, Patricia; Laviale, Michel; Lucas-Leclin, Valery; Bernasconi, Maxime; Merlin, Alexis; Delettang, Catherine; Gerardi, Anne

    2016-01-01

    In the face of climate change, the financial sector shows a need to have access to methods and tools for quantifying GHG emissions. This guide proposes to address multiple needs of financial institutions (Investment banks, insurers, retail bank, commercial bank, asset managers...) in terms of financed emissions quantification. It meets two objectives: Make formal methodological recommendations for financial institutions about their operating related emissions, and propose methodological recommendations to quantify financed emissions (Scop3 - Poste 15 'Investments'). The guide is divided in three parts. Volume 1 gives background, identifies sectorial challenges related to climate change and offers an overview of the main existing quantification methods and tools. Volume 2 offers practical and operational guidance for estimating emissions from organisation's back-office functions into the financial sector. Volume 3 (through case studies) offers methodological information to quantify the financed emissions through a 'top-down' approach, with an 'excel' tool to calculate emission factors related to this method

  4. GHG emissions from slurry and digestates during storage and after field application

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Baral, Khagendra Raj; Nguyen, Quan Van; Petersen, Søren O

    The BioChain project focuses on value chains for biogas production in Denmark. Biogas production is based on liquid manure (slurry) from agriculture and other biomasses to increase the energy yield. To a great extent the digestates are recycled to agricultural lands as a valuable fertilizer...... of volatile solids (VS) is critical for predicting GHG emissions and the effect of biogas treatment. Volatile solids may be considered to have an easily degradable VS (VSd) and a slowly degradable VS (VSnd) fraction. A new approach to estimate VSd was investigated using the short-term evolution of CO2-C from...... are determined in a pilot-scale study with digested materials from Maabjerg Bioenergy and Fredericia Wastewater Treatment Facility, using untreated cattle and pig slurry as reference. These and other results will be used to model the effect of temperature and pre-treatment on CH4 emissions. The composition...

  5. Successful pilot of thermosyphon process heater reduces GHG emissions and operating costs

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Arnold, W.A.; Neulander, J.I.

    1999-01-01

    A joint pilot study was conducted by Hudson Products Corporation and PanCanadian Petroleum Ltd. to test the feasibility of using a thermosyphon as a part of a thermal recovery process for cold heavy oil reservoir exploitation in the Western Canada Sedimentary Basin. A thermosyphon process heater can transfer heat from an external combustion chamber to a liquid inside a tank. This paper described the pilot project in which such a heater was successfully tested in a heavy oil field production tank. The field trial was conducted at the Marwayne Field in northeastern Alberta. The results of the pilot study demonstrated that the thermosyphon not only improved process efficiency, but also reduced greenhouse gas (GHG) emissions, lowered operating costs and improved safety. 5 refs., 3 tabs., 1 fig., 3 appendices

  6. 3 Investment Scenarios for Fast Reactors

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Shoai Tehrani, Bianka; Da Costa, Pascal

    2013-01-01

    Results: • 4 families of scenarios: – In each of them, 3 options for national nuclear policy → 12 scenarios; – 3 favorable to FRs: - “climate constraint” with strong pro-nuclear policy - “climate constraint” with moderate pro-nuclear policy - “totally green” with strong pro-nuclear policy. • Business As Usual is not favorable to Fast Reactors; Fast reactors deployment: - Needs strong climate policy - Is viable in case of important renewable progress as long as climate policy is strong. International perspective: • Results are valid for Europe, other drivers being likely to be more important in other countries : high growth and demand (Asia); • With strong contrasts between European countries. Further research: • Finer modeling of drivers with unclear influence (clustered and excluded variables): Influence of weak signals

  7. TIBER engineering test reactor (ETR) startup scenarios

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Blackfield, D.T.; Perkins, L.J.

    1987-01-01

    A time-dependent Tokamak Systems Code (TTSC) has been developed and used to examine various inductively driven startup scenarios for the TIBER reactor. Radially averaged particle and energy balance equations are solved. In addition, time varying currents in the PF and OH coils are determined from MHD equilibrium and volt-seconds considerations. Less than 20 MW of auxiliary power deposited in the electrons is required to obtain steady-state operations. For this scenario, less than 10% of the total volt-seconds capability is consumed during startup and the currents in the PF and OH coils do not appear to exceed stress limits. For every volt-second saved during startup, the burn time can be extended 14 seconds. 4 refs., 6 figs., 3 tabs

  8. Scenario Planning as Organizational Intervention

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Balarezo, Jose; Nielsen, Bo Bernhard

    2017-01-01

    existing contributions on scenario planning within a new consolidating framework that includes antecedents, processes, and outcomes. The proposed framework allows for integration of the extant literature on scenario planning from a wide variety of fields, including strategic management, finance, human...... resource management, operations management, and psychology. Findings: This study contributes to research by offering a coherent and consistent framework for understanding scenario planning as a dynamic process. As such, it offers future researchers with a systematic way to ascertain where a particular......Purpose: This paper identifies four areas in need of future research to enhance our theoretical understanding of scenario planning, and sets the basis for future empirical examination of its effects on individual and organizational level outcomes. Design/methodology/approach: This paper organizes...

  9. Economic assessment of energetic scenarios

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Grandjean, Alain; Bureau, Dominique; Schubert, Katheline; Henriet, Fanny; Maggiar, Nicolas; Criqui, Patrick; Le Teno, Helene; Baumstark, Luc; Crassous, Renaud; Roques, Fabien

    2013-09-01

    This publication gathers contributions proposed by different members of the Economic Council for a Sustainable Development (CEDD) on the issue of energy transition, and more precisely on scenarios elaborated with respect to energy transition. A first set of contributions addresses models of energy transition (assessment of scenario costs to reach a factor 4; the issue of de-carbonation of energy consumption; study of ELECsim, a tool to highlight costs of scenarios of evolution of the electric power system). The second part addresses arbitrations and choice assessment (the importance of social and economic impacts of scenarios; challenges related to the joint definition of the discount rate and of the evolution of carbon value in time; the issue of assessment of the integration of renewable energies into the power system)

  10. Energy and GHG balances of ethanol production from cane molasses in Indonesia

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Khatiwada, Dilip; Venkata, Bharadwaj K.; Silveira, Semida; Johnson, Francis X.

    2016-01-01

    Highlights: • This study performs LCA analysis of sugarcane-based bioethanol production. • Energy and GHG balances are evaluated in the entire production chain. • Sensitivity analysis is performed to identify key influencing parameters. • Efficient cogeneration and biogas recovery enhances energy and climate gains. • Results of LCA studies and issues related to land use change impact are discussed. - Abstract: This study analyses the sustainability of fuel ethanol production from cane molasses in Indonesia. Life cycle assessment (LCA) is performed to evaluate the net emissions (climate change impact) and energy inputs (resource consumption) in the production chain. The lifecycle greenhouse gas (GHG) emissions in the production and use of ethanol are estimated at 29 gCO 2eq per MJ of ethanol produced which is a 67% reduction in comparison to gasoline emissions. Net Energy Value (NEV) and Net Renewable Energy Value (NREV) are −7 MJ/l and 17.7 MJ/l, while the energy yield ratio (ER) is 6.1. Economic allocation is chosen for dividing environmental burdens and resource consumption between sugar (i.e. main product) and molasses (i.e. co-product used for fuel production). Sensitivity analysis of various parameters is performed. The emissions and energy values are highly sensitive to sugarcane yield, ethanol yield, and the price of molasses. The use of sugarcane biomass residues (bagasse/trash) for efficient cogeneration, and different waste management options for the treatment of spent wash (effluent of distilleries) are also explored. Surplus bioelectricity generation in the efficient cogeneration plant, biogas recovery from wastewater treatment plant, and their use for fossil fuel substitution can help improve energy and environmental gains. The study also compares important results with other relevant international studies and discusses issues related to land use change (LUC) impact.

  11. Emissions Scenarios and Fossil-fuel Peaking

    Science.gov (United States)

    Brecha, R.

    2008-12-01

    Intergovernmental Panel on Climate Change (IPCC) emissions scenarios are based on detailed energy system models in which demographics, technology and economics are used to generate projections of future world energy consumption, and therefore, of greenhouse gas emissions. Built into the assumptions for these scenarios are estimates for ultimately recoverable resources of various fossil fuels. There is a growing chorus of critics who believe that the true extent of recoverable fossil resources is much smaller than the amounts taken as a baseline for the IPCC scenarios. In a climate optimist camp are those who contend that "peak oil" will lead to a switch to renewable energy sources, while others point out that high prices for oil caused by supply limitations could very well lead to a transition to liquid fuels that actually increase total carbon emissions. We examine a third scenario in which high energy prices, which are correlated with increasing infrastructure, exploration and development costs, conspire to limit the potential for making a switch to coal or natural gas for liquid fuels. In addition, the same increasing costs limit the potential for expansion of tar sand and shale oil recovery. In our qualitative model of the energy system, backed by data from short- and medium-term trends, we have a useful way to gain a sense of potential carbon emission bounds. A bound for 21st century emissions is investigated based on two assumptions: first, that extractable fossil-fuel resources follow the trends assumed by "peak oil" adherents, and second, that little is done in the way of climate mitigation policies. If resources, and perhaps more importantly, extraction rates, of fossil fuels are limited compared to assumptions in the emissions scenarios, a situation can arise in which emissions are supply-driven. However, we show that even in this "peak fossil-fuel" limit, carbon emissions are high enough to surpass 550 ppm or 2°C climate protection guardrails. Some

  12. Scenarios, targets, gaps, and costs

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Edmonds, James A.; Joos, Fortunat; Nakicenovic, Nebojsa; Richels, Richard G.; Sarmiento, Jorge L.

    2005-03-30

    This paper explores the connection between human activities and the concentration of carbon dioxide in the atmosphere. t explores the implication of the wide range of emissions scenarios developed by the IPCC in the Special Report on Emissions Scenarios and concludes that a robust finding is that major changes will be required in the global energy system if the concentration of carbon dioxide is eventually to be stabilized.

  13. Italian energy scenarios: Markal model

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Gracceva, Francesco

    2005-01-01

    Energy scenarios carried out through formal models comply with scientific criteria such as internal coherence and transparency. Besides, Markal methodology allows a good understanding of the complex nature of the energy system. The business-as-usual scenario carried out through the Markal-Italy model shows that structural changes occurring in end-use sectors will continue to drive up energy consumption, in spite of the slow economic growth and the quite high energy prices [it

  14. Scenarios for remote gas production

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Tangen, Grethe; Molnvik, Mona J.

    2009-01-01

    The amount of natural gas resources accessible via proven production technology and existing infrastructure is declining. Therefore, smaller and less accessible gas fields are considered for commercial exploitation. The research project Enabling production of remote gas builds knowledge and technology aiming at developing competitive remote gas production based on floating LNG and chemical gas conversion. In this project, scenarios are used as basis for directing research related to topics that affect the overall design and operation of such plants. Selected research areas are safety, environment, power supply, operability and control. The paper summarises the scenario building process as a common effort among research institutes and industry. Further, it documents four scenarios for production of remote gas and outlines how the scenarios are applied to establish research strategies and adequate plans in a multidisciplinary project. To ensure relevance of the scenarios, it is important to adapt the building process to the current problem and the scenarios should be developed with extensive participation of key personnel.

  15. Characteristics of GHG flux from water-air interface along a reclaimed water intake area of the Chaobai River in Shunyi, Beijing

    Science.gov (United States)

    He, Baonan; He, Jiangtao; Wang, Jian; Li, Jie; Wang, Fei

    2018-01-01

    To understand greenhouse gas (GHG) flux in reclaimed water intake area impact on urban climate, 'static chamber' method was used to investigate the spatio-diurnal variations and the influence factors of GHG fluxes at water-air interface from Jian River to Chaobai River. Results showed that the average fluxes of CO2 from the Jian River and the Chaobai River were 73.46 mg(m2·h)-1 and -64.75 mg(m2·h)-1, respectively. CO2 was emitted the most in the Jian River, but it was absorbed from the atmosphere in the Chaobai River. Unary linear regression analyses demonstrated that Chlorophyll a (Chl a) and pH variation controlled the carbon source and sink from the Jian River to the Chaobai River. The diurnal variation of CO2 fluxes was higher at night than in the daytime in the Jian River, and it was the inverse in the Chaobai River, which highly correlated with dissociative CO2 and HCO3- transformation to CO32-. The average fluxes of CH4 from the Jian River and Chaobai River were 0.973 mg(m2·h)-1 and 5.556 mg(m2·h)-1, respectively, which increased along the water flow direction. Unary and multiple linear regression analyses demonstrated that Chl a and total organic carbon (TOC) controlled the increase of CH4 along the flow direction. The diurnal variation of CH4 fluxes was slightly higher in the daytime than at night due to the effect of water temperature.

  16. Sensitivity of Technical Choices on the GHG Emissions and Expended Energy of Hydrotreated Renewable Jet Fuel from Microalgae

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Patouillard Laure

    2016-01-01

    Full Text Available Taking into account the environmental impacts of biofuel production is essential to develop new and innovative low-emission processes. The assessment of life cycle GreenHouse Gas (GHG emissions of biofuel is mandatory for the countries of the European Union. New biomass resources that hardly compete with food crops are been developed increasingly. Microalgae are an interesting alternative to terrestrial biomass thanks to their high photosynthetic efficiency and their ability to accumulate lipids. This article provides an analysis of potential environmental impacts of the production of algal biofuel for aviation using the Life Cycle Assessment (LCA. Evaluated impacts are GHG emissions and the primary energy consumption, from extraction of raw materials to final waste treatment. This study compared two management choices for oilcakes generated after oil extraction from microalgae. In the first system, these cakes are treated by energetic allocation and in the second by anaerobic digestion. In both cases, the steps of cultivation and harvesting have the highest impact on the results. Sensitivity analyzes are performed on technical choices of operating systems (choice of the type of nutrients, mode of harvesting, drying and oil extraction as well as a Monte-Carlo analysis on key parameter values for GHG emissions (concentration of microalgae in ponds, productivity and oil content. The results highlight the impact of the use of chemical fertilizers and the importance of the concentration of algae on GHG emissions and energy consumption.

  17. GHG emission control and solid waste management for megacities with inexact inputs: a case study in Beijing, China.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lu, Hongwei; Sun, Shichao; Ren, Lixia; He, Li

    2015-03-02

    This study advances an integrated MSW management model under inexact input information for the city of Beijing, China. The model is capable of simultaneously generating MSW management policies, performing GHG emission control, and addressing system uncertainty. Results suggest that: (1) a management strategy with minimal system cost can be obtained even when suspension of certain facilities becomes unavoidable through specific increments of the remaining ones; (2) expansion of facilities depends only on actual needs, rather than enabling the full usage of existing facilities, although it may prove to be a costly proposition; (3) adjustment of waste-stream diversion ratio directly leads to a change in GHG emissions from different disposal facilities. Results are also obtained from the comparison of the model with a conventional one without GHG emissions consideration. It is indicated that (1) the model would reduce the net system cost by [45, 61]% (i.e., [3173, 3520] million dollars) and mitigate GHG emissions by [141, 179]% (i.e., [76, 81] million tons); (2) increased waste would be diverted to integrated waste management facilities to prevent overmuch CH4 emission from the landfills. Copyright © 2014 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  18. 75 FR 62739 - 2017 and Later Model Year Light Duty Vehicle GHG Emissions and CAFE Standards; Notice of Intent

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-10-13

    ... Model Year Light Duty Vehicle GHG Emissions and CAFE Standards; Notice of Intent AGENCIES: Environmental... fuel economy (CAFE) standards in accordance with the Energy Policy and Conservation Act (EPCA), as... FR 49454, 49460 (September 28, 2009). The NHTSA CAFE standards are only based on technologies that...

  19. Short-term global warming mitigation costs of fischer-tropsch diesel production and policy scenarios in Norway

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Bright, Ryan M.; Stroemman, Anders Hammer

    2010-07-01

    Full text: Increasing the supply of advanced biofuels like synthetic diesel produced from woody biomass require attractive investment environments so that novel technologies are deployed and technological learning can lead to reduced production costs and accelerated market diffusion. Technology-specific biofuel policy designed to minimize perceived risk may encourage shortterm investment into those biofuels offering superior environmental benefits - particularly climate mitigation benefits - thereby leading to steeper learning curves and deeper greenhouse gas (GHG) emission cuts over the medium- and long-term horizon. We perform both a Life Cycle Assessment (LCA) and an economic analysis of Fischer-Tropsch diesel (FTD) produced from Norwegian forest biomass at an 'nth' commercial plant (a plant with the same technologies that have been employed in previous commercial plants). This is followed with a cost growth analysis in order to derive production costs likely to be borne by pioneer commercial plants in Norway in the short-term (2016). LCA results are used to calculate shortterm GHG mitigation costs. We then assess, through scenarios, how various policy measures and financial support mechanisms would reduce production costs for incentivizing short-term investment and expediting commercial deployment in Norway. Because 'top-down' or 'market pull' biofuel support policy like excise tax exemptions or carbon taxes do not directly encourage investment into specific biofuel technologies like wood-FTD in the short term, we choose to analyze three 'bottom-up' or 'market push' policy scenarios to assess their effects on reducing levelized unit production costs. These include a Capital Grant, a low-interest Loan Guarantee, a Corporate Tax Credit, and a Feedstock Credit scenario. Under the Capital Grant scenario, we assess the change in levelized production and thus GHG abatement costs when a 50% capital grant (TCI) is

  20. Carbon Emission Mitigation Potentials of Different Policy Scenarios and Their Effects on International Aviation in the Korean Context

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Sungwook Yoon

    2016-11-01

    Full Text Available The objective of this study is to seek better policy options for greenhouse gas (GHG emission reduction in Korea’s international aviation industry by analyzing economic efficiency and environmental effectiveness with a system dynamics (SD model. Accordingly, we measured airlines sales and CO2 emission reductions to evaluate economic efficiency and environmental effectiveness, respectively, for various policies. The results show that the average carbon emission reduction rates of four policies compared to the business-as-usual (BAU scenario between 2015 and 2030 are 4.00% (Voluntary Agreement, 7.25% (Emission Trading System or ETS-30,000, 8.33% (Carbon Tax or CT-37,500, and 8.48% (Emission Charge System or EC-30,000. The average rate of decrease in airline sales compared to BAU for the ETS policy is 0.1% at 2030. Our results show that the ETS approach is the most efficient of all the analyzed CO2 reduction policies in economic terms, while the EC approach is the best policy to reduce GHG emissions. This study provides a foundation for devising effective response measures pertaining to GHG reduction and supports decision making on carbon tax and carbon credit pricing.

  1. Definition of total bootstrap current in tokamaks

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Ross, D.W.

    1995-01-01

    Alternative definitions of the total bootstrap current are compared. An analogous comparison is given for the ohmic and auxiliary currents. It is argued that different definitions than those usually employed lead to simpler analyses of tokamak operating scenarios

  2. Total Thyroidectomy

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Lopez Moris E

    2016-06-01

    Full Text Available Total thyroidectomy is a surgery that removes all the thyroid tissue from the patient. The suspect of cancer in a thyroid nodule is the most frequent indication and it is presume when previous fine needle puncture is positive or a goiter has significant volume increase or symptomes. Less frequent indications are hyperthyroidism when it is refractory to treatment with Iodine 131 or it is contraindicated, and in cases of symptomatic thyroiditis. The thyroid gland has an important anatomic relation whith the inferior laryngeal nerve and the parathyroid glands, for this reason it is imperative to perform extremely meticulous dissection to recognize each one of these elements and ensure their preservation. It is also essential to maintain strict hemostasis, in order to avoid any postoperative bleeding that could lead to a suffocating neck hematoma, feared complication that represents a surgical emergency and endangers the patient’s life.It is essential to run a formal technique, without skipping steps, and maintain prudence and patience that should rule any surgical act.

  3. Scenario development methods and practice

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    2001-01-01

    The safe management of radioactive waste is an essential aspect of all nuclear power programmes. Although a general consensus has been reached in OECD countries on the use of geological repositories for the disposal of high-level radioactive waste, analysis of the long-term safety of these repositories, using performance assessment and other tools, is required prior to implementation. The initial stage in developing a repository safety assessment is the identification of all factors that may be relevant to the long-term safety of the repository and their combination to form scenarios. This must be done in a systematic and transparent way in order to assure the regulatory authorities that nothing important has been forgotten. Scenario development has become the general term used to describe the collection and organisation of the scientific and technical information necessary to assess the long-term performance or safety of radioactive waste disposal systems. This includes the identification of the relevant features, events and processes (FEPs), the synthesis of broad models of scientific understanding, and the selection of cases to be calculated. Scenario development provides the overall framework in which the cases and their calculated consequences can be discussed, including biases or shortcomings due to omissions or lack of knowledge. The NEA Workshop on Scenario Development was organised in Madrid, in May 1999, with the objective of reviewing developments in scenario methodologies and applications in safety assessments since 1992. The outcome of this workshop is the subject of this book. It is a review of developments in scenario methodologies based on a large body of practical experience in safety assessments. It will be of interest to radioactive waste management experts as well as to other specialists involved in the development of scenario methodologies. (author)

  4. Abatement cost of GHG emissions for wood-based electricity and ethanol at production and consumption levels.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Puneet Dwivedi

    Full Text Available Woody feedstocks will play a critical role in meeting the demand for biomass-based energy products in the US. We developed an integrated model using comparable system boundaries and common set of assumptions to ascertain unit cost and greenhouse gas (GHG intensity of electricity and ethanol derived from slash pine (Pinus elliottii at the production and consumption levels by considering existing automobile technologies. We also calculated abatement cost of greenhouse gas (GHG emissions with respect to comparable energy products derived from fossil fuels. The production cost of electricity derived using wood chips was at least cheaper by 1 ¢ MJ-1 over electricity derived from wood pellets. The production cost of ethanol without any income from cogenerated electricity was costlier by about 0.7 ¢ MJ-1 than ethanol with income from cogenerated electricity. The production cost of electricity derived from wood chips was cheaper by at least 0.7 ¢ MJ-1 than the energy equivalent cost of ethanol produced in presence of cogenerated electricity. The cost of using ethanol as a fuel in a flex-fuel vehicle was at least higher by 6 ¢ km-1 than a comparable electric vehicle. The GHG intensity of per km distance traveled in a flex-fuel vehicle was greater or lower than an electric vehicle running on electricity derived from wood chips depending on presence and absence of GHG credits related with co-generated electricity. A carbon tax of at least $7 Mg CO2e-1 and $30 Mg CO2e-1 is needed to promote wood-based electricity and ethanol production in the US, respectively. The range of abatement cost of GHG emissions is significantly dependent on the harvest age and selected baseline especially for electricity generation.

  5. The impact of the economic crisis and policy actions on GHG emissions from road transport in Spain

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Sobrino, Natalia; Monzon, Andres

    2014-01-01

    Road traffic is the greatest contributor to the carbon footprint of the transport sector and reducing it has become one of the main targets of sustainable transport policies. An analysis of the main factors influencing greenhouse gas (GHG) emissions is essential for designing new energy- and environmentally efficient strategies for the road transport. This paper addresses this need by (i) identifying factors which influence the carbon footprint, including traffic activity, fuel economy and socioeconomic development; and (ii) proposing a methodological framework which uses Modified Laspeyres Index decomposition to analyze the effect of important drivers on the changes in emissions of road transport in Spain during the period from 1990 to 2010. The results demonstrate that the country's economic growth has been closely linked to the rise in GHG emissions. The innovative contribution of this paper is the special analysis of the changes in mobility patterns and GHG emissions during the economic crisis, when, for the first time, Spanish road traffic emissions decreased. The reduction of road transport and improved energy efficiency has been powerful contributors to this decrease, demonstrating the effectiveness of energy-saving measures. On the basis of this analysis, several tailored policy recommendations have been suggested for future implementation. - Highlights: • Drivers contributing to GHG emissions of road transport are identified and analyzed. • Decomposition analysis based on Modified Laspeyres Index (MLI) is applied to the Spanish case. • Economic crisis and changes in mobility patterns and GHG emissions are analyzed. • Policies for the decarbonization of road transport are recommended

  6. Social Foundation of Scenario Planning

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Rowland, Nicholas James; Spaniol, Matthew Jon

    2017-01-01

    In this article, the authors establish that models of scenario planning typically involve a series of phases, stages, or steps that imply a sequenced (i.e., linear or chronological) process. Recursive models, in contrast, allow phases to repeat, thus, incorporating iteration. The authors acknowle......In this article, the authors establish that models of scenario planning typically involve a series of phases, stages, or steps that imply a sequenced (i.e., linear or chronological) process. Recursive models, in contrast, allow phases to repeat, thus, incorporating iteration. The authors...... from science and technology studies (STS) on knowledge production, the authors explain transition from one phase to the next and iteration between and within phases based on social negotiation. To this end, the authors examine the interplay between the “scenario development” phase and the “scenario use......” phase of a planning process with a non-governmental organization in Denmark. The upshot for facilitators is practical insight into how transition between phases and phase iteration in scenario planning can be identified, leveraged, and, thus, managed. The upshot for scholars is a related insight...

  7. Global energy scenarios, climate change and sustainable development

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Nakicenovic, Nebojsa

    2003-01-01

    Energy scenarios provide a framework for exploring future energy perspectives, including various combinations of technology options and their implications. Many scenarios in the literature illustrate how energy system developments may affect global change. Examples are the new emissions scenarios by the Intergovernmental Panel on Climate Change (IPCC) and the energy scenarios by the World Energy Assessment (WEA). Some of these scenarios describe energy futures that are compatible with sustainable development goals; such as improved energy efficiencies and the adoption of advanced energy supply technologies. Sustainable development scenarios are also characterized by low environmental impacts (at local, regional and global scales) and equitable allocation of resources and wealth. They can help explore different transitions toward sustainable development paths and alternative energy perspectives in general. The considerable differences in expected total energy requirements among the scenarios reflect the varying approaches used to address the need for energy services in the future and demonstrate effects of different policy frameworks, changes in human behavior and investments in the future, as well as alternative unfolding of the main scenario driving forces such as demographic transitions, economic development and technological change. Increases in research, development and deployment efforts for new energy technologies are a prerequisite for achieving further social and economic development in the world. Significant technological advances will be required, as well as incremental improvements in conventional energy technologies. In general, significant policy and behavioral changes will be needed during the next few decades to achieve more sustainable development paths and mitigate climate change toward the end of the century. (au)

  8. Sustainable energy-economic-environmental scenarios

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    NONE

    2002-03-31

    IIASA's Environmentally Compatible Energy Strategies (ECS) Project has proposed a quantitative 'working definition' of sustainable development E3 (energy-economic-environmental) scenarios. ECS has proposed four criteria for sustainability: economic growth is sustained throughout the time horizon; socioeconomic inequity among world regions is reduced over the 21st century; reserves-to-production (R/P) ratio for exhaustible primary energy resources do not decline; and long-term environmental stress is mitigated. Using these criteria, 40 long-term E3 scenarios generated by ECS models were reviewed and analyzed. Amongst the conclusions drawn were: slow population growth or stabilization of global population appears to be prerequisite for sustainable development; economic growth alone does not guarantee a sustainable future; carbon intensities of total primary energy must decrease faster than the historical trend; strategies for fossil fuel consumption must aim at non-decreasing R/P ratios; and carbon emissions must be near or below today's levels at the end of this century. The analysis of sustainable development scenarios is an important step towards formulating long-term strategies aimed at climate stabilization. 6 figs., 1 tab.

  9. Achieving deep reductions in US transport greenhouse gas emissions: Scenario analysis and policy implications

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    McCollum, David; Yang, Christopher

    2009-01-01

    This paper investigates the potential for making deep cuts in US transportation greenhouse gas (GHG) emissions in the long-term (50-80% below 1990 levels by 2050). Scenarios are used to envision how such a significant decarbonization might be achieved through the application of advanced vehicle technologies and fuels, and various options for behavioral change. A Kaya framework that decomposes GHG emissions into the product of four major drivers is used to analyze emissions and mitigation options. In contrast to most previous studies, a relatively simple, easily adaptable modeling methodology is used which can incorporate insights from other modeling studies and organize them in a way that is easy for policymakers to understand. Also, a wider range of transportation subsectors is considered here-light- and heavy-duty vehicles, aviation, rail, marine, agriculture, off-road, and construction. This analysis investigates scenarios with multiple options (increased efficiency, lower-carbon fuels, and travel demand management) across the various subsectors and confirms the notion that there are no 'silver bullet' strategies for making deep cuts in transport GHGs. If substantial emission reductions are to be made, considerable action is needed on all fronts, and no subsectors can be ignored. Light-duty vehicles offer the greatest potential for emission reductions; however, while deep reductions in other subsectors are also possible, there are more limitations in the types of fuels and propulsion systems that can be used. In all cases travel demand management strategies are critical; deep emission cuts will not likely be possible without slowing growth in travel demand across all modes. Even though these scenarios represent only a small subset of the potential futures in which deep reductions might be achieved, they provide a sense of the magnitude of changes required in our transportation system and the need for early and aggressive action if long-term targets are to be met.

  10. New reactors concepts and scenarios

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Gandini, A.

    2001-01-01

    In recent years an increasing interest is observed with respect to subcritical, accelerator driven systems (ADS), for their possible role in perspective future nuclear energy scenarios, as actinide (Pu and MA) incinerators, and/or claimed energy plants with potential enhanced safety characteristics. Important research programs are devoted to the various related fields of research. Extensive studies on the ADS behavior under incidental conditions are in particular made, for verifying their claimed advantage, under the safety point of view, with respect to the corresponding critical reactors. Corresponding medium and long range scenarios are being studied to cope with a number of concerns associated with the safety (power excursions. residual heat risk), as well as with the fuel flow (criticality accidents, fuel diversion, radiological risk, proliferation). In the present work we shall try to review current lines of research in this field, and comment on possible scenarios so far envisaged. (author)

  11. Scenarios of future energy intensities

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Anon.

    1992-01-01

    In this chapter, the authors present scenarios of potential change in energy intensities in the OECD countries and in the Soviet Union. These scenarios are meant to illustrate how intensities might evolve over the next 20 years given different conditions with respect to energy prices, energy-efficiency policies, and other key factors. Changes in intensity will also be affected by the rates of growth and stock turnover in each sector. They have not tried to forecast how activity levels and structure will evolve. However, the OECD scenarios assume a world in which GDP averages growth in the 2-3%/year range, with some differences among countries. For the Soviet Union, the degree and pace of intensity decline will be highly dependent on the success of the transition to a market economy; each scenario explicitly envisions a different degree of success. They have not constructed comparable scenarios for the developing countries. The scenarios presented in this chapter do not predict what will happen in the future. They believe, however, that they illustrate a plausible set of outcomes if energy prices, policies, programs, and other factors evolve as described in each case. With higher energy prices and vigorous policies and programs, intensities in the OECD countries in 2010 could be nearly 50% less on average than the level where trends seem to be point. In the former Soviet Union, a combination of rapid, successful economic reform and extra effort to improve energy efficiency might result in average intensity being nearly 40% less than in a slow reform case. And in the LDCs, a mixture of sound policies, programs, and energy pricing reform could also lead to intensities being far lower than they would be otherwise. 8 refs., 10 figs., 1 tab

  12. Low climate stabilisation under diverse growth and convergence scenarios

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Markandya, A.; González-Eguino, M.; Criqui, P.; Mima, S.

    2014-01-01

    In the last decade a number of papers have analysed the consequences of achieving the greenhouse gas concentration levels necessary to maintain global temperature increases below 2 °C above preindustrial levels. Most models and scenarios assume that future trends in global GDP will be similar to the growth experienced in the past century, which would imply multiplying current output by about 19 times in the 21st century. However, natural resource and environmental constraints suggest that future global economic growth may not be so high. Furthermore, the environmental implications of such growth depend on how it is distributed across countries. This paper studies the implications on GHG abatement policies of low global GDP growth and high convergence levels in GDP per capita across countries. A partial equilibrium model (POLES) of the world's energy system is used to provide detailed projections up to 2050 for the different regions of the world. The results suggest that while low stabilisation could be technically feasible and economically viable for the world in all the scenarios considered, it is more likely to occur with more modest global growth. However, that will imply higher global abatement costs relative to GDP. Convergence in living standards on the other hand places greater pressures in terms of the required reduction in emissions. In general we find that there are major differences between regions in terms of the size and the timing of abatement costs and economic impact. - Highlights: • We study the implications of GDP growth and convergence on climate stabilisation. • A partial equilibrium model (POLES) of the world's energy system is used. • Low climate stabilisation is technically feasible and economically viable. • Low stabilisation is more likely to occur with more modest global growth. • Convergence places pressure in terms of the required reduction in emissions

  13. NEC-2020 emission reduction scenarios

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Slentø, Erik; Nielsen, Ole-Kenneth; Hoffmann, Leif

    The upcoming NEC-2020 EU directive sets up emission ceilings for NOX, SO2, NH3, NMVOC and PM in order to meet the environmental exposure targets of the Thematic Strategy. This report contains an assessment of intermediary emission reduction scenarios for Denmark, computed by the GAINS model 2007,......, which serves as the basis for the pending negotiations in EU. The assessment is brought up to date by including a brief evaluation of the new reduction scenarios published in 2008, founding the European Commission NEC-2020 directive proposal....

  14. Attributes Of Quality Scenarios/Scenario Sets Used In Software Requirements Elicitation

    National Research Council Canada - National Science Library

    Braun, Kimberly

    1997-01-01

    .... This thesis examines scenarios used in software requirements elicitation. Many different definitions, formats, and ideas exist on scenarios, but no thorough work has been done on what makes a good, quality scenario and scenario set...

  15. Life cycle energy use and GHG emission assessment of coal-based SNG and power cogeneration technology in China

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Li, Sheng; Gao, Lin; Jin, Hongguang

    2016-01-01

    Highlights: • Life cycle energy use and GHG emissions are assessed for SNG and power cogeneration. • A model based on a Chinese domestic database is developed for evaluation. • Cogeneration shows lower GHG emissions than coal-power pathway. • Cogeneration has lower life cycle energy use than supercritical coal-power pathway. • Cogeneration is a good option to implement China’s clean coal technologies. - Abstract: Life cycle energy use and GHG emissions are assessed for coal-based synthetic natural gas (SNG) and power cogeneration/polygenereation (PG) technology and its competitive alternatives. Four main SNG applications are considered, including electricity generation, steam production, SNG vehicle and battery electric vehicle (BEV). Analyses show that if SNG is produced from a single product plant, the lower limits of its life cycle energy use and GHG emissions can be comparable to the average levels of coal-power and coal-BEV pathways, but are still higher than supercritical and ultra supercritical (USC) coal-power and coal-BEV pathways. If SNG is coproduced from a PG plant, when it is used for power generation, steam production, and driving BEV car, the life cycle energy uses for PG based pathways are typically lower than supercritical coal-power pathways, but are still 1.6–2.4% higher than USC coal-power pathways, and the average life cycle GHG emissions are lower than those of all coal-power pathways including USC units. If SNG is used to drive vehicle car, the life cycle energy use and GHG emissions of PG-SNGV-power pathway are both much higher than all combined coal-BEV and coal-power pathways, due to much higher energy consumption in a SNG driven car than in a BEV car. The coal-based SNG and power cogeneration technology shows comparable or better energy and environmental performances when compared to other coal-based alternatives, and is a good option to implement China’s clean coal technologies.

  16. Program Analysis Scenarios in Rascal

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    M.A. Hills (Mark); P. Klint (Paul); J.J. Vinju (Jurgen); F. Durán

    2012-01-01

    textabstractRascal is a meta programming language focused on the implementation of domain-specific languages and on the rapid construction of tools for software analysis and software transformation. In this paper we focus on the use of Rascal for software analysis. We illustrate a range of scenarios

  17. Scenario Based Network Infrastructure Planning

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Knudsen, Thomas Phillip; Pedersen, Jens Myrup; Madsen, Ole Brun

    2005-01-01

    The paper presents a method for IT infrastructure planning that take into account very long term developments in usages. The method creates a scenario for a final, time independent stage in the planning process. The method abstracts relevant modelling factors from available information...

  18. Multiscale scenarios for nature futures

    CSIR Research Space (South Africa)

    Rosa, IMD

    2017-09-01

    Full Text Available & Evolution, vol. 1: 1416-1419 Multiscale scenarios for nature futures Rosa IMD Pereira HM Ferrier S Alkemade R Acosta LA Akcakaya HR den Belder E Fazel AM Fujimori S Sitas NE ABSTRACT: Targets for human development are increasingly...

  19. Shell energy scenarios to 2050

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    2008-01-01

    Shell developed two scenarios that describe alternative ways the energy future may develop. In the first scenario (Scramble) policymakers pay little attention to more efficient energy use until supplies are tight. Likewise, greenhouse gas emissions are not seriously addressed until there are major climate shocks. In the second scenario (Blueprints) growing local actions begin to address the challenges of economic development, energy security and environmental pollution. A price is applied to a critical mass of emissions giving a huge stimulus to the development of clean energy technologies, such as carbon dioxide capture and storage, and energy efficiency measures. The result is far lower carbon dioxide emissions. Both these scenarios can help Shell to test their strategy against a range of possible developments over the long-term. However, according to Shell, the Blueprints' outcomes offer the best hope for a sustainable future, whether or not they arise exactly in the way described. However, with the right combination of policy, technology and commitment from governments, industry and society globally, Shell believes it can be realized. But achieving the targets will not be easy, and time is short. Clear thinking, huge investment, and effective leadership are required

  20. A wedge strategy for mitigation of urban warming in future climate scenarios

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    L. Zhao

    2017-07-01

    Full Text Available Heat stress is one of the most severe climate threats to human society in a future warmer world. The situation is further exacerbated in urban areas by urban heat islands (UHIs. Because the majority of world's population is projected to live in cities, there is a pressing need to find effective solutions for the heat stress problem. We use a climate model to investigate the effectiveness of various urban heat mitigation strategies: cool roofs, street vegetation, green roofs, and reflective pavement. Our results show that by adopting highly reflective roofs, almost all the cities in the United States and southern Canada are transformed into white oases – cold islands caused by cool roofs at midday, with an average oasis effect of −3.4 K in the summer for the period 2071–2100, which offsets approximately 80 % of the greenhouse gas (GHG warming projected for the same period under the RCP4.5 scenario. A UHI mitigation wedge consisting of cool roofs, street vegetation, and reflective pavement has the potential to eliminate the daytime UHI plus the GHG warming.

  1. A wedge strategy for mitigation of urban warming in future climate scenarios

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zhao, Lei; Lee, Xuhui; Schultz, Natalie M.

    2017-07-01

    Heat stress is one of the most severe climate threats to human society in a future warmer world. The situation is further exacerbated in urban areas by urban heat islands (UHIs). Because the majority of world's population is projected to live in cities, there is a pressing need to find effective solutions for the heat stress problem. We use a climate model to investigate the effectiveness of various urban heat mitigation strategies: cool roofs, street vegetation, green roofs, and reflective pavement. Our results show that by adopting highly reflective roofs, almost all the cities in the United States and southern Canada are transformed into white oases - cold islands caused by cool roofs at midday, with an average oasis effect of -3.4 K in the summer for the period 2071-2100, which offsets approximately 80 % of the greenhouse gas (GHG) warming projected for the same period under the RCP4.5 scenario. A UHI mitigation wedge consisting of cool roofs, street vegetation, and reflective pavement has the potential to eliminate the daytime UHI plus the GHG warming.

  2. Energy Innovations-GHG Emissions Nexus: Fresh Empirical Evidence from OECD Countries

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Álvarez-Herránz, Agustín; Balsalobre, Daniel; Cantos, José María; Shahbaz, Muhammad

    2017-01-01

    This study explores the impact of improvements in energy research development (ERD) on greenhouse gas (GHG) emissions using environmental Kuznets curve hypothesis for 28 OECD countries over the period of 1990–2014. In doing so, we have employed a panel data where public budget in energy research development and demonstration (ERD&D) has transformed into a finite inverted V-lag distribution model developed by De Leeuw (1962). This model considers that energy innovation accumulates in time and presents empirical evidence, how energy innovation contributes in reducing energy intensity and environmental pollution as well. Our results indicate that energy innovation measures require lapses of time to reach their full effect i.e. innovation applied to measures for environmental correction does not reach its whole effect immediately, requiring instead a certain amount of time to pass. Innovation policies have recommended for improving environmental quality. - Highlights: • This study analyses the impact of public budget in energy RD&D for 28 OECD countries on environmental quality. • Energy innovation contributes positively to reduce greenhouse gas emissions. • Advances in energy technology seem to be the key of improved environmental quality.

  3. What rules GHG-(greenhouse gas)-fluxes in a prealpine bog - management or watertable?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Förster, Christoph; Drösler, Matthias

    2010-05-01

    Being an important sink of carbon, the small stripe of bogs in the foreland of the Alps plays an important role for the carbon balance of Germany. A big part was drained for peat-use and to get agricultural land in the last centuries. Restoration of these degraded bogs can help to rebuild this function, whereas the watertable is an important co-factor for the amount of mitigation of greenhouse gases (CO2, CH4 and N2O). To estimate GHG-balances gas-flux measurements, using the chamber method developed by Drösler (2005) were done in 2007 and 2008 on a degraded bog-meadow, which was partly rewetted in 1993 and which is still managed in large areas. This mosaic of restored, drained and managed areas showed big differences in their carbon-balances from a high source (~ 500 g CO2-C m-2 a-1) to a moderate sink (~ -200 g CO2-C m-2 a-1). Where the management was stopped in 1993, some Sphagnum-communities developed which helped to turn these areas from moderate sources (47 g CO2-C m-2 a-1) or sinks (-58 g CO2-C m-2 a-1) to permanent sinks with uptakes between (-150 and -250 g CO2-C m-2 a-1). Key words: bog, carbon-balance, greenhouse gases, restoration, watertable

  4. Advancing US GHG Inventory by Incorporating Survey Data using Machine-Learning Techniques

    Science.gov (United States)

    Alsaker, C.; Ogle, S. M.; Breidt, J.

    2017-12-01

    Crop management data are used in the National Greenhouse Gas Inventory that is compiled annually and reported to the United Nations Framework Convention on Climate Change. Emissions for carbon stock change and N2O emissions for US agricultural soils are estimated using the USDA National Resources Inventory (NRI). NRI provides basic information on land use and cropping histories, but it does not provide much detail on other management practices. In contrast, the Conservation Effects Assessment Project (CEAP) survey collects detailed crop management data that could be used in the GHG Inventory. The survey data were collected from NRI survey locations that are a subset of the NRI every 10 years. Therefore, imputation of the CEAP are needed to represent the management practices across all NRI survey locations both spatially and temporally. Predictive mean matching and an artificial neural network methods have been applied to develop imputation model under a multiple imputation framework. Temporal imputation involves adjusting the imputation model using state-level USDA Agricultural Resource Management Survey data. Distributional and predictive accuracy is assessed for the imputed data, providing not only management data needed for the inventory but also rigorous estimates of uncertainty.

  5. Capturing and Processing Soil GHG Fluxes Using the LI-COR LI-8100A

    Science.gov (United States)

    Xu, Liukang; McDermitt, Dayle; Hupp, Jason; Johnson, Mark; Madsen, Rod

    2015-04-01

    The LI-COR LI-8100A Automated Soil CO2 Flux System is designed to measure soil CO2 efflux using automated chambers and a non-steady state measurement protocol. While CO2 is an important gas in many contexts, it is not the only gas of interest for many research applications. With some simple plumbing modifications, many third party analyzers capable of measuring other trace gases, e.g. N2O, CH4, or 13CO2 etc., can be interfaced with the LI-8100A System, and LI-COR's data processing software (SoilFluxPro™) can be used to compute fluxes for these additional gases. In this paper we describe considerations for selecting an appropriate third party analyzer to interface with the system, how to integrate data into the system, and the procedure used to compute fluxes of additional gases in SoilFluxPro™. A case study is presented to demonstrate methane flux measurements using an Ultra-Portable Greenhouse Gas Analyzer (Ultra-Portable GGA, model 915-0011), manufactured by Los Gatos Research and integrated into the LI-8100A System. Labor