WorldWideScience

Sample records for scedosporium

  1. Identification of Pseudallescheria and Scedosporium species by three molecular methods

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Lu, Q.; Gerrits van den Ende, A.H.G.; Bakkers, J.M.J.E.; Sun, J.; Lackner, M.; Najafzadeh, M.J.; Melchers, W.J.G.; Li, R.Y.; de Hoog, G.S.

    2011-01-01

    The major clinically relevant species in Scedosporium (teleomorph Pseudallescheria) are Pseudallescheria boydii, Scedosporium aurantiacum, Scedosporium apiospermum, and Scedosporium prolificans, while Pseudallescheria minutispora, Petriellopsis desertorum, and Scedosporium dehoogii are exceptional

  2. The 'species complex' issue in clinically relevant fungi : A case study in Scedosporium apiospermum

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Chen, Min; Zeng, Jingsi; De Hoog, G Sybren; Stielow, Benjamin; Gerrits Van Den Ende, A H G; Liao, Wanqing; Lackner, Michaela

    The genus Scedosporium currently comprises six species, Scedosporium apiospermum, Scedosporium boydii, Pseudallescheria angusta, Scedosporium minutisporum, Scedosporium dehoogii, and Scedosporium aurantiacum, most of which can be distinguished with the primary fungal DNA barcode, the ITS1/2 region

  3. Identification of Pseudallescheria and Scedosporium Species by Three Molecular Methods▿

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lu, Qiaoyun; Gerrits van den Ende, A. H. G.; Bakkers, J. M. J. E.; Sun, Jiufeng; Lackner, M.; Najafzadeh, M. J.; Melchers, W. J. G.; Li, Ruoyu; de Hoog, G. S.

    2011-01-01

    The major clinically relevant species in Scedosporium (teleomorph Pseudallescheria) are Pseudallescheria boydii, Scedosporium aurantiacum, Scedosporium apiospermum, and Scedosporium prolificans, while Pseudallescheria minutispora, Petriellopsis desertorum, and Scedosporium dehoogii are exceptional agents of disease. Three molecular methods targeting the partial β-tubulin gene were developed and evaluated to identify six closely related species of the S. apiospermum complex using quantitative real-time PCR (qPCR), PCR-based reverse line blot (PCR-RLB), and loop-mediated isothermal amplification (LAMP). qPCR was not specific enough for the identification of all species but had the highest sensitivity. The PCR-RLB assay was efficient for the identification of five species. LAMP distinguished all six species unambiguously. The analytical sensitivities of qPCR, PCR-RLB, and LAMP combined with MagNAPure, CTAB (cetyltrimethylammonium bromide), and FTA filter (Whatman) extraction were 50, 5 × 103, and 5 × 102 cells/μl, respectively. When LAMP was combined with a simplified DNA extraction method using an FTA filter, identification to the species level was achieved within 2 h, including DNA extraction. The FTA-LAMP assay is therefore recommended as a cost-effective, simple, and rapid method for the identification of Scedosporium species. PMID:21177887

  4. Biofilm Formation by Pseudallescheria/Scedosporium Species: A Comparative Study

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Rodrigo Rollin-Pinheiro

    2017-08-01

    Full Text Available Pseudallescheria/Scedosporium species are medically important fungi that are present in soil and human impacted areas and capable of causing a wide spectrum of diseases in humans. Although little is known about their pathogenesis, their growth process and infection routes are very similar to those of Aspergillus species, which grow as biofilms in invasive infections. All nine strains tested here displayed the ability to grow as biofilms in vitro and to produce a dense network of interconnected hyphae on both polystyrene and the surfaces of central venous catheters, but with different characteristics. Scedosporium boydii and S. aurantiacum clinical isolates were able to form biofilms faster than the corresponding environmental strains, as evidenced in kinetic assays for S. boydii and CLSM for S. aurantiacum. Biofilms formed by Pseudallescheria/Scedosporium species had significantly higher resistance to the class of antifungal azole than was observed in planktonic cells, indicating a protective role for this structure. In addition, the clinical S. aurantiacum isolate that formed the most robust biofilms was also more virulent in a larvae Galleria mellonella infection model, suggesting that the ability to form biofilms enhances virulence in Pseudallescheria/Scedosporium species.

  5. Scedosporium boydii CatA1 and SODC recombinant proteins, new tools for serodiagnosis of Scedosporium infection of patients with cystic fibrosis.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mina, Sara; Staerck, Cindy; Marot, Agnès; Godon, Charlotte; Calenda, Alphonse; Bouchara, Jean-Philippe; Fleury, Maxime J J

    2017-12-01

    Scedosporium species rank the second among the filamentous fungi colonizing the airways of patients with cystic fibrosis (CF), after Aspergillus fumigatus. In CF, these fungi may cause various respiratory infections similar to those caused by A. fumigatus, including bronchitis and allergic broncho-pulmonary mycoses. Diagnosis of these infections relies on the detection of serum antibodies using crude antigenic extracts. However, many components of these extracts are common to Scedosporium and Aspergillus species, leading to cross-reactions. Here, 5 recombinant proteins from S. apiospermum or S. boydii were produced, and their value in serodiagnosis of Scedosporium infections was investigated by enzyme-linked immunosorbent assay. Two of them, corresponding to the Scedosporium catalase A1 or cytosolic Cu,Zn-superoxyde dismutase, allowed the detection of Scedosporium infection, and the differentiation with an Aspergillus infection. These recombinant proteins therefore may serve as a basis for the development of a standardized serological test. Copyright © 2017 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  6. Micetoma pulmonar por Scedosporium sp, reporte de dos casos

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    José G. Somocurcio

    2009-07-01

    Full Text Available Se reporta los dos primeros casos de micetoma pulmonar por Scedosporium sp, en el Perú, tratados quirúrgicamente en el Hospital Nacional Hipólito Unanue. Se practicó resección pulmonar debido a micetoma pulmonar de donde se tomó muestras que fueron enviadas a microbiología y anatomía patológica para cultivo y estudio histopatológico. Se identificó el moho Scedosporium sp en dos pacientes con secuelas cavitarias por tuberculosis, quienes presentaron tos y hemoptisis de dos meses y tres años de evolución, respectivamente. Radiológicamente las cavidades estaban ocupadas por una "bola fúngica". La histopatología indicó presencia de abundantes hifas, indistinguibles de las de Aspergillus sp, mientras que la inmunodifusión para Aspergillus fue negativa.

  7. [Invasive fungal disease due to Scedosporium, Fusarium and mucorales].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pemán, Javier; Salavert, Miguel

    2014-01-01

    The number of emerging organisms causing invasive fungal infections has increased in the last decades. These etiological agents include Scedosporium, Fusarium and mucorales. All of them can cause disseminated, virulent, and difficult-to treat infections in immunosuppressed patients, the most affected, due to their resistance to most available antifungal agents. Current trends in transplantation including the use of new immunosuppressive treatments, the common prescription of antifungal agents for prophylaxis, and new ecological niches could explain the emergence of these fungal pathogens. These pathogens can also affect immunocompetent individuals, especially after natural disasters (earthquakes, floods, tsunamis), combat wounds or near drowning. All the invasive infections caused by Scedosporium, Fusarium, and mucorales are potentially lethal and a favourable outcome is associated with rapid diagnosis by direct microscopic examination of the involved tissue, wide debridement of infected material, early use of antifungal agents including combination therapy, and an improvement in host defenses, especially neutropenia. Copyright © 2014. Published by Elsevier Espana.

  8. Scedosporium and Pseudallescheria low molecular weight metabolites revealed by database search

    Czech Academy of Sciences Publication Activity Database

    Krásný, Lukáš; Strohalm, Martin; Bouchara, J.-P.; Šulc, Miroslav; Lemr, Karel; Barreto-Bergter, E.; Havlíček, Vladimír

    2011-01-01

    Roč. 54, č. 3 (2011), s. 37-42 ISSN 0933-7407 R&D Projects: GA MŠk LC07017 Institutional research plan: CEZ:AV0Z50200510 Keywords : Scedosporium apiospermum * Scedosporium prolificans * Pseudallescheria boydii Subject RIV: CE - Biochemistry Impact factor: 2.247, year: 2011

  9. Effective Prolonged Therapy with Voriconazole in a Lung Transplant Recipient with Spondylodiscitis Induced by Scedosporium apiospermum

    OpenAIRE

    Luijk, B.; Ekkelenkamp, M. B.; De Jong, P. A.; Kwakkel-van Erp, J. M.; Grutters, J. C.; van Kessel, D. A.; van de Graaf, E. A.

    2011-01-01

    Scedosporium/Pseudallescheria species are frequently seen in cystic fibrosis patients. However, disseminated forms after lung transplantation in these patients are rarely seen, but often with poor outcome. In this case report we describe a lung transplant recipient with cystic fibrosis who developed a spondylodiscitis that was caused by Scedosporium apiospermu...

  10. Draft Genome Sequence of the Human-Pathogenic Fungus Scedosporium boydii

    OpenAIRE

    Duvaux, Ludovic; Shiller, Jason; Vandeputte, Patrick; Dug? de Bernonville, Thomas; Thornton, Christopher; Papon, Nicolas; Le Cam, Bruno; Bouchara, Jean-Philippe; Gastebois, Amandine

    2017-01-01

    ABSTRACT The opportunistic fungal pathogen Scedosporium boydii is the most common Scedosporium species in French patients with cystic fibrosis. Here we present the first genome report for S.?boydii, providing a resource which may enable the elucidation of the pathogenic mechanisms in this species.

  11. An elusive diagnosis: Scedosporium apiospermum infection after near-drowning

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Gopinath Malini

    2010-01-01

    Full Text Available A 51-year-old male was admitted in our institute following an episode of near-drowning. He later developed ventriculitis and cerebral ring-enhancing lesions. He died following a subarachnoid hemorrhage due to rupture of a mycotic aneurysm involving the right fetal posterior cerebral artery. Scedosporium apiospermum was isolated from the cerebrospinal fluid. Central nervous system invasion by S apiospermum may present insidiously in near-drowning patients and, therefore, requires a high index of suspicion. In cases with the characteristic cerebral ring-enhancing lesions and concomitant ventriculitis, treatment should be instituted while awaiting fungal culture. With this article we intend to alert neurologists, intensivists, and physicians to this near fatal infection, as early identification and prompt treatment with voriconazole may be life saving.

  12. Rhizomucor and Scedosporium Infection Post Hematopoietic Stem-Cell Transplant

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Dânia Sofia Marques

    2011-01-01

    Full Text Available Hematopoietic stem-cell transplant recipients are at increased risk of developing invasive fungal infections. This is a major cause of morbidity and mortality. We report a case of a 17-year-old male patient diagnosed with severe idiopathic acquired aplastic anemia who developed fungal pneumonitis due to Rhizomucor sp. and rhinoencephalitis due to Scedosporium apiospermum 6 and 8 months after undergoing allogeneic hematopoietic stem-cell transplant from an HLA-matched unrelated donor. Discussion highlights risk factors for invasive fungal infections (i.e., mucormycosis and scedosporiosis, its clinical features, and the factors that must be taken into account to successfully treat them (early diagnosis, correction of predisposing factors, aggressive surgical debridement, and antifungal and adjunctive therapies.

  13. Isothermal microcalorimetry for antifungal susceptibility testing of Mucorales, Fusarium spp., and Scedosporium spp.

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Furustrand Tafin, U.; Meis, J.F.G.M.; Trampuz, A.

    2012-01-01

    We evaluated isothermal microcalorimetry for real-time susceptibility testing of non-Aspergillus molds. MIC and minimal effective concentration (MEC) values of Mucorales (n = 4), Fusarium spp. (n = 4), and Scedosporium spp. (n = 4) were determined by microbroth dilution according to the Clinical

  14. Combination Antifungal Therapy in the Treatment of Scedosporium apiospermum Central Nervous System Infections

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Andrés F. Henao-Martínez

    2013-01-01

    Full Text Available Treatment of Scedosporium apiospermum central nervous system (CNS infection typically consists of an azole in combination with surgical debridement. This approach requires prolonged treatment and carries a high associated mortality. We present two cases of the successful treatment of S. apiospermum CNS infections with the combination of voriconazole and terbinafine.

  15. In vitro drug interaction modeling of combinations of azoles with terbinafine against clinical Scedosporium prolificans isolates.

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Meletiadis, J.; Mouton, J.W.; Meis, J.F.G.M.; Verweij, P.E.

    2003-01-01

    The in vitro interaction between terbinafine and the azoles voriconazole, miconazole, and itraconazole against five clinical Scedosporium prolificans isolates after 48 and 72 h of incubation was tested by a microdilution checkerboard (eight-by-twelve) technique. The antifungal effects of the drugs

  16. Refractory Scedosporium apiospermum Keratitis Successfully Treated with Combination of Amphotericin B and Voriconazole

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Mohd-Tahir Fadzillah

    2013-01-01

    Full Text Available Aim. To report a case of refractory fungal keratitis caused by Scedosporium apiospermum. Methods. Interventional case report. Results. A 47-year-old Malay housewife presented with left eye cornea ulcer as her first presentation of diabetes mellitus. There was no history of ocular trauma, contact lens used, or cornea foreign body. Scedosporium apiospermum was isolated from the cornea scrapping. Her cornea ulcer initially responded well to topical Amphotericin B within 3 days but subsequently worsened. Repeat cornea scrapping also yields Scedosporium apiospermum. This refractory keratitis was successfully treated with a combination of topical Amphotericin B and Voriconazole over 6 weeks. Conclusion. Scedosporium apiospermum keratitis is an opportunistic infection, which is difficult to treat despite tight control of diabetes mellitus and intensive antifungal treatment. The infection appeared to have very quick onset but needed long duration of treatment to completely heal. Surgical debridement always plays an important role as a therapeutic procedure as well as establishes the diagnosis through repeat scrapping.

  17. ESCMID and ECMM joint guidelines on diagnosis and management of hyalohyphomycosis: Fusarium spp., Scedosporium spp. and others

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Tortorano, A.M.; Richardson, M.; Roilides, E.; van Diepeningen, A.; Caira, M.; Munoz, P.; Johnson, E.; Meletiadis, J.; Pana, Z.D.; Lackner, M.; Verweij, P.; Freiberger, T.; Cornely, O.A.; Arikan-Akdagli, S.; Dannaoui, E.; Groll, A.H.; Lagrou, K.; Chakrabarti, A.; Lanternier, F.; Pagano, L.; Skiada, A.; Akova, M.; Arendrup, M.C.; Boekhout, T.; Chowdhary, A.; Cuenca-Estrella, M.; Guinea, J.; Guarro, J.; de Hoog, S.; Hope, W.; Kathuria, S.; Lortholary, S.; Meis, J.F.; Ullmann, A.J.; Petrikkos, G.; Lass-Flörl, C.

    2014-01-01

    Mycoses summarized in the hyalohyphomycosis group are heterogeneous, defined by the presence of hyaline (non-dematiaceous) hyphae. The number of organisms implicated in hyalohyphomycosis is increasing and the most clinically important species belong to the genera Fusarium, Scedosporium, Acremonium,

  18. New record of Scedosporium dehoogii from Chile: Phylogeny and susceptibility profiles to classic and novel putative antifungal agents.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Alvarez, Eduardo; Sanhueza, Camila

    Scedosporium species are considered emerging agents causing illness in immunocompromised patients. In Chile, only Scedosporium apiospermum, Scedosporium boydii and Lomentospora prolificans haven been reported previously. The study aimed to characterize genetically Scedosporium dehoogii strains from Chilean soil samples, and assessed the antifungal susceptibility profile to classic and novel putative antifungal molecules. In 2014, several samples were obtained during a survey of soil fungi in urban areas from Chile. Morphological and phylogenetic analyses of the internal transcribed spacer region (ITS), tubulin (TUB), and calmodulin (CAL) sequences were performed. In addition, the susceptibility profiles to classic antifungal and new putative antifungal molecules were determined. Four strains of Scedosporium dehoogii were isolated from soil samples. The methodology confirmed the species (reported here as a new record for Chile). Antifungal susceptibility testing demonstrates the low activity of terpenes (α-pinene and geraniol) against this species. Voriconazole (VRC), posaconazole (PSC), and the hydroxyquinolines (clioquinol, and 5,7-dibromo-8-hydroxyquinoline) showed the best antifungal activity. Our results demonstrate that Scedosporium dehoogii is present in soil samples from Chile. This study shows also that hydroxyquinolines have potential as putative antifungal molecules. Copyright © 2016 Asociación Española de Micología. Publicado por Elsevier España, S.L.U. All rights reserved.

  19. Environmental Screening for the Scedosporium apiospermum Species Complex in Public Parks in Bangkok, Thailand.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Natthanej Luplertlop

    Full Text Available The Scedosporium apiospermum species complex, comprising filamentous fungal species S. apiospermum sensu stricto, S. boydii, S. aurantiacum, S. dehoogii and S. minutispora, are important pathogens that cause a wide variety of infections. Although some species (S. boydii and S. apiospermum have been isolated from patients in Thailand, no environmental surveys of these fungi have been performed in Thailand or surrounding countries. In this study, we isolated and identified species of these fungi from 68 soil and 16 water samples randomly collected from 10 parks in Bangkok. After filtration and subsequent inoculation of samples on Scedo-Select III medium, colony morphological examinations and microscopic observations were performed. Scedosporium species were isolated from soil in 8 of the 10 parks, but were only detected in one water sample. Colony morphologies of isolates from 41 of 68 soil samples (60.29% and 1 of 15 water samples (6.67% were consistent with that of the S. apiospermum species complex. Each morphological type was selected for species identification based on DNA sequencing and phylogenetic analysis of the β-tubulin gene. Three species of the S. apiospermum species complex were identified: S. apiospermum (71 isolates, S. aurantiacum (6 isolates and S. dehoogii (5 isolates. In addition, 16 sequences could not be assigned to an exact Scedosporium species. According to our environmental survey, the S. apiospermum species complex is widespread in soil in Bangkok, Thailand.

  20. Bone and joint infections by Mucorales, Scedosporium, Fusarium and even rarer fungi.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Koehler, Philipp; Tacke, Daniela; Cornely, Oliver A

    2016-01-01

    Mucorales, Scedosporium and Fusarium species are rarely considered as cause for bone and joint infections. However, these moulds are emerging as important fungal pathogens in immunocompromised and immunocompetent patients. Typical pre-disposing host conditions are immunosuppression and diabetes. Most common causative pathogens are Mucorales followed by Scedosporium and Fusarium. Acremonium and Phialemonium species are rare but some case reports exist. MRI is the gold standard imaging technique. Tissue specimens obtained as aspirates, imaging guided biopsy or open surgery need mycological and histopathological work-up for genus and species identification. Multimodal treatment strategies combine surgical debridement, drainage of joints or abscesses, removal of infected prosthetic joints and systemic antifungals. The treatment of mucormycosis is polyene based and may be combined with either posaconazole or - in rare cases - caspofungin. As Scedosporium species are intrinsically resistant to polyenes and azoles show absence of in vitro activity, voriconazole plus synergistic treatment regimens become the therapeutic standard. In fusariosis, fungal susceptibility is virtually impossible to predict, so that combination treatment of voriconazole and lipid-based amphotericin B should be the first-line strategy while susceptibility results are pending. In the absence of randomized controlled trials, infections due to the above moulds should be registered, e.g. in the registries of the European Confederation of Medical Mycology (ECMM).

  1. Scedosporium aurantiacum brain abscess after near-drowning in a survivor of a tsunami in Japan.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Nakamura, Yutaka; Suzuki, Naomi; Nakajima, Yoshio; Utsumi, Yu; Murata, Okinori; Nagashima, Hiromi; Saito, Heisuke; Sasaki, Nobuhito; Fujimura, Itaru; Ogino, Yoshinobu; Kato, Kanako; Terayama, Yasuo; Miyamoto, Shinya; Yarita, Kyoko; Kamei, Katsuhiko; Nakadate, Toshihide; Endo, Shigeatsu; Shibuya, Kazutoshi; Yamauchi, Kohei

    2013-12-01

    Many victims of the tsunami that occurred following the Great East Japan Earthquake on March 11, 2011 developed systemic disorders owing to aspiration pneumonia. Herein, we report a case of tsunami lung wherein Scedosporium aurantiacum was detected in the respiratory tract. A magnetic resonance image of the patient's head confirmed multiple brain abscesses and lateral right ventricle enlargement. In this case report, we describe a potential refractory multidrug-resistant infection following a tsunami disaster. Copyright © 2013 The Japanese Respiratory Society. Published by Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  2. A masquerading subcutaneous swelling caused by Scedosporium apiospermum: An emerging pathogen

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    A Malini

    2015-01-01

    Full Text Available Scedosporiasis is an emerging infection in immunocompromised individuals. We report a case of multiple subcutaneous swellings in a diabetic ketoacidotic patient, which was clinically diagnosed as lipoma. On fine-needle aspiration cytology, pus was aspirated, which showed septate branching hyphal elements. The pus culture on Sabouraud′s dextrose agar yielded Scedosporium apiospermum, which was identified based on its macroscopic and microscopic features. There are very few reports of scedosporiasis from India. The diagnosis of scedosporiasis is difficult and correct etiological diagnosis can help in better management of the patient.

  3. In Vitro Interaction of Terbinafine with Itraconazole against Clinical Isolates of Scedosporium prolificans

    Science.gov (United States)

    Meletiadis, Joseph; Mouton, Johan W.; Rodriguez-Tudela, Juan L.; Meis, Jacques F. G. M.; Verweij, Paul E.

    2000-01-01

    In order to develop new approaches for the chemotherapy of invasive infections caused by Scedosporium prolificans, the in vitro interaction between itraconazole and terbinafine against 20 clinical isolates was studied using a checkerboard microdilution method. Itraconazole and terbinafine alone were inactive against most isolates, but the combination was synergistic against 95 and 85% of isolates after 48 and 72 h of incubation, respectively. Antagonism was not observed. The MICs obtained with the terbinafine-itraconazole combination were within levels that can be achieved in plasma. PMID:10639389

  4. Gene Disruption in Scedosporium aurantiacum: Proof of Concept with the Disruption of SODC Gene Encoding a Cytosolic Cu,Zn-Superoxide Dismutase.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pateau, Victoire; Razafimandimby, Bienvenue; Vandeputte, Patrick; Thornton, Christopher R; Guillemette, Thomas; Bouchara, Jean-Philippe; Giraud, Sandrine

    2018-02-01

    Scedosporium species are opportunistic pathogens responsible for a large variety of infections in humans. An increasing occurrence was observed in patients with underlying conditions such as immunosuppression or cystic fibrosis. Indeed, the genus Scedosporium ranks the second among the filamentous fungi colonizing the respiratory tracts of the CF patients. To date, there is very scarce information on the pathogenic mechanisms, at least in part because of the limited genetic tools available. In the present study, we successfully developed an efficient transformation and targeted gene disruption approach on the species Scedosporium aurantiacum. The disruption cassette was constructed using double-joint PCR procedure, and resistance to hygromycin B as the selection marker. This proof of concept was performed on the functional gene SODC encoding the Cu,Zn-superoxide dismutase. Disruption of the SODC gene improved susceptibility of the fungus to oxidative stress. This technical advance should open new research areas and help to better understand the biology of Scedosporium species.

  5. Isothermal microcalorimetry for antifungal susceptibility testing of Mucorales, Fusarium spp., and Scedosporium spp.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Furustrand Tafin, Ulrika; Meis, Jacques F; Trampuz, Andrej

    2012-08-01

    We evaluated isothermal microcalorimetry for real-time susceptibility testing of non-Aspergillus molds. MIC and minimal effective concentration (MEC) values of Mucorales (n = 4), Fusarium spp. (n = 4), and Scedosporium spp. (n = 4) were determined by microbroth dilution according to the Clinical Laboratory Standard Institute M38-A2 guidelines. Heat production of molds was measured at 37 °C in Sabouraud dextrose broth inoculated with 2.5 × 10(4) spores/mL in the presence of amphotericin B, voriconazole, posaconazole, caspofungin, and anidulafungin. As determined by microcalorimetry, amphotericin B was the most active agent against Mucorales (MHIC 0.06-0.125 μg/mL) and Fusarium spp. (MHIC 1-4 μg/mL), whereas voriconazole was the most active agent against Scedosporium spp. (MHIC 0.25 to 8 μg/mL). The percentage of agreement (within one 2-fold dilution) between the MHIC and MIC (or MEC) was 67%, 92%, 75%, and 83% for amphotericin B, voriconazole, posaconazole, and caspofungin, respectively. Microcalorimetry provides additional information on timing of antifungal activity, enabling further investigation of drug-mold and drug-drug interaction, and optimization of antifungal treatment. Copyright © 2012 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  6. Monoclonal antibodies against peptidorhamnomannans of Scedosporium apiospermum enhance the pathogenicity of the fungus.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Livia C L Lopes

    2010-10-01

    Full Text Available Scedosporium apiospermum is part of the Pseudallescheria-Scedosporium complex. Peptidorhamnomannans (PRMs are cell wall glycopeptides present in some fungi, and their structures have been characterized in S. apiospermum, S. prolificans and Sporothrix schenckii. Prior work shows that PRMs can interact with host cells and that the glycopeptides are antigenic. In the present study, three monoclonal antibodies (mAbs, IgG1 to S. apiospermum derived PRM were generated and their effects on S. apiospermum were examined in vitro and in vivo. The mAbs recognized a carbohydrate epitope on PRM. In culture, addition of the PRM mAbs increased S. apiospermum conidia germination and reduced conidial phagocytosis by J774.16 macrophages. In a murine infection model, mice treated with antibodies to PRM died prior to control animals. Thus, PRM is involved in morphogenesis and the binding of this glycopeptide by mAbs enhanced the virulence of the fungus. Further insights into the effects of these glycopeptides on the pathobiology of S. apiospermum may lead to new avenues for preventing and treating scedosporiosis.

  7. Performance of Matrix-Assisted Laser Desorption Ionization−Time of Flight Mass Spectrometry for Identification of Aspergillus, Scedosporium, and Fusarium spp. in the Australian Clinical Setting

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sleiman, Sue; Halliday, Catriona L.; Chapman, Belinda; Brown, Mitchell; Nitschke, Joanne; Lau, Anna F.

    2016-01-01

    We developed an Australian database for the identification of Aspergillus, Scedosporium, and Fusarium species (n = 28) by matrix-assisted laser desorption ionization−time of flight mass spectrometry (MALDI-TOF MS). In a challenge against 117 isolates, species identification significantly improved when the in-house-built database was combined with the Bruker Filamentous Fungi Library compared with that for the Bruker library alone (Aspergillus, 93% versus 69%; Fusarium, 84% versus 42%; and Scedosporium, 94% versus 18%, respectively). PMID:27252460

  8. Genetic variation analysis and relationships among environmental strains of Scedosporium apiospermum sensu stricto in Bangkok, Thailand.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Thanwa Wongsuk

    Full Text Available The Scedosporium apiospermum species complex is an emerging filamentous fungi that has been isolated from environment. It can cause a wide range of infections in both immunocompetent and immunocompromised individuals. We aimed to study the genetic variation and relationships between 48 strains of S. apiospermum sensu stricto isolated from soil in Bangkok, Thailand. For PCR, sequencing and phylogenetic analysis, we used the following genes: actin; calmodulin exons 3 and 4; the second largest subunit of the RNA polymerase II; ß-tubulin exon 2-4; manganese superoxide dismutase; internal transcribed spacer; transcription elongation factor 1α; and beta-tubulin exons 5 and 6. The present study is the first phylogenetic analysis of relationships among S. apiospermum sensu stricto in Thailand and South-east Asia. This result provides useful information for future epidemiological study and may be correlated to clinical manifestation.

  9. Genomic Organization and Expression of Iron Metabolism Genes in the Emerging Pathogenic Mold Scedosporium apiospermum

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Yohann Le Govic

    2018-04-01

    Full Text Available The ubiquitous mold Scedosporium apiospermum is increasingly recognized as an emerging pathogen, especially among patients with underlying disorders such as immunodeficiency or cystic fibrosis (CF. Indeed, it ranks the second among the filamentous fungi colonizing the respiratory tract of CF patients. However, our knowledge about virulence factors of this fungus is still limited. The role of iron-uptake systems may be critical for establishment of Scedosporium infections, notably in the iron-rich environment of the CF lung. Two main strategies are employed by fungi to efficiently acquire iron from their host or from their ecological niche: siderophore production and reductive iron assimilation (RIA systems. The aim of this study was to assess the existence of orthologous genes involved in iron metabolism in the recently sequenced genome of S. apiospermum. At first, a tBLASTn analysis using A. fumigatus iron-related proteins as query revealed orthologs of almost all relevant loci in the S. apiospermum genome. Whereas the genes putatively involved in RIA were randomly distributed, siderophore biosynthesis and transport genes were organized in two clusters, each containing a non-ribosomal peptide synthetase (NRPS whose orthologs in A. fumigatus have been described to catalyze hydroxamate siderophore synthesis. Nevertheless, comparative genomic analysis of siderophore-related clusters showed greater similarity between S. apiospermum and phylogenetically close molds than with Aspergillus species. The expression level of these genes was then evaluated by exposing conidia to iron starvation and iron excess. The expression of several orthologs of A. fumigatus genes involved in siderophore-based iron uptake or RIA was significantly induced during iron starvation, and conversely repressed in iron excess conditions. Altogether, these results indicate that S. apiospermum possesses the genetic information required for efficient and competitive iron uptake

  10. Recurrent Scedosporium apiospermum mycetoma successfully treated by surgical excision and terbinafine treatment: a case report and review of the literature.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tóth, Eszter J; Nagy, Géza R; Homa, Mónika; Ábrók, Marianna; Kiss, Ildikó É; Nagy, Gábor; Bata-Csörgő, Zsuzsanna; Kemény, Lajos; Urbán, Edit; Vágvölgyi, Csaba; Papp, Tamás

    2017-04-14

    Scedosporium apiospermum is an emerging opportunistic filamentous fungus, which is notorious for its high levels of antifungal-resistance. It is able to cause localized cutaneous or subcutaneous infections in both immunocompromised and immunocompetent persons, pulmonary infections in patients with predisposing pulmonary diseases and invasive mycoses in immunocompromised patients. Subcutaneous infections caused by this fungus frequently show chronic mycetomatous manifestation. We report the case of a 70-year-old immunocompromised man, who developed a fungal mycetomatous infection on his right leg. There was no history of trauma; the aetiological agent was identified by microscopic examination and ITS sequencing. This is the second reported case of S. apiospermum subcutaneous infections in Hungary, which was successfully treated by surgical excision and terbinafine treatment. After 7 months, the patient remained asymptomatic. Considering the antifungal susceptibility and increasing incidence of the fungus, Scedosporium related subcutaneous infections reported in the past quarter of century in European countries were also reviewed. Corticosteroid treatment represents a serious risk factor of S. apiospermum infections, especially if the patient get in touch with manure-enriched or polluted soil or water. Such infections have emerged several times in European countries in the past decades. The presented data suggest that besides the commonly applied voriconazole, terbinafine may be an alternative for the therapy of mycetomatous Scedosporium infections.

  11. Scedosporium apiospermum brain abscesses in a patient after near-drowning – a case report with 10-year follow-up and a review of the literature

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Sandra C. Signore

    2017-09-01

    Full Text Available Scedosporium apiospermum is known to be a fungal pathogen affecting immunocompromised as well as non-immunodeficient patients. Although this fungus is found rarely, an infection can lead to severe and even fatal disease. Here, we describe the case of a 41-year-old female who developed multiple Scedosporium apiospermum brain abscesses after near-drowning with aspiration of contaminated mud and water. She showed various neurological symptoms. The patient recovered after removal of abscesses in combination with long-term antifungal treatment.

  12. Performance of Matrix-Assisted Laser Desorption Ionization-Time of Flight Mass Spectrometry for Identification of Aspergillus, Scedosporium, and Fusarium spp. in the Australian Clinical Setting.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sleiman, Sue; Halliday, Catriona L; Chapman, Belinda; Brown, Mitchell; Nitschke, Joanne; Lau, Anna F; Chen, Sharon C-A

    2016-08-01

    We developed an Australian database for the identification of Aspergillus, Scedosporium, and Fusarium species (n = 28) by matrix-assisted laser desorption ionization-time of flight mass spectrometry (MALDI-TOF MS). In a challenge against 117 isolates, species identification significantly improved when the in-house-built database was combined with the Bruker Filamentous Fungi Library compared with that for the Bruker library alone (Aspergillus, 93% versus 69%; Fusarium, 84% versus 42%; and Scedosporium, 94% versus 18%, respectively). Copyright © 2016, American Society for Microbiology. All Rights Reserved.

  13. Fungal keratitis secondary to Scedosporium apiospermum infection and successful treatment with surgical and medical intervention.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kepez Yildiz, Burcin; Hasanreisoglu, Murat; Aktas, Zeynep; Aksu, Gulsah; Kocak, Burcak Comert; Akata, Fikret

    2014-04-01

    To report a rare case of severe fungal keratitis caused by Scedosporium apiospermum, which was treated with a penetrating tectonic keratoplasty and aggressive medical treatment. A 62-year-old woman with a history of soil contamination of the right eye while planting vegetables presented with a severe corneal abscess and ocular pain. The patient received medical treatment and underwent tectonic keratoplasty. Both corneal scrapings and the corneal button were evaluated microscopically. The samples were sent for aerobic and anaerobic bacterial and fungal cultures. Microbiological examinations showed S. apiospermum. The isolate was sensitive to amphoterycine B, caspofungin, voriconazole, and resistant to fluconazole. No clinical improvement was achieved with topical voriconazole, vancomycin, ceftazidime, and systemic voriconazole. A penetrating tectonic keratoplasty and lensectomy with continuation of anti-fungal therapy achieved satisfactory results. A fungal etiology should be suspected in a progressive and untreatable corneal abscess. Microbiological investigation is very important in early diagnosis. Despite early diagnosis and aggressive treatment, in selected cases removing the infected tissue surgically is vital in preserving the ocular globe and vision.

  14. ESCMID and ECMM joint guidelines on diagnosis and management of hyalohyphomycosis: Fusarium spp., Scedosporium spp. and others.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tortorano, A M; Richardson, M; Roilides, E; van Diepeningen, A; Caira, M; Munoz, P; Johnson, E; Meletiadis, J; Pana, Z-D; Lackner, M; Verweij, P; Freiberger, T; Cornely, O A; Arikan-Akdagli, S; Dannaoui, E; Groll, A H; Lagrou, K; Chakrabarti, A; Lanternier, F; Pagano, L; Skiada, A; Akova, M; Arendrup, M C; Boekhout, T; Chowdhary, A; Cuenca-Estrella, M; Guinea, J; Guarro, J; de Hoog, S; Hope, W; Kathuria, S; Lortholary, O; Meis, J F; Ullmann, A J; Petrikkos, G; Lass-Flörl, C

    2014-04-01

    Mycoses summarized in the hyalohyphomycosis group are heterogeneous, defined by the presence of hyaline (non-dematiaceous) hyphae. The number of organisms implicated in hyalohyphomycosis is increasing and the most clinically important species belong to the genera Fusarium, Scedosporium, Acremonium, Scopulariopsis, Purpureocillium and Paecilomyces. Severely immunocompromised patients are particularly vulnerable to infection, and clinical manifestations range from colonization to chronic localized lesions to acute invasive and/or disseminated diseases. Diagnosis usually requires isolation and identification of the infecting pathogen. A poor prognosis is associated with fusariosis and early therapy of localized disease is important to prevent progression to a more aggressive or disseminated infection. Therapy should include voriconazole and surgical debridement where possible or posaconazole as salvage treatment. Voriconazole represents the first-line treatment of infections due to members of the genus Scedosporium. For Acremonium spp., Scopulariopsis spp., Purpureocillium spp. and Paecilomyces spp. the optimal antifungal treatment has not been established. Management usually consists of surgery and antifungal treatment, depending on the clinical presentation. © 2014 The Authors Clinical Microbiology and Infection © 2014 European Society of Clinical Microbiology and Infectious Diseases.

  15. Conidial germination in Scedosporium apiospermum, S. aurantiacum, S. minutisporum and Lomentospora prolificans: influence of growth conditions and antifungal susceptibility profiles

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Thaís Pereira de Mello

    2016-01-01

    Full Text Available In the present study, we have investigated some growth conditions capable of inducing the conidial germination in Scedosporium apiospermum, S. aurantiacum, S. minutisporum and Lomentospora prolificans. Germination in Sabouraud medium (pH 7.0, 37ºC, 5% CO2 showed to be a typically time-dependent event, reaching ~75% in S. minutisporum and > 90% in S. apiospermum, S. aurantiacum and L. prolificans after 4 h. Similar germination rate was observed when conidia were incubated under different media and pHs. Contrarily, temperature and CO2 tension modulated the germination. The isotropic conidial growth (swelling and germ tube-like projection were evidenced by microscopy and cytometry. Morphometric parameters augmented in a time-dependent fashion, evidencing changes in size and granularity of fungal cells compared with dormant 0 h conidia. In parallel, a clear increase in the mitochondrial activity was measured during the transformation of conidia-into-germinated conidia. Susceptibility profiles to itraconazole, fluconazole, voriconazole, amphotericin B and caspofungin varied regarding each morphotype and each fungal species. Overall, the minimal inhibitory concentrations for hyphae were higher than conidia and germinated conidia, except for caspofungin. Collectively, our study add new data about the conidia-into-hyphae transformation in Scedosporium and Lomentospora species, which is a relevant biological process of these molds directly connected to their antifungal resistance and pathogenicity mechanisms.

  16. New Fks hot spot for acquired echinocandin resistance in Saccharomyces cerevisiae and its contribution to intrinsic resistance of Scedosporium species.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Johnson, Michael E; Katiyar, Santosh K; Edlind, Thomas D

    2011-08-01

    Echinocandins represent a new antifungal group with potent activity against Candida species. These lipopeptides inhibit the synthesis of β-1,3-glucan, the major cell wall polysaccharide. Acquired resistance or reduced echinocandin susceptibility (RES) is rare and associated with mutations in two "hot spot" regions of Fks1 or Fks2, the probable β-1,3-glucan synthases. In contrast, many fungi demonstrate intrinsic RES for reasons that remain unclear. We are using Saccharomyces cerevisiae to understand the basis for RES by modeling echinocandin-Fks interaction. Previously characterized mutations confer cross-RES; we screened for mutations conferring differential RES, implying direct interaction of that Fks residue with a variable echinocandin side chain. One mutant (in an fks1Δ background) exhibited ≥16-fold micafungin and anidulafungin versus caspofungin RES. Sequencing identified a novel Fks2 mutation, W714L/Y715N. Equivalent W695L/Y696N and related W695L/F/C mutations in Fks1 generated by site-directed mutagenesis and the isolation of a W695L-equivalent mutation in Candida glabrata confirmed the role of the new "hot spot 3" in RES. Further mutagenesis expanded hot spot 3 to Fks1 residues 690 to 700, yielding phenotypes ranging from cross-RES to differential hypersusceptibility. Fks1 sequences from intrinsically RES Scedosporium species revealed W695F-equivalent substitutions; Fks1 hybrids expressing Scedosporium prolificans hot spot 3 confirmed that this substitution imparts RES.

  17. Proteomics as a Tool to Identify New Targets Against Aspergillus and Scedosporium in the Context of Cystic Fibrosis.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ramirez-Garcia, Andoni; Pellon, Aize; Buldain, Idoia; Antoran, Aitziber; Arbizu-Delgado, Aitana; Guruceaga, Xabier; Rementeria, Aitor; Hernando, Fernando L

    2018-02-01

    Cystic fibrosis (CF) is a genetic disorder that increases the risk of suffering microbial, including fungal, infections. In this paper, proteomics-based information was collated relating to secreted and cell wall proteins with potential medical applications from the most common filamentous fungi in CF, i.e., Aspergillus and Scedosporium/Lomentospora species. Among the Aspergillus fumigatus secreted allergens, β-1,3-endoglucanase, the alkaline protease 1 (Alp1/oryzin), Asp f 2, Asp f 13/15, chitinase, chitosanase, dipeptidyl-peptidase V (DppV), the metalloprotease Asp f 5, mitogillin/Asp f 1, and thioredoxin reductase receive a special mention. In addition, the antigens β-glucosidase 1, catalase, glucan endo-1,3-β-glucosidase EglC, β-1,3-glucanosyltransferases Gel1 and Gel2, and glutaminase A were also identified in secretomes of other Aspergillus species associated with CF: Aspergillus flavus, Aspergillus niger, Aspergillus nidulans, and Aspergillus terreus. Regarding cell wall proteins, cytochrome P450 and eEF-3 were proposed as diagnostic targets, and alkaline protease 2 (Alp2), Asp f 3 (putative peroxiredoxin pmp20), probable glycosidases Asp f 9/Crf1 and Crf2, GPI-anchored protein Ecm33, β-1,3-glucanosyltransferase Gel4, conidial hydrophobin Hyp1/RodA, and secreted aspartyl protease Pep2 as protective vaccines in A. fumigatus. On the other hand, for Scedosporium/Lomentospora species, the heat shock protein Hsp70 stands out as a relevant secreted and cell wall antigen. Additionally, the secreted aspartyl proteinase and an ortholog of Asp f 13, as well as the cell wall endo-1,3-β-D-glucosidase and 1,3-β-glucanosyl transferase, were also found to be significant proteins. In conclusion, proteins mentioned in this review may be promising candidates for developing innovative diagnostic and therapeutic tools for fungal infections in CF patients.

  18. New Fks Hot Spot for Acquired Echinocandin Resistance in Saccharomyces cerevisiae and Its Contribution to Intrinsic Resistance of Scedosporium Species▿

    Science.gov (United States)

    Johnson, Michael E.; Katiyar, Santosh K.; Edlind, Thomas D.

    2011-01-01

    Echinocandins represent a new antifungal group with potent activity against Candida species. These lipopeptides inhibit the synthesis of β-1,3-glucan, the major cell wall polysaccharide. Acquired resistance or reduced echinocandin susceptibility (RES) is rare and associated with mutations in two “hot spot” regions of Fks1 or Fks2, the probable β-1,3-glucan synthases. In contrast, many fungi demonstrate intrinsic RES for reasons that remain unclear. We are using Saccharomyces cerevisiae to understand the basis for RES by modeling echinocandin-Fks interaction. Previously characterized mutations confer cross-RES; we screened for mutations conferring differential RES, implying direct interaction of that Fks residue with a variable echinocandin side chain. One mutant (in an fks1Δ background) exhibited ≥16-fold micafungin and anidulafungin versus caspofungin RES. Sequencing identified a novel Fks2 mutation, W714L/Y715N. Equivalent W695L/Y696N and related W695L/F/C mutations in Fks1 generated by site-directed mutagenesis and the isolation of a W695L-equivalent mutation in Candida glabrata confirmed the role of the new “hot spot 3” in RES. Further mutagenesis expanded hot spot 3 to Fks1 residues 690 to 700, yielding phenotypes ranging from cross-RES to differential hypersusceptibility. Fks1 sequences from intrinsically RES Scedosporium species revealed W695F-equivalent substitutions; Fks1 hybrids expressing Scedosporium prolificans hot spot 3 confirmed that this substitution imparts RES. PMID:21576441

  19. Multiple Scedosporium apiospermum abscesses in a woman survivor of a tsunami in northeastern Japan: a case report

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Nakamura Yutaka

    2011-10-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Introduction Scedosporium apiospermum is increasingly recognized as a cause of localized and disseminated mycotic infections in near-drowning victims. Case presentation We report the case of a 59-year-old Japanese woman who was a survivor of a tsunami in northeastern Japan and who had lung and brain abscesses caused by S. apiospermum. Initially, an aspergillus infection was suspected, so she was treated with micafungin. However, computed tomography scans of her chest revealed lung abscesses, and magnetic resonance images demonstrated multiple abscesses in her brain. S. apiospermum was cultured from her bronchoalveolar lavage fluid, and antimycotic therapy with voriconazole was initiated. Since she developed an increase in the frequency of premature ventricular contractions, an adverse drug reaction to the voriconazole was suspected. She was started on a treatment of a combination of low-dose voriconazole and liposomal amphotericin B. After combination therapy, further computed tomography scans of the chest and magnetic resonance images of her brain showed a demarcation of abscesses. Conclusions Voriconazole appeared to have a successful record in treating scedosporiosis after a near drowning but, owing to several adverse effects, may possibly not be recommended. Thus, a combination treatment of low-dose voriconazole and liposomal amphotericin B may be a safe and effective treatment for an S. apiospermum infection. Even though a diagnosis of scedosporiosis may be difficult, a fast and correct etiological diagnosis could improve the patient's chance of recovery in any case.

  20. Purification and Characterization of a Mycelial Catalase from Scedosporium boydii, a Useful Tool for Specific Antibody Detection in Patients with Cystic Fibrosis

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mina, Sara; Cimon, Bernard; Larcher, Gérald; Bouchara, Jean-Philippe; Robert, Raymond

    2014-01-01

    Scedosporium boydii is an opportunistic filamentous fungus which may be responsible for a wide variety of infections in immunocompetent and immunocompromised individuals. This fungus belongs to the Scedosporium apiospermum species complex, which usually ranks second among the filamentous fungi colonizing the airways of patients with cystic fibrosis (CF) and may lead to allergic bronchopulmonary mycoses, sensitization, or respiratory infections. Upon microbial infection, host phagocytic cells release reactive oxygen species (ROS), such as hydrogen peroxide, as part of the antimicrobial response. Catalases are known to protect pathogens against ROS by detoxification of the hydrogen peroxide. Here, we investigated the catalase equipment of Scedosporium boydii, one of the major pathogenic species in the S. apiospermum species complex. Three catalases were identified, and the mycelial catalase A1 was purified to homogeneity by a three-step chromatographic process. This enzyme is a monofunctional tetrameric protein of 460 kDa, consisting of four 82-kDa glycosylated subunits. The potential usefulness of this enzyme in serodiagnosis of S. apiospermum infections was then investigated by an enzyme-linked immunosorbent assay (ELISA), using 64 serum samples from CF patients. Whatever the species involved in the S. apiospermum complex, sera from infected patients were clearly differentiated from sera from patients with an Aspergillus fumigatus infection or those from CF patients without clinical and biological signs of a fungal infection and without any fungus recovered from sputum samples. These results suggest that catalase A1 is a good candidate for the development of an immunoassay for serodiagnosis of infections caused by the S. apiospermum complex in patients with CF. PMID:25355796

  1. A Multifaceted Study of Scedosporium boydii Cell Wall Changes during Germination and Identification of GPI-Anchored Proteins

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ghamrawi, Sarah; Gastebois, Amandine; Zykwinska, Agata; Vandeputte, Patrick; Marot, Agnès; Mabilleau, Guillaume; Cuenot, Stéphane; Bouchara, Jean-Philippe

    2015-01-01

    Scedosporium boydii is a pathogenic filamentous fungus that causes a wide range of human infections, notably respiratory infections in patients with cystic fibrosis. The development of new therapeutic strategies targeting S. boydii necessitates a better understanding of the physiology of this fungus and the identification of new molecular targets. In this work, we studied the conidium-to-germ tube transition using a variety of techniques including scanning and transmission electron microscopy, atomic force microscopy, two-phase partitioning, microelectrophoresis and cationized ferritin labeling, chemical force spectroscopy, lectin labeling, and nanoLC-MS/MS for cell wall GPI-anchored protein analysis. We demonstrated that the cell wall undergoes structural changes with germination accompanied with a lower hydrophobicity, electrostatic charge and binding capacity to cationized ferritin. Changes during germination also included a higher accessibility of some cell wall polysaccharides to lectins and less CH3/CH3 interactions (hydrophobic adhesion forces mainly due to glycoproteins). We also extracted and identified 20 GPI-anchored proteins from the cell wall of S. boydii, among which one was detected only in the conidial wall extract and 12 only in the mycelial wall extract. The identified sequences belonged to protein families involved in virulence in other fungi like Gelp/Gasp, Crhp, Bglp/Bgtp families and a superoxide dismutase. These results highlighted the cell wall remodeling during germination in S. boydii with the identification of a substantial number of cell wall GPI-anchored conidial or hyphal specific proteins, which provides a basis to investigate the role of these molecules in the host-pathogen interaction and fungal virulence. PMID:26038837

  2. Systemic Scedosporium prolificans infection in an 11-month-old Border collie with cobalamin deficiency secondary to selective cobalamin malabsorption (canine Imerslund-Gräsbeck syndrome).

    Science.gov (United States)

    Erles, K; Mugford, A; Barfield, D; Leeb, T; Kook, P H

    2018-04-01

    An 11-month-old Border collie presented collapsed and continued to deteriorate rapidly despite supportive treatment. The dog had a history of failure to thrive and recurring respiratory infection. Laboratory abnormalities included neutrophilic leucocytosis, Heinz body anaemia, hyperammonaemia, hyperbilirubinaemia, proteinuria and hypocobalaminaemia. Post-mortem examination revealed multi-focal necrosis within the heart, kidneys, pancreas, liver, meninges and cerebral cortex. Fungal hyphae in lesions were identified as Scedosporium prolificans following culture. Subsequent genotyping confirmed that the dog carried the CUBN:c.8392delC mutation in a homozygous state, verifying hereditary cobalamin deficiency (a.k.a. Imerslund-Gräsbeck syndrome). Cobalamin deficiency may have been a predisposing factor for the development of systemic fungal infection in this dog. © 2017 British Small Animal Veterinary Association.

  3. Curvularia, Exophiala, Scedosporium, Sporothrix, and other melanized fungi

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    de Hoog, S.

    2015-01-01

    The taxonomy of the melanized fungi and the most relevant epidemiological and clinical aspects, and the laboratory procedures for the diagnosis of infections caused by these agents, are discussed in this chapter. This chapter covers most of the agents of phaeohyphomycosis, chromoblastomycosis, and

  4. Re-identification of clinical isolates of the Pseudallescheria boydii-complex involved in near-drowning.

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Tintelnot, K.; Wagner, N.; Seibold, M.; de Hoog, G.S.; Horre, R.

    2008-01-01

    Fungal infections caused by the members of the genera Pseudallescheria and/or Scedosporium are important complications in patients after near-drowning. As the taxonomy of Pseudallescheria and Scedosporium has been revised, clinical isolates from 11 patients, after near-drowning, previously

  5. Re-identification of clinical isolates of the Pseudallescheria boydii-complex involved in near-drowning

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Tintelnot, K.; Wagner, N.; Seibold, M.; de Hoog, G.S.; Horré, R.

    2008-01-01

    Fungal infections caused by the members of the genera Pseudallescheria and/or Scedosporium are important complications in patients after near-drowning. As the taxonomy of Pseudallescheria and Scedosporium has been revised, clinical isolates from 11 patients, after near-drowning, previously

  6. Analysis of growth characteristics of filamentous fungi in different nutrient media.

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Meletiadis, J.; Meis, J.F.G.M.; Mouton, J.W.; Verweij, P.E.

    2001-01-01

    A microbroth kinetic model based on turbidity measurements was developed in order to analyze the growth characteristics of three species of filamentous fungi (Rhizopus microsporus, Aspergillus fumigatus, and Scedosporium prolificans) characterized by different growth rates in five nutrient media

  7. Scedosporiosis in a Combined Kidney and Liver Transplant Recipient: A Case Report of Possible Transmission from a Near-Drowning Donor

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Rachael Leek

    2016-01-01

    Full Text Available Scedosporium spp. are saprobic fungi that cause serious infections in immunocompromised hosts and in near-drowning victims. Solid organ transplant recipients are at increased risk of scedosporiosis as they require aggressive immunosuppression to prevent allograft rejection. We present a case of disseminated Scedosporium apiospermum infection occurring in the recipient of a combined kidney and liver transplantation whose organs were donated by a near-drowning victim and review the literature of scedosporiosis in solid organ transplantation.

  8. Characterization of Pseudacyclins A-E, a Suite of Cyclic Peptides Produced by Pseudallescheria boydii

    Czech Academy of Sciences Publication Activity Database

    Pavlásková, Kateřina; Nedvěd, Jan; Kuzma, Marek; Žabka, Martin; Šulc, Miroslav; Sklenář, Jan; Novák, Petr; Benada, Oldřich; Kofroňová, Olga; Hajduch, M.; Derrick, P.J.; Lemr, Karel; Jegorov, A.; Havlíček, Vladimír

    2010-01-01

    Roč. 73, č. 6 (2010), s. 1027-1032 ISSN 0163-3864 R&D Projects: GA MŠk LC07017 Institutional research plan: CEZ:AV0Z50200510 Keywords : EMERGING HUMAN PATHOGEN * SCEDOSPORIUM-APIOSPERMUM * ASPERGILLUS-FUMIGATUS Subject RIV: EE - Microbiology, Virology Impact factor: 2.872, year: 2010

  9. Clinical characteristics and epidemiology of pulmonary pseudallescheriasis

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Kantarcioglu, A.S.; de Hoog, G.S.; Guarro, J.

    2012-01-01

    Background: Some members of the Pseudallescheria (anamorph Scedosporium) have emerged as an important cause of life-threatening infections in humans. These fungi may reach the lungs and bronchial tree causing a wide range of manifestations, from colonization of airways to deep pulmonary infections.

  10. Mise au point de l’analyse par séquençage à haut-débit du microbiote fongique et bactérien respiratoire chez les patients atteints de mucoviscidose

    OpenAIRE

    Nguyen , Do Ngoc Linh

    2016-01-01

    Chronic pulmonary infection results in an irreversible decline in lung function in patients with cystic fibrosis (CF). While several bacteria are known as main causes for these infections (for example: Pseudomonas aeruginosa, Staphylococcus aureus, Burkholderia cepacia, Achromobacter xylosoxidans...), more recently some fungal genera including filamentous fungi (such as Aspergillus, Scedosporium...) have also been identified as emerging or re-emerging pathogens able to cause invasive mycosis....

  11. Two cases of severe pneumonia after the 2011 Great East Japan Earthquake

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Shigeatu Endo

    2012-12-01

    Full Text Available In 2011, during the Great East Japan Earthquake and tsunami, 90% of victims died from drowning. We report on two tsunami survivors with severe pneumonia potentially caused by Legionella pneumophila. Both victims aspirated a large quantity of contaminated water; sand, mud and a variety of microbes were thought to have entered into their lower respiratory tracts. One patient had a mycotic intracranial aneurysm; the other patient had co-infections with several organisms, including Scedosporium species. Although scedosporiosis is a relatively rare infectious disease, symptoms are progressive and prognosis is poor. These pathogens are not specific for tsunami lung, but are reported causative agents for pneumonia after near-drowning.

  12. Development of murine monoclonal antibodies for the immunohistochemical diagnosis of systemic bovine aspergillosis

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Jensen, H.E.; Aalbaek, B.; Lind, Peter

    1996-01-01

    ) in immunohistochemical and immunoblotting assays. In immunohistochemical assays, all MAbs raised against WSSA cross-reacted heavily with a number of other fungal species. All 4 MAbs (MAb-WF-AF-1-4) raised against the WF reacted strongly with hyphae of Aspergillus spp.; hyphae of Scedosporium apiospermum were also......), the MAb-WF-AF-1 and the polyclonal anti-Aspergillus antibodies reacted in a similar pattern, i.e., positively in 41 aspergillosis lesions and negatively in 92 zygomycotic lesions. Hyphae in 3 of 12 lesions that were not stained by the polyclonal antibodies reacted with the specific MAb-WF-AF-1; i...

  13. In Vitro Antimicrobial Potential of the Lichen Parmotrema sp. Extracts against Various Pathogens.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chauhan, Ritika; Abraham, Jayanthi

    2013-07-01

    The ongoing increasing antibiotic resistance is one of the biggest challenges faced by global public health. The perennial need for new antimicrobials against a background of increasing antibiotic resistance in pathogenic and opportunistic microorganisms obliges the scientific community to constantly develop new drugs and antimicrobial agents. Lichens are known prolific sources of natural antimicrobial drugs and biologically active natural products. This study was aimed to explore in vitro antimicrobial activity of lichen Parmotrema sp. The methanol and aqueous extracts of lichen Parmotrema sp. was extracted using Soxhlet extractor. Antibiotic assessment of methanol and aqueous extracts was done against eight bacterial (Escherichia coli, Staphylococcus aureus, Proteus mirabilis, Salmonella sp., Shigella sp., Enterococci faecalis, Pseudomonas aeruginosa, Klebsiella pneumoniae,) clinical pathogens and five plant pathogenic fungal strains (Aspergillus terreus strain JAS1, Scedosporium sp. JAS1, Ganoderma sp. JAS4, Candida tropicalis and Fusarium sp.) by Kirby-Bauer method. The methanol lichen Parmotrema sp. extract inhibited all the test organisms. The highest antibacterial activity was found against Pseudomonas aeruginosa and Staphylococcus aureus. The weakest activity was manifested in Salmonella sp. and Scedosporium sp. JAS1. Strong antifungal effect was found against Ganoderma sp. JAS4 and Fusarium sp. The aqueous lichen Parmotrema sp. extract revealed neither antibacterial nor antifungal activity. The present study shows that tested lichen Parmotrema sp. extracts demonstrated a strong antimicrobial effect. That suggests the active components from methanol extracts of the investigated lichen Parmotrema sp. can be used as natural antimicrobial agent against pathogens.

  14. Cerebral scedosporiosis: an emerging fungal infection in severe neutropenic patients. CT features and CT pathologic correlation

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Marco de Lucas, Enrique; Sadaba, Pablo; Lastra Garcia-Baron, Pedro; Ruiz Delgado, Maria Luisa; Gonzalez Mandly, Andres; Gutierrez, Agustin; Diez, Consuelo [Hospital Universitario Marques de Valdecilla, Department of Radiology, Santander, Cantabria (Spain); Cuevas, Jorge; Fernandez, Fidel [Hospital Universitario Marques de Valdecilla, Department of Pathology, Santander, Cantabria (Spain); Salesa, Ricardo [Hospital Universitario Marques de Valdecilla, Department of Microbiology, Santander, Cantabria (Spain); Bermudez, Arancha [Hospital Universitario Marques de Valdecilla, Department of Hematology, Santander, Cantabria (Spain); Marco de Lucas, Fernando [Hospital de Basurto, Department of Hematology, Bilbao, Vizcaya (Spain)

    2006-02-01

    Scedosporium prolificans is an emerging opportunistic fungal agent encountered in severely neutropenic patients. The purpose of this paper is to describe the main cranial CT findings from a retrospective review of six patients (four men and two women, 18-66 years old) afflicted with disseminated infection by S. prolificans with neurological symptoms. They were severely neutropenic and presented with severe respiratory failure and conscience deterioration, with a subsequent 100% mortality. The final diagnosis was established by autopsy (performed in five patients) and blood culture findings. Cranial CT showed multiple low-density lesions in four patients without contrast enhancement located in the basal ganglia and corticomedullary junction. Autopsy findings of these lesions demonstrated necrosis and hyphae proliferation inside brain infarcts. Also, two of the patients had a subarachnoid hemorrhage, but angiography could not be performed. CT and autopsy findings were fairly similar to those encountered in cerebral aspergillosis; however, possibly because of its rapid and fatal evolution, no edema or ring enhancing lesions were encountered. Thus, Scedosporium can be included as a rare but possible cause of invasive fungal disseminated central nervous system infections in severely neutropenic patients. (orig.)

  15. Cerebral scedosporiosis: an emerging fungal infection in severe neutropenic patients. CT features and CT pathologic correlation

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Marco de Lucas, Enrique; Sadaba, Pablo; Lastra Garcia-Baron, Pedro; Ruiz Delgado, Maria Luisa; Gonzalez Mandly, Andres; Gutierrez, Agustin; Diez, Consuelo; Cuevas, Jorge; Fernandez, Fidel; Salesa, Ricardo; Bermudez, Arancha; Marco de Lucas, Fernando

    2006-01-01

    Scedosporium prolificans is an emerging opportunistic fungal agent encountered in severely neutropenic patients. The purpose of this paper is to describe the main cranial CT findings from a retrospective review of six patients (four men and two women, 18-66 years old) afflicted with disseminated infection by S. prolificans with neurological symptoms. They were severely neutropenic and presented with severe respiratory failure and conscience deterioration, with a subsequent 100% mortality. The final diagnosis was established by autopsy (performed in five patients) and blood culture findings. Cranial CT showed multiple low-density lesions in four patients without contrast enhancement located in the basal ganglia and corticomedullary junction. Autopsy findings of these lesions demonstrated necrosis and hyphae proliferation inside brain infarcts. Also, two of the patients had a subarachnoid hemorrhage, but angiography could not be performed. CT and autopsy findings were fairly similar to those encountered in cerebral aspergillosis; however, possibly because of its rapid and fatal evolution, no edema or ring enhancing lesions were encountered. Thus, Scedosporium can be included as a rare but possible cause of invasive fungal disseminated central nervous system infections in severely neutropenic patients. (orig.)

  16. Critical tests for determination of microbiological quality and biological activity in commercial vermicompost samples of different origins.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Grantina-Ievina, Lelde; Andersone, Una; Berkolde-Pīre, Dace; Nikolajeva, Vizma; Ievinsh, Gederts

    2013-12-01

    The aim of the present paper was to show that differences in biological activity among commercially produced vermicompost samples can be found by using a relatively simple test system consisting of microorganism tests on six microbiological media and soilless seedling growth tests with four vegetable crop species. Significant differences in biological properties among analyzed samples were evident both at the level of microbial load as well as plant growth-affecting activity. These differences were mostly manufacturer- and feedstock-associated, but also resulted from storage conditions of vermicompost samples. A mature vermicompost sample that was produced from sewage sludge still contained considerable number of Escherichia coli. Samples from all producers contained several potentially pathogenic fungal species such as Aspergillus fumigatus, Pseudallescheria boidii, Pseudallescheria fimeti, Pseudallescheria minutispora, Scedosporium apiospermum, Scedosporium prolificans, Scopulariopsis brevicaulis, Stachybotrys chartarum, Geotrichum spp., Aphanoascus terreus, and Doratomyces columnaris. In addition, samples from all producers contained plant growth-promoting fungi from the genera Trichoderma and Mortierella. The described system can be useful both for functional studies aiming at understanding of factors affecting quality characteristics of vermicompost preparations and for routine testing of microbiological quality and biological activity of organic waste-derived composts and vermicomposts.

  17. Clinical and diagnostic pathways in pediatric fungal infections

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Elio Castagnola

    2013-07-01

    Full Text Available Generally speaking, in pediatrics the patients mostly affected by fungal infections are hematological patients, followed by those with solid tumors, and transplant recipients. Candida infections generally occur just after birth, whereas Aspergillus infections are age-related, and increase their incidence with age. However, among infections, the incidence of bacteremias are still greater than that of mycoses. In pediatrics, in Italy the immunocompromised patients – thus particularly susceptible to fungal infections – are mainly those with severe combined immunodeficiency, chronic mucocutaneous candidiasis, and chronic granulomatous disease. Particular Aspergillus or Scedosporium infections should be considered in peculiar kinds of patients, such as those affected by cystic fibrosis. Finally, different kinds of fungi should be considered in those who come from or spend a lot time in specific areas, such as South America (e.g. coccidioidomycoses, for which differential diagnosis is with tuberculosis.http://dx.doi.org/10.7175/rhc.v4i1S.859

  18. Pyrosequencing reveals the effect of mobilizing agents and lignocellulosic substrate amendment on microbial community composition in a real industrial PAH-polluted soil

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Lladó, S., E-mail: llado@biomed.cas.cz [Department of Microbiology, University of Barcelona, Diagonal 645, E-08028 Barcelona (Spain); Institute of Microbiology, Academy of Sciences of the Czech Republic, Vídenská 1083, 142 20 Prague 4 (Czech Republic); Covino, S., E-mail: covino@biomed.cas.cz [Institute of Microbiology, Academy of Sciences of the Czech Republic, Vídenská 1083, 142 20 Prague 4 (Czech Republic); Solanas, A.M., E-mail: asolanas@ub.edu [Department of Microbiology, University of Barcelona, Diagonal 645, E-08028 Barcelona (Spain); Petruccioli, M., E-mail: petrucci@unitus.it [Department for Innovation in Biological, Agro-Food and Forest Systems [DIBAF], University of Tuscia, Via S. Camillo de Lellis snc, 01100 Viterbo (Italy); D’annibale, A., E-mail: dannib@unitus.it [Department for Innovation in Biological, Agro-Food and Forest Systems [DIBAF], University of Tuscia, Via S. Camillo de Lellis snc, 01100 Viterbo (Italy); Viñas, M., E-mail: marc.vinas@irta.cat [GIRO Joint Research Unit IRTA-UPC, Institute of Research and Technology Food and Agriculture [IRTA], Torre Marimon, E-08140 Caldes de Montbui (Spain)

    2015-02-11

    Highlights: • Soil microbial community assessment through classical (MPN) and molecular tools (DGGE and pyrosequencing) is provided. • A failure of exogenous white rot fungi to colonize the polluted soil is shown by DGGE and pyrosequencing. • Surfactant Brij 30 hampers 4-ring PAHs degradation due to toxicity over Actinobacteria and Bacteroidetes populations. • A high prevalence of Fusarium and Scedosporium populations is revealed during soil bioremediation. • Cupriavidus, Mycobacterium and Chithinophagaceae are potential HMW–PAH degraders in the soil. - Abstract: Bacterial and fungal biodiversity throughout different biostimulation and bioaugmentation treatments applied to an industrial creosote-polluted soil were analyzed by means of polyphasic approach in order to gain insight into the microbial community structure and dynamics. Pyrosequencing data obtained from initial creosote polluted soil (after a biopiling step) revealed that Alpha and Gammaproteobacteria were the most abundant bacterial groups, whereas Fusarium and Scedosporium were the main fungal genera in the contaminated soil. At the end of 60-days laboratory scale bioremediation assays, pyrosequencing and DGGE data showed that (i) major bacterial community shifts were caused by the type of mobilizing agent added to the soil and, to a lesser extent, by the addition of lignocellulosic substrate; and (ii) the presence of the non-ionic surfactant (Brij 30) hampered the proliferation of Actinobacteria (Mycobacteriaceae) and Bacteroidetes (Chitinophagaceae) and, in the absence of lignocellulosic substrate, also impeded polycyclic aromatic hydrocarbons (PAHs) degradation. The results show the importance of implementing bioremediation experiments combined with microbiome assessment to gain insight on the effect of crucial parameters (e.g. use of additives) over the potential functions of complex microbial communities harbored in polluted soils, essential for bioremediation success.

  19. Pyrosequencing reveals the effect of mobilizing agents and lignocellulosic substrate amendment on microbial community composition in a real industrial PAH-polluted soil

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Lladó, S.; Covino, S.; Solanas, A.M.; Petruccioli, M.; D’annibale, A.; Viñas, M.

    2015-01-01

    Highlights: • Soil microbial community assessment through classical (MPN) and molecular tools (DGGE and pyrosequencing) is provided. • A failure of exogenous white rot fungi to colonize the polluted soil is shown by DGGE and pyrosequencing. • Surfactant Brij 30 hampers 4-ring PAHs degradation due to toxicity over Actinobacteria and Bacteroidetes populations. • A high prevalence of Fusarium and Scedosporium populations is revealed during soil bioremediation. • Cupriavidus, Mycobacterium and Chithinophagaceae are potential HMW–PAH degraders in the soil. - Abstract: Bacterial and fungal biodiversity throughout different biostimulation and bioaugmentation treatments applied to an industrial creosote-polluted soil were analyzed by means of polyphasic approach in order to gain insight into the microbial community structure and dynamics. Pyrosequencing data obtained from initial creosote polluted soil (after a biopiling step) revealed that Alpha and Gammaproteobacteria were the most abundant bacterial groups, whereas Fusarium and Scedosporium were the main fungal genera in the contaminated soil. At the end of 60-days laboratory scale bioremediation assays, pyrosequencing and DGGE data showed that (i) major bacterial community shifts were caused by the type of mobilizing agent added to the soil and, to a lesser extent, by the addition of lignocellulosic substrate; and (ii) the presence of the non-ionic surfactant (Brij 30) hampered the proliferation of Actinobacteria (Mycobacteriaceae) and Bacteroidetes (Chitinophagaceae) and, in the absence of lignocellulosic substrate, also impeded polycyclic aromatic hydrocarbons (PAHs) degradation. The results show the importance of implementing bioremediation experiments combined with microbiome assessment to gain insight on the effect of crucial parameters (e.g. use of additives) over the potential functions of complex microbial communities harbored in polluted soils, essential for bioremediation success

  20. Otomycosis: a retrospective study Otomicoses: um estudo retrospectivo

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Zélia Braz Vieira da Silva Pontes

    2009-06-01

    Full Text Available Otomycosis is a fungal infection of the external ear canal with only a few studies about its real frequence in Brazil. AIM: to evaluate otomycosis frequence and characteristics in patients with clinical suspicion of external otitis. STUDY DESIGN: Retrospective study with transversal cohort (2000-2006. MATERIALS AND METHODS:103 patients were assigned to mycological diagnosis (direct microscopic examination and culture. RESULTS: Otomycosis was diagnosed in 19.4% of the patients. Patient age varied from 2 to 66 years (an average of 23.5 years of age, and 60% of otomycosis cases were seen in women between 2 to 20 years of age. Chronic otitis, previous antibiotic therapy and the lack of cerumen were predisposing factors; itching, otalgia, otorrhea and hypoacusis were the symptoms reported by the patients. The most frequently isolated species were C. albicans (30%, C. parapsilosis (20%, A. niger (20%, A. flavus (10%, A. fumigatus (5%, C. tropicalis (5%, Trichosporon asahii (5% and Scedosporium apiospermum (5%. CONCLUSIONS: Otomycosis is endemic in João Pessoa-PB. Clinical exam and mycological studies are important for diagnostic purposes because otomycosis symptoms are not specific.Otomicose é uma infecção fúngica do conduto auditivo externo com poucos estudos sobre sua real frequência no Brasil. OBJETIVO: Avaliar a frequência e características das otomicoses em pacientes com suspeita clínica de otite externa. DESENHO DO ESTUDO: Estudo retrospectivo com corte transversal (2000-2006. MATERIAL E MÉTODOS: 103 pacientes foram atendidos para diagnóstico micológico (exame microscópico direto e cultivo. RESULTADOS: Otomicoses foram diagnosticadas em 19,4% dos pacientes. A idade desses pacientes variou de 2 a 66 anos (média de 23,5 anos e 60% das otomicoses foram observadas em mulheres entre 2 a 20 anos de idade. Otite crônica, antibioticoterapia prévia e ausência de cerume foram os fatores predisponentes e prurido otológico, otalgia

  1. Isolation and characterisation of polychlorinated biphenyl (PCB degrading fungi from a historically contaminated soil

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Di Toro Sara

    2009-01-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background Polychlorinated biphenyls (PCBs are widespread toxic pollutants. Bioremediation might be an effective, cost competitive and environment-friendly solution for remediating environmental matrices contaminated by PCBs but it is still unsatisfactory, mostly for the limited biodegradation potential of bacteria involved in the processes. Very little is known about mitosporic fungi potential in PCB bioremediation and their occurrence in actual site historically contaminated soils. In the present study, we characterised the native mycoflora of an aged dump site soil contaminated by about 0.9 g kg-1 of Aroclor 1260 PCBs and its changing after aerobic biotreatment with a commercial complex source of bacteria and fungi. Fungi isolated from the soil resulting from 120 days of treatment were screened for their ability to adsorb or metabolise 3 target PCBs. Results The original contaminated soil contained low loads of few fungal species mostly belonging to the Scedosporium, Penicillium and Aspergillus genera. The fungal load and biodiversity generally decreased throughout the aerobic treatment. None of the 21 strains isolated from the treated soil were able to grow on biphenyl (200 mg L-1 or a mixture of 2-chlorobiphenyl, 4,4'-dichlorobiphenyl and 2,2',5,5'-tetrachlorobiphenyl (20 mg L-1 each as sole carbon sources. However, 16 of them grew in a mineral medium containing the same PCBs mixture and glucose (10 g L-1. Five of the 6 isolates, which displayed the faster and more extensive growth under the latter conditions, were found to degrade the 3 PCBs apparently without the involvement of ligninolytic enzymes; they were identified as Penicillium chrysogenum, Scedosporium apiospermum, Penicillium digitatum and Fusarium solani. They are the first PCB degrading strains of such species reported so far in the literature. Conclusion The native mycoflora of the actual site aged heavily contaminated soil was mainly constituted by genera often

  2. Fungal infections in marrow transplant recipients under antifungal prophylaxis with fluconazole

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Oliveira J.S.R.

    2002-01-01

    Full Text Available Fungal infection is one of the most important causes of morbidity and mortality in bone marrow transplant (BMT recipients. The growing incidence of these infections is related to several factors including prolonged granulocytopenia, use of broad-spectrum antibiotics, conditioning regimens, and use of immunosuppression to avoid graft-versus-host disease (GvHD. In the present series, we report five cases of invasive mold infections documented among 64 BMT recipients undergoing fluconazole antifungal prophylaxis: 1 A strain of Scedosporium prolificans was isolated from a skin lesion that developed on day +72 after BMT in a chronic myeloid leukemic patient. 2 Invasive pulmonary aspergillosis (Aspergillus fumigatus was diagnosed on day +29 in a patient with a long period of hospitalization before being transplanted for severe aplastic anemia. 3 A tumoral lung lesion due to Rhizopus arrhizus (zygomycosis was observed in a transplanted patient who presented severe chronic GvHD. 4 A tumoral lesion due to Aspergillus spp involving the 7th, 8th and 9th right ribs and local soft tissue was diagnosed in a BMT patient on day +110. 5 A patient with a history of Ph1-positive acute lymphocytic leukemia exhibited a cerebral lesion on day +477 after receiving a BMT during an episode of severe chronic GvHD. At that time, blood and spinal fluid cultures yielded Fusarium sp. Opportunistic infections due to fungi other than Candida spp are becoming a major problem among BMT patients receiving systemic antifungal prophylaxis with fluconazole.

  3. Anthropogenic impact on environmental filamentous fungi communities along the Mediterranean littoral.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Al-Yasiri, Mohammed Hashim; Normand, Anne-Cécile; Mauffrey, Jean-François; Ranque, Stéphane

    2017-07-01

    We hypothesised that anthropogenic influences impact the filamentous fungi community structure and that particular species or species patterns might serve as markers to characterise ecosystems. This study aimed to describe the filamentous fungi community structure in various biotopes along the Mediterranean shore that were exposed to various levels of anthropogenic influence. We sampled filamentous fungi from yellow-legged gull faecal samples at five study sites along the Mediterranean littoral in southern France. The sites were characterised by variable anthropogenic influence, ranging from building rooftops in two cities to a natural reserve. The sites also included two suburban ecoclines, one of which was exposed to sewer pollution. Filamentous fungal colonies were quantified and identified via MALDI-TOF mass spectrometry. Interestingly, we found that both fungal diversity and abundance were low in urban areas compared with suburban ecocline or environments little affected by anthropogenic influence. Furthermore, some fungal species were clearly associated with particular environments. In particular, Mucor circinelloides was associated with a natural environment with little anthropogenic impact and distant from human settlements. Whereas, Scedosporium apiospermum was associated with an ecocline polluted by sewage. Our findings indicate that particular fungal species or species combination might be used as surrogate markers of ecosystems exposed to anthropogenic pollution. © 2017 Blackwell Verlag GmbH.

  4. Seventeen years of subcutaneous infection by Aspergillus flavus; eumycetoma confirmed by immunohistochemistry.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ahmed, Sarah A; Abbas, Manal A; Jouvion, Gregory; Al-Hatmi, Abdullah M S; de Hoog, G Sybren; Kolecka, Anna; Mahgoub, El Sheikh

    2015-12-01

    Chronic subcutaneous infections caused by Aspergillus species are considered to be extremely rare. Because these fungi are among the most common laboratory contaminants, their role as eumycetoma causative agents is difficult to ascertain. Here, we report the first case of A. flavus eumycetoma confirmed by isolation, molecular identification and immunohistochemical analysis. Patient was a 55-year-old male from Sudan suffering from eumycetoma on his left foot for a period of 17 years. He developed swelling, sinuses and white grain discharge was observed. He has been operated nine times and was treated with several regimens of ketoconazole and itraconazole without improvement. Initial diagnosis based on histology and radiology was Scedosporium eumycetoma. However, examination of the biopsy revealed A. flavus, which was identified by molecular analysis and MALDI-TOF MS. Immunohistochemistry using antibody directed against Aspergillus species was positive. Because of the earlier treatment failures with ketoconazole and itraconazole, therapy with voriconazole was initiated. However, in vitro susceptibility testing yielded a lower Minimum Inhibitory Concentration (MIC) value for itraconazole (0.25 μg ml(-1) ) than for voriconazole (1 μg ml(-1) ). Based on the presented results, A. flavus can be considered as one of the agents of white-grain eumycetoma. © 2015 Blackwell Verlag GmbH.

  5. Evaluation of Antifungal Efficacy of 0.1% and 0.25% Riboflavin with UVA: A Comparative In Vitro Study.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bilgihan, Kamil; Kalkanci, Ayse; Ozdemir, Huseyin Baran; Yazar, Reyhan; Karakurt, Funda; Yuksel, Erdem; Otag, Feza; Karabicak, Nilgun; Arikan-Akdagli, Sevtap

    2016-08-01

    Antifungal efficacy of photochemical cross-linking (PACK-CXL) with 0.1% and 0.25% riboflavin was evaluated with a comparative in vitro study. Candida albicans and Aspergillus fumigatus ATCC reference strains, Candida parapsilosis, Aspergillus fumigatus, Fusarium solani, Scedosporium apiospermum, and Alternaria alternata strains isolated from keratitis cases were chosen as targeted microorganisms. Unique "black plate method" was developed in polystyrene microplates. Riboflavin suspensions in 0.1% and 0.25% were separately added into inoculated wells. Non-inoculated wells were filled by black colored dye in order to protect treated wells from reflection of UV treatment. After ultraviolet A (UVA) treatment, each well was evaluated by microbiological culture in order to count viable fungal colonies. Fungal killing rate was calculated by comparing fungal counts (CFU/mL) before and after UVA application of riboflavin-added wells. Four different fungal inoculum concentrations of targeted microorganisms, including 10 4 , 10 3 , 10 2 , and 10 1 CFU/mL, were assayed. PACK-CXL with 0.25% riboflavin was found to be highly effective on fungal cells even in 10 4 CFU/mL of concentration. PACK-CXL appears as a promising treatment option for difficult-to-treat cases of fungal keratitis and 0.25% riboflavin concentration increases fungicidal effect of the procedure dramatically.

  6. Fungal biocatalysts in the biofiltration of VOC-polluted air.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kennes, Christian; Veiga, María C

    2004-09-30

    Gas-phase biofilters used for the treatment of waste gases were originally packed with compost or other natural filter beds containing indigenous microorganisms. Over the past decade much effort has been made to develop new carrier materials, more performant biocatalysts and new types of bioreactors. Elimination capacities reached nowadays are 5 to 10 times higher than those originally reported with conventional compost biofilters. With the recently developed inert filter beds, inoculation is a prerequisite for successful start-up and operation. Either non-defined mixed cultures or pure bacterial cultures have originally been used. The search for efficient fungal biocatalysts started only a few years ago, mainly for the biofiltration of waste gases containing hydrophobic compounds, such as styrene, alpha-pinene, benzene, or alkylbenzenes. In this review, recently isolated new fungal strains able to degrade alkylbenzenes and other related volatile organic pollutants are described, as well as their major characteristics and their use as biocatalysts in gas-phase biofilters for air pollution control. In biofiltration, the most extensively studied organism belongs to the genus Exophiala, although strains of Scedosporium, Paecilomyces, Cladosporium, Cladophialophora, and white-rot fungi are all potential candidates for use in biofilters. Encouraging results were obtained in most of the cases in which some of those organisms were present in gas-phase biofilters. They allow reaching high elimination capacities and are resistant to low pH values and to reduce moisture content.

  7. Economic considerations in the treatment of invasive aspergillosis: a review of voriconazole pharmacoeconomic studies

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Kem P Krueger

    2009-08-01

    Full Text Available Kem P Krueger, A Christie NelsonSchool of Pharmacy, University of Wyoming, Laramie, WY, USAAbstract: Invasive aspergillosis is a life-threatening fungal infection predominately affecting immunocompromised individuals. The incidence of inpatient-treated aspergillosis cases in the US is estimated to be between 3.02 and 3.80 per 10,000 hospitalized patients. The estimated difference in hospital costs of patients with an aspergillosis infection is US$36,867 to US$59,356 higher than those of patients without the infection. Voriconazole is a synthetic, broad spectrum triazole antifungal agent, with FDA-approved indications for the treatment of invasive aspergillosis, esophageal candidiasis, candidemia in nonneutropenic patients, invasive candidiasis, and infections due to Scedosporium apiospermum and Fusarium species in patients refractory to or intolerant of other therapy. Eight cost-effectiveness analyses, one cost-minimization analysis, and one cost analysis were identified from a Medline search. The 10 pharmacoeconomic analyses were conducted in six different countries comparing voriconazole to conventional amphotericin B, liposomal amphotericin B, itraconazole, and caspofungin. All the cost-effectiveness and cost-minimization analyses identified voriconazole as the most cost-effective therapy. The cost analysis demonstrated voriconazole cost-savings. While the acquisition costs of voriconazole are higher than those of conventional amphotericin B, the toxicity profile and rate of treatment success associated with voriconazole result in lower total treatment costs per successfully treated patient.Keywords: voriconazole, antifungal agents, invasive aspergillosis, pharmacoeconomics 

  8. Invasive Fungal Infections in the ICU: How to Approach, How to Treat

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Elisabeth Paramythiotou

    2014-01-01

    Full Text Available Invasive fungal infections are a growing problem in critically ill patients and are associated with increased morbidity and mortality. Most of them are due to Candida species, especially Candida albicans. Invasive candidiasis includes candidaemia, disseminated candidiasis with deep organ involvement and chronic disseminated candidiasis. During the last decades rare pathogenic fungi, such as Aspergillus species, Zygomycetes, Fusarium species and Scedosporium have also emerged. Timely diagnosis and proper treatment are of paramount importance for a favorable outcome. Besides blood cultures, several laboratory tests have been developed in the hope of facilitating an earlier detection of infection. The antifungal armamentarium has also been expanded allowing a treatment choice tailored to individual patients’ needs. The physician can choose among the old class of polyenes, the older and newer azoles and the echinocandins. Factors related to patient’s clinical situation and present co-morbidities, local epidemiology data and purpose of treatment (prophylactic, pre-emptive, empiric or definitive should be taken into account for the appropriate choice of antifungal agent.

  9. Molecular and cellular responses of the pathogenic fungus Lomentospora prolificans to the antifungal drug voriconazole.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Aize Pellon

    Full Text Available The filamentous fungus Lomentospora (Scedosporium prolificans is an emerging opportunistic pathogen associated with fatal infections in patients with disturbed immune function. Unfortunately, conventional therapies are hardly of any use against this fungus due to its intrinsic resistance. Therefore, we performed an integrated study of the L. prolificans responses to the first option to treat these mycoses, namely voriconazole, with the aim of unveiling mechanisms involved in the resistance to this compound. To do that, we used a wide range of techniques, including fluorescence and electron microscopy to study morphological alterations, ion chromatography to measure changes in cell-wall carbohydrate composition, and proteomics-based techniques to identify the proteins differentially expressed under the presence of the drug. Significantly, we showed drastic changes occurring in cell shape after voriconazole exposure, L. prolificans hyphae being shorter and wider than under control conditions. Interestingly, we proved that the architecture and carbohydrate composition of the cell wall had been modified in the presence of the drug. Specifically, L. prolificans constructed a more complex organelle with a higher presence of glucans and mannans. In addition to this, we identified several differentially expressed proteins, including Srp1 and heat shock protein 70 (Hsp70, as the most overexpressed under voriconazole-induced stress conditions. The mechanisms described in this study, which may be directly related to L. prolificans antifungal resistance or tolerance, could be used as targets to improve existing therapies or to develop new ones in order to successfully eliminate these mycoses.

  10. Molecular and cellular responses of the pathogenic fungus Lomentospora prolificans to the antifungal drug voriconazole.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pellon, Aize; Ramirez-Garcia, Andoni; Buldain, Idoia; Antoran, Aitziber; Rementeria, Aitor; Hernando, Fernando L

    2017-01-01

    The filamentous fungus Lomentospora (Scedosporium) prolificans is an emerging opportunistic pathogen associated with fatal infections in patients with disturbed immune function. Unfortunately, conventional therapies are hardly of any use against this fungus due to its intrinsic resistance. Therefore, we performed an integrated study of the L. prolificans responses to the first option to treat these mycoses, namely voriconazole, with the aim of unveiling mechanisms involved in the resistance to this compound. To do that, we used a wide range of techniques, including fluorescence and electron microscopy to study morphological alterations, ion chromatography to measure changes in cell-wall carbohydrate composition, and proteomics-based techniques to identify the proteins differentially expressed under the presence of the drug. Significantly, we showed drastic changes occurring in cell shape after voriconazole exposure, L. prolificans hyphae being shorter and wider than under control conditions. Interestingly, we proved that the architecture and carbohydrate composition of the cell wall had been modified in the presence of the drug. Specifically, L. prolificans constructed a more complex organelle with a higher presence of glucans and mannans. In addition to this, we identified several differentially expressed proteins, including Srp1 and heat shock protein 70 (Hsp70), as the most overexpressed under voriconazole-induced stress conditions. The mechanisms described in this study, which may be directly related to L. prolificans antifungal resistance or tolerance, could be used as targets to improve existing therapies or to develop new ones in order to successfully eliminate these mycoses.

  11. Use of Selective Fungal Culture Media Increases Rates of Detection of Fungi in the Respiratory Tract of Cystic Fibrosis Patients.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hong, Gina; Miller, Heather B; Allgood, Sarah; Lee, Richard; Lechtzin, Noah; Zhang, Sean X

    2017-04-01

    The prevalence of fungi in the respiratory tracts of cystic fibrosis (CF) patients has risen. However, fungal surveillance is not routinely performed in most clinical centers in the United States, which may lead to an underestimation of the true prevalence of the problem. We conducted a prospective study comparing the rates of detection for clinically important fungi (CIF), defined as Aspergillus , Scedosporium , and Trichosporon species and Exophiala dermatitidis , in CF sputa using standard bacterial and selective fungal culture media, including Sabouraud dextrose agar with gentamicin (SDA), inhibitory mold agar (IMA), and brain heart infusion (BHI) agar with chloramphenicol and gentamicin. We described the prevalence of these fungi in an adult CF population. A total of 487 CF respiratory samples were collected from 211 unique participants. CIF were detected in 184 (37.8%) samples. Only 26.1% of CIF-positive samples were detected in bacterial culture medium, whereas greater rates of detection for fungi were found in IMA (65.8%; P culture media and longer incubation periods yielded higher rates of detection for CIF in CF sputum samples compared with that detected in bacterial culture medium, resulting in an underdetection of fungi by bacterial culture alone. The prevalence of fungi in CF may be better estimated by using selective fungal culture media, and this may translate to important clinical decisions. Copyright © 2017 American Society for Microbiology.

  12. In Vitro Activity of E1210, a Novel Antifungal, against Clinically Important Yeasts and Molds▿

    Science.gov (United States)

    Miyazaki, Mamiko; Horii, Takaaki; Hata, Katsura; Watanabe, Nao-aki; Nakamoto, Kazutaka; Tanaka, Keigo; Shirotori, Syuji; Murai, Norio; Inoue, Satoshi; Matsukura, Masayuki; Abe, Shinya; Yoshimatsu, Kentaro; Asada, Makoto

    2011-01-01

    E1210 is a new antifungal compound with a novel mechanism of action and broad spectrum of antifungal activity. We investigated the in vitro antifungal activities of E1210 compared to those of fluconazole, itraconazole, voriconazole, amphotericin B, and micafungin against clinical fungal isolates. E1210 showed potent activities against most Candida spp. (MIC90 of ≤0.008 to 0.06 μg/ml), except for Candida krusei (MICs of 2 to >32 μg/ml). E1210 showed equally potent activities against fluconazole-resistant and fluconazole-susceptible Candida strains. E1210 also had potent activities against various filamentous fungi, including Aspergillus fumigatus (MIC90 of 0.13 μg/ml). E1210 was also active against Fusarium solani and some black molds. Of note, E1210 showed the greatest activities against Pseudallescheria boydii (MICs of 0.03 to 0.13 μg/ml), Scedosporium prolificans (MIC of 0.03 μg/ml), and Paecilomyces lilacinus (MICs of 0.06 μg/ml) among the compounds tested. The antifungal action of E1210 was fungistatic, but E1210 showed no trailing growth of Candida albicans, which has often been observed with fluconazole. In a cytotoxicity assay using human HK-2 cells, E1210 showed toxicity as low as that of fluconazole. Based on these results, E1210 is likely to be a promising antifungal agent for the treatment of invasive fungal infections. PMID:21825291

  13. Antibiotic management of lung infections in cystic fibrosis. II. Nontuberculous mycobacteria, anaerobic bacteria, and fungi.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chmiel, James F; Aksamit, Timothy R; Chotirmall, Sanjay H; Dasenbrook, Elliott C; Elborn, J Stuart; LiPuma, John J; Ranganathan, Sarath C; Waters, Valerie J; Ratjen, Felix A

    2014-10-01

    Airway infections are a key component of cystic fibrosis (CF) lung disease. Whereas the approach to common pathogens such as Pseudomonas aeruginosa is guided by a significant body of evidence, other infections often pose a considerable challenge to treating physicians. In Part I of this series on the antibiotic management of difficult lung infections, we discussed bacterial organisms including methicillin-resistant Staphylococcus aureus, gram-negative bacterial infections, and treatment of multiple bacterial pathogens. Here, we summarize the approach to infections with nontuberculous mycobacteria, anaerobic bacteria, and fungi. Nontuberculous mycobacteria can significantly impact the course of lung disease in patients with CF, but differentiation between colonization and infection is difficult clinically as coinfection with other micro-organisms is common. Treatment consists of different classes of antibiotics, varies in intensity, and is best guided by a team of specialized clinicians and microbiologists. The ability of anaerobic bacteria to contribute to CF lung disease is less clear, even though clinical relevance has been reported in individual patients. Anaerobes detected in CF sputum are often resistant to multiple drugs, and treatment has not yet been shown to positively affect patient outcome. Fungi have gained significant interest as potential CF pathogens. Although the role of Candida is largely unclear, there is mounting evidence that Scedosporium species and Aspergillus fumigatus, beyond the classical presentation of allergic bronchopulmonary aspergillosis, can be relevant in patients with CF and treatment should be considered. At present, however there remains limited information on how best to select patients who could benefit from antifungal therapy.

  14. Estudio clínico y microbiológico de los micetomas observados en el Hospital de Infecciosas Francisco J. Muñiz en el período 1989-2004 Clinical and microbiological study of mycetomas at the Muñiz Hospital of Buenos Aires between 1989 and 2004

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    R. Negroni

    2006-03-01

    Full Text Available Se presentan las características clínicas, microbiológicas y los resultados del tratamiento de 76 casos de micetomas observados en el período 1989-2004 en el Hospital Muñiz. Cuarenta y nueve fueron varones y 27 mujeres, con una edad promedio de 43,4 años. La mayor parte de los pacientes adquirió la infección en nuestro país, las provincias más afectadas fueron Santiago del Estero con 31 casos y el Chaco con 11; 8 enfermos procedían del exterior, 6 de Bolivia y 2 de Paraguay. El promedio de evolución de la enfermedad fue de 9,2 años. Las localizaciones más comunes fueron las de los miembros inferiores: pies 63, tobillos 3 y rodillas 2. Se comprobó compromiso óseo en 48 casos y adenomegalias en 5. Fueron identificados los siguientes agentes causales: Madurella grisea 29 casos, Actinomadura madurae 26, Scedosporium apiospermum 5, Nocardia brasiliensis 5, Acremoniun spp. 4 (Acremonium falciforme 2, Acremonium kiliense 1 y Acremonium recifei 1, Madurella mycetomatis 3, Fusarium solani 2, Nocardia asteroides y Streptomyces somaliensis 1 caso cada uno. Los tratamientos más frecuentemente utilizados fueron ketoconazol o itraconazol en los micetomas maduromicósicos y la asociación de cotrimoxazol con ciprofloxacina o amicacina en los micetomas actinomicéticos. La amputación del miembro afectado se realizó en 6 casos, 25 pacientes alcanzaron la remisión clínica completa y 34 presentaron mejorías importantes.This work presents clinical, microbiological and outcome data collected from 76 patients with mycetomas at the Muñiz Hospital from 1989 to 2004. Forty-nine patients were male and 27 female; the mean age was 43.4 years. The majority of the patients acquired the infection in Argentina: the most affected provinces were Santiago del Estero with 31 cases, and Chaco with 11; 8 cases came from other countries (Bolivia 6 and Paraguay 2. The mean evolution of the disease was 9.2 years. The most frequently observed sites were: feet 63

  15. Differentiation of the emerging human pathogens Trichosporon asahii and Trichosporon asteroides from other pathogenic yeasts and moulds by using species-specific monoclonal antibodies.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Genna E Davies

    Full Text Available The fungal genus Trichosporon contains emerging opportunistic pathogens of humans, and is the third most commonly isolated non-candidal yeast from humans. Trichosporon asahii and T. asteroides are the most important species causing disseminated disease in immunocompromised patients, while inhalation of T. asahii spores is the most important cause of summer-type hypersensitivity pneumonitis in healthy individuals. Trichosporonosis is misdiagnosed as candidiasis or cryptococcosis due to a lack of awareness and the ambiguity of diagnostic tests for these pathogens. In this study, hybridoma technology was used to produce two murine monoclonal antibodies (MAbs, CA7 and TH1, for detection and differentiation of Trichosporon from other human pathogenic yeasts and moulds. The MAbs react with extracellular antigens from T. asahii and T. asteroides, but do not recognise other related Trichosporon spp., or unrelated pathogenic yeasts and moulds including Candida, Cryptococcus, Aspergillus, Fusarium, and Scedosporium spp., or the etiologic agents of mucormycosis. Immunofluorescence and Western blotting studies show that MAb CA7, an immunoglobulin G1 (IgG1, binds to a major 60 kDa glycoprotein antigen produced on the surface of hyphae, while TH1, an immunoglobulin M (IgM, binds to an antigen produced on the surface of conidia. The MAbs were used in combination with a standard mycological growth medium (Sabouraud Dextrose Agar to develop an enzyme-linked immunosorbent assay (ELISA for differentiation of T. asahii from Candida albicans and Cryptococcus neoformans in single and mixed species cultures. The MAbs represent a major advance in the identification of T. asahii and T. asteroides using standard mycological identification methods.

  16. Previously unknown species of Aspergillus.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gautier, M; Normand, A-C; Ranque, S

    2016-08-01

    The use of multi-locus DNA sequence analysis has led to the description of previously unknown 'cryptic' Aspergillus species, whereas classical morphology-based identification of Aspergillus remains limited to the section or species-complex level. The current literature highlights two main features concerning these 'cryptic' Aspergillus species. First, the prevalence of such species in clinical samples is relatively high compared with emergent filamentous fungal taxa such as Mucorales, Scedosporium or Fusarium. Second, it is clearly important to identify these species in the clinical laboratory because of the high frequency of antifungal drug-resistant isolates of such Aspergillus species. Matrix-assisted laser desorption/ionization-time of flight mass spectrometry (MALDI-TOF MS) has recently been shown to enable the identification of filamentous fungi with an accuracy similar to that of DNA sequence-based methods. As MALDI-TOF MS is well suited to the routine clinical laboratory workflow, it facilitates the identification of these 'cryptic' Aspergillus species at the routine mycology bench. The rapid establishment of enhanced filamentous fungi identification facilities will lead to a better understanding of the epidemiology and clinical importance of these emerging Aspergillus species. Based on routine MALDI-TOF MS-based identification results, we provide original insights into the key interpretation issues of a positive Aspergillus culture from a clinical sample. Which ubiquitous species that are frequently isolated from air samples are rarely involved in human invasive disease? Can both the species and the type of biological sample indicate Aspergillus carriage, colonization or infection in a patient? Highly accurate routine filamentous fungi identification is central to enhance the understanding of these previously unknown Aspergillus species, with a vital impact on further improved patient care. Copyright © 2016 European Society of Clinical Microbiology and

  17. A MIQE-compliant real-time PCR assay for Aspergillus detection.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Gemma L Johnson

    Full Text Available The polymerase chain reaction (PCR is widely used as a diagnostic tool in clinical laboratories and is particularly effective for detecting and identifying infectious agents for which routine culture and microscopy methods are inadequate. Invasive fungal disease (IFD is a major cause of morbidity and mortality in immunosuppressed patients, and optimal diagnostic criteria are contentious. Although PCR-based methods have long been used for the diagnosis of invasive aspergillosis (IA, variable performance in clinical practice has limited their value. This shortcoming is a consequence of differing sample selection, collection and preparation protocols coupled with a lack of standardisation of the PCR itself. Furthermore, it has become clear that the performance of PCR-based assays in general is compromised by the inadequacy of experimental controls, insufficient optimisation of assay performance as well as lack of transparency in reporting experimental details. The recently published "Minimum Information for the publication of real-time Quantitative PCR Experiments" (MIQE guidelines provide a blueprint for good PCR assay design and unambiguous reporting of experimental detail and results. We report the first real-time quantitative PCR (qPCR assay targeting Aspergillus species that has been designed, optimised and validated in strict compliance with the MIQE guidelines. The hydrolysis probe-based assay, designed to target the 18S rRNA DNA sequence of Aspergillus species, has an efficiency of 100% (range 95-107%, a dynamic range of at least six orders of magnitude and limits of quantification and detection of 6 and 0.6 Aspergillus fumigatus genomes, respectively. It does not amplify Candida, Scedosporium, Fusarium or Rhizopus species and its clinical sensitivity is demonstrated in histological material from proven IA cases, as well as concordant PCR and galactomannan data in matched broncho-alveolar lavage and blood samples. The robustness

  18. Simultaneous detection and identification of Aspergillus and mucorales species in tissues collected from patients with fungal rhinosinusitis.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zhao, Zuotao; Li, Lili; Wan, Zhe; Chen, Wei; Liu, Honggang; Li, Ruoyu

    2011-04-01

    Rapid detection and differentiation of Aspergillus and Mucorales species in fungal rhinosinusitis diagnosis are desirable, since the clinical management and prognosis associated with the two taxa are fundamentally different. We describe an assay based on a combination of broad-range PCR amplification and reverse line blot hybridization (PCR/RLB) to detect and differentiate the pathogens causing fungal rhinosinusitis, which include five Aspergillus species (A. fumigatus, A. flavus, A. niger, A. terreus, and A. nidulans) and seven Mucorales species (Mucor heimalis, Mucor racemosus, Mucor cercinelloidea, Rhizopus arrhizus, Rhizopus microsporus, Rhizomucor pusillus, and Absidia corymbifera). The assay was validated with 98 well-characterized clinical isolates and 41 clinical tissue specimens. PCR/RLB showed high sensitivity and specificity, with 100% correct identifications of 98 clinical isolates and no cross-hybridization between the species-specific probes. Results for five control isolates, Candida albicans, Fusarium solani, Scedosporium apiospermum, Penicillium marneffei, and Exophiala verrucosa, were negative as judged by PCR/RLB. The analytical sensitivity of PCR/RLB was found to be 1.8 × 10(-3) ng/μl by 10-fold serial dilution of Aspergillus genomic DNA. The assay identified 35 of 41 (85.4%) clinical specimens, exhibiting a higher sensitivity than fungal culture (22 of 41; 53.7%) and direct sequencing (18 of 41; 43.9%). PCR/RLB similarly showed high specificity, with correct identification 16 of 18 specimens detected by internal transcribed spacer (ITS) sequencing and 16 of 22 detected by fungal culture, but it also has the additional advantage of being able to detect mixed infection in a single clinical specimen. The PCR/RLB assay thus provides a rapid and reliable option for laboratory diagnosis of fungal rhinosinusitis.

  19. Simultaneous Detection and Identification of Aspergillus and Mucorales Species in Tissues Collected from Patients with Fungal Rhinosinusitis▿

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zhao, Zuotao; Li, Lili; Wan, Zhe; Chen, Wei; Liu, Honggang; Li, Ruoyu

    2011-01-01

    Rapid detection and differentiation of Aspergillus and Mucorales species in fungal rhinosinusitis diagnosis are desirable, since the clinical management and prognosis associated with the two taxa are fundamentally different. We describe an assay based on a combination of broad-range PCR amplification and reverse line blot hybridization (PCR/RLB) to detect and differentiate the pathogens causing fungal rhinosinusitis, which include five Aspergillus species (A. fumigatus, A. flavus, A. niger, A. terreus, and A. nidulans) and seven Mucorales species (Mucor heimalis, Mucor racemosus, Mucor cercinelloidea, Rhizopus arrhizus, Rhizopus microsporus, Rhizomucor pusillus, and Absidia corymbifera). The assay was validated with 98 well-characterized clinical isolates and 41 clinical tissue specimens. PCR/RLB showed high sensitivity and specificity, with 100% correct identifications of 98 clinical isolates and no cross-hybridization between the species-specific probes. Results for five control isolates, Candida albicans, Fusarium solani, Scedosporium apiospermum, Penicillium marneffei, and Exophiala verrucosa, were negative as judged by PCR/RLB. The analytical sensitivity of PCR/RLB was found to be 1.8 × 10−3 ng/μl by 10-fold serial dilution of Aspergillus genomic DNA. The assay identified 35 of 41 (85.4%) clinical specimens, exhibiting a higher sensitivity than fungal culture (22 of 41; 53.7%) and direct sequencing (18 of 41; 43.9%). PCR/RLB similarly showed high specificity, with correct identification 16 of 18 specimens detected by internal transcribed spacer (ITS) sequencing and 16 of 22 detected by fungal culture, but it also has the additional advantage of being able to detect mixed infection in a single clinical specimen. The PCR/RLB assay thus provides a rapid and reliable option for laboratory diagnosis of fungal rhinosinusitis. PMID:21325541

  20. Mycetoma: experience of 482 cases in a single center in Mexico.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Alexandro Bonifaz

    2014-08-01

    Full Text Available Mycetoma is a chronic granulomatous disease. It is classified into eumycetoma caused by fungi and actinomycetoma due to filamentous actinomycetes. Mycetoma can be found in geographic areas in close proximity to the Tropic of Cancer. Mexico is one of the countries in which this disease is highly endemic. In this retrospective study we report epidemiologic, clinical and microbiologic data of mycetoma observed in the General Hospital of Mexico in a 33 year-period (1980 to 2013. A total of 482 cases were included which were clinical and microbiology confirmed. Four hundred and forty four cases (92.11% were actinomycetomas and 38 cases (7.88% were eumycetomas. Most patients were agricultural workers; there was a male predominance with a sex ratio of 3:1. The mean age was 34.5 years old (most ranged from 21 to 40 years. The main affected localization was lower and upper limbs (70.74% and 14.52% respectively. Most of the patients came from humid tropical areas (Morelos, Guerrero and Hidalgo were the regions commonly reported. The main clinical presentation was as tumor-like soft tissue swelling with draining sinuses (97.1%. Grains were observed in all the cases. The principal causative agents for actinomycetoma were: Nocardia brasiliensis (78.21% and Actinomadura madurae (8.7%; meanwhile, for eumycetomas: Madurella mycetomatis and Scedosporium boydii (synonym: Pseudallescheria boydii were identified. This is a single-center, with long-follow up, cross-sectional study that allows determining the prevalence and characteristics of mycetoma in different regions of Mexico.

  1. Review of 21 cases of mycetoma from 1991 to 2014 in Rio de Janeiro, Brazil.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Felipe Maurício Soeiro Sampaio

    2017-02-01

    Full Text Available Mycetoma is caused by the subcutaneous inoculation of filamentous fungi or aerobic filamentous bacteria that form grains in the tissue. The purpose of this study is to describe the epidemiologic, clinic, laboratory, and therapeutic characteristics of patients with mycetoma at the Oswaldo Cruz Foundation in Rio de Janeiro, Brazil, between 1991 and 2014. Twenty-one cases of mycetoma were included in the study. There was a predominance of male patients (1.3:1 and the average patient age was 46 years. The majority of the cases were from the Southeast region of Brazil and the feet were the most affected anatomical region (80.95%. Eumycetoma prevailed over actinomycetoma (61.9% and 38.1% respectively. Eumycetoma patients had positive cultures in 8 of 13 cases, with isolation of Scedosporium apiospermum species complex (n = 3, Madurella mycetomatis (n = 2 and Acremonium spp. (n = 1. Two cases presented sterile mycelium and five were negative. Six of 8 actinomycetoma cases had cultures that were identified as Nocardia spp. (n = 3, Nocardia brasiliensis (n = 2, and Nocardia asteroides (n = 1. Imaging tests were performed on all but one patients, and bone destruction was identified in 9 cases (42.68%. All eumycetoma cases were treated with itraconazole monotherapy or combined with fluconazole, terbinafine, or amphotericin B. Actinomycetoma cases were treated with sulfamethoxazole plus trimethoprim or combined with cycles of amikacin sulphate. Surgical procedures were performed in 9 (69.2% eumycetoma and in 3 (37.5% actinomycetoma cases, with one amputation case in each group. Clinical cure occurred in 11 cases (7 for eumycetoma and 4 for actinomycetoma, and recurrence was documented in 4 of 21 cases. No deaths were recorded during the study. Despite of the scarcity of mycetoma in our institution the cases presented reflect the wide clinical spectrum and difficulties to take care of this neglected disease.

  2. Stimulation with lysates of Aspergillus terreus, Candida krusei and Rhizopus oryzae maximizes cross-reactivity of anti-fungal T cells.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Deo, Shivashni S; Virassamy, Balaji; Halliday, Catriona; Clancy, Leighton; Chen, Sharon; Meyer, Wieland; Sorrell, Tania C; Gottlieb, David J

    2016-01-01

    Invasive fungal diseases caused by filamentous fungi and yeasts are significant causes of morbidity and mortality in immunosuppressed hematology patients. We previously published a method to expand Aspergillus fumigatus-specific T cells for clinical cell therapy. In the present study, we investigated expansion of T cells specific for other fungal pathogens and creation of a broadly reactive panfungal T-cell product. Fungal strains selected were those frequently observed in the clinical hematology setting and included Aspergillus, Candida, Fusarium, Rhizopus and Lomentospora/Scedosporium. Four T-cell cultures specific to each fungus were established. We selected lysates of Aspergillus terreus, Candida krusei and Rhizopus oryzae to expand panfungal T cells. Allelic restriction of anti-fungal activity was determined through the use of specific major histocompatibility complex class II-blocking antibodies. Individual T-cell cultures specific to each fungus could be expanded in vitro, generating predominantly CD4(+) T cells of which 8% to 20% were fungus-specific. We successfully expanded panfungal T cells from the peripheral blood (n = 8) and granulocyte-colony-stimulating factor-primed stem cell products (n = 3) of normal donors by using a combination of lysates from Aspergillus terreus, Candida krusei and Rhizopus oryzae. Anti-fungal activity was mediated through human leukocyte antigen (HLA)-DR alleles and was maintained when antigen-presenting cells from partially HLA-DRB1-matched donors were used to stimulate T cells. We demonstrate a method to manufacture panfungal T-cell products with specificity against a range of clinical fungal pathogens by use of the blood and stem cells of healthy donors as the starting material. The safety and efficacy of these products will need to be tested clinically. Copyright © 2015 International Society for Cellular Therapy. Published by Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  3. MICROBIOLOGICAL PATTERN AND EPIDEMIOLOGIC TRENDS OF FUNGAL KERATITIS IN NORTH INDIA

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Yusuf Rizvi

    2016-06-01

    Full Text Available CONTEXT Spectrum of fungal keratitis continues to change with geographical location and season. Microbiological and epidemiological data provide guidelines to the treating physician facilitating chances of successful treatment. PURPOSE To report microbiologic and epidemiologic profile of 119 culture-positive cases of fungal keratitis treated at a tertiary centre in North India. SETTINGS AND DESIGN All cases reporting directly or referred to the OPD of Eye Department of Rohilkhand Medical College and Hospital, Bareilly, India, diagnosed and treated as fungal keratitis during a 3-year period between March 2012 and Feb 2015. METHODS Retrospective analysis of clinical and microbiological data of 119 culture-positive cases of fungal keratitis. Demographic features, risk factors, clinical course and laboratory findings were reviewed. RESULTS All patients were residents of 11 adjoining districts of Northern India. Of the 119 patients, 76 (63.8% were males (male: female ratio 1.79:1. 81(68% patients were in young productive age group of 20-45 years. 87 (73% were rural based. Ocular trauma with vegetative material, especially sugarcane leaf or dust falling in eyes were the chief precipitating factors; n = 89 (74.7%. Microbiologically Fusarium was the predominant isolate, 64 cases (53.7%, followed by Aspergillus 34(28.6% and Candida 11(9.2%. 2 cases of Alternaria and Curvularia and solitary cases of Acremonium and Scedosporium were reported. 4 strains remained unidentified. Mode of injury had a causal relation with fungal aetiology. Majority of Fusarium infections were caused by vegetative injuries 39(61%. Of these, 15(23.4% were attributed to sugarcane leaves. Soil/dust fall in eye or Surma application were responsible for bulk of Aspergillus infections; 21(61.7%. Candida infections were sporadic with a higher presenting age (Mean av 51.2 years and a frequent association with topical steroid usage, (8 of 11 cases. Aspergillus infections were predominant

  4. Screening of extremotolerant fungi for the bioremediation of hydrocarbon contaminated sites

    Science.gov (United States)

    Poyntner, Caroline; Blasi, Barbara; Prenafeta, Francesc; Sterflinger, Katja

    2015-04-01

    Bioremediation can be used to treat contaminated sites, by taking advantage of microorganisms which have the potential to degrade a wide range of contaminants. While research has been focused mainly on bacteria, the knowledge on other microorganisms, especially fungal communities, is still limited. However, the use of fungi may have advantages compared to bacteria. Extremophile fungi like the black yeasts can withstand high levels of environmental stress (e.g. range of pH, water availability and temperature, presence of toxic chemicals). Therefore they might be applicable in situations, where bacterial communities show limited performance. In order to identify fungi which are good candidates for bioremediation application, a selection of 163 fungal strains, mostly from the group of the black yeasts, was tested for their capability to degrade three different pollutants: hexadecane, toluene, and polychlorinated biphenyl 126, which were used as model compounds for aliphatic hydrocarbons, aromatic hydrocarbons and polychlorinated biphenyls. These chemicals are frequently found in sites contaminated by oil, gas and coal. The screening was based on a two-step selection approach. As a first step, a high throughput method was developed to screen the relatively large amount of fungal strains regarding their tolerance to the contaminants. A microtiter plate based method was developed for monitoring fungal growth in the presence of the selected contaminants photometrically with a Tecan reader. Twenty five strains out of 163, being species of the genera Cladophilaophora, Scedosporium and Exophiala, showed the ability to grow on at least 2 hydrocarbons, and are therefore the most promising candidates for further tests. In a second step, degradation of the contaminants was investigated in more detail for a subset of the screened fungi. This was done by closing the carbon balance in sealed liquid cultures in which the selected pollutant was introduce as the sole source of carbon

  5. Targeted Disruption of Melanin Biosynthesis Genes in the Human Pathogenic Fungus Lomentospora prolificans and Its Consequences for Pathogen Survival

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ayat Al-Laaeiby

    2016-03-01

    Full Text Available The dematiaceous (melanised fungus Lomentospora (Scedosporium prolificans is a life-threatening opportunistic pathogen of immunocompromised humans, resistant to anti-fungal drugs. Melanin has been shown to protect human pathogenic fungi against antifungal drugs, oxidative killing and environmental stresses. To determine the protective role of melanin in L. prolificans to oxidative killing (H2O2, UV radiation and the polyene anti-fungal drug amphotericin B, targeted gene disruption was used to generate mutants of the pathogen lacking the dihydroxynaphthalene (DHN-melanin biosynthetic enzymes polyketide synthase (PKS1, tetrahydroxynapthalene reductase (4HNR and scytalone dehydratase (SCD1. Infectious propagules (spores of the wild-type strain 3.1 were black/brown, whereas spores of the PKS-deficient mutant ΔLppks1::hph were white. Complementation of the albino mutant ΔLppks1::hph restored the black-brown spore pigmentation, while the 4HNR-deficient mutant ΔLp4hnr::hph and SCD-deficient mutant ΔLpscd1::hph both produced orange-yellow spores. The mutants ΔLppks1::hph and ΔLp4hnr::hph showed significant reductions in spore survival following H2O2 treatment, while spores of ΔLpscd1::hph and the ΔLppks1::hph complemented strain ΔLppks1::hph:PKS showed spore survivals similar to strain 3.1. Spores of the mutants ΔLp4hnr::hph and ΔLpscd1::hph and complemented strain ΔLppks1::hph:PKS showed spore survivals similar to 3.1 following exposure to UV radiation, but survival of ΔLppks1::hph spores was significantly reduced compared to the wild-type strain. Strain 3.1 and mutants ΔLp4hnr::hph and ΔLppks1::hph:PKS were resistant to amphotericin B while, paradoxically, the PKS1- and SCD1-deficient mutants showed significant increases in growth in the presence of the antifungal drug. Taken together, these results show that while melanin plays a protective role in the survival of the pathogen to oxidative killing and UV radiation, melanin does not

  6. Targeted Disruption of Melanin Biosynthesis Genes in the Human Pathogenic Fungus Lomentospora prolificans and Its Consequences for Pathogen Survival.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Al-Laaeiby, Ayat; Kershaw, Michael J; Penn, Tina J; Thornton, Christopher R

    2016-03-24

    The dematiaceous (melanised) fungus Lomentospora (Scedosporium) prolificans is a life-threatening opportunistic pathogen of immunocompromised humans, resistant to anti-fungal drugs. Melanin has been shown to protect human pathogenic fungi against antifungal drugs, oxidative killing and environmental stresses. To determine the protective role of melanin in L. prolificans to oxidative killing (H₂O₂), UV radiation and the polyene anti-fungal drug amphotericin B, targeted gene disruption was used to generate mutants of the pathogen lacking the dihydroxynaphthalene (DHN)-melanin biosynthetic enzymes polyketide synthase (PKS1), tetrahydroxynapthalene reductase (4HNR) and scytalone dehydratase (SCD1). Infectious propagules (spores) of the wild-type strain 3.1 were black/brown, whereas spores of the PKS-deficient mutant ΔLppks1::hph were white. Complementation of the albino mutant ΔLppks1::hph restored the black-brown spore pigmentation, while the 4HNR-deficient mutant ΔLp4hnr::hph and SCD-deficient mutant ΔLpscd1::hph both produced orange-yellow spores. The mutants ΔLppks1::hph and ΔLp4hnr::hph showed significant reductions in spore survival following H₂O₂ treatment, while spores of ΔLpscd1::hph and the ΔLppks1::hph complemented strain ΔLppks1::hph:PKS showed spore survivals similar to strain 3.1. Spores of the mutants ΔLp4hnr::hph and ΔLpscd1::hph and complemented strain ΔLppks1::hph:PKS showed spore survivals similar to 3.1 following exposure to UV radiation, but survival of ΔLppks1::hph spores was significantly reduced compared to the wild-type strain. Strain 3.1 and mutants ΔLp4hnr::hph and ΔLppks1::hph:PKS were resistant to amphotericin B while, paradoxically, the PKS1- and SCD1-deficient mutants showed significant increases in growth in the presence of the antifungal drug. Taken together, these results show that while melanin plays a protective role in the survival of the pathogen to oxidative killing and UV radiation, melanin does not

  7. CT differential diagnosis of fungal ball in paranasal sinus caused by different mycotic pathogenic agents

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Chen Xiaoli; Wang Zhenchang; Lu Xinxin; Xian Junfang; Li Jing; Geng Jiajing

    2012-01-01

    Objective: To evaluate CT characteristics of fungal ball in paranasal sinus caused by different fungi and to enhance differential diagnosis. Methods: CT results and clinical data of 74 patients with fungal ball arising from the paranasal sinuses proved by histopathology from 2007 to 2009 were analyzed retrospectively. The CT characteristics of fungal ball in paranasal sinus caused by different fungi were compared using χ 2 test with P<0.05 considered statistically significant. Results: Among 74 mycotic pathogenic agents,aspergillus was found in 58 cases (including 36 cases with aspergillus flavus, 15 cases with aspergillus fumigatus and 7 with aspergillus versicolor), the others including 5 cases with penicillium, 6 cases with schizophyllum commune, and 5 cases with scedosporium apiospermum. There were significant differences in the number of sinus involved (single sinus involvement was seen in 29 cases caused by aspergillus group and 2 cases caused by non-aspergillus-group, respectively, with χ 2 =7.245, P=0.007), the incidence of fungus ball in ethmoid sinus [39.7% (23/58) of cases caused by aspergillus group and 81.3% (13/16) of cases caused by non-aspergillus-group, respectively, with χ2=8.685, P=0.003] and calcification (40 of 58 cases caused by aspergillus group and 5 of 16 cases caused by non-aspergillus-group, respectively, with χ 2 =7.485, P=0.006), the location of calcification (26 of 40 cases with central calcification and 14 of 40 cases with peripheral calcification in cases caused by aspergillus group, while all of 5 cases caused by non-aspergillus-group with peripheral calcification, χ 2 =7.697, P=0.006). However, there was no significant difference in the incidence of bilateral lesions (χ 2 =1.002, P=0.317), maxillary sinus involvement (χ 2 =0.020, P=0.888), sphenoidal sinus involvement (χ 2 =0.704, P=0.401), frontal sinus involvement (χ 2 =0.126, P=0.723), bony sclerosis (χ 2 =2.024, P=0.155), lamellar calcification (χ 2 =2.045, P=0

  8. Fungal Planet description sheets: 469-557.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Crous, P W; Wingfield, M J; Burgess, T I; Hardy, G E St J; Crane, C; Barrett, S; Cano-Lira, J F; Le Roux, J J; Thangavel, R; Guarro, J; Stchigel, A M; Martín, M P; Alfredo, D S; Barber, P A; Barreto, R W; Baseia, I G; Cano-Canals, J; Cheewangkoon, R; Ferreira, R J; Gené, J; Lechat, C; Moreno, G; Roets, F; Shivas, R G; Sousa, J O; Tan, Y P; Wiederhold, N P; Abell, S E; Accioly, T; Albizu, J L; Alves, J L; Antoniolli, Z I; Aplin, N; Araújo, J; Arzanlou, M; Bezerra, J D P; Bouchara, J-P; Carlavilla, J R; Castillo, A; Castroagudín, V L; Ceresini, P C; Claridge, G F; Coelho, G; Coimbra, V R M; Costa, L A; da Cunha, K C; da Silva, S S; Daniel, R; de Beer, Z W; Dueñas, M; Edwards, J; Enwistle, P; Fiuza, P O; Fournier, J; García, D; Gibertoni, T B; Giraud, S; Guevara-Suarez, M; Gusmão, L F P; Haituk, S; Heykoop, M; Hirooka, Y; Hofmann, T A; Houbraken, J; Hughes, D P; Kautmanová, I; Koppel, O; Koukol, O; Larsson, E; Latha, K P D; Lee, D H; Lisboa, D O; Lisboa, W S; López-Villalba, Á; Maciel, J L N; Manimohan, P; Manjón, J L; Marincowitz, S; Marney, T S; Meijer, M; Miller, A N; Olariaga, I; Paiva, L M; Piepenbring, M; Poveda-Molero, J C; Raj, K N A; Raja, H A; Rougeron, A; Salcedo, I; Samadi, R; Santos, T A B; Scarlett, K; Seifert, K A; Shuttleworth, L A; Silva, G A; Silva, M; Siqueira, J P Z; Souza-Motta, C M; Stephenson, S L; Sutton, D A; Tamakeaw, N; Telleria, M T; Valenzuela-Lopez, N; Viljoen, A; Visagie, C M; Vizzini, A; Wartchow, F; Wingfield, B D; Yurchenko, E; Zamora, J C; Groenewald, J Z

    2016-12-01

    caatingaensis (endophyte from Tacinga inamoena ), Geastrum ishikawae on sandy soil, Geastrum pusillipilosum on soil, Gymnopus pygmaeus on dead leaves and sticks, Inonotus hymenonitens on decayed angiosperm trunk, Pyricularia urashimae on Urochloa brizantha , and Synnemellisia aurantia on Passiflora edulis . Chile : Tubulicrinis australis on Lophosoria quadripinnata. France : Cercophora squamulosa from submerged wood, and Scedosporium cereisporum from fluids of a wastewater treatment plant. Hawaii : Beltraniella acaciae , Dactylaria acaciae , Rhexodenticula acaciae , Rubikia evansii and Torula acaciae (all on Acacia koa ) . India : Lepidoderma echinosporum on dead semi-woody stems, and Rhodocybe rubrobrunnea from soil. Iran : Talaromyces kabodanensis from hypersaline soil. La Réunion : Neocordana musarum from leaves of Musa sp. Malaysia : Anungitea eucalyptigena on Eucalyptus grandis × pellita , Camptomeriphila leucaenae (incl. Camptomeriphila gen. nov.) on Leucaena leucocephala , Castanediella communis on Eucalyptus pellita , Eucalyptostroma eucalypti (incl. Eucalyptostroma gen. nov.) on Eucalyptus pellita , Melanconiella syzygii on Syzygium sp., Mycophilomyces periconiae (incl. Mycophilomyces gen. nov.) as hyperparasite on Periconia on leaves of Albizia falcataria , Synnemadiella eucalypti (incl. Synnemadiella gen. nov.) on Eucalyptus pellita , and Teichospora nephelii on Nephelium lappaceum. Mexico : Aspergillus bicephalus from soil. New Zealand : Aplosporella sophorae on Sophora microphylla , Libertasomyces platani on Platanus sp., Neothyronectria sophorae (incl. Neothyronectria gen. nov.) on Sophora microphylla , Parastagonospora phoenicicola on Phoenix canariensis , Phaeoacremonium pseudopanacis on Pseudopanax crassifolius , Phlyctema phoenicis on Phoenix canariensis , and Pseudoascochyta novae-zelandiae on Cordyline australis. Panama : Chalara panamensis from needle litter of Pinus cf. caribaea . South Africa : Exophiala eucalypti on leaves of Eucalyptus sp