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Sample records for scc mitigation method

  1. Developments in SCC Mitigation by Electrocatalysis

    Science.gov (United States)

    Andresen, Peter L.; Kim, Young J.

    SCC is strongly influenced by water chemistry parameters, especially when crack chemistry can be concentrated from differential aeration or thermal gradients or boiling. Mitigation of the effects of the high corrosion potential associated with oxidants is markedly and efficiently accomplished by electrocatalysis, which requires that there be a stoichiometric excess of reductants over oxidants. Mechanisms and criteria for effective SCC mitigation are summarized, with particular focus on the critical location for the catalyst in a crack and experimental support for these concepts. Optimization of electrocatalysis by OnLine NobleChem- is described, for example where Pt is injected at levels of 0.002 to 0.05 ppb in the reactor water.

  2. Self-compacting concretes (SCC: comparison of methods of dosage

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    B. F. Tutikian

    Full Text Available The composition of a self-compacting concrete (SCC should be defined to fulfills a number of requirements, such as self-compactibility, strength and durability. This study aims to compare three methods of dosage for SCC with local materials, so as to determine which one is the most economical and rational, thus assisting the executor in making a decision and enabling economic and technical feasibility for its application. The methods used in the experimental program were: Nan Su et al., which was developed in 2001 [1]; Repette-Melo, which was proposed in 2005 [2]; and Tutikian & Dal Molin, which was developed in 2007 [3]. From the results obtained in the experimental program, it was observed that the method which presented the lowest cost and highest compressive strength at the ages of 7, 28 and 91 days was Tutikian & Dal Molin, while the one which reached the lowest chloride ion penetration, best compactness and highest elasticity modulus was Repette-Melo. In tests carried out in the fresh state, all tested methods yielded mixtures which comply with the self-compactibility levels required by ABNT NBR 15823:2010 [4].

  3. Comparison of Architect i2000 for determination of Scc with IMX determination of SCC with different methods.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Serdarevic, Nafija; Stanciu, Adina Elena

    2013-01-01

    SCC (squamous cell carcinoma) antigen (SSCA), a tumor marker, is already used for the diagnosis and follow-up of carcinoma of the cervix and lungs. The aim of our study was the determination of SCCA concentration in 96 serum samples using CMIA (chemiluminesecent microparticle immnoassay) on an Architect i2000 (Abbott Diagnostics) and MEIA (microparticle enzyme immnoassay) on an IMx Chemistry Analyzer (Abbott Diagnostics). In our investigation we used a CMIA (chemiluminesecent microparticle immnoassay) Architect i2000 and MEIA (microparticle enzyme immnoassay) Imx Chemistry Analyzer for SCCA determination. All patients were hospitalized at the Department of Gynecologic Oncology and Department for Oncology at the University Clinics Center of Sarajevo. The normal serum range of SCCA should be Architect i2000 were assessed. The quality control was done using quality control serums for low (X = 2.17 microg/L), medium (X = 10.23 microg/L), and high (X = 48.99 microg/L) range. The precision for the Architect i2000 has a CV of 3.44% to 4.44%. We established that the main difference between Architect i2000 and IMx was statistically significant at p Architect than on the IMx because the sensitivity of the Architect assay is high (Architect technology is an applicable method significant in diagnostic of SCCA.

  4. Application of the SCC-DFTB method to hydroxide water clusters and aqueous hydroxide solutions.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Choi, Tae Hoon; Liang, Ruibin; Maupin, C Mark; Voth, Gregory A

    2013-05-02

    The self-consistent charge density functional tight binding (SCC-DFTB) method has been applied to hydroxide water clusters and a hydroxide ion in bulk water. To determine the impact of various implementations of SCC-DFTB on the energetics and dynamics of a hydroxide ion in gas phase and condensed phase, the DFTB2, DFTB2-γ(h), DFTB2-γ(h)+gaus, DFTB3-diag, DFTB3-diag+gaus, DFTB3-Full+gaus, and DFTB3-3OB implementations have been tested. Energetic stabilities for small hydroxide clusters, OH(-)(H2O)n, where n = 4-7, are inconsistent with the results calculated with the B3LYP and second order Møller-Plesset (MP2) levels of ab initio theory. The condensed phase simulations, OH(-)(H2O)127, using the DFTB2, DFTB2-γ(h), DFTB2-γ(h)+gaus, DFTB3-diag, DFTB3-diag+gaus, DFTB3-Full+gaus and DFTB3-3OB methods are compared to Car-Parrinello molecular dynamics (CPMD) simulations using the BLYP functional. The SCC-DFTB method including a modified O-H repulsive potential and the third order correction (DFTB3-diag/Full+gaus) is shown to poorly reproduce the CPMD computational results, while the DFTB2 and DFTB2-γ(h) method somewhat more closely describe the structural and dynamical nature of the hydroxide ion in condensed phase. The DFTB3-3OB outperforms the MIO parameter set but is no more accurate than DFTB2. It is also shown that the overcoordinated water molecules lead to an incorrect bulk water density and result in unphysical water void formation. The results presented in this paper point to serious drawbacks for various DFTB extensions and corrections for a hydroxide ion in aqueous environments.

  5. Novel Ice Mitigation Methods

    Science.gov (United States)

    2008-01-01

    After the loss of Columbia, there was great concern in the Space Shuttle program for the impact of debris against the leading edges of the Orbiter wings. It was quickly recognized that, in addition to impacts by foam, ice that formed on the liquid-oxygen bellows running down the outside of the External Tank could break free during launch and hit this sensitive area. A Center Director s Discretionary Fund (CDDF) project would concentrate on novel ideas that were potentially applicable. The most successful of the new concepts for ice mitigation involved shape memory alloy materials. These materials can be bent into a given shape and, when heated, will return to their original shape.

  6. Finite difference simulation of ultrasonic NDE methods for the detection and sizing of Stress Corrosion Cracking (SCC)

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Pörtzgen, N.; Volker, A.W.F.; Fingerhut, M.; Tomar, M.; Wassink, C.

    2006-01-01

    Although solutions for detection and sizing of longitudinal and circumferential cracks in pipeline walls exist, reliable detection and sizing of SCC in pipelines has been a challenge for Non Destructive Evaluation (NDE) for many years. Detection and sizing are impeded by the fact that SCC can have

  7. SCC: Semantic Context Cascade for Efficient Action Detection

    KAUST Repository

    Heilbron, Fabian Caba

    2017-11-09

    Despite the recent advances in large-scale video analysis, action detection remains as one of the most challenging unsolved problems in computer vision. This snag is in part due to the large volume of data that needs to be analyzed to detect actions in videos. Existing approaches have mitigated the computational cost, but still, these methods lack rich high-level semantics that helps them to localize the actions quickly. In this paper, we introduce a Semantic Cascade Context (SCC) model that aims to detect action in long video sequences. By embracing semantic priors associated with human activities, SCC produces high-quality class-specific action proposals and prune unrelated activities in a cascade fashion. Experimental results in ActivityNet unveils that SCC achieves state-of-the-art performance for action detection while operating at real time.

  8. Rural methods to mitigate arsenic contaminated water

    OpenAIRE

    Parajuli, Krishna

    2013-01-01

    Consumption of arsenic contaminated water is one of the burning issues in the rural world. Poor public awareness program about health effects of drinking arsenic contaminated water and the rural methods to mitigate this problem poses a great threat of arsenic poisoning many people of the rural world. In this thesis, arsenic removal efficiency and the working mechanism of four rural and economical arsenic mitigation technologies i.e. solar oxidation and reduction of arsenic (SORAS), Bucket tr...

  9. Review of NDE Methods for Detection and Monitoring of Atmospheric SCC in Welded Canisters for the Storage of Used Nuclear Fuel

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Meyer, Ryan M. [Pacific Northwest National Lab. (PNNL), Richland, WA (United States); Pardini, Allan F. [Pacific Northwest National Lab. (PNNL), Richland, WA (United States); Hanson, Brady D. [Pacific Northwest National Lab. (PNNL), Richland, WA (United States); Sorenson, Ken B. [Pacific Northwest National Lab. (PNNL), Richland, WA (United States)

    2013-01-14

    Dry cask storage systems (DCSSs) for used nuclear fuel (UNF) were originally envisioned for storage periods of short duration (~ a few decades). However, uncertainty challenges the opening of a permanent repository for UNF implying that UNF will need to remain in dry storage for much longer durations than originally envisioned (possibly for centuries). Thus, aging degradation of DCSSs becomes an issue that may not have been sufficiently considered in the design phase and that can challenge the efficacy of very long-term storage of UNF. A particular aging degradation concern is atmospheric stress corrosion cracking (SCC) of DCSSs located in marine environments. In this report, several nondestructive (NDE) methods are evaluated with respect to their potential for effective monitoring of atmospheric SCC in welded canisters of DCSSs. Several of the methods are selected for evaluation based on their usage for in-service inspection applications in the nuclear power industry. The technologies considered include bulk ultrasonic techniques, acoustic emission, visual techniques, eddy current, and guided ultrasonic waves.

  10. Self-compacting concrete (SCC)

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Geiker, Mette Rica

    2008-01-01

    In many aspects Self-Compacting Concrete (SCC, “Self-Consolidating Concrete” in North America) can be considered the concrete of the future. SCC is a family of tailored concretes with special engineered properties in the fresh state. SCC flows into the formwork and around even complicated...... reinforcement arrangements under its own weight. Thus, SCC is not vibrated like conventional concrete. This drastically improves the working environment during construction, the productivity, and potentially improves the homogeneity and quality of the concrete. In addition SCC provides larger architectural...

  11. Computational modelling of SCC flow

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Geiker, Mette Rica; Thrane, Lars Nyholm; Szabo, Peter

    2005-01-01

    To benefit from the full potential of self-compacting concrete (SCC) prediction tools are needed for the form filling of SCC. Such tools should take into account the properties of the concrete, the shape and size of the structural element, the position of rebars, and the casting technique. Examples...

  12. SCC crack growth rate of cold worked 316L stainless steel in PWR environment

    Science.gov (United States)

    Du, Donghai; Chen, Kai; Yu, Lun; lu, Hui; Zhang, Lefu; Shi, Xiuqiang; Xu, Xuelian

    2015-01-01

    Many component failures in nuclear power plants were found to be caused by stress corrosion cracking (SCC) of cold worked austenitic steels. Some of the pressure boundary component materials are even cold worked up to 35% plastic deformation, leaving high residual stress and inducing high growth rate of corrosion crack. Controlling water chemistry is one of the best counter measure to mitigate this problem. In this work, the effects of temperature (200 up to 325 °C) and dissolved oxygen (0 up to 2000 μg/L) on SCC crack growth rates of cold worked austenitic stainless steel type 316L have been tested by using direct current potential drop (DCPD) method. The results showed that temperature affected SCC crack growth rates more significantly in oxygenated water than in deaerated water. In argon deaerated water, the crack growth rate exhibited a peak at about 250 °C, which needs further verification. At 325 °C, the SCC crack growth rate increased rapidly with the increase of dissolved oxygen concentration within the range from 0 up to 200 μg/L, while when dissolved oxygen was above 200 μg/L, the crack growth rate followed a shallower dependence on dissolved oxygen concentration.

  13. SCC of stainless steel under evaporative conditions

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Andersen, H.; Arnvig, P.E.; Wasielewska, W.; Wegrelius, L.; Wolfe, C. [Avesta Sheffield AB, Avesta (Sweden)

    1998-12-31

    Three different test methods have been used to assess the susceptibility of different stainless steel grades to SCC under evaporative and immersed conditions. The methods employed were the drop evaporation test, the wick test and a high temperature, high pressure test simulating a feedwater heater tubing application in power plants. The alloys investigated were commercially produced austenitic and duplex stainless steels varying in chemical composition, plus one copper-nickel alloy. The resistance of austenitic stainless steels towards SCC increased by increasing the content of Ni, Mo and Cr, thus the super austenitic 654SMO{reg_sign} (uns32654) did not show any cracking in any of the three tests. The super austenitic 254SMO{reg_sign} (UNS31254) revealed only slight SCC in the simulated feed water heater tubing application while the equivalent N08367 revealed severe pitting and cracking. The drop evaporation test exhibited the most severe test conditions characterized by thermally induced fatigue effects, sensibility to onset of corrosion and severe acidic conditions generated under deposits on the test specimen. Some factors in stress corrosion cracking tests such as thermal fatigue, diffusion, heat transfer and stress condition, are discussed with regard to their influence on the test results.

  14. Harmonic Mitigation Methods in Large Offshore Wind Power Plants

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Kocewiak, Łukasz Hubert; Chaudhary, Sanjay; Hesselbæk, Bo

    2013-01-01

    and remedial harmonic mitigation methods in terms of passive and active filtering are described. It is shown that WPP components such as long HVAC cables and park transformers can introduce significant low-frequency resonances which can affect wind turbine control system operation and overall WPP stability...

  15. Light Water Reactor Sustainability Program BWR High-Fluence Material Project: Assessment of the Role of High-Fluence on the Efficiency of HWC Mitigation on SCC Crack Growth Rates

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Sebastien Teysseyre

    2014-04-01

    As nuclear power plants age, the increasing neutron fluence experienced by stainless steels components affects the materials resistance to stress corrosion cracking and fracture toughness. The purpose of this report is to identify any new issues that are expected to rise as boiling water reactor power plants reach the end of their initial life and to propose a path forward to study such issues. It has been identified that the efficiency of hydrogen water chemistry mitigation technology may decrease as fluence increases for high-stress intensity factors. This report summarizes the data available to support this hypothesis and describes a program plan to determine the efficiency of hydrogen water chemistry as a function of the stress intensity factor applied and fluence. This program plan includes acquisition of irradiated materials, generation of material via irradiation in a test reactor, and description of the test plan. This plan offers three approaches, each with an estimated timetable and budget.

  16. Structural Studies Reveal the Functional Modularity of the Scc2-Scc4 Cohesin Loader

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    William C.H. Chao

    2015-08-01

    Full Text Available The remarkable accuracy of eukaryotic cell division is partly maintained by the cohesin complex acting as a molecular glue to prevent premature sister chromatid separation. The loading of cohesin onto chromosomes is catalyzed by the Scc2-Scc4 loader complex. Here, we report the crystal structure of Scc4 bound to the N terminus of Scc2 and show that Scc4 is a tetratricopeptide repeat (TPR superhelix. The Scc2 N terminus adopts an extended conformation and is entrapped by the core of the Scc4 superhelix. Electron microscopy (EM analysis reveals that the Scc2-Scc4 loader complex comprises three domains: a head, body, and hook. Deletion studies unambiguously assign the Scc2N-Scc4 as the globular head domain, whereas in vitro cohesin loading assays show that the central body and the hook domains are sufficient to catalyze cohesin loading onto circular DNA, but not chromatinized DNA in vivo, suggesting a possible role for Scc4 as a chromatin adaptor.

  17. SCC antigen in patients with carcinoma of the larynx; Antygen SCC u chorych na raka krtani

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Lachowicz, M.; Hassmann-Poznanska, E. [Akademia Medyczna, Bialystok (Poland)

    1994-12-31

    Squamous Cell Carcinoma Antigen (SCC Ag) was measured in 71 succeeding patients at age 39-80 sufferings from cancer of the larynx. Samples were taken before and after treatment (surgery and/or radiotherapy - {sup 60}Co) and every 3 months during follow up. In control group the mean SCC Ag level was 1.0 ng/ml. The SCC Ag levels more than 2.0 ng/ml were considered as abnormal. At diagnosis the sensitivity of the marker was 17%. Most patients (63.4%) had lower levels of SCC Ag after treatment. Recurrence of cancer was associated with elevation of SCC levels in 81.3% of the 16 patients. An increase in SCC Ag was 3-10 months before clinical recurrence. The marker is of no prognostic value at the time of diagnosis, but is useful in follow-up as an early sign of recurrence. (author) 5 refs, 1 tab

  18. Gearbox Typical Failure Modes, Detection, and Mitigation Methods (Presentation)

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Sheng, S.

    2014-01-01

    This presentation was given at the AWEA Operations & Maintenance and Safety Seminar and focused on what the typical gearbox failure modes are, how to detect them using detection techniques, and strategies that help mitigate these failures.

  19. Rehabilitation of the gas pipeline that had a rupture in service caused by SCC (Stress Corrosion C raking); Rehabilitacion al servicio de un gasoducto que ha sufrido una ruptura en servicio por SCC

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Silva, Fernando; Carzoglio, Eduardo; Hryciuk, Pedro [TGN - Transportadora de Gas del Norte S.A. (Argentina). Depto. de Integridad

    2003-07-01

    TGN had a rupture in service on Gasoducto Troncal Norte. After initial evaluation of the causes of the rupture it was concluded that it had been caused by Stress Corrosion Cracking (SCC). Subsequent investigation in the area of the rupture revealed that colonies of cracks, typical of SCC were found in pipes located near the rupture. In order to put back in service the pipeline in a safety condition, SCC mitigation activities were performed. A decision was made to conduct a hydro test along approximately 30 kilometers of pipe. The stages of the works, the problems faced and the solutions found are dealt with, as well as the conclusions reached upon completion of the works which allowed a better understanding of SCC phenomenon. The methodology for the identification of those areas susceptible to SCC is also described. (author)

  20. Method to prevent/mitigate steam explosions in casting pits

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Taleyarkhan, Rusi P. (Knoxville, TN)

    1996-01-01

    Steam explosions can be prevented or mitigated during a metal casting process by the placement of a perforated flooring system in the casting pit. An upward flow of compressed gas through this perforated flooring system is introduced during the casting process to produce a buffer layer between any spilled molten metal and the cooling water in the reservoir. This buffer layer provides a hydrodynamic layer which acts to prevent or mitigate steam explosions resulting from hot, molten metal being spilled into or onto the cooling water.

  1. Mitigation and adaptation cost assessment: Concepts, methods and appropriate use

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    NONE

    1998-12-31

    The present report on mitigation and adaptation costs addresses the complex issue of identifying synergies and tradeoffs between national priorities and mitigation policies, an issue that requires the integration of various disciplines so as to provide a comprehensive overview of future development trends, available technologies and economic policies. Further, the report suggests a new conceptual framework for treating the social aspects in assessing mitigation and adaptation costs in climate change studies. The impacts of certain sustainability indicators such as employment and poverty reduction on mitigation costing are also discussed in the report. Among the topics to be considered by over 120 distinguished international experts, are the elements of costing methodologies at both the micro and macro levels. Special effort will be made to include the impacts of such parameters as income, equity, poverty, employment and trade. Hence, the contents of this report are highly relevant to the authors of the Third Working Group in the development of the TAR. The report contains a chapter on Special Issues and Problems Related to Cost Assessment for Developing Countries. This chapter will provide valuable background in the further development of these concepts in the TAR because it is an area that has not received due attention in previous work. (au)

  2. Non-traditional vibration mitigation methods for reciprocating compressor system

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Eijk, A.; Lange, T.J. de; Vreugd, J. de; Slis, E.J.P.

    2016-01-01

    Reciprocating compressors generate vibrations caused by pulsation-induced forces, mechanical (unbalanced) free forces and moments, crosshead guide forces and cylinder stretch forces. The traditional way of mitigating the vibration and cyclic stress levels to avoid fatigue failure of parts of the

  3. NDE to Manage Atmospheric SCC in Canisters for Dry Storage of Spent Fuel: An Assessment

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Meyer, Ryan M. [Pacific Northwest National Lab. (PNNL), Richland, WA (United States); Pardini, Allan F. [Pacific Northwest National Lab. (PNNL), Richland, WA (United States); Cuta, Judith M. [Pacific Northwest National Lab. (PNNL), Richland, WA (United States); Adkins, Harold E. [Pacific Northwest National Lab. (PNNL), Richland, WA (United States); Casella, Andrew M. [Pacific Northwest National Lab. (PNNL), Richland, WA (United States); Qiao, Hong [Pacific Northwest National Lab. (PNNL), Richland, WA (United States); Larche, Michael R. [Pacific Northwest National Lab. (PNNL), Richland, WA (United States); Diaz, Aaron A. [Pacific Northwest National Lab. (PNNL), Richland, WA (United States); Doctor, Steven R. [Pacific Northwest National Lab. (PNNL), Richland, WA (United States)

    2013-09-01

    This report documents efforts to assess representative horizontal (Transuclear NUHOMS®) and vertical (Holtec HI-STORM) storage systems for the implementation of non-destructive examination (NDE) methods or techniques to manage atmospheric stress corrosion cracking (SCC) in canisters for dry storage of used nuclear fuel. The assessment is conducted by assessing accessibility and deployment, environmental compatibility, and applicability of NDE methods. A recommendation of this assessment is to focus on bulk ultrasonic and eddy current techniques for direct canister monitoring of atmospheric SCC. This assessment also highlights canister regions that may be most vulnerable to atmospheric SCC to guide the use of bulk ultrasonic and eddy current examinations. An assessment of accessibility also identifies canister regions that are easiest and more difficult to access through the ventilation paths of the concrete shielding modules. A conceivable sampling strategy for canister inspections is to sample only the easiest to access portions of vulnerable regions. There are aspects to performing an NDE inspection of dry canister storage system (DCSS) canisters for atmospheric SCC that have not been addressed in previous performance studies. These aspects provide the basis for recommendations of future efforts to determine the capability and performance of eddy current and bulk ultrasonic examinations for atmospheric SCC in DCSS canisters. Finally, other important areas of investigation are identified including the development of instrumented surveillance specimens to identify when conditions are conducive for atmospheric SCC, characterization of atmospheric SCC morphology, and an assessment of air flow patterns over canister surfaces and their influence on chloride deposition.

  4. A Preliminary Modified Volumetric Mix Design for Self-Compacting Concrete (SCC by Utilizing Asphalt Dust Waste (ADW

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ismail Isham

    2017-01-01

    Full Text Available The construction of asphalt roads has been commonly used as for infrastructure development since ancient times. The production of asphalt using drum mix plants has created powder waste in the premix batching plant industry. It consists of very fine powders and causesproblems to the environment today. However, powder waste can be successfully and economically utilized in the development of self-compacting concrete (SCC. The aim of this study is to evaluate the fresh properties and the compressive strength of SCC containing asphalt dust waste (ADW. For this purpose, a simple modified volumetric mix design approach based on the Okumura Method was adapted to produce SCC mixes. In order to obtain this SCC, a series of SCC mixes with a specific water/binder ratio (0.3, superplasticizer ratio (2% as well as different amounts of aggregate, sand and ADW were prepared. Fresh properties of the SCC mix were tested using tests such as slump-flow, J-Ring, L-box and V-funnel which showed satisfactory results for MD840 and MD850. The compressive strength for MD840 and MD850 after 28 days was 40.8 MPa and 34.7 MPa respectively. In conclusion, the simple modified volumetric mix design method by utilizing ADW in SCC can be suggested for the development of SCC.

  5. Vision training methods for sports concussion mitigation and management.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Clark, Joseph F; Colosimo, Angelo; Ellis, James K; Mangine, Robert; Bixenmann, Benjamin; Hasselfeld, Kimberly; Graman, Patricia; Elgendy, Hagar; Myer, Gregory; Divine, Jon

    2015-05-05

    There is emerging evidence supporting the use vision training, including light board training tools, as a concussion baseline and neuro-diagnostic tool and potentially as a supportive component to concussion prevention strategies. This paper is focused on providing detailed methods for select vision training tools and reporting normative data for comparison when vision training is a part of a sports management program. The overall program includes standard vision training methods including tachistoscope, Brock's string, and strobe glasses, as well as specialized light board training algorithms. Stereopsis is measured as a means to monitor vision training affects. In addition, quantitative results for vision training methods as well as baseline and post-testing *A and Reaction Test measures with progressive scores are reported. Collegiate athletes consistently improve after six weeks of training in their stereopsis, *A and Reaction Test scores. When vision training is initiated as a team wide exercise, the incidence of concussion decreases in players who participate in training compared to players who do not receive the vision training. Vision training produces functional and performance changes that, when monitored, can be used to assess the success of the vision training and can be initiated as part of a sports medical intervention for concussion prevention.

  6. Mitigation of Power frequency Magnetic Fields. Using Scale Invariant and Shape Optimization Methods

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Salinas, Ener; Yueqiang Liu; Daalder, Jaap; Cruz, Pedro; Antunez de Souza, Paulo Roberto Jr; Atalaya, Juan Carlos; Paula Marciano, Fabianna de; Eskinasy, Alexandre

    2006-10-15

    The present report describes the development and application of two novel methods for implementing mitigation techniques of magnetic fields at power frequencies. The first method makes use of scaling rules for electromagnetic quantities, while the second one applies a 2D shape optimization algorithm based on gradient methods. Before this project, the first method had already been successfully applied (by some of the authors of this report) to electromagnetic designs involving pure conductive Material (e.g. copper, aluminium) which implied a linear formulation. Here we went beyond this approach and tried to develop a formulation involving ferromagnetic (i.e. non-linear) Materials. Surprisingly, we obtained good equivalent replacement for test-transformers by varying the input current. In spite of the validity of this equivalence constrained to regions not too close to the source, the results can still be considered useful, as most field mitigation techniques are precisely developed for reducing the magnetic field in regions relatively far from the sources. The shape optimization method was applied in this project to calculate the optimal geometry of a pure conductive plate to mitigate the magnetic field originated from underground cables. The objective function was a weighted combination of magnetic energy at the region of interest and dissipated heat at the shielding Material. To our surprise, shapes of complex structure, difficult to interpret (and probably even harder to anticipate) were the results of the applied process. However, the practical implementation (using some approximation of these shapes) gave excellent experimental mitigation factors.

  7. Durability Enhancement Of SCC With Waste Glass Powder

    OpenAIRE

    Matos,Ana Mafalda; Ramos, Telma; Nunes, Sandra; Sousa-Coutinho, Joana

    2016-01-01

    Self compacting concrete (SCC) requires a large quantity of fine materials compared to common concrete. In this work waste glass powder was used to replace (50%) of filler required. Two types of SCC were manufactured, a control SCC type (CTL) using cement and limestone filler and another with glass powder replacing 50% of the filler. Mechanical and durability properties, namely, compressive strength, resistivity, chloride ion penetration, carbonation, capillary water absorption and oxygen per...

  8. Predicting the Yield Stress of SCC using Materials Modelling

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Thrane, Lars Nyholm; Hasholt, Marianne Tange; Pade, Claus

    2005-01-01

    A conceptual model for predicting the Bingham rheological parameter yield stress of SCC has been established. The model used here is inspired by previous work of Oh et al. (1), predicting that the yield stress of concrete relative to the yield stress of paste is a function of the relative thickness...... and distribution were varied between SCC types. The results indicate that yield stress of SCC may be predicted using the model....

  9. Flow Induced segregation in full scale castings with SCC

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Thrane, Lars Nyholm; Stang, Henrik; Geiker, Mette Rica

    2007-01-01

    Though promising, pioneering work has been carried out with rheological characterization and numerical modelling of form filling with SCC, the approach is far from standard in the concrete industry and clearly the approach does not yet hold all the answers to relevant questions. In particular flow...... induced segregation is a major risk during casting and it is not yet clear how this phenomenon should be modelled. In this paper testing and numerical simulations of full-scale wall castings are compared. Two different SCCs and three different filling methods were applied resulting in different flow...... patterns during form filling. Results show that the flow patterns have a major influence on the risk of flow induced segregation and the surface finish of the hardened concrete. A hypothesis for the mechanism of flow induced segregation is put forth....

  10. Anti-cancer activity of Aster tataricus on SCC-9 human oral ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Background: Oral squamous carcinoma is a head and neck cancer, which is one of the types of malignant cancers. Present study evaluates the anticancer activity of Aster tataricus (AT) on SCC-9 human oral squamous carcinoma. Materials and Methods: Ethanol extract of AT was prepared by a standard procedure of ...

  11. Image enhancement methods for turbulence mitigation and the influence of different color spaces

    Science.gov (United States)

    Huebner, Claudia S.

    2015-10-01

    In mid- to long-range horizontal imaging applications it is quite often atmospheric turbulence which limits the performance of an electro-optical system rather than the design and quality of the system itself. Even weak or moderate turbulence conditions can suffice to cause significant image degradation, the predominant effects being image dancing and blurring. To mitigate these effects many different methods have been proposed, most of which use either a hardware approach, such as adaptive optics, or a software approach. A great number of these methods are highly specialized with regard to input data, e.g. aiming exclusively at very short exposure images or at infrared data. So far, only a very limited number of these methods are concerned specifically with the restoration of RGB colour video. Beside motion compensation and deblurring, contrast enhancement plays a vital part in many turbulence mitigation schemes. While most contrast enhancement techniques, such as Contrast Limited Adaptive Histogram Equalization (CLAHE) work quite well on monochrome data or single colour frames, they tend to amplify noise in a colour video stream disproportionately, especially in scenes with low contrast. Therefore, in this paper the impact of different colour spaces (RGB, LAB, HSV) on the application of such typical image enhancement techniques is discussed and evaluated with regard to suppressing temporal noise as well as to their suitability for use in software-based turbulence mitigation algorithms.

  12. Time-explicit methods for joint economical and geological risk mitigation in production optimization

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Christiansen, Lasse Hjuler; Capolei, Andrea; Jørgensen, John Bagterp

    2016-01-01

    optimization methods focus on mitigation of geological risks related to the long-term net present value (NPV). A major drawback of such methods is that the time-dependent and exceedingly growing uncertainty of oil prices implies that long-term predictions become highly unreliable. Conventional methods...... deviation and conditional value-at-risk compared to nominal, robust and mean-variance optimization. The gains in short-term objectives are obtained with none or only slight deterioration of long-term objectives....

  13. A Method to Assess the Potential Effects of Air Pollution Mitigation on Healthcare Costs

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Bjørn Sætterstrøm

    2012-01-01

    Full Text Available Objective. The aim of this study was to develop a method to assess the potential effects of air pollution mitigation on healthcare costs and to apply this method to assess the potential savings related to a reduction in fine particle matter in Denmark. Methods. The effects of air pollution on health were used to identify “exposed” individuals (i.e., cases. Coronary heart disease, stroke, chronic obstructive pulmonary disease, and lung cancer were considered to be associated with air pollution. We used propensity score matching, two-part estimation, and Lin’s method to estimate healthcare costs. Subsequently, we multiplied the number of saved cases due to mitigation with the healthcare costs to arrive to an expression for healthcare cost savings. Results. The potential cost saving in the healthcare system arising from a modelled reduction in air pollution was estimated at €0.1–2.6 million per 100,000 inhabitants for the four diseases. Conclusion. We have illustrated an application of a method to assess the potential changes in healthcare costs due to a reduction in air pollution. The method relies on a large volume of administrative data and combines a number of established methods for epidemiological analysis.

  14. Evaluation of the Frequencies for Canister Inspections for SCC

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Stockman, Christine [Sandia National Lab. (SNL-NM), Albuquerque, NM (United States); Bryan, Charles R. [Sandia National Lab. (SNL-NM), Albuquerque, NM (United States)

    2016-02-02

    This report fulfills the M3 milestone M3FT-15SN0802042, “Evaluate the Frequencies for Canister Inspections for SCC” under Work Package FT-15SN080204, “ST Field Demonstration Support – SNL”. It reviews the current state of knowledge on the potential for stress corrosion cracking (SCC) of dry storage canisters and evaluates the implications of this state of knowledge on the establishment of an SCC inspection frequency. Models for the prediction of SCC by the Japanese Central Research Institute of Electric Power Industry (CRIEPI), the United States (U.S.) Electric Power Research Institute (EPRI), and Sandia National Laboratories (SNL) are summarized, and their limitations discussed.

  15. Impact mitigation using kinematic constraints and the full space parameterization method

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Morgansen, K.A.; Pin, F.G.

    1996-02-01

    A new method for mitigating unexpected impact of a redundant manipulator with an object in its environment is presented. Kinematic constraints are utilized with the recently developed method known as Full Space Parameterization (FSP). System performance criterion and constraints are changed at impact to return the end effector to the point of impact and halt the arm. Since large joint accelerations could occur as the manipulator is halted, joint acceleration bounds are imposed to simulate physical actuator limitations. Simulation results are presented for the case of a simple redundant planar manipulator.

  16. Pileup Mitigation

    CERN Document Server

    Roloff, Jennifer; The ATLAS collaboration

    2017-01-01

    Simultaneous proton-proton collisions, or pileup, at the LHC has a significant impact on jet reconstruction, requiring the use of advanced pileup mitigation techniques. Pileup mitigation may occur at several stages of the reconstruction process, and ATLAS uses a combination of schemes, including constituent reconstruction methods, constituent-level pileup-mitigation techniques, and jet-level pileup-mitigation algorithms. This talk describes the two constituent-reconstruction methods for jets used on ATLAS: TopoClustering and Particle Flow. This talk also has a first look at the performance of several constituent-level pileup mitigation techniques on ATLAS, including Constituent Subtraction, Voronoi Subtraction, SoftKiller, and the Cluster Vertex Fraction. Finally, other developments in tagging pileup jets is discussed, such as the forward jet vertex tagger (fJVT), which uses jet shapes and topological information to tag jets.

  17. Characteristics of SCC with Fly Ash and Manufactured Sand

    Science.gov (United States)

    Praveen Kumar, K.; Radhakrishna

    2016-09-01

    Self compacting concrete (SCC) of M40 grade was designed. The binder in SCC consists of OPC and fly ash in the ratio of 65:35. River sand was replaced by manufactured sand (M-sand) at replacement levels of 20,40,60,80 and 100%. An attempt was made to evaluate the workability and strength characteristics of self compacting concrete with river sand and manufactured sand as fine aggregates. For each replacement level, constant workability was maintained by varying the dosage of superplasticizer. T50 flow time, V Funnel time, V-funnel T5 time as well as compressive, split tensile and flexural strength of SCC were found at each replacement level of M-sand. They were compared to SCC with river sand. Results indicate favourable use of M-sand in preparation of Self Compacting Concrete.

  18. Glass fiber effect on mechanical properties of Eco-SCC

    Science.gov (United States)

    Prasad M. L., V.; Loksesh, G.; Ramanjaneyulu, B.; Venkatesh, S.; Mousumi, K.

    2017-07-01

    Sustainable Construction encouraging the use of recycled materials and implies adoption of fewer natural resources in buildings and other infrastructure. In this paper Quarry Dust (QD) is used as partial replacement for River Sand (RS) to make Self Compacting Concrete (SCC) of grade M40. Glass fiber is used as strengthening material to the developed concrete. The present study mainly focused to develop Eco-SCC using QD. In this study it was found that, for developing Eco-SCC, what is the optimum dosage of replacement of QD in RS. Fresh properties of SCC are satisfying the EFNARC specifications and also target strength is achieved. Further it is concluded that, with the glass fiber addition there is an improvement in the split and flexural strength values.

  19. Nickel Alloy Primary Water Bulk Surface and SCC Corrosion Film Analytical Characterization and SCC Mechanistic Implications

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Morton, D.; Lewis, N.; Hanson, M.; Rice, S.; Sanders, P.

    2007-04-18

    Alloy 600 corrosion coupon tests were performed: (1) to quantify the temperature dependency of general corrosion and (2) to characterize the composition and structure of bulk surface corrosion films for comparison with ongoing primary water SCC (PWSCC) crack tip corrosion film analyses. Results suggest that the thermal activation energy of Alloy 600 corrosion is consistent with the thermal activation energy of nickel alloy PWSCC. Analytical investigations of the structure and composition of Alloy 600 bulk surface corrosion oxides revealed a duplex (inner and outer) oxide layer structure. The outer layer is discontinuous and comprised of relatively large (1 to 3 {micro}m) nickel ferrite crystals and smaller ({approx}0.1 {micro}m) chromium containing nickel ferrite crystals. The inner layer consists of a relatively continuous chromite spinel (major phase) and chromia (Cr{sub 2}O{sub 3} minor phase) which formed through non-selective oxidation. Chromia and dealloyed Alloy 600 (highly Ni enriched metal) were only observed at 337 C (640 F) and only along the boundaries of deformation induced fine grains and subcells. Specimens having deformation free surfaces exhibited continuous uniform inner chromite spinel oxide layers. Specimens with machining induced surface deformation produced non-uniform inner layer oxides (chromite spinel, Cr{sub 2}O{sub 3} and unoxidized material). PWSCC crack tip oxides, in contrast, were fine grain (no duplex structure) and consisted of both chromium rich spinels and ''NiO'' structure oxides. Generally, nickel rich oxides were more abundant under more oxidized conditions (reduced coolant hydrogen) and spinel rich crack tip oxides were favored under more reducing conditions (increased coolant hydrogen). Bulk surface corrosion film thickness did not correlate with observed SCC growth rates. These results suggest that corrosion is not the rate controlling step of PWSCC but rather that PWSCC and corrosion have a common rate

  20. Waveform control method for mitigating harmonics of inverter systems with nonlinear load

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Wang, Haoran; Zhu, Guorong; Fu, Xiaobin

    2015-01-01

    DC power systems connecting to single-phase DC/AC inverters with nonlinear loads will have their DC sources being injected with AC ripple currents containing a low-frequency component at twice the output voltage frequency of the inverter and also other current harmonics. Such a current may create...... instability in the DC power system, lower its efficiency, and shorten the lifetime of the DC source. This paper presents a general waveform control method that can mitigate the injection of the low-frequency ripple current by the single-phase DC/AC inverter into the DC source. It also discusses the inhibiting...... ability of the waveform control method on other coexisting harmonics, while the DC source delivers AC power to a nonlinear load. With the application of the waveform control, the average DC output power is supplied by the DC source, while the other harmonics pulsation power can be confined to the AC side...

  1. SCC and conventional concrete on site: property assessment

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    S. Nunes

    Full Text Available The present paper deals with comparing properties of hardened SCC cast during first full-scale tests in a precast factory and similar conventional concrete currently used in the same factory. The main goal was to evaluate viability of replacing the C45/55 conventional concrete, in use at the precast factory, by a SCC of the same class of resistance and maintaining the constituent materials. A wide number of specimens (cubes, cylinders, prisms and full size precast elements were cast with both SCC and conventional vibrated concrete to enable comparing different properties of both types of hardened concrete. In order to implement SCC in this precast factory, suitability of actual current processes involved in production, mixing, transport and placing had to be evaluated. SCC exhibited improved mechanical behavior, higher resistance to fluid ingress and a more uniform strength along the full-size element due to a combination of proper mixdesign together with controlled mixing and placing on site.

  2. SCC with high volume of fly ash content

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Bakhrakh Anton

    2017-01-01

    Full Text Available Self-compacting concrete is a very perspective building material. It provides great benefits during the construction of heavily reinforced buildings. SCC has outstanding properties such as high flowability, dense structure and high strength due to specific quality of aggregates, fillers, their proportion in mix, use of polycarboxylate-based superplasticizers. Main disadvantages of SCC are high price and the difficulty of obtaining a proper mix. Use of fillers, such as fly ash type F, is a way to make SCC cheaper by replacing part of cement. Fly ash also provides some technological and operating advantages. In this paper the influence of high volume (60% from cement fly ash type F on the properties of concrete mixture and hardened concrete is investigated. The result of the work shows the possibility of reduction the cost of SCC using ordinary fillers and high amount of fly ash. The investigated SCC has low speed of hardening (7-day compressive strength at the range of 41.8 MPa and high volume of entrained air content (3.5%.

  3. Study on Mitigation Method of Solder Corrosion for Crystalline Silicon Photovoltaic Modules

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ju-Hee Kim

    2014-01-01

    Full Text Available The corrosion of 62Sn36Pb2Ag solder connections poses serious difficulties for outdoor-exposed photovoltaic (PV modules, as connection degradation contributes to the increase in series resistance (RS of PV modules. In this study, we investigated a corrosion mitigation method based on the corrosion mechanism. The effect of added sacrificial metal on the reliability of PV modules was evaluated using the oxidation-reduction (redox reaction under damp heat (DH conditions. Experimental results after exposure to DH show that the main reason for the decrease in power was a drop in the module’s fill factor. This drop was attributed to the increase of RS. The drop in output power of the PV module without added sacrificial metal is greater than that of the sample with sacrificial metal. Electroluminescence and current-voltage mapping analysis also show that the PV module with sacrificial metal experienced less degradation than the sample without sacrificial metal.

  4. Highly Effective Crosstalk Mitigation Method Using Counter-Propagation in Semiconductor Optical Amplifier for Remodulation WDM-PONs

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Quang Thai Pham

    2014-01-01

    Full Text Available Remodulation-induced crosstalk mitigation in WDM-PON using remodulation approach is presented in this paper. Utilizing all-optical signal processing, the proposed method has been able to significantly improve system performance in terms of bit error rate (BER and bit rate distance product. Moreover, the proposed method could be used for both baseband and modulated downstream electrical signals.

  5. Characteristics of the BDS Carrier Phase Multipath and Its Mitigation Methods in Relative Positioning.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Dai, Wujiao; Shi, Qiang; Cai, Changsheng

    2017-04-07

    The carrier phase multipath effect is one of the most significant error sources in the precise positioning of BeiDou Navigation Satellite System (BDS). We analyzed the characteristics of BDS multipath, and found the multipath errors of geostationary earth orbit (GEO) satellite signals are systematic, whereas those of inclined geosynchronous orbit (IGSO) or medium earth orbit (MEO) satellites are both systematic and random. The modified multipath mitigation methods, including sidereal filtering algorithm and multipath hemispherical map (MHM) model, were used to improve BDS dynamic deformation monitoring. The results indicate that the sidereal filtering methods can reduce the root mean square (RMS) of positioning errors in the east, north and vertical coordinate directions by 15%, 37%, 25% and 18%, 51%, 27% in the coordinate and observation domains, respectively. By contrast, the MHM method can reduce the RMS by 22%, 52% and 27% on average. In addition, the BDS multipath errors in static baseline solutions are a few centimeters in multipath-rich environments, which is different from that of Global Positioning System (GPS) multipath. Therefore, we add a parameter representing the GEO multipath error in observation equation to the adjustment model to improve the precision of BDS static baseline solutions. And the results show that the modified model can achieve an average precision improvement of 82%, 54% and 68% in the east, north and up coordinate directions, respectively.

  6. Characteristics of the BDS Carrier Phase Multipath and Its Mitigation Methods in Relative Positioning

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Wujiao Dai

    2017-04-01

    Full Text Available The carrier phase multipath effect is one of the most significant error sources in the precise positioning of BeiDou Navigation Satellite System (BDS. We analyzed the characteristics of BDS multipath, and found the multipath errors of geostationary earth orbit (GEO satellite signals are systematic, whereas those of inclined geosynchronous orbit (IGSO or medium earth orbit (MEO satellites are both systematic and random. The modified multipath mitigation methods, including sidereal filtering algorithm and multipath hemispherical map (MHM model, were used to improve BDS dynamic deformation monitoring. The results indicate that the sidereal filtering methods can reduce the root mean square (RMS of positioning errors in the east, north and vertical coordinate directions by 15%, 37%, 25% and 18%, 51%, 27% in the coordinate and observation domains, respectively. By contrast, the MHM method can reduce the RMS by 22%, 52% and 27% on average. In addition, the BDS multipath errors in static baseline solutions are a few centimeters in multipath-rich environments, which is different from that of Global Positioning System (GPS multipath. Therefore, we add a parameter representing the GEO multipath error in observation equation to the adjustment model to improve the precision of BDS static baseline solutions. And the results show that the modified model can achieve an average precision improvement of 82%, 54% and 68% in the east, north and up coordinate directions, respectively.

  7. Lembang fault plane identification using electrical resistivity method for disaster mitigation

    Science.gov (United States)

    Maulinadya, S.; Ramadhan, M. Lutfi; N. Wening, F.; Pinehas, D.; Widodo

    2017-07-01

    Lembang Fault is an active fault lies from West to East located 10 kilometers in north of Bandung. It is a normal fault that its foot wall raises 40-450 meters above the ground. Its location that is not so far from Bandung, which is densely populated and frequently visited by tourists, makes Lembang Fault a threat if it becomes suddenly active. Its movement can cause earthquakes that can result in fatalities. Therefore, act of mitigation is necessary, such as educating people about Lembang Fault and its potential to cause disaster. The objective of this study is to find Lembang Fault plane below the surface with geo electrical mapping method and vertical elect rical sounding method around Ciwarega and The Peak, Lembang (west side of Lembang Fault). Both of these methods are using electricity current to measure rock resistivity. Currents are injected to the ground and potential differences are measured. According to Ohm's Law, resistivity can be calculated so that resistivity distribution can be obtained. In this study, high resistivity contrast is obtained; it is about 1400-5000 Ohm.m. This resistivity contrast can be caused by lateral lithology difference resulted by fault existence. This proves that there is actually a fault in Lembang that potentially cause disasters like earthquakes.

  8. Identifying potential ground movement as a landslide mitigation approach using resistivity method

    Science.gov (United States)

    Izzati, F. N.; Laksmana, Z. S.; Marcelina, B.; Hutabarat, S. S.; Widodo

    2017-07-01

    Landslide is defined as a form of ground movement in which land mass suddenly fails downward on a slope as aresult of gravitational pull. One of the mitigative approaches into investigating landslide is to identify a potential slip zone usingresistivity method. In this study, the array chosen to acquire the resistivity data was Wenner array as it provides a robust resolution in mapping lateral resistivity variations. This method will generate a contour map portraying thedistribution of resistivity values of the subsurface. Beforehand, a 2-dimensional forward modeling was conducted to acquire anexpected ideal result of possible potential slip zone. Landslides itself are affiliated with a low resistivity zone that is locatedbetween two high resistivity zones. This study is conducted in a ground slump in Jalan Citra Green, Northern Bandung which is comprised of mostly unconsolidated soil. By applying a least-square inversion to the resistivity data obtained, resistivity values of 10-200 Ωm is attained. Based on the inversion result, a low resistivity zone of 10-20 Ωm is identified spanning from the surface to approximately 10 meters deep. In conclusion, furtherinvestigations are needed to determine whether the low resistivity zone is associated with potential slip zone as our datais limited to a single line

  9. Effect of mixing on properties of SCC

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Geiker, Mette Rica; Ekstrand, John Peter; Hansen, Rune

    2007-01-01

    The method of mixing may affect the degree of agglomeration of particles in cement-based materials and thus the properties of the materials in their fresh, hardening, and hardened state. The larger the external force applied during mixing, the larger surface forces can be overcome and the smaller...... agglomerates will remain. The paper focuses on the effect of mixing schedule on self-compacting concrete properties. Workability and micro structure of a typical Danish self-compacting concrete mixed at varying intensity and with addition of superplasticizer in either one or two batches are described...

  10. Debris flow impact on mitigation barriers: a new method for particle-fluid-structure interactions

    Science.gov (United States)

    Marchelli, Maddalena; Pirulli, Marina; Pudasaini, Shiva P.

    2016-04-01

    Channelized debris-flows are a type of mass movements that involve water-charged, predominantly coarse-grained inorganic and organic material flowing rapidly down steep confined pre-existing channels (Van Dine, 1985). Due to their rapid movements and destructive power, structural mitigation measures have become an integral part of counter measures against these phenomena, to mitigate and prevent damages resulting from debris-flow impact on urbanized areas. In particular, debris barriers and storage basins, with some form of debris-straining structures incorporated into the barrier constructed across the path of a debris-flow, have a dual role to play: (1) to stimulate deposition by presenting a physical obstruction against flow, and (2) to guarantee that during normal conditions stream water and bedload can pass through the structure; while, during and after an extreme event, the water that is in the flow and some of the fine-grained sediment can escape. A new method to investigate the dynamic interactions between the flowing mass and the debris barrier is presented, with particular emphasis on the effect of the barrier in controlling the water and sediment content of the escaping mass. This aspect is achieved by implementing a new mechanical model into an enhanced two-phase dynamical mass flow model (Pudasaini, 2012), in which solid particles mixture and viscous fluid are taken into account. The complex mechanical model is defined as a function of the energy lost during impact, the physical and geometrical properties of the debris barrier, separate but strongly interacting dynamics of boulder and fluid flows during the impact, particle concentration distribution, and the slope characteristics. The particle-filtering-process results in a large variation in the rheological properties of the fluid-dominated escaping mass, including the substantial reduction in the bulk density, and the inertial forces of the debris-flows. Consequently, the destructive power and run

  11. Dug Well Recharge Method for Insitu Mitigation of Fluoride Contamination in Groundwater

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ganesan, G.; Lakshmanan, E.; Gunalan, J.

    2016-12-01

    Groundwater with fluoride concentration exceeding 1.5 mg/l is not suitable for drinking water supply as it may cause health issues such as dental and skeletal fluorosis to humans. Several million people around the world has been affected by fluorosis. The objective of the study is to mitigate the problem of fluoride contamination in groundwater by increasing groundwater recharge through a dug well recharge system. The study was carried out in a part of Vaniyar river basin, northwest Tamil Nadu, India where fluorosis is prevalent. A cylindrical pit of 1m diameter and 1.5 m height was constructed during May 2014 at a distance of about 4 m from a dug well existing in this area. This cylindrical pit was divided into 3 compartments and one of them was filled with gravel and one with sand. The third compartment was kept empty for inspection and maintenance. The rainfall collected in a funnel shaped depression was allowed to pass through these compartments to discharge in the nearby dug well through a pipe. The concentration of the fluoride in groundwater from this well was had been monitoring on bi-monthly basis from the year 2012 to 2014. After construction of dug well recharge system, the groundwater level has raised by about 5 m and the fluoride concentration has decreased from 3.1 mg/l to 1.44 mg/l due to recharge. The concentration of fluoride and groundwater level is being monitored on daily basis from June 2014. It is evident that the recharge system constructed is working well and the concentration of fluoride in groundwater is within the permissible limit. The advantage of this dug well recharge system is its low cost and the ease of implementation. Thus this pilot study on dug well recharge system demonstrated it's potential in reducing the concentration of fluoride in groundwater which is more beneficial to the society as they cannot afford the well proven water treatment methods.

  12. Dissolved organic carbon interferences in UV nitrate measurements and possible mitigation methods

    Science.gov (United States)

    Thomas, R. G.; Foster, C. R.; Cohen, M. J.; Martin, J. B.; Delfino, J. J.

    2010-12-01

    .50, and 1.00 mg/L NO3. Each DOC dilution and standard was measured for 5 minutes. At concentrations above 10 mg/L, the error associated with the measurements was > 15%. Below that concentration the error was 5%. Analysis of the spectral data of this experiment and from the study site indicate that significant attenuation at UV wavelengths causes most of the loss of the nitrate signal and error. It is thus critical that the DOC be removed or deactivated as part of the in situ UV-based nitrate analysis. While this attenuation could be overcome by shortening the path length of the light beam, a shortened pathlength would also reduce sensitivity. To remove the DOC interference, we have constructed a UV photoreactor by winding 7 m of PTFE tubing around a quartz tube. The assembly was wrapped in reflective aluminum foil. A low-pressure UV lamp (10 Watts output, 95% emitted at the mercury resonance wavelength of 254 nm) was placed inside the quartz tube. This method should mitigate interferences caused by DOC. The extent of mitigation is currently being determined and will be described in the presentation.

  13. New Method for Mitigating the Tensile Residual Stresses induced on the Inside Wall of Butt Welded Pipes

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Lee, Ho Jin; Kim, Kang Soo; Kim, Ki Baik; Kim, Kwang Mo; Lee, Bong Sang [Korea Atomic Energy Research Institute, Daejeon (Korea, Republic of)

    2009-10-15

    Because dissimilar metal welding between ferritic steel and austenitic stainless steel needs not post weld heat treatment (PWHT), the effect of residual stresses induce during the welding should be investigated to assess the reliability of the weld process. It is known that the A82/182 weld metals, which are used for filler metals of the butt welding between the ferritic steel pipe and the stainless steel pipe, are susceptible to PWSCC (Primary Water Stress Corrosion Cracking) in PWR plant. The tensile residual stresses on the inside wall of the pipe, which are induced during the production welding, tend to be the dominant driving force for the PWSCC initiation and crack growth. In order to prevent the PWSCC the tensile residual stresses should be mitigated or removed. Two methods, weld overlay and mechanical stress improvement process (MSIP) have been considered proper tools to reduce the tensile residual stresses and to mitigate the PWSCC susceptibility of the dissimilar metal welded nozzles and pipes. In this research, new method for mitigating the tensile residual stresses induced on the inside wall of pipe during the production welding between the ferritic steel pipe and the stainless steel pipe was suggested. This new method may be able to apply to the SA508 /A182/SS316 nozzles of the pressure vessels in PWR to prevent PWSCC susceptibility as another substitute method.

  14. Investigation of a Neurocognitive Biomarker and of Methods to Mitigate Biases in Cognitive/Perceptual/Emotional Processing

    Science.gov (United States)

    2016-03-03

    UU UU 03-03-2016 5-Aug-2013 4-Aug-2014 Final Report: Investigation of a Neurocognitive Biomarker and of Methods to Mitigate Biases in Cognitive ...Perceptual/ Emotional Processing The views, opinions and/or findings contained in this report are those of the author(s) and should not contrued as an...ADDRESS (ES) U.S. Army Research Office P.O. Box 12211 Research Triangle Park, NC 27709-2211 Hemispheric activity, Lateralization, Cognition , fNIRS

  15. Experimentation of several mitigation methods in Tasiujaq Airport to minimize the effects caused by the melting of permafrost

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Jørgensen, Anders Stuhr; Doré, Guy

    2009-01-01

    Since the beginning of the 1990s an important increase in the mean annual air temperatures has been recorded in Nunavik, Québec, Canada. This has lead to the degradation of permafrost, which is threatening the stability of airport and road embankments in the region. In the summer of 2007 a test......-site was established at Tasiujaq Airport to study the effect of three different mitigations methods: heat drain, air convection embankment, and gentle slope (8:1). The methods were constructed in the shoulder of the runway embankment, each method over a distance of 50 m. In each section thermistors were installed...

  16. Analysis Method for Licensing Application of Passive Autocatalytic Recombiner System as a Hydrogen Mitigation System of OPR-1000

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Kim, Changhyun; Sung, Jejoong; Ha, Sangjun [Korea Hydro and Nuclear Power Co. Ltd., Daejeon (Korea, Republic of); Yeo, Inseon [KEPCO Engineering and Construction Co. Ltd., Yongin (Korea, Republic of)

    2014-05-15

    As a result, for some plants, dual hydrogen mitigation systems are prepared with a combination of PARs and igniters that each system has a 100% of full capacity for hydrogen control for postulated severe accident conditions. In the original design of OPR-1000, hydrogen mitigation systems consist of a thermal recombiner and twenty glow-type igniters, which are used for design basis accident and severe accident, respectively. This paper presents an analysis method for licensing application in Korea to determine the capacity and locations of PARs for the design of a hydrogen mitigation system with PAR. A licensed analysis method of OPR-1000 has been presented to determine the capacity and locations of PAR for the design of a hydrogen mitigation system with PAR. A lumped parameter code of MAAP 4.0.6+ has been adopted to simulate various severe accident scenarios with a 26 multi-compartment containment model. Hydrogen generations were analysed and required capacity and locations of PAR were determined for six accident scenarios selected from a combination of probabilistic and deterministic considerations. A total of twenty-four PARs in the containment dome, steam generator rooms, annulus and adjacent areas was designed and the adequacy of this system has been confirmed through detailed analyses including sensitivity analyses with/without operations of safety systems such as containment heat removal systems, reactor coolant depressurization system and safety injection by accumulator, etc. Through the assessment on the possibility of global FA and DDT, it has been concluded that new PAR system with twenty-four recombiners can remove hydrogen effectively in the containment atmosphere and prevent from global FA and DDT. Further works are required in the future to develop a well-balanced analysis methodology with a combination of lumped and CFD tools focusing on the optimum locations of recombiners and local hydrogen behaviour in containment compartments.

  17. LAFD: TA-3 NISC & SCC Facility Familiarization Tour, OJT #53356

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Rutherford, Victor Stephen [Los Alamos National Lab. (LANL), Los Alamos, NM (United States); Norman, Rich [Los Alamos National Lab. (LANL), Los Alamos, NM (United States); Montoya, Gene [Los Alamos National Lab. (LANL), Los Alamos, NM (United States); Blumberg, Paul A. [Los Alamos National Lab. (LANL), Los Alamos, NM (United States); McCurdy, Patrick B. [Los Alamos National Lab. (LANL), Los Alamos, NM (United States)

    2017-10-24

    Los Alamos National Laboratory (LANL, the Laboratory, or the Lab) conducts familiarization tours for Los Alamos County Fire Department (LAFD) personnel at the Strategic Computing Complex (SCC), TA-03-2327, and the Nonproliferation & International Security Complex (NISC), TA-03-2322. These tours are official LANL business; their purpose is to orient the firefighters to the SCC and the NISC so that they can respond efficiently and quickly to a variety of emergency situations. The tour includes ingress and egress of the buildings, layout and organization of the buildings, evacuation procedures, and areas of concern to emergency responders within these buildings. LAFD firefighters have the training, skills, and abilities to perform these emergency responder tasks; other LANL personnel who have the required clearance level cannot perform these tasks. This handout provides details of the information, along with maps and diagrams, to be presented during the familiarization tours. The report will be distributed to the trainees at the time of the tour. A corresponding checklist will also be used as guidance during the familiarization tours to ensure that all required information is presented to the LAFD personnel.

  18. A Reserve-based Method for Mitigating the Impact of Renewable Energy

    Science.gov (United States)

    Krad, Ibrahim

    The fundamental operating paradigm of today's power systems is undergoing a significant shift. This is partially motivated by the increased desire for incorporating variable renewable energy resources into generation portfolios. While these generating technologies offer clean energy at zero marginal cost, i.e. no fuel costs, they also offer unique operating challenges for system operators. Perhaps the biggest operating challenge these resources introduce is accommodating their intermittent fuel source availability. For this reason, these generators increase the system-wide variability and uncertainty. As a result, system operators are revisiting traditional operating strategies to more efficiently incorporate these generation resources to maximize the benefit they provide while minimizing the challenges they introduce. One way system operators have accounted for system variability and uncertainty is through the use of operating reserves. Operating reserves can be simplified as excess capacity kept online during real time operations to help accommodate unforeseen fluctuations in demand. With new generation resources, a new class of operating reserves has emerged that is generally known as flexibility, or ramping, reserves. This new reserve class is meant to better position systems to mitigate severe ramping in the net load profile. The best way to define this new requirement is still under investigation. Typical requirement definitions focus on the additional uncertainty introduced by variable generation and there is room for improvement regarding explicit consideration for the variability they introduce. An exogenous reserve modification method is introduced in this report that can improve system reliability with minimal impacts on total system wide production costs. Another potential solution to this problem is to formulate the problem as a stochastic programming problem. The unit commitment and economic dispatch problems are typically formulated as deterministic

  19. Detection and characterization of stainless steel SCC by the analysis of crack related acoustic emission.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kovač, Jaka; Legat, Andraž; Zajec, Bojan; Kosec, Tadeja; Govekar, Edvard

    2015-09-01

    In the paper the results of the acoustic emission (AE) based detection and characterization of stress-corrosion cracking (SCC) in stainless steel are presented. As supportive methods for AE interpretation, electrochemical noise, specimen elongation measurements, and digital imaging of the specimen surface were used. Based on the defined qualitative and quantitative time and power spectra characteristics of the AE bursts, a manual and an automatic procedure for the detection of crack related AE bursts were introduced. The results of the analysis of the crack related AE bursts indicate that the AE method is capable of detecting large scale cracks, where, apart from intergranular crack propagation, also some small ductile fractures occur. The sizes of the corresponding ductile fracture areas can be estimated based on a relative comparison of the energies of the detected AE bursts. It has also been shown that AE burst time and power spectra features can be successfully used for the automatic detection of SCC. Copyright © 2015 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  20. EFFECTS OF LASER SHOCK PEENING ON SCC BEHAVIOR OF ALLOY 600

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Abhishek Telang; Amrinder Gill; S.R.Mannava; Vijay K. Vasudevan; Dong Qian; Sebastien P. Teysseyre

    2013-08-01

    In this study, the effects of laser shock peening (LSP) on stress corrosion cracking (SCC) behavior of Alloy 600 in tetrathionate solution were investigated. The degree of sensitization was quantified using double loop electrochemical potentiokinetic reactivation (DLEPR) tests. The sensitized Alloy 600 was demonstrated to be susceptible to intergranular SCC in tetrathionate solution. Following LSP, residual stresses and the amount of plastic strain introduced in Alloy 600 were characterized. The effects of LSP on SCC susceptibility of Alloy 600 in tetrathionate solution were evaluated by slow strain rate tests and constant load tests. Results indicate a significant increase in resistance to crack initiation and decreased susceptibility to SCC after LSP.

  1. Crystal Structure of the Cohesin Gatekeeper Pds5 and in Complex with Kleisin Scc1

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Byung-Gil Lee

    2016-03-01

    Full Text Available Sister chromatid cohesion is mediated by cohesin, whose Smc1, Smc3, and kleisin (Scc1 subunits form a ring structure that entraps sister DNAs. The ring is opened either by separase, which cleaves Scc1 during anaphase, or by a releasing activity involving Wapl, Scc3, and Pds5, which bind to Scc1 and open its interface with Smc3. We present crystal structures of Pds5 from the yeast L. thermotolerans in the presence and absence of the conserved Scc1 region that interacts with Pds5. Scc1 binds along the spine of the Pds5 HEAT repeat fold and is wedged between the spine and C-terminal hook of Pds5. We have isolated mutants that confirm the observed binding mode of Scc1 and verified their effect on cohesin by immunoprecipitation and calibrated ChIP-seq. The Pds5 structure also reveals architectural similarities to Scc3, the other large HEAT repeat protein of cohesin and, most likely, Scc2.

  2. High-Performance Laser Peening for Effective Mitigation of Stress Corrosion Cracking

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Hackel, L; Hao-Lin, C; Wong, F; Hill, M

    2002-10-02

    Stress corrosion cracking (SCC) in the Yucca Mountain waste package closure welds is believed to be the greatest threat to long-term containment. Use of stress mitigation to eliminate tensile stresses resulting from welding can prevent SCC. A laser technology with sufficient average power to achieve high throughput has been developed and commercially deployed with high peak power and sufficiently high average power to be an effective laser peening system. An appropriately applied version of this process could be applied to eliminate SCC in the waste package closure welds.

  3. Methods for mitigating the effect of noise, interference, and model error on microwave breast imaging

    Science.gov (United States)

    Burfeindt, Matthew J.

    Microwave inverse scattering shows promise for meeting important clinical needs in breast imaging that arise due to drawbacks in traditional imaging technologies. The dielectric contrast between different breast tissue types, the 3-D nature of various inverse scattering algorithms, as well as microwave technology's relative safety and low cost motivate a microwave-based approach. However, challenges remain for this type of imaging technique, as it requires solving a linear system that is ill-posed and underdetermined, thus making it sensitive to noise, interference, and mismatch between the assumed and actual properties of the propagation environment. In this document, we report a series of studies performed with the goal of mitigating the effect of these types of signal errors on the imaging results. We conduct a numerical feasibility study to demonstrate the efficacy of microwave breast imaging using an enclosed array of miniaturized, multi-band patch antennas designed to account for the ill-posed nature of the imaging problem. We then conduct several experimental studies with an array prototype, wherein we characterize the sensitivity of the array to model error as well as create experimental reconstructions of both geometrically-simple objects and an MRI-derived 3-D-printed breast phantom. Lastly, we incorporate a beamforming-enhancement into the imaging algorithm with the goal of making it less sensitive to signal error.

  4. Numerical study on dissimilar guide vane design with SCC piston for air and emulsified biofuel mixing improvement

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Hamid Mohd Fadzli

    2017-01-01

    Full Text Available Crude palm oil (CPO is one of the most potential biofuels that can be applied in the conventional diesel engines, where the chemical properties of CPO are comparable to diesel fuel. However, its higher viscosity and heavier molecules can contributes to several engine problems such as low atomization during injection, carbon deposit formation, injector clogging, low mixing with air and lower combustion efficiency. An emulsification of biofuel and modifications of few engine critical components have been identified to mitigate the issues. This paper presents the effects of dissimilar guide vane design (GVD in terms of height variation of 0.25R, 0.3R and 0.35R at the intake manifold with shallow depth re-entrance combustion chamber (SCC piston application to the incylinder air flow characteristics improvement. The simulation results show that the intake manifold with GVD improved the performance of the air flow characteristic particularly swirl, tumble and cross tumble ratios from the intake manifold to the engine. The GVD with the height of 0.3R was found to be the optimum design with respect to the overall improvement of the air flow characteristic. The improvement of the air flow characteristic with the application of GVD and SCC piston in the engine was expected to contribute to a better air fuel mixing, fuel atomization and combustion efficiency of the engine using emulsified biofuel as a source of fuel.

  5. Prediction of the impact of flow induced inhomogeneities in Self Compacting Concrete (SCC)

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Spangenberg, Jon; Roussel, N.; Hattel, Jesper Henri

    2010-01-01

    SCC is nowadays a worldwide used construction material. However, heterogeneities induced by casting may lead to variations of local properties and hence to a potential decrease of the structure’s load carrying capacity. The heterogeneities in SCC are primarily caused by static and dynamic...

  6. Releasing Activity Disengages Cohesin's Smc3/Scc1 Interface in a Process Blocked by Acetylation.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Beckouët, Frederic; Srinivasan, Madhusudhan; Roig, Maurici Brunet; Chan, Kok-Lung; Scheinost, Johanna C; Batty, Paul; Hu, Bin; Petela, Naomi; Gligoris, Thomas; Smith, Alexandra C; Strmecki, Lana; Rowland, Benjamin D; Nasmyth, Kim

    2016-02-18

    Sister chromatid cohesion conferred by entrapment of sister DNAs within a tripartite ring formed between cohesin's Scc1, Smc1, and Smc3 subunits is created during S and destroyed at anaphase through Scc1 cleavage by separase. Cohesin's association with chromosomes is controlled by opposing activities: loading by Scc2/4 complex and release by a separase-independent releasing activity as well as by cleavage. Coentrapment of sister DNAs at replication is accompanied by acetylation of Smc3 by Eco1, which blocks releasing activity and ensures that sisters remain connected. Because fusion of Smc3 to Scc1 prevents release and bypasses the requirement for Eco1, we suggested that release is mediated by disengagement of the Smc3/Scc1 interface. We show that mutations capable of bypassing Eco1 in Smc1, Smc3, Scc1, Wapl, Pds5, and Scc3 subunits reduce dissociation of N-terminal cleavage fragments of Scc1 (NScc1) from Smc3. This process involves interaction between Smc ATPase heads and is inhibited by Smc3 acetylation. Copyright © 2016 The Authors. Published by Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  7. A New Control Method to Mitigate Power Fluctuations for Grid Integrated PV/Wind Hybrid Power System Using Ultracapacitors

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jayalakshmi, N. S.; Gaonkar, D. N.

    2016-08-01

    The output power obtained from solar-wind hybrid system fluctuates with changes in weather conditions. These power fluctuations cause adverse effects on the voltage, frequency and transient stability of the utility grid. In this paper, a control method is presented for power smoothing of grid integrated PV/wind hybrid system using ultracapacitors in a DC coupled structure. The power fluctuations of hybrid system are mitigated and smoothed power is supplied to the utility grid. In this work both photovoltaic (PV) panels and the wind generator are controlled to operate at their maximum power point. The grid side inverter control strategy presented in this paper maintains DC link voltage constant while injecting power to the grid at unity power factor considering different operating conditions. Actual solar irradiation and wind speed data are used in this study to evaluate the performance of the developed system using MATLAB/Simulink software. The simulation results show that output power fluctuations of solar-wind hybrid system can be significantly mitigated using the ultracapacitor based storage system.

  8. Characteristics of Aerococcus viridans isolated from bovine subclinical mastitis and its effect on milk SCC, yield, and composition.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sun, Meng; Gao, Jian; Ali, Tariq; Yu, Dan; Zhang, Shiyao; Khan, Saeed U; Fanning, Séamus; Han, Bo

    2017-04-01

    Aerococcus viridians (A. viridans), an environmental Gram-positive bacterium, has been documented to be associated with bovine mastitis. However, its exact role in bovine mastitis and the changes it brings about in milk characteristics are not yet known. The objectives of the current study were to describe the antibiotic resistance of A. viridans from bovine mastitis as well as the correlation between existence of this pathogen in udders and the somatic cell counts (SCC), daily milk yield, and composition of individual cow. One-year sampling for subclinical mastitis composite milk was conducted based on monthly DHI data from September 2013 to August 2014, in a commercial herd located in Beijing, China. All samples were cultured and pathogens were identified using microbiology method. A. viridians isolates were further identified by API identification system and 16S ribosomal RNA (rRNA) sequencing method. Kirby-Bauer disk diffusion method was used to test the antibiotic resistance of A. viridians against kinds of antimicrobial substance. SCC, milk yield, and milk composition data were from monthly Dairy Herd Improvement (DHI) results. Results showed that a total of 279 (16.67%) A. viridans isolates were identified from among 1674 bacterial isolates cultured from milk samples with high SCC. The incidence of mastitis caused by A. viridans was the highest (48-53%) during the summer season. Majority of the isolates were susceptible to most of antimicrobial compounds tested, especially to β-lactams, but were found to be resistant (50-90%) to aminoglycosides, sulfonamides, and tetracycline. The average SCC of the A. viridans infected cows was significantly higher (1000.0 × 10 3  cells/mL) (P  0.05) by 1.86 kg/day. Reductions were also observed in fat content (P > 0.05), lactose (P  0.05), whereas protein content increased significantly (P subclinical mastitis wherein it exerts an effect on SCC, milk yield, and composition.

  9. SCC-DFTB Study on Structure, Electronic and Sensing Properties of Polypyrrole

    Science.gov (United States)

    Marutaphan, A.; Wongchoosuk, C.

    2017-09-01

    Polypyrrole (PPy) have been considered as one of the most promising conducting polymers for gas sensor application because it can be efficiently operated at room temperature, light weight, thermal stability and ease of preparation. In this work, we have investigated the geometric and electronic structures of PPy based on B3LYP/3-21G*, B3LYP/6-31G* and SCC-DFTB methods. The effects of polymer chain length of PPy on structural and electronic properties including bond length, bond angle, torsion angle, the highest occupied orbital (HOMO), the lowest unoccupied molecular orbital (LUMO) and energy gap have been studied from the optimized PPy oligomers (n=1-10). The results show that the bond length, bond angle and torsion angle from SCC-DFTB method are C-N = 1.38 Å, N-H = 1.04 Å, C-C = 1.45 Å, N-C-C = 122 °, C-C-C = 131 °, N-C-C-C = 179 ° and C=C-C=C = 179 °, respectively. The HOMO and LUMO are in range of -5.49 to -4.23 eV and -0.078 to-1.92 eV, respectively. The energy gap decreases with increasing polymer chain length from 5.41 to 2.31 eV. Furthermore, sensing behavior of PPy for detection of toxic gases such as ammonia (NH3), carbon dioxide (CO2) and nitrogen dioxide (NO2) has been studied and discussed in details.

  10. Dedicated Beamline Facilities for Catalytic Research. Synchrotron Catalysis Consortium (SCC)

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Chen, Jingguang [Columbia Univ., New York, NY; Frenkel, Anatoly [Yeshiva Univ., New York, NY (United States); Rodriguez, Jose [Brookhaven National Lab. (BNL), Upton, NY (United States); Adzic, Radoslav [Brookhaven National Lab. (BNL), Upton, NY (United States); Bare, Simon R. [UOP LLC, Des Plaines, IL (United States); Hulbert, Steve L. [Brookhaven National Lab. (BNL), Upton, NY (United States); Karim, Ayman [Pacific Northwest National Lab. (PNNL), Richland, WA (United States); Mullins, David R. [Oak Ridge National Lab. (ORNL), Oak Ridge, TN (United States); Overbury, Steve [Oak Ridge National Lab. (ORNL), Oak Ridge, TN (United States)

    2015-03-04

    Synchrotron spectroscopies offer unique advantages over conventional techniques, including higher detection sensitivity and molecular specificity, faster detection rate, and more in-depth information regarding the structural, electronic and catalytic properties under in-situ reaction conditions. Despite these advantages, synchrotron techniques are often underutilized or unexplored by the catalysis community due to various perceived and real barriers, which will be addressed in the current proposal. Since its establishment in 2005, the Synchrotron Catalysis Consortium (SCC) has coordinated significant efforts to promote the utilization of cutting-edge catalytic research under in-situ conditions. The purpose of the current renewal proposal is aimed to provide assistance, and to develop new sciences/techniques, for the catalysis community through the following concerted efforts: Coordinating the implementation of a suite of beamlines for catalysis studies at the new NSLS-II synchrotron source; Providing assistance and coordination for catalysis users at an SSRL catalysis beamline during the initial period of NSLS to NSLS II transition; Designing in-situ reactors for a variety of catalytic and electrocatalytic studies; Assisting experimental set-up and data analysis by a dedicated research scientist; Offering training courses and help sessions by the PIs and co-PIs.

  11. Systems and methods to mitigate NO.sub.x and HC emissions

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gupta, Aniket; Cunningham, Michael J.; Ruth, Michael J.; Chilumukuru, Krishna P.

    2017-06-14

    Systems and methods are provided for managing low temperature NO.sub.x and HC emissions, such as during a cold start of an internal combustion engine. The systems and methods include storing NO.sub.x and HC emissions at low temperatures and passively releasing and treating these emissions as the temperature of the exhaust system increases.

  12. Low-Complexity Spatial-Temporal Filtering Method via Compressive Sensing for Interference Mitigation in a GNSS Receiver

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Chung-Liang Chang

    2014-01-01

    Full Text Available A compressive sensing based array processing method is proposed to lower the complexity, and computation load of array system and to maintain the robust antijam performance in global navigation satellite system (GNSS receiver. Firstly, the spatial and temporal compressed matrices are multiplied with array signal, which results in a small size array system. Secondly, the 2-dimensional (2D minimum variance distortionless response (MVDR beamformer is employed in proposed system to mitigate the narrowband and wideband interference simultaneously. The iterative process is performed to find optimal spatial and temporal gain vector by MVDR approach, which enhances the steering gain of direction of arrival (DOA of interest. Meanwhile, the null gain is set at DOA of interference. Finally, the simulated navigation signal is generated offline by the graphic user interface tool and employed in the proposed algorithm. The theoretical analysis results using the proposed algorithm are verified based on simulated results.

  13. Single-point reactive power control method on voltage rise mitigation in residential networks with high PV penetration

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Hasheminamin, Maryam; Agelidis, Vassilios; Ahmadi, Abdollah

    2018-01-01

    Voltage rise (VR) due to reverse power flow is an important obstacle for high integration of Photovoltaic (PV) into residential networks. This paper introduces and elaborates a novel methodology of an index-based single-point-reactive power-control (SPRPC) methodology to mitigate voltage rise by ...... system with high r/x ratio. Efficacy, effectiveness and cost study of SPRPC is compared to droop control to evaluate its advantages....... by absorbing adequate reactive power from one selected point. The proposed index utilizes short circuit analysis to select the best point to apply this Volt/Var control method. SPRPC is supported technically and financially by distribution network operator that makes it cost effective, simple and efficient...

  14. A TOA-AOA-Based NLOS Error Mitigation Method for Location Estimation

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tang, Hong; Park, Yongwan; Qiu, Tianshuang

    2007-12-01

    This paper proposes a geometric method to locate a mobile station (MS) in a mobile cellular network when both the range and angle measurements are corrupted by non-line-of-sight (NLOS) errors. The MS location is restricted to an enclosed region by geometric constraints from the temporal-spatial characteristics of the radio propagation channel. A closed-form equation of the MS position, time of arrival (TOA), angle of arrival (AOA), and angle spread is provided. The solution space of the equation is very large because the angle spreads are random variables in nature. A constrained objective function is constructed to further limit the MS position. A Lagrange multiplier-based solution and a numerical solution are proposed to resolve the MS position. The estimation quality of the estimator in term of "biased" or "unbiased" is discussed. The scale factors, which may be used to evaluate NLOS propagation level, can be estimated by the proposed method. AOA seen at base stations may be corrected to some degree. The performance comparisons among the proposed method and other hybrid location methods are investigated on different NLOS error models and with two scenarios of cell layout. It is found that the proposed method can deal with NLOS error effectively, and it is attractive for location estimation in cellular networks.

  15. A TOA-AOA-Based NLOS Error Mitigation Method for Location Estimation

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Tianshuang Qiu

    2007-12-01

    Full Text Available This paper proposes a geometric method to locate a mobile station (MS in a mobile cellular network when both the range and angle measurements are corrupted by non-line-of-sight (NLOS errors. The MS location is restricted to an enclosed region by geometric constraints from the temporal-spatial characteristics of the radio propagation channel. A closed-form equation of the MS position, time of arrival (TOA, angle of arrival (AOA, and angle spread is provided. The solution space of the equation is very large because the angle spreads are random variables in nature. A constrained objective function is constructed to further limit the MS position. A Lagrange multiplier-based solution and a numerical solution are proposed to resolve the MS position. The estimation quality of the estimator in term of “biased” or “unbiased” is discussed. The scale factors, which may be used to evaluate NLOS propagation level, can be estimated by the proposed method. AOA seen at base stations may be corrected to some degree. The performance comparisons among the proposed method and other hybrid location methods are investigated on different NLOS error models and with two scenarios of cell layout. It is found that the proposed method can deal with NLOS error effectively, and it is attractive for location estimation in cellular networks.

  16. Effect of environmental and stress intensity factors on IGA/SCC of nickel-base alloy

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Hirano, H.; Kawamura, H. (Central Research Inst. of Electric Power Industry, Komae, Tokyo (Japan). Komae Research Lab.)

    1993-12-01

    Inconel alloy 600 has been used for PWR Steam Generator (SG) tubes due to its superior corrosion resistance and excellent thermal conductivity. However, it is reported that Intergranular Attack and Stress Corrosion Cracking (IGA/SCC) has occurred in the crevices between the tube and tube sheet or tube support plate. Therefore, it is important to clarify the IGA/SCC initiation and propagation behaviors and establish the countermeasure against IGA/SCC. This report describes the effect of environmental and stress intensity factors on the IGA/SCC initiation and propagation behaviors in the alloy 600 tube. The main results are as follows: (1) IGA/SCC test results showed that IGA/SCC crack did not propagate rapidly within the stress intensity factor range in which the crack tip of tube is loaded under PWR secondary condition. (2) SG model boiler test revealed that IGA/SCC propagation rate is slow, i.e., 10[sup -3] to 10[sup -2] [mu]m/hr. (author).

  17. On Advanced Control Methods toward Power Capture and Load Mitigation in Wind Turbines

    OpenAIRE

    Yuan Yuan; Jiong Tang

    2017-01-01

    This article provides a survey of recently emerged methods for wind turbine control. Multivariate control approaches to the optimization of power capture and the reduction of loads in components under time-varying turbulent wind fields have been under extensive investigation in recent years. We divide the related research activities into three categories: modeling and dynamics of wind turbines, active control of wind turbines, and passive control of wind turbines. Regarding turbine dynamics, ...

  18. Affordable dispersion mitigation method for the next generation RF-over-fiber optical channels.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bloch, Shalom; Sternklar, Shmuel; Granot, Er'el

    2017-08-20

    Next-generation analog radio frequency over fiber (RFoF) links will require dispersion compensation. Most dispersion compensation methods are based on additional optical elements. Therefore, these solutions may be inadequate for low-cost channels. In this work, we suggest a novel low-cost dispersion compensation solution for RFoF links. The method is based on two properties, which are common in these links: the modulation depth in analog RFoF links is lower than in digital links (and to avoid nonlinearities, it may be deliberately set to a small value), and the data are carried by a high-frequency carrier. It is shown that with these properties, the optical channel behaves approximately as a linear system. The distortion occurs in the linear domain and in the third-harmonic regime. Since the third-harmonic distortions are usually smaller than the back-to-back distortions, they are linear in the power domain. We therefore suggest using a simple low-cost electronic filter to compensate the dispersion distortions. The performance of this technique is presented both analytically and with a numerical simulation. These preliminary results are very encouraging and point to an inexpensive solution for next-generation RFoF links to the home.

  19. On Advanced Control Methods toward Power Capture and Load Mitigation in Wind Turbines

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Yuan Yuan

    2017-08-01

    Full Text Available This article provides a survey of recently emerged methods for wind turbine control. Multivariate control approaches to the optimization of power capture and the reduction of loads in components under time-varying turbulent wind fields have been under extensive investigation in recent years. We divide the related research activities into three categories: modeling and dynamics of wind turbines, active control of wind turbines, and passive control of wind turbines. Regarding turbine dynamics, we discuss the physical fundamentals and present the aeroelastic analysis tools. Regarding active control, we review pitch control, torque control, and yaw control strategies encompassing mathematical formulations as well as their applications toward different objectives. Our survey mostly focuses on blade pitch control, which is considered one of the key elements in facilitating load reduction while maintaining power capture performance. Regarding passive control, we review techniques such as tuned mass dampers, smart rotors, and microtabs. Possible future directions are suggested.

  20. Method and system for gas flow mitigation of molecular contamination of optics

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Delgado, Gildardo; Johnson, Terry; Arienti, Marco; Harb, Salam; Klebanoff, Lennie; Garcia, Rudy; Tahmassebpur, Mohammed; Scott, Sarah

    2018-01-23

    A computer-implemented method for determining an optimized purge gas flow in a semi-conductor inspection metrology or lithography apparatus, comprising receiving a permissible contaminant mole fraction, a contaminant outgassing flow rate associated with a contaminant, a contaminant mass diffusivity, an outgassing surface length, a pressure, a temperature, a channel height, and a molecular weight of a purge gas, calculating a flow factor based on the permissible contaminant mole fraction, the contaminant outgassing flow rate, the channel height, and the outgassing surface length, comparing the flow factor to a predefined maximum flow factor value, calculating a minimum purge gas velocity and a purge gas mass flow rate from the flow factor, the contaminant mass diffusivity, the pressure, the temperature, and the molecular weight of the purge gas, and introducing the purge gas into the semi-conductor inspection metrology or lithography apparatus with the minimum purge gas velocity and the purge gas flow rate.

  1. Computational Investigation of Novel Tip Leakage Mitigation Methods for High Pressure Turbine Blades

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ibrahim, Mounir; Gupta, Abhinav; Shyam, Vikram

    2014-01-01

    This paper presents preliminary findings on a possible approach to reducing tip leakage losses. In this paper a computational study was conducted on the Energy Efficient Engine (EEE) High Pressure Turbine (HPT) rotor tip geometry using the commercial numerical solver ANSYS FLUENT. The flow solver was validated against aerodynamic data acquired in the NASA Transonic Turbine Blade Cascade facility. The scope of the ongoing study is to computationally investigate how the tip leakage and overall blade losses are affected by (1) injection from the tip near the pressure side, (2) injection from the tip surface at the camber line, and (3) injection from the tip surface into the tip separation bubble. The objective is to identify the locations on the tip surface at which to place appropriately configured blowing keeping in mind the film cooling application of tip blowing holes. The validation was conducted at Reynolds numbers of 85,000, 343,000, and 685,000 and at engine realistic flow conditions. The coolant injection simulations were conducted at a Reynolds number of 343,000 based on blade chord and inlet velocity and utilized the SST turbulence model in FLUENT. The key parameters examined are the number of jets, jet angle and jet location. A coolant to inlet pressure ratio of 1.0 was studied for angles of +30 deg, -30 deg, and 90 deg to the local free stream on the tip. For the 3 hole configuration, 3 holes spaced 3 hole diameters apart with length to diameter ratio of 1.5 were used. A simulation including 11 holes along the entire mean camber line is also presented (30 deg toward suction side). In addition, the effect of a single hole is also compared to a flat tip with no injection. The results provide insight into tip flow control methods and can be used to guide further investigation into tip flow control. As noted in past research it is concluded that reducing leakage flow is not necessarily synonymous with reducing losses due to leakage.

  2. Report D : self-consolidating concrete (SCC) for infrastructure elements - creep, shrinkage and abrasion resistance.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2012-08-01

    Concrete specimens were fabricated for shrinkage, creep, and abrasion resistance : testing. Variations of self-consolidating concrete (SCC) and conventional concrete were : all tested. The results were compared to previous similar testing programs an...

  3. Structure of the Pds5-Scc1 Complex and Implications for Cohesin Function

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Kyle W. Muir

    2016-03-01

    Full Text Available Sister chromatid cohesion is a fundamental prerequisite to faithful genome segregation. Cohesion is precisely regulated by accessory factors that modulate the stability with which the cohesin complex embraces chromosomes. One of these factors, Pds5, engages cohesin through Scc1 and is both a facilitator of cohesion, and, conversely also mediates the release of cohesin from chromatin. We present here the crystal structure of a complex between budding yeast Pds5 and Scc1, thus elucidating the molecular basis of Pds5 function. Pds5 forms an elongated HEAT repeat that binds to Scc1 via a conserved surface patch. We demonstrate that the integrity of the Pds5-Scc1 interface is indispensable for the recruitment of Pds5 to cohesin, and that its abrogation results in loss of sister chromatid cohesion and cell viability.

  4. Report E : self-consolidating concrete (SCC) for infrastructure elements - hardened mechanical properties and durability performance.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2012-08-01

    Concrete is one of the most produced and utilized materials in the world. Due to : the labor intensive and time consuming nature of concrete construction, new and : innovative concrete mixes are being explored. Self-consolidating concrete (SCC) is on...

  5. CASSINI RSS RAW DATA SET - SCC13 V1.0

    Data.gov (United States)

    National Aeronautics and Space Administration — The Cassini Radio Science Solar Corona Characterization Experiment (SCC13) Raw Data Archive is a time-ordered collection of radio science raw data acquired from...

  6. CASSINI RSS RAW DATA SET - SCC4 V1.0

    Data.gov (United States)

    National Aeronautics and Space Administration — The Cassini Radio Science Solar Corona Characterization Experiment (SCC4) Raw Data Archive is a time-ordered collection of radio science raw data acquired from...

  7. CASSINI RSS RAW DATA SET - SCC5 V1.0

    Data.gov (United States)

    National Aeronautics and Space Administration — The Cassini Radio Science Solar Corona Characterization Experiment (SCC5) Raw Data Archive is a time-ordered collection of radio science raw data acquired from...

  8. CASSINI RSS RAW DATA SET - SCC9 V1.0

    Data.gov (United States)

    National Aeronautics and Space Administration — The Cassini Radio Science Solar Corona Characterization Experiment (SCC9) Raw Data Archive is a time-ordered collection of radio science raw data acquired from...

  9. CASSINI RSS RAW DATA SET - SCC2 V1.0

    Data.gov (United States)

    National Aeronautics and Space Administration — The Cassini Radio Science Solar Corona Characterization Experiment (SCC2) Raw Data Archive is a time-ordered collection of radio science raw data acquired from July...

  10. CASSINI RSS RAW DATA SET - SCC12 V1.0

    Data.gov (United States)

    National Aeronautics and Space Administration — The Cassini Radio Science Solar Corona Characterization Experiment (SCC12) Raw Data Archive is a time-ordered collection of radio science raw data acquired from...

  11. CASSINI RSS RAW DATA SET - SCC1 V1.0

    Data.gov (United States)

    National Aeronautics and Space Administration — The Cassini Radio Science Solar Corona Characterization Experiment (SCC1) Raw Data Archive is a time-ordered collection of radio science raw data acquired on July...

  12. CASSINI RSS RAW DATA SET - SCC3 V1.0

    Data.gov (United States)

    National Aeronautics and Space Administration — The Cassini Radio Science Solar Corona Characterization Experiment (SCC3) Raw Data Archive is a time-ordered collection of radio science raw data acquired from...

  13. CASSINI RSS RAW DATA SET - SCC8 V1.0

    Data.gov (United States)

    National Aeronautics and Space Administration — The Cassini Radio Science Solar Corona Characterization Experiment (SCC8) Raw Data Archive is a time-ordered collection of radio science raw data acquired from...

  14. CASSINI RSS RAW DATA SET - SCC6 V1.0

    Data.gov (United States)

    National Aeronautics and Space Administration — The Cassini Radio Science Solar Corona Characterization Experiment (SCC6) Raw Data Archive is a time-ordered collection of radio science raw data acquired from...

  15. CASSINI RSS RAW DATA SET - SCC14 V1.0

    Data.gov (United States)

    National Aeronautics and Space Administration — The Cassini Radio Science Solar Corona Characterization Experiment (SCC14) Raw Data Archive is a time-ordered collection of radio science raw data acquired from...

  16. CASSINI RSS RAW DATA SET - SCC11 V1.0

    Data.gov (United States)

    National Aeronautics and Space Administration — The Cassini Radio Science Solar Corona Characterization Experiment (SCC11) Raw Data Archive is a time-ordered collection of radio science raw data acquired from...

  17. CASSINI RSS RAW DATA SET - SCC7 V1.0

    Data.gov (United States)

    National Aeronautics and Space Administration — The Cassini Radio Science Solar Corona Characterization Experiment (SCC7) Raw Data Archive is a time-ordered collection of radio science raw data acquired from...

  18. CASSINI RSS RAW DATA SET - SCC10 V1.0

    Data.gov (United States)

    National Aeronautics and Space Administration — The Cassini Radio Science Solar Corona Characterization Experiment (SCC10) Raw Data Archive is a time-ordered collection of radio science raw data acquired from...

  19. Chl1 DNA helicase regulates Scc2 deposition specifically during DNA-replication in Saccharomyces cerevisiae.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Soumya Rudra

    Full Text Available The conserved family of cohesin proteins that mediate sister chromatid cohesion requires Scc2, Scc4 for chromatin-association and Eco1/Ctf7 for conversion to a tethering competent state. A popular model, based on the notion that cohesins form huge ring-like structures, is that Scc2, Scc4 function is essential only during G1 such that sister chromatid cohesion results simply from DNA replisome passage through pre-loaded cohesin rings. In such a scenario, cohesin deposition during G1 is temporally uncoupled from Eco1-dependent establishment reactions that occur during S-phase. Chl1 DNA helicase (homolog of human ChlR1/DDX11 and BACH1/BRIP1/FANCJ helicases implicated in Fanconi anemia, breast and ovarian cancer and Warsaw Breakage Syndrome plays a critical role in sister chromatid cohesion, however, the mechanism through which Chl1 promotes cohesion remains poorly understood. Here, we report that Chl1 promotes Scc2 loading unto DNA such that both Scc2 and cohesin enrichment to chromatin are defective in chl1 mutant cells. The results further show that both Chl1 expression and chromatin-recruitment are tightly regulated through the cell cycle, peaking during S-phase. Importantly, kinetic ChIP studies reveals that Chl1 is required for Scc2 chromatin-association specifically during S-phase, but not during G1. Despite normal chromatin enrichment of both Scc2 and cohesin during G1, chl1 mutant cells exhibit severe chromosome segregation and cohesion defects--revealing that G1-loaded cohesins is insufficient to promote cohesion. Based on these findings, we propose a new model wherein S-phase cohesin loading occurs during DNA replication and in concert with both cohesion establishment and chromatin assembly reactions--challenging the notion that DNA replication fork navigates through or around pre-loaded cohesin rings.

  20. A Time-Varying Potential-Based Demand Response Method for Mitigating the Impacts of Wind Power Forecasting Errors

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Jia Ning

    2017-11-01

    Full Text Available The uncertainty of wind power results in wind power forecasting errors (WPFE which lead to difficulties in formulating dispatching strategies to maintain the power balance. Demand response (DR is a promising tool to balance power by alleviating the impact of WPFE. This paper offers a control method of combining DR and automatic generation control (AGC units to smooth the system’s imbalance, considering the real-time DR potential (DRP and security constraints. A schematic diagram is proposed from the perspective of a dispatching center that manages smart appliances including air conditioner (AC, water heater (WH, electric vehicle (EV loads, and AGC units to maximize the wind accommodation. The presented model schedules the AC, WH, and EV loads without compromising the consumers’ comfort preferences. Meanwhile, the ramp constraint of generators and power flow transmission constraint are considered to guarantee the safety and stability of the power system. To demonstrate the performance of the proposed approach, simulations are performed in an IEEE 24-node system. The results indicate that considerable benefits can be realized by coordinating the DR and AGC units to mitigate the WPFE impacts.

  1. Effects of Temperature and Corrosion Potential on SCC

    Science.gov (United States)

    Andresen, Peter L.; Seeman, Russell A.

    This study reinforces the expectation that a consistent benefit of low corrosion potential is achievable at intermediate temperatures associated with BWR start up. Such low corrosion potentials can probably only be achieved using NobleChem™ and injection of H2 or other reductants such as hydrazine or carbohydrazide because very low residual levels of O2 can elevate the corrosion potential. The high growth rates that occur during start up merit mitigation, although this study did not find growth rates that were orders of magnitude higher than at 288 °C. However, this study did not attempt to simulate all aspects of start up, especially the sources of dynamic strain such as differential thermal expansion, which can be estimated by are not known.

  2. Imiquimod induces apoptosis of squamous cell carcinoma (SCC cells via regulation of A20.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Kyung-Cheol Sohn

    Full Text Available Imiquimod, a nucleoside analogue of the imidazoquinoline family, is being used to treat various cutaneous cancers including squamous cell carcinoma (SCC. Imiquimod activates anti-tumor immunity via Toll-like receptor 7 (TLR7 in macrophage and other immune cells. Imiquimod can also affect tumor cells directly, regardless of its impact on immune system. In this study, we demonstrated that imiquimod induced apoptosis of SCC cells (SCC12 and A20 was involved in this process. When A20 was overexpressed, imiquimod-induced apoptosis was markedly inhibited. Conversely, knockdown of A20 potentiated imiquimod-induced apoptosis. Interestingly, A20 counteracted activation of c-Jun N-terminal kinase (JNK, suggesting that A20-regulated JNK activity was possible mechanism underlying imiquimod-induced apoptosis of SCC12 cells. Finally, imiquimod-induced apoptosis of SCC12 cells was taken place in a TLR7-independent manner. Our data provide new insight into the mechanism underlying imiquimod effect in cutaneous cancer treatment.

  3. The effect of form pressure on the air void structure of SCC

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Jensen, Mikkel Vibæk; Hasholt, Marianne Tange; Geiker, Mette Rica

    2005-01-01

    on the air void structure of hardened, air entrained SCC. The subject was examined through laboratory investigations of SCC with two different amounts of air entrainment. The condition in the form was simulated by using containers making it possible to cure concrete under various pressures corresponding......The high workability of self-compacting concrete (SCC) invites to high casting rates. However, casting walls at high rate may result in large pressure at the bottom of the form and subsequently compression of the air voids. This paper deals with the influence of hydrostatic pressure during setting...... to the bottom of castings of 0, 2, 4, and 6 meters height. The laboratory investigations were supplemented with data from two full-scale wall castings. The air void structure of the hardened concretes was determined on plane sections. The results indicate that the pressure related changes of the air void...

  4. A graphic system for telemetry monitoring and procedure performing at the Telecom SCC

    Science.gov (United States)

    Loubeyre, Jean Philippe

    1994-01-01

    The increasing amount of telemetry parameters and the increasing complexity of procedures used for the in-orbit satellite follow-up has led to the development of new tools for telemetry monitoring and procedures performing. The name of the system presented here is Graphic Server. It provides an advanced graphic representation of the satellite subsystems, including real-time telemetry and alarm displaying, and a powerful help for decision making with on line contingency procedures. Used for 2.5 years at the TELECOM S.C.C. for procedure performing, it has become an essential part of the S.C.C.

  5. Acacia catechu Ethanolic Seed Extract Triggers Apoptosis of SCC-25 Cells.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lakshmi, Thangavelu; Ezhilarasan, Devaraj; Nagaich, Upendra; Vijayaragavan, Rajagopal

    2017-10-01

    Acacia catechu Willd (Fabaceae), commonly known as catechu, cachou, and black cutch, has been studied for its hepatoprotective, antipyretic, antidiarrheal, hypoglycemic, anti-inflammatory, immunomodulatory, antinociceptive, antimicrobial, free radical scavenging, and antioxidant activities. We evaluated the cytotoxic activity of ethanol extract of A. catechu seed (ACS) against SCC-25 human oral squamous carcinoma cell line. Cytotoxic effect of ACS extract was determined by 3-(4,5-dimethylthiazol-2-yl)-2,5-diphenyltetrazolium bromide assay, using concentrations of 0.1-1000 μg/mL for 24 h. A. catechu ethanol seed extract was treated SCC-25 cells with 25 and 50 μg/mL. At the end of treatment period, apoptotic marker gene expressions such as caspase 8, 9, Bcl-2, Bax, and cytochrome c were evaluated by semiquantitative reverse transcription-polymerase chain reaction. Morphological changes of ACS treated SCC-25 cells was evaluated by acridine orange/ethidium bromide (AO/EB) dual staining. Nuclear morphology and DNA fragmentation was evaluated by propidium iodide (PI) staining. A. catechu ethanol seed extract treatment caused cytotoxicity in SCC-25 cells with an IC50 value of 100 μg/mL. Apoptotic markers caspases 8 and 9, cytochrome c, Bax gene expressions were significantly increased upon ACS extract treatment indicate the apoptosis induction in SCC-25 cells. This treatment also caused significant downregulation of Bcl-2 gene expression. Staining with AO/EB and PI shows membrane blebbing, and nuclear membrane distortion further confirms the apoptosis induction by ACS treatment in SCC-25 cells. The ethanol seed extracts of A. catechu was found to be cytotoxic at lower concentrations and induced apoptosis in human oral squamous carcinoma SCC-25 cells. Acacia catechu ethanolic seed extract contains phytochemicals such as epicatechin, rutin, and quercetinAcacia catechu seed (ACS) extract significantly (P extract treatment to SCC-25 cells significantly modulated the gene

  6. Preliminary Field Tests and Long-Term Monitoring as a Method of Design Risk Mitigation: A Case Study of Gdańsk Deepwater Container Terminal

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Miśkiewicz Mikołaj

    2017-09-01

    Full Text Available Appropriate risk assessment plays a fundamental role in the design. . The authors propose a possible method of design risk mitigation, which follows recommendations included in Eurocode 7. The so-called “Observational Method” (OM can produce savings in costs and programmes on engineering projects without compromising safety. The case study presented is a complex design solution that deals with the heavy foundations of a gantry crane beam as one of the elements of a Deepwater Container Terminal extension. The paper presents a detailed process of the design of the rear crane beam being a part of the brand new berth, together with its static analysis, as well as the long-term results of observations, which have revealed the real performance of the marine structure. The case presented is based on excessive preliminary field tests and technical monitoring of the structure, and is an example of a successful OM implementation and design risk mitigation.

  7. Monitoring Conditions Leading to SCC/Corrosion of Carbon Steel in Fuel Grade Ethanol

    Science.gov (United States)

    2011-02-11

    This is the draft final report of the project on field monitoring of conditions that lead to SCC in ethanol tanks and piping. The other two aspects of the consolidated program, ethanol batching and blending effects (WP#325) and source effects (WP#323...

  8. The Effect of Titanium Dioxide Nanoparticles on Keratinocyte Cell (KC) and Squamous Cell Carcinoma (SCC-13)

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lin, Chienhsiu; Simon, Marcia; Jurukovski, Vladimir; Lee, Wilson; Rafailovich, Miriam

    2009-03-01

    We have studied the effects of TiO2 nanoparticles on cell keratinocyte and SCC (Squamous Cell Carcinoma) cells. We found that the concentration of particles required to adversely affect the cells was many times higher for keratinocyte than SCC cells. Confocal microscope shows that the particles in keratinocyte culture are sequestered in membranes between the cell colonies. The particles penetrated into the cells in the case of the SCC cells. TEM images revealed very few particles in the keratinocyte, many more particles were observed sequestered in vacuole of the SCC cells. These results indicate that the keratinocyte layer behaves very different from the fibroblast layers which are much more sensate to TiO2 nanoparticle damage and may suggest a protection mechanism of the dermal tissue. The effect of UV exposure in the presence of DNA was also investigated. We found that adsorbed proteins, as well as grafted polymer provided a measure of protection against free radical formation. The effects of low level UV exposure when the particles are near in-vitro cell culture will be presented.

  9. Study on Characteristics of SCC and AE Signals for Weld HAZ of HT-60 Steel

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Na, Eui Gyun [Kunsan National University, Gunsan (Korea, Republic of); Yu, Hyo Sun [Chonbuk National University, Jeonju (Korea, Republic of); Kim, Hoon [Yosu National University, Yeosu (Korea, Republic of)

    2001-02-15

    In order to characterize the microscopic fracture behaviour of the weldment din stress corrosion cracking(SCC) phenomena, SCC and acoustic emission(AE) tests were carried out simultaneously and the correlation between mechanical parameters obtained from SCC and AE tests was investigated. In the case of base metal, much more AE events were produced at -0.5V than at -0.8V because of the dissolution mechanism before the maximum load. Regardless of the applied voltages to the specimens, however, AE events decreased after the maximum load. In the case of weldment, lots of AE events with larger amplitude range(40{approx}dB) were produced because of the singularities of weld HAZ in comparison to the base metal and post-weld heat-treated(PWHT) specimens. Numerous and larger cracks for the weldment were observed on the fractured surfaces by SEM examination. From these results, it was concluded that SCC for the weldment appeared most severely in synthetic seawater. Weld HAZ was softened by PWHT which also contributed to the reduced susceptibility to corrosive environment in comparison to the weldment

  10. Durability Indicators Comparison for SCC and CC in Tropical Coastal Environments

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Carlos Calado

    2015-03-01

    Full Text Available Self-compacting concrete (SCC demands more studies of durability at higher temperatures when subjected to more aggressive environments in comparison to the conventional vibrated concrete (CC. This work aims at presenting results of durability indicators of SCC and CC, having the same water/binder relations and constituents. The applied methodologies were electrical resistivity, diffusion of chloride ions and accelerated carbonation experiments, among others, such as microstructure study, scanning electron microscope and microtomography experiments. The tests were performed in a research laboratory and at a construction site of the Pernambuco Arena. The obtained results shows that the SCC presents an average electrical resistivity 11.4% higher than CC; the average chloride ions diffusion was 63.3% of the CC; the average accelerated carbonation penetration was 45.8% of the CC; and the average open porosity was 55.6% of the CC. As the results demonstrated, the SCC can be more durable than CC, which contributes to elucidate the aspects related to its durability and consequent prolonged life cycle.

  11. Natural stone waste powders applied to SCC mix design

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Hunger, Martin; Brouwers, Jos

    2008-01-01

    In order to comply with current trends concerning sustainability, saving of primary materials and energy savings, this paper addresses Eco-concrete. The major focus thereby is on the increased efficiency of cement use. Applying a new mix design method for concrete, cement contents can be decreased

  12. Releasing Activity Disengages Cohesin’s Smc3/Scc1 Interface in a Process Blocked by Acetylation

    Science.gov (United States)

    Beckouët, Frederic; Srinivasan, Madhusudhan; Roig, Maurici Brunet; Chan, Kok-Lung; Scheinost, Johanna C.; Batty, Paul; Hu, Bin; Petela, Naomi; Gligoris, Thomas; Smith, Alexandra C.; Strmecki, Lana; Rowland, Benjamin D.; Nasmyth, Kim

    2016-01-01

    Summary Sister chromatid cohesion conferred by entrapment of sister DNAs within a tripartite ring formed between cohesin’s Scc1, Smc1, and Smc3 subunits is created during S and destroyed at anaphase through Scc1 cleavage by separase. Cohesin’s association with chromosomes is controlled by opposing activities: loading by Scc2/4 complex and release by a separase-independent releasing activity as well as by cleavage. Coentrapment of sister DNAs at replication is accompanied by acetylation of Smc3 by Eco1, which blocks releasing activity and ensures that sisters remain connected. Because fusion of Smc3 to Scc1 prevents release and bypasses the requirement for Eco1, we suggested that release is mediated by disengagement of the Smc3/Scc1 interface. We show that mutations capable of bypassing Eco1 in Smc1, Smc3, Scc1, Wapl, Pds5, and Scc3 subunits reduce dissociation of N-terminal cleavage fragments of Scc1 (NScc1) from Smc3. This process involves interaction between Smc ATPase heads and is inhibited by Smc3 acetylation. PMID:26895425

  13. SCC Life Estimation Based on Cracks Initiated from the Corrosion Pits of Bolting Material SCM435 Used in Steam Turbine

    Science.gov (United States)

    Itoh, Hitomi; Ochi, Mayumi; Fujiwara, Isao; Momoo, Takashi

    Life estimation was performed for the stress corrosion cracking (SCC) that occurs in deaerated and wet hot pure steam at the bottoms of the threads of bolts made of SCM435 (equivalent to AISI 4137) used in steam turbine. SCC is believed to occur when corrosion pits are formed and grow to critical size, after which SCC is initiated and cracks propagate until the critical fracture toughness value is reached. Calculations were performed using laboratory and field data. The results showed that, for a 40mm diameter bolt with 0.2% offset strength of 820MPa, the critical crack depth for straight-front cracks was 5.4mm. The SCC life depends on the lubricant used; the SCC life estimated from this value is approximately 70000 hours when graphite is used as a lubricant.

  14. Characteristics of BeiDou Navigation Satellite System Multipath and Its Mitigation Method Based on Kalman Filter and Rauch-Tung-Striebel Smoother.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zhang, Qiuzhao; Yang, Wei; Zhang, Shubi; Liu, Xin

    2018-01-12

    Global Navigation Satellite System (GNSS) carrier phase measurement for short baseline meets the requirements of deformation monitoring of large structures. However, the carrier phase multipath effect is the main error source with double difference (DD) processing. There are lots of methods to deal with the multipath errors of Global Position System (GPS) carrier phase data. The BeiDou navigation satellite System (BDS) multipath mitigation is still a research hotspot because the unique constellation design of BDS makes it different to mitigate multipath effects compared to GPS. Multipath error periodically repeats for its strong correlation to geometry of satellites, reflective surface and antenna which is also repetitive. We analyzed the characteristics of orbital periods of BDS satellites which are consistent with multipath repeat periods of corresponding satellites. The results show that the orbital periods and multipath periods for BDS geostationary earth orbit (GEO) and inclined geosynchronous orbit (IGSO) satellites are about one day but the periods of MEO satellites are about seven days. The Kalman filter (KF) and Rauch-Tung-Striebel Smoother (RTSS) was introduced to extract the multipath models from single difference (SD) residuals with traditional sidereal filter (SF). Wavelet filter and Empirical mode decomposition (EMD) were also used to mitigate multipath effects. The experimental results show that the three filters methods all have obvious effect on improvement of baseline accuracy and the performance of KT-RTSS method is slightly better than that of wavelet filter and EMD filter. The baseline vector accuracy on east, north and up (E, N, U) components with KF-RTSS method were improved by 62.8%, 63.6%, 62.5% on day of year 280 and 57.3%, 53.4%, 55.9% on day of year 281, respectively.

  15. Semiempirical calculations of ESCA chemical shifts by the SCC-AMEP model

    Science.gov (United States)

    Maksic, Z. B.; Rupnik, K.

    1986-03-01

    ESCA chemical shifts give a direct insight into the charge redistribution accompanying formation of chemical bonds. This remarkable feature follows directly from a finding that inner-shell binding energies are closely related to the potentials exerted on the nuclei in question. We have provided extensive evidence which conclusively shows that electrostatic potentials (EP), evaluated in the atomic monopole (AM) approximation, by using the self-consistent charge (SCC-MO) densities, reproduce observed ESCA data in a surprisingly successful way. This approach, abbreviated heretofore the SCC-AMEP model, has also a considerable predictive power. The results have usually an accuracy which is placed in between the chemical and moderate precision. Hence, the salient features of the basic ESCA lines are well described within the AMEP approximation. Finally, the role of the relaxation energy is briefly discussed.

  16. A Study on the Susceptibility to SCC of 7050 Aluminum Alloy by DCB Specimens

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Xing Qi

    2016-11-01

    Full Text Available The stress corrosion cracking (SCC of different aging states for 7050 aluminum alloy in 3.5% sodium chloride aqueous solution has been studied by means of double cantilever beam (DCB specimens, cathodic polarization, scanning electron microscope (SEM, transmission electron microscope (TEM and time-of-flying second ion mass spectrometer (ToF-SIMS. The results showed that the susceptibility to SCC (Iscc of 7050 aluminum alloy decreases with increasing the aging time. When a cathodic polarization potential of −1100 mV was applied to DCB specimens, the ion current intensity of hydrogen (IH+ near the crack tip and Iscc increased obviously, thus the degree of the diffusion of hydrogen into the grain boundary become more serious. The observation of microstructure indicated that the precipitates on the grain boundary become coarse and are sparsely distributed with increasing the aging time of 7050 aluminum alloy.

  17. Assessment and management of SCC in a liquid pipeline: case study

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Cazenave, Pablo; Tandon, Samarth; Gao, Ming; Krishnamurthy, Ravi [Blade Energy Partners, Houston, Texas (United States); Peverelli, Romina (PIMS of London, London (United Kingdom)); Moreno Ochoa, Carlos (Pemex Refinacion, Cd de Mexico, (Mexico)); Diaz Solis, Esau (Pemex Refinacion, Cd de Mexico, (Mexico))

    2010-07-01

    A 30-inch crude oil pipeline system was built between Nuevo Teapa to Venta de Carpjo from 1978 to 1980. It is owned by Pemex; its total length is 570 km, and it has strategic importance in Mexico's refining capability. In this oil pipeline, various degrees of external and internal corrosion have been found, and recent incidents occurred as a result of stress corrosion cracking (SCC). This paper presents an approach for managing high pH SCC in such a pipeline: it includes a comprehensive verification excavation plan, a strict in-ditch NDT investigation protocol, statistical models to determine the probability of detection and identification, sizing tolerance analyses, and an assessment methodology that is backed up by the material testing program. All the results provided by the application of the approach lead to the development of integrity management strategies. An integrity management plan is established and refined before the next inspection.

  18. A Study on the Susceptibility to SCC of 7050 Aluminum Alloy by DCB Specimens.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Qi, Xing; Jin, Jirong; Dai, Chunli; Qi, Wenjuan; He, Wangzhao; Song, Renguo

    2016-11-01

    The stress corrosion cracking (SCC) of different aging states for 7050 aluminum alloy in 3.5% sodium chloride aqueous solution has been studied by means of double cantilever beam (DCB) specimens, cathodic polarization, scanning electron microscope (SEM), transmission electron microscope (TEM) and time-of-flying second ion mass spectrometer (ToF-SIMS). The results showed that the susceptibility to SCC (Iscc) of 7050 aluminum alloy decreases with increasing the aging time. When a cathodic polarization potential of -1100 mV was applied to DCB specimens, the ion current intensity of hydrogen (IH⁺) near the crack tip and Iscc increased obviously, thus the degree of the diffusion of hydrogen into the grain boundary become more serious. The observation of microstructure indicated that the precipitates on the grain boundary become coarse and are sparsely distributed with increasing the aging time of 7050 aluminum alloy.

  19. Artemisinin content of sc-C0₂ derived extracts from Artemisia annua / Surisha Padayatchi.

    OpenAIRE

    Padayatchi, Surisha

    2004-01-01

    One of the principal research themes of the supercritical fluid research group within the Centre of Separation Science and Technology (SST) at the North-West University (Potchefstroom Campus) is botanical extraction. The group produces botanical extracts from locally cultivated plants which contain substances (essential oils, natural waxes) relevant to the food, flavour, pharmaceutical, medical and cosmetic industries while utilising the advantages of sc-C& extraction over traditi...

  20. Comparison of accelerated SCC tests performed on the aluminium alloy 2024-T651

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Braun, R. (Deutsche Forschungsanstalt fuer Luft- und Raumfahrt, Inst. fuer Werkstoff-Forschung, Koeln (Germany))

    1992-09-01

    The stress corrosion cracking (SCC) behaviour of plates of the Al-Cu-Si-Mn-Mg alloy 2014-T651 was investigated in short transverse direction performing various accelerated tests. Corrosive media used were: aqueous 3.5% NaCl solution, an aqueous solution of 2% NaCl + 0.5% Na[sub 2]CrO[sub 4] at pH = 3 (according to LN 65666), and substitute ocean water according to ASTM D1141. C-ring and tensile specimens were loaded under constant deformation, constant load and slow strain rate conditions. Alternate immersion tests in 3.5% NaCl solution clearly indicate the low SCC resistance of the alloy 2014-T651 in short transverse direction. Under continuous immersion conditions the acidified 2% NaCl solution containing chromate is an appropriate synthetic environment, while neutral 3.5% NaCl solution does not promote severe stress corrosion cracking. The SCC susceptibility of 2014-T651 is also observed in slow strain rate tests using substitute ocean water as well as acidified 2% NaCl solution inhibited by chromate. In 3.5% NaCl solution the evaluation of slow strain rate data is complicated by pre-exposure effects. (orig.).

  1. Asphalt dust waste material as a paste volume in developing sustainable self compacting concrete (SCC)

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ismail, Isham; Shahidan, Shahiron; Bahari, Nur Amira Afiza Saiful

    2017-12-01

    Self-compacting concrete (SCC) mixtures are usually designed to have high workability during the fresh state through the influence of higher volumes of paste in concrete mixtures. Asphalt dust waste (ADW) is one of disposed materials obtained during the production of asphalt premix. These fine powder wastes contribute to environmental problems today. However, these waste materials can be utilized in the development of sustainable and economical SCC. This paper focuses on the preliminary evaluations of the fresh properties and compressive strength of developed SCC for 7 and 28 days only. 144 cube samples from 24 mixtures with varying water binder ratios (0.2, 0.3 and 0.4) and ADW volume (0% to 100%) were prepared. MD940 and MD950 showed a satisfactory performance for the slump flow, J-Ring, L-Box and V-Funnel tests at fresh state. The compressive strength after 28 days for MD940 and MD950 was 36.9 MPa and 28.0 MPa respectively. In conclusion, the use of ADW as paste volume should be limited and a higher water binder ratio will significantly reduce the compressive strength.

  2. SCC of 2304 Duplex Stainless Steel—Microstructure, Residual Stress and Surface Grinding Effects

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Nian Zhou

    2017-02-01

    Full Text Available The influence of surface grinding and microstructure on chloride induced stress corrosion cracking (SCC behavior of 2304 duplex stainless steel has been investigated. Grinding operations were performed both parallel and perpendicular to the rolling direction of the material. SCC tests were conducted in boiling magnesium chloride according to ASTM G36; specimens were exposed both without external loading and with varied levels of four-point bend loading. Residual stresses were measured on selected specimens before and after exposure using the X-ray diffraction technique. In addition, in-situ surface stress measurements subjected to four-point bend loading were performed to evaluate the deviation between the actual applied loading and the calculated values according to ASTM G39. Micro-cracks, initiated by grinding induced surface tensile residual stresses, were observed for all the ground specimens but not on the as-delivered surfaces. Loading transverse to the rolling direction of the material increased the susceptibility to chloride induced SCC. Grinding induced tensile residual stresses and micro-notches in the as-ground surface topography were also detrimental.

  3. Acceptance and Utilization of Technology (UTAUT) as a Method of Technology Acceptance Model of Mitigation Disaster Website

    Science.gov (United States)

    Siswanto, T.; Shofiati, R.; Hartini, H.

    2018-01-01

    www.mitigasi-bencana.com as a knowledge management website created based on survey results in April-July 2014 in East Java and Central Java provinces, indicates a gap between the expectations and reality that exist in the services provided by the regional disaster management agency. Based on condition analysis, the gaps that occur can be reduced if the community has the understanding and knowledge of adequate disaster mitigation. The problem that arises later is whether the chosen technology solution is appropriate and acceptable to the public? The methodology used in this study using the Technology Acceptance Model development is the Unified Theory of Acceptance and Utilization of Technology (UTAUT). Feedback obtained from respondents KarangTaruna youth SelogedongBantul, www.mitigasi-bencana.com can be accepted by the respondents, but from processed data is obtained only UTAUT hypotheses on the relationship dimension eligible for Social Expectancy on the Attitude toward technology, which means the higher the perception of the Social Expectancy, the higher the perception of the Attitude toward technology. Because www.mitigasi-bencana.com is new socialized so that society still need time to explore content information and knowledge contained therein. To be accepted by user, a knowledge management application must prepare various aspects of Performance Expectancy, Effort Expectancy, Social Factors, Facilitating Conditions and Attitude.

  4. Impacts of Water Levels on Breeding Canada Geese and Methods for Mitigation and Management in the Southern Flathead Valley, Montana, 1983-1987 Final Report.

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Mackey, Dennis L.; Gregory, Shari K.; Matthews, William C. Jr.; Claar, James J.; Ball, I. Joseph

    1987-11-01

    Kerr Hydroelectric Dam is located at the south end of Flathead Lake, controls water levels on the lake and the Flathead River below the dam, and is currently operated as a load control facility. Current operation of Kerr Dam creates the greatest yearly water level fluctuations on both the lake and river during the Canada goose (Branta canadensis moffitti) brood and nesting period. Data collected from 1980-1982 indicated that goose nest numbers on the river were lower than during the 1950's, and that brood habitat on the lake may be limiting the goose population there. Our study was conducted from 1983-1987 to determine the effects of Kerr Dam operation on Canada goose populations and habitat on the south half of Flathead Lake and the Flathead River, and to formulate management and mitigation recommendations. Nesting geese on the river appeared to be negatively affected by a lack of nest sites free from predators, and responded to available artificial nest structures with an increase in nest numbers and nesting success. Under current dam operation, river channel depths and widths do not discourage access to nesting islands by mammalian predators during some years and high predation on ground nests occurs. Intensively used brood areas on the lake and river were identified and described. Brood habitat on the lake was lower in quality and quantity than on the river due to dam operations. Gosling mortality on the lake was high, almost 2 times higher than on the river. Lake broods expended more energy obtaining food than river broods. Losses of brood habitat in the form of wet meadow marshes were documented and mitigation options developed. Management/mitigation alternatives and monitoring methods for nesting and brooding geese were identified.

  5. Toward to Disaster Mitigation Science

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kaneda, Yoshiyuki; Shiraki, Wataru; Tokozakura, Eiji

    2016-04-01

    Destructive natural disasters such as earthquakes and tsunamis have occurred frequently in the world. For the reduction and mitigation of damages by destructive natural disasters, early detection of natural disasters and speedy and proper evacuations are indispensable. And hardware and software preparations for reduction and mitigation of natural disasters are quite important and significant. Finally, methods on restorations and revivals are necessary after natural disasters. We would like to propose natural disaster mitigation science for early detections, evacuations and restorations against destructive natural disasters. In natural disaster mitigation science, there are lots of research fields such as natural science, engineering, medical treatment, social science and literature/art etc. Especially, natural science, engineering and medical treatment are fundamental research fields for natural disaster mitigation, but social sciences such as sociology, psychology etc. are very important research fields for restorations after natural disasters. We have to progress the natural disaster mitigation science against destructive natural disaster mitigation. in the near future. We will present the details of natural disaster mitigation science.

  6. A Physical Pre-Treatment Method (Vertical Weir Curtain for Mitigating Cyanobacteria and Some of Their Metabolites in a Drinking Water Reservoir

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Chae-Hong Park

    2017-10-01

    Full Text Available Harmful cyanobacteria and their metabolites often contaminate drinking water resources, and effective control remains challenging. Here, we developed a physical algal pre-treatment method, the vertical weir curtain (VWC, to mitigate cyanobacteria and some of their metabolites (geosmin, 2-methylisoborneol (2-MIB, and microcystins in situ and evaluated its performance in a raw water reservoir used for drinking water supply. The VWC was manufactured with two fibrous polypropylene mats (0% and 92% porosity which were mounted to maintain a constant underwater depth. We installed the VWC to cover the entire epilimnion of the drinking water intake zone and monitored its efficiency during an algal bloom period (July–October 2015. Reduction rates were 40–59% for total algae, 60–75% for cyanobacteria, 23–55% for geosmin, 30–51% for 2-MIB, and 47–89% for microcystin-LR during the study period. Significant reductions were observed in the shallow layer of the water column (1–3 m water depth, particularly during August, when cyanobacterial density was the highest. The results indicate that the VWC can effectively mitigate harmful cyanobacteria and their metabolites when suitably applied, serving as a valuable reference for the algal reduction in raw drinking water resources.

  7. Characterization of SCC Initiation Precursors in Cold-Worked Alloy 690

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Kruska, Karen; Zhai, Ziqing; Bruemmer, Stephen M.

    2017-03-27

    Due to its superior resistance to corrosion and stress corrosion cracking (SCC), high Cr, Ni-base Alloy 690 is now commonly used in pressurized water reactors (PWRs). Even though highly cold-worked (CW) Alloy 690 has been shown to be susceptible to SCC crack growth in PWR primary water environments, an open question remains whether SCC initiation was possible for these materials under constant load test conditions. Testing has been performed on a series of CW alloy 690 CRDM tubing specimens at constant load for up to 9,220 hours in 360°C simulated PWR primary water. A companion paper will discuss the overall testing approach and describe results on different alloy 690 heats and cold work levels. The focus of the current paper is to illustrate the use of focused ion beam (FIB), scanning electron microscopy (SEM) and transmission electron microscopy (TEM) for the high-resolution investigation of precursor damage and intergranular (IG) crack nucleation in these specimens. Three-dimensional (3D) FIB/SEM imaging has been conducted on a series of grain boundary (GB) damage precursors, such as IG small cavities, local corrosion and even shallow cracks observed at the specimen surface. Contrast variations and EDS mapping were used to distinguish oxides, carbides and cavities from the matrix material. Nanometer-sized cavities were observed associated with GB carbides in the highly CW specimens. Shallow IG cracks were present in the 30%CW specimens and exhibited oxidized crack flanks and a higher density of cavities ahead of the oxide front in all cases. The shape and distribution of carbides and cavities in the plane of the cracked GBs was analyzed in 3D to gain a mechanistic understanding of the processes that may be leading to crack initiation in highly CW alloy 690.

  8. Raman spectroscopy differentiates squamous cell carcinoma (SCC) from normal skin following treatment with a high-powered CO2 laser.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Fox, Sara A; Shanblatt, Ashley A; Beckman, Hugh; Strasswimmer, John; Terentis, Andrew C

    2014-12-01

    The number of cases of non-melanoma skin cancer (NMSC), which include squamous cell carcinoma (SCC) and basal cell carcinoma (BCC), continues to rise as the aging population grows. Mohs micrographic surgery has become the treatment of choice in many cases but is not always necessary or feasible. Ablation with a high-powered CO2 laser offers the advantage of highly precise, hemostatic tissue removal. However, confirmation of complete cancer removal following ablation is difficult. In this study we tested for the first time the feasibility of using Raman spectroscopy as an in situ diagnostic method to differentiate NMSC from normal tissue following partial ablation with a high-powered CO2 laser. Twenty-five tissue samples were obtained from eleven patients undergoing Mohs micrographic surgery to remove NMSC tumors. Laser treatment was performed with a SmartXide DOT Fractional CO2 Laser (DEKA Laser Technologies, Inc.) emitting a wavelength of 10.6 μm. Treatment levels ranged from 20 mJ to 1200 mJ total energy delivered per laser treatment spot (350 μm spot size). Raman spectra were collected from both untreated and CO2 laser-treated samples using a 785 nm diode laser. Principal Component Analysis (PCA) and Binary Logistic Regression (LR) were used to classify spectra as originating from either normal or NMSC tissue, and from treated or untreated tissue. Partial laser ablation did not adversely affect the ability of Raman spectroscopy to differentiate normal from cancerous residual tissue, with the spectral classification model correctly identifying SCC tissue with 95% sensitivity and 100% specificity following partial laser ablation, compared with 92% sensitivity and 60% selectivity for untreated NMSC tissue. The main biochemical difference identified between normal and NMSC tissue was high levels of collagen in the normal tissue, which was lacking in the NMSC tissue. The feasibility of a combined high-powered CO2 laser ablation, Raman diagnostic procedure for the

  9. Electronic Bands of ScC in the Region 620 - 720 NM

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chen, Chiao-Wei; Merer, Anthony; Hsu, Yen-Chu

    2016-06-01

    ScC molecules have been observed by laser-induced fluorescence, following the reaction of laser-ablated scandium metal with acetylene under supersonic jet-cooled conditions. Rotational analyses have been carried out for about 40 bands of Sc{}12C and Sc{}13C in the region 14000 - 16000 cm-1. Two lower states are found, with Ω = 3/2 and 5/2, indicating that the ground state is ^4Π_i or ^2Δ. As yet we cannot distinguish between these alternatives, but note that the ground state of the isoelectronic YC molecule is ^4Π_i. The ground state bond length in ScC is 1.95{}_5 Å, and the vibrational frequency is 712 cm-1. At least eight electronic transitions occur in the region studied, the majority obeying the selection rule ΔΩ = +1. Rotational perturbations are widespread, consistent with a high density of excited electronic states. B. Simard, P.A. Hackett and W.J. Balfour, Chem. Phys. Lett., 230, 103 (1994).

  10. The Effect of Load-Line Displacement Rate on the SCC Growth Rate of Nickel Alloys and Mechanistic Implications

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    D Morton

    2005-10-19

    A key set of SCC growth experiments was designed to test the hypothesis that deformation/creep is the rate controlling step in LPSCC. These tests were performed on Alloy X-750 AH compact tension specimens at a various constant displacement rates. The deformation/creep rate within the crack tip zone is proportional to the test displacement rate. If crack growth rates were observed to increase with the load-line displacement rate, then this would indicate that deformation/creep is a critical SCC mechanism process. However, results obtained from the load-line displacement tests did not find X-750 AH SCC growth rate to be dependent on the position rate and therefore do not support the assumption that deformation/creep is the rate controlling process in LPSCC. The similarities between the SCC response of X-750, Alloy 600 and EN82H suggests that it is likely that the same SCC process is occurring for all these alloys (i.e., the same rate controlling step) and that deformation based models are also inappropriate for Alloy 600 and EN82H. The strong temperature and coolant hydrogen dependencies exhibited by these alloys make it more likely that nickel alloy LPSCC is controlled by an environmental or corrosion driven process.

  11. SCC500: next-generation infrared imaging camera core products with highly flexible architecture for unique camera designs

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rumbaugh, Roy N.; Grealish, Kevin; Kacir, Tom; Arsenault, Barry; Murphy, Robert H.; Miller, Scott

    2003-09-01

    A new 4th generation MicroIR architecture is introduced as the latest in the highly successful Standard Camera Core (SCC) series by BAE SYSTEMS to offer an infrared imaging engine with greatly reduced size, weight, power, and cost. The advanced SCC500 architecture provides great flexibility in configuration to include multiple resolutions, an industry standard Real Time Operating System (RTOS) for customer specific software application plug-ins, and a highly modular construction for unique physical and interface options. These microbolometer based camera cores offer outstanding and reliable performance over an extended operating temperature range to meet the demanding requirements of real-world environments. A highly integrated lens and shutter is included in the new SCC500 product enabling easy, drop-in camera designs for quick time-to-market product introductions.

  12. Curcumin inhibits oral squamous cell carcinoma SCC-9 cells proliferation by regulating miR-9 expression

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Xiao, Can [Department of Occupational Medicine and Environmental Health, School of Public Health, Soochow University, Suzhou 215123 (China); Department of Stomatology, The First Affiliated Hospital of Soochow University, Suzhou 215006 (China); Wang, Lili; Zhu, Lifang [Department of Stomatology, The First Affiliated Hospital of Soochow University, Suzhou 215006 (China); Zhang, Chenping, E-mail: zhang_cping@163.com [Department of Head and Neck Tumors, Shanghai Ninth People’s Hospital Affiliated Shanghai JiaoTong University School of Medicine, Shanghai 200011 (China); Zhou, Jianhua [Department of Occupational Medicine and Environmental Health, School of Public Health, Soochow University, Suzhou 215123 (China)

    2014-11-28

    Highlights: • miR-9 expression level was significantly decreased in OSCC tissues. • Curcumin significantly inhibited SCC-9 cells proliferation. • miR-9 mediates the inhibition of SCC-9 proliferation by curcumin. • Curcumin suppresses Wnt/β-catenin signaling in SCC-9 cells. • miR-9 mediates the suppression of Wnt/β-catenin signaling by curcumin. - Abstract: Curcumin, a phytochemical derived from the rhizome of Curcuma longa, has shown anticancer effects against a variety of tumors. In the present study, we investigated the effects of curcumin on the miR-9 expression in oral squamous cell carcinoma (OSCC) and explored the potential relationships between miR-9 and Wnt/β-catenin pathway in curcumin-mediated OSCC inhibition in vitro. As the results shown, the expression levels of miR-9 were significantly lower in clinical OSCC specimens than those in the adjacent non-tumor tissues. Furthermore, our results indicated that curcumin inhibited OSCC cells (SCC-9 cells) proliferation through up-regulating miR-9 expression, and suppressing Wnt/β-catenin signaling by increasing the expression levels of the GSK-3β, phosphorylated GSK-3β and β-catenin, and decreasing the cyclin D1 level. Additionally, the up-regulation of miR-9 by curcumin in SCC-9 cells was significantly inhibited by delivering anti-miR-9 but not control oligonucleotides. Downregulation of miR-9 by anti-miR-9 not only attenuated the growth-suppressive effects of curcumin on SCC-9 cells, but also re-activated Wnt/β-catenin signaling that was inhibited by curcumin. Therefore, our findings would provide a new insight into the use of curcumin against OSCC in future.

  13. Retrorectal epidermoid cyst with unusually elevated serum SCC level, initially diagnosed as an ovarian tumor

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Noriyuki Inaba

    2009-12-01

    Full Text Available Retrorectal epidermoid cyst is one of the developmental cysts which arise from remnants of embryonic tissues. We report a rare case of retrorectal epidermoid cyst, initially diagnosed as an ovarian tumor. Serum SCC value as tumor marker was elevated to the high level. Laparoscopy revealed ovaries, uterus and other pelvic organs were all normal. This tumor existed in the retroperitoneal cavity and compressed the rectum. Later, complete tumor resection was performed by laparotomy. Histological study revealed the epithelium of this tumor consisted of only squamous cells without atypia, and the diagnosis of this tumor was retrorectal epidermoid cyst. Retrorectal epidermoid cyst is very rare, and difficult to diagnose before surgery. However, if we haveknowledge of developmental cysts, and by careful digital examination and image diagnosis, a differential diagnosis can be made.

  14. Evaluating the role of coastal habitats and sea-level rise in hurricane risk mitigation: An ecological economic assessment method and application to a business decision.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Reddy, Sheila M W; Guannel, Gregory; Griffin, Robert; Faries, Joe; Boucher, Timothy; Thompson, Michael; Brenner, Jorge; Bernhardt, Joey; Verutes, Gregory; Wood, Spencer A; Silver, Jessica A; Toft, Jodie; Rogers, Anthony; Maas, Alexander; Guerry, Anne; Molnar, Jennifer; DiMuro, Johnathan L

    2016-04-01

    Businesses may be missing opportunities to account for ecosystem services in their decisions, because they do not have methods to quantify and value ecosystem services. We developed a method to quantify and value coastal protection and other ecosystem services in the context of a cost-benefit analysis of hurricane risk mitigation options for a business. We first analyze linked biophysical and economic models to examine the potential protection provided by marshes. We then applied this method to The Dow Chemical Company's Freeport, Texas facility to evaluate natural (marshes), built (levee), and hybrid (marshes and a levee designed for marshes) defenses against a 100-y hurricane. Model analysis shows that future sea-level rise decreases marsh area, increases flood heights, and increases the required levee height (12%) and cost (8%). In this context, marshes do not provide sufficient protection to the facility, located 12 km inland, to warrant a change in levee design for a 100-y hurricane. Marshes do provide some protection near shore and under smaller storm conditions, which may help maintain the coastline and levee performance in the face of sea-level rise. In sum, the net present value to the business of built defenses ($217 million [2010 US$]) is greater than natural defenses ($15 million [2010 US$]) and similar to the hybrid defense scenario ($229 million [2010 US$]). Examination of a sample of public benefits from the marshes shows they provide at least $117 million (2010 US$) in coastal protection, recreational value, and C sequestration to the public, while supporting 12 fisheries and more than 300 wildlife species. This study provides information on where natural defenses may be effective and a replicable approach that businesses can use to incorporate private, as well as public, ecosystem service values into hurricane risk management at other sites. © 2015 The Authors. Integrated Environmental Assessment and Management Published by Wiley Periodicals, Inc

  15. The behavior of self-compacting concrete (SCC) with bagasse ash

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hanafiah, Saloma, Whardani, Putri Nurul Kusuma

    2017-11-01

    Self-Compacting Concrete (SCC) has the ability to flow and self-compacting. One of the benefit of SCC can reduced the construction time and labor cost. The materials to be used for see slightly different with the conventional concrete. Less coarse aggregate to be used up to 50%. The maximum size of coarse aggregate was also limited e.g. 10 mm. Other material was quartz sand with grain size of 50-650 µm. For reducing the around of cement, bagasse ash was used as partial replacement of cement. In this research, the variations of w/c to be used, e.g. 0.275, 0.300, 0.325 and the percentage of bagasse ash substitution were 10%, 15%, and 20%. EFNARC standard was conducted for slump flow test following the V-funnel test and L-box shape test. The maximum value of slump flow test was 75.75 cm, V-funnel test was 4.95 second, and L-box test was 1.000 yielded by mixture with w/c = 0.325 and 0% of bagasse ash. The minimum value of slump flow test was 61.50 cm, V-funnel test is 21.05 second, and L-box test was 0.743 yielded by mixture with w/c = 0.275 and 20% of bagasse ash. The maximum value of compressive strength was 67.239 MPa yielded by mixture with w/c = 0.275 and 15% of bagasse ash. And the minimum value of compressive strength was 41.813 MPa yielded by mixture with w/c = 0.325 and 20% bagasse ash.

  16. Inkjet Printed Fully-Passive Body-Worn Wireless Sensors for Smart and Connected Community (SCC

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Bashir I. Morshed

    2017-11-01

    Full Text Available Future Smart and Connected Communities (SCC will utilize distributed sensors and embedded computing to seamlessly generate meaningful data that can assist individuals, communities, and society with interlocking physical, social, behavioral, economic, and infrastructural interaction. SCC will require newer technologies for seamless and unobtrusive sensing and computation in natural settings. This work presents a new technology for health monitoring with low-cost body-worn disposable fully passive electronic sensors, along with a scanner, smartphone app, and web-server for a complete smart sensor system framework. The novel wireless resistive analog passive (WRAP sensors are printed using an inkjet printing (IJP technique on paper with silver inks (Novacentrix Ag B40, sheet resistance of 21 mΩ/sq and incorporate a few discrete surface mounted electronic components (overall thickness of <1 mm. These zero-power flexible sensors are powered through a wireless inductive link from a low-power scanner (500 mW during scanning burst of 100 ms by amplitude modulation at the carrier signal of 13.56 MHz. While development of various WRAP sensors is ongoing, this paper describes development of a WRAP temperature sensor in detail as an illustration. The prototypes were functionally verified at various temperatures with energy consumption of as low as 50 mJ per scan. The data is analyzed with a smartphone app that computes severity (Events-of-Interest, or EoI using a real-time algorithm. The severity can then be anonymously shared with a custom web-server, and visualized either in temporal or spatial domains. This research aims to reduce ER visits of patients by enabling self-monitoring, thereby improving community health for SSC.

  17. Mitigation of Intergranular Stress Corrosion Cracking in Al-Mg by Electrochemical Potential Control

    Science.gov (United States)

    McMahon, M. E.; Scully, J. R.; Burns, J. T.

    2017-08-01

    Intergranular stress corrosion cracking in the Al-Mg alloy AA5456-H116 is suppressed via cathodic polarization in 0.6 M NaCl, saturated (5.45 M) NaCl, 2 M MgCl2, and saturated (5 M) MgCl2. Three zones of intergranular stress corrosion cracking (IG-SCC) susceptibility correlate with pitting potentials of unsensitized AA5456-H116 and pure β phase (Al3Mg2) in each solution. These critical potentials reasonably describe the influence of α Al matrix and β phase dissolution rates on IG-SCC severity. Complete inhibition occurred at applied potentials of -1.0 V and -1.1 V versus saturated calomel electrode ( V SCE) in 0.6 M NaCl. Whereas only partial mitigation of IG-SCC was achieved at -0.9 V SCE in 0.6 M NaCl and at -0.9, -1.0, and -1.1 V SCE in the more aggressive environments. Correlation of pitting potentials in bulk environments with IG-SCC behavior suggests an effect of bulk environment [Cl-] and pH on the stabilized crack tip chemistry.

  18. Mitigating flood exposure

    Science.gov (United States)

    Shultz, James M; McLean, Andrew; Herberman Mash, Holly B; Rosen, Alexa; Kelly, Fiona; Solo-Gabriele, Helena M; Youngs Jr, Georgia A; Jensen, Jessica; Bernal, Oscar; Neria, Yuval

    2013-01-01

    Introduction. In 2011, following heavy winter snowfall, two cities bordering two rivers in North Dakota, USA faced major flood threats. Flooding was foreseeable and predictable although the extent of risk was uncertain. One community, Fargo, situated in a shallow river basin, successfully mitigated and prevented flooding. For the other community, Minot, located in a deep river valley, prevention was not possible and downtown businesses and one-quarter of the homes were inundated, in the city’s worst flood on record. We aimed at contrasting the respective hazards, vulnerabilities, stressors, psychological risk factors, psychosocial consequences, and disaster risk reduction strategies under conditions where flood prevention was, and was not, possible. Methods. We applied the “trauma signature analysis” (TSIG) approach to compare the hazard profiles, identify salient disaster stressors, document the key components of disaster risk reduction response, and examine indicators of community resilience. Results. Two demographically-comparable communities, Fargo and Minot, faced challenging river flood threats and exhibited effective coordination across community sectors. We examined the implementation of disaster risk reduction strategies in situations where coordinated citizen action was able to prevent disaster impact (hazard avoidance) compared to the more common scenario when unpreventable disaster strikes, causing destruction, harm, and distress. Across a range of indicators, it is clear that successful mitigation diminishes both physical and psychological impact, thereby reducing the trauma signature of the event. Conclusion. In contrast to experience of historic flooding in Minot, the city of Fargo succeeded in reducing the trauma signature by way of reducing risk through mitigation. PMID:28228985

  19. Review and Assessment of SCC Experiments with RPV Steels in Oskarshamn 2 and 3 (ABB Report SBR 99-020)

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Seifert, Hans-Peter; Ritter, Stefan [Paul Scherrer Inst., Laboratory for Materials Behaviour, Villigen (Switzerland). Nuclear Energy and Safety Research Dept.

    2005-11-15

    Some years ago SKI and the Swedish utilities sponsored SCC investigations, where non cladded and cladded (Inconel 182/AISI 308L) bolt-loaded C(T) specimens of different reactor pressure vessel (RPV) steels have been exposed to boiling water reactor (BWR)/normal water chemistry (NWC) and hydrogen water chemistry (HWC) environment in Oskarshamn 3 and 2 during a five- and four-year period. In the following report, the Swedish stress corrosion cracking (SCC) data from this project are critically reviewed and assessed on the basis of the relevant service experience and of the accumulated experimental background knowledge on SCC of carbon (C) and low-alloy steel (LAS) and dissimilar weld joints in high-temperature (HT) water. The investigations in Oskarshamn 3/2 generally revealed a low SCC crack growth susceptibility of RPV steels and interdendritic (ID) SCC in the Inconel 182 weld metal under BWR/NWC and HWC conditions. All non-cladded specimens and specimens with AISI 308L stainless steel cladding revealed no or only minor crack growth. However, the specimens with Inconel 182 cladding and fatigue pre-crack in the weld metal revealed clear, but minor crack growth into the heat-affected zone (HAZ) of the RPV steel under BWR/NWC conditions. Marked crack growth (of 2.43 mm) in the RPV steel was only observed in one of the Inconel 182 cladded specimens tested under BWR/NWC conditions with a high K{sub I} value of 48.8 MPa.{radical}m, where the fatigue pre-crack-tip was located in the RPV steel base metal far beyond its HAZ. Although the extent of cracking has rather surprising for a bolt-loaded specimen, the average SCC crack growth rate (CGR) of 0.5 mm/year over the five-year testing period was still within the upper range of constant load SCC CGRs in autoclave tests in oxygenated high-purity water and below the BWRVIP-60 SCC disposition line (DL)1, and thus does not represent an immediate concern. The initial K{sub I} value of this specimen represents a rather deep crack

  20. European Union bulk tank SCC standards and proposed US standards: Compliance based on data from four Federal Milk Marketing Orders

    Science.gov (United States)

    The objective of this study was to evaluate compliance of US producers with the proposed BTSCC limits. Four different SCC levels of compliance were evaluated: 750K; 600K; 500K; 400K. For the 12 month period ending October 2010, 1.0% of producers and 0.2% of milk exceeded the current US limit of 750K...

  1. Self-consolidating concrete (SCC) and high-volume fly ash concrete (HVFAC) for infrastructure elements: implementation.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2016-06-01

    Myers, John J.: http://orcid.org/0000-0001-5269-8218 : Because of its unique nature, self-consolidating concrete (SCC) has the potential to significantly reduce costs associated with transportation-related infrastructure, benefiting both MoDOT and th...

  2. Experiences in porting the SVP concurrency model to the 48-core Intel SCC using dedicated copy cores

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Bakker, R.; van Tol, M.W.

    2012-01-01

    The Single-chip Cloud Computer (SCC) is a 48-core experimental processor created by Intel Labs targeting the manycore research community. It has hardware support for sending short messages between cores, while large messages have to go through off-chip shared memory. In this paper we discuss our

  3. Space Debris & its Mitigation

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kaushal, Sourabh; Arora, Nishant

    2012-07-01

    Space debris has become a growing concern in recent years, since collisions at orbital velocities can be highly damaging to functioning satellites and can also produce even more space debris in the process. Some spacecraft, like the International Space Station, are now armored to deal with this hazard but armor and mitigation measures can be prohibitively costly when trying to protect satellites or human spaceflight vehicles like the shuttle. This paper describes the current orbital debris environment, outline its main sources, and identify mitigation measures to reduce orbital debris growth by controlling these sources. We studied the literature on the topic Space Debris. We have proposed some methods to solve this problem of space debris. We have also highlighted the shortcomings of already proposed methods by space experts and we have proposed some modification in those methods. Some of them can be very effective in the process of mitigation of space debris, but some of them need some modification. Recently proposed methods by space experts are maneuver, shielding of space elevator with the foil, vaporizing or redirecting of space debris back to earth with the help of laser, use of aerogel as a protective layer, construction of large junkyards around international space station, use of electrodynamics tether & the latest method proposed is the use of nano satellites in the clearing of the space debris. Limitations of the already proposed methods are as follows: - Maneuvering can't be the final solution to our problem as it is the act of self-defence. - Shielding can't be done on the parts like solar panels and optical devices. - Vaporizing or redirecting of space debris can affect the human life on earth if it is not done in proper manner. - Aerogel has a threshold limit up to which it can bear (resist) the impact of collision. - Large junkyards can be effective only for large sized debris. In this paper we propose: A. The Use of Nano Tubes by creating a mesh

  4. Perceptions and experiences of a gender gap at a Canadian research institute and potential strategies to mitigate this gap: a sequential mixed-methods study.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mascarenhas, Alekhya; Moore, Julia E; Tricco, Andrea C; Hamid, Jemila; Daly, Caitlin; Bain, Julie; Jassemi, Sabrina; Kiran, Tara; Baxter, Nancy; Straus, Sharon E

    2017-01-01

    The gender gap in academia is long-standing. Failure to ensure that our academic faculty reflect our student pool and national population deprives Canada of talent. We explored the gender distribution and perceptions of the gender gap at a Canadian university-affiliated, hospital-based research institute. We completed a sequential mixed-methods study. In phase 1, we used the research institute's registry of scientists (1999-2014) and estimated overall prevalence of a gender gap and the gap with respect to job description (e.g., associate v. full-time) and research discipline. In phase 2, we conducted qualitative interviews to provide context for phase 1 data. Both purposive and snowball sampling were used for recruitment. The institute included 30.1% ( n = 62) women and 69.9% ( n = 144) men, indicating a 39.8% gender gap. Most full-time scientists (60.3%, n = 70) were clinicians; there were 54.2% more male than female clinician scientists. Ninety-five percent of basic scientists were men, indicating a 90.5% gap. Seven key themes emerged from 21 interviews, including perceived impact of the gender gap, factors perceived to influence the gap, recruitment trends, presence of institutional support, mentorship and suggestions to mitigate the gap. Several factors were postulated to contribute to the gender gap, including unconscious bias in hiring. A substantial gender gap exists within this research institute. Participants identified strategies to address this gap, such as establishing transparent search processes, providing opportunities for informal networking and mentorship of female scientists and establishing institutional support for work-life balance.

  5. No high-risk HPV detected in SCC of the oral tongue in the absolute absence of tobacco and alcohol--a case study of seven patients.

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Siebers, T.J.; Merkx, M.A.W.; Slootweg, P.J.; Melchers, W.J.G.; Cleef, P van; Wilde, P.C.M. de

    2008-01-01

    INTRODUCTION: In recent years, there has been an increase in the number of patients with squamous cell carcinoma (SCC) of the mobile tongue in the absence of tobacco and alcohol. The literature suggests that human papilloma virus (HPV) may be involved in the development of SCC of the head and neck,

  6. ALA-PDT inhibits proliferation and promotes apoptosis of SCC cells through STAT3 signal pathway.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Qiao, Li; Mei, Zhusong; Yang, Zhiyong; Li, Xinji; Cai, Hong; Liu, Wei

    2016-06-01

    Previous studies suggest that apoptosis of carcinoma cells led by photodynamics is mainly intrinsic apoptosis, but whether the extrinsic pathway is involved in the treatment of carcinoma by photodynamic therapy is not confirmed. This research investigated the effect of ALA-PDT on the proliferation and apoptosis of SCC cell A431 and COLO-16, and discussed the role played by JAK/STAT3 signal pathway in this process. Our data showed that the expression levels STAT3 and p-STAT3 protein in the cancer tissue are higher than the corresponding adjacent tissue to carcinoma. The expression level of p-STAT3 in cancerous tissue has a correlation with the tumor size and tissue histopathological differentiation. ALA-PDT could inhibit proliferation of A431 and COLO-16 cells, STAT3 knock down could enhance ALA-PDT's inhibition of cell proliferation, and promote apoptosis induced by ALA-PDT. On the other hand, overexpression of STAT3 has the opposite effect. In addition, ALA-PDT can weaken the protein expression of STAT3 and its target gene Bcl-2 mRNA, and ALA-PDT can strengthen the protein expression of STAT3's target gene Bax mRNA. Overexpression of STAT3 can offset the effect on Bcl-2 and Bax by ALA-PDT; on the other hand, STAT3 knocking down can strengthen ALA-PDT's effect on Bcl-2 and Bax. Copyright © 2016. Published by Elsevier B.V.

  7. Performance of Strengthened Non-Uniformly Corroded Reinforced SCC-RAP Members

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ahmed Abdel-Mohti

    2016-12-01

    Full Text Available This research examines the performance of strengthened non-uniformly corroded reinforced self-consolidating concrete (SCC members. This paper focuses on three aspects of concrete including corrosion, concrete cover loss, and repair technique. Up to a 50% corrosion level is considered in this study. Corrosion was experimentally induced and was simulated in other cases. Twenty-six reinforced concrete (RC members with various corrosion levels or simulated corrosion levels were constructed and investigated. The beams with corrosion problems including those that had experimentally induced corrosion or simulated corrosion, with or without concrete cover, were repaired using carbon fiber reinforced polymer (CFRP sheets and U-wraps. Two line loads were applied to all of the non-repaired and repaired beams constructed in this study until failure. It was found that it is conservative to model the actual corrosion by simulating the equivalent area of steel reinforcing for up to a 20% level of corrosion. For corrosion levels over 20%, the simulated corrosion over predicts the load capacity of the actual corrosion cases. When the concrete cover was lost and for a corrosion level larger than 10%, the repaired beam did not reach similar performance to that of a repaired beam with a concrete cover that was still intact. It appears that using two layers of CFRP sheet did not improve the load capacity further, but rather improved the ductility of the deteriorated RC member.

  8. Precursor evolution and SCC initiation of cold-worked alloy 690 in simulated PWR primary water

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Zhai, Ziqing; Kruska, Karen; Toloczko, Mychailo B.; Bruemmer, Stephen M.

    2017-03-27

    Stress corrosion crack initiation of two thermally-treated, cold-worked (CW) alloy 690 materials was investigated in 360oC simulated PWR primary water using constant load tensile (CLT) tests and blunt notch compact tension (BNCT) tests equipped with direct current potential drop (DCPD) for in-situ detection of cracking. SCC initiation was not detected by DCPD for the 21% and 31%CW CLT specimens loaded at their yield stress after ~9,220 h, however intergranular (IG) precursor damage and isolated surface cracks were observed on the specimens. The two 31%CW BNCT specimens loaded at moderate stress intensity after several cyclic loading ramps showed DCPD-indicated crack initiation after 10,400h exposure at constant stress intensity, which resulted from significant growth of IG cracks. The 21%CW BNCT specimens only exhibited isolated small IG surface cracks and showed no apparent DCPD change throughout the test. Interestingly, post-test cross-section examinations revealed many grain boundary (GB) nano-cavities in the bulk of all the CLT and BNCT specimens particularly for the 31%CW materials. Cavities were also found along GBs extending to the surface suggesting an important role in crack nucleation. This paper provides an overview of the evolution of GB cavities and will discuss their effects on crack initiation in CW alloy 690.

  9. SRNL SHELF LIFE STUDIES - SCC STUDIES AT ROOM TEMPERTURE [stress corrosion cracking

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Mickalonis, J.; Duffey, J.

    2014-11-12

    Phase II, Series 2 corrosion testing performed by the Savannah River National Laboratory (SRNL) for the Department of Energy 3013 container has been completed. The corrosion tests are part of an integrated plan conducted jointly by Los Alamos National Laboratory and the Savannah River Site. SRNL was responsible for conducting corrosion studies in small-scale vessels to address the influence of salt composition, water loading, and type of oxide/salt contact on the relative humidity inside a 3013 container and on the resulting corrosion of Type 304L and 316L stainless steel (304L and 316L). This testing was conducted in two phases: Phase I evaluated a broad spectrum of salt compositions and initial water loadings on the salt mixtures exposed to 304L and 316L and the resulting corrosion; Phase II evaluated the corrosion of 304L at specific water loadings and a single salt composition. During Phase I testing at high initial moisture levels (0.35 to 1.24 wt%)a, the roomtemperature corrosion of 304L exposed to a series of plutonium oxide/chloride salt mixtures ranged from superficial staining to pitting and stress corrosion cracking (SCC). 304L teardrop coupons that exhibited SCC were directly exposed to a mixture composed of 98 wt % PuO2, 0.9 wt % NaCl, 0.9 wt % KCl, and 0.2 wt % CaCl2. Cracking was not observed in a 316L teardrop coupon. Pitting was also observed in this environment for both 304L and 316L with depths ranging from 20 to 100 μm. Neither pitting nor SCC was observed in mixtures with a greater chloride salt concentration (5 and 28 wt%). These results demonstrated that for a corrosive solution to form a balance existed between the water loading and the salt chloride concentration. This chloride solution results from the interaction of loaded water with the hydrating CaCl2 salt. In Phase II, Series 1 tests, the SCC results were shown to be reproducible with cracking occurring in as little as 85 days. The approximate 0.5 wt% moisture level was found to

  10. Impact of population growth and population ethics on climate change mitigation policy

    Science.gov (United States)

    Scovronick, Noah; Budolfson, Mark B.; Dennig, Francis; Fleurbaey, Marc; Siebert, Asher; Socolow, Robert H.; Spears, Dean; Wagner, Fabian

    2017-01-01

    Future population growth is uncertain and matters for climate policy: higher growth entails more emissions and means more people will be vulnerable to climate-related impacts. We show that how future population is valued importantly determines mitigation decisions. Using the Dynamic Integrated Climate-Economy model, we explore two approaches to valuing population: a discounted version of total utilitarianism (TU), which considers total wellbeing and is standard in social cost of carbon dioxide (SCC) models, and of average utilitarianism (AU), which ignores population size and sums only each time period’s discounted average wellbeing. Under both approaches, as population increases the SCC increases, but optimal peak temperature decreases. The effect is larger under TU, because it responds to the fact that a larger population means climate change hurts more people: for example, in 2025, assuming the United Nations (UN)-high rather than UN-low population scenario entails an increase in the SCC of 85% under TU vs. 5% under AU. The difference in the SCC between the two population scenarios under TU is comparable to commonly debated decisions regarding time discounting. Additionally, we estimate the avoided mitigation costs implied by plausible reductions in population growth, finding that large near-term savings ($billions annually) occur under TU; savings under AU emerge in the more distant future. These savings are larger than spending shortfalls for human development policies that may lower fertility. Finally, we show that whether lowering population growth entails overall improvements in wellbeing—rather than merely cost savings—again depends on the ethical approach to valuing population. PMID:29087298

  11. Emergence of sequence type 779 methicillin-resistant Staphylococcus aureus harboring a novel pseudo staphylococcal cassette chromosome mec (SCCmec)-SCC-SCCCRISPR composite element in Irish hospitals.

    LENUS (Irish Health Repository)

    Kinnevey, Peter M

    2013-01-01

    Methicillin-resistant Staphylococcus aureus (MRSA) has been a major cause of nosocomial infection in Irish hospitals for 4 decades, and replacement of predominant MRSA clones has occurred several times. An MRSA isolate recovered in 2006 as part of a larger study of sporadic MRSA exhibited a rare spa (t878) and multilocus sequence (ST779) type and was nontypeable by PCR- and DNA microarray-based staphylococcal cassette chromosome mec (SCCmec) element typing. Whole-genome sequencing revealed the presence of a novel 51-kb composite island (CI) element with three distinct domains, each flanked by direct repeat and inverted repeat sequences, including (i) a pseudo SCCmec element (16.3 kb) carrying mecA with a novel mec class region, a fusidic acid resistance gene (fusC), and two copper resistance genes (copB and copC) but lacking ccr genes; (ii) an SCC element (17.5 kb) carrying a novel ccrAB4 allele; and (iii) an SCC element (17.4 kb) carrying a novel ccrC allele and a clustered regularly interspaced short palindromic repeat (CRISPR) region. The novel CI was subsequently identified by PCR in an additional 13 t878\\/ST779 MRSA isolates, six from bloodstream infections, recovered between 2006 and 2011 in 11 hospitals. Analysis of open reading frames (ORFs) carried by the CI showed amino acid sequence similarity of 44 to 100% to ORFs from S. aureus and coagulase-negative staphylococci (CoNS). These findings provide further evidence of genetic transfer between S. aureus and CoNS and show how this contributes to the emergence of novel SCCmec elements and MRSA strains. Ongoing surveillance of this MRSA strain is warranted and will require updating of currently used SCCmec typing methods.

  12. Mitigation Action Plan

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    1994-02-01

    This Mitigation Action Plan (MAP) focuses on mitigation commitments stated in the Supplemental Environmental Impact Statement (SEIS) and the Record of Decision (ROD) for the Naval Petroleum Reserve No. 1 (NPR-1). Specific commitments and mitigation implementation actions are listed in Appendix A-Mitigation Actions, and form the central focus of this MAP. They will be updated as needed to allow for organizational, regulatory, or policy changes. It is the intent of DOE to comply with all applicable federal, state, and local environmental, safety, and health laws and regulations. Eighty-six specific commitments were identified in the SEIS and associated ROD which pertain to continued operation of NPR-1 with petroleum production at the Maximum Efficient Rate (MER). The mitigation measures proposed are expected to reduce impacts as much as feasible, however, as experience is gained in actual implementation of these measures, some changes may be warranted.

  13. In vitro and murine efficacy and toxicity studies of nebulized SCC1, a methylated caffeine-silver(I) complex, for treatment of pulmonary infections.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cannon, Carolyn L; Hogue, Lisa A; Vajravelu, Ravy K; Capps, George H; Ibricevic, Aida; Hindi, Khadijah M; Kascatan-Nebioglu, Aysegul; Walter, Michael J; Brody, Steven L; Youngs, Wiley J

    2009-08-01

    The expanding clinical challenge of respiratory tract infections due to resistant bacteria necessitates the development of new forms of therapy. The development of a compound composed of silver coupled to a methylated caffeine carrier (silver carbene complex 1 [SCC1]) that demonstrated in vitro efficacy against bacteria, including drug-resistant organisms, isolated from patients with respiratory tract infections was described previously. The findings of current in vitro studies now suggest that bactericidal concentrations of SCC1 are not toxic to airway epithelial cells in primary culture. Thus, it was hypothesized that SCC1 could be administered by the aerosolized route to concentrate delivery to the lung while minimizing systemic toxicity. In vivo, aerosolized SCC1 delivered to mice resulted in mild aversion behavior, but it was otherwise well tolerated and did not cause lung inflammation following administration over a 5-day period. The therapeutic efficacy of SCC1 compared to that of water was shown in a 3-day prophylaxis protocol, in which mice infected with a clinical strain of Pseudomonas aeruginosa had increased survival, decreased amounts of bacteria in the lung, and a lower prevalence of bacteremia. Similarly, by using an airway infection model in which bacteria were impacted in the airways by agarose beads, the administration of SCC1 was significantly superior to water in decreasing the lung bacterial burden and the levels of bacteremia and markers of airway inflammation. These observations indicate that aerosolized SCC1, a novel antimicrobial agent, warrants further study as a potential therapy for bacterial respiratory tract infections.

  14. Deformation behavior around grain boundaries for SCC propagation in hardened low-carbon austenitic stainless steel by micro hardness test

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Nagashima, N.; Hayakawa, M. [National Inst. for Materials Science (NIMS), Ibaraki (Japan); Tsukada, T; Kaji, Y.; Miwa, Y. [Japan Atomic Energy Agency (JAEA), Ibaraki (Japan); Ando, M.; Nakata, K. [Japan Nuclear Energy Safety Organization (JNES), Tokyo (Japan)

    2007-07-01

    Stress corrosion cracking (SCC) was found in shroud and PLR piping made of low-carbon austenitic stainless steels in Japanese BWR plants. The intergranular type (IG) SCC propagated in hardened heat affected zones (HAZ) around welds. Strength behavior and local plastic deformation for a low-carbon austenitic stainless steel 316L, rolled at the reductions in area of 10, 30% at room temperature to simulate the hardened HAZ, were measured by a micro-hardness test machine and observed by atomic force microscopy (AFM), respectively. The tensile deformation at yield point (0.2% plastic strain) had given to the work-hardened 316L to simulate the plastic zone at the crack tip. It is suggested that one of the IGSCC propagation mechanism for 316L was related with the intergranular strength behavior and local plastic deformation around grain boundaries. (author)

  15. Determination of scandium concentrate composition by WD-XRF and ICP-MS methods

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sarkisova, A. S.; Shibitko, A. O.; Abramov, A. V.; Rebrin, O. I.; Bunkov, G. M.; Lisienko, D. G.

    2017-09-01

    WD-XRF spectroscopy was applied for determining composition of scandium concentrate (ScC) containing 70 % scandium fluoride. Determination of ScC composition was performed using 6 glass beads reference materials produced by fusing synthesized mixture of analyte compounds with the lithium-borate flux in the ratio of 1:10. ScC powder with the known composition was then used as a powder pellet reference material to analyze scandium concentrate from technological line by external standard method. ICP-MS method was employed to control the ScC composition. The statistical data processing and metrological parameters evaluation of the analytical technique developed were carried out.

  16. Investigation of reflective cracking mitigation techniques.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2014-03-01

    In the state of Florida, an asphalt rubber membrane interlayer (ARMI) has been commonly used as a reflective cracking (RC) mitigation method, but inconsistent performance of an ARMI has been observed in the field. Moreover, the Heavy Vehicle Simulato...

  17. The Low-Lying Electronic States of Scandium Monocarbide, ScC

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chen, Chiao-Wei; Merer, Anthony; Hsu, Yen-Chu

    2017-06-01

    Extensive wavelength-resolved fluorescence studies have been carried out for the electronic bands of ScC and Sc{}^{13}C lying in the range 14000 - 16000 cm^{-1}. Taken together with detailed rotational analyses of these bands, these studies have clarified the natures of the low-lying electronic states. The ground state is an Ω = 3/2 state, with a vibrational frequency of 648 cm^{-1}, and the first excited electronic state is an Ω = 5/2 state, with a frequency of 712 cm^{-1}, lying 155.54 cm^{-1} higher. These states are assigned as the lowest spin-orbit components of X^2Π_i and a^4Π_i, respectively. The quartet nature of the a state is confirmed by the observation of the ^4Π_{3/2} component, 18.71 cm^{-1} above the ^4Π_{5/2} component. The strongest bands in the region studied are two ^4Δ_{7/2} - ^4Π_{5/2} transitions, where the upper states lie 14355 and 15445 cm^{-1} above X^2Π_{3/2}. Extensive doublet-quartet mixing occurs, which results in some complicated emission patterns. The energy order, a^4Π above X^2Π, is consistent with the ab initio calculations of Kalemos et al., but differs from that found by Simard et al in the isoelectronic YC molecule. A. Kalemos, A. Mavridis and J.F. Harrison, J. Phys. Chem. A155, 755 (2001). B. Simard, P.A. Hackett and W.J. Balfour, Chem. Phys. Lett., 230, 103 (1994).

  18. Stimulation of dendritic cells by DAMPs in ALA-PDT treated SCC tumor cells.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wang, Xiaojie; Ji, Jie; Zhang, Haiyan; Fan, Zhixia; Zhang, Linglin; Shi, Lei; Zhou, Feifan; Chen, Wei R; Wang, Hongwei; Wang, Xiuli

    2015-12-29

    Photodynamic therapy (PDT) not only kills tumor cells directly but also rapidly recruits and activates immune cells favoring the development of antitumor adaptive immunity. It is believed that Topical 5-aminolevulinic acid mediated photodynamic therapy (ALA-PDT) can induce anti-tumor immune responses through dangerous signals damage-associated molecular patterns (DAMPs). In this study, we investigated the effect of ALA-PDT induced DAMPs on immune cells. We focused on the stimulation of dendritic cells by major DAMPs, enhanced the expression of calreticulin (CRT), heat shock proteins 70 (HSP70), and high mobility group box 1 (HMGB1), either individually or in combination. We evaluated in vitro and in vivo expressions of DAMPs induced by ALA-PDT using immunohistochemistry, western blot, and ELISA in a squamous cell carcinoma (SCC) mouse model. The role of DAMPs in the maturation of DCs potentiated by ALA-PDT-treated tumor cells was detected by FACS and ELISA. Our results showed that ALA-PDT enhanced the expression of CRT, HSP70, and HMGB1. These induced DAMPs played an important part in activating DCs by PDT-treated tumor cells, including phenotypic maturation (increase of surface expression of MHC-II, CD80, and CD86) and functional maturation (enhanced capability to secrete IFN-γ and IL-12). Furthermore, injecting ALA-PDT-treated tumor cells into naïve mice resulted in complete protection against cancer cells of the same origin. Our findings indicate that ALA-PDT can increase DAMPs and enhance tumor immunogenicity, providing a promising strategy for inducing a systemic anticancer immune response.

  19. SCC, Bowen's disease and BCC arising on chronic radiation dermatitis due to radiation therapy for tinea pedis

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Aoki, Eri; Aoki, Mikako; Ikemura, Akiko; Igarashi, Tsukasa; Suzuki, Kayano; Kawana, Seiji [Nippon Medical School, Tokyo (Japan). Hospital

    2000-05-01

    We reported a case who developed three different types of skin cancers: SCC, BCC, and Bowen's disease, on the chronic radiation dermatitis. He had been treated for his tinea pedis et palmaris with radiotherapy in 1940's. It is very ratre that three different types of skin cancers arise in the same patient. This is a second case reported in Japan. (author)

  20. Experiences in porting the SVP concurrency model to the 48-core Intel SCC using dedicated copy cores

    OpenAIRE

    Bakker, R; van Tol, M.W.

    2012-01-01

    The Single-chip Cloud Computer (SCC) is a 48-core experimental processor created by Intel Labs targeting the manycore research community. It has hardware support for sending short messages between cores, while large messages have to go through off-chip shared memory. In this paper we discuss our implementation of the SVP model of concurrency on this architecture, and how we deal with its distributed memory design and communication bottlenecks. We employ our previously developed copy core tech...

  1. Revised phylogeny and novel horizontally acquired virulence determinants of the model soft rot phytopathogen Pectobacterium wasabiae SCC3193.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Johanna Nykyri

    Full Text Available Soft rot disease is economically one of the most devastating bacterial diseases affecting plants worldwide. In this study, we present novel insights into the phylogeny and virulence of the soft rot model Pectobacterium sp. SCC3193, which was isolated from a diseased potato stem in Finland in the early 1980s. Genomic approaches, including proteome and genome comparisons of all sequenced soft rot bacteria, revealed that SCC3193, previously included in the species Pectobacterium carotovorum, can now be more accurately classified as Pectobacterium wasabiae. Together with the recently revised phylogeny of a few P. carotovorum strains and an increasing number of studies on P. wasabiae, our work indicates that P. wasabiae has been unnoticed but present in potato fields worldwide. A combination of genomic approaches and in planta experiments identified features that separate SCC3193 and other P. wasabiae strains from the rest of soft rot bacteria, such as the absence of a type III secretion system that contributes to virulence of other soft rot species. Experimentally established virulence determinants include the putative transcriptional regulator SirB, two partially redundant type VI secretion systems and two horizontally acquired clusters (Vic1 and Vic2, which contain predicted virulence genes. Genome comparison also revealed other interesting traits that may be related to life in planta or other specific environmental conditions. These traits include a predicted benzoic acid/salicylic acid carboxyl methyltransferase of eukaryotic origin. The novelties found in this work indicate that soft rot bacteria have a reservoir of unknown traits that may be utilized in the poorly understood latent stage in planta. The genomic approaches and the comparison of the model strain SCC3193 to other sequenced Pectobacterium strains, including the type strain of P. wasabiae, provides a solid basis for further investigation of the virulence, distribution and phylogeny

  2. Recurrence of primary squamous cell carcinoma of the ileum diagnosed by elevation of serum SCC: report of a case.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mino, Kazuhiro; Kamii, Naoki; Kawanishi, Norio; Okada, Tadao; Todo, Satoru

    2012-06-01

    Primary squamous cell carcinoma of the intestine is extremely rare. This report describes a patient with primary squamous cell carcinoma of the small intestine. A 72-year-old Japanese woman was referred to our hospital because of a diagnosis of intestinal obstruction. She underwent laparotomy owing to the diagnosis of mechanical intestinal obstruction due to a pelvic mass after conservative treatment. The affected ileum was resected, and histopathological examination revealed proliferation of differentiated squamous cell carcinoma at the submucosal area with no adenocarcinoma component. At the 4th month after the operation, the level of serum squamous cell carcinoma (SCC) antigen was elevated. At 6 months after the operation, the serum SCC value was further elevated, and enhanced CT revealed two new pelvic tumors with enhancement at the mesentery and free space. A second laparotomy was performed 8 months after the operation. Histopathological examination showed differentiated squamous cell carcinoma as in the first operation. The level of serum SCC decreased at the 28th postoperative day. Chemotherapy including carboplatin and paclitaxel was performed as an adjuvant regimen. The patient has experienced no recurrence of squamous cell carcinoma for 55 months.

  3. The effect of w/c ratio on microstructure of self-compacting concrete (SCC) with sugarcane bagasse ash (SCBA)

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hanafiah, Saloma, Victor, Amalina, Khoirunnisa Nur

    2017-11-01

    Self-Compacting Concrete (SCC) is a concrete that can flow and compact by itself without vibrator. The ability of SCC to flow by itself makes this concrete very suitable for construction that has very small reinforcement gaps. In this study, SCC was designed to get a compressive strength above 60 MPa at the age of 28 days. Sugarcane bagasse ash was used as substitution material for cement replacement. Percentages of sugarcane bagasse ash used were 10%, 15%, and 20%. There were three w/c values that vary from 0.275, 0.300, and 0.325. Testing standards referred to ASTM, EFNARC and ACI. The fresh concrete test was slump flow, L-box and V-funnel. The maximum compressive strength was in the mixture with the sugarcane bagasse ash composition of 15% and w/c=0.275 which was 67.24 MPa. The result of SEM test analysis found that the mixture composition with 15% sugarcane bagasse ash has solid CSH structure, small amount of pores, and smaller pore diameter than other mixtures.

  4. FEMA Hazard Mitigation Assistance Flood Mitigation Assistance (FMA) Data

    Data.gov (United States)

    Department of Homeland Security — This dataset contains closed and obligated projects funded under the following Hazard Mitigation Assistance (HMA) grant programs: Flood Mitigation Assistance (FMA)....

  5. Mitigating hyperventilation during cardiopulmonary resuscitation.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Nikolla, Dhimitri; Lewandowski, Tyler; Carlson, Jestin

    2016-03-01

    Although multiple airway management and ventilation strategies have been proposed during cardiac arrest, the ideal strategy is unknown. Current strategies call for advanced airways, such as endotracheal intubation and supraglottic airways. These may facilitate hyperventilation which is known to adversely affect cardiopulmonary physiology. We provide a summary of conceptual models linking hyperventilation to patient outcomes and identify methods for mitigating hyperventilation during cardiac arrest. Copyright © 2015 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  6. Mitigation Banking Factsheet

    Science.gov (United States)

    A mitigation bank is an aquatic resource area that has been restored, established, enhanced, or preserved for the purpose of providing compensation for unavoidable impacts to aquatic resources permitted under Section 404

  7. Mitigation of Tensile Weld Stresses in Alloy 22 Using Laser Peening

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Chen, H L; Evans, K J; Hackel, L A; Rankin, J E; Yamamoto, R M; Demma, A G; Dewald, A T; Lee, M J; Hill, M R

    2002-11-27

    The goal of the Yucca Mountain Project (YMP) is safe permanent disposal of high-level nuclear waste. One of the many technical challenges to this plan is the design of the Engineered Barrier System (EBS) including the waste package that will contain the radioactive waste. One potential failure mode of the waste package is stress corrosion cracking (SCC), which occurs when three criteria simultaneously exist. These criteria are a potentially corrosive environment, a material susceptible to SCC, and the presence of tensile residual stresses at the surface of the material. While many design decisions have been made to attempt to minimize the occurrence of the first two conditions, it is necessary to control the third condition, the presence of tensile residual stresses. These stresses occur as a result of a variety of manufacturing techniques, including welding. While most of the residual stresses due to the welding of the waste package can be mitigated through solution heat-treating, the final closure weld, which occurs after the radioactive waste has been placed in the waste package, must be treated to eliminate the presence of tensile residual stress near the surface. Laser peening is a commercially proven technology that has been shown to create compressive residual stress in both unstressed materials, as well as materials containing tensile surface residual stresses generated by welding. Lawrence Livermore National Laboratory (LLNL) has developed the laser peening process and the associated hardware for use by the YMP. Upon completion of the testing and engineering phases, LLNL will transfer the laser peening technology to U.S. industry and assist DOE in developing vendors to supply production units to be installed at the YMP facilities. The overall testing effort is divided into-two phases. Phase I of this project consisted of a study into the effectiveness of laser peening in generating compressive stress in small Alloy 22 base metal coupons and converting

  8. Modelling realistic TiO2 nanospheres: A benchmark study of SCC-DFTB against hybrid DFT

    Science.gov (United States)

    Selli, Daniele; Fazio, Gianluca; Di Valentin, Cristiana

    2017-10-01

    TiO2 nanoparticles (NPs) are nowadays considered fundamental building blocks for many technological applications. Morphology is found to play a key role with spherical NPs presenting higher binding properties and chemical activity. From the experimental point of view, the characterization of these nano-objects is extremely complex, opening a large room for computational investigations. In this work, TiO2 spherical NPs of different sizes (from 300 to 4000 atoms) have been studied with a two-scale computational approach. Global optimization to obtain stable and equilibrated nanospheres was performed with a self-consistent charge density functional tight-binding (SCC-DFTB) simulated annealing process, causing a considerable atomic rearrangement within the nanospheres. Those SCC-DFTB relaxed structures have been then optimized at the DFT(B3LYP) level of theory. We present a systematic and comparative SCC-DFTB vs DFT(B3LYP) study of the structural properties, with particular emphasis on the surface-to-bulk sites ratio, coordination distribution of surface sites, and surface energy. From the electronic point of view, we compare HOMO-LUMO and Kohn-Sham gaps, total and projected density of states. Overall, the comparisons between DFTB and hybrid density functional theory show that DFTB provides a rather accurate geometrical and electronic description of these nanospheres of realistic size (up to a diameter of 4.4 nm) at an extremely reduced computational cost. This opens for new challenges in simulations of very large systems and more extended molecular dynamics.

  9. Multi-detector row computed tomography (MDCT and magnetic resonance imaging (MRI in the evaluation of the mandibular invasion by squamous cell carcinomas (SCC of the oral cavity. Correlation with pathological data

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Di Giovanni Salvatore

    2010-06-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background To retrospectively compare the diagnostic accuracy of magnetic resonance imaging (MRI and multidetector-row computed tomography (MDCT in the assessment of the mandibular invasion by squamous cell carcinoma (SCC having histopathological exams as standard of reference. Materials and methods Institutional review board approval with a waiver of informed patient consent was obtained. Of the 147 patients selected from our database who underwent surgical excision of a tumour arising into the oral cavity, thirty-six patients (26 men, 10 women; mean age, 56 years; range, 30-75 years with hystologically proven SCC who performed both a preoperative MRI and MDCT, composed our final study population. Images were qualitatively analyzed in consensus by two expert radiologist in head and neck imaging. Sensitivity, specificity, accuracy, positive predictive value (PPV and negative predictive value (NPV were assessed for both MRI and MDCT. Differences in sensitivity, specificity, positive and negative predictive values were calculated at a statistical significance of p Results The sensitivity, the specificity and the accuracy of MRI and MDCT in the detection of the mandibular involvement were respectively 93%, 82%, 86% and 79%, 82%, 81%, while the positive predictive value (PPV and negative predictive value (NPV were respectively 76%, 95% and 73%, 86%. There wasn't any statistically significant difference in overall diagnostic accuracy between MRI and MDCT in the evaluation of mandibular tumour invasion (p > .05. Conclusion MRI showed to have a higher sensitivity compare to MDCT in the assessment of mandibular involvement from SCC arising in the oral cavity although none statistically significant differences were noted.

  10. In Vitro and Murine Efficacy and Toxicity Studies of Nebulized SCC1, a Methylated Caffeine-Silver(I) Complex, for Treatment of Pulmonary Infections ▿

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cannon, Carolyn L.; Hogue, Lisa A.; Vajravelu, Ravy K.; Capps, George H.; Ibricevic, Aida; Hindi, Khadijah M.; Kascatan-Nebioglu, Aysegul; Walter, Michael J.; Brody, Steven L.; Youngs, Wiley J.

    2009-01-01

    The expanding clinical challenge of respiratory tract infections due to resistant bacteria necessitates the development of new forms of therapy. The development of a compound composed of silver coupled to a methylated caffeine carrier (silver carbene complex 1 [SCC1]) that demonstrated in vitro efficacy against bacteria, including drug-resistant organisms, isolated from patients with respiratory tract infections was described previously. The findings of current in vitro studies now suggest that bactericidal concentrations of SCC1 are not toxic to airway epithelial cells in primary culture. Thus, it was hypothesized that SCC1 could be administered by the aerosolized route to concentrate delivery to the lung while minimizing systemic toxicity. In vivo, aerosolized SCC1 delivered to mice resulted in mild aversion behavior, but it was otherwise well tolerated and did not cause lung inflammation following administration over a 5-day period. The therapeutic efficacy of SCC1 compared to that of water was shown in a 3-day prophylaxis protocol, in which mice infected with a clinical strain of Pseudomonas aeruginosa had increased survival, decreased amounts of bacteria in the lung, and a lower prevalence of bacteremia. Similarly, by using an airway infection model in which bacteria were impacted in the airways by agarose beads, the administration of SCC1 was significantly superior to water in decreasing the lung bacterial burden and the levels of bacteremia and markers of airway inflammation. These observations indicate that aerosolized SCC1, a novel antimicrobial agent, warrants further study as a potential therapy for bacterial respiratory tract infections. PMID:19451294

  11. Space Debris Mitigation Guidelines

    Science.gov (United States)

    Johnson, Nicholas L.

    2011-01-01

    The purpose of national and international space debris mitigation guides is to promote the preservation of near-Earth space for applications and exploration missions far into the future. To accomplish this objective, the accumulation of objects, particularly in long-lived orbits, must be eliminated or curtailed.

  12. Indoor multipath mitigation

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Dragünas, Kostas; Borre, Kai

    2010-01-01

    is the presence of multipath. The current paper analyzes several available multipath mitigation techniques which would be suitable for indoor applications. A few deconvolution based techniques such as the Projection Onto Convex Sets and the Deconvolution Approach are selected for closer investigation...

  13. Acrylamide mitigation strategies

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Palermo, M.; Gökmen, V.; Meulenaer, De B.; Ciesarová, Z.; Zhang, Y.; Pedreschi, F.; Fogliano, V.

    2016-01-01

    FoodDrinkEurope Federation recently released the latest version of the Acrylamide Toolbox to support manufacturers in acrylamide reduction activities giving indication about the possible mitigation strategies. The Toolbox is intended for small and medium size enterprises with limited R&D

  14. The effect of temperature on the SCC behavior of AISI301L stainless steel welded joints in 3.5% NaCl solution

    Science.gov (United States)

    Fu, Z. H.; Gou, G. Q.; Xiao, J.; Qiu, S. Y.; Wang, W. J.

    2017-07-01

    The stress corrosion cracking (SCC) behaviors at slow strain rate tensile (SSRT) test of AISI301L stainless steel laser-MIG welded joints in 3.5 wt.% NaCl solution at 20∘C, 40∘C and 60∘C were investigated. The results showed that the weld metal composed of as-cast with δ-Fe and austenite. The base metal (BM) and heat affected zone (HAZ) contained strain-induced M phase. The stress and strain decreased with the increasing temperature. The SCC cracks are initiated by anodic dissolution at 20∘C. Besides the anodic dissolution mechanism, hydrogen-induced SCC mechanism had appeared in 3.5 wt.% NaCl solution at 40∘C and 60∘C.

  15. Mitigating Infectious Disease Outbreaks

    Science.gov (United States)

    Davey, Victoria

    The emergence of new, transmissible infections poses a significant threat to human populations. As the 2009 novel influenza A/H1N1 pandemic and the 2014-2015 Ebola epidemic demonstrate, we have observed the effects of rapid spread of illness in non-immune populations and experienced disturbing uncertainty about future potential for human suffering and societal disruption. Clinical and epidemiologic characteristics of a newly emerged infectious organism are usually gathered in retrospect as the outbreak evolves and affects populations. Knowledge of potential effects of outbreaks and epidemics and most importantly, mitigation at community, regional, national and global levels is needed to inform policy that will prepare and protect people. Study of possible outcomes of evolving epidemics and application of mitigation strategies is not possible in observational or experimental research designs, but computational modeling allows conduct of `virtual' experiments. Results of well-designed computer simulations can aid in the selection and implementation of strategies that limit illness and death, and maintain systems of healthcare and other critical resources that are vital to public protection. Mitigating Infectious Disease Outbreaks.

  16. Liderazgo de una empresa familiar que influye en el clima laboral de los trabajadores de la empresa SEDEMI S.C.C

    OpenAIRE

    Rodríguez Valenzuela, Darwin Fausto

    2015-01-01

    El presente trabajo detalla el estudio del liderazgo y su influencia en el clima organizacional de los trabajadores de la empresa familiar Sedemi S.C.C., con la fin de proponer opciones de mejora, que coadyuven al directorio de la empresa, para fomentar un ambiente laboral agradable y motivador para sus empleados, y de esta manera incrementar su desempeño laboral. La investigación se realizó en la empresa SEDEMI S.C.C. La población objetivo está conformada por los empleados administrativos y ...

  17. Prophylactic dissection of level V in primary mucosal SCC in the clinically N positive neck: A systematic review.

    Science.gov (United States)

    McLean, Timothy; Kerr, Stephen J; Giddings, Charles E B

    2017-09-01

    To review the evidence for level V dissection in the management of previously untreated mucosal squamous cell carcinoma (SCC) of the head and neck presenting with nodal metastasis when level V is clinically uninvolved. The Preferred Reporting Items for Systematic Review and Meta-Analyses (PRISMA) were used to conduct a systematic review of the current literature, including all English language articles published after 1990. A literature search was performed on November 29, 2015, of Medline, EMBASE, Cumulative Index to Nursing and Allied Health Literature (CINAHL), and the Cochrane Library. The search yielded a total of 270 papers. Strict inclusion and exclusion criteria were applied, leaving 20 eligible papers. Overall prevalence was calculated using random effect meta-analysis. The overall prevalence of level V occult disease in the node (N)-positive neck, irrespective of subsite, was 2.56% (95% confidence interval 1.29-3.84) (2,368 patients and 2,533 necks). The prevalence of occult level V metastasis was up to 7.7% for oral cavity and 8.3% for oropharyngeal tumors. Five studies reported regional recurrence rates over variable time periods. There is exceedingly limited data on outcomes, such as spinal accessory nerve function, quality of life, and perioperative complications. Mucosal head and neck SCC presenting with nodal metastasis but with level V clinically uninvolved has a low prevalence of occult level V disease. Routine dissection of level V does not appear to be warranted; however, a definitive conclusion is unable to be drawn due to limited data on morbidity and oncological outcomes. Laryngoscope, 127:2074-2080, 2017. © 2017 The American Laryngological, Rhinological and Otological Society, Inc.

  18. Indoor multipath mitigation

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Dragünas, Kostas

    2010-01-01

    There are many applications that require continuous positioning in combined outdoor urban and indoor environments. GNSS has been used for a long time in outdoor environments, while indoor positioning is still a challenging task. One of the major degradations that GNSS receivers experience indoors...... is the presence of multipath. The current paper analyzes several available multipath mitigation techniques which would be suitable for indoor applications. A few deconvolution based techniques such as the Projection Onto Convex Sets and the Deconvolution Approach are selected for closer investigation...

  19. An Optimizing Space Data-Communications Scheduling Method and Algorithm with Interference Mitigation, Generalized for a Broad Class of Optimization Problems

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rash, James

    2014-01-01

    NASA's space data-communications infrastructure-the Space Network and the Ground Network-provide scheduled (as well as some limited types of unscheduled) data-communications services to user spacecraft. The Space Network operates several orbiting geostationary platforms (the Tracking and Data Relay Satellite System (TDRSS)), each with its own servicedelivery antennas onboard. The Ground Network operates service-delivery antennas at ground stations located around the world. Together, these networks enable data transfer between user spacecraft and their mission control centers on Earth. Scheduling data-communications events for spacecraft that use the NASA communications infrastructure-the relay satellites and the ground stations-can be accomplished today with software having an operational heritage dating from the 1980s or earlier. An implementation of the scheduling methods and algorithms disclosed and formally specified herein will produce globally optimized schedules with not only optimized service delivery by the space data-communications infrastructure but also optimized satisfaction of all user requirements and prescribed constraints, including radio frequency interference (RFI) constraints. Evolutionary algorithms, a class of probabilistic strategies for searching large solution spaces, is the essential technology invoked and exploited in this disclosure. Also disclosed are secondary methods and algorithms for optimizing the execution efficiency of the schedule-generation algorithms themselves. The scheduling methods and algorithms as presented are adaptable to accommodate the complexity of scheduling the civilian and/or military data-communications infrastructure within the expected range of future users and space- or ground-based service-delivery assets. Finally, the problem itself, and the methods and algorithms, are generalized and specified formally. The generalized methods and algorithms are applicable to a very broad class of combinatorial

  20. Blast mitigation experimental and numerical studies

    CERN Document Server

    2013-01-01

    Presents experimental methods of material and structural response to dynamic blast loads Includes computational analysis of material and structural response to dynamic blast loads Offers mitigation measures for structures in various environments Relates lab experiments to larger field tests Features more than 150 illustrations

  1. Earthquake Hazard Mitigation Strategy in Indonesia

    Science.gov (United States)

    Karnawati, D.; Anderson, R.; Pramumijoyo, S.

    2008-05-01

    Because of the active tectonic setting of the region, the risks of geological hazards inevitably increase in Indonesian Archipelagoes and other ASIAN countries. Encouraging community living in the vulnerable area to adapt with the nature of geology will be the most appropriate strategy for earthquake risk reduction. Updating the Earthquake Hazard Maps, enhancement ofthe existing landuse management , establishment of public education strategy and method, strengthening linkages among stake holders of disaster mitigation institutions as well as establishement of continues public consultation are the main strategic programs for community resilience in earthquake vulnerable areas. This paper highlights some important achievements of Earthquake Hazard Mitigation Programs in Indonesia, together with the difficulties in implementing such programs. Case examples of Yogyakarta and Bengkulu Earthquake Mitigation efforts will also be discussed as the lesson learned. The new approach for developing earthquake hazard map which is innitiating by mapping the psychological aspect of the people living in vulnerable area will be addressed as well.

  2. Silk industry and carbon footprint mitigation

    Science.gov (United States)

    Giacomin, A. M.; Garcia, J. B., Jr.; Zonatti, W. F.; Silva-Santos, M. C.; Laktim, M. C.; Baruque-Ramos, J.

    2017-10-01

    Currently there is a concern with issues related to sustainability and more conscious consumption habits. The carbon footprint measures the total amount of greenhouse gas (GHG) emissions produced directly and indirectly by human activities and is usually expressed in tonnes of carbon dioxide (CO2) equivalents. The present study takes into account data collected in scientific literature regarding the carbon footprint, garments produced with silk fiber and the role of mulberry as a CO2 mitigation tool. There is an indication of a positive correlation between silk garments and carbon footprint mitigation when computed the cultivation of mulberry trees in this calculation. A field of them mitigates CO2 equivalents in a proportion of 735 times the weight of the produced silk fiber by the mulberry cultivated area. At the same time, additional researches are needed in order to identify and evaluate methods to advertise this positive correlation in order to contribute to a more sustainable fashion industry.

  3. Stray voltage mitigation

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Jamali, B.; Piercy, R.; Dick, P. [Kinetrics Inc., Toronto, ON (Canada). Transmission and Distribution Technologies

    2008-04-09

    This report discussed issues related to farm stray voltage and evaluated mitigation strategies and costs for limiting voltage to farms. A 3-phase, 3-wire system with no neutral ground was used throughout North America before the 1930s. Transformers were connected phase to phase without any electrical connection between the primary and secondary sides of the transformers. Distribution voltage levels were then increased and multi-grounded neutral wires were added. The earth now forms a parallel return path for the neutral current that allows part of the neutral current to flow continuously through the earth. The arrangement is responsible for causing stray voltage. Stray voltage causes uneven milk production, increased incidences of mastitis, and can create a reluctance to drink water amongst cows when stray voltages are present. Off-farm sources of stray voltage include phase unbalances, undersized neutral wire, and high resistance splices on the neutral wire. Mitigation strategies for reducing stray voltage include phase balancing; conversion from single to 3-phase; increasing distribution voltage levels, and changing pole configurations. 22 refs., 5 tabs., 13 figs.

  4. Mitigation of terrain induced slugging using mixer devices

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Brasjen, B.J.; Veltin, J.; Hansen, J.H.

    2014-01-01

    The present work focuses on experimental evidence of slug mitigation via various devices. The slug mitigation potential of a number of mixers was tested using a laboratory scale air/water setup to compare their effect on the incoming slugs just upstream of the separator inlet. Dedicated methods and

  5. Farm nitrogen balances in six European agricultural landscapes – a method for farming system assessment, emission hotspot identification, and mitigation measure evaluation

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Dalgaard, Tommy; Bienkowski, J.; Bleeker, A.

    2012-01-01

    Six agricultural landscapes in Poland (PL), the Netherlands (NL), France (FR), Italy (IT), Scotland (UK) and Denmark (DK) were studied, and a common method was developed for undertaking farm inventories and the derivation of farm nitrogen (N) balances and N surplus from the in total 222 farms...... average was similar to those of PL and DK (122 ± 20 and 146 ± 55 kg N ha−1yr−1, respectively) when landless poultry were included. However, the challenge remains how to account for indirect N surpluses and emissions from such farms with a large export of manure out of the landscape. We conclude that farm...

  6. Mitigation for one & all: An integrated framework for mitigation of development impacts on biodiversity and ecosystem services

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Tallis, Heather, E-mail: htallis@tnc.org [The Nature Conservancy, 415 Alta Vista Dr., Santa Cruz, CA 95060 (United States); Kennedy, Christina M., E-mail: ckennedy@tnc.org [The Nature Conservancy, 117 East Mountain Ave., Ft. Collins, CO 80524 (United States); Ruckelshaus, Mary [The Natural Capital Project, 371 Serra Mall, Stanford, CA 94305 (United States); Goldstein, Joshua; Kiesecker, Joseph M. [The Nature Conservancy, 117 East Mountain Ave., Ft. Collins, CO 80524 (United States)

    2015-11-15

    Emerging development policies and lending standards call for consideration of ecosystem services when mitigating impacts from development, yet little guidance exists to inform this process. Here we propose a comprehensive framework for advancing both biodiversity and ecosystem service mitigation. We have clarified a means for choosing representative ecosystem service targets alongside biodiversity targets, identified servicesheds as a useful spatial unit for assessing ecosystem service avoidance, impact, and offset options, and discuss methods for consistent calculation of biodiversity and ecosystem service mitigation ratios. We emphasize the need to move away from area- and habitat-based assessment methods for both biodiversity and ecosystem services towards functional assessments at landscape or seascape scales. Such comprehensive assessments more accurately reflect cumulative impacts and variation in environmental quality, social needs and value preferences. The integrated framework builds on the experience of biodiversity mitigation while addressing the unique opportunities and challenges presented by ecosystem service mitigation. These advances contribute to growing potential for economic development planning and execution that will minimize impacts on nature and maximize human wellbeing. - Highlights: • This is the first framework for biodiversity and ecosystem service mitigation. • Functional, landscape scale assessments are ideal for avoidance and offsets. • Servicesheds define the appropriate spatial extent for ecosystem service mitigation. • Mitigation ratios should be calculated consistently and based on standard factors. • Our framework meets the needs of integrated mitigation assessment requirements.

  7. Applied methods for mitigation of damage by stress corrosion in BWR type reactors; Metodos aplicados para la mitigacion del dano por corrosion bajo esfuerzo en reactores BWR

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Hernandez C, R.; Diaz S, A.; Gachuz M, M.; Arganis J, C. [Instituto Nacional de Investigaciones Nucleares, Gerencia de Ciencia de Materiales, A.P. 18-1027, 11801 Mexico D.F. (Mexico)

    1998-07-01

    The Boiling Water nuclear Reactors (BWR) have presented stress corrosion problems, mainly in components and pipes of the primary system, provoking negative impacts in the performance of energy generator plants, as well as the increasing in the radiation exposure to personnel involucred. This problem has caused development of research programs, which are guided to find solution alternatives for the phenomena control. Among results of greater relevance the control for the reactor water chemistry stands out particularly in the impurities concentration and oxidation of radiolysis products; as well as the supervision in the materials selection and the stresses levels reduction. The present work presents the methods which can be applied to diminish the problems of stress corrosion in BWR reactors. (Author)

  8. Rats and seabirds: effects of egg size on predation risk and the potential of conditioned taste aversion as a mitigation method.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Lucía Latorre

    Full Text Available Seabirds nesting on islands are threatened by invasive rodents, such as mice and rats, which may attack eggs, chicks and even adults. The low feasibility of rat eradications on many islands makes the development of alternate control plans necessary. We used a combination of field experiments on a Mediterranean island invaded by black rats (Rattusrattus to evaluate (1 the predation risk posed to different-sized seabird eggs and (2, the potential of two deterrent methods (electronic and chemical to reduce its impact. Rats were able to consume eggs of all sizes (12 to 68 g, but survival increased 13 times from the smallest to the largest eggs (which also had more resistant eggshells. Extrapolation to seabird eggs suggests that the smallest species (Hydrobatespelagicus suffer the most severe predation risk, but even the largest (Larusmichahellis could suffer >60% mortality. Nest attack was not reduced by the deterrents. However, chemical deterrence (conditioned taste aversion by lithium chloride slowed the increase in predation rate over time, which resulted in a three-fold increase in egg survival to predation as compared to both control and electronic deterrence. At the end of the experimental period, this effect was confirmed by a treatment swap, which showed that conferred protection remains at least 15 days after cessation of the treatment. Results indicate that small seabird species are likely to suffer severe rates of nest predation by rats and that conditioned taste aversion, but not electronic repellents, may represent a suitable method to protect colonies when eradication or control is not feasible or cost-effective.

  9. Constant Load SCC Initiation Response of Alloy 22 (UNS N06022), Titanium Grade 7 and Stainless Steels at 105C

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    L.M. Young; G.M. Catlin; P.L. Andresen; G.M. Gordon

    2002-10-10

    This paper provides an update on research addressing the effects of material condition and applied stress on stress corrosion cracking (SCC) in waste package and drip shield materials for the Yucca Mountain Project. Time-to-failure experiments are being performed on smooth bar tensile specimens in a hot, concentrated, mixed-salt solution chosen to simulate concentrated Yucca Mountain water. The effects of applied stress, welding, surface finish, shot peening, cold work, crevicing, and aging treatment are being investigated for Alloy 22 (UNS N06022). Aging treatments were designed to produce topologically close-packed phases (TCP) and long-range ordering (LRO) and are under investigation as worse-case scenarios for possible microstructures in Alloy 22 (UNS N06022). Titanium Grade 7 and 3 16NG stainless steel are included in the matrix, as they are identified for drip shield and waste package components, respectively. Sensitized 304SS specimens are included in the test matrix to provide benchmark data. This research complements high-resolution crack-growth-rate experiments currently being performed in a parallel research project.

  10. SCC mec typing and antimicrobial resistance of methicillin-resistant Staphylococcus aureus (MRSA) from pigs of Northeast India.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rajkhowa, S; Sarma, D K; Pegu, S R

    2016-12-01

    Staphylococcus aureus is one of the most important pathogens of both humans and animal. Methicillin-resistant Staphylococcus aureus (MRSA) is an important human pathogen that causes serious infections both in hospitals and communities due to its multidrug resistance tendency. This study was undertaken to characterize the MRSA isolates from pigs and to determine the antimicrobial resistance of these isolates. Forty nine MRSA strains (one strain per positive pig) isolated from pigs of Northeast India were characterized by SCCmec typing and antimicrobial resistance. The overall prevalence of MRSA was 7.02 % with the highest prevalence recorded in pigs aged 1-3 months (P = 0.001) and in nasal samples (P = 0.005). Two SCC mec types (type III and V) were found in Indian pigs with predominance of type V. All isolates were resistant to penicillin. Seventeen resistance groups were observed where 87.75 % isolates showed multidrug resistance (showed resistance to three or more classes of antimicrobials). The most predominant resistance pattern observed was Oxytetracycline + Penicillin + Sulfadiazine + Tetracycline accounting 12.24 % of the isolates. The present study contributes to the understanding of characteristics and antimicrobial resistance of porcine MRSA isolates which in turn will help in devising strategy for the control of this pathogen. Findings of the study also throw light on multidrug resistance MRSA and emphasize the need for judicious use of antimicrobials in animal practice.

  11. Determination of the activation energy for SCC crack growth for Alloy 182 weld in a PWR environment

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Alexandreanu, B.; Chopra, O.K.; Shack, W.J. [Argonne National Lab., Nuclear Engineering Div., Argonne, Illinois (United States)

    2007-07-01

    The objective of this work was to determine the activation energy for stress corrosion cracking growth rates in a simulated PWR water environment for Alloy 182 weld metals. For this purpose, the crack growth rates (CGRs) of two heats of Alloy 182 were measured as a function of temperature between 290{sup o}C and 350{sup o}C. The difference in electrochemical potential between the specimen and the Ni/NiO line was maintained constant at each temperature by adjusting the hydrogen overpressure on the water supply tank. The CGR data as a function of temperature yielded activation energies of 252 kJ/mol for a double-J weld and 189 kJ/mol for a deep-groove weld. The data reported here and those in the literature suggest that the average activation energy for Alloy 182 welds is on the order of 220-230 kJ/mol, higher than the 130 kJ/mol commonly used for Alloy 600. The consequences of using a larger value of activation energy for SCC CGR data analysis are discussed. (author)

  12. Archive of digital Chirp sub-bottom profile data collected during USGS Cruise 07SCC01 offshore of the Chandeleur Islands, Louisiana, June 2007

    Science.gov (United States)

    Forde, Arnell S.; Dadisman, Shawn V.; Flocks, James G.; Wiese, Dana S.

    2010-01-01

    In June of 2007, the U.S. Geological Survey (USGS) conducted a geophysical survey offshore of the Chandeleur Islands, Louisiana, in cooperation with the Louisiana Department of Natural Resources (LDNR) as part of the USGS Barrier Island Comprehensive Monitoring (BICM) project. This project is part of a broader study focused on Subsidence and Coastal Change (SCC). The purpose of the study was to investigate the shallow geologic framework and monitor the enviromental impacts of Hurricane Katrina (Louisiana landfall was on August 29, 2005) on the Gulf Coast's barrier island chains. This report serves as an archive of unprocessed digital 512i and 424 Chirp sub-bottom profile data, trackline maps, navigation files, Geographic Information System (GIS) files, Field Activity Collection System (FACS) logs, observer's logbook, and formal Federal Geographic Data Committee (FGDC) metadata. Gained (a relative increase in signal amplitude) digital images of the seismic profiles are also provided. Refer to the Acronyms page for expansion of acronyms and abbreviations used in this report. The USGS St. Petersburg Coastal and Marine Science Center (SPCMSC) assigns a unique identifier to each cruise or field activity. For example, 07SCC01 tells us the data were collected in 2007 for the Subsidence and Coastal Change (SCC) study and the data were collected during the first field activity for that study in that calendar year. Refer to http://walrus.wr.usgs.gov/infobank/programs/html/definition/activity.html for a detailed description of the method used to assign the field activity identification (ID). All Chirp systems use a signal of continuously varying frequency; the Chirp systems used during this survey produce high resolution, shallow penetration profile images beneath the seafloor. The towfish is a sound source and receiver, which is typically towed 1 - 2 m below the sea surface. The acoustic energy is reflected at density boundaries (such as the seafloor or sediment layers

  13. Radiation Mitigation Methods for Reprogrammable FPGA Project

    Data.gov (United States)

    National Aeronautics and Space Administration — One of the needs of NASA is the development of avionic systems and components that have the capability to operate in extreme radiation and temperature environments...

  14. Radiation Mitigation Methods for Reprogrammable FPGA Project

    Data.gov (United States)

    National Aeronautics and Space Administration — NASA has been tasked to develop new and advanced capabilities to support both future manned and robotic missions to the lunar and Martian surfaces. It is the purpose...

  15. Turbulence mitigation methods and their evaluation

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Eekeren, A.W.M. van; Dijk, J.; Schutte, K.

    2014-01-01

    In general, long range detection, recognition and identification in visual and infrared imagery are hampered by turbulence caused by atmospheric conditions. The amount of turbulence is often indicated by the refractive-index structure parameter Cn 2. The value of this parameter and its variation is

  16. Mitigation analysis for Estonia

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Martins, A.; Roos, J.; Pesur, A. [Inst. of Energy Research, Tallinn (Estonia)] [and others

    1996-09-01

    The present report provides data on the mitigation analysis of Estonia. The results for energy, forest and agricultural sectors and macro-economic analysis are given. The Government of Estonia has identified the development of energy production as the main strategical means in the movement towards market economy. Now 99% of electricity generation and about 25% of heat production in Estonia is based on oil shale combustion. To increase the efficiency of oil shale-fired power plants and decrease CO{sub 2} emissions, the State Enterprise (SE) Eesti Energia (Estonian Energy) is planning to reconstruct these power plants and introduce the Circulating Fluidized Bed (CFB) combustion technology for oil shale burning to replace the Pulverized Combustion (PC). According to the Estonian Forest Policy, two general objectives are of importance: sustainability in forestry and efficiency in forest management. For the reduction of greenhouse gases (GHG) emissions from agriculture, it is necessary to increase the efficiency of production resource usage. The growth of the GDP in 1995 was 2.9% as a result of large-scale privatization activities in Estonia and re-introduction of the available, but unused production capacities with the help of foreign and domestic investments. It is assumed that the medium growth rate of GDP reaches 6% in 1998.

  17. AGRICULTURE DISEASE MITIGATION SYSTEM

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Sion Hannuna

    2011-06-01

    Full Text Available Around 52% of the population of India rely on farming for their livelihood which accounts for 17% of India’s GDP. Whilst most farmers are familiar with conventional farming practices, they are often ill positioned to promptly deal with diseases and plant infestations affecting their crops. Current advisory systems tend to be generic and are not tailored to specific plots or farms. This work comprises an agriculture advisory call center similar to a modern call center to provide an agriculture disease mitigation system. The information regarding an individual farm is collected using mobile phones. The image of diseased/infected crop is also captured using mobile phones and is made available to the expert to provide the advisory. To scale the advisory, an attempt is also made to automate the disease recognition process using image processing. Unfortunately, the photos taken will be sensitive to a number of factors including camera type and lighting incident on the scene. Ideally, the images would be processed in such a way as to provide the expert with a visual representation of the affected crops that reflects the true nature of the scene. We describe a framework for standardising the colour of plant images taken using both mobile phones and compact cameras within the context of the advisory system.

  18. Stringent Mitigation Policy Implied By Temperature Impacts on Economic Growth

    Science.gov (United States)

    Moore, F.; Turner, D.

    2014-12-01

    Integrated assessment models (IAMs) compare the costs of greenhouse gas mitigation with damages from climate change in order to evaluate the social welfare implications of climate policy proposals and inform optimal emissions reduction trajectories. However, these models have been criticized for lacking a strong empirical basis for their damage functions, which do little to alter assumptions of sustained GDP growth, even under extreme temperature scenarios. We implement empirical estimates of temperature effects on GDP growth-rates in the Dynamic Integrated Climate and Economy (DICE) model via two pathways, total factor productivity (TFP) growth and capital depreciation. Even under optimistic adaptation assumptions, this damage specification implies that optimal climate policy involves the elimination of emissions in the near future, the stabilization of global temperature change below 2°C, and a social cost of carbon (SCC) an order of magnitude larger than previous estimates. A sensitivity analysis shows that the magnitude of growth effects, the rate of adaptation, and the dynamic interaction between damages from warming and GDP are three critical uncertainties and an important focus for future research.

  19. Harmonic Mitigation Techniques Applied to Power Distribution Networks

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Hussein A. Kazem

    2013-01-01

    Full Text Available A growing number of harmonic mitigation techniques are now available including active and passive methods, and the selection of the best-suited technique for a particular case can be a complicated decision-making process. The performance of some of these techniques is largely dependent on system conditions, while others require extensive system analysis to prevent resonance problems and capacitor failure. A classification of the various available harmonic mitigation techniques is presented in this paper aimed at presenting a review of harmonic mitigation methods to researchers, designers, and engineers dealing with power distribution systems.

  20. Simulation on the Self-Compacting Concrete by an Enhanced Lagrangian Particle Method

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Jun Wu

    2016-01-01

    Full Text Available The industry has embraced self-compacting concrete (SCC to overcome deficiencies related to consolidation, improve productivity, and enhance safety and quality. Due to the large deformation at the flowing process of SCC, an enhanced Lagrangian particle-based method, Smoothed Particles Hydrodynamics (SPH method, though first developed to study astrophysics problems, with its exceptional advantages in solving problems involving fragmentation, coalescence, and violent free surface deformation, is developed in this study to simulate the flow of SCC as a non-Newtonian fluid to achieve stable results with satisfactory convergence properties. Navier-Stokes equations and incompressible mass conservation equations are solved as basics. Cross rheological model is used to simulate the shear stress and strain relationship of SCC. Mirror particle method is used for wall boundaries. The improved SPH method is tested by a typical 2D slump flow problem and also applied to L-box test. The capability and results obtained from this method are discussed.

  1. Mitigation of Space Radiation Effects

    Science.gov (United States)

    Atwell, William

    2012-02-01

    During low earth orbit and deep space missions, humans and spacecraft systems are exposed to high energy particles emanating from basically three sources: geomagnetically-trapped protons and electrons (Van Allen Belts), extremely high energy galactic cosmic radiation (GCR), and solar proton events (SPEs). The particles can have deleterious effects if not properly shielded. For humans, there can be a multitude of harmful effects depending on the degree of exposure. For spacecraft systems, especially electronics, the effects can range from single event upsets (SEUs) to catastrophic effects such as latchup and burnout. In addition, some materials, radio-sensitive experiments, and scientific payloads are subject to harmful effects. To date, other methods have been proposed such as electrostatic and electromagnetic shielding, but these approaches have not proven feasible due to cost, weight, and safety issues. The only method that has merit and has been effective is bulk or parasitic shielding. In this paper, we discuss in detail the sources of the space radiation environment, spacecraft, human, and onboard systems modeling methodologies, transport of these particles through shielding materials, and the calculation of the dose effects. In addition, a review of the space missions to date and a discussion of the space radiation mitigation challenges for lunar and deep space missions such as lunar outposts and human missions to Mars are presented.

  2. Caffeic Acid Reduces the Viability and Migration Rate of Oral Carcinoma Cells (SCC-25 Exposed to Low Concentrations of Ethanol

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Arkadiusz Dziedzic

    2014-10-01

    Full Text Available Alcohol increases the risk of carcinoma originated from oral epithelium, but the biological effects of ultra-low doses of ethanol on existing carcinoma cells in combination with natural substances are still unclear. A role for ethanol (EtOH, taken in small amounts as an ingredient of some beverages or mouthwashes to change the growth behavior of established squamous cell carcinoma, has still not been examined sufficiently. We designed an in vitro study to determine the effect of caffeic acid (CFA on viability and migration ability of malignant oral epithelial keratinocytes, exposed to ultra-low concentrations (maximum 100 mmol/L EtOH. MTT (3-[4,5-dimethylthiazol-2-yl]-2,5-dimethyltetrazolium bromide and LDH (lactate dehydrogenase assays were used to assess the cytotoxic effect of EtOH/CFA and the viability of squamous carcinoma SCC-25 cells (ATCC CRL-1628, mobile part of the tongue. Tested EtOH concentrations were: 2.5, 5, 10, 25, 50, and 100 mmol/L, along with an equal CFA concentration of 50 μmol/L. Carcinoma cells’ migration was investigated by monolayer “wound” healing assay. We demonstrated that very low concentrations of EtOH ranging between 2.5 and 10 mmol/L may induce the viability of oral squamous cell carcinoma cells, while the results following addition of CFA reveal an antagonistic effect, attenuating pro-proliferative EtOH activity. The migration rate of oral squamous carcinoma cells can be significantly inhibited by the biological activity of caffeic acid.

  3. SCC of Ti-6Al-4V foil by methanol - Effect of treatments with 2,4-pentanedione and its metal complexes.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Haney, E. G.; Fugassi, P.

    1972-01-01

    The susceptibility of Ti-6Al-4V foil to stress corrosion cracking (SCC) by methanol can be decreased by treatment of the foil with 2,4-pentanedione prior to its immersion in the corroding media. It is assumed that such treatments remove from the protective film formed on the foil by exposure to the atmosphere, certain metal ions whose oxides are more readily penetrated by the ions, Na + and Cl- or Fe(3+) and Cl-, present in the corroding media.

  4. Insider Threat Mitigation Workshop Instructional Materials

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Gibbs, Philip [Brookhaven National Lab. (BNL), Upton, NY (United States); Larsen, Robert [Los Alamos National Lab. (LANL), Los Alamos, NM (United States); O' Brien, Mike [Lawrence Livermore National Lab. (LLNL), Livermore, CA (United States); Rodriquez, Jose [Sandia National Lab. (SNL-NM), Albuquerque, NM (United States)

    2008-01-01

    Insiders represent a formidable threat to nuclear facilities. This set of workshop materials covers methodologies to analyze and approaches to mitigate the threat of an insider attempting abrupt theft of nuclear materials. This report is a compilation of workshop materials consisting of lectures on technical and administrative measures used in Physical Protection (PP) and Material Control and Accounting (MC&A) and methods for analyzing their effectiveness against a postulated insider threat.

  5. Fading and interference mitigation in wireless communications

    CERN Document Server

    Panic, Stefan; Anastasov, Jelena; Spalevic, Petar

    2013-01-01

    The rapid advancement of various wireless communication system services has created the need to analyze the possibility of their performance improvement. Introducing the basic principles of digital communications performance analysis and its mathematical formalization, Fading and Interference Mitigation in Wireless Communications will help you stay up to date with recent developments in the performance analysis of space diversity reception over fading channels in the presence of cochannel interference.The book presents a unified method for computing the performance of digital communication sys

  6. Regional climate change mitigation analysis

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Rowlands, Ian H. [UNEP Collaborating Centre on Energy and Environment, and Univ. of Waterloo (Canada)

    1998-10-01

    The purpose of this paper is to explore some of the key methodological issues that arise from an analysis of regional climate change mitigation options. The rationale for any analysis of regional mitigation activities, emphasising both the theoretical attractiveness and the existing political encouragement and the methodology that has been developed are reviewed. The differences arising from the fact that mitigation analyses have been taken from the level of the national - where the majority of the work has been completed to date - to the level of the international - that is, the `regional` - will be especially highlighted. (EG)

  7. Model-Based Mitigation of Availability Risks

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Zambon, Emmanuele; Bolzoni, D.; Etalle, Sandro; Salvato, Marco

    2007-01-01

    The assessment and mitigation of risks related to the availability of the IT infrastructure is becoming increasingly important in modern organizations. Unfortunately, present standards for Risk Assessment and Mitigation show limitations when evaluating and mitigating availability risks. This is due

  8. Degradation of self-compacting concrete (SCC) due to sulfuric acid attack: Experiment investigation on the effect of high volume fly ash content

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kristiawan, S. A.; Sunarmasto; Tyas, G. P.

    2016-02-01

    Concrete is susceptible to a variety of chemical attacks. In the sulfuric acid environment, concrete is subjected to a combination of sulfuric and acid attack. This research is aimed to investigate the degradation of self-compacting concrete (SCC) due to sulfuric acid attack based on measurement of compressive strength loss and diameter change. Since the proportion of SCC contains higher cement than that of normal concrete, the vulnerability of this concrete to sulfuric acid attack could be reduced by partial replacement of cement with fly ash at high volume level. The effect of high volume fly ash at 50-70% cement replacement levels on the extent of degradation owing to sulfuric acid will be assessed in this study. It can be shown that an increase in the utilization of fly ash to partially replace cement tends to reduce the degradation as confirmed by less compressive strength loss and diameter change. The effect of fly ash to reduce the degradation of SCC is more pronounced at a later age.

  9. Surface System Dust Mitigation Project

    Data.gov (United States)

    National Aeronautics and Space Administration — The proposed effort will perform a detailed examination of dust mitigation and tolerance strategies for connections and mechanisms to be employed on the lunar...

  10. Developing a congestion mitigation toolbox.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2011-09-30

    Researchers created A Michigan Toolbox for Mitigating Traffic Congestion to be a useful desk reference for practitioners and an educational tool for elected officials acting through public policy boards to better understand the development, planning,...

  11. Mitigation: Decarbonization unique to cities

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ibrahim, Nadine

    2017-10-01

    Strategies that reduce fossil-fuel use can achieve both global carbon mitigation and local health-protection goals. Now research shows the dual benefits of compact urban design and circular economy policies in Chinese cities.

  12. Mitigating amphibian chytridiomycosis in nature

    Science.gov (United States)

    Garner, Trenton W. J.; Schmidt, Benedikt R.; Martel, An; Pasmans, Frank; Muths, Erin L.; Cunningham, Andrew A.; Weldon, Che; Fisher, Matthew C.; Bosch, Jaime

    2016-01-01

    Amphibians across the planet face the threat of population decline and extirpation caused by the disease chytridiomycosis. Despite consensus that the fungal pathogens responsible for the disease are conservation issues, strategies to mitigate their impacts in the natural world are, at best, nascent. Reducing risk associated with the movement of amphibians, non-amphibian vectors and other sources of infection remains the first line of defence and a primary objective when mitigating the threat of disease in wildlife. Amphibian-associated chytridiomycete fungi and chytridiomycosis are already widespread, though, and we therefore focus on discussing options for mitigating the threats once disease emergence has occurred in wild amphibian populations. All strategies have shortcomings that need to be overcome before implementation, including stronger efforts towards understanding and addressing ethical and legal considerations. Even if these issues can be dealt with, all currently available approaches, or those under discussion, are unlikely to yield the desired conservation outcome of disease mitigation. The decision process for establishing mitigation strategies requires integrated thinking that assesses disease mitigation options critically and embeds them within more comprehensive strategies for the conservation of amphibian populations, communities and ecosystems.

  13. Industry initiatives in impact mitigation

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Metz, W.C.

    1982-08-01

    The author concludes that mitigation is the focus of conflicting opinions regarding responsibility, strategy, and effort. There are no hard, fast, or tried and true rules for company involvement in mitigation efforts. Each mitigation effort must be tailored and negotiated to match the unique characteristics of individual projects and circumstances of specific locales. Companies must assume financial responsibility for the temporary impacts and area needs created by their projects. They must also offer financial and technical assistance to impact areas, not just the host political jurisdiction, when local, state, federal, and special fund sources of revenue or technical assistance are not available or insufficient. But, local, state, and federal governments must also recognize their responsibilities and make adjustments in tax jurisdiction boundaries and disbursement formulas so that impacted areas are properly defined and receive an adequate share of lease, royalty, severance tax, permit fee, special use and service charges, and sales tax payments. Laws need to allow innovative uses of tax pre-payments, housing mortgage bonds, changeable debt and bounding limits, industrial loans with delayed prepayment, and revised revenue assistance formulas. Enabling legislation is required in most states to allow impact areas to negotiate the mitigation efforts. A review of 7 types of mitigation effort is presented: transportation; housing; public utilities; health, public safety and recreation; miscellaneous; and company-community interaction. (PBS)

  14. Mitigating component performance variation

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Gara, Alan G.; Sylvester, Steve S.; Eastep, Jonathan M.; Nagappan, Ramkumar; Cantalupo, Christopher M.

    2018-01-09

    Apparatus and methods may provide for characterizing a plurality of similar components of a distributed computing system based on a maximum safe operation level associated with each component and storing characterization data in a database and allocating non-uniform power to each similar component based at least in part on the characterization data in the database to substantially equalize performance of the components.

  15. A course in disaster mitigation.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bundy, Sarah J

    2016-01-01

    While endeavors are underway within the emergency management discipline to develop a unique body of foundational knowledge, widespread acknowledgement and agreement within the emergency management scholarly community of the existence of theoretical foundations and the consistent incorporation of these elements into emergency management research and teaching are still lacking. This article offers an outline of a US-based undergraduate course in mitigation theory and practice that is based on a synthesis of the academic literature related to disaster mitigation as a means to advance the discourse on foundational knowledge and curriculum development. The course outline proposes a set of concepts, theories, propositions, and empirical data that would arguably be fundamental for students in gaining a comprehensive understanding of mitigation in the United States and suggests how that information can be organized and presented in a meaningful way.

  16. Mitigating leaks in membranes

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Karnik, Rohit N.; Bose, Suman; Boutilier, Michael S.H.; Hadjiconstantinou, Nicolas G.; Jain, Tarun Kumar; O' Hern, Sean C.; Laoui, Tahar; Atieh, Muataz A.; Jang, Doojoon

    2018-02-27

    Two-dimensional material based filters, their method of manufacture, and their use are disclosed. In one embodiment, a membrane may include an active layer including a plurality of defects and a deposited material associated with the plurality of defects may reduce flow therethrough. Additionally, a majority of the active layer may be free from the material. In another embodiment, a membrane may include a porous substrate and an atomic layer deposited material disposed on a surface of the porous substrate. The atomic layer deposited material may be less hydrophilic than the porous substrate and an atomically thin active layer may be disposed on the atomic layer deposited material.

  17. Over-Pressurized Drums: Their Causes and Mitigation

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Simmons, Fred; Kuntamukkula, Murty; Quigley, David; Robertson, Janeen; Freshwater, David

    2009-07-10

    Having to contend with bulging or over-pressurized drums is, unfortunately, a common event for people storing chemicals and chemical wastes. (Figure 1) The Department of Energy alone reported over 120 incidents of bulging drums between 1992 and 1999 (1). Bulging drums can be caused by many different mechanisms, represent a number of significant hazards and can be tricky to mitigate. In this article, we will discuss reasons or mechanisms by which drums can become over-pressurized, recognition of the hazards associated with and mitigation of over-pressurized drums, and methods that can be used to prevent drum over-pressurization from ever occurring. Drum pressurization can represent a significant safety hazard. Unless recognized and properly mitigated, improperly manipulated pressurized drums can result in employee exposure, employee injury, and environmental contamination. Therefore, recognition of when a drum is pressurized and knowledge of pressurized drum mitigation techniques is essential.

  18. Thermodynamic consideration of hydrogen injection in BWR coolant. Estimation of potential for SCC control and oxidation-reduction condition of reactor coolant

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Miyajima, Kaori; Hirano, Hideo; Domae, Masashi [Central Research Inst. of Electric Power Industry, Komae, Tokyo (Japan). Komae Research Lab; Kushida, H.

    2001-04-01

    Hydrogen injection into BWR coolant has been carried out in order to reduce stress corrosion cracking (SCC). It was clarified by in-plant test that SCC can be reduced under corrosion potential -0.23 V(v.s.SHE), but the theoretical basis has not been clarified. On the other hand, highly precise water quality analysis of re-circulatory-system water is generally performed. Especially, nitrogen compound changes chemical from to NO{sub 3}{sup -} -> NO{sub 2}{sup -} -> NH{sub 3}, and the NH{sub 3} becomes the cause of the increase of dose rate of the main steamy system in connection with the increase in the amount of hydrogen injection. However, the relation between this chemical form, oxidisation reduction potential, and temperature is not clear: Then, in this paper, these two points were considered by thermodynamics calculation at 25-300degC using the thermodynamics data in the high temperature accumulated in CRIEPI, and calculation results are summarized as follows; (1) the potential of the stainless steel to which the chemical form change to FeCr{sub 2}O{sub 4} from NiFe{sub 2}O{sub 4} is equilibrium is about -0.23 V at 288degC so this change is expected as one of factors for reduction of SCC, (2) the changes of chemical form of nitrogen compounds show oxidation-reduction of reactor coolant, so it can be useful as the index for control of dose rate. (author)

  19. Therapy-relevant aberrant expression of MRP3 and BCRP mRNA in TCC-/SCC-bladder cancer tissue of untreated patients.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rady, Mona; Mostageer, Marwa; Rohde, Jan; Zaghloul, Ashraf; Knüchel-Clarke, Ruth; Saad, Shady; Attia, Deena; Mahran, Laila; Spahn-Langguth, Hilde

    2017-07-01

    Multidrug resistance (MDR) is a critical factor, which results in suboptimal outcomes in cancer chemotherapy. One principal mechanism of MDR is the increased expression of ATP-binding cassette (ABC) transporters. Of these, multidrug resistance-associated protein 3 (MRP3) and breast cancer resistance protein (BCRP) confer MDR when overexpressed in cancer cell lines. We measured the mRNA expression of MRP3 and BCRP in primary untreated bladder cancer specimens using reverse transcription-quantitative PCR (RT-qPCR) in comparison to normal bladder tissue. The MRP3 and BCRP expression in the two major histotypes of bladder cancer; transitional cell carcinoma (TCC; urothelial type of bladder cancer) and squamous cell carcinoma (SCC; 'Schistosoma-induced' bladder cancer) were compared. Furthermore, the association between MRP3 and BCRP expression and tumor grade and stage were investigated. MRP3 mRNA expression in bladder cancer specimens was increased ~13-fold on average compared to normal bladder tissue (n=36, PTCC showed significantly increased MRP3 mRNA expression compared to SCC of the bladder (PTCC and SCC of the bladder (P=0.1072). The increased MRP3 mRNA expression was not related to bladder tumor grade (P=0.3465) but was, however, significantly higher in superficial than in invasive bladder tumors (P=0.0173). The decreased expression of BCRP was not related to bladder tumor grade (P=0.1808) or stage (P=0.8016). The current data show that bladder cancer is associated with perturbed expression of MRP3 and BCRP. Representing drug resistance factors, determining the expression of these transporters in native tumors may be predictive of the outcome of chemotherapy based-treatment of bladder cancer.

  20. Mitigating Higher Ed Cyber Attacks

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rogers, Gary; Ashford, Tina

    2015-01-01

    In this presentation we will discuss the many and varied cyber attacks that have recently occurred in the higher ed community. We will discuss the perpetrators, the victims, the impact and how these institutions have evolved to meet this threat. Mitigation techniques and defense strategies will be covered as will a discussion of effective security…

  1. Blast Mitigation Using Water Mist

    National Research Council Canada - National Science Library

    Bailey, Jean L; Farley, John P; Williams, Frederick W; Lindsay, Michael S; Schwer, Douglas A

    2006-01-01

    A series of experiments demonstrating the mitigation of water mist on the over-pressure effects of a TNT detonation have been conducted A series of TNT charges, 0.9 kg (2 lb), 2.2 kg (5 lb) and 3.2 kg (7 lb...

  2. Remote Sensing Technologies Mitigate Drought

    Science.gov (United States)

    2015-01-01

    Ames Research Center has partnered with the California Department of Water Resources to develop satellite-based technologies to mitigate drought conditions. One project aims to help water managers adjust their irrigation to match the biological needs of each crop, and another involves monitoring areas where land is fallow so emergency relief can more quickly aid affected communities.

  3. Space Debris Mitigation CONOPS Development

    Science.gov (United States)

    2013-06-01

    Rome II. Acta Astronautica, 66(1), 239-244. Space debris mitigation guidelines of the committee on the peaceful uses of outer space (2010). United...law with respect to future space activities. Space Policy, 12(1), 5-8. 134 von der Dunk, Frans G. (2011). Space tourism , private spaceflight

  4. Comparison of turbulence mitigation algorithms

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kozacik, Stephen T.; Paolini, Aaron; Sherman, Ariel; Bonnett, James; Kelmelis, Eric

    2017-07-01

    When capturing imagery over long distances, atmospheric turbulence often degrades the data, especially when observation paths are close to the ground or in hot environments. These issues manifest as time-varying scintillation and warping effects that decrease the effective resolution of the sensor and reduce actionable intelligence. In recent years, several image processing approaches to turbulence mitigation have shown promise. Each of these algorithms has different computational requirements, usability demands, and degrees of independence from camera sensors. They also produce different degrees of enhancement when applied to turbulent imagery. Additionally, some of these algorithms are applicable to real-time operational scenarios while others may only be suitable for postprocessing workflows. EM Photonics has been developing image-processing-based turbulence mitigation technology since 2005. We will compare techniques from the literature with our commercially available, real-time, GPU-accelerated turbulence mitigation software. These comparisons will be made using real (not synthetic), experimentally obtained data for a variety of conditions, including varying optical hardware, imaging range, subjects, and turbulence conditions. Comparison metrics will include image quality, video latency, computational complexity, and potential for real-time operation. Additionally, we will present a technique for quantitatively comparing turbulence mitigation algorithms using real images of radial resolution targets.

  5. SCC INITIATION AND GROWTH RATE STUDIES ON TITANIUM GRADE 7 AND BASE METAL, WELDED, AND AGED ALLOY 22 IN CONCENTRATED GROUNDWATER

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    J.H. Payer

    2005-08-01

    The stress corrosion crack initiation and growth rate response was evaluated on as-received, as-welded, cold worked and aged Alloy 22 (UNS N06022) and titanium Grades 7 (UNS R52400), 28 (UNS R55323) and 29 (UNS R56404) at 105-165 C in various aerated, concentrated groundwater environments. Time-to-failure experiments on actively-loaded tensile specimens at 105 C evaluated the effects of applied stress, welding, surface finish, shot peening, cold work, crevicing, and aging treatments in Alloy 22 (UNS N06022), and found these materials to be highly resistant to SCC (none observed). Long-term U-bend data at 165 C corroborated these findings. Titanium Grade 7 and stainless steels were also included in the 105 C test matrix. Long term crack growth rate data showed stable crack growth in titanium Grade 7. Recent creep tests in air confirm literature data that these alloys are quite susceptible to creep failure, even below the yield stress, and it is unclear whether cracking in SCC tests is only accelerated by the creep response, or whether creep is responsible for cracking. Alloy 22 exhibited stable growth rates under ''gentle'' cyclic loading, but was prone to crack arrest at fully static loading. No effect of Pb additions was observed.

  6. Mitigation of Oil in Water Column: Mitigation Prototype Tests

    Science.gov (United States)

    2017-06-01

    technologies or techniques that can mitigate the impacts of oil in the water column on the surrounding environment through containment, diversion, or...impacts on the environment , water intakes, and commercial facilities. Currently there is no well-established technology , technique, or strategy to prevent... technology did not prove to be effective at removing the dispensed oil. 3. Minimization of environmental impacts with a focus on wildlife and plant life

  7. Human error mitigation initiative (HEMI) : summary report.

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Stevens, Susan M.; Ramos, M. Victoria; Wenner, Caren A.; Brannon, Nathan Gregory

    2004-11-01

    Despite continuing efforts to apply existing hazard analysis methods and comply with requirements, human errors persist across the nuclear weapons complex. Due to a number of factors, current retroactive and proactive methods to understand and minimize human error are highly subjective, inconsistent in numerous dimensions, and are cumbersome to characterize as thorough. An alternative and proposed method begins with leveraging historical data to understand what the systemic issues are and where resources need to be brought to bear proactively to minimize the risk of future occurrences. An illustrative analysis was performed using existing incident databases specific to Pantex weapons operations indicating systemic issues associated with operating procedures that undergo notably less development rigor relative to other task elements such as tooling and process flow. Future recommended steps to improve the objectivity, consistency, and thoroughness of hazard analysis and mitigation were delineated.

  8. FEMA Hazard Mitigation Grants Program Summary

    Data.gov (United States)

    Department of Homeland Security — The Hazard Mitigation Grant Program (HMGP, CFDA Number: 97.039) provides grants to States and local governments to implement long-term hazard mitigation measures...

  9. IMS Mitigation Target Areas - 2010 [ds673

    Data.gov (United States)

    California Department of Resources — Mitigation Target Areas (MTA) were developed by the California Department of Fish and Game for the Interim Mitigation Strategy (IMS). The MTAs are an identification...

  10. FEMA Hazard Mitigation Grants Program Summary - API

    Data.gov (United States)

    Department of Homeland Security — The Hazard Mitigation Grant Program (HMGP, CFDA Number: 97.039) provides grants to States and local governments to implement long-term hazard mitigation measures...

  11. SCC investigation of low alloy ultra-high strength steel 30CrMnSiNi2A in 3.5wt% NaCl solution by slow strain rate technique

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Liu Jianhua

    2014-10-01

    Full Text Available To evaluate stress corrosion cracking (SCC mechanism of low alloy ultra-high strength steel 30CrMnSiNi2A in environment containing NaCl, SCC behavior of the steel in 3.5wt% NaCl solution is investigated by slow strain rate technique (SSRT with various strain rates and applied potentials, surface analysis technique, and electrochemical measurements. SCC susceptibility of the steel increases rapidly with strain rate decreasing from 1 × 10−5 s−1 to 5 × 10−7 s−1, and becomes stable when strain rate is lower than 5 × 10−7 s−1. SCC propagation of the steel in the solution at open circuit potential (OCP needs sufficient hydrogen which is supplied at a certain strain rate. Fracture surface at OCP has similar characteristics with that at cathodic polarization −1000 mVSCE, which presents characteristic fractography of hydrogen induced cracking (HIC. All of these indicate that SCC behavior of the steel in the solution at OCP is mainly controlled by HIC rather than anodic dissolution (AD.

  12. Regional transport sector mitigation options

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Zhou, Peter [EECG Consultants, Gaborone (Botswana)

    1998-10-01

    The rationale for conducting climate change mitigation studies in the transport sector is on the premise that: The transport sector is the second largest consumer of fossil fuels in the region; The regional transport sector is an area with high opportunity for infrastructural development under UNFCCC financial mechanism; The regional transport sector is crucial in the SADC region for trade and coupled with the Trade Protocol will play a major role in development hence the need to make it efficient in terms of energy demand and provision of services; The sector offers many mitigation options but with a challenge to evaluate their energy saving and GHG saving potential and yet there is need to quantify possible emission reduction for possible future emission trading. This is also a sector with potential to qualify for financing through Clean Development Mechanism (CDM) recently stipulated in the Kyoto Protocol. (au)

  13. ITER Disruption Mitigation System Design

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rasmussen, David; Lyttle, M. S.; Baylor, L. R.; Carmichael, J. R.; Caughman, J. B. O.; Combs, S. K.; Ericson, N. M.; Bull-Ezell, N. D.; Fehling, D. T.; Fisher, P. W.; Foust, C. R.; Ha, T.; Meitner, S. J.; Nycz, A.; Shoulders, J. M.; Smith, S. F.; Warmack, R. J.; Coburn, J. D.; Gebhart, T. E.; Fisher, J. T.; Reed, J. R.; Younkin, T. R.

    2015-11-01

    The disruption mitigation system for ITER is under design and will require injection of up to 10 kPa-m3 of deuterium, helium, neon, or argon material for thermal mitigation and up to 100 kPa-m3 of material for suppression of runaway electrons. A hybrid unit compatible with the ITER nuclear, thermal and magnetic field environment is being developed. The unit incorporates a fast gas valve for massive gas injection (MGI) and a shattered pellet injector (SPI) to inject a massive spray of small particles, and can be operated as an SPI with a frozen pellet or an MGI without a pellet. Three ITER upper port locations will have three SPI/MGI units with a common delivery tube. One equatorial port location has space for sixteen similar SPI/MGI units. Supported by US DOE under DE-AC05-00OR22725.

  14. Identifying and Mitigating Insider Threats

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Probst, Christian W.

    2011-01-01

    Organisations face many threats that coarsely can be separated in inside threats and outside threats. Threats from insiders are especially hard to counter since insiders have special knowledge and privileges. Therefore, malicious insider actions are hard to distinguish from benign actions. After...... discussing new definitions of insiders and insider threats, this article gives an overview of how to mitigate insider threats and discusses conflicting goals when dealing with insider threats....

  15. Climate change mitigation in Africa

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Mackenzie, G.A.; Turkson, J.K.; Davidson, O.R. [eds.

    1998-10-01

    The UNEP Collaborating Centre on Energy and Environment (UCCEE) in conjunction with the Southern Centre for Energy and Environment (SCEE) hosted a conference on `Climate Change Mitigation in Africa` between 18 and 20 May. The Conference set out to address the following main objectives: to present to a wider audience the results of UNEP/GEF and related country studies; to present results of regional mitigation analysis; exchange of information with similar projects in the region; to expose countries to conceptual and methodological issues related to climate change mitigation; to provide input to national development using climate change related objectives. This volume contains reports of the presentations and discussions, which took place at the conference at Victoria Falls between 18 and 20 May 1998. Representatives of 11 country teams made presentations and in addition two sub-regions were discussed: the Maghreb region and SADC. The conference was attended by a total of 63 people, representing 22 African countries as well as international organisations. (EG)

  16. RFI Mitigation in Microwave Radiometry Using Wavelets

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    José Miguel Tarongí

    2009-09-01

    Full Text Available The performance of microwave radiometers can be seriously degraded by the presence of radio-frequency interference (RFI. Spurious signals and harmonics from lower frequency bands, spread-spectrum signals overlapping the “protected” band of operation, or out-of-band emissions not properly rejected by the pre-detection filters due to the finite rejection modify the detected power and the estimated antenna temperature from which the geophysical parameters will be retrieved. In recent years, techniques to detect the presence of RFI have been developed. They include time- and/or frequency domain analyses, or statistical analysis of the received signal which, in the absence of RFI, must be a zero-mean Gaussian process. Current mitigation techniques are mostly based on blanking in the time and/or frequency domains where RFI has been detected. However, in some geographical areas, RFI is so persistent in time that is not possible to acquire RFI-free radiometric data. In other applications such as sea surface salinity retrieval, where the sensitivity of the brightness temperature to salinity is weak, small amounts of RFI are also very difficult to detect and mitigate. In this work a wavelet-based technique is proposed to mitigate RFI (cancel RFI as much as possible. The interfering signal is estimated by using the powerful denoising capabilities of the wavelet transform. The estimated RFI signal is then subtracted from the received signal and a “cleaned” noise signal is obtained, from which the power is estimated later. The algorithm performance as a function of the threshold type, and the threshold selection method, the decomposition level, the wavelet type and the interferenceto-noise ratio is presented. Computational requirements are evaluated in terms of quantization levels, number of operations, memory requirements (sequence length. Even though they are high for today’s technology, the algorithms presented can be applied to recorded data

  17. Quantifying the role of mitigation hills in reducing tsunami runup

    Science.gov (United States)

    Marras, S.; Suckale, J.; Lunghino, B.; Giraldo, F.; Hood, K. M.

    2015-12-01

    Coastal communities around the world are being encouraged to plant or restore vegetation along their shores for the purpose of mitigating tsunami damage. A common setup for these projects is to develop 'mitigation hills' - an ensemble of vegetated hills along the coast - instead of one continuous stretch of vegetation. The rationale behind a staggered-hill setup is to give tree roots more space to grow and deepen. From a fluid-dynamical point of view, however, staggered mitigation hills may have significant drawbacks such as diverting the flow into the low-lying areas of the park, which could entail strong currents in the narrow channels between the hills and lead to erosion of the hills from the sides. The goal of this study is to quantify how mitigation hills affect tsunami runup and to provide constraints on the design of mitigation hills that mitigate tsunami damage using numerical simulations. Our computations of tsunami runup are based on the non-linear shallow water equation solved through a fully implicit, high-order, discontinuous Galerkin method. The adaptive computational grid is fitted to the hill topography to capture geometric effects accurately. A new dynamic subgrid-scale eddy viscosity originally designed for large eddy simulation of compressible flows is used for stabilization and to capture the obstacle-generated turbulence. We have carefully benchmarked our model in 1D and 2D against classical test cases. The included figure shows an example run of tsunami runup through coastal mitigation hills. In the interest of providing generalizable results, we perform a detailed scaling analysis of our model runs. We find that the protective value of mitigation hills depends sensitively on the non-linearity of the incoming wave and the relative height of the wave to the hills. Our simulations also suggest that the assumed initial condition is consequential and we hence consider a range of incoming waves ranging from a simple soliton to a more realistic N

  18. Co-benefits of greenhouse gas mitigation: a review and classification by type, mitigation sector, and geography

    Science.gov (United States)

    Deng, Hong-Mei; Liang, Qiao-Mei; Liu, Li-Jing; Diaz Anadon, Laura

    2017-12-01

    The perceived inability of climate change mitigation goals alone to mobilize sufficient climate change mitigation efforts has, among other factors, led to growing research on the co-benefits of reducing greenhouse gas (GHG) emissions. This study conducts a systematic review (SR) of the literature on the co-benefits of mitigating GHG emissions resulting in 1554 papers. We analyze these papers using bibliometric analysis, including a keyword co-occurrence analysis. We then iteratively develop and present a typology of co-benefits, mitigation sectors, geographic scope, and methods based on the manual double coding of the papers resulting from the SR. We find that the co-benefits from GHG mitigation that have received the largest attention of researchers are impacts on ecosystems, economic activity, health, air pollution, and resource efficiency. The co-benefits that have received the least attention include the impacts on conflict and disaster resilience, poverty alleviation (or exacerbation), energy security, technological spillovers and innovation, and food security. Most research has investigated co-benefits from GHG mitigation in the agriculture, forestry and other land use (AFOLU), electricity, transport, and residential sectors, with the industrial sector being the subject of significantly less research. The largest number of co-benefits publications provide analysis at a global level, with relatively few studies providing local (city) level analysis or studying co-benefits in Oceanian or African contexts. Finally, science and engineering methods, in contrast to economic or social science methods, are the methods most commonly employed in co-benefits papers. We conclude that given the potential mobilizing power of understudied co-benefits (e.g. poverty alleviation) and local impacts, the magnitude of GHG emissions from the industrial sector, and the fact that Africa and South America are likely to be severely affected by climate change, there is an opportunity

  19. Radiosensitizers, radioprotectors, and radiation mitigators

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Jayam Raviraj

    2014-01-01

    Full Text Available Radiotherapy is regarded as one of the most important therapeutic modality for the treatment of malignant lesions. This field is undergoing rapid advancements in the recent times. With the use of radiosensitizers and radioprotective agents, the course of radiotherapy has improved the sensitization of tumor cells and protection of normal cells, respectively. The aim of this paper was to critically review and analyze the available compounds used as radiosensitizers, radioprotectors, and radiation mitigators. For reviewing, the author used the electronic search for the keywords ′Radiosensitizers′, ′Radioprotectors′, ′Radiation mitigators′ on PubMed for inclusion of previously published articles and further search of reference papers on individual radiosensitizing and radioprotecting agents was done. Radiosensitizers are agents that sensitize the tumor cells to radiation. These compounds apparently promote fixation of the free radicals produced by radiation damage at the molecular level. The mechanism of action is similar to the oxygen effect, in which biochemical reactions in the damaged molecules prevent repair of the cellular radiation damage. Free radicals such as OH + are captured by the electron affinity of the radiosensitizers, rendering the molecules incapable of repair. Radioprotectors are compounds that are designed to reduce the damage in normal tissues caused by radiation. These compounds are often antioxidants and must be present before or at the time of radiation for effectiveness. Other agents, termed mitigators, may be used to minimize toxicity even after radiation has been delivered. This article tries to discuss the various aspects of radiosensitizers, radioprotectors, and radiation mitigators including the newer agents.

  20. Smart disaster mitigation in Thailand

    Science.gov (United States)

    Aimmanee, S.; Ekkawatpanit, C.; Asanuma, H.

    2016-04-01

    Thailand is notoriously exposed to several natural disasters, from heavy thunder storms to earthquakes and tsunamis, since it is located in the tropical area and has tectonic cracks underneath the ground. Besides these hazards flooding, despite being less severe, occurs frequently, stays longer than the other disasters, and affects a large part of the national territory. Recently in 2011 have also been recorded the devastating effects of major flooding causing the economic damages and losses around 50 billion dollars. Since Thailand is particularly exposed to such hazards, research institutions are involved in campaigns about monitoring, prevention and mitigation of the effects of such phenomena, with the aim to secure and protect human lives, and secondly, the remarkable cultural heritage. The present paper will first make a brief excursus on the main Thailand projects aimed at the mitigation of natural disasters, referring to projects of national and international relevance, being implemented, such as the ESCAP1999 (flow regime regulation and water conservation). Adaptable devices such as foldable flood barriers and hydrodynamically supported temporary banks have been utilized when flooding. In the second part of the paper, will be described some new ideas concerning the use of smart and biomimicking column structures capable of high-velocity water interception and velocity detection in the case of tsunami. The pole configuration is composite cylindrical shell structure embedded with piezoceramic sensor. The vortex shedding of the flow around the pole induces the vibration and periodically strains the piezoelectric element, which in turn generates the electrical sensorial signal. The internal space of the shell is filled with elastic foam to enhance the load carrying capability due to hydrodynamic application. This more rigid outer shell inserted with soft core material resemble lotus stem in nature in order to prolong local buckling and ovalization of column

  1. Disaster mitigation - The Iridium way

    Science.gov (United States)

    Swan, Peter A.; Love, Lee M.

    1992-08-01

    The paper discusses salient features of a telecommunication concept, called Iridium. Iridium is envisioned as a network of telecommunication satellites which will make it possible to communicate 'anytime-at-any-place' on the globe. The Iridium system will consist of 77 satellites; earth stations, called gateways, connected to the public switched telephone networks; and the personal communication telephone. It is pointed out that Iridium communication system will have a dramatic impact on mitigating the effects of severe disasters (natural or manmade) by providing direct communications to the user before, during, and after the disaster.

  2. Mitigation options in forestry, land-use change and biomass burning in Africa

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Makundi, Willy R.L. [Univ. of California, Lawrence Berkeley National Lab. (United States)

    1998-10-01

    Mitigation options to reduce greenhouse gas emissions and sequester carbon in land use sectors are described in some detail. The paper highlights those options in the forestry sector, which are more relevant to different parts of Africa. It briefly outlines a bottom-up methodological framework for comprehensively assessing mitigation options in land use sectors. This method emphasizes the application of end-use demand projections to construct baseline and mitigation scenarios and explicitly addresses the carbon storage potential on land an in wood products, as well as use of wood to substitute for fossil fuels. Cost-effectiveness indicators for ranking mitigation options are proposed, including those which account for non-carbon monetary benefits such as those derived from forest products, as well as opportunity cost of pursuing specific mitigation option. The paper finally surveys the likely policies, barriers and incentives to implement such mitigation options in African countries. (au) 13 refs.

  3. Mitigating Cyber Security Risk in Satellite Ground Systems

    Science.gov (United States)

    2015-04-01

    examination of private industry standards and theory shows better methods of mitigating cyber security risk via simplifying the security controls...ground system network to actually affect the space asset’s operational effectiveness or siphon data from the network.65 This timeline typically could

  4. Mitigation of Global Warming with Focus on Personal Carbon Allowances

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Meyer, Niels I

    2008-01-01

    The mitigation of global warming requires new efficient systems and methods. The paper presents a new proposal called personal carbon allowances with caps on the CO2 emission from household heating and electricity and on emission from transport in private cars and in personal air flights. Results...

  5. Narrow-Band Clutter Mitigation in Spectral Polarimetric Weather Radar

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Yin, J.; Unal, C.M.H.; Russchenberg, H.W.J.

    2017-01-01

    In this paper, a new clutter suppression method, named the moving double spectral linear depolarization ratio (MDsLDR) filter, is put forward to mitigate narrow-band clutter in weather radars. The narrow-band clutter observed in the Doppler domain includes: 1) stationary clutter such as ground

  6. Mitigating road impacts on animals through learning principles.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Proppe, D S; McMillan, N; Congdon, J V; Sturdy, C B

    2017-01-01

    Roads are a nearly ubiquitous feature of the developed world, but their presence does not come without consequences. Many mammals, birds, reptiles, and amphibians suffer high rates of mortality through collision with motor vehicles, while other species treat roads as barriers that reduce gene flow between populations. Road effects extend beyond the pavement, where traffic noise is altering communities of songbirds, insects, and some mammals. Traditional methods of mitigation along roads include the creation of quieter pavement and tires and the construction of physical barriers to reduce sound transmission and movement. While effective, these forms of mitigation are costly and time-consuming. One alternative is the use of learning principles to create or extinguish aversive behaviors in animals living near roads. Classical and operant conditioning are well-documented techniques for altering behavior in response to novel cues and signals. Behavioral ecologists have used conditioning techniques to mitigate human-wildlife conflict challenges, alter predator-prey interactions, and facilitate reintroduction efforts. Yet, these principles have rarely been applied in the context of roads. We suggest that the field of road ecology is ripe with opportunity for experimentation with learning principles. We present tangible ways that learning techniques could be utilized to mitigate negative roadside behaviors, address the importance of evaluating fitness within these contexts, and evaluate the longevity of learned behaviors. This review serves as an invitation for empirical studies that test the effectiveness of learning paradigms as a mitigation tool in the context of roads.

  7. Radon Mitigation Approach in a Laboratory Measurement Room

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Patricia Blanco-Rodríguez

    2017-05-01

    Full Text Available Radon gas is the second leading cause of lung cancer, causing thousands of deaths annually. It can be a problem for people or animals in houses, workplaces, schools or any building. Therefore, its mitigation has become essential to avoid health problems and to prevent radon from interfering in radioactive measurements. This study describes the implementation of radon mitigation systems at a radioactivity laboratory in order to reduce interferences in the different works carried out. A large set of radon concentration samples is obtained from measurements at the laboratory. While several mitigation methods were taken into account, the final applied solution is explained in detail, obtaining thus very good results by reducing the radon concentration by 76%.

  8. Radon Mitigation Approach in a Laboratory Measurement Room.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Blanco-Rodríguez, Patricia; Fernández-Serantes, Luis Alfonso; Otero-Pazos, Alberto; Calvo-Rolle, José Luis; de Cos Juez, Francisco Javier

    2017-05-11

    Radon gas is the second leading cause of lung cancer, causing thousands of deaths annually. It can be a problem for people or animals in houses, workplaces, schools or any building. Therefore, its mitigation has become essential to avoid health problems and to prevent radon from interfering in radioactive measurements. This study describes the implementation of radon mitigation systems at a radioactivity laboratory in order to reduce interferences in the different works carried out. A large set of radon concentration samples is obtained from measurements at the laboratory. While several mitigation methods were taken into account, the final applied solution is explained in detail, obtaining thus very good results by reducing the radon concentration by 76%.

  9. Fuel Flexibility: Landfill Gas Contaminant Mitigation for Power Generation

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Storey, John Morse [ORNL; Theiss, Timothy J [ORNL; Kass, Michael D [ORNL; FINNEY, Charles E A [ORNL; Lewis, Samuel [Oak Ridge National Laboratory (ORNL); Kaul, Brian C [ORNL; Besmann, Theodore M [ORNL; Thomas, John F [ORNL; Rogers, Hiram [ORNL; Sepaniak, Michael [University of Tennessee, Knoxville (UTK)

    2014-04-01

    This research project focused on the mitigation of silica damage to engine-based renewable landfill gas energy systems. Characterization of the landfill gas siloxane contamination, combined with characterization of the silica deposits in engines, led to development of two new mitigation strategies. The first involved a novel method for removing the siloxanes and other heavy contaminants from the landfill gas prior to use by the engines. The second strategy sought to interrupt the formation of hard silica deposits in the engine itself, based on inspection of failed landfill gas engine parts. In addition to mitigation, the project had a third task to develop a robust sensor for siloxanes that could be used to control existing and/or future removal processes.

  10. Tsunami mitigation - redistribution of energy

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kadri, Usama

    2017-04-01

    Tsunamis are water waves caused by the displacement of a large volume of water, in the deep ocean or a large lake, following an earthquake, landslide, underwater explosion, meteorite impacts, or other violent geological events. On the coastline, the resulting waves evolve from unnoticeable to devastating, reaching heights of tens of meters and causing destruction of property and loss of life. Over 225,000 people were killed in the 2004 Indian Ocean tsunami alone. For many decades, scientists have been studying tsunami, and progress has been widely reported in connection with the causes (1), forecasting (2), and recovery (3). However, none of the studies ratifies the approach of a direct mitigation of tsunamis, with the exception of mitigation using submarine barriers (e.g. see Ref. (4)). In an attempt to open a discussion on direct mitigation, I examine the feasibility of redistributing the total energy of a very long surface ocean (gravity) wave over a larger space through nonlinear resonant interaction with two finely tuned acoustic-gravity waves (see Refs. (5-8)). Theoretically, while the energy input in the acoustic-gravity waves required for an effective interaction is comparable to that in a tsunami (i.e. impractically large), employing the proposed mitigation technique the initial tsunami amplitude could be reduced substantially resulting in a much milder impact at the coastline. Moreover, such a technique would allow for the harnessing of the tsunami's own energy. Practically, this mitigation technique requires the design of highly accurate acoustic-gravity wave frequency transmitters or modulators, which is a rather challenging ongoing engineering problem. References 1. E. Bryant, 2014. Tsunami: the underrated hazard. Springer, doi:10.1007/978-3-319- 06133-7. 2. V. V. Titov, F. I. Gonza`lez, E. N. Bernard, M. C. Eble, H. O. Mofjeld, J. C. Newman, A. J. Venturato, 2005. Real-Time Tsunami Forecasting: Challenges and Solutions. Nat. Hazards 35:41-58, doi:10

  11. Space Charge Mitigation by Hollow Bunches

    CERN Multimedia

    Oeftiger, AO

    2014-01-01

    To satisfy the requirements of the HL-LHC (High Luminosity Large Hadron Collider), the LHC injector chain will need to supply a higher brightness, i.e. deliver the same transverse beam emittances \\epsilon_{x,y} while providing a higher intensity N. However, a larger number of particles per bunch enhances space charge effects. One approach to mitigate the impact of space charge is to change the longitudinal phase space distribution: hollow bunches feature a depleted bunch centre and a densely populated periphery. Thus, the spatial line density maximum is depressed which ultimately decreases the tune spread imposed by space charge. Therefore, a higher intensity can be accepted while keeping the same overall space charge tune shift. 3 different methods to create hollow bunches in the PSBooster are simulated.

  12. Advanced Insider Threat Mitigation Workshop Instructional Materials

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Gibbs, Philip [Brookhaven National Lab. (BNL), Upton, NY (United States); Larsen, Robert [Los Alamos National Lab. (LANL), Los Alamos, NM (United States); O' Brien, Mike [Lawrence Livermore National Lab. (LLNL), Livermore, CA (United States); Edmunds, Tom [Lawrence Livermore National Lab. (LLNL), Livermore, CA (United States)

    2009-02-01

    Insiders represent a formidable threat to nuclear facilities. This set of workshop materials covers methodologies to analyze and approaches to mitigate the threat of an insider attempting abrupt and protracted theft of nuclear materials. This particular set of materials is an update of a January 2008 version to add increased emphasis on Material Control and Accounting and its role with respect to protracted insider nuclear material theft scenarios. This report is a compilation of workshop materials consisting of lectures on technical and administrative measures used in Physical Protection (PP) and Material Control and Accounting (MC&A) and methods for analyzing their effectiveness against a postulated insider threat. The postulated threat includes both abrupt and protracted theft scenarios. Presentation is envisioned to be through classroom instruction and discussion. Several practical and group exercises are included for demonstration and application of the analysis approach contained in the lecture/discussion sessions as applied to a hypothetical nuclear facility.

  13. Quantifying the improvement of turbulence mitigation technology

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kozacik, Stephen; Paolini, Aaron; Sherman, Ariel; Bonnett, James; Kelmelis, Eric

    2017-05-01

    Atmospheric turbulence degrades imagery by imparting scintillation and warping effects that can reduce the ability to identify key features of the subjects. While visually, a human can intuitively understand the improvement that turbulence mitigation techniques can offer in increasing visual information, this enhancement is rarely quantified in a meaningful way. In this paper, we discuss methods for measuring the potential improvement on system performance video enhancement algorithms can provide. To accomplish this, we explore two metrics. We use resolution targets to determine the difference between imagery degraded by turbulence and that improved by atmospheric correction techniques. By comparing line scans between the data before and after processing, it is possible to quantify the additional information extracted. Advanced processing of this data can provide information about the effective modulation transfer function (MTF) of the system when atmospheric effects are considered and removed, using this data we compute a second metric, the relative improvement in Strehl ratio.

  14. Mitigating for nature in Danish infrastructure projects

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Larsen, Sanne Vammen; Kørnøv, Lone; Christensen, Per

    2015-01-01

    his paper presents results of a Danish study of mitigation efforts directed at nature protection in EIA of Danish infrastructure projects. The projects included in the study comprise road, rail, bridges, tunnels cables and oil- and gas-pipes. The study is based on a document analysis of EIA reports...... mitigation measures are suggested and implemented. Based on this the paper concludes with a discussion of how practice of mitigating impacts on nature can be developed leading to better nature protection....

  15. Effect of environmental and stress intensity factors on IGA/SCC of nickel-base alloy. Nickel ki gokin no ryukai fushoku no hassei shinten ni oyobosu kankyo oyobi oryoku inshi no eikyo

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Hirano, H.; Kawamura, H. (Central Research Institute of Electric Power Industry, Tokyo (Japan))

    1993-12-25

    Test was conducted on the intergranular attack (IGA) and stress corrosion cracking (SCC) of nickel-base alloy (inconel alloy 600) used for the PWR steam generator heat transfer tubes. The conducted items of test were U-bending test (IGA/SCC generation test with U-bending specimens), double cantilever beam (DCB) test (IGA/SCC generation test with DCB specimens), slow strain rate test (SSRT) and steam generator (SG) model boiler test (boiling/heat transfer/corrosion test by model boiler). The result was as follows: In the high acidity or high alkalinity aqueous solution, the film is unstable on the alloy surface, and the IGA/SCC is generated under the existence of stress. From the result of stress analysis, it was revealed that with an increase in number of long cracks, the stress intensity factor drops. Even with an increase in number of short cracks, the stress intensity factor does not change. In the region (0 to 120kg/mm[sup 3/2]) of stress intensity factor acting on the heat transfer tube, there exists no domain where the crack propagates rapidly. From the SG model boiler test, the crack propagation rate was revealed to be as slow as 10[sup -3] to 10[sup -2][mu]m/h. 22 refs., 13 figs., 3 tabs.

  16. Two scandium-biuret complexes: [Sc(C2H5N3O2)(H2O)5]Cl3 x H2O and [Sc(C2H5N3O2)4](NO3)3.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Harrison, William T A

    2008-05-01

    The scandium(III) cations in the structures of pentaaqua(biuret-kappa(2)O,O')scandium(III) trichloride monohydrate, [Sc(C(2)H(5)N(3)O(2))(H(2)O)(5)]Cl(3) x H(2)O, (I), and tetrakis(biuret-kappa(2)O,O')scandium(III) trinitrate, [Sc(C(2)H(5)N(3)O(2))(4)](NO(3))(3), (II), are found to adopt very different coordinations with the same biuret ligand. The roles of hydrogen bonding and the counter-ion in the establishment of the structures are described. In (I), the Sc(3+) cation adopts a fairly regular pentagonal bipyramidal coordination geometry arising from one O,O'-bidentate biuret molecule and five water molecules. A dense network of N-H...Cl, O-H...O and O-H...Cl hydrogen bonds help to establish the packing, resulting in dimeric associations of two cations and two water molecules. In (II), the Sc(3+) cation (site symmetry 2) adopts a slightly squashed square-antiprismatic geometry arising from four O,O'-bidentate biuret molecules. A network of N-H...O hydrogen bonds help to establish the packing, which features [010] chains of cations. One of the nitrate ions is disordered about an inversion centre. Both structures form three-dimensional hydrogen-bond networks.

  17. Handbook of Climate Change Mitigation

    CERN Document Server

    Seiner, John; Suzuki, Toshio; Lackner, Maximilian

    2012-01-01

    There is a mounting consensus that human behavior is changing the global climate and its consequence could be catastrophic. Reducing the 24 billion metric tons of carbon dioxide emissions from stationary and mobile sources is a gigantic task involving both technological challenges and monumental financial and societal costs. The pursuit of sustainable energy resources, environment, and economy has become a complex issue of global scale that affects the daily life of every citizen of the world. The present mitigation activities range from energy conservation, carbon-neutral energy conversions, carbon advanced combustion process that produce no greenhouse gases and that enable carbon capture and sequestion, to other advanced technologies. From its causes and impacts to its solutions, the issues surrounding climate change involve multidisciplinary science and technology. This handbook will provide a single source of this information. The book will be divided into the following sections: Scientific Evidence of Cl...

  18. Late (> 5 years) regional lymph node metastasis of oral squamous cell carcinoma (SCC), proven by p53 mutation analysis

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Kummer, J. Alain; Van Es, Robert J. J.; Hoekstra, J.W.M.

    2008-01-01

    Background: A late (>5 years) neck nodal metastasis of oral cancer, poses a problem to the clinician: is it a late metastasis or a metastasis of a (unknown) second primary tumour? Methods: A 50-year-old male was seen with a contralateral lymph node metastasis, 51/2 years after treatment of a pT2N1M0

  19. Strategies for mitigation of global warming

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Meyer, Niels I

    2009-01-01

    The paper analyses the international negotions on climate change leading up to COP15 in Copenhagen. Supplementary policies for mitigation of global warming are proposed.......The paper analyses the international negotions on climate change leading up to COP15 in Copenhagen. Supplementary policies for mitigation of global warming are proposed....

  20. Mitigation assessment results and priorities in China

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Wu Zongxin; Wei Zhihong [Tsinghua Univ., Beijing (China)

    1996-12-31

    In this paper energy related CO2 emission projections of China by 2030 are given. CO2 mitigation potential and technology options in main fields of energy conservation and energy substitution are analyzed. CO2 reduction costs of main mitigation technologies are estimated and the AHP approach is used for helping assessment of priority technologies.

  1. Using periodicity to mitigate ground vibration

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Andersen, Lars Vabbersgaard

    2015-01-01

    Introduction of trenches, barriers and wave impeding blocks on the transmission path between a source and receiver can be used for mitigation of ground vibration. However, to be effective a barrier must have a depth of about one wavelength of the waves to be mitigated. Hence, while great reductions...

  2. Climate change mitigation studies in Sri Lanka

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Wickramaratne, Rupa [Ministry of Forestry and Environment, GEF/UNDP Enabling Activity Project (Sri Lanka)

    1998-12-01

    In Sri Lanka, Climate Change Mitigation Studies have received low priority and have been limited to an ADB-sponsored preliminary study followed by an initial assessment of some mitigation options in the energy and agricultural sectors, with technical assistance from the US Country Studies Program. The major focus was on options of the mitigation of carbon dioxide emissions from the energy sector. Owing to funding constraints, only the potential for reduction of carbon dioxide emissions resulting from the various mitigation options were quantified; analysis of monetary costs and benefits or policy/programs for adoption of the options were not undertaken. For the non-energy sector, a very limited study on mitigation of methane emissions from rice fields was carried out. (au)

  3. A public health hazard mitigation planning process.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Griffith, Jennifer M; Kay Carpender, S; Crouch, Jill Artzberger; Quiram, Barbara J

    2014-01-01

    The Texas A&M Health Science Center School of Rural Public Health, a member of the Training and Education Collaborative System Preparedness and Emergency Response Learning Center (TECS-PERLC), has long-standing partnerships with 2 Health Service Regions (Regions) in Texas. TECS-PERLC was contracted by these Regions to address 2 challenges identified in meeting requirements outlined by the Risk-Based Funding Project. First, within Metropolitan Statistical Areas, there is not a formal authoritative structure. Second, preexisting tools and processes did not adequately satisfy requirements to assess public health, medical, and mental health needs and link mitigation strategies to the Public Health Preparedness Capabilities, which provide guidance to prepare for, respond to, and recover from public health incidents. TECS-PERLC, with its partners, developed a framework to interpret and apply results from the Texas Public Health Risk Assessment Tool (TxPHRAT). The 3-phase community engagement-based TxPHRAT Mitigation Planning Process (Mitigation Planning Process) and associated tools facilitated the development of mitigation plans. Tools included (1) profiles interpreting TxPHRAT results and identifying, ranking, and prioritizing hazards and capability gaps; (2) a catalog of intervention strategies and activities linked to hazards and capabilities; and (3) a template to plan, evaluate, and report mitigation planning efforts. The Mitigation Planning Process provided a framework for Regions to successfully address all funding requirements. TECS-PERLC developed more than 60 profiles, cataloged and linked 195 intervention strategies, and developed a template resulting in 20 submitted mitigation plans. A public health-focused, community engagement-based mitigation planning process was developed by TECS-PERLC and successfully implemented by the Regions. The outcomes met all requirements and reinforce the effectiveness of academic practice partnerships and importance of

  4. Illuminating the pathway for the next generation of cardiovascular medicine practitioners and researchers: Highlights of the Joint PASCAR-SCC clinical symposium on hypertension and heart failure, Cameroon.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Abanda, Martin H; Dzudie, Anastase; Hamadou, Ba; Monkam, Yves; Luma, Henry; Douala, Marie Solange; Nganhyim, Loryane; Dzekem, Bonaventure S; Nana, Theophile N; Nel, George; Mocumbi, Ana O; Stewart, Simon; Sliwa, Karen; Priso, Eugene Belley

    The Pan-African Society of Cardiology roadmap aims to achieve a 25% control of hypertension by the year 2025. Whether this is attainable or not depends largely on the capacity of healthcare providers and policy makers to address the rising prevalence of hypertension and its complications, including heart failure. Task sharing is fundamental in optimising hypertension control. The Clinical Research Education, Networking and Consultancy (CRENC) engaged with the Pan-African Society of Cardiology (PASCAR) and the Cameroon Cardiac Society (SCC) in a joint hypertension and heart failure symposium at the Douala General Hospital in 2016. The primary aims were to foster clinical research in cardiovascular medicine by raising awareness on cardiovascular diseases, to provide evidence-based training of an international standard, to encourage the conduction and dissemination of high-quality research, and to build programmes for continuing medical education. The secondary aim was to potentiate the 2nd Douala Research and Scientific Days. The symposium, which featured didactic lectures interspaced with oral/poster abstract presentations and a clinical visit, culminated in the launching of the book Heart of Africa, and the Young Investigator award. It is hoped that these served to capacitate existing cardiovascular structures, breed the next generation of cardiovascular physicians and researchers, and imprint a trail of clinical research excellence to be emulated in Cameroon and beyond.

  5. SCC and Corrosion Fatigue characterization of a Ti-6Al-4V alloy in a corrosive environment – experiments and numerical models

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    S. Baragetti

    2014-10-01

    Full Text Available In the present article, a review of the complete characterization in different aggressive media of a Ti-6Al-4V titanium alloy, performed by the Structural Mechanics Laboratory of the University of Bergamo, is presented. The light alloy has been investigated in terms of corrosion fatigue, by axial fatigue testing (R = 0.1 of smooth and notched flat dogbone specimens in laboratory air, 3.5% wt. NaCl–water mixture and methanol–water mixture at different concentrations. The first corrosive medium reproduced a marine environment, while the latter was used as a reference aggressive environment. Results showed that a certain corrosion fatigue resistance is found in a salt water medium, while the methanol environment caused a significant drop – from 23% to 55% in terms of limiting stress reduction – of the fatigue resistance of the Ti-6Al-4V alloy, even for a solution containing 5% of methanol. A Stress Corrosion Cracking (SCC experimental campaign at different methanol concentrations has been conducted over slightly notched dog-bone specimens (Kt = 1.18, to characterize the corrosion resistance of the alloy under quasi-static load conditions. Finally, crack propagation models have been implemented to predict the crack propagation rates for smooth specimens, by using Paris, Walker and Kato-Deng-Inoue-Takatsu propagation formulae. The different outcomes from the forecasting numerical models were compared with experimental results, proposing modeling procedures for the numerical simulation of fatigue behavior of a Ti-6Al-4V alloy.

  6. Stratigraphy and Geologic Structure at the SCC and NISC Building Sites, Technical Area 3, Los Alamos National Laboratory, New Mexico

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Lavine, A.; Krier, D.; Caporuscio, F.; Gardner, J.

    1998-09-01

    Ten closely spaced, shallow (<100 ft) drill cores were obtained from the 1.22-Ma-old Bandelier Tuff at a 4-acre site for proposed construction at Los Alamos National Laboratory, New Mexico. The goal of the investigation was to identify faults that may have potential for earthquake-induced surface ruptures at the site. Careful mapping of contact surfaces within the Bandelier Tuff was supplemented with results of geochemical analyses to establish unit boundaries with a high degree of accuracy. Analysis shows that the upper contact surface of Unit 3 of the Bandelier Tuff provides no evidence of faults beneath the building site, and that the subsurface structure is consistent with a shallowly dipping (< 2{degree}), unbroken block. Because no significant or cumulative faulting events have disturbed the site in the last 1.22 million years, it is unlikely that surface rupture will occur at the site in future large earthquakes. Uncertainty analysis suggests that this method would detect faults with {ge}2 ft of cumulative stratigraphic separation.

  7. Analysis of apoptotic cell death following irradiation in SCC malignant cell lines derived from the head and neck

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Uno, Masako [Kawasaki Medical School, Kurashiki, Okayama (Japan)

    2000-07-01

    To explore radiation-resistancy in head and neck squamous cell carcinoma (HNSCC), two HNSCC lines, KB derived from the oral floor and HEp-2 from the larynx, were used to clarify the cellular biological alterations related to apoptotic cell death induced by irradiation. Both cell lines revealed ultrastructual apoptotic morphological changes and showed dose- and time- dependent increase in to the apoptotic fraction examined by the TUNEL method using flow cytometry. The KB cells showed time- and dose-dependent upregulation of membrane Fas (mFas) expression after irradiation. Analysis of alteration in the mRNA expression levels of apoptosis-related genes demonstrated slight upregulation of Fas, Flice, Bax, and TNFRl genes in KB cells and of the Fas ligand gene in HEp-2 cells. In addition, the DcR3 gene, which completes Fas-Fas ligand binding and inhibits Fas-mediated apoptosis, was upregulated in KB cells after irradiation. Based on these results, Fas-mediated apoptotic pathway may be involved in irradiation- induced apoptosis via p53 upregulation. Further investigations are required to resolve questions regarding the radiation-resistancy which often occurs after radiotherapy for head and neck malignancies. (author)

  8. Using FRET for Drought Mitigation

    Science.gov (United States)

    Osborne, H. D.; Palmer, C. K.; Hobbins, M.

    2016-12-01

    With the ongoing drought plaguing California and much of the Western United States, water agencies and the general public have a heightened need for short term forecasts of evapotranspiration. The National Weather Service's (NWS) Forecast Reference Evapotranspiration (FRET) product suite can fill this need. The FRET product suite uses the Penman - Monteith Reference Evapotranspiration (ETrc) equation for a short canopy (12 cm grasses), adopted by the Environmental Water Resources Institute of the American Society of Civil Engineers. FRET is calculated across the contiguous U.S. using temperatures, humidity, winds, and sky cover from Numerical Weather Prediction (NPW) models and adjusted by NWS forecasters with local expertise of terrain and weather patterns. The Weekly ETrc product is easily incorporated into drought-planning strategies, allowing water managers, the agricultural community, and the public to make better informed water-use decisions. FRET can assist with the decision making process for scheduling irrigation (e.g., farms, golf courses, vineyards) and timing of fertilizers. The California Department of Water Resources (CA DWR) also ingests the FRET into their soil moisture models, and uses FRET to assist in determining the reservoir releases for the Feather River. The United States Bureau of Reclamation (USBR) also uses FRET in determining reservoir releases and assessing water temperature along the Sacramento and American Rivers. FRET is now operational on the National Digital Forecast Database (NDFD), permitting other agencies easy access to this nationwide data for all drought mitigation and planning purposes.

  9. Mitigation of Fluorosis - A Review

    Science.gov (United States)

    Dodamani, Arun S.; Jadhav, Harish C.; Naik, Rahul G.; Deshmukh, Manjiri A.

    2015-01-01

    Fluoride is required for normal development and growth of the body. It is found in plentiful quantity in environment and fluoride content in drinking water is largest contributor to the daily fluoride intake. The behaviour of fluoride ions in the human organism can be regarded as that of “double-edged sword”. Fluoride is beneficial in small amounts but toxic in large amounts. Excessive consumption of fluorides in various forms leads to development of fluorosis. Fluorosis is major health problem in 24 countries, including India, which lies in the geographical fluoride belt. Various technologies are being used to remove fluoride from water but still the problem has not been rooted out. The purpose of this paper is to review the available treatment modalities for fluorosis, available technologies for fluoride removal from water and ongoing fluorosis mitigation programs based on literature survey. Medline was the primary database used in the literature search. Other databases included: PubMed, Web of Science, Google Scholar, WHO, Ebscohost, Science Direct, Google Search Engine, etc. PMID:26266235

  10. Halo Mitigation Using Nonlinear Lattices

    CERN Document Server

    Sonnad, Kiran G

    2005-01-01

    This work shows that halos in beams with space charge effects can be controlled by combining nonlinear focusing and collimation. The study relies on Particle-in-Cell (PIC) simulations for a one dimensional, continuous focusing model. The PIC simulation results show that nonlinear focusing leads to damping of the beam oscillations thereby reducing the mismatch. It is well established that reduced mismatch leads to reduced halo formation. However, the nonlinear damping is accompanied by emittance growth causing the beam to spread in phase space. As a result, inducing nonlinear damping alone cannot help mitigate the halo. To compensate for this expansion in phase space, the beam is collimated in the simulation and further evolution of the beam shows that the halo is not regenerated. The focusing model used in the PIC is analysed using the Lie Transform perturbation theory showing that by averaging over a lattice period, one can reuduce the focusing force to a form that is identical to that used in the PIC simula...

  11. Gas Mitigation in Paper Production

    Science.gov (United States)

    Santos, AS; Bittencourt, C.

    2017-07-01

    The Brazilian paper industry has competitive advantages offered by the favorable climate, which favors an increase in the yield of forest restoration, and consequently, in the productive process. On the other hand, following the greenhouse gases (GHG), we can see our constantly changing sun, causing the solar storms, allowing their prevention or mitigating measures. The objective of this work is to contribute to the construction of the understanding necessary for the reduction of GHG emission from a preliminary analysis of the pulp and paper sector. As a secondary objective, the text preliminarily analyzes a company’s behavior against the backdrop of the Paris Accord, which strengthens the global response to the threat of climate change and strengthens the capacity of countries to deal with the impacts of such changes. The identification of best practices in the pulp and paper industry is understood, focusing on environmental sustainability, such as the adoption of reforestation, obtaining significant results. In the case of the paper industry, the management of public forests for sustainable production, within the structure of the Ministry of the Environment, establishes the promotion of public awareness about the importance of conservation, recovery and sustainable management of forest resources.

  12. Knowledge about aerosol injection does not reduce individual mitigation efforts

    Science.gov (United States)

    Merk, Christine; Pönitzsch, Gert; Rehdanz, Katrin

    2016-05-01

    Stratospheric aerosol injection (SAI) is a climate engineering method that is reputed to be very effective in cooling the planet but is also thought to involve major risks and side effects. As a new option in the bid to counter climate change, it has attracted an increasing amount of research and the debate on its potential gained momentum after it was referred to in the 5th IPCC assessment report (IPCC 2013). One major objection to SAI and the research done on it is that it could undermine commitment to the mitigation of greenhouse gases. Policymakers, interest groups or individuals might wrongly perceive SAI as an easy fix for climate change and accordingly reduce their mitigation efforts. This is the first study to provide an empirical evaluation of this claim for individuals. In a large-scale framed field experiment with more than 650 participants, we provide evidence that people do not back-pedal on mitigation when they are told that the climate change problem could be partly addressed via SAI. Instead, we observe that people who have been informed about SAI mitigate more than people who have not. Our data suggest that the increase is driven by a perception of SAI as potential threat.

  13. Factors that influence the efficiency of electrochemical chloride extraction during corrosion mitigation in reinforced concrete structures.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2006-01-01

    Electrochemical chloride extraction (ECE) is an electrochemical bridge restoration method for mitigating corrosion in reinforced concrete structures. ECE does this by moving chlorides away from the reinforcement and out of the concrete while simultan...

  14. Evaluation of long carbon fiber reinforced concrete to mitigate earthquake damage of infrastructure components.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2013-06-01

    The proposed study involves investigating long carbon fiber reinforced concrete as a method of mitigating earthquake damage to : bridges and other infrastructure components. Long carbon fiber reinforced concrete has demonstrated significant resistanc...

  15. Screening of repeated dose toxicity data present in SCC(NF)P/SCCS safety evaluations of cosmetic ingredients.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Vinken, Mathieu; Pauwels, Marleen; Ates, Gamze; Vivier, Manon; Vanhaecke, Tamara; Rogiers, Vera

    2012-03-01

    Alternative methods, replacing animal testing, are urgently needed in view of the European regulatory changes in the field of cosmetic products and their ingredients. In this context, a joint research initiative called SEURAT was recently raised by the European Commission and COLIPA, representing the European cosmetics industry, with the overall goal of developing an animal-free repeated dose toxicity testing strategy for human safety assessment purposes. Although cosmetic ingredients are usually harmless for the consumer, one of the initial tasks of this research consortium included the identification of organs that could potentially be affected by cosmetic ingredients upon systemic exposure. The strategy that was followed hereof is described in the present paper and relies on the systematic evaluation, by using a self-generated electronic databank, of published reports issued by the scientific committee of DG SANCO responsible for the safety of cosmetic ingredients. By screening of the repeated dose toxicity studies present in these reports, it was found that the liver is potentially the most frequently targeted organ by cosmetic ingredients when orally administered to experimental animals, followed by the kidney and the spleen. Combined listing of altered morphological, histopathological, and biochemical parameters subsequently indicated the possible occurrence of hepatotoxicity, including steatosis and cholestasis, triggered by a limited number of cosmetic compounds. These findings are not only of relevance for the in vitro modeling efforts and choice of compounds to be tested in the SEURAT project cluster, but also demonstrate the importance of using previously generated toxicological data through an electronic databank for addressing specific questions regarding the safety evaluation of cosmetic ingredients.

  16. Group support system and explanatory feedback: An experimental study of mitigating halo effect

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Intiyas Utami

    2015-12-01

    Full Text Available Comprehensive assessment potentially leads to halo effect that will affect accuracy of auditors decision-making process. Biased initial audit decision will potentially influence final audit decision. It is there-fore necessary to mitigate halo effect that is the consequence of auditors good impression on clients initial condition. This re-search aims to empirically show that halo effect can be mitigated by explanatory feedback and Group Support System (GSS. The researchers experimentally mani-pulate explanatory feedback and GSS using online web-site. The subjects are stu-dents who have already taken auditing courses. The results show that: 1 explanato-ry feedback can mitigate halo effect so that audit decision will be more accurate 2 GSS can also mitigate halo effect 3 explanatory feedback and GSS are the best me-thods to mitigate halo effect.

  17. Optimization of carbon mitigation paths in the power sector of Shenzhen, China

    Science.gov (United States)

    Li, Xin; Hu, Guangxiao; Duan, Ying; Ji, Junping

    2017-08-01

    This paper studied the carbon mitigation paths of the power sector in Shenzhen, China from a supply-side perspective. We investigated the carbon mitigation potentials and investments of seventeen mitigation technologies in the power sector, and employed a linear programming method to optimize the mitigation paths. The results show that: 1) The total carbon mitigation potential is 5.95 MtCO2 in 2020 in which the adjustment of power supply structure, technical improvements of existing coal- and gas-fired power plant account for 87.5%,6.5% and 6.0%, respectively. 2) In the optimal path, the avoided carbon dioxide to meet the local government’s mitigation goal in power sector is 1.26 MtCO2.The adjustment of power supply structure and technical improvement of the coal-fired power plants are the driving factors of carbon mitigation, with contributions to total carbon mitigation are 72.6% and 27.4%, respectively.

  18. Landslides risk mitigation along lifelines

    Science.gov (United States)

    Capparelli, G.; Versace, P.; Artese, G.; Costanzo, S.; Corsonello, P.; Di Massa, G.; Mendicino, G.; Maletta, D.; Leone, S.; Muto, F.; Senatore, A.; Troncone, A.; Conte, E.; Galletta, D.

    2012-04-01

    The paper describes an integrated, innovative and efficient solution to manage risk issues associated to landslides interfering with infrastructures. The research project was submitted for financial support in the framework of the Multi -regional Operational Programme 2007-13: Research and Competitiveness funded by the Ministry of Research (MIUR) and co-funded by the European Regional Development Fund. The project is aimed to developing and demonstrating an integrated system of monitoring, early warning and mitigation of landslides risk. The final goal is to timely identify potentially dangerous landslides, and to activate all needed impact mitigation measures, including the information delivery. The essential components of the system include monitoring arrays, telecommunication networks and scenario simulation models, assisted by a data acquisition and processing centre, and a traffic control centres. Upon integration, the system will be experimentally validated and demonstrated over ca. 200 km of three highway sections, crossing the regions of Campania, Basilicata, Calabria and Sicily. Progress in the state of art is represented by the developments in the field of environmental monitoring and in the mathematical modeling of landslides and by the development of services for traffic management. The approach to the problem corresponds to a "systemic logics" where each developed component foresees different interchangeable technological solutions to maximize the operational flexibility. The final system may be configured as a simple to complex structure, including different configurations to deal with different scenarios. Specifically, six different monitoring systems will be realized: three "point" systems, made up of a network of locally measuring sensors, and three "area" systems to remotely measure the displacements of large areas. Each network will be fully integrated and connected to a unique data transmission system. Standardized and shared procedures for the

  19. Washington Tsunami Hazard Mitigation Program

    Science.gov (United States)

    Walsh, T. J.; Schelling, J.

    2012-12-01

    Washington State has participated in the National Tsunami Hazard Mitigation Program (NTHMP) since its inception in 1995. We have participated in the tsunami inundation hazard mapping, evacuation planning, education, and outreach efforts that generally characterize the NTHMP efforts. We have also investigated hazards of significant interest to the Pacific Northwest. The hazard from locally generated earthquakes on the Cascadia subduction zone, which threatens tsunami inundation in less than hour following a magnitude 9 earthquake, creates special problems for low-lying accretionary shoreforms in Washington, such as the spits of Long Beach and Ocean Shores, where high ground is not accessible within the limited time available for evacuation. To ameliorate this problem, we convened a panel of the Applied Technology Council to develop guidelines for construction of facilities for vertical evacuation from tsunamis, published as FEMA 646, now incorporated in the International Building Code as Appendix M. We followed this with a program called Project Safe Haven (http://www.facebook.com/ProjectSafeHaven) to site such facilities along the Washington coast in appropriate locations and appropriate designs to blend with the local communities, as chosen by the citizens. This has now been completed for the entire outer coast of Washington. In conjunction with this effort, we have evaluated the potential for earthquake-induced ground failures in and near tsunami hazard zones to help develop cost estimates for these structures and to establish appropriate tsunami evacuation routes and evacuation assembly areas that are likely to to be available after a major subduction zone earthquake. We intend to continue these geotechnical evaluations for all tsunami hazard zones in Washington.

  20. The self-consistent charge density functional tight binding method applied to liquid water and the hydrated excess proton: benchmark simulations.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Maupin, C Mark; Aradi, Bálint; Voth, Gregory A

    2010-05-27

    The self-consistent charge density functional tight binding (SCC-DFTB) method is a relatively new approximate electronic structure method that is increasingly used to study biologically relevant systems in aqueous environments. There have been several gas phase cluster calculations that indicate, in some instances, an ability to predict geometries, energies, and vibrational frequencies in reasonable agreement with high level ab initio calculations. However, to date, there has been little validation of the method for bulk water properties, and no validation for the properties of the hydrated excess proton in water. Presented here is a detailed SCC-DFTB analysis of the latter two systems. This work focuses on the ability of the original SCC-DFTB method, and a modified version that includes a hydrogen bonding damping function (HBD-SCC-DFTB), to describe the structural, energetic, and dynamical nature of these aqueous systems. The SCC-DFTB and HBD-SCC-DFTB results are compared to experimental data and Car-Parrinello molecular dynamics (CPMD) simulations using the HCTH/120 gradient-corrected exchange-correlation energy functional. All simulations for these systems contained 128 water molecules, plus one additional proton in the case of the excess proton system, and were carried out in a periodic simulation box with Ewald long-range electrostatics. The liquid water structure for the original SCC-DFTB is shown to poorly reproduce bulk water properties, while the HBD-SCC-DFTB somewhat more closely represents bulk water due to an improved ability to describe hydrogen bonding energies. Both SCC-DFTB methods are found to underestimate the water dimer interaction energy, resulting in a low heat of vaporization and a significantly elevated water oxygen diffusion coefficient as compared to experiment. The addition of an excess hydrated proton to the bulk water resulted in the Zundel cation (H(5)O(2)(+)) stabilized species being the stable form of the charge defect, which

  1. Co-Channel Interference Mitigation Using Satellite Based Receivers

    Science.gov (United States)

    2014-12-01

    orthogonal frequency-division multiplexing ( OFDM ) signals of fourth generation cellular systems , is an attractive option, but co- channel interference...passive signals, such as the orthogonal frequency-division multi- plexing ( OFDM ) signals of fourth generation cellular systems , is an attractive option...but co- channel interference mitigation is required. A method to separate the transmitted sig- nals that leverages the estimated signal delays between

  2. Trend on Corrosion Mitigation Research Paper Publication

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Sung, Ki Woung [Korea Institute Of Science and Technology Information, Daejeon (Korea, Republic of)

    2016-10-15

    Those papers were analyzed and arranged in the form of publication years and citation, document types, research areas, source titles, countries and languages, organization and funding agencies. In the 'corrosion mitigation' search, the percentage of the publication number of the nuclear science and technology field was about 12%. The sum of the time cited and the average citation number per item in corrosion mitigation survey were 5059 and 11.47, respectively, while those in nuclear corrosion mitigation survey were 285 and 7.5, respectively. Among 38 source titles, the major ones were Nuclear Eng. and Design, Nuclear Sci. and Eng., Intl. J. of Pressure Vessels and Piping.

  3. 2009 River Corridor Closure Contractor Revegetation and Mitigation Monitoring Report

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    C. T. Lindsey; K. A. Gano; R. D. Teel

    2009-09-30

    This document details the results of revegetation and mitigation monitoring conducted in 2009, including 25 revegetation/restoration projects, one revegetation/mitigation project, and three bat mitigation projects.

  4. 32 CFR Appendix C to Part 651 - Mitigation and Monitoring

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-07-01

    ... effectiveness, but also public interest or debate. (4) Mitigation outcome. The probability of the mitigation's... governed by who will actually perform the mitigation; a contractor, a cooperating agency, or an in-house...

  5. Voluntary climate change mitigation actions of young adults: a classification of mitigators through latent class analysis.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Essi A E Korkala

    Full Text Available Encouraging individuals to take action is important for the overall success of climate change mitigation. Campaigns promoting climate change mitigation could address particular groups of the population on the basis of what kind of mitigation actions the group is already taking. To increase the knowledge of such groups performing similar mitigation actions we conducted a population-based cross-sectional study in Finland. The study population comprised 1623 young adults who returned a self-administered questionnaire (response rate 64%. Our aims were to identify groups of people engaged in similar climate change mitigation actions and to study the gender differences in the grouping. We also determined if socio-demographic characteristics can predict group membership. We performed latent class analysis using 14 mitigation actions as manifest variables. Three classes were identified among men: the Inactive (26%, the Semi-active (63% and the Active (11% and two classes among women: the Semi-active (72% and the Active (28%. The Active among both genders were likely to have mitigated climate change through several actions, such as recycling, using environmentally friendly products, preferring public transport, and conserving energy. The Semi-Active had most probably recycled and preferred public transport because of climate change. The Inactive, a class identified among men only, had very probably done nothing to mitigate climate change. Among males, being single or divorced predicted little involvement in climate change mitigation. Among females, those without tertiary degree and those with annual income €≥16801 were less involved in climate change mitigation. Our results illustrate to what extent young adults are engaged in climate change mitigation, which factors predict little involvement in mitigation and give insight to which segments of the public could be the audiences of targeted mitigation campaigns.

  6. Voluntary climate change mitigation actions of young adults: a classification of mitigators through latent class analysis.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Korkala, Essi A E; Hugg, Timo T; Jaakkola, Jouni J K

    2014-01-01

    Encouraging individuals to take action is important for the overall success of climate change mitigation. Campaigns promoting climate change mitigation could address particular groups of the population on the basis of what kind of mitigation actions the group is already taking. To increase the knowledge of such groups performing similar mitigation actions we conducted a population-based cross-sectional study in Finland. The study population comprised 1623 young adults who returned a self-administered questionnaire (response rate 64%). Our aims were to identify groups of people engaged in similar climate change mitigation actions and to study the gender differences in the grouping. We also determined if socio-demographic characteristics can predict group membership. We performed latent class analysis using 14 mitigation actions as manifest variables. Three classes were identified among men: the Inactive (26%), the Semi-active (63%) and the Active (11%) and two classes among women: the Semi-active (72%) and the Active (28%). The Active among both genders were likely to have mitigated climate change through several actions, such as recycling, using environmentally friendly products, preferring public transport, and conserving energy. The Semi-Active had most probably recycled and preferred public transport because of climate change. The Inactive, a class identified among men only, had very probably done nothing to mitigate climate change. Among males, being single or divorced predicted little involvement in climate change mitigation. Among females, those without tertiary degree and those with annual income €≥16801 were less involved in climate change mitigation. Our results illustrate to what extent young adults are engaged in climate change mitigation, which factors predict little involvement in mitigation and give insight to which segments of the public could be the audiences of targeted mitigation campaigns.

  7. 20-Hydroxycholecalciferol, product of vitamin D3 hydroxylation by P450scc, decreases NF-kappaB activity by increasing IkappaB alpha levels in human keratinocytes.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Zorica Janjetovic

    Full Text Available The side chain of vitamin D3 is hydroxylated in a sequential manner by cytochrome P450scc (CYP11A1 to form 20-hydroxycholecalciferol, which can induce growth arrest and differentiation of both primary and immortalized epidermal keratinocytes. Since nuclear factor-kappaB (NF-kappaB plays a pivotal role in the regulation of cell proliferation, differentiation and apoptosis, we examined the capability of 20-hydroxycholecalciferol to modulate the activity of NF-kappaB, using 1,25-dihydroxycholecalciferol (calcitriol as a positive control. 20-hydroxycholecalciferol inhibits the activation of NFkappaB DNA binding activity as well as NF-kappaB-driven reporter gene activity in keratinocytes. Also, 20-hydroxycholecalciferol induced significant increases in the mRNA and protein levels of the NF-kappaB inhibitor protein, IkappaB alpha, in a time dependent manner, while no changes in total NF-kappaB-p65 mRNA or protein levels were observed. Another measure of NF-kappaB activity, p65 translocation from the cytoplasm into the nucleus was also inhibited in extracts of 20-hydroxycholecalciferol treated keratinocytes. Increased IkappaB alpha was concomitantly observed in cytosolic extracts of 20-hydroxycholecalciferol treated keratinocytes, as determined by immunoblotting and immunofluorescent staining. In keratinocytes lacking vitamin D receptor (VDR, 20-hydroxycholecalciferol did not affect IkappaB alpha mRNA levels, indicating that it requires VDR for its action on NF-kappaB activity. Comparison of the effects of calcitrol, hormonally active form of vitamin D3, with 20-hydrocholecalciferol show that both agents have a similar potency in inhibiting NF-kappaB. Since NF-kappaB is a major transcription factor for the induction of inflammatory mediators, our findings indicate that 20-hydroxycholecalciferol may be an effective therapeutic agent for inflammatory and hyperproliferative skin diseases.

  8. SCC of X-52 and X-60 weldements in diluted NaHCO{sub 3} solutions with chloride and sulfate ions

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Gonzalez-Rodriguez, J.G.; Zeferino-Rodriguez, T. [UAEM-Centro de Investigacion en Ingenieria y Ciencias Aplicadas, Av. Universidad 1001, Col. Chamilpa 62210, Cuernavaca, Morelos (Mexico); Espinosa-Medina, M.A.; Angeles-Chavez, C. [Instituto Mexicano del Petroleo, Eje Central Lazaro Cardenas 152, Col. San Bartolo Atepehuacan, 07730 Mexico D. F. (Mexico)

    2007-08-15

    Stress corrosion cracking tests were performed in both X-52 and X-60 weldments in sodium bicarbonate (NaHCO{sub 3}) solutions at 50 C using the Slow Strain Rate Testing (SSRT) technique. Solution concentrations varied between 0.1 to 0.0001 M, and to simulate the NS-4 solution, chloride (Cl{sup -}) and/or sulfate (SO{sub 4}{sup 2-}) ions were added to the 0.01 M solution. Tests were complemented with hydrogen permeation measurements and polarization curves. It was found that the corrosion rate, taken as the corrosion current, I{sub corr}, was maximum in 0.01 M NaHCO{sub 3} and with additions of SO{sub 4}{sup 2-} ions. Higher or lower solution concentrations or additions of Cl{sup -} alone decreased the corrosion rate of the weldment. The SSC susceptibility, measured as the percentage reduction in area, was maximum in 0.01M NaHCO{sub 3}. Higher or lower solution concentrations of additions of Cl{sup -} or SO{sub 4}{sup 2-} decreased the SCC susceptibility of the weldment. The amount of hydrogen uptake for the weldment was also highest in 0.01 M NaHCO{sub 3} solution, but it was minimum with the addition of Cl{sup -} or SO{sub 4}{sup 2-} ions. Thus, the most likely mechanism for the cracking susceptibility of X-52 and X-60 weldments in diluted NaHCO{sub 3} solutions seems to be hydrogen-assisted anodic dissolution. (Abstract Copyright [2007], Wiley Periodicals, Inc.)

  9. Approved Risk Evaluation and Mitigation Strategies

    Data.gov (United States)

    U.S. Department of Health & Human Services — The Food and Drug Administration Amendments Act of 2007 gave FDA the authority to require a Risk Evaluation and Mitigation Strategy (REMS) from manufacturers to...

  10. OEM Emergency Prevention and Mitigation Information

    Data.gov (United States)

    U.S. Environmental Protection Agency — The Office of Emergency Management maintains information relevant to preventing emergencies before they occur, and/or mitigating the effects of emergency when they...

  11. Indoor Air Vapor Intrusion Mitigation Approaches

    Science.gov (United States)

    The National Risk Management Research Laboratory has developed a technology transfer document regarding management and treatment of vapor intrusion into building structures. This document describes the range of mitigation technologies available.

  12. NIR LIDAR for Hazard Mitigation Project

    Data.gov (United States)

    National Aeronautics and Space Administration — We have investigated the feasibility of employing a hazard detection and mitigation system based upon a polarization discriminating range-gated Lidar system. This...

  13. Nanotube Electrodes for Dust Mitigation Project

    Data.gov (United States)

    National Aeronautics and Space Administration — Dust mitigation is critical to the survivability of vehicle and infrastructure components and systems and to the safety of astronauts during EVAs and planetary...

  14. FEMA Hazard Mitigation Grant Program - Property Acquisitions

    Data.gov (United States)

    Department of Homeland Security — HMGP provides grants to states and local governments to implement long-term hazard mitigation measures after a major disaster declaration. The HMGP is one of three...

  15. Mitigating risk during strategic supply network modeling

    OpenAIRE

    Müssigmann, Nikolaus

    2006-01-01

    Mitigating risk during strategic supply network modeling. - In: Managing risks in supply chains / ed. by Wolfgang Kersten ... - Berlin : Schmidt, 2006. - S. 213-226. - (Operations and technology management ; 1)

  16. Bioenergy as a Mitigation Measure

    Science.gov (United States)

    Dass, P.; Brovkin, V.; Müller, C.; Cramer, W.

    2011-12-01

    Numerous studies have shown that bioenergy, being one of the renewable energies with the lowest costs, is expected to play an important role in the near future as climate change mitigation measure. Current practices of converting crop products such as carbohydrates or plant oils to ethanol or biodiesel have limited capabilities to curb emission. Moreover, they compete with food production for the most fertile lands. Thus, second generation bioenergy technologies are being developed to process lignocellulosic plant materials from fast growing tree and grass species. A number of deforestation experiments using Earth System models have shown that in the mid- to high latitudes, deforested surface albedo strongly increases in presence of snow. This biophysical effect causes cooling, which could dominate over the biogeochemical warming effect because of the carbon emissions due to deforestation. In order to find out the global bioenergy potential of extensive plantations in the mid- to high latitudes, and the resultant savings in carbon emissions, we use the dynamic global vegetation model LPJmL run at a high spatial resolution of 0.5°. It represents both natural and managed ecosystems, including the cultivation of cellulosic energy crops. LPJmL is run with 21st century projections of climate and atmospheric CO2 concentration based on the IPCC-SRES business as usual or A2 scenario. Latitudes above 45° in both hemispheres are deforested and planted with crops having the highest bioenergy return for the respective pixels of the model. The rest of the Earth has natural vegetation. The agricultural management intensity values are used such that it results in the best approximation for 1999 - 2003 national yields of wheat and maize as reported by FAOSTAT 2009. Four different scenarios of land management are used ranging from an idealistic or best case scenario, where all limitations of soil and terrain properties are managed to the worst case scenario where none of these

  17. Resilience Mitigation Financing for Water and Wastewater Utilities Webinar

    Science.gov (United States)

    The Resilience Mitigation Financing for Water and Wastewater Utilities webinar focuses on tools and financing resources to conduct resilience planning and to mitigate impacts before a disaster strikes.

  18. Hydrogen-Bonding Surfaces for Ice Mitigation

    Science.gov (United States)

    Smith, Joseph G., Jr.; Wohl, Christopher J.; Kreeger, Richard E.; Hadley, Kevin R.; McDougall, Nicholas

    2014-01-01

    Ice formation on aircraft, either on the ground or in-flight, is a major safety issue. While ground icing events occur predominantly during the winter months, in-flight icing can happen anytime during the year. The latter is more problematic since it could result in increased drag and loss of lift. Under a Phase I ARMD NARI Seedling Activity, coated aluminum surfaces possessing hydrogen-bonding groups were under investigation for mitigating ice formation. Hydroxyl and methyl terminated dimethylethoxysilanes were prepared via known chemistries and characterized by spectroscopic methods. These materials were subsequently used to coat aluminum surfaces. Surface compositions were based on pure hydroxyl and methyl terminated species as well as mixtures of the two. Coated surfaces were characterized by contact angle goniometry. Receding water contact angle data suggested several potential surfaces that may exhibit reduced ice adhesion. Qualitative icing experiments performed under representative environmental temperatures using supercooled distilled water delivered via spray coating were inconclusive. Molecular modeling studies suggested that chain mobility affected the interface between ice and the surface more than terminal group chemical composition. Chain mobility resulted from the creation of "pockets" of increased free volume for longer chains to occupy.

  19. Blast energy mitigation in porous rocks

    Science.gov (United States)

    Essink, Brittany C.

    Geo-materials are commonly used and sought after for blast mitigation applications due to their wide availability and low cost compared to industry trademarked materials. Characterization of these natural geo-materials such as volcanic rocks is of paramount importance in determining their blast mitigation capabilities. While there is a large amount of information available for materials such as concrete or sand blasts, information on the properties of volcanic rocks is far more scarce. This lack of data is due to the wide range of existing natural volcanic rocks and the variation in the minerals and pore structures of the rocks. In this thesis, silicate volcanic rock samples are characterized both through static and dynamic experimental methods. Initial X-ray powder diffraction scans have been conducted and analyzed to obtain the mineral composition information of the rock samples. Additional tomographic scans under quasi-static loading have been recorded to better understand the internal composition of the material pore structure and the material fracture. For this study, standard compression experiments were conducted at two separate strain rates for ten samples each on a UTM test frame to characterize the behavior of the rock under quasi-static conditions. High strain rate uniaxial compression tests were conducted for three strain rates using a split-Hopkinson pressure bar with pulse shaping to determine the dynamic response of the material. The stress-strain data from the experiments was used to determine the modulus of toughness of the material. Due to the high porosity and heterogeneity of the material, 25 samples were used for dynamic experimentation to attempt to capture and minimize the effects of scatter in the natural material. High speed photography was used to capture the sample deformation during two separate strain rates and to visualize crack propagation and strain rate in the samples. It was found that after an initial yielding, the material is

  20. An Integrated Approach to Mitigation Wetland Site Selection: A Case Study in Gwacheon, Korea

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Junga Lee

    2015-03-01

    Full Text Available This paper presents an integrated approach to mitigation wetland site selection using functional landscape connectivity and landscape structure. This approach enables landscape designers to evaluate the relative priorities of mitigation wetland areas based on functional landscape connectivity and wildlife mobility, as well as landscape structure, composition, and configuration. The least-cost path method is used to evaluate candidate sites for mitigation wetlands with regard to wildlife movement. A set of assessments for landscape indices using FRAGSTATS was applied to identify suitable mitigation wetland areas on the basis of landscape connectivity, composition, and configuration. The study was conducted in Gwacheon, Korea, where there are plans for regional development that will change the landscape. In the first step, a group of 14 candidate sites is identified via analysis of functional landscape connectivity using the least-cost path method. In the second step, candidate mitigation wetland areas are ranked according to landscape connectivity and composition. The five mitigation wetland areas that were found to be suitable were analyzed based on landscape configuration at the class level. This study demonstrates that functional landscape connectivity and landscape structure are important aspects to consider when identifying suitable sites for mitigation wetland planning and restoration.

  1. Modeling of environmental adaptation versus pollution mitigation

    OpenAIRE

    Yatsenko, Yuri; Hritonenko, Natali; Bréchet, Thierry

    2014-01-01

    The paper combines analytic and numeric tools to investigate a nonlinear optimal control problem relevant to the economics of climate change. The problem describes optimal investments into pollution mitigation and environmental adaptation at a macroeconomic level. The steady-state analysis of this problem focuses on the optimal ratio between adaptation and mitigation. In particular, we analytically prove that the long- term investments into adaptation are profitable only for economies above c...

  2. National and Sectoral GHG Mitigation Potential

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    NONE

    2009-07-01

    This paper compares model estimates of national and sectoral GHG mitigation potential across six key OECD GHG-emitting economies: Australia, Canada, the EU, Japan, Mexico and the US. It examines the implications of model structure, baseline and policy assumptions, and assesses GHG mitigation potential estimates across a variety of models, including models that are used to inform climate policy-makers in each of these economies.

  3. Mitigation of EMI in a flyback converter

    OpenAIRE

    2013-01-01

    M.Ing. (Electrical & Electronic Engineering Science) This study investigates the mitigation of conducted electromagnetic interference (EMI) in a flyback DC-DC converter. Without the use of filters, the maximum mitigation of EMI possible without significantly decreasing converter operating efficiency is investigated. The following parameters are found to influence EMI: · Switching speed: Decreasing switching speed (increasing rise and fall times of the MOSFET) effectively reduces both commo...

  4. Photodynamic therapy using a novel photosensitizer, ATX-S10(Na): comparative effect with 5-aminolevulinic acid on squamous cell carcinoma cell line, SCC15, ultraviolet B-induced skin tumor, and phorbol ester-induced hyperproliferative skin.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Takahashi, Hidetoshi; Nakajima, Susumu; Sakata, Isao; Ishida-Yamamoto, Akemi; Iizuka, Hajime

    2005-04-01

    Photodynamic therapy (PDT) using 5-aminolevulinic acid (ALA) is available for the treatment of actinic keratosis (AK). Recently, we developed a new PDT photosensitizer, ATX-S10(Na), and have shown that ATX-S10(Na) PDT is effective for the treatment of various human skin diseases, such as squamous cell carcinoma, Bowen's disease, basal cell carcinoma, and psoriasis. In the present study, we compared the effects of ATX-S10(Na) PDT and ALA PDT on hyperproliferative skin induced by 12-O-tetradecanoylphorbol-13-acetate (TPA), on the squamous cell carcinoma cell line, SCC15, in vitro, and on UVB-induced skin tumors in vivo. TPA treatment induced epidermal acanthosis, which was more markedly suppressed by ATX-S10(Na) PDT than by ALA PDT. ATX-S10(Na) PDT more effectively eliminated UVB-induced AK and squamous cell carcinoma (SCC) than ALA PDT. Furthermore, both ATX-S10(Na) PDT and ALA PDT induced the death of SCC15 cells, and the effect of ATX-S10(Na) PDT was greater than that of ALA PDT. Our results indicate that ATX-S10(Na) PDT might be more effective than ALA PDT for the treatment of various skin diseases.

  5. Problems with mitigation translocation of herpetofauna.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sullivan, Brian K; Nowak, Erika M; Kwiatkowski, Matthew A

    2015-02-01

    Mitigation translocation of nuisance animals is a commonly used management practice aimed at resolution of human-animal conflict by removal and release of an individual animal. Long considered a reasonable undertaking, especially by the general public, it is now known that translocated subjects are negatively affected by the practice. Mitigation translocation is typically undertaken with individual adult organisms and has a much lower success rate than the more widely practiced conservation translocation of threatened and endangered species. Nonetheless, the public and many conservation practitioners believe that because population-level conservation translocations have been successful that mitigation translocation can be satisfactorily applied to a wide variety of human-wildlife conflict situations. We reviewed mitigation translocations of reptiles, including our own work with 3 long-lived species (Gila monsters [Heloderma suspectum], Sonoran desert tortoises [Gopherus morafkai], and western diamond-backed rattlesnakes [Crotalus atrox]). Overall, mitigation translocation had a low success rate when judged either by effects on individuals (in all studies reviewed they exhibited increased movement or increased mortality) or by the success of the resolution of the human-animal conflict (translocated individuals often returned to the capture site). Careful planning and identification of knowledge gaps are critical to increasing success rates in mitigation translocations in the face of increasing pressure to find solutions for species threatened by diverse anthropogenic factors, including climate change and exurban and energy development. © 2014 Society for Conservation Biology.

  6. Methanogens: methane producers of the rumen and mitigation strategies.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hook, Sarah E; Wright, André-Denis G; McBride, Brian W

    2010-12-30

    Methanogens are the only known microorganisms capable of methane production, making them of interest when investigating methane abatement strategies. A number of experiments have been conducted to study the methanogen population in the rumen of cattle and sheep, as well as the relationship that methanogens have with other microorganisms. The rumen methanogen species differ depending on diet and geographical location of the host, as does methanogenesis, which can be reduced by modifying dietary composition, or by supplementation of monensin, lipids, organic acids, or plant compounds within the diet. Other methane abatement strategies that have been investigated are defaunation and vaccines. These mitigation methods target the methanogen population of the rumen directly or indirectly, resulting in varying degrees of efficacy. This paper describes the methanogens identified in the rumens of cattle and sheep, as well as a number of methane mitigation strategies that have been effective in vivo.

  7. Methanogens: Methane Producers of the Rumen and Mitigation Strategies

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Sarah E. Hook

    2010-01-01

    Full Text Available Methanogens are the only known microorganisms capable of methane production, making them of interest when investigating methane abatement strategies. A number of experiments have been conducted to study the methanogen population in the rumen of cattle and sheep, as well as the relationship that methanogens have with other microorganisms. The rumen methanogen species differ depending on diet and geographical location of the host, as does methanogenesis, which can be reduced by modifying dietary composition, or by supplementation of monensin, lipids, organic acids, or plant compounds within the diet. Other methane abatement strategies that have been investigated are defaunation and vaccines. These mitigation methods target the methanogen population of the rumen directly or indirectly, resulting in varying degrees of efficacy. This paper describes the methanogens identified in the rumens of cattle and sheep, as well as a number of methane mitigation strategies that have been effective in vivo.

  8. Regional climate change mitigation with crops: context and assessment.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Singarayer, J S; Davies-Barnard, T

    2012-09-13

    The intention of this review is to place crop albedo biogeoengineering in the wider picture of climate manipulation. Crop biogeoengineering is considered within the context of the long-term modification of the land surface for agriculture over several thousand years. Biogeoengineering is also critiqued in relation to other geoengineering schemes in terms of mitigation power and adherence to social principles for geoengineering. Although its impact is small and regional, crop biogeoengineering could be a useful and inexpensive component of an ensemble of geoengineering schemes to provide temperature mitigation. The method should not detrimentally affect food security and there may even be positive impacts on crop productivity, although more laboratory and field research is required in this area to understand the underlying mechanisms.

  9. Public open space for disaster mitigation in Tangerang housing estates

    Science.gov (United States)

    Winandari, M. I. R.

    2018-01-01

    Public open space in housing estates plays an important role particularly in disaster mitigation. In some housing, there are indications of shape and use of space changes post-handover to local government. The aim of this study is to explore the relationship between public open space condition and management related to disaster mitigation in Tangerang housing estates. Multiple case study method is used to analyse of 2 housing cases. Aspects of access and boundaries were used to evaluate the cases. The results showed that gated community housing type should have more than 1 access to facilitate evacuation by considering the farthest unit to the housing gate. This is necessary to provide open spaces that are easily accessible from all units as the first evacuation site during and post disaster.

  10. Methanogens: Methane Producers of the Rumen and Mitigation Strategies

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hook, Sarah E.; Wright, André-Denis G.; McBride, Brian W.

    2010-01-01

    Methanogens are the only known microorganisms capable of methane production, making them of interest when investigating methane abatement strategies. A number of experiments have been conducted to study the methanogen population in the rumen of cattle and sheep, as well as the relationship that methanogens have with other microorganisms. The rumen methanogen species differ depending on diet and geographical location of the host, as does methanogenesis, which can be reduced by modifying dietary composition, or by supplementation of monensin, lipids, organic acids, or plant compounds within the diet. Other methane abatement strategies that have been investigated are defaunation and vaccines. These mitigation methods target the methanogen population of the rumen directly or indirectly, resulting in varying degrees of efficacy. This paper describes the methanogens identified in the rumens of cattle and sheep, as well as a number of methane mitigation strategies that have been effective in vivo. PMID:21253540

  11. NEOShield - A global approach to NEO Impact Threat Mitigation

    Science.gov (United States)

    Michel, Patrick

    2015-03-01

    asteroid regolith analog materials. The gas-gun investigations enable state-of-the-art numerical models to be verified at small scales. Computer simulations at realistic NEO scales are used to investigate how NEOs with a range of properties would respond to a pulse of energy applied in a deflection attempt. The technical work includes the development of crucial technologies, such as the autonomous guidance of a kinetic impactor to a precise point on the surface of the target, and the detailed design of realistic missions for the purpose of demonstrating the applicability and feasibility of one or more of the techniques investigated. Theoretical work on the blast deflection method of mitigation is designed to probe the circumstances in which this last line of defense may be the only viable option and the issues relating to its deployment. A global response campaign roadmap will be developed based on realistic scenarios presented, for example, by the discovery of an object such as 99942 Apophis or 2011 AG5 on a threatening orbit. The work will include considerations of the timeline of orbit knowledge and impact probability development, reconnaissance observations and fly-by or rendezvous missions, the political decision to mount a mitigation attempt, and the design, development, and launch of the mitigation mission. Collaboration with colleagues outside the NEOShield Consortium involved in complementary activities (e.g. under the auspices of the UN, NASA, or ESA) is being sought in order to establish a broad international strategy. We present a brief overview of the history and planned scope of the project, and progress made to date. The NEOShield project (http://www.neoshield.net) has received funding from the European Union Seventh Framework Program (FP7/2007-2013) under Grant Agreement no. 282703.

  12. Destructive Interactions Between Mitigation Strategies and the Causes of Unexpected Failures in Natural Hazard Mitigation Systems

    Science.gov (United States)

    Day, S. J.; Fearnley, C. J.

    2013-12-01

    Large investments in the mitigation of natural hazards, using a variety of technology-based mitigation strategies, have proven to be surprisingly ineffective in some recent natural disasters. These failures reveal a need for a systematic classification of mitigation strategies; an understanding of the scientific uncertainties that affect the effectiveness of such strategies; and an understanding of how the different types of strategy within an overall mitigation system interact destructively to reduce the effectiveness of the overall mitigation system. We classify mitigation strategies into permanent, responsive and anticipatory. Permanent mitigation strategies such as flood and tsunami defenses or land use restrictions, are both costly and 'brittle': when they malfunction they can increase mortality. Such strategies critically depend on the accuracy of the estimates of expected hazard intensity in the hazard assessments that underpin their design. Responsive mitigation strategies such as tsunami and lahar warning systems rely on capacities to detect and quantify the hazard source events and to transmit warnings fast enough to enable at risk populations to decide and act effectively. Self-warning and voluntary evacuation is also usually a responsive mitigation strategy. Uncertainty in the nature and magnitude of the detected hazard source event is often the key scientific obstacle to responsive mitigation; public understanding of both the hazard and the warnings, to enable decision making, can also be a critical obstacle. Anticipatory mitigation strategies use interpretation of precursors to hazard source events and are used widely in mitigation of volcanic hazards. Their critical limitations are due to uncertainties in time, space and magnitude relationships between precursors and hazard events. Examples of destructive interaction between different mitigation strategies are provided by the Tohoku 2011 earthquake and tsunami; recent earthquakes that have impacted

  13. Multidisciplinary design optimization for sonic boom mitigation

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ozcer, Isik A.

    Automated, parallelized, time-efficient surface definition and grid generation and flow simulation methods are developed for sharp and accurate sonic boom signal computation in three dimensions in the near and mid-field of an aircraft using Euler/Full-Potential unstructured/structured computational fluid dynamics. The full-potential mid-field sonic boom prediction code is an accurate and efficient solver featuring automated grid generation, grid adaptation and shock fitting, and parallel processing. This program quickly marches the solution using a single nonlinear equation for large distances that cannot be covered with Euler solvers due to large memory and long computational time requirements. The solver takes into account variations in temperature and pressure with altitude. The far-field signal prediction is handled using the classical linear Thomas Waveform Parameter Method where the switching altitude from the nonlinear to linear prediction is determined by convergence of the ground signal pressure impulse value. This altitude is determined as r/L ≈ 10 from the source for a simple lifting wing, and r/L ≈ 40 for a real complex aircraft. Unstructured grid adaptation and shock fitting methodology developed for the near-field analysis employs an Hessian based anisotropic grid adaptation based on error equidistribution. A special field scalar is formulated to be used in the computation of the Hessian based error metric which enhances significantly the adaptation scheme for shocks. The entire cross-flow of a complex aircraft is resolved with high fidelity using only 500,000 grid nodes after only about 10 solution/adaptation cycles. Shock fitting is accomplished using Roe's Flux-Difference Splitting scheme which is an approximate Riemann type solver and by proper alignment of the cell faces with respect to shock surfaces. Simple to complex real aircraft geometries are handled with no user-interference required making the simulation methods suitable tools for

  14. Acoustically excited encapsulated microbubbles and mitigation of biofouling

    KAUST Repository

    Qamar, Adnan

    2017-08-31

    Provided herein is a universally applicable biofouling mitigation technology using acoustically excited encapsulated microbubbles that disrupt biofilm or biofilm formation. For example, a method of reducing biofilm formation or removing biofilm in a membrane filtration system is provided in which a feed solution comprising encapsulated microbubbles is provided to the membrane under conditions that allow the encapsulated microbubbles to embed in a biofilm. Sonication of the embedded, encapsulated microbubbles disrupts the biofilm. Thus, provided herein is a membrane filtration system for performing the methods and encapsulated microbubbles specifically selected for binding to extracellular polymeric substances (EFS) in a biofilm.

  15. Revitalization of Coastal Area Pasie Nan Tigo Padang City for Hazard Mitigation

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Haryani Haryani

    2016-06-01

    Full Text Available The coastal neighborhood of Pasie Nan Tigo, city of Padang after the earthquake of 2007 and 2009 is threatened by various disasters. Therefore, the efforts should be made in comprehensive way to reduce the risk of the disasters through community participation. The study conducted by Haryani (2013 on the mitigation efforts in coastal areas shows that the environmental revitalization with active disaster mitigation model needed to be done before the disaster occurred. The method used in the revitalization of disaster mitigation in coastal areas is the Active Hazard Mitigation Model (non-physical with community participation and Passive Mitigation Models (physical with community empowerment. The results of the study are that the communities of the coastal areas, Pasir Nan Tiga have a better knowledge and understanding on the threat of coastal disasters and on the disaster mitigation. In addition, the communities also have a better knowledge on the importance of revitalizing the market place and settlements after the earthquake. The results of the implementation of passive mitigation models to the community empowerment are: (a basic map / forum administration, (b a map of evacuation routes, (c a map of problems mainly related to the disaster, (d a disaster vulnerability map of Pasie Nan Tigo Village, and (e trees-barriers to avoid erosion / abrasion in the coastal neighborhood of Pasie Nan Tigo, city of Padang.

  16. 44 CFR 78.5 - Flood Mitigation Plan development.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-10-01

    ... 44 Emergency Management and Assistance 1 2010-10-01 2010-10-01 false Flood Mitigation Plan development. 78.5 Section 78.5 Emergency Management and Assistance FEDERAL EMERGENCY MANAGEMENT AGENCY... MITIGATION ASSISTANCE § 78.5 Flood Mitigation Plan development. A Flood Mitigation Plan will articulate a...

  17. 44 CFR 78.6 - Flood Mitigation Plan approval process.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-10-01

    ... 44 Emergency Management and Assistance 1 2010-10-01 2010-10-01 false Flood Mitigation Plan..., DEPARTMENT OF HOMELAND SECURITY INSURANCE AND HAZARD MITIGATION National Flood Insurance Program FLOOD MITIGATION ASSISTANCE § 78.6 Flood Mitigation Plan approval process. The State POC will forward all Flood...

  18. Hypoxia, Monitoring, and Mitigation System

    Science.gov (United States)

    2014-05-01

    numerical integration techniques similar to how the SPICE algorithm performs this analysis using the Backward-Euler method: +1 = + ℎ +1 ...with and without AMS suggest that the symptoms are not explained by cerebral edema. This has led to a re-evaluation of the relevant pathogenic events

  19. Aquarius Radiometer RFI Detection, Mitigation, and Impact Assessment

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ruf, Christopher; Chen, David; Le Vine, David; de Matthaeis, Paolo; Piepmeier, Jeffrey

    2012-01-01

    The Aquarius/SAC-D satellite was launched on 10 June 2011 into a sun-synchronous polar orbit and the Aquarius microwave radiometers [1] became operational on 25 August 2011. Since that time, it has been measuring brightness temperatures at 1.4 GHz with vertical, horizontal and 3rd Stokes polarizations . Beginning well before the launch, there has been the concern that Radio Frequency Interference (RFI) could have an appreciable presence. This concern was initiated by, among other things, its prevalence in both early [2] and more recent [3,4] aircraft field experiments using 1.4 GHz radiometers, as well as by the strong RFI environment encountered during the recent ESA SMOS mission, also at 1.4 GHz [5]. As a result, a number of methods for RFI detection and mitigation have been developed and tested. One in particular, "glitch detection" and "pulse blanking" mitigation has been adapted for use by Aquarius [6, 7]. The early on-orbit performance of the Aquarius RFI detection and mitigation algorithm is presented here, together with an assessment of the global RFI environment at 1.4 GHz which can be derived from the Aquarius results.

  20. Mitigating Multipath Bias Using a Dual-Polarization Antenna: Theoretical Performance, Algorithm Design, and Simulation

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Lin Xie

    2017-02-01

    Full Text Available It is well known that multipath effect remains a dominant error source that affects the positioning accuracy of Global Navigation Satellite System (GNSS receivers. Significant efforts have been made by researchers and receiver manufacturers to mitigate multipath error in the past decades. Recently, a multipath mitigation technique using dual-polarization antennas has become a research hotspot for it provides another degree of freedom to distinguish the line-of-sight (LOS signal from the LOS and multipath composite signal without extensively increasing the complexity of the receiver. Numbers of multipath mitigation techniques using dual-polarization antennas have been proposed and all of them report performance improvement over the single-polarization methods. However, due to the unpredictability of multipath, multipath mitigation techniques based on dual-polarization are not always effective while few studies discuss the condition under which the multipath mitigation using a dual-polarization antenna can outperform that using a single-polarization antenna, which is a fundamental question for dual-polarization multipath mitigation (DPMM and the design of multipath mitigation algorithms. In this paper we analyze the characteristics of the signal received by a dual-polarization antenna and use the maximum likelihood estimation (MLE to assess the theoretical performance of DPMM in different received signal cases. Based on the assessment we answer this fundamental question and find the dual-polarization antenna’s capability in mitigating short delay multipath—the most challenging one among all types of multipath for the majority of the multipath mitigation techniques. Considering these effective conditions, we propose a dual-polarization sequential iterative maximum likelihood estimation (DP-SIMLE algorithm for DPMM. The simulation results verify our theory and show superior performance of the proposed DP-SIMLE algorithm over the traditional one

  1. Real-Time RFI Mitigation in Pulsar Observations

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ramey, Emily; Joslyn, Nick; Prestage, Richard; Whitehead, Mark; Lam, Michael Timothy; Blattner, Tim; Hawkins, Luke; Viou, Cedric; Masson, Jessica

    2018-01-01

    As the use of wireless technology has increased around the world, Radio Frequency Interference (RFI) has become more and more of a problem for radio astronomers. Preventative measures exist to limit the presence of RFI, and programs exist to remove it from saved data, but the routine use of algorithms to detect and remove RFI as an observation is occurring is much less common. Such a method would be incredibly useful for observations in which the data must undergo several rounds of processing before being saved, as in pulsar timing studies. Strategies for real-time mitigation have been discussed and tested with simulated data (Buch et al., 2016), but ideally the results of any approach would be validated by a detailed comparison of the final data products - for pulsar timing, the variance in the pulse times of arrival (TOAs) - with and without mitigation applied. The goal of this project is to develop an RFI mitigation approach based on the previously suggested strategies and test this program on actual data from the observation of pulsar J1713+0747. We use a Median Absolute Deviation (MAD) filter to identify interference in the observation and replace the compromised data with random Gaussian noise to match a characteristic radio signal from space. In order to verify our results, we analyze the pulsar’s TOAs obtained both from the mitigated data and from the unmitigated data processed through offline RFI removal software. Comparing the two, our preliminary findings indicate that our program is able to improve the quality of timing results from the observation.

  2. Pre-heating mitigates composite degradation

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Jessika Calixto da SILVA

    2015-12-01

    Full Text Available ABSTRACT Dental composites cured at high temperatures show improved properties and higher degrees of conversion; however, there is no information available about the effect of pre-heating on material degradation. Objectives This study evaluated the effect of pre-heating on the degradation of composites, based on the analysis of radiopacity and silver penetration using scanning electron microscopy/energy-dispersive X-ray spectroscopy (SEM/EDS. Material and Methods Thirty specimens were fabricated using a metallic matrix (2x8 mm and the composites Durafill VS (Heraeus Kulzer, Z-250 (3M/ESPE, and Z-350 (3M/ESPE, cured at 25°C (no pre-heating or 60°C (pre-heating. Specimens were stored sequentially in the following solutions: 1 water for 7 days (60°C, plus 0.1 N sodium hydroxide (NaOH for 14 days (60°C; 2 50% silver nitrate (AgNO3 for 10 days (60°C. Specimens were radiographed at baseline and after each storage time, and the images were evaluated in gray scale. After the storage protocol, samples were analyzed using SEM/EDS to check the depth of silver penetration. Radiopacity and silver penetration data were analyzed using ANOVA and Tukey’s tests (α=5%. Results Radiopacity levels were as follows: Durafill VSZ-350>Z-250 (p<0.05. After storage in water/NaOH, pre-heated specimens presented higher radiopacity values than non-pre-heated specimens (p<0.05. There was a lower penetration of silver in pre-heated specimens (p<0.05. Conclusions Pre-heating at 60°C mitigated the degradation of composites based on analysis of radiopacity and silver penetration depth.

  3. Pre-heating mitigates composite degradation.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Silva, Jessika Calixto da; Rogério Vieira, Reges; Rege, Inara Carneiro Costa; Cruz, Carlos Alberto dos Santos; Vaz, Luís Geraldo; Estrela, Carlos; Castro, Fabrício Luscino Alves de

    2015-01-01

    Dental composites cured at high temperatures show improved properties and higher degrees of conversion; however, there is no information available about the effect of pre-heating on material degradation. Objectives This study evaluated the effect of pre-heating on the degradation of composites, based on the analysis of radiopacity and silver penetration using scanning electron microscopy/energy-dispersive X-ray spectroscopy (SEM/EDS). Material and Methods Thirty specimens were fabricated using a metallic matrix (2x8 mm) and the composites Durafill VS (Heraeus Kulzer), Z-250 (3M/ESPE), and Z-350 (3M/ESPE), cured at 25°C (no pre-heating) or 60°C (pre-heating). Specimens were stored sequentially in the following solutions: 1) water for 7 days (60°C), plus 0.1 N sodium hydroxide (NaOH) for 14 days (60°C); 2) 50% silver nitrate (AgNO3) for 10 days (60°C). Specimens were radiographed at baseline and after each storage time, and the images were evaluated in gray scale. After the storage protocol, samples were analyzed using SEM/EDS to check the depth of silver penetration. Radiopacity and silver penetration data were analyzed using ANOVA and Tukey's tests (α=5%). Results Radiopacity levels were as follows: Durafill VSZ-350>Z-250 (pheated specimens presented higher radiopacity values than non-pre-heated specimens (pheated specimens (pheating at 60°C mitigated the degradation of composites based on analysis of radiopacity and silver penetration depth.

  4. Mitigating reentry radio blackout by using a traveling magnetic field

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zhou, Hui; Li, Xiaoping; Xie, Kai; Liu, Yanming; Yu, Yuanyuan

    2017-10-01

    A hypersonic flight or a reentry vehicle is surrounded by a plasma layer that prevents electromagnetic wave transmission, which results in radio blackout. The magnetic-window method is considered a promising means to mitigate reentry communication blackout. However, the real application of this method is limited because of the need for strong magnetic fields. To reduce the required magnetic field strength, a novel method that applies a traveling magnetic field (TMF) is proposed in this study. A mathematical model based on magneto-hydrodynamic theory is adopted to analyze the effect of TMF on plasma. The mitigating effects of the TMF on the blackout of typical frequency bands, including L-, S-, and C-bands, are demonstrated. Results indicate that a significant reduction of plasma density occurs in the magnetic-window region by applying a TMF, and the reduction ratio is positively correlated with the velocity of the TMF. The required traveling velocities for eliminating the blackout of the Global Positioning System (GPS) and the typical telemetry system are also discussed. Compared with the constant magnetic-window method, the TMF method needs lower magnetic field strength and is easier to realize in the engineering field.

  5. Mitigating reentry radio blackout by using a traveling magnetic field

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Hui Zhou

    2017-10-01

    Full Text Available A hypersonic flight or a reentry vehicle is surrounded by a plasma layer that prevents electromagnetic wave transmission, which results in radio blackout. The magnetic-window method is considered a promising means to mitigate reentry communication blackout. However, the real application of this method is limited because of the need for strong magnetic fields. To reduce the required magnetic field strength, a novel method that applies a traveling magnetic field (TMF is proposed in this study. A mathematical model based on magneto-hydrodynamic theory is adopted to analyze the effect of TMF on plasma. The mitigating effects of the TMF on the blackout of typical frequency bands, including L-, S-, and C-bands, are demonstrated. Results indicate that a significant reduction of plasma density occurs in the magnetic-window region by applying a TMF, and the reduction ratio is positively correlated with the velocity of the TMF. The required traveling velocities for eliminating the blackout of the Global Positioning System (GPS and the typical telemetry system are also discussed. Compared with the constant magnetic-window method, the TMF method needs lower magnetic field strength and is easier to realize in the engineering field.

  6. Mitigating tin whisker risks theory and practice

    CERN Document Server

    Handwerker, Carol A; Bath, Jasbir

    2016-01-01

    Discusses the growth mechanisms of tin whiskers and the effective mitigation strategies necessary to reduce whisker growth risks. This book covers key tin whisker topics, ranging from fundamental science to practical mitigation strategies. The text begins with a review of the characteristic properties of local microstructures around whisker and hillock grains to identify why these particular grains and locations become predisposed to forming whiskers and hillocks. The book discusses the basic properties of tin-based alloy finishes and the effects of various alloying elements on whisker formation, with a focus on potential mechanisms for whisker suppression or enhancement for each element. Tin whisker risk mitigation strategies for each tier of the supply chain for high reliability electronic systems are also described.

  7. Cross-sectoral assessment of mitigation options

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Halsnæs, K.

    1997-01-01

    The paper addresses the relationship between national economic and social development objectives and climate change mitigation, with national studies for Tanzania and Zimbabwe as the starting point. The main activities driving GHG emissions in these countries are evaluated in order to identify key...... options and polity areas where there may be synergistic effects between climate change mitigation and national development objectives, The country study for Tanzania has identified forestry and land use activities and the agricultural sectors as some of the main drivers in the future growth of greenhouse...... emission sources and gases. The paper reports the result of the integrated assessment of CO2 and CH4 reduction options for energy, agriculture, forestry and waste management for Zimbabwe, This leads up to a final discussion on methodological issues involved in cross-sectoral mitigation assessment. (C) 1997...

  8. Soft error mechanisms, modeling and mitigation

    CERN Document Server

    Sayil, Selahattin

    2016-01-01

    This book introduces readers to various radiation soft-error mechanisms such as soft delays, radiation induced clock jitter and pulses, and single event (SE) coupling induced effects. In addition to discussing various radiation hardening techniques for combinational logic, the author also describes new mitigation strategies targeting commercial designs. Coverage includes novel soft error mitigation techniques such as the Dynamic Threshold Technique and Soft Error Filtering based on Transmission gate with varied gate and body bias. The discussion also includes modeling of SE crosstalk noise, delay and speed-up effects. Various mitigation strategies to eliminate SE coupling effects are also introduced. Coverage also includes the reliability of low power energy-efficient designs and the impact of leakage power consumption optimizations on soft error robustness. The author presents an analysis of various power optimization techniques, enabling readers to make design choices that reduce static power consumption an...

  9. Can increased organic consumption mitigate climate changes?

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Heerwagen, Lennart Ravn; Andersen, Laura Mørch; Christensen, Tove

    2014-01-01

    Purpose – The purpose of this paper is to investigate the evidence for a positive correlation between increased consumption of organic products and potential climate change mitigation via decreased consumption of meat and it is discussed to what extent organic consumption is motivated by climate...... correlation between increasing organic budget shares and decreasing meat budget shares is found. People include food-related behaviour such as the purchase of organic food and reduced meat consumption as ways to mitigate climate change. However, other behavioural modifications such as reduction of car usage...... data would supplement the analyses. Practical implications – Demand-side policies aiming at climate-friendly consumption could be a central factor in combating climate change. Already, food-related mitigation strategies such as lowered meat consumption are established practices among a group of organic...

  10. Combustion instability mitigation by magnetic fields

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jocher, Agnes; Pitsch, Heinz; Gomez, Thomas; Bonnety, Jérôme; Legros, Guillaume

    2017-06-01

    The present interdisciplinary study combines electromagnetics and combustion to unveil an original and basic experiment displaying a spontaneous flame instability that is mitigated as the non-premixed sooting flame experiences a magnetic perturbation. This magnetic instability mitigation is reproduced by direct numerical simulations to be further elucidated by a flow stability analysis. A key role in the stabilization process is attributed to the momentum and thermochemistry coupling that the magnetic force, acting mainly on paramagnetic oxygen, contributes to sustain. The spatial local stability analysis based on the numerical simulations shows that the magnetic field tends to reduce the growth rates of small flame perturbations.

  11. Greenhouse gas mitigation in animal production

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    De Boer, IJM; Cederberg, C; Eady, S

    2011-01-01

    . They did not account for the complex interrelated effects on other GHGs or their relation with other aspects of sustainability, such as eutrophication, animal welfare, land use or food security. Current decisions on GHG mitigation in animal production, therefore, are hindered by the complexity......The animal food chain contributes significantly to emission of greenhouse gases (GHGs). We explored studies that addressed options to mitigate GHG emissions in the animal production chain and concluded that most studies focused on production systems in developed countries and on a single GHG...

  12. Manure management for greenhouse gas mitigation

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Petersen, Søren O; Blanchard, M.; Chadwick, D.

    2013-01-01

    environment. Their relative importance depends not only on manure composition and local management practices with respect to treatment, storage and field application, but also on ambient climatic conditions. The diversity of livestock production systems, and their associated manure management, is discussed...... of management changes for GHG mitigation, and requirements for such a model are discussed. Finally, we briefly discuss drivers for, and barriers against, introduction of GHG mitigation measures for livestock production. There is no conflict between efforts to improve food and feed production, and efforts...

  13. Interference Mitigation in Cognitive Femtocells

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Da Costa, Gustavo Wagner Oliveira; Cattoni, Andrea Fabio; Alvarez Roig, Victor

    2010-01-01

    , management and optimization can be prohibitive. Instead, self-optimization of an uncoordinated deployment should be considered. Cognitive Radio enabled femtocells are considered to be a promising solution to enable self-optimizing femtocells to effectively manage the inter-cell interference, especially...... in densely deployed femto scenarios. In this paper, two key elements of cognitive femtocells are combined: a power control algorithm and a fully distributed dynamic spectrum allocation method. The resulting solution was evaluated through system-level simulations and compared to the separate algorithms...

  14. Method

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ling Fiona W.M.

    2017-01-01

    Full Text Available Rapid prototyping of microchannel gain lots of attention from researchers along with the rapid development of microfluidic technology. The conventional methods carried few disadvantages such as high cost, time consuming, required high operating pressure and temperature and involve expertise in operating the equipment. In this work, new method adapting xurography method is introduced to replace the conventional method of fabrication of microchannels. The novelty in this study is replacing the adhesion film with clear plastic film which was used to cut the design of the microchannel as the material is more suitable for fabricating more complex microchannel design. The microchannel was then mold using polymethyldisiloxane (PDMS and bonded with a clean glass to produce a close microchannel. The microchannel produced had a clean edge indicating good master mold was produced using the cutting plotter and the bonding between the PDMS and glass was good where no leakage was observed. The materials used in this method is cheap and the total time consumed is less than 5 hours where this method is suitable for rapid prototyping of microchannel.

  15. Atmospheric Effects on InSAR Measurements and Their Mitigation

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Jiang-ping Long

    2008-09-01

    Full Text Available Interferometric Synthetic Aperture Radar (InSAR is a powerful technology for observing the Earth surface, especially for mapping the Earth's topography and deformations. InSAR measurements are however often significantly affected by the atmosphere as the radar signals propagate through the atmosphere whose state varies both in space and in time. Great efforts have been made in recent years to better understand the properties of the atmospheric effects and to develop methods for mitigating the effects. This paper provides a systematic review of the work carried out in this area. The basic principles of atmospheric effects on repeat-pass InSAR are first introduced. The studies on the properties of the atmospheric effects, including the magnitudes of the effects determined in the various parts of the world, the spectra of the atmospheric effects, the isotropic properties and the statistical distributions of the effects, are then discussed. The various methods developed for mitigating the atmospheric effects are then reviewed, including the methods that are based on PSInSAR processing, the methods that are based on interferogram modeling, and those that are based on external data such as GPS observations, ground meteorological data, and satellite data including those from the MODIS and MERIS. Two examples that use MODIS and MERIS data respectively to calibrate atmospheric effects on InSAR are also given.

  16. Atmospheric Effects on InSAR Measurements and Their Mitigation.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ding, Xiao-Li; Li, Zhi-Wei; Zhu, Jian-Jun; Feng, Guang-Cai; Long, Jiang-Ping

    2008-09-03

    Interferometric Synthetic Aperture Radar (InSAR) is a powerful technology for observing the Earth surface, especially for mapping the Earth's topography and deformations. InSAR measurements are however often significantly affected by the atmosphere as the radar signals propagate through the atmosphere whose state varies both in space and in time. Great efforts have been made in recent years to better understand the properties of the atmospheric effects and to develop methods for mitigating the effects. This paper provides a systematic review of the work carried out in this area. The basic principles of atmospheric effects on repeat-pass InSAR are first introduced. The studies on the properties of the atmospheric effects, including the magnitudes of the effects determined in the various parts of the world, the spectra of the atmospheric effects, the isotropic properties and the statistical distributions of the effects, are then discussed. The various methods developed for mitigating the atmospheric effects are then reviewed, including the methods that are based on PSInSAR processing, the methods that are based on interferogram modeling, and those that are based on external data such as GPS observations, ground meteorological data, and satellite data including those from the MODIS and MERIS. Two examples that use MODIS and MERIS data respectively to calibrate atmospheric effects on InSAR are also given.

  17. method

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    L. M. Kimball

    2002-01-01

    Full Text Available This paper presents an interior point algorithm to solve the multiperiod hydrothermal economic dispatch (HTED. The multiperiod HTED is a large scale nonlinear programming problem. Various optimization methods have been applied to the multiperiod HTED, but most neglect important network characteristics or require decomposition into thermal and hydro subproblems. The algorithm described here exploits the special bordered block diagonal structure and sparsity of the Newton system for the first order necessary conditions to result in a fast efficient algorithm that can account for all network aspects. Applying this new algorithm challenges a conventional method for the use of available hydro resources known as the peak shaving heuristic.

  18. Wake Mitigation Strategies for Optimizing Wind Farm Power Production

    Science.gov (United States)

    Dilip, Deepu; Porté-Agel, Fernando

    2016-04-01

    Although wind turbines are designed individually for optimum power production, they are often arranged into groups of closely spaced turbines in a wind farm rather than in isolation. Consequently, most turbines in a wind farm do not operate in unobstructed wind flows, but are affected by the wakes of turbines in front of them. Such wake interference significantly reduces the overall power generation from wind farms and hence, development of effective wake mitigation strategies is critical for improving wind farm efficiency. One approach towards this end is based on the notion that the operation of each turbine in a wind farm at its optimum efficiency might not lead to optimum power generation from the wind farm as a whole. This entails a down regulation of individual turbines from its optimum operating point, which can be achieved through different methods such as pitching the turbine blades, changing the turbine tip speed ratio or yawing of the turbine, to name a few. In this study, large-eddy simulations of a two-turbine arrangement with the second turbine fully in the wake of the first are performed. Different wake mitigation techniques are applied to the upstream turbine, and the effects of these on its wake characteristics are investigated. Results for the combined power from the two turbines for each of these methods are compared to a baseline scenario where no wake mitigation strategies are employed. Analysis of the results shows the potential for improved power production from such wake control methods. It should be noted, however, that the magnitude of the improvement is strongly affected by the level of turbulence in the incoming atmospheric flow.

  19. GPS/Galileo Multipath Detection and Mitigation Using Closed-Form Solutions

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Khaled Rouabah

    2009-01-01

    Full Text Available We propose an efficient method for the detection of Line of Sight (LOS and Multipath (MP signals in global navigation satellite systems (GNSSs which is based on the use of virtual MP mitigation (VMM technique. By using the proposed method, the MP signals' delay and coefficient amplitudes can be efficiently estimated. According to the computer simulation results, it is obvious that our proposed method is a solution for obtaining high performance in the estimation and mitigation of MP signals and thus it results in a high accuracy in GNSS positioning.

  20. Mitigating effect on turbulent scintillation using non-coherent multi-beam overlapped illumination

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zhou, Lu; Tian, Yuzhen; Wang, Rui; Wang, Tingfeng; Sun, Tao; Wang, Canjin; Yang, Xiaotian

    2017-12-01

    In order to find an effective method to mitigate the turbulent scintillation for applications involved laser propagation through atmosphere, we demonstrated one model using non-coherent multi-beam overlapped illumination. Based on lognormal distribution and the statistical moments of overlapped field, the reduction effect on turbulent scintillation of this method was discussed and tested against numerical wave optics simulation and laboratory experiments with phase plates. Our analysis showed that the best mitigating effect, the scintillation index of overlapped field reduced to 1/N of that when using single beam illuminating, could be obtained using this method when the intensity of N emitting beams equaled to each other.

  1. Radiation Mitigation Methods for Advanced Readout Array Project

    Data.gov (United States)

    National Aeronautics and Space Administration — NASA is interested in the development of advanced instruments and instrument components for planetary science missions. Specifically, an area of importance in...

  2. Molecular contamination phenomena in EUVL and mitigation methods with hydrogen

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Ugur, D.

    2012-01-01

    In accordance with Gordon Moore’s law, the number of transistors that can be placed on an integrated chip of a certain size is increasing exponentially. This can only be realized with an increase in the spatial resolution of the lithography systems, allowing smaller feature sizes to be printed.

  3. Interference mitigation techniques in wireless communications ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Co-Channel Interference, Intersymbol interference and fading are major impairment to the high-capacity transmission in power- and band-limited wireless communication channel. This paper presents an overview of interference mitigation techniques in wireless communications systems. Linear filtering, equalization, and ...

  4. 50 CFR 216.204 - Mitigation.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-10-01

    ..., DEPARTMENT OF COMMERCE MARINE MAMMALS REGULATIONS GOVERNING THE TAKING AND IMPORTING OF MARINE MAMMALS Taking of Marine Mammals Incidental to Construction and Operation of Offshore Oil and Gas Facilities in the U.S. Beaufort Sea § 216.204 Mitigation. The activity identified in § 216.200(a) must be conducted in...

  5. Loss functions for structural flood mitigation measures

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    drinie

    2001-01-01

    Jan 1, 2001 ... The paper aims at discussing the methodology used to develop loss functions for flood mitigation measures, using historic data of flood damage to infrastructure. The main determinants of the extent of damage are the size of the flood and the length of the infrastructure within the boundaries of the flood-line.

  6. Albeni Falls Wildlife Mitigation : Annual Report 2002.

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Terra-Berns, Mary

    2003-01-01

    The Albeni Falls Interagency Work Group continued to actively engage in implementing wildlife mitigation actions in 2002. Regular Work Group meetings were held to discuss budget concerns affecting the Albeni Falls Wildlife Mitigation Program, to present potential acquisition projects, and to discuss and evaluate other issues affecting the Work Group and Project. Work Group members protected 1,386.29 acres of wildlife habitat in 2002. To date, the Albeni Falls project has protected approximately 5,914.31 acres of wildlife habitat. About 21% of the total wildlife habitat lost has been mitigated. Administrative activities have increased as more properties are purchased and continue to center on restoration, operation and maintenance, and monitoring. In 2001, Work Group members focused on development of a monitoring and evaluation program as well as completion of site-specific management plans. This year the Work Group began implementation of the monitoring and evaluation program performing population and plant surveys, data evaluation and storage, and map development as well as developing management plans. Assuming that the current BPA budget restrictions will be lifted in the near future, the Work Group expects to increase mitigation properties this coming year with several potential projects.

  7. 50 CFR 216.274 - Mitigation.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-10-01

    ... 50 Wildlife and Fisheries 7 2010-10-01 2010-10-01 false Mitigation. 216.274 Section 216.274 Wildlife and Fisheries NATIONAL MARINE FISHERIES SERVICE, NATIONAL OCEANIC AND ATMOSPHERIC ADMINISTRATION... reconstruction purposes. Logs and records will be kept for a period of 30 days following completion of a major...

  8. 50 CFR 218.4 - Mitigation.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-10-01

    ... 50 Wildlife and Fisheries 7 2010-10-01 2010-10-01 false Mitigation. 218.4 Section 218.4 Wildlife and Fisheries NATIONAL MARINE FISHERIES SERVICE, NATIONAL OCEANIC AND ATMOSPHERIC ADMINISTRATION... records documenting training operations should they be required for event reconstruction purposes. Logs...

  9. 50 CFR 218.183 - Mitigation.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-10-01

    ... 50 Wildlife and Fisheries 7 2010-10-01 2010-10-01 false Mitigation. 218.183 Section 218.183 Wildlife and Fisheries NATIONAL MARINE FISHERIES SERVICE, NATIONAL OCEANIC AND ATMOSPHERIC ADMINISTRATION... should they be required for event reconstruction purposes. Logs and records will be kept for a period of...

  10. 50 CFR 218.13 - Mitigation.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-10-01

    ... 50 Wildlife and Fisheries 7 2010-10-01 2010-10-01 false Mitigation. 218.13 Section 218.13 Wildlife and Fisheries NATIONAL MARINE FISHERIES SERVICE, NATIONAL OCEANIC AND ATMOSPHERIC ADMINISTRATION... records documenting training operations should they be required for event reconstruction purposes. Logs...

  11. Designing Cyberbullying Prevention and Mitigation Tools

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ashktorab, Zahra

    2017-01-01

    While cyberbullying is prevalent among adolescents, attempts by researchers to evaluate mechanisms for its prevention and mitigation have been largely non-existent. In this dissertation, I argue that the complex nature of cyberbullying, made more challenging by the affordances of diverse social media, cannot be solved through strictly algorithmic…

  12. Alternative entrepreneurial options: a policy mitigation strategy ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    This study focused on alternative entrepreneurial options as a mitigation strategy against climate change among part-time farmers in Abia state Nigeria. Some farmers abandoned farming in the face of reoccurring adverse weather conditions to other livelihood sustaining activities. The objectives were to examine the ...

  13. Single-step digital backpropagation for nonlinearity mitigation

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Secondini, Marco; Rommel, Simon; Meloni, Gianluca

    2015-01-01

    Nonlinearity mitigation based on the enhanced split-step Fourier method (ESSFM) for the implementation of low-complexity digital backpropagation (DBP) is investigated and experimentally demonstrated. After reviewing the main computational aspects of DBP and of the conventional split-step Fourier...... is experimentally demonstrated by using a single-step DBP based on the ESSFM. The proposed DBP implementation requires only a single step of the ESSFM algorithm to achieve a transmission distance of 3200 km over a dispersion-unmanaged link. In comparison, a conventional DBP implementation requires 20 steps...

  14. Revaluing unmanaged forests for climate change mitigation.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Krug, Joachim; Koehl, Michael; Kownatzki, Dierk

    2012-11-14

    Unmanaged or old-growth forests are of paramount importance for carbon sequestration and thus for the mitigation of climate change among further implications, e.g. biodiversity aspects. Still, the importance of those forests for climate change mitigation compared to managed forests is under controversial debate. We evaluate the adequacy of referring to CO2 flux measurements alone and include external impacts on growth (nitrogen immissions, increasing temperatures, CO2 enrichment, changed precipitation patterns) for an evaluation of central European forests in this context. We deduce that the use of CO2 flux measurements alone does not allow conclusions on a superiority of unmanaged to managed forests for mitigation goals. This is based on the critical consideration of uncertainties and the application of system boundaries. Furthermore, the consideration of wood products for material and energetic substitution obviously overrules the mitigation potential of unmanaged forests. Moreover, impacts of nitrogen immissions, CO2 enrichment of the atmosphere, increasing temperatures and changed precipitation patterns obviously lead to a meaningful increase in growth, even in forests of higher age. An impact of unmanaged forests on climate change mitigation cannot be valued by CO2 flux measurements alone. Further research is needed on cause and effect relationships between management practices and carbon stocks in different compartments of forest ecosystems in order to account for human-induced changes. Unexpected growth rates in old-growth forests - managed or not - can obviously be related to external impacts and additionally to management impacts. This should lead to the reconsideration of forest management strategies.

  15. Revaluing unmanaged forests for climate change mitigation

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Krug Joachim

    2012-11-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background Unmanaged or old-growth forests are of paramount importance for carbon sequestration and thus for the mitigation of climate change among further implications, e.g. biodiversity aspects. Still, the importance of those forests for climate change mitigation compared to managed forests is under controversial debate. We evaluate the adequacy of referring to CO2 flux measurements alone and include external impacts on growth (nitrogen immissions, increasing temperatures, CO2 enrichment, changed precipitation patterns for an evaluation of central European forests in this context. Results We deduce that the use of CO2 flux measurements alone does not allow conclusions on a superiority of unmanaged to managed forests for mitigation goals. This is based on the critical consideration of uncertainties and the application of system boundaries. Furthermore, the consideration of wood products for material and energetic substitution obviously overrules the mitigation potential of unmanaged forests. Moreover, impacts of nitrogen immissions, CO2 enrichment of the atmosphere, increasing temperatures and changed precipitation patterns obviously lead to a meaningful increase in growth, even in forests of higher age. Conclusions An impact of unmanaged forests on climate change mitigation cannot be valued by CO2 flux measurements alone. Further research is needed on cause and effect relationships between management practices and carbon stocks in different compartments of forest ecosystems in order to account for human-induced changes. Unexpected growth rates in old-growth forests – managed or not – can obviously be related to external impacts and additionally to management impacts. This should lead to the reconsideration of forest management strategies.

  16. Searching for optimal mitigation geometries for laser resistant multilayer high reflector coatings

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Qiu, S R; Wolfe, J E; Monterrosa, A M; Feit, M D; Pistor, T V; STolz, C J

    2011-02-11

    Growing laser damage sites on multilayer high reflector coatings can limit mirror performance. One of the strategies to improve laser damage resistance is to replace the growing damage sites with pre-designed benign mitigation structures. By mitigating the weakest site on the optic, the large aperture mirror will have a laser resistance comparable to the intrinsic value of the multilayer coating. To determine the optimal mitigation geometry, the finite difference time domain method (FDTD) was used to quantify the electric-field intensification within the multilayer, at the presence of different conical pits. We find that the field intensification induced by the mitigation pit is strongly dependent on the polarization and the angle of incidence (AOI) of the incoming wave. Therefore the optimal mitigation conical pit geometry is application specific. Furthermore, our simulation also illustrates an alternative means to achieve an optimal mitigation structure by matching the cone angle of the structure with the AOI of the incoming wave, except for the p-polarization wave at a range of incident angles between 30{sup o} and 45{sup o}.

  17. State of the art of mitigation and relation mitigation/adaptation

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Lenstra, W.J.; Van Doorn, J.; Verheggen, B.; Sahan, E.; Boersma, A.R. [ECN Biomass, Coal and Environment Research, Petten (Netherlands)

    2009-04-15

    This study has the main purpose to make useful information available for the programming of the Knowledge for Climate (KfC) program. The emphasis has been laid on a broad overview of mitigation options and relations, complemented with more detailed information on new or less known options and insights. The mitigation option biomass gets special attention in this study. The production of biomass has many (positive and negative) relations with other elements of the KfC program like space use and adaptation. Recently a global discussion on biomass usage for biofuels has started (food or fuel). Therefore a separate chapter will be dedicated to the sustainability aspects of biomass. An overview of technical mitigation measures with emphasis on the energy supply side is presented. This overview shows the large number of available and innovative options and the vast potential for reduction of the emissions of Greenhouse Gases (GHG) of these mitigation measures. The effectiveness of many mitigation options is strongly dependent on local conditions and implementation issues. A number of innovative mitigation measures such as aquatic biomass and biomass in combination with Carbon Capture and Storage (CCS) are described in more detail. Biomass for energy has many different forms and applications. It is one of the mitigation options with a high potential, but at the same time it can have negative environmental impacts and might compete with other forms of land use including food production. This makes bio-energy a promising but complex option, which makes careful evaluation necessary. Several examples of multifunctional land use show that by combining functions, synergy can be achieved. This could lead to a reduction of potentially negative impacts and thus easier implementation. Furthermore, novel technologies for reducing or offsetting climate change such as air capture and artificial cooling might have a high potential as mitigation option, but need to be examined before

  18. Mitigation of ground motion effects via feedback systems in the Compact Linear Collider

    CERN Document Server

    Pfingstner, Jürgen; Schmickler, Hermann; Schulte, Daniel

    The Compact Linear Collider (CLIC) is a future multi-TeV electron positron collider, which is currently being designed at CERN. To achieve its ambitious goals, CLIC has to produce particle beams of the highest quality, which makes the accelerator very sensitive to ground motion. Four mitigation methods have been foreseen by the CLIC design group to cope with the feasibility issue of ground motion. This thesis is concerned with the design of one of these mitigation methods, named linac feedback (L-FB), but also with the simultaneous simulation and validation of all mitigation methods. Additionally, a technique to improve the quality of the indispensable system knowledge has been developed. The L-FB suppresses beam oscillations along the accelerator. Its design is based on the decoupling of the overall accelerator system into independent channels. For each channel an individual compensator is found with the help of a semi- automatic control synthesis procedure. This technique allows the designer to incorporate ...

  19. Coupling the biophysical and social dimensions of wildfire risk to improve wildfire mitigation planning

    Science.gov (United States)

    Alan A. Ager; Jeffrey D. Kline; A. Paige Fisher

    2015-01-01

    We describe recent advances in biophysical and social aspects of risk and their potential combined contribution to improve mitigation planning on fire-prone landscapes. The methods and tools provide an improved method for defining the spatial extent of wildfire risk to communities compared to current planning processes. They also propose an expanded role for social...

  20. L-325 Sagebrush Habitat Mitigation Project: Final Compensation Area Monitoring Report

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Durham, Robin E.; Becker, James M.

    2013-09-26

    This document provides a review and status of activities conducted in support of the Fluor Daniel Hanford Company (Fluor), now Mission Support Alliance (MSA), Mitigation Action Plan (MAP) for Project L-325, Electrical Utility Upgrades (2007). Three plantings have been installed on a 4.5-hectare mitigation area to date. This review provides a description and chronology of events, monitoring results, and mitigative actions through fiscal year (FY) 2012. Also provided is a review of the monitoring methods, transect layout, and FY 2012 monitoring activities and results for all planting years. Planting densities and performance criteria stipulated in the MAP were aimed at a desired future condition (DFC) of 10 percent mature sagebrush (Artemisia tridentata ssp wyomingensis) cover. Current recommendations for yielding this DFC are based upon a conceptual model planting of 1000 plants/ha (400/ac) exhibiting a 60-percent survival rate after 5 monitoring years (DOE 2003). Accordingly, a DFC after 5 monitoring years would not be less than 600 plants/ha (240/ac). To date, about 8700 sagebrush plants have been grown and transplanted onto the mitigation site. Harsh site conditions and low seedling survival have resulted in an estimated 489 transplants/ha on the mitigation site, which is 111 plants/ha short of the target DFC. Despite this apparent shortcoming, 71, 91, and 24 percent of the surviving seedlings planted in FY 2007 and FY 2008 and FY 2010, respectively, showed signs of blooming in FY 2012. Blooming status may be a positive indication of future sagebrush recruitment, and is therefore a potential source for reaching the target DFC of 600 plants/ha on this mitigation site over time. Because of the difficulty establishing small transplants on this site, we propose that no additional plantings be considered for this mitigation area and to rely upon the potential recruitment by established seedlings to achieve the mitigation commitment set forth in the MAP of 600 plants/ha.

  1. Environmental mitigation at hydroelectric projects. Volume 2, Benefits and costs of fish passage and protection

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Francfort, J.E.; Rinehart, B.N.; Sommers, G.L. [EG and G Idaho, Inc., Idaho Falls, ID (United States); Cada, G.F.; Jones, D.W. [Oak Ridge National Lab., TN (United States); Dauble, D.D. [Pacific Northwest Lab., Richland, WA (United States); Hunt, R.T. [Hunt (Richard) Associates, Inc., Concord, NH (United States); Costello, R.J. [Northwest Water Resources Advisory Services (United States)

    1994-01-01

    This study examines envirorunental mitigation practices that provide upstream and downstream fish passage and protection at hydroelectric projects. The study includes a survey of fish passage and protection mitigation practices at 1,825 hydroelectric plants regulated by the Federal Energy Regulatory Commission (FERC) to determine frequencies of occurrence, temporal trends, and regional practices based on FERC regions. The study also describes, in general terms, the fish passage/protection mitigation costs at 50 non-Federal hydroelectric projects. Sixteen case studies are used to examine in detail the benefits and costs of fish passage and protection. The 16 case studies include 15 FERC licensed or exempted hydroelectric projects and one Federally-owned and-operated hydroelectric project. The 16 hydroelectric projects are located in 12 states and range in capacity from 400 kilowatts to 840 megawatts. The fish passage and protection mitigation methods at the case studies include fish ladders and lifts, an Eicher screen, spill flows, airburst-cleaned inclined and cylindrical wedgewire screens, vertical barrier screens, and submerged traveling screens. The costs, benefits, monitoring methods, and operating characteristics of these and other mitigation methods used at the 16 case studies are examined.

  2. 32 CFR 651.15 - Mitigation and monitoring.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-07-01

    ..., regulations, or other media area requirements. (c) Based upon the analysis and selection of mitigation... familiarity with the project or the local ecology necessary to implement the mitigation measure more...

  3. A comparative study of MP2, B3LYP, RHF and SCC-DFTB force fields in predicting the vibrational spectra of N-acetyl-L-alanine-N'-methyl amide: VA and VCD spectra

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Bohr, Henrik; Jalkanen, Karl J.; Elstner, M.

    1999-01-01

    Recently we have looked for spectroscopic probes for secondary structural elements in the vibrational spectra of N-acetyl-L-alanine N'-methyl amide (NALANMA), L-alanine (LA), N-acetyl-L-alanyl-L-alanine N'-methyl amide (NALALANMA) and L-alanyl-L-alanine (LALA). Our goal has been to identify...... spectroscopic probes which can be used to identify specific secondary structural elements in peptides, polypeptides and proteins. In this work we present our comparative analysis of the MP2, B3LYP, RHF and SCC-DFTB quantum force fields to predict the vibrational absorption (VA) and vibrational circular...... dichroism (VCD) spectra of NALANMA. We have utilised MP2/6-31G*, B3LYP/6-31G*, RHF/6-31G* and SCC-DFTB level theory to determine the geometries and Hessians, atomic polar tensors (APT) and atomic axial tensors (AAT) which are required for simulating the VA and VCD spectra. We have also calculated the AAT...

  4. Mitigation of magnetohydrodynamic electromagnetic pulse (MHD-EMP) effects from commerical electric power systems

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Barnes, P.R. (Oak Ridge National Lab., TN (United States)); Tesche, F.M. (Tesche (F.M.), Dallas, TX (United States)); Vance, E.F. (Vance (E.F.), Fort Worth, TX (United States))

    1992-03-01

    A large nuclear detonation at altitudes of several hundred kilometers above the earth distorts the earth's magnetic field and produces a strong magnetohydrodynamic electromagnetic pulse (MHD-EMP). This can adversely affect electrical power systems. In this report, the effects of this nuclear environment on critical facilities connected to the commercial power system are considered. Methods of mitigating the MHD-EMP impacts are investigated, and recommended protection schemes are presented. Guidelines for testing facilities to determine the effects of MHD-EMP and to validate the mitigation methods also are discussed.

  5. ENHANCED PRACTICAL PHOTOSYNTHETIC CO2 MITIGATION

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Dr. Gregory Kremer; Dr. David J. Bayless; Dr. Morgan Vis; Dr. Michael Prudich; Dr. Keith Cooksey; Dr. Jeff Muhs

    2002-07-15

    This quarterly report documents significant achievements in the Enhanced Practical Photosynthetic CO{sub 2} Mitigation project during the period from 4/2/2001 through 7/01/2002. Most of the achievements are milestones in our efforts to complete the tasks and subtasks that constitute the project objectives, and we are currently on schedule to complete Phase I activities by 10/2002, the milestone date from the original project timeline. As indicated in the list of accomplishments below, our efforts are focused on improving the design of the bioreactor test system, evaluating candidate organisms and growth surfaces, and scaling-up the test facilities from bench scale to pilot scale. Specific results and accomplishments for the second quarter of 2002 include: Organisms and Growth Surfaces: (1) Our collection of cyanobacteria, isolated in YNP was increased to 15 unialgal cultures. (2) Illumination rate about 50 {micro}E/m{sup 2}/sec is not saturated for the growth of 1.2 s.c. (2) isolate. The decrease of illumination rate led to the decrease of doubling time of this isolate. (3) The positive effect of Ca{sup 2+} on the growth of isolate 1.2 s.c. (2) without Omnisil was revealed, though Ca{sup 2+} addition was indifferent for the growth of this isolate at the presence of Omnisil. (4) Calcium addition had a positive effect on the generation of cyanobacterial biofilm on Omnisil surface. (5) The survivability problems with the Tr9.4 organism on Omnisil screens in the CRF2 model-scale bioreactor have been solved. The problems were related to the method used to populate the growth surfaces. When pre-populated screens were placed in the bioreactor the microalgae died within 72 hours, but when the microalgae were cultured while in place in the bioreactor using a continuous-population method they grew well inside of the CRF2 test system and survived for the full 7-day test duration. CRF2 tests will continue as soon as the new combined drip system/harvesting system header pipe

  6. Advanced Multipath Mitigation Techniques for Satellite-Based Positioning Applications

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Mohammad Zahidul H. Bhuiyan

    2010-01-01

    Full Text Available Multipath remains a dominant source of ranging errors in Global Navigation Satellite Systems (GNSS, such as the Global Positioning System (GPS or the future European satellite navigation system Galileo. Multipath is generally considered undesirable in the context of GNSS, since the reception of multipath can make significant distortion to the shape of the correlation function used for time delay estimation. However, some wireless communications techniques exploit multipath in order to provide signal diversity though in GNSS, the major challenge is to effectively mitigate the multipath, since we are interested only in the satellite-receiver transit time offset of the Line-Of-Sight (LOS signal for the receiver's position estimate. Therefore, the multipath problem has been approached from several directions in order to mitigate the impact of multipath on navigation receivers, including the development of novel signal processing techniques. In this paper, we propose a maximum likelihood-based technique, namely, the Reduced Search Space Maximum Likelihood (RSSML delay estimator, which is capable of mitigating the multipath effects reasonably well at the expense of increased complexity. The proposed RSSML attempts to compensate the multipath error contribution by performing a nonlinear curve fit on the input correlation function, which finds a perfect match from a set of ideal reference correlation functions with certain amplitude(s, phase(s, and delay(s of the multipath signal. It also incorporates a threshold-based peak detection method, which eventually reduces the code-delay search space significantly. However, the downfall of RSSML is the memory requirement which it uses to store the reference correlation functions. The multipath performance of other delay-tracking methods previously studied for Binary Phase Shift Keying-(BPSK- and Sine Binary Offset Carrier- (SinBOC- modulated signals is also analyzed in closed loop model with the new Composite

  7. Bioenergy and climate change mitigation: an assessment

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Creutzig, Felix; Ravindranath, N. H.; Berndes, Göran

    2015-01-01

    -scale deployment (>200 EJ), together with BECCS, could help to keep global warming below 2° degrees of preindustrial levels; but such high deployment of land-intensive bioenergy feedstocks could also lead to detrimental climate effects, negatively impact ecosystems, biodiversity and livelihoods. The integration......Bioenergy deployment offers significant potential for climate change mitigation, but also carries considerable risks. In this review, we bring together perspectives of various communities involved in the research and regulation of bioenergy deployment in the context of climate change mitigation......: Land-use and energy experts, land-use and integrated assessment modelers, human geographers, ecosystem researchers, climate scientists and two different strands of life-cycle assessment experts. We summarize technological options, outline the state-of-the-art knowledge on various climate effects...

  8. Mitigation measures and programs in Hungary

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Molnar, S. [Systemexpert Consulting Ltd., Budapest (Hungary)

    1996-12-31

    In Hungary there are four main governmental programs, which may result in a decrease of emissions of anthropogenic greenhouse gases (GHGs): (1) National program of energy efficiency improvement and energy conservation, (2) Afforestation program, (3) Volatile organic compounds (VOC) emission reduction program, and (4) Program to reduce the use of ozone depleting substances. These ambitious programs were launched in the beginning of the 90`s, but they have been slowed down because of budgetary problems. The comprehensive action plan for mitigation of GHG emissions should be based on these ongoing programs. These programs should be expanded by further measures and programs in order to fulfill the requirements of the FCCC. In the next sections the results and prospects of the above mentioned programs will be summarized. Also the results of the mitigation study supported by the U.S. Country Studies Program are included.

  9. Greenhouse gas mitigation with scarce land

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Meyer-Aurich, A; Olesen, Jørgen E; Prochnow, A

    2013-01-01

    Agricultural lands have been identified to mitigate greenhouse gas (GHG) emissions primarily by production of energy crops and substituting fossil energy resources and through carbon sequestration in soils. Increased fertilizer input resulting in increased yields may reduce the area needed for crop...... production. The surplus area could be used for energy production without affecting the land use necessary for food and feed production. We built a model to investigate the effect of changing nitrogen (N) fertilizer rates on cropping area required for a given amount of crops. We found that an increase...... a reduction of N input is still more effective than the production of bioenergy unless mitigation effect of the bioenergy production exceeds 7 t carbon dioxide (CO2)-eq../ha. An intensification of land use in terms of N supply to provide more land for bioenergy production can only in exceptional cases...

  10. Technologies for Climate Change Mitigation - Agriculture Sector

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Uprety, D.C.; Dhar, Subash; Hongmin, Dong

    in the areas of crops, livestock, emissions, and economics, and we are grateful for their efforts in producing this cross disciplinary work. This publication is part of a technical guidebook series produced by the UNEP Risø Centre on Energy, Climate and Sustainable Development (URC) as part of the Technology......This guidebook describes crop and livestock management technologies and practices that contribute to climate change mitigation while improving crop productivity, reducing reliance on synthetic fertilizers, and lowering water consumption. It is co-authored by internationally recognised experts...... Needs Assessment (TNA) project (http://tech-action.org) that is assisting developing countries in identifying and analysing the priority technology needs for mitigating and adapting to climate change. The TNA process involves different stakeholders in a consultative process, enabling all stakeholders...

  11. Arc flash hazard analysis and mitigation

    CERN Document Server

    Das, J C

    2012-01-01

    "All the aspects of arc flash hazard calculations and their mitigation have been covered. Knowledge of electrical power systems up to undergraduate level is assumed. The calculations of short-circuits, protective relaying and varied electrical system configurations in industrial power systems are addressed. Protection systems address differential relays, arc flash sensing relays, protective relaying coordination, current transformer operation and saturation and applications to major electrical equipments from the arc flash considerations. Current technologies and strategies for arc flash mitigation have been covered. A new algorithm for the calculation of arc flash hazard accounting for the decaying nature of the short-circuit currents is included. There are many practical examples and study cases. Review questions and references follow each chapter"--

  12. On civil engineering disasters and their mitigation

    Science.gov (United States)

    Xie, Lili; Qu, Zhe

    2018-01-01

    Civil engineering works such as buildings and infrastructure are the carriers of human civilization. They are, however, also the origins of various types of disasters, which are referred to in this paper as civil engineering disasters. This paper presents the concept of civil engineering disasters, their characteristics, classification, causes, and mitigation technologies. Civil engineering disasters are caused primarily by civil engineering defects, which are usually attributed to improper selection of construction site, hazard assessment, design and construction, occupancy, and maintenance. From this viewpoint, many so-called natural disasters such as earthquakes, strong winds, floods, landslides, and debris flows are substantially due to civil engineering defects rather than the actual natural hazards. Civil engineering disasters occur frequently and globally and are the most closely related to human beings among all disasters. This paper emphasizes that such disasters can be mitigated mainly through civil engineering measures, and outlines the related objectives and scientific and technological challenges.

  13. Transport policies related to climate change mitigation

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Mathiesen, Brian Vad; Kappel, Jannik

    and their results are introduced as well. To provide an overview of current trends, related scientific projects and other analyses on climate change mitigation and transport are given in the report. The references used in this report can also serve as a source of data and inspiration for the reader. This report......This report presents the Danish national policies on reducing the emissions of greenhouse gasses and reducing Denmark’s dependency on fossil fuels in the transport sector, as well as some of the results of the policies. Systematic focus on efficient transport and climate mitigation started in 2008...... and 2009 with a change – not only in the wording and in the political visions – but also in the actual prioritisation of investments and policies to a very large extent. In March 2012 another milestone was set by the Government, to have Denmark based on 100% renewable energy in 2050. This entails large...

  14. 2008 River Corridor Closure Contractor Revegetation and Mitigation Monitoring Report

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    C. T. Lindsey; K. A. Gano

    2008-09-30

    The purpose of this report is to document the status of revegetation projects and natural resources mitigation efforts that have been conducted for remediated waste sites and other activities associated with the Comprehensive Environmental Response, Compensation, and Liability Act cleanup of National Priorities List waste sites at Hanford. This report documents the results of revegetation and mitigation monitoring conducted in 2008 and includes 22 revegetation/restoration projects, one revegetation/mitigation project, and two bat habitat mitigation projects.

  15. 2007 River Corridor Closure Contractor Revegetation and Mitigation Monitoring Report

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    K. A. Gano; C. T. Lindsey

    2007-09-27

    The purpose of this report is to document the status of revegetation projects and natural resources mitigation efforts that have been conducted for remediated waste sites and other activities associated with the Comprehensive Environmental Response, Compensation, and Liability Act (CERCLA) cleanup of National Priorities List waste sites at Hanford. This report documents the results of revegetation and mitigation monitoring conducted in 2007 and includes 11 revegetation/restoration projects, one revegetation/mitigation project, and 3 bat habitat mitigation projects.

  16. Method

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Andrey Gnatov

    2015-01-01

    Full Text Available Recently repair and recovery vehicle body operations become more and more popular. A special place here is taken by equipment that provides performance of given repair operations. The most interesting things are methods for recovery of car body panels that allow the straightening without disassembling of car body panels and damaging of existing protective coating. Now, there are several technologies for repair and recovery of car body panels without their disassembly and dismantling. The most perspective is magnetic-pulse technology of external noncontact straightening. Basics of magnetic-pulse attraction, both ferromagnetic and nonferromagnetic thin-walled sheet metal, are explored. Inductor system calculation models of magnetic-pulse straightening tools are presented. Final analytical expressions for excited efforts calculation in the tools under consideration are introduced. According to the obtained analytical expressions, numerical evaluations of excited forces were executed. The volumetric epures of the attractive force radial distributions for different types of inductors were built. The practical testing of magnetic-pulse straightening with research tools is given. Using the results of the calculations we can create effective tools for an external magnetic-pulse straightening of car body panels.

  17. Manure management for greenhouse gas mitigation.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Petersen, S O; Blanchard, M; Chadwick, D; Del Prado, A; Edouard, N; Mosquera, J; Sommer, S G

    2013-06-01

    Ongoing intensification and specialisation of livestock production lead to increasing volumes of manure to be managed, which are a source of the greenhouse gases (GHGs) methane (CH4) and nitrous oxide (N2O). Net emissions of CH4 and N2O result from a multitude of microbial activities in the manure environment. Their relative importance depends not only on manure composition and local management practices with respect to treatment, storage and field application, but also on ambient climatic conditions. The diversity of livestock production systems, and their associated manure management, is discussed on the basis of four regional cases (Sub-Saharan Africa, Southeast Asia, China and Europe) with increasing levels of intensification and priorities with respect to nutrient management and environmental regulation. GHG mitigation options for production systems based on solid and liquid manure management are then presented, and potentials for positive and negative interactions between pollutants, and between management practices, are discussed. The diversity of manure properties and environmental conditions necessitate a modelling approach for improving estimates of GHG emissions, and for predicting effects of management changes for GHG mitigation, and requirements for such a model are discussed. Finally, we briefly discuss drivers for, and barriers against, introduction of GHG mitigation measures for livestock production. There is no conflict between efforts to improve food and feed production, and efforts to reduce GHG emissions from manure management. Growth in livestock populations are projected to occur mainly in intensive production systems where, for this and other reasons, the largest potentials for GHG mitigation may be found.

  18. Climate change mitigation through livestock system transitions.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Havlík, Petr; Valin, Hugo; Herrero, Mario; Obersteiner, Michael; Schmid, Erwin; Rufino, Mariana C; Mosnier, Aline; Thornton, Philip K; Böttcher, Hannes; Conant, Richard T; Frank, Stefan; Fritz, Steffen; Fuss, Sabine; Kraxner, Florian; Notenbaert, An

    2014-03-11

    Livestock are responsible for 12% of anthropogenic greenhouse gas emissions. Sustainable intensification of livestock production systems might become a key climate mitigation technology. However, livestock production systems vary substantially, making the implementation of climate mitigation policies a formidable challenge. Here, we provide results from an economic model using a detailed and high-resolution representation of livestock production systems. We project that by 2030 autonomous transitions toward more efficient systems would decrease emissions by 736 million metric tons of carbon dioxide equivalent per year (MtCO2e⋅y(-1)), mainly through avoided emissions from the conversion of 162 Mha of natural land. A moderate mitigation policy targeting emissions from both the agricultural and land-use change sectors with a carbon price of US$10 per tCO2e could lead to an abatement of 3,223 MtCO2e⋅y(-1). Livestock system transitions would contribute 21% of the total abatement, intra- and interregional relocation of livestock production another 40%, and all other mechanisms would add 39%. A comparable abatement of 3,068 MtCO2e⋅y(-1) could be achieved also with a policy targeting only emissions from land-use change. Stringent climate policies might lead to reductions in food availability of up to 200 kcal per capita per day globally. We find that mitigation policies targeting emissions from land-use change are 5 to 10 times more efficient--measured in "total abatement calorie cost"--than policies targeting emissions from livestock only. Thus, fostering transitions toward more productive livestock production systems in combination with climate policies targeting the land-use change appears to be the most efficient lever to deliver desirable climate and food availability outcomes.

  19. 300 Area Building Retention Evaluation Mitigation Plan

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    D. J. McBride

    2007-07-03

    Evaluate the long-term retention of several facilities associated with the PNNL Capability Replacement Laboratory and other Hanfor mission needs. WCH prepared a mitigation plan for three scenarios with different release dates for specific buildings. The evaluations present a proposed plan for providing utility services to retained facilities in support of a long-term (+20 year) lifespan in addition to temporary services to buildings with specified delayed release dates.

  20. ENHANCED PRACTICAL PHOTOSYNTHETIC CO2 MITIGATION

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Dr. Gregory Kremer; Dr. David J. Bayless; Dr. Morgan Vis; Dr. Michael Prudich; Dr. Keith Cooksey; Dr. Jeff Muhs

    2003-04-15

    This quarterly report documents significant achievements in the Enhanced Practical Photosynthetic CO{sub 2} Mitigation project during the period from 1/2/2003 through 4/01/2003. As indicated in the list of accomplishments below we are progressing with long-term model scale bioreactor tests and are completing final preparations for pilot scale bioreactor testing. Specific results and accomplishments for the first quarter of 2003 are included.

  1. Advanced insider threat mitigation workshop instructional materials

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Gibbs, Philip [Brookhaven National Lab. (BNL), Upton, NY (United States); Larsen, Robert [Los Alamos National Lab. (LANL), Los Alamos, NM (United States); O Brien, Mike [Lawrence Livermore National Lab. (LLNL), Livermore, CA (United States); Edmunds, Tom [Lawrence Livermore National Lab. (LLNL), Livermore, CA (United States)

    2008-11-01

    Insiders represent a formidable threat to nuclear facilities. This set of workshop materials covers methodologies to analyze and approaches to mitigate the threat of an insider attempting abrupt and protracted theft of nuclear materials. This particular set of materials is a n update of a January 2008 version to add increased emphasis on Material Control and Accounting and its role with respect to protracted insider nuclear material theft scenarios.

  2. Do Markets Mitigate Misperceptions of Feedback?

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Kampmann, Christian Erik; Sterman, John D.

    2014-01-01

    institutions improve performance in dynamic decision tasks.We find: (i) dynamic complexity degrades performance substantially relative to optimal despite the inclusion of different pricing mechanisms; and (ii) markets improve performance, though it remains significantly below optimal. We estimate decision......Experimental studies of dynamic decisionmaking generally showpoor performance.Most, however, lack market mechanisms, specifically price setting, while economic theory suggests markets should mitigate individual decision errors. We develop experimental markets to explore whether different price...

  3. APR1400 severe accident mitigation design

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Jae Young, Lim; Jae Youb, Byun [Shin-Kori 3 and 4 NPP Project, Korea Power Engineering Company, Yongin-si, Gyeonggi-do (Korea, Republic of)

    2007-07-01

    APR1400, a Korean evolutionary advanced LWR, has been developed to meet the quantitative safety goals of mean core damage frequency to be less than one in one hundred thousand reactor years (10{sup -5}/y) and the expected overall mean frequency of occurrence of offsite doses in excess of 0.01 Sv within 24 hours at the site boundary to be less than one per million reactor years (10{sup -6}/y). In order to meet these quantitative goals, defense in depth, a long standing fundamental principle of reactor safety, was applied to ensure plant safety and to provide the balanced design between prevention and mitigation. And various advanced design features were reviewed to improve plant safety in the viewpoint of prevention and mitigation of design basis accident and severe accident. In this paper, 5 issues concerning severe accident mitigation features of the APR1400 are reviewed: 1) hydrogen control, 2) high pressure melt ejection and direct containment heating, 3) steam explosion, 4) molten corium concrete interaction, and 5) equipment survivability. It is shown that the APR1400 has been designed to withstand severe accidents.

  4. A New Strategy for Mitigating Climate Change

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Kaya, Y.; Akimoto, K./ Oda, J.

    2007-07-01

    This paper proposes a new strategy for mitigating climate change, both in short term and in long term. The basic character of the strategy is action oriented with multi-country collaboration, while the Framework Convention on Climate Change (FCCC) and Kyoto protocol is numerical target oriented within United Nation Framework. The introductory part of the paper briefly describes deficits of FCCC and Kyoto protocol and the needs of a different strategy for mitigating climate change. Then the short term strategy is focused on energy conservation and its effectiveness for mitigating climate change is illustrated by estimating the potential of reducing CO{sub 2} emission when intense collaboration is achieved for distributing main energy conservation measures in power generation and key industries among Asia Pacific Partnership countries. The long term strategy is developing novel types of renewables among countries. Geoheat and space solar power systems (SSPS) are candidates which may be developed among major developed countries. Necessity of international collaboration is stressed for R and D of these candidate renewables. (auth)

  5. 15 CFR 923.25 - Shoreline erosion/mitigation planning.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-01-01

    ... 15 Commerce and Foreign Trade 3 2010-01-01 2010-01-01 false Shoreline erosion/mitigation planning... erosion/mitigation planning. (a) The management program must include a planning process for assessing the... planning process may be within the broader context of coastal hazard mitigation planning. (b) The basic...

  6. Mitigation options for accidental releases of hazardous gases

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Fthenakis, V.M.

    1995-05-01

    The objective of this paper is to review and compare technologies available for mitigation of unconfined releases of toxic and flammable gases. These technologies include: secondary confinement, deinventory, vapor barriers, foam spraying, and water sprays/monitors. Guidelines for the design and/or operation of effective post-release mitigation systems and case studies involving actual industrial mitigation systems are also presented.

  7. Southern Idaho Wildlife Mitigation Implementation 2000 Annual Report.

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Bottum, Edward; Mikkelsen, Anders

    2001-03-01

    This report covers calendar year 2000 activities for the Southern Idaho Wildlife Mitigation Implementation project. This project, implemented by Idaho Department of Fish and Game and Shoshone Bannock Tribes wildlife mitigation staff, is designed to protect, enhance and maintain wildlife habitats to mitigate construction losses for Palisades, Anderson Ranch, Black Canyon and Minidoka hydroelectric projects. Additional project information is available in the quarterly reports.

  8. Modeling post-fire water erosion mitigation strategies

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    M. C. Rulli

    2013-06-01

    Full Text Available Severe wildfires are often followed by significant increase in runoff and erosion, due to vegetation damage and changes in physical and chemical soil properties. Peak flows and sediment yields can increase up to two orders of magnitude, becoming dangerous for human lives and the ecosystem, especially in the wildland–urban interface. Watershed post-fire rehabilitation measures are usually used to mitigate the effects of fire on runoff and erosion, by protecting soil from splash and shear stress detachment and enhancing its infiltration capacity. Modeling post-fire erosion and erosion mitigation strategies can be useful in selecting the effectiveness of a rehabilitation method. In this paper a distributed model based on the Revised Universal Soil Loss Equation (RUSLE, properly parameterized for a Mediterranean basin located in Sardinia, is used to determine soil losses for six different scenarios describing both natural and post-fire basin condition, the last also accounting for the single and combined effect of different erosion mitigation measures. Fire effect on vegetation and soil properties have been mimed by changing soil drainage capacity and organic matter content, and RUSLE factors related to soil cover and protection measures. Model results, validated using measured data on erosion rates from the literature and in situ field campaigns, show the effect of the analyzed rehabilitation treatments in reducing the amount of soil losses with the peculiar characteristics of the spatial distribution of such changes. In particular, the mulching treatment substantially decreases erosion both in its mean value (−75% and in the spatially distribution of the erosion levels over the burned area . On the contrary, the breaking up of the hydrophobic layer decreases post-fire mean soil losses of about the 14%, although it strongly influences the spatial distribution of the erosion levels.

  9. Strategies for casualty mitigation programs by using advanced tsunami computation

    Science.gov (United States)

    IMAI, K.; Imamura, F.

    2012-12-01

    1. Purpose of the study In this study, based on the scenario of great earthquakes along the Nankai trough, we aim on the estimation of the run up and high accuracy inundation process of tsunami in coastal areas including rivers. Here, using a practical method of tsunami analytical model, and taking into account characteristics of detail topography, land use and climate change in a realistic present and expected future environment, we examined the run up and tsunami inundation process. Using these results we estimated the damage due to tsunami and obtained information for the mitigation of human casualties. Considering the time series from the occurrence of the earthquake and the risk of tsunami damage, in order to mitigate casualties we provide contents of disaster risk information displayed in a tsunami hazard and risk map. 2. Creating a tsunami hazard and risk map From the analytical and practical tsunami model (a long wave approximated model) and the high resolution topography (5 m) including detailed data of shoreline, rivers, building and houses, we present a advanced analysis of tsunami inundation considering the land use. Based on the results of tsunami inundation and its analysis; it is possible to draw a tsunami hazard and risk map with information of human casualty, building damage estimation, drift of vehicles, etc. 3. Contents of disaster prevention information To improve the hazard, risk and evacuation information distribution, it is necessary to follow three steps. (1) Provide basic information such as tsunami attack info, areas and routes for evacuation and location of tsunami evacuation facilities. (2) Provide as additional information the time when inundation starts, the actual results of inundation, location of facilities with hazard materials, presence or absence of public facilities and areas underground that required evacuation. (3) Provide information to support disaster response such as infrastructure and traffic network damage prediction

  10. Going beyond mitigation : the urgent need to include adaptation measures to combat climate change in China

    National Research Council Canada - National Science Library

    Jeffery, Michael I; He, Xiangbai

    2012-01-01

    Mitigation and adaptation as responses to climate change - China's progress in mitigating climate change - distinction between mitigation and adaptation in relation to climate change - China's current...

  11. Assessing CO2 Mitigation Options Utilizing Detailed Electricity Characteristics and Including Renewable Generation

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bensaida, K.; Alie, Colin; Elkamel, A.; Almansoori, A.

    2017-08-01

    This paper presents a novel techno-economic optimization model for assessing the effectiveness of CO2 mitigation options for the electricity generation sub-sector that includes renewable energy generation. The optimization problem was formulated as a MINLP model using the GAMS modeling system. The model seeks the minimization of the power generation costs under CO2 emission constraints by dispatching power from low CO2 emission-intensity units. The model considers the detailed operation of the electricity system to effectively assess the performance of GHG mitigation strategies and integrates load balancing, carbon capture and carbon taxes as methods for reducing CO2 emissions. Two case studies are discussed to analyze the benefits and challenges of the CO2 reduction methods in the electricity system. The proposed mitigations options would not only benefit the environment, but they will as well improve the marginal cost of producing energy which represents an advantage for stakeholders.

  12. Current approaches for mitigating acid mine drainage.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sahoo, Prafulla Kumar; Kim, Kangjoo; Equeenuddin, Sk Md; Powell, Michael A

    2013-01-01

    creates an inert coating on the sulfide surface, but the mechanism by which this method works is still unclear, especially the role of pH. Coatings of Fe-oxyhydroxide, which can be obtained from locally available fly ash are receiving attention because of its low cost, self-healing character, and high cementation capacity. Among organic coatings, lipids and natural compounds such as humic acid appear to be encouraging because they are effective, and have a low environmental impact and cost. Common advantages of organic vs. inorganic coatings are that they work best at low pH and can prevent both chemical and biological oxidation.However, organic coatings are more expensive than inorganic coatings. Furthermore,while organic coatings are effective under laboratory conditions, they often fail under field conditions or require large amounts of reagents to insure effectiveness.Electrochemical cover technology may become a suitable technique to prevent AMD, but the mechanism by which this technique operates is still under investigation.Limitations of this method include the initial capital cost and ongoing costs of anodes and cathodes.Desulfurization is an alternative process for managing large-scale sulfide wastes/tailings. This process can separate sulfide minerals into a low-volume stream, leaving mainly waste with low sulfur content that will be non-acid-generating. The attractiveness of desulfurization is that it is simple and economic.Our review has clearly disclosed that more information is needed for most of the AMD-mitigation techniques available. Silica passivation has shown promise, butmore extensive field-testing is needed to reduce it to commercial viability. Silica is the dominant element in fly ash, and therefore, its use as a low-cost, easily accessible coating should be evaluated. Permanganate passivation also requires further study to understand the role of pH. The secondary formation of Fe-oxyhydroxide minerals from Fe-oxyhydroxides, from the standpoint of

  13. ENHANCED PRACTICAL PHOTOSYNTHETIC CO2 MITIGATION

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Dr. Gregory Kremer; Dr. David J. Bayless; Dr. Morgan Vis; Dr. Michael Prudich; Dr. Keith Cooksey; Dr. Jeff Muhs

    2002-01-15

    This quarterly report documents significant achievements in the Enhanced Practical Photosynthetic CO{sub 2} Mitigation project during the period from 10/3/2001 through 1/02/2002. Most of the achievements are milestones in our efforts to complete the tasks and subtasks that constitute the project objectives. Our research team has made significant progress towards completion of our Phase I objectives, and our current efforts remain focused on fulfilling these research objectives in accordance with the project timeline. Overall, we believe that we are on schedule to complete Phase I activities by 10/2002, which is the milestone date from the original project timeline. Specific results and accomplishments for the fourth quarter of 2001 include: (1) New procedures and protocols have been developed to increase the chances of successful implementation in the bioreactor of organisms that perform well in the lab. The new procedures include pre-screening of organisms for adhesion characteristics and a focus on identifying the organisms with maximum growth rate potential. (2) Preliminary results show an increase in adhesion to glass and a decrease in overall growth rates when using growth media prepared with tap water rather than distilled water. (3) Several of the organisms collected from Yellowstone National Park using the new procedures are currently being cultured in preparation for bioreactor tests. (4) One important result from a test of growth surface temperature distribution as a function of gas stream and drip-fluid temperatures showed a high dependence of membrane temperature on fluid temperature, with gas stream temperature having minimal effect. This result indicates that bioreactor growth surface temperatures can be controlled using fluid delivery temperature. The possible implications for implementation of the bioreactor concept are encouraging, since it may be possible to use the bioreactor with very high gas stream temperatures by controlling the temperature

  14. Climate change adaptation strategies and mitigation policies

    Science.gov (United States)

    García Fernández, Cristina

    2015-04-01

    The pace of climate change and the consequent warming of the Earth's surface is increasing vulnerability and decreasing adaptive capacity. Achieving a successful adaptation depends on the development of technology, institutional organization, financing availability and the exchange of information. Populations living in arid and semi-arid zones, low-lying coastal areas, land with water shortages or at risk of overflow or small islands are particularly vulnerable to climate change. Due to increasing population density in sensitive areas, some regions have become more vulnerable to events such as storms, floods and droughts, like the river basins and coastal plains. Human activities have fragmented and increased the vulnerability of ecosystems, which limit both, their natural adaptation and the effectiveness of the measures adopted. Adaptation means to carry out the necessary modifications for society to adapt to new climatic conditions in order to reduce their vulnerability to climate change. Adaptive capacity is the ability of a system to adjust to climate change (including climate variability and extremes) and to moderate potential damages, to take advantage of opportunities or face the consequences. Adaptation reduces the adverse impacts of climate change and enhance beneficial impacts, but will not prevent substantial cost that are produced by all damages. The performances require adaptation actions. These are defined and implemented at national, regional or local levels since many of the impacts and vulnerabilities depend on the particular economic, geographic and social circumstances of each country or region. We will present some adaptation strategies at national and local level and revise some cases of its implementation in several vulnerable areas. However, adaptation to climate change must be closely related to mitigation policies because the degree of change planned in different climatic variables is a function of the concentration levels that are achieved

  15. Coupling the Biophysical and Social Dimensions of Wildfire Risk to Improve Wildfire Mitigation Planning.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ager, Alan A; Kline, Jeffrey D; Fischer, A Paige

    2015-08-01

    We describe recent advances in biophysical and social aspects of risk and their potential combined contribution to improve mitigation planning on fire-prone landscapes. The methods and tools provide an improved method for defining the spatial extent of wildfire risk to communities compared to current planning processes. They also propose an expanded role for social science to improve understanding of community-wide risk perceptions and to predict property owners' capacities and willingness to mitigate risk by treating hazardous fuels and reducing the susceptibility of dwellings. In particular, we identify spatial scale mismatches in wildfire mitigation planning and their potential adverse impact on risk mitigation goals. Studies in other fire-prone regions suggest that these scale mismatches are widespread and contribute to continued wildfire dwelling losses. We discuss how risk perceptions and behavior contribute to scale mismatches and how they can be minimized through integrated analyses of landscape wildfire transmission and social factors that describe the potential for collaboration among landowners and land management agencies. These concepts are then used to outline an integrated socioecological planning framework to identify optimal strategies for local community risk mitigation and improve landscape-scale prioritization of fuel management investments by government entities. © 2015 Society for Risk Analysis.

  16. Induced seismicity and carbon storage: Risk assessment and mitigation strategies

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    White, Joshua A. [Lawrence Livermore National Lab. (LLNL), Livermore, CA (United States); Foxall, William [Lawrence Berkeley National Lab. (LBNL), Berkeley, CA (United States); Bachmann, Corinne [Lawrence Berkeley National Lab. (LBNL), Berkeley, CA (United States); Chiaramonte, Laura [Lawrence Livermore National Lab. (LLNL), Livermore, CA (United States); Daley, Thomas M. [Lawrence Berkeley National Lab. (LBNL), Berkeley, CA (United States)

    2016-01-28

    assessment and mitigation approach. A phased approach to risk management is then introduced. The basic goal of the phased approach is to constantly adapt site operations to current conditions and available characterization data. The remainder of the report then focuses in detail on different components of the monitoring, risk assessment, and mitigation strategies. Issues in current seismic risk assessment methods that must be modified to address induce seismicity are highlighted. The report then concludes with several specific recommendations for operators and regulatory authorities to consider when selecting, permitting, and operating a storage project.

  17. Error Mitigation for Short-Depth Quantum Circuits

    Science.gov (United States)

    Temme, Kristan; Bravyi, Sergey; Gambetta, Jay M.

    2017-11-01

    Two schemes are presented that mitigate the effect of errors and decoherence in short-depth quantum circuits. The size of the circuits for which these techniques can be applied is limited by the rate at which the errors in the computation are introduced. Near-term applications of early quantum devices, such as quantum simulations, rely on accurate estimates of expectation values to become relevant. Decoherence and gate errors lead to wrong estimates of the expectation values of observables used to evaluate the noisy circuit. The two schemes we discuss are deliberately simple and do not require additional qubit resources, so to be as practically relevant in current experiments as possible. The first method, extrapolation to the zero noise limit, subsequently cancels powers of the noise perturbations by an application of Richardson's deferred approach to the limit. The second method cancels errors by resampling randomized circuits according to a quasiprobability distribution.

  18. Effects of road mortality and mitigation measures on amphibian populations.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Beebee, Trevor J C

    2013-08-01

    Road mortality is a widely recognized but rarely quantified threat to the viability of amphibian populations. The global extent of the problem is substantial and factors affecting the number of animals killed on highways include life-history traits and landscape features. Secondary effects include genetic isolation due to roads acting as barriers to migration. Long-term effects of roads on population dynamics are often severe and mitigation methods include volunteer rescues and under-road tunnels. Despite the development of methods that reduce road kill in specific locations, especially under-road tunnels and culverts, there is scant evidence that such measures will protect populations over the long term. There also seems little likelihood that funding will be forthcoming to ameliorate the problem at the scale necessary to prevent further population declines. © 2013 Society for Conservation Biology.

  19. Developing Global Building Exposure for Disaster Forecasting, Mitigation, and Response

    Science.gov (United States)

    Huyck, C. K.

    2016-12-01

    Nongovernmental organizations and governments are recognizing the importance of insurance penetration in developing countries to mitigate the tremendous setbacks that follow natural disasters., but to effectively manage risk stakeholders must accurately quantify the built environment. Although there are countless datasets addressing elements of buildings, there are surprisingly few that are directly applicable to assessing vulnerability to natural disasters without skewing the spatial distribution of risk towards known assets. Working with NASA center partners Center for International Earth Science Information Network (CIESIN) at Columbia University in New York (http://www.ciesin.org), ImageCat have developed a novel method of developing Global Exposure Data (GED) from EO sources. The method has been applied to develop exposure datasets for GFDRR, CAT modelers, and aid in post-earthquake allocation of resources for UNICEF.

  20. Bio-inspired heterogeneous composites for broadband vibration mitigation

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chen, Yanyu; Wang, Lifeng

    2015-12-01

    Structural biological materials have developed heterogeneous and hierarchical architectures that are responsible for the outstanding performance to provide protection against environmental threats including static and dynamic loading. Inspired by this observation, this research aims to develop new material and structural concepts for broadband vibration mitigation. The proposed composite materials possess a two-layered heterogeneous architecture where both layers consist of high-volume platelet-shape reinforcements and low-volume matrix, similar to the well-known “brick and mortar” microstructure of biological composites. Using finite element method, we numerically demonstrated that broadband wave attenuation zones can be achieved by tailoring the geometric features of the heterogeneous architecture. We reveal that the resulting broadband attenuation zones are gained by directly superimposing the attenuation zones in each constituent layer. This mechanism is further confirmed by the investigation into the phonon dispersion relation of each layer. Importantly, the broadband wave attenuation capability will be maintained when the mineral platelet orientation is locally manipulated, yet a contrast between the mineral platelet concentrations of the two constituent layers is essential. The findings of this work will provide new opportunities to design heterogeneous composites for broadband vibration mitigation and impact resistance under mechanically challenging environmental conditions.

  1. Best practices for mitigating soiling risk on PV power plants

    KAUST Repository

    AlDowsari, A.

    2015-09-24

    Solar power generates proven, predictable and economical energy and new innovations have made solar PV power plants easy to deploy, integrate and maintain. Areas with large solar energy potential are among the dustiest in the world. At first glance, solar would be a natural fit in many of these environments but humidity, airborne dust, and wind of these regions often bring high soiling rates that can accumulate to reduce performance by up to 10% per month on average, where soiling can be a major loss factor that affects the energy yield for PV plants especially in humid and dusty climates. Therefore, to achieve the desired performance ratio and obtain stable generation, mitigation solutions are proposed to overcome dust issues that affect the performance of PV plants. This makes PV module cleaning a key component for long-term plant performance and sustainable profitability. In this paper, a review of the mechanisms and mitigation solutions to overcome soiling on solar installations using real-world testing and verification is investigated with emphasis on dry type cleaning methods. © 2014 IEEE.

  2. Development of a method for studying the influence of stress state on the iodine-induced stress corrosion cracking of zirconium alloys

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mozzani, Nathanael; Auzoux, Quentin; Le Boulch, David; Andrieu, Eric; Blanc, Christine

    A method based on the exposure of notched tensile specimens to iodized methanol is investigated to study the influence of stress state on the iodine-induced stress corrosion cracking (I-SCC) of zirconium alloys. Based on uniaxial tensile tests at different strain rates, in air and at room temperature, an anisotropic viscoplastic behavior model was established. This model was successfully compared to a notched specimen tensile test where local strains were measured by digital image correlation. Moreover, two I-SCC experiments were designed, on a tensile test machine and with an autonomous bending device. Examinations of failure surfaces of smooth specimens and investigations of iodine location were undertaken. The intergranular aspect of the cracking was observed and no iodine was found outside open cracks. Model calculations with different specimen geometries confirmed the possibility of having different stress states and will be used to determine local mechanical fields at crack initiation sites after I-SCC tests.

  3. Mitigation of quantum dot cytotoxicity by microencapsulation.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Romoser, Amelia; Ritter, Dustin; Majitha, Ravish; Meissner, Kenith E; McShane, Michael; Sayes, Christie M

    2011-01-01

    When CdSe/ZnS-polyethyleneimine (PEI) quantum dots (QDs) are microencapsulated in polymeric microcapsules, human fibroblasts are protected from acute cytotoxic effects. Differences in cellular morphology, uptake, and viability were assessed after treatment with either microencapsulated or unencapsulated dots. Specifically, QDs contained in microcapsules terminated with polyethylene glycol (PEG) mitigate contact with and uptake by cells, thus providing a tool to retain particle luminescence for applications such as extracellular sensing and imaging. The microcapsule serves as the "first line of defense" for containing the QDs. This enables the individual QD coating to be designed primarily to enhance the function of the biosensor.

  4. Mitigation approaches to combat the flu pandemic

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Raman Chawla

    2009-01-01

    The National Disaster Management Authority (NDMA, Government of India, with the active cooperation of UN agencies and other stakeholders/experts has formulated a concept paper on role of nonhealth service providers during pandemics in April 2008 and released national guidelines - management of biological disasters in July 2008. These guidelines enumerate that the success of medical management endeavors like pharmaceutical (anti-viral Oseltamivir and Zanamivir therapies, nonpharmaceutical interventions and vaccination development etc., largely depends on level of resistance offered by mutagenic viral strain and rationale use of pharmaco therapeutic interventions. This article describes the mitigation approach to combat flu pandemic with its effective implementation at national, state and local levels.

  5. Nonlinear Bayesian Tracking Loops for Multipath Mitigation

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Pau Closas

    2012-01-01

    Full Text Available This paper studies Bayesian filtering techniques applied to the design of advanced delay tracking loops in GNSS receivers with multipath mitigation capabilities. The analysis includes tradeoff among realistic propagation channel models and the use of a realistic simulation framework. After establishing the mathematical framework for the design and analysis of tracking loops in the context of GNSS receivers, we propose a filtering technique that implements Rao-Blackwellization of linear states and a particle filter for the nonlinear partition and compare it to traditional delay lock loop/phase lock loop-based schemes.

  6. Mitigation of the effects of sulphur pollution

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Chang, B.; Wilson, R.

    1976-07-05

    As an introduction to the discussion of mitigation of the effects of SO/sub 2/, its health effect on man and the use of sulfates as indicators of the health hazard are first considered. The use of tall chimney stacks and intermittent control and other schemes to reduce the SO/sub 2/ release to the atmosphere are discussed. The problems of administration and forecasting are analyzed and legal problems associated with SO/sub 2/ control are reviewed. In an appendix an analysis of federal jurisdiction over interstate pollution and possible avenues of litigation open to the states is presented. (JSR)

  7. Mitigation of quantum dot cytotoxicity by microencapsulation.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Amelia Romoser

    Full Text Available When CdSe/ZnS-polyethyleneimine (PEI quantum dots (QDs are microencapsulated in polymeric microcapsules, human fibroblasts are protected from acute cytotoxic effects. Differences in cellular morphology, uptake, and viability were assessed after treatment with either microencapsulated or unencapsulated dots. Specifically, QDs contained in microcapsules terminated with polyethylene glycol (PEG mitigate contact with and uptake by cells, thus providing a tool to retain particle luminescence for applications such as extracellular sensing and imaging. The microcapsule serves as the "first line of defense" for containing the QDs. This enables the individual QD coating to be designed primarily to enhance the function of the biosensor.

  8. Systematic Error Mitigation for the PIXIE Instrument

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kogut, Alan; Fixsen, Dale J.; Nagler, Peter; Tucker, Gregory

    2016-01-01

    The Primordial Ination Explorer (PIXIE) uses a nulling Fourier Transform Spectrometer to measure the absoluteintensity and linear polarization of the cosmic microwave background and diuse astrophysical foregrounds.PIXIE will search for the signature of primordial ination and will characterize distortions from a blackbodyspectrum, both to precision of a few parts per billion. Rigorous control of potential instrumental eects isrequired to take advantage of the raw sensitivity. PIXIE employs a highly symmetric design using multipledierential nulling to reduce the instrumental signature to negligible levels. We discuss the systematic errorbudget and mitigation strategies for the PIXIE mission.

  9. Mitigation of greenhouse gases from agriculture

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Schils, R.L.M.; Ellis, J. L.; de Klein, C. A. M.

    2013-01-01

    Models are widely used to simulate the emission of greenhouse gases (GHG). They help to identify knowledge gaps, estimate total emissions for inventories, develop mitigation options and policies, raise awareness and encourage adoption. These models vary in scale, scope and methodological approach....... The scale increases from field, manure storage or rumen via herd or farm to country or continent. The scope may be restricted to a single GHG or include all gases. Multidisciplinary models may include nutrients, other substances or socio-economic parameters. Mechanistic process-based models have been...

  10. Mitigating Climate Change with Earth Orbital Sunshades

    Science.gov (United States)

    Coverstone, Victoria; Johnson, Les

    2015-01-01

    An array of rotating sunshades based on emerging solar sail technology will be deployed in a novel Earth orbit to provide near-continuous partial shading of the Earth, reducing the heat input to the atmosphere by blocking a small percentage of the incoming sunlight, and mitigating local weather effects of anticipated climate change over the next century. The technology will provide local cooling relief during extreme heat events (and heating relief during extreme cold events) thereby saving human lives, agriculture, livestock, water and energy needs. A synthesis of the solar sail design, the sails' operational modes, and the selected orbit combine to provide local weather modification.

  11. Industrial Energy Efficiency and Climate Change Mitigation

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Worrell, Ernst; Bernstein, Lenny; Roy, Joyashree; Price, Lynn; de la Rue du Can, Stephane; Harnisch, Jochen

    2009-02-02

    Industry contributes directly and indirectly (through consumed electricity) about 37% of the global greenhouse gas emissions, of which over 80% is from energy use. Total energy-related emissions, which were 9.9 GtCO2 in 2004, have grown by 65% since 1971. Even so, industry has almost continuously improved its energy efficiency over the past decades. In the near future, energy efficiency is potentially the most important and cost-effective means for mitigating greenhouse gas emissions from industry. This paper discusses the potential contribution of industrial energy efficiency technologies and policies to reduce energy use and greenhouse gas emissions to 2030.

  12. Voltage unbalance mitigation in LV networks using three-phase PV systems

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Garcia Bajo, Cristina; Hashemi Toghroljerdi, Seyedmostafa; Bækhøj Kjær, Søren

    2015-01-01

    this uneven injection. The average values of phase voltages at the connection points of the photovoltaic (PV) inverters are used as the references for the balancing algorithm. Voltage unbalance mitigation is achieved by use of this method in different scenarios with variable three-phase and single...

  13. Vegetation and other development options for mitigating urban air pollution impacts

    Science.gov (United States)

    Richard Baldauf; David J. Nowak

    2014-01-01

    While air pollution control devices and programs are the primary method of reducing emissions, urban air pollution can be further mitigated through planning and design strategies, including vegetation preservation and planting, building design and development, installing roadside and near-source structures, and modifying surrounding terrain features.

  14. Two soft-error mitigation techniques for functional units of DSP processors

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Rohani, A.; Kerkhoff, Hans G.

    This paper presents two soft-error mitigation methods for DSP processors. Considering that a DSP processor is composed of several functional units and each functional unit constitutes of a control unit, some registers and combinational logic, a unique characteristic of DSP workloads has been

  15. Radio Frequency Interference Mitigation for the Planned SMAP Radar and Radiometer

    Science.gov (United States)

    Spencer, Michael; Chan, Samuel; Belz, Eric; Piepmeier, Jeffrey; Mohammed, Priscilla; Kim, Edward; Johnson, Joel T.

    2011-01-01

    NASA's planned SMAP mission will utilize a radar operating in a band centered on 1.26 GHz and a co-observing radiometer operating at 1.41 GHz to measure surface soil moisture. Both the radar and radiometer sub-systems are susceptible to radio frequency interference (RFI). Any significant impact of such interference requires mitigation in order to avoid degradation in the SMAP science products. Studies of RFT detection and mitigation methods for both the radar and radiometer are continuing in order to assess the risk to mission products and to refine the performance achieved.

  16. Modeling with uncertain science: estimating mitigation credits from abating lead poisoning in Golden Eagles.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Fitts Cochrane, Jean; Lonsdorf, Eric; Allison, Taber D; Sanders-Reed, Carol A

    2015-09-01

    Challenges arise when renewable energy development triggers "no net loss" policies for protected species, such as where wind energy facilities affect Golden Eagles in the western United States. When established mitigation approaches are insufficient to fully avoid or offset losses, conservation goals may still be achievable through experimental implementation of unproven mitigation methods provided they are analyzed within a framework that deals transparently and rigorously with uncertainty. We developed an approach to quantify and analyze compensatory mitigation that (1) relies on expert opinion elicited in a thoughtful and structured process to design the analysis (models) and supplement available data, (2) builds computational models as hypotheses about cause-effect relationships, (3) represents scientific uncertainty in stochastic model simulations, (4) provides probabilistic predictions of "relative" mortality with and without mitigation, (5) presents results in clear formats useful to applying risk management preferences (regulatory standards) and selecting strategies and levels of mitigation for immediate action, and (6) defines predictive parameters in units that could be monitored effectively, to support experimental adaptive management and reduction in uncertainty. We illustrate the approach with a case study characterized by high uncertainty about underlying biological processes and high conservation interest: estimating the quantitative effects of voluntary strategies to abate lead poisoning in Golden Eagles in Wyoming due to ingestion of spent game hunting ammunition.

  17. Risk Perception and Economic Value Of Disaster Mitigation Case of Bantul Post Earthquake May 2006

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Suryanto

    2012-10-01

    Full Text Available This study aims to obtain empirical evidence of disaster mitigation in Bantul, Indonesia. The expected utility theory and impact of regional characteristics on individual perceptions was used to describe the disaster risk management process. The regional mapping based on hazard level was conducted by a Geographical Information System (GIS. Data used in this research were primary and secondary data. Primary data were obtained by distributing questionnaire to some respondents. Sample amounts used were 395 respondents. The research empirical contribution was to economic valuation method used towards safety and efforts to link regional characteristics, individual perception and also their willingness to conduct mitigation. The research practical contribution was to identify some key obstacles in disaster risk management. Based on multiple regression analysis, this study found that educational level, risk aversion degree, trust towards earthquake resistant building, control ability, income level, classification of hazard area contributes to higher Willingness To Pay (WTP for mitigation. It also found that perception towards central governmental roles variable did not affect to WTP for mitigation. However, the income levels of the communities in Bantul positively correspond to WTP for mitigation suggesting that the findings were consistent with the expected utility theory.

  18. Advanced Mitigation Process (AMP) for Improving Laser Damage Threshold of Fused Silica Optics

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ye, Xin; Huang, Jin; Liu, Hongjie; Geng, Feng; Sun, Laixi; Jiang, Xiaodong; Wu, Weidong; Qiao, Liang; Zu, Xiaotao; Zheng, Wanguo

    2016-01-01

    The laser damage precursors in subsurface of fused silica (e.g. photosensitive impurities, scratches and redeposited silica compounds) were mitigated by mineral acid leaching and HF etching with multi-frequency ultrasonic agitation, respectively. The comparison of scratches morphology after static etching and high-frequency ultrasonic agitation etching was devoted in our case. And comparison of laser induce damage resistance of scratched and non-scratched fused silica surfaces after HF etching with high-frequency ultrasonic agitation were also investigated in this study. The global laser induce damage resistance was increased significantly after the laser damage precursors were mitigated in this case. The redeposition of reaction produce was avoided by involving multi-frequency ultrasonic and chemical leaching process. These methods made the increase of laser damage threshold more stable. In addition, there is no scratch related damage initiations found on the samples which were treated by Advanced Mitigation Process. PMID:27484188

  19. Analysis and Mitigation of Shunt Capacitor Bank Switching Transients on 132 kV Grid Station, Qasimabad Hyderabad

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Sunny Katyara

    2015-10-01

    Full Text Available In this paper analysis and mitigation methods of capacitor bank switching transients on 132KV Grid station, Qasimabad Hyderabad are simulated through the MATLAB software (Matrix Laboratory. Analysis of transients with and without capacitor bank is made. Mathematical measurements of quantities such as transient voltages and inrush currents for each case are discussed. Reasons for these transients, their impact on utility and customer systems and their mitigation are provided.

  20. The Implications of Deep Mitigation Pathways

    Science.gov (United States)

    Calvin, K. V.

    2016-12-01

    The 21st Conference of Parties to the UNFCCC agreement called for limiting climate change to "well below 2°C above pre-industrial levels and pursuing efforts to limit the temperature increase to 1.5°C." A climate target of 1.5°C places a stringent constraint on allowable emissions over the twenty-first century. Roegli et al. (2015) set that constraint at 200-415 GtCO2 between 2011 and 2100 for a likely chance of staying below 1.5°C in 2100. Limiting emissions to these levels requires that global emissions peak and decline over the coming decades, with net negative global emissions by mid-century. This level of decarbonization requires dramatic shifts in the energy and agricultural sectors, and comes at significant economic costs. This talk explores the effect of mitigating climate change to 1.5°C on the economy, energy system, and terrestrial system. We quantify the required deployment of various low carbon technologies, as well as the amount of existing capital that is abandoned in an effort to limit emissions. We show the shifts required in the terrestrial system, including its contribution to carbon sequestration through afforestation and bioenergy. Additionally, we show the implications of deep mitigation pathways on energy, food, and carbon prices. We contrast these results with a reference, no climate policy, world and a 2°C.

  1. Mitigating mask roughness via pupil filtering

    Science.gov (United States)

    Baylav, B.; Maloney, C.; Levinson, Z.; Bekaert, J.; Vaglio Pret, A.; Smith, B.

    2014-03-01

    The roughness present on the sidewalls of lithographically defined patterns imposes a very important challenge for advanced technology nodes. It can originate from the aerial image or the photoresist chemistry/processing [1]. The latter remains to be the dominant group in ArF and KrF lithography; however, the roughness originating from the mask transferred to the aerial image is gaining more attention [2-9], especially for the imaging conditions with large mask error enhancement factor (MEEF) values. The mask roughness contribution is usually in the low frequency range, which is particularly detrimental to the device performance by causing variations in electrical device parameters on the same chip [10-12]. This paper explains characteristic differences between pupil plane filtering in amplitude and in phase for the purpose of mitigating mask roughness transfer under interference-like lithography imaging conditions, where onedirectional periodic features are to be printed by partially coherent sources. A white noise edge roughness was used to perturbate the mask features for validating the mitigation.

  2. Sustainable biochar to mitigate global climate change

    Science.gov (United States)

    Woolf, Dominic; Amonette, James E.; Street-Perrott, F. Alayne; Lehmann, Johannes; Joseph, Stephen

    2010-01-01

    Production of biochar (the carbon (C)-rich solid formed by pyrolysis of biomass) and its storage in soils have been suggested as a means of abating climate change by sequestering carbon, while simultaneously providing energy and increasing crop yields. Substantial uncertainties exist, however, regarding the impact, capacity and sustainability of biochar at the global level. In this paper we estimate the maximum sustainable technical potential of biochar to mitigate climate change. Annual net emissions of carbon dioxide (CO2), methane and nitrous oxide could be reduced by a maximum of 1.8 Pg CO2-C equivalent (CO2-Ce) per year (12% of current anthropogenic CO2-Ce emissions; 1 Pg=1 Gt), and total net emissions over the course of a century by 130 Pg CO2-Ce, without endangering food security, habitat or soil conservation. Biochar has a larger climate-change mitigation potential than combustion of the same sustainably procured biomass for bioenergy, except when fertile soils are amended while coal is the fuel being offset. PMID:20975722

  3. Factors Influencing Stormwater Mitigation in Permeable Pavement

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Chun Yan Liu

    2017-12-01

    Full Text Available Permeable pavement (PP is used worldwide to mitigate surface runoff in urban areas. Various studies have examined the factors governing the hydrologic performance of PP. However, relatively little is known about the relative importance of these governing factors and the long-term hydrologic performance of PP. This study applied numerical models—calibrated and validated using existing experimental results—to simulate hundreds of event-based and two long-term rainfall scenarios for two designs of PP. Based on the event-based simulation results, rainfall intensity, rainfall volume, thickness of the storage layer and the hydraulic conductivity of the subgrade were identified as the most influential factors in PP runoff reduction. Over the long term, PP performed significantly better in a relatively drier climate (e.g., New York, reducing nearly 90% of runoff volume compared to 70% in a relatively wetter climate (e.g., Hong Kong. The two designs of PP examined performed differently, and the difference was more apparent in the relatively wetter climate. This study generated insights that will help the design and implementation of PP to mitigate stormwater worldwide.

  4. Sustainable biochar to mitigate global climate change.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Woolf, Dominic; Amonette, James E; Street-Perrott, F Alayne; Lehmann, Johannes; Joseph, Stephen

    2010-08-10

    Production of biochar (the carbon (C)-rich solid formed by pyrolysis of biomass) and its storage in soils have been suggested as a means of abating climate change by sequestering carbon, while simultaneously providing energy and increasing crop yields. Substantial uncertainties exist, however, regarding the impact, capacity and sustainability of biochar at the global level. In this paper we estimate the maximum sustainable technical potential of biochar to mitigate climate change. Annual net emissions of carbon dioxide (CO(2)), methane and nitrous oxide could be reduced by a maximum of 1.8 Pg CO(2)-C equivalent (CO(2)-C(e)) per year (12% of current anthropogenic CO(2)-C(e) emissions; 1 Pg=1 Gt), and total net emissions over the course of a century by 130 Pg CO(2)-C(e), without endangering food security, habitat or soil conservation. Biochar has a larger climate-change mitigation potential than combustion of the same sustainably procured biomass for bioenergy, except when fertile soils are amended while coal is the fuel being offset.

  5. 3D Printed Shock Mitigating Structures

    Science.gov (United States)

    Schrand, Amanda; Elston, Edwin; Dennis, Mitzi; Metroke, Tammy; Chen, Chenggang; Patton, Steven; Ganguli, Sabyasachi; Roy, Ajit

    Here we explore the durability, and shock mitigating potential, of solid and cellular 3D printed polymers and conductive inks under high strain rate, compressive shock wave and high g acceleration conditions. Our initial designs include a simple circuit with 4 resistors embedded into circular discs and a complex cylindrical gyroid shape. A novel ink consisting of silver-coated carbon black nanoparticles in a thermoplastic polyurethane was used as the trace material. One version of the disc structural design has the advantage of allowing disassembly after testing for direct failure analysis. After increasing impacts, printed and traditionally potted circuits were examined for functionality. Additionally, in the open disc design, trace cracking and delamination of resistors were able to be observed. In a parallel study, we examined the shock mitigating behavior of 3D printed cellular gyroid structures on a Split Hopkinson Pressure Bar (SHPB). We explored alterations to the classic SHPB setup for testing the low impedance, cellular samples to most accurately reflect the stress state inside the sample (strain rates from 700 to 1750 s-1). We discovered that the gyroid can effectively absorb the impact of the test resulting in crushing the structure. Future studies aim to tailor the unit cell dimensions for certain frequencies, increase print accuracy and optimize material compositions for conductivity and adhesion to manufacture more durable devices.

  6. Mitigating Herding in Hierarchical Crowdsourcing Networks.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yu, Han; Miao, Chunyan; Leung, Cyril; Chen, Yiqiang; Fauvel, Simon; Lesser, Victor R; Yang, Qiang

    2016-12-05

    Hierarchical crowdsourcing networks (HCNs) provide a useful mechanism for social mobilization. However, spontaneous evolution of the complex resource allocation dynamics can lead to undesirable herding behaviours in which a small group of reputable workers are overloaded while leaving other workers idle. Existing herding control mechanisms designed for typical crowdsourcing systems are not effective in HCNs. In order to bridge this gap, we investigate the herding dynamics in HCNs and propose a Lyapunov optimization based decision support approach - the Reputation-aware Task Sub-delegation approach with dynamic worker effort Pricing (RTS-P) - with objective functions aiming to achieve superlinear time-averaged collective productivity in an HCN. By considering the workers' current reputation, workload, eagerness to work, and trust relationships, RTS-P provides a systematic approach to mitigate herding by helping workers make joint decisions on task sub-delegation, task acceptance, and effort pricing in a distributed manner. It is an individual-level decision support approach which results in the emergence of productive and robust collective patterns in HCNs. High resolution simulations demonstrate that RTS-P mitigates herding more effectively than state-of-the-art approaches.

  7. Mitigation of Syngas Cooler Plugging and Fouling

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Bockelie, Michael J. [Reaction Engineering International, Salt Lake City, UT (United States)

    2015-06-29

    This Final Report summarizes research performed to develop a technology to mitigate the plugging and fouling that occurs in the syngas cooler used in many Integrated Gasification Combined Cycle (IGCC) plants. The syngas cooler is a firetube heat exchanger located downstream of the gasifier. It offers high thermal efficiency, but its’ reliability has generally been lower than other process equipment in the gasification island. The buildup of ash deposits that form on the fireside surfaces in the syngas cooler (i.e., fouling) lead to reduced equipment life and increased maintenance costs. Our approach to address this problem is that fouling of the syngas cooler cannot be eliminated, but it can be better managed. The research program was funded by DOE using two budget periods: Budget Period 1 (BP1) and Budget Period 2 (BP2). The project used a combination of laboratory scale experiments, analysis of syngas cooler deposits, modeling and guidance from industry to develop a better understanding of fouling mechanisms and to develop and evaluate strategies to mitigate syngas cooler fouling and thereby improve syngas cooler performance. The work effort in BP 1 and BP 2 focused on developing a better understanding of the mechanisms that lead to syngas cooler plugging and fouling and investigating promising concepts to mitigate syngas cooler plugging and fouling. The work effort focused on the following: • analysis of syngas cooler deposits and fuels provided by an IGCC plant collaborating with this project; • performing Jet cleaning tests in the University of Utah Laminar Entrained Flow Reactor to determine the bond strength between an ash deposit to a metal plate, as well as implementing planned equipment modifications to the University of Utah Laminar Entrained Flow Reactor and the one ton per day, pressurized Pilot Scale Gasifier; • performing Computational Fluid Dynamic modeling of industrially relevant syngas cooler configurations to develop a better

  8. Mitigation of adverse interactions in pairs of clinical practice guidelines using constraint logic programming.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wilk, Szymon; Michalowski, Wojtek; Michalowski, Martin; Farion, Ken; Hing, Marisela Mainegra; Mohapatra, Subhra

    2013-04-01

    We propose a new method to mitigate (identify and address) adverse interactions (drug-drug or drug-disease) that occur when a patient with comorbid diseases is managed according to two concurrently applied clinical practice guidelines (CPGs). A lack of methods to facilitate the concurrent application of CPGs severely limits their use in clinical practice and the development of such methods is one of the grand challenges for clinical decision support. The proposed method responds to this challenge. We introduce and formally define logical models of CPGs and other related concepts, and develop the mitigation algorithm that operates on these concepts. In the algorithm we combine domain knowledge encoded as interaction and revision operators using the constraint logic programming (CLP) paradigm. The operators characterize adverse interactions and describe revisions to logical models required to address these interactions, while CLP allows us to efficiently solve the logical models - a solution represents a feasible therapy that may be safely applied to a patient. The mitigation algorithm accepts two CPGs and available (likely incomplete) patient information. It reports whether mitigation has been successful or not, and on success it gives a feasible therapy and points at identified interactions (if any) together with the revisions that address them. Thus, we consider the mitigation algorithm as an alerting tool to support a physician in the concurrent application of CPGs that can be implemented as a component of a clinical decision support system. We illustrate our method in the context of two clinical scenarios involving a patient with duodenal ulcer who experiences an episode of transient ischemic attack. Copyright © 2013 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  9. How Effective Is Road Mitigation at Reducing Road-Kill? A Meta-Analysis

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rytwinski, Trina; Soanes, Kylie; Jaeger, Jochen A. G.; Fahrig, Lenore; Findlay, C. Scott; Houlahan, Jeff; van der Ree, Rodney; van der Grift, Edgar A

    2016-01-01

    Road traffic kills hundreds of millions of animals every year, posing a critical threat to the populations of many species. To address this problem there are more than forty types of road mitigation measures available that aim to reduce wildlife mortality on roads (road-kill). For road planners, deciding on what mitigation method to use has been problematic because there is little good information about the relative effectiveness of these measures in reducing road-kill, and the costs of these measures vary greatly. We conducted a meta-analysis using data from 50 studies that quantified the relationship between road-kill and a mitigation measure designed to reduce road-kill. Overall, mitigation measures reduce road-kill by 40% compared to controls. Fences, with or without crossing structures, reduce road-kill by 54%. We found no detectable effect on road-kill of crossing structures without fencing. We found that comparatively expensive mitigation measures reduce large mammal road-kill much more than inexpensive measures. For example, the combination of fencing and crossing structures led to an 83% reduction in road-kill of large mammals, compared to a 57% reduction for animal detection systems, and only a 1% for wildlife reflectors. We suggest that inexpensive measures such as reflectors should not be used until and unless their effectiveness is tested using a high-quality experimental approach. Our meta-analysis also highlights the fact that there are insufficient data to answer many of the most pressing questions that road planners ask about the effectiveness of road mitigation measures, such as whether other less common mitigation measures (e.g., measures to reduce traffic volume and/or speed) reduce road mortality, or to what extent the attributes of crossing structures and fences influence their effectiveness. To improve evaluations of mitigation effectiveness, studies should incorporate data collection before the mitigation is applied, and we recommend a

  10. Development of RFI Mitigation Techniques with Digital Beamforming

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bollian, Tobias; Rincon, Rafael; Fatoyinbo, Temilola; Osmanoglu, Batuhan

    2016-01-01

    Remote sensing radars with longer wavelengths penetrate deeper into the observed scene and are more suitable for the scientific observation of ice sheets or vegetation. Therefore, SAR systems are moving to lower frequencies like L- or P-band. However, as the frequency spectrum is a limited resource, this means that the occupied frequency band has to be shared with existing users. These users can have serious impact on the imaging quality. Radio frequency interference (RFI) that arrives at the antenna together with the SAR backscatter is causing a drop of the signal-to-noise ratio. Despite the high processing gain of the SAR signal, artifacts can appear in the image if the RFI is strong enough. This can lead to a corruption of the acquired data and make it unsuitable for scientific purposes. Hence, the investigation of methods for RFI mitigation is critical to the performance of radar missions and to ensure they meet their main task.

  11. Generation and Evaluation of Lunar Dust Adhesion Mitigating Materials

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wohl, Christopher J.; Connell, John W.; Lin, Yi; Belcher, Marcus A.; Palmieri, Frank L.

    2011-01-01

    Particulate contamination is of concern in a variety of environments. This issue is especially important in confined spaces with highly controlled atmospheres such as space exploration vehicles involved in extraterrestrial surface missions. Lunar dust was a significant challenge for the Apollo astronauts and will be of greater concern for longer duration, future missions. Passive mitigation strategies, those not requiring external energy, may decrease some of these concerns, and have been investigated in this work. A myriad of approaches to modify the surface chemistry and topography of a variety of substrates was investigated. These involved generation of novel materials, photolithographic techniques, and other template approaches. Additionally, single particle and multiple particle methods to quantitatively evaluate the particle-substrate adhesion interactions were developed.

  12. SCC-TB, DFT/B3LYP, MP2, AM1, PM3 and RHF study of ethylene oxide and propylene oxide structures, VA and VCD spectra

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Jalkanen, Karl J.; Frimand, Kenneth

    2002-01-01

    -binding method for equilibrium structures, VA and VCD spectra of ethylene oxide and propylene oxide in the gas-phase. Comparison to conventional methods AM1, PM3, MP2, RHF and DFT/B3LYP is carried out. We report results over a wider range of frequencies than previous work. In particular, we find indications...

  13. International perspectives on mitigating laboratory biorisks.

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Pinard, William J.; Salazar, Carlos A.

    2010-11-01

    The International Perspectives on Mitigating Laboratory Biorisks workshop, held at the Renaissance Polat Istanbul Hotel in Istanbul, Republic of Turkey, from October 25 to 27, 2010, sought to promote discussion between experts and stakeholders from around the world on issues related to the management of biological risk in laboratories. The event was organized by Sandia National Laboratories International Biological Threat Reduction program, on behalf of the US Department of State Biosecurity Engagement Program and the US Department of Defense Cooperative Biological Engagement Program. The workshop came about as a response to US Under Secretary of State Ellen O. Tauscher's statements in Geneva on December 9, 2009, during the Annual Meeting of the States Parties to the Biological Weapons Convention (BWC). Pursuant to those remarks, the workshop was intended to provide a forum for interested countries to share information on biorisk management training, standards, and needs. Over the course of the meeting's three days, participants discussed diverse topics such as the role of risk assessment in laboratory biorisk management, strategies for mitigating risk, measurement of performance and upkeep, international standards, training and building workforce competence, and the important role of government and regulation. The meeting concluded with affirmations of the utility of international cooperation in this sphere and recognition of positive prospects for the future. The workshop was organized as a series of short presentations by international experts on the field of biorisk management, followed by breakout sessions in which participants were divided into four groups and urged to discuss a particular topic with the aid of a facilitator and a set of guiding questions. Rapporteurs were present during the plenary session as well as breakout sessions and in particular were tasked with taking notes during discussions and reporting back to the assembled participants

  14. Comprehensive mitigation assessment process (COMAP) - Description and instruction manual

    OpenAIRE

    Makundi, Willy; Sathaye, Jayant

    2001-01-01

    In order to prepare policies and plans to reduce GHG emissions, national policy-makers need information on the costs and benefits of different mitigation options in addition to their carbon implications. Policy-makers must weigh the costs, benefits, and impacts of climate change mitigation and adaptation options, in the face of competition for limited resources. The policy goal for mitigation options in the land use sector is to identify which mix of options is likely to best achieve the...

  15. Approaches for preventing and mitigating accidental gaseous chemical releases

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Fthenakis, V.M.

    1996-12-31

    This paper presents a review of approaches to prevent and mitigate accidental releases of toxic and flammable gases. The prevention options are related to: choosing safer processes and materials, preventing initiating events, preventing or minimizing releases, and preventing human exposures. the mitigation options include: secondary confinement, de-inventory, vapor barriers, and water sprays/monitors. Guidelines for the design and operation of effective post-release mitigation systems are also presented.

  16. FEMA Hazard Mitigation Assistance Severe Repetitive Loss (SRL) Data

    Data.gov (United States)

    Department of Homeland Security — This dataset contains closed and obligated projects funded under the following Hazard Mitigation Assistance (HMA) grant programs: Severe Repetitive Loss (SRL). The...

  17. FEMA Hazard Mitigation Assistance Repetitive Flood Claims (RFC) Data

    Data.gov (United States)

    Department of Homeland Security — This dataset contains closed and obligated projects funded under the following Hazard Mitigation Assistance (HMA) grant programs: Repetitive Flood Claims (RFC). The...

  18. Characterizing Uncertainty for Regional Climate Change Mitigation and Adaptation Decisions

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Unwin, Stephen D.; Moss, Richard H.; Rice, Jennie S.; Scott, Michael J.

    2011-09-30

    This white paper describes the results of new research to develop an uncertainty characterization process to help address the challenges of regional climate change mitigation and adaptation decisions.

  19. 2006 River Corridor Closure Contractor Revegetation and Mitigation Monitoring Report

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    A. L. Johnson; K. A. Gano

    2006-10-03

    The purpose of this report is to document the status of revegetation projects and natural resources mitigation efforts that have been conducted for remediated waste sites and other activities associated with the Comprehensive Environmental Response, Compensation, and Liability Act cleanup of National Priorities List waste sites at Hanford. One of the objectives of restoration is the revegetation of remediated waste sites to stabilize the soil and restore the land to native vegetation. The report documents the results of revegetation and mitigation monitoring conducted in 2006 and includes 11 revegetation/restoration projects, one revegetation/mitigation project, and 2 bat habitat mitigation projects.

  20. Forest Biomass for Climate Change Mitigation

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Nielsen, Anders Tærø

    on southern Scandinavian sites, managed under different systems both in agriculture and in forests. In addition, the objective is to assess the potential of the poplar plantations to mitigate climate change by using poplar biomass for substitution of fossil fuels in comparison to a traditional product....... The production results were, however, heavily site dependent, with soil texture and C/N ratio of the soils being the best site productivity indicators for poplar. The comparison of three forest management strategies, poplar, beech or unmanaged beech, showed that the poplar for bioenergy management strategy...... favorable for reduction of CO2 emissions. In all analyzed scenarios, however, the managed poplar and beech forest strategies resulted in lower CO2 emissions than the unmanaged forest. The studies also showed that it cannot readily be assumed that the use of biomass is entirely CO2 neutral, due to use...

  1. Disaster management and mitigation: the telecommunications infrastructure.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Patricelli, Frédéric; Beakley, James E; Carnevale, Angelo; Tarabochia, Marcello; von Lubitz, Dag K J E

    2009-03-01

    Among the most typical consequences of disasters is the near or complete collapse of terrestrial telecommunications infrastructures (especially the distribution network--the 'last mile') and their concomitant unavailability to the rescuers and the higher echelons of mitigation teams. Even when such damage does not take place, the communications overload/congestion resulting from significantly elevated traffic generated by affected residents can be highly disturbing. The paper proposes innovative remedies to the telecommunications difficulties in disaster struck regions. The offered solutions are network-centric operations-cap able, and can be employed in management of disasters of any magnitude (local to national or international). Their implementation provide ground rescue teams (such as law enforcement, firemen, healthcare personnel, civilian authorities) with tactical connectivity among themselves, and, through the Next Generation Network backbone, ensure the essential bidirectional free flow of information and distribution of Actionable Knowledge among ground units, command/control centres, and civilian and military agencies participating in the rescue effort.

  2. Biochar Mitigates Salinity Stress in Potato

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Akhtar, S S; Andersen, Mathias Neumann; Liu, Fulai

    2015-01-01

    A pot experiment was conducted in a climate-controlled greenhouse to investigate the growth, physiology and yield of potato in response to salinity stress under biochar amendment. It was hypothesized that addition of biochar may improve plant growth and yield by mitigating the negative effect...... capability of biochar. Results indicated that biochar was capable to ameliorate salinity stress by adsorbing Na+. Increasing salinity level resulted in significant reductions of shoot biomass, root length and volume, tuber yield, photosynthetic rate (An), stomatal conductance (gs), midday leaf water...... with the respective non-biochar control. Decreased Na+, Na+/K+ ratio and increased K+ content in xylem with biochar amendment also indicated its ameliorative effects on potato plants in response to salinity stress. The results suggested that incorporation of biochar might be a promising approach for enhancing crop...

  3. Hotspot mitigation in the StarCAVE

    KAUST Repository

    Rhee, Jordan

    2010-01-27

    Rear-projected screens such as those in Digital Light Projection (DLP) televisions suffer from an image quality problem called hot spotting, where the image is brightest at a point dependent on the viewing angle. In rear-projected mulit-screen configurations such as the StarCAVE at Calit2, this causes discontinuities in brightness at the edges where screens meet, and thus in the 3D image perceived by the user. In the StarCAVE we know the viewer\\'s position in 3D space and we have programmable graphics hardware, so we can mitigate this effect by performing post-processing in the inverse of the pattern, yielding a homogenous image at the output. Our implementation improves brightness homogeneity by a factor of 4 while decreasing frame rate by only 1-3 fps.

  4. Mitigation of surface reflection in PIV measurements

    Science.gov (United States)

    Paterna, E.; Moonen, P.; Dorer, V.; Carmeliet, J.

    2013-05-01

    Surface reflections of high-intensity laser light are a common concern when conducting particle image velocimetry (PIV) measurements. Consequences range from a poor signal-to-noise ratio (overexposure) in near-surface areas up to camera sensor damage. The severity depends on the interplay between three factors: surface properties, laser light intensity and relative camera position. In stereoscopic or tomographic PIV setups, material selection is often the only factor which can be adapted. We present a systematic comparative study, involving different materials and surface treatments. Their potential to mitigate surface reflections is quantified against the reference case of a flat black painted wooden surface. The largest reduction of surface reflection intensity is obtained by applying fluorescent paint on wood or by employing electropolished steel. The more widely used flat black painted wood shows poor behavior.

  5. Mitigation strategies for autogenous shrinkage cracking

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Bentz, Dale P.; Jensen, Ole Mejlhede

    2004-01-01

    As the use of high-performance concrete has increased, problems with early-age cracking have become prominent. The reduction in water-to-cement ratio, the incorporation of silica fume, and the increase in binder content of high-performance concretes all contribute to this problem. In this paper......, the fundamental parameters contributing to the autogenous shrinkage and resultant early-age cracking of concrete are presented. Basic characteristics of the cement paste that contribute to or control the autogenous shrinkage response include the surface tension of the pore solution, the geometry of the pore...... of early-age cracking due to autogenous shrinkage. Mitigation strategies discussed in this paper include: the addition of shrinkage-reducing admixtures more commonly used to control drying shrinkage, control of the cement particle size distribution, modification of the mineralogical composition...

  6. Canadian Activities in Space Debris Mitigation Technologies

    Science.gov (United States)

    Nikanpour, Darius; Jiang, Xin Xiang; Goroshin, Samuel; Haddad, Emile; Kruzelecky, Roman; Hoa, Suong; Merle, Philippe; Kleiman, Jacob; Gendron, Stephane; Higgins, Andrew; Jamroz, Wes

    The space environment, and in particular the Low Earth Orbit (LEO), is becoming increasingly populated with space debris which include fragments of dysfunctional spacecraft parts and materials traveling at speeds up to 15 km per second. These pose an escalating potential threat to LEO spacecraft, the international space station, and manned missions. This paper presents the Canadian activities to address the concerns over space debris in terms of debris mitigation measures and technologies; these include novel spacecraft demise technologies to safely decommission the spacecraft at the end of the mission, integrated self-healing material technologies for spacecraft structures to facilitate self-repair and help maintain the spacecraft structural and thermal performance, hypervelocity ground test capability to predict the impact of space debris on spacecraft performance, and ways of raising awareness within the space community through participation in targeted Science and Technology conferences and international forums.

  7. Heat toxicant contaminant mitigation in potato chips

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Mariotti, Maria; Cortes, Pablo; Fromberg, Arvid

    2015-01-01

    was to mitigate the furan and acrylamide formation in potato chips without increasing their oil uptake by optimizing the blanching treatment before final frying. Potato slices were blanched in order to simultaneously leach out ascorbic acid and reducing sugars, the most important precursors of furan...... and acrylamide generation in thermally treated starchy foods. A central composite design was implemented to optimize the temperature-time blanching conditions under which furan, acrylamide and oil content in potato chips were minimized. The optimum blanching conditions were 64 degrees C and 17 min in which......Heating foods immersed in oil during frying provides many attractive sensorial attributes including taste, flavor and color. However, some toxic compounds formed during frying of potatoes such as furan and acrylamide may constitute an increased cancer risk for consumers. The objective of this work...

  8. EUROPEAN UNION POLICIES FOR CLIMATE CHANGE MITIGATION

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Paul Canter

    2017-07-01

    Full Text Available Climate change is one of the most important challenges that humanity faces in the 21st century, and for the European Union, combating this phenomenon represents an important element, which is reflected both in the actions carried out in recent years, domestically and internationally, as well as in the EU policy on climate change. Within the EU, regulations were adopted, that demonstrate the importance that the Union confers to the limitation of this phenomenon, stressing at the same time the need for an integrated policy framework to ensure the security for potential investors and a coordinated approach between Member States. This paper will present recent developments for the most important policies to combat and mitigate climate change in the European Union, starting with "20-20-20" objectives, which are to be met through the package "Energy-Climate Change", continuing with 2030 and 2050 timeframes, and finally presenting the main lines of action to combat climate change.

  9. Enhanced Practical Photosynthetic CO2 Mitigation

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Gregory Kremer; David J. Bayless; Morgan Vis; Michael Prudich; Keith Cooksey; Jeff Muhs

    2006-01-15

    This final report highlights significant achievements in the Enhanced Practical Photosynthetic CO{sub 2} Mitigation Project during the period from 10/1/2001 through 01/02/2006. As indicated in the list of accomplishments below, our efforts during this project were focused on the selection of candidate organisms and growth surfaces and initiating long-term tests in the bench-scale and pilot-scale bioreactor test systems. Specific results and accomplishments for the program include: (1) CRF-2 test system: (a) Sampling test results have shown that the initial mass of algae loaded into the Carbon Recycling Facility Version 2 (CRF-2) system can be estimated with about 3% uncertainty using a statistical sampling procedure. (b) The pressure shim header pipe insert design was shown to have better flow for harvesting than the drilled-hole design. (c) The CRF-2 test system has undergone major improvements to produce the high flow rates needed for harvesting (as determined by previous experiments). The main changes to the system are new stainless steel header/frame units, with increased flow capacity and a modified pipe-end-sealing method to improve flow uniformity, and installation and plumbing for a new high flow harvesting pump. Qualitative system tests showed that the harvesting system performed wonderfully, cleaning the growth surfaces within a matter of seconds. (d) Qualitative tests have shown that organisms can be repopulated on a harvested section of a bioreactor screen, demonstrating that continuous bioreactor operation is feasible, with continuous cycles of harvesting and repopulating screens. (e) Final preparations are underway for quantitative, long-term tests in the CRF-2 with weekly harvesting. (2) Pilot-scale test system: (a) The construction of the pilot-scale bioreactor was completed, including the solar collector and light distribution system. Over the course of the project, the solar collector used in the light delivery system showed some degradation, but

  10. Investigation of stress induced by CO2 laser processing of fused silica optics for laser damage growth mitigation.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gallais, Laurent; Cormont, Philippe; Rullier, Jean-Luc

    2009-12-21

    Laser damage mitigation' is a process developed to prevent the growth of nanosecond laser-initiated damage sites under successive irradiation. It consists of re-fusing the damage area with a CO2 laser. In this paper we investigate the stress field created around mitigated sites which could have an influence on the efficiency of the process. A numerical model of CO2 laser interaction with fused silica is developed. It takes into account laser energy absorption, heat transfer, thermally induced stress and birefringence. Residual stress near mitigated sites in fused silica samples is characterized with specific photoelastic methods and theoretical data are compared to experiments. The stress distribution and quantitative values of stress levels are obtained for sites treated with the CO2 laser in various conditions of energy deposition (beam size, pulse duration, incident power). The results provided evidence that the presence of birefringence/residual stress around the mitigated sites has an effect on their laser damage resistance.

  11. Review of arsenic contamination, exposure through water and food and low cost mitigation options for rural areas

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Sharma, Anitha Kumari; Tjell, Jens Christian; Sloth, Jens Jørgen

    2014-01-01

    As intake and exposure, and how the As chemistry in water and food may influence chosen mitigation strategies. Although reports on severe health effects from exposure to As in water are abundant there are several weak points in our knowledge on causes and prevalence of arsenicosis in order to devise......Arsenic (As) is a toxic metalloid found to be an important groundwater contaminant of mainly natural geogenic origin worldwide particularly in large deltas and along major rivers in poor regions of South- and East-Asia. Excessive and long-term human intake of toxic inorganic As with food and water...... effective mitigation. The main mitigation strategies focus on drinking water based on exploration of As-free water and As removal from extracted water, whereas mitigation strategies on cooking water and reducing exposure through food are quite often overlooked. The experiences of adopted low cost methods...

  12. Pedestrian injury mitigation by autonomous braking.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rosén, Erik; Källhammer, Jan-Erik; Eriksson, Dick; Nentwich, Matthias; Fredriksson, Rikard; Smith, Kip

    2010-11-01

    The objective of this study was to calculate the potential effectiveness of a pedestrian injury mitigation system that autonomously brakes the car prior to impact. The effectiveness was measured by the reduction of fatally and severely injured pedestrians. The database from the German In-Depth Accident Study (GIDAS) was queried for pedestrians hit by the front of cars from 1999 to 2007. Case by case information on vehicle and pedestrian velocities and trajectories were analysed to estimate the field of view needed for a vehicle-based sensor to detect the pedestrians one second prior to the crash. The pre-impact braking system was assumed to activate the brakes one second prior to crash and to provide a braking deceleration up to the limit of the road surface conditions, but never to exceed 0.6 g. New impact speeds were then calculated for pedestrians that would have been detected by the sensor. These calculations assumed that all pedestrians who were within a given field of view but not obstructed by surrounding objects would be detected. The changes in fatality and severe injury risks were quantified using risk curves derived by logistic regression of the accident data. Summing the risks for all pedestrians, relationships between mitigation effectiveness, sensor field of view, braking initiation time, and deceleration were established. The study documents that the effectiveness at reducing fatally (severely) injured pedestrians in frontal collisions with cars reached 40% (27%) at a field of view of 40 degrees. Increasing the field of view further led to only marginal improvements in effectiveness. 2010 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  13. Evaluation of GPS Standard Point Positioning with Various Ionospheric Error Mitigation Techniques

    Science.gov (United States)

    Panda, Sampad K.; Gedam, Shirish S.

    2016-12-01

    The present paper investigates accuracy of single and dual-frequency Global Positioning System (GPS) standard point positioning solutions employing different ionosphere error mitigation techniques. The total electron content (TEC) in the ionosphere is the prominent delay error source in GPS positioning, and its elimination is essential for obtaining a relatively precise positioning solution. The estimated delay error from different ionosphere models and maps, such as Klobuchar model, global ionosphere models, and vertical TEC maps are compared with the locally derived ionosphere error following the ion density and frequency dependence with delay error. Finally, the positional accuracy of the single and dual-frequency GPS point positioning solutions are probed through different ionospheric mitigation methods including exploitation of models, maps, and ionosphere-free linear combinations and removal of higher order ionospheric effects. The results suggest the superiority of global ionosphere maps for single-frequency solution, whereas for the dual-frequency measurement the ionosphere-free linear combination with prior removal of higher-order ionosphere effects from global ionosphere maps and geomagnetic reference fields resulted in improved positioning quality among the chosen mitigation techniques. Conspicuously, the susceptibility of height component to different ionospheric mitigation methods are demonstrated in this study which may assist the users in selecting appropriate technique for precise GPS positioning measurements.

  14. Libby Mitigation Program, 2007 Annual Progress Report: Mitigation for the Construction and Operation of Libby Dam.

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Dunnigan, James; DeShazer, J.; Garrow, L.

    2009-05-26

    Libby Reservoir was created under an International Columbia River Treaty between the United States and Canada for cooperative water development of the Columbia River Basin (Columbia River Treaty 1964). Libby Reservoir inundated 109 stream miles of the mainstem Kootenai River in the United States and Canada, and 40 miles of tributary streams in the U.S. that provided habitat for spawning, juvenile rearing, and migratory passage (Figure 1). The authorized purpose of the dam is to provide power (91.5%), flood control (8.3%), and navigation and other benefits (0.2%; Storm et al. 1982). The Pacific Northwest Power Act of 1980 recognized possible conflicts stemming from hydroelectric projects in the northwest and directed Bonneville Power Administration to 'protect, mitigate, and enhance fish and wildlife to the extent affected by the development and operation of any hydroelectric project of the Columbia River and its tributaries' (4(h)(10)(A)). Under the Act, the Northwest Power Planning Council was created and recommendations for a comprehensive fish and wildlife program were solicited from the region's federal, state, and tribal fish and wildlife agencies. Among Montana's recommendations was the proposal that research be initiated to quantify acceptable seasonal minimum pool elevations to maintain or enhance the existing fisheries (Graham et al. 1982). Research to determine how operations of Libby Dam affect the reservoir and river fishery and to suggest ways to lessen these effects began in May 1983. The framework for the Libby Reservoir Model (LRMOD) was completed in 1989. Development of Integrated Rule Curves (IRCs) for Libby Dam operation was completed in 1996 (Marotz et al. 1996). The Libby Reservoir Model and the IRCs continue to be refined (Marotz et al 1999). Initiation of mitigation projects such as lake rehabilitation and stream restoration began in 1996. The primary focus of the Libby Mitigation project now is to restore the fisheries

  15. Improved Sensor Fault Detection, Isolation, and Mitigation Using Multiple Observers Approach.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wang, Zheng; Anand, D M; Moyne, J; Tilbury, D M

    2017-01-01

    Traditional Fault Detection and Isolation (FDI) methods analyze a residual signal to detect and isolate sensor faults. The residual signal is the difference between the sensor measurements and the estimated outputs of the system based on an observer. The traditional residual-based FDI methods, however, have some limitations. First, they require that the observer has reached its steady state. In addition, residual-based methods may not detect some sensor faults, such as faults on critical sensors that result in an unobservable system. Furthermore, the system may be in jeopardy if actions required for mitigating the impact of the faulty sensors are not taken before the faulty sensors are identified. The contribution of this paper is to propose three new methods to address these limitations. Faults that occur during the observers' transient state can be detected by analyzing the convergence rate of the estimation error. Open-loop observers, which do not rely on sensor information, are used to detect faults on critical sensors. By switching among different observers, we can potentially mitigate the impact of the faulty sensor during the FDI process. These three methods are systematically integrated with a previously developed residual-based method to provide an improved FDI and mitigation capability framework. The overall approach is validated mathematically, and the effectiveness of the overall approach is demonstrated through simulation on a 5-state suspension system.

  16. Optimum cooling of data centers application of risk assessment and mitigation techniques

    CERN Document Server

    Dai, Jun; Das, Diganta; Pecht, Michael G

    2014-01-01

    This book provides data center designers and operators with methods by which to assess and mitigate the risks associated with utilization of optimum cooling solutions. The goal is to provide readers with sufficient knowledge to implement measures such as free air cooling or direct liquid immersion cooling properly, or combination of existing and emerging cooling technologies in data centers, base stations, and server farms. This book also: Discusses various telecommunication infrastructures, with an emphasis on data centers and base stations Covers the most commonly known energy and power management techniques, as well as emerging cooling solutions for data centers Describes the risks to the electronic equipment fitted in these installations and the methods of risk mitigation Devotes  a particular focus to an up-to-date review of the emerging cooling methods (such as free air cooling and direct liquid immersion cooling) and tools and best practices for designers, technology developers, installation operators...

  17. The online community based decision making support system for mitigating biased decision making

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kang, Sunghyun; Seo, Jiwan; Choi, Seungjin; Kim, Junho; Han, Sangyong

    2016-10-01

    As the Internet technology and social media advance, various information and opinions are shared and distributed through the online communities. However, the existence of implicit and explicit bias of opinions may have a potential influence on the outcomes. Compared to the importance of mitigating biased information, the study in this field is relatively young and does not address many important issues. In this paper we propose the noble approach to mitigate the biased opinions using conventional machine learning methods. The proposed method extracts the useful features such as inclination and sentiment of the community members. They are classified based on their previous behavior, and the propensity of the members is understood. This information on each community and its members is very useful and improve the ability to make an unbiased decision. The proposed method presented in this paper is shown to have the ability to assist optimal, fair and good decision making while also reducing the influence of implicit bias.

  18. 40 CFR 51.930 - Mitigation of Exceptional Events.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-07-01

    ... 40 Protection of Environment 2 2010-07-01 2010-07-01 false Mitigation of Exceptional Events. 51... Mitigation of Exceptional Events. (a) A State requesting to exclude air quality data due to exceptional events must take appropriate and reasonable actions to protect public health from exceedances or...

  19. Indigenous Technologies for Adaptation and Mitigation of Climate ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Past global efforts at dealing with the impact of climate change was based on mitigation aimed at carbon sequestration. This was followed by adaptation which was seen as a viable option to reduce the vulnerability of the anticipated negative impacts of global warming. However adaptation and mitigation should not be ...

  20. Mitigation technologies and measures in energy sector of Kazakstan

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Pilifosova, O.; Danchuk, D.; Temertekov, T. [and others

    1996-12-31

    An important commitment in the UN Framework Convention on Climate Change is to conduct mitigation analysis and to communicate climate change measures and policies. In major part reducing CO{sub 2} as well as the other greenhouse gas emissions in Kazakstan, can be a side-product of measures addressed to increasing energy efficiency. Since such measures are very important for the national economy, mitigation strategies in the energy sector of Kazakstan are directly connected with the general national strategy of the energy sector development. This paper outlines the main measures and technologies in energy sector of Kazakstan which can lead to GHG emissions reduction and presents the results of current mitigation assessment. The mitigation analysis is addressed to energy production sector. A baseline and six mitigation scenarios were developed to evaluate the most attractive mitigation options, focusing on specific technologies which have been already included in sustainable energy programs. According to the baseline projection, Kazakstan`s CO{sub 2} emissions will not exceed their 1990 level until 2005. The potential for CO{sub 2} emission reduction is estimated to be about 11 % of the base line emission level by the end of considered period (in 2020). The main mitigation options in the energy production sector in terms of mitigation potential and technical and economical feasibility include rehabilitation of thermal power plants aimed to increasing efficiency, use of nuclear energy and further expansion in the use of hydro energy based on small hydroelectric power plants.

  1. Living in a tinderbox: wildfire risk perceptions and mitigating behaviours

    Science.gov (United States)

    Patricia A. Champ; Geoffrey H. Donovan; Christopher M. Barth

    2013-01-01

    The loss of homes to wildfires is an important issue in the USA and other countries. Yet many homeowners living in fire-prone areas do not undertake mitigating actions, such as clearing vegetation, to decrease the risk of losing their home. To better understand the complexity of wildfire risk-mitigation decisions and the role of perceived risk, we conducted a survey of...

  2. 40 CFR 230.93 - General compensatory mitigation requirements.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-07-01

    ... storm water management or habitat conservation programs. It includes the protection and maintenance of... Compensatory Mitigation for Losses of Aquatic Resources § 230.93 General compensatory mitigation requirements... on what is practicable and capable of compensating for the aquatic resource functions that will be...

  3. 44 CFR 201.4 - Standard State Mitigation Plans.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-10-01

    ... vulnerability assessments. The risk assessment shall include the following: (i) An overview of the type and..., DEPARTMENT OF HOMELAND SECURITY DISASTER ASSISTANCE MITIGATION PLANNING § 201.4 Standard State Mitigation... was involved in the process, and how other agencies participated. (2) Risk assessments that provide...

  4. 44 CFR 201.7 - Tribal Mitigation Plans.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-10-01

    ... OF HOMELAND SECURITY DISASTER ASSISTANCE MITIGATION PLANNING § 201.7 Tribal Mitigation Plans. The... events. (ii) A description of the Indian tribal government's vulnerability to the hazards described in... its impact on the tribe. The plan should describe vulnerability in terms of: (A) The types and numbers...

  5. Tillman Creek Mitigation Site As-Build Report.

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Gresham, Doug [Otak, Inc.

    2009-05-29

    This as-built report describes site conditions at the Tillman Creek mitigation site in South Cle Elum, Washington. This mitigation site was constructed in 2006-2007 to compensate for wetland impacts from the Yakama Nation hatchery. This as-built report provides information on the construction sequence, as-built survey, and establishment of baseline monitoring stations.

  6. Catching fire? Social interactions, beliefs, and wildfire risk mitigation behaviors

    Science.gov (United States)

    Katherine Dickinson; Hannah Brenkert-Smith; Patricia Champ; Nicholas Flores

    2015-01-01

    Social interactions are widely recognized as a potential influence on risk-related behaviors. We present a mediation model in which social interactions (classified as formal/informal and generic-fire-specific) are associated with beliefs about wildfire risk and mitigation options, which in turn shape wildfire mitigation behaviors. We test this model using survey data...

  7. Fail forward: Mitigating failure in energy research and innovation

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Brix, Jacob

    2015-01-01

    that identifying and mitigating individual and collective misbehaviors are needed throughout the entire innovation process. If the level of ambition is not reached, then project owners should identify, analyze, and mitigate misfit(s) in their projects - and try again. For all intents and purposes, they need...

  8. Delays in US mitigation could rule out Paris targets

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sanderson, Benjamin M.; Knutti, Reto

    2017-02-01

    Political upsets could stall coordinated international mitigation action, but emissions and investments over the next few years will have long-term consequences. Any delays to mitigation or cuts to renewable energy research by the US will likely render the 2 °C target unachievable if a global precedent is set.

  9. Assessing climate change mitigation technology interventions by international institutions

    OpenAIRE

    de Coninck, Heleen; Puig, Daniel

    2015-01-01

    Accelerating the international use of climate mitigation technologies is key if effortsto curb climate change are to succeed, especially in developing countries, where weakdomestic technological innovation systems constrain the uptake of climate change mitigationtechnologies. Several intergovernmental agencies have set up specific programmes to supportthe diffusion of climate mitigation technologies. Using a simplified technological innovationsystem-based framework, this paper aims to systema...

  10. Mitigating climate change by minimising the carbon footprint and ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Mitigating climate change by minimising the carbon footprint and embodied energy of construction materials: A comparative analysis of three South African Bus ... This article investigates the role that architecture can play in mitigating climate change by comparing the environmental impact of construction material use in two ...

  11. Snow avalanche hazards and mitigation in the United States

    National Research Council Canada - National Science Library

    Committee on Ground Failure Hazards Mitigation Research

    1990-01-01

    ... Failure Hazards Mitigation Research Division of Natural Hazard Mitigation Commission on Engineering and Technical Systems National Research Council NATIONAL ACADEMY PRESS Washington, D.C.1990 i Copyrighttrue Please breaks inserted. are Page files. accidentally typesetting been have may original from the errors not typographic original ...

  12. 23 CFR 777.9 - Mitigation of impacts.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-04-01

    ... participate in the development of statewide and regional wetlands conservation plans, including any efforts.... (4) Mitigation banks. In accordance with all applicable Federal law (including regulations), with... bank, preference shall be given, to the maximum extent practicable, to the use of the mitigation bank...

  13. Efficient and Equitable Design of Wildfire Mitigation Programs

    Science.gov (United States)

    Thomas P. Holmes; Karen L. Abt; Robert Huggett; Jeffrey P. Prestemon

    2007-01-01

    Natural resource economists have addresssed the economic effienciency of expenditures on wildfire mitigation for nearly a century (Gope and Gorte 1979). Beginning with the work of Sparhawk (1925), the theory of efficent wildfire mitigation developed alolng conceptual lines drawn form neoclassical economics. The objective of the traditional least-cost-plus-loss model...

  14. Climate change mitigation and productivity gains in livestock supply chains

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Mottet, Anne; Henderson, Benjamin; Opio, Carolyn; Falcucci, Alessandra; Tempio, Giuseppe; Silvestri, Silvia; Chesterman, Sabrina; Gerber, Pierre J.

    2016-01-01

    Livestock can contribute to climate change mitigation by reducing their greenhouse gas emissions and by increasing soil carbon sequestration. Packages of mitigation techniques can bring large environmental benefits as illustrated in six case studies modeled in the Global Livestock Environmental

  15. Securing ARP and DHCP for mitigating link layer attacks

    Indian Academy of Sciences (India)

    Vulnerabilities in ARP and DHCP threaten the operation of any network. The existing solutions to secure ARPand DHCP could not mitigate DHCP starvation and host impersonation attacks. This work introduces a new solution to secure ARP and DHCP for preventing and mitigating these LAN attacks. The proposed solution ...

  16. An RF interference mitigation methodology with potential applications in scheduling

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wong, Yen F.; Rash, James L.

    1991-01-01

    Software tools for interference analysis and mitigation were developed in the Communications Link Analysis and Simulation System (CLASS) environment for: communications performance evaluation; and mission planning. Potential applications are seen in analysis, evaluation, and optimization of user schedules. Tools producing required separation angles and potential interference intervals can be used as an aid to mutual interference mitigation within a scheduling system.

  17. Does Lactation Mitigate Triple Negative/Basal Breast Cancer Progression

    Science.gov (United States)

    2013-11-01

    Award Number: W81XWH-10-1-0679 TITLE: DOES LACTATION MITIGATE TRIPLE NEGATIVE/BASAL BREAST CANCER...2013 4. TITLE AND SUBTITLE 5a. CONTRACT NUMBER DOES LACTATION MITIGATE TRIPLE NEGATIVE/BASAL BREAST CANCER PROGRESSION? 5b. GRANT NUMBER...that this protective layer may be maintained by tumors formed during pregnancy lactation cycle, but may be preferentially compromised by tumors

  18. Climate mitigation scenarios of drained peat soils

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kasimir Klemedtsson, Åsa; Coria, Jessica; He, Hongxing; Liu, Xiangping; Nordén, Anna

    2014-05-01

    The national inventory reports (NIR) submitted to the UNFCCC show Sweden - which as many other countries has wetlands where parts have been drained for agriculture and forestry purposes, - to annually emit 12 million tonnes carbon dioxide equivalents, which is more GHG'es than industrial energy use release in Sweden. Similar conditions can be found in other northern countries, having cool and wet conditions, naturally promoting peat accumulation, and where land use management over the last centuries have promoted draining activities. These drained peatland, though covering only 2% of the land area, have emissions corresponding to 20% of the total reported NIR emissions. This substantial emission contribution, however, is hidden within the Land Use Land Use Change and Forestry sector (LULUCF) where the forest Carbon uptake is even larger, which causes the peat soil emissions become invisible. The only drained soil emission accounted in the Swedish Kyoto reporting is the N2O emission from agricultural drained organic soils of the size 0.5 million tonnes CO2e yr-1. This lack of visibility has made incentives for land use change and management neither implemented nor suggested, however with large potential. Rewetting has the potential to decrease soil mineralization, why CO2 and N2O emissions are mitigated. However if the soil becomes very wet CH4 emission will increase together with hampered plant growth. By ecological modeling, using the CoupModel the climate change mitigation potential have been estimated for four different land use scenarios; 1, Drained peat soil with Spruce (business as usual scenario), 2, raised ground water level to 20 cm depth and Willow plantation, 3, raised ground water level to 10 cm depth and Reed Canary Grass, and 4, rewetting to an average water level in the soil surface with recolonizing wetland plants and mosses. We calculate the volume of biomass production per year, peat decomposition, N2O emission together with nitrate and DOC

  19. Session: Avoiding, minimizing, and mitigating avian and bat impacts

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Thelander, Carl; Kerlinger, Paul

    2004-09-01

    This session at the Wind Energy and Birds/Bats workshop consisted of two presentations followed by a discussion/question answer period. The session addressed a variety of questions related to avoiding, minimizing, and mitigating the avian and bat impacts of wind power development including: what has been learned from operating turbines and mitigating impacts where they are unavoidable, such as at Altamont Pass WRA, and should there be mitigation measures such as habitat creation or land conservation where impacts occur. Other impact minimization and mitigation approaches discussed included: location and siting evaluations; options for construction and operation of wind facilities; turbine lighting; and the physical alignment/orientation. Titles and authors of the presentations were: 'Bird Fatalities in the Altamont Pass Wind Resource Area: A Case Study, Part II' by Carl Thelander and 'Prevention and Mitigation of Avian Impacts at Wind Power Facilities' by Paul Kerlinger.

  20. Mitigating reptile road mortality: fence failures compromise ecopassage effectiveness.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    James H Baxter-Gilbert

    Full Text Available Roadways pose serious threats to animal populations. The installation of roadway mitigation measures is becoming increasingly common, yet studies that rigorously evaluate the effectiveness of these conservation tools remain rare. A highway expansion project in Ontario, Canada included exclusion fencing and ecopassages as mitigation measures designed to offset detrimental effects to one of the most imperial groups of vertebrates, reptiles. Taking a multispecies approach, we used a Before-After-Control-Impact study design to compare reptile abundance on the highway before and after mitigation at an Impact site and a Control site from 1 May to 31 August in 2012 and 2013. During this time, radio telemetry, wildlife cameras, and an automated PIT-tag reading system were used to monitor reptile movements and use of ecopassages. Additionally, a willingness to utilize experiment was conducted to quantify turtle behavioral responses to ecopassages. We found no difference in abundance of turtles on the road between the un-mitigated and mitigated highways, and an increase in the percentage of both snakes and turtles detected dead on the road post-mitigation, suggesting that the fencing was not effective. Although ecopassages were used by reptiles, the number of crossings through ecopassages was lower than road-surface crossings. Furthermore, turtle willingness to use ecopassages was lower than that reported in previous arena studies, suggesting that effectiveness of ecopassages may be compromised when alternative crossing options are available (e.g., through holes in exclusion structures. Our rigorous evaluation of reptile roadway mitigation demonstrated that when exclusion structures fail, the effectiveness of population connectivity structures is compromised. Our project emphasizes the need to design mitigation measures with the biology and behavior of the target species in mind, to implement mitigation designs in a rigorous fashion, and quantitatively

  1. Mitigating Reptile Road Mortality: Fence Failures Compromise Ecopassage Effectiveness

    Science.gov (United States)

    Baxter-Gilbert, James H.; Riley, Julia L.; Lesbarrères, David; Litzgus, Jacqueline D.

    2015-01-01

    Roadways pose serious threats to animal populations. The installation of roadway mitigation measures is becoming increasingly common, yet studies that rigorously evaluate the effectiveness of these conservation tools remain rare. A highway expansion project in Ontario, Canada included exclusion fencing and ecopassages as mitigation measures designed to offset detrimental effects to one of the most imperial groups of vertebrates, reptiles. Taking a multispecies approach, we used a Before-After-Control-Impact study design to compare reptile abundance on the highway before and after mitigation at an Impact site and a Control site from 1 May to 31 August in 2012 and 2013. During this time, radio telemetry, wildlife cameras, and an automated PIT-tag reading system were used to monitor reptile movements and use of ecopassages. Additionally, a willingness to utilize experiment was conducted to quantify turtle behavioral responses to ecopassages. We found no difference in abundance of turtles on the road between the un-mitigated and mitigated highways, and an increase in the percentage of both snakes and turtles detected dead on the road post-mitigation, suggesting that the fencing was not effective. Although ecopassages were used by reptiles, the number of crossings through ecopassages was lower than road-surface crossings. Furthermore, turtle willingness to use ecopassages was lower than that reported in previous arena studies, suggesting that effectiveness of ecopassages may be compromised when alternative crossing options are available (e.g., through holes in exclusion structures). Our rigorous evaluation of reptile roadway mitigation demonstrated that when exclusion structures fail, the effectiveness of population connectivity structures is compromised. Our project emphasizes the need to design mitigation measures with the biology and behavior of the target species in mind, to implement mitigation designs in a rigorous fashion, and quantitatively evaluate road

  2. Combustion: an oil spill mitigation tool

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    None

    1979-11-01

    The technical feasibility of using combustion as an oil spill mitigation tool was studied. Part I of the two-part report is a practical guide oriented toward the needs of potential users, while Part II is the research or resource document from which the practical guidance was drawn. The study included theoretical evaluations of combustion of petroleum pool fires under the effects of weathering and an oil classification system related to combustion potential. The theoretical analysis of combustion is balanced by practical experience of oil burning and case history information. Decision elements are provided which can be used as a guide for technical evaluations of a particular oil spill situation. The rationale for assessing technical feasibility is given in the context of other alternatives available for response to an oil spill. A series of research and technology development concepts are included for future research. The ethics of using oil burning are discussed as issues, concerns, and tradeoffs. A detailed annotated bibliography is appended along with a capsule review of a decade of oil burning studies and other support information.

  3. A Chemical Approach to Mitigate Coral Bleaching

    Science.gov (United States)

    Marty-Rivera, M.; Yudowski, G.

    2016-02-01

    Changes in sea surface temperature and irradiance can induce bleaching and increase mortality in corals. Coral bleaching occurs when symbiotic algae living inside the coral is degraded or expelled, reducing the availability of energetic resources. Oxidative stress has been suggested as a possible molecular mechanism triggering bleaching. We hypothesized that reduction of reactive oxygen species (ROS) during stress could mitigate or prevent coral bleaching. We utilized the coral Porites Astreoides as our model to test the effects of two natural antioxidants, catechin and Resveratrol, on thermally induced bleaching. Coral fragments were exposed to four treatments: high temperature (32°C), high temperature plus antioxidants (1μM), ambient temperature (25°C), or ambient temperature (25°C) plus antioxidant for four days. A total of 8 corals were used per treatment. We measured several photobiological parameters, such as maximum quantum yield and light curves to assess the viability of symbiodinium spp. after thermal stress in the presence of antioxidants. Preliminary experiments on a model species, the sea anemone Aiptasia pallida and corals, showed that exposure to antioxidants reduced intracellular levels of ROS. Additionally, antioxidant-treated anemones showed higher photosynthetic efficiency (67%) than those exposed to high-temperature alone.

  4. Channel Shallowing as Mitigation of Coastal Flooding

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Philip M. Orton

    2015-07-01

    Full Text Available Here, we demonstrate that reductions in the depth of inlets or estuary channels can be used to reduce or prevent coastal flooding. A validated hydrodynamic model of Jamaica Bay, New York City (NYC, is used to test nature-based adaptation measures in ameliorating flooding for NYC's two largest historical coastal flood events. In addition to control runs with modern bathymetry, three altered landscape scenarios are tested: (1 increasing the area of wetlands to their 1879 footprint and bathymetry, but leaving deep shipping channels unaltered; (2 shallowing all areas deeper than 2 m in the bay to be 2 m below Mean Low Water; (3 shallowing only the narrowest part of the inlet to the bay. These three scenarios are deliberately extreme and designed to evaluate the leverage each approach exerts on water levels. They result in peak water level reductions of 0.3%, 15%, and 6.8% for Hurricane Sandy, and 2.4%, 46% and 30% for the Category-3 hurricane of 1821, respectively (bay-wide averages. These results suggest that shallowing can provide greater flood protection than wetland restoration, and it is particularly effective at reducing "fast-pulse" storm surges that rise and fall quickly over several hours, like that of the 1821 storm. Nonetheless, the goal of flood mitigation must be weighed against economic, navigation, and ecological needs, and practical concerns such as the availability of sediment.

  5. Water Contaminant Mitigation in Ionic Liquid Propellant

    Science.gov (United States)

    Conroy, David; Ziemer, John

    2009-01-01

    Appropriate system and operational requirements are needed in order to ensure mission success without unnecessary cost. Purity requirements applied to thruster propellants may flow down to materials and operations as well as the propellant preparation itself. Colloid electrospray thrusters function by applying a large potential to a room temperature liquid propellant (such as an ionic liquid), inducing formation of a Taylor cone. Ions and droplets are ejected from the Taylor cone and accelerated through a strong electric field. Electrospray thrusters are highly efficient, precise, scaleable, and demonstrate low thrust noise. Ionic liquid propellants have excellent properties for use as electrospray propellants, but can be hampered by impurities, owing to their solvent capabilities. Of foremost concern is the water content, which can result from exposure to atmosphere. Even hydrophobic ionic liquids have been shown to absorb water from the air. In order to mitigate the risks of bubble formation in feed systems caused by water content of the ionic liquid propellant, physical properties of the ionic liquid EMI-Im are analyzed. The effects of surface tension, material wetting, physisorption, and geometric details of the flow manifold and electrospray emitters are explored. Results are compared to laboratory test data.

  6. ENHANCED PRACTICAL PHOTOSYNTHETIC CO2 MITIGATION

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Dr. David J. Bayless; Dr. Morgan Vis; Dr. Gregory Kremer; Dr. Michael Prudich; Dr. Keith Cooksey; Dr. Jeff Muhs

    2001-01-16

    This is the first quarterly report of the project Enhanced Practical Photosynthetic CO{sub 2} Mitigation. The official project start date, 10/02/2000, was delayed until 10/31/2000 due to an intellectual property dispute that was resolved. However, the delay forced a subsequent delay in subcontracting with Montana State University, which then delayed obtaining a sampling permit from Yellowstone National Park. However, even with these delays, the project moved forward with some success. Accomplishments for this quarter include: Culturing of thermophilic organisms from Yellowstone; Testing of mesophilic organisms in extreme CO{sub 2} conditions; Construction of a second test bed for additional testing; Purchase of a total carbon analyzer dedicated to the project; Construction of a lighting container for Oak Ridge National Laboratory optical fiber testing; Modified lighting of existing test box to provide more uniform distribution; Testing of growth surface adhesion and properties; Experimentation on water-jet harvesting techniques; and Literature review underway regarding uses of biomass after harvesting. Plans for next quarter's work and an update on the project's web page are included in the conclusions.

  7. 21st Century Steam for Asteroid Mitigation

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Dearborn, D S

    2004-03-10

    The systematic requirements to divert an object on an earth-impacting course are developed relating the minimum velocity perturbation (both magnitude and direction) to the time available before impact. This, coupled with the accuracy to which orbits can be determined, restricts the time available for any mitigation technology to operate. Because nuclear energy densities are nearly a million times higher than those possible with chemical bonds, it is the most mass efficient means for storing delivering energy with today's technology. The question is how to most effectively apply that energy. This paper will examine the simple case of shattering the body, as well as a more controlled approach in which one or more small velocity increments divert a body. The optimal approach depends on the detailed circumstances, but in either case, already developed technology permits a successful diversion with a few years to decades of notice. The success of nuclear options on relatively short timescales permits consideration of other technologies that while not so well developed might be sufficiently improved to divert small (100 meter) bodies.

  8. Mitigating Inadvertent Insider Threats with Incentives

    Science.gov (United States)

    Liu, Debin; Wang, Xiaofeng; Camp, L. Jean

    Inadvertent insiders are trusted insiders who do not have malicious intent (as with malicious insiders) but do not responsibly managing security. The result is often enabling a malicious outsider to use the privileges of the inattentive insider to implement an insider attack. This risk is as old as conversion of a weak user password into root access, but the term inadvertent insider is recently coined to identify the link between the behavior and the vulnerability. In this paper, we propose to mitigate this threat using a novel risk budget mechanism that offers incentives to an insider to behave according to the risk posture set by the organization. We propose assigning an insider a risk budget, which is a specific allocation of risk points, allowing employees to take a finite number of risk-seeking choice. In this way, the employee can complete her tasks without subverting the security system, as with absolute prohibitions. In the end, the organization penalizes the insider if she fails to accomplish her task within the budget while rewards her in the presence of a surplus. Most importantly. the risk budget requires that the user make conscious visible choices to take electronic risks. We describe the theory behind the system, including specific work on the insider threats. We evaluated this approach using human-subject experiments, which demonstrate the effectiveness of our risk budget mechanism. We also present a game theoretic analysis of the mechanism.

  9. Carbon sequestration to mitigate climate change

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sundquist, Eric; Burruss, Robert; Faulkner, Stephen; Gleason, Robert; Harden, Jennifer; Kharaka, Yousif; Tieszen, Larry; Waldrop, Mark

    2008-01-01

    Human activities, especially the burning of fossil fuels such as coal, oil, and gas, have caused a substantial increase in the concentration of carbon dioxide (CO2) in the atmosphere. This increase in atmospheric CO2 - from about 280 to more than 380 parts per million (ppm) over the last 250 years - is causing measurable global warming. Potential adverse impacts include sea-level rise; increased frequency and intensity of wildfires, floods, droughts, and tropical storms; changes in the amount, timing, and distribution of rain, snow, and runoff; and disturbance of coastal marine and other ecosystems. Rising atmospheric CO2 is also increasing the absorption of CO2 by seawater, causing the ocean to become more acidic, with potentially disruptive effects on marine plankton and coral reefs. Technically and economically feasible strategies are needed to mitigate the consequences of increased atmospheric CO2. The United States needs scientific information to develop ways to reduce human-caused CO2 emissions and to remove CO2 from the atmosphere.

  10. Greenhouse gas mitigation options for Washington State

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Garcia, N.

    1996-04-01

    President Clinton, in 1993, established a goal for the United States to return emissions of greenhouse gases to 1990 levels by the year 2000. One effort established to help meet this goal was a three part Environmental Protection Agency state grant program. Washington State completed part one of this program with the release of the 1990 greenhouse gas emissions inventory and 2010 projected inventory. This document completes part two by detailing alternative greenhouse gas mitigation options. In part three of the program EPA, working in partnership with the States, may help fund innovative greenhouse gas reduction strategies. The greenhouse gas control options analyzed in this report have a wide range of greenhouse gas reductions, costs, and implementation requirements. In order to select and implement a prudent mix of control strategies, policy makers need to have some notion of the potential change in climate, the consequences of that change and the uncertainties contained therein. By understanding the risks of climate change, policy makers can better balance the use of scarce public resources for concerns that are immediate and present against those that affect future generations. Therefore, prior to analyzing alternative greenhouse gas control measures, this report briefly describes the phenomenon and uncertainties of global climate change, and then projects the likely consequences for Washington state.

  11. WHC natural phenomena hazards mitigation implementation plan

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Conrads, T.J.

    1996-09-11

    Natural phenomena hazards (NPH) are unexpected acts of nature which pose a threat or danger to workers, the public or to the environment. Earthquakes, extreme winds (hurricane and tornado),snow, flooding, volcanic ashfall, and lightning strike are examples of NPH at Hanford. It is the policy of U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) to design, construct and operate DOE facilitiesso that workers, the public and the environment are protected from NPH and other hazards. During 1993 DOE, Richland Operations Office (RL) transmitted DOE Order 5480.28, ``Natural Phenomena Hazards Mitigation,`` to Westinghouse Hanford COmpany (WHC) for compliance. The Order includes rigorous new NPH criteria for the design of new DOE facilities as well as for the evaluation and upgrade of existing DOE facilities. In 1995 DOE issued Order 420.1, ``Facility Safety`` which contains the same NPH requirements and invokes the same applicable standards as Order 5480.28. It will supersede Order 5480.28 when an in-force date for Order 420.1 is established through contract revision. Activities will be planned and accomplished in four phases: Mobilization; Prioritization; Evaluation; and Upgrade. The basis for the graded approach is the designation of facilities/structures into one of five performance categories based upon safety function, mission and cost. This Implementation Plan develops the program for the Prioritization Phase, as well as an overall strategy for the implemention of DOE Order 5480.2B.

  12. ENHANCED PRACTICAL PHOTOSYNTHETIC CO2 MITIGATION

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Dr. Gregory Kremer; Dr. David J. Bayless; Dr. Morgan Vis; Dr. Michael Prudich; Dr. Keith Cooksey; Dr. Jeff Muhs

    2001-07-25

    This quarterly report documents significant achievements in the Enhanced Practical Photosynthetic CO{sub 2} Mitigation project during the period from 4/03/2001 through 7/02/2001. Most of the achievements are milestones in our efforts to complete the tasks and subtasks that constitute the project objectives. Note that this version of the quarterly technical report is a revision to add the reports from subcontractors Montana State and Oak Ridge National Laboratories The significant accomplishments for this quarter include: Development of an experimental plan and initiation of experiments to create a calibration curve that correlates algal chlorophyll levels with carbon levels (to simplify future experimental procedures); Completion of debugging of the slug flow reactor system, and development of a plan for testing the pressure drop of the slug flow reactor; Design and development of a new bioreactor screen design which integrates the nutrient delivery drip system and the harvesting system; Development of an experimental setup for testing the new integrated drip system/harvesting system; Completion of model-scale bioreactor tests examining the effects of CO{sub 2} concentration levels and lighting levels on Nostoc 86-3 growth rates; Completion of the construction of a larger model-scale bioreactor to improve and expand testing capabilities and initiation of tests; Substantial progress on construction of a pilot-scale bioreactor; and Preliminary economic analysis of photobioreactor deployment. Plans for next quarter's work are included in the conclusions. A preliminary economic analysis is included as an appendix.

  13. Engineering Polymer Blends for Impact Damage Mitigation

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gordon, Keith L.; Smith, Russell W.; Working, Dennis C.; Siochi, Emilie J.

    2016-01-01

    Structures containing polymers such as DuPont's Surlyn® 8940, demonstrate puncture healing when impacted by a 9 millimeter projectile traveling from speeds near 300 meters per second (1,100 feet per second) to hypervelocity impacts in the micrometeoroid velocity range of 5 kilometers per second (16,000 feet per second). Surlyn® 8940 puncture heals over a temperature range of minus 30 degrees Centigrade to plus 70 degrees Centigrade and shows potential for use in pressurized vessels subject to impact damage. However, such polymers are difficult to process and limited in applicability due to their low thermal stability, poor chemical resistance and overall poor mechanical properties. In this work, several puncture healing engineered melt formulations were developed. Moldings of melt blend formulations were impacted with a 5.56 millimeter projectile with a nominal velocity of 945 meters per second (3,100 feet per second) at about 25 degrees Centigrade, 50 degrees Centigrade and 100 degrees Centigrade, depending upon the specific blend being investigated. Self-healing tendencies were determined using surface vacuum pressure tests and tensile tests after penetration using tensile dog-bone specimens (ASTM D 638-10). For the characterization of tensile properties both pristine and impacted specimens were tested to obtain tensile modulus, yield stress and tensile strength, where possible. Experimental results demonstrate a range of new puncture healing blends which mitigate damage in the ballistic velocity regime.

  14. RADON MITIGATION IN SCHOOLS: CASE STUDIES OF RADON MITIGATION SYSTEMS INSTALLED BY EPA IN FOUR MARYLAND SCHOOLS ARE PRESENTED

    Science.gov (United States)

    The first part of this two-part paper discusses radon entry into schools, radon mitigation approaches for schools, and school characteristics (e.g., heating, ventilation, and air-conditioning -- HVAC-- system design and operation) that influence radon entry and mitigation system ...

  15. Mitigation of methane and nitrous oxide emissions from animal operations: I. A review of enteric methane mitigation options

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Hristov, A.N.; Oh, J.; Firkins, J.; Dijkstra, J.; Kebreab, E.; Waghorn, G.; Makkar, H.P.S.; Adesogan, A.T.; Yang, W.; Lee, C.; Gerber, P.J.; Henderson, B.L.; Tricarico, J.M.

    2013-01-01

    The goal of this review was to analyze published data related to mitigation of enteric methane (CH4) emissions from ruminant animals to document the most effective and sustainable strategies. Increasing forage digestibility and digestible forage intake was one of the major recommended CH4 mitigation

  16. Environmental Asthma Reduction Potential Estimates for Selected Mitigation Actions in Finland Using a Life Table Approach

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Isabell Katharina Rumrich

    2015-06-01

    Full Text Available Aims: To quantify the reduction potential of asthma in Finland achievable by adjusting exposures to selected environmental factors. Methods: A life table model for the Finnish population for 1986–2040 was developed and Years Lived with Disability caused by asthma and attributable to the following selected exposures were estimated: tobacco smoke (smoking and second hand tobacco smoke, ambient fine particles, indoor dampness and mould, and pets. Results: At baseline (2011 about 25% of the total asthma burden was attributable to the selected exposures. Banning tobacco was the most efficient mitigation action, leading to 6% reduction of the asthma burden. A 50% reduction in exposure to dampness and mould as well as a doubling in exposure to pets lead each to a 2% reduction. Ban of urban small scale wood combustion, chosen as a mitigation action to reduce exposure to fine particles, leads to a reduction of less than 1% of the total asthma burden. Combination of the most efficient mitigation actions reduces the total asthma burden by 10%. A more feasible combination of mitigation actions leads to 6% reduction of the asthma burden. Conclusions: The adjustment of environmental exposures can reduce the asthma burden in Finland by up to 10%.

  17. Low-voltage shock-mitigated micro-electromechanical systems structure

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chen, Ang; Nam, Suhyun; Lai, Ying-Cheng; Chae, Junseok

    2017-05-01

    We report a low-voltage, yet effective, micro-electromechanical systems (MEMS) structure capable of mitigating external mechanical disturbances, such as a physical shock. External shock onto MEMS devices can be catastrophic as a conventional single membrane may travel beyond stable oscillatory distances under shock and become irreparably damaged. However, the simple addition of a second membrane on top of the single membrane drastically reduces oscillatory distances by electrostatically holding the bottom membrane within stable oscillation. The added elements, in conjunction with a fine-control algorithm, mitigate the impact of a mechanical shock onto the MEMS device. From experimental findings, it is found that the dual-membrane structure effectively reduces the travel distance of the bottom membrane by 41.5%, upon deploying merely 0.565 V onto the additional membrane. The dynamic implementation of the shock mitigation method, using an on-board accelerometer as a trigger, delivered in-situ mitigation of shock on a dual-membrane MEMS structure.

  18. Planning ahead for asteroid and comet hazard mitigation, phase 1: parameter space exploration and scenario modeling

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Plesko, Catherine S [Los Alamos National Laboratory; Clement, R Ryan [Los Alamos National Laboratory; Weaver, Robert P [Los Alamos National Laboratory; Bradley, Paul A [Los Alamos National Laboratory; Huebner, Walter F [Los Alamos National Laboratory

    2009-01-01

    The mitigation of impact hazards resulting from Earth-approaching asteroids and comets has received much attention in the popular press. However, many questions remain about the near-term and long-term, feasibility and appropriate application of all proposed methods. Recent and ongoing ground- and space-based observations of small solar-system body composition and dynamics have revolutionized our understanding of these bodies (e.g., Ryan (2000), Fujiwara et al. (2006), and Jedicke et al. (2006)). Ongoing increases in computing power and algorithm sophistication make it possible to calculate the response of these inhomogeneous objects to proposed mitigation techniques. Here we present the first phase of a comprehensive hazard mitigation planning effort undertaken by Southwest Research Institute and Los Alamos National Laboratory. We begin by reviewing the parameter space of the object's physical and chemical composition and trajectory. We then use the radiation hydrocode RAGE (Gittings et al. 2008), Monte Carlo N-Particle (MCNP) radiation transport (see Clement et al., this conference), and N-body dynamics codes to explore the effects these variations in object properties have on the coupling of energy into the object from a variety of mitigation techniques, including deflection and disruption by nuclear and conventional munitions, and a kinetic impactor.

  19. Review of dust transport and mitigation technologies in lunar and Martian atmospheres

    Science.gov (United States)

    Afshar-Mohajer, Nima; Wu, Chang-Yu; Curtis, Jennifer Sinclair; Gaier, James R.

    2015-09-01

    Dust resuspension and deposition is a ubiquitous phenomenon in all lunar and Martian missions. The near-term plans to return to the Moon as a stepping stone to further exploration of Mars and beyond bring scientists' attention to development and evaluation of lunar and Martian dust mitigation technologies. In this paper, different lunar and Martian dust transport mechanisms are presented, followed by a review of previously developed dust mitigation technologies including fluidal, mechanical, electrical and passive self-cleaning methods for lunar/Martian installed surfaces along with filtration for dust control inside cabins. Key factors in choosing the most effective dust mitigation technology are recognized to be the dust transport mechanism, energy consumption, environment, type of surface materials, area of the surface and surface functionality. While electrical methods operating at higher voltages are identified to be suitable for small but light sensitive surfaces, pre-treatment of the surface is effective for cleaning thermal control surfaces, and mechanical methods are appropriate for surfaces with no concerns of light blockage, surface abrasion and 100% cleaning efficiency. Findings from this paper can help choose proper surface protection/cleaning for future space explorations. Hybrid techniques combining the advantages of different methods are recommended.

  20. Mitigation of Patulin in Fresh and Processed Foods and Beverages

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ioi, J. David; Zhou, Ting; Tsao, Rong; F. Marcone, Massimo

    2017-01-01

    Patulin is a mycotoxin of food safety concern. It is produced by numerous species of fungi growing on fruits and vegetables. Exposure to the toxin is connected to issues neurological, immunological, and gastrointestinal in nature. Regulatory agencies worldwide have established maximum allowable levels of 50 µg/kg in foods. Despite regulations, surveys continue to find patulin in commercial food and beverage products, in some cases, to exceed the maximum limits. Patulin content in food can be mitigated throughout the food processing chain. Proper handling, storage, and transportation of food can limit fungal growth and patulin production. Common processing techniques including pasteurisation, filtration, and fermentation all have an effect on patulin content in food but individually are not sufficient safety measures. Novel methods to remove or detoxify patulin have been reviewed. Non-thermal processing techniques such as high hydrostatic pressure, UV radiation, enzymatic degradation, binding to microorganisms, and chemical degradation all have potential but have not been optimised. Until further refinement of these methods, the hurdle approach to processing should be used where food safety is concerned. Future development should focus on determining the nature and safety of chemicals produced from the breakdown of patulin in treatment techniques. PMID:28492465