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Sample records for scavenging antioxidants regulation

  1. Role of antioxidant scavenging enzymes and extracellular ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    ChithrashreeGS

    2012-08-23

    Aug 23, 2012 ... peroxidase are two important antioxidant scavenging enzymes involved in ... Catalase was assayed using the method of Beers and Sizer. (1951) with .... yeast dextrose calcium carbonate agar (YDC) medium. Catalase and ...

  2. Role of antioxidant scavenging enzymes and extracellular ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    In the present work, we studied the role of antioxidant scavenging enzymes of plant pathogenic bacteria: catalase, ascorbate peroxidase and a virulence factor; extracelluar polysaccharide production in determining the virulence of Xanthomonas oryzae pv. oryzae (Xoo) isolates and its differential reaction to rice cultivars.

  3. Antioxidant Capacity, Radical Scavenging Kinetics and Phenolic ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Antioxidant Capacity, Radical Scavenging Kinetics and Phenolic Profile of Methanol Extracts of Wild Plants of Southern Sonora, Mexico. EF Moran-Palacio, LA Zamora-Álvarez, NA Stephens-Camacho, GA Yáñez- Farías, A Virgen-Ortiz, O Martínez-Cruz, JA Rosas-Rodríguez ...

  4. Free Radical Scavenging and Cellular Antioxidant Properties of Astaxanthin.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Dose, Janina; Matsugo, Seiichi; Yokokawa, Haruka; Koshida, Yutaro; Okazaki, Shigetoshi; Seidel, Ulrike; Eggersdorfer, Manfred; Rimbach, Gerald; Esatbeyoglu, Tuba

    2016-01-14

    Astaxanthin is a coloring agent which is used as a feed additive in aquaculture nutrition. Recently, potential health benefits of astaxanthin have been discussed which may be partly related to its free radical scavenging and antioxidant properties. Our electron spin resonance (ESR) and spin trapping data suggest that synthetic astaxanthin is a potent free radical scavenger in terms of diphenylpicryl-hydrazyl (DPPH) and galvinoxyl free radicals. Furthermore, astaxanthin dose-dependently quenched singlet oxygen as determined by photon counting. In addition to free radical scavenging and singlet oxygen quenching properties, astaxanthin induced the antioxidant enzyme paroxoanase-1, enhanced glutathione concentrations and prevented lipid peroxidation in cultured hepatocytes. Present results suggest that, beyond its coloring properties, synthetic astaxanthin exhibits free radical scavenging, singlet oxygen quenching, and antioxidant activities which could probably positively affect animal and human health.

  5. Antioxidant and free radical scavenging activities of plant extracts ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Twenty-two species of medicinal plants collected in the Mexican state of Morelos were selected to evaluate their free radical scavenging and antioxidant activities. The extracts from the aerial parts of the plants were obtained using hexane, acetone and methanol (66 extracts). The initial qualitative screening of antioxidants ...

  6. Antioxidant Capacity, Radical Scavenging Kinetics and Phenolic ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    HP

    Phenolic Profile of Methanol Extracts of Wild Plants of. Southern Sonora ... plant extracts. Phenolic compounds determination was carried out by high ... Determination of antioxidant capacity ..... In vitro antioxidant and antiproliferative activities ...

  7. Evaluation of Antioxidant and Free Radical Scavenging Abilities of ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Objective: This study was aimed at determining the antioxidants and free radical scavenging abilities of some packaged fruit juices (PFJ) widely used as source of fluids in Nigeria. Materials and methods: Packaged fruit juice samples produced by The Coca cola Company and Chi company namely: Apple(AP), blackcurrant, ...

  8. The oxidant-scavenging abilities in the oral cavity may be regulated by a collaboration among antioxidants in saliva, microorganisms, blood cells and polyphenols: a chemiluminescence-based study.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Isaac Ginsburg

    Full Text Available Saliva has become a central research issue in oral physiology and pathology. Over the evolution, the oral cavity has evolved the antioxidants uric acid, ascorbate reduced glutathione, plasma-derived albumin and antioxidants polyphenols from nutrients that are delivered to the oral cavity. However, blood cells extravasated from injured capillaries in gingival pathologies, or following tooth brushing and use of tooth picks, may attenuate the toxic activities of H2O2 generated by oral streptococci and by oxidants generated by activated phagocytes. Employing a highly sensitive luminol-dependent chemiluminescence, the DPPH radical and XTT assays to quantify oxidant-scavenging abilities (OSA, we show that saliva can strongly decompose both oxygen and nitrogen species. However, lipophilic antioxidant polyphenols in plants, which are poorly soluble in water and therefore not fully available as effective antioxidants, can nevertheless be solubilized either by small amounts of ethanol, whole saliva or also by salivary albumin and mucin. Plant-derived polyphenols can also act in collaboration with whole saliva, human red blood cells, platelets, and also with catalase-positive microorganisms to decompose reactive oxygen species (ROS. Furthermore, polyphenols from nutrient can avidly adhere to mucosal surfaces, are retained there for long periods and may function as a "slow-release devises" capable of affecting the redox status in the oral cavity. The OSA of saliva is due to the sum result of low molecular weight antioxidants, albumin, polyphenols from nutrients, blood elements and microbial antioxidants. Taken together, saliva and its antioxidants are considered regulators of the redox status in the oral cavity under physiological and pathological conditions.

  9. The Oxidant-Scavenging Abilities in the Oral Cavity May Be Regulated by a Collaboration among Antioxidants in Saliva, Microorganisms, Blood Cells and Polyphenols: A Chemiluminescence-Based Study

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ginsburg, Isaac; Kohen, Ron; Shalish, Miri; Varon, David; Shai, Ella; Koren, Erez

    2013-01-01

    Saliva has become a central research issue in oral physiology and pathology. Over the evolution, the oral cavity has evolved the antioxidants uric acid, ascorbate reduced glutathione, plasma-derived albumin and antioxidants polyphenols from nutrients that are delivered to the oral cavity. However, blood cells extravasated from injured capillaries in gingival pathologies, or following tooth brushing and use of tooth picks, may attenuate the toxic activities of H2O2 generated by oral streptococci and by oxidants generated by activated phagocytes. Employing a highly sensitive luminol-dependent chemiluminescence, the DPPH radical and XTT assays to quantify oxidant-scavenging abilities (OSA), we show that saliva can strongly decompose both oxygen and nitrogen species. However, lipophilic antioxidant polyphenols in plants, which are poorly soluble in water and therefore not fully available as effective antioxidants, can nevertheless be solubilized either by small amounts of ethanol, whole saliva or also by salivary albumin and mucin. Plant-derived polyphenols can also act in collaboration with whole saliva, human red blood cells, platelets, and also with catalase-positive microorganisms to decompose reactive oxygen species (ROS). Furthermore, polyphenols from nutrient can avidly adhere to mucosal surfaces, are retained there for long periods and may function as a “slow- release devises” capable of affecting the redox status in the oral cavity. The OSA of saliva is due to the sum result of low molecular weight antioxidants, albumin, polyphenols from nutrients, blood elements and microbial antioxidants. Taken together, saliva and its antioxidants are considered regulators of the redox status in the oral cavity under physiological and pathological conditions. PMID:23658797

  10. Scavenger and antioxidant properties of prenylflavones isolated from Artocarpus heterophyllus.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ko, F N; Cheng, Z J; Lin, C N; Teng, C M

    1998-07-15

    The antioxidant properties of prenylflavones, isolated from Artocarpus heterophyllus Lam., was evaluated in this study. Among them, artocarpine, artocarpetin, artocarpetin A, and cycloheterophyllin diacetate and peracetate had no effect on iron-induced lipid peroxidation in rat brain homogenate. They also did not scavenge the stable free radical 1,1-diphenyl-2-picrylhydrazyl. In contrast, cycloheterophyllin and artonins A and B inhibited iron-induced lipid peroxidation in rat brain homogenate and scavenged 1,1-diphenyl-2-picrylhydrazyl. They also scavenged peroxyl radicals and hydroxyl radicals that were generated by 2,2'-azobis(2-amidinopropane) dihydrochloride and the Fe3+-ascorbate-EDTA-H2O2 system, respectively. However, they did not inhibit xanthine oxidase activity or scavenge superoxide anion, hydrogen peroxide, carbon radical, or peroxyl radicals derived from 2,2'-azobis(2,4-dimethylvaleronitrile) in hexane. Moreover, cycloheterophyllin and artonins A and B inhibited copper-catalyzed oxidation of human low-density lipoprotein, as measured by fluorescence intensity, thiobarbituric acid-reactive substance and conjugated-diene formations and electrophoretic mobility. It is concluded that cycloheterophyllin and artonins A and B serve as powerful antioxidants against lipid peroxidation when biomembranes are exposed to oxygen radicals.

  11. Scavenger

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    2009-01-01

    Scavenger is one of the cyber foraging frameworks developed in the Locusts project. It has been released as open source software at http://code.google.com/p/scavenger-cf/......Scavenger is one of the cyber foraging frameworks developed in the Locusts project. It has been released as open source software at http://code.google.com/p/scavenger-cf/...

  12. Cupric ion reducing antioxidant capacity assay for antioxidants in human serum and for hydroxyl radical scavengers.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Apak, Reşat; Güçlü, Kubilay; Ozyürek, Mustafa; Bektaşoğlu, Burcu; Bener, Mustafa

    2010-01-01

    , for which the FRAP (ferric reducing antioxidant potency) test is basically nonresponsive. The additivity of absorbances of all the tested antioxidants confirmed that antioxidants in the CUPRAC test do not chemically interact among each other so as to cause an intensification or quenching of the theoretically expected absorbance, and that a total antioxidant capacity (TAC) assay of serum is possible. As a distinct advantage over other electron-transfer based assays (e.g., Folin, FRAP, ABTS, DPPH), CUPRAC is superior in regard to its realistic pH close to the physiological pH, favorable redox potential, accessibility and stability of reagents, and applicability to lipophilic antioxidants as well as hydrophilic ones. The CUPRAC procedure can also assay hydroxyl radicals, being the most reactive oxygen species (ROS). As a more convenient, efficient, and less costly alternative to HPLC/electrochemical detection techniques and to the nonspecific, low-yield TBARS test, we use p-aminobenzoate, 2,4- and 3,5-dimethoxybenzoate probes for detecting hydroxyl radicals generated from an equivalent mixture of [Fe(II)+EDTA] with hydrogen peroxide. The produced hydroxyl radicals attack both the probe and the water-soluble antioxidants in 37 degrees C-incubated solutions for 2 h. The CUPRAC absorbance of the ethylacetate extract due to the reduction of Cu(II)-neocuproine reagent by the hydroxylated probe decreases in the presence of (.)OH scavengers, the difference being proportional to the scavenging ability of the tested compound. The developed method is less lengthy, more specific, and of a higher yield than the classical TBARS assay.

  13. Antioxidant properties of a radical-scavenging peptide purified from enzymatically prepared fish skin gelatin hydrolysate.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mendis, Eresha; Rajapakse, Niranjan; Kim, Se-Kwon

    2005-02-09

    Hoki (Johnius belengerii) skin gelatin was hydrolyzed with three commercial enzymes to identify radical-scavenging potencies of derived peptides. Peptides derived from tryptic hydrolysate exhibited the highest scavenging activities on superoxide, carbon-centered 1,1-diphenyl-2-picrylhydrazyl (DPPH) radicals assessed by ESR spectroscopy. Following consecutive chromatographic separations of tryptic hydroolysate, the peptide sequence His-Gly-Pro-Leu-Gly-Pro-Leu (797 Da) acted as a strong radical scavenger under studied conditions. Further, this peptide could act as an antioxidant against linoleic acid peroxidation and the activity was closer to the highly active synthetic antioxidant butylated hydroxytoluene (BHT). In addition, antioxidative enzyme levels in cultured human hepatoma cells were increased in the presence of this peptide and it was presumed to be the peptide involved in maintaining the redox balance in the cell environment. Present data indicate that free-radical-scavenging activities of hoki skin gelatin peptides substantially contribute to their antioxidant properties measured in different oxidative systems.

  14. Study of anti-oxidation and scavenging effects on free radicals of quercetin

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Wang Chongdao; Qiang Yizhong; Lao Qinhua; Shao Yuan

    1999-01-01

    The effects of Quercetin on the contents of lipid peroxides (LPO) in the mice caused by γ-whole-body irradiation by method of the modified spectrophotometry of TBA, and the scavenging effects of Quercetin on the free radicals of DNA induced by radiation exposure by means of ESR technique were investigated. The results demonstrates that Quercetin has a good anti-oxidation effect and is very effective in scavenging of free radicals

  15. Anti-oxidation and scavenging effects of some extracts from Chinese medicines on free radicals

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Wang Chongdao; Qiang Yizhong; Lao Qinhua; Cui Fengmei; Shao Yuan; Sun Cunpu

    1999-11-01

    The inhibiting effects of Chinonin, Quercetin and Tannic Acid on the lipid oxidation induced by radiation exposure were investigated by means of a modified TBA spectrophotometry. The scavenging effects on free radicals caused by γ-irradiation exposure of the three active principles were observed by technique of ESR. The results showed that anti-oxidation effects of Chinonin and Quercetin were better than that of Tannic Acid, while the scavenging effects of the three active principles on free radicals were similar

  16. Antioxidant and free radical scavenging activities of edible weeds ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Antioxidant-based drugs/formulations for the prevention and treatment of complex diseases like atherosclerosis, stroke, diabetes, Alzheimer's disease, and cancer have appeared during the last three decades. This has attracted a great deal of research interest in natural antioxidants. Flavonoids and phenolic compounds ...

  17. Theoretical insights on the antioxidant activity of edaravone free radical scavengers derivatives

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cerón-Carrasco, José P.; Roy, Hélène M.; Cerezo, Javier; Jacquemin, Denis; Laurent, Adèle D.

    2014-04-01

    The prediction of antioxidant properties is not straightforward due to the complexity of the in vivo systems. Here, we use theoretical descriptors, including the potential of ionization, the electrodonating power and the spin density distribution, to characterize the antioxidant capacity of edaravone (EDV) derivatives. Our computations reveal the relationship between these parameters and their potential bioactivity as free radical scavengers. We conclude that more efficient antioxidants could be synthesized by tuning the R1 and R2 positions of the EDV structure, rather than modifying the R3 group. Such modifications might improve the antioxidant activity in neutral and deprotonated forms.

  18. Free radical-scavenging capacity, antioxidant activity and phenolic content of Pouzolzia zeylanica

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    PEIYUAN LI

    2011-05-01

    Full Text Available Pouzolzia zeylanica was extracted with different solvents (acetone, ethyl acetate and petroleum ether, using different protocols (cold-extraction and Soxhlet extraction. To evaluate the antiradical and antioxidant abilities of the extracts, four in vitro test systems were employed, i.e., DPPH, ABTS and hydroxyl radical scavenging assays and a reducing power assay. All extracts exhibited outstanding antioxidant activities that were superior to that of butylated hydroxytoluene. The ethyl acetate extracts exhibited the most significant antioxidant activities, and cold-extraction under stirring seemed to be the more efficacious method for acquiring the predominant antioxidants. Furthermore, the antioxidant activities and total phenolic (TP content of different extracts followed the same order, i.e., there is a good correlation between antioxidant activities and TP content. The results showed that these extracts, especially the ethyl acetate extracts, could be considered as natural antioxidants and may be useful for curing diseases arising from oxidative deterioration.

  19. Radical-scavenging-linked antioxidant activities of extracts from black chokeberry and blueberry cultivated in Korea.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hwang, Seok Joon; Yoon, Won Byong; Lee, Ok-Hwan; Cha, Seung Ju; Kim, Jong Dai

    2014-03-01

    The objective of this study was to investigate the radical-scavenging-linked antioxidant properties of the extracts from black chokeberry and blueberry cultivated in Korea. The 70% ethanol extracts were prepared from black chokeberry and blueberry, and evaluated for total phenolic content, total flavonoid content, total proanthocyanidin content, and antioxidative activities, using various in vitro assays, such as DPPH(2,2-diphenyl-1-picrylhydrazyl), ABTS(2,2-azino-bis-(3-ethylenebenzothiozoline-6-sulphonic acid)) radical-scavenging activity, FRAP(ferric-reducing antioxidant power) and reducing power. The major phenolic compounds, including cyanidin-3-galactoside, cyanidin-3-arabinoside, neochlorogenic acid, procyanidin B1, were analysed by HPLC with a photodiode array detector. Results showed that total phenol, flavonoid and proanthocyanidin contents of black chokeberry extract were higher than those of blueberry extract. In addition, black chokeberry extract exhibited higher free radical-scavenging activity and reducing power than did blueberry extract. Cyanidin-3-galactoside was identified as a major phenolic compound, with considerable content in black chokeberry, that correlated with its higher antioxidant and radical-scavenging effects. These results suggest that black chokeberry extracts could be considered as a good source of natural antioxidants and functional food ingredients. Copyright © 2013 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  20. Evaluation of antioxidant, free radical scavenging and antimicrobial, activity of Quercus incana Roxb.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Rizwana eSarwar

    2015-11-01

    Full Text Available Considering the indigenous utilization of Quercus incana Roxb., the present study deals with the investigation of antioxidant, free radical scavenging activity, total phenolic content and antimicrobial activity of Quercus incana Roxb. In vitro antioxidant activity of the plant fractions were determined by DPPH and NO scavenging method. Total phenolic contents were determined by gallic acid equivalent (GAE and antimicrobial activities were determined by agar well diffusion method. It was observed that Quercus incana Roxb. showed significant antibacterial activity against Gram-positive and Gram-negative bacteria. n-Butanol fraction showed maximum activity against Micrococcus leuteus with 19 mm zone of inhibition. n-Butanol fraction of Quercus incana Roxb. showed immense antifungal activity against Aspergillus niger (32 mm ± 0.55 and Aspergillus flavus (28 mm ± 0.45. Similarly n-butanol fraction showed relatively good antioxidant activity with IC50 value of 55.4 ± 0.21μg/mL. The NO scavenging activity of ethyl acetate fraction (IC50 = 23.21 ± 0.31 μg/mL was fairly good compared to other fractions. The current study of Quercus incana Roxb. suggests the presences of synergetic action of some biological active compounds that may be present in the leaves of medicinal plant. Further studies are needed to better characterize the important active constituents responsible for the antimicrobial, antioxidant and free radical scavenging activity.

  1. Efficacy of HOCl scavenging by sulfur-containing compounds: antioxidant activity of glutathione disulfide?

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    den Hartog, G.J.M.; Haenen, G.R.M.M.; Vegt, E.; van der Vijgh, W.J.F.; Bast, A.

    2002-01-01

    Efficacy of HOCl scavenging by sulfur-containing compounds: antioxidant activity of glutathione disulfide? den Hartog GJ, Haenen GR, Vegt E, van der Vijgh WJ, Bast A. Department of Pharmacology and Toxicology, Maastricht University, The Netherlands. Hypochlorous acid (HOCl) is a bactericidal

  2. In vitro antioxidant and free radical scavenging activity of Leonurus ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    The total phenolic compounds in the extracts were determined as gallic acid equivalents, and total flavonoid contents were calculated as quercetin equivalents from a calibration curve. Keywords: Antioxidant activity, Fe2+ chelating, 1,1-diphenyl-2-picryl hydrazyl (DPPH), phenol, Leonurus cardiaca, Grammosciadium ...

  3. Antioxidant and Nitrite-Scavenging Capacities of Phenolic Compounds from Sugarcane (Saccharum officinarum L. Tops

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Jian Sun

    2014-08-01

    Full Text Available Sugarcane tops were extracted with 50% ethanol and fractionated by petroleum ether, ethyl acetate (EtOAc, and n-butyl alcohol successively. Eight phenolic compounds in EtOAc extracts were purified through silica gel and Sephadex LH-20 column chromatographies, and then identified by nuclear magnetic resonance and electrospray ionization mass spectra. The results showed that eight phenolic compounds from EtOAc extracts were identified as caffeic acid, cis-p-hydroxycinnamic acid, quercetin, apigenin, albanin A, australone A, moracin M, and 5'-geranyl-5,7,2',4'-tetrahydroxyflavone. The antioxidant and nitrite-scavenging capacities of different solvent extracts correlated positively with their total phenolic (TP contents. Amongst various extracts, EtOAc extracts possessed the highest TP content and presented the strongest oxygen radical absorbance capacity (ORAC, 1,1'-diphenyl-2-picrylhydrazyl (DPPH radical-scavenging capacity, 2,2'-azobis-3-ethylbenthiaazoline-6-sulfonic acid (ABTS radical-scavenging capacity, ferric reducing antioxidant power (FRAP and nitrite-scavenging capacity. Thus, sugarcane tops could be promoted as a source of natural antioxidant.

  4. Biological activity of clovers - free radical scavenging ability and antioxidant action of six Trifolium species.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kolodziejczyk-Czepas, Joanna; Nowak, Pawel; Kowalska, Iwona; Stochmal, Anna

    2014-10-01

    Clovers were chosen on the basis of traditional medicine recommendations, agricultural value, or available information on their promising chemical profiles. This study evaluates and compares free radical scavenging and antioxidant properties of six clover species: Trifolium alexandrinum L. (Leguminosae), Trifolium fragiferum L., Trifolium hybridum L., Trifolium incarnatum L., Trifolium resupinatum var. majus Boiss., and Trifolium resupinatum var. resupinatum L. Free radical scavenging activity of the extracts (1.5-50 µg/ml) was estimated by reduction of 1,1-diphenyl-2-picrylhydrazyl (DPPH(•)) and 2,2'-azino-bis(3-ethylbenzthiazoline-6-sulphonic) acid (ABTS(•)) radicals. The Trifolium extract effects on total antioxidant capacity of blood plasma were determined by the reduction of ABTS(•+) and DPPH(•) radicals, as well as with the use of the ferric reducing ability of plasma (FRAP) assay. The UPLC analysis of chemical profiles of the examined extracts showed the presence of three or four groups of phenolic substances, including phenolic acids, clovamides, isoflavones, and other flavonoids. The measurements of free radical scavenging and ferric reducing ability of the examined clover extracts revealed the strongest effect for T. alexandrinum. Furthermore, antioxidant activity assays in human plasma have shown protective effects of all extracts against peroxynitrite-induced reduction of total antioxidant capacity. Trifolium plants may be a rich source of bioactive substances with antioxidant properties. The examined extracts displayed free radical scavenging action and partly protected blood plasma against peroxynitrite-induced oxidative stress; however, the beneficial effects of T. alexandrinum and T. incarnatum seem to be slightly higher.

  5. Development of an HPLC post-column antioxidant assay for Solidago canadensis radical scavengers.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Marksa, Mindaugas; Radušienė, Jolita; Jakštas, Valdas; Ivanauskas, Liudas; Marksienė, Rūta

    2016-01-01

    The aim of this work was to modify and validate the post-column high-performance liquid chromatography (HPLC)-ABTS and DPPH methods for evaluating the antioxidant activity of the methanolic extracts of Solidago canadensis (Canadian goldenrod) leaves and flowers. Separation of the analytes was performed via the HPLC-PDA method on a YMC analytical column using a gradient elution program. Three compounds with antioxidant properties - chlorogenic acid, rutin and isoquercitrin - and two unidentified antioxidants were established. The research showed that the coil temperature regimes and loop length combinations influence the optimised post-column assay method for detecting the antioxidant activity of goldenrod radical scavengers. Investigations established that the temperature in the reaction coil was a substantial factor contributing to the signal strength of the analytes after reacting with the DPPH and ABTS radicals.

  6. Antioxidant and free radical scavenging activities of Gastrodia elata Bl. and Uncaria rhynchophylla (Miq.) Jacks.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Liu, J; Mori, A

    1992-12-01

    Gastrodia elata Bl. (GE) and Uncaria rhynchophylla (Miq.) Jacks (UR) are two traditional Chinese medicinal herbal drugs, used for the treatment of convulsions and epilepsy. Their antioxidant effects in vivo and their free radical scavenging effects in vitro were investigated. Epileptogenic foci in the lateral brain of the rat were induced by the injection of ferric chloride into the lateral cortex. Both extracts significantly inhibited the increase in levels of lipid peroxide in the ipsilateral cortex, at all times observed. In addition, the two extracts also induced an early increase of activity of superoxide dismutase in the mitochondrial fraction of the ipsilateral cortex. In in vitro experiments, the two extracts exhibited significant dose-dependent scavenging effects on free radicals, using electron spin resonance spectroscopy. These results suggest that the proposed antiepileptic effects of GE and UR may be attributable to the antioxidant activity of the active components in these two medicinal herbs.

  7. Potent Antioxidative Activity of Lycopene: A Potential Role in Scavenging Hypochlorous Acid †

    OpenAIRE

    Pennathur, Subramaniam; Maitra, Dhiman; Byun, Jaeman; Sliskovic, Inga; Abdulhamid, Ibrahim; Saed, Ghassan M.; Diamond, Michael P.; Abu-Soud, Husam M.

    2010-01-01

    Lycopene, a carotenoid found in tomatoes, is a proven anti-oxidant that may lower the risk of certain disorders including heart disease and cancer. Hypochlorous acid (HOCl) is an oxidant linked to tissue oxidation in cardiovascular disease and other inflammatory disorders through its ability to modify proteins, deoxyribonucleic acid, ribonucleic acid and lipids. Here we show that lycopene can function as a potent scavenger of HOCl at a wide range of concentrations that span various pathophysi...

  8. HPLC-Analysis of Polyphenolic Compounds in Gardenia jasminoides and Determination of Antioxidant Activity by Using Free Radical Scavenging Assays

    OpenAIRE

    Riaz Uddin; Moni Rani Saha; Nusrat Subhan; Hemayet Hossain; Ismet Ara Jahan; Raushanara Akter; Ashraful Alam

    2014-01-01

    Purpose: Gardenia jasminoides is a traditional medicinal plant rich in anti-inflammatory flavonoids and phenolic compounds and used for the treatment of inflammatory diseases and pain. In this present study, antioxidant potential of Gardenia jasminoides leaves extract was evaluated by using various antioxidant assays. Methods: Various antioxidant assays such as 1, 1-diphenyl-2-picrylhydrazyl (DPPH) radical scavenging assay, reducing power and total antioxidant capacity expressed as equival...

  9. Antioxidant and Free Radical Scavenging Capacity of Seed and Shell Essential Oils Extracted from Abrus precatorius (L

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Sunday O. Okoh

    2014-04-01

    Full Text Available Essential oils from plants have been proven safe as natural antioxidants, and few are already marketed as digestive enhancers as well as in prevention of several degenerative diseases. This study evaluated the antioxidant capacity of seed and shell essential oils of Abrus precatorius (L, a herb used for ethno-medicinal practices in Nigeria. The essential oils were obtained by hydro-distillation. The ability of the oils to act as hydrogen/electrons donor or scavenger of radicals were determined by in-vitro antioxidant assays using 2,2-diphenyl-2-picryl-hydrazyl free radical (DPPH. scavenging; 2,2′-azino-bis(3-ethylbenzthiazoline-6-sulfonic acid (ABTS radical scavenging; lipid peroxide and nitric oxide radicals scavenging assays. The IC50 of the seed and shell oils (2.10 mg/mL and 1.20 mg/mL respectively showed that antioxidant activity is higher than that for the standard drugs (3.20 mg/mL and 3.40 mg/mL for the nitric oxide scavenging assay. The lipid peroxidation radical activity of the oils were similar to vitamin C, weak DPPH and ABTS radical scavenging activities were discovered in comparison to vitamin C and rutin. Generally, in the four antioxidant assays, a significant correlation existed between concentrations of the oils and percentage inhibition of free radicals and lipid peroxidation. The composition of A. precatorius essential oils reported earlier may account for their antioxidant capacity.

  10. Free radical scavenging and total antioxidant capacity of root extracts of Anchomanes difformis Engl. (Araceae).

    Science.gov (United States)

    Aliyu, Abubakar B; Ibrahim, Mohammed A; Musa, Aliyu M; Musa, Aisha O; Kiplimo, Joyce J; Oyewale, Adebayo O

    2013-01-01

    Antioxidants activities from plants sources have attracted a wide range of interest across the world in recent times. This is due to growing concern for safe and alternative sources of antioxidants. The free radical scavenging activity using 1,1-diphenyl-2-picrylhydrazyl radical (DPPH), reducing power assay, total antioxidant capacity of the phosphomolybdenum method and the total phenolics content using the Folin-Ciocalteu reagent were carried out on the acetone, n-butanol and methanol root extracts of Anchomanes difformis. The results of the total phenolics content expressed in mg/100 g of gallic acid equivalent (GAE) showed that the n-butanol extract has significantly (p extracts. All the extracts displayed strong concentration dependent radical scavenging activity. It was also observed that the n-butanol extract showed higher activity of 70.87% and 78.59% at low concentrations of 31.25 microg/mL and 62.5 microg/mL, respectively, than methanol and acetone extracts. The results also showed that the n-butanol extract has strongest reducing ability which is comparable to that of gallic acid at all the concentrations tested. Phytochemical screening on the extracts revealed the presence of flavonoids, saponins, and tannins. The results suggest that n-butanol extract of the plant is very rich in antioxidant compounds worthy of further investigations.

  11. DFT Study on Molecular Structures and ROS Scavenging Mechanisms of Novel Antioxidants from Lespedeza Virgata

    Science.gov (United States)

    Li, Min-jie; Zhang, Liang-miao; Liu, Wei-xia; Lu, Wen-cong

    2011-04-01

    The molecular structure and radical scavenging activity of three novel antioxidants from Lespedeza Virgata, lespedezavirgatol, lespedezavirgatal, and lespedezacoumestan, have been studied using density functional theory with the B3LYP and BhandHLYP methods. The optimized geometries of neutral, radical cation, radical and anion forms were obtained at the B3LYP/6-31G(d) level, in which it was found that all the most stable conformations contain intramolecular hydrogen bonds. The same results were obtained from the MP2 method. The homolytic O—H bond dissociation enthalpy and the adiabatic ionization potential of neutral and anion forms for the three new antioxidants and adiabatic electron affinity and H-atom affinity for hydroxyl radical, superoxide anion radical, and hydrogen peroxide radical were determined both in gas phase and in aqueous solution using IEF-PCM and CPCM model with UAHF or Bondi cavity. The antioxidant activities and reactive oxygen species scavenging mechanisms were then discussed, and the results obtained from different methods are consistent. Furthermore, the antioxidant activities are consistent with the experimental findings of the compounds under investigation.

  12. Variations of Antioxidant Properties and NO Scavenging Abilities during Fermentation of Tea

    Science.gov (United States)

    Xu, Yang; Zhao, Hang; Zhang, Min; Li, Chun-Jie; Lin, Xue-Zhen; Sheng, Jun; Shi, Wei

    2011-01-01

    Tea is known as one of the most popular beverages in the world, which is believed to be beneficial for health. The main components in tea will change a lot depending on the different processes of fermentation, and thus the effects of different teas on human health may differ. The aim of this study is to explore the varied abilities of reactive oxygen species (ROS) and nitric oxide (NO) scavenging during the fermentation of tea. In this study, we conducted the in vitro experiments which involved some reaction systems indicating the abilities of scavenging ROS and NO. We also investigated the effects of tea and their components (catechins, theabrownins, caffeine) on the intracellular levels of ROS and NO, using Raw 264.7 cells as the model. We found that regardless of whether it was out of cell system or in Raw 264.7 cells, the abilities of scavenging ROS would decrease during the fermentation of tea. Further, the post-fermented pu-erh tea showed the best effect on inhibiting the lipopolysaccharide (LPS)-induced production of NO. These findings indicated that the fermentation process caused a change of the components which might be due to the changes of their antioxidant properties and NO scavenging abilities. PMID:21845097

  13. Evaluation of Both Free Radical Scavenging Capacity and Antioxidative Damage Effect of Polydatin.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jin, Ju; Li, Yan; Zhang, Xiuli; Chen, Tongsheng; Wang, Yifei; Wang, Zhiping

    Cellular damage such as oxidation and lipid peroxidation, and DNA damage induced by free-radicals like reactive oxygen species, has been implicated in several diseases. Radicals generated by 2,2-azobis (2-amidino-propane) dihydrochloride (AAPH) are similar to physiologically active ones. In this study we found that polydatin, a resveratrol natural precursor derived from many sources, has the capacity of free radical scavenging and antioxidative damage. Using free radical scavenging assays, the IC50 values of polydatin were 19.25 and 5.29 μg/ml with the DPPH and the ABTS assay, respectively, and 0.125 mg ferrous sulfate/1 mg polydatin with the FRAP assay. With the AAPH-induced oxidative injury cell model assay, polydatin showed a strong protective effect against the human liver tumor HepG2 cell oxidative stress damage. These results indicate that the antioxidant properties of polydatin have great potential for use as an alternative to more toxic synthetic antioxidants as an additive in food, cosmetics and pharmaceutical preparations for the treatment of oxidative diseases.

  14. Phenylpropanoid Glycoside Analogues: Enzymatic Synthesis, Antioxidant Activity and Theoretical Study of Their Free Radical Scavenger Mechanism

    Science.gov (United States)

    López-Munguía, Agustín; Hernández-Romero, Yanet; Pedraza-Chaverri, José; Miranda-Molina, Alfonso; Regla, Ignacio; Martínez, Ana; Castillo, Edmundo

    2011-01-01

    Phenylpropanoid glycosides (PPGs) are natural compounds present in several medicinal plants that have high antioxidant power and diverse biological activities. Because of their low content in plants (less than 5% w/w), several chemical synthetic routes to produce PPGs have been developed, but their synthesis is a time consuming process and the achieved yields are often low. In this study, an alternative and efficient two-step biosynthetic route to obtain natural PPG analogues is reported for the first time. Two galactosides were initially synthesized from vanillyl alcohol and homovanillyl alcohol by a transgalactosylation reaction catalyzed by Kluyveromyces lactis β-galactosidase in saturated lactose solutions with a 30%–35% yield. To synthesize PPGs, the galactoconjugates were esterified with saturated and unsaturated hydroxycinnamic acid derivatives using Candida antarctica Lipase B (CaL-B) as a biocatalyst with 40%–60% yields. The scavenging ability of the phenolic raw materials, intermediates and PPGs was evaluated by the 2,2-diphenyl-1-picrylhydrazyl radical (DPPH•) method. It was found that the biosynthesized PPGs had higher scavenging abilities when compared to ascorbic acid, the reference compound, while their antioxidant activities were found similar to that of natural PPGs. Moreover, density functional theory (DFT) calculations were used to determine that the PPGs antioxidant mechanism proceeds through a sequential proton loss single electron transfer (SPLET). The enzymatic process reported in this study is an efficient and versatile route to obtain PPGs from different phenylpropanoid acids, sugars and phenolic alcohols. PMID:21674039

  15. Streptomyces sp. MUM212 as a Source of Antioxidants with Radical Scavenging and Metal Chelating Properties

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    Loh Teng-Hern Tan

    2017-05-01

    Full Text Available Reactive oxygen species and other radicals potentially cause oxidative damage to proteins, lipids, and DNA which may ultimately lead to various complications including mutations, carcinogenesis, neurodegeneration, cardiovascular disease, aging, and inflammatory disease. Recent reports demonstrate that Streptomyces bacteria produce metabolites with potent antioxidant activity that may be developed into therapeutic drugs to combat oxidative stress. This study shows that Streptomyces sp. MUM212 which was isolated from mangrove soil in Kuala Selangor, Malaysia, could be a potential source of antioxidants. Strain MUM212 was characterized and determined as belonging to the genus Streptomyces using 16S rRNA gene phylogenetic analysis. The MUM212 extract demonstrated significant antioxidant activity through DPPH, ABTS and superoxide radical scavenging assays and also metal-chelating activity of 22.03 ± 3.01%, 61.52 ± 3.13%, 37.47 ± 1.79%, and 41.98 ± 0.73% at 4 mg/mL, respectively. Moreover, MUM212 extract was demonstrated to inhibit lipid peroxidation up to 16.72 ± 2.64% at 4 mg/mL and restore survival of Vero cells from H2O2-induced oxidative damages. The antioxidant activities from the MUM212 extract correlated well with its total phenolic contents; and this in turn was in keeping with the gas chromatography–mass spectrometry analysis which revealed the presence of phenolic compounds that could be responsible for the antioxidant properties of the extract. Other chemical constituents detected included hydrocarbons, alcohols and cyclic dipeptides which may have contributed to the overall antioxidant capacity of MUM212 extract. As a whole, strain MUM212 seems to have potential as a promising source of novel molecules for future development of antioxidative therapeutic agents against oxidative stress-related diseases.

  16. Evaluation of free radical scavenging capacity and antioxidative damage effect of resveratrol-nanostructured lipid carriers

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jin, Ju; Shi, Fan; Li, Qiu-wen; Li, Pei-shan; Chen, Tong-sheng; Wang, Yi-fei; Wang, Zhi-ping

    2016-03-01

    Cellular damage induced by free-radicals like reactive oxygen species has been implicated in several diseases. 2, 2-azobis(2-amidino-propane) dihydrochloride(AAPH) generates two potent ROS capable of inducing lipid peroxidation: alkoxy radical(RO-) and peroxy radical(ROO-). These radicals are similar to those that are physiologically active and thus might initiate a cascade of intracellular toxic events leading to oxidation, lipid peroxidation, DNA damage and subsequent cell death. Hence naturally anti-oxidant play a vital role in combating these conditions. In this study, resveratrol loaded nanostructured lipid carriers (Res-NLC) was prepared by hot melting and then high pressure homogenization technique. The effects of Res-NLC on free radical scavenging capacity and antioxidative damage is investigated. The particle size and zeta potential of Res-NLC were 139.3 ± 1.7 nm and -11.21 ± 0.41 mV, respectively. By free radical scavenging assays, the IC50 value of Res-NLC were 19.25, 5.29 μg/mL with DPPH, ABTS assay respectively, and 0.161 mg ferrous sulfate/1 mg Res-NLC with FRAP assay; and by AAPH-induced oxidative injury cell model assay, Res-NLC showed the strong protective effect against the human liver tumor HepG2 cell oxidative stress damage. These results indicated that the antioxidant properties of Res-NLC hold great potential used as an alternative to more toxic synthetic antioxidants as an additive in food, cosmetic and pharmaceutical preparations for the oxidative diseases treatment.

  17. HPLC-Analysis of Polyphenolic Compounds in Gardenia jasminoides and Determination of Antioxidant Activity by Using Free Radical Scavenging Assays

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    Riaz Uddin

    2014-05-01

    Full Text Available Purpose: Gardenia jasminoides is a traditional medicinal plant rich in anti-inflammatory flavonoids and phenolic compounds and used for the treatment of inflammatory diseases and pain. In this present study, antioxidant potential of Gardenia jasminoides leaves extract was evaluated by using various antioxidant assays. Methods: Various antioxidant assays such as 1, 1-diphenyl-2-picrylhydrazyl (DPPH radical scavenging assay, reducing power and total antioxidant capacity expressed as equivalent to ascorbic acid were employed. Moreover, phenolic compounds were detected by high-performance liquid chromatography (HPLC coupled with diode-array detection. Results: The methanol extract showed significant free radical scavenging activities in DPPH radical scavenging antioxidant assays compared to the reference antioxidant ascorbic acid. Total antioxidant activity was increased in a dose dependent manner. The extract also showed strong reducing power. The total phenolic content was determined as 190.97 mg/g of gallic acid equivalent. HPLC coupled with diode-array detection was used to identify and quantify the phenolic compounds in the extracts. Gallic acid, (+-catechin, rutin hydrate and quercetin have been identified in the plant extracts. Among the phenolic compounds, catechin and rutin hydrate are present predominantly in the extract. The accuracy and precision of the presented method were corroborated by low intra- and inter-day variations in quantitative results in leaves extract. Conclusion: These results suggest that phenolic compounds and flavonoids might contribute to high antioxidant activities of Gardenia jasminoides leaves.

  18. Phytochemical screening, free radical scavenging, antioxidant activity and phenolic content of Dodonaea viscosa

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    Riaz Tauheeda

    2012-01-01

    Full Text Available The purpose of this study was to evaluate the antioxidant potential of Dodonaea viscosa Jacq. Methanolic extract of the plant was dissolved in distilled water and partitioned with n-hexane, chloroform, ethyl acetate and nbutanol sequentially. Phytochemical screening showed presence of phenolics, flavonoides and cardiac glycosides in large amount in chloroform, ethyl acetate and n-butanol fraction. The antioxidant potential of all these fractions and remaining aqueous fraction was evaluated by four methods: 1,1-Diphenyl-2-picrylhydrazyl (DPPH free radical scavenging activity, total antioxidant activity, Ferric Reducing Antioxidant Power (FRAP assay and ferric thiocyanate assay along with determination of their total phenolics. The results revealed that ethyl acetate soluble fraction exhibited highest percent inhibition of DPPH radical as compared to other fractions. It showed 81.14 ± 1.38% inhibition of DPPH radical at a concentration of 60 μg/ml. The IC50 of this fraction was found to be 33.95 ± 0.58 μg/ml, relative to butylated hydroxytoluene (BHT, having IC50 of 12.54 ± 0.89 μg/mL. It also showed highest FRAP value (380.53 ± 0.74 μM of trolox equivalents as well as highest total phenolic contents (208.58 ± 1.83 GAE μg/g and highest value of inhibition of lipid peroxidation (58.11 ± 1.49% at concentration of 500 μg/ml as compared to the other studied fractions. The chloroform fraction showed highest total antioxidant activity i.e.1.078 ± 0.59 (eq. to BHT.

  19. Antioxidant activities of traditional plants in Sri Lanka by DPPH free radical-scavenging assay

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    Kotaro Hara

    2018-04-01

    Full Text Available This article describes free radical-scavenging activities of extracts of several plants harvested in Sri Lanka through the 1,1-diphenyl-2-picrylhydrazyl (DPPH assay. These plants have traditionally been used in the indigenous systems of medicine in Sri Lanka, such as Ayurveda, as described below. (English name, “local name in Sri Lanka,” (scientific name.bougainvillea plant, “bouganvilla,” (Bougainvillea grabla, purple fruited pea eggplant,”welthibbatu,” (Solanum trilobatum [1], country borage plant, “kapparawalliya,” (Plectranthus amboinicus [2], malabar nut plant, “adhatoda,” (Justicia adhatoda [3], long pepper plant,”thippili,” (Piper longum [4], holy basil plant, “maduruthala,” (Ocimum tenuiflorum [5], air plant, “akkapana,” (Kalanchoe pinnata [6], plumed cockscomb plant, “kiri-henda,” (Celosia argentea [7], neem plant,”kohomba,” (Azadirachta indica [8], balipoovu plant, “polpala,” (Aerva lanata [9], balloon-vine plant, “wel penera,” (Cardiospermum halicacabum [10], emblic myrobalan plant, “nelli,” (Phyllanthus emblica [11], indian copperleaf plant, “kuppameniya,” (Acalypha indica [12], spreading hogweed plant, “pita sudu sarana,” (Boerhavia diffusa [13], curry leaf plant, “karapincha,” (Murraya koenigii [14], indian pennywort plant, “gotukola,” (Centera asiatica [15], jewish plum plant, “ambarella,”(Spondias dulcis [16]. Keywords: Antioxidative activity, DPPH radical-scavenging assay, Traditional plant, Medical herb

  20. In vitro antioxidant and free radical scavenging activity of different parts of Tabebuia pallida growing in Bangladesh.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rahman, Md Mahbubur; Islam, Md Badrul; Biswas, Mohitosh; Khurshid Alam, A H M

    2015-10-30

    In humans, many diseases are associated with the accumulation of free radicals. Antioxidants can scavenge free radicals and minimize their impact. Therefore, the search for naturally occurring antioxidants of plant origin is imperative. Here, we aimed to investigate the antioxidant and free radical scavenging properties of methanolic extracts from Tabebuia pallida (T. pallida) stem bark (TPSB), root bark (TPRB), leaves (TPL), and flowers (TPF). The antioxidant and free radical scavenging activity were determined by several standard methods using spectrophotomer. Total phenolic and flavonoid contents were estimated using Folin-Ciocalteu reagent and aluminum chloride colorimetric assay methods, respectively. Among the extracts, TPL showed the highest total antioxidant capacity followed by TPRB, TPF, and TPSB. Based on DPPH and hydroxyl radical scavenging activity, TPL showed strong scavenging activity (91.05 ± 1.10 and 62.00 ± 0.57) with IC50 of 9.20 ± 0.28 and 46.00 ± 2.84 μg/mL, respectively when compared with standard BHT (IC50 of 7.00 ± 0.25 μg/mL) and CA (75.00 ± 0.14 μg/mL). These results suggest that TPL had the highest radical scavenging activity among the extractives that closely resembled the standard's. In lipid peroxidation inhibition assay, TPL exhibited the most potent inhibitory activity (83.18 ± 2.12 %) with IC50 of 12.00 ± 2.12 μg/mL, which closely resembled standard CA (IC50 of 10.50 ± 0.28 μg/mL). Also, the reducing capacity on ferrous ion was in the following order: TPL > TPRB > TF > TPSB. The phenolic and flavonoid contents of TPL were higher than other extractives. A positive correlation (p value free radical (DPPH(·) and (·)OH) scavenging efficiencies and lipid peroxidation inhibition activity. Methanolic extract of T. pallida leaf is a potential source of natural antioxidants and serves as an effective free radical scavenger and/or inhibitor. Hence, T. pallida might be a good plant-based pharmaceutical product for several

  1. Screening of free radical scavenging capacity and antioxidant activities of Rosmarinus officinalis extracts with focus on location and harvesting times

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Yesil Celiktas, O.; Girgin, G.; Orhan, H.; Wichers, H.J.; Bedir, E.; Vardar Sukan, F.

    2007-01-01

    Methanolic extracts from the leaves of Rosmarinus officinalis (rosemary) harvested from different locations of Turkey at four different times of the year were analyzed by HPLC, and their radical scavenging capacities and antioxidant activities were studied by various assays. The amounts of carnosol,

  2. A new method for measuring scavenging activity of antioxidants to the hydroxyl radical formed by gamma-irradiation

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Yoshioka, Hiroe; Ohashi, Yasunori

    2000-01-01

    A new method using ESR spin trapping was proposed for measuring scavenging activity of antioxidants to the hydroxyl (OH) radical. (-)-epigallocatechin gallate (EGCg) and 5,5-dimethyl-l-pyrroline N-oxide (DMPO) were used as an antioxidant and a spin trapping agent, respectively. Conventional method using a Fenton reaction had some defects on the estimation of the activity, because antioxidant disturbed the generating system of OH radical besides it scavenged the spin adduct (DMPO-OH). This method used intense γ-irradiation as OH radical generating system, and the intensity decrease of DMPO-OH after the end of the irradiation was followed to obtain the rate constant of the scavenging of DMPO-OH with EGCg and to estimate the quantity of DMPO-OH formed during γ-irradiation. By using these values, the reaction rate constant between OH radical and EGCg was calculated as a ratio to that of DMPO. It was shown that this method is useful to compare precisely the OH radical scavenging activity of various antioxidants. (author)

  3. Changes of Major Antioxidant Compounds and Radical Scavenging Activity of Palm Oil and Rice Bran Oil during Deep-Frying

    Science.gov (United States)

    Abdul Hamid, Azizah; Pak Dek, Mohd Sabri; Tan, Chin Ping; Mohd Zainudin, Mohd Asraf; Wee Fang, Evelyn Koh

    2014-01-01

    Changes in antioxidant properties and degradation of bioactives in palm oil (PO) and rice bran oil (RBO) during deep-frying were investigated. The alpha (α)-tocopherol, gamma (γ)-tocotrienol and γ-oryzanol contents of the deep-fried oils were monitored using high performance liquid chromatography, and antioxidant activity was determined using 2-diphenyl-1-picryl hydrazyl (DPPH) radical scavenging activity. Results revealed that the antioxidant activity of PO decreased significantly (p -oryzanol and γ-tocotrienol in RBO may have a protective effect on α-tocopherol during deep-frying. PMID:26785067

  4. Antioxidant, lipid peroxidation inhibition and free radical scavenging efficacy of a diterpenoid compound sugiol isolated from Metasequoia glyptostroboides.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bajpai, Vivek K; Sharma, Ajay; Kang, Sun Chul; Baek, Kwang-Hyun

    2014-01-01

    To investigate the antioxidant efficacy of a biologically active diterpenoid compound sugiol isolated from Metasequoia glyptostroboides (M. glyptostroboides) in various antioxidant models. An abietane type diterpenoid sugiol, isolated from ethyl acetate extract of M. glyptostroboides cones, was analyzed for its antioxidant efficacy as reducing power ability and lipid peroxidation inhibition as well as its ability to scavenge free radicals such as 1,1-diphenyl-2-picryl hydrazyl, nitric oxide, superoxide and hydroxyl radicals. The sugiol showed significant and concentration-dependent antioxidant and free radical scavenging activities. Consequently, the sugiol exerted lipid peroxidation inhibitory effect by 76.5% as compared to α-tocopherol (80.13%) and butylated hydroxyanisole (76.59%). In addition, the sugiol had significant scavenging activities of 1,1-diphenyl-2-picryl hydrazyl, nitric oxide, superoxide and hydroxyl free radicals in a concentration-dependent manner by 78.83%, 72.42%, 72.99% and 85.04%, when compared to the standard compound ascorbic acid (81.69%, 74.62%, 73.00% and 73.79%) and α-tocopherol/butylated hydroxyanisole (84.09%, 78.61%, 74.45% and 70.02%), respectively. These findings justify the biological and traditional uses of M. glyptostroboides or its secondary metabolites as confirmed by its promising antioxidant efficacy. Copyright © 2014 Hainan Medical College. Published by Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  5. Comparative evaluation of post-column free radical scavenging and ferric reducing antioxidant power assays for screening of antioxidants in strawberries.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Raudonis, Raimondas; Raudone, Lina; Jakstas, Valdas; Janulis, Valdimaras

    2012-04-13

    ABTS and FRAP post-column techniques evaluate the antioxidant characteristics of HPLC separated compounds with specific reagents. ABTS characterize their ability to scavenge free radicals by electron-donating antioxidants, resulting in the absorbance decrease of the chromophoric radical. FRAP - is based on the reduction of Fe(III)-tripyridyltriazine complex to Fe(II)-tripyridyltriazine at low pH by electron-donating antioxidants, resulting in an absorbance increase. Both post-column assays were evaluated and compared according to the following validation parameters: specificity, precision, limit of detection (LoD), limit of quantitation (LoQ) and linearity. ABTS and FRAP post-column assays were specific, repeatable and sensitive and thus can be used for the evaluation of antioxidant active compounds. Antioxidant active compounds were quantified according to TEAC for each assay and ABTS/FRAP ratio was derived. No previous records of antioxidative activity of leaves and fruits of strawberries (Fragaria viridis, Fragaria moschata) research have been found. The research results confirm the reliability of ABTS and FRAP post-column assays for screening of antioxidants in complex mixtures and the determination of radical scavenging and ferric reducing ability by their TEAC values. Copyright © 2012 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  6. Antioxidant capacity and radical scavenging effect of polyphenol rich Mallotus philippenensis fruit extract on human erythrocytes: an in vitro study.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gangwar, Mayank; Gautam, Manish Kumar; Sharma, Amit Kumar; Tripathi, Yamini B; Goel, R K; Nath, Gopal

    2014-01-01

    Mallotus philippinensis is an important source of molecules with strong antioxidant activity widely used medicinal plant. Previous studies have highlighted their anticestodal, antibacterial, wound healing activities, and so forth. So, present investigation was designed to evaluate the total antioxidant activity and radical scavenging effect of 50% ethanol fruit glandular hair extract (MPE) and its role on Human Erythrocytes. MPE was tested for phytochemical test followed by its HPLC analysis. Standard antioxidant assays like DPPH, ABTS, hydroxyl, superoxide radical, nitric oxide, and lipid peroxidation assay were determined along with total phenolic and flavonoids content. Results showed that MPE contains the presence of various phytochemicals, with high total phenolic and flavonoid content. HPLC analysis showed the presence of rottlerin, a polyphenolic compound in a very rich quantity. MPE exhibits significant strong scavenging activity on DPPH and ABTS assay. Reducing power showed dose dependent increase in concentration absorption compared to standard, Quercetin. Superoxide, hydroxyl radical, lipid peroxidation, nitric oxide assay showed a comparable scavenging activity compared to its standard. Our finding further provides evidence that Mallotus fruit extract is a potential natural source of antioxidants which have a protective role on human Erythrocytes exhibiting minimum hemolytic activity and this justified its uses in folklore medicines.

  7. Free radical scavenging actions of three Trifolium species in the protection of blood plasma antioxidant capacity in vitro.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kolodziejczyk-Czepas, Joanna; Nowak, Pawel; Moniuszko-Szajwaj, Barbara; Kowalska, Iwona; Stochmal, Anna

    2015-01-01

    Three clover [Trifolium L. (Leguminosae)] species were selected on the basis of data from traditional medicine, phytochemical profiles, and agricultural significance. The in vitro evaluations of free radical scavenging properties, ferric reducing abilities, and antioxidant effects of extracts from T. pratense L. (crude extract and phenolic fraction), T. pallidum L., and T. scabrum L. (phenolic fractions) were performed. Activities of the Trifolium extracts were determined at their final concentrations of 1.5-50 µg/ml. Free radical scavenging properties of methanol extract solutions were estimated by the reduction of DPPH(•) and ABTS(•) radicals. Measurements of the total antioxidant capacity (TAC) were carried out to assess the antioxidant activities of the extracts in human blood plasma under conditions of oxidative stress, induced by 200 μM peroxynitrite. The phenolic fraction of T. pratense displayed the strongest ABTS(•) and DPPH(•) radical scavenging effects (EC50 value of 21.69 and 12.27 µg/ml, respectively). The EC50 value for T. pallidum extract attained 29.77 and 30.06 µg/ml. The two remaining extracts were less potent scavengers (EC50 value higher than 50 µg/ml). Similar differences were obtained during evaluation of the ferric reducing abilities. Analysis of antioxidant properties of the extracts in blood plasma did not provide such evident differences in their actions, however, it indicated that the T. pratense phenolic fraction displayed the strongest effect. The examined Trifolium extracts partly protected blood plasma and enhanced its non-enzymatic antioxidant defense against harmful action of peroxynitrite in vitro.

  8. Antioxidant and Free Radical Scavenging Activity of Trigonella foenum-graecum L, Murraya koenigii , Coriandrum sativum and Centella asiatica

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Sanghamitra Dutta

    2016-04-01

    Full Text Available Antioxidants are naturally occurring substances that combat oxidative damage in biological entities. An antioxidant achieves this by slowing or preventing the oxidation process that can damage cells in the body. It does this by getting oxidized itself in place of the cells. The aim of the present study was to evaluate the in vitro antioxidant and free radical scavenging activities of aqueous and 95% methanol leaf extracts of four herbs viz. Trigonella foenum-graecum L, Murraya koenigii, Coriandrum sativum and Centella asiatica which have frequent use in Indian cuisine. Both aqueous and 95% methanol leaf extracts have shown significant amount reducing power. Both aqueous and 95% methanol leaf extracts of Coriandrum sativum had significant DPPH radical scavenging activity with IC50 value of 0.21± 0.3 mg/L and 0.176 ± 0.008 mg/L respectively. The aqueous leaf extract of Trigonella foenum-graecum L showed low scavenging activity. Among all the leaf extracts, the aqueous leaf extract of Centella asiatica has exhibited significantly high NO radical scavenging activity (80% with IC50 value of 0.11 ± 0.17 mg/L. The aqueous leaf extracts of the samples have showed significantly high superoxide radical scavenging activity. The activity was maximum for the aqueous leaf extract of Centella asiatica, IC50 value is 4.36 ± 0.41 mg/L. anti lipid peroxide activities were very high ( 90 % for aqueous leaf extracts of Coriandrum sativum (IC50 = 0.064 ± 0.85 mg/L and Centella asiatica (IC50 = 0.066 ± 0.9mg/L at a concentration of 0.16 mg/L. The aqueous leaf extracts of the samples were found to contain large amounts of flavonoids and phenolic compounds and exhibited high antioxidant and free radical scavenging activities. These in vitro assays indicate that these plant extracts are significant source of natural antioxidants which might be helpful in preventing the progress of various oxidative stresses.

  9. Synthesis and in Vitro Antioxidant Activity Evaluation of 3-Carboxycoumarin Derivatives and QSAR Study of Their DPPH• Radical Scavenging Activity

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Maria Teresa Sumaya-Martínez

    2012-12-01

    Full Text Available The in vitro antioxidant activities of eight 3-carboxycoumarin derivatives were assayed by the quantitative 1,1-diphenyl-2-picrylhydrazil (DPPH• radical scavenging activity method. 3-Acetyl-6-hydroxy-2H-1-benzopyran-2-one (C1 and ethyl 6-hydroxy-2-oxo-2H-1-benzopyran-3-carboxylate (C2 presented the best radical-scavenging activity. A quantitative structure-activity relationship (QSAR study was performed and correlated with the experimental DPPH• scavenging data. We used structural, geometrical, topological and quantum-chemical descriptors selected with Genetic Algorithms in order to determine which of these parameters are responsible of the observed DPPH• radical scavenging activity. We constructed a back propagation neural network with the hydrophilic factor (Hy descriptor to generate an adequate architecture of neurons for the system description. The mathematical model showed a multiple determination coefficient of 0.9196 and a root mean squared error of 0.0851. Our results shows that the presence of hydroxyl groups on the ring structure of 3-carboxy-coumarins are correlated with the observed DPPH• radical scavenging activity effects.

  10. Functionalized graphene quantum dots loaded with free radicals combined with liquid chromatography and tandem mass spectrometry to screen radical scavenging natural antioxidants from Licorice and Scutellariae.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wang, Guoying; Niu, XiuLi; Shi, Gaofeng; Chen, Xuefu; Yao, Ruixing; Chen, Fuwen

    2014-12-01

    A novel screening method was developed for the detection and identification of radical scavenging natural antioxidants based on a free radical reaction combined with liquid chromatography with tandem mass spectrometry. Functionalized graphene quantum dots were prepared for loading free radicals in the complex screening system. The detection was performed with and without a preliminary exposure of the samples to specific free radicals on the functionalized graphene quantum dots, which can facilitate charge transfer between free radicals and antioxidants. The difference in chromatographic peak areas was used to identify potential antioxidants. This is a novel approach to simultaneously evaluate the antioxidant power of a component versus a free radical, and to identify it in a vegetal matrix. The structures of the antioxidants in the samples were identified using tandem mass spectrometry and comparison with standards. Fourteen compounds were found to possess potential antioxidant activity, and their free radical scavenging capacities were investigated. The order of scavenging capacity of 14 compounds was compared according to their free radical scavenging rate. 4',5,6,7-Tetrahydroxyflavone (radical scavenging rate: 0.05253 mL mg(-1) s(-1) ) showed the strongest capability for scavenging free radicals. © 2014 WILEY-VCH Verlag GmbH & Co. KGaA, Weinheim.

  11. A study on the comparison of antioxidant effects among cultivated ginseng, and cultivated wild ginseng extracts -Using the measurement of superoxide and hydroxy radical scavenging activities-

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Tae Jin, Rhim

    2009-06-01

    Full Text Available Objectives : The objective of this study was to compare the antioxidant effects among cultivated wild ginseng and ginseng extracts. Methods : In vitro antioxidant activities were examined by superoxide and hydroxyl radical scavenging activities of ginseng and cultivated wild ginseng extracts. Results : 1. In the superoxide radical scavenging activities of ginseng and cultivated wild ginseng extracts, antioxidant activities of cultivated wild ginseng extracts was showed higher than cultivated ginseng in the concentration of 0.25 and 0.50㎎/㎖. 2. In the hydroxyl radical scavenging activities of ginseng and cultivated wild ginseng extracts, antioxidant activities of cultivated wild ginseng extracts was showed higher than cultivated ginseng in the concentration of 1.0, 2.5, and 5.0㎎/㎖. Conclusions : In summary, the results of this study demonstrate that cultivated wild ginseng extracts had higher antioxidant activities to cultivated ginseng.

  12. Solvent optimization extraction of antioxidants from foxtail millet species' insoluble fibers and their free radical scavenging properties.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bangoura, Mohamed Lamine; Nsor-Atindana, John; Ming, Zhou Hui

    2013-11-15

    In this study, water and 80% of four organic solvents were employed to optimize the extraction of antioxidants from two species of foxtail millet's insoluble fibers under the same temperature, time, and solid/solvent ratio. The results showed that the acetone was able to extract the maximum amount of antioxidants (2.32 mg/g fiber for white specie and 3.86 mg/g fiber for yellow specie) followed by methanol and propanol from both samples. The neutral and the ethanol on the other hand extracted small amount of the antioxidants from the two fiber materials. While considerable level of Total Polyphenols Content (TPC) was recorded in both the water and the organic solvents' extracts, only traces of Total Flavonoid content (TFC) were observed in water, methanol and ethanol extracts. Propanol and acetone extracts was negative to the TFC test. The potency of both white and yellow foxtail millets' insoluble fibers antioxidant extracts was investigated using five different in vitro tests. It was realized that there was a variation in their capacities to quench DPPH and ABTS(+) radicals for the time running of 0-60 min. The samples from the yellow cereal exhibited high inhibition capacity against ABTS(+). No correlation was observed between TPC and radical scavenging capacities for DPPH and ABTS(+). In general, the yellow species contained more antioxidants in comparison with the white one and this accounted for its high antioxidant activity. Copyright © 2013 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  13. Radical-Scavenging Activity of Dietary Phytophenols in Combination with co-Antioxidants Using the Induction Period Method

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Seiichiro Fujisawa

    2011-12-01

    Full Text Available The radical-scavenging activity of dietary phytophenols has been investigated by many researches due to their antioxidant, anti-inflammatory and anticancer property but the radical-scavenging effect of 2-phytophenol and the phytophenol:co-antioxidants, vitamin C and thiol combination under nearly anaerobic conditions still remains unknown. The radical-scavenging activity for seventeen phytophenols and for six synthetic phenols (positive controls was investigated using the induction period method in the polymerization of methyl methacrylates (MMA initiated by thermal decomposition of benzoyl peroxide (BPO by monitoring differential scanning calorimetery (DSC. The kinh for the phytophenols was likely with the range 0.5 × 103 M−1s−1−2.2 × 103 M−1s−1, whereas that for synthetic phenols, hydroquinone and galvinoxyl, was with the range 7 × 103 M−1s−1−8 × 103 M−1s−1. Also, the additive scavenging effect of the (−-epigallocatechin (EGC:(−-epicatechin (EC and the (+-catechin:epicatechin (EC combination was observed at 1:1 molar ratio, whereas that of the EC:quercetin combination showed the cancel (prooxidative effect. Furthermore, the EGC:ASDB (L-ascorbyl 2,6-dibutylate or 2-ME (2-mercaptoethanol combination showed the prooxidative effect. Such enhancement of prooxidation in the combination may increase their toxic effects due to their cooxidation. Also, the synergic, additive or cancel effects of the flavonoid:vitamins E combination on the induction period in the BPO (a PhCOO* radical and 2,2′-azobisisobutyronitrile (AIBN, an R* radical systems are discussed.

  14. Prooxidant/Antioxidant Ratio (ProAntidex as a Better Index of Net Free Radical Scavenging Potential

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Hwee Ming Cheng

    2010-11-01

    Full Text Available The antioxidant activity of several Malaysian plant extracts was analyzed simultaneously with their pro-oxidant capacity. This ratio represents an index (ProAntidex of the net free radical scavenging ability of whole plant extracts. We observed that ethanolic extracts of Nephelium lappaceum peel, Fragaria x ananassa leaf, Lawsonia inermis leaf, Syzygium aqueum leaf and grape seed had a lower Pro-Antidex than the commercially available Emblica™ extract which is an antioxidant agent with very low pro-oxidant activity. Among the aqueous extracts, Lawsonia inermis leaf, Nephelium mutobile leaf and grape seed had lower pro-oxidant activity compared to the Emblica™ extract. Among these extracts, aqueous extract of Nephelium mutobile leaf had a very low index of 0.05 compared to 0.69 for Emblica™. Most of the extracts had a far lower ProAntidex compared to the Vitamin C. The index enables us to identify extracts with high net free radical scavenging activity potential. The ProAntidex is beneficial as a screening parameter to the food industries and healthcare.

  15. Alteration in antioxidant potential of spinacia oleracea in response to selected plant growth regulators

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Aslam, M.; Sultana, B.; Ali, S.; Rehman, K.U.

    2013-01-01

    The spinach (Spinacia oleracea) plants treated with certain seed priming (bio-fertilizer and Humic acid) and foliar treatments (Humic acid, Moringa leaf extract, 6-Benzyl amino purine etc.) were tested for total phenolic content and the antioxidant activity. Methanolic extracts of all spinach samples were assessed performing three different protocols including Folin-Ciocalteu, reducing power and DPPH radical scavenging assays. TPC value ranged 4.678-13.236 mg GAE/g of dry matter. Reducing power assay showed values (absorbance at lambda max=700nm) in the range of 0.351-1.874 at 10 mg/mL extract concentration. The range of IC 50 values in DPPH radical scavenging assay was 0.499-1.063 mu g/mL extract concentration. The one way ANOVA under CRD showed significant differences among treatments. Among various plant growth regulators, fresh Moringa leaf extract proved as the potent enhancer of antioxidant activity of spinach leaves. (author)

  16. Functional Teas from the Leaves of Arbutus unedo: Phenolic Content, Antioxidant Activity, and Detection of Efficient Radical Scavengers.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Erkekoglou, Ioannis; Nenadis, Nikolaos; Samara, Efrosini; Mantzouridou, Fani Th

    2017-06-01

    The phenolic content/composition and antioxidant activity of hot/cold infusion and decoction from the leaves of Arbutus unedo were studied for the first time. 1,1-diphenyl-2-picrylhydrazyl (DPPH ● ), 2,2'-azino-bis(3-ethylbenzothiazoline-6-sulphonic acid) radical cation (ABTS ●+ ), crocin-bleaching, copper-reducing, and liposome accelerated oxidation assays were used for the evaluation of the activity in vitro. In vivo, the extracts were examined for their ability to protect S. cerevisiae cells from H 2 O 2 induced oxidative stress. An on-line high-performance liquid chromatography-DPPH ● assay was applied to identify potent radical scavengers and comment on their contribution to the total activity. The addition of leaves to boiling water (decoction) was the most appropriate practice to apply since the highest phenol intake (220.2 mg gallic acid/cup served) was obtained. Additionally, its antioxidant activity was equal or superior to that of the other extracts. Flavonols (~51-61 mg/g dry extract) were the main phenols in all the extracts, with quercitrin accounting for ~20% of the total phenol amount. The on-line DPPH ● method verified the high potency of the decoction and indicated as the most active radical scavengers, two galloylquinic acid derivatives and myricitrin, accounting for ~28-45% and ~11-13% of the total scavenging, respectively. Present data may contribute to the future exploitation of A. unedo leaves by the food industry for health-promoting herbal tea preparations and dietary supplements.

  17. Study On DPPH Free Radical - Scavenging Activity Of Antioxidant Compounds In Plants Composing BIN-5 Biological Active Preparation

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Purevjav Urjintseren

    2015-08-01

    Full Text Available Recently there has been common trend among people to refuse from food and medications produced via synthetic method but try to consume natural products as much as possible instead. In this regard wild berries and medicinal plants are considered to be highly essential for human health as these kinds of plants serve as rich sources of biological active substances-phenol compounds. As a result of conducting research on source and spread of herbs which are commonly used as anti-diabetic medication we have developed a technological method to extract preparations from medicinal herbs such as Peony Paeonia lactiflora Pall Dandelion Taraxacum officinalis Wigg. Huckleberry Vaccinium myrtillus L Blueberry Vaccinium uliginosum L Cranberry Vaccinium vitisidaea L and Stinging nettles Urtica dioica accordingly studied chemical composition and antioxidant activity and conducted pharmacological study. With the use of Folin Denis amp Folin Ciocalteu reagent methodit was determined that the content of polyphenol compounds was 4.14-5.17 and 27.5 101.5mgml. The study was also aimed to investigate DPPH free radical-scavenging activity in connection with term temperature and concentration to identify the most rational technological procedure. As a result of study it was identified that free radical-scavenging activity of herbs selected for the study was generally estimated at 564.25-1750.00 mcgml whereas antioxidant activity of solvents with 2-10 mgml concentration was 417.20-1750.00 mcg ml respectively. This shows that such activity is dependent on concentration. However in temperature of 30 1000amp1057 degrees their activity has slowly been decreased by 1750 mcgml 476.7mcgml depending on temperature. Regarding the stinging nettles the activity was grown directly dependent from temperature. DPHH free radical-scavenging activity was gradually increased in 1-10 minutes but was relatively stable and active in 11-16 minutes.

  18. Test for antioxidant ability by scavenging long-lived mutagenic radicals in mammalian cells and by blood test with intentional radicals: an application of gallic acid

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Kumagai, Jun; Kawaura, Tomoko; Miyazaki, Tetsuo; Prost, Michel; Prost, Emmanuelle; Watanabe, Masami; Quetin-Leclercq, J.Joeelle

    2003-01-01

    Antioxidant ability of gallic acid (GA) are determined both by electron spin resonance measurement of long-lived radicals produced in γ-ray irradiated Syrian golden hamster embryo cells with GA and by hemolysis measurement with GA when blood cells are submitted to radicals. Scavenging properties of GA are determined by the reaction rate constant with long-lived mutagenic radicals in the cells while the blood test allows to analyze the global effects of this compound: radical scavenger+metal ion chelator+regeneration of intra- and extra-cellular antioxidant

  19. Changes of Major Antioxidant Compounds and Radical Scavenging Activity of Palm Oil and Rice Bran Oil during Deep-Frying

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    Azizah Abdul Hamid

    2014-07-01

    Full Text Available Changes in antioxidant properties and degradation of bioactives in palm oil (PO and rice bran oil (RBO during deep-frying were investigated. The alpha (α-tocopherol, gamma (γ-tocotrienol and γ-oryzanol contents of the deep-fried oils were monitored using high performance liquid chromatography, and antioxidant activity was determined using 2-diphenyl-1-picryl hydrazyl (DPPH radical scavenging activity. Results revealed that the antioxidant activity of PO decreased significantly (p < 0.05, while that of RBO was preserved after deep-frying of fries. As expected, the concentration of α-tocopherol in PO and γ-tocotrienol in both PO and RBO decreased significantly (p < 0.05 with increased frying. Results also showed that γ-tocotrienol was found to be more susceptible to degradation compared to that of α-tocopherol in both PO and RBO. Interestingly, no significant degradation of α-tocopherol was observed in RBO. It is suggested that the presence of γ-oryzanol and γ-tocotrienol in RBO may have a protective effect on α-tocopherol during deep-frying.

  20. Direct antioxidant properties of methotrexate: Inhibition of malondialdehyde-acetaldehyde-protein adduct formation and superoxide scavenging

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Matthew C. Zimmerman

    2017-10-01

    Full Text Available Methotrexate (MTX is an immunosuppressant commonly used for the treatment of autoimmune diseases. Recent observations have shown that patients treated with MTX also exhibit a reduced risk for the development of cardiovascular disease (CVD. Although MTX reduces systemic inflammation and tissue damage, the mechanisms by which MTX exerts these beneficial effects are not entirely known. We have previously demonstrated that protein adducts formed by the interaction of malondialdehyde (MDA and acetaldehyde (AA, known as MAA-protein adducts, are present in diseased tissues of individuals with rheumatoid arthritis (RA or CVD. In previously reported studies, MAA-adducts were shown to be highly immunogenic, supporting the concept that MAA-adducts not only serve as markers of oxidative stress but may have a direct role in the pathogenesis of inflammatory diseases. Because MAA-adducts are commonly detected in diseased tissues and are proposed to mitigate disease progression in both RA and CVD, we tested the hypothesis that MTX inhibits the generation of MAA-protein adducts by scavenging reactive oxygen species. Using a cell free system, we found that MTX reduces MAA-adduct formation by approximately 6-fold, and scavenges free radicals produced during MAA-adduct formation. Further investigation revealed that MTX directly scavenges superoxide, but not hydrogen peroxide. Additionally, using the Nrf2/ARE luciferase reporter cell line, which responds to intracellular redox changes, we observed that MTX inhibits the activation of Nrf2 in cells treated with MDA and AA. These studies define previously unrecognized mechanisms by which MTX can reduce inflammation and subsequent tissue damage, namely, scavenging free radicals, reducing oxidative stress, and inhibiting MAA-adduct formation.

  1. Free radical scavengers and antioxidants from Lemongrass (Cymbopogon citratus (DC.) Stapf.).

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cheel, José; Theoduloz, Cristina; Rodríguez, Jaime; Schmeda-Hirschmann, Guillermo

    2005-04-06

    Methanol, MeOH/water extracts, infusion, and decoction of Cymbopogon citratus were assessed for free radical scavenging effects measured by the bleaching of the 1,1-diphenyl-2-picryl-hydrazyl (DPPH) radical, scavenging of the superoxide anion, and inhibition of the enzyme xanthine oxidase (XO) and lipid peroxidation in human erythrocytes. The extracts presented effect in the DPPH and superoxide anion assay, with values ranging between 40 and 68% and 15-32% at 33 and 50 microg/mL, respectively, inhibited lipid peroxidation in erythrocytes by 19-71% at 500 microg/mL and were inactive toward the XO at 50 microg/mL. Isoorientin, isoscoparin, swertiajaponin, isoorientin 2' '-O-rhamnoside, orientin, chlorogenic acid, and caffeic acid were isolated and identified by spectroscopic methods. Isoorientin and orientin presented similar activities toward the DPPH (IC(50): 9-10 microM) and inhibited lipid peroxidation by 70% at 100 microg/mL. Caffeic and chlorogenic acid were active superoxide anion scavengers with IC(50) values of 68.8 and 54.2 microM, respectively, and a strong effect toward DPPH. Caffeic acid inhibited lipid peroxidation by 85% at 100 microg/mL.

  2. Effects of P25 TiO2 Nanoparticles on the Free Radical-Scavenging Ability of Antioxidants upon Their Exposure to Simulated Sunlight.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Li, Meng; Chong, Yu; Fu, Peter P; Xia, Qingsu; Croley, Timothy R; Lo, Y Martin; Yin, Jun-Jie

    2017-11-15

    Although nanosized ingredients, including TiO 2 nanoparticles (NPs), can be found in a wide range of consumer products, little is known about the effects these particles have on other active compounds in product matrices. These NPs can interact with reactive oxygen species (ROS), potentially disrupting or canceling the benefits expected from antioxidants. We used electron spin resonance spectrometry to assess changes in the antioxidant capacities of six dietary antioxidants (ascorbic acid, α-tocopherol, glutathione, cysteine, epicatechin, and epicatechin gallate) during exposure to P25 TiO 2 and/or simulated sunlight. Specifically, we determined the ability of these antioxidants to scavenge 1-diphenyl-2-picryl-hydrazyl radical, superoxide radical, and hydroxyl radical. Exposure to simulated sunlight alone did not lead to noticeable changes in radical-scavenging abilities; however, in combination with P25 TiO 2 NPs, the scavenging abilities of most antioxidants were weakened. We found glutathione to be the most resistant to treatment with sunlight and NPs among these six antioxidants.

  3. Scavenging performance and antioxidant activity of γ-alumina nanoparticles towards DPPH free radical: Spectroscopic and DFT-D studies.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zamani, Mehdi; Moradi Delfani, Ali; Jabbari, Morteza

    2018-05-03

    The radical scavenging performance and antioxidant activity of γ-alumina nanoparticles towards 2,2-diphenyl-1-picrylhydrazyl (DPPH) free radical were investigated by spectroscopic and computational methods. The radical scavenging ability of γ-alumina nanoparticles in the media with different polarity (i.e. i-propanol and n-hexane) was evaluated by measuring the DPPH absorbance in UV-Vis absorption spectra. The structure and morphology of γ-alumina nanoparticles before and after adsorption of DPPH were studied using XRD, FT-IR and UV-Vis spectroscopic techniques. The adsorption of DPPH free radical on the clean and hydrated γ-alumina (1 1 0) surface was examined by dispersion corrected density functional theory (DFT-D) and natural bond orbital (NBO) calculations. Also, time-dependent density functional theory (TD-DFT) was used to predict the absorption spectra. The adsorption was occurred through the interaction of radical nitrogen N and NO 2 groups of DPPH with the acidic and basic sites of γ-alumina surface. The high potential for the adsorption of DPPH radical on γ-alumina nanoparticles was investigated. Interaction of DPPH with Brønsted and Lewis acidic sites of γ-alumina was more favored than Brønsted basic sites. The following order for the adsorption of DPPH over the different active sites of γ-alumina was predicted: Brønsted base free radicals. Copyright © 2018. Published by Elsevier B.V.

  4. A multiple free-radical scavenging (MULTIS) study on the antioxidant capacity of a neuroprotective drug, edaravone as compared with uric acid, glutathione, and trolox.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kamogawa, Erisa; Sueishi, Yoshimi

    2014-03-01

    Edaravone (3-methyl-1-phenyl-2-pyrazoline-5-one) is a neuroprotective drug that has been used for brain ischemia injury treatment. Because its activity is speculated to be due to free radical scavenging activity, we carried out a quantitative determination of edaravone's free radical scavenging activity against multiple free radical species. Electron spin resonance (ESR) spin trapping-based multiple free-radical scavenging (MULTIS) method was employed, where target free radicals were hydroxyl radical, superoxide anion, alkoxyl radical, alkylperoxyl radical, methyl radical, and singlet oxygen. Edaravone showed relatively high scavenging abilities against hydroxyl radical (scavenging rate constant k=2.98×10(11) M(-1) s(-1)), singlet oxygen (k=2.75×10(7) M(-1) s(-1)), and methyl radical (k=3.00×10(7) M(-1) s(-1)). Overall, edaravone's scavenging activity against multiple free radical species is as robust as other known potent antioxidant such as uric acid, glutathione, and trolox. A radar chart illustration of the MULTIS activity relative to uric acid, glutathione, and trolox indicates that edaravone has a high and balanced antioxidant activity with low specificity. Copyright © 2014 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  5. In vitro antioxidant capacity and free radical scavenging evaluation of active metabolite constituents of Newbouldia laevis ethanolic leaf extract.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Habu, Josiah Bitrus; Ibeh, Bartholomew Okechukwu

    2015-03-14

    The aim of the present study was to evaluate the in vitro antioxidant and free radical scavenging capacity of bioactive metabolites present in Newbouldia laevis leaf extract. Chromatographic and spectrophotometric methods were used in the study and modified where necessary in the study. Bioactivity of the extract was determined at 10 μg/ml, 50 μg/ml, 100 μg/ml, 200 μg/ml and 400 μg/ml concentrations expressed in % inhibition. The yield of the ethanolic leaf extract of N.laevis was 30.3 g (9.93%). Evaluation of bioactive metabolic constituents gave high levels of ascorbic acid (515.53 ± 12 IU/100 g [25.7 mg/100 g]), vitamin E (26.46 ± 1.08 IU/100 g), saponins (6.2 ± 0.10), alkaloids (2.20 ± 0.03), cardiac glycosides(1.48 ± 0.22), amino acids and steroids (8.01 ± 0.04) measured in mg/100 g dry weight; moderate levels of vitamin A (188.28 ± 6.19 IU/100 g), tannins (0.09 ± 0.30), terpenoids (3.42 ± 0.67); low level of flavonoids (1.01 ± 0.34 mg/100 g) and absence of cyanogenic glycosides, carboxylic acids and aldehydes/ketones. The extracts percentage inhibition of DPPH, hydroxyl radical (OH.), superoxide anion (O2 .-), iron chelating, nitric oxide radical (NO), peroxynitrite (ONOO-), singlet oxygen (1O2), hypochlorous acid (HOCl), lipid peroxidation (LPO) and FRAP showed a concentration-dependent antioxidant activity with no significant difference with the controls. Though, IC50 of the extract showed significant difference only in singlet oxygen (1O2) and iron chelating activity when compared with the controls. The extract is a potential source of antioxidants/free radical scavengers having important metabolites which maybe linked to its ethno-medicinal use.

  6. Red Fruits: Extraction of Antioxidants, Phenolic Content, and Radical Scavenging Determination: A Review

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hidalgo, Gádor-Indra; Almajano, María Pilar

    2017-01-01

    Red fruits, as rich antioxidant foods, have gained over recent years capital importance for consumers and manufacturers. The industrial extraction of the phenolic molecules from this source has been taking place with the conventional solvent extraction method. New non-conventional extraction methods have been devised as environmentally friendly alternatives to the former method, such as ultrasound, microwave, and pressure assisted extractions. The aim of this review is to compile the results of recent studies using different extraction methodologies, identify the red fruits with higher antioxidant activity, and give a global overview of the research trends regarding this topic. As the amount of data available is overwhelming, only results referring to berries are included, leaving aside other plant parts such as roots, stems, or even buds and flowers. Several researchers have drawn attention to the efficacy of non-conventional extraction methods, accomplishing similar or even better results using these new techniques. Some pilot-scale trials have been performed, corroborating the applicability of green alternative methods to the industrial scale. Blueberries (Vaccinium corymbosum L.) and bilberries (Vaccinium myrtillus L.) emerge as the berries with the highest antioxidant content and capacity. However, several new up and coming berries are gaining attention due to global availability and elevated anthocyanin content. PMID:28106822

  7. Red Fruits: Extraction of Antioxidants, Phenolic Content, and Radical Scavenging Determination: A Review

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Gádor-Indra Hidalgo

    2017-01-01

    Full Text Available Red fruits, as rich antioxidant foods, have gained over recent years capital importance for consumers and manufacturers. The industrial extraction of the phenolic molecules from this source has been taking place with the conventional solvent extraction method. New non-conventional extraction methods have been devised as environmentally friendly alternatives to the former method, such as ultrasound, microwave, and pressure assisted extractions. The aim of this review is to compile the results of recent studies using different extraction methodologies, identify the red fruits with higher antioxidant activity, and give a global overview of the research trends regarding this topic. As the amount of data available is overwhelming, only results referring to berries are included, leaving aside other plant parts such as roots, stems, or even buds and flowers. Several researchers have drawn attention to the efficacy of non-conventional extraction methods, accomplishing similar or even better results using these new techniques. Some pilot-scale trials have been performed, corroborating the applicability of green alternative methods to the industrial scale. Blueberries (Vaccinium corymbosum L. and bilberries (Vaccinium myrtillus L. emerge as the berries with the highest antioxidant content and capacity. However, several new up and coming berries are gaining attention due to global availability and elevated anthocyanin content.

  8. Determination of Free Radical Scavenging, Antioxidative DNA Damage Activities and Phytochemical Components of Active Fractions from Lansium domesticum Corr. Fruit

    Science.gov (United States)

    Klungsupya, Prapaipat; Suthepakul, Nava; Muangman, Thanchanok; Rerk-Am, Ubon; Thongdon-A, Jeerayu

    2015-01-01

    Lansium domesticum Corr. or “long-kong” is one of the most popular fruits in Thailand. Its peel (skin, SK) and seeds (SD) become waste unless recycled or applied for use. This study was undertaken to determine the bioactivity and phytochemical components of L. domesticum (LD) skin and seed extracts. Following various extraction and fractionation procedures, 12 fractions were obtained. All fractions were tested for antioxidant capacity against O2−• and OH•. It was found that the peel of L. domesticum fruits exhibited higher O2−• and OH• scavenging activity than seeds. High potential antioxidant activity was found in two fractions of 50% ethanol extract of peel followed by ethyl acetate (EA) fractionation (LDSK50-EA) and its aqueous phase (LDSK50-H2O). Therefore, these two active fractions were selected for further studies on their antioxidative activity against DNA damage by hydrogen peroxide (H2O2) in human TK6 cells using comet assay. The comet results revealed DNA-protective activity of both LDSK50-EA and LDSK50-H2O fractions when TK6 human lymphoblast cells were pre-treated at 25, 50, 100, and 200 μg/mL for 24 h prior to H2O2 exposure. The phytochemical analysis illustrated the presence of phenolic substances, mainly scopoletin, rutin, and chlorogenic acid, in these two active fractions. This study generates new information on the biological activity of L. domesticum. It will promote and strengthen the utilization of L. domesticum by-products. PMID:26287238

  9. Determination of Free Radical Scavenging, Antioxidative DNA Damage Activities and Phytochemical Components of Active Fractions from Lansium domesticum Corr. Fruit

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Prapaipat Klungsupya

    2015-08-01

    Full Text Available Lansium domesticum Corr. or “long-kong” is one of the most popular fruits in Thailand. Its peel (skin, SK and seeds (SD become waste unless recycled or applied for use. This study was undertaken to determine the bioactivity and phytochemical components of L. domesticum (LD skin and seed extracts. Following various extraction and fractionation procedures, 12 fractions were obtained. All fractions were tested for antioxidant capacity against O2−• and OH•. It was found that the peel of L. domesticum fruits exhibited higher O2−• and OH• scavenging activity than seeds. High potential antioxidant activity was found in two fractions of 50% ethanol extract of peel followed by ethyl acetate (EA fractionation (LDSK50-EA and its aqueous phase (LDSK50-H2O. Therefore, these two active fractions were selected for further studies on their antioxidative activity against DNA damage by hydrogen peroxide (H2O2 in human TK6 cells using comet assay. The comet results revealed DNA-protective activity of both LDSK50-EA and LDSK50-H2O fractions when TK6 human lymphoblast cells were pre-treated at 25, 50, 100, and 200 μg/mL for 24 h prior to H2O2 exposure. The phytochemical analysis illustrated the presence of phenolic substances, mainly scopoletin, rutin, and chlorogenic acid, in these two active fractions. This study generates new information on the biological activity of L. domesticum. It will promote and strengthen the utilization of L. domesticum by-products.

  10. (+/-)-catechin: chemical weapon, antioxidant, or stress regulator?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chobot, Vladimir; Huber, Christoph; Trettenhahn, Guenter; Hadacek, Franz

    2009-08-01

    (+/-)-Catechin is a flavan-3-ol that occurs in the organs of many plant species, especially fruits. Health-beneficial effects have been studied extensively, and notable toxic effects have not been found. In contrast, (+/-)-catechin has been implicated as a 'chemical weapon' that is exuded by the roots of Centaurea stoebe, an invasive knapweed of northern America. Recently, this hypothesis has been rejected based on (+/-)-catechin's low phytotoxicity, instability at pH levels higher than 5, and poor recovery from soil. In the current study, (+/-)-catechin did not inhibit the development of white and black mustard to an extent that was comparable to the highly phytotoxic juglone, a naphthoquinone that is allegedly responsible for the allelopathy of the walnut tree. At high stress levels, caused by sub-lethal methanol concentrations in the medium, and a 12 h photoperiod, (+/-)-catechin even attenuated growth retardation. A similar effect was observed when (+/-)-catechin was assayed for brine shrimp mortality. Higher concentrations reduced the mortality caused by toxic concentrations of methanol. Further, when (+/-)-catechin was tested in variants of the deoxyribose degradation assay, it was an efficient scavenger of reactive oxygen species (ROS) when they were present in higher concentrations. This antioxidant effect was enhanced when iron was chelated directly by (+/-)-catechin. Conversely, if iron was chelated to EDTA, pro-oxidative effects were demonstrated at higher concentrations; in this case (+/-)-catechin reduced molecular oxygen and iron to reagents required by the Fenton reaction to produce hydroxyl radicals. A comparison of cyclic voltammograms of (+/-)-catechin with the phytotoxic naphthoquinone juglone indicated similar redox-cycling properties for both compounds although juglone required lower electrochemical potentials to enter redox reactions. In buffer solutions, (+/-)-catechin remained stable at pH 3.6 (vacuole) and decomposed at pH 7.4 (cytoplasm

  11. Loading of free radicals on the functional graphene combined with liquid chromatography-tandem mass spectrometry screening method for the detection of radical-scavenging natural antioxidants.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wang, Guoying; Shi, Gaofeng; Chen, Xuefu; Chen, Fuwen; Yao, Ruixing; Wang, Zhenju

    2013-11-13

    A novel free radical reaction combined with liquid chromatography electrospray ionization tandem mass spectrometry (FRR-LC-PDA-ESI/APCI-MS/MS) screening method was developed for the detection and identification of radical-scavenging natural antioxidants. Functionalized graphene was prepared by chemical method for loading free radicals (superoxide radical, peroxyl radical and PAHs free radical). Separation was performed with and without a preliminary exposure of the sample to specific free radicals on the functionalized graphene, which can facilitate reaction kinetics (charge transfers) between free radicals and potential antioxidants. The difference in chromatographic peak areas is used to identify potential antioxidants. The structure of the antioxidants in one sample (Swertia chirayita) is identified using MS/MS and comparison with standards. Thirteen compounds were found to possess potential antioxidant activity, and their free radical-scavenging capacities were investigated. The thirteen compounds were identified as 1,3,5-trihydroxyxanthone-8-O-β-D-glucopyranoside (PD1), norswertianin (PD2), 1,3,5,8-tetrahydroxyxanthone (PD3), 3, 3', 4', 5, 8-penta hydroxyflavone-6-β-D-glucopyranosiduronic acid-6'-pentopyranose-7-O-glucopyranoside (PD4), 1,5,8-trihydroxy-3-methoxyxanthone (PD5), swertiamarin (PS1), 2-C-β-D-glucopyranosyl-1,3,7-trihydroxylxanthone (PS2), 1,3,7-trihydroxylxanthone-8-O-β-D-glucopyranoside (PL1), 1,3,8-trihydroxyl xanthone-5-O-β-D-glucopyranoside (PL2), 1,3,7-trihydroxy-8-methoxyxanthone (PL3), 1,2,3-trihydroxy-7,8-dimethoxyxanthone (PL4), 1,8-dihydroxy-2,6-dimethoxy xanthone (PL5) and 1,3,5,8-tetramethoxydecussatin (PL6). The reactivity and SC50 values of those compounds were investigated, respectively. PD4 showed the strongest capability for scavenging PAHs free radical; PL4 showed prominent scavenging capacities in the lipid peroxidation processes; it was found that all components in S. chirayita exhibited weak reactivity in the superoxide

  12. Radical-Scavenging Activity of a Sunscreen Enriched by Antioxidants Providing Protection in the Whole Solar Spectral Range.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Souza, Carla; Maia Campos, Patrícia; Schanzer, Sabine; Albrecht, Stephanie; Lohan, Silke B; Lademann, Jürgen; Darvin, Maxim E; Meinke, Martina C

    2017-01-01

    The main reason for extrinsic skin aging is the negative action of free radicals. The formation of free radicals in the skin has been associated with ultraviolet (UV) exposure and also to visible (VIS) and near-infrared (NIR) irradiations. The aim of the present study was to evaluate the efficacy of a sunscreen in the whole solar range. The radical-scavenging activity of a sunscreen in the UV, VIS, and NIR ranges was evaluated using electron paramagnetic resonance spectroscopy. Ex vivo penetration profiles were determined using confocal Raman microscopy on porcine ear skin at different time points after application. Compared to the untreated skin, the sunscreen decreased the skin radical formation in the UV and VIS regions. Additional protection in the VIS and NIR ranges was observed for the sunscreen containing antioxidants (AO). The penetration depth of the cream was less than 11.2 ± 3.0 µm for all time points. A sunscreen containing AO improved the photoprotection in the VIS and NIR ranges. The sunscreen was retained in the stratum corneum. Therefore, these results show the possibility of the development of effective and safer sunscreen products. © 2017 S. Karger AG, Basel.

  13. Striking a balance: does nitrate uptake and metabolism regulate both NO generation and scavenging?

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Mur, Luis A J; Hebelstrup, Kim; Gupta, Kapuganti J

    2013-01-01

    Nitric oxide (NO) influences many aspects of plant development and responses to stress.The concentration of NO can play an important role in influencing its action (for example, in stomatal regulation; Wilson et al., 2009) so that the mechanisms through which NO content is modulated must...... be an important facet of NO research. Whilst NO generation mechanisms are clearly important, NO removal is of equal relevance, especially as plants will be continually exposed to NOx (NO + NO2) gases derived from soil microbial activity (Mur et al., 2013). Establishing and regulating a poise between NO generation......, NO fumigation from external sources and NO scavenging, which also needs to be flexible enough to change in response to a variety of physiological cues, is an under-considered aspect of plant NO biology...

  14. Innate scavenger receptor-A regulates adaptive T helper cell responses to pathogen infection

    Science.gov (United States)

    Xu, Zhipeng; Xu, Lei; Li, Wei; Jin, Xin; Song, Xian; Chen, Xiaojun; Zhu, Jifeng; Zhou, Sha; Li, Yong; Zhang, Weiwei; Dong, Xiaoxiao; Yang, Xiaowei; Liu, Feng; Bai, Hui; Chen, Qi; Su, Chuan

    2017-01-01

    The pattern recognition receptor (PRR) scavenger receptor class A (SR-A) has an important function in the pathogenesis of non-infectious diseases and in innate immune responses to pathogen infections. However, little is known about the role of SR-A in the host adaptive immune responses to pathogen infection. Here we show with mouse models of helminth Schistosoma japonicum infection and heat-inactivated Mycobacterium tuberculosis stimulation that SR-A is regulated by pathogens and suppresses IRF5 nuclear translocation by direct interaction. Reduced abundance of nuclear IRF5 shifts macrophage polarization from M1 towards M2, which subsequently switches T-helper responses from type 1 to type 2. Our study identifies a role for SR-A as an innate PRR in regulating adaptive immune responses. PMID:28695899

  15. Antioxidant and DPPH (1,1-diphenyl-2-picrylhydrazyl Free Radical Scavenging Activities of Boniger Acid and Calix[4]arene Derivative

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    E. ERDEM

    2014-07-01

    Full Text Available Diazonium derivative of calix[4]arene has been synthesized using three different synthetic steps. Initially p-tert-butylcalix[4]arene was synthesized with the condensation reaction of p-tert-butylphenol and formaldehyde in basic conditions. Calix[4]arene was obtained after the debutylation reaction of p-tert-butylcalix[4]arene with AlCl3. Calix[4]arene reacted with diazonium salt of Böniger acid to yield the 5,17-[(Bis(azo-bis(5-hydroxy-2,7-naphthalenedisulfonicacid]-25,26,27,28-tetrahydroxy calix[4]arene which has eight free phenolic hydroxyl group. Reaction steps were shown in Fig.1.2,7-naphthalenedisulfonicacid]-25,26,27,28-tetrahydroxy calix[4]arene The antioxidant activity of the Böniger acid and calix[4]aren derivative were determined using β-karotene-linoleic acid system. Moreover, the free radical scavenging activity values were tested with DPPH free radical. The two compounds showed strong antioxidant activity. Total antioxidant activity of Böniger acid and calix[4]aren derivative was determined using β–carotenelinoleic acid model system and was found the antioxidant activity of 84.00% and 85.60 % respectively. The free radical scavenging activities were determined as 83.05% and 84.69 %. Results show that, two compounds has the antioxidant activity. The calix[4]aren derivaties has more higher activity then Boniger acid because of calix[4]aren derivative has much hydroxl groups.

  16. Antioxidant and DPPH (1,1-diphenyl-2-picrylhydrazyl Free Radical Scavenging Activities of New the Calix[4]arene-bodipy Derivative

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    E. ERDEM

    2014-07-01

    Full Text Available p-tert-butylcalix[4]arene was synthesized with the condesation reaction of p-tert-butylphenol and formaldehyde in basic conditions and then has derivatized from the both of two hydroxyl position with chloride which is containing donor oxygen atoms. BODIPY compound (4,4-difluoro-4-bora-3a,4a-diaza-s-indacene was synthesized with appropriate pyrrole and aldehyde compounds and then was bonded p-tert-butylcalix[4]arene derivative via lower rim hydroxyl groups.The antioxidant activity of the calix[4]arene-BODIPY compound were determined using β-karotene-linoleic acid system. Moreover, the free radical scavenging activity values were tested with DPPH free radical. The compound showed strong antioxidant activity.Total antioxidant activity of the compound was determined using β–carotenelinoleic acid model system and was found the antioxidant activity of 72,50%. The free radical scavenging activities were determined as 75.19%. Results show that, calix[4]arene-BODIPY compound has the antioxidant activity. 

  17. Durum wheat dehydrin (DHN-5) confers salinity tolerance to transgenic Arabidopsis plants through the regulation of proline metabolism and ROS scavenging system.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Saibi, Walid; Feki, Kaouthar; Ben Mahmoud, Rihem; Brini, Faiçal

    2015-11-01

    The wheat dehydrin (DHN-5) gives birth to salinity tolerance to transgenic Arabidopsis plants by the regulation of proline metabolism and the ROS scavenging system. Dehydrins (DHNs) are involved in plant abiotic stress tolerance. In this study, we reported that salt tolerance of transgenic Arabidopsis plants overexpressing durum wheat dehydrin (DHN-5) was closely related to the activation of the proline metabolism enzyme (P5CS) and some antioxidant biocatalysts. Indeed, DHN-5 improved P5CS activity in the transgenic plants generating a significant proline accumulation. Moreover, salt tolerance of Arabidopsis transgenic plants was accompanied by an excellent activation of antioxidant enzymes like catalase (CAT), superoxide dismutase (SOD) and peroxide dismutase (POD) and generation of a lower level of hydrogen peroxide (H2O2) in leaves compared to the wild-type plants. The enzyme activities were enhanced in these transgenic plants in the presence of exogenous proline. Nevertheless, proline accumulation was slightly reduced in transgenic plants promoting chlorophyll levels. All these results suggest the crucial role of DHN-5 in response to salt stress through the activation of enzymes implicated in proline metabolism and in ROS scavenging enzymes.

  18. Antioxidant effects of crude extracts from Baccharis species: inhibition of myeloperoxidase activity, protection against lipid peroxidation, and action as oxidative species scavenger

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Tiago O. Vieira

    2011-05-01

    Full Text Available The objective of this study was to show a comparison of the antioxidant properties of aqueous and ethanolic extracts obtained from Baccharis articulata (Lam. Pers., Baccharis trimera (Less. DC., Baccharis spicata (Lam. Baill. and Baccharis usterii Heering, Asteraceae, by several techniques covering a range of oxidant species and of biotargets. We have investigated the ability of the plant extracts to scavenge DPPH (1,1-diphenyl-2-picryl-hydrazyl free radical, action against lipid peroxidation of membranes including rat liver microsomes and soy bean phosphatidylcholine liposomes by ascorbyl radical and peroxynitrite. Hydroxyl radical scavenger activity was measured monitoring the deoxyribose oxidation. The hypochlorous acid scavenger activity was also evaluated by the prevention of protein carbonylation and finally the myeloperoxidase (MPO activity inhibition. The results obtained suggest that the Baccharis extracts studied present a significant antioxidant activity scavenging free radicals and protecting biomolecules from the oxidation. We can suggest that the supposed therapeutic efficacy of this plant could be due, in part, to these properties.

  19. Phytochemical screening and antioxidant activity of ethanolic extract and ethyl acetate fraction from basil leaf (Ocimum basilicum L.) by DPPH radical scavenging method

    Science.gov (United States)

    Warsi; Sholichah, A. R.

    2017-11-01

    Basil leaf (Ocimum basilicum L.) contains various compounds such as flavonoid, alkaloid, phenol and essential oil, so it needs to be fractionated to find out the flavonoid compound with the greatest potential as an antioxidant. This research was aimed to know the chemical compound, antioxidant potential of ethanolic extract and ethyl acetate fraction from basil leaf. The basil leaf was extracted by maceration using ethanol 70 %. The crude extract was fractionated with ethyl acetate. The ethanolic extract and ethyl acetate fraction were screened of phytochemical content including identification of flavonoids, alkaloids and polyphenolics. The antioxidant activity of the ethanolic extract and ethyl acetate fraction were tested qualitatively with 2,2-diphenyl-1-picrylhydrazyl (DPPH) and phosphomolybdate. Its antioxidant activity was determined quantitatively using DPPH radical scavenging method. Phytochemical screening test showed that ethanolic extract and ethyl acetate fraction from basil leaf contain flavonoids, polyphenolics, and alkaloids. The qualitative analysis of antioxidant activity of ethanolic extract and ethyl acetate fraction from basil leaf showed an antioxidant activity. The IC50 value of ethanolic extract, ethyl acetate fraction and quercetin were 1,374.00±6.20 389.00±1.00 2.10±0.01μg/mL, respectively. The research showed that antioxidant activity of the ethyl acetate fraction more potential than the ethanol extract of the basil leaf, but less than quercetin.

  20. Experimental Assessment of Moringa oleifera Leaf and Fruit for Its Antistress, Antioxidant, and Scavenging Potential Using In Vitro and In Vivo Assays

    Science.gov (United States)

    Luqman, Suaib; Srivastava, Suchita; Kumar, Ritesh; Maurya, Anil Kumar; Chanda, Debabrata

    2012-01-01

    We have investigated effect of Moringa oleifera leaf and fruit extracts on markers of oxidative stress, its toxicity evaluation, and correlation with antioxidant properties using in vitro and in vitro assays. The aqueous extract of leaf was able to increase the GSH and reduce MDA level in a concentration-dependent manner. The ethanolic extract of fruit showed highest phenolic content, strong reducing power and free radical scavenging capacity. The antioxidant capacity of ethanolic extract of both fruit and leaf was higher in the in vitro assay compared to aqueous extract which showed higher potential in vivo. Safety evaluation studies showed no toxicity of the extracts up to a dose of 100 mg/kg body weight. Our results support the potent antioxidant activity of aqueous and ethanolic extract of Moringa oleifera which adds one more positive attribute to its known pharmacological importance. PMID:22216055

  1. A new colorimetric DPPH• scavenging activity method with no need for a spectrophotometer applied on synthetic and natural antioxidants and medicinal herbs.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Akar, Zeynep; Küçük, Murat; Doğan, Hacer

    2017-12-01

    2,2-Diphenyl-1-picrylhydrazyl (DPPH • ) radical scavenging, the most commonly used antioxidant method with more than seventeen thousand articles cited, is very practical; however, as with most assays, it has the major disadvantage of dependence on a spectrophotometer. To overcome this drawback, the colorimetric determination of the antioxidant activity using a scanner and freely available Image J software was developed. In this new method, the mixtures of solutions of DPPH • and standard antioxidants or extracts of common medicinal herbs were dropped onto TLC plates, after an incubation period. The spot images were evaluated with Image J software to determine CSC 50 values, the sample concentrations providing 50% colour reduction, which were very similar with the SC 50 values obtained with spectrophotometric method. The advantages of the new method are the use of lower amounts of reagents and solvents, no need for costly spectrophotometers, and thus significantly lowered costs, and convenient implementation in any environment and situation.

  2. Experimental Assessment of Moringa oleifera Leaf and Fruit for Its Antistress, Antioxidant, and Scavenging Potential Using In Vitro and In Vivo Assays

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Suaib Luqman

    2012-01-01

    Full Text Available We have investigated effect of Moringa oleifera leaf and fruit extracts on markers of oxidative stress, its toxicity evaluation, and correlation with antioxidant properties using in vitro and in vitro assays. The aqueous extract of leaf was able to increase the GSH and reduce MDA level in a concentration-dependent manner. The ethanolic extract of fruit showed highest phenolic content, strong reducing power and free radical scavenging capacity. The antioxidant capacity of ethanolic extract of both fruit and leaf was higher in the in vitro assay compared to aqueous extract which showed higher potential in vivo. Safety evaluation studies showed no toxicity of the extracts up to a dose of 100 mg/kg body weight. Our results support the potent antioxidant activity of aqueous and ethanolic extract of Moringa oleifera which adds one more positive attribute to its known pharmacological importance.

  3. In vitro antioxidant properties, free radicals scavenging activities of extracts and polyphenol composition of a non-timber forest product used as spice: Monodora myristica

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Bruno Moukette Moukette

    2015-01-01

    Full Text Available BACKGROUND: Excessive production of free radicals causes direct damage to biological molecules such as DNA, proteins, lipids, carbohydrates leading to tumor development and progression. Natural antioxidant molecules from phytochemicals of plant origin may directly inhibit either their production or limit their propagation or destroy them to protect the system. In the present study, Monodora myristica a non-timber forest product consumed in Cameroon as spice was screened for its free radical scavenging properties, antioxidant and enzymes protective activities. Its phenolic compound profile was also realized by HPLC. RESULTS: This study demonstrated that M. myristica has scavenging properties against DPPH',OH',NO', and ABTS'radicals which vary in a dose depending manner. It also showed an antioxidant potential that was comparable with that of Butylated Hydroxytoluene (BHT and vitamin C used as standard. The aqueous ethanol extract of M. myristica barks (AEH; showed a significantly higher content in polyphenolic compounds (21.44 ±0.24 mg caffeic acid/g dried extract and flavonoid (5.69 ± 0.07 quercetin equivalent mg/g of dried weight as compared to the other studied extracts. The HPLC analysis of the barks and leaves revealed the presence of several polyphenols. The acids (3,4-OH-benzoic, caffeic, gallic, O- and P- coumaric, syringic, vanillic, alcohols (tyrosol and OH-tyrosol, theobromine, quercetin, rutin, catechine and apigenin were the identified and quantified polyphenols. All the tested extracts demonstrated a high protective potential on the superoxide dismutase (SOD, catalase and peroxidase activities. CONCLUSION: Finally, the different extracts from M. myristica and specifically the aqueous ethanol extract reveal several properties such as higher free radical scavenging properties, significant antioxidant capacities and protective potential effects on liver enzymes.

  4. Assessment of antioxidant activity of cane brown sugars by ABTS and DPPH radical scavenging assays: determination of their polyphenolic and volatile constituents.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Payet, Bertrand; Shum Cheong Sing, Alain; Smadja, Jacqueline

    2005-12-28

    Seven cane brown sugars (four from La Réunion, two from Mauritius, and one from France) were investigated for their polyphenol content and volatile composition in relation to their free radical scavenging capacity determined by ABTS and DPPH assays. The thin layer coated on the sugar crystal was extracted by Soxhlet extractor with dichloromethane. The volatile compounds of brown sugars were studied by GC-MS, and 43 compounds were identified. The total phenolic content of brown sugars was determined according to the Folin-Ciocalteu method. Phenolic compounds were quantified in the brown sugar extracts by LC-UV-ESI-MS. Brown sugar aqueous solutions exhibited weak free radical scavenging activity in the DPPH assay and higher antioxidant activity in the ABTS assay at relatively high concentration. The brown sugar extracts showed interesting free radical scavenging properties despite the low concentration of phenolic and volatile compounds. Sugar is a common foodstuff traditionally used for its sweetening properties, which might be accompanied by antioxidant properties arising from molecules (polyphenols, Maillard products) other than sucrose of the cane brown sugars.

  5. Free radical scavenging and anti-oxidative activities of an ethanol-soluble pigment extract prepared from fermented Zijuan Pu-erh tea.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Fan, Jiang Ping; Fan, Chong; Dong, Wen Min; Gao, Bin; Yuan, Wei; Gong, Jia Shun

    2013-09-01

    An ethanol-soluble pigment extract was separated from fermented Zijuan Pu-erh tea. The compositions of the ethanol soluble pigment extract were analyzed by high-performance liquid chromatography-tandem mass spectroscopy (HPLC-MS/MS). The extract was prepared into a series of ethanol solutions and analyzed for free radical-scavenging activities (against two free radicals: 1,1-diphenyl-2-picrylhydrazyl (DPPH) and (2,2,6,6-tetramethylpiperidin-1-yl)oxyl (TEMPO)) and in vitro anti-oxidative properties. Electron spin resonance spectroscopy showed that the peaks of DPPH and TEMPO decreased with increasing extract concentration, suggesting that the extract had excellent free radical-scavenging activities. In vitro cell culture suggested that, at 50-200 mg/L, the extract had no measurable effect on the viability of vascular endothelial cells (ECV340) but produced significant protective effects for cells that underwent oxidative injuries due to hydrogen peroxide (H₂O₂) treatment. Compared with the H₂O₂ treatment alone cells group, 200 mg/L of the extract increased the activity of superoxide dismutase (SOD) in cells by 397.3%, and decreased the concentration of malondialdehyde (MDA) and the activity of lactate acid dehydrogenase (LDH) by 47.8% and 69.6%, respectively. These results suggest that the extract has excellent free radical scavenging and anti-oxidative properties. Copyright © 2013 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  6. Effect of topical application of antioxidants and free radical scavengers on protection of hairless mouse skin exposed to chronic doses of ultraviolet B

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Muizzuddin, N.; Shakoori, A.R. [Univ. of the Punjab, Dept. of Zoology, Cell and Molecular Biology Lab., Lahore (Pakistan); Marenus, K.D. [SUNY at Stonybrook, Stonybrook, NY (United States)

    1998-11-01

    Background/aims: Within the past three decades, there has emerged a greater awareness of the molecular effects of solar rays especially ultraviolet radiation (UV-R), to the extent that the harmful effects of solar radiation are recognized not only by molecular biologists and physicians, but also by the general public. Various sunscreen molecules that effectively block the UVB component of the sun are available; however, a large part of Western populations elicits adverse reactions against chemical sunscreens. This study was designed to observe the protective effect of antioxidants against the damaging effects of chronic UVB exposure of skin in an attempt to introduce antioxidants and free radical scavengers as topical sun protective agents. Methods: Jackson hairless mice were exposed to suberythemal doses of UVB, three times a week, and topically treated with a cream containing the anti-oxidants vitamin E, butylated hydroxytoluene, nordihydroguaradinic acid and vitamin C. Results: Treatment with vehicle alone along with UVB exposure resulted in an increase in epidermal thickness showing a 38%, 77% and 112% increase after 4 weeks, 8 weeks and 12 weeks, respectively. Chronic UVB exposed skin treated with the material containing free radical scavengers and antioxidants mix (AO mix) exhibited 39%, 73% and 124% thicker epidermis than the untreated control after, respectively, 4 weeks, 8 weeks and 12 weeks of treatment. The vehicle did not appear to protect skin against UV irradiation, since there appeared to be more (16%) sunburn cells in vehicle treated skin than the untreated, UV exposed skin after 4 weeks of treatment. After 8 weeks and 12 weeks, there were 33% and 36% less sunburn cells in the vehicle treated skin than the untreated, UV exposed skin. The antioxidant mix was significantly effective (P=<0.001) in protecting against UVB irradiation, having 63%, 71% and 79% fewer sunburn cells than the untreated, UV exposed skin af after 4 weeks, 8 weeks and 12 weeks of

  7. Effect of topical application of antioxidants and free radical scavengers on protection of hairless mouse skin exposed to chronic doses of ultraviolet B

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Muizzuddin, N.; Shakoori, A.R.; Marenus, K.D.

    1998-01-01

    Background/aims: Within the past three decades, there has emerged a greater awareness of the molecular effects of solar rays especially ultraviolet radiation (UV-R), to the extent that the harmful effects of solar radiation are recognized not only by molecular biologists and physicians, but also by the general public. Various sunscreen molecules that effectively block the UVB component of the sun are available; however, a large part of Western populations elicits adverse reactions against chemical sunscreens. This study was designed to observe the protective effect of antioxidants against the damaging effects of chronic UVB exposure of skin in an attempt to introduce antioxidants and free radical scavengers as topical sun protective agents. Methods: Jackson hairless mice were exposed to suberythemal doses of UVB, three times a week, and topically treated with a cream containing the anti-oxidants vitamin E, butylated hydroxytoluene, nordihydroguaradinic acid and vitamin C. Results: Treatment with vehicle alone along with UVB exposure resulted in an increase in epidermal thickness showing a 38%, 77% and 112% increase after 4 weeks, 8 weeks and 12 weeks, respectively. Chronic UVB exposed skin treated with the material containing free radical scavengers and antioxidants mix (AO mix) exhibited 39%, 73% and 124% thicker epidermis than the untreated control after, respectively, 4 weeks, 8 weeks and 12 weeks of treatment. The vehicle did not appear to protect skin against UV irradiation, since there appeared to be more (16%) sunburn cells in vehicle treated skin than the untreated, UV exposed skin after 4 weeks of treatment. After 8 weeks and 12 weeks, there were 33% and 36% less sunburn cells in the vehicle treated skin than the untreated, UV exposed skin. The antioxidant mix was significantly effective (P=<0.001) in protecting against UVB irradiation, having 63%, 71% and 79% fewer sunburn cells than the untreated, UV exposed skin af after 4 weeks, 8 weeks and 12 weeks of

  8. Effect of Solvent System on Extractability of Lipidic Components of Scenedesmus obliquus (M2-1) and Gloeothece sp. on Antioxidant Scavenging Capacity Thereof

    Science.gov (United States)

    Amaro, Helena M.; Fernandes, Fátima; Valentão, Patrícia; Andrade, Paula B.; Sousa-Pinto, I.; Malcata, F. Xavier; Guedes, A. Catarina

    2015-01-01

    Microalgae are well known for their biotechnological potential, namely with regard to bioactive lipidic components—especially carotenoids and polyunsaturated fatty acids (PUFA), well-known for therapeutic applications based on their antioxidant capacity. The aim of this work was to evaluate the influence of four distinct food-grade solvents upon extractability of specific lipidic components, and on the antioxidant capacity exhibited against both synthetic (2,2-diphenyl-1-picrylhydrazyl (DPPH•) and 2,2′-azinobis-(3-ethylbenzothiazoline-6-sulfonic acid (ABTS+•)) and biological reactive species (O2•− and •NO−). A eukaryotic microalga (Scenedesmus obliquus (M2-1)) and a prokaryotic one (Gloeothece sp.) were used as case studies. Concerning total antioxidant capacity, the hexane:isopropanol (3:2) and acetone extracts of Sc. obliquus (M2-1) were the most effective against DPPH• and ABTS+•, respectively. Gloeothece sp. ethanol extracts were the most interesting scavengers of O2•−, probably due the high content of linolenic acid. On the other hand, acetone and hexane:isopropanol (3:2) extracts were the most interesting ones in •NO− assay. Acetone extract exhibited the best results for the ABTS assay, likely associated to its content of carotenoids, in both microalgae. Otherwise, ethanol stood out in PUFA extraction. Therefore, profiles of lipidic components extracted are critical for evaluating the antioxidant performance—which appears to hinge, in particular, on the balance between carotenoids and PUFAs. PMID:26492257

  9. Effect of Solvent System on Extractability of Lipidic Components of Scenedesmus obliquus (M2-1 and Gloeothece sp. on Antioxidant Scavenging Capacity Thereof

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Helena M. Amaro

    2015-10-01

    Full Text Available Microalgae are well known for their biotechnological potential, namely with regard to bioactive lipidic components—especially carotenoids and polyunsaturated fatty acids (PUFA, well-known for therapeutic applications based on their antioxidant capacity. The aim of this work was to evaluate the influence of four distinct food-grade solvents upon extractability of specific lipidic components, and on the antioxidant capacity exhibited against both synthetic (2,2-diphenyl-1-picrylhydrazyl (DPPH• and 2,2′-azinobis-(3-ethylbenzothiazoline-6-sulfonic acid (ABTS+• and biological reactive species (O2•- and •NO-. A eukaryotic microalga (Scenedesmus obliquus (M2-1 and a prokaryotic one (Gloeothece sp. were used as case studies. Concerning total antioxidant capacity, the hexane:isopropanol (3:2 and acetone extracts of Sc. obliquus (M2-1 were the most effective against DPPH• and ABTS+•, respectively. Gloeothece sp. ethanol extracts were the most interesting scavengers of O2•-, probably due the high content of linolenic acid. On the other hand, acetone and hexane:isopropanol (3:2 extracts were the most interesting ones in •NO- assay. Acetone extract exhibited the best results for the ABTS assay, likely associated to its content of carotenoids, in both microalgae. Otherwise, ethanol stood out in PUFA extraction. Therefore, profiles of lipidic components extracted are critical for evaluating the antioxidant performance—which appears to hinge, in particular, on the balance between carotenoids and PUFAs.

  10. Effect of blanching treatments on antioxidant activity of frozen green capsicum (Capsicum annuum L. var bell pepper) using radical scavenging activity (DPPH) assay

    Science.gov (United States)

    Azizzuddin, Norafida; Abdullah, Aminah

    2016-11-01

    Blanching treatments are needed to deactivate enzymes in frozen vegetables. Antioxidant activity using DPPH radical scavenging activity assay were evaluated in steaming, boiling water, and microwave blanching at different temperature, time and microwave power level on frozen green capsicum. Green capsicum was chosen for frozen treatment compared to other capsicum with different maturity index because of the firm texture. The objective of this study was to compare the antioxidant activity of frozen green capsicum between conventional and Oxi Count Kit® assay for DPPH radical scavenging activity. Results showed frozen green capsicum blanched using microwave at high level/90 seconds (sample J) contained higher level of DPPH in both conventional method and Oxi Count Kit® compared to other treatments. However, there were no significant differences between sample J and fresh sample (sample A). Overall, the sequences from highest to lowest in blanching treatments for both DPPH conventional method, and DPPH Oxi Count Kit® were J (microwave high level/90 seconds) > A (Fresh) > H (Microwave Medium Level/120 seconds) > D (Boiling Water 80°C/150 seconds) > K (Microwave High Level/120 seconds) > I (Microwave Medium Level/150 seconds) > F (Microwave Low Level/150 seconds)> B (Steam 100°C/150 seconds) > E (Boiling Water 100°C /120 seconds) > G (Microwave Low Level /180 seconds)> C (Steam 100°C/180 seconds). Almost all frozen green capsicum samples showed no significant differences for comparison between test using DPPH conventional method and Oxi Count Kit®. Frozen storage for 0, and 3rd months showed no significant differences which indicate no changes on antioxidant activity during frozen storage at -18°C.

  11. Antioxidant potential of curcumin-related compounds studied by chemiluminescence kinetics, chain-breaking efficiencies, scavenging activity (ORAC) and DFT calculations

    Science.gov (United States)

    Slavova-Kazakova, Adriana K; Angelova, Silvia E; Veprintsev, Timur L; Denev, Petko; Fabbri, Davide; Dettori, Maria Antonietta; Kratchanova, Maria; Naumov, Vladimir V; Trofimov, Aleksei V; Vasil’ev, Rostislav F

    2015-01-01

    Summary This study compares the ability to scavenge different peroxyl radicals and to act as chain-breaking antioxidants of monomers related to curcumin (1): dehydrozingerone (2), zingerone (3), (2Z,5E)-ethyl 2-hydroxy-6-(4-hydroxy-3-methoxyphenyl)-4-oxohexa-2,5-dienoate (4), ferulic acid (5) and their corresponding C 2-symmetric dimers 6–9. Four models were applied: model 1 – chemiluminescence (CL) of a hydrocarbon substrate used for determination of the rate constants (k A) of the reactions of the antioxidants with peroxyl radicals; model 2 – lipid autoxidation (lipidAO) used for assessing the chain-breaking antioxidant efficiency and reactivity; model 3 – oxygen radical absorbance capacity (ORAC), which yields the activity against peroxyl radicals generated by an azoinitiator; model 4 – density functional theory (DFT) calculations at UB3LYP/6-31+G(d,p) level, applied to explain the structure–activity relationship. Dimers showed 2–2.5-fold higher values of k A than their monomers. Model 2 gives information about the effects of the side chains and revealed much higher antioxidant activity for monomers and dimers with α,β-unsaturated side chains. Curcumin and 6 in fact are dimers of the same monomer 2. We conclude that the type of linkage between the two “halves” by which the molecule is made up does not exert influence on the antioxidant efficiency and reactivity of these two dimers. The dimers and the monomers demonstrated higher activity than Trolox (10) in aqueous medium (model 3). A comparison of the studied compounds with DL-α-tocopherol (11), Trolox and curcumin is made. All dimers are characterized through lower bond dissociation enthalpies (BDEs) than their monomers (model 4), which qualitatively supports the experimental results. PMID:26425195

  12. Antioxidant potential of curcumin-related compounds studied by chemiluminescence kinetics, chain-breaking efficiencies, scavenging activity (ORAC and DFT calculations

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Adriana K. Slavova-Kazakova

    2015-08-01

    Full Text Available This study compares the ability to scavenge different peroxyl radicals and to act as chain-breaking antioxidants of monomers related to curcumin (1: dehydrozingerone (2, zingerone (3, (2Z,5E-ethyl 2-hydroxy-6-(4-hydroxy-3-methoxyphenyl-4-oxohexa-2,5-dienoate (4, ferulic acid (5 and their corresponding C2-symmetric dimers 6–9. Four models were applied: model 1 – chemiluminescence (CL of a hydrocarbon substrate used for determination of the rate constants (kA of the reactions of the antioxidants with peroxyl radicals; model 2 – lipid autoxidation (lipidAO used for assessing the chain-breaking antioxidant efficiency and reactivity; model 3 – oxygen radical absorbance capacity (ORAC, which yields the activity against peroxyl radicals generated by an azoinitiator; model 4 – density functional theory (DFT calculations at UB3LYP/6-31+G(d,p level, applied to explain the structure–activity relationship. Dimers showed 2–2.5-fold higher values of kA than their monomers. Model 2 gives information about the effects of the side chains and revealed much higher antioxidant activity for monomers and dimers with α,β-unsaturated side chains. Curcumin and 6 in fact are dimers of the same monomer 2. We conclude that the type of linkage between the two “halves” by which the molecule is made up does not exert influence on the antioxidant efficiency and reactivity of these two dimers. The dimers and the monomers demonstrated higher activity than Trolox (10 in aqueous medium (model 3. A comparison of the studied compounds with DL-α-tocopherol (11, Trolox and curcumin is made. All dimers are characterized through lower bond dissociation enthalpies (BDEs than their monomers (model 4, which qualitatively supports the experimental results.

  13. Antioxidant potential of curcumin-related compounds studied by chemiluminescence kinetics, chain-breaking efficiencies, scavenging activity (ORAC) and DFT calculations.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Slavova-Kazakova, Adriana K; Angelova, Silvia E; Veprintsev, Timur L; Denev, Petko; Fabbri, Davide; Dettori, Maria Antonietta; Kratchanova, Maria; Naumov, Vladimir V; Trofimov, Aleksei V; Vasil'ev, Rostislav F; Delogu, Giovanna; Kancheva, Vessela D

    2015-01-01

    This study compares the ability to scavenge different peroxyl radicals and to act as chain-breaking antioxidants of monomers related to curcumin (1): dehydrozingerone (2), zingerone (3), (2Z,5E)-ethyl 2-hydroxy-6-(4-hydroxy-3-methoxyphenyl)-4-oxohexa-2,5-dienoate (4), ferulic acid (5) and their corresponding C 2-symmetric dimers 6-9. Four models were applied: model 1 - chemiluminescence (CL) of a hydrocarbon substrate used for determination of the rate constants (k A) of the reactions of the antioxidants with peroxyl radicals; model 2 - lipid autoxidation (lipidAO) used for assessing the chain-breaking antioxidant efficiency and reactivity; model 3 - oxygen radical absorbance capacity (ORAC), which yields the activity against peroxyl radicals generated by an azoinitiator; model 4 - density functional theory (DFT) calculations at UB3LYP/6-31+G(d,p) level, applied to explain the structure-activity relationship. Dimers showed 2-2.5-fold higher values of k A than their monomers. Model 2 gives information about the effects of the side chains and revealed much higher antioxidant activity for monomers and dimers with α,β-unsaturated side chains. Curcumin and 6 in fact are dimers of the same monomer 2. We conclude that the type of linkage between the two "halves" by which the molecule is made up does not exert influence on the antioxidant efficiency and reactivity of these two dimers. The dimers and the monomers demonstrated higher activity than Trolox (10) in aqueous medium (model 3). A comparison of the studied compounds with DL-α-tocopherol (11), Trolox and curcumin is made. All dimers are characterized through lower bond dissociation enthalpies (BDEs) than their monomers (model 4), which qualitatively supports the experimental results.

  14. Antioxidant response elements: Discovery, classes, regulation and potential applications

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Azhwar Raghunath

    2018-07-01

    Full Text Available Exposure to antioxidants and xenobiotics triggers the expression of a myriad of genes encoding antioxidant proteins, detoxifying enzymes, and xenobiotic transporters to offer protection against oxidative stress. This articulated universal mechanism is regulated through the cis-acting elements in an array of Nrf2 target genes called antioxidant response elements (AREs, which play a critical role in redox homeostasis. Though the Keap1/Nrf2/ARE system involves many players, AREs hold the key in transcriptional regulation of cytoprotective genes. ARE-mediated reporter constructs have been widely used, including xenobiotics profiling and Nrf2 activator screening. The complexity of AREs is brought by the presence of other regulatory elements within the AREs. The diversity in the ARE sequences not only bring regulatory selectivity of diverse transcription factors, but also confer functional complexity in the Keap1/Nrf2/ARE pathway. The different transcription factors either homodimerize or heterodimerize to bind the AREs. Depending on the nature of partners, they may activate or suppress the transcription. Attention is required for deeper mechanistic understanding of ARE-mediated gene regulation. The computational methods of identification and analysis of AREs are still in their infancy. Investigations are required to know whether epigenetics mechanism plays a role in the regulation of genes mediated through AREs. The polymorphisms in the AREs leading to oxidative stress related diseases are warranted. A thorough understanding of AREs will pave the way for the development of therapeutic agents against cancer, neurodegenerative, cardiovascular, metabolic and other diseases with oxidative stress. Keywords: Antioxidant response elements, Antioxidant genes, ARE-reporter constructs, ARE SNPs, Keap1/Nrf2/ARE pathway, Oxidative stress

  15. Radical-Scavenging Activity of Thiols, Thiobarbituric Acid Derivatives and Phenolic Antioxidants Determined Using the Induction Period Method for Radical Polymerization of Methyl Methacrylate

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    Seiichiro Fujisawa

    2012-04-01

    Full Text Available The radical-scavenging activities of two thiols, eight (thiobarbituric acid derivatives and six chain-breaking phenolic antioxidants were investigated using the induction period method for polymerization of methyl methacrylate (MMA initiated by thermal decomposition of 2,2’-azobisisobutyronitrile (AIBN and monitored by differential scanning calorimetry (DSC. The induction period (IP for the thiols 2-mercaptoethanol (ME and 2-mercapto-1-methylimidazole (MMI was about half that for phenolic antioxidants. Except for the potent inhibitor 5,5-dimethyl-2-thiobarbituric acid (3, the IP for thiobarbituric acid derivatives was about one tenth of that for phenolic antioxidants. The IP for 1,3,5-trimethyl-2-thiobarbituric acid (1 and 5-allyl-1, 3-dimethyl-2-thiobarbituric acid (7 was less than that of the control, possibly due to inhibition by a small amount of atmospheric oxygen in the DSC container. The ratio of the chain inhibition to that of chain propagation (CI/CP for the thiols and thiobarbituric acid compounds except for 1, 3 and 7 was about 10 times greater or greater than that for phenolic compounds. A kinetic chain length (KCL about 10% greater than that of the control was observed for 1, suggesting that 1 had chain transfer reactivity in the polymerization of MMA. The average molecular weight of polymers formed from thiobarbituric acid derivatives is discussed.

  16. Bioactive Profiles, Antioxidant Activities, Nitrite Scavenging Capacities and Protective Effects on H2O2-Injured PC12 Cells of Glycyrrhiza Glabra L. Leaf and Root Extracts

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Yi Dong

    2014-06-01

    Full Text Available This study compared the total flavonoid content of Glycyrrhiza glabra L. leaf and root extracts. Results suggested that the total flavonoid content in the leaf extract was obviously higher than that in the root extract. Pinocembrin, the main compound in the leaf extract after purification by column chromatography, showed good antioxidant activity and nitrite scavenging capacity, but moderate inhibitory effect on mushroom tyrosinase. Liquiritin was the main compound in root extract and possessed strong inhibitory effect on mushroom tyrosinase. Both compounds exhibited significant protection effect on H2O2-injured PC12 cells at a low concentration. These results indicate that Glycyrrhiza glabra L. leaf is potential as an important raw material for functional food.

  17. Analysis of passion fruit rinds (Passiflora edulis: isoorientin quantification by HPTLC and evaluation of antioxidant (radical scavenging capacity

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    Maria Luiza Zeraik

    2012-01-01

    Full Text Available The content of isoorientin in passion fruit rinds (Passiflora edulis fo. flavicarpa O. Degener was determined by HPTLC (high performance thin layer chromatography with densitometric analysis. The results revealed a higher amount of isoorientin in healthy rinds of P. edulis (92.275 ± 0.610 mg L-1 than in rinds with typical symptoms of PWV (Passion fruit Woodiness Virus infection (28.931 ± 0.346 mg L-1. The HPTLC data, allied to assays of radical scavenging activity, suggest the potential of P. edulis rinds as a natural source of flavonoids or as a possible functional food.

  18. Development of an in Silico Model of DPPH• Free Radical Scavenging Capacity: Prediction of Antioxidant Activity of Coumarin Type Compounds

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Elizabeth Goya Jorge

    2016-06-01

    Full Text Available A quantitative structure-activity relationship (QSAR study of the 2,2-diphenyl-l-picrylhydrazyl (DPPH• radical scavenging ability of 1373 chemical compounds, using DRAGON molecular descriptors (MD and the neural network technique, a technique based on the multilayer multilayer perceptron (MLP, was developed. The built model demonstrated a satisfactory performance for the training ( R 2 = 0.713 and test set ( Q ext 2 = 0.654 , respectively. To gain greater insight on the relevance of the MD contained in the MLP model, sensitivity and principal component analyses were performed. Moreover, structural and mechanistic interpretation was carried out to comprehend the relationship of the variables in the model with the modeled property. The constructed MLP model was employed to predict the radical scavenging ability for a group of coumarin-type compounds. Finally, in order to validate the model’s predictions, an in vitro assay for one of the compounds (4-hydroxycoumarin was performed, showing a satisfactory proximity between the experimental and predicted pIC50 values.

  19. Antioxidant response elements: Discovery, classes, regulation and potential applications.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Raghunath, Azhwar; Sundarraj, Kiruthika; Nagarajan, Raju; Arfuso, Frank; Bian, Jinsong; Kumar, Alan P; Sethi, Gautam; Perumal, Ekambaram

    2018-07-01

    Exposure to antioxidants and xenobiotics triggers the expression of a myriad of genes encoding antioxidant proteins, detoxifying enzymes, and xenobiotic transporters to offer protection against oxidative stress. This articulated universal mechanism is regulated through the cis-acting elements in an array of Nrf2 target genes called antioxidant response elements (AREs), which play a critical role in redox homeostasis. Though the Keap1/Nrf2/ARE system involves many players, AREs hold the key in transcriptional regulation of cytoprotective genes. ARE-mediated reporter constructs have been widely used, including xenobiotics profiling and Nrf2 activator screening. The complexity of AREs is brought by the presence of other regulatory elements within the AREs. The diversity in the ARE sequences not only bring regulatory selectivity of diverse transcription factors, but also confer functional complexity in the Keap1/Nrf2/ARE pathway. The different transcription factors either homodimerize or heterodimerize to bind the AREs. Depending on the nature of partners, they may activate or suppress the transcription. Attention is required for deeper mechanistic understanding of ARE-mediated gene regulation. The computational methods of identification and analysis of AREs are still in their infancy. Investigations are required to know whether epigenetics mechanism plays a role in the regulation of genes mediated through AREs. The polymorphisms in the AREs leading to oxidative stress related diseases are warranted. A thorough understanding of AREs will pave the way for the development of therapeutic agents against cancer, neurodegenerative, cardiovascular, metabolic and other diseases with oxidative stress. Copyright © 2018 The Authors. Published by Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  20. Chemical Composition, In Vitro Antimicrobial, Free-Radical-Scavenging and Antioxidant Activities of the Essential Oil of Leucas inflata Benth

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    Ramzi A. Mothana

    2017-02-01

    Full Text Available The essential oil of Leucas inflata Balf.f. (Lamiaceae, collected in Yemen, was analyzed using gas chromatography (GC and gas chromatography-mass spectrometry (GC-MS techniques. Forty-three components were recognized, representing 89.2% of the total oil. The L. inflata volatile oil was found to contain a high percentage of aliphatic acids (51.1%. Hexadecanoic acid (32.8% and n-dodecanoic acid (7.8% were identified as the major compounds. Oxygenated monoterpenes were distinguished as the second significant group of constituents (16.0%. Camphor (6.1% and linalool (3.2% were found to be the main components among the oxygenated monoterpenes. In addition, the volatile oil was assessed for its antimicrobial activity against four bacterial strains and one yeast species using broth micro-dilution assay for minimum inhibitory concentrations (MIC. In addition, antioxidant activity was measured utilizing the anti-radical activity of the sable free radical 2,2-diphenyl-1-picrylhydrazyl (DPPH and β-Carotene-linoleic acid assays. The oil of L. inflata showed an excellent antibacterial activity against only the tested Gram-positive bacteria with a MIC-value of 0.81 mg/mL. Furthermore, the oil demonstrated, at a concentration of 1 mg/mL, a weak to moderate antiradical and antioxidant activity of 38% and 32%, respectively.

  1. Methyl jasmonate regulates antioxidant defense and suppresses arsenic uptake in Brassica napus L.

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    Muhammad A Farooq

    2016-04-01

    Full Text Available Methyl jasmonate (MJ is an important plant growth regulator, involved in plant defense against abiotic stresses, however its possible function in response to metal stress is poorly understood. In the present study, the effect of MJ on physiological and biochemical changes of the plants exposed to arsenic (As stress were investigated in two Brassica napus L. cultivars (ZS 758 – a black seed type, and Zheda 622 – a yellow seed type. The As treatment at 200 µM was more phytotoxic, however its combined application with MJ resulted in significant increase in leaf chlorophyll fluorescence, biomass production and reduced malondialdehyde content compared with As stressed plants. The application of MJ minimized the oxidative stress, as revealed via a lower level of reactive oxygen species (ROS synthesis (H2O2 and OH- in leaves and the maintenance of high redox states of glutathione and ascorbate. Enhanced enzymatic activities and gene expression of important antioxidants (SOD, APX, CAT, POD, secondary metabolites (PAL, PPO, CAD and induction of lypoxygenase gene suggest that MJ plays an effective role in the regulation of multiple transcriptional pathways which were involved in oxidative stress responses. The content of As was higher in yellow seeded plants (cv. Zheda 622 as compared to black seeded plants (ZS 758. The application of MJ significantly reduced the As content in leaves and roots of both cultivars. Findings of the present study reveal that MJ improves ROS scavenging through enhanced antioxidant defense system, secondary metabolite and reduced As contents in both the cultivars.

  2. Nrf2, the Master Regulator of Anti-Oxidative Responses

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    Sandra Vomund

    2017-12-01

    Full Text Available Tight regulation of inflammation is very important to guarantee a balanced immune response without developing chronic inflammation. One of the major mediators of the resolution of inflammation is the transcription factor: the nuclear factor erythroid 2-like 2 (Nrf2. Stabilized following oxidative stress, Nrf2 induces the expression of antioxidants as well as cytoprotective genes, which provoke an anti-inflammatory expression profile, and is crucial for the initiation of healing. In view of this fundamental modulatory role, it is clear that both hyper- or hypoactivation of Nrf2 contribute to the onset of chronic diseases. Understanding the tight regulation of Nrf2 expression/activation and its interaction with signaling pathways, known to affect inflammatory processes, will facilitate development of therapeutic approaches to prevent Nrf2 dysregulation and ameliorate chronic inflammatory diseases. We discuss in this review the principle mechanisms of Nrf2 regulation with a focus on inflammation and autophagy, extending the role of dysregulated Nrf2 to chronic diseases and tumor development.

  3. Scavenger receptor class B member 1 protein: hepatic regulation and its effects on lipids, reverse cholesterol transport, and atherosclerosis

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    Kent AP

    2011-04-01

    Full Text Available Anthony P Kent, Ioannis M StylianouDepartment of Medicine and Institute for Translational Medicine and Therapeutics, University of Pennsylvania School of Medicine, Philadelphia, PA, USAAbstract: Scavenger receptor class B member 1 (SR-BI, also known as SCARB1 is the primary receptor for the selective uptake of cholesterol from high-density lipoprotein (HDL. SR-BI is present in several key tissues; however, its presence and function in the liver is deemed the most relevant for protection against atherosclerosis. Cholesterol is transferred from HDL via SR-BI to the liver, which ultimately results in the excretion of cholesterol via bile and feces in what is known as the reverse cholesterol transport pathway. Much of our knowledge of SR-BI hepatic function and regulation is derived from mouse models and in vitro characterization. Multiple independent regulatory mechanisms of SR-BI have been discovered that operate at the transcriptional and post-transcriptional levels. In this review we summarize the critical discoveries relating to hepatic SR-BI cholesterol metabolism, atherosclerosis, and regulation of SR-BI, as well as alternative functions that may indirectly affect atherosclerosis.Keywords: SR-BI, SCARB1, lipids, atherosclerosis, CAD, mouse models

  4. Characterization, antibacterial, total antioxidant, scavenging, reducing power and ion chelating activities of green synthesized silver, copper and titanium dioxide nanoparticles using Artemisia haussknechtii leaf extract.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Alavi, Mehran; Karimi, Naser

    2017-12-12

    Recently, major problem related to pathogenic bacteria is augmentation of antibiotic resistance which has been changed treatment and recovery of millions of infectious patients. The present study reports an eco-friendly, rapid and easy method for synthesis of silver (Ag), copper (Cu) and titanium dioxide (TiO 2 ) nanoparticles (NPs) using Artemisia haussknechtii leaf aqueous extract with antibacterial activities against multi-drug resistance (MDR) bacteria species. Three different concentrations (0.001, 0.01 and 0.1 M) of AgNO 3 , CuSO 4 and TiO (OH) 2 were investigated for obtaining optimum NPs green synthesis. Total phenolic content, total flavonoid content of leaf extract and total antioxidant activity (DPPH) assay were determined as radical scavenging methods. UV-Visible spectroscopy, Fourier transform infrared spectroscopy analysis, X-ray diffraction, energy dispersive X-ray spectroscopy, field emission scanning electron microscope and atomic force microscopy (AFM) were used due to NPs characterization. The size average of the Ag, Cu and TiO 2 NPs obtained were respectively 10.69 ± 5.55, 35.36 ± 44.4 and 92.58 ± 56.98 nm. In the case of antibacterial assay, disc diffusion assay, minimum inhibitory concentration, minimum bactericidal concentration, bacterial growth and morphology of four MDR species Staphylococcus aureus ATCC 43300, Staphylococcus epidermidis ATCC 12258, Serratia marcescens ATTC13880 and Escherichia coli ATCC 25922 were evaluated. Results of this study demonstrated that A. haussknechtii leaf extract with various groups of phytochemicals such as phenols and flavonoids had suitable ability in green synthesis of Ag, Cu and TiO 2 NPs. Also, Ag and Cu NPs had more antibacterial activities compared to TiO 2 NPs.

  5. Antioxidant activities and radical scavenging activities of flavonoids studied by the electrochemical methods and ESR technique based on the novel paramagnetic properties of poly(aniline-co-5-aminosalicylic acid)

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Yang, Yifei; Mu, Shaolin

    2013-01-01

    Graphical abstract: ESR spectra of the PAASA/RGO/graphite electrodes: (1) in the buffer solution consisting of 0.20 M phosphate and methanol (80: 20, v/v), (2) in the buffer solutions containing 150 μM of (+)-catechin. -- Abstract: Four kinds of flavonoid, viz. flavanone naringenin, Flavone apigenin, flavonol kaempferol, and flavanol (+)-catechin, are used to investigate their antioxidant and radical scavenging activitis in the water-methanol solution of pH 6.3, using the electrochemical methods and electron spin resonance (ESR) technique. Poly(aniline-co-5-aminosalicylic acid) (PAASA) is first used as a radical source that was polymerized on a reduced graphene oxide (RGO)/glassy carbon (GC) disk or on the RGO/graphite fiber electrode. The assessment of the antioxidant activities is performed using both cyclic voltammetry and the open circuit potential measurement. On the basis of results from both electrochemical mathods, the order of the antioxidant actitvities of flavonoids is as follows: (+)-catechin > kaempferol > apigenin > naringenin However, the difference in the antioxidant activities between naringenin and apigenin is very small. On the basis of the ESR signal intensities of PAASA, the order of the radical scavenging activities of flavonoids is in good agreement with that of the above antioxdant activities.Three oxidation peaks on the cyclic voltammograms of (+)-catechin are first detected, which gives us a deep insight into the oxidation mechanism of (+)-catechin

  6. Development of a triple hyphenated HPLC-radical scavenging detection-DAD-SPE-NMR system for the rapid identification of antioxidants in complex plant extracts

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Pukalskas, A.; Beek, van T.A.; Waard, de P.

    2005-01-01

    A rapid method for the simultaneous detection and identification of radical scavenging compounds in plant extracts was developed by combining an HPLC with on-line radical scavenging using DPPH as a model radical and an HPLC¿DAD¿SPE¿NMR system. Using this method a commercial rosemary extract was

  7. Antioxidants

    Science.gov (United States)

    Antioxidants are man-made or natural substances that may prevent or delay some types of cell damage. Antioxidants are found in many foods, including fruits and ... are also available as dietary supplements. Examples of antioxidants include Beta-carotene Lutein Lycopene Selenium Vitamin A ...

  8. Polysulfides and products of H2S/S-nitrosoglutathione in comparison to H2S, glutathione and antioxidant Trolox are potent scavengers of superoxide anion radical and produce hydroxyl radical by decomposition of H2O2.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Misak, Anton; Grman, Marian; Bacova, Zuzana; Rezuchova, Ingeborg; Hudecova, Sona; Ondriasova, Elena; Krizanova, Olga; Brezova, Vlasta; Chovanec, Miroslav; Ondrias, Karol

    2018-06-01

    Exogenous and endogenously produced sulfide derivatives, such as H 2 S/HS - /S 2- , polysulfides and products of the H 2 S/S-nitrosoglutathione interaction (S/GSNO), affect numerous biological processes in which superoxide anion (O 2 - ) and hydroxyl (OH) radicals play an important role. Their cytoprotective-antioxidant and contrasting pro-oxidant-toxic effects have been reported. Therefore, the aim of our work was to contribute to resolving this apparent inconsistency by studying sulfide derivatives/free radical interactions and their consequent biological effects compared to the antioxidants glutathione (GSH) and Trolox. Using the electron paramagnetic resonance (EPR) spin trapping technique and O 2 - , we found that a polysulfide (Na 2 S 4 ) and S/GSNO were potent scavengers of O 2 - and cPTIO radicals compared to H 2 S (Na 2 S), GSH and Trolox, and S/GSNO scavenged the DEPMPO-OH radical. As detected by the EPR spectra of DEPMPO-OH, the formation of OH in physiological solution by S/GSNO was suggested. All the studied sulfide derivatives, but not Trolox or GSH, had a bell-shaped potency to decompose H 2 O 2 and produced OH in the following order: S/GSNO > Na 2 S 4  ≥ Na 2 S > GSH = Trolox = 0, but they scavenged OH at higher concentrations. In studies of the biological consequences of these sulfide derivatives/H 2 O 2 properties, we found the following: (i) S/GSNO alone and all sulfide derivatives in the presence of H 2 O 2 cleaved plasmid DNA; (ii) S/GSNO interfered with viral replication and consequently decreased the infectivity of viruses; (iii) the sulfide derivatives induced apoptosis in A2780 cells but inhibited apoptosis induced by H 2 O 2 ; and (iv) Na 2 S 4 modulated intracellular calcium in A87MG cells, which depended on the order of Na 2 S 4 /H 2 O 2 application. We suggest that the apparent inconsistency of the cytoprotective-antioxidant and contrasting pro-oxidant-toxic biological effects of sulfide derivatives results from their time

  9. Isolation of antioxidative secoiridoids from olive wood (Olea europaea L.) guided by on-line HPLC-DAD-radical scavenging detection

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Pérez-Bonilla, M.; Salido, S.; Beek, van T.A.; Waard, de P.; Linares-Palomino, P.J.; Sánchez, A.; Altarejos, J.

    2011-01-01

    The woody portion of olive tree pruning is a source of natural antioxidants of potential interest for the food industry. This work deals with the isolation and identification of further antioxidants present in an ethyl acetate extract of olive (Olea europaea L.) wood. Thus, a new secoiridoid,

  10. Use of different spices as potential natural antioxidant additives on cooked beans (Phaseolus vulgaris). Increase of DPPH radical scavenging activity and total phenolic content.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pereira, Marina Pelincer; Tavano, Olga Luisa

    2014-12-01

    Herbs and spices, excellent sources of phenolic compounds, can be considered potential antioxidant additives. The use of spices must strike a balance between their potential antioxidant capabilities during preparation and the flavor acceptance, in order to avoid rejection of the food. The aimed of this study is to evaluate the influence of different spices and their concentrations on cooked common beans, focusing its potential as antioxidant additives. Onion, parsley, spring onion, laurel and coriander increased the antioxidant activity of preparation when used at 7.96 g of onion, 1.06 g parsley, 3.43 g spring onion, 0.25 g laurel (dry leaves), and 0.43 g coriander/100 g of cooked beans. Besides, these spices concentrations enhance total phenolics and alter the mixture protein digestibility minimally. For garlic samples it was not possible to establish a concentration that increases the antioxidant activity of cooked beans.

  11. Exogenous Melatonin Application Delays Senescence of Kiwifruit Leaves by Regulating the Antioxidant Capacity and Biosynthesis of Flavonoids

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Dong Liang

    2018-04-01

    Full Text Available Melatonin, a multiple signal molecule, plays important roles in delaying senescence during the development of plants. Because few species have been studied for the effect of exogenous melatonin on anti-aging, the plausible mechanism of melatonin of anti-aging effects on other plant species has remained largely unknown. In the present study, the effects of exogenous melatonin on leaf senescence in kiwifruit were examined during natural aging after melatonin (200 μM or water (Control pretreatment. The decreased membrane damage and lower hydrogen peroxide (H2O2 content due to the enhanced scavenging activity of antioxidant enzymes peroxidase (POD, superoxide dismutase (SOD, and catalase (CAT demonstrated that melatonin effectively delayed the aging of kiwifruit leaves. Likewise, owing to up-regulated expression of chlorophyll a/b-binding protein (CAB gene in the sampled leaves pretreated with melatonin, chlorophyll degradation decreased. Therefore, osmoregulatory substances in sampled leaves accumulated (e.g., soluble sugar and soluble protein and seedling cell environment stability was maintained. Simultaneously, melatonin decreased H2O2 concentration owing to increased glutathione (GSH and ascorbate (AsA content, and the expression levels of glutathione reductase (GR, ascorbate peroxidase (APX, monodehydroascorbate reductase (MDAR, dehydroascorbate reductase (DHAR were up-regulated by melatonin application, indicating that the increase of GSH and AsA was attributed to the expression of these genes. In addition, a large amount of flavonoids accumulated in seedlings pretreated with melatonin, and transcript levels of eight genes involved in flavonoid synthesis, including phenylalanine ammonia-lyase (PAL, cinnamate-4-hydroxymate (C4H, chalcone synthase (CHS, flavanone 3-hydroxylase (F3H, flavonol synthase (FNS, leucoanthocyanin reductase (LAR, anthocyanin reductase (ANR, flavonoid 3-O-glucosyltransferase (UFGT were enhanced in response to melatonin

  12. Free-radical scavenging capacity and antioxidant properties of some selected onions (Allium cepa L. and garlic (Allium sativum L. extracts

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Noureddine Benkeblia

    2005-09-01

    Full Text Available The radical scavenging activity (RAS, chain-breaking activity, H2O2-scavenging, reducing capacity and total phenolics of four types of onions (Green onion, Yellow, Red and Purple and garlic were investigated. Total phenolics varied from 30 mg (green onion to 49 mg.100 g-1 fresh weight (garlic. Garlic extract showed the highest RAS, while green onion showed the lowest one. The chain-breaking activity of green onion extract was higher (0.48 than garlic extract (0.029. Chain-breaking activity of yellow, red and purple onion extracts was 0.19, 0.048 and 0.032 respectively. However, heating treatment (90 ºC, 3h caused an increase in this activity. Low ability of green onion extract to scavenge hydrogen peroxide was noted (35%, whereas high ability was noted in other onion and garlic extracts and ranged from 60 to 90%. The lowest reducing capacity was noted in green onion extract (18%, whereas the highest in garlic extract (196%. Statistically, high significant correlations were observed between total phenolics content and reducing power, scavenging of hydrogen peroxide and chain-breaking activity of extract

  13. Quantum Chemical Investigation on the Antioxidant Activity of Neutral and Anionic Forms of Juglone: Metal Chelation and Its Effect on Radical Scavenging Activity

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    Aymard Didier Fouegue Tamafo

    2017-01-01

    Full Text Available The chelation ability of divalent Mg, Ca, Fe, Co, Ni, Cu, Zn, and monovalent Cu ions by neutral and anionic forms of juglone has been investigated at DFT/B3LYP/6-31+G(d,p level of theory in gas and aqueous phases. It is noteworthy that only the 1 : 1 stoichiometry was considered herein. The effects of these metals on the radical scavenging activity of neutral juglone were evaluated via the usual descriptors of hydrogen atom transfer. According to our results, metal chelation by the two forms of juglone was spontaneous and exothermic in both media. Based on the binding energies, Cu(II ion showed the highest affinity for the ligands. QTAIM analyses identified the metal-ligand bonds as intermediate type interactions in all the chelates, except those of Ca and Mg. It was also found that the chelates were better radical scavengers than the ligands. In the gas phase, the scavenging activity of the compounds was found to be governed by direct hydrogen atom transfer, the Co(II chelate being the most reactive. In the aqueous phase also, the sequential proton loss electron transfer was preferred by all the molecules, while the Cu(II chelates were the most reactive.

  14. A natural antioxidant, tannic acid mitigates iron-overload induced hepatotoxicity in Swiss albino mice through ROS regulation.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Basu, Tapasree; Panja, Sourav; Shendge, Anil Khushalrao; Das, Abhishek; Mandal, Nripendranath

    2018-05-01

    Tannic acid (TA), a water soluble natural polyphenol with 8 gallic acids groups, is abundantly present in various medicinal plants. Previously TA has been investigated for its antimicrobial and antifungal properties. Being a large polyphenol, TA chelates more than 1 metal. Hence TA has been explored for potent antioxidant activities against reactive oxygen species (ROS), reactive nitrogen species (RNS) and as iron chelator in vitro thereby mitigating iron-overload induced hepatotoxicity in vivo. Iron dextran was injected intraperitoneally in Swiss albino mice to induce iron-overload triggered hepatotoxicity, followed by oral administration of TA for remediation. After treatment, liver, spleen, and blood samples were processed from sacrificed animals. The liver iron, serum ferritin, serum markers, ROS, liver antioxidant status, and liver damage parameters were assessed, followed by histopathology and protein expression studies. Our results show that TA is a prominent ROS and RNS scavenger as well as iron chelator in vitro. It also reversed the ROS levels in vivo and restricted the liver damage parameters as compared to the standard drug, desirox. Moreover, this natural polyphenol exclusively ameliorates the histopathological and fibrotic changes in liver sections reducing the iron-overload, along with chelation of liver iron and normalization of serum ferritin. The protective role of TA against iron-overload induced apoptosis in liver was further supported by changed levels of caspase 3, PARP as well as Bax/BCl-2 ratio. Thus, TA can be envisaged as a better orally administrable iron chelator to reduce iron-overload induced hepatotoxicity through ROS regulation. © 2018 Wiley Periodicals, Inc.

  15. A modified method for studying behavioral paradox of antioxidants and their disproportionate competitive kinetic effect to scavenge the peroxyl radical formation.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Masood, Nusrat; Fatima, Kaneez; Luqman, Suaib

    2014-01-01

    We have described a modified method for evaluating inhibitor of peroxyl radicals, a well-recognized and -documented radical involved in cancer initiation and promotion as well as diseases related to oxidative stress and ageing. We are reporting hydrophilic and lipophilic as well as natural and synthetic forms of antioxidants revealing a diversified behaviour to peroxyl radical in a dose-dependent manner (1 nM-10 μM). A simple kinetic model for the competitive oxidation of an indicator molecule (ABTS) and a various antioxidant by a radical (ROO(•)) is described. The influences of both the concentration of antioxidant and duration of reaction (70 min) on the inhibition of the radical cation absorption are taken into account while determining the activity. The induction time of the reaction was also proposed as a parameter enabling determination of antioxidant content by optimizing and introducing other kinetic parameters in 96-well plate assays. The test evidently improves the original PRTC (peroxyl radical trapping capacity) assay in terms of the amount of chemical used, simultaneous tracking, that is, the generation of the radical taking place continually and the kinetic reduction technique (area under curve, peak value, slope, and Vmax).

  16. Estrogen regulates estrogen receptors and antioxidant gene expression in mouse skeletal muscle.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Kristen A Baltgalvis

    Full Text Available BACKGROUND: Estrogens are associated with the loss of skeletal muscle strength in women with age. Ovarian hormone removal by ovariectomy in mice leads to a loss of muscle strength, which is reversed with 17beta-estradiol replacement. Aging is also associated with an increase in antioxidant stress, and estrogens can improve antioxidant status via their interaction with estrogen receptors (ER to regulate antioxidant gene expression. The purpose of this study was to determine if ER and antioxidant gene expression in skeletal muscle are responsive to changes in circulating estradiol, and if ERs regulate antioxidant gene expression in this tissue. METHODOLOGY/PRINCIPAL FINDINGS: Adult C57BL/6 mice underwent ovariectomies or sham surgeries to remove circulating estrogens. These mice were implanted with placebo or 17beta-estradiol pellets acutely or chronically. A separate experiment examined mice that received weekly injections of Faslodex to chronically block ERs. Skeletal muscles were analyzed for expression of ER genes and proteins and antioxidant genes. ERalpha was the most abundant, followed by Gper and ERbeta in both soleus and EDL muscles. The loss of estrogens through ovariectomy induced ERalpha gene and protein expression in the soleus, EDL, and TA muscles at both the acute and chronic time points. Gpx3 mRNA was also induced both acutely and chronically in all 3 muscles in mice receiving 17beta-estradiol. When ERs were blocked using Faslodex, Gpx3 mRNA was downregulated in the soleus muscle, but not the EDL and TA muscles. CONCLUSIONS/SIGNIFICANCE: These data suggest that Gpx3 and ERalpha gene expression are sensitive to circulating estrogens in skeletal muscle. ERs may regulate Gpx3 gene expression in the soleus muscle, but skeletal muscle regulation of Gpx3 via ERs is dependent upon muscle type. Further work is needed to determine the indirect effects of estrogen and ERalpha on Gpx3 expression in skeletal muscle, and their importance in the

  17. Free radical scavenging potential, reducing power, phenolic and biochemical constituents of Porphyra species from India

    Digital Repository Service at National Institute of Oceanography (India)

    Pise, N.M.; Jena, K.B.; Maharana, D.; Gaikwad, D.; Jagtap, T.G.

    . Antioxidant potentials of algae were assessed through phenolic content, 2, 2-diphenyl-1- picrylhydrazyl (DPPH) activity, hydrogen peroxide (H sub(2)O sub(2)), scavenging power and reducing potential. A dose-dependent free radical scavenging action against DPPH...

  18. The role of ZmWRKY4 in regulating maize antioxidant defense under cadmium stress

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Hong, Changyong; Cheng, Dan; Zhang, Guoqiang; Zhu, Dandan; Chen, Yahua; Tan, Mingpu

    2017-01-01

    WRKY transcription factors act as positive regulators in abiotic stress responses by activation of the cellular antioxidant systems. However, there are few reports on the response of WRKY genes to cadmium (Cd) stress. In this study, the role of maize ZmWRKY4 in regulating antioxidant enzymes in Cd stress was investigated. The results indicated that Cd induced up-regulation of the expression and the activities of ZmWRKY4 and superoxide dismutase (SOD) and ascorbate peroxidase (APX). Transient expression and RNA interference (RNAi) silencing of ZmWRKY4 in maize mesophyll protoplasts further revealed that ZmWRKY4 was required for the abscisic acid (ABA)-induced increase in expression and activity of SOD and APX. Overexpression of ZmWRKY4 in protoplasts upregulated the expression and the activities of antioxidant enzymes, whereas ABA induced increases in the expression and the activities of antioxidant enzymes were blocked by the RNAi silencing of ZmWRKY4. Bioinformatic analysis indicated that ZmSOD4 and ZmcAPX both harbored two W-boxes, binding motif for WRKY transcription factors, in their promoter region. Intriguingly, ZmWRKY4 belongs to group I WRKYs with two WRKY domains. Moreover, the synchronized expression patterns indicate that ZmWRKY4 might play a critical role in either regulating the ZmSOD4 and ZmcAPX expression or cooperating with them in response to stress and phytohormone. - Highlights: • Cd induced the expression of ZmWRKY4, ZmSOD4 and ZmcAPX. • Maize transcription factor ZmWRKY4 was localized in nucleus. • Overexpression of ZmWRKY4 upregulated the expression of ZmSOD4 and ZmcAPX and the activities of antioxidant enzymes.

  19. Major Vault Protein Regulates Class A Scavenger Receptor-mediated Tumor Necrosis Factor-α Synthesis and Apoptosis in Macrophages*

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ben, Jingjing; Zhang, Yan; Zhou, Rongmei; Zhang, Haiyang; Zhu, Xudong; Li, Xiaoyu; Zhang, Hanwen; Li, Nan; Zhou, Xiaodan; Bai, Hui; Yang, Qing; Li, Donghai; Xu, Yong; Chen, Qi

    2013-01-01

    Atherosclerosis is considered a disease of chronic inflammation largely initiated and perpetuated by macrophage-dependent synthesis and release of pro-inflammatory mediators. Class A scavenger receptor (SR-A) expressed on macrophages plays a key role in this process. However, how SR-A-mediated pro-inflammatory response is modulated in macrophages remains ill defined. Here through immunoprecipitation coupled with mass spectrometry, we reported major vault protein (MVP) as a novel binding partner for SR-A. The interaction between SR-A and MVP was confirmed by immunofluorescence staining and chemical cross-linking assay. Treatment of macrophages with fucoidan, a SR-A ligand, led to a marked increase in TNF-α production, which was attenuated by MVP depletion. Further analysis revealed that SR-A stimulated TNF-α synthesis in macrophages via the caveolin- instead of clathrin-mediated endocytic pathway linked to p38 and JNK, but not ERK, signaling pathways. Importantly, fucoidan invoked an enrichment of MVP in lipid raft, a caveolin-reliant membrane structure, and enhanced the interaction among SR-A, caveolin, and MVP. Finally, we demonstrated that MVP elimination ameliorated SR-A-mediated apoptosis in macrophages. As such, MVP may fine-tune SR-A activity in macrophages which contributes to the development of atherosclerosis. PMID:23703615

  20. Pattern Recognition Scavenger Receptor A/CD204 Regulates Airway Inflammatory Homeostasis Following Organic Dust Extract Exposures

    Science.gov (United States)

    Poole, Jill A.; Anderson, Leigh; Gleason, Angela M.; West, William W.; Romberger, Debra J.; Wyatt, Todd A.

    2014-01-01

    Exposure to agriculture organic dusts, comprised of a diversity of pathogen-associated molecular patterns, results in chronic airway diseases. The multi-functional class A macrophage scavenger receptor (SRA)/CD204 has emerged as an important class of pattern recognition receptors with broad ligand binding ability. Our objective was to determine the role of SRA in mediating repetitive and post-inflammatory organic dust extract (ODE)-induced airway inflammation. Wild-type (WT) and SRA knockout (KO) mice were intra-nasally treated with ODE or saline daily for 3 wk and immediately euthanized or allowed to recover for 1 wk. Results show that lung histopathologic changes were increased in SRA KO mice as compared to WT following repetitive ODE exposures marked predominately by increased size and distribution of lymphoid aggregates. After a 1-wk recovery from daily ODE treatments, there was significant resolution of lung injury in WT mice, but not SRA KO animals. The increased lung histopathology induced by ODE treatment was associated with decreased accumulation of neutrophils, but greater accumulation of CD4+ T-cells. The lung cytokine milieu induced by ODE was consistent with a TH1/TH17 polarization in both WT and SRA KO mice. Overall, our data demonstrate that SRA/CD204 plays an important role in the normative inflammatory lung response to ODE as evidenced by the enhanced dust-mediated injury viewed in the absence of this receptor. PMID:24491035

  1. The salivary scavenger and agglutinin (SALSA binds MBL and regulates the lectin pathway of complement in solution and on surfaces

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Martin eParnov Reichhardt

    2012-07-01

    Full Text Available The scavenger receptor cysteine-rich (SRCR protein SALSA, also known as gp340, salivary agglutinin (SAG and deleted in malignant brain tumor 1 (DMBT1, is a 340 kDa glycoprotein expressed on mucosal surfaces and secreted into several body fluids. SALSA binds to a broad variety of microbes and endogenous ligands, such as complement factor C1q, surfactant proteins D and A (SP-D and SP-A and IgA. Our search for novel ligands of SALSA by direct protein-interaction studies led to the identification of mannan binding lectin (MBL as a new binding partner. We observed that surface-associated SALSA activates complement via binding of MBL. On the other hand, soluble SALSA was found to inhibit C. albicans-induced complement activation. Thus, SALSA has a dual complement regulatory function. It activates the lectin pathway when bound to a surface and inhibits it when free in the fluid-phase. These activities are mediated via a direct interaction with MBL.

  2. SERPINA3K plays antioxidant roles in cultured pterygial epithelial cells through regulating ROS system.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Chengpeng Zhu

    Full Text Available We recently demonstrated that SERPINA3K, a serine proteinase inhibitor, has antioxidant activity in the cornea. Here we investigated the antioxidant effects of SERPINA3K on the pterygial, which is partially caused by oxidative stress in pathogenesis. The head part of primary pterygial tissue was dissected and then cultured in keratinocyte serum-free defined medium (KSFM. The cultured pterygial epithelial cells (PECs were treated with SERPINA3K. The cell proliferation and migration of PECs were measured and analyzed. Western blot and quantitative real-time polymerase chain reaction (PCR assay were performed. It showed that SERPINA3K significantly suppressed the cell proliferation of PECs in a concentration-dependent manner, compared with cultured human conjunctival epithelial cells. SERPINA3K also inhibited the cell migration of PECs. Towards its underlying mechanism, SERPINA3K had antioxidant activities on the PECs by significantly inhibiting NADPH oxidase 4 (NOX4, which is an important enzyme of ROS generation, and by elevating the levels of key antioxidant factors of ROS: such as NAD(PH dehydrogenase (quinone 1 (NQO1, NF-E2-related factor-2 (NRF2 and superoxide dismutases (SOD2. Meanwhile, SERPINA3K down-regulated the key effectors of Wnt signaling pathway: β-catenin, nonphospho-β-catenin, and low-density lipoprotein receptor-related protein 6 (LRP6. We provided novel evidence that SERPINA3K had inhibitory effects on pterygium and SERPINA3K played antioxidant role via regulating the ROS system and antioxidants.

  3. Oxidative Stress Regulation on Endothelial Cells by Hydrophilic Astaxanthin Complex: Chemical, Biological, and Molecular Antioxidant Activity Evaluation

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    M. Zuluaga

    2017-01-01

    Full Text Available An imbalance in the reactive oxygen species (ROS homeostasis is involved in the pathogenesis of oxidative stress-related diseases. Astaxanthin, a xanthophyll carotenoid with high antioxidant capacities, has been shown to prevent the first stages of oxidative stress. Here, we evaluate the antioxidant capacities of astaxanthin included within hydroxypropyl-beta-cyclodextrin (CD-A to directly and indirectly reduce the induced ROS production. First, chemical methods were used to corroborate the preservation of astaxanthin antioxidant abilities after inclusion. Next, antioxidant scavenging properties of CD-A to inhibit the cellular and mitochondrial ROS by reducing the disturbance in the redox state of the cell and the infiltration of lipid peroxidation radicals were evaluated. Finally, the activation of endogenous antioxidant PTEN/AKT, Nrf2/HO-1, and NQOI gene and protein expression supported the protective effect of CD-A complex on human endothelial cells under stress conditions. Moreover, a nontoxic effect on HUVEC was registered after CD-A complex supplementation. The results reported here illustrate the need to continue exploring the interesting properties of this hydrophilic antioxidant complex to assist endogenous systems to counteract the ROS impact on the induction of cellular oxidative stress state.

  4. Free radical scavenging capacity and antioxidant activity of methanolic and ethanolic extracts of plum (Prunus domestica L. in both fresh and dried samples

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Amin Morabbi Najafabad

    2014-09-01

    Full Text Available Objectives: Consumption of fruits, such as plums and prunes, is useful in treating blood circulation disorder, measles, digestive disorder, and prevention of cancer, diabetes, and obesity. The paper presents a description of antioxidant and antiradical capacity of plum (Prunus domestica L. in both fresh and dried samples. Materials and Methods: Samples were mixed with methanol and ethanol (as solvents and were extracted on magnetic shaker, separately. The experiments were carried out to measure the Total Phenolic Content (TPC, Total Flavonoid Content (TFC, Total Antioxidant Capacity (TAC, Reducing Power Assay (RPA, Chain Breaking Activity (CBA, and quantity of Malondialdehyde (MDA, 2,2-Diphenyl-1-Picrylhydrazyl (DPPH,Nitric Oxide (NO,Hydrogen peroxide (H2O2 and superoxide(O2- radicals inhibition. Results: The results showed that the highest values for the TPC, TFC,TAC, RPA, CBA, DPPH, and NO were related to ethanolic extractsof dried sample which showed statistically significant differences (p2O2 and O2-were related to ethanolic extracts of fresh sample. The correlations data were analyzed among all parameters and the TPC and TFC had a significant correlation (r2=0.977. Moreover, it was found that methanol was more successful in extraction procedure than ethanol (p

  5. Inorganic Arsenic Induces NRF2-Regulated Antioxidant Defenses in Both Cerebral Cortex and Hippocampus in Vivo.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zhang, Yang; Duan, Xiaoxu; Li, Jinlong; Zhao, Shuo; Li, Wei; Zhao, Lu; Li, Wei; Nie, Huifang; Sun, Guifang; Li, Bing

    2016-08-01

    Inorganic arsenic is reported to induce the reactive oxygen species-mediated oxidative stress, which is supposed to be one of the main mechanisms of arsenic-related neurological diseases. Nuclear factor erythroid 2-related factor 2 (NRF2), a master regulator of antioxidant defense systems, up-regulates the expression of target genes to fight against oxidative damages caused by harmful substances, including metals. In the present study, mice were used as a model to investigate the oxidative stress levels and the expressions of NRF2-regulated antioxidant substances in both cerebral cortex and hippocampus with 5, 10 and 20 mg/kg NaAsO2 exposure intra-gastrically. Our results showed that acute NaAsO2 treatment resulted in decreased total anti-oxidative capacity (T-AOC) and increased maleic dialdehyde production in the nervous system. We also detected rapidly elevation of NRF2 protein levels by enhancement of Nrf2 transcription, especially at 20 mg/kg NaAsO2 exposure group. In the meantime, mRNA and protein levels of Nrf2 encoding antioxidant enzymes heme oxygenase-1 (HO-1), NAD(P)H: quinine oxidoreductase 1 (NQO1) and glutathione S-transferase (GST) were consistently elevated time- and dose-dependently both in the cerebral cortex and hippocampus. Taken together, the presence study demonstrated the activation of NRF2 pathway, an early antioxidant defensive response, in both cerebral cortex and hippocampus upon inorganic arsenic (iAs) exposure in vivo. A better knowledge on the roles of NRF2 pathway in maintaining cellular redox homeostasis would be helpful for the strategies on improvement of neurotoxicity related to this metalloid.

  6. Antioxidant activity of methanol extract of Helichrysum foetidum Moench.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tirillini, Bruno; Menghini, Luigi; Leporini, Lidia; Scanu, Nadia; Marino, Stefania; Pintore, Giorgio

    2013-01-01

    Methanol extract of Helichrysum foetidum Moench (Asteraceae) was investigated for antioxidative properties. The antioxidant activities were investigated by 2,2'-azinobis-3-ethylbenzothiazoline-6-sulphonic acid (ABTS) assay, 1,1-diphenyl-2-picrylhydrazyl (DPPH) radical-scavenging, ß-carotene/linoleic acid assay, scavenging of hydrogen peroxide (HRPO test), superoxide anion scavenging (S.A.S. test) and hypochlorous acid scavenging (taurine test). The antioxidant activity was reported as IC50 and reveals Trolox-like antioxidative effects.

  7. Arctigenin enhances swimming endurance of sedentary rats partially by regulation of antioxidant pathways.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wu, Ruo-ming; Sun, Yan-yan; Zhou, Ting-ting; Zhu, Zhi-yuan; Zhuang, Jing-jing; Tang, Xuan; Chen, Jing; Hu, Li-hong; Shen, Xu

    2014-10-01

    Arctigenin, a phenylpropanoid dibenzylbutyrolactone lignan found in traditional Chinese herbs, has been determined to exhibit a variety of pharmacological activities, including anti-tumor, anti-inflammation, neuroprotection, and endurance enhancement. In the present study, we investigated the antioxidation and anti-fatigue effects of arctigenin in rats. Rat L6 skeletal muscle cell line was exposed to H2O2 (700 μmol/L), and ROS level was assayed using DCFH-DA as a probe. Male SD rats were injected with arctigenin (15 mg·kg(-1)·d(-1), ip) for 6 weeks, and then the weight-loaded forced swimming test (WFST) was performed to evaluate their endurance. The levels of antioxidant-related genes in L6 cells and the skeletal muscles of rats were analyzed using real-time RT-PCR and Western blotting. Incubation of L6 cells with arctigenin (1, 5, 20 μmol/L) dose-dependently decreased the H2O2-induced ROS production. WFST results demonstrated that chronic administration of arctigenin significantly enhanced the endurance of rats. Furthermore, molecular biology studies on L6 cells and skeletal muscles of the rats showed that arctigenin effectively increased the expression of the antioxidant-related genes, including superoxide dismutase (SOD), glutathione reductase (Gsr), glutathione peroxidase (GPX1), thioredoxin (Txn) and uncoupling protein 2 (UCP2), through regulation of two potential antioxidant pathways: AMPK/PGC-1α/PPARα in mitochondria and AMPK/p53/Nrf2 in the cell nucleus. Arctigenin efficiently enhances rat swimming endurance by elevation of the antioxidant capacity of the skeletal muscles, which has thereby highlighted the potential of this natural product as an antioxidant in the treatment of fatigue and related diseases.

  8. Arctigenin enhances swimming endurance of sedentary rats partially by regulation of antioxidant pathways

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wu, Ruo-ming; Sun, Yan-yan; Zhou, Ting-ting; Zhu, Zhi-yuan; Zhuang, Jing-jing; Tang, Xuan; Chen, Jing; Hu, Li-hong; Shen, Xu

    2014-01-01

    Aim: Arctigenin, a phenylpropanoid dibenzylbutyrolactone lignan found in traditional Chinese herbs, has been determined to exhibit a variety of pharmacological activities, including anti-tumor, anti-inflammation, neuroprotection, and endurance enhancement. In the present study, we investigated the antioxidation and anti-fatigue effects of arctigenin in rats. Methods: Rat L6 skeletal muscle cell line was exposed to H2O2 (700 μmol/L), and ROS level was assayed using DCFH-DA as a probe. Male SD rats were injected with arctigenin (15 mg·kg−1·d−1, ip) for 6 weeks, and then the weight-loaded forced swimming test (WFST) was performed to evaluate their endurance. The levels of antioxidant-related genes in L6 cells and the skeletal muscles of rats were analyzed using real-time RT-PCR and Western blotting. Results: Incubation of L6 cells with arctigenin (1, 5, 20 μmol/L) dose-dependently decreased the H2O2-induced ROS production. WFST results demonstrated that chronic administration of arctigenin significantly enhanced the endurance of rats. Furthermore, molecular biology studies on L6 cells and skeletal muscles of the rats showed that arctigenin effectively increased the expression of the antioxidant-related genes, including superoxide dismutase (SOD), glutathione reductase (Gsr), glutathione peroxidase (GPX1), thioredoxin (Txn) and uncoupling protein 2 (UCP2), through regulation of two potential antioxidant pathways: AMPK/PGC-1α/PPARα in mitochondria and AMPK/p53/Nrf2 in the cell nucleus. Conclusion: Arctigenin efficiently enhances rat swimming endurance by elevation of the antioxidant capacity of the skeletal muscles, which has thereby highlighted the potential of this natural product as an antioxidant in the treatment of fatigue and related diseases. PMID:25152028

  9. Free Radical Scavenging Activities of Methanol Extract and ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Michael Horsfall

    fractions were subjected to in vitro antioxidant evaluation using the DPPH free radical scavenging ... The crude extract has IC-50 value for radical scavenging activity of 5μg/mL which was .... effective concentration of the sample that is required.

  10. Peroxiredoxin II is an antioxidant enzyme that negatively regulates collagen-stimulated platelet function.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jang, Ji Yong; Wang, Su Bin; Min, Ji Hyun; Chae, Yun Hee; Baek, Jin Young; Yu, Dae-Yeul; Chang, Tong-Shin

    2015-05-01

    Collagen-induced platelet signaling is mediated by binding to the primary receptor glycoprotein VI (GPVI). Reactive oxygen species produced in response to collagen have been found to be responsible for the propagation of GPVI signaling pathways in platelets. Therefore, it has been suggested that antioxidant enzymes could down-regulate GPVI-stimulated platelet activation. Although the antioxidant enzyme peroxiredoxin II (PrxII) has emerged as having a role in negatively regulating signaling through various receptors by eliminating H2O2 generated upon receptor stimulation, the function of PrxII in collagen-stimulated platelets is not known. We tested the hypothesis that PrxII negatively regulates collagen-stimulated platelet activation. We analyzed PrxII-deficient murine platelets. PrxII deficiency enhanced GPVI-mediated platelet activation through the defective elimination of H2O2 and the impaired protection of SH2 domain-containing tyrosine phosphatase 2 (SHP-2) against oxidative inactivation, which resulted in increased tyrosine phosphorylation of key components for the GPVI signaling cascade, including Syk, Btk, and phospholipase Cγ2. Interestingly, PrxII-mediated antioxidative protection of SHP-2 appeared to occur in the lipid rafts. PrxII-deficient platelets exhibited increased adhesion and aggregation upon collagen stimulation. Furthermore, in vivo experiments demonstrated that PrxII deficiency facilitated platelet-dependent thrombus formation in injured carotid arteries. This study reveals that PrxII functions as a protective antioxidant enzyme against collagen-stimulated platelet activation and platelet-dependent thrombosis. © 2015 by The American Society for Biochemistry and Molecular Biology, Inc.

  11. Oxidised LDL internalisation by the LOX-1 scavenger receptor is dependent on a novel cytoplasmic motif and is regulated by dynamin-2.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Murphy, Jane E; Vohra, Ravinder S; Dunn, Sarah; Holloway, Zoe G; Monaco, Anthony P; Homer-Vanniasinkam, Shervanthi; Walker, John H; Ponnambalam, Sreenivasan

    2008-07-01

    The LOX-1 scavenger receptor recognises pro-atherogenic oxidised low-density lipoprotein (OxLDL) particles and is implicated in atherosclerotic plaque formation, but this mechanism is not well understood. Here we show evidence for a novel clathrin-independent and cytosolic-signal-dependent pathway that regulates LOX-1-mediated OxLDL internalisation. Cell surface labelling in the absence or presence of OxLDL ligand showed that LOX-1 is constitutively internalised from the plasma membrane and its half-life is not altered upon ligand binding and trafficking. We show that LOX-1-mediated OxLDL uptake is disrupted by overexpression of dominant-negative dynamin-2 but unaffected by CHC17 or mu2 (AP2) depletion. Site-directed mutagenesis revealed a conserved and novel cytoplasmic tripeptide motif (DDL) that regulates LOX-1-mediated endocytosis of OxLDL. Taken together, these findings indicate that LOX-1 is internalised by a clathrin-independent and dynamin-2-dependent pathway and is thus likely to mediate OxLDL trafficking in vascular tissues.

  12. Interactive effects of silicon and arbuscular mycorrhiza in modulating ascorbate-glutathione cycle and antioxidant scavenging capacity in differentially salt-tolerant Cicer arietinum L. genotypes subjected to long-term salinity.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Garg, Neera; Bhandari, Purnima

    2016-09-01

    Salinity is the major environmental constraint that affects legume productivity by inducing oxidative stress. Individually, both silicon (Si) nutrition and mycorrhization have been reported to alleviate salt stress. However, the mechanisms adopted by both in mediating stress responses are poorly understood. Thus, pot trials were undertaken to evaluate comparative as well as interactive effects of Si and/or arbuscular mycorrhiza (AM) in alleviating NaCl toxicity in modulating oxidative stress and antioxidant defence mechanisms in two Cicer arietinum L. (chickpea) genotypes-HC 3 (salt-tolerant) and CSG 9505 (salt-sensitive). Plants subjected to different NaCl concentrations (0-100 mM) recorded a substantial increase in the rate of superoxide radical (O2 (·-)), H2O2, lipoxygenase (LOX) activity and malondialdehyde (MDA) content, which induced leakage of ions and disturbed Ca(2+)/Na(+) ratio in roots and leaves. Individually, Si and AM reduced oxidative burst by strengthening antioxidant enzymatic activities (superoxide dismutase (SOD), catalase (CAT) and guaiacol peroxidase (GPOX)). Si was relatively more efficient in reducing accumulation of stress metabolites, while mycorrhization significantly up-regulated antioxidant machinery and modulated ascorbate-glutathione (ASA-GSH) cycle. Combined applications of Si and AM complemented each other in reducing reactive oxygen species (ROS) build-up by further enhancing the antioxidant defence responses. Magnitude of ROS-mediated oxidative burden was lower in HC 3 which correlated strongly with more effective AM symbiosis, better capacity to accumulate Si and stronger defence response when compared with CSG 9505. Study indicated that Si and/or AM fungal amendments upgraded salt tolerance through a dynamic shift from oxidative destruction towards favourable antioxidant defence system in stressed chickpea plants.

  13. Peroxynitrite scavenging by flavonids.

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Haenen, G.R.M.M.; Paquay, J.B.G.; Korthouwer, R.E.M.; Bast, A.

    1997-01-01

    The peroxynitrite scavenging activity of a series of structurally related flavonoids was tested. It was found that flavonoids are excellent scavengers of peroxynitrite. Compared to the known peroxynitrite scavenger ebselen, the most active flavonoids proved to be 10 times more effective. Indications

  14. Polyamine regulates tolerance to water stress in leaves of white clover associated with antioxidant defense and dehydrin genes via involvement in calcium messenger system and hydrogen peroxide signaling

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Zhou eLi

    2015-10-01

    Full Text Available Endogenous polyamine (PA may play a critical role in tolerance to water stress in plants acting as a signaling molecule activator. Water stress caused increases in endogenous PA content in leaves, including putrescine (Put, spermidine (Spd, and spermine (Spm. Exogenous application of Spd could induce the instantaneous H2O2 burst and accumulation of cytosolic free Ca2+, and activate NADPH oxidase and CDPK gene expression in cells. To a great extent, PA biosynthetic inhibitor reduced the water stress-induced H2O2 accumulation, free cytosolic Ca2+ release, antioxidant enzyme activities and genes expression leading to aggravate water stress-induced oxidative damage, while these suppressing effects were alleviated by the addition of exogenous Spd, indicating PA was involved in water stress-induced H2O2 and cytosolic free Ca2+ production as well as stress tolerance. Dehydrin genes (Y2SK, Y2K, and SK2 were showed to be highly responsive to exogenous Spd. PA-induced antioxidant defense and dehydrin genes expression could be blocked by the scavenger of H2O2 and the inhibitors of H2O2 generation or Ca2+ channels blockers, a calmodulin antagonist, as well as the inhibitor of CDPK. These findings suggested that PA regulated tolerance to water stress in white clover associated with antioxidant defenses and dehydrins via involvement in the calcium messenger system and H2O2 signaling pathways. PA-induced H2O2 production required Ca2+ release, while PA-induced Ca2+ release was also essential for H2O2 production, suggesting an interaction between PA-induced H2O2 and Ca2+ signaling.

  15. Antioxidant and antimicrobial activities of Canarium schweinfurthii ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    diphenylpicrylhydrazyl (DPPH) radical scavenging assay and the -carotene bleaching test. Butylated hydroxytoluene (BHT) was employed as a positive control. The essential oil showed antioxidant and DPPH radical scavenging activities, and it displayed ...

  16. In vitro free radical scavenging activity of Ixora coccinea L

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Moni Rani Saha

    2008-06-01

    Full Text Available Antioxidant activity of the methanol extract of Ixora coccinea L. was determined by DPPH free radical scavenging assay, reducing power and total antioxidant capacity using phosphomolybdenum method. Preliminary phytochemical screening revealed that the extract of the flower of I. coccinea possesses flavonoids, steroids and tannin materials. The extract showed significant activities in all antioxidant assays compared to the standard antioxidant in a dose dependent manner and remarkable activities to scavenge reactive oxygen species (ROS may be attributed to the high amount of hydrophilic phenolics. In DPPH radical scavenging assay the IC50 value of the extract was found to be 100.53 μg/mL while ascorbic acid had the IC50 value 58.92 μg/mL. Moreover, I. coccinea extract showed strong reducing power and total antioxidant capacity.

  17. Nitric oxide mitigates salt stress by regulating levels of osmolytes and antioxidant enzymes in chickpea

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Parvaiz eAhmad

    2016-03-01

    Full Text Available This work was designed to evaluate whether external application of nitric oxide (NO in the form of its donor S-nitroso-N-acetylpenicillamine (SNAP could mitigate the deleterious effects of NaCl stress on chickpea (Cicer arietinum L. plants. SNAP (50 μM was applied to chickpea plants grown under non-saline and saline conditions (50 and 100 mM NaCl. Salt stress negatively affected growth and biomass yield, leaf relative water content (LRWC and chlorophyll content of chickpea plants. High salinity increased electrolyte leakage, carotenoid content and the levels of osmolytes (proline, glycine betaine, soluble proteins and soluble sugars, hydrogen peroxide (H2O2 and malondialdehyde (MDA, as well as the activities of antioxidant enzymes, such as superoxide dismutase (SOD, catalase (CAT, ascorbate peroxidase (APX, and glutathione reductase (GR in chickpea plants. Expression of the representative SOD, CAT and APX genes examined was also up-regulated in chickpea plants by salt stress. On the other hand, exogenous application of NO to salinized plants enhanced the growth parameters, LRWC, photosynthetic pigment production and levels of osmolytes, as well as the activities of examined antioxidant enzymes which is correlated with up-regulation of the examined SOD, CAT and APX genes, in comparison with plants treated with NaCl only. Furthermore, electrolyte leakage, H2O2 and MDA contents showed decline in salt-stressed plants supplemented with NO as compared with those in NaCl-treated plants alone. Thus, the exogenous application of NO protected chickpea plants against salt-induced oxidative damage by enhancing the biosynthesis of antioxidant enzymes, thereby improving plant growth under saline stress. Taken together, our results demonstrate that NO has capability to mitigate the adverse effects of high salinity on chickpea plants by improving LRWC, photosynthetic pigment biosyntheses, osmolyte accumulation and antioxidative defense system.

  18. Antioxidant effects of polysaccharides from traditional Chinese medicines.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Liu, Yang; Huang, Gangliang

    2017-12-07

    Polysaccharides are a kind of biological macromolecules with immune regulation, anti-tumor, anti-radiation, anti-inflammation, anti-fatigue and anti-aging effects. These effects are related to their antioxidant properties. The action mechanisms of antioxidation and scavenging free radicals for polysaccharides were reviewed. The polysaccharides contain plant polysaccharides, animal polysaccharides and microbial polysaccharides. The recent research progresses and our work on antioxidant properties of polysaccharides and their derivatives were summarized. At last, the existing problems of antioxidant polysaccharides were analyzed, and the development prospects were also presented. It is important to study the antioxidant activities of polysaccharides and their derivatives for the development of natural antioxidants. Copyright© Bentham Science Publishers; For any queries, please email at epub@benthamscience.org.

  19. Regulation of antioxidant enzyme activities in male and female rat macrophages by sex steroids

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Azevedo R.B.

    2001-01-01

    Full Text Available Human and animal immune functions present sex dimorphism that seems to be mainly regulated by sex hormones. In the present study, the activities of the antioxidant enzymes total superoxide dismutase (SOD, catalase (CAT, and glutathione peroxidase (GSH-Px were measured in intraperitoneal resident macrophages from adult male and female rats. In addition to comparing males and females, we also examined the regulation of these enzyme activities in macrophages by sex steroids. GSH-Px activity did not differ between male and female macrophages. However, both total SOD and CAT activities were markedly higher in females than in males (83 and 180%. Removal of the gonads in both males and females (comparison between castrated groups increased the difference in SOD activity from 83 to 138% and reduced the difference in CAT activity from 180 to 86%. Castration and testosterone administration did not significantly modify the activities of the antioxidant enzymes in male macrophages. Ovariectomy did not affect SOD or GSH-Px activity but markedly reduced (48% CAT activity. This latter change was fully reversed by estrogen administration, whereas progesterone had a smaller effect. These results led us to conclude that differences in the SOD and CAT activities may partially explain some of the differences in immune function reported for males and females. Also, estrogen is a potent regulator of CAT in macrophages and therefore this enzyme activity in macrophages may vary considerably during the menstrual cycle.

  20. Effect of regulated deficit irrigation and crop load on the antioxidant compounds of peaches.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Buendía, Begoña; Allende, Ana; Nicolás, Emilio; Alarcón, Juan J; Gil, Maria I

    2008-05-28

    The use of regulated deficit irrigation (RDI) strategies is becoming a common practice in areas with low water availability. Little information is available about the effects of RDI on the antioxidant content of fruits. In this study, the influence of RDI on the content of vitamin C, phenolic compounds and carotenoids was investigated. Two irrigation strategies, fully irrigated (FI) and RDI, were compared at two levels of thinning, commercial and half of the commercial crop load. RDI strategies affected the content of vitamin C, phenolics and carotenoids of Flordastar peaches. RDI caused fruit peel stress lowering the content of vitamin C and carotenoids, while increasing the phenolic content, mainly anthocyanins and procyanidins. Fruit weight was the only quality index influenced by the crop load as it increased in FI fruits at low crop load. In general, fruits from commercial crop load had slightly higher content of antioxidants to fruits from low crop load, although these influences were only observed in the peel. Additionally, the influence of irrigation controlled by two sensors related to plant water level, maximum daily trunk shrinkage (MDS) and sap flow (SF) on the antioxidant constituents of peaches was evaluated. The response of the fruits to SF sensor was similar to that observed for RDI strategy. According to the tested water sensors, SF did not act as a good plant-based water indicator for use in irrigation scheduling, as it caused an increase in the content of phenolics, similar to that observed for fruits subjected to RDI. Therefore, selection of RDI strategies and plant water indicators should be taken into account as they affect the content of antioxidants of peaches.

  1. Exogenous melatonin suppresses dark-induced leaf senescence by activating the superoxide dismutase-catalase antioxidant pathway and down-regulating chlorophyll degradation in excised leaves of perennial ryegrass (Lolium perenne L.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Jing Zhang

    2016-10-01

    Full Text Available Leaf senescence is a typical symptom in plants exposed to dark and may be regulated by plant growth regulators. The objective of this study was to determine whether exogenous application of melatonin (N-acetyl-5-methoxytryptamine suppresses dark-induced leaf senescence and the effects of melatonin on reactive oxygen species (ROS scavenging system and chlorophyll degradation pathway in perennial grass species. Mature perennial ryegrass (Lolium perenne L. cv. ‘Pinnacle’ leaves were excised and incubated in 3 mM 2-(N-morpholino ethanesulfonic buffer (pH 5.8 supplemented with melatonin or water (control and exposed to dark treatment for 8 d. Leaves treated with melatonin maintained significantly higher endogenous melatonin level, chlorophyll content, photochemical efficiency, and cell membrane stability expressed by lower electrolyte leakage and malondialdehyde (MDA content compared to the control. Exogenous melatonin treatment also reduced the transcript level of chlorophyll degradation-associated genes and senescence marker genes (LpSAG12.1, Lph36, and Lpl69 during the dark treatment. The endogenous O2- production rate and H2O2 content were significantly lower in these excised leaves treated with melatonin compared to the water control. Exogenous melatonin treatment caused increases in enzymatic activity and transcript levels of superoxide dismutase and catalase but had no significant effects on ascorbate peroxidase, glutathione reductase, dehydroascorbate reductase, and monohydroascorbate reductase. The content of non-enzymatic antioxidants, such as ascorbate and dehydroascorbate, were decreased by melatonin treatment, while the content of glutathione and oxidized glutathione was not affected by melatonin. These results suggest that the suppression of dark-induced leaf senescence by exogenous melatonin may be associated with its roles in regulating ROS scavenging through activating the superoxide dismutase-catalase enzymatic antioxidant

  2. Thiourea, a ROS scavenger, regulates source-to-sink relationship to enhance crop yield and oil content in Brassica juncea (L..

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Manish Pandey

    Full Text Available In the present agricultural scenario, the major thrust is to increase crop productivity so as to ensure sustainability. In an earlier study, foliar application of thiourea (TU; a non physiological thiol based ROS scavenger has been demonstrated to enhance the stress tolerance and yield of different crops under field condition. Towards this endeavor, present work deals with the effect of TU on photosynthetic efficiency and source-to-sink relationship of Indian mustard (Brassica juncea for understanding its mode of action. The application of TU increased the efficiency of both PSI and PSII photosystems and vegetative growth of plant. The comparative analysis of sucrose to starch ratio and expression level of sugar transporters confirmed the higher source and sink strength in response to TU treatment. The biochemical evidence in support of this was derived from higher activities of sucrose phosphate synthase and fructose-1,6-bis-phosphatase at source; and sucrose synthase and different classes of invertases at both source and sink. This indicated an overall increase in photoassimilate level at sink. An additional contribution through pod photosynthesis was confirmed through the analysis of phosphoenol pyruvate carboxylase enzyme activity and level of organic acids. The increased photoassimilate level was also co-ordinated with acetyl coA carboxylase mediated oil biosynthesis. All these changes were ultimately reflected in the form of 10 and 20% increase in total yield and oil content, respectively under TU treatment as compared to control. Additionally, no change was observed in oil composition of seeds derived from TU treated plants. The study thus signifies the co-ordinated regulation of key steps of photosynthesis and source-to-sink relationship through the external application of TU resulting in increased crop yield and oil content.

  3. Botanical Scavenger Hunt

    Science.gov (United States)

    Walker-Livingston, Wendy

    2009-01-01

    Why not combine the use of technology with the excitement of a scavenger hunt that moves middle-level students out into the "wilds" of their school campus to classify plants? In the lesson plan described here, students embark on a botanical scavenger hunt and then document their findings using a digital camera. This project was designed to allow…

  4. Molecular Mechanisms behind Free Radical Scavengers Function against Oxidative Stress

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Fereshteh Ahmadinejad

    2017-07-01

    Full Text Available Accumulating evidence shows that oxidative stress is involved in a wide variety of human diseases: rheumatoid arthritis, Alzheimer’s disease, Parkinson’s disease, cancers, etc. Here, we discuss the significance of oxidative conditions in different disease, with the focus on neurodegenerative disease including Parkinson’s disease, which is mainly caused by oxidative stress. Reactive oxygen and nitrogen species (ROS and RNS, respectively, collectively known as RONS, are produced by cellular enzymes such as myeloperoxidase, NADPH-oxidase (nicotinamide adenine dinucleotide phosphate-oxidase and nitric oxide synthase (NOS. Natural antioxidant systems are categorized into enzymatic and non-enzymatic antioxidant groups. The former includes a number of enzymes such as catalase and glutathione peroxidase, while the latter contains a number of antioxidants acquired from dietary sources including vitamin C, carotenoids, flavonoids and polyphenols. There are also scavengers used for therapeutic purposes, such as 3,4-dihydroxyphenylalanine (L-DOPA used routinely in the treatment of Parkinson’s disease (not as a free radical scavenger, and 3-methyl-1-phenyl-2-pyrazolin-5-one (Edaravone that acts as a free radical detoxifier frequently used in acute ischemic stroke. The cell surviving properties of L-DOPA and Edaravone against oxidative stress conditions rely on the alteration of a number of stress proteins such as Annexin A1, Peroxiredoxin-6 and PARK7/DJ-1 (Parkinson disease protein 7, also known as Protein deglycase DJ-1. Although they share the targets in reversing the cytotoxic effects of H2O2, they seem to have distinct mechanism of function. Exposure to L-DOPA may result in hypoxia condition and further induction of ORP150 (150-kDa oxygen-regulated protein with its concomitant cytoprotective effects but Edaravone seems to protect cells via direct induction of Peroxiredoxin-2 and inhibition of apoptosis.

  5. Free Radical Scavenging Properties of Annona squamosa

    Science.gov (United States)

    Vikas, Biba; Akhil B, S; P, Remani; Sujathan, K

    2017-10-26

    Annona squamosa has extensively been used in the traditional and folkloric medicine and found to possess many biological activities. Different solvents, petroleum ether, chloroform, ethyl acetate and methanol extracts of Annona squamosa seeds (ASPE, ASCH, ASEA, ASME) have been used to prepare plant extracts. The present investigations dealt with the free radical scavenging activity of four extracts using various techniques such as total reducing power estimation, total phenolic count, 1,1-diphenyl-2-picryl hydrazyl (DPPH) radical scavenging effect, evaluation of ABTS cation decolorisation capacity, FRAP assay, hdroxyl radical scavenging assay, super oxide assay and Nitric oxide radical scavenging assay of the extracts. The results showed that the four extracts of Annona squamosa showed significant reducing power in four extracts. The total phenolic contents in petroleum ether, chloroform, ethyl acetate, methanol extracts and positive control were 0.64±0.17, 0.54±0.27, 0.49±0.24, 0.57±0.22 and 0.66±0.33. The antioxidant capacity by ABTS assay of ASPE, ASCH, ASEA, ASME and positive control, trolox showed 77.75±0.5,73.25±1.7,78.5± 1.2 , 80 ± 0.8 μg/ml and 94.2 ± 0.9 respectively. The (50 % scavenging activity) SA50 of ASPE and ASCH, ASEA and ASME was found to be 34.4 μg/ml, 43.8 μg/ml 34.7 μg/m and 28.8 μg/ml respectively by DPPH assay. The percentage of hydroxyl radical scavenging increased with the increasing concentration of the extracts. ASPE, ASCH, ASEA and ASME showed superoxide radical scavenging activity, as indicated by their values 66 ± 0.5, 68 ± 1 ,63 ± 1 and 70 ± 0.5 μg/ml respectively compared to gallic acid which was 97 ± 0.5 μg/ml. The values for scavenging of nitric oxide for ASPE, ASCH, ASEA and ASME were 91.0 ± 1.0, 66.75 ± 0.5, 71.75 ± 1.1 and 75.75 ± 1.15 μg/ml while value for standard ascorbic acid was 91.0 ± 1.0 μg/ml. The results revealed strong antioxidants in four extracts may lead to the development of potent

  6. Selenium antagonizes cadmium-induced apoptosis in chicken spleen but not involving Nrf2-regulated antioxidant response.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chen, Menghao; Li, Xiaojing; Fan, Ruifeng; Cao, Changyu; Yao, Haidong; Xu, Shiwen

    2017-11-01

    The nuclear transcription factor NF-E2-related factor 2 (Nrf2) binds to antioxidant response elements (AREs) and is involved in the regulation of genes participated in defending cells against oxidative damage, which have been confirmed in animal models. Selenium (Se), known as an important element in the regulation of antioxidant activity, can antagonize Cadmium (Cd) toxicity in birds. However, the role of Nrf2 in selenium-cadmium interaction has not been reported in birds. To further explore the mechanism of selenium attenuating spleen toxicity induced by cadmium in chickens, cadmium chloride (CdCl 2 , 150mg/kg) and sodium selenite (Na 2 SeO 3 , 2mg/kg) were co-administrated or individually administered in the diet of chickens for 90 days. The results showed that Cd exposure increased the level of hydrogen peroxide (H 2 O 2 ) and malondialdehyde (MDA) and decreased the antioxidant enzyme activities, including superoxide dismutase (SOD), glutathione peroxidase (Gpx), total antioxidative capacity (T-AOC), catalase (CAT). Cd exposure increased obviously nuclear accumulation of Nrf2, and the expression of Nrf2 downstream heme oxygenase-1 (HO-1) and NAD(P)H: quinine oxidoreductase 1 (NQO1), reduced the expression of Kelch-like ECH-associated protein (keap1), Gpx-1 and thioredoxin reductase-1 (TrxR1). In addition, Cd induced the increase of bak, caspase9, p53, Cyt c mRNA levels, increased bax/bcl-2 ratio, increased caspase3 mRNA and protein levels. Selenium treatment reduced the accumulation of Cd in the spleen, attenuates Cd-induced Nrf2 nuclear accumulation, enhanced antioxidant enzyme activities, ameliorated Cd-induced oxidative stress and apoptosis in the spleen. In summary, our results demonstrate that Se ameliorated spleen toxicity induced by cadmium by modulating the antioxidant system, independently of Nrf2-regulated antioxidant response pathway. Copyright © 2017 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  7. In vitro free radical scavenging activity of ethanolic extract of the whole plant of Evolvulus alsinoides (L.) L.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gomathi, Duraisamy; Ravikumar, Ganesan; Kalaiselvi, Manokaran; Vidya, Balasubramaniam; Uma, Chandrasekar

    2015-06-01

    To identify the free radical scavenging activity of ethanolic extract of Evolvulus alsinoides. The free radical scavenging activity was evaluated by in vitro methods like reducing power assay, total antioxidant activity, 2,2-diphenyl-1-picrylhydrazyl (DPPH) reduction, superoxide radical scavenging activity, 2,2'-azinobis-(3-ethylbenzothiazoline-6-sulfonic acid) (ABTS(+)) scavenging activity, hydroxyl radical scavenging assay, and nitric oxide radical scavenging assay, which were studied by using ascorbic acid as standard. The extract showed significant activities in all antioxidant assays compared with the reference antioxidant ascorbic acid. The total antioxidant activity as well as the reducing power was also found to increase in a dose-dependent manner. Evolvulus alsinoides may act as a chemopreventive agent, providing antioxidant properties and offering effective protection from free radicals.

  8. In vivo regulation of scavenger receptor BI and the selective uptake of high density lipoprotein cholesteryl esters in rat liver parenchymal and Kupffer cells

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Fluiter, K.; van der Westhuijzen, D. R.; van Berkel, T. J.

    1998-01-01

    High density lipoprotein cholesteryl esters (HDL-CE) are selectively taken up by liver parenchymal cells without parallel apolipoprotein uptake. This selective uptake route forms an important step in the so-called reverse cholesterol transport. Scavenger receptor BI (SR-BI) is the only known HDL

  9. Anti-oxidative stress regulator NF-E2-related factor 2 mediates the adaptive induction of antioxidant and detoxifying enzymes by lipid peroxidation metabolite 4-hydroxynonenal

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Huang Ying

    2012-11-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background NF-E2-related factor 2 (NRF2 regulates a battery of antioxidative and phase II drug metabolizing/detoxifying genes through binding to the antioxidant response elements (ARE. NRF2-ARE signaling plays a central role in protecting cells from a wide spectrum of reactive toxic species including reactive oxygen/nitrogen species (RONS. 4-hydroxylnonenal (4-HNE is a major end product from lipid peroxidation of omega-6 polyunsaturated fatty acids (PUFA induced by oxidative stress, and it is highly reactive to nucleophilic sites in DNA and proteins, causing cytotoxicity and genotoxicity. In this study, we examined the role of NRF2 in regulating the 4-HNE induced gene expression of antioxidant and detoxifying enzymes. Results When HeLa cells were treated with 4-HNE, NRF2 rapidly transloated into the nucleus, as determined by the distribution of NRF2 tagged with the enhanced green fluorescent protein (EGFP and increased NRF2 protein in the nuclear fraction. Transcriptional activity of ARE-luciferase was significantly induced by 0.01-10 μM of 4-HNE in a dose-dependent manner, and the induction could be blocked by pretreatment with glutathione (GSH. 4-HNE induced transcriptional expression of glutathione S-transferase (GST A4, aldoketone reductase (AKR 1C1 and heme oxygenase-1 (HO-1, and the induction was attenuated by knocking down NRF2 using small interfering RNA. Conclusions NRF2 is critical in mediating 4-HNE induced expression of antioxidant and detoxifying genes. This may account for one of the major cellular defense mechanisms against reactive metabolites of lipids peroxidation induced by oxidative stress and protect cells from cytotoxicity.

  10. Sodium nitroprusside may modulate Escherichia coli antioxidant enzyme expression by interacting with the ferric uptake regulator.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bertrand, R; Danielson, D; Gong, V; Olynik, B; Eze, M O

    2012-01-01

    Efforts to explore possible relationships between nitric oxide (NO) and antioxidant enzymes in an Escherichia coli model have uncovered a possible interaction between sodium nitroprusside (SNP), a potent, NO-donating drug, and the ferric uptake regulator (Fur), an iron(II)--dependent regulator of antioxidant and iron acquisition proteins present in Gram-negative bacteria. The enzymatic profiles of superoxide dismutase and hydroperoxidase during logarithmic phase of growth were studied via non-denaturing polyacrylamide gel electrophoresis and activity staining specific to each enzyme. Though NO is known to induce transcription of the manganese-bearing isozyme of SOD (MnSOD), treatment with SNP paradoxically suppressed MnSOD expression and greatly enhanced the activity of the iron-containing equivalent (FeSOD). Fur, one of six global regulators of MnSOD transcription, is uniquely capable of suppressing MnSOD while enhancing FeSOD expression through distinct mechanisms. We thus hypothesize that Fur is complacent in causing this behaviour and that the iron(II) component of SNP is activating Fur. E. coli was also treated with the SNP structural analogues, potassium ferricyanide (PFi) and potassium ferrocyanide (PFo). Remarkably, the ferrous PFo was capable of mimicking the SNP-related pattern, whereas the ferric PFi was not. As Fur depends upon ferrous iron for activation, we submit this observation of redox-specificity as preliminary supporting evidence for the hypothesized Fur-SNP interaction. Iron is an essential metal that the human innate immune system sequesters to prevent its use by invading pathogens. As NO is known to inhibit iron-bound Fur, and as activated Fur regulates iron uptake through feedback inhibition, we speculate that the administration of this drug may disrupt this strategic management of iron in favour of residing Gram-negative species by providing a source of iron in an otherwise iron-scarce environment capable of encouraging its own uptake

  11. Castasterone confers copper stress tolerance by regulating antioxidant enzyme responses, antioxidants, and amino acid balance in B. juncea seedlings.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yadav, Poonam; Kaur, Ravdeep; Kanwar, Mukesh Kumar; Sharma, Anket; Verma, Vinod; Sirhindi, Geetika; Bhardwaj, Renu

    2018-01-01

    The aim of the present study was to explore the effect of exogenous application of castasterone (CS) on physiologic and biochemical responses in Brassica juncea seedlings under copper (Cu) stress. Seeds were pre-soaked in different concentrations of CS and grown for 7 days under various levels of Cu. The exposure of B. juncea to higher levels of Cu led to decrease of morphologic parameters, with partial recovery of length and fresh weight in the CS pre-treated seedlings. Metal content was high in both roots and shoots under Cu exposure while the CS pre-treatment reduced the metal uptake. Accumulation of hydrogen peroxide (H 2 O 2 ) and superoxide anion radical (O 2 - ) were chosen as stress biomarker and higher levels of H 2 O 2 (88.89%) and O 2 - (62.11%) showed the oxidative stress in metal treated B. juncea seedlings, however, CS pre-treatment reduced ROS accumulation in Cu-exposed seedlings. The Cu exposures lead to enhance the plant's enzymatic and non-enzymatic antioxidant system. It was observed that enzymatic activities of ascorbate peroxidase (APOX), dehydroascorbate reductase (DHAR), and glutathione reductase (GR), glutathione perxoidase (GPOX) and gultrathione-s-transferase increased while activity of monodehydroascorbate reductase (MDHAR) decreased under Cu stress. The pre-treatment with CS positively affected the activities of enzymes. RT-PCR analysis showed that mRNA transcript levels were correlated with total enzymatic activity of DHAR, GR, GST and GSH. Increase in the gene expression of DHAR (1.85 folds), GR (3.24 folds), GST-1 (2.00 folds) and GSH-S (3.18 folds) was noticed with CS pre-treatment. Overall, the present study shows that Cu exposure induced severe oxidative stress in B. juncea plants and exogenous application of CS improved antioxidative defense system by modulating the ascorbate-glutathione cycle and amino acid metabolism. Copyright © 2017 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  12. Cytokine and Antioxidant Regulation in the Intestine of the Gray Mouse Lemur (Microcebus murinus During Torpor

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Shannon N. Tessier

    2015-04-01

    Full Text Available During food shortages, the gray mouse lemur (Microcebus murinus of Madagascar experiences daily torpor thereby reducing energy expenditures. The present study aimed to understand the impacts of torpor on the immune system and antioxidant response in the gut of these animals. This interaction may be of critical importance given the trade-off between the energetically costly immune response and the need to defend against pathogen entry during hypometabolism. The protein levels of cytokines and antioxidants were measured in the small intestine (duodenum, jejunum, and ileum and large intestine of aroused and torpid lemurs. While there was a significant decrease of some pro-inflammatory cytokines (IL-6 and TNF-α in the duodenum and jejunum during torpor as compared to aroused animals, there was no change in anti-inflammatory cytokines. We observed decreased levels of cytokines (IL-12p70 and M-CSF, and several chemokines (MCP-1 and MIP-2 but an increase in MIP-1α in the jejunum of the torpid animals. In addition, we evaluated antioxidant response by examining the protein levels of antioxidant enzymes and total antioxidant capacity provided by metabolites such as glutathione (and others. Our results indicated that levels of antioxidant enzymes did not change between torpor and aroused states, although antioxidant capacity was significantly higher in the ileum during torpor. These data suggest a suppression of the immune response, likely as an energy conservation measure, and a limited role of antioxidant defenses in supporting torpor in lemur intestine.

  13. A Geospatial Scavenger Hunt

    Science.gov (United States)

    Martinez, Adriana E.; Williams, Nikki A.; Metoyer, Sandra K.; Morris, Jennifer N.; Berhane, Stephen A.

    2009-01-01

    With the use of technology such as Global Positioning System (GPS) units and Google Earth for a simple-machine scavenger hunt, you will transform a standard identification activity into an exciting learning experience that motivates students, incorporates practical skills in technology, and enhances students' spatial-thinking skills. In the…

  14. Free Radical Scavenging Activity of Scoparia dulcis Extract.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Babincová, M.; Sourivong, P.

    2001-01-01

    We studied the scavenging capabilities of an extract of Scoparia dulcis (a cosmopolitan weed widespread in Laos and Vietnam) for 1-diphenyl-2-picrylhydrazyl and measured hemoglobin-catalyzed linoleic acid peroxidation with an oxygen electrode. Our results demonstrated strong antioxidant activity corresponding to mitigation of the generation of hydroxyl radicals, a possible rationale for the observed therapeutic effects of this weed.

  15. Mitochondrial respiration scavenges extramitochondrial superoxide anion via a nonenzymatic mechanism.

    OpenAIRE

    Guidot, D M; Repine, J E; Kitlowski, A D; Flores, S C; Nelson, S K; Wright, R M; McCord, J M

    1995-01-01

    We determined that mitochondrial respiration reduced cytosolic oxidant stress in vivo and scavenged extramitochondrial superoxide anion (O2-.) in vitro. First, Saccharomyces cerevisiae deficient in both the cytosolic antioxidant cupro-zinc superoxide dismutase (Cu,Zn-SOD) and electron transport (Rho0 state) grew poorly (P 0.05) in all yeast. Seco...

  16. Comparative investigation of the free radical scavenging potential and anticancer property of Diospyros blancoi (Ebenaceae

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Muhammad Ali Khan

    2016-05-01

    Conclusions: Our results indicate that Diospyros blancoi stem bark had the significant highest antioxidant and free radical scavenging properties as well as moderate anticancer activity. Hence, we assume that the anticancer activity of this plant can be, at least in part, attributed to its content in phenolic compounds as well as its significant free radical scavenging properties.

  17. In vitro antioxidant activity of Vetiveria zizanioides root extract

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    ... possess antioxidant properties capable of scavenging free radicals in vivo. ..... H., Sahu, A. & Bora, U. (2008) Indian medicinal herbs as sources of antioxidants. ... analgesic activities of nettle (Urtica dioica L.) Journal of Ethnopharmacology ...

  18. Blood Glutamate Scavenging: Insight into Neuroprotection

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Alexander Zlotnik

    2012-08-01

    Full Text Available Brain insults are characterized by a multitude of complex processes, of which glutamate release plays a major role. Deleterious excess of glutamate in the brain’s extracellular fluids stimulates glutamate receptors, which in turn lead to cell swelling, apoptosis, and neuronal death. These exacerbate neurological outcome. Approaches aimed at antagonizing the astrocytic and glial glutamate receptors have failed to demonstrate clinical benefit. Alternatively, eliminating excess glutamate from brain interstitial fluids by making use of the naturally occurring brain-to-blood glutamate efflux has been shown to be effective in various animal studies. This is facilitated by gradient driven transport across brain capillary endothelial glutamate transporters. Blood glutamate scavengers enhance this naturally occurring mechanism by reducing the blood glutamate concentration, thus increasing the rate at which excess glutamate is cleared. Blood glutamate scavenging is achieved by several mechanisms including: catalyzation of the enzymatic process involved in glutamate metabolism, redistribution of glutamate into tissue, and acute stress response. Regardless of the mechanism involved, decreased blood glutamate concentration is associated with improved neurological outcome. This review focuses on the physiological, mechanistic and clinical roles of blood glutamate scavenging, particularly in the context of acute and chronic CNS injury. We discuss the details of brain-to-blood glutamate efflux, auto-regulation mechanisms of blood glutamate, natural and exogenous blood glutamate scavenging systems, and redistribution of glutamate. We then propose different applied methodologies to reduce blood and brain glutamate concentrations and discuss the neuroprotective role of blood glutamate scavenging.

  19. Exogenous application of rutin and gallic acid regulate antioxidants and alleviate reactive oxygen generation in Oryza sativa L.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Singh, Akanksha; Gupta, Rupali; Pandey, Rakesh

    2017-04-01

    The effect of rutin and gallic acid on growth, phytochemical and defense gene activation of rice ( Oryza sativa L.) was investigated. The seeds of rice were primed with different concentrations of rutin and gallic acid (10-60 µg mL -1 ) to explicate the effect on germination on water agar plates. Further, to study the effect of most effective concentrations of gallic acid (60 µg mL -1 ) and rutin (50 µg mL -1 ), greenhouse pot experiment was set up to determine the changes in growth, antioxidant and defense parameters. The results revealed more pronounced effect of gallic acid on total chlorophyll and carotenoids as well as on total flavonoid content and free radical scavenging activities. Gene expression analysis of OsWRKY71, PAL, CHS and LOX genes involved in strengthening the plant defense further validated the results obtained from the biochemical analysis. Microscopic analysis also confirmed reduction in total reactive oxygen species, free radicals like H 2 O 2 and O 2 - by exogenous application of gallic acid and rutin. The data obtained thus suggest that both gallic acid and rutin can affect the growth and physiology of rice plants and therefore can be used to develop effective plant growth promoters and as substitute of biofertilizers for maximizing their use in field conditions.

  20. Flavonoid, hesperidine, total phenolic contents and antioxidant ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Additionally, the antioxidant activities were also determined by ferric reducing antioxidant power (FRAP) and 1,1-diphenyl-2-picryl hydrazyl (DPPH) radical scavenging activity. C. hystrix had the highest flavonoid and total phenolic contents while C. aurantifolia had the highest hesperidine content. The antioxidant activity of ...

  1. In vitro and in vivo antioxidant activities of inulin

    OpenAIRE

    Shang, Hong-Mei; Zhou, Hai-Zhu; Yang, Jun-Yan; Li, Ran; Song, Hui; Wu, Hong-Xin

    2018-01-01

    This study was designed to investigate the in vitro and in vivo antioxidant activities of inulin. The in vitro assays demonstrated that the antioxidant activities of inulin, including the DPPH radical scavenging activity, ABTS scavenging activity and ferric reducing power, were weak and significantly lower than those of Vitamin C (P < 0.05). The influence of dietary supplementation with inulin on the antioxidant status of laying hens was evaluated with in vivo antioxidant assays. The results ...

  2. A study of antioxidant potential of Perilladehyde

    Science.gov (United States)

    Malu, T. J.; Banerjee, Nitesh; Singh, Avinash Kumar; Kannadasan, S.; Ethiraj, K. R.

    2017-11-01

    The use of plants as food, medicine is credited to a biological property of their secondary metabolites. These naturally occurring secondary metabolites are found to have great importance in controlling the formation of free radicles. These antioxidants are capable to catch the free radicles present in the body and maintain its balance. Antioxidant activity and potency of Perillaldehyde using various in vitro biochemical assays were studied. The assay involves various levels of antioxidant action such as free radical scavenging activity through DPPH, reducing power determination, nitric oxide scavenging ability, metal chelation power, scavenging of hydrogen peroxide, membrane stabilizing activity, and lipid peroxidation study.

  3. Exogenous spermidine is enhancing tomato tolerance to salinity-alkalinity stress by regulating chloroplast antioxidant system and chlorophyll metabolism.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Li, Jianming; Hu, Lipan; Zhang, Li; Pan, Xiongbo; Hu, Xiaohui

    2015-12-29

    capacities for responding to salinity-alkalinity stress. Exogenous spermidine triggers effective protection against damage induced by salinity-alkalinity stress in tomato seedlings, probably by maintaining chloroplast structural integrity and alleviating salinity-alkalinity-induced oxidative damage, most likely through regulation of chlorophyll metabolism and the enzymatic and non-enzymatic antioxidant systems in chloroplast. Exogenous spermidine also exerts positive effects at the transcription level, such as down-regulation of the expression of the chlorophyllase gene and up-regulation of the expression of the porphobilinogen deaminase gene.

  4. The scavenger activities of tea polyphenol and quercetin against oxygen radicals

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Fang Ruoying; Cheng Jiwu; Hu Tianxi; Tu Tiecheng; Dong Jirong; Wang Wenfeng; Lin nianyun

    1992-01-01

    Studies of free radical biology and medicine have shown that carcinogenesis, vascular diseases of heart and brain, radiation injuries, ageing etc are strictly correlated with free radical injury of tissues. Thus, pharmacologists and biologists are focusing attention on searching for scavengers, especially naturally occurring antioxidant of oxidizing free radicals. Previous studies have indicated that phenolic antioxidants have efficient scavenger activities. Utilizing following methods including chemical luminescence, ESR spectroscopy and pulse radiolysis techniques the scavenger activities of tea polyphenols and quercetin against active species of oxygen have been studied

  5. Garlic Supplementation Ameliorates UV-Induced Photoaging in Hairless Mice by Regulating Antioxidative Activity and MMPs Expression.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kim, Hye Kyung

    2016-01-08

    UV exposure is associated with oxidative stress and is the primary factor in skin photoaging. UV-induced reactive oxygen species (ROS) cause the up-regulation of metalloproteinase (MMPs) and the degradation of dermal collagen and elastic fibers. Garlic and its components have been reported to exert antioxidative effects. The present study investigated the protective effect of garlic on UV-induced photoaging and MMPs regulation in hairless mice. Garlic was supplemented in the diet, and Skh-1 hairless mice were exposed to UV irradiation five days/week for eight weeks. Mice were divided into four groups; Non-UV, UV-irradiated control, UV+1% garlic powder diet group, and UV+2% garlic powder diet group. Chronic UV irradiation induced rough wrinkling of the skin with hyperkeratosis, and administration of garlic diminished the coarse wrinkle formation. UV-induced dorsal skin and epidermal thickness were also ameliorated by garlic supplementation. ROS generation, skin and serum malondialdehyde levels were significantly increased by UV exposure and were ameliorated by garlic administration although the effects were not dose-dependent. Antioxidant enzymes such as superoxide dismutase and catalase activities in skin tissues were markedly reduced by UV irradiation and garlic treatment increased these enzyme activities. UV-induced MMP-1 and MMP-2 protein levels were suppressed by garlic administration. Furthermore, garlic supplementation prevented the UV-induced increase of MMP-1 mRNA expression and the UV-induced decrease of procollagen mRNA expression. These results suggest that garlic may be effective for preventing skin photoaging accelerated by UV irradiation through the antioxidative system and MMP regulation.

  6. Reactive oxygen species and lipid peroxidation product-scavenging ability of yogurt organisms.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lin, M Y; Yen, C L

    1999-08-01

    The antioxidative activity of the intracellular extracts of yogurt organisms was investigated. All 11 strains tested, including five strains of Streptococcus thermophilus and six strains of Lactobacillus delbrueckii ssp. bulgaricus, demonstrated an antioxidative effect on the inhibition of linoleic acid peroxidation. The antioxidative effect of intracellular extracts of 10(8) cells of yogurt organisms was equivalent to 25 to 96 ppm butylated hydroxytoluene, which indicated that all strains demonstrated excellent antioxidative activity. The scavenging of reactive oxygen species, hydroxyl radical, and hydrogen peroxide was studied for intracellular extracts of yogurt organisms. All strains showed reactive oxygen species-scavenging ability. Lactobacillus delbrueckii ssp. bulgaricus Lb demonstrated the highest hydroxyl radical-scavenging ability at 234 microM. Streptococcus thermophilus MC and 821 and L. delbrueckii ssp. bulgaricus 448 and 449 scavenged the most hydrogen peroxide at approximately 50 microM. The scavenging ability of lipid peroxidation products, t-butylhydroperoxide and malondialdehyde, was also evaluated. Results showed that the extracts were not able to scavenge the t-butylhydroperoxide. Nevertheless, malondialdehyde was scavenged well by most strains.

  7. Antioxidant properties of some plants growing wild in Turkey

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Serteser, A.; Kargioglu, M.; Gok, V.; Bagci, Y.; Musa Ozcan, M.; Arslan, D.

    2009-07-01

    In this study, the antioxidant activity of 50% aqueous methanol extracts of 38 plants growing in the Afyonkarahisar province of Turkey were evaluated by various antioxidant assay, including free radical scavenging, hydrogen peroxide (H{sub 2}O{sub 2}) scavenging and metal (Fe{sup 2}+) chelating activities. The methanolic fruit extracts of the Cornus and Morus species (H{sub 2}O{sub 2} and DPPH scavenging activities, Fe{sup 2}+ chelating activity) and the methanolic leaf extracts of the Mentha species (DPPH scavenging activities) examined in the assay showed the strongest activities. These antioxidant properties depended on the concentration of samples. (Author) 30 refs.

  8. Asparagus Root Regulates Cholesterol Metabolism and Improves Antioxidant Status in Hypercholesteremic Rats

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Nishant P. Visavadiya

    2009-01-01

    Full Text Available Hyperlipidemia/hypercholesteremia are major risk factors for atherosclerosis and cardiovascular diseases. Root of Asparagus racemosus (AR is widely used in Ayurvedic system of medicine in India and is known for its steroidal saponin content. This study was designed to investigate the hypocholesteremic and antioxidant potential of AR root in both normo- and hypercholesteremic animals. Normal and hypercholesteremic male albino rats were administered with root powder of AR (5 and 10 g% dose levels along with normal and hypercholesteremic diets, respectively, for a duration of 4 weeks. Plasma and hepatic lipid profiles, fecal sterol, bile acid excretion and hepatic antioxidant activity were assessed. Inclusion of AR root powder in diet, resulted in a dose-dependant reduction in plasma and hepatic lipid profiles, increased fecal excretion of cholesterol, neutral sterol and bile acid along with increases in hepatic HMG-CoA reductase activity and bile acid content in hypercholesteremic rats. Further, AR root also improved the hepatic antioxidant status (catalase, SOD and ascorbic acid levels. No significant changes in lipid and antioxidant profiles occurred in the normocholesteremic rats administered with AR root powder. AR root appeared to be useful as a dietary supplement that offers a protection against hyperlipidemia/hypercholesteremia in hypercholesteremic animals. The results of the present study indicate that the potent therapeutic phyto-components present in AR root i.e. phytosterols, saponins, polyphenols, flavonoids and ascorbic acid, could be responsible for increased bile acid production, elimination of excess cholesterol and elevation of hepatic antioxidant status in hypercholesteremic conditions.

  9. Preliminary assay on the radical scavenging activity of olive wood extracts

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Altarejos, J.; Salido, S.; Pérez-Bonilla, M.; Linares-Palomino, P.J.; Beek, van T.A.; Nogueras, M.; Sánchez, A.

    2005-01-01

    The dichloromethane and ethanol extracts of Olea europaea wood (picual olive cultivar) were screened for antioxidant activity, determined by the DPPH free radical scavenging assay. The ethanol extract displayed potent antioxidant activity. (c) 2005 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  10. Organobasierter Sauerstoff-Scavenger/-Indikator

    OpenAIRE

    Langowski, H.C.; Wanner, T.

    2007-01-01

    WO 2007059901 A1 UPAB: 20070911 NOVELTY - Oxygen scavenger/indicator which contains at least one substance having combined scavenging and indicating functions for oxygen which is capable of absorbing oxygen under the effect of moisture in alkaline conditions, and at least one alkaline compound. The indicator effect is caused by a change in at least one physical property of the substance having combined scavenging and indicating function for oxygen, the change being initiated by the presence o...

  11. Effects of Puerariae Radix extract on the activity of antioxidant

    OpenAIRE

    Young-Joon Eun; Ki Rok Kwon; Tae Jin Rhim; Yun-Kyung Song; Hyung-Ho Lim

    2007-01-01

    Objective : The objective of this study was to investigate the antioxidative effects of Puerariae Radix extract. Method : Total antioxidant capacity (TAC), Total antioxidant response (TAR), Total phenolic content, Reactive oxygen species (ROS), 1,1-Diphenyl-2-picrylhydrazyl (DPPH) free radical scavenging activities, lipid peroxidation were examined. Result : Total antioxidant status was examined by total antioxidant capacity(TAC) and total antioxidant response(TAR) against potent free r...

  12. Physiological and antioxidant responses of three leguminous ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    STORAGESEVER

    2009-11-02

    Nov 2, 2009 ... 2College of Animal Science and Technology, Yangzhoug University, Yangzhoug, ... The study investigated the physiological behaviors and antioxidant responses ... into H2O2, which is further scavenged by CAT and various.

  13. Excess boron responsive regulations of antioxidative mechanism at physio-biochemical and molecular levels in Arabidopsis thaliana.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kayıhan, Doğa Selin; Kayıhan, Ceyhun; Çiftçi, Yelda Özden

    2016-12-01

    This work was aimed to evaluate the effect of boron (B) toxicity on oxidative damage level, non-enzymatic antioxidant accumulation such as anthocyanin, flavonoid and proline and expression levels of antioxidant enzymes including superoxide dismutase (SOD), ascorbate peroxidase (APX), catalase (CAT) and glutathione reductase (GR) and their respective activities as well as expression levels of miR398 and miR408 in Arabidopsis thaliana. Plants were germinated and grown on MS medium containing 1 mM B (1B) and 3 mM B (3B) for 14 d. Toxic B led to a decrease of photosynthetic pigments and an increase in accumulation of total soluble and insoluble sugars in accordance with phenotypically viewed chlorosis of seedlings through increasing level of B concentration. Along with these inhibitions, a corresponding increase in contents of flavonoid, anthocyanin and proline occurred that provoked oxidative stress tolerance. 3B caused a remarkable increase in total SOD activity whereas the activities of APX, GR and CAT remained unchanged as verified by expected increase in H 2 O 2 content. In contrast to GR, the coincidence was found between the expressions of SOD and APX genes and their respective activities. 1B induced mir398 expression, whereas 3B did not cause any significant change in expression of mir408 and mir398. Expression levels of GR genes were coordinately regulated with DHAR2 expression. Moreover, the changes in expression level of MDAR2 was in accordance with changes in APX6 expression and total APX activity, indicating fine-tuned regulation of ascorbate-glutathione cycle which might trigger antioxidative responses against B toxicity in Arabidopsis thaliana. Copyright © 2016 Elsevier Masson SAS. All rights reserved.

  14. Green tea diet decreases PCB 126-induced oxidative stress in mice by up-regulating antioxidant enzymes.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Newsome, Bradley J; Petriello, Michael C; Han, Sung Gu; Murphy, Margaret O; Eske, Katryn E; Sunkara, Manjula; Morris, Andrew J; Hennig, Bernhard

    2014-02-01

    Superfund chemicals such as polychlorinated biphenyls pose a serious human health risk due to their environmental persistence and link to multiple diseases. Selective bioactive food components such as flavonoids have been shown to ameliorate PCB toxicity, but primarily in an in vitro setting. Here, we show that mice fed a green tea-enriched diet and subsequently exposed to environmentally relevant doses of coplanar PCB exhibit decreased overall oxidative stress primarily due to the up-regulation of a battery of antioxidant enzymes. C57BL/6 mice were fed a low-fat diet supplemented with green tea extract (GTE) for 12 weeks and exposed to 5 μmol PCB 126/kg mouse weight (1.63 mg/kg-day) on weeks 10, 11 and 12 (total body burden: 4.9 mg/kg). F2-isoprostane and its metabolites, established markers of in vivo oxidative stress, measured in plasma via HPLC-MS/MS exhibited fivefold decreased levels in mice supplemented with GTE and subsequently exposed to PCB compared to animals on a control diet exposed to PCB. Livers were collected and harvested for both messenger RNA and protein analyses, and it was determined that many genes transcriptionally controlled by aryl hydrocarbon receptor and nuclear factor (erythroid-derived 2)-like 2 proteins were up-regulated in PCB-exposed mice fed the green tea-supplemented diet. An increased induction of genes such as SOD1, GSR, NQO1 and GST, key antioxidant enzymes, in these mice (green tea plus PCB) may explain the observed decrease in overall oxidative stress. A diet supplemented with green tea allows for an efficient antioxidant response in the presence of PCB 126, which supports the emerging paradigm that healthful nutrition may be able to bolster and buffer a physiological system against the toxicities of environmental pollutants. Copyright © 2014 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  15. Scavenging capacity of strawberry tree (Arbutus unedo L.) leaves on free radicals.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Oliveira, Ivo; Coelho, Valentim; Baltasar, Raquel; Pereira, José Alberto; Baptista, Paula

    2009-07-01

    Despite strawberry tree (Arbutus unedo L.) leaves had a long use in traditional medicine due to its antiseptic, diuretic, astringent and depurative properties, the potential of their antioxidant activity are still lacking. Our study goals to assess the antioxidant and free radical scavenging potential of water, ethanol, methanol and diethyl ether extracts of A. unedo leaves. Total phenols content was achieved spectrophotometrically using Folin-Ciocalteau reagent with gallic acid as standard. Antioxidant activity was evaluated using three different methods: reducing power of iron (III)/ferricyanide complex assay, scavenging effect on DPPH (2,2-diphenyl-1-picrylhydrazyl) radicals and scavenging effect on superoxide radicals by using the PMS-NADH-nitroblue tetrazolium system. Ethanol extracts of A. unedo leaves were the highest in reducing power (IC(50) 232.7 microg/mL) and DPPH scavenging effect (IC(50) 63.2 microg/mL) followed by water extracts (with IC(50) of 287.7 and 73.7 microg/mL, respectively); whereas diethyl ether extracts were the lowest. In the scavenging on superoxide radical assay, methanol extracts obtained the best results (IC(50) 6.9 microg/mL). For all the methods tested the antioxidant activity was concentration dependent. In accordance with antioxidant activity, highest total phenols content were found in ethanol, followed by water, methanol and diethyl ether extract. The results indicated that A. unedo leaves are a potential source of natural antioxidants.

  16. Antioxidant systems are regulated by nitric oxide-mediated post-translational modifications (NO-PTMs

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Juan Carlos Begara-Morales

    2016-02-01

    Full Text Available Nitric oxide (NO is a biological messenger that orchestrates a plethora of plant functions, mainly through post-translational modifications (PTMs such as S-nitrosylation or tyrosine nitration. In plants, hundreds of proteins have been identified as potential targets of these NO-PTMs under physiological and stress conditions indicating the relevance of NO in plant-signaling mechanisms. Among these NO protein targets, there are different antioxidant enzymes involved in the control of reactive oxygen species (ROS, such as H2O2, which is also a signal molecule. This highlights the close relationship between ROS/NO signaling pathways. The major plant antioxidant enzymes, including catalase, superoxide dismutases (SODs peroxiredoxins (Prx and all the enzymatic components of the ascorbate-glutathione (Asa-GSH cycle, have been shown to be modulated to different degrees by NO-PTMs. This mini-review will update the recent knowledge concerning the interaction of NO with these antioxidant enzymes, with a special focus on the components of the Asa-GSH cycle and their physiological relevance.

  17. Pomegranate-mediated chemoprevention of experimental hepatocarcinogenesis involves Nrf2-regulated antioxidant mechanisms

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bishayee, Anupam; Bhatia, Deepak; Thoppil, Roslin J.; Darvesh, Altaf S.; Nevo, Eviatar; Lansky, Ephraim P.

    2011-01-01

    Hepatocellular carcinoma (HCC), one of the most prevalent and lethal cancers, has shown an alarming rise in the USA. Without effective therapy for HCC, novel chemopreventive strategies may effectively circumvent the current morbidity and mortality. Oxidative stress predisposes to hepatocarcinogenesis and is the major driving force of HCC. Pomegranate, an ancient fruit, is gaining tremendous attention due to its powerful antioxidant properties. Here, we examined mechanism-based chemopreventive potential of a pomegranate emulsion (PE) against dietary carcinogen diethylnitrosamine (DENA)-induced rat hepatocarcinogenesis that mimics human HCC. PE treatment (1 or 10 g/kg), started 4 weeks prior to the DENA challenge and continued for 18 weeks thereafter, showed striking chemopreventive activity demonstrated by reduced incidence, number, multiplicity, size and volume of hepatic nodules, precursors of HCC. Both doses of PE significantly attenuated the number and area of γ-glutamyl transpeptidase-positive hepatic foci compared with the DENA control. PE also attenuated DENA-induced hepatic lipid peroxidation and protein oxidation. Mechanistic studies revealed that PE elevated gene expression of an array of hepatic antioxidant and carcinogen detoxifying enzymes in DENA-exposed animals. PE elevated protein and messenger RNA expression of the hepatic nuclear factor E2-related factor 2 (Nrf2). Our results provide substantial evidence, for the first time, that pomegranate constituents afford chemoprevention of hepatocarcinogenesis possibly through potent antioxidant activity achieved by upregulation of several housekeeping genes under the control of Nrf2 without toxicity. The outcome of this study strongly supports the development of pomegranate-derived products in the prevention and treatment of human HCC, which remains a devastating disease. PMID:21389260

  18. 6-shogaol-rich extract from ginger up-regulates the antioxidant defense systems in cells and mice.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bak, Min-Ji; Ok, Seon; Jun, Mira; Jeong, Woo-Sik

    2012-07-04

    The rhizome of ginger (Zingiber officinale Roscoe) is known to have several bioactive compounds including gingerols and shogaols which possess beneficial health properties such as anti-inflammatory and chemopreventive effects. Based on recent observations that 6-shogaol may have more potent bioactivity than 6-gingerol, we obtained a 6-shogaol-rich extract from ginger and examined its effects on the nuclear factor E2-related factor2 (Nrf2)/antioxidant response element (ARE) pathway in vitro and in vivo. 6-Shogaol-rich extract was produced by extracting ginger powder with 95% ethanol at 80 °C after drying at 80 °C (GEE8080). GEE8080 contained over 6-fold more 6-shogaol compared to the room temperature extract (GEE80RT). In HepG2 cells, GEE8080 displayed much stronger inductions of ARE-reporter gene activity and Nrf2 expression than GEE80RT. GEE8080 stimulated phosphorylations of mitogen-activated protein kinases (MAPKs) such as ERK, JNK, and p38. Moreover, the GEE8080-induced expressions of Nrf2 and HO-1 were attenuated by treatments of SB202190 (a p38 specific inhibitor) and LY294002 (an Akt specific inhibitor). In a mouse model, the GEE8080 decreased the diethylnitrosamine (DEN)-mediated elevations of serum aspartate transaminase and alanine transaminase as well as the DEN-induced hepatic lipid peroxidation. Inductions of Nrf2 and HO-1 by GEE8080 were also confirmed in the mice. In addition, the administration of GEE8080 to the mice also restored the DEN-reduced activity and protein expression of hepatic antioxidant enzymes such as superoxide dismutase, glutathione peroxidase and catalase. In conclusion, GEE8080, a 6-shogaol-rich ginger extract, may enhance antioxidant defense mechanism through the induction of Nrf2 and HO-1 regulated by p38 MAPK and PI3k/Akt pathway in vitro and in vivo.

  19. Regulation of dietary glutamine on the growth, intestinal function, immunity and antioxidant capacity of sea cucumber Apostichopus japonicus (Selenka).

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yu, Haibo; Gao, Qinfeng; Dong, Shuanglin; Lan, Ying; Ye, Zhi; Wen, Bin

    2016-03-01

    The present study examined the effects of dietary glutamine (Gln) on the growth, intestinal function, immunity and antioxidant capacity of sea cucumber Apostichopus japonicus (Selenka). The specific growth rate, intestinal morphology, activity of digestive enzymes, activity and gene expression of lysozyme and antioxidative enzymes of the sea cucumbers were determined after feeding 5 experimental diets with additions of increasing levels of Gln (at 0%, 0.4%, 0.8%,1.2% and 1.6%, respectively) for 60 days. We discovered that the specific growth rate of the sea cucumbers in 0.4%, 0.8% and 1.2% groups increased 35.3%, 27.3% and 24.1%, respectively, compared to the control (0%) group with significant differences. Dietary Gln can improve the intestinal function of the sea cucumbers by increasing the activities of trypsin and lipase in the intestine and the villus height and villus density of the intestine, eventhough significant differences were not observed in some groups. 0.4%-0.8% of dietary Gln can significantly increase the activity of lysozyme (LSZ) in the coelomic fluid of the sea cucumbers. Significant improvements were observed on the SOD activity in coelomic fluid of the sea cucumbers fed diets supplemented with 0.4%-1.6% of Gln compared to the control group. Similarly, the CAT activity in coelomic fluid of the sea cucumbers significantly increased in 0.8%, 1.2% and 1.6% groups compared to the control and 0.4% groups. Change pattern of the activity of CAT was consistent with the change pattern of the expression of CAT gene, indicating the dietary Gln can up-regulate the expression of CAT gene and consequently promote the secretion of CAT. However, the down-regulation of the expression of SOD gene by dietary Gln were observed in almost all of the treatment groups, which is in contrast with the change pattern of the activity of SOD, indicating the negative feedback regulation of the secretion of SOD on the expression of SOD gene. In summary, the suitable

  20. Antifatigue Activity of Liquid Cultured Tricholoma matsutake Mycelium Partially via Regulation of Antioxidant Pathway in Mouse

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Quan Li

    2015-01-01

    Full Text Available Tricholoma matsutake has been popular as food and biopharmaceutical materials in Asian countries for its various pharmacological activities. The present study aims to analyze the antifatigue effects on enhancing exercise performance of Tricholoma matsutake fruit body (ABM and liquid cultured mycelia (TM in mouse model. Two-week Tricholoma matsutake treatment significantly enhances the exercise performance in weight-loaded swimming, rotating rod, and forced running test. In TM- and ABM-treated mice, some factors were observed at 60 min after swimming compared with nontreated mice, such as the increased levels of adenosine triphosphate (ATP, antioxidative enzymes, and glycogen and the reduced levels of malondialdehyde and reactive oxygen species in muscle, liver, and/or serum. Further data obtained from western blot show that CM and ABM have strongly enhanced the activation of 5′-AMP-activated protein kinase (AMPK, and the expressions of peroxisome proliferator have activated receptor γ coactivator-1α (PGC-1α and phosphofructokinase-1 (PFK-1 in liver. Our data suggest that both Tricholoma matsutake fruit body and liquid cultured mycelia possess antifatigue effects related to AMPK-linked antioxidative pathway. The information uncovered in our study may serve as a valuable resource for further identification and provide experimental evidence for clinical trials of Tricholoma matsutake as an effective agent against fatigue related diseases.

  1. Silicon Mitigates Salinity Stress by Regulating the Physiology, Antioxidant Enzyme Activities, and Protein Expression in Capsicum annuum 'Bugwang'.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Manivannan, Abinaya; Soundararajan, Prabhakaran; Muneer, Sowbiya; Ko, Chung Ho; Jeong, Byoung Ryong

    2016-01-01

    Silicon- (Si-) induced salinity stress resistance was demonstrated at physiological and proteomic levels in Capsicum annuum for the first time. Seedlings of C. annuum were hydroponically treated with NaCl (50 mM) with or without Si (1.8 mM) for 15 days. The results illustrated that saline conditions significantly reduced plant growth and biomass and photosynthetic parameters and increased the electrolyte leakage potential, lipid peroxidation, and hydrogen peroxide level. However, supplementation of Si allowed the plants to recover from salinity stress by improving their physiology and photosynthesis. During salinity stress, Si prevented oxidative damage by increasing the activities of antioxidant enzymes. Furthermore, Si supplementation recovered the nutrient imbalance that had occurred during salinity stress. Additionally, proteomic analysis by two-dimensional gel electrophoresis (2DE) followed by matrix-assisted laser desorption/ionization time-of-flight mass spectrometry (MALDI-TOF-MS) revealed that Si treatment upregulated the accumulation of proteins involved in several metabolic processes, particularly those associated with nucleotide binding and transferase activity. Moreover, Si modulated the expression of vital proteins involved in ubiquitin-mediated nucleosome pathway and carbohydrate metabolism. Overall, the results illustrate that Si application induced resistance against salinity stress in C. annuum by regulating the physiology, antioxidant metabolism, and protein expression.

  2. Silicon Mitigates Salinity Stress by Regulating the Physiology, Antioxidant Enzyme Activities, and Protein Expression in Capsicum annuum ‘Bugwang'

    Science.gov (United States)

    Manivannan, Abinaya; Soundararajan, Prabhakaran; Muneer, Sowbiya; Ko, Chung Ho

    2016-01-01

    Silicon- (Si-) induced salinity stress resistance was demonstrated at physiological and proteomic levels in Capsicum annuum for the first time. Seedlings of C. annuum were hydroponically treated with NaCl (50 mM) with or without Si (1.8 mM) for 15 days. The results illustrated that saline conditions significantly reduced plant growth and biomass and photosynthetic parameters and increased the electrolyte leakage potential, lipid peroxidation, and hydrogen peroxide level. However, supplementation of Si allowed the plants to recover from salinity stress by improving their physiology and photosynthesis. During salinity stress, Si prevented oxidative damage by increasing the activities of antioxidant enzymes. Furthermore, Si supplementation recovered the nutrient imbalance that had occurred during salinity stress. Additionally, proteomic analysis by two-dimensional gel electrophoresis (2DE) followed by matrix-assisted laser desorption/ionization time-of-flight mass spectrometry (MALDI-TOF-MS) revealed that Si treatment upregulated the accumulation of proteins involved in several metabolic processes, particularly those associated with nucleotide binding and transferase activity. Moreover, Si modulated the expression of vital proteins involved in ubiquitin-mediated nucleosome pathway and carbohydrate metabolism. Overall, the results illustrate that Si application induced resistance against salinity stress in C. annuum by regulating the physiology, antioxidant metabolism, and protein expression. PMID:27088085

  3. Chemical characterization, antioxidant, immune-regulating and anticancer activities of a novel bioactive polysaccharide from Chenopodium quinoa seeds.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hu, Yichen; Zhang, Jinming; Zou, Liang; Fu, Chaomei; Li, Peng; Zhao, Gang

    2017-06-01

    Chenopodium quinoa, a promising nutraceutical cereal, has attracted increasing research interest, yet its polysaccharides remains to get few systematic studies. In this study, we employed orthogonal experimental design to optimize the ultrasound-assisted extraction process for highest yield of C. quinoa polysaccharides. A novel C. quinoa polysaccharide (CQP) fraction with high content and low molecular weight (8852Da) was subsequently purified by column chromatography, constituted by galacturonic acid and glucose monosaccharides. The purified CQP exhibited significantly antioxidant effect against DPPH + and ABTS + , with even higher efficiency than some other reported polysaccharides. Moreover, CQP could promote the RAW264.7 macrophage proliferation, while suppress the nitri oxide production on inflammatory RAW264.7 macrophage in a dose- and time-dependent manner. In view of the pathological correlation of free radical, inflammation and carcinogenesis, the anticancer effect of CQP was further investigated on human liver cancer SMMC 7721 and breast cancer MCF-7 cells. Interestingly, CQP displayed cytotoxicity against cancer cells, while none proliferation inhibition on normal cells. These results suggest that the bioactive polysaccharide from C. quinoa provided the promising potential as a natural antioxidant, immune-regulating and anticancer candidate for food and even drug application. Copyright © 2017 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  4. A Novel LC-MS-MS Method With an Effective Antioxidant for the Determination of Edaravone, a Free-Radical Scavenger in Dog Plasma and its Application to a Pharmacokinetic Study.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Shao, Feng; Hu, Xiao-Ling; Liu, Xin; Shan, Mang-Ting

    2017-07-01

    The objective of this study was to investigate the stability of edaravone in dog plasma by using an added antioxidant stabilizer, with an ultimate goal of developing and validating a sensitive, reliable and robust LC-MS-MS method for determination of edaravone in plasma samples. Edaravone was unstable in plasma, but it presented a good stability performance in the plasma with sodium metabisulfite (SMB), an effective antioxidant. The blood sample was collected in the heparinized eppendorf tube containing SMB and plasma sample was deproteinized using acetonitrile containing 20 ng/mL of phenacetin (Internal standard). The chromatographic separation was performed on a Zorbax Extend-C18 analytical column (2.1 mm × 150 mm I.D., particle size 3.5 µm, Agilent Technologies, USA). The mobile phase consisted of 0.1% formic acid in water (v/v) and methanol, and gradient elution was used. The analyte detection was performed on a triple quadrupole tandem mass spectrometer equipped with positive-ion electrospray ionization by multiple reaction ion monitoring mode of the transitions at m/z [M + H]+ 175.1 → 77.1 for edaravone, and m/z [M + H]+ 180.2 → 110.0 for phenacetin. The linearity of this method was within the concentration range of 10-1000 ng/mL for edaravone in dog plasma. The lower limit of quantification was 10 ng/mL. The relative standard deviations of intra- and inter-precision were edaravone in beagle dogs after intravenous administration. © The Author 2017. Published by Oxford University Press. All rights reserved. For Permissions, please email: journals.permissions@oup.com.

  5. Transcriptional up-regulation of antioxidant genes by PPARδ inhibits angiotensin II-induced premature senescence in vascular smooth muscle cells

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Kim, Hyo Jung; Ham, Sun Ah; Paek, Kyung Shin; Hwang, Jung Seok; Jung, Si Young; Kim, Min Young; Jin, Hanna; Kang, Eun Sil; Woo, Im Sun; Kim, Hye Jung; Lee, Jae Heun; Chang, Ki Churl; Han, Chang Woo; Seo, Han Geuk

    2011-01-01

    Research highlights: → Activation of PPARδ by GW501516 significantly inhibited Ang II-induced premature senescence in hVSMCs. → Agonist-activated PPARδ suppressed generation of Ang II-triggered ROS with a concomitant reduction in DNA damage. → GW501516 up-regulated expression of antioxidant genes, such as GPx1, Trx1, Mn-SOD and HO-1. → Knock-down of these antioxidant genes abolished the effects of GW501516 on ROS production and premature senescence. -- Abstract: This study evaluated peroxisome proliferator-activated receptor (PPAR) δ as a potential target for therapeutic intervention in Ang II-induced senescence in human vascular smooth muscle cells (hVSMCs). Activation of PPARδ by GW501516, a specific agonist of PPARδ, significantly inhibited the Ang II-induced premature senescence of hVSMCs. Agonist-activated PPARδ suppressed the generation of Ang II-triggered reactive oxygen species (ROS) with a concomitant reduction in DNA damage. Notably, GW501516 up-regulated the expression of antioxidant genes, such as glutathione peroxidase 1, thioredoxin 1, manganese superoxide dismutase and heme oxygenase 1. siRNA-mediated down-regulation of these antioxidant genes almost completely abolished the effects of GW501516 on ROS production and premature senescence in hVSMCs treated with Ang II. Taken together, the enhanced transcription of antioxidant genes is responsible for the PPARδ-mediated inhibition of premature senescence through sequestration of ROS in hVSMCs treated with Ang II.

  6. Tetrahydrofolate and 5-methyltetrahydrofolate are folates with high antioxidant activity. Identification of the antioxidant pharmacophore.

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Rezk, BM; Haenen, GR; Vijgh, van der W.J.F.

    2003-01-01

    The presumed protective effect of folic acid on the pathogenesis of cardiovascular, hematological and neurological diseases and cancer has been associated with the antioxidant activity of folic acid. Peroxynitrite (PON) scavenging activity and inhibition of lipid peroxidation (LPO) of the

  7. Spectroscopic studies on the antioxidant activity of ellagic acid

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kilic, Ismail; Yeşiloğlu, Yeşim; Bayrak, Yüksel

    2014-09-01

    Ellagic acid (EA, C14H6O8) is a natural dietary polyphenol whose benefits in a variety of diseases shown in epidemiological and experimental studies involve anti-inflammation, anti-proliferation, anti-angiogenesis, anticarcinogenesis and anti-oxidation properties. In vitro radical scavenging and antioxidant capacity of EA were clarified using different analytical methodologies such as total antioxidant activity determination by ferric thiocyanate, hydrogen peroxide scavenging, 1,1-diphenyl-2-picryl-hydrazyl free radical (DPPH) scavenging, 2,2‧-azino-bis(3-ethylbenzthiazoline-6-sulfonic acid) (ABTS) radical scavenging activity and superoxide anion radical scavenging, ferrous ions (Fe2+) chelating activity and ferric ions (Fe3+) reducing ability. EA inhibited 71.2% lipid peroxidation of a linoleic acid emulsion at 45 μg/mL concentration. On the other hand, butylated hydroxytoluene (BHT), butylated hydroxyanisole (BHA), α-tocopherol and ascorbic acid displayed 69.8%, 66.8%, 64.5% and 59.7% inhibition on the peroxidation of linoleic acid emulsion at the same concentration, respectively. In addition, EA had an effective DPPH• scavenging, ABTSrad + scavenging, superoxide anion radical scavenging, hydrogen peroxide scavenging, ferric ions (Fe3+) reducing power and ferrous ions (Fe2+) chelating activities. Also, those various antioxidant activities were compared to BHA, BHT, α-tocopherol and ascorbic acid as references antioxidant compounds. These results suggested that EA can be used in the pharmacological, food industry and medicine because of these properties.

  8. Study on the antioxidant activity and membrane interaction of a multiple antioxidant

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Jodko-Jodko-Piórecka, Kasia; Klösgen, Beate; Litwinienko, Grzegorz

    /PMHC antioxidative co-operation we propose that dopamine acts mainly as a scavenger of radicals near the membrane surface while PMHC is scavenging the peroxyl radicals within the membrane. References 1) Jodko, K.; Kowalewska, E.; Sikora, B.; Litwinienko, G. Free Radic. Res. 2009, 43, 58 2) Liu, J; Mori, A. Arch...

  9. Study of the anti-inflammatory effects of low-dose radiation. The contribution of biphasic regulation of the antioxidative system in endothelial cells

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Large, Martin; Hehlgans, Stephanie; Reichert, Sebastian; Roedel, Claus; Roedel, Franz; Gaipl, Udo S.; Fournier, Claudia; Weiss, Christian

    2015-01-01

    We examined (a) the expression of the antioxidative factor glutathione peroxidase (GPx) and the transcription factor nuclear factor E2-related factor 2 (Nrf2) following low-dose X-irradiation in endothelial cells (ECs) and (b) the impact of reactive oxygen species (ROS) and Nrf2 on functional properties of ECs to gain further knowledge about the anti-inflammatory mode of action of low doses of ionizing radiation. EA.hy926 ECs and primary human dermal microvascular ECs (HMVEC) were stimulated by tumor necrosis factor-α (TNF-α, 20 ng/ml) 4 h before irradiation with single doses ranging from 0.3 to 3 Gy. The expression and activity of GPx and Nrf2 were analyzed by flow cytometry, colorimetric assays, and real-time PCR. The impact of ROS and Nrf2 on peripheral blood mononuclear cell (PBMC) adhesion was assayed in the presence of the ROS scavenger N-acetyl-L-cysteine (NAC) and Nrf2 activator AI-1. Following a low-dose exposure, we observed in EA.hy926 EC and HMVECs a discontinuous expression and enzymatic activity of GPx concomitant with a lowered expression and DNA binding activity of Nrf2 that was most pronounced at a dose of 0.5 Gy. Scavenging of ROS by NAC and activation of Nrf2 by AI-1 significantly diminished a lowered adhesion of PBMC to EC at a dose of 0.5 Gy. Low-dose irradiation resulted in a nonlinear expression and activity of major compounds of the antioxidative system that might contribute to anti-inflammatory effects in stimulated ECs. (orig.) [de

  10. Antioxidant activity of lichen Cetraria aculeata

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Tomović Jovica

    2016-01-01

    Full Text Available The aim of the present study is to investigate the antioxidant properties of the lichen Cetraria aculeata. Antioxidant activity of the methanol and ethyl acetate extracts of lichen was tested by different methods including determination of total phenolics content, determination of total antioxidant capacity, DPPH free radical scavenging activity, inhibitory activity towards lipid peroxidation, ferrous ion chelating ability and hydroxyl radical scavenging activity. The extracts of the lichen C. aculeata showed significant antioxidant activity. The methanol extract showed higher values for total phenolics and total antioxidant capacity compared to the ethyl acetate extract, while the ethyl acetate extract demonstrated better results for DPPH radical scavenging, inhibitory activity towards lipid peroxidation, chelating ability and hydroxyl radical scavenging than the methanol extract. This is the first report of the antioxidant properties of Cetraria aculeata growing in Serbia. The results of antioxidant activity indicate the application of this lichen as source of natural antioxidants that could be used as a possible food supplement, in the pharmaceutical industry and in the treatment of various diseases.

  11. Nrf2 and regulation of the antioxidant system in the Antarctic silverfish, Pleuragramma antarctica: Adaptation to environmental changes of pro-oxidant pressure.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Giuliani, Maria Elisa; Benedetti, Maura; Nigro, Marco; Regoli, Francesco

    2017-08-01

    Despite the key importance of Nrf2-Keap1 in regulating antioxidant system in vertebrates, this system is still poorly investigated in marine species. The present study focused on the Antarctic silverfish Pleuragramma antarctica which, during the final phases of embryo development in platelet ice, is challenged by a sudden enhancement of environmental oxidative conditions associated to ice melting. Partial coding sequences were identified for Nrf2, its repressor Keap1 and for typical Nrf2-target antioxidant genes, like catalase, glutathione peroxidase isoform 1 and Cu/Zn-dependent superoxide dismutase. Compared to temperate homologues, the protein sequences showed an elevated conservation of amino acids essential for catalytic functions, while a few specific substitutions in non-essential regions may represent a molecular adaptation to improve flexibility and accessibility to active site at cold temperatures. The role of the Nrf2-Keap1 pathway in modulating the activation of antioxidant defences was demonstrated at both transcriptional and functional levels with a clear temporal increase of antioxidant protection in embryos before the hatching. Such findings confirm the importance of Nrf2 and highlight regulation of antioxidants as an adaptive strategy in P. antarctica to protect the early life stages toward the environmental changes of pro-oxidant pressure. Copyright © 2017 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  12. In vitro and in vivo antioxidant activities of inulin.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Shang, Hong-Mei; Zhou, Hai-Zhu; Yang, Jun-Yan; Li, Ran; Song, Hui; Wu, Hong-Xin

    2018-01-01

    This study was designed to investigate the in vitro and in vivo antioxidant activities of inulin. The in vitro assays demonstrated that the antioxidant activities of inulin, including the DPPH radical scavenging activity, ABTS scavenging activity and ferric reducing power, were weak and significantly lower than those of Vitamin C (P inulin on the antioxidant status of laying hens was evaluated with in vivo antioxidant assays. The results indicated that inulin supplementation quadratically improved the egg production rate of the laying hens (P inulin levels increased (P inulin levels increased (P inulin has the potential to improve the antioxidant status of laying hens.

  13. Scavenging capacity of medicinal plants against free radical-induced cellular damage by radiation and photoactivation

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Gadkar, Shalaka [Ruia College, Mumbai (India); Mohan, H [Chemistry Group, Bhabha Atomic Research Centre, Mumbai (India); Kamat, J P [Radiation Biology and Health Science Division, Bhabha Atomic Research Centre, Mumbai (India)

    2004-01-01

    The scavenging capacity of medicinal plants. Andrographis paniculata (Ap) and Swertia chirata (Sc) was examined against cellular damage, induced by radiation and photo-activation in sub-cellular membranes. The results demonstrated significant radical scavenging capacity of the extracts. The rate constants as evaluated by deoxyribose degradation studies and the pulse radiolysis studies carried in presence of ABTS radical well supported the antioxidant properties of the extracts. (author)

  14. Studies on free radical scavenging activity in Chinese seaweeds part I. Screening results

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yan, Xiao-Jun; Fang, Guo-Ming; Lou, Qing-Xiang

    1999-09-01

    Antioxidants have attracted the attention of researchers due to their beneficial effects as free radical scavengers. Application of a stable free radical named 1, 1-diphenyl-2-picrylhydrazyl(DPPH) to screen the free radical scavenging activity in 27 species of Chinese seaweed showed that 15 of them had significant activity in at least one of the organic solvent extracts. The most interesting seaweed species were Gelidium amansii, Gloiosiphonia capillaris, Polysiphonia urceolata, Sargassum kjellmanianum, Desmarestia viridis, and Rhodomela teres.

  15. The scavenging effects of tea polyphenol and quercetin on active oxygen species

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Fang Ruoying; Cheng Jiwu; Hu Tianxi; Tu Tiechen; Dong Jirong; Wang Wenfeng; Lin Nianyun

    1993-01-01

    The abilities of scavenging active oxygen species, O 2 free radical and OH., by tea polyphenols and quercetin have been studied by chemiluminescence, ESR and pulse radiolysis. Tea polyphenols and quercetin are all phenolic antioxidants. The synergetic studies show that both tea polyphenols and quercetin are strong free radical scavengers. Tea polyphenols are better than quercetin. the results from CL studies are in good accord with those from ESR and PR studies

  16. The experimental scavenging capacity and the degradation potential of the mixture of carotenoid and vitamin E, vitamin C

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tuyet, Nguyen Thi Ngoc; Khoa, Tran Anh; Quan, Vu Thi Hong; Chinh, Vuong Ngoc; Phung, Le Thi Kim

    2017-09-01

    The antioxidant capacity of Gac oil can be enhanced by the presence of these other active antioxidants such as vitamin E, vitamin C. Since many of these natural antioxidants are consumed together in foods, the potential for scavenging capacity is high in the human diet. The aim of this study was to determine what concentrations and combinations of antioxidants among Gac oil, vitamin E, vitamin C are capable of producing high scavenging capacity. The fact has resulted in detailed studies of antioxidation capacity of carotenoid of and vitamin. In addition, the antioxidant capacity and degradation potential of the combined mixture of carotenoid and vitamin E, vitamin C were discussed in view of their antioxidant properties as beneficial species in preventing various diseases.

  17. [The effect of exogenous antioxidants on the antioxidant status of erythrocytes and hepcidin content in blood of patients with disorders of iron metabolism regulation].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Shcherbinina, S P; Levina, A A; Lisovskaia, I L; Ataullakhanov, F I

    2013-01-01

    In many diseases associated with impairments in iron metabolism, erythrocytes exhibit an increased sensitivity to oxidative stress induced in vitro. In this study, we have examined the antioxidant status of erythrocytes from healthy donors and from 12 patients with disorders of iron homeostasis by measuring the extent of t-BHP-induced hemolysis in vitro. The extent of hemolysis observed with patient erythrocytes was significantly higher than that observed in experiment with normal cells. After therapeutic infusions of the antioxidants mexidol or emoxypin, oxidative hemolysis in patients was restored to normal values and blood hepcidin content increased significantly. A significant correlation was observed between hepcidin concentration after treatment and t-BHP-induced hemolysis before treatment. These data suggest that antioxidants may exert a favorable effect under pathological conditions associated with iron overload disease.

  18. NapA Mediates a Redox Regulation of the Antioxidant Response, Carbon Utilization and Development in Aspergillus nidulans

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ariann E. Mendoza-Martínez

    2017-03-01

    Full Text Available The redox-regulated transcription factors (TFs of the bZIP AP1 family, such as yeast Yap1 and fission yeast Pap1, are activated by peroxiredoxin proteins (Prxs to regulate the antioxidant response. Previously, Aspergillus nidulans mutants lacking the Yap1 ortholog NapA have been characterized as sensitive to H2O2 and menadione. Here we study NapA roles in relation to TFs SrrA and AtfA, also involved in oxidant detoxification, showing that these TFs play different roles in oxidative stress resistance, catalase gene regulation and development, during A. nidulans life cycle. We also uncover novel NapA roles in repression of sexual development, normal conidiation, conidial mRNA accumulation, and carbon utilization. The phenotypic characterization of ΔgpxA, ΔtpxA, and ΔtpxB single, double and triple peroxiredoxin mutants in wild type or ΔnapA backgrounds shows that none of these Prxs is required for NapA function in H2O2 and menadione resistance. However, these Prxs participate in a minor NapA-independent H2O2 resistance pathway and NapA and TpxA appear to regulate conidiation along the same route. Using transcriptomic analysis we show that during conidial development NapA-dependent gene expression pattern is different from canonical oxidative stress patterns. In the course of conidiation, NapA is required for regulation of at least 214 genes, including ethanol utilization genes alcR, alcA and aldA, and large sets of genes encoding proteins involved in transcriptional regulation, drug detoxification, carbohydrate utilization and secondary metabolism, comprising multiple oxidoreductases, membrane transporters and hydrolases. In agreement with this, ΔnapA mutants fail to grow or grow very poorly in ethanol, arabinose or fructose as sole carbon sources. Moreover, we show that NapA nuclear localization is induced not only by oxidative stress but also by growth in ethanol and by carbon starvation. Together with our previous work, these results show

  19. Comparative Study of Phenolic Content and Antioxidant Activity of ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    ethanol extract of E. odoratum leaf are more effective free radical scavengers and antioxidants relative to the other extract forms. These findings support the use of these extracts as potential sources of natural antioxidants. Keywords: Alstonia boonei, Eupatorium odoratum, phenolics, antioxidant. INRODUCTION.

  20. Alternative oxidase pathway optimizes photosynthesis during osmotic and temperature stress by regulating cellular ROS, malate valve and antioxidative systems

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    DINAKAR eCHALLABATHULA

    2016-02-01

    results indicated the importance of AOX pathway in optimizing photosynthesis under both hyper-osmotic stress and sub-optimal temperatures. Regulation of ROS through redox couples related to malate valve and antioxidant system by AOX pathway to optimize photosynthesis under these stresses are discussed.

  1. 6-Shogaol-Rich Extract from Ginger Up-Regulates the Antioxidant Defense Systems in Cells and Mice

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Mira Jun

    2012-07-01

    Full Text Available The rhizome of ginger (Zingiber officinale Roscoe is known to have several bioactive compounds including gingerols and shogaols which possess beneficial health properties such as anti-inflammatory and chemopreventive effects. Based on recent observations that 6-shogaol may have more potent bioactivity than 6-gingerol, we obtained a 6-shogaol-rich extract from ginger and examined its effects on the nuclear factor E2-related factor2 (Nrf2/antioxidant response element (ARE pathway in vitro and in vivo. 6-Shogaol-rich extract was produced by extracting ginger powder with 95% ethanol at 80 °C after drying at 80 °C (GEE8080. GEE8080 contained over 6-fold more 6-shogaol compared to the room temperature extract (GEE80RT. In HepG2 cells, GEE8080 displayed much stronger inductions of ARE-reporter gene activity and Nrf2 expression than GEE80RT. GEE8080 stimulated phosphorylations of mitogen-activated protein kinases (MAPKs such as ERK, JNK, and p38. Moreover, the GEE8080-induced expressions of Nrf2 and HO-1 were attenuated by treatments of SB202190 (a p38 specific inhibitor and LY294002 (an Akt specific inhibitor. In a mouse model, the GEE8080 decreased the diethylnitrosamine (DEN-mediated elevations of serum aspartate transaminase and alanine transaminase as well as the DEN-induced hepatic lipid peroxidation. Inductions of Nrf2 and HO-1 by GEE8080 were also confirmed in the mice. In addition, the administration of GEE8080 to the mice also restored the DEN-reduced activity and protein expression of hepatic antioxidant enzymes such as superoxide dismutase, glutathione peroxidase and catalase. In conclusion, GEE8080, a 6-shogaol-rich ginger extract, may enhance antioxidant defense mechanism through the induction of Nrf2 and HO-1 regulated by p38 MAPK and PI3k/Akt pathway in vitro and in vivo.

  2. The Dual Role of Nrf2 in Nonalcoholic Fatty Liver Disease: Regulation of Antioxidant Defenses and Hepatic Lipid Metabolism

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Sílvia S. Chambel

    2015-01-01

    Full Text Available Nonalcoholic fatty liver disease (NAFLD is a progressive liver disease with ever-growing incidence in the industrialized world. It starts with the simple accumulation of lipids in the hepatocyte and can progress to the more severe nonalcoholic steatohepatitis (NASH, which is associated with inflammation, fibrosis, and cirrhosis. There is increasing awareness that reactive oxygen species and electrophiles are implicated in the pathogenesis of NASH. Transcription factor nuclear factor erythroid 2-related factor 2 (Nrf2 is a positive regulator of the expression of a battery of genes involved in the protection against oxidative/electrophilic stress. In rodents, Nrf2 is also known to participate in hepatic fatty acid metabolism, as a negative regulator of genes that promote hepatosteatosis. We review relevant evidence in the literature that these two mechanisms may contribute to the protective role of Nrf2 in the development of hepatic steatosis and in the progression to steatohepatitis, particularly in young animals. We propose that age may be a key to explain contradictory findings in the literature. In summary, Nrf2 mediates the crosstalk between lipid metabolism and antioxidant defense mechanisms in experimental models of NAFLD, and the nutritional or pharmacological induction of Nrf2 represents a promising potential new strategy for its prevention and treatment.

  3. Up-Regulation of Antioxidant Proteins in the Plasma Proteome during Saturation Diving: Unique Coincidence under Hypobaric Hypoxia.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Domoto, Hideharu; Iwaya, Keiichi; Ikomi, Fumitaka; Matsuo, Hirotaka; Tadano, Yutaka; Fujii, Shigenori; Tachi, Kazuyoshi; Itoh, Yoshiyuki; Sato, Michiya; Inoue, Kimitoshi; Shinomiya, Nariyoshi

    2016-01-01

    Saturation diving (SD) is one of the safest techniques for tolerating hyperbaric conditions for long durations. However, the changes in the human plasma protein profile that occur during SD are unknown. To identify differential protein expression during or after SD, 65 blood samples from 15 healthy Japanese men trained in SD were analyzed by two-dimensional fluorescence difference gel electrophoresis. The expression of two proteins, one 32.4 kDa with an isoelectric point (pI) of 5.8 and the other 44.8 kDa with pI 4.0, were elevated during SD to 60, 100, and 200 meters sea water (msw). The expression of these proteins returned to pre-diving level when the SD training was completed. The two proteins were identified using in-gel digestion and mass spectrometric analysis; the 32.4 kDa protein was transthyretin and the 44.8 kDa protein was alpha-1-acid glycoprotein 1. Oxidation was detected at methionine 13 of transthyretin and at methionine 129 of alpha-1-acid glycoprotein 1 by tandem mass spectrometry. Moreover, haptoglobin was up-regulated during the decompression phase of 200 msw. These plasma proteins up-regulated during SD have a common function as anti-oxidants. This suggests that by coordinating their biological effects, these proteins activate a defense mechanism to counteract the effects of hyperbaric-hyperoxic conditions during SD.

  4. Up-Regulation of Antioxidant Proteins in the Plasma Proteome during Saturation Diving: Unique Coincidence under Hypobaric Hypoxia.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Hideharu Domoto

    Full Text Available Saturation diving (SD is one of the safest techniques for tolerating hyperbaric conditions for long durations. However, the changes in the human plasma protein profile that occur during SD are unknown. To identify differential protein expression during or after SD, 65 blood samples from 15 healthy Japanese men trained in SD were analyzed by two-dimensional fluorescence difference gel electrophoresis. The expression of two proteins, one 32.4 kDa with an isoelectric point (pI of 5.8 and the other 44.8 kDa with pI 4.0, were elevated during SD to 60, 100, and 200 meters sea water (msw. The expression of these proteins returned to pre-diving level when the SD training was completed. The two proteins were identified using in-gel digestion and mass spectrometric analysis; the 32.4 kDa protein was transthyretin and the 44.8 kDa protein was alpha-1-acid glycoprotein 1. Oxidation was detected at methionine 13 of transthyretin and at methionine 129 of alpha-1-acid glycoprotein 1 by tandem mass spectrometry. Moreover, haptoglobin was up-regulated during the decompression phase of 200 msw. These plasma proteins up-regulated during SD have a common function as anti-oxidants. This suggests that by coordinating their biological effects, these proteins activate a defense mechanism to counteract the effects of hyperbaric-hyperoxic conditions during SD.

  5. Bmi1 is down-regulated in the aging brain and displays antioxidant and protective activities in neurons.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Mohamed Abdouh

    Full Text Available Aging increases the risk to develop several neurodegenerative diseases, although the underlying mechanisms are poorly understood. Inactivation of the Polycomb group gene Bmi1 in mice results in growth retardation, cerebellar degeneration, and development of a premature aging-like phenotype. This progeroid phenotype is characterized by formation of lens cataracts, apoptosis of cortical neurons, and increase of reactive oxygen species (ROS concentrations, owing to p53-mediated repression of antioxidant response (AOR genes. Herein we report that Bmi1 expression progressively declines in the neurons of aging mouse and human brains. In old brains, p53 accumulates at the promoter of AOR genes, correlating with a repressed chromatin state, down-regulation of AOR genes, and increased oxidative damages to lipids and DNA. Comparative gene expression analysis further revealed that aging brains display an up-regulation of the senescence-associated genes IL-6, p19(Arf and p16(Ink4a, along with the pro-apoptotic gene Noxa, as seen in Bmi1-null mice. Increasing Bmi1 expression in cortical neurons conferred robust protection against DNA damage-induced cell death or mitochondrial poisoning, and resulted in suppression of ROS through activation of AOR genes. These observations unveil that Bmi1 genetic deficiency recapitulates aspects of physiological brain aging and that Bmi1 over-expression is a potential therapeutic modality against neurodegeneration.

  6. Up-regulation of mitochondrial antioxidation signals in ovarian cancer cells with aggressive biologic behavior.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wang, Yue; Dong, Li; Cui, Heng; Shen, Dan-hua; Wang, Ying; Chang, Xiao-hong; Fu, Tian-yun; Ye, Xue; Yao, Yuan-yang

    2011-05-01

    Recently, a high frequency of mutations in mitochondrial DNA (mtDNA) has been detected in ovarian cancer. To explore the alterations of proteins in mitochondria in ovarian cancer, a pair of human ovarian carcinoma cell lines (SKOV3/SKOV3.ip1) with different metastatic potentials was examined. Cancer cells SKOV3.ip1 were derived from the ascitic tumor cells of nude mice bearing a tumor of ovarian cancer cells SKOV3. SKOV3.ip1 exhibited a higher degree of migration potential than its paired cell line SKOV3. The proteins in the mitochondria of these two cells were isolated and separated by 2-D gel electrophoresis. The differently expressed proteins were extracted and identified using matrix assisted laser desorption ionisation/time-of-flight/time-of-flight (MALDI-TOF/TOF), and finally a selected protein candidate was further investigated by immunohistochemistry (IHC) method in nude mice bearing tumor tissues of these two cells. A total of 35 spots with different expressions were identified between the two cells using 2D-polyacrylamide gel electrophoresis (PAGE) approach. Among them, 17 spots were detected only in either SKOV3 or SKOV3.ip1 cells. Eighteen spots expressed different levels, with as much as a three-fold difference between the two cells. Twenty spots were analyzed using MALDI-TOF/TOF, and 11 of them were identified successfully; four were known to be located in mitochondria, including superoxide dismutase 2 (SOD2), fumarate hydratase (FH), mitochondrial ribosomal protein L38 (MRPL38), and mRNA turnover 4 homolog (MRTO4). An increased staining of SOD2 was observed in SKOV3.ip1 over that of SKOV3 in IHC analysis. Our results indicate that the enhanced antioxidation and metabolic potentials of ovarian cancer cells might contribute to their aggressive and metastatic behaviors. The underlying mechanism warrants further study.

  7. Antioxidative activity of Geranium macrorrhizum

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Miliauskas, G.; Beek, van T.A.; Venskutonis, P.R.; Linssen, J.P.H.; Waard, de P.

    2004-01-01

    The composition of radical-scavenging compounds from Geranium macrorrhizum leaves was analyzed and the antioxidative activities of various extracts was determined. Seven compounds, namely gallic acid, ellagic acid, 4-galloyl quinic acid, the flavonoid quercetin and three of its glycosides,

  8. Antioxidant activity of Potentilla fruticosa

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Miliauskas, G.; Beek, van T.A.; Venskutonis, P.R.; Linssen, J.P.H.; Waard, de P.; Sudhölter, E.J.R.

    2004-01-01

    The molecular structures of the radical scavenging compounds present in extracts of Potentilla fruticosa blossoms were elucidated and the antioxidant activities of various extracts were determined. The activities of the different fractions were monitored by off-line and on-line RP-HPLC DPPH. and

  9. Radical scavenging propensity of Cu2 +, Fe3 + complexes of flavonoids and in-vivo radical scavenging by Fe3 +-primuletin

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jabeen, Erum; Janjua, Naveed Kausar; Ahmed, Safeer; Murtaza, Iram; Ali, Tahir; Hameed, Shahid

    2017-01-01

    Cu2 + and Fe3 + complexes of three flavonoids (morin or mo, quercetin or quer and primuletin or prim) were synthesized with the objective of improving antioxidant capacities of flavonoids. The radical scavenging activities of pure flavonoids and their metal complexes were assayed to monitor their tendencies towards sequestering of radicals at physiological conditions. The scavenger potencies of metal-flavonoid complexes were significantly higher than those of the parent flavonoids. Further, influence of the solvent polarity on the radical capturing by flavonoids and their metal complexes was in favor for the polar solvent. Fe3 +-prim displayed its radical scavenging ability via up gradation of CAT and SOD activities in in-vivo antioxidant assays.

  10. Reconvene and reconnect the antioxidant hypothesis in human health and disease.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Singh, P P; Chandra, Anu; Mahdi, Farzana; Roy, Ajanta; Sharma, Praveen

    2010-07-01

    The antioxidants are essential molecules in human system but are not miracle molecules. They are neither performance enhancers nor can prevent or cure diseases when taken in excess. Their supplemental value is debateable. In fact, many high quality clinical trials on antioxidant supplement have shown no effect or adverse outcomes ranging from morbidity to all cause mortality. Several Chochrane Meta-analysis and Markov Model techniques, which are presently best available statistical models to derive conclusive answers for comparing large number of trials, support these claims. Nevertheless none of these statistical techniques are flawless. Hence, more efforts are needed to develop perfect statistical model to analyze the pooled data and further double blind, placebo controlled interventional clinical trials, which are gold standard, should be implicitly conducted to get explicit answers. Superoxide dismutase (SOD), glutathione peroxidase and catalase are termed as primary antioxidants as these scavenge superoxide anion and hydrogen peroxide. All these three enzymes are inducible enzymes, thereby inherently meaning that body increases or decreases their activity as per requirement. Hence there is no need to attempt to manipulate their activity nor have such efforts been clinically useful. SOD administration has been tried in some conditions especially in cancer and myocardial infarction but has largely failed, probably because SOD is a large molecule and can not cross cell membrane. The dietary antioxidants, including nutrient antioxidants are chain breaking antioxidants and in tandem with enzyme antioxidants temper the reactive oxygen species (ROS) and reactive nitrogen species (RNS) within physiological limits. Since body is able to regulate its own requirements of enzyme antioxidants, the diet must provide adequate quantity of non-enzymic antioxidants to meet the normal requirements and provide protection in exigent condition. So far, there is no evidence that

  11. Trees as metal scavengers

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Hallman, N.

    2000-01-01

    Full text: Tree roots extract metal ions form wet soils in two different ways. At the soil/root hair interface soluble ions in contact with the cellulose wall move through it and enter the cell through the plasmalemma; the semi permeable membrane that encloses every living cell. Some ions, especially those that are part of cellular metabolic processes eg. Na, K, Fe, Mg, S move into the cytoplasm, are bound into organic complexes and travel from cell to cell within the cytoplasm. This requires energy, and the amount of any of these metabolically active ions taken in tends to be regulated by the plant. The movement of the ions from cell to cell is slow, selective, and regulated by requirements of synthesis of for example Mg in the chlorophyll molecule. This means that more Mg is transported to cells of leaves than of cells of roots. This movement of ions is simplistic, or within the cytoplasm. Other ions are swept along in the transpiration stream and enter the complex plumbing system that brings water to the leaves for metabolism and cooling. Water in this apoplastic pathway travels within the pipes (xylem) of the wood and in the cellulose of the walls. It travels along essentially non-living parts of the plant. Ions such as As, Pb, Ni, Cr accumulate in sites such as leaves and bark. Analysis of plant parts can indicate the presence of heavy metals and can give an indication of ore bodies within the root zone

  12. In Vitro Antioxidant Evaluation of Some Mannich Bases which Contain Bis-1,2,4 -Triazole Derivative

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Parlak, A. E.; Karatepe, M.; Koparir, M.; Alayunt, N. O.; Keser, S.; Dastan, S. D.; Ulas, M.; Celik, S.

    2015-01-01

    This study aims to examine the antioxidant effects of some Mannich bases containing bis-1, 2, 4 triazole, which are synthesized afresh. The antioxidant activities of the derivatives were measured using different methods in this study, including reducing power capacity, metal chelating activity, superoxide anion radicals scavenging activity, H/sub 2/ O/sub 2/ scavenging activity and hydroxyl radical scavenging. As a result, derivatives had efficient antioxidant and free radical scavenging activity when compared to ascorbic acid, BHT and alpha-tocopherol as associated antioxidants. (author)

  13. Rain scavenging of radioactive particles

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Williams, A.L.

    1975-01-01

    An assessment is made of the rainout of airborne radioactive particles from a nuclear detonation with emphasis on the microphysical removal processes. For submicron particles the scavenging processes examined are Brownian and turbulent diffusion to cloud droplets. For particles larger than 1 μm radius, nucleation scavenging is examined. For various particle size and radioactivity distributions, it is found that from 27 to 99 percent of the radioactivity is attached to cloud droplets and subject to rapid removal by rain. (U.S.)

  14. Protective effect of Bauhinia tomentosa on acetic acid induced ulcerative colitis by regulating antioxidant and inflammatory mediators.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kannan, Narayanan; Guruvayoorappan, Chandrasekharan

    2013-05-01

    Inflammatory bowel diseases (IBD), including Crohn's disease and Ulcerative colitis (UC), are life-long and recurrent disorders of the gastrointestinal tract with unknown etiology. The present study is designed to evaluate the ameliorative effect of Bauhinia tomentosa during ulcerative colitis (UC). Three groups of animals (n=6) were treated with B. tomentosa (5, 10, 20 mg/kg B.wt respectively) for 5 consecutive days before induction of UC. UC was induced by intracolonic injection of 3% acetic acid. The colonic mucosal injury was assessed by macroscopic scoring and histological examination. Furthermore, the mucosal content of lipid peroxidation (LPO), reduced glutathione (GSH), nitric oxide (NO), glutathione peroxidase (GPx) and superoxide dismutase (SOD) activity confirms that B. tomentosa could significantly inhibit colitis in a dose dependent manner. The myeloperoxidase (MPO), tumor necrosis factor (TNF-α), inducible nitric oxide synthase (iNOS) expression studies and lactate dehydrogenase (LDH) assay also supported that B. tomentosa could significantly inhibit experimental colitis. The effect was comparable to the standard drug sulfasalazine. Colonic mucosal injury parallels with the result of histological and biochemical evaluations. The extracts obtained from B. tomentosa possess active substances, which exert marked protective effects in acute experimental colitis, possibly by regulating the antioxidant and inflammatory mediators. Copyright © 2013 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  15. Hypoglycemic Effect of Aquatic Extract of Stevia in Pancreas of Diabetic Rats: PPARγ-dependent Regulation or Antioxidant Potential

    Science.gov (United States)

    Assaei, Raheleh; Mokarram, Pooneh; Dastghaib, Sanaz; Darbandi, Sara; Darbandi, Mahsa; Zal, Fatemeh; Akmali, Masoumeh; Ranjbar Omrani, Gholam Hossein

    2016-01-01

    Background: Traditional medicines with anti-diabetic effects are considered suitable supplements to treat diabetes. Among medicinal herbs, Stevia Rebaudiana Bertoni is famous for its sweet taste and beneficial effect in regulation of glucose. However, little is known about the exact mechanism of stevia in pancreatic tissue. Therefore, this study investigated the possible effects of stevia on pancreas in managing hyperglycemia seen in streptozotocin-induced Sprague-Dawley rats. Methods: Sprague-Dawley rats were divided into four groups including normoglycemic, diabetic and two more diabetic groups in which, one was treated with aquatic extract of stevia (400 mg/kg) and the other with pioglitazone (10 mg/kg) for the period of 28 days. After completion of the experimental duration, rats were dissected; blood samples and pancreas were further used for detecting biochemical and histopathological changes. FBS, TG, cholestrol, HDL, LDL, ALT and AST levels were measured in sera. Moreover, MDA (malondialdehyde) level, catalase activity, levels of insulin and PPARγ mRNA expression were also measured in pancreatic tissue. Results: Aquatic extract of stevia significantly reduced the FBS, triglycerides, MDA, ALT, AST levels and normalized catalase activity in treated rats compared with diabetic rats (pstevia surprisingly, increased PPARγ and insulin mRNA levels in treated rats (pstevia compensated for the histopathological damage in diabetic rats. Conclusion: It is concluded that stevia acts on pancreatic tissue to elevate the insulin level and exerts beneficial anti-hyperglycemic effects through the PPARγ-dependent mechanism and stevia’s antioxidant properties. PMID:27141265

  16. Boron alleviates the aluminum toxicity in trifoliate orange by regulating antioxidant defense system and reducing root cell injury.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Riaz, Muhammad; Yan, Lei; Wu, Xiuwen; Hussain, Saddam; Aziz, Omar; Wang, Yuhan; Imran, Muhammad; Jiang, Cuncang

    2018-02-15

    Aluminium (Al) toxicity is the most important soil constraint for plant growth and development in acid soils (pH Boron (B) is an essential micronutrient for the growth and development of higher plants. The results of previous studies propose that B might ameliorate Al toxicity; however, none of the studies have been conducted on trifoliate orange to study this effect. Thus, a study was carried out in hydroponics comprising of two different Al concentrations, 0 and 400 μM. For every concentration, two B treatments (0 and 10 μM as H 3 BO 3 ) were applied to investigate the B-induced alleviation of Al toxicity and exploring the underneath mechanisms. The results revealed that Al toxicity under B deficiency severely hampered the root growth and physiology of plant, caused oxidative stress and membrane damage, leading to severe root injury and damage. However, application of B under Al toxicity improved the root elongation and photosynthesis, while reduced Al uptake and mobilization into plant parts. Moreover, B supply regulated the activities of antioxidant enzymes, proline, secondary metabolites (phenylalanine ammonia lyase and polyphenol oxidase) contents, and stabilized integrity of proteins. Our study results imply that B supply promoted root growth as well as defense system by reducing reactive oxygen species (ROS) and Al concentrations in plant parts thus B induced alleviation of Al toxicity; a fact that might be significant for higher productivity of agricultural plants grown in acidic conditions. Copyright © 2017 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  17. The Antioxidant Machinery of Young and Senescent Human Umbilical Vein Endothelial Cells and Their Microvesicles

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Guillermo Bodega

    2017-01-01

    Full Text Available We examine the antioxidant role of young and senescent human umbilical vein endothelial cells (HUVECs and their microvesicles (MVs. Proteomic and Western blot studies have shown young HUVECs to have a complete and well-developed antioxidant system. Their MVs also contain antioxidant molecules, though of a smaller and more specific range, specialized in the degradation of hydrogen peroxide and the superoxide anion via the thioredoxin-peroxiredoxin system. Senescence was shown to be associated with a large increase in the size of the antioxidant machinery in both HUVECs and their MVs. These responses might help HUVECs and their MVs deal with the more oxidising conditions found in older cells. Functional analysis confirmed the antioxidant machinery of the MVs to be active and to increase in size with senescence. No glutathione or nonpeptide antioxidant (ascorbic acid and vitamin E activity was detected in the MVs. Endothelial cells and MVs seem to adapt to higher ROS concentrations in senescence by increasing their antioxidant machinery, although this is not enough to recover completely from the senescence-induced ROS increase. Moreover, MVs could be involved in the regulation of the blood plasma redox status by functioning as ROS scavengers.

  18. Ubiad1 is an antioxidant enzyme that regulates eNOS activity by CoQ10 synthesis

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Mugoni, V.; Postel, R.; Catanzaro, V.; De Luca, E.; Turco, E.; Digilio, G.; Silengo, L.; Murphy, M.P.; Medana, C.; Stainier, D.Y.; Bakkers, J.; Santoro, M.M.

    2013-01-01

    Protection against oxidative damage caused by excessive reactive oxygen species (ROS) by an antioxidant network is essential for the health of tissues, especially in the cardiovascular system. Here, we identified a gene with important antioxidant features by analyzing a null allele of zebrafish

  19. Precipitation scavenging of aerosol particles

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Radke, L.F.; Eltgroth, M.W.; Hobbs, P.V.

    1978-01-01

    The paper presents the results of precipitation scavenging measurements of particles in the atmosphere and in plumes which were obtained using an airborne measuring system. Attention is given to the so-called 'Greenfield gap' and collection efficiencies for submicron particles

  20. Molecular mechanisms and in vitro antioxidant effects of Lactobacillus plantarum MA2.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tang, Wei; Xing, Zhuqing; Li, Chao; Wang, Jinju; Wang, Yanping

    2017-04-15

    Lactobacillus plantarum MA2 was isolated from Chinese traditional Tibetan kefir grains. The antioxidant activities in vitro of this strain were evaluated extensively. The results showed that L. plantarum MA2 can tolerate hydrogen peroxide up to 2.0mM, and its fermentate (fermented supernatant, intact cell and cell-free extract) had strong reducing capacities, lipid peroxidation inhibition capacities, Fe 2+ -chelating abilities, as well as various free radical scavenging capacities. Additionally, both the fermented supernatant and cell homogenate exhibited glutathione peroxidase activity and superoxide dismutase activity. In order to investigate the antioxidant mechanism of L. plantarum MA2 at the molecular level, eight antioxidant-related genes were identified, and further analyzed. Three groups of genes cat, gshR and npx, were found up-regulated under H 2 O 2 challenge. Copyright © 2016 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  1. Free radical scavenging injectable hydrogels for regenerative therapy

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Komeri, Remya; Thankam, Finosh Gnanaprakasam; Muthu, Jayabalan

    2017-01-01

    Pathological free radicals generated from inflamed and infarcted cardiac tissues interferes natural tissue repair mechanisms. Hypoxic microenvironment at the injured zone of non-regenerating cardiac tissues hinders the therapeutic attempts including cell therapy. Here we report an injectable, cytocompatible, free radical scavenging synthetic hydrogel formulation for regenerative therapy. New hydrogel (PEAX-P) is prepared with D-xylitol-co-fumarate-co-poly ethylene adipate-co-PEG comaromer (PEAX) and PEGDiacrylate. PEAX-P hydrogel swells 4.9 times the initial weight and retains 100.07 kPa Young modulus at equilibrium swelling, which is suitable for cardiac applications. PEAX-P hydrogel retains elastic nature even at 60% compressive strain, which is favorable to fit with the dynamic and elastic natural tissue counterparts. PEAX-P hydrogel scavenges 51% DPPH radical, 40% hydroxyl radicals 41% nitrate radicals with 31% reducing power. The presence of hydrogel protects 62% cardiomyoblast cells treated with stress inducing media at LD 50 concentration. The free hydroxyl groups in sugar alcohols of the comacromer influence the free radical scavenging. Comparatively, PEAX-P hydrogel based on xylitol evinces slightly lower scavenging characteristics than with previously reported PEAM-P hydrogel containing mannitol having more hydroxyl groups. The possible free radical scavenging mechanism of the present hydrogel relies on the free π electrons associated with uncrosslinked fumarate bonds, hydrogen atoms associated with sugar alcohols/PEG and radical dilution by free water in the matrix. Briefly, the present PEAX-P hydrogel is a potential injectable system for combined antioxidant and regenerative therapy. - Graphical abstract: Injectable hydrogel with inherent free radical scavenging property for regenerative tissue engineering application. - Highlights: • Novel injectable hydrogel (PEAX-P) is prepared using D-xylitol-co-fumarate-co-poly ethylene adipate-co-PEG comaromer

  2. Free radical scavenging injectable hydrogels for regenerative therapy

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Komeri, Remya [Sree Chitra Tirunal Institute for Medical Sciences and Technology, Polymer Science Division, BMT Wing, Thiruvananthapuram 695 012, Kerala State (India); Thankam, Finosh Gnanaprakasam [Dept. of Biomedical Sciences, Creighton University, 2500 California Plaza, Omaha NE68178 (United States); Muthu, Jayabalan, E-mail: mjayabalan52@gmail.com [Sree Chitra Tirunal Institute for Medical Sciences and Technology, Polymer Science Division, BMT Wing, Thiruvananthapuram 695 012, Kerala State (India)

    2017-02-01

    Pathological free radicals generated from inflamed and infarcted cardiac tissues interferes natural tissue repair mechanisms. Hypoxic microenvironment at the injured zone of non-regenerating cardiac tissues hinders the therapeutic attempts including cell therapy. Here we report an injectable, cytocompatible, free radical scavenging synthetic hydrogel formulation for regenerative therapy. New hydrogel (PEAX-P) is prepared with D-xylitol-co-fumarate-co-poly ethylene adipate-co-PEG comaromer (PEAX) and PEGDiacrylate. PEAX-P hydrogel swells 4.9 times the initial weight and retains 100.07 kPa Young modulus at equilibrium swelling, which is suitable for cardiac applications. PEAX-P hydrogel retains elastic nature even at 60% compressive strain, which is favorable to fit with the dynamic and elastic natural tissue counterparts. PEAX-P hydrogel scavenges 51% DPPH radical, 40% hydroxyl radicals 41% nitrate radicals with 31% reducing power. The presence of hydrogel protects 62% cardiomyoblast cells treated with stress inducing media at LD 50 concentration. The free hydroxyl groups in sugar alcohols of the comacromer influence the free radical scavenging. Comparatively, PEAX-P hydrogel based on xylitol evinces slightly lower scavenging characteristics than with previously reported PEAM-P hydrogel containing mannitol having more hydroxyl groups. The possible free radical scavenging mechanism of the present hydrogel relies on the free π electrons associated with uncrosslinked fumarate bonds, hydrogen atoms associated with sugar alcohols/PEG and radical dilution by free water in the matrix. Briefly, the present PEAX-P hydrogel is a potential injectable system for combined antioxidant and regenerative therapy. - Graphical abstract: Injectable hydrogel with inherent free radical scavenging property for regenerative tissue engineering application. - Highlights: • Novel injectable hydrogel (PEAX-P) is prepared using D-xylitol-co-fumarate-co-poly ethylene adipate-co-PEG comaromer

  3. Natural antioxidant vitamins: A review of their beneficial roles in ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    as therapeutic agents in the management of diabetes mellitus and its complications, ... has made the use of natural antioxidant vitamins (free radical scavengers) from plants inevitable as they ... (disease or abnormality of the nervous system).

  4. Antioxidant and Antimicrobial Activity of Polyphenol Extracts from ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Methods: Polyphenol content was determined using spectrophotometric and High performance liquid ... Keywords: European cornel, Blackthorn, Wild blackberry, Polyphenols, Antioxidant, Antimicrobial. Tropical ... Acetonitrile, and acetic acid of HPLC-grade were ..... Anthocyanin Quantification and radical scavenging.

  5. Antioxidant activities of the selected plants from the family ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    . Antioxidant activities of these extracts were evaluated through DPPH• radical scavenging, phosphomolybdate and ferric thiocyanate (FTC) methods. Methanolic extract of Cinnamomum zeylanicum and Cinnamomum tamala showed highest ...

  6. Antioxidant activity potential of gamma irradiated carrageenan

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Abad, Lucille V.; Relleve, Lorna S.; Racadio, Charles Darwin T.; Aranilla, Charito T.; De la Rosa, Alumanda M.

    2013-01-01

    The antioxidant capacity of irradiated κ-, ι-, λ-carrageenans were investigated using the hydroxyl radical scavenging assay, reducing power assay and DPPH radical scavenging capacity assay. The degree of oxidative inhibition increased with increasing concentration and dose. The type of carrageenan had also an influence on its antioxidant activity which followed the order of lambda< iota< kappa. Increase in oxidative property with radiation dose can be attributed mainly to the depolymerization of the carrageenans with corresponding increase in reducing sugar. The antioxidant properties of these carrageenan oligomers were lower than that of ascorbic acid and galactose sugar. - Highlights: • The antioxidant capacity of gamma irradiated κ-, ι-, λ-carrageenans increased with increasing concentration and dose. • The type of carrageenan had an influence on its antioxidant activity which followed the order of lambda< iota< kappa. • Increase in oxidative property with radiation dose can be attributed mainly to the depolymerization of the carrageenans with corresponding increase in reducing sugar

  7. Total phenolic content and in-vitro antioxidant activities from methanolic extract of alligator pipefish, Syngnathoides biaculeatus (Bloch, 1785)

    Digital Repository Service at National Institute of Oceanography (India)

    Sanaye, S.V.; Pise, N.M.; Pawar, A.P.; Parab, P.P.; Sreepada, R.A.; Pawar, H.B.; Murugan, A.

    -vitro antioxidant activities in terms of reducing power (RP), metal chelating activity (MCA), 2,2 diphenyl-1-picrylhydrazyl (DPPH) radical scavenging activity, ferric reducing antioxidant power (FRAP), inhibition of lipid peroxidation (LPX) and hydroxyl radical...

  8. Role of alkaline-tolerant fungal cellulases in release of total antioxidants from agro-wastes under solid state fermentation

    Digital Repository Service at National Institute of Oceanography (India)

    Ravindran, C.; Varatharajan, G. R.; Karthikeyan, A.

    -wastes and total antioxidant property. The increased antioxidant activity on free radical scavenging was also observed with the increase in pH. Thus, the present study makes it possible to produce nutraceutical ingredients cost-effectively from agricultural wastes....

  9. In vitro antioxidant activity of polysaccharide from Gardenia jasminoides ellis

    Science.gov (United States)

    Fan, Y.; Ge, Z.; Luo, A.

    2011-01-01

    A water-soluble polysaccharide, GP, was isolated from Gardenia jasminoides Ellis through hot water extraction followed by ethanol precipitation. The in vitro free radicals scavenging tests exhibited that GP has significant scavenging abilities especially for ABTS, DPPH, and hydroxyl radicals, which suggests that the polysaccharide GP is a novel antioxidant. ?? 2011 Academic Journals.

  10. Antioxidant activity and total phenolic and flavonoid content of ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    The antioxidant capacity of the flowering aerial parts of Astragalus squarrosus was determined by 1,1- diphenyl-2-picrylhydrazyl (DPPH) radical scavenging and ferric thiocyanate methods. The phenolic and flavonoid content was also measured. A. squarrosus showed weak free radical scavenging activity with the DPPH ...

  11. Screening of various botanical extracts for antioxidant activity using ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Aiming at the exploration of herbal use by society, crude extracts of the seeds of some commonly used medicinal plants (Vitis vinifera, Tamarindus indica and Glycin max) were screened for their free radical scavenging properties using ascorbic acid as standard antioxidant. Free radical scavenging activity was evaluated ...

  12. Isolation and identification of radical scavengers in olive tree (Olea europaea) wood

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Pérez-Bonilla, M.; Salido, S.; Beek, van T.A.; Linares-Palomino, P.J.; Altarejos, J.; Nogueras, M.; Sánchez, A.

    2006-01-01

    Several extracts of Olea europaea wood (Picual olive cultivar) were obtained with solvents of different polarity and their antioxidant activities determined. The active compounds were detected in fractions of an ethyl acetate extract using HPLC with on-line radical scavenging detection. After

  13. In vitro anti-inflammatory and free radical scavenging activities of ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Methods: In vitro antioxidant activity was determined using free radical scavenging assays such as DPPH, ABTS and NO2. The antiinflammatory potential was carried out using inhibition of protein denaturation of egg albumin as a model of anti-inflammatory capacity. Results: Both the crude methanolic extract and saponins ...

  14. [Correlation Between Functional Groups and Radical Scavenging Activities of Acidic Polysaccharides from Dendrobium].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Liao, Ying; Yuan, Wen-yu; Zheng, Wen-ke; Luo, Ao-xue; Fan, Yi-jun

    2015-11-01

    To compare the radical scavenging activity of five different acidic polysaccharides, and to find the correlation with the functional groups. Alkali extraction method and Stepwise ethanol precipitation method were used to extract and concentrate the five Dendrobium polysaccharides, and to determine the contents of sulfuric acid and uronic acid of each kind of acidic polysaccharides, and the scavenging activity to ABTS+ radical and hydroxyl radical. Functional group structures were examined by FTIR Spectrometer. Five kinds of Dendrobium polysaccharides had different ability of scavenging ABTS+ free radical and hydroxyl free radical. Moreover, the study had shown that five kinds of antioxidant activity of acidic polysaccharides had obvious correlation withuronic acid and sulfuric acid. The antioxidant activity of each sample was positively correlated with the content of uronic acid, and negatively correlated with the content of sulfuric acid. Sulfuric acid can inhibit the antioxidant activity of acidic polysaccharide but uronic acid can enhance the free radical scavenging activity. By analyzing the structure characteristics of five acidic polysaccharides, all samples have similar structures, however, Dendrobium denneanum, Dendrobium devonianum and Dendrobium officinale which had β configuration have higher antioxidant activity than Dendrobium nobile and Dendrobium fimbriatum which had a configuration.

  15. Polyphenolic Extract of Euphorbia supina Attenuates Manganese-Induced Neurotoxicity by Enhancing Antioxidant Activity through Regulation of ER Stress and ER Stress-Mediated Apoptosis

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Entaz Bahar

    2017-01-01

    Full Text Available Manganese (Mn is an important trace element present in human body, which acts as an enzyme co-factor or activator in various metabolic reactions. While essential in trace amounts, excess levels of Mn in human brain can produce neurotoxicity, including idiopathic Parkinson’s disease (PD-like extrapyramidal manganism symptoms. This study aimed to investigate the protective role of polyphenolic extract of Euphorbia supina (PPEES on Mn-induced neurotoxicity and the underlying mechanism in human neuroblastoma SKNMC cells and Sprague-Dawley (SD male rat brain. PPEES possessed significant amount of total phenolic and flavonoid contents. PPEES also showed significant antioxidant activity in 1,1-diphenyl-2-picrylhydrazyl (DPPH radical scavenging and reducing power capacity (RPC assays. Our results showed that Mn treatment significantly reduced cell viability and increased lactate dehydrogenase (LDH level, which was attenuated by PPEES pretreatment at 100 and 200 µg/mL. Additionally, PPEES pretreatment markedly attenuated Mn-induced antioxidant status alteration by resolving the ROS, MDA and GSH levels and SOD and CAT activities. PPEES pretreatment also significantly attenuated Mn-induced mitochondrial membrane potential (ΔΨm and apoptosis. Meanwhile, PPEES pretreatment significantly reversed the Mn-induced alteration in the GRP78, GADD34, XBP-1, CHOP, Bcl-2, Bax and caspase-3 activities. Furthermore, administration of PPEES (100 and 200 mg/kg to Mn exposed rats showed improvement of histopathological alteration in comparison to Mn-treated rats. Moreover, administration of PPEES to Mn exposed rats showed significant reduction of 8-OHdG and Bax immunoreactivity. The results suggest that PPEES treatment reduces Mn-induced oxidative stress and neuronal cell loss in SKNMC cells and in the rat brain. Therefore, PPEES may be considered as potential treat-ment in Mn-intoxicated patients.

  16. Radical-Scavenging Activity and Ferric Reducing Ability of Juniperus thurifera (L.), J. oxycedrus (L.), J. phoenicea (L.) and Tetraclinis articulata (L.)

    OpenAIRE

    El Jemli, Meryem; Kamal, Rabie; Marmouzi, Ilias; Zerrouki, Asmae; Cherrah, Yahia; Alaoui, Katim

    2016-01-01

    Objective. The aim of this work is to study and compare the antioxidant properties and phenolic contents of aqueous leaf extracts of Juniperus thurifera, Juniperus oxycedrus, Juniperus Phoenicea, and Tetraclinis articulata from Morocco. Methods. Antioxidant activities of the extracts were evaluated by 2,2-diphenyl-1-picrylhydrazyl (DPPH) free radical-scavenging ability, Trolox equivalent antioxidant capacity (TEAC), and ferric reducing antioxidant power (FRAP) assays. Also the total phenolic ...

  17. Antioxidant activity directed isolations form punica granatum

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Siddiqi, R.; Saeed, M.G.; Sayeed, S.A.

    2012-01-01

    The extracts derived from pomegranate juice following antioxidant activity directed isolation were screened for their antioxidant activity through their ability to scavenge 2,2- diphenyl-l-picrylhydrazyl (DPPH) radicals. Only fractions which exhibited >50 / 0 DPPH scavenging effect at each step of isolation were selected for further purification and their ability to reduce peroxide formation (peroxide value) in heated com oil. Phytochemical analysis of the pure compounds finally obtained, revealed the presence of pelargonidin-3- galactose (Pg-3-galactose), cyanidin-3-glucose (Cy-3-Glucose), gallic acid, quercetin and myricetin in the fractions exhibiting >50% DPPH scavenging potential. The order of antioxidant activity of these pure compounds by DPPH method was found to be gallic acid> quercetin> myricetin> Cy-3-galactose> Pg-3-Glucose while order with respect to reduction in peroxide value (PV) was the reverse of DPPH. (author)

  18. Antioxidant attributes of four lamiaceae essential oils

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Hussain, A.I.; Anwar, A.; Iqbal, T.; Bhatti, I.A.

    2011-01-01

    The present study was conducted to investigate the antioxidant and radical scavenging activities of essential oils of four Lamiaceae plants i.e. Pogostemon cablin, Lavandula angustifolia, Melissa officinalis, and Salvia officinalis native to Pakistan. The essential oil contents from the aerial parts of P. cablin, L. angustifolia, M. officinalis and S. officinalis were found to be 1.98, 0.58, 0.25 and 0.46%, respectively. The principal chemical constituent established in P. cablin L. angustifolia, M. officinalis, and S. officinalis essential oils, were patchouli alcohol, linalool, citronellal, and 1,8-cineol, respectively. The antioxidant activity was evaluated by scavenging of 2,2-diphenyl-1-picryl hydrazyl radical (DPPH), percent inhibition of linoleic acid oxidation and bleaching beta-carotene in linoleic acid system. The essential oils possessed appreciable antioxidant and radical scavenging activities revealing potential for therapeutic applications. (author)

  19. Free radical scavenging injectable hydrogels for regenerative therapy.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Komeri, Remya; Thankam, Finosh Gnanaprakasam; Muthu, Jayabalan

    2017-02-01

    Pathological free radicals generated from inflamed and infarcted cardiac tissues interferes natural tissue repair mechanisms. Hypoxic microenvironment at the injured zone of non-regenerating cardiac tissues hinders the therapeutic attempts including cell therapy. Here we report an injectable, cytocompatible, free radical scavenging synthetic hydrogel formulation for regenerative therapy. New hydrogel (PEAX-P) is prepared with D-xylitol-co-fumarate-co-poly ethylene adipate-co-PEG comaromer (PEAX) and PEGDiacrylate. PEAX-P hydrogel swells 4.9 times the initial weight and retains 100.07kPa Young modulus at equilibrium swelling, which is suitable for cardiac applications. PEAX-P hydrogel retains elastic nature even at 60% compressive strain, which is favorable to fit with the dynamic and elastic natural tissue counterparts. PEAX-P hydrogel scavenges 51% DPPH radical, 40% hydroxyl radicals 41% nitrate radicals with 31% reducing power. The presence of hydrogel protects 62% cardiomyoblast cells treated with stress inducing media at LD 50 concentration. The free hydroxyl groups in sugar alcohols of the comacromer influence the free radical scavenging. Comparatively, PEAX-P hydrogel based on xylitol evinces slightly lower scavenging characteristics than with previously reported PEAM-P hydrogel containing mannitol having more hydroxyl groups. The possible free radical scavenging mechanism of the present hydrogel relies on the free π electrons associated with uncrosslinked fumarate bonds, hydrogen atoms associated with sugar alcohols/PEG and radical dilution by free water in the matrix. Briefly, the present PEAX-P hydrogel is a potential injectable system for combined antioxidant and regenerative therapy. Copyright © 2016 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  20. Antioxidants of edible mushrooms

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Kozarski, Maja; Klaus, Anita; Jakovljevic, Dragica; Todorovic, Nina; Vunduk, Jovana; Petrović, Predrag; Niksic, Miomir; Vrvic, Miroslav M.; Griensven, Van Leo

    2015-01-01

    Oxidative stress caused by an imbalanced metabolism and an excess of reactive oxygen species (ROS) lead to a range of health disorders in humans. Our endogenous antioxidant defense mechanisms and our dietary intake of antioxidants potentially regulate our oxidative homeostasis. Numerous synthetic

  1. 21 CFR 868.5590 - Scavenging mask.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-04-01

    ... 21 Food and Drugs 8 2010-04-01 2010-04-01 false Scavenging mask. 868.5590 Section 868.5590 Food... DEVICES ANESTHESIOLOGY DEVICES Therapeutic Devices § 868.5590 Scavenging mask. (a) Identification. A scavenging mask is a device positioned over a patient's nose to deliver anesthetic or analgesic gases to the...

  2. Propolis in Kenya: Antioxidative and Radical Scavenging Activity in ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Dept. of Food Science & Technology

    2013-01-01

    Jan 1, 2013 ... Training Coordinator, Kenyatta Agricultural Training center , P.O BOX 152 – ... tested in linoleic acid-β-carotene system and in soybean oil. .... Extraction of crude soybean oil: The crude soybean oil used for the analysis was.

  3. Study of antioxidant activity and free radical scavenging power of ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    According to the undesirable effects of many chemical preservatives in food products such as oilseed extraction industry, the possibility of substituting these materials with effective compounds of herbal plants have been considered by the researchers. In this study, at first, the Physalis Alkekengi flower extract was extracted ...

  4. Antioxidant and Free Radical Scavenging Abilities of some ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    ±0.26mg/ml) while 'zobo' drink with ginger (ZG) recorded the highest flavonoids and vitamin ... flavonoids and vitamin C in comparison to kunu drink. ..... color variability among new plantain and banana ... peels and pulps (Musa Paradisiaca).

  5. Antioxidant and free radical scavenging activities of plant extracts ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    STORAGESEVER

    2008-06-17

    Jun 17, 2008 ... venging mechanism as part of their activity (Perry et al.,. 1999; Lin ... are used in traditional medicine (Argueta et al., 1994;. Monroy-Ortíz ..... Bermejo P, Iglesias I, Abad MJ, Gómez-Serranillos P, Liso PA, Villar. A, Chiriboga X ...

  6. Anti-Oxidative, Metal Chelating and Radical Scavenging Effects of ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    ... (8): 1349-1355. ISSN: 1596-5996 (print); 1596-9827 (electronic) ... 3 kDa fraction against oxidative protein damage were comparable to that of reduced glutathione. ... optimum temperatures of each protease, namely .... exhibited concentration-dependent increase in .... Ability of Ethanol Extracts of Hypericum Scabrum L.

  7. Scavenging in the genus Natrix

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Cesar Ayres

    2012-07-01

    Full Text Available Scavenging is reported as an unusual behaviour of snakes. However, it is likely more common than is supposed. Here I report the use of dead newts as prey source by water snakes of the genus Natrix at a dam in north-western Spain. Juveniles and adults viperine snakes (Natrix maura, and also an adult grass snake (Natrix natrix were found feeding on newt carcasses.

  8. Computational study of the structure-free radical scavenging relationship of procyanidins.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mendoza-Wilson, Ana María; Castro-Arredondo, Sergio Ivan; Balandrán-Quintana, René Renato

    2014-10-15

    Procyanidins (PCs) are effective free radical scavengers, however, their antioxidant ability is variable because they have different degrees of polymerisation, are composed by distinct types of subunits and are very susceptible to changes in conformation. In this work the structure-free radical scavenging relationship of monomers, dimers and trimers of PCs was studied through the hydrogen atom transfer (HAT), sequential proton-loss electron-transfer (SPLET) and single electron transfer followed by proton transfer (SET-PT) mechanisms in aqueous phase, employing the Density Functional Theory (DFT) computational method. The structure-free radical scavenging relationship of PCs showed a very similar behaviour in HAT and SET-PT mechanisms, but very different in the SPLET mechanism. The structural factor that showed more effects on the ability of PCs to scavenge free radicals in aqueous phase was the conformation. Copyright © 2014 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  9. In vitro and in vivo antioxidant activities of inulin.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Hong-Mei Shang

    Full Text Available This study was designed to investigate the in vitro and in vivo antioxidant activities of inulin. The in vitro assays demonstrated that the antioxidant activities of inulin, including the DPPH radical scavenging activity, ABTS scavenging activity and ferric reducing power, were weak and significantly lower than those of Vitamin C (P < 0.05. The influence of dietary supplementation with inulin on the antioxidant status of laying hens was evaluated with in vivo antioxidant assays. The results indicated that inulin supplementation quadratically improved the egg production rate of the laying hens (P < 0.01. The antioxidant enzyme activities in the serum, including SOD, CAT, and GSH-Px, and the total antioxidant capacity increased quadratically as inulin levels increased (P < 0.001. The levels of MDA in the serum decreased quadratically as inulin levels increased (P < 0.001. These findings suggest that inulin has the potential to improve the antioxidant status of laying hens.

  10. Computational studies of free radical-scavenging properties of phenolic compounds.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Alov, Petko; Tsakovska, Ivanka; Pajeva, Ilza

    2015-01-01

    For more than half a century free radical-induced alterations at cellular and organ levels have been investigated as a probable underlying mechanism of a number of adverse health conditions. Consequently, significant research efforts have been spent for discovering more effective and potent antioxidants / free radical scavengers for treatment of these adverse conditions. Being by far the most used antioxidants among natural and synthetic compounds, mono- and polyphenols have been the focus of both experimental and computational research on mechanisms of free radical scavenging. Quantum chemical studies have provided a significant amount of data on mechanisms of reactions between phenolic compounds and free radicals outlining a number of properties with a key role for the radical scavenging activity and capacity of phenolics. The obtained quantum chemical parameters together with other molecular descriptors have been used in quantitative structure-activity relationship (QSAR) analyses for the design of new more effective phenolic antioxidants and for identification of the most useful natural antioxidant phenolics. This review aims at presenting the state of the art in quantum chemical and QSAR studies of phenolic antioxidants and at analysing the trends observed in the field in the last decade.

  11. Increase in the free radical scavenging capability of bitter gourd by a heat-drying process.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wei, Lu; Shaoyun, Wang; Shutao, Liu; Jianwu, Zhou; Lijing, Ke; Pingfan, Rao

    2013-12-01

    Bitter gourd (Momordica charantia Linn.) is widely regarded as one of the best remedy foods for diabetes. The positive effect of bitter gourd on diabetes has been attributed in part to the remarkable free radical scavenging activity of its boiled water extract from sun-dried fruits. It is well known that a heat process significantly influences the antioxidant activity of fresh fruits. However, the heat drying processes of bitter gourd have not been studied so far. Here, we show that the free radical scavenging capability of bitter gourd extract significantly increases after the heat drying process, while the content of flavonoids and phenols, which are generally regarded as the main antioxidant components in bitter gourd, remain unaffected. Furthermore, the content of free amino acids and the total reducing sugar were found to decrease with increasing browning index, indicating the progression of the Maillard reaction, products of which are known to possess significant antioxidant activity. Therefore, it suggests that Maillard reaction products may be the main contributors to the increase in antioxidant capability. Finally, the bitter gourd extract with the higher antioxidant activity, was shown to manifest a corresponding higher proliferation activity on NIT-1 beta-cells. These results suggest that controllable conditions in the heat-drying processing of fresh bitter gourd fruit is of significance for enhancing the total free radical scavenging capacity, beta-cell proliferation activity and possibly the anti-diabetic activity of this fruit.

  12. Polyphenols, Antioxidants and the Sympathetic Nervous System.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bruno, Rosa Maria; Ghiadoni, Lorenzo

    2018-01-01

    A high dietary intake of polyphenols has been associated with a reduced cardiovascular mortality, due to their antioxidant properties. However, growing evidence suggests that counteracting oxidative stress in cardiovascular disease might also reduce sympathetic nervous system overactivity. This article reviews the most commonly used techniques to measure sympathetic activity in humans; the role of sympathetic activation in the pathophysiology of cardiovascular diseases; current evidence demonstrating that oxidative stress is involved in the regulation of sympathetic activity and how antioxidants and polyphenols might counteract sympathetic overactivity, particularly focusing on preliminary data from human studies. The main mechanisms by which polyphenols are cardioprotective are related to the improvement of vascular function and their anti-atherogenic effect. Furthermore, a blood pressure-lowering effect was consistently demonstrated in randomized controlled trials in humans, when the effect of flavonoid-rich foods, such as tea and chocolate, was tested. More recent studies suggest that inhibition of sympathetic overactivity might be one of the mechanisms by which these substances exert their cardioprotective effects. Indeed, an increased adrenergic traffic to the vasculature is a major mechanism of disease in a number of cardiovascular and extra-cardiac diseases, including hypertension, obesity, metabolic syndrome and heart failure. A considerable body of evidence, mostly from experimental studies, support the hypothesis that reactive oxygen species might exert sympathoexcitatory effects both at the central and at the peripheral level. Accordingly, supplementation with antioxidants might reduce adrenergic overdrive to the vasculature and blunt cardiovascular reactivity to stress. While supplementation with "classical" antioxidants such as ROS-scavengers has many limitations, increasing the intake of polyphenol-rich foods seems to be a promising novel therapeutic

  13. Phenolic Acid Profiling, Antioxidant, and Anti-Inflammatory Activities, and miRNA Regulation in the Polyphenols of 16 Blueberry Samples from China.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Su, Xianming; Zhang, Jian; Wang, Hongqing; Xu, Jing; He, Jiuming; Liu, Liying; Zhang, Ting; Chen, Ruoyun; Kang, Jie

    2017-02-18

    To investigate the anti-atherosclerosis related mechanism of blueberries, the phenolic acids (PAs) content, antioxidant and anti-inflammatory activities, as well as the microRNA (miRNA) regulation of polyphenol fractions in blueberry samples from China were studied. Sixteen batches of blueberries including 14 commercialized cultivars (Reka, Patriot, Brigitta, Bluecrop, Berkeley, Duke, Darrow, Northland, Northblue, Northcountry, Bluesource, Southgood, O'Neal, and Misty) were used in this study. Seven PAs in the polyphenol fractions from 16 blueberry samples in China were quantified by high performance liquid chromatography/tandem mass spectrometry (HPLC/MS²). The antioxidant activities of blueberry polyphenols were tested by (1,1-diphenyl-2-picrylhydrazyl [DPPH]) assay. The anti-inflammatory (tumor necrosis factor-α [TNF-α] and interleukin-6 [IL-6]) activities of the polyphenol fractions of the blueberries were investigated by using lipopolysaccharide (LPS) induced RAW 264.7 macrophages. The correlation analysis showed that the antioxidant (1,1-diphenyl-2-picrylhydrazyl [DPPH]) and anti-inflammatory (tumor necrosis factor-α [TNF-α] and interleukin-6 [IL-6]) activities of the polyphenol fractions of the blueberries were in accordance with their PA contents. Although the polyphenol-enriched fractions of blueberries could inhibit the microRNAs (miRNAs) (miR-21, miR-146a, and miR-125b) to different extents, no significant contribution from the PAs was observed. The inhibition of these miRNAs could mostly be attributed to the other compounds present in the polyphenol-enriched fraction of the blueberries. This is the first study to evaluate the PAs content, antioxidant and anti-inflammatory activities, and miRNA regulation of Chinese blueberries.

  14. Phenolic Acid Profiling, Antioxidant, and Anti-Inflammatory Activities, and miRNA Regulation in the Polyphenols of 16 Blueberry Samples from China

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Xianming Su

    2017-02-01

    Full Text Available To investigate the anti-atherosclerosis related mechanism of blueberries, the phenolic acids (PAs content, antioxidant and anti-inflammatory activities, as well as the microRNA (miRNA regulation of polyphenol fractions in blueberry samples from China were studied. Sixteen batches of blueberries including 14 commercialized cultivars (Reka, Patriot, Brigitta, Bluecrop, Berkeley, Duke, Darrow, Northland, Northblue, Northcountry, Bluesource, Southgood, O’Neal, and Misty were used in this study. Seven PAs in the polyphenol fractions from 16 blueberry samples in China were quantified by high performance liquid chromatography/tandem mass spectrometry (HPLC/MS2. The antioxidant activities of blueberry polyphenols were tested by (1,1-diphenyl-2-picrylhydrazyl [DPPH] assay. The anti-inflammatory (tumor necrosis factor-α [TNF-α] and interleukin-6 [IL-6] activities of the polyphenol fractions of the blueberries were investigated by using lipopolysaccharide (LPS induced RAW 264.7 macrophages. The correlation analysis showed that the antioxidant (1,1-diphenyl-2-picrylhydrazyl [DPPH] and anti-inflammatory (tumor necrosis factor-α [TNF-α] and interleukin-6 [IL-6] activities of the polyphenol fractions of the blueberries were in accordance with their PA contents. Although the polyphenol-enriched fractions of blueberries could inhibit the microRNAs (miRNAs (miR-21, miR-146a, and miR-125b to different extents, no significant contribution from the PAs was observed. The inhibition of these miRNAs could mostly be attributed to the other compounds present in the polyphenol-enriched fraction of the blueberries. This is the first study to evaluate the PAs content, antioxidant and anti-inflammatory activities, and miRNA regulation of Chinese blueberries.

  15. Redox regulation of antioxidant enzymes: post-translational modulation of catalase and glutathione peroxidase activity by resveratrol in diabetic rat liver.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sadi, Gökhan; Bozan, Davut; Yildiz, Huseyin Bekir

    2014-08-01

    Resveratrol is a strong antioxidant that exhibits blood glucose-lowering effects, which might contribute to its usefulness in preventing complications associated with diabetes. The present study aimed to investigate resveratrol effects on catalase (CAT) and glutathione peroxidase (GPx) gene and protein expression, their phosphorylation states and activities in rat liver of STZ-induced diabetes. Diabetes increased the levels of total protein phosphorylation and p-CAT, while mRNA expression, protein levels, and activity were reduced. Although diabetes induced transcriptional repression over GPx, it did not affect the protein levels and activity. When resveratrol was administered to diabetic rats, an increase in activity was associated with an increase in p-GPx levels. Decrease in Sirtuin1 (SIRT1) and nuclear factor erythroid 2-related factor (Nrf2) and increase in nuclear factor kappa B (NFκB) gene expression in diabetes were associated with a decrease in CAT and GPx mRNA expression. A possible compensatory mechanism for reduced gene expression of antioxidant enzymes is proved to be nuclear translocation of redox-sensitive Nrf2 and NFκB in diabetes which is confirmed by the increase in nuclear and decrease in cytoplasmic protein levels of Nrf2 and NFκB. Taken together, these findings revealed that an increase in the oxidized state in diabetes intricately modified the cellular phosphorylation status and regulation of antioxidant enzymes. Gene regulation of antioxidant enzymes was accompanied by nuclear translocation of Nrf2 and NFκB. Resveratrol administration also activated a coordinated cytoprotective response against diabetes-induced changes in liver tissues.

  16. Free radical scavenging activities of yellow gentian (Gentiana lutea L.) measured by electron spin resonance.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kusar, A; Zupancic, A; Sentjurc, M; Baricevic, D

    2006-10-01

    Yellow gentian (Gentiana lutea L.) is a herbal species with a long-term use in traditional medicine due to its digestive and stomachic properties. This paper presents an investigation of the free radical scavenging activity of methanolic extracts of yellow gentian leaves and roots in two different systems using electron spin resonance (ESR) spectrometry. Assays were based on the stable free radical 1,1-diphenyl-2-picrylhydrazyl (DPPH) and the superoxide radicals (O2*-) generated by the xanthine/xanthine oxidase (X/XO) system. The results of gentian methanolic extracts were compared with the antioxidant capacity of synthetic antioxidant butylated hydroxyanisole (BHA). This study proves that yellow gentian leaves and roots exhibit considerable antioxidant properties, expressed either by their capability to scavenge DPPH or superoxide radicals.

  17. Scavenging efficiency and red fox abundance in Mediterranean mountains with and without vultures

    Science.gov (United States)

    Morales-Reyes, Zebensui; Sánchez-Zapata, José A.; Sebastián-González, Esther; Botella, Francisco; Carrete, Martina; Moleón, Marcos

    2017-02-01

    Vertebrate scavenging assemblages include two major functional groups: obligate scavengers (i.e., vultures), which depend totally on carrion and are undergoing severe declines around the globe, and facultative scavengers, which exploit carrion opportunistically and are generally ubiquitous. Our goal was to investigate the hypothesis that vultures can indirectly regulate the abundance of mesopredators (i.e., facultative scavengers) through modulating their access to carrion resources. We studied scavenging efficiency and red fox (Vulpes vulpes) abundance in two neighbouring areas of South-eastern Spain where vultures (mainly griffon vultures Gyps fulvus) are present (Cazorla) and absent (Espuña). To do so, we monitored ungulate carcasses consumption during winter and summer, and counted red fox scats along walking transects as a proxy of fox density. Our results confirmed that scavenging efficiency was higher in Cazorla and in carcasses visited by vultures. This resulted in increasing scavenging opportunities for facultative scavengers where vultures were absent. Accordingly, mean red fox abundance was higher in Espuña. These results suggest the existence of a vulture-mediated mesopredator release (i.e., an increase of mesopredator numbers following vulture loss), which could trigger important indirect ecological effects. Also, our study demonstrates that facultative scavengers are hardly able to functionally replace vultures, mainly because the former exploit carrion on a slower time scale.

  18. Antioxidant capacity of anthocyanins from acerola genotypes

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Vera Lúcia Arroxelas Galvão De Lima

    2011-03-01

    Full Text Available Anthocyanins from 12 acerola genotypes cultivated at the Active Germplasm Bank at Federal Rural University of Pernambuco were isolated for antioxidant potential evaluation. The antioxidant activity and radical scavenging capacity of the anthocyanin isolates were measured according to the β-carotene bleaching method and 1,1-diphenyl-2-picrylhydrazyl (DPPH free radical scavenging assay, respectively. The antioxidant activity varied from 25.58 to 47.04% at 0.2 mg.mL-1, and it was measured using the β-carotene bleaching method. The free radical scavenging capacity increased according to the increase in concentration and reaction time by the DPPH assay. At 16.7 μg.mL-1 concentration and after 5 minutes and 2 hours reaction time, the percentage of scavenged radicals varied from 36.97 to 63.92% and 73.27 to 94.54%, respectively. Therefore, the antioxidant capacity of acerola anthocyanins varied amongst acerola genotypes and methods used. The anthocyanins present in this fruit may supply substantial dietary source of antioxidant which may promote health and produce disease prevention effects.

  19. Reactive Oxygen Species and the Aging Eye: Specific Role of Metabolically Active Mitochondria in Maintaining Lens Function and in the Initiation of the Oxidation-Induced Maturity Onset Cataract--A Novel Platform of Mitochondria-Targeted Antioxidants With Broad Therapeutic Potential for Redox Regulation and Detoxification of Oxidants in Eye Diseases.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Babizhayev, Mark A; Yegorov, Yegor E

    2016-01-01

    The aging eye appears to be at considerable risk from oxidative stress. A great deal of research indicates that dysfunctional mitochondria are the primary site of reactive oxygen species (ROS). More than 95% of O2 produced during normal metabolism is generated by the electron transport chain in the inner mitochondrial membrane. Mitochondria are also the major target of ROS. Cataract formation, the opacification of the eye lens, is one of the leading causes of human blindness worldwide, accounting for 47.8% of all causes of blindness. Cataracts result from the deposition of aggregated proteins in the eye lens and lens fiber cell plasma membrane damage, which causes clouding of the lens, light scattering, and obstruction of vision. ROS-induced damage in the lens cell may consist of oxidation of proteins, DNA damage, and/or lipid peroxidation, all of which have been implicated in cataractogenesis. This article is an attempt to integrate how mitochondrial ROS are altered in the aging eye along with those protective and repair therapeutic systems believed to regulate ROS levels in ocular tissues and how damage to these systems contributes to age-onset eye disease and cataract formation. Mitochondria-targeted antioxidants might be used to effectively prevent ROS-induced oxidation of lipids and proteins in the inner mitochondrial membrane in vivo. As a result of the combination of weak metal chelating, OH and lipid peroxyl radicals scavenging, reducing activities to liberated fatty acid, and phospholipid hydroperoxides, carnosine and carcinine appear to be physiological antioxidants able to efficiently protect the lipid phase of biologic membranes and aqueous environments and act as the antiapoptotic natural drug compounds The authors developed and patented the new ophthalmic compositions, including N-acetylcarnosine, acting as a prodrug of naturally targeted to mitochondria L-carnosine endowed with pluripotent antioxidant activities combined with mitochondria

  20. To scavenge or not to scavenge: that is the question

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Nowak, Elzbieta; Brzuszkiewicz, Anna [Synchrotron Radiation Research Section, MCL, National Cancer Institute, Argonne National Laboratory, Argonne, IL 60439 (United States); Dauter, Miroslawa [SAIC-Frederick Inc., Basic Research Program, Argonne National Laboratory, Argonne, IL 60439 (United States); Dauter, Zbigniew, E-mail: dauter@anl.gov [Synchrotron Radiation Research Section, MCL, National Cancer Institute, Argonne National Laboratory, Argonne, IL 60439 (United States); Rosenbaum, Gerd, E-mail: dauter@anl.gov [Department of Biochemistry, University of Georgia, SER-CAT at the APS, Argonne, IL 60439 (United States); Synchrotron Radiation Research Section, MCL, National Cancer Institute, Argonne National Laboratory, Argonne, IL 60439 (United States)

    2009-09-01

    Analysis of a series of diffraction data sets measured from several native as well as nicotinic acid-soaked crystals of trypsin suggests that this potential scavenger does not have any statistically significant effect on the amount of radiation damage incurred in the crystals on X-ray irradiation at 100 K. Analysis of a series of diffraction data sets measured from four native as well as four nicotinic acid-soaked crystals of trypsin at 100 K shows a high variability in radiation-sensitivity among individual crystals for both nicotinic acid-soaked and native crystals. The level of radiation-sensitivity and the extent of its variability is statistically indistinguishable between the two conditions. This suggests that this potential scavenger does not have any statistically significant effect on the amount of radiation damage incurred in the crystals on X-ray irradiation. This is in contrast to previous results [Kauffmann et al. (2006 ▶), Structure, 14, 1099–1105] where only one crystal specimen was used for each condition (native and nicotinic acid-soaked)

  1. Hemoglobin and heme scavenger receptors

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Nielsen, Marianne Jensby; Møller, Holger Jon; Moestrup, Søren Kragh

    2010-01-01

    Heme, the functional group of hemoglobin, myoglobin, and other hemoproteins, is a highly toxic substance when it appears in the extracellular milieu. To circumvent potential harmful effects of heme from hemoproteins released during physiological or pathological cell damage (such as hemolysis...... and rhabdomyolysis), specific high capacity scavenging systems have evolved in the mammalian organism. Two major systems, which essentially function in a similar way by means of a circulating latent plasma carrier protein that upon ligand binding is recognized by a receptor, are represented by a) the hemoglobin...

  2. Effect of concentration and molecular weight of chitosan and its derivative on the free radical scavenging ability.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Li, Huili; Xu, Qing; Chen, Yun; Wan, Ajun

    2014-03-01

    Chitosan is a biodegradable and biocompatible natural scaffold material, which has numerous applications in biomedical sciences. In this study, the in vitro antioxidant activity of chitosan scaffold material was investigated by the chemiluminescence signal generated from the hydroxyl radical (•OH) scavenging assay. The scavenging mechanism was also discussed. The results indicated that the free radical scavenging ability of chitosan scaffold material significantly depends on the chitosan concentration and shows interesting kinetic change. Within the experimental concentration range, the optimal concentration of chitosan was 0.2 mg/mL. The molecular weight of chitosan also attributed to the free radical scavenging ability. Comparison between chitosan and its derivative found that carboxymethyl chitosan possessed higher scavenging ability. Copyright © 2013 Society of Plastics Engineers.

  3. Ectopic expression of wheat expansin gene TaEXPA2 improved the salt tolerance of transgenic tobacco by regulating Na+ /K+ and antioxidant competence.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chen, Yanhui; Han, Yangyang; Kong, Xiangzhu; Kang, Hanhan; Ren, Yuanqing; Wang, Wei

    2017-02-01

    High salinity is one of the most serious environmental stresses that limit crop growth. Expansins are cell wall proteins that regulate plant development and abiotic stress tolerance by mediating cell wall expansion. We studied the function of a wheat expansin gene, TaEXPA2, in salt stress tolerance by overexpressing it in tobacco. Overexpression of TaEXPA2 enhanced the salt stress tolerance of transgenic tobacco plants as indicated by the presence of higher germination rates, longer root length, more lateral roots, higher survival rates and more green leaves under salt stress than in the wild type (WT). Further, when leaf disks of WT plants were incubated in cell wall protein extracts from the transgenic tobacco plants, their chlorophyll content was higher under salt stress, and this improvement from TaEXPA2 overexpression in transgenic tobacco was inhibited by TaEXPA2 protein antibody. The water status of transgenic tobacco plants was improved, perhaps by the accumulation of osmolytes such as proline and soluble sugar. TaEXPA2-overexpressing tobacco lines exhibited lower Na + but higher K + accumulation than WT plants. Antioxidant competence increased in the transgenic plants because of the increased activity of antioxidant enzymes. TaEXPA2 protein abundance in wheat was induced by NaCl, and ABA signaling was involved. Gene expression regulation was involved in the enhanced salt stress tolerance of the TaEXPA2 transgenic plants. Our results suggest that TaEXPA2 overexpression confers salt stress tolerance on the transgenic plants, and this is associated with improved water status, Na + /K + homeostasis, and antioxidant competence. ABA signaling participates in TaEXPA2-regulated salt stress tolerance. © 2016 Scandinavian Plant Physiology Society.

  4. Free radical scavenging potential and HPTLC analysis of Indigofera tinctoria linn (Fabaceae

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Sakthivel Srinivasan

    2016-04-01

    Full Text Available The objective of this study was to evaluate the free radical scavenging potential and high performance thin layer chromatography (HPTLC fingerprinting of Indigofera tinctoria (I. tinctoria. Phytochemical analysis was carried out using standard methods, and free radical scavenging activity of the plant was determined using 2,2-diphenyl-1-picrylhydrazy (DPPH, nitric oxide (NO and superoxide anion (O2− radical scavenging capacities. HPTLC plate was kept in CAMAG TLC Scanner 3 and the Rf values at fingerprint data were recorded by WINCATS software. Aqueous extract of I. tinctoria reliably showed the total phenolics (267.2±2.42 mg/g, flavonoids (75.43±3.36 mg/g and antioxidants (349.11±8.04 mg/g. The extract was found to have DPPH (52.08%, NO (23.12% and O2− (26.79% scavenging activities at the concentration of 250 μg/mL and the results were statistically significant compared with ascorbic acid standard (p<0.05. HPTLC results confirmed that the extract contained several potential active components such as phenols, flavonoids, saponins and terpenoids as the slides revealed multi-colored bands of varying intensities. This study confirmed that the plant had multipotential antioxidant and free radicals scavenging activities.

  5. Renoprotective effect of the antioxidant curcumin: Recent findings☆

    Science.gov (United States)

    Trujillo, Joyce; Chirino, Yolanda Irasema; Molina-Jijón, Eduardo; Andérica-Romero, Ana Cristina; Tapia, Edilia; Pedraza-Chaverrí, José

    2013-01-01

    For years, there have been studies based on the use of natural compounds plant-derived as potential therapeutic agents for various diseases in humans. Curcumin is a phenolic compound extracted from Curcuma longa rhizome commonly used in Asia as a spice, pigment and additive. In traditional medicine of India and China, curcumin is considered as a therapeutic agent used in several foods. Numerous studies have shown that curcumin has broad biological functions particularly antioxidant and antiinflammatory. In fact, it has been established that curcumin is a bifunctional antioxidant; it exerts antioxidant activity in a direct and an indirect way by scavenging reactive oxygen species and inducing an antioxidant response, respectively. The renoprotective effect of curcumin has been evaluated in several experimental models including diabetic nephropathy, chronic renal failure, ischemia and reperfusion and nephrotoxicity induced by compounds such as gentamicin, adriamycin, chloroquine, iron nitrilotriacetate, sodium fluoride, hexavalent chromium and cisplatin. It has been shown recently in a model of chronic renal failure that curcumin exerts a therapeutic effect; in fact it reverts not only systemic alterations but also glomerular hemodynamic changes. Another recent finding shows that the renoprotective effect of curcumin is associated to preservation of function and redox balance of mitochondria. Taking together, these studies attribute the protective effect of curcumin in the kidney to the induction of the master regulator of antioxidant response nuclear factor erythroid-derived 2 (Nrf2), inhibition of mitochondrial dysfunction, attenuation of inflammatory response, preservation of antioxidant enzymes and prevention of oxidative stress. The information presented in this paper identifies curcumin as a promising renoprotective molecule against renal injury. PMID:24191240

  6. Renoprotective effect of the antioxidant curcumin: Recent findings

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Joyce Trujillo

    2013-01-01

    Full Text Available For years, there have been studies based on the use of natural compounds plant-derived as potential therapeutic agents for various diseases in humans. Curcumin is a phenolic compound extracted from Curcuma longa rhizome commonly used in Asia as a spice, pigment and additive. In traditional medicine of India and China, curcumin is considered as a therapeutic agent used in several foods. Numerous studies have shown that curcumin has broad biological functions particularly antioxidant and antiinflammatory. In fact, it has been established that curcumin is a bifunctional antioxidant; it exerts antioxidant activity in a direct and an indirect way by scavenging reactive oxygen species and inducing an antioxidant response, respectively. The renoprotective effect of curcumin has been evaluated in several experimental models including diabetic nephropathy, chronic renal failure, ischemia and reperfusion and nephrotoxicity induced by compounds such as gentamicin, adriamycin, chloroquine, iron nitrilotriacetate, sodium fluoride, hexavalent chromium and cisplatin. It has been shown recently in a model of chronic renal failure that curcumin exerts a therapeutic effect; in fact it reverts not only systemic alterations but also glomerular hemodynamic changes. Another recent finding shows that the renoprotective effect of curcumin is associated to preservation of function and redox balance of mitochondria. Taking together, these studies attribute the protective effect of curcumin in the kidney to the induction of the master regulator of antioxidant response nuclear factor erythroid-derived 2 (Nrf2, inhibition of mitochondrial dysfunction, attenuation of inflammatory response, preservation of antioxidant enzymes and prevention of oxidative stress. The information presented in this paper identifies curcumin as a promising renoprotective molecule against renal injury.

  7. Intracellular ROS protection efficiency and free radical-scavenging activity of curcumin.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Abolfazl Barzegar

    Full Text Available Curcumin has many pharmaceutical applications, many of which arise from its potent antioxidant properties. The present research examined the antioxidant activities of curcumin in polar solvents by a comparative study using ESR, reduction of ferric iron in aqueous medium and intracellular ROS/toxicity assays. ESR data indicated that the steric hindrance among adjacent big size groups within a galvinoxyl molecule limited the curcumin to scavenge galvinoxyl radicals effectively, while curcumin showed a powerful capacity for scavenging intracellular smaller oxidative molecules such as H₂O₂, HO•, ROO•. Cell viability and ROS assays demonstrated that curcumin was able to penetrate into the polar medium inside the cells and to protect them against the highly toxic and lethal effects of cumene hydroperoxide. Curcumin also showed good electron-transfer capability, with greater activity than trolox in aqueous solution. Curcumin can readily transfer electron or easily donate H-atom from two phenolic sites to scavenge free radicals. The excellent electron transfer capability of curcumin is because of its unique structure and different functional groups, including a β-diketone and several π electrons that have the capacity to conjugate between two phenyl rings. Therfore, since curcumin is inherently a lipophilic compound, because of its superb intracellular ROS scavenging activity, it can be used as an effective antioxidant for ROS protection within the polar cytoplasm.

  8. ANTIOXIDANT POTENCY OF WATER KEFIR

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Muneer Alsayadi M.S.

    2013-06-01

    Full Text Available Reactive oxygen species (ROS have strong relationship with several diseases. Many fermented foods were reported to be important sources for antioxidant compounds. Antioxidant activity of water kefir never reported in the scientific literature. The objective of this study was to detect and investigate the antioxidant potency of water kefir. Water kefir was prepared by fermentation of sugar solution with kefir grains for 24h. Antioxidant activity of fresh water kefir drink and its extract with (0.125–5 mg/ml was evaluated using 2,2,-diphenyl-1-pricrylhydrozyl (DPPH scavenging method, and inhibition of ascorbate autoxidation and the reducing power of water kefir were determined, Butylated hydroxyanisole (BHA and ascorbic acid were used for comparison. Water kefir demonstrated great ability to DPPH scavenging ranged (9.88-63.17%. And inhibit ascorbate oxidation by (6.08-25.57% increased in consequent with concentration raising. These results prime to conclude that water kefir could be promisor source of natural antioxidants with good potency in health developing.

  9. Effects of hypoxia on ionic regulation, glycogen utilization and antioxidative ability in the gills and liver of the aquatic air-breathing fish Trichogaster microlepis.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Huang, Chun-Yen; Lin, Hui-Chen; Lin, Cheng-Huang

    2015-01-01

    We examined the hypothesis that Trichogaster microlepis, a fish with an accessory air-breathing organ, uses a compensatory strategy involving changes in both behavior and protein levels to enhance its gas exchange ability. This compensatory strategy enables the gill ion-regulatory metabolism to maintain homeostasis during exposure to hypoxia. The present study aimed to determine whether ionic regulation, glycogen utilization and antioxidant activity differ in terms of expression under hypoxic stresses; fish were sampled after being subjected to 3 or 12h of hypoxia and 12h of recovery under normoxia. The air-breathing behavior of the fish increased under hypoxia. No morphological modification of the gills was observed. The expression of carbonic anhydrase II did not vary among the treatments. The Na(+)/K(+)-ATPase enzyme activity did not decrease, but increases in Na(+)/K(+)-ATPase protein expression and ionocyte levels were observed. The glycogen utilization increased under hypoxia as measured by glycogen phosphorylase protein expression and blood glucose level, whereas the glycogen content decreased. The enzyme activity of several components of the antioxidant system in the gills, including catalase, glutathione peroxidase, and superoxidase dismutase, increased in enzyme activity. Based on the above data, we concluded that T. microlepis is a hypoxia-tolerant species that does not exhibit ion-regulatory suppression but uses glycogen to maintain energy utilization in the gills under hypoxic stress. Components of the antioxidant system showed increased expression under the applied experimental treatments. Copyright © 2014 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  10. Antioxidant and Anti-Fatigue Activities of Flavonoids from Puerariae ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    This study evaluated the antioxidant and anti-fatigue activities of flavonoids from Puerariae radix (FPR). In vitro antioxidant activities of FPR were investigated through hydroxyl and superoxide radical scavenging activities. In vivo anti-fatigue activity of FPR was investigated through loaded swimming exercise of mice. Results ...

  11. GHK-Cu may Prevent Oxidative Stress in Skin by Regulating Copper and Modifying Expression of Numerous Antioxidant Genes

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Loren Pickart

    2015-07-01

    Full Text Available The copper binding tripeptide GHK (glycyl-l-histidyl-l-lysine is a naturally occurring plasma peptide that significantly declines during human aging. It has been established that GHK:Copper(2+ improves wound healing and tissue regeneration and stimulates collagen and decorin production. GHK-Cu also supports angiogenesis and nerve outgrowth, improves the condition of aging skin and hair, and possesses antioxidant and anti-inflammatory effects. In addition, it increases cellular stemness and secretion of trophic factors by mesenchymal stem cells. GHK’s antioxidant actions have been demonstrated in vitro and in animal studies. They include blocking the formation of reactive oxygen and carbonyl species, detoxifying toxic products of lipid peroxidation such as acrolein, protecting keratinocytes from lethal Ultraviolet B (UVB radiation, and blocking hepatic damage by dichloromethane radicals. In recent studies, GHK has been found to switch gene expression from a diseased state to a healthier state for certain cancers and for chronic obstructive pulmonary disease (COPD. The Broad Institute’s Connectivity Map indicated that GHK induces a 50% or greater change of expression in 31.2% of human genes. This paper reviews biological data demonstrating positive effects of GHK in skin and proposes interaction with antioxidant-related genes as a possible explanation of its antioxidant activity.

  12. Antioxidants of Edible Mushrooms

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Maja Kozarski

    2015-10-01

    Full Text Available Oxidative stress caused by an imbalanced metabolism and an excess of reactive oxygen species (ROS lead to a range of health disorders in humans. Our endogenous antioxidant defense mechanisms and our dietary intake of antioxidants potentially regulate our oxidative homeostasis. Numerous synthetic antioxidants can effectively improve defense mechanisms, but because of their adverse toxic effects under certain conditions, preference is given to natural compounds. Consequently, the requirements for natural, alternative sources of antioxidant foods identified in edible mushrooms, as well as the mechanistic action involved in their antioxidant properties, have increased rapidly. Chemical composition and antioxidant potential of mushrooms have been intensively studied. Edible mushrooms might be used directly in enhancement of antioxidant defenses through dietary supplementation to reduce the level of oxidative stress. Wild or cultivated, they have been related to significant antioxidant properties due to their bioactive compounds, such as polyphenols, polysaccharides, vitamins, carotenoids and minerals. Antioxidant and health benefits, observed in edible mushrooms, seem an additional reason for their traditional use as a popular delicacy food. This review discusses the consumption of edible mushrooms as a powerful instrument in maintaining health, longevity and life quality.

  13. Radical scavenging and iron-chelating activities of some greens used as traditional dishes in Mediterranean diet.

    Science.gov (United States)

    El, Sedef Nehir; Karakaya, Sibel

    2004-02-01

    This study aimed at evaluating the antioxidative activity of nine different families of greens. Raphanus raphanistrum (wild radish), Anchusa azurea (bugloss), Daucus carota (wild carrot), Sonchus oleraceus (sowthistle), Papaver rhoeas (corn poppy), Malva sylvestris (blue mallow), Foeniculum vulgare (fennel), Cichorium intybus (chicory) and Salicornia europaea (jointed glasswort) are native to the Mediterranean and are commonly consumed as a salad or an ingredient in some recipes. The antioxidative activities, including the radical scavenging effects, inhibition of hydrogen peroxide (H(2)O(2)), and Fe(2+)-chelating activity, were studied. All samples showed antioxidant activity as a radical scavenger in the experiment using the DPPH* radical. The ratio between the slopes of the kinetic model was used to compare antioxidant efficiency of different greens. Greens also possessed antioxidative activity toward H(2)O(2). Especially, greens exhibited a marked scavenging effect on H(2)O(2) at 0.2 g/ml concentration. The Fe(2+) ion-chelating activities of the samples except jointed glasswort were greater than 70%. The antioxidant activity of samples with different methods based on the inhibition of different reactions could not be compared. The current dietary guidelines include recommendations for an increase in the consumption of plant foods. Greens should provide an optimal supply of antioxidant substances in the diet.

  14. Combined application of compost and Bacillus sp. CIK-512 ameliorated the lead toxicity in radish by regulating the homeostasis of antioxidants and lead.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ahmad, Iftikhar; Akhtar, Muhammad Javed; Mehmood, Shehzad; Akhter, Kalsoom; Tahir, Muhammad; Saeed, Muhammad Farhan; Hussain, Muhammad Baqir; Hussain, Saddam

    2018-02-01

    Lead (Pb) contamination is ubiquitous and usually causes toxicity to plants. Nevertheless, application of compost and plant growth promoting rhizobacteria synergistically may ameliorate the Pb toxicity in radish. The present study assessed the effects of compost and Bacillus sp. CIK-512 on growth, physiology, antioxidants and uptake of Pb in contaminated soil and explored the possible mechanism for Pb phytotoxicity amelioration. Treatments comprised of un-inoculated control, compost, CIK-512, and compost + CIK-512; plants were grown in soil contaminated with Pb (500mgkg -1 ) and without Pb in pot culture. Lead caused reduction in shoot dry biomass, photosynthetic rate, stomatal conductance, relative water contents, whereas enhanced root dry biomass, ascorbate peroxidase, catalase, malondialdehyde and electrolyte leakage in comparison with non-contaminated control. Plants inoculated with strain CIK-512 and compost produced significantly higher dry biomass, photosynthetic rate and stomatal conductance in normal and contaminated soils. Bacterial strain CIK-512 and compost synergy improved growth and physiology of radish in contaminated soil possibly through homeostasis of antioxidant activities, reduced membrane leakage and Pb accumulation in shoot. Possibly, Pb-induced production of reactive oxygen species resulted in increased electrolyte leakage and malondialdehyde contents (r = 0.88-0.92), which led to reduction in growth (r = -0.97) and physiology (r = -0.38 to -0.80), however, such negative effects were ameliorated by the regulation of antioxidants (r = 0.78-0.87). The decreased activity of antioxidants coupled with Pb accumulation in aerial part of the radish indicates the Pb-phytotoxicity amelioration through synergistic application of compost and Bacillus sp. CIK-512. Copyright © 2017 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  15. Short term supplementation of dietary antioxidants selectively regulates the inflammatory responses during early cutaneous wound healing in diabetic mice

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    Park Na-Young

    2011-11-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background Diabetic foot ulcers are serious complications for diabetic patients, yet the precise mechanism that underlines the treatment of these diabetic complications remains unclear. We hypothesized that dietary antioxidant supplementation with vitamin C, combined either with vitamin E or with vitamin E and NAC, improves delayed wound healing through modulation of blood glucose levels, oxidative stress, and inflammatory response. Methods Diabetes was induced by administration of alloxan monohydrate. Mice were divided into 4 groups; CON (non-diabetic control mice fed AIN 93 G purified rodent diet, DM (diabetic mice fed AIN 93 G purified rodent diet, VCE (diabetic mice fed 0.5% vitamin C and 0.5% vitamin E supplemented diet, and Comb (diabetic mice fed 0.5% vitamin C, 0.5% vitamin E, and 2.5% NAC supplemented diet. After 10 days of dietary antioxidant supplementation, cutaneous full-thickness excisional wounds were performed, and the rate of wound closure was examined. TBARS as lipid peroxidation products and vitamin E levels were measured in the liver. Expression levels of oxidative stress and inflammatory response related proteins were measured in the cutaneous wound site. Results Dietary antioxidant supplementation improved blood glucose levels and wound closure rate and increased liver vitamin E, but not liver TBARS levels in the diabetic mice as compared to those of the CON. In addition, dietary antioxidant supplementation modulated the expression levels of pIκBα, HO-1, CuZnSOD, iNOS and COX-2 proteins in the diabetic mice. Conclusions These findings demonstrated that delayed wound healing is associated with an inflammatory response induced by hyperglycaemia, and suggests that dietary antioxidant supplementation may have beneficial effects on wound healing through selective modulation of blood glucose levels, oxidative stress, and inflammatory response.

  16. Physiological Role of a Multigrain Diet in Metabolic Regulations of Lipid and Antioxidant Profiles in Hypercholesteremic Rats

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    Rupal A. Vasant

    2014-06-01

    Full Text Available Objectives:The objective of the present study was to investigate the lipid and the antioxidant regulatory potential of a multigrain diet in laboratory animals with reference to lipid profiles, tissue lipid peroxidation and antioxidant status. Methods: Two types of diets, with or without addition of cholesterol, were used in the study – a commercial diet and a formulated multigrain diet (with Sorghum vulgare, Avena sativa, Pennisetum typhoideum, Oryza sativa, Eleusine coracana and Zea mays grains. After a 10-week period of feeding the diets to albino rats the plasma, liver and fecal lipid profiles and the hepatic and renal antioxidant status of the animals that were fed the commercial and the formulated diets (with and without cholesterol addition were assessed. Results: The commercial diet supplemented with cholesterol elevated the levels of plasma total lipids, total cholesterol, triglycerides, low-density lipoprotein cholesterol (LDL-C, and very low-density lipoprotein cholesterol (VLDL-C, as well as the atherogenic index (AI. The high-density lipoprotein cholesterol (HDL-C content and the antioxidant profiles (total ascorbic acid, superoxide dismutase, catalase, glutathione peroxidase reduced glutathione declined along with increases in lipid peroxidation. The formulated diet (with and without addition of cholesterol was found to be more efficient than the commercial diet in controlling plasma, hepatic and fecal lipid profiles, as well as hepatic and renal lipid peroxidation and antioxidant status, than of the hypercholesteremic animals. Conclusion:The multigrain diet used in the present study is effective in countering the hyperlipidemia and oxidative stress caused by high cholesterol intake.

  17. Scavenging and recombination kinetics in radiation chemistry.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Al-Samra, Eyad H; Green, Nicholas J B

    2017-08-02

    This work describes stochastic models developed to study the competition between radical scavenging and recombination for simple model systems typical of radiation chemistry, where the reactive particles are tightly clustered and reactions are assumed fully diffusion limited. Three models are developed: a Monte Carlo random flights model with a periodic boundary condition for scavengers, Monte Carlo simulations in which the scavenging rate is calculated from the Smoluchowski theory for diffusion-limited reactions and a modification of the independent reaction times method where the scavengers close to the spur are explicitly included and the scavengers further away are treated as a continuum. The results indicate that the Smoluchowski theory makes a systematic overestimate of the scavenging rate when such competition is present. A correction for the Smoluchowski rate constant is suggested, an analytical justification is presented and it is tested against the simulations, and shown to be a substantial improvement.

  18. Structure-Antioxidative and Anti-Inflammatory Activity Relationships of Purpurin and Related Anthraquinones in Chemical and Cell Assays

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Woo Nam

    2017-02-01

    Full Text Available Anthraquinone (9,10-anthraquinone and several hydroxy derivatives, including purpurin (1,2,4-trihydroxyanthraquinone, anthrarufin (1,5-dihydroxyanthraquinone, and chrysazin (1,8-dihydroxyanthraquinone, were evaluated for antioxidative and anti-inflammatory activities in chemical assays and mammalian cells (murine macrophage RAW 264.7 cells. Several tests were used to assess their activities: 1,1-diphenyl-2-picrylhydrazyl (DPPH free radical; ABTS radical cation; hydrogen peroxide scavenging; reduction of potassium ferricyanide; chelation of ferrous ions; inhibition of lipid peroxidation; inhibition of nitric oxide generation; scavenging of the intracellular hydroxyl radical; expression of NLRP3 polypeptide for inflammasome assembly; and quantitation of proinflammatory cytokine interleukin 1β (IL-1β for inflammasome activation. The results show that purpurin, from the root of the madder plant (Rubia tinctorum L., exhibited the highest antioxidative activity in both chemical and cultured cell antioxidant assays. The antioxidative activities of the other three anthraquinones were lower than that of purpurin. In addition, purpurin could down-regulate NLRP3 inflammasome assembly and activation, suggesting that it might protect foods against oxidative damage and prevent in vivo oxidative stress and inflammation. Structure-activity relationships and the significance of the results for food quality and human health are discussed.

  19. Determination of antioxidant activity of spices and their active principles by differential pulse voltammetry.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Palma, Alberto; Ruiz Montoya, Mercedes; Arteaga, Jesús F; Rodríguez Mellado, Jose M

    2014-01-22

    The anodic oxidation of mercury in the presence of hydrogen peroxide in differential pulse voltammetry (DPV) was used to determine the antioxidant (AO) character of radical scavengers. Hydroperoxide radical is formed at the potentials of the oxidation peak on mercury electrodes, such radical reacting with the antioxidants in different extension. The parameter C10 (antioxidant concentration at which the peak area decreases by 10%) is used to measure the scavenging activity of the individual antioxidants. To establish the scavenging activity of antioxidant mixtures as a whole, the parameter, μ10 as the reverse of V10, V10 being the volume necessary to decrease the peak area in DPV by 10%, was selected. Higher μ10 values correspond to higher scavenging activity. The studies have been extended to aqueous extracts of some species. The results may be useful in explaining the effect of spices in vitro and in vivo studies.

  20. Free radical scavenging activity and lipid peroxidation inhibition of Hypericum helianthemoides (spach Boiss

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Soheila Moein

    2015-06-01

    Full Text Available Antioxidants are compounds that obstruct the oxidation of macromolecules in the body. In general, there are two categories of antioxidants, natural and synthetic. Recently, interest has been increased considerably for obtaining new natural antioxidants. In this study, the scavenging of free radicals such as DPPH, NO and OH by Hypericum helianthemoides extract was evaluated. Also, the antioxidant properties of this extract were evaluated by FRAP, FTC methods and determination phenolic compounds. The plant was collected from north of Fars Province and plant extraction was obtained using ethanol. In DPPH radical scavenging, different concentrations of the Hypericum extract were added to DPPH radical. In hydroxyl radical scavenging, Fenton reaction mixture, TCA and TBA were mixed with Hypericum extract. In nitric radical scavenging, nitropruside was mixed with Hypericum extract and then sulphanilic acid, naphthylene diamine were added. In determination of phenolic compounds, Folin-ciocalteu and sodium carbonate were added to Hypericum extract. In DPPH radical scavenging, the IC50 of Hypericum extract (309.35±6.5μg/ml was higher than the antioxidant standards, BHT (IC50=81.9±2.6 μg/ml and quercetin (IC50=60.04±6.48 μg/ml. The highest scavenging of hydroxyl radicals was observed in Hypericum extract (70.3±0.8%, 125 μg/ml. In gallic acid it was (73.8±3.3%. In 200 μg/ml of Hypericum extract scavenged NO radical (85.2±2.7%. In FRAP method, the IC50 of this extract was 109.7±10.5 μg/ml. In FTC method, the inhibition of lipid peroxidation by Hypericum extract, BHT and ascorbic acid were 59.2±2.2, 66.9±0.15, 64.06±0.02 respectively. Total phenol of the plant extract was 3±0.4 mg/g.

  1. Study of the anti-inflammatory effects of low-dose radiation. The contribution of biphasic regulation of the antioxidative system in endothelial cells

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Large, Martin; Hehlgans, Stephanie; Reichert, Sebastian; Roedel, Claus; Roedel, Franz [Goethe University Frankfurt, Department of Radiotherapy and Oncology, Frankfurt am Main (Germany); Gaipl, Udo S. [University Hospital Erlangen, Department of Radiation Oncology, Erlangen (Germany); Fournier, Claudia [GSI Helmholtz Center for Heavy Ion Research, Department of Biophysics, Darmstadt (Germany); Weiss, Christian [Goethe University Frankfurt, Department of Radiotherapy and Oncology, Frankfurt am Main (Germany); Klinikum Darmstadt, Institute for Radiooncology and Radiotherapy, Darmstadt (Germany)

    2015-09-15

    We examined (a) the expression of the antioxidative factor glutathione peroxidase (GPx) and the transcription factor nuclear factor E2-related factor 2 (Nrf2) following low-dose X-irradiation in endothelial cells (ECs) and (b) the impact of reactive oxygen species (ROS) and Nrf2 on functional properties of ECs to gain further knowledge about the anti-inflammatory mode of action of low doses of ionizing radiation. EA.hy926 ECs and primary human dermal microvascular ECs (HMVEC) were stimulated by tumor necrosis factor-α (TNF-α, 20 ng/ml) 4 h before irradiation with single doses ranging from 0.3 to 3 Gy. The expression and activity of GPx and Nrf2 were analyzed by flow cytometry, colorimetric assays, and real-time PCR. The impact of ROS and Nrf2 on peripheral blood mononuclear cell (PBMC) adhesion was assayed in the presence of the ROS scavenger N-acetyl-L-cysteine (NAC) and Nrf2 activator AI-1. Following a low-dose exposure, we observed in EA.hy926 EC and HMVECs a discontinuous expression and enzymatic activity of GPx concomitant with a lowered expression and DNA binding activity of Nrf2 that was most pronounced at a dose of 0.5 Gy. Scavenging of ROS by NAC and activation of Nrf2 by AI-1 significantly diminished a lowered adhesion of PBMC to EC at a dose of 0.5 Gy. Low-dose irradiation resulted in a nonlinear expression and activity of major compounds of the antioxidative system that might contribute to anti-inflammatory effects in stimulated ECs. (orig.) [German] Ziel der Studie war die Untersuchung der Expression des antioxidativen Enzyms Glutathionperoxidase (GPx) und des Transkriptionsfaktors ''nuclear factor E2-related factor 2'' (Nrf2) in Endothelzellen nach niedrigdosierter Roentgenbestrahlung. Des Weiteren wurde der Einfluss von reaktiven Sauerstoffmetaboliten (ROS) und von Nrf2 auf funktionelle Eigenschaften von Endothelzellen analysiert, um weitere Erkenntnisse ueber die antientzuendliche Wirkung von niedrigdosierten Roentgenstrahlen

  2. Antioxidant properties of various solvent extracts from purple basil

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yeşiloğlu, Yeşim; Şit, Latifşah

    2012-09-01

    Water, ethanol and acetone extracts from leaves and flowers of purple basil, one of the most popular spices consumed in the Thrace region of Turkey, were tested in vitro for their ability to inhibit peroxidation of lipids, to scavenge DPPH, hydrogen peroxide, superoxide anion, to reduce Fe(III) to Fe(II) and to chelate Fe(II) ions. The results showed that purple basil contained naturally occurring antioxidant components and possessed antioxidant activity which may be attributed to its lipid peroxidation inhibitory, radical scavenging and metal chelating activities. It was concluded that purple basil might be a potential source of antioxidants.

  3. A superoxide anion-scavenger, 1,3-selenazolidin-4-one suppresses serum deprivation-induced apoptosis in PC12 cells by activating MAP kinase

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Nishina, Atsuyoshi; Kimura, Hirokazu; Kozawa, Kunihisa; Sommen, Geoffroy; Nakamura, Takao; Heimgartner, Heinz; Koketsu, Mamoru; Furukawa, Shoei

    2011-01-01

    Synthetic organic selenium compounds, such as ebselen, may show glutathione peroxidase-like antioxidant activity and have a neurotrophic effect. We synthesized 1,3-selenazolidin-4-ones, new types of synthetic organic selenium compounds (five-member ring compounds), to study their possible applications as antioxidants or neurotrophic-like molecules. Their superoxide radical scavenging effects were assessed using the quantitative, highly sensitive method of real-time kinetic chemiluminescence. At 166 μM, the O 2 − scavenging activity of 1,3-selenazolidin-4-ones ranged from 0 to 66.2%. 2-[3-(4-Methoxyphenyl)-4-oxo-1,3-selenazolidin-2-ylidene]malononitrile (compound b) showed the strongest superoxide anion-scavenging activity among the 6 kinds of 2-methylene-1,3-selenazolidin-4-ones examined. Compound b had a 50% inhibitory concentration (IC 50 ) at 92.4 μM and acted as an effective and potentially useful O 2 − scavenger in vitro. The effect of compound b on rat pheochromocytome cell line PC12 cells was compared with that of ebselen or nerve growth factor (NGF) by use of the MTT [3-(4, 5-dimethyl-2-thiazolyl)-2,5-diphenyl-2H-tetrazolium bromide] assay. When ebselen was added at 100 μM or more, toxicity toward PC12 cells was evident. On the contrary, compound b suppressed serum deprivation-induced apoptosis in PC12 cells more effectively at a concentration of 100 μM. The activity of compound b to phosphorylate mitogen-activated protein kinase/extracellular signal-regulated protein kinase (ERK) 1/2 (MAP kinase) in PC12 cells was higher than that of ebselen, and the former at 100 μM induced the phosphorylation of MAP kinase to a degree similar to that induced by NGF. From these results, we conclude that this superoxide anion-scavenger, compound b, suppressed serum deprivation-induced apoptosis by promoting the phosphorylation of MAP kinase. -- Highlights: ► We newly synthesized 1,3-selenazolidin-4-ones to study their possible applications. ► Among new

  4. A superoxide anion-scavenger, 1,3-selenazolidin-4-one suppresses serum deprivation-induced apoptosis in PC12 cells by activating MAP kinase

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Nishina, Atsuyoshi, E-mail: nishina@yone.ac.jp [Yonezawa Women' s Junior College, 6-15-1 Tohrimachi, Yonezawa, Yamagata 992-0025 (Japan); Kimura, Hirokazu; Kozawa, Kunihisa [Gunma Prefectural Institute of Public Health and Environmental Sciences, 378 Kamioki, Maebashi, Gunma 371-0052 (Japan); Sommen, Geoffroy [Lonza Braine SA, Chaussee de Tubize 297, B-1420 Braine l' Alleud (Belgium); Nakamura, Takao [Department of Biomedical Information Engineering, Graduate School of Medical Science, Yamagata University, Yamagata 990-9585 (Japan); Heimgartner, Heinz [University of Zuerich, Institut of Organic Chemistry, Winterthurerstrasse 190, CH-8057 Zuerich (Switzerland); Koketsu, Mamoru [Department of Materials Science and Technology, Faculty of Engineering, Gifu University, Gifu 501-1193 (Japan); Furukawa, Shoei [Laboratory of Molecular Biology, Gifu Pharmaceutical University, 5-6-1 Mitahora-higashi, Gifu 502-8585 (Japan)

    2011-12-15

    Synthetic organic selenium compounds, such as ebselen, may show glutathione peroxidase-like antioxidant activity and have a neurotrophic effect. We synthesized 1,3-selenazolidin-4-ones, new types of synthetic organic selenium compounds (five-member ring compounds), to study their possible applications as antioxidants or neurotrophic-like molecules. Their superoxide radical scavenging effects were assessed using the quantitative, highly sensitive method of real-time kinetic chemiluminescence. At 166 {mu}M, the O{sub 2}{sup -} scavenging activity of 1,3-selenazolidin-4-ones ranged from 0 to 66.2%. 2-[3-(4-Methoxyphenyl)-4-oxo-1,3-selenazolidin-2-ylidene]malononitrile (compound b) showed the strongest superoxide anion-scavenging activity among the 6 kinds of 2-methylene-1,3-selenazolidin-4-ones examined. Compound b had a 50% inhibitory concentration (IC{sub 50}) at 92.4 {mu}M and acted as an effective and potentially useful O{sub 2}{sup -} scavenger in vitro. The effect of compound b on rat pheochromocytome cell line PC12 cells was compared with that of ebselen or nerve growth factor (NGF) by use of the MTT [3-(4, 5-dimethyl-2-thiazolyl)-2,5-diphenyl-2H-tetrazolium bromide] assay. When ebselen was added at 100 {mu}M or more, toxicity toward PC12 cells was evident. On the contrary, compound b suppressed serum deprivation-induced apoptosis in PC12 cells more effectively at a concentration of 100 {mu}M. The activity of compound b to phosphorylate mitogen-activated protein kinase/extracellular signal-regulated protein kinase (ERK) 1/2 (MAP kinase) in PC12 cells was higher than that of ebselen, and the former at 100 {mu}M induced the phosphorylation of MAP kinase to a degree similar to that induced by NGF. From these results, we conclude that this superoxide anion-scavenger, compound b, suppressed serum deprivation-induced apoptosis by promoting the phosphorylation of MAP kinase. -- Highlights: Black-Right-Pointing-Pointer We newly synthesized 1,3-selenazolidin-4-ones to

  5. Energy scavenging from environmental vibration.

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Galchev, Tzeno (University of Michigan); Apblett, Christopher Alan; Najafi, Khalil (University of Michigan)

    2009-10-01

    The goal of this project is to develop an efficient energy scavenger for converting ambient low-frequency vibrations into electrical power. In order to achieve this a novel inertial micro power generator architecture has been developed that utilizes the bi-stable motion of a mechanical mass to convert a broad range of low-frequency (< 30Hz), and large-deflection (>250 {micro}m) ambient vibrations into high-frequency electrical output energy. The generator incorporates a bi-stable mechanical structure to initiate high-frequency mechanical oscillations in an electromagnetic scavenger. This frequency up-conversion technique enhances the electromechanical coupling and increases the generated power. This architecture is called the Parametric Frequency Increased Generator (PFIG). Three generations of the device have been fabricated. It was first demonstrated using a larger bench-top prototype that had a functional volume of 3.7cm3. It generated a peak power of 558{micro}W and an average power of 39.5{micro}W at an input acceleration of 1g applied at 10 Hz. The performance of this device has still not been matched by any other reported work. It yielded the best power density and efficiency for any scavenger operating from low-frequency (<10Hz) vibrations. A second-generation device was then fabricated. It generated a peak power of 288{micro}W and an average power of 5.8{micro}W from an input acceleration of 9.8m/s{sup 2} at 10Hz. The device operates over a frequency range of 20Hz. The internal volume of the generator is 2.1cm{sup 3} (3.7cm{sup 3} including casing), half of a standard AA battery. Lastly, a piezoelectric version of the PFIG is currently being developed. This device clearly demonstrates one of the key features of the PFIG architecture, namely that it is suitable for MEMS integration, more so than resonant generators, by incorporating a brittle bulk piezoelectric ceramic. This is the first micro-scale piezoelectric generator capable of <10Hz operation. The

  6. Evaluation of Radical Scavenging Activity of Sempervivum tectorum and Corylus avellana Extracts with Different Phenolic Composition.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Alberti, Ágnes; Riethmüller, Eszter; Béni, Szabolcs; Kéry, Ágnes

    2016-04-01

    Semnpervivum tectorum L. and Corylus avellana L. are traditional herbal remedies exhibiting antioxidant activity and representing diverse phenolic composition. The aim of this study was to reveal the contribution of certain compounds to total radical scavenging activity by studying S. tectorum and C. avellana extracts prepared with solvents of different selectivity for diverse classes of phenolics. Antioxidant activity of S. tectorum and C. avellana samples was determined in the ABTS and DPPH radical scavenging assays, and phenolic composition was evaluated by high-performance liquid chromatography/electrospray ionization tandem mass spectrometry (HPLC-ESI-MS/MS). Correlations between antioxidant activity and phenolic content of houseleek extracts have been revealed. Significant differences regarding antioxidant activity have been shown between S. tectorum 80% (v/v) methanol extract and its fractions. Additionally, synergism among the constituents present together in the whole extract was assumed. Significantly higher radical scavenging activity of hazel extracts has been attributed to the differences in phenolic composition compared with houseleek extracts.

  7. Polyphenolic content and antioxidant activity of some wild Saudi Arabian Asteraceae plants.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Shahat, Abdelaaty A; Ibrahim, Abeer Y; Elsaid, Mansour S

    2014-07-01

    To study the antioxidant properties of crude extract of different Asteraceae plants. The antioxidant properties of six extracts were evaluated using different antioxidant tests, including free radical scavenging, reducing power, metal chelation, superoxide anion radical scavenging, total antioxidant capacity and inhibition of lipid peroxidation activities. Picris cyanocarpa (P. cyanocarpa) and Anthemis deserti (A. deserti) had powerful antioxidant properties as radical scavenger, reducing agent and superoxide anion radical scavenger while Achillia fragrantissima (A. fragrantissima) and Artemissia monosperma (A. monosperma) were the most efficient as ion chelator (100% at 100, 200 and 400 μg/mL) A. fragrantissima and Rhantarium appoposum (R. appoposum) showed 100% inhibition on peroxidation of linoleic acid emulsion at 200 and 400 μg/mL, while butylatedhydroxy toluene and ascorbic acid showed 100 and 95% inhibition percentage at 400 μg/mL, respectively. Those various antioxidant activities were compared to standard antioxidants such as butylated hydroxyl toluene and ascorbic acid. In most tests P. cyanocarpa and A. deserti had powerful antioxidant properties as radical scavenger, reducing agent and superoxide anion radical scavenger. Copyright © 2014 Hainan Medical College. Published by Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  8. Phenolic composition and antioxidant properties of Eryngium maritimum (sea holly

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ilhem Rjeibi

    2017-05-01

    Full Text Available Objective: To examine the antioxidant potential of Tunisian Eryngium maritimum (E. maritimum leaf, root and stems extracts, as well as their phenolic compositions. Methods: The antioxidant activity of different extracts was assessed using DPPH free radical and hydrogen peroxide scavenging assays. Phenolic profiles were determined by means of liquid chromatography (HPLC-DAD. Results: All plant parts were a rich source of phenolics. Polyphenols and flavonoids were present in leaf extracts. E. maritimum leaf extracts displayed the strongest H2O2 scavenging activity (IC50 = 76.83 µg/mL and the highest DPPH scavenging activity value (IC50 = 47.87 µg/mL compared to other extracts. Good relationships were observed between antioxidant activities and the total phenolic and flavonoid contents. Nine bioactive compounds were detected in E. maritimum extracts. Conclusions: Our results provided evidence that E. maritimum could be an interesting source of natural antioxidant that can be used to treat divers diseases.

  9. Comparing phenolics composition and antioxidant activities of different pomegranate products

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Wasila, H.; Li, X.; Liu, L.; Ahmad, I.

    2014-01-01

    The phenolics and antioxidant abilities of pomegranate juices (aril juice (aj) and aril-mesocarp-epicarp mixture juice (amej), by-product extracts (extract of aril-mesocarp-epicarp (eame) and rind extract (er) were determined and compared. The results showed no significant difference in phenolic compositions however ratio of phenolic constituent were found different. The total phenolics, total flavonoids and total tannins contents followed the order of er>eame>amej>aj, and total anthocyanins followed the trend eame>amej>aj>er. The total antioxidant, total reduction, abts o+ radical scavenging and dppho radical scavenging capacities followed the sequence r>aj>eame>amej, amej>er>eame>aj, er>amej>eame>aj and amej>er>aj>eame respectively. With the exception of abtso+ scavenging capacities, strongest antioxidant activity found in juices compared to their corresponding purified products. These data suggest that phenolics play a vital role in the composition and antioxidant activity of pomegranate products. (author)

  10. Effects of 200 Gy 60Co-γ Radiation on the Regulation of Antioxidant Enzymes, Hsp70 Genes, and Serum Molecules of Plutella xylostella (Linnaeus).

    Science.gov (United States)

    Li, Xiaoxue; Luo, Lingyan; Karthi, Sengodan; Zhang, Ke; Luo, Jianjun; Hu, Qiongbo; Weng, Qunfang

    2018-04-26

    The diamondback moth, Plutella xylostella (Linnaeus), is one of the notorious pests causing substantial loses to many cruciferous vegetables across the nations. The effects of 60 Co-γ radiation on physiology of P. xylostella were investigated and the results displayed that 200 Gy irradiation significantly alters the antioxidant enzyme regulation in six-day-old male pupae of P. xylostella . First, in our research, we detected Oxidase system and stress response mechanism of irradiated pupae, the results displayed that 200 Gy irradiation significantly alters the antioxidant enzyme regulation in six-day-old male pupae of P. xylostella . The levels of superoxide dismutase (SOD) and catalase (CAT) were increased significantly in contrast the level of peroxidase (POD) and glutathione S-transferase (GST) were decreased in 12⁻24 h post-treatment. The heat shock proteins (Hsps) gene expression level was significant increasing, maximum > 2-folds upregulation of genes were observed in peak. However, they also had a trend of gradual recovery with development. Second, we detected the testis lactate dehydrogenase (LDH) and acid phosphatase (ACP) activity found that in male adults testis they increased significantly than control during its development. Thus the present research investigation highlights that the 60 Co-γ radiation treatments alters the physiological development of diamondback moth. The results showed that 200 Gy dosage resulted in stress damage to the body and reproductive system of the diamondback moth.

  11. Effects of 200 Gy 60Co-γ Radiation on the Regulation of Antioxidant Enzymes, Hsp70 Genes, and Serum Molecules of Plutella xylostella (Linnaeus

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Xiaoxue Li

    2018-04-01

    Full Text Available The diamondback moth, Plutella xylostella (Linnaeus, is one of the notorious pests causing substantial loses to many cruciferous vegetables across the nations. The effects of 60Co-γ radiation on physiology of P. xylostella were investigated and the results displayed that 200 Gy irradiation significantly alters the antioxidant enzyme regulation in six-day-old male pupae of P. xylostella. First, in our research, we detected Oxidase system and stress response mechanism of irradiated pupae, the results displayed that 200 Gy irradiation significantly alters the antioxidant enzyme regulation in six-day-old male pupae of P. xylostella. The levels of superoxide dismutase (SOD and catalase (CAT were increased significantly in contrast the level of peroxidase (POD and glutathione S-transferase (GST were decreased in 12–24 h post-treatment. The heat shock proteins (Hsps gene expression level was significant increasing, maximum > 2-folds upregulation of genes were observed in peak. However, they also had a trend of gradual recovery with development. Second, we detected the testis lactate dehydrogenase (LDH and acid phosphatase (ACP activity found that in male adults testis they increased significantly than control during its development. Thus the present research investigation highlights that the 60Co-γ radiation treatments alters the physiological development of diamondback moth. The results showed that 200 Gy dosage resulted in stress damage to the body and reproductive system of the diamondback moth.

  12. Natural antioxidants exhibit chemopreventive characteristics through the regulation of CNC b-Zip transcription factors in estrogen-induced breast carcinogenesis.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chatterjee, Anwesha; Ronghe, Amruta; Singh, Bhupendra; Bhat, Nimee K; Chen, Jie; Bhat, Hari K

    2014-12-01

    The objective of the present study was to characterize the role of resveratrol (Res) and vitamin C (VC) in prevention of estrogen-induced breast cancer through regulation of cap "n"collar (CNC) b-zip transcription factors. Human breast epithelial cell line MCF-10A was treated with 17β-estradiol (E2) and VC or Res with or without E2. mRNA and protein expression levels of CNC b-zip transcription factors nuclear factor erythroid 2-related factor 1 (Nrf1), nuclear factor erythroid 2 related factor 2 (Nrf2), nuclear factor erythroid 2 related factor 3 (Nrf3), and Nrf2-regulated antioxidant enzymes superoxide dismutase 3 (SOD3) and quinone oxidoreductase 1 (NQO1) were quantified. The treatment with E2 suppressed, whereas VC and Res prevented E2-mediated decrease in the expression levels of SOD3, NQO1, Nrf2 mRNA, and protein in MCF-10A cells. The treatment with E2, Res, or VC significantly increased mRNA and protein expression levels of Nrf1. 17β-Estradiol treatment significantly increased but VC or Res decreased Nrf3 mRNA and protein expression levels. Our studies demonstrate that estrogen-induced breast cancer might be prevented through upregulation of antioxidant enzymes via Nrf-dependent pathways. © 2014 Wiley Periodicals, Inc.

  13. Proximate, mineral composition, antioxidant activity, and total ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    ... of protein supplement, valuable minerals and dietary antioxidants. They can serve as scavengers of free radicals reported to be associated with occurrence of chronic and degenerative diseases such as cardiovascular diseases. Keywords: Peppers, phytochemicals, Nutritional composition, Free radicals, Diseases ...

  14. Preliminary phytochemical screening and antioxidant activity of ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    GAE) and the reducing power of 0.071±0.03nm was obtained. The DPPH scavenging activity of the extract was found to be promising. There is no significant difference (p<0.05) in the antioxidant activity between the extract and those of the ...

  15. 6-Shogaol-Rich Extract from Ginger Up-Regulates the Antioxidant Defense Systems in Cells and Mice

    OpenAIRE

    Bak, Min-Ji; Ok, Seon; Jun, Mira; Jeong, Woo-Sik

    2012-01-01

    The rhizome of ginger (Zingiber officinale Roscoe) is known to have several bioactive compounds including gingerols and shogaols which possess beneficial health properties such as anti-inflammatory and chemopreventive effects. Based on recent observations that 6-shogaol may have more potent bioactivity than 6-gingerol, we obtained a 6-shogaol-rich extract from ginger and examined its effects on the nuclear factor E2-related factor2 (Nrf2)/antioxidant response element (ARE...

  16. Spectroscopic studies on the antioxidant activity of p-coumaric acid

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kiliç, Ismail; Yeşiloğlu, Yeşim

    2013-11-01

    p-coumaric acid (4-hydroxycinnamic acid), a phenolic acid, is a hydroxyl derivative of cinnamic acid. It decreases low density lipoprotein (LDL) peroxidation and reduces the risk of stomach cancer. In vitro radical scavenging and antioxidant capacity of p-coumaric acid were clarified using different analytical methodologies such as total antioxidant activity determination by ferric thiocyanate, hydrogen peroxide scavenging, 1,1-diphenyl-2-picryl-hydrazyl free radical (DPPH) scavenging, 2,2‧-azino-bis(3-ethylbenzthiazoline-6-sulphonic acid) (ABTS) radical scavenging activity and superoxide anion radical scavenging, ferrous ions (Fe2+) chelating activity and ferric ions (Fe3+) reducing ability. p-Coumaric acid inhibited 71.2% lipid peroxidation of a linoleic acid emulsion at 45 μg/mL concentration. On the other hand, butylated hydroxyanisole (BHA), butylated hydroxytoluene (BHT), α-tocopherol and ascorbic acid displayed 66.8%, 69.8%, 64.5% and 59.7% inhibition on the peroxidation of linoleic acid emulsion at the same concentration, respectively. In addition, p-coumaric acid had an effective DPPHrad scavenging, ABTSrad + scavenging, superoxide anion radical scavenging, hydrogen peroxide scavenging, ferric ions (Fe3+) reducing power and ferrous ions (Fe2+) chelating activities. Also, those various antioxidant activities were compared to BHA, BHT, α-tocopherol and ascorbic acid as references antioxidant compounds. These results suggested that p-coumaric acid can be used in the pharmacological and food industry because of these properties.

  17. DR2539 is a novel DtxR-like regulator of Mn/Fe ion homeostasis and antioxidant enzyme in Deinococcus radiodurans

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Chen, Huan; Wu, Rongrong; Xu, Guangzhi; Fang, Xu; Qiu, Xiaoli; Guo, Hongyin; Tian, Bing; Hua, Yuejin

    2010-01-01

    Transcriptional regulators of the diphtheria toxin repressor (DtxR) family control the expression of genes involved in the uptake of iron and manganese, which is not only necessitous nutrients but also was suggested to be essential for intracellular redox cycling of microorganisms. We identified a unique DtxR homologue (DR2539) with special characteristics from Deinococcus radiodurans, which is known for its extreme resistance to radiation and oxidants. The dr2539 mutant showed higher resistance to hydrogen peroxide than the wild-type strain R1. Intracellular catalase activity assay and semiquantitative PCR analysis demonstrated that this DtxR is a negative regulator of catalase (katE). Furthermore, quantitative real-time PCR, global transcription profile and inductively coupled plasma-mass spectrometry analysis showed that the DtxR is involved in the regulation of antioxidant system by maintaining the intracellular Mn/Fe ion homeostasis of D. radiodurans. However, unlike the other DtxR homologues, the DtxR of D. radiodurans acts as a negative regulator of a Mn transporter gene (dr2283) and as a positive regulator of Fe-dependent transporter genes (dr1219, drb0125) in D. radiodurans.

  18. DR2539 is a novel DtxR-like regulator of Mn/Fe ion homeostasis and antioxidant enzyme in Deinococcus radiodurans

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Chen, Huan [Key Laboratory for Nuclear-Agricultural Sciences of Chinese Ministry of Agriculture and Zhejiang Province, Institute of Nuclear-Agricultural Sciences, Zhejiang University, Hangzhou 310029 (China); Zhejiang Institute of Microbiology, Zhejiang Province, Hangzhou 310012 (China); Wu, Rongrong [Department of Cardiology, Second Affiliated Hospital, College of Medicine, Zhejiang University, Hangzhou 310009 (China); Xu, Guangzhi [Key Laboratory for Nuclear-Agricultural Sciences of Chinese Ministry of Agriculture and Zhejiang Province, Institute of Nuclear-Agricultural Sciences, Zhejiang University, Hangzhou 310029 (China); Fang, Xu; Qiu, Xiaoli; Guo, Hongyin [Zhejiang Institute of Microbiology, Zhejiang Province, Hangzhou 310012 (China); Tian, Bing, E-mail: tianbing@zju.edu.cn [Key Laboratory for Nuclear-Agricultural Sciences of Chinese Ministry of Agriculture and Zhejiang Province, Institute of Nuclear-Agricultural Sciences, Zhejiang University, Hangzhou 310029 (China); Hua, Yuejin, E-mail: yjhua@zju.edu.cn [Key Laboratory for Nuclear-Agricultural Sciences of Chinese Ministry of Agriculture and Zhejiang Province, Institute of Nuclear-Agricultural Sciences, Zhejiang University, Hangzhou 310029 (China)

    2010-05-28

    Transcriptional regulators of the diphtheria toxin repressor (DtxR) family control the expression of genes involved in the uptake of iron and manganese, which is not only necessitous nutrients but also was suggested to be essential for intracellular redox cycling of microorganisms. We identified a unique DtxR homologue (DR2539) with special characteristics from Deinococcus radiodurans, which is known for its extreme resistance to radiation and oxidants. The dr2539 mutant showed higher resistance to hydrogen peroxide than the wild-type strain R1. Intracellular catalase activity assay and semiquantitative PCR analysis demonstrated that this DtxR is a negative regulator of catalase (katE). Furthermore, quantitative real-time PCR, global transcription profile and inductively coupled plasma-mass spectrometry analysis showed that the DtxR is involved in the regulation of antioxidant system by maintaining the intracellular Mn/Fe ion homeostasis of D. radiodurans. However, unlike the other DtxR homologues, the DtxR of D. radiodurans acts as a negative regulator of a Mn transporter gene (dr2283) and as a positive regulator of Fe-dependent transporter genes (dr1219, drb0125) in D. radiodurans.

  19. Melatonin: Action as antioxidant and potential applications in human disease and aging

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Bonnefont-Rousselot, Dominique; Collin, Fabrice

    2010-01-01

    This review aims at describing the beneficial properties of melatonin related to its antioxidant effects. Oxidative stress, i.e., an imbalance between the production of reactive oxygen species and antioxidant defences, is involved in several pathological conditions such as cardiovascular or neurological disease, and in aging. Therefore, research for antioxidants has developed. However, classical antioxidants often failed to exhibit beneficial effects, especially in metabolic diseases. Melatonin has been shown as a specific antioxidant due to its amphiphilic feature that allows it to cross physiological barriers, thereby reducing oxidative damage in both lipid and aqueous cell environments. Studies on the antioxidant action of melatonin are reported, with a special mention to water gamma radiolysis as a method to produce oxygen-derived free radicals, and on structure-activity relationships of melatonin derivatives. Mass spectrometry-based techniques have been developed to identify melatonin oxidation products. Besides its ability to scavenge several radical species, melatonin regulates the activity of antioxidant enzymes (indirect antioxidant properties). Efficient detection methods confirmed the presence of melatonin in several plant products. Therapeutic potential of melatonin relies either on increasing melatonin dietary intake or on supplementation with supraphysiological dosages. Clinical trials showed that melatonin could be efficient in preventing cell damage, as well under acute (sepsis, asphyxia in newborns) as under chronic (metabolic and neurodegenerative diseases, cancer, inflammation, aging). Its global action on oxidative stress, together with its rhythmicity that plays a role in several metabolic functions, lead melatonin to be of great interest for future clinical research in order to improve public health.

  20. Scavenger Receptors and Their Potential as Therapeutic Targets in the Treatment of Cardiovascular Disease

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Sam L. Stephen

    2010-01-01

    Full Text Available Scavenger receptors act as membrane-bound and soluble proteins that bind to macromolecular complexes and pathogens. This diverse supergroup of proteins mediates binding to modified lipoprotein particles which regulate the initiation and progression of atherosclerotic plaques. In vascular tissues, scavenger receptors are implicated in regulating intracellular signaling, lipid accumulation, foam cell development, and cellular apoptosis or necrosis linked to the pathophysiology of atherosclerosis. One approach is using gene therapy to modulate scavenger receptor function in atherosclerosis. Ectopic expression of membrane-bound scavenger receptors using viral vectors can modify lipid profiles and reduce the incidence of atherosclerosis. Alternatively, expression of soluble scavenger receptors can also block plaque initiation and progression. Inhibition of scavenger receptor expression using a combined gene therapy and RNA interference strategy also holds promise for long-term therapy. Here we review our current understanding of the gene delivery by viral vectors to cells and tissues in gene therapy strategies and its application to the modulation of scavenger receptor function in atherosclerosis.

  1. Americans with Disabilities Act Scavenger Hunt

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ramsey, Ursula

    2018-01-01

    This article describes a scavenger hunt for Business Law students. Specifically, students compete in this scavenger hunt to identify accessible design features on campus to undergird their study of Title III of the Americans with Disabilities Act (ADA). Title III of the ADA prohibits public accommodations from discriminating on the basis of…

  2. Characterization of the Antioxidant Effects of γ-Oryzanol: Involvement of the Nrf2 Pathway

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    W. Rungratanawanich

    2018-01-01

    Full Text Available γ-Oryzanol (ORY is well known for its antioxidant potential. However, the mechanism by which ORY exerts its antioxidant effect is still unclear. In this paper, the antioxidant properties of ORY were investigated for its potential effects as a reactive oxygen and nitrogen species (ROS/RNS scavenger and in activating antioxidant-promoting intracellular pathways utilizing the human embryonic kidney cells (HEK-293. The 24 h ORY exposure significantly prevented hydrogen peroxide- (H2O2- induced ROS/RNS production at 3 h, and this effect was sustained for at least 24 h. ORY pretreatment also enhanced the activity of antioxidant enzymes: superoxide dismutase (SOD and glutathione peroxidase (GPX. Interestingly, ORY induced the nuclear factor (erythroid-derived 2-like 2 (Nrf2 nuclear translocation and upregulation of Nrf2-dependent defensive genes such as NAD(PH quinone reductase (NQO1, heme oxygenase-1 (HO-1, and glutathione synthetase (GSS at mRNA and protein levels in both basal condition and after H2O2 insult. Thus, this study suggested an intriguing effect of ORY in modulating the Nrf2 pathway, which is also involved in regulating longevity as well as age-related diseases.

  3. Characterization of the Antioxidant Effects of γ-Oryzanol: Involvement of the Nrf2 Pathway.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rungratanawanich, W; Abate, G; Serafini, M M; Guarienti, M; Catanzaro, M; Marziano, M; Memo, M; Lanni, C; Uberti, D

    2018-01-01

    γ -Oryzanol (ORY) is well known for its antioxidant potential. However, the mechanism by which ORY exerts its antioxidant effect is still unclear. In this paper, the antioxidant properties of ORY were investigated for its potential effects as a reactive oxygen and nitrogen species (ROS/RNS) scavenger and in activating antioxidant-promoting intracellular pathways utilizing the human embryonic kidney cells (HEK-293). The 24 h ORY exposure significantly prevented hydrogen peroxide- (H 2 O 2 -) induced ROS/RNS production at 3 h, and this effect was sustained for at least 24 h. ORY pretreatment also enhanced the activity of antioxidant enzymes: superoxide dismutase (SOD) and glutathione peroxidase (GPX). Interestingly, ORY induced the nuclear factor (erythroid-derived 2)-like 2 (Nrf2) nuclear translocation and upregulation of Nrf2-dependent defensive genes such as NAD(P)H quinone reductase (NQO1), heme oxygenase-1 (HO-1), and glutathione synthetase (GSS) at mRNA and protein levels in both basal condition and after H 2 O 2 insult. Thus, this study suggested an intriguing effect of ORY in modulating the Nrf2 pathway, which is also involved in regulating longevity as well as age-related diseases.

  4. Antioxidant activity in vitro and in vivo of the polysaccharides from different varieties of Auricularia auricula.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Xu, Siqi; Zhang, Yongjun; Jiang, Kan

    2016-09-14

    In this study, five different kinds of polysaccharides (AAP1, AAP2, AAP3, AAP4, and AAP5) were extracted from different varieties of Auricularia auricula through an alkali extraction process. Furthermore, the crude polysaccharides were deproteinized by the Sevag method. Auricularia auricula produced in the Shanxi province had the highest content of polysaccharide, 53.02%. The monosaccharide composition was determined by the GC method. Their antioxidant capacities in vitro were assessed by radical-scavenging capacity (DPPH, superoxide, and hydroxyl radicals), metal chelating ability and reducing-power methods. In addition, the evaluation of their antioxidant effects in vivo was performed using the C. elegans model. The yield of crude polysaccharides, monosaccharide composition and antioxidant activity of Auricularia auricula polysaccharides (AAPs) were different among samples from various sources. Among them, the strongest antioxidant activity was shown for AAP1, consisting of arabinose, xylose, 2-deoxy-d-glucose, mannose, glucose, and N-acetyl-d-glucosamine with the molar ratio of 1 : 0.44 : 0.33 : 1.67 : 1 : 0.17. It could scavenge free radicals, up-regulate stress-resistance-related enzymes including superoxide dismutase (SOD) by 70.04 ± 8.75% and CAT by 117.32 ± 8.06% and reduce the level of reactive oxygen species (ROS) in C. elegans under oxidative stress. The present results suggested that variety was an important factor that affects the antioxidant activity of A. auricula polysaccharides.

  5. Scoparone attenuates RANKL-induced osteoclastic differentiation through controlling reactive oxygen species production and scavenging

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Lee, Sang-Hyun; Jang, Hae-Dong, E-mail: haedong@hnu.kr

    2015-02-15

    Scoparone, one of the bioactive components of Artemisia capillaris Thunb, has various biological properties including immunosuppressive, hepatoprotective, anti-allergic, anti-inflammatory, and antioxidant effects. This study aims at evaluating the anti-osteoporotic effect of scoparone and its underlying mechanism in vitro. Scoparone demonstrated potent cellular antioxidant capacity. It was also found that scoparone inhibited the receptor activator of nuclear factor-κB ligand (RANKL)-induced osteoclast differentiation and suppressed cathepsin K and tartrate-resistant acid phosphatase (TRAP) expression via c-jun N-terminal kinase (JNK)/extracellular signal-regulated kinase (ERK)/p38-mediated c-Fos–nuclear factor of activated T cells, cytoplasmic 1 (NFATc1) signaling pathway. During osteoclast differentiation, the production of general reactive oxygen species (ROS) and superoxide anions was dose-dependently attenuated by scoparone. In addition, scoparone diminished NADPH (nicotinamide adenine dinucleotide phosphate) oxidase 1 (Nox1) expression and activation via the tumor necrosis factor receptor-associated factor 6 (TRAF6)–cSrc–phosphatidylinositol 3-kinase (PI3k) signaling pathway and prevented the disruption of mitochondrial electron transport chain system. Furthermore, scoparone augmented the expression of superoxide dismutase 1 (SOD1) and catalase (CAT). The overall results indicate that the inhibitory effect of scoparone on RANKL-induced osteoclast differentiation is attributed to the suppressive effect on ROS and superoxide anion production by inhibiting Nox1 expression and activation and protecting the mitochondrial electron transport chain system and the scavenging effect of ROS resulting from elevated SOD1 and CAT expression. - Highlights: • Scoparone dose-dependently inhibited RANKL-induced osteoclast differentiation. • Scoparone diminished general ROS and superoxide anions in a dose-dependent manner. • Scoparone inhibited Nox1 expression and

  6. Antiradical and antioxidant activities of new bio-antioxidants.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kancheva, V D; Saso, L; Angelova, S E; Foti, M C; Slavova-Kasakova, A; Daquino, C; Enchev, V; Firuzi, O; Nechev, J

    2012-02-01

    Antioxidants could be promising agents for management of oxidative stress-related diseases. New biologically active compounds, belonging to a rare class of natural lignans with antiangiogenic, antitumoral and DNA intercalating properties, have been recently synthesized. These compounds are benzo[kl]xanthene lignans (1,2) and dihydrobenzofuran neolignans (3,4). The radical scavenging and chain-breaking antioxidant activities of compounds 1-4 were studied by applying different methods: radical scavenging activity by DPPH rapid test, chain-breaking antioxidant activity and quantum chemical calculations. All studied compounds were found to be active as DPPH scavengers but reaction time with DPPH and compounds' concentrations influenced deeply the evaluation. The highest values of radical scavenging activity (%RSAmax) and largest rate constants for reaction with DPPH were obtained for compounds 2 and 3. Comparison of %RSAmax with that of standard antioxidants DL-α-tocopherol (TOH), caffeic acid (CA) and butylated hydroxyl toluene (BHT) give the following new order of %RSA max: TOH (61.1%) > CA (58.6%) > 3 (36.3%) > 2 (28.1%) > 4 (6.7%) > 1 (3.6%) = BHT (3.6%). Chain-breaking antioxidant activities of individual compounds (0.1-1.0 mM) and of their equimolar binary mixtures (0.1 mM) with TOH were determined from the kinetic curves of lipid autoxidation at 80 °C. On the basis of a comparable kinetic analysis with standard antioxidants a new order of the antioxidant efficiency (i.e., protection factor, PF) of compounds 1-4 were obtained: 2 (7.2) ≥ TOH (7.0) ≥ CA (6.7) > 1 (3.1) > 3 (2.2) > ferulic acid FA (1.5) > 4 (0.6); and of the antioxidant reactivity (i.e. inhibition degree, ID): 2 (44.0) > TOH (18.7) > CA (9.3) > 1 (8.4) > 3 (2.8) > FA (1.0) > 4 (0.9). The important role of the catecholic structure in these compounds, which is responsible for the high chain-breaking antioxidant activity, is discussed and a reaction

  7. Scavenging of peroxynitrite by phycocyanin and phycocyanobilin from Spirulina platensis: protection against oxidative damage to DNA.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bhat, V B; Madyastha, K M

    2001-07-13

    Peroxynitrite (ONOO(-)) is known to inactivate important cellular targets and also mediate oxidative damage in DNA. The present study has demonstrated that phycocyanin, a biliprotein from spirulina platensis and its chromophore, phycocyanobilin (PCB), efficiently scavenge ONOO(-), a potent physiological inorganic toxin. Scavenging of ONOO(-) by phycocyanin and PCB was established by studying their interaction with ONOO(-) and quantified by using competition kinetics of pyrogallol red bleaching assay. The relative antioxidant ratio and IC(50) value clearly indicate that phycocyanin is a more efficient ONOO(-) scavenger than PCB. The present study has also shown that PCB significantly inhibits the ONOO(-)-mediated single-strand breaks in supercoiled plasmid DNA in a dose-dependent manner with an IC(50) value of 2.9 +/- 0.6 microM. These results suggest that phycocyanin, has the ability to inhibit the ONOO(-)-mediated deleterious biological effects and hence has the potential to be used as a therapeutic agent. Copyright 2001 Academic Press.

  8. Heat-induced regulation of antioxidant defense system and nutrient accumulation in hexaploid bread wheat (triticum aestivum l.)

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Zia, M.A.; Ashraf, M.; Akram, A.

    2014-01-01

    Ten cultivars (five registered S-24, Inqlab-91, Saher-2006, Fsd-2008, and Lasani, and five candidate cultivars P.B-18, M.P-65, S.H-20, AARI-10, and G.A-20) of spring wheat (Triticum aestivum L.) were examined for high temperature stress tolerance. Plants were grown in soil filled pots in the Botanical Garden of the Department of Botany University of Agriculture Faisalabad, Pakistan. Three different temperature regimes (30, 40 and 50 degree C) were applied at two different growth stages (tillering and boot) for three temperature durations 30, 60 and 90 min in a growth chamber. The leaf and root samples were collected after two weeks of temperature treatment and then analyzed for enzymatic and non-enzymatic antioxidants as well as inorganic nutrients (N, P, K+, Ca2+). At the end, data obtained were statistically analyzed to distinguish heat tolerant from non-tolerant wheat cultivars. After appraisal of growth, antioxidant defense system and uptake of nutrients it was found that cvs. S-24, Inqlab-91, Saher-2006, Fsd-2008, Lasani and G.A-20 exhibited better thermo-tolerance capabilities than the other wheat cultivars (P.B-18, M.P-65, S.H-20, AARI-10). Among the thermo-tolerant wheat cultivars, G.A-20 and Lasani were superior in maintaining shoot fresh weights and shoot length, high antioxidant activities and better nutrient uptake at both tillering and boot stages. The response of all cultivars to heat stress applied at the tillering stage or boot stage was almost the same. (author)

  9. Salt tolerance of Glycine max.L induced by endophytic fungus Aspergillus flavus CSH1, via regulating its endogenous hormones and antioxidative system.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lubna; Asaf, Sajjad; Hamayun, Muhammad; Khan, Abdul Latif; Waqas, Muhammad; Khan, Muhammad Aaqil; Jan, Rahmatullah; Lee, In-Jung; Hussain, Anwar

    2018-07-01

    Abiotic stress resistance strategies are powerful approaches to sustainable agriculture because they reduce chemical input and enhance plant productivity. In current study, an endophytic fungus, Aspergillus flavus CHS1 was isolated from Chenopodium album Roots. CHS1 was initially screened for growth promoting activities like siderphore, phosphate solubilization, and the production of indole acetic acid and gibberellins and were further assayed for its ability to promote the growth of mutant Waito-C rice. The results revealed that different plant growth characteristic such as chlorophyll content, root-shoot length, and biomass production were significantly promoted during CHS1 treatment. This growth promotion action was due to the presence of various types of GAs and IAA in the endophyte culture filtrate. Significant up regulation with respect to levels in the control was observed in all endogenous plant GAs, after treatment with CHS1. Furthermore, to evaluate the potential of CHS1 against NaCl stress up to 400 mM, it was tested for its ability to improve soybean plant growth under NaCl stress. In endophyte-soybean interaction, CHS1 association significantly increased plant growth and attenuated the NaCl stress by down regulating ABA and JA synthesis. Similarly, it significantly elevated antioxidant activities of enzymes catalase, polyphenoloxidase, superoxide dismutase and peroxidase as compared to non-inoculated salt stress plants. Thus, CHS1 ameliorated the adverse effect of high NaCl stress and rescued soybean plant growth by regulating the endogenous plant hormones and antioxidative system. We conclude that CHS1 isolate could be exploited to increase salt resistant and yield in crop plants. Copyright © 2018. Published by Elsevier Masson SAS.

  10. Radical scavenging activity of selected medicinal plants from Limpopo province of South Africa.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chauke, A M; Shai, L J; Mphahlele, P M; Mogale, M A

    2012-01-01

    Plants collected from Limpopo province of South Africa were investigated for their antioxidative potential using the DPPH radical scavenging assay. Acetone extracts of Flueggea virosa had the highest antioxidant activity with an IC₅₀ value of 30 µg/ml, closely matching the ascorbic acid with an IC₅₀ value of 25 µg/ml. The lowest antioxidant readings were observed with extracts of Rhynchosia venulosa (root extract) and Ficus ingens (leaf extract). Acetone extract of Bridelia virosa leaves had the highest phenolic content (156 mg GAE/g extract), while the lowest content was recorded for R. venulosa root extract and leaf extract of F. ingens (8.3 and 17.7 mg GAE/g extract, respectively). There was a linear correlation between antioxidant activity and total phenolic content. Extracts with high phenolic content had low IC₅₀ values, while extracts with low phenolic concentrations had high IC₅₀ values.

  11. Electrochemically reduced water exerts superior reactive oxygen species scavenging activity in HT1080 cells than the equivalent level of hydrogen-dissolved water.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Takeki Hamasaki

    Full Text Available Electrochemically reduced water (ERW is produced near a cathode during electrolysis and exhibits an alkaline pH, contains richly dissolved hydrogen, and contains a small amount of platinum nanoparticles. ERW has reactive oxygen species (ROS-scavenging activity and recent studies demonstrated that hydrogen-dissolved water exhibits ROS-scavenging activity. Thus, the antioxidative capacity of ERW is postulated to be dependent on the presence of hydrogen levels; however, there is no report verifying the role of dissolved hydrogen in ERW. In this report, we clarify whether the responsive factor for antioxidative activity in ERW is dissolved hydrogen. The intracellular ROS scavenging activity of ERW and hydrogen-dissolved water was tested by both fluorescent stain method and immuno spin trapping assay. We confirm that ERW possessed electrolysis intensity-dependent intracellular ROS-scavenging activity, and ERW exerts significantly superior ROS-scavenging activity in HT1080 cells than the equivalent level of hydrogen-dissolved water. ERW retained its ROS-scavenging activity after removal of dissolved hydrogen, but lost its activity when autoclaved. An oxygen radical absorbance capacity assay, the 2,2-diphenyl-1-picrylhydrazyl assay and chemiluminescence assay could not detect radical-scavenging activity in both ERW and hydrogen-dissolved water. These results indicate that ERW contains electrolysis-dependent hydrogen and an additional antioxidative factor predicted to be platinum nanoparticles.

  12. A Comparative Summary on Antioxidant-like Actions of Timolol with Other Antioxidants in Diabetic Cardiomyopathy.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Turan, Belma

    2016-01-01

    Cellular signaling associated with cardiac β-adrenergic receptors (β-AR) is composed of coupled mechanism among β 1-/β2-AR and Gs proteins with contribution of constitutive β3-AR coupling to Gi proteins. However, down-regulation of β-ARs in the heart under pathological conditions is mediated with a signaling G proteins-included mechanism. Additionally, there are serious conflicting data on this field in literature yet. Although some of these conflictions are generally related with either experimental protocols for different approaches or different animal models. To treat cardiovascular disorders, generally, various types of β-blockers are used while their action mechanisms are not fully known yet. Furthermore, although β-blockers are generally used to block the activated β-ARs, they can be used to scavenge free radicals under oxidative stress. Studies, in whole-system, organ or cellular levels, showed that some β-blockers, including timolol, have protective-actions against increased oxidative stress in diseased heart via ROSscavenging. Additionally, it has been mentioned that some β-blockers nicely prevented the development of heart failure in both experimental and clinical studies by restoring sarcoplasmic reticulum (SR) Ca(2+) release channels, RyR2. Since diabetic cardiomyopathy is recognized due to its diminished responsiveness to β1-AR agonist stimulation in the heart with an up-regulation of β 3-AR, inducing a strong negative inotropic effect on left ventricular function, it has been shown that treatment of streptozotocin-diabetic rats with timolol provided a marked cardio-protection. Importantly, it has been also documented that timolol treatment-dependent cardio-protection in diabetic rats includes basically prevention of RyR2- hyperphosphorylation, which, in turn, block Ca(2+)-leakage from SR via scavenging oxidative agents to control redox-state of cardiomyocytes. This action of timolol in diabetic heart is very similar to other known

  13. Radical-scavenging Activity of Natural Methoxyphenols vs. Synthetic Ones using the Induction Period Method

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Seiichiro Fujisawa

    2007-02-01

    Full Text Available The radical-scavenging activities of the synthetic antioxidants 2-allyl-4-X-phenol (X=NO2, Cl, Br, OCH3, COCH3, CH3, t-(CH33, C6H5 and 2,4-dimethoxyphenol, and the natural antioxidants eugenol and isoeugenol, were investigated using differential scanning calorimetry (DSC by measuring their anti-1,1-diphenyl-2-picrylhydrazyl (DPPH radical activity and the induction period for polymerization of methyl methacrylate (MMA initiated by thermal decomposition of 2,2'-azobisisobutyronitrile (AIBN and benzoyl peroxide (BPO. 2-Allyl-4-methoxyphenol and 2,4-dimethoxy-phenol scavenged not only oxygen-centered radicals (PhCOO. derived from BPO, but also carbon-centered radicals (R. derived from the AIBN and DPPH radical much more efficiently, in comparison with eugenol and isoeugenol. 2-Allyl-4-methoxyphenol may be useful for its lower prooxidative activity.

  14. Reduction of cathodic delamination rates of anticorrosive coatings using free radical scavengers

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Sørensen, Per Aggerholm; Weinell, C. E.; Dam-Johansen, Kim

    2010-01-01

    Cathodic delamination is one of the major modes of failure for anticorrosive coatings subjected to a physical damage and immersed in seawater. The cause of cathodic delamination has been reported to be the result of a chemical attack at the coating-steel interface by free radicals and peroxides...... formed as intermediates in the cathodic reaction during the corrosion process. In this study, antioxidants (i.e., free radical scavengers and peroxide decomposers) have been incorporated into various generic types of coatings to investigate the effect of antioxidants on the rate of cathodic delamination...... of epoxy coatings on cold rolled steel. The addition of free radical scavengers to epoxy coatings improved the resistance toward cathodic delamination by up to 50% during seawater immersion, while peroxide decomposers had a limited effect. Testing using substrates prepared from stainless steel...

  15. Water soluble bioactives of nacre mediate antioxidant activity and osteoblast differentiation.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ratna Chaturvedi

    Full Text Available The water soluble matrix of nacre is a proven osteoinductive material. In spite of the differences in the biomolecular compositions of nacre obtained from multiple species of oysters, the common biochemical properties of those principles substantiate their biological activity. However, the mechanism by which nacre stimulates bone differentiation remains largely unknown. Since the positive impact of antioxidants on bone metabolism is well acknowledged, in this study we investigated the antioxidant potential of a water soluble matrix (WSM obtained from the nacre of the marine oyster Pinctada fucata, which could regulate its osteoblast differentiation activity. Enhanced levels of ALP activity observed in pre-osteoblast cells upon treatment with WSM, suggested the induction of bone differentiation events. Furthermore, bone nodule formation and up-regulation of bone differentiation marker transcripts, i.e. collagen type-1 and osteocalcin by WSM confirmed its ability to induce differentiation of the pre-osteoblasts into mature osteoblasts. Remarkably, same WSM fraction upon pre-treatment lowered the H2O2 and UV-B induced oxidative damages in keratinocytes, thus indicating the antioxidant potential of WSM. This was further confirmed from the in vitro scavenging of ABTS and DPPH free radicals and inhibition of lipid peroxidation by WSM. Together, these results indicate that WSM poses both antioxidant potential and osteoblast differentiation property. Thus, bioactivities associated with nacre holds potential in the development of therapeutics for bone regeneration and against oxidative stress induced damages in cells.

  16. Role of Dietary Antioxidants in the Preservation of Vascular Function and the Modulation of Health and Disease

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Saradhadevi Varadharaj

    2017-11-01

    Full Text Available In vascular diseases, including hypertension and atherosclerosis, vascular endothelial dysfunction (VED occurs secondary to altered function of endothelial nitric oxide synthase (eNOS. A novel redox regulated pathway was identified through which eNOS is uncoupled due to S-glutathionylation of critical cysteine residues, resulting in superoxide free radical formation instead of the vasodilator molecule, nitric oxide. In addition, the redox sensitive cofactor tetrahydrobiopterin, BH4, is also essential for eNOS coupling. Antioxidants, either individually or combined, can modulate eNOS uncoupling by scavenging free radicals or impairing specific radical generating pathways, thus preventing oxidative stress and ameliorating VED. Epidemiological evidence and dietary guidelines suggest that diets high in antioxidants, or antioxidant supplementation, could preserve vascular health and prevent cardiovascular diseases (CVDs. Therefore, the purpose of this review is to highlight the possible role of dietary antioxidants in regulating eNOS function and uncoupling which is critical for maintenance of vascular health with normal blood flow/circulation and prevention of VED. We hypothesize that a conditioned dietary approach with suitable antioxidants may limit systemic oxidation, maintain a beneficial ratio of reduced to oxidized glutathione, and other redox markers, and minimize eNOS uncoupling serving to prevent CVD and possibly other chronic diseases.

  17. Dihydronaflavonols from the leaves of Derris urucu (Leguminosae): structural elucidation and DPPH radical-scavenging activity

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Lobo, Livia T.; Silva, Geilson A. da; Ferreira, Malisson; Silva, Milton N. da; Santos, Alberdan S.; Arruda, Alberto C.; Guilhon, Gisele M.S.P.; Santos, Lourivaldo S.; Arruda, Mara Silvia P. [Universidade Federal do Para (UFPA), Belem, PA (Brazil). Inst. de Ciencias Exatas e Naturais. Programa de Pos-Graduacao em Quimica], e-mail: mspa@ufpa.br; Borges, Rosilvaldo dos Santos [Universidade Federal do Para (UFPA), Belem, PA (Brazil). Fac. de Farmacia. Inst. de Ciencias

    2009-07-01

    Derris urucu is an Amazonian plant with insecticide and ichthyotoxic properties. Studies with this species show the presence of flavonoids, mainly rotenoids, as well as stilbenes. The ethanol extract of the leaves of Derris urucu (Leguminosae) afforded three new dihydroflavonols named urucuol A (1), B (2) and C (3), and the dihydroflavonol isotirumalin (4). Their structures were elucidated by extensive analysis of 1D and 2D NMR, UV and IR spectra and MS data and comparison with literature data. The isolated compounds (1-4) were evaluated for DPPH radical scavenging activity and showed a relatively lower antioxidant ability compared to the commercial antioxidant trans-resveratrol. (author)

  18. Antioxidant mediated response of Scoparia dulcis in noise-induced redox imbalance and immunohistochemical changes in rat brain.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wankhar, Wankupar; Srinivasan, Sakthivel; Rajan, Ravindran; Sheeladevi, Rathinasamy

    2017-01-19

    Noise has been regarded as an environmental/occupational stressor that causes damages to both auditory and non-auditory organs. Prolonged exposure to these mediators of stress has often resulted in detrimental effect, where oxidative/nitrosative stress plays a major role. Hence, it would be appropriate to examine the possible role of free radicals in brain discrete regions and the "antioxidants" mediated response of S. dulcis. Animals were subjected to noise stress for 15 days (100 dB/4 hours/day) and estimation of endogenous free radical and antioxidant activity were carried out on brain discrete regions (the cerebral cortex, cerebellum, brainstem, striatum, hippocampus and hypothalamus). The result showed that exposure to noise could alleviate endogenous free radical generation and altered antioxidant status in brain discrete regions when compared to that of the control groups. This alleviated free radical generation (H 2 O 2 and NO) is well supported by an upregulated protein expression on immunohistochemistry of both iNOS and nNOS in the cerebral cortex on exposure to noise stress. These findings suggest that increased free radical generation and altered anti-oxidative status can cause redox imbalance in the brain discrete regions. However, free radical scavenging activity of the plant was evident as the noise exposed group treated with S. dulcis[200 mg/(kg·b·w)] displayed a therapeutic effect by decreasing the free radical level and regulate the anti-oxidative status to that of control animals. Hence, it can be concluded that the efficacy of S. dulcis could be attributed to its free radical scavenging activity and anti-oxidative property.

  19. Phytochemical composition and radical scavenging activities of watermelon (Citrullus lanatus seed constituents

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    O. L. Otutu

    2016-01-01

    Full Text Available It is a known fact that antioxidant phytochemicals in foods have many health benefits including prevention of various diseases associated with oxidative stress such as cancer, cardiovascular disease, neuro-degeneration and diabetes. Watermelon seed constituents (whole meal, shelled and shells flours were evaluated for phytochemical components and in vitro antioxidant activity to determine the potential practical applications in food and other related areas. Antioxidant activity was investigated by measuring its DPPH (2,2-diphenyl-2-picryl hydrazyl and ABTS (2, 2’-azinobis-3-ethylbenzothiozoline- 6-sulphonic acid radical scavenging ability as well as FRAP method (ferric reducing power. Quantitative estimation of the constituents showed cardiac glycosides (9.94-14.35 mg/g and saponins (11.62-32.48 mg/g as the most concentrated phytochemicals in the constituents, while alkaloids (47.2-95.8 mg/g, total phenol (5.63-8.40 mg GAE/g, flavonoids 3.51-7.76 mg QE/g. A positive radical scavenging ability of the constituents against ABTS and DPPH free radicals ranged from 0.02 to 0.04 mg Trolox equivalent /g seed flour and 39.89 to 61.11 mg ascorbic acid equivalent /g seed flour respectively. There was a considerable ferric reducing power and higher activity was observed in whole meal than shelled seeds and shells. The significant antioxidant capacities of the seed constituents underline the potential source of natural antioxidants and bioactive compounds for therapeutic purposes.

  20. Antimutagenic and antioxidant effects of a South African traditional formulation used as an immune booster

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Mlungisi Ngcobo

    2016-03-01

    Full Text Available The traditional medicines sector in South Africa is still largely unregulated despite legislation aimed at regulating the practice being in place. The HIV and AIDS epidemic has fuelled demand for traditional medicines, with many patients consulting traditional health practitioners who offer different treatments, including herbal immune boosters. This study investigated the mutagenic and antioxidant effects of the widely sold herbal immune booster, uMakhonya®. The Ames test was used for analysis of the genototoxic effects while the adenosine triphosphate (ATP assay was used to evaluate cell cytotoxicity in peripheral blood mononuclear cells (PBMCs and THP-1 monocytes. To evaluate the antioxidant effects the malondialdehyde (MDA quantification, the nitric oxide and 1,1-diphenyl-2-picryl-hydrazyl (DPPH assays were used. UMakhonya® doses of up to 5000 μg/mL were not genotoxic in the Ames test. UMakhonya® was shown to induce dose-dependent cytotoxicity in both PBMCs and THP-1 cells with doses ranging from 500 μg/ mL to 1000 μg/mL, showing significant (p"less than"0.05 toxicity. UMakhonya® was able to significantly (p"less than"0.05 reduce nitrite radicals at 100 μg/mL while lower doses were not effective when compared to samples stimulated by lipopolysaccharide only. Non-cytotoxic doses of uMakhonya® showed significant (p"less than"0.05 lipid peroxide scavenging ability in supernatants while this scavenging ability was considerably reduced intracellularly. In the DPPH assay, when both uMakhonya® and ascorbic acid were reconstituted in buffered saline, the traditional herbal remedy showed better radical scavenging abilities. Therefore further studies on the genotoxicity of uMakhonya®, when metabolically activated, and its antioxidant effects in in-vivo models are warranted.

  1. Silicon improves seed germination and alleviates drought stress in lentil crops by regulating osmolytes, hydrolytic enzymes and antioxidant defense system.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Biju, Sajitha; Fuentes, Sigfredo; Gupta, Dorin

    2017-10-01

    Silicon (Si) has been widely reported to have beneficial effect on mitigating drought stress in plants. However, the effect of Si on seed germination under drought conditions is still poorly understood. This research was carried out to ascertain the role of Si to abate polyethylene glycol-6000 mediated drought stress on seed germination and seedling growth of lentil. Results showed that drought stress significantly decreased the seed germination traits and increased the concentration of osmolytes (proline, glycine betaine and soluble sugars), reactive oxygen species (hydrogen peroxide and superoxide anion) and lipid peroxides in lentil seedlings. The activities of hydrolytic enzymes and antioxidant enzymes increased significantly under osmotic stress. The application of Si significantly enhanced the plants ability to withstand drought stress conditions through increased Si content, improved antioxidants, hydrolytic enzymes activity, decreased concentration of osmolytes and reactive oxygen species. Multivariate data analysis showed statistically significant correlations among the drought-tolerance traits, whereas cluster analysis categorised the genotypes into distinct groups based on their drought-tolerance levels and improvements in expression of traits due to Si application. Thus, these results showed that Si supplementation of lentil was effective in alleviating the detrimental effects of drought stress on seed germination and increased seedling vigour. Copyright © 2017 Elsevier Masson SAS. All rights reserved.

  2. Potassium up-regulates antioxidant metabolism and alleviates growth inhibition under water and osmotic stress in wheat (Triticum aestivum L).

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ahanger, Mohammad Abass; Agarwal, R M

    2017-07-01

    Pot experiments were conducted to find out the effectivity of K on Triticum aestivum L cultivars. Polyethylene glycol 6000 (PEG 6000) was used as an osmoticum to induce osmotic stress under sand culture setting up the water potential of external solution at -3 and -5 bars. In pots, plants were raised under restricted and normal irrigation and K was applied in varying doses (0, 20, 40, 60 kg ha -1 ) and estimation of different physiological and biochemical parameters was done at two developmental stages, i.e., preflowering and flowering. Supplementation of K resulted in obvious increase in growth and activity of antioxidant enzymes in both normal and stressed plants. Added potassium increased total phenols and tannins thereby strengthening the components of both the enzymatic as well as non-enzymatic antioxidant system. Under both normal and stressed conditions, K-fed plants experienced significant increase in the synthesis of osmolytes like free proline, amino acids, and sugars which assumes special significance in growth under water stress conditions. Wheat plants accumulating greater K were able to counteract the water stress-induced changes by maintaining lower Na/K ratio.

  3. Extraction and free radical scavenging activity of polysaccharide from 'Anji Baicha' (Camellia sinensis (L.) O. Kuntze).

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zhang, Zhongshan; Wang, Xiaomei; Li, Jingfen; Wang, Guozhi; Mao, Genxiang

    2016-03-01

    In this study, the optimization of the extraction conditions of polysaccharide from 'Anji Baicha' (Camellia sinensis (L.) O. Kuntze) (AP) was investigated by response surface methodology (RSM). Three main independent variables (extraction temperature, time, ratio of water to raw material) were taken into consideration. And then the free radical scavenging activities of the sample were investigated including scavenging effects of superoxide and hydroxyl radicals. The RSM analysis showed good correspondence between experimental and predicted values.. The optimal condition to obtain the highest yield of AP was determined as follows: temperature 76.79 °C, time 2.48 h, ratio of water to material 22.53 mL/g. For the free radical scavenging activity, the IC50 values of Vc and AP were 7.78 and 83.25 μg/mL. And for the scavenging effect on hydroxyl radical, that of AP and Vc were 1.80 and 1.69 mg/mL. AP showed excellent antioxidant activity. This exhibited AP had a good potential for antioxidant. The purification and structure needs to be study in further. Copyright © 2015 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  4. Chemical Constituents with Free-Radical-Scavenging Activities from the Stem of Microcos paniculata

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    Yu Chen

    2010-08-01

    Full Text Available The free-radical-scavenging activities of various solvent extracts of Microcos paniculata were evaluated through in vitro model systems, such as 1,1-diphenyl-2-picrylhydrazyl (DPPH, 2,2'-azino-bis-(3-ethylbenzothiazoline-6-sulfonate (ABTS and Co (II EDTA-induced luminol chemiluminescence by flow injection. In all three of these systems the ethyl acetate (EtOAc extract showed the highest free-radical-scavenging activity compared with the other three (n-BuOH, water and petroleum ether extracts. Free-radical-scavenging assay-guided chromatographic separation of the EtOAc extract, using a normal-phase and reverse-phase silica gel column chromatography yielded five compounds: a new triterpene named methyl 3b-O-p-hydroxy-E-cinnamoyloxy-2a,23-dihydroxyolean-12-en-28-oate (1, whose spectral data are presented for the first time, together with four known compounds, epicatechin (2, 3-trans-feruloyl maslinic acid (3, maslinic acid (4 and sucrose (5. All of the compounds were isolated from Microcos paniculata for the first time. The compounds were identified by spectroscopic methods. Among them, compound 2 displayed significant free-radical-scavenging activity which is similar to that of standard antioxidant ascorbic acid (VC and therefore may be a promising natural antioxidant.

  5. Waterborne gemfibrozil challenges the hepatic antioxidant defense system and down-regulates peroxisome proliferator-activated receptor beta (PPARβ) mRNA levels in male goldfish (Carassius auratus)

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Mimeault, C.; Trudeau, V.L.; Moon, T.W.

    2006-01-01

    The lipid regulator gemfibrozil (GEM) is one of many human pharmaceuticals found in the aquatic environment. We previously demonstrated that GEM bioconcentrates in blood and reduces plasma testosterone levels in goldfish (Carassius auratus). In this study, we address the potential of an environmentally relevant waterborne concentration of GEM (1.5 μg/l) to induce oxidative stress in goldfish liver and whether this may be linked to GEM acting as a peroxisome proliferator (PP). We also investigate the autoregulation of the peroxisome proliferator-activated receptors (PPARs) as a potential index of exposure. The three PPAR subtypes (α, β, and γ) were amplified from goldfish liver cDNA. Goldfish exposed to a concentration higher (1500 μg/l) than environmentally relevant for 14 and 28 days significantly reduce hepatic PPARβ mRNA levels (p < 0.001). Levels of CYP1A1 mRNA were unchanged. GEM exposure significantly induced the antioxidant defense enzymes catalase (p < 0.001), glutathione peroxidase (p < 0.001) and glutathione-S-transferase (p = 0.006) but not acyl-CoA oxidase or glutathione reductase. As GEM exposure failed to increase levels of thiobarbituric reactive substances (TBARS), we conclude that a sub-chronic exposure to GEM upregulates the antioxidant defense status of the goldfish as an adaptive response to this human pharmaceutical

  6. Dielectric polymer: scavenging energy from human motion

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jean-Mistral, Claire; Basrour, Skandar; Chaillout, Jean-Jacques

    2008-03-01

    More and more sensors are embedded in human body for medical applications, for sport. The short lifetime of the batteries, available on the market, reveals a real problem of autonomy of these systems. A promising alternative is to scavenge the ambient energy such as the mechanical one. Up to now, few scavenging structures have operating frequencies compatible with ambient one. And, most of the developed structures are rigid and use vibration as mechanical source. For these reasons, we developed a scavenger that operates in a large frequency spectrum from quasi-static to dynamic range. This generator is fully flexible, light and does not hamper the human motion. Thus, we report in this paper an analytical model for dielectric generator with news electrical and mechanical characterization, and the development of an innovating application: scavenging energy from human motion. The generator is located on the knee and design to scavenge 0.1mJ per scavenging cycle at a frequency of 1Hz, enough to supply a low consumption system and with a poling voltage as low as possible to facilitate the power management. Our first prototype is a membrane with an area of 5*3cm and 31µm in thickness which scavenge 0.1mJ under 170V at constant charge Q.

  7. Peroxynitrite scavenging activity of herb extracts.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Choi, Hye Rhi; Choi, Jae Sue; Han, Yong Nam; Bae, Song Ja; Chung, Hae Young

    2002-06-01

    Peroxynitrite (ONOO(-)) is a cytotoxicant with strong oxidizing properties toward various cellular constituents, including sulphydryls, lipids, amino acids and nucleotides and can cause cell death, lipid peroxidation, carcinogenesis and aging. The aim of this study was to characterize ONOO(-) scavenging constituents from herbs. Twenty-eight herbs were screened for their ONOO(-) scavenging activities with the use of a fluorometric method. The potency of scavenging activity following the addition of authentic ONOO(-) was in the following order: witch hazel bark > rosemary > jasmine tea > sage > slippery elm > black walnut leaf > Queen Anne's lace > Linden flower. The extracts exhibited dose-dependent ONOO(-) scavenging activities. We found that witch hazel (Hamamelis virginiana L.) bark showed the strongest effect for scavenging ONOO(-) of the 28 herbs. Hamamelitannin, the major active component of witch hazel bark, was shown to have a strong ability to scavenge ONOO(-). It is suggested that hamamelitannin might be developed as an effective peroxynitrite scavenger for the prevention of ONOO(-) involved diseases. Copyright 2002 John Wiley & Sons, Ltd.

  8. Antioxidants Potential of the Filamentous Fungi (Mucor circinelloides

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ahsan Hameed

    2017-10-01

    Full Text Available Three important strains of Mucor circinelloides grown in complete and minimal media for specified period (72 h, 120 h and 168 h under submerged fermentation conditions were investigated for their potential antioxidants/secondary metabolite production. All mycelial extracts demonstrated effective antioxidant activities in terms of β-carotene/linoleic acid bleaching, radical scavenging, reduction of metal ions and chelating abilities against ferrous ions. Different extraction methods and solvent systems affected the recovery yield and antioxidant activities of the extracts significantly (p ≤ 0.05. Ethanolic extracts were found to be rich source of antioxidant components and subsequently more effective in antioxidant properties. Fermentation period and media used also significantly affected (p ≤ 0.05 the antioxidant production and the resulting antioxidant properties. The (ethanolic extracts of all the strains from late exponential growth phase (120 h showed highest antioxidant production with topmost reducing, chelating and radical scavenging capabilities. Strain MC277.49 was found to be the highest producer of antioxidants followed by MC108.16 and WJ11. Phenolic compounds were detected significantly in higher (p ≤ 0.05 amount succeeded by the condensed tannins and flavonoids. Total phenol content of each extract was attributed to overall antioxidant capacity. Submerged fermentation with nutritional stress conditions were found to be excellent way of producing surplus amount of natural antioxidants/secondary metabolites with their vast potential commercial application in food and pharmaceutical industries.

  9. Antioxidants Potential of the Filamentous Fungi (Mucor circinelloides).

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hameed, Ahsan; Hussain, Syed Ammar; Yang, Junhuan; Ijaz, Muhammad Umair; Liu, Qing; Suleria, Hafiz Ansar Rasul; Song, Yuanda

    2017-10-07

    Three important strains of Mucor circinelloides grown in complete and minimal media for specified period (72 h, 120 h and 168 h) under submerged fermentation conditions were investigated for their potential antioxidants/secondary metabolite production. All mycelial extracts demonstrated effective antioxidant activities in terms of β-carotene/linoleic acid bleaching, radical scavenging, reduction of metal ions and chelating abilities against ferrous ions. Different extraction methods and solvent systems affected the recovery yield and antioxidant activities of the extracts significantly ( p ≤ 0.05). Ethanolic extracts were found to be rich source of antioxidant components and subsequently more effective in antioxidant properties. Fermentation period and media used also significantly affected ( p ≤ 0.05) the antioxidant production and the resulting antioxidant properties. The (ethanolic) extracts of all the strains from late exponential growth phase (120 h) showed highest antioxidant production with topmost reducing, chelating and radical scavenging capabilities. Strain MC277.49 was found to be the highest producer of antioxidants followed by MC108.16 and WJ11. Phenolic compounds were detected significantly in higher ( p ≤ 0.05) amount succeeded by the condensed tannins and flavonoids. Total phenol content of each extract was attributed to overall antioxidant capacity. Submerged fermentation with nutritional stress conditions were found to be excellent way of producing surplus amount of natural antioxidants/secondary metabolites with their vast potential commercial application in food and pharmaceutical industries.

  10. Antioxidant and Anticancer Activities of Wampee (Clausena lansium (Lour. Skeels Peel

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    K. Nagendra Prasad

    2009-01-01

    Full Text Available Antioxidant activities of wampee peel extracts using five different solvents (ethanol, hexane, ethyl acetate, butanol and water were determined by using in-vitro antioxidant models including total antioxidant capability, 1,1-diphenyl-2-picryl hydrazyl (DPPH radical scavenging activity, reducing power, and superoxide scavenging activity. Ethyl acetate fraction (EAF exhibited the highest antioxidant activity compared to other fractions, even higher than synthetic antioxidant butylated hydroxyl toluene (BHT. In addition, the EAF exhibited strong anticancer activities against human gastric carcinoma (SGC-7901, human hepatocellular liver carcinoma (HepG-2 and human lung adenocarcinoma (A-549 cancer cell lines, higher than cisplatin, a conventional anticancer drug. The total phenolic content of wampee fraction was positively correlated with the antioxidant activity. This is the first report on the antioxidant and anticancer activities of the wampee peel extract. Thus, wampee peel can be used potentially as a readily accessible source of natural antioxidants and a possible pharmaceutical supplement.

  11. Phytochemical profiles and antioxidant potential of four Arctic vascular plants from Svalbard

    Digital Repository Service at National Institute of Oceanography (India)

    Singh, P.; Singh, S.M.; DeSouza, L.; Wahidullah, S.

    the chemical composition and antioxidative activities of four Arctic flowering plant species (Dryas octopetala, Carex rupestris, Silene uralensis and Deschampsia alpina.) through in vitro measurements of the free radical scavenging activities (FRS), inhibition...

  12. Evaluation of antioxidant and cytotoxic properties of Cynobacteria, Limnothrix sp. and Leptolyngbya sp. from Arabian sea

    Digital Repository Service at National Institute of Oceanography (India)

    Anas, A.; Vinothkumar, S.; Gupta, S.; Jasmin, C.; Joseph, V.; Parameswaran, P.S.; Nair, S.

    The hexane fractions of the marine cyanobacteria: Leptolyngbya sp. and Limnothrix sp., collected from Arabian Sea were found to display promising antioxidant properties than their ethyl acetate fraction during radical scavenging ABTS/DPPH assays (IC...

  13. A comparative assessment of antioxidant properties, total phenolic content of einkorn, wheat, barley and their malts.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Fogarasi, Attila-Levente; Kun, Szilárd; Tankó, Gabriella; Stefanovits-Bányai, Eva; Hegyesné-Vecseri, Beáta

    2015-01-15

    Two einkorn wheat, one barley, three optional winter cultivation wheat and five winter cultivation wheat samples harvested in Hungary in 2011, and their malts were evaluated for their DPPH radical and ABTS radical cation scavenging activity, ferric reduction capacity (FRAP) and total phenolic content (TPC). All einkorn and barley samples exhibited significant antioxidant activities determined by DPPH and ABTS radical scavenging activities. The einkorn samples show higher polyphenol content than the other wheat samples. In all cases the barley sample had the highest antioxidant potential and polyphenol content. The einkorn malts had high DPPH and ABTS radical cation scavenging activities, but the phenolic content was lower against wheat samples. There was significant difference between the antioxidant potential of optional and winter cultivation wheat samples except on ABTS scavenging activities. Einkorn wheat is potentially a new raw material to produce organic beer that might have beneficial effects with its increased antioxidant potential. Copyright © 2014 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  14. Preparation of Egg White Liquid Hydrolysate (ELH) and Its Radical-Scavenging Activity

    Science.gov (United States)

    Noh, Dong Ouk; Suh, Hyung Joo

    2015-01-01

    In the present study, an optimum protease was selected to hydrolyze the egg white liquid protein for the antioxidant peptides. Alcalase treatment yielded the highest amount of α-amino groups (15.27 mg/mL), while the control (no enzymatic hydrolysis) showed the lowest amount of α-amino groups (1.53 mg/mL). Alcalase also gave the highest degree of hydrolysis (DH) value (43.2%) and was more efficient for egg white liquid hydrolysis than the other enzymes. The Alcalase hydrolysate had the highest radical-scavenging activity (82.5%) at a concentration of 5.0 mg/mL. The conditions for enzymatic hydrolysis of egg white liquid with Alcalase were selected as substrate : water ratio of 2:1. Five percent Alacalse treatment did not show significant (P>0.05) increases of DH and α-amino nitrogen content after 24 h-hydrolysis. Thirty two hour-hydrolysis with 5% Alcalase is sufficient to make antioxidative egg white liquid hydrolysate from egg white liquid. DPPH and ABTS radical-scavenging activities were significantly (P<0.05) higher after enzymatic digestion. These results suggest that active peptides released from egg-white protein are effective radical-scavengers. Thus, this approach may be useful for the preparation of potent antioxidant products. PMID:26451355

  15. Polymorphic ROS scavenging revealed by CCCP in a lizard

    Science.gov (United States)

    Olsson, Mats; Wilson, Mark; Isaksson, Caroline; Uller, Tobias

    2009-07-01

    Ingestion of antioxidants has been argued to scavenge circulating reactive molecules (e.g., free radicals), play a part in mate choice (by mediating access to this important resource), and perhaps increase life span. However, recent work has come to question these relationships. We have shown elsewhere in the polychromatic lizard, Ctenophorus pictus, that diet supplementation of carotenoids as antioxidants does not depress circulating natural reactive oxygen species (ROS) levels and leads to no corresponding improvement of color traits. However, a much stronger test would be to experimentally manipulate the ROS levels themselves and assess carotenoid-induced ROS depression. Here, we achieve this by using carbonyl cyanide 3-chlorophenylhydrazone, which elevates superoxide (SO) formation approximately threefold at 10 μM in this model system. We then look for depressing effects on ROS of the carotenoids in order to assess whether ‘super-production’ of SO makes carotenoid effects on elevated ROS levels detectable. The rationale for this treatment was that if not even such elevated levels of SO are reduced by carotenoid supplementation, the putative link carotenoids, ROS depression, and mate quality (in terms of antioxidant capacity) is highly questionable. We conclude that there is no significant effect of carotenoids on mean SO levels even at the induced ROS levels. However, our results showed a significant interaction effect between carotenoid treatment and male color, with red males having higher ROS levels than yellow males. We suggest that this may be because different pigments are differently involved in the generation of the integumental colors in the two morphs with concomitant effects on ROS depletion depending on carotenoid uptake or allocation to coloration and antioxidation.

  16. Evaluation of Free Radical Scavenging Activity in Ethanolic Extract from Promising Accessions of Curcuma aeruginosa RoxB.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Waras Nurcholis

    2017-11-01

    Full Text Available This study evaluated the free radical scavenging activity in ethanolic extracts from 20 accessions of Curcuma aeruginosa. The radical scavenging activity of the extract accessions was investigated with 2,2-diphenyl-1-picrylhydrazyl (DPPH radical. IC50 values for DPPH radical scavenging activity ranged from 89.81 to 505.65 µg mL-1. Based on IC50 values, twenty accessions of C. aeruginosa can be divided into three groups: strong (two accessions; moderate (seventeen accessions; and low (one accession of DPPH scavenger. Sukoharjo (SH and Muara Bungo (MB showed promising accessions for antioxidant potential, thus these accessions important to selection for future breeding program in pharmaceutical products.

  17. Phytoconstituents with Radical Scavenging and Cytotoxic Activities from Diospyros shimbaensis

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    Per Aronsson

    2016-01-01

    Full Text Available As part of our search for natural products having antioxidant and anticancer properties, the phytochemical investigation of Diospyros shimbaensis (Ebenaceae, a plant belonging to a genus widely used in East African traditional medicine, was carried out. From its stem and root barks the new naphthoquinone 8,8′-oxo-biplumbagin (1 was isolated along with the known tetralones trans-isoshinanolone (2 and cis-isoshinanolone (3, and the naphthoquinones plumbagin (4 and 3,3′-biplumbagin (5. Compounds 2, 4, and 5 showed cytotoxicity (IC50 520–82.1 μM against MDA-MB-231 breast cancer cells. Moderate to low cytotoxicity was observed for the hexane, dichloromethane, and methanol extracts of the root bark (IC50 16.1, 29.7 and > 100 μg/mL, respectively, and for the methanol extract of the stem bark (IC50 59.6 μg/mL. The radical scavenging activity of the isolated constituents (1–5 was evaluated on the 2,2-diphenyl-1-picrylhydrazyl (DPPH radical scavenging assay. The applicability of the crude extracts and of the isolated constituents for controlling degenerative diseases is discussed.

  18. Phytoconstituents with Radical Scavenging and Cytotoxic Activities from Diospyros shimbaensis.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Aronsson, Per; Munissi, Joan J E; Gruhonjic, Amra; Fitzpatrick, Paul A; Landberg, Göran; Nyandoro, Stephen S; Erdelyi, Mate

    2016-01-15

    As part of our search for natural products having antioxidant and anticancer properties, the phytochemical investigation of Diospyros shimbaensis (Ebenaceae), a plant belonging to a genus widely used in East African traditional medicine, was carried out. From its stem and root barks the new naphthoquinone 8,8'-oxo-biplumbagin ( 1 ) was isolated along with the known tetralones trans -isoshinanolone ( 2 ) and cis -isoshinanolone ( 3 ), and the naphthoquinones plumbagin ( 4 ) and 3,3'-biplumbagin ( 5 ). Compounds 2 , 4 , and 5 showed cytotoxicity (IC 50 520-82.1 μM) against MDA-MB-231 breast cancer cells. Moderate to low cytotoxicity was observed for the hexane, dichloromethane, and methanol extracts of the root bark (IC 50 16.1, 29.7 and > 100 μg/mL, respectively), and for the methanol extract of the stem bark (IC 50 59.6 μg/mL). The radical scavenging activity of the isolated constituents ( 1 - 5 ) was evaluated on the 2,2-diphenyl-1-picrylhydrazyl (DPPH) radical scavenging assay. The applicability of the crude extracts and of the isolated constituents for controlling degenerative diseases is discussed.

  19. Characterization of the Antioxidant Effects of γ-Oryzanol: Involvement of the Nrf2 Pathway

    OpenAIRE

    W. Rungratanawanich; G. Abate; M. M. Serafini; M. Guarienti; M. Catanzaro; M. Marziano; M. Memo; C. Lanni; D. Uberti

    2018-01-01

    γ-Oryzanol (ORY) is well known for its antioxidant potential. However, the mechanism by which ORY exerts its antioxidant effect is still unclear. In this paper, the antioxidant properties of ORY were investigated for its potential effects as a reactive oxygen and nitrogen species (ROS/RNS) scavenger and in activating antioxidant-promoting intracellular pathways utilizing the human embryonic kidney cells (HEK-293). The 24 h ORY exposure significantly prevented hydrogen peroxide- (H2O2-) induce...

  20. Relevance of the Mention of Antioxidant Properties in Yogurt Labels: In Vitro Evaluation and Chromatographic Analysis

    OpenAIRE

    Pereira, Eliana; Barros, Lillian; Ferreira, Isabel C. F. R.

    2013-01-01

    The purpose of the inclusion of fruit (natural additives) in yogurt aims to increase its antioxidant activity and functionality. Herein, a comparative study of the antioxidant potential of yogurts with pieces of various fruits was performed, including yogurts with mention of antioxidant properties in the label. Free radicals scavenging activity, reducing power and inhibition of lipid peroxidation were evaluated by in vitro assays, as were the contents in antioxidants such as phenolics, flavon...

  1. Antioxidant catalase rescues against high fat diet-induced cardiac dysfunction via an IKKβ-AMPK-dependent regulation of autophagy.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Liang, Lei; Shou, Xi-Ling; Zhao, Hai-Kang; Ren, Gu-Qun; Wang, Jian-Bang; Wang, Xi-Hui; Ai, Wen-Ting; Maris, Jackie R; Hueckstaedt, Lindsay K; Ma, Ai-Qun; Zhang, Yingmei

    2015-02-01

    Autophagy, a conservative degradation process for long-lived and damaged proteins, participates in a variety of biological processes including obesity. However, the precise mechanism of action behind obesity-induced changes in autophagy still remains elusive. This study was designed to examine the role of the antioxidant catalase in high fat diet-induced changes in cardiac geometry and function as well as the underlying mechanism of action involved with a focus on autophagy. Wild-type (WT) and transgenic mice with cardiac overexpression of catalase were fed low or high fat diet for 20 weeks prior to assessment of myocardial geometry and function. High fat diet intake triggered obesity, hyperinsulinemia, and hypertriglyceridemia, the effects of which were unaffected by catalase transgene. Myocardial geometry and function were compromised with fat diet intake as manifested by cardiac hypertrophy, enlarged left ventricular end systolic and diastolic diameters, fractional shortening, cardiomyocyte contractile capacity and intracellular Ca²⁺ mishandling, the effects of which were ameliorated by catalase. High fat diet intake promoted reactive oxygen species production and suppressed autophagy in the heart, the effects of which were attenuated by catalase. High fat diet intake dampened phosphorylation of inhibitor kappa B kinase β(IKKβ), AMP-activated protein kinase (AMPK) and tuberous sclerosis 2 (TSC2) while promoting phosphorylation of mTOR, the effects of which were ablated by catalase. In vitro study revealed that palmitic acid compromised cardiomyocyte autophagy and contractile function in a manner reminiscent of fat diet intake, the effect of which was significantly alleviated by inhibition of IKKβ, activation of AMPK and induction of autophagy. Taken together, our data revealed that the antioxidant catalase counteracts against high fat diet-induced cardiac geometric and functional anomalies possibly via an IKKβ-AMPK-dependent restoration of myocardial

  2. Antioxidant capacity changes and phenolic profile of Echinacea purpurea, nettle (Urtica dioica L.), and dandelion (Taraxacum officinale) after application of polyamine and phenolic biosynthesis regulators.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hudec, Jozef; Burdová, Mária; Kobida, L'ubomír; Komora, Ladislav; Macho, Vendelín; Kogan, Grigorij; Turianica, Ivan; Kochanová, Radka; Lozek, Otto; Habán, Miroslav; Chlebo, Peter

    2007-07-11

    The changes of the antioxidant (AOA) and antiradical activities (ARA) and the total contents of phenolics, anthocyanins, flavonols, and hydroxybenzoic acid in roots and different aerial sections of Echinacea purpurea, nettle, and dandelion, after treatment with ornithine decarboxylase inhibitor, a polyamine inhibitor (O-phosphoethanolamine, KF), and a phenol biosynthesis stimulator (carboxymethyl chitin glucan, CCHG) were analyzed spectrophotometrically; hydroxycinnamic acids content was analyzed by RP-HPLC with UV detection. Both regulators increased the AOA measured as inhibition of peroxidation (IP) in all herb sections, with the exception of Echinacea stems after treatment with KF. In root tissues IP was dramatically elevated mainly after CCHG application: 8.5-fold in Echinacea, 4.14-fold in nettle, and 2.08-fold in dandelion. ARA decrease of Echinacea leaves treated with regulators was in direct relation only with cichoric acid and caftaric acid contents. Both regulators uphold the formation of cinnamic acid conjugates, the most expressive being that of cichoric acid after treatment with CCHG in Echinacea roots from 2.71 to 20.92 mg g(-1). There was a strong relationship between increase of the total phenolics in all sections of Echinacea, as well as in the studied sections of dandelion, and the anthocyanin content.

  3. Additional information to the in vitro antioxidant activity of Ginkgo biloba L

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Lugasi, A; Horvahovich, P; Dworschák, E

    The in vitro antioxidant and free radical scavenging activity of the ethanol extract from Ginkgo biloba L. was examined in different systems. The extract showed hydrogen-donating ability, reducing power, copper-binding property, free radical scavenging activity in a H2O2/.OH-luminol system and it

  4. Combination of Antioxidants from Different Sources Could Offer Synergistic Benefits: A Case Study of Tea and Ginger Blend.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Makanjuola, Solomon A; Enujiugha, Victor N; Omoba, Olufunmilayo S; Sanni, David M

    2015-11-01

    Tea and ginger are plants with high antioxidant potential. Combinations of antioxidants from different sources could also produce synergistic antioxidant effects. This study investigated the influence of solvent on antioxidant content of tea, ginger, and tea + ginger blends. Under the investigated extraction conditions, water was the most effective extraction solvent to maximise peroxide scavenging and iron chelating activity of tea, ginger, and their blends. Aqueous ethanol was the most effective solvent to maximise ABTS radical scavenging activity and ethanol was the best solvent to maximise DPPH radical scavenging activity. A good multivariate regression model that explains the relationship between the total flavonoid content of the extracts and their antioxidant activities was obtained (R2 and Q2 of 0.93 and 0.83, respectively). Extracts of tea-ginger blends exhibited synergistic effects in their ABTS and DPPH radical scavenging activity.

  5. Scavenger receptors in homeostasis and immunity.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Canton, Johnathan; Neculai, Dante; Grinstein, Sergio

    2013-09-01

    Scavenger receptors were originally identified by their ability to recognize and to remove modified lipoproteins; however, it is now appreciated that they carry out a striking range of functions, including pathogen clearance, lipid transport, the transport of cargo within the cell and even functioning as taste receptors. The large repertoire of ligands recognized by scavenger receptors and their broad range of functions are not only due to the wide range of receptors that constitute this family but also to their ability to partner with various co-receptors. The ability of individual scavenger receptors to associate with different co-receptors makes their responsiveness extremely versatile. This Review highlights recent insights into the structural features that determine the function of scavenger receptors and the emerging role that these receptors have in immune responses, notably in macrophage polarization and in the pathogenesis of diseases such as atherosclerosis and Alzheimer's disease.

  6. Flavonoids as scavengers of nitric oxide radical.

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    van Acker, S.A.B.E.; Tromp, M.N.J.L.; Haenen, G.R.M.M.; van der Vijgh, W.J.F.; Bast, A.

    1995-01-01

    Flavonoids are a group of naturally occurring compounds used, e.g., in the treatment of vascular endothelial damage. They are known to be excellent scavengers of oxygen free radicals. Since the nitric oxide radical (

  7. Antioxidant Phenolic Compounds of Cassava (Manihot esculenta from Hainan

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Haofu Dai

    2011-12-01

    Full Text Available An activity-directed fractionation and purification process was used to isolate antioxidant components from cassava stems produced in Hainan. The ethyl acetate and n-butanol fractions showed greater DPPH˙and ABTS·+ scavenging activities than other fractions. The ethyl acetate fraction was subjected to column chromatography, to yield ten phenolic compounds: Coniferaldehyde (1, isovanillin (2, 6-deoxyjacareubin (3, scopoletin (4, syringaldehyde (5, pinoresinol (6, p-coumaric acid (7, ficusol (8, balanophonin (9 and ethamivan (10, which possess significant antioxidant activities. The relative order of DPPH· scavenging capacity for these compounds was ascorbic acid (reference > 6 > 1 > 8 > 10 > 9 > 3 > 4 > 7 > 5 > 2, and that of ABTS·+ scavenging capacity was 5 > 7 > 1 > 10 > 4 > 6 > 8 > 2 > Trolox (reference compound > 3 > 9. The results showed that these phenolic compounds contributed to the antioxidant activity of cassava.

  8. Alpha-Amylase Inhibition and Antioxidative Capacity of Some Antidiabetic Plants Used by the Traditional Healers in Southeastern Nigeria

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Sunday O. Oyedemi

    2017-01-01

    Full Text Available Oxidative stress plays a significant role in the pathogenesis of metabolic syndrome including diabetes mellitus (DM. The inhibition of alpha-amylase is an important therapeutic target in the regulation of postprandial increase of blood glucose in diabetic patients. The present study investigated the alpha-amylase inhibitory and antioxidant potential of selected herbal drugs used in the treatment of DM by the traditional healers in Isiala Mbano and Ikwuano regions of southeastern Nigeria. Antioxidant activity was evaluated in terms of free radical scavenging, reducing power, and total phenolic (TPC and flavonoid content (TFC in consonance with the TLC profiling. The results showed that methanol crude extracts from Anacardium occidentale (AO and Ceiba pentandra (CP recorded higher TPC and TFC, potent free radical scavenging, and efficient reducing power (RP as compared with other plant samples. All the plant extracts exhibited a relative alpha-amylase inhibition apart from Strophanthus hispidus (SH extract with a negative effect. We discovered a mild to weak correlation between alpha-amylase inhibition or antioxidative capacity and the total phenol or flavonoid content. At least in part, the results obtained in this work support the traditional use of certain plant species in the treatment of patients with DM.

  9. Alpha-Amylase Inhibition and Antioxidative Capacity of Some Antidiabetic Plants Used by the Traditional Healers in Southeastern Nigeria

    Science.gov (United States)

    Oyedemi, Blessing O.; Ijeh, Ifeoma I.; Ohanyerem, Princemartins E.; Aiyegoro, Olayinka A.

    2017-01-01

    Oxidative stress plays a significant role in the pathogenesis of metabolic syndrome including diabetes mellitus (DM). The inhibition of alpha-amylase is an important therapeutic target in the regulation of postprandial increase of blood glucose in diabetic patients. The present study investigated the alpha-amylase inhibitory and antioxidant potential of selected herbal drugs used in the treatment of DM by the traditional healers in Isiala Mbano and Ikwuano regions of southeastern Nigeria. Antioxidant activity was evaluated in terms of free radical scavenging, reducing power, and total phenolic (TPC) and flavonoid content (TFC) in consonance with the TLC profiling. The results showed that methanol crude extracts from Anacardium occidentale (AO) and Ceiba pentandra (CP) recorded higher TPC and TFC, potent free radical scavenging, and efficient reducing power (RP) as compared with other plant samples. All the plant extracts exhibited a relative alpha-amylase inhibition apart from Strophanthus hispidus (SH) extract with a negative effect. We discovered a mild to weak correlation between alpha-amylase inhibition or antioxidative capacity and the total phenol or flavonoid content. At least in part, the results obtained in this work support the traditional use of certain plant species in the treatment of patients with DM. PMID:28367491

  10. Antioxidant activity of a novel synthetic hexa-peptide derived from an enzymatic hydrolysate of duck skin by-products.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lee, Seung-Jae; Cheong, Sun Hee; Kim, Yon-Suk; Hwang, Jin-Woo; Kwon, Hyuck-Ju; Kang, Seo-Hee; Moon, Sang-Ho; Jeon, Byong-Tae; Park, Pyo-Jam

    2013-12-01

    A peptide was synthesized on the basis of our previous study from solid phase peptide synthesis using ASP48S (Peptron Inc.) and identified by the reverse phase high-performance liquid chromatography (HPLC) using a Vydac Everest C18 column. The molecular mass of the peptide found to be 693.90 Da, and the amino acid sequences of the peptide was Trp-Tyr-Pro-Ala-Ala-Pro. The purpose of this study was to evaluate antioxidant effects of the peptide by electron spin resonance (ESR) spectrometer, and on t-BHP-induced liver cells damage in Chang cells. The antioxidative activity of the peptide was evaluated by measuring 1,1-diphenyl-2-picrylhydrazyl (DPPH), hydroxyl, alkyl and superoxide radical scavenging activity using an ESR spectrometer. The half maximal inhibitory concentration (IC50) value of the peptide for hydroxyl, DPPH, alkyl, and superoxide radical scavenging activity were 45.2, 18.5, 31.5, and 33.4 μM, respectively. In addition, the peptide inhibited productions of cell death against t-BHP-induced liver cell damage in Chang cells. It was presumed to be peptide involved in regulating the apoptosis-related gene expression in the cell environment. The present results indicate that the peptide substantially contributes to antioxidative properties in liver cells. Copyright © 2013 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  11. In vivo heme scavenging by Staphylococcus aureus IsdC and IsdE proteins

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Mack, John; Vermeiren, Christie; Heinrichs, David E.; Stillman, Martin J.

    2004-01-01

    We report the first characterization of the in vivo porphyrin scavenging abilities of two components of a newly discovered heme scavenging system involving iron-regulated surface determinant (Isd) proteins. These proteins are present within the cell envelope of the Gram-positive human pathogen Staphylococcus aureus. IsdC and IsdE, when expressed heterologously in Escherichia coli, efficiently scavenged intracellular heme and resulted in de novo heme synthesis in excess of 100-fold above background. Magnetic circular dichroism analyses showed that the heme-binding properties of the two proteins differ significantly from one another. IsdC bound almost exclusively free-base protoporphyrin IX, whereas the IsdE protein was associated with low spin Fe(III) and Fe(II) heme. These properties provide important insight into the possible mechanisms of iron scavenging from bound heme by Isd proteins

  12. Microbial fuel cell as a free-radical scavenging tool

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Koleva, Ralitza; Yemendzhiev, Hyusein; Nenov, Valentin

    2017-01-01

    Microbial fuel cells (MFCs) are known for their capability to directly convert organic substrates into electricity by the biochemical activity of specific microorganisms. Availability of a proper terminal electron acceptor is crucial for this process. Free radicals, with their one or more unpaired electrons, are extremely reducible and could be considered as electron acceptors in terms of cathodic processes in MFC. During this reduction, free radicals could be transformed in the same manner as they are transformed by antioxidants. The present study investigated this opportunity by utilization of 2,2-diphenyl-1-picrylhydrazyl (150 mmol/dm"3 methanol solution) as a free-radical molecule. During the studied process, over 90% radical neutralization was observed in less than 16 hours. The results obtained demonstrate for the first time the potential of MFC type bioelectrochemical systems to serve as a free-radical scavenging tool and to provide antioxidant and anti-radical activity. In this way, this study opens a completely new field of research and application of bio-electrochemical systems

  13. Antioxidative activity of Silibum marianum cultivated in Mongolia

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    J Ganbaatar

    2014-12-01

    Full Text Available Silibum marianum (Milk thistle contains high amount of phenolic compounds with antioxidant properties. The aim of this work was to evaluate the antioxidant activity of  phenolic compounds included in Milk thistle. The  antioxidant properties of the leaves and seeds of milk thistle were examined by determining its ability to scavenge the 2,2-diphenyl-1-picrylhydrazyl (DPPH free radical. The results obtained from DPPH assay confirm that Milk thistle extracts have high antioxidative activity.DOI: http://doi.dx.org/10.5564/mjc.v15i0.323 Mongolian Journal of Chemistry 15 (41, 2014, p53-55

  14. ANTIOXIDANT ACTIVITY OF ETHANOLIC EXTRACT FROM RUMEX CRISTATUS DC

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Sibel KAHRAMAN

    2013-01-01

    Full Text Available Plants have been used for many years as a source of traditional medicine to treat various diseases and conditions. R. cristatus DC (Polygonaceae is widely spread in Turkey and used as both herbal medicine and food. This study examined the antioxidant activities of ethanolic extract of R. cristatus DC using different tests. The antioxidant activity of ethanolic extract of R. cristatus leaves was analyzed for total phenolic, flavonoid, ascorbic acid and β-carotene contents, reducing power and DPPH radical scavenging activity. The results were compared with natural and synthetic antioxidants. The results suggest that consumption of R. cristatus DC can be beneficial effects due to its antioxidant properties

  15. Up-Regulation of Mitochondrial Antioxidant Superoxide Dismutase Underpins Persistent Cardiac Nutritional-Preconditioning by Long Chain n-3 Polyunsaturated Fatty Acids in the Rat

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Grace G. Abdukeyum

    2016-03-01

    Full Text Available Reactive oxygen species paradoxically underpin both ischaemia/reperfusion (I/R damage and ischaemic preconditioning (IPC cardioprotection. Long-chain omega-3 polyunsaturated fatty acids (LCn-3 PUFA are highly susceptible to peroxidation, but are paradoxically cardioprotective. This study tested the hypothesis that LCn-3 PUFA cardioprotection is underpinned by peroxidation, upregulating antioxidant activity to reduce I/R-induced lipid oxidation, and the mechanisms of this nutritional preconditioning contrast to mechanisms of IPC. Rats were fed: fish oil (LCn-3 PUFA; sunflower seed oil (n-6 PUFA; or beef tallow (saturated fat, SF enriched diets for six weeks. Isolated hearts were subject to: 180 min normoxic perfusion; a 30 min coronary occlusion ischaemia protocol then 120 min normoxic reperfusion; or a 3 × 5 min global IPC protocol, 30 min ischaemia, then reperfusion. Dietary LCn-3 PUFA raised basal: membrane docosahexaenoic acid (22:6n-3 DHA; fatty acid peroxidisability index; concentrations of lipid oxidation products; and superoxide dismutase (MnSOD activity (but not CuZnSOD or glutathione peroxidase. Infarct size correlated inversely with basal MnSOD activity (r2 = 0.85 in the ischaemia protocol and positively with I/R-induced lipid oxidation (lipid hydroperoxides (LPO, r2 = 0.475; malondialdehyde (MDA, r2 = 0.583 across ischaemia and IPC protocols. While both dietary fish oil and IPC infarct-reduction were associated with reduced I/R-induced lipid oxidation, fish oil produced nutritional preconditioning by prior LCn-3 PUFA incorporation and increased peroxidisability leading to up-regulated mitochondrial SOD antioxidant activity.

  16. Effect of Boron on Thymic Cytokine Expression, Hormone Secretion, Antioxidant Functions, Cell Proliferation, and Apoptosis Potential via the Extracellular Signal-Regulated Kinases 1 and 2 Signaling Pathway.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jin, Erhui; Ren, Man; Liu, Wenwen; Liang, Shuang; Hu, Qianqian; Gu, Youfang; Li, Shenghe

    2017-12-27

    Boron is an essential trace element in animals. Appropriate boron supplementation can promote thymus development; however, a high dose of boron can lead to adverse effects and cause toxicity. The influencing mechanism of boron on the animal body remains unclear. In this study, we examined the effect of boron on cytokine expression, thymosin and thymopoietin secretion, antioxidant function, cell proliferation and apoptosis, and extracellular signal-regulated kinases 1 and 2 (ERK1/2) pathway in the thymus of rats. We found that supplementation with 10 and 20 mg/L boron to the drinking water significantly elevated levels of interleukin 2 (IL-2), interferon γ (IFN-γ), interleukin 4 (IL-4), and thymosin α1 in the thymus of rats (p boron had no apparent effect on many of the above indicators. In contrast, supplementation with 480 and 640 mg/L boron had the opposite effect on the above indicators in rats and elevated levels of pro-inflammatory cytokines, such as interleukin 6 (IL-6), interleukin 1β (IL-1β), and tumor necrosis factor α (TNF-α) (p boron to the drinking water had a U-shaped dose-effect relationship with thymic cytokine expression, hormone secretion, antioxidant function, cell proliferation, and apoptosis. Specifically, supplementation with 10 and 20 mg/L boron promoted thymocyte proliferation and enhanced thymic functions. However, supplementation with 480 and 640 mg/L boron inhibited thymic functions and increased the number of apoptotic thymocytes, suggesting that the effects of boron on thymic functions may be caused via the ERK1/2 signaling pathway.

  17. Improvement of antioxidant activities and yield of spring maize through seed priming and foliar application of plant growth regulators under heat stress conditions

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ijaz Ahmad

    2017-03-01

    Full Text Available Heat stress during reproductive and grain filling phases adversely affects the growth of cereals through reduction in grain’s number and size. However, exogenous application of antioxidants, plant growth regulators and osmoprotectants may be helpful to minimize these heat induced yield losses in cereals. This two year study was conducted to evaluate the role of exogenous application of ascorbic acid (AsA, salicylic acid (SA and hydrogen peroxide (H2O2 applied through seed priming or foliar spray on biochemical, physiological, morphological and yield related traits, grain yield and quality of late spring sown hybrid maize. The experiment was conducted in the spring season of 2007 and 2008. We observed that application of AsA, SA and H2O2 applied through seed priming or foliar spray improved the physiological, biochemical, morphological and yield related traits, grain yield and grain quality of late spring sown maize in both years. In both years, we observed higher superoxide dismutase (SOD, catalase (CAT and peroxidase (POD activity in the plants where AsA, SA and H2O2were applied through seed priming or foliar spray than control. Membrane stability index (MSI, relative water contents (RWC, chlorophyll contents, grain yield and grain oil contents were also improved by exogenous application of AsA, SA and H2O2 in both years. Seed priming of AsA, SA and H2O2was equally effective as the foliar application. In conclusion, seed priming with AsA, SA and H2O2 may be opted to lessen the heat induced yield losses in late sown spring hybrid maize. Heat tolerance induced by ASA, SA and H2O2 may be attributed to increase in antioxidant activities and MSI which maintained RWC and chlorophyll contents in maize resulting in better grain yield in heat stress conditions.

  18. The effects of bud load and regulated deficit irrigation on sugar, organic acid, phenolic compounds and antioxidant activity of Razakı table grape berries

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Tangolar Semih

    2015-01-01

    Full Text Available This study aims at assessing the effects of increased bud load and irrigation applications on berry quality of the Razakı table grape. Two Regulated Deficit Irrigation (RDI having different irrigation levels (RDI-I and RDI-II based on the growth stages, in addition to a non-irrigated control treatment together with two different bud load practices (K-normal and 2K-two-fold buds of the normal were examined for their effects on quality attributes such as sugar and organic acids contents, phenolic compounds as well as antioxidant capacity of the berries. The non-irrigated vines had highest sugar level (198.86 g/kg in the first year (2013 of the experiment whilst the sugar content of the berries was increased with irrigation (RDI-II in 2014. However the highest organic acid (7.10 g/kg was recorded from the RDI-II treatment in 2013 whereas those of from non-irrigated vines were highest (7.81 g/kg in 2014. Considering the sugar and organic acid content of the berries, bud load effects were not significant. The total phenolic acids were higher under non-irrigated and 2K bud load conditions. Antioxidant activity of berries was increased with RDI-I irrigation and 2K practices in the first year (2013 although no significant effect was recorded in the second year of the experiment. In all applications, glucose among the sugars, tartaric acid among the organic acids, catechin and epicatechin among the phenolic compounds were detected to be higher compared to other components in berries.

  19. Phytochemical Analysis and Free Radical Scavenging Activity of Medicinal Plants Gnidia glauca and Dioscorea bulbifera

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ghosh, Sougata; Derle, Abhishek; Ahire, Mehul; More, Piyush; Jagtap, Soham; Phadatare, Suvarna D.; Patil, Ajay B.; Jabgunde, Amit M.; Sharma, Geeta K.; Shinde, Vaishali S.; Pardesi, Karishma; Dhavale, Dilip D.; Chopade, Balu A.

    2013-01-01

    Gnidia glauca and Dioscorea bulbifera are traditional medicinal plants that can be considered as sources of natural antioxidants. Herein we report the phytochemical analysis and free radical scavenging activity of their sequential extracts. Phenolic and flavonoid content were determined. Scavenging activity was checked against pulse radiolysis generated ABTS•+ and OH radical, in addition to DPPH, superoxide and hydroxyl radicals by biochemical methods followed by principal component analysis. G. glauca leaf extracts were rich in phenolic and flavonoid content. Ethyl acetate extract of D. bulbifera bulbs and methanol extract of G. glauca stem exhibited excellent scavenging of pulse radiolysis generated ABTS•+ radical with a second order rate constant of 2.33×106 and 1.72×106, respectively. Similarly, methanol extract of G. glauca flower and ethyl acetate extract of D. bulbifera bulb with second order rate constants of 4.48×106 and 4.46×106 were found to be potent scavengers of pulse radiolysis generated OH radical. G. glauca leaf and stem showed excellent reducing activity and free radical scavenging activity. HPTLC fingerprinting, carried out in mobile phase, chloroform: toluene: ethanol (4: 4: 1, v/v) showed presence of florescent compound at 366 nm as well as UV active compound at 254 nm. GC-TOF-MS analysis revealed the predominance of diphenyl sulfone as major compound in G. glauca. Significant levels of n-hexadecanoic acid and octadecanoic acid were also present. Diosgenin (C27H42O3) and diosgenin (3á,25R) acetate were present as major phytoconstituents in the extracts of D. bulbifera. G. glauca and D. bulbifera contain significant amounts of phytochemicals with antioxidative properties that can be exploited as a potential source for herbal remedy for oxidative stress induced diseases. These results rationalize further investigation in the potential discovery of new natural bioactive principles from these two important medicinal plants. PMID:24367520

  20. Isolation and characterisation of in vitro and cellular free radical scavenging peptides from corn peptide fractions.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wang, Liying; Ding, Long; Wang, Ying; Zhang, Yan; Liu, Jingbo

    2015-02-16

    Corn gluten meal, a corn processing industry by-product, is a good source for the preparation of bioactive peptides due to its special amino acid composition. In the present study, the in vitro and cellular free radical scavenging activities of corn peptide fractions (CPFs) were investigated. Results indicated that CPF1 (molecular weight less than 1 kDa) and CPF2 (molecular weight between 1 and 3 kDa) exhibited good hydroxyl radical, superoxide anion radical and 2,2'-azino-bis (3-ethylbenzothiazoline-6-sulphonicacid) diammonium salt (ABTS) radical scavenging activity and oxygen radical absorbance capacity (ORAC). Meanwhile, the in vitro radical scavenging activity of CPF1 was slightly higher than that of CPF2. Both CPF1 and CPF2 also exhibited significant cytoprotective effects and intracellular reactive oxygen species scavenging activity in Caco-2 cells exposed to hydrogen peroxide (H2O2). The amino acid composition analysis revealed that the CPF were rich in hydrophobic amino acids, which comprised of more than 45% of total amino acids. An antioxidant peptide sequence of Tyr-Phe-Cys-Leu-Thr (YFCLT) was identified from CPF1 using matrix-assisted laser desorption/ionization time-of-flight/time-of-flight mass spectrometry (MALDI TOF/TOF MS). The YFCLT exhibited excellent ABTS radical scavenging activity with a 50% effective concentration (EC50) value of 37.63 µM, which was much lower than that of Trolox. In conclusion, corn gluten meal might be a good source to prepare antioxidant peptides.

  1. Evaluation of free radical scavenging activity of tea infusion of commercial tea products available in uae

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Nessa, F.; Khan, S.A.

    2014-01-01

    In the present study, twenty four commercial tea samples were assayed to determine their free radical scavenging activity and polyphenolic contents based on the brewing/infusing period. Tea samples were infused/brewed in 200 mL boiled water at 120 degree C for 1, 2 and 5 min, respectively. The radical scavenging activities of tea infusion/brewing were measured using 1,1-diphenyl-2-picrylhydrazyl radical (DPPH) assay method. The results were ranged from 67.81-90.51% for black tea bags, 90.37-94.51% for green tea bags, 24.66-92.25% for black tea powder, 16.08-93.06% for green tea powder and 32.90- 45.54% for Camomile herbal infusion. The results showed that 1 or 2 min black tea bags infusion exhibited highest radical scavenging activity than 5 min infusion. Antioxidant activities of tea powders were variable with the amount of tea powder. It was observed that antioxidant activity increased with increasing boiling time for smaller amount of sample. In contrary, shorter boiling time was better for larger amount of sample. The polyphenol contents of tea infusion were determined and the results were expressed as milligram quercetin equivalent/200 mL of tea infusion. The polyphenol content was increased with increased brewing period. In contrary, brewing for longer time rendered extract less antiradical activity. This study suggests that infusing tea bag for 1 or 2 min is sufficient for getting infusion with maximum radical scavenging activity and in case of tea powder, shorter boiling time is better for larger amount of powder or small amount of powder should be boiled for minimum 5 min for rendering extract with maximum radical scavenging activity. (author)

  2. The antioxidant and cytotoxic activities of Sonchus oleraceus L. extracts

    OpenAIRE

    Yin, Jie; Kwon, Gu-Joong; Wang, Myeong-Hyeon

    2007-01-01

    This study investigated in vitro antioxidant activity of Sonchus oleraceus L. by extraction solvent, which were examined by reducing power, hydroxyl radical-scavenging activity(HRSA) and 1, 1-diphenyl-2-picrylhydrazyl (DPPH) radical scavenging assays. 70% MeOH extract had the greatest reducing power while EtOH extract had the greatest HRSA. The antioxidant activity of S. oleraceus extracts was concentration dependent and its IC50 values ranged from 47.1 to 210.5 ?g/ml and IC50 of 70% MeOH, bo...

  3. Emerging Role of Antioxidants in the Protection of Uveitis Complications

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yadav, Umesh C S; Kalariya, Nilesh M; Ramana, Kota V

    2011-01-01

    Current understanding of the role of oxidative stress in ocular inflammatory diseases indicates that antioxidant therapy may be important to optimize the treatment. Recently investigated antioxidant therapies for ocular inflammatory diseases include various vitamins, plant products and reactive oxygen species scavengers. Oxidative stress plays a causative role in both non-infectious and infectious uveitis complications, and novel strategies to diminish tissue damage and dysfunction with antioxidant therapy may ameliorate visual complications. Preclinical studies with experimental animals and cell culture demonstrate significance of anti-inflammatory effects of a number of promising antioxidant agents. Many of these antioxidants are under clinical trial for various inflammatory diseases other than uveitis such as cardiovascular, rheumatoid arthritis and cancer. Well planned interventional clinical studies of the ocular inflammation will be necessary to sufficiently investigate the potential medical benefits of antioxidant therapies for uveitis. This review summarizes the recent investigation of novel antioxidant agents for ocular inflammation, with selected studies focused on uveitis. PMID:21182473

  4. ASSESSMENT OF THE ANTIOXIDANT PROPERTIES OF THE MOST COMMON COFFEE BREWS AVAILABLE IN THE LOCAL MARKETS OF THE WESTERN REGION OF SAUDI ARABIA

    OpenAIRE

    Huda A. Al Doghaither; Ashjan M. Almowalad; Ayat M. Shorbaji; Ayat B. Al-Ghafari; Ulfat M. Omar

    2017-01-01

    The purpose of the current study is to determine the antioxidant activity of the most commonly used coffee brews in the Western region of Saudi Arabia. Further, total phenolic and flavonoid contents were measured and antioxidants properties including ferric reducing antioxidant power and ferrous ion chelating activity, DPPH radical scavenging activity, and scavenging of hydrogen peroxide assays were also determined. Results of study revealed that phenolic contents were 741, 835 an...

  5. Cumulative abiotic stresses and their effect on the antioxidant defense system in two species of wheat, Triticum durum Desf and Triticum aestivum L.

    OpenAIRE

    Ibrahim M.M.; Alsahli A.A.; Al-Ghamdi A.A.

    2013-01-01

    The combined effects of heat and UV-B on the antioxidant system and photosynthetic pigments were investigated in the leaves of T. durum Desf. and Triticum aestivum L. The photosynthetic pigment content, in vitro evaluation of the antioxidant system activities including DPPH radical scavenging activity, and super oxide anion radical scavenging activity were determined. In addition, the antioxidant enzyme activities, such as superoxide dismutase (SOD) and gua...

  6. Synthetic polymeric substrates as potent pro-oxidant versus anti-oxidant regulators of cytoskeletal remodeling and cell apoptosis.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sung, Hak-Joon; Chandra, Prafulla; Treiser, Matthew D; Liu, Er; Iovine, Carmine P; Moghe, Prabhas V; Kohn, Joachim

    2009-03-01

    The role of reactive oxygen species (ROS)-mediated cell signal transduction pathways emanating from engineered cell substrates remains unclear. To elucidate the role, polymers derived from the amino acid L-tyrosine were used as synthetic matrix substrates. Variations in their chemical properties were created by co-polymerizing hydrophobic L-tyrosine derivatives with uncharged hydrophilic poly(ethylene glycol) (PEG, Mw = 1,000 Da), and negatively charged desaminotyrosyl-tyrosine (DT). These substrates were characterized for their intrinsic ability to generate ROS, as well as their ability to elicit Saos-2 cell responses in terms of intracellular ROS production, actin remodeling, and apoptosis. PEG-containing substrates induced both exogenous and intracellular ROS production, whereas the charged substrates reduced production of both types, indicating a coupling of exogenous ROS generation and intracellular ROS production. Furthermore, PEG-mediated ROS induction caused nuclear translocation of glyceraldehyde-3-phosphate dehydrogenase and an increase in caspase-3 activity, confirming a link with apoptosis. PEG-rich pro-oxidant substrates caused cytoskeletal actin remodeling through beta-actin cleavage by caspase-3 into fractins. The fractins co-localized to the mitochondria and reduced the mitochondrial membrane potential. The remnant cytosolic beta-actin was polymerized and condensed, events consistent with apoptotic cell shrinkage. The cytoskeletal remodeling was integral to the further augmentation of intracellular ROS production. Conversely, the anti-oxidant DT-containing charged substrates suppressed the entire cascade of apoptotic progression. We demonstrate that ROS activity serves an important role in "outside-in" signaling for cells grown on substrates: the ROS activity couples exogenous stress, driven by substrate composition, to changes in intracellular signaling. This signaling causes cell apoptosis, which is mediated by actin remodeling.

  7. Screening of various botanical extracts for antioxidant activity using DPPH free radical method.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Waqas, Muhammad Khurram; Saqib, Najam-Us; Rashid, Saeed-Ur; Shah, Pervaiz Akhtar; Akhtar, Naveed; Murtaza, Ghulam

    2013-01-01

    Aiming at the exploration of herbal use by society, crude extracts of the seeds of some commonly used medicinal plants (Vitis vinifera, Tamarindus indica and Glycin max) were screened for their free radical scavenging properties using ascorbic acid as standard antioxidant. Free radical scavenging activity was evaluated using 1,1-diphenyl-2-picrylhydrazyl (DPPH) free radical. The overall antioxidant activity of grape seeds (Vitis vinifera) was the strongest, followed in descending order by soybean (Glycin max) and tamarind (Tamarindus indica). The seeds extract of Vitis vinifera, Glycin max and Tamarindus indica showed 85.61%, 83.45% and 79.26%, DPPH scavenging activity respectively.

  8. The SbMT-2 gene from a halophyte confers abiotic stress tolerance and modulates ROS scavenging in transgenic tobacco.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Amit Kumar Chaturvedi

    Full Text Available Heavy metals are common pollutants of the coastal saline area and Salicornia brachiata an extreme halophyte is frequently exposed to various abiotic stresses including heavy metals. The SbMT-2 gene was cloned and transformed to tobacco for the functional validation. Transgenic tobacco lines (L2, L4, L6 and L13 showed significantly enhanced salt (NaCl, osmotic (PEG and metals (Zn++, Cu++ and Cd++ tolerance compared to WT plants. Transgenic lines did not show any morphological variation and had enhanced growth parameters viz. shoot length, root length, fresh weight and dry weight. High seed germination percentage, chlorophyll content, relative water content, electrolytic leakage and membrane stability index confirmed that transgenic lines performed better under salt (NaCl, osmotic (PEG and metals (Zn++, Cu++ and Cd++ stress conditions compared to WT plants. Proline, H2O2 and lipid peroxidation (MDA analyses suggested the role of SbMT-2 in cellular homeostasis and H2O2 detoxification. Furthermore in vivo localization of H2O2 and O2-; and elevated expression of key antioxidant enzyme encoding genes, SOD, POD and APX evident the possible role of SbMT-2 in ROS scavenging/detoxification mechanism. Transgenic lines showed accumulation of Cu++ and Cd++ in root while Zn++ in stem under stress condition. Under control (unstressed condition, Zn++ was accumulated more in root but accumulation of Zn++ in stem under stress condition suggested that SbMT-2 may involve in the selective translocation of Zn++ from root to stem. This observation was further supported by the up-regulation of zinc transporter encoding genes NtZIP1 and NtHMA-A under metal ion stress condition. The study suggested that SbMT-2 modulates ROS scavenging and is a potential candidate to be used for phytoremediation and imparting stress tolerance.

  9. The SbMT-2 gene from a halophyte confers abiotic stress tolerance and modulates ROS scavenging in transgenic tobacco.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chaturvedi, Amit Kumar; Patel, Manish Kumar; Mishra, Avinash; Tiwari, Vivekanand; Jha, Bhavanath

    2014-01-01

    Heavy metals are common pollutants of the coastal saline area and Salicornia brachiata an extreme halophyte is frequently exposed to various abiotic stresses including heavy metals. The SbMT-2 gene was cloned and transformed to tobacco for the functional validation. Transgenic tobacco lines (L2, L4, L6 and L13) showed significantly enhanced salt (NaCl), osmotic (PEG) and metals (Zn++, Cu++ and Cd++) tolerance compared to WT plants. Transgenic lines did not show any morphological variation and had enhanced growth parameters viz. shoot length, root length, fresh weight and dry weight. High seed germination percentage, chlorophyll content, relative water content, electrolytic leakage and membrane stability index confirmed that transgenic lines performed better under salt (NaCl), osmotic (PEG) and metals (Zn++, Cu++ and Cd++) stress conditions compared to WT plants. Proline, H2O2 and lipid peroxidation (MDA) analyses suggested the role of SbMT-2 in cellular homeostasis and H2O2 detoxification. Furthermore in vivo localization of H2O2 and O2-; and elevated expression of key antioxidant enzyme encoding genes, SOD, POD and APX evident the possible role of SbMT-2 in ROS scavenging/detoxification mechanism. Transgenic lines showed accumulation of Cu++ and Cd++ in root while Zn++ in stem under stress condition. Under control (unstressed) condition, Zn++ was accumulated more in root but accumulation of Zn++ in stem under stress condition suggested that SbMT-2 may involve in the selective translocation of Zn++ from root to stem. This observation was further supported by the up-regulation of zinc transporter encoding genes NtZIP1 and NtHMA-A under metal ion stress condition. The study suggested that SbMT-2 modulates ROS scavenging and is a potential candidate to be used for phytoremediation and imparting stress tolerance.

  10. Antioxidant and drug detoxification potentials of Hibiscus sabdariffa anthocyanin extract.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ajiboye, Taofeek O; Salawu, Nasir A; Yakubu, Musa T; Oladiji, Adenike T; Akanji, Musbau A; Okogun, Joseph I

    2011-04-01

    The antioxidant and drug metabolizing potentials of Hibiscus anthocyanin extract in CCl(4)- induced oxidative damage of rat liver was investigated. Hibiscus anthocyanin extract effectively scavenge α-diphenyl-β-picrylhydrazyl (DPPH) radical, superoxide ion, and hydrogen peroxide. It produced a 92% scavenging effect of DPPH radical at a concentration of 2.0 mg/mL. Hibiscus anthocyanin extract produced a 69 and 90% scavenging effect on superoxide ion and hydrogen peroxide, respectively, at 1.0 mg/mL, which compared favorably with the synthetic antioxidant (butylated hydroanisole and α-tocopherol). A reducing power of this anthocyanin was examined using K(3)Fe(CN)(6). Hibiscus anthocyanin extract has reducing power that is approximately 2-fold that of the synthetic antioxidant, butylated hydroanisole. Hibiscus anthocyanin extract produced a significantly increase and completely attenuated the CCl(4)-mediated decrease in antioxidant enzymes (e.g., catalase, superoxide dismutase, glutathione peroxidase, and glutathione reductase). However, the level of nonenzymic antioxidant molecules (i.e., vitamins C and E) were significant preserved by Hibiscus anthocyanin extract. There was an induction of phase II drug-detoxifying enzymes: glutathione S-transferase, NAD(H):quinone oxidoreductase, and uridyl diphosphoglucuronosyl transferase by 65, 45, and 57%, respectively. In view of these properties, Hibiscus sabdariffa anthocyanin extract can act as a prophylactic by intervening as a free radical scavenger both in vitro and in vivo as well as inducing the phase II drug detoxification enzymes.

  11. Boundary scavenging in the Pacific Ocean

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Anderson, R.F.; Lao, Y.; Broecker, W.S.; Trumbore, S.E.; Hofmann, H.J.; Wolfli, W.

    1990-01-01

    Concentrations of U, Th, 231 Pa and 10 Be were measured in Holocene sediments from two cores collected off the west coast of South America, two cores from the East Pacific Rise, two from the equatorial Pacific and one from the south Pacific central gyre. Our results, together with data from 5 cores reported in the literature, show that boundary scavenging plays a major role in the removal of 10 Be from the Pacific Ocean. Deposition rates of 10 Be at three margin sites are more than an order of magnitude greater than at sites of red clay accumulation in the deep central Pacific. Deposition of 231 Pa is 4 to 5-fold greater at the margin sites. The residence time of 10 Be with respect to chemical scavenging, defined as its inventory in the water column divided by its rate of removal to the sediments, varies regionally from >1000 years at the red-clay sites in the deep central Pacific to ∝100 years at the margin sites. Different factors control boundary scavenging of Pa and Be. For example, scavenging of 231 Pa is enhanced by metal-oxide coatings of particles, whereas this seems to have little influence on the scavenging of 10 Be. (orig.)

  12. Oxidative Stress in Cardiovascular Diseases: Involvement of Nrf2 Antioxidant Redox Signaling in Macrophage Foam Cells Formation

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Bee Kee Ooi

    2017-11-01

    Full Text Available Oxidative stress is an important risk factor contributing to the pathogenesis of cardiovascular diseases. Oxidative stress that results from excessive reactive oxygen species (ROS production accounts for impaired endothelial function, a process which promotes atherosclerotic lesion or fatty streaks formation (foam cells. Nuclear factor erythroid 2-related factor 2 (Nrf2 is a transcription factor involved in cellular redox homeostasis. Upon exposure to oxidative stress, Nrf2 is dissociated from its inhibitor Keap-1 and translocated into the nucleus, where it results in the transcriptional activation of cell defense genes. Nrf2 has been demonstrated to be involved in the protection against foam cells formation by regulating the expression of antioxidant proteins (HO-1, Prxs, and GPx1, ATP-binding cassette (ABC efflux transporters (ABCA1 and ABCG1 and scavenger receptors (scavenger receptor class B (CD36, scavenger receptor class A (SR-A and lectin-type oxidized LDL receptor (LOX-1. However, Nrf2 has also been reported to exhibit pro-atherogenic effects. A better understanding on the mechanism of Nrf2 in oxidative stress-induced cardiac injury, as well as the regulation of cholesterol uptake and efflux, are required before it can serve as a novel therapeutic target for cardiovascular diseases prevention and treatment.

  13. Analysis of Ethyl Acetate Extract of Enzymatic Hydrolysate from High Purity Oleuropein and DPPH Radical Scavenging Capacity

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yuan, Jiaojiao; Li, Bing; Qin, Frank G. F.; Tu, Junling

    2018-01-01

    High purify oleuropein (81.04% OL) was hydrolyzed by hemicellulase and phenols was existed in the ethyl acetate extract of enzymatic hydrolysate (EAE). The results presented that there were hydroxytyrosol (HT), tyrosol, caffeic acid, 3,4-dihydroxybenzoic acid, 3,4-dihydroxy phenylacetic acid in EAE by HPLC, and HT content was 19.36%. Antioxidant activities (DPPH radical scavenging capacity) were all added as the samples concentration increased, and dose-effect relationships also existed. HT possessed the highest DPPH radical scavenging capacity, followed by Vc, and eugenol, OL, caffeic acid, 3,4-dihydroxy phenylacetic acid and 3,4-dihydroxybenzoic acid.

  14. Antioxidant Contents and Antioxidant Activities of White and Colored Potatoes (Solanum tuberosum L.).

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lee, Sang Hoon; Oh, Seung Hee; Hwang, In Guk; Kim, Hyun Young; Woo, Koan Sik; Woo, Shun Hee; Kim, Hong Sig; Lee, Junsoo; Jeong, Heon Sang

    2016-06-01

    This study was performed to evaluate and compare the antioxidant substance content and antioxidant activities of white (Superior) and colored (Hongyoung, Jayoung, Jasim, Seohong, and Jaseo) potatoes. The potatoes were extracted with 80% ethanol and were evaluated for the total polyphenol, flavonoid, and anthocyanin contents and for 1,1-diphenyl- 2-picrylhydrazyl (DPPH)/2,2'-azino-bis(3-ethylbenzothiazoline-6-sulfonic acid) diammonium salt (ABTS) radical scavenging activity, reducing power, and ferrous metal ion chelating effect. The total polyphenol, flavonoid, and anthocyanin contents of Hongyoung and Jayoung were higher than white and other colored potatoes. All colored potato extracts, except for Jaseo and Seohong, showed higher ABTS radical scavenging activities than the general white potato extract. Hongyoung and Jayoung had the highest ABTS and DPPH radical scavenging activities. Optical density values for the reducing power of Jayoung and Jaseo at concentration of 2 mg/mL were 0.148 and 0.090, respectively. All colored potato extracts had lower ferrous metal ion chelating effect than the white potato. A significant (P<0.05) positive correlation was observed between total polyphenol content and total flavonoid content (r=0.919), anthocyanin content (r=0.992), and ABTS radical scavenging activity (r=0.897). Based on these results, this research may be useful in developing the Hongyoung and Jayoung cultivars with high antioxidant activities.

  15. Differential Antioxidant Responses and Perturbed Porphyrin Biosynthesis after Exposure to Oxyfluorfen and Methyl Viologen in Oryza sativa

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Nhi-Thi Pham

    2015-07-01

    Full Text Available We compared antioxidant responses and regulation of porphyrin metabolism in rice plants treated with oxyfluorfen (OF or methyl viologen (MV. Plants treated with MV exhibited not only greater increases in conductivity and malondialdehyde but also a greater decline in Fv/Fm, compared to plants treated with OF. MV-treated plants had greater increases in activities of superoxide dismutase (SOD and catalase (CAT as well as transcript levels of SODA and CATA than OF-treated plants after 28 h of the treatments, whereas increases in ascorbate peroxidase (APX activity and transcript levels of APXA and APXB were greater in OF-treated plants. Both OF- and MV-treated plants resulted in not only down-regulation of most genes involved in porphyrin biosynthesis but also disappearance of Mg-porphyrins during the late stage of photooxidative stress. By contrast, up-regulation of heme oxygenase 2 (HO2 is possibly part of an efficient antioxidant response to compensate photooxidative damage in both treatments. Our data show that down-regulated biosynthesis and degradation dynamics of porphyrin intermediates have important roles in photoprotection of plants from perturbed porphyrin biosynthesis and photosynthetic electron transport. This study suggests that porphyrin scavenging as well as strong antioxidative activities are required for mitigating reactive oxygen species (ROS production under photooxidative stress caused by OF and MV.

  16. Differential Antioxidant Responses and Perturbed Porphyrin Biosynthesis after Exposure to Oxyfluorfen and Methyl Viologen in Oryza sativa.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pham, Nhi-Thi; Kim, Jin-Gil; Jung, Sunyo

    2015-07-21

    We compared antioxidant responses and regulation of porphyrin metabolism in rice plants treated with oxyfluorfen (OF) or methyl viologen (MV). Plants treated with MV exhibited not only greater increases in conductivity and malondialdehyde but also a greater decline in Fv/Fm, compared to plants treated with OF. MV-treated plants had greater increases in activities of superoxide dismutase (SOD) and catalase (CAT) as well as transcript levels of SODA and CATA than OF-treated plants after 28 h of the treatments, whereas increases in ascorbate peroxidase (APX) activity and transcript levels of APXA and APXB were greater in OF-treated plants. Both OF- and MV-treated plants resulted in not only down-regulation of most genes involved in porphyrin biosynthesis but also disappearance of Mg-porphyrins during the late stage of photooxidative stress. By contrast, up-regulation of heme oxygenase 2 (HO2) is possibly part of an efficient antioxidant response to compensate photooxidative damage in both treatments. Our data show that down-regulated biosynthesis and degradation dynamics of porphyrin intermediates have important roles in photoprotection of plants from perturbed porphyrin biosynthesis and photosynthetic electron transport. This study suggests that porphyrin scavenging as well as strong antioxidative activities are required for mitigating reactive oxygen species (ROS) production under photooxidative stress caused by OF and MV.

  17. Hypolipidemic and Antioxidative Effects of Aqueous Enzymatic Extract from Rice Bran in Rats Fed a High-Fat and -Cholesterol Diet

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wang, Yu-Xin; Li, Yang; Sun, An-Min; Wang, Feng-Jiao; Yu, Guo-Ping

    2014-01-01

    Purpose: The aqueous enzymatic extract from rice bran (AEERB) was rich in protein, γ-oryzanol and tocols. The aim of this study was to investigate the effects of AEERB on the regulation of lipid metabolism and the inhibition of oxidative damage. Methods: The antioxidant activity of AEERB in vitro was measured in terms of radical scavenging capacity, ferric reducing ability power (FRAP) and linoleic acid emulsion system-ferric thiocyanate method (FTC). Male Wistar rats were fed with a normal diet and a high-fat and high-cholesterol diet with or without AEERB. After treatment, biochemical assays of serum, liver and feces lipid levels, the antioxidant enzyme activity, malondialdehyde (MDA) and protein carbonyl were determined. Result: AEERB is completely soluble in water and rich in hydrophilic and lipophilic functional ingredients. AEERB scavenged DPPH• and ABTS•+ and exhibited antioxidant activity slightly lower than that of ascorbic acid in the linoleic acid system. The administration of AEERB reduced serum lipid levels and the atherogenic index compared with those of the hyperlipidemic diet group (HD). The administration of AEERB significantly lowered liver lipid levels, inhibited hepatic 3-hydroxyl-3-methylglutaryl CoA reductase activity, and efficiently promoted the fecal excretion of total lipids and total cholesterol (TC) (p < 0.05). Dietary AEERB enhanced antioxidant status in the serum, liver and brain by increasing the antioxidant enzyme activity of superoxide dismutase (SOD), catalase (CAT), and glutathione peroxidase (GSH-Px) and decreasing the content of MDA and protein carbonyl. Conclusions: The results indicated that AEERB might act as a potent hypolipidemic and antioxidant functional food. PMID:25230211

  18. Hypolipidemic and Antioxidative Effects of Aqueous Enzymatic Extract from Rice Bran in Rats Fed a High-Fat and -Cholesterol Diet

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Yu-Xin Wang

    2014-09-01

    Full Text Available Purpose: The aqueous enzymatic extract from rice bran (AEERB was rich in protein, γ-oryzanol and tocols. The aim of this study was to investigate the effects of AEERB on the regulation of lipid metabolism and the inhibition of oxidative damage. Methods: The antioxidant activity of AEERB in vitro was measured in terms of radical scavenging capacity, ferric reducing ability power (FRAP and linoleic acid emulsion system-ferric thiocyanate method (FTC. Male Wistar rats were fed with a normal diet and a high-fat and high-cholesterol diet with or without AEERB. After treatment, biochemical assays of serum, liver and feces lipid levels, the antioxidant enzyme activity, malondialdehyde (MDA and protein carbonyl were determined. Result: AEERB is completely soluble in water and rich in hydrophilic and lipophilic functional ingredients. AEERB scavenged DPPH• and ABTS•+ and exhibited antioxidant activity slightly lower than that of ascorbic acid in the linoleic acid system. The administration of AEERB reduced serum lipid levels and the atherogenic index compared with those of the hyperlipidemic diet group (HD. The administration of AEERB significantly lowered liver lipid levels, inhibited hepatic 3-hydroxyl-3-methylglutaryl CoA reductase activity, and efficiently promoted the fecal excretion of total lipids and total cholesterol (TC (p < 0.05. Dietary AEERB enhanced antioxidant status in the serum, liver and brain by increasing the antioxidant enzyme activity of superoxide dismutase (SOD, catalase (CAT, and glutathione peroxidase (GSH-Px and decreasing the content of MDA and protein carbonyl. Conclusions: The results indicated that AEERB might act as a potent hypolipidemic and antioxidant functional food.

  19. Hypolipidemic and antioxidative effects of aqueous enzymatic extract from rice bran in rats fed a high-fat and -cholesterol diet.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wang, Yu-Xin; Li, Yang; Sun, An-Min; Wang, Feng-Jiao; Yu, Guo-Ping

    2014-09-16

    The aqueous enzymatic extract from rice bran (AEERB) was rich in protein, γ-oryzanol and tocols. The aim of this study was to investigate the effects of AEERB on the regulation of lipid metabolism and the inhibition of oxidative damage. The antioxidant activity of AEERB in vitro was measured in terms of radical scavenging capacity, ferric reducing ability power (FRAP) and linoleic acid emulsion system-ferric thiocyanate method (FTC). Male Wistar rats were fed with a normal diet and a high-fat and high-cholesterol diet with or without AEERB. After treatment, biochemical assays of serum, liver and feces lipid levels, the antioxidant enzyme activity, malondialdehyde (MDA) and protein carbonyl were determined. AEERB is completely soluble in water and rich in hydrophilic and lipophilic functional ingredients. AEERB scavenged DPPH• and ABTS•+ and exhibited antioxidant activity slightly lower than that of ascorbic acid in the linoleic acid system. The administration of AEERB reduced serum lipid levels and the atherogenic index compared with those of the hyperlipidemic diet group (HD). The administration of AEERB significantly lowered liver lipid levels, inhibited hepatic 3-hydroxyl-3-methylglutaryl CoA reductase activity, and efficiently promoted the fecal excretion of total lipids and total cholesterol (TC) (p < 0.05). Dietary AEERB enhanced antioxidant status in the serum, liver and brain by increasing the antioxidant enzyme activity of superoxide dismutase (SOD), catalase (CAT), and glutathione peroxidase (GSH-Px) and decreasing the content of MDA and protein carbonyl. The results indicated that AEERB might act as a potent hypolipidemic and antioxidant functional food.

  20. Antioxidant phenylpropanoid glycosides from Buddleja davidii.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ahmad, Ijaz; Ahmad, Nisar; Wang, Fanghai

    2009-08-01

    Phytochemical investigations on the n-BuOH-soluble fraction of the whole plant of Buddleja davidii led to the isolation of the phenylpropanoid glycosides 1-10. Their structures were determined by 1D and 2D NMR spectroscopic techniques. All the compounds showed potent antioxidative activity in three different tests, with IC(50) values in the range 4.15-9.47 microM in the hydroxyl radical ( OH) inhibitory activity test, 40.32-81.15 microM in the total ROS (reactive oxygen species) inhibitory activity test, and 2.26-7.79 microM in the peroxynitrite (ONOO(-)) scavenging activity test. Calceolarioside A (1) displayed the strongest scavenging potential with IC(50) values of (4.15 +/- 0.07, 40.32 +/- 0.09, 2.26 +/- 0.03 microM) for OH, total ROS and scavenging of ONOO(-), respectively.

  1. Relationships among alcoholic liver disease, antioxidants, and antioxidant enzymes.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Han, Kyu-Ho; Hashimoto, Naoto; Fukushima, Michihiro

    2016-01-07

    Excessive consumption of alcoholic beverages is a serious cause of liver disease worldwide. The metabolism of ethanol generates reactive oxygen species, which play a significant role in the deterioration of alcoholic liver disease (ALD). Antioxidant phytochemicals, such as polyphenols, regulate the expression of ALD-associated proteins and peptides, namely, catalase, superoxide dismutase, glutathione, glutathione peroxidase, and glutathione reductase. These plant antioxidants have electrophilic activity and may induce antioxidant enzymes via the Kelch-like ECH-associated protein 1-NF-E2-related factor-2 pathway and antioxidant responsive elements. Furthermore, these antioxidants are reported to alleviate cell injury caused by oxidants or inflammatory cytokines. These phenomena are likely induced via the regulation of mitogen-activating protein kinase (MAPK) pathways by plant antioxidants, similar to preconditioning in ischemia-reperfusion models. Although the relationship between plant antioxidants and ALD has not been adequately investigated, plant antioxidants may be preventive for ALD because of their electrophilic and regulatory activities in the MAPK pathway.

  2. Total phenolic and phytosterol compounds and the radical scavenging activity of germinated Australian sweet lupin flour.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rumiyati; Jayasena, Vijay; James, Anthony P

    2013-12-01

    In addition to their favourable nutritional profile, legumes also contain a range of bioactive compounds such as phenolic compounds and phytosterols which may protect against chronic diseases including cancer and cardiovascular disease. Germination of some legume seeds has been previously reported to increase the concentration of the bioactive compounds. In this study, the effect of germination of Australian Sweet Lupin (ASL) seeds for 9 days on the concentration of some bioactive compounds and the radical scavenging activity in the resulting flour was determined. The concentration of total phenolic compounds in methanolic extracts of germinated ASL flour was determined using Folin Ciocalteu reagent and phytosterols in oil extracts were analyzed by gas-liquid chromatography. The methanolic and oil extracts were also used to determine radical scavenging activity toward 2,2-diphenyl-1-picrylhydrazyl. In the methanolic extracts of germinated ASL flour, phenolic contents and the antioxidant activity were significantly increased following germination (700 and 1400 %, respectively). Analysis of the oil extracts of germinated ASL flour revealed that the concentration of phytosterols and the antioxidant activity were also increased significantly compared to ungerminated ASL flour (300 and 800 %, respectively). The relative proportion of phytosterols in germinated ASL flour was: β-sitosterol (60 %), stigmasterol (30 %) and campesterol (10 %). Germination increases the concentration of bioactive compounds and the radical scavenging activity in the germinated ASL flour.

  3. Glutathione as a radical scavenger and the biological consequences of thiyl radical production

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Winterbourn, C.C.

    1996-01-01

    A large number of compounds that have toxic effects can be metabolised to free radicals and secondary reactive oxygen species. These may be directly damaging or affect cell function by altering regulatory mechanisms through changing redox status. Protection is provided by an integrated system of antioxidant defenses. This includes reduced glutathione (GSH), one of the functions of which is as a free radical scavenger. For GSH to be an effective radical scavenging antioxidant, therefore, it must act in concert with superoxide dismutase to remove the superoxide so generated. Superoxide is produced in a variety of metabolic processes. It is also a secondary product of radicals reacting with oxygen either directly or through GSH. The biological reactivity of superoxide has been the subject of much debate ever since the discovery of superoxide dismutase in 1968. It has more recently become apparent that its rapid reaction with nitric oxide to give peroxynitrite, and its ability to reversibly oxidise and inactivate iron sulphur enzymes, contribute to the toxicity of superoxide. Another mechanism that could be important involves addition reactions of superoxide with other radicals to give organic peroxides. This reaction, to form a tyrosine peroxide, has come to authors attention through the study of the scavenging of tyrosyl radicals by GSH. It is also shown that a tyrosine peroxide is a major product of the oxidation of tyrosine by neutrophils

  4. Determining antioxidant activities of lactobacilli cell-free supernatants by cellular antioxidant assay: a comparison with traditional methods.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Jiali Xing

    Full Text Available Antioxidant activity of lactic acid bacteria is associated with multiple health-protective effects. Traditional indexes of chemical antioxidant activities poorly reflect the antioxidant effects of these bacteria in vivo. Cellular antioxidant activity (CAA assay was used in this study to determine the antioxidant activity of cell-free supernatants (CFSs of 10 Lactobacillus strains. The performance of the CAA assay was compared with that of four chemical antioxidant activity assays, namely, DPPH radical scavenging, hydroxyl radical scavenging (HRS, reducing power (RP, and inhibition of linoleic acid peroxidation (ILAP. Results of the CAA assay were associated with those of DPPH and ILAP assays, but not with those of RP and HRS assays. The inter- and intra-specific antioxidant activities of CFS were characterized by chemical and CAA assays. L. rhamnosus CCFM 1107 displayed a high antioxidative effect similar to positive control L. rhamnosus GG ATCC 53103 in all of the assays. The CAA assay is a potential method for the detection of antioxidant activities of lactobacilli CFSs.

  5. Assessment of effect of hydroalcoholic and decoction methods on extraction of antioxidants from selected Indian medicinal plants.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kaneria, Mital; Kanani, Bhavana; Chanda, Sumitra

    2012-03-01

    To assess the effects of extraction methods on antioxidant activities of selected Indian medicinal flora. Different parts of plants were extracted by hydroalcoholic and decoction methods using water and various concentrations of methanol (ME) viz. 75%, 50% and 25% ME. The antioxidant activity of all the different extracts was evaluated using two different antioxidant assays viz. 2,2-diphenyl-1-picryl hydrazyl (DPPH) free radical scavenging assay and superoxide anion radical scavenging assay. Total phenol and flavonoid content was also estimated. The results showed that the extracting solvent significantly altered the antioxidant property estimations of screened plants. High correlations between phenolic compositions and antioxidant activities of extracts were observed. High levels of antioxidant activities were detected in Manilkara zapota (M. zapota) as compared with other screened plants. The results obtained appear to confirm the effect of different methods on extraction of antioxidants and antioxidant property of M. zapota.

  6. Antioxidant neolignans from Cordia americana.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Fernández, Lucía R; Cirigliano, Adriana; Fabani, María P; Lima, Beatriz; Alberti, Sebastián; Kramer, Fernando; Tapia, Alejandro A; Cabrera, Gabriela; Palermo, Jorge A; Sánchez, Marianela

    2013-12-01

    Five new neolignans with a bicyclo[2.2.2]octene framework were isolated from an ethanolic extract of the bark of Cordia americana. The structures and relative configurations of the compounds were elucidated by a combination of spectroscopic methods. All the isolated compounds showed good antioxidant activities in the DPPH radical scavenging (0.5-100 µg/mL) and Ferric-reducing antioxidant power (FRAP, 1-100 µg/mL) assays. One of the compounds displayed mild fungistatic activity at 0.1 µmol/spot against Fusarium virguliforme while, at the same time, all compounds were inactive against several strains of Gram (+) and Gram (-) bacteria at all assayed concentrations (10-1,000 µg/mL). Georg Thieme Verlag KG Stuttgart · New York.

  7. Radical scavenging activities of Rio Red grapefruits and Sour orange fruit extracts in different in vitro model systems.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jayaprakasha, G K; Girennavar, Basavaraj; Patil, Bhimanagouda S

    2008-07-01

    Antioxidant fractions from two different citrus species such as Rio Red (Citrus paradise Macf.) and Sour orange (Citrus aurantium L.) were extracted with five different polar solvents using Soxhlet type extractor. The total phenolic content of the extracts was determined by Folin-Ciocalteu method. Ethyl acetate extract of Rio Red and Sour orange was found to contain maximum phenolics. The dried fractions were screened for their antioxidant activity potential using in vitro model systems such as 1,1-diphenyl-2-picryl hydrazyl (DPPH), phosphomolybdenum method and nitroblue tetrazolium (NBT) reduction at different concentrations. The methanol:water (80:20) fraction of Rio Red showed the highest radical scavenging activity 42.5%, 77.8% and 92.1% at 250, 500 and 1000 ppm, respectively, while methanol:water (80:20) fraction of Sour orange showed the lowest radical scavenging activity at all the tested concentrations. All citrus fractions showed good antioxidant capacity by the formation of phosphomolybdenum complex at 200 ppm. In addition, superoxide radical scavenging activity was assayed using non-enzymatic (NADH/phenaxine methosulfate) superoxide generating system. All the extracts showed variable superoxide radical scavenging activity. Moreover, methanol:water (80:20) extract of Rio Red and methanol extract of Sour orange exhibited marked reducing power in potassium ferricyanide reduction method. The data obtained using above in vitro models clearly establish the antioxidant potential of citrus fruit extracts. However, comprehensive studies need to be conducted to ascertain the in vivo bioavailability, safety and efficacy of such extracts in experimental animals. To the best of our knowledge, this is the first report on antioxidant activity of different polar extracts from Rio Red and Sour oranges.

  8. Herbal antioxidant in clinical practice: A review

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Shashi Alok

    2014-01-01

    Full Text Available Antioxidant-the word itself is magic. Using the antioxidant concept as a spearhead in proposed mechanisms for staving off so-called “free-radical” reactions, the rush is on to mine claims for the latest and most effective combination of free-radical scavenging compounds. We must acknowledge that such “radicals” have definitively been shown to damage all biochemical components such as DNA/RNA, carbohydrates, unsaturated lipids, proteins, and micronutrients such as carotenoids (alpha and beta carotene, lycopene, vitamins A, B6, B12, and folate. Defense strategies against such aggressive radical species include enzymes, antioxidants that occur naturally in the body (glutathione, uric acid, ubiquinol-10, and others and radical scavenging nutrients, such as vitamins A, C, and E, and carotenoids. This paper will present a brief discussion of some well- and little-known herbs that may add to the optimization of antioxidant status and therefore offer added preventive values for overall health. It is important to state at the outset that antioxidants vary widely in their free-radical quenching effects and each may be individually attracted to specific cell sites. Further evidence of the specialized nature of the carotenoids is demonstrated by the appearance of two carotenoids in the macula region of the retina where beta-carotene is totally absent.

  9. Antioxidant potential of Viscum articulatum burm

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Kannoth Mukundan Geetha

    2013-01-01

    Full Text Available Background: Free radical stress leads to tissue injury and progression of disease conditions such as arthritis, hemorrhagic shock, atherosclerosis, diabetes, hepatic injury, aging and ischemia, reperfusion injury of many tissues, gastritis, tumor promotion, neurodegenerative diseases, and carcinogenesis. Safer antioxidants suitable for long term use are needed to prevent or stop the progression of free radical mediated disorders. Viscum articulatum is traditionally used for various oxidative stress induced disorders including liver disorders. Aims: The present study investigated antioxidant activities of the methanolic extract of Viscum articulatum in in vivo and in vitro models to provide scientific basis for the traditional usage of this plant. Materials and Methods: The in vitro antioxidant activity was evaluated by determining the ability of the extract to scavenge 2, 2-diphenyl-2-picrylhydrazyl (DPPH, nitric oxide, 2, 2-azinobis (3-ethylbenzothiazoline-6-sulfonic acid diammonium salt (ABTS, and hydrogen peroxide (H 2 O 2 which were assessed using spectroscopic methods. Results: The extract showed promising dose dependant free radical scavenging property in all the methods used. The extract effectively increased the superoxide dismutase and catalase activity and decreased lipid peroxidation in the treated groups indicating in vivo antioxidant activity. The extract also effectively decreased the serum levels of SGOT, SGPT, SALP, and total protein levels compared to toxicant control rats. Conclusion: The results obtained from this study indicate that Viscum articulatum is a potential source of antioxidant which would help in preventing many free radical mediated diseases.

  10. Antibacterial and antioxidant activities of Vaccinium corymbosum L. leaf extract

    OpenAIRE

    Pervin, Mehnaz; Hasnat, Md Abul; Lim, Beong Ou

    2013-01-01

    Objective: To investigate antibacterial and antioxidant activity of the leaf extract of tropical medicinal herb and food plant Vaccinium corymbosum L. (V. corymbosum) . Methods: Free radical scavenging activity on DPPH, ABTS, and nitrites were used to analyse phenolic and flavonoid contents of leaf extract. Other focuses included the determination of antioxidant enzymatic activity (SOD, CAT and GPx), metal chelating activity, reduction power, lipid peroxidation inhibition and t...

  11. Evaluation of Antioxidant Activity of Medicinal Plant Extracts Produced for Commercial Purpose

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    A. D. Sathisha

    2011-01-01

    Full Text Available The antioxidant potential of some herbal plant extracts (commercial products was measured using various in vitro assays. Among the extracts from Curcuma longa, Caffea arabica, Tribulus terrestris, Bacopa monnieri and Trigonella foenum- graecum, the Curcuma longa and coffee bean extract (Caffea Arabica showed greater antioxidant activity measured as scavenging of DPPH, superoxide radicals, reducing power and inhibition of microsomal lipid peroxidation.

  12. A comparison of the antioxidant activity with the Total Phenolic and ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Thus, radical scavenging as well as antioxidant potentials of the plant are good indications of its effectiveness in disease management. Objective: This study evaluates the antioxidant activity of the extracts from the leaves and stem bark of Anogeissus leiocarpa.. Materials and Methods: Dried powdered leaves and bark were ...

  13. Isolation, identification and evaluation of natural antioxidants from aromatic herbs cultivated in Lithuania

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Dapkevicius, A.

    2002-01-01

    Oxidative spoilage of lipid-rich foods decreases their shelf-life and leads to undesirable chemical and physical changes. Nowadays natural antioxidants are generally preferred. The major part of industrially used antioxidants consists of radical scavengers, which inhibit the oxidative chain reaction

  14. Serum Hydroxyl Radical Scavenging Capacity as Quantified with Iron-Free Hydroxyl Radical Source

    Science.gov (United States)

    Endo, Nobuyuki; Oowada, Shigeru; Sueishi, Yoshimi; Shimmei, Masashi; Makino, Keisuke; Fujii, Hirotada; Kotake, Yashige

    2009-01-01

    We have developed a simple ESR spin trapping based method for hydroxyl (OH) radical scavenging-capacity determination, using iron-free OH radical source. Instead of the widely used Fenton reaction, a short (typically 5 seconds) in situ UV-photolysis of a dilute hydrogen peroxide aqueous solution was employed to generate reproducible amounts of OH radicals. ESR spin trapping was applied to quantify OH radicals; the decrease in the OH radical level due to the specimen’s scavenging activity was converted into the OH radical scavenging capacity (rate). The validity of the method was confirmed in pure antioxidants, and the agreement with the previous data was satisfactory. In the second half of this work, the new method was applied to the sera of chronic renal failure (CRF) patients. We show for the first time that after hemodialysis, OH radical scavenging capacity of the CRF serum was restored to the level of healthy control. This method is simple and rapid, and the low concentration hydrogen peroxide is the only chemical added to the system, that could eliminate the complexity of iron-involved Fenton reactions or the use of the pulse-radiolysis system. PMID:19794928

  15. Radical scavenging potentials of single and combinatorial herbal formulations in vitro

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Okey A. Ojiako

    2016-04-01

    Full Text Available Reactive oxygen and nitrogen species (RONS are involved in deleterious/beneficial biological processes. The present study sought to investigate the capacity of single and combinatorial herbal formulations of Acanthus montanus, Emilia coccinea, Hibiscus rosasinensis, and Asystasia gangetica to act as superoxide radicals (SOR, hydrogen peroxide (HP, nitric oxide radical (NOR, hydroxyl radical (HR, and 2,2-diphenyl-1-picrylhydrazyl (DPPH radical antagonists using in vitro models. The herbal extracts were single herbal formulations (SHfs, double herbal formulations (DHfs, triple herbal formulations (THfs, and a quadruple herbal formulation (QHf. The phytochemical composition and radical scavenging capacity index (SCI of the herbal formulations were measured using standard methods. The flavonoids were the most abundant phytochemicals present in the herbal extracts. The SCI50 defined the concentration (μg/mL of herbal formulation required to scavenge 50% of the investigated radicals. The SHfs, DHfs, THfs, and QHf SCI50 against the radicals followed the order HR > SOR > DPPH radical > HP > NOR. Although the various herbal formulations exhibited ambivalent antioxidant activities in terms of their radical scavenging capabilities, a broad survey of the results of the present study showed that combinatorial herbal formulations (DHfs, THfs, and QHf appeared to exhibit lower radical scavenging capacities than those of the SHfs in vitro.

  16. Antioxidant potential of six pine species.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Guri, Anilda; Kefalas, Panagiotis; Roussis, Vassilios

    2006-04-01

    The aim of the study was to evaluate the antioxidant efficacy of extracts obtained from six Pinus species (P. pinea, P. brutia, P. radiata, P. halepensis, P. attenuata, P. nigra) growing in natural forests in Southern Greece. Specimens of fresh, dry needles and pine bark were extracted and fractionated with a variety of organic solvents and the efficient concentration and their radical scavenging activity was evaluated by the Co(II)/EDTA induced luminol plateau chemiluminescence assay. Copyright 2006 John Wiley & Sons, Ltd.

  17. Antioxidant activity of Paraguayan plant extracts.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Velázquez, E; Tournier, H A; Mordujovich de Buschiazzo, P; Saavedra, G; Schinella, G R

    2003-02-01

    The antioxidant properties of six medical herbs used in the traditional Paraguayan medicine were studied using free radical-generating systems. The methanol extracts from Aristolochia giberti, Cecropia pachystachya, Eugenia uniflora, Piper fulvescens, Schinus weinmannifolia and Schinus terebinthifolia protected against enzymatic and non-enzymatic lipid peroxidation in microsomal membranes of rat. C. pachystachya, E. uniflora, S. weinmannifolia and S. terebinthifolia showed the highest scavenging activity on the superoxide and DPPH radicals.

  18. [Standardization and regulation of the rate of the superoxide-generating adrenaline autoxidation reaction used for evaluation of pro/antioxidant properties of various materials].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sirota, T V

    2016-11-01

    The superoxide-generating reaction of adrenaline autoxidation is widely used for determination of the activity of superoxide dismutase and pro/antioxidant properties of various materials. There are two variants of the spectrophotometric registration of the products of this reaction. The first is based on registration of adrenochrome, as adrenaline autooxidation product at 347 nm; the second employs nitro blue tetrazolium (NBT) and registration of diformazan, a product of NBT reduction at 560 nm. In the present work, recommendations for the standardization of the reaction rate in both variants have been proposed. The main approach consists in the use of the pharmaceutical form of 0.1% adrenaline hydrochloride solution. Although each of two adrenaline preparations available in the Russian market has some features in kinetic behavior of its autooxidation; they are applicable in the superoxide generating system based on adrenaline autooxidation. Performing measurements at 560 nm, the reaction rate can be regulated by lowering the concentration of added adrenaline, whereas during spectrophotometric registration at 347 nm, this cannot be done. These features of adrenaline autoxidation may be due to the fact that the intrinsic multistage process of the conversion of adrenaline to adrenochrome, which is recorded at 347 nm, is coupled with the transition of electrons from adrenaline and intermediate products of its oxidation to oxygen, carbon dioxide, and carbonate bicarbonate ions, which is detected in the presence of added NBT.

  19. Analytical profiling of selected antioxidants and total antioxidant capacity of goji (Lycium spp.) berries.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Protti, Michele; Gualandi, Isacco; Mandrioli, Roberto; Zappoli, Sergio; Tonelli, Domenica; Mercolini, Laura

    2017-09-05

    Goji berries and derived products represent a relevant source of micronutrients, most of which are natural antioxidants and contribute to the high nutritional quality of these fruits. Three brands of dried goji berries have been analysed by a multidisciplinary approach to get an insight into both their content of selected antioxidants and their antioxidant capacity (AC). The former goal has been achieved by developing a liquid chromatographic method coupled to mass spectrometry and combined to a fast solid phase extraction. Several significant representative antioxidant compounds belonging to the following classes: flavonoids, flavan-3-ols, phenolic acids, amino acids and derivatives, and carotenoids have been taken into account. Quercetin and rutin were found to be the predominant flavonoids, chlorogenic acid was the most abundant phenolic acid and zeaxanthin was the major carotenoid. The AC of the goji berries has been evaluated by four analytical methods in order to estimate the contributions of different reactions involved in radicals scavenging. In particular, AC has been determined using 3 standardised methods (DPPH, ABTS, ORAC) and a recently proposed electrochemical method, which measures the scavenging activity of antioxidants towards OH radicals generated both by hydrogen peroxide photolysis and the Fenton reaction. The results obtained from chemical composition and antioxidant capacity assays confirm the high nutritional and commercial value of goji berries and highlight that the three brands do not exhibit significant differences. Copyright © 2017 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  20. Antioxidant properties of catechins: Comparison with other antioxidants.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Grzesik, Michalina; Naparło, Katarzyna; Bartosz, Grzegorz; Sadowska-Bartosz, Izabela

    2018-02-15

    Antioxidant properties of five catechins and five other flavonoids were compared with several other natural and synthetic compounds and related to glutathione and ascorbate as key endogenous antioxidants in several in vitro tests and assays involving erythrocytes. Catechins showed the highest ABTS-scavenging capacity, the highest stoichiometry of Fe 3+ reduction in the FRAP assay and belonged to the most efficient compounds in protection against SIN-1 induced oxidation of dihydrorhodamine 123, AAPH-induced fluorescein bleaching and hypochlorite-induced fluorescein bleaching. Glutathione and ascorbate were less effective. (+)-catechin and (-)-epicatechin were the most effective compounds in protection against AAPH-induced erythrocyte hemolysis while (-)-epicatechin gallate, (-)-epigallocatechin gallate and (-)-epigallocatechin protected at lowest concentrations against hypochlorite-induced hemolysis. Catechins [(-)-epigallocatechin gallate and (-)-epicatechin gallate)] were most efficient in the inhibition of AAPH-induced oxidation of 2'7'-dichlorodihydroflurescein contained inside erythrocytes. Excellent antioxidant properties of catechins and other flavonoids make them ideal candidates for nanoformulations to be used in antioxidant therapy. Copyright © 2017 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  1. Autophagy as an essential cellular antioxidant pathway in neurodegenerative disease

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Samantha Giordano

    2014-01-01

    Full Text Available Oxidative stress including DNA damage, increased lipid and protein oxidation, are important features of aging and neurodegeneration suggesting that endogenous antioxidant protective pathways are inadequate or overwhelmed. Importantly, oxidative protein damage contributes to age-dependent accumulation of dysfunctional mitochondria or protein aggregates. In addition, environmental toxins such as rotenone and paraquat, which are risk factors for the pathogenesis of neurodegenerative diseases, also promote protein oxidation. The obvious approach of supplementing the primary antioxidant systems designed to suppress the initiation of oxidative stress has been tested in animal models and positive results were obtained. However, these findings have not been effectively translated to treating human patients, and clinical trials for antioxidant therapies using radical scavenging molecules such as α-tocopherol, ascorbate and coenzyme Q have met with limited success, highlighting several limitations to this approach. These could include: (1 radical scavenging antioxidants cannot reverse established damage to proteins and organelles; (2 radical scavenging antioxidants are oxidant specific, and can only be effective if the specific mechanism for neurodegeneration involves the reactive species to which they are targeted and (3 since reactive species play an important role in physiological signaling, suppression of endogenous oxidants maybe deleterious. Therefore, alternative approaches that can circumvent these limitations are needed. While not previously considered an antioxidant system we propose that the autophagy-lysosomal activities, may serve this essential function in neurodegenerative diseases by removing damaged or dysfunctional proteins and organelles.

  2. Nature or Nurture? Gender Roles Scavenger Hunt

    Science.gov (United States)

    Whalen, Shannon; Maurer-Starks, Suanne

    2008-01-01

    The examination of gender roles and stereotypes and their subsequent impact on sexual behavior is a concept for discussion in many sex education courses in college and sex education units in high school. This analysis often leads to a discussion of the impact of nature vs. nurture on gender roles. The gender roles scavenger hunt is an interactive…

  3. Phytochemical screening, free radical scavenging and antibacterial ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Cassia sieberiana is a tropical plant, widely distributed throughout Sudan and Guinea savannah. It is used in traditional medicine for the treatment of malarial, cancer and stomach ache. The study was conducted to screen for phytochemicals, free radical scavenging and antibacterial potentials of the root bark.

  4. Rapid high-throughput assay to assess scavenging capacity index using DPPH.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Abderrahim, Fatima; Arribas, Silvia M; Gonzalez, M Carmen; Condezo-Hoyos, Luis

    2013-11-15

    A new microplate-adapted DPPH rapid assay was developed to assess the antioxidant capacity of pure compounds and foods. The assay was carried out in buffered medium (methanol: 10mmol/l Tris buffer pH 7.5, 1:1 v/v) and reaction was completed at 10min. The scavenging capacity index (SCI), a theoretical antioxidant parameter directly related to the antioxidant capacity of samples, was calculated. SCI for pure compounds: gallic acid (6.76±0.08), quercetin (7.89±0.24), catechin (6.05±0.23), trolox (2.32±0.03), ascorbic acid (2.52±0.15) and gluthatione (1.08±0.08) and foods (μmol DPPH scavenged/100ml): tropical juice (655.62±12.18), mediterraneo juice (702.87±11.13), apple juice (212.52±17.22), pomegranate juice (319.83±9.45), red grape nectar (1093.05±18.69), Don Simon orange juice (632.94±17.22) and date syrup (15992.34±250.7) were comparable to those in previous reports using the classic DPPH assay. The relative standard deviation (RSD) for the SCI on the same and different days was less than 8.12% in all cases. Copyright © 2013 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  5. Antioxidant activities of Physalis peruviana.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wu, Sue-Jing; Ng, Lean-Teik; Huang, Yuan-Man; Lin, Doung-Liang; Wang, Shyh-Shyan; Huang, Shan-Ney; Lin, Chun-Ching

    2005-06-01

    Physalis peruviana (PP) is a widely used medicinal herb for treating cancer, malaria, asthma, hepatitis, dermatitis and rheumatism. In this study, the hot water extract (HWEPP) and extracts prepared from different concentrations of ethanol (20, 40, 60, 80 and 95% EtOH) from the whole plant were evaluated for antioxidant activities. Results displayed that at 100 mug/ml, the extract prepared from 95% EtOH exhibited the most potent inhibition rate (82.3%) on FeCl2-ascorbic acid induced lipid peroxidation in rat liver homogenate. At concentrations 10-100 microg/ml, this extract also demonstrated the strongest superoxide anion scavenging and inhibitory effect on xanthine oxidase activities. In general, the ethanol extracts revealed a stronger antioxidant activity than alpha-tocopherol and HWEPP. Compared to alpha-tocopherol, the IC50 value of 95% EtOH PP extract was lower in thiobarbituric acid test (IC50=23.74 microg/ml vs. 26.71 microg/ml), in cytochrome c test (IC50=10.40 microg/ml vs. 13.39 microg/ml) and in xanthine oxidase inhibition test (IC50=8.97 microg/ml vs. 20.68 microg/ml). The present study concludes that ethanol extracts of PP possess good antioxidant activities, and the highest antioxidant properties were obtained from the 95% EtOH PP.

  6. Structural Correlation of Some Heterocyclic Chalcone Analogues and Evaluation of Their Antioxidant Potential

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Hoong-Kun Fun

    2013-09-01

    Full Text Available A series of six novel heterocyclic chalcone analogues 4(a–f has been synthesized by condensing 2-acetyl-5-chlorothiophene with benzaldehyde derivatives in methanol at room temperature using a catalytic amount of sodium hydroxide. The newly synthesized compounds are characterized by IR, mass spectra, elemental analysis and melting point. Subsequently; the structures of these compounds were determined using single crystal X-ray diffraction. All the synthesized compounds were screened for their antioxidant potential by employing various in vitro models such as DPPH free radical scavenging assay, ABTS radical scavenging assay, ferric reducing antioxidant power and cupric ion reducing antioxidant capacity. Results reflect the structural impact on the antioxidant ability of the compounds. The IC50 values illustrate the mild to good antioxidant activities of the reported compounds. Among them, 4f with a p-methoxy substituent was found to be more potent as antioxidant agent.

  7. Cytotoxic and antioxidant activity of selected marine sponges

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Chairman K

    2012-06-01

    Full Text Available Objective: To evaluate the anticancer activity of the crude extracts of Rhabdastrella globostellata (R. globostellata and Spirastrella inconstans (S. inconstans var. moeandrina Dendy. Methods: Soxhlet extraction method was used to extract the secondary metabolites and various assays antioxidant, anticancer and various assays were carried out. The extract were tested anticancer activity against a HeLa, Raw 264.7 and Hek-293. Results: The sponge extracts tested exhibited from median to high toxicity in at least one of the toxicity bioassays performed. The antioxidant activity of the isolated metabolite in ethylacetate solution was assessed by SOD and GTH assays and compared with that of other known natural antioxidants. Conclusions: Potent antioxidants have been detected among both phenolic metabolites and alkaloids. Antioxidant effects of tested compounds have been attributed to their action as chain-breaking antioxidants and/or as scavengers of radicals

  8. Measurement of Antioxidant Activity Towards Superoxide in Natural Waters.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    D. Whitney King

    2016-11-01

    Full Text Available Antioxidants are a class of molecules that provide a protective function against reactive oxygen species (ROS in biological systems by out competing physiologically important molecules for ROS oxidation. In natural waters, the reactivity of antioxidants gives an estimate of oxidative stress and may determine the reactivity and distribution of reactive oxidants. We present an analytical method to measure antioxidant activity in natural waters through the competition between ascorbic acid, an antioxidant, and MCLA, a chemiluminescent probe for superoxide. A numerical kinetic model of the analytical method has been developed to optimize analytical performance. Measurements of antioxidant concentrations in pure and seawater are possible with detection limits below 0.1 nM. Surface seawater samples collected at solar noon contained over 0.4 nM of antioxidants and exhibited first-order decay with a half-life of 3-7 minutes, consistent with a reactive species capable of scavenging photochemically produced superoxide.

  9. Comparative antihemolytic and radical scavenging activities of strawberry tree (Arbutus unedo L.) leaf and fruit.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mendes, Lídia; de Freitas, Victor; Baptista, Paula; Carvalho, Márcia

    2011-09-01

    The present study reports the antioxidant properties of Arbutus unedo L. leaf and fruit extracts using different in vitro assays including (i) reducing power, (ii) scavenging effect on DPPH free radicals, and (iii) inhibitory effect on AAPH-induced hemolysis and lipid peroxidation in human erythrocytes. All assays demonstrated antioxidant efficiency for A. unedo L. aqueous extracts, being consistently higher in the leaf. EC(50) values for reducing power and DPPH radical scavenging activities were, respectively, 0.318 ± 0.007 and 0.087 ± 0.007 mg/mL for leaf, and 2.894 ± 0.049 and 0.790 ± 0.016 mg/mL for fruit extracts. Under the oxidative action of AAPH, A. unedo leaf and fruit extracts protected the erythrocyte membrane from hemolysis (IC(50) of 0.062 ± 0.002 and 0.430 ± 0.091 mg/mL, respectively) and decreased the levels of malondialdehyde, a breakdown product of lipid peroxidation (IC(50) of 0.075 ± 0.014 and 0.732 ± 0.452 mg/mL, respectively). In accordance with antioxidant activity, phenolic content was found to be significantly higher in leaf extract. To our knowledge, this is the first time that the antioxidant activity of A. unedo species is evaluated using human biological membranes. Overall, our results suggest that A. unedo leaves are a promising source of natural antioxidants with potential application in diseases mediated by free radicals. Copyright © 2011 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  10. Influence of processing on physicochemical and antioxidant properties of apricot (Prunus armeniaca L. variety Narmo

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    S.M. Wani

    2016-12-01

    Full Text Available Fresh apricot pulp and its processed products (bar, chutney, and leather were analyzed for physicochemical (moisture content, titrable acidity (TA, ascorbic acid, and percent reducing sugars and antioxidant properties (2,2-diphenyl-l-picrylhydrazyl (DPPH, reducing power, total phenolics, lipid peroxidation, ferric reducing antioxidant potential, and hydroxyl radical scavenging activity. Reducing sugars, TA, and ascorbic acid content were found to be higher in the processed products than the fresh pulp. A significant difference in the antioxidant properties between the fresh apricot pulp and its processed products was observed. The difference in antioxidant properties between the fresh and the processed products may be attributed to the partial degradation of the bioactive compounds by the action of heat during processing. Among the processed products, apricot bar showed the highest DPPH radical scavenging activity, lipid peroxidation, and hydroxyl radical scavenging activity. Therefore, production of apricot bar could a suitable option for processing of apricots.

  11. Tyrosinase inhibitory effects and antioxidative activities of saponins from Xanthoceras Sorbifolia nutshell.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Hongmei Zhang

    Full Text Available Certain saponins are bioactive compounds with anticancer, antivirus and antioxidant activities. This paper discussed inhibitory effects of saponins from Xanthoceras Sorbifolia on tyrosinase, through the research of the rate of tyrosinase catalyzed L-DOPA oxidation. The inhibition rate of tyrosinase activity presented non-linear changes with the saponins concentration. The rate reached 52.0% when the saponins concentration was 0.96 mg/ml. Antioxidant activities of saponins from Xanthoceras Sorbifolia were evaluated by using hydroxyl and superoxide radical scavenging assays. The hydroxyl radical scavenging effects of the saponins were 15.5-68.7%, respectively at the concentration of 0.18-2.52 mg/ml. The superoxide radical scavenging activity reduced from 96.6% to 7.05% with the time increasing at the concentration of 1.44 mg/ml. All the above antioxidant evaluation indicated that saponins from Xanthoceras Sorbifolia exhibited good antioxidant activity in a concentration- dependent manner.

  12. In vitro evaluation of antioxidant activity of Cordia dichotoma (Forst f.) bark.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Nariya, Pankaj B; Bhalodia, Nayan R; Shukla, Vinay J; Acharya, Rabinarayan; Nariya, Mukesh B

    2013-01-01

    Cordia dichotoma Forst. f. bark, identified as botanical source of Shleshmataka in Ayurvedic pharmacopoeia. Present investigation was undertaken to evaluate possible antioxidant potential of methanolic and butanol extract of C. dichotoma bark. In vitro antioxidant activity of methanolic and butanol extract was determined by 1,1, diphenyl-2, picrylhydrazyl (DPPH) free radical scavenging assay. The extracts were also evaluated for their phenolic contents and antioxidant activity. Phenolic content was measured using Folin-Ciocalteu reagent and was calculated as Gallic acid equivalents. Antiradical activity of methanolic extract was measured by DPPH assay and was compared to ascorbic acid and ferric reducing power of the extract was evaluated by Oyaizu method. In the present study three in vitro models were used to evaluate antioxidant activity. The first two methods were for direct measurement of radical scavenging activity and remaining one method evaluated the reducing power. The present study revealed that the C. dichotoma bark has significant radical scavenging activity.

  13. Proteolytic shedding of the macrophage scavenger receptor CD163 in multiple sclerosis

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Fabriek, Babs O; Møller, Holger J; Vloet, Rianka P M

    2007-01-01

    The scavenger receptor CD163 is selectively expressed on tissue macrophages and human monocytes. CD163 has been implicated to play a role in the clearance of hemoglobin and in the regulation of cytokine production by macrophages. Membrane CD163 can be cleaved by matrix metalloproteinases (MMP...

  14. Scavenging and recombination kinetics in a radiation spur: The successive ordered scavenging events

    Science.gov (United States)

    Al-Samra, Eyad H.; Green, Nicholas J. B.

    2018-03-01

    This study describes stochastic models to investigate the successive ordered scavenging events in a spur of four radicals, a model system based on a radiation spur. Three simulation models have been developed to obtain the probabilities of the ordered scavenging events: (i) a Monte Carlo random flight (RF) model, (ii) hybrid simulations in which the reaction rate coefficient is used to generate scavenging times for the radicals and (iii) the independent reaction times (IRT) method. The results of these simulations are found to be in agreement with one another. In addition, a detailed master equation treatment is also presented, and used to extract simulated rate coefficients of the ordered scavenging reactions from the RF simulations. These rate coefficients are transient, the rate coefficients obtained for subsequent reactions are effectively equal, and in reasonable agreement with the simple correction for competition effects that has recently been proposed.

  15. Evaluation of antioxidant and antimutagenic potential of Justicia ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    sunny t

    In this study, the ethanolic extract of Justicia adhatoda (Acanthaceae) leaves was prepared by successive ... In the present study our aim was to determine the antioxidant and antimutagenic ... the role of this plant in radical scavenging capacity for the .... of J. adhatoda was estimated using different in vitro assays viz. 2-2-.

  16. Cytotoxic and Antioxidant Activities of Antidesma thwaitesianum Müll ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    residue left after maceration of fresh fruits (RFW) showed moderate superoxide radical-scavenging activity relative ... become purplish red to dark purple depending on the level of ... mamao juice and wine, exhibited antioxidant potential ... regarding health benefits of Antidesma .... amount of total phenolic content, which was.

  17. Observation of antioxidant activity of leaves, callus and suspension ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    GREGORY

    2011-12-16

    Dec 16, 2011 ... Antioxidant activity and phenolic compound was found in Justicia gendarussa via total phenolic content (TPC) and α,α-diphenyl-β-pycrilhydrazil hydrate (DPPH) radical scavenging assays. The assays were applied on aqueous and methanolic extracts of leaves, callus culture and cell suspension culture.

  18. Studies on antioxidant capacity of anthocyanin extract from purple ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Yomi

    2012-04-03

    Apr 3, 2012 ... The radical scavenging effects by α,α-diphenyl-β-picrylhydrazyl (DPPH) and ... also displayed potent antioxidant effects against the DPPH radical and .... method described by Giannopolites and Ries (1977), with some .... The IC50 values of anthocyanins and L-AA were low, .... effects of ionizing radiation.

  19. Evaluation of phytochemical constituents and antioxidant activity of ...

    Indian Academy of Sciences (India)

    2013-10-01

    Oct 1, 2013 ... oxide) scavenging activity and FRP (ferric reducing power) assay of the fruits of .... The present study showed that nutrition values are different with respect to the ... physiological processes like smooth muscle relaxation, neuro- .... on antioxidant and anti inflammatory properties of three colored varieties of ...

  20. Antioxidant activity of the exudate from Aloe barbadensis leaves in ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    The effects of the exudate of Aloe barbadensis leaves on oxidative stress and some antioxidant status of streptozotocin induced - diabetic rats were studied. There was significant reduction in scavenging enzymes like superoxide dismutase (SOD) activity and significant increase in signs of oxidative tissue damage, such as ...

  1. Extraction and antioxidant activities of two species Origanum plant ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    The antioxidant of ethanolic extract of two species of Origanum and essential oil of plant Origanum vulgare were investigated and also the total phenolic and flavonoid content measured. The radical scavenging activity was measured using the 2,2-diphenyl-1-picrylhydrazyl (DPPH) method. Total phenolic and flavonoid ...

  2. Phytochemical, Antioxidant and Antimicrobial Profiles of Extracts of ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    dihydroxycoumarine and 7-hydroxycoumarine. Total antioxidant capacity ranged from 69.71 μg AA/g for the methanol leaf extract to 73.55 μg AA/g for the chloroform twig extract. All the extracts showed DPPH radical scavenging activity (21.57 ...

  3. Total Phenolics and Antioxidant Capacity of Some Nigerian ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    The results suggest that the beverages possess significant radical scavenging ability that may be ... prepared and 1 ml of it was mixed with 1 ml, 0.4 ... 734nm to 0.700 with ethanol. .... cocoa fermentation, polyphenols are subjected to .... Variability in antioxidant activity in ... tea, coffee and wine. .... The kinetics of polyphenol.

  4. Phenolic composition, antioxidant capacity of Salvia verticcilata and ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Background: Antioxidants are of great importance for preventing oxidative stress that may cause several degenerative diseases. Studies have indicated phytochemicals have high free-radical scavenging activity, which helps to reduce the risk of chronic diseases. The aim of the present study is the determination of ...

  5. An efficient protocol for in vitro organogenesis and antioxidant ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Total flavonoids and phenolic content in leaves of in vitro Melia dubia was 0.56 ± 0.8 mg quercitin equivalent (QE) and 2.97 ± 0.17 mg gallic acid equivalent (GAE) respectively. The antioxidant property was further assed through measurement of DPPH radical scavenging activity. The in-vitro regeneration protocol can be ...

  6. Phytochemicals, antioxidant and antibacterial properties of a lichen ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Antioxidant activity assessment was performed using the free radical scavenging activity of 1,1-diphenyl-2-picrylhydrazyl radical (DPPH) and reducing power assay. Phytochemical screening was done using chemical tests. Antibacterial activities of Cladonia digitata were determined by a disk diffusion method at ...

  7. Cytotoxicity, Total Phenolic Contents and Antioxidant Activity of the ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    The leaves of Annona muricata were extracted using ethanol and the extracts were evaluated for cytotoxicity using Brine Shrimp Lethality Assay, total phenolic content (TPC) and antioxidant activity using DPPH radical scavenging assay. The crude extract showed 73.33 % mortality at 1000 μg/mL concentration and its ...

  8. In vitro antioxidant activity of Vetiveria zizanioides root extract ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Free radicals induce numerous diseases by lipid peroxidation and DNA damage. It has been reported that some of the extracts from plants possess antioxidant properties capable of scavenging free radicals in vivo. Vetiveria zizanioides belonging to the family Gramineae, is a densely tufted grass which is widely used as a ...

  9. Antioxidant properties, selected enzyme inhibition capacities, and a ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Antioxidant activities (DPPH, FRAP, H2O2 scavenging assay, ABTS), antityrosinase, anti 5-lipoxygenase, antihyaluronidase and anti α-glucosidase were determined. Cosmetic creams containing 0, 1, 2 and 3 % of MSKE were prepared and evaluated for physical stability. The most stable formulation was subjected to the ...

  10. Serum antioxidant vitamins levels in non-insulin-dependent ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Evidence is accumulating that most of the degenerative diseases including diabetes mellitus have their origin in deleterious free radical reactions. Humans are well endowed with antioxidant defences primarily by free radical scavengers, such as ascorbic acid, alphatocopherol, betacarotene, and trace elements.

  11. Antioxidant Phenolic Compounds from Pu-erh Tea

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Shu Shan Du

    2012-11-01

    Full Text Available Eight compounds were isolated from the water extract of Pu-erh tea and their structures were elucidated by NMR and MS as gallic acid (1, (+-catechin (2, (−-epicatechin (3, (−-epicatechin-3-O-gallate (4, (−-epigallocatechin-3-O-gallate (5, (−-epiafzelechin- 3-O-gallate (6, kaempferol (7, and quercetin (8. Their in vitro antioxidant activities were assessed by the DPPH and ABTS scavenging methods with microplate assays. The relative order of DPPH scavenging capacity for these compounds was compound 8 > compound 7 > compound 1 > compound 6 > compound 4 ≈ compound 5 > compound 2 > VC (reference > compound 3, and that of ABTS scavenging capacity was compound 1 > compound 2 > compound 7 ≈ compound 8 > compound 6 > compound 5 > compound 4 > VC (reference > compound 3. The results showed that these phenolic compounds contributed to the antioxidant activity of Pu-erh tea.

  12. Synthesis and Biological Evaluation of 3-Benzylidene-4-chromanone Derivatives as Free Radical Scavengers and α-Glucosidase Inhibitors.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Takao, Koichi; Yamashita, Marimo; Yashiro, Aruki; Sugita, Yoshiaki

    2016-01-01

    A series of 3-benzylidene-4-chromanone derivatives (3-20) were synthesized and the structure-activity relationships for antioxidant and α-glucosidase inhibitory activities were evaluated. Among synthesized compounds, compounds 5, 13, 18, which contain catechol moiety, showed the potent 1,1-diphenyl-2-picrylhydrazyl (DPPH) free radical scavenging activity (5: EC50 13 µM; 13: EC50 14 µM; 18: EC50 13 µM). The compounds 12, 14, 18 showed higher α-glucosidase inhibitory activity (12: IC50 15 µM; 14: IC50 25 µM; 18: IC50 28 µM). The compound 18 showed both of potent DPPH radical scavenging and α-glucosidase inhibitory activities. These data suggest that 3-benzylidene-4-chromanone derivatives, such as compound 18, may serve as the lead compound for the development of novel α-glucosidase inhibitors with antioxidant activity.

  13. Total phenolic contents and free-radical scavenging activities of grape (Vitis vinifera L.) and grape products.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Keser, Serhat; Celik, Sait; Turkoglu, Semra

    2013-03-01

    Grape is one of the world's largest fruit crops, with an approximate annual production of 58 million metric tons, and it is well known that the grape skins, seeds and stems, waste products generated during wine and grape juice processing, are rich sources of polyphenols. It contains flavonoids, phenolic acids and stilbenes. In this study, we tried to determine antioxidant properties and phenolic contents of grape and grape products (fresh fruit, seed, dried fruit, molasses, pestil, vinegar) of ethanol and water extracts. Antioxidant properties of extracts were investigated by DPPH(√), ABTS(√+), superoxide, H(2)O(2) scavenging, reducing power, metal chelating activity and determination of total phenolic contents. The seed extracts revealed highest ABTS(√+), DPPH(√), H(2)O(2) scavenging and reducing power activities. Furthermore, these extracts showed higher total phenolic contents than other grape product extracts.

  14. Impact of gene variants on sex-specific regulation of human Scavenger receptor class B type 1 (SR-BI expression in liver and association with lipid levels in a population-based study

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Barrett-Connor Elizabeth

    2010-01-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background Several studies have noted that genetic variants of SCARB1, a lipoprotein receptor involved in reverse cholesterol transport, are associated with serum lipid levels in a sex-dependent fashion. However, the mechanism underlying this gene by sex interaction has not been explored. Methods We utilized both epidemiological and molecular methods to study how estrogen and gene variants interact to influence SCARB1 expression and lipid levels. Interaction between 35 SCARB1 haplotype-tagged polymorphisms and endogenous estradiol levels was assessed in 498 postmenopausal Caucasian women from the population-based Rancho Bernardo Study. We further examined associated variants with overall and SCARB1 splice variant (SR-BI and SR-BII expression in 91 human liver tissues using quantitative real-time PCR. Results Several variants on a haplotype block spanning intron 11 to intron 12 of SCARB1 showed significant gene by estradiol interaction affecting serum lipid levels, the strongest for rs838895 with HDL-cholesterol (p = 9.2 × 10-4 and triglycerides (p = 1.3 × 10-3 and the triglyceride:HDL cholesterol ratio (p = 2.7 × 10-4. These same variants were associated with expression of the SR-BI isoform in a sex-specific fashion, with the strongest association found among liver tissue from 52 young women Conclusions Estrogen and SCARB1 genotype may act synergistically to regulate expression of SCARB1 isoforms and impact serum levels of HDL cholesterol and triglycerides. This work highlights the importance of considering sex-dependent effects of gene variants on serum lipid levels.

  15. The role of melatonin as an antioxidant in the follicle

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Tamura Hiroshi

    2012-01-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Melatonin (N-acetyl-5-methoxytryptamine is secreted during the dark hours at night by pineal gland, and it regulates a variety of important central and peripheral actions related to circadian rhythms and reproduction. It has been believed that melatonin regulates ovarian function by the regulation of gonadotropin release in the hypothalamus-pituitary gland axis via its specific receptors. In addition to the receptor mediated action, the discovery of melatonin as a direct free radical scavenger has greatly broadened the understanding of melatonin's mechanisms which benefit reproductive physiology. Higher concentrations of melatonin have been found in human preovulatory follicular fluid compared to serum, and there is growing evidence of the direct effects of melatonin on ovarian function especially oocyte maturation and embryo development. Many scientists have focused on the direct role of melatonin on oocyte maturation and embryo development as an anti-oxidant to reduce oxidative stress induced by reactive oxygen species, which are produced during ovulation process. The beneficial effects of melatonin administration on oocyte maturation and embryo development have been confirmed by in vitro and in vivo experiments in animals. This review also discusses the first application of melatonin to the clinical treatment of infertile women and confirms that melatonin administration reduces intrafollicular oxidative damage and increase fertilization rates. This review summarizes our recent works and new findings related to the reported beneficial effects of melatonin on reproductive physiology in its role as a reducer of oxidative stress, especially on oocyte maturation and embryo development.

  16. Antioxidative activity of ethanol extracts from Spirulina platensis and Nostoc linckia measured by various methods

    OpenAIRE

    Liliana CEPOI; Ludmila RUDI; Vera MISCU; Angela COJOCARI; Tatiana CHIRIAC; Daniela SADOVNIC

    2009-01-01

    The goal of this work is to determine the level of antioxidative activity of various ethanol extracts from Spirulina platensis and Nostoc linckia biomass, and also to demonstrate the possibility to select suitable methods for evaluation of these characteristics. The methods for determination of antioxidative activity were selected concerning their possible use for complex preparations: phosphomolybdenum method for evaluation of antioxidant capacity (PMRC), radical-scavenging activity by DPPH ...

  17. In Vitro Cultivars of Vaccinium corymbosum L. (Ericaceae) are a Source of Antioxidant Phenolics

    OpenAIRE

    Contreras, Rodrigo; Köhler, Hans; Pizarro, Marisol; Zúiga, Gustavo

    2015-01-01

    The antioxidant activity and phenolic composition of six in vitro cultured blueberry seedlings were determined. Extracts were prepared in 85% ethanol from 30 days old in vitro cultured plants and used to evaluate the antioxidant capacities that included Ferric reducing antioxidant power (FRAP) and 1,1-diphenyl-2-picrylhydrazin (DPPH?) scavenging ability, total polyphenols (TP) and the partial phenolic composition performed by high performance liquid chromatography with diode array detector (H...

  18. Antioxidant effect of leaf extracts from Cressa cretica against oxidation process in soybean oil

    OpenAIRE

    Afshari, Afsaneh; Sayyed?Alangi, S. Zahra

    2016-01-01

    Abstract Phenolic compounds from Cressa cretica leaves were extracted using different solvents (water and ethanol 70%) during 3?24?h by immersion method and were determined according to the Folin?Ciocalteu method. The antioxidant activities of the extracts were investigated by 1,1?diphenyl?2?picryl hydrazyl (DPPH) radical scavenging, ferric reduction activity potential and total antioxidant capacity assays compared with synthetic antioxidant namely BHT. The results were shown that the most to...

  19. Synthesis and Evaluation of the Anti-Oxidant Capacity of Curcumin Glucuronides, the Major Curcumin Metabolites

    OpenAIRE

    Choudhury, Ambar K.; Raja, Suganya; Mahapatra, Sanjata; Nagabhushanam, Kalyanam; Majeed, Muhammed

    2015-01-01

    Curcumin metabolites namely curcumin monoglucuronide and curcumin diglucuronide were synthesized using an alternative synthetic approach. The anti-oxidant potential of these curcumin glucuronides was compared with that of curcumin using DPPH scavenging method and Oxygen Radical Absorbance Capacity (ORAC) assay. The results show that curcumin monoglucuronide exhibits 10 fold less anti-oxidant activity (DPPH method) and the anti-oxidant capacity of curcumin diglucuronide is highly attenuated co...

  20. Antioxidant activity and phenylpropanoids of Phlomis lychnitis L

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    López, Víctor; Jäger, Anna Katharina; Akerreta, Silvia

    2010-01-01

    Phlomis lychnitis L. (Lamiaceae) is consumed as a traditional herbal tea in Spain. The antioxidant-protective effects as well as its phytoconstituents have never been established. The ability of the methanolic extract to protect cells from oxidative stress was evaluated in rat pheochromocytoma...... of the plant to scavenge ABTS, DPPH, O(2) . (-) radicals and to inhibit XO. Bioassay guided fractionation led to antioxidant compounds. Qualitative HPLC/DAD/ESI/MS analysis reported phenylpropanoids, verbascoside being the major antioxidant constituent....

  1. Antioxidant and Antiplasmodial Activities of Bergenin and 11-O-Galloylbergenin Isolated from Mallotus philippensis

    OpenAIRE

    Khan, Hamayun; Amin, Hazrat; Ullah, Asad; Saba, Sumbal; Rafique, Jamal; Khan, Khalid; Ahmad, Nasir; Badshah, Syed Lal

    2016-01-01

    Two important biologically active compounds were isolated from Mallotus philippensis. The isolated compounds were characterized using spectroanalytical techniques and found to be bergenin (1) and 11-O-galloylbergenin (2). The in vitro antioxidant and antiplasmodial activities of the isolated compounds were determined. For the antioxidant potential, three standard analytical protocols, namely, DPPH radical scavenging activity (RSA), reducing power assay (RPA), and total antioxidant capacity (T...

  2. Applicability of an improved Trolox equivalent antioxidant capacity (TEAC) assay for evaluation of antioxidant capacity measurements of mixtures

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Berg, R. van den; Haenen, G.R.M.M.; Berg, H. van den; Bast, A.

    1999-01-01

    The TEAC (Trolox equivalent antioxidant capacity) assay is based on scavenging of 2,2'-azinobis-(3- ethylbenzothiazoline-6-sulfonate) radical anions (ABTS(.-)). In this report we describe a modification based on pre-generation of the ABTS radical anions with a thermolabile azo compound, 2,2'-azobis-

  3. Investigation into Seasonal Scavenging Patterns of Raccoons on Human Decomposition.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jeong, Yangseung; Jantz, Lee Meadows; Smith, Jake

    2016-03-01

    Although raccoons are known as one of the most common scavengers in the U.S., scavenging by these animals has seldom been studied in terms of forensic significance. In this research, the seasonal pattern of raccoon scavenging and its effect on human decomposition was investigated using 178 human cadavers placed at the Anthropological Research Facility (ARF) of the University of Tennessee, Knoxville (UTK) between February 2011 and December 2013. The results reveal that (i) the frequency of scavenging increases during summer, (ii) scavenging occurs relatively immediately and lasts shorter in summer months, and (iii) scavenging influences the decomposition process by hollowing limbs and by disturbing insect activities, both of which eventually increases the chance of mummification on the affected body. This information is expected to help forensic investigators identify raccoon scavenging as well as make a more precise interpretation of the effect of raccoon scavenging on bodies at crime scenes. © 2015 American Academy of Forensic Sciences.

  4. Involvement of abscisic acid in regulating antioxidative defense systems and IAA-oxidase activity and improving adventitious rooting in mung bean [Vigna radiata (L.) Wilczek] seedlings under cadmium stress.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Li, Shi-Weng; Leng, Yan; Feng, Lin; Zeng, Xiao-Ying

    2014-01-01

    In vitro experiments were conducted to investigate the effects of abscisic acid (ABA) and Cd on antioxidative defense systems and indole-3-acetic acid (IAA) oxidase during adventitious rooting in mung bean [Vigna radiata (L.) Wilczek] seedlings. The exogenous ABA significantly enhanced the number and fresh weight of the adventitious roots. CdCl2 strongly inhibited adventitious rooting. Pretreatment with 10 μM ABA clearly alleviated the inhibitory effect of Cd on rooting. ABA significantly reduced superoxide dismutase (SOD), ascorbate peroxidase (APX), peroxidase (POD), and catalase (CAT) activities, as well as the levels of glutathione (GSH) and ascorbic acid (ASA) during adventitious rooting. ABA strongly increased IAA-oxidase activity during the induction (0-12 h) and expression (after 48 h) phases and increased the phenols levels. Cd treatment significantly reduced the activities of SOD, APX, POD, and IAA oxidase, as well as GSH level. Cd strongly increased ASA levels. ABA pretreatment counteracted Cd-induced alterations of certain antioxidants and antioxidative enzymes, e.g., remarkably rescued APX and POD activities, reduced the elevated SOD and CAT activities and ASA levels, and recovered the reduced GSH levels, caused by Cd stress. Thus, the physiological effects of the combination of ABA and Cd treatments were opposite of those obtained with Cd treatment alone, suggesting that ABA involved in the regulation of antioxidative defense systems and the alleviation of wounding- and Cd-induced oxidative stress.

  5. Optimization of free radical scavenging capacity and pH of Hylocereus polyrhizus peel by Response Surface Methodology

    Science.gov (United States)

    Putranto, A. W.; Dewi, S. R.; Puspitasari, Y.; Nuriah, F. A.

    2018-03-01

    Red dragon fruit (Hylocereus polyrhizus) peel, a by-product of juice processing, contains a high antioxidant that can be used for nutraceuticals. Hence, it is important to extract and investigate its antioxidant stability. The aim of this study was to optimize the free radical scavenging capacity and pH of H. polyrhizus peel extract using Central Composite Design (CCD) under Response Surface Methodology (RSM). The extraction of H. polyrhizus peel was done by using green-Pulsed Electric Field (PEF)-assisted extraction method. Factors optimized were electric field strength (kV/cm) and extraction time (seconds). The result showed that the correlation between responses (free radical-scavenging capacity and pH) and two factors was quadratic model. The optimum conditions was obtained at the electric field strength of 3.96 kV/cm, and treatment time of 31.9 seconds. Under these conditions, the actual free radical-scavenging capacity and pH were 75.86 ± 0.2 % and 4.8, respectively. The verification model showed that the actual values are in accordance with the predicted values, and have error rate values of free radical-scavenging capacity and pH responses were 0.1% and 3.98%, respectively. We suggest to extract the H. polyrhizus peel using a green and non-thermal extraction technology, PEF-assisted extraction, for research, food applications and nutraceuticals industry.

  6. In vitro antioxidant evaluation and total phenolics of methanolic leaf extracts of Nyctanthes arbor-tristis L.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Michael, J Savarimuthu; Kalirajan, A; Padmalatha, C; Singh, A J A Ranjit

    2013-09-01

    To investigate the in vitro antioxidant activity and total phenolic content of the methanolic leaf extract of Nyctanthes arbor-tristis L. (NA). The sample was tested using five in vitro antioxidant methods (1, 1-diphenyl-2-picryl hydrazine radical scavenging activity (DPPH), hydroxyl radical-scavenging activity (-OH), nitric oxide scavenging activity (NO), superoxide radical-scavenging activity, and total antioxidant activity) to evaluate the in vitro antioxidant potential of NA and the total phenolic content (Folin-Ciocalteu method). The extract showed good free radical scavenging property which was calculated as an IC50 value. IC50 (Half maximal inhibitory concentration) of the methanolic extract was found to be 57.93 μg·mL(-1) for DPPH, 98.61 μg·mL(-1) for -OH, 91.74 μg·mL(-1) for NO, and 196.07 μg·mL(-1) for superoxide radical scavenging activity. Total antioxidant capacity of the extract was found to be (1198 ± 24.05) mg ascorbic acid for the methanolic extract. Free radical scavenging activity observed in the extracts of NA showed a concentration-dependent reaction. The in vitro scavenging tested for free radicals was reported to be due to high phenolic content in the leaf extract. The leaf extract of NA showed the highest total phenolic content with a value of 78.48 ± 4.2 equivalent mg TAE/g (tannic acid equivalent). N. arbor-tristis leaf extract exhibited potent free radical scavenging activity. The finding suggests that N. arbor-tristis leaves could be a potential source of natural antioxidant. Copyright © 2013 China Pharmaceutical University. Published by Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  7. Evaluation of in-vitro Antioxidant Properties of Hydroalcoholic Solution Extracts Urtica dioica L., Malva neglecta Wallr. and Their Mixture.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Güder, Aytaç; Korkmaz, Halil

    2012-01-01

    The study was aimed at evaluating the antioxidant activity of hydroalcoholic solution extracts of Urtica dioica L. (UD), Malva neglecta Wallr. (MN) plants and their mixture. In this study, flower (UDF), root (UDR), seed (UDS) and leaf (UDL) parts of UD and flower (MNF) and leaf (MNL) parts of MN were used. The antioxidant properties of hydroalcoholic extracts and their mixture were evaluated using different antioxidant tests such as total antioxidant activity, reducing power, superoxide anion radical scavenging, hydrogen peroxide scavenging, free radical scavenging, and metal chelating activity for comparison. In addition, total phenolic compounds in the extracts of both plants were determined as catechin equivalent. The various antioxidant activities were compared to natural and synthetic standard antioxidants such as BHA, BHT and α-tocopherol. According to FTC method, the both extracts exhibited strong total antioxidant activity. At the concentration of 100 μg/mL, Hydroalcoholic extracts of UDS, UDR, UDF, UDL, MNF, MNL, and UD-MN showed 81.7%, 79.8%, 78.3%, 76.4%, 77.3%, 74.1%, and 80.7%, respectively. Comparable, 100 μg/mL of standard antioxidants BHA, BHT and α-tocopherol exhibited 66.2%, 70.6%, and 50.1% inhibition on peroxidation of linoleic acid emulsion, respectively. In addition, UD-MN showed strong superoxide anion radical scavenging activity comparable with UDR, UDF, UDL, MNF, and MNL. Based on the findings, plants mixture was commonly found to have synergistically higher antioxidant activity.

  8. Short Communication Radical Scavenging Activity and Preliminary ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Bheema

    It is distributed in some regions of Ethiopia such as Tigray, Gondar, Gojam,. Kefa and Shewa ..... Diterpenoids and flavonoids from the fruits of Vitex agnus-castus and antioxidant activity of the fruit extracts and their constituents. Phytotherapy ...

  9. Preventive and therapeutic effects of blueberry (Vaccinium corymbosum) extract against DSS-induced ulcerative colitis by regulation of antioxidant and inflammatory mediators.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pervin, Mehnaz; Hasnat, Md Abul; Lim, Ji-Hong; Lee, Yoon-Mi; Kim, Eun Ok; Um, Byung-Hun; Lim, Beong Ou

    2016-02-01

    Inflammatory bowel disease (IBD) is an inflammatory disorder caused by hyperactivation of effector immune cells that produce high levels of proinflammatory cytokines. The aims of our study were to determine whether orally administered blueberry extract (BE) could attenuate or prevent the development of experimental colitis in mice and to elucidate the mechanism of action. Female Balb/C mice (n=7) were randomized into groups differing in treatment conditions (prevention and treatment) and dose of BE (50 mg/kg body weight). Acute ulcerative colitis was induced by oral administration of 3% dextran sodium sulfate for 7 days in drinking water. Colonic mucosal injury was assessed by clinical, macroscopic, biochemical and histopathological examinations. BE significantly decreased disease activity index and improved the macroscopic and histological score of colons when compared to the colitis group (P<.05). BE markedly attenuated myeloperoxidase accumulation (colitis group 54.97±2.78 nmol/mg, treatment group 30.78±1.33 nmol/mg) and malondialdehyde in colon and prostaglandin E2 level in serum while increasing the levels of superoxide dismutase and catalase (colitis group 11.94±1.16 U/ml, BE treatment group 16.49±0.39 U/ml) compared with the colitis group (P<.05). mRNA levels of the cyclooxygenase (COX)-2, interferon-γ, interleukin (IL)-1β and inducible nitric oxide synthase cytokines were determined by reverse transcriptase polymerase chain reaction. Immunohistochemical analysis showed that BE attenuates the expression of COX-2 and IL-1β in colonic tissue. Moreover, BE reduced the nuclear translocation of nuclear transcription factor kappa B (NF-κB) by immunofluorescence analysis. Thus, the anti-inflammatory effect of BE at colorectal sites is a result of a number of mechanisms: antioxidation, down-regulation of the expression of inflammatory mediators and inhibition of the nuclear translocation of NF-κB. Copyright © 2015 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  10. Activity of Oligoresveratrols from Stem Bark of Hopea mengarawan (Dipterocarpaceae as Hydroxyl Radical Scavenger

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    SRI ATUN

    2006-06-01

    Full Text Available Four oligoresveratrols ranging from dimer to tetramer, isolated from stem bark of Hopea mengarawan (Dipterocarpaceae plants were tested for their activity as hydroxyl radical scavenger. The activity of these compounds was evaluated against the 2-deoxyribose degradation induced by the hydroxyl radical generated via a Fenton-type reaction. Result showed that balanocarpol, heimiol A, vaticanol G, and vaticanol B had IC50 3.83; 15.44; 2.01; and 4.71 µM, respectively. These results suggest that oligoresveratrols from stem bark of H. mengarawan maybe useful as potential sources of natural antioxidants.

  11. Antioxidant Activity in Two Pearl Millet (Pennisetum typhoideum Cultivars as Influenced by Processing

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Florence Suma Pushparaj

    2014-02-01

    Full Text Available Research on the effect of processing on the retention of bioactive components with potential antioxidant activity is gaining importance. The objective of this investigation was to evaluate the effect of various processing methods (milling, boiling, pressure cooking, roasting and germination respectively on the antioxidant components as well as the antioxidant activities in the commonly used pearl millet cultivars—Kalukombu (K and Maharashtra Rabi Bajra (MRB. The methanolic extracts of processed pearl millet flours were analyzed for 1,1-diphenyl-2-picrylhydrazyl (DPPH free radical scavenging activity, reducing power assay (RPA and ferric reducing antioxidant power (FRAP assays respectively. The samples were also evaluated for tannin, phytic acid and flavonoid content which was then correlated with the antioxidant activity assayed using three methods. The results indicated that the bran rich fraction showed high antioxidant activity (RPA owing to high tannin, phytic acid and flavonoid levels. Heat treatments exhibited significantly (P ≤ 0.05 higher antioxidant activity (DPPH scavenging activity and RPA reflecting the high flavonoid content. Processing did not have any significant effect on the FRAP activity of pearl millet. The data on the correlation coefficient suggests that DPPH radical scavenging activity and reducing power assay in the K variety was largely due to the presence of flavonoid content, however in MRB, no relationship was found between antioxidant activities and antioxidant components.

  12. Effect of the chelation of metal cation on the antioxidant activity of chondroitin sulfates.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ajisaka, Katsumi; Oyanagi, Yutaka; Miyazaki, Tatsuo; Suzuki, Yasuhiro

    2016-06-01

    The antioxidant potencies of chondroitin sulfates (CSs) from shark cartilage, salmon cartilage, bovine trachea, and porcine intestinal mucosa were compared by three representative methods for the measurement of the antioxidant activity; DPPH radical scavenging activity, superoxide radical scavenging activity, and hydroxyl radical scavenging activity. CSs from salmon cartilage and bovine trachea showed higher potency in comparison with CSs from shark cartilage and porcine intestinal mucosa. Next, CS from salmon cartilage chelating with Ca(2+), Mg(2+), Mn(2+), or Zn(2+) were prepared, and their antioxidant potencies were compared. CS chelating with Ca(2+) or Mg(2+) ions showed rather decreased DPPH radical scavenging activity in comparison with CS of H(+) form. In contrast, CS chelating with Ca(2+) or Mg(2+) ion showed remarkably enhanced superoxide radical scavenging activity than CS of H(+) or Na(+) form. Moreover, CS chelating with divalent metal ions, Ca(2+), Mg(2+), Mn(2+), or Zn(2+), showed noticeably higher hydroxyl radical scavenging activity than CS of H(+) or Na(+) form. The present results revealed that the scavenging activities of, at least, superoxide radical and hydroxyl radical were enhanced by the chelation with divalent metal ions.

  13. Invited review: Whey proteins as antioxidants and promoters of cellular antioxidant pathways.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Corrochano, Alberto R; Buckin, Vitaly; Kelly, Phil M; Giblin, Linda

    2018-03-28

    Oxidative stress contributes to cell injury and aggravates several chronic diseases. Dietary antioxidants help the body to fight against free radicals and, therefore, avoid or reduce oxidative stress. Recently, proteins from milk whey liquid have been described as antioxidants. This review summarizes the evidence that whey products exhibit radical scavenging activity and reducing power. It examines the processing and treatment attempts to increase the antioxidant bioactivity and identifies 1 enzyme, subtilisin, which consistently produces the most potent whey fractions. The review compares whey from different milk sources and puts whey proteins in the context of other known food antioxidants. However, for efficacy, the antioxidant activity of whey proteins must not only survive processing, but also upper gut transit and arrival in the bloodstream, if whey products are to promote antioxidant levels in target organs. Studies reveal that direct cell exposure to whey samples increases intracellular antioxidants such as glutathione. However, the physiological relevance of these in vitro assays is questionable, and evidence is conflicting from dietary intervention trials, with both rats and humans, that whey products can boost cellular antioxidant biomarkers. Copyright © 2018 American Dairy Science Association. Published by Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  14. Evaluation of antioxidant and probable radioprotecting activity of Triphala

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Naik, G.H.; Priyadarsini, K.I.; Hari Mohan; Ganga Bhagirathi, R.

    2004-01-01

    Ayurvedic formulation Triphala was found to be effective in inhibiting γ-radiation induced damage in microsomal lipids and plasmid pBR322 DNA. The fast reaction kinetic tools like pulse radiolysis and stopped flow technique were used to asses its antioxidant activities and antioxidant equivalents. The reductive power, chelating potency and the ability to scavenge free radicals contributes to its antioxidant activity. The phytochemical analysis showed triphala contains high levels of tannins. Based on these studies it is proposed that triphala can act as a good radio protector. (author)

  15. Precipitation scavenging of tritiated water vapour (HTO)

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Ogram, G.L.

    1985-10-01

    Precipitation scavenging (or washout) is an important mechanism for the removal of HTO from the atmosphere. Methods of parameterizing the depletion of a plume of HTO released to the atmosphere are examined. Simple approaches, commonly used for atmospheric transport modelling purposes, such as the use of a constant washout coefficient or washout ratio, or the use of parameters based on equilibrium assumptions, are often not justified. It is shown that these parameters depend strongly on ambient temperature and plume dimensions, as well as rainfall rate. An approximate expression for washout ratio, as a function of these variables, is developed, and it is shown that near equilibrium washout conditions are only expected to hold at long plume travel distances. A possible method of treating scavenging by snow is also suggested

  16. Mobile vapor recovery and vapor scavenging unit

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Stokes, C.A.; Steppe, D.E.

    1991-01-01

    This patent describes a mobile anti- pollution apparatus, for the recovery of hydrocarbon emissions. It comprises a mobile platform upon which is mounted a vapor recovery unit for recovering vapors including light hydrocarbons, the vapor recovery unit having an inlet and an outlet end, the inlet end adapted for coupling to an external source of hydrocarbon vapor emissions to recover a portion of the vapors including light hydrocarbons emitted therefrom, and the outlet end adapted for connection to a means for conveying unrecovered vapors to a vapor scavenging unit, the vapor scavenging unit comprising an internal combustion engine adapted for utilizing light hydrocarbon in the unrecovered vapors exiting from the vapor recovery unit as supplemental fuel

  17. Effect of drying techniques on the retention of antioxidant activities of Saskatoon berries

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Pranabendu Mitra

    2013-10-01

    Full Text Available The main objective of this research was to compare the retention of antioxidant activity and total anthocyanin content of Saskatoon berries dried by freeze drying, microwave-vacuum drying, thin layer hot air drying and vacuum drying. Antioxidant activity of berry samples was determined by DPPH radical scavenging and ABTS radical scavenging, and the pH differential method was used to determine total anthocyanin content of the berry samples. The results showed that the freeze dried Saskatoon berries exhibited the highest retention of anthocyanin and antioxidant activity among the dried samples, followed by microwave-vacuum dried berries, thin layer hot air dried berries and vacuum dried berries. There were significant differences between the berry samples at P<0.05.  DPPH radical scavenging and ABTS radical scavenging were correlated linearly with an R2 value of 0.99 at P<0.05 showing their effectiveness for the determination of the antioxidant activity of the Saskatoon berries. However, the DPPH radical scavenging assay was more effective than the ABTS radical scavenging assay. The results also showed that antioxidant activity of the berries was highly correlated with the total anthocyanin content of the fruit. The reduction of anthocyanin in dried berry samples was linearly correlated with the reduction of DPPH radical scavenging with an R2 value of 0.97 at P<0.05 and, also, linearly correlated with the reduction of ABTS radical scavenging with an R2 value of 0.88 at P<0.05.

  18. Antioxidant Constituents of Cotoneaster melanocarpus Lodd.

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    Adelheid H. Brantner

    2013-10-01

    Full Text Available The aim of this study was the evaluation of the antioxidant capacity of Cotoneaster melanocarpus Lodd. and the identification of antioxidant active constituents of this plant. C. melanocarpus Lodd. is a shrub indigenous to Mongolia and used in Traditional Mongolian Medicine as a styptic. Before extraction, the plant material was separated into three parts: young sterile shoots, older stems and leaves. All these parts were extracted with water, methanol, ethyl acetate, dichloromethane and hexane, successively. The methanolic extract of the sterile shoots showed the highest antioxidant activity in the DPPH (2,2-diphenyl-1-picrylhydrazyl radical scavenging assay (IC50 30.91 ± 2.97 µg/mL. This active extract was further analyzed with chromatographic methods. TLC fingerprinting and HPLC indicated the presence of the flavonol glycosides quercetin-3-O-rutinoside (rutin, quercetin-3-O-galactoside (hyperoside and quercetin-3-O-glucoside (isoquercetin, ursolic acid as well as chlorogenic acid, neochlorogenic acid and cryptochlorogenic acid. The findings were substantiated with LC-MS. All identified compounds have antioxidant properties and therefore contribute to the radical scavenging activity of the whole plant.

  19. Scavenger Receptors and Resistance to Inhaled Allergens

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-02-01

    throughput manner which will enable future studies. We plan to continue two especially interesting aspects of these studies. First, the epigenetic control...directs mod- ified proteins to antigen presentation. Eur. J. Immunol. 29: 512–521. 30. Granucci, F., F. Petralia, M. Urbano , S. Citterio, F. Di Tota, L...11 Suppl:S32-6. 50. Granucci F, Petralia F, Urbano M, Citterio S, Di Tota F, Santambrogio L, Ricciardi-Castagnoli P: The scavenger receptor MARCO

  20. Antioxidant properties of Helichrysum pseudoplicatum Nab

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Mohammad Ali Ebrahimzadeh

    2015-01-01

    Full Text Available The genus Helichrysum (Asteraceae is comprised of approximately 500-600 species and used for the treatment of a variety of pathological conditions in folk medicine in many countries. In this study, antioxidant activities of aerial parts of H. pseudoplicatum were investigated employing various in vitro assay systems, i.e. 2,2-diphenyl-1-picrylhydrazyl (DPPH  and nitric oxide radical scavenging, reducing power and hydrogen peroxide scavenging. IC50 for DPPH radical-scavenging activity was 438.9 ± 15.6 µg/ml. The extract exhibited good reducing power at 25 - 400 µg/ml but was not comparable with that of vitamin C. The extract showed good nitric oxide-scavenging activity. IC50 was 474.3 ± 11.8 µg/ml. It was capable of scavenging hydrogen peroxide in a concentration dependent manner. It showed good activity. Its IC50 was 159.8 ± 8.2 µg/ml. The IC50 values for ascorbic acid and BHA were 21.4 and 52.0 µg/ml, respectively. The total amount of phenolic compounds in the extract was determined as gallic acid equivalents (22.7 ± 3.1 mg/g of extract and total flavonoid contents were calculated as quercetin equivalents (9.6 ± 1.3 mg/g of extract from a calibration curve. This plant contained low amount of total flavonoids and phenolic compounds. Its moderate antioxidant activities may be attributed to its low levels of phenols and flavonoids.

  1. Curcuma longa polyphenols improve insulin-mediated lipid accumulation and attenuate proinflammatory response of 3T3-L1 adipose cells during oxidative stress through regulation of key adipokines and antioxidant enzymes.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Septembre-Malaterre, Axelle; Le Sage, Fanny; Hatia, Sarah; Catan, Aurélie; Janci, Laurent; Gonthier, Marie-Paule

    2016-07-08

    Plant polyphenols may exert beneficial action against obesity-related oxidative stress and inflammation which promote insulin resistance. This study evaluated the effect of polyphenols extracted from French Curcuma longa on 3T3-L1 adipose cells exposed to H2 O2 -mediated oxidative stress. We found that Curcuma longa extract exhibited high amounts of curcuminoids identified as curcumin, demethoxycurcumin, and bisdemethoxycurcumin, which exerted free radical-scavenging activities. Curcuma longa polyphenols improved insulin-mediated lipid accumulation and upregulated peroxisome proliferator-activated receptor-gamma gene expression and adiponectin secretion which decreased in H2 O2 -treated cells. Curcuminoids attenuated H2 O2 -enhanced production of pro-inflammatory molecules such as interleukin-6, tumor necrosis factor-alpha, monocyte chemoattractant protein-1, and nuclear factor κappa B. Moreover, they reduced intracellular levels of reactive oxygen species elevated by H2 O2 and modulated the expression of genes encoding superoxide dismutase and catalase antioxidant enzymes. Collectively, these findings highlight that Curcuma longa polyphenols protect adipose cells against oxidative stress and may improve obesity-related metabolic disorders. © 2016 BioFactors, 42(4):418-430, 2016. © 2016 International Union of Biochemistry and Molecular Biology.

  2. Energy scavenging sources for biomedical sensors

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Romero, E; Warrington, R O; Neuman, M R

    2009-01-01

    Energy scavenging has increasingly become an interesting option for powering electronic devices because of the almost infinite lifetime and the non-dependence on fuels for energy generation. Moreover, the rise of wireless technologies promises new applications in medical monitoring systems, but these still face limitations due to battery lifetime and size. A trade-off of these two factors has typically governed the size, useful life and capabilities of an autonomous system. Energy generation from sources such as motion, light and temperature gradients has been established as commercially viable alternatives to batteries for human-powered flashlights, solar calculators, radio receivers and thermal-powered wristwatches, among others. Research on energy harvesting from human activities has also addressed the feasibility of powering wearable or implantable systems. Biomedical sensors can take advantage of human-based activities as the energy source for energy scavengers. This review describes the state of the art of energy scavenging technologies for powering sensors and instrumentation of physiological variables. After a short description of the human power and the energy generation limits, the different transduction mechanisms, recent developments and challenges faced are reviewed and discussed. (topical review)

  3. Ascorbic acid as a free radical scavenger in porcine and bovine aqueous humour.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Erb, Carl; Nau-Staudt, Kerstin; Flammer, Josef; Nau, Werner

    2004-01-01

    To study the antioxidant activity, UV absorption, concentration and stability of ascorbic acid (AA) in porcine and bovine aqueous humour (AH). Porcine and bovine AH was taken within 5 min after death and frozen at -70 degrees C. The characteristic UV absorption band of AA and the concentration of AA in AH was determined by UV spectrophotometry. The antioxidant activity of AA to serve as a free radical scavenger in AH has been determined by using a novel fluorescent probe for antioxidants, the azoalkane 2,3-diazabicyclo[2.2.2]oct-2-ene (DBO). The fluorescence lifetime and intensity of this probe reflect the concentration of dissolved antioxidants. The time-resolved fluorescence of DBO (laser excitation at 351 nm) in AH and in a neutral phosphate-buffered saline (PBS) solution containing only the natural amount of AA as an additive were measured. The characteristic UV absorption band of AA has its maximum at 266 nm in AH. The concentration of AA in porcine and bovine AH was found to be 0.547 +/- 0.044 and 1.09 +/- 0.16 mM, respectively, by spectrophotometry. The fluorescence lifetime of the probe DBO was reduced from 320 +/- 5 ns in pure aerated PBS to 205 +/- 5 ns in porcine AH and 165 +/- 3 ns in bovine AH. A detailed kinetic analysis of the lifetime shortening suggests that AA contributes approximately 75 and 85% to the antioxidant activity of porcine and bovine AH, respectively. Our experiments suggest that AA is the major contributor to the antioxidant activity of porcine and bovine AH. The role of AA to serve as an antioxidant in AH is discussed. In addition, UV spectrophotometry is established as an alternative method to determine the concentration of AA in AH. Copyright 2004 S. Karger AG, Basel

  4. Identification of an antioxidant small-molecule with broad-spectrum antiviral activity.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Panchal, Rekha G; Reid, St Patrick; Tran, Julie P; Bergeron, Alison A; Wells, Jay; Kota, Krishna P; Aman, Javad; Bavari, Sina

    2012-01-01

    The highly lethal filoviruses, Ebola and Marburg cause severe hemorrhagic fever in humans and non-human primates. To date there are no licensed vaccines or therapeutics to counter these infections. Identifying novel pathways and host targets that play an essential role during infection will provide potential targets to develop therapeutics. Small molecule chemical screening for Ebola virus inhibitors resulted in identification of a compound NSC 62914. The compound was found to exhibit anti-filovirus activity in cell-based assays and in vivo protected mice following challenge with Ebola or Marburg viruses. Additionally, the compound was found to inhibit Rift Valley fever virus, Lassa virus and Venezuelan equine encephalitis virus in cell-based assays. Investigation of the mechanism of action of the compound revealed that it had antioxidant properties. Specifically, compound NSC 62914 was found to act as a scavenger of reactive oxygen species, and to up-regulate oxidative stress-induced genes. However, four known antioxidant compounds failed to inhibit filovirus infection, thus suggesting that the mechanistic basis of the antiviral function of the antioxidant NSC 62914 may involve modulation of multiple signaling pathways/targets. Published by Elsevier B.V.

  5. AAPH-mediated antioxidant reactions of secoisolariciresinol and SDG.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hosseinian, Farah S; Muir, Alister D; Westcott, Neil D; Krol, Ed S

    2007-02-21

    Secoisolariciresinol (SECO ) is the major lignan found in flaxseed (Linum usitatissimum L.) and is present in a polymer that contains secoisolariciresinol diglucoside (SDG ). SECO, SDG and the polymer are known to have a number of health benefits, including reduction of serum cholesterol levels, delay in the onset of type II diabetes and decreased formation of breast, prostate and colon cancers. The health benefits of SECO and SDG may be partially attributed to their antioxidant properties. To better understand their antioxidant properties, SECO and SDG were oxidized using 2,2'-azobis(2-amidinopropane), an in vitro model of radical scavenging. The major lignan radical-scavenging oxidation products and their formation over time were determined. SDG was converted to four major products, which were the result of a phenoxyl radical intermediate. One of these products, a dimer of SDG, decomposed under the reaction conditions to form two of the other major products, and . SECO was converted to five major products, two of which were also the result of a phenoxyl radical intermediate. The remaining products were the result of an unexpected alkoxyl radical intermediate. The phenol oxidation products were stable under the reaction conditions, whereas two of the alcohol oxidation products decomposed. In general, only one phenol group on the lignans was oxidized, suggesting that the number of phenols per molecule may not predict radical scavenging antioxidant ability of lignans. Finally, SECO is a superior antioxidant to SDG, and it may be that the additional alcohol oxidation pathway contributes to its greater antioxidant ability.

  6. Novel hydrazones – antioxidant potential and stabilization via polysaccharide particles

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Hristova-Avakumova, N; Hadjimitova, V; Nikolova-Mladenova, B; Yoncheva, K

    2017-01-01

    In this study, we aimed to: i) determine the impact of three new isonicotinoyl hydrazones derivatives in in vitro systems used to investigate free radical processes - radical scavenging approach (ABTS and DPPH) and iron induced peroxidation in lipid containing model systems and ii) evaluate the potential of polysaccharide-based particles to act as protective carriers preserving the antioxidant activity (AOA) of the tested compounds. The tested compounds revealed excellent antioxidant effectiveness in the ABTS system. In the DPPH radical scavenging assay the compounds exhibited very weak or absence of AOA. The data from the iron induced peroxidation methods disclosed better antioxidant properties of the derivatives in the system containing egg yolk homogenate which is more plausible compared to the lecithin containing one. The incorporation of a bromine atom on 5 th position in salicylaldehyde moiety is associated with diminishment of the radical scavenging activity in the systems containing stable free radicals but its AOA reduction after encapsulation during the storage was only 9.17%. The obtained data indicate that compounds have proven themselves as promising candidates for further evaluation as antioxidant agents. Their encapsulation in chitosan-alginate particles could be a useful approach for improving the stability of their antioxidant properties. (paper)

  7. Evaluation of nutritional quality and antioxidant potential of pigeonpea genotypes.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sekhon, Japjot; Grewal, Satvir Kaur; Singh, Inderjit; Kaur, Jagmeet

    2017-10-01

    Three released cultivars, forty four advance breeding lines and three wild species of pigeonpea ( Cajanus cajan L. Millsp) were evaluated for nutritional, antinutritional traits and antioxidant potential so as to identify promising genotypes. The average content of total soluble sugars, starch and total soluble proteins was found to be 43.66, 360.51 and 204.54 mg/g, respectively. Antioxidant potential in terms of free radical scavenging activity (DPPH), ferric reducing antioxidant power (FRAP), reducing power, hydroxyl radical scavenging activity and superoxide anion radical scavenging activity was estimated. The diversity was observed in genotypes with all the traits. AL 1960, AL 2000, AL 2009 and AL 2046 had high total soluble proteins, medium antinutritional factors and good antioxidant potential. AL 201, AL 1931, AL 1932, AL 1960, AL 2046, AL 2049 and AL 2060 had good nutritional value as protein and starch content ranged from 20 to 23 and 42 to 52%, respectively. Wild species C. scarabaeoides 1CP15683/W15 had lower carbohydrates, proteins, and antinutritional traits while high antioxidant potential due to high total phenols, DPPH, FRAP and reducing power. The diversity observed in genotypes with all the traits could be further used to develop nutritionally important genotypes.

  8. Effect of ultrafine grinding on physicochemical and antioxidant properties of dietary fiber from wine grape pomace.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zhu, Feng-Mei; Du, Bin; Li, Jun

    2014-01-01

    Wine grape pomace dietary fiber powders were prepared by superfine grinding, whose effects were investigated on the composition, functional and antioxidant properties of the wine grape pomace dietary fiber products. The results showed that superfine grinding could effectively pulverize the fiber particles to submicron scale. As particle size decrease, the functional properties (water-holding capacity, water-retention capacity, swelling capacity, oil-binding capacity, and nitrite ion absorption capacity) of wine grape pomace dietary fiber were significantly (p fiber components from insoluble to soluble fractions was observed. The antioxidant activities of wine grape pomace and dietary fiber before and after grinding were in terms of DPPH radical scavenging activity, ABTS diammonium salt radical scavenging activity, ferric reducing antioxidant power, and total phenolic content. Compared with dietary fiber before and after grinding, micronized insoluble dietary fiber showed increased ABTS radical scavenging activity, ferric reducing antioxidant power, and total phenolic content yet decreased DPPH radical scavenging activity. Positive correlations were detected between ABTS radical scavenging activity, ferric reducing antioxidant power, and total phenolic content.

  9. Total peroxynitrite scavenging capacity of phenylethanoid and flavonoid glycosides from the flowers of Buddleja officinalis.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tai, Bui Huu; Jung, Bong Yong; Cuong, Nguyen Manh; Linh, Pham Thuy; Tung, Nguyen Huu; Nhiem, Nguyen Xuan; Huong, Tran Thu; Anh, Ngo Thi; Kim, Jeong Ah; Kim, Sang Kyum; Kim, Young Ho

    2009-12-01

    Nine compounds, including six phenylethanoid glycosides: acteoside (1); bioside (2); echinacoside (3); poliumoside (4); phenylethyl glycoside (5); salidroside (6) and three flavonoids; linarin (7); apigenin (8); isorhoifolin (9), were isolated from the flowers of Buddleja officinalis MAXIM. (Buddlejaceae). Chemical structures were confirmed by (1)H-, and (13)C-NMR, and MS spectral methods and compared with those reported in the literature. Antioxidant activities of the methanol and water extracts, and all isolated compounds were evaluated using the total oxidant scavenging capacity (TOSC) assay against peroxynitrite. Results of the assay showed that the phenylethanoid glycosides, a major class of compounds of the flowers of B. officinalis, possess strong antioxidant activity. Of these, acteoside, echinacoside and poliumoside have 9.9-, 9.8- and 9.5-fold TOSC value, respectively, compared with the positive control, Trolox.

  10. Radical scavenging behavior of eriodictyol and fustin flavonoid compounds - A DFT study

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sadasivam, K.; Praveena, R.; Anbakzhakan, K.

    2018-05-01

    The density functional theory (DFT) protocol together with B3LYP/6-311G(d,p) level of theory has been utilized to explore and compare the structural features and molecular characteristics of two naturally occurring flavonoid compounds eriodictyol and fustin. The -OH bond dissociation energy (BDE) for all the radical species have been computed and interpreted in accordance with the radical scavenging activity. The ionization potential (IP) value of fustin flavonoid compound was found to be within the range of synthetic food additives. The polar nature and their capacity to polarise other atoms are established through the dipole moment analysis. Additionally, various parameters that are relevant to chemical potential such as electron affinity, hardness, softness, electro negativity and electrophilic index were calculated and analysed in the light of quercetin flavonoid compound in view of their antioxidant activity. The antioxidant capability of fustin is found to be superior to eriodictyol flavonoid.

  11. Dissecting the integrative antioxidant and redox systems in plant mitochondria. Effect of stress and S-nitrosylation.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Juan José Lázaro

    2013-11-01

    Full Text Available Mitochondrial respiration provides the energy needed to drive metabolic and transport processes in cells. Mitochondria are a significant site of reactive oxygen species (ROS production in plant cells, and redox-system components obey fine regulation mechanisms that are essential in protecting the mitochondrial integrity. In addition to ROS, there are compelling indications that nitric oxide (NO. can be generated in this organelle by both reductive and oxidative pathways. ROS and reactive nitrogen species (RNS play a key role in signaling but they can also be deleterious via oxidation of macromolecules. The high production of ROS obligates mitochondria to be provided with a set of ROS scavenging mechanisms. The first line of mitochondrial antioxidants is composed of superoxide dismutase and the enzymes of the ascorbate-glutathione cycle, which are not only able to scavenge ROS but also to repair cell damage and possibly serve as redox sensors. The dithiol-disulfide exchanges form independent signaling nodes and act as antioxidant defense mechanisms as well as sensor proteins modulating redox signaling during development and stress adaptation. The presence of thioredoxin (Trx, peroxiredoxin (Prx and sulfiredoxin (Srx in the mitochondria has been recently reported. Cumulative results obtained from studies in salt stress models have demonstrated that these redox proteins play a significant role in the establishment of salt tolerance. The Trx/Prx/Srx system may be subjected to a fine regulated mechanism involving post-translational modifications, among which S-glutathionylation and S-nitrosylation seem to exhibit a critical role that is just beginning to be understood. This review summarizes our current knowledge in antioxidative systems in plant mitochondria, their interrelationships, mechanisms of compensation and some unresolved questions, with special focus on their response to abiotic stress.

  12. Evaluation of Garlic Cultivars for Polyphenolic Content and Antioxidant Properties

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cheng, Siqiong; Li, Panpan; Du, Junna; Chang, Yanxia; Meng, Huanwen

    2013-01-01

    Two phenolic compound parameters (total phenolic and flavonoid contents) and 5 antioxidant parameters (DPPH [2, 2-diphenyl-1-picrylhydrazyl] radical scavenging activity, HRSC (hydroxyl radical scavenging capacity), FRAP (ferric ion reducing antioxidant power), CUPRAC (cupric ion reducing antioxidant capacity), and MCA (metal chelating activity) were measured in bulbs and bolts of 43 garlic cultivars. The bulbs of cultivar ‘74-x’ had the highest phenolic content (total phenolic, flavonoids) and the strongest antioxidant capacity (DPPH, FRAP, and CUPRAC), followed by bulbs of cultivar ‘Hanzhong purple’; the bulbs of cultivar ‘Gailiang’ had the lowest phenolic content and antioxidant capacity (FRAP, CUPRAC, MCA). The bolts of ‘Hanzhong purple’ also had higher phenolic content. Principal components analysis (PCA) separated the cultivars into 3 groups according to phenolic and flavonoid contents and strength of antioxidant activity. The first group had higher HRSC, FRAP, and flavonoid content; the second group had higher total phenolic content and MCA; some cultivars in the third group had higher HRSC and FRAP. All 8 test garlic bulb extracts successfully prevented Human Vascular Endothelial Cell death and significantly prevented reactive-oxygen species (ROS) formation in oxidative stress model, in which cultivar ‘74-x’ had highest protection capability, following by cultivar ‘Hanzhong purple’, and the bulbs of cultivar ‘No. 105 from Korea’ had the lower protection capability against cell death and ROS formation. The protection capability in vivo of these garlic cultivars was consistent with their phenolic content and antioxidant capacity. PMID:24232741

  13. Antioxidant Potential of Selected Korean Edible Plant Extracts

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Yaejin Woo

    2017-01-01

    Full Text Available This study aimed to evaluate the antioxidant activity of various plant extracts. A total of 94 kinds of edible plant extracts obtained from the Korea Plant Extract Bank were screened for cytotoxicity, following which the total phenolic content of 24 shortlisted extracts was determined. Of these, extracts from three plants, namely, Castanea crenata (CC leaf, Camellia japonica (CJ fruit, and Viburnum dilatatum (VD leaf, were examined for antioxidant capabilities by measuring radical scavenging activity, ferric reducing/antioxidant power, and lipid peroxidation inhibitory activity. In addition, cellular antioxidant activities of the three extracts were assessed by a cell-based dichlorofluorescein assay and antioxidant response element (ARE reporter activity assay. The results demonstrated that all three extracts concentration-dependently scavenged free radicals, inhibited lipid peroxidation, reduced the cellular level of reactive oxygen species, and increased ARE-luciferase activity, indicating antioxidant enzyme-inducing potential. In particular, CJ extract showed significantly greater antioxidative activity and antimigratory effect in a breast cancer cell line compared to CC and VD extracts. Hence, CJ extract deserves further study for its in vivo functionality or biologically active constituents.

  14. Free Radicals Scavenging Activity of Essential Oils and Different Fractions of Methanol Extract of Zataria Multiflora, Salvia Officinalis, Rosmarinus Officinalis, Mentha Pulegium and Cinnamomum Zeylanicum

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    S Changizi Ashtiani

    2012-04-01

    Full Text Available Introduction: Essential oils and extracts from medicinal plants are regarded as natural food preservatives and health promoting drugs. Considering their antioxidant activity, most of them can prevent oxidative stress. The present study was aimed to evaluate free radicals scavenging activity of essential oils and different fractions of methanol extracts from cinnamon, pennyroyal, black cumin, sage, rosemary and azkand. Methods: Antioxidant property of essential oils and different fractions of these medicinal plants was studied by determining their DPPH(2,2-diphenyl-1-picrylhydrazyl free radicals scavenging activity. Results: There were significant differences among the free radical scavenging activity of studied essential oils and different fractions. Ethyl acetate fractions were identified as the most active fractions than other ones and even synthetic antioxidant (BHT, IC50 value of 239.5μg/ml with the highest activity in Mentha pulegium (47.2 μg/ml μg/ml. Among others, n-hexane fraction of rosemary (969 μg/ml, dichloromethane fraction of rosemary (205.46 μg/ml and zatar (344 μg/ml and aqueous fractions of cinnamon (117.6 μg/ml and sage (321.3 μg/ml exhibited appreciable antioxidant activity. Conclusion: Regarding considerable activity of studied extracts, they have the potential to be used as natural antioxidants in relevant industries.

  15. Scavenger Receptor Structure and Function in Health and Disease

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Izma Abdul Zani

    2015-05-01

    Full Text Available Scavenger receptors (SRs are a ‘superfamily’ of membrane-bound receptors that were initially thought to bind and internalize modified low-density lipoprotein (LDL, though it is currently known to bind to a variety of ligands including endogenous proteins and pathogens. New family of SRs and their properties have been identified in recent years, and have now been classified into 10 eukaryote families, defined as Classes A-J. These receptors are classified according to their sequences, although in each class they are further classified based in the variations of the sequence. Their ability to bind a range of ligands is reflected on the biological functions such as clearance of modified lipoproteins and pathogens. SR members regulate pathophysiological states including atherosclerosis, pathogen infections, immune surveillance, and cancer. Here, we review our current understanding of SR structure and function implicated in health and disease.

  16. Antioxidant capacity of Macaronesian traditional medicinal plants.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tavares, Lucélia; Carrilho, Dina; Tyagi, Meenu; Barata, David; Serra, Ana Teresa; Duarte, Catarina Maria Martins; Duarte, Rui Oliveira; Feliciano, Rodrigo Pedro; Bronze, Maria Rosário; Chicau, Paula; Espírito-Santo, Maria Dalila; Ferreira, Ricardo Boavida; dos Santos, Cláudia Nunes

    2010-04-12

    The use of many traditional medicinal plants is often hampered by the absence of a proper biochemical characterization, essential to identify the bioactive compounds present. The leaves from five species endemic to the Macaronesian islands with recognized ethnobotanical applications were analysed: Apollonias barbujana (Cav.) Bornm., Ocotea foetens (Ainton) Baill, Prunus azorica (Mouill.) Rivas-Mart., Lousã, Fern. Prieto, E. Días, J.C. Costa & C. Aguiar, Rumex maderensis Lowe and Plantago arborescens Poir. subsp. maderensis (Dcne.) A. Hans. et Kunk.. Since oxidative stress is a common feature of most diseases traditionally treated by these plants, it is important to assess their antioxidant capacity and determine the molecules responsible for this capacity. In this study, the antioxidant capacity of these plants against two of the most important reactive species in human body (hydroxyl and peroxyl radicals) was determined. To trace the antioxidant origin total phenol and flavonoid contents as well as the polyphenolic profile and the amount of trace elements were determined. There was a wide variation among the species analysed in what concerns their total leaf phenol and flavonoid contents. From the High Performance Liquid Chromatography (HPLC) electrochemically detected peaks it was possible to attribute to flavonoids the antioxidant capacity detected in A. barbujana, O. foetens, R. maderensis and P. azorica extracts. These potential reactive flavonoids were identified for A. barbujana, R. maderensis and P. azorica. For R. maderensis a high content (7 mg g-1 dry weight) of L-ascorbic acid, an already described antioxidant phytomolecule, was found. A high content in selenomethionine (414.35 microg g-1 dry weight) was obtained for P. arborescens subsp. maderensis extract. This selenocompound is already described as a hydroxyl radical scavenger is reported in this work as also possessing peroxyl radical scavenging capacity. This work is a good illustration of

  17. Changes in the amino acid profiles and free radical scavenging activities of Tenebrio molitor larvae following enzymatic hydrolysis.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tang, Yujiao; Debnath, Trishna; Choi, Eun-Ju; Kim, Young Wook; Ryu, Jung Pyo; Jang, Sejin; Chung, Sang Uk; Choi, Young-Jin; Kim, Eun-Kyung

    2018-01-01

    Tenebrio molitor (T. molitor) larvae provide food at low environmental cost and contribute positively to livelihoods. In this research, we compared the amino acids compositions and antioxidant activities of various extracts of T. molitor to enhance their quality as food. For the comparison, distilled water extracts, enzymatic hydrolysates, and condensed enzymatic hydrolysates of T. molitor larvae were prepared. Their amino acids (AAs) profiles and antioxidant activities, including ferric-reducing antioxidant power, oxygen radical absorption capacity, and DPPH, hydroxyl radical, and hydrogen peroxide radical scavenging properties assay were analyzed. DW extracts had the lowest AAs contents and antioxidant activity compared with enzymatic extracts. Condensed hydrolysates with a combination of alcalase and flavourzyme (C-A+F) exhibited the highest levels of total free AAs (11.1759 g/100 g). C-A+F produced higher total hydrolyzed AAs (32.5292 g/100 g) compared with the other groups. The C-A+F possessed the strongest antioxidant activity. Notably, the antioxidant activities of the hydrolysates and the total hydrolyzed AAs amount were correlated. Taken together, our findings showed that C-A+F was a promising technique for obtaining extracts of T. molitor larvae with antioxidant activity as potential nutritious functional food.

  18. Cultivated Sea Lettuce is a Multiorgan Protector from Oxidative and Inflammatory Stress by Enhancing the Endogenous Antioxidant Defense System

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ratnayake, Ranjala; Liu, Yanxia; Paul, Valerie J.; Luesch, Hendrik

    2013-01-01

    The health-promoting effects of seaweeds have been linked to antioxidant activity that may counteract cancer-causing oxidative stress-induced damage and inflammation. While antioxidant activity is commonly associated with direct radical scavenging activity, an alternative way to increase the antioxidant status of a cell is to enhance the endogenous (phase II) defense system consisting of cytoprotective antioxidant enzymes, including NAD(P)H:quinone oxidoreductase 1 (NQO1). These enzymes are transcriptionally regulated by the antioxidant response element (ARE) via the transcription factor Nrf2. Extracts derived from cultivated Ulva sp., a green alga regarded as a marine vegetable (sea lettuce), potently activated the Nrf2-ARE pathway in IMR-32 neuroblastoma and LNCaP prostate cancer cells. RNA interference studies demonstrated that Nrf2 and PI3 kinase are essential for the phase II response in IMR-32 cells. Activity-enriched fractions induced Nrf2 nuclear translocation and target gene transcription, and boosted the cellular glutathione level and therefore antioxidant status. A single-dose gavage feeding of Ulva-derived fractions increased Nqo1 transcript levels in various organs. Nqo1 induction spiked in different tissues, depending on the specific chemical composition of each administered fraction. We purified and characterized four ARE inducers in this extract, including loliolide (1), isololiolide (2), a megastigmen (3), and a novel chlorinated unsaturated aldehyde (4). The ARE-active fractions attenuated lipopolysaccharide-induced iNOS and Cox2 gene expression in macrophagic RAW264.7 cells, decreasing nitric oxide (NO) and prostaglandin E2 (PGE2) production, respectively. Nqo1 activity and NO production were abrogated in nrf2−/− mouse embryonic fibroblasts, providing a direct link between the induction of phase II response and anti-inflammatory activity. PMID:24005795

  19. Effect of concentration temperature on some bioactive compounds and antioxidant proprieties of date syrup.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Abbès, Fatma; Besbes, Souhail; Brahim, Bchir; Kchaou, Wissal; Attia, Hamadi; Blecker, Christophe

    2013-08-01

    The effect of the concentration temperature on the antioxidant activity, carotenoid and phenolic compounds of date syrup was investigated. Date juice was concentrated at 100  and at "60  in vacuum". After concentration, total phenolic, tannin, non-tannin, flavonoid and carotenoid content were determined spectrophotometrically and high-performance liquid chromatography was used for determination of 5-Hydroxymethyl-2-furfuraldehyde content. The antioxidant activity of date syrup was evaluated by various antioxidant methods including total antioxidant, 2,2-diphenyl-1-picrylhydrazyl free radical scavenging test, ferric reducing antioxidant power and β-carotene bleaching. All date syrups showed strong antioxidant activity accompanied by high total phenolic contents. Results showed that concentration at 100  significantly enhanced the antioxidant activities and total phenolic contents of date syrups compared to vacuum concentration at 60 . A good correlation between the antioxidant activity and total phenolic content and flavonoid was observed.

  20. Spirogyra varians mutant generated by high dose gamma-irradiation shows increased antioxidant properties

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Lee, Hak-Jyung; Yoon, Minchul; Sung, Nak-Yun; Choi, Jong-il

    2012-01-01

    The aim of this study was to evaluate the antioxidant properties of a Spirogyra varians mutant (Mut) produced by gamma irradiation. Methanol extracts were prepared from Spirogyra varians wild-type and Mut plants, and their antioxidant activities and total phenolic content (TPC) were determined. Antioxidant parameters, including the 2-diphenyl-1-picrylhydrazyl radical-scavenging activity and ferric-reducing/antioxidant power, were higher in the Mut extract. Moreover, the TPC level was higher (P<0.05) in the Mut methanol extract. Therefore, these results suggest that gamma irradiation-induced S. varians Mut has superior antioxidant properties. - Highlights: ► The antioxidative properties of a Spirogyra varians mutant produced by gamma-irradiation was investiated. ► The antioxidant activities and total phenolic content levels were higher in mutant strain. ► These results suggest that gamma-irradiation induced algae mutant with superior antioxidant properties.

  1. Spermidine-mediated hydrogen peroxide signaling enhances the antioxidant capacity of salt-stressed cucumber roots.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wu, Jianqiang; Shu, Sheng; Li, Chengcheng; Sun, Jin; Guo, Shirong

    2018-07-01

    Hydrogen peroxide (H 2 O 2 ) is a key signaling molecule that mediates a variety of physiological processes and defense responses against abiotic stress in higher plants. In this study, our aims are to clarify the role of H 2 O 2 accumulation induced by the exogenous application of spermidine (Spd) to cucumber (Cucumis sativus) seedlings in regulating the antioxidant capacity of roots under salt stress. The results showed that Spd caused a significant increase in endogenous polyamines and H 2 O 2 levels, and peaked at 2 h after salt stress. Spd-induced H 2 O 2 accumulation was blocked under salt stress by pretreatment with a H 2 O 2 scavenger and respective inhibitors of cell wall peroxidase (CWPOD; EC: 1.11.1.7), polyamine oxidase (PAO; EC: 1.5.3.11) and NADPH oxidase (NOX; EC: 1.6.3.1); among these three inhibitors, the largest decrease was found in response to the addition of the inhibitor of polyamine oxidase. In addition, we observed that exogenous Spd could increase the activities of the enzymes superoxide dismutase (SOD; EC: 1.15.1.1), peroxidase (POD; EC: 1.11.1.7) and catalase (CAT; EC: 1.11.1.6) as well as the expression of their genes in salt-stressed roots, and the effects were inhibited by H 2 O 2 scavengers and polyamine oxidase inhibitors. These results suggested that, by regulating endogenous PAs-mediated H 2 O 2 signaling in roots, Spd could enhance antioxidant enzyme activities and reduce oxidative damage; the main source of H 2 O 2 was polyamine oxidation, which was associated with improved tolerance and root growth recovery of cucumber under salt stress. Copyright © 2018 Elsevier Masson SAS. All rights reserved.

  2. Investigation of Gelatin Polypeptides of Jellyfish (Rhopilema esculentum for Their Antioxidant Activity in vitro

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Yong-Liang Zhuang

    2010-01-01

    Full Text Available Jellyfish gelatin was hydrolyzed by different proteases to obtain antioxidative polypeptides. The gelatin hydrolysate obtained by progressive hydrolysis using trypsin and Properase E exhibited the highest hydrolysis degree and antioxidant activity. Three series of gelatin polypeptides (SCP1, SCP2 and SCP3 were obtained by ultrafiltrating the gelatin hydrolysate through molecular mass cut-off membranes of 10, 6 and 2 kDa, respectively. Amino acid composition analysis showed that SCP3 had the highest total hydrophobic amino acid content. The in vitro antioxidant tests demonstrated that SCP2 had the strongest hydroxyl radical and hydrogen peroxide scavenging activities and metal chelating ability, while SCP3 showed the highest reducing power, antioxidant activity in linoleic acid emulsion system and superoxide anion radical scavenging activity. The results support the feasibility of jellyfish gelatin as a natural antioxidant polypeptide provider, and enzymatic hydrolysis and ultrafiltration could be potent future processing technologies to utilize the abundant jellyfish resource.

  3. Response of selected antioxidants and pigments in tissues of Rosa hybrida and Fuchsia hybrida to supplemental UV-A exposure

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Helsper, J.P.F.G.; Vos, de C.H.; Maas, F.M.; Jonker, H.H.; Broeck, van den H.C.; Jordi, W.; Pot, C.S.; Keizer, L.C.P.; Schapendonk, A.H.C.M.

    2003-01-01

    The effect of supplemental UV-A (320-400 nm) radiation on tissue absorption at 355 nm, levels of various antioxidants (ascorbate, glutathione, carotenoids and flavonoids) and of antioxidant scavenging capacity were investigated with leaves and petals of Rosa hybrida, cv. Honesty and with leaves,

  4. Copper exposure induces toxicity to the antioxidant system via the destruction of Nrf2/ARE signaling and caspase-3-regulated DNA damage in fish muscle: Amelioration by myo-inositol

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Jiang, Wei-Dan; Liu, Yang; Jiang, Jun; Wu, Pei; Feng, Lin; Zhou, Xiao-Qiu

    2015-01-01

    time that Cu exposure caused oxidative damage to the muscle by decreasing the antioxidant enzyme activities via the down-regulation of the expression of genes related to the disruption of the Nrf2/ARE signaling, and this down-regulation was partially caused by caspase-3-regulated DNA fragmentation. Finally, MI protects fish against Cu toxicity

  5. Copper exposure induces toxicity to the antioxidant system via the destruction of Nrf2/ARE signaling and caspase-3-regulated DNA damage in fish muscle: Amelioration by myo-inositol

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Jiang, Wei-Dan; Liu, Yang [Animal Nutrition Institute, Sichuan Agricultural University, Chengdu 611130, Sichuan (China); Fish Nutrition and Safety Production University Key Laboratory of Sichuan Province, Sichuan Agricultural University, Chengdu 611130, Sichuan (China); Key Laboratory for Animal Disease-Resistance Nutrition of China Ministry of Education, Sichuan Agricultural University, Chengdu 611130, Sichuan (China); Jiang, Jun [Animal Nutrition Institute, Sichuan Agricultural University, Chengdu 611130, Sichuan (China); Wu, Pei [Animal Nutrition Institute, Sichuan Agricultural University, Chengdu 611130, Sichuan (China); Fish Nutrition and Safety Production University Key Laboratory of Sichuan Province, Sichuan Agricultural University, Chengdu 611130, Sichuan (China); Key Laboratory for Animal Disease-Resistance Nutrition of China Ministry of Education, Sichuan Agricultural University, Chengdu 611130, Sichuan (China); Feng, Lin, E-mail: fenglin@sicau.edu.cn [Animal Nutrition Institute, Sichuan Agricultural University, Chengdu 611130, Sichuan (China); Fish Nutrition and Safety Production University Key Laboratory of Sichuan Province, Sichuan Agricultural University, Chengdu 611130, Sichuan (China); Key Laboratory for Animal Disease-Resistance Nutrition of China Ministry of Education, Sichuan Agricultural University, Chengdu 611130, Sichuan (China); Zhou, Xiao-Qiu, E-mail: zhouxq@sicau.edu.cn [Animal Nutrition Institute, Sichuan Agricultural University, Chengdu 611130, Sichuan (China); Fish Nutrition and Safety Production University Key Laboratory of Sichuan Province, Sichuan Agricultural University, Chengdu 611130, Sichuan (China); Key Laboratory for Animal Disease-Resistance Nutrition of China Ministry of Education, Sichuan Agricultural University, Chengdu 611130, Sichuan (China)

    2015-02-15

    time that Cu exposure caused oxidative damage to the muscle by decreasing the antioxidant enzyme activities via the down-regulation of the expression of genes related to the disruption of the Nrf2/ARE signaling, and this down-regulation was partially caused by caspase-3-regulated DNA fragmentation. Finally, MI protects fish against Cu toxicity.

  6. Free Radical Scavenging Activity and Anthocyanin Profile of Cabernet Sauvignon Wines from the Balkan Region

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Blaga Radovanović

    2010-06-01

    Full Text Available The present study is focused on anthocyanin derivatives characterizing the antioxidant activity of Cabernet Sauvignon wines produced from different vineyard regions in the Balkans. These bioactive compounds were quantified with a high performance liquid chromatography (HPLC-diode array detection (DAD method. The antiradical activity was estimated by the ability of the wine to scavenge the stable 2,2`-diphenyl-1-picrylhydrazyl free radical (DPPH·. The results show that the total anthocyanin content varied from 205.88 to 1940.28 mg/L, depending on agroclimatic factors and the enological practices of the corresponding vineyard region. The most prominent antocyanin in all investigated Cabernet Sauvignon wines was malvidin-3-O-monoglucoside, which accounted for 50.57% of total content, followed by its acetyl derivatives, 15.45%, and p-coumaryl derivatives 5.66%. The relationship between the anthocyanin derivatives and free radical scavenging activity is discussed. A high correlation between total anthocyanin content and DPPH· scavenging ability of tested wines was confirmed (r2 = 0.9619. The significant correlations were obtained between antiradical activity and the sum of 3-monoglucoside (r2 = 0.95594, the sum of 3-acetyl-3-glucoside (r2 = 0.9728 and the sum of p-coumaryl-3-glucoside (r2 = 0.8873 of wine samples. It can be concluded that, the anthocyanin composition can be used as biochemical marker for the authenticity of red grape cultivar and their corresponding single-cultivar wine.

  7. Free radical scavenging activity of coenzyme Q measured by a chemiluminescent assay

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Battino, Maurizio; Ferri, Elida; Girotti, Stefano; Lenaz, Giorgio

    1991-01-01

    Involvement of coenzyme Q (CoQ) in anti-oxydant activities, in addition to its major redox role, has frequently been suggested in recent years. In order to elucidate if CoQ could really be engaged in scavenging free radicals produced endogenously in a biological system, an experimental system was developed in which beef heart mitochondria in the presence of a saturating NADH concentration and of rotenone produce free radicals. The presence of oxygen-reactive forms was easily detected by a luminol-dependent chemiluminescence process. The chemi-luminescence assay showed that short-chain CoQ homologues can act as pro-oxidants, enhancing free radical effects, while exogenous coenzyme Q 10 could scavenge free radicals, especially at very low concentration. In this system, exogenous CoQ 10 was more effective than α-tocopherol at the same concentration in scavenging free radicals. The molecular mechanism that leads to this activity is still unclear, but these results are of biochemical importance because they indicate that CoQ may act as an anti=oxidant in situations mimicking physiopathological conditions. This direct chemiluminescent method is promising for studies of biochemical processes which involve active oxygen species. (author). 24 refs.; 4 figs

  8. Radical Scavenging Capacity of Methanolic Phillyrea latifolia L. Extract: Anthocyanin and Phenolic Acids Composition of Fruits

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Naciye Erkan

    2013-01-01

    Full Text Available Radical scavenging capacity of a crude methanolic extract from the fruits of Phillyrea latifolia L., commonly known as green olive tree or mock privet, was investigated with reference to anthocyanin standards, as flavonoids, and phenolic acid standards, as phenylpropanoids. Characterization with high performance liquid chromatography-diode array detection (HPLC-DAD indicated the presence of keracyanin, kuromanin, cyanidin, ferulic acid, caffeic acid and rosmarinic acid at amounts of 289.1, 90.4, 191.4, 225.2, 221.2 and 190.1 mg/100 g fresh weight (FW of fruits, respectively. Chlorogenic and p-coumaric acids were found to exist in lower amounts. Trolox equivalent antioxidant capacity (TEAC and IC50 values of the plant extract were found to be 1.8 mM Trolox equivalents (TE/g FW of fruits and 69.4 µg/mL, respectively, indicating the close radical scavenging activity of the extract to those of keracyanin and p-coumaric acid. The crude methanolic P. latifolia L. fruit extract was seen to be fairly potent in radical scavenging. Total phenolic content (TPC of the plant extract was found to be 1652.9 mg gallic acid equivalent (GAE/100 g FW of fruits.

  9. Comparison of taurine, GABA, Glu, and Asp as scavengers of malondialdehyde in vitro and in vivo

    Science.gov (United States)

    Deng, Yan; Wang, Wei; Yu, Pingfeng; Xi, Zhijiang; Xu, Lijian; Li, Xiaolong; He, Nongyue

    2013-04-01

    The purpose of this study is to determine if amino acid neurotransmitters such as gamma-aminobutyric acid (GABA), taurine, glutamate (Glu), and aspartate (Asp) can scavenge activated carbonyl toxicants. In vitro, direct reaction between malondialdehyde (MDA) and amino acids was researched using different analytical methods. The results indicated that scavenging activated carbonyl function of taurine and GABA is very strong and that of Glu and Asp is very weak in pathophysiological situations. The results provided perspective into the reaction mechanism of taurine and GABA as targets of activated carbonyl such as MDA in protecting nerve terminals. In vivo, we studied the effect of taurine and GABA as antioxidants by detecting MDA concentration and superoxide dismutase (SOD) and glutathione peroxidase (GSH-Px) activities. It was shown that MDA concentration was decreased significantly, and the activities of SOD and GSH-Px were increased significantly in the cerebral cortex and hippocampus of acute epileptic state rats, after the administration of taurine and GABA. The results indicated that the peripherally administered taurine and GABA can scavenge free radicals and protect the tissue against activated carbonyl in vivo and in vitro.

  10. Extracts, Anthocyanins and Procyanidins from Aronia melanocarpa as Radical Scavengers and Enzyme Inhibitors

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Hilde Barsett

    2013-03-01

    Full Text Available Extracts, subfractions, isolated anthocyanins and isolated procyanidins B2, B5 and C1 from the berries and bark of Aronia melanocarpa were investigated for their antioxidant and enzyme inhibitory activities. Four different bioassays were used, namely scavenging of the diphenylpicrylhydrazyl (DPPH radical, inhibition of 15-lipoxygenase (15-LO, inhibition of xanthine oxidase (XO and inhibition of α-glucosidase. Among the anthocyanins, cyanidin 3-arabinoside possessed the strongest and cyanidin 3-xyloside the weakest radical scavenging and enzyme inhibitory activity. These effects seem to be influenced by the sugar units linked to the anthocyanidin. Subfractions enriched in procyanidins were found to be potent α-glucosidase inhibitors; they possessed high radical scavenging properties, strong inhibitory activity towards 15-LO and moderate inhibitory activity towards XO. Trimeric procyanidin C1 showed higher activity in the biological assays compared to the dimeric procyanidins B2 and B5. This study suggests that different polyphenolic compounds of A. melanocarpa can have beneficial effects in reducing blood glucose levels due to inhibition of α-glucosidase and may have a potential to alleviate oxidative stress.

  11. Antioxidative Activities of Both Oleic Acid and Camellia tenuifolia Seed Oil Are Regulated by the Transcription Factor DAF-16/FOXO in Caenorhabditis elegans.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Chia-Cheng Wei

    Full Text Available Tea seed oil is a high quality edible oil, yet lacking sufficient scientific evidences to support the nutritional and medical purposes. We identified major and minor components in Camellia tenuifolia seed oil and investigated the antioxidative activity and its underlying mechanisms in Caenorhabditis elegans.The results showed that the major constitutes in C. tenuifolia seed oil were unsaturated fatty acids (~78.4%. Moreover, two minor compounds, β-amyrin and β-sitosterol, were identified and their antioxidative activity was examined. We found that oleic acid was the major constitute in C. tenuifolia seed oil and plays a key role in the antioxidative activity of C. tenuifolia seed oil in C. elegans.This study found evidences that the transcription factor DAF-16/FOXO was involved in both oleic acid- and C. tenuifolia seed oil-mediated oxidative stress resistance in C. elegans. This study suggests the potential of C. tenuifolia seed oil as nutrient or functional foods.

  12. Radical-Scavenging Activity and Ferric Reducing Ability of Juniperus thurifera (L., J. oxycedrus (L., J. phoenicea (L. and Tetraclinis articulata (L.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Meryem El Jemli

    2016-01-01

    Full Text Available Objective. The aim of this work is to study and compare the antioxidant properties and phenolic contents of aqueous leaf extracts of Juniperus thurifera, Juniperus oxycedrus, Juniperus Phoenicea, and Tetraclinis articulata from Morocco. Methods. Antioxidant activities of the extracts were evaluated by 2,2-diphenyl-1-picrylhydrazyl (DPPH free radical-scavenging ability, Trolox equivalent antioxidant capacity (TEAC, and ferric reducing antioxidant power (FRAP assays. Also the total phenolic and flavonoids contents of the extracts were determined spectrophotometrically. Results. All the extracts showed interesting antioxidant activities compared to the standard antioxidants (butylated hydroxytoluene (BHT, quercetin, and Trolox. The aqueous extract of Juniperus oxycedrus showed the highest antioxidant activity as measured by DPPH, TEAC, and FRAP assays with IC50 values of 17.91±0.37 μg/mL, 19.80±0.55 μg/mL, and 24.23±0.07 μg/mL, respectively. The strong correlation observed between antioxidant capacities and their total phenolic contents indicated that phenolic compounds were a major contributor to antioxidant properties of these plants extracts. Conclusion. These results suggest that the aqueous extracts of Juniperus thurifera, Juniperus oxycedrus, Juniperus phoenicea, and Tetraclinis articulata can constitute a promising new source of natural compounds with antioxidants ability.

  13. Radical-Scavenging Activity and Ferric Reducing Ability of Juniperus thurifera (L.), J. oxycedrus (L.), J. phoenicea (L.) and Tetraclinis articulata (L.).

    Science.gov (United States)

    El Jemli, Meryem; Kamal, Rabie; Marmouzi, Ilias; Zerrouki, Asmae; Cherrah, Yahia; Alaoui, Katim

    2016-01-01

    Objective. The aim of this work is to study and compare the antioxidant properties and phenolic contents of aqueous leaf extracts of Juniperus thurifera, Juniperus oxycedrus, Juniperus Phoenicea, and Tetraclinis articulata from Morocco. Methods. Antioxidant activities of the extracts were evaluated by 2,2-diphenyl-1-picrylhydrazyl (DPPH) free radical-scavenging ability, Trolox equivalent antioxidant capacity (TEAC), and ferric reducing antioxidant power (FRAP) assays. Also the total phenolic and flavonoids contents of the extracts were determined spectrophotometrically. Results. All the extracts showed interesting antioxidant activities compared to the standard antioxidants (butylated hydroxytoluene (BHT), quercetin, and Trolox). The aqueous extract of Juniperus oxycedrus showed the highest antioxidant activity as measured by DPPH, TEAC, and FRAP assays with IC50 values of 17.91 ± 0.37 μg/mL, 19.80 ± 0.55 μg/mL, and 24.23 ± 0.07 μg/mL, respectively. The strong correlation observed between antioxidant capacities and their total phenolic contents indicated that phenolic compounds were a major contributor to antioxidant properties of these plants extracts. Conclusion. These results suggest that the aqueous extracts of Juniperus thurifera, Juniperus oxycedrus, Juniperus phoenicea, and Tetraclinis articulata can constitute a promising new source of natural compounds with antioxidants ability.

  14. Radical scavenging, prolyl endopeptidase inhibitory, and antimicrobial potential of a cultured Himalayan lichen Cetrelia olivetorum.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Savale, Swapnil Anil; Pol, Chaitrali Satish; Khare, Roshni; Verma, Neeraj; Gaikwad, Subhash; Mandal, Bapi; Behera, Bhaskar C

    2016-01-01

    Lichens are source of natural bioactive compounds which are traditionally used to cure a variety of ailments. The objective of this study is to assess free radical scavenging, prolyl endopeptidase inhibitory (PEPI), and antimicrobial potential of a high altitude lichen species Cetrelia olivetorum (Nyl.) W. L. Culb. & C. F. Culb (Parmeliaceae). Lichen C. olivetorum has been cultured in vitro, and optimized culture conditions were implemented in bioreactor to obtain high quantity of biomass for the study of radical scavenging, PEPI, and antimicrobial activities. Radical scavenging activity of methanol extract of Cetrelia olivetorum (MECO) was tested at 100 µg/mL, PEPI activity at 25 and 50 µg/mL, and antimicrobial activity at 5, 25, 50, and 100 µg/mL conc. All the biological activities of natural thallus extract and its derived culture extract were evaluated spectrophotometrically. Murashige and Skoog medium supplemented with 3% glucose and 100 ppb indole-3-butyric acid (IBA) supported biomass growth at flask level and yielded 5.095 g biomass in bioreactor. MECO of both the cultured and the natural lichen exhibited half inhibiting concentration (IC50) for radical scavenging activities in the range of 50-60 µg/mL, whereas the IC50 value of standard antioxidants was found to be in the range of 12-29 µg/mL. The IC50 value of lichen extract for PEPI activity was 144-288 µg/mL, whereas the IC50 value of standard prolyl endopeptidase inhibitor, Z-pro-prolinal, was 57.73 µg/mL. As far as the antimicrobial activity of MECO is concerned, minimum inhibitory concentration (MIC) value of lichen extracts against tested microorganisms was obtained in the range of 50-104 µg/mL and found to be more effective than commercially available standard erythromycin. Murashige and Skoog medium containing IBA was found to be suitable for maximum biomass production of C. olivetorum under bioreactor conditions. The cultured lichen biomass extract also showed

  15. Hydroxyl radical-scavenging property of secoisolariciresinol diglucoside (SDG) isolated from flax-seed.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Prasad, K

    1997-03-01

    Recently there has been a moderate resurgence in the use of flax-seed in a variety of ways including bread. The scientific basis of its use is very limited. There is some claim for beneficial effects in cancer and lupus nephritis. These claims could be due to its ability to scavenge oxygen radicals. However, its antioxidant activity is not known. Recently a method has been developed to isolate secoisolariciresinol diglucoside (SDG) from defatted flax-seed in large quantity (patent pending). We investigated the ability of SDG to scavenge .OH using high pressure liquid chromatography (HPLC) method. .OH was generated by photolysis of H2O2 (1.25-10.0 mumoles/ml) with ultraviolet light and was trapped with salicylic acid which is hydroxylated to produce .OH-adduct products 2,3-dihydroxybenzoic acid (DHBA) and 2,5-DHBA. H2O2 produced a concentration-dependent .OH as estimated by 2,3-DHBA and 2,5-DHBA. A standard curve was constructed for known concentrations of 2,3-DHBA and 2,5-DHBA against corresponding area under the peaks which then was used for measurement of 2,3-DHBA and 2,5-DHBA generated by UV irradiation of H2O2 in the presence of salicylic acid. SDG in the concentration range of 25, 50, 100, 250, 500, 750, 1000 and 2000 micrograms/ml (36.4, 72.8, 145.6, 364.0, 728.0, 1092.0, 1456.0 and 2912.0 microM respectively) produced a concentration-dependent decrease in the formation of 2,3-DHBA and 2,5-DHBA, the inhibition being 4 and 4.65% respectively with 25 micrograms/ml (36.4 microM) and 82 and 74% respectively with 2000 micrograms/ml (2912.0 microM). The decrease in .OH-adduct products was due to scavenging of .OH and not by scavenging of formed 2,3-DHBA and 2,5-DHBA. SDG prevented the lipid peroxidation of liver homogenate in a concentration-dependent manner in the concentration range from 319.3-2554.4 microM. These results suggest that SDG scavenges .OH and therefore has an antioxidant activity.

  16. Comparative study of copper(II)-curcumin complexes as superoxide dismutase mimics and free radical scavengers.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Barik, Atanu; Mishra, Beena; Kunwar, Amit; Kadam, Ramakant M; Shen, Liang; Dutta, Sabari; Padhye, Subhash; Satpati, Ashis K; Zhang, Hong-Yu; Indira Priyadarsini, K

    2007-04-01

    Two stoichiometrically different copper(II) complexes of curcumin (stoichiometry, 1:1 and 1:2 for copper:curcumin), were examined for their superoxide dismutase (SOD) activity, free radical-scavenging ability and antioxidant potential. Both the complexes are soluble in lipids and DMSO. The formation constants of the complexes were determined by voltammetry. EPR spectra of the complexes in DMSO at 77K showed that the 1:2 Cu(II)-curcumin complex is square planar and the 1:1 Cu(II)-curcumin complex is distorted orthorhombic. Cu(II)-curcumin complex (1:1) with larger distortion from square planar structure shows higher SOD activity. These complexes inhibit gamma-radiation induced lipid peroxidation in liposomes and react with DPPH acting as free radical scavengers. One-electron oxidation of the two complexes by radiolytically generated azide radicals in Tx-100 micellar solutions produced phenoxyl radicals, indicating that the phenolic moiety of curcumin in the complexes participates in free radical reactions. Depending on the structure, these two complexes possess different SOD activities, free radical neutralizing abilities and antioxidant potentials. In addition, quantum chemical calculations with density functional theory have been performed to support the experimental observations.

  17. Polyphenol contents and radical scavenging capacities of red maple (Acer rubrum L.) extracts.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Royer, Mariana; Diouf, Papa Niokhor; Stevanovic, Tatjana

    2011-09-01

    The crude ethanol and water extracts of different red maple (Acer rubrum L.) tissues: whole branches (WB), wood of branches (BW), bark of branches (BB), stem bark (SB) and whole twigs (T), were examined in order to determine their phenolic contents as well as their radical scavenging capacities. The total phenols (TP), total extractable tanins (TET) and non-precipitable phenols (NPP), were determined by combination of spectrophotometric and precipitation methods, while total flavonoids, hydroxy cinanmic acids and proanthocyanidins were determined spectrophotometrically. The radical scavenging activities of the extracts were determined against five reactive oxygen species (ROS): superoxide anion (O(2)(·-)), hydroxyl radical (HO(·)), peroxyl radical (ROO(·)), hypochlorite ion (ClO(-)), and hydrogen peroxide (H(2)O(2)) and one reactive nitrogen species (RNS): nitric oxide (NO). The extracts of stem bark were significantly more efficient (exhibiting the highest antioxidant efficiencies, AE) than the other studied extracts against all ROS (at p<0.05, Duncan statistical tests), except against NO. The correlation coefficients determined between total phenolic (TP) content and antiradical efficiencies were R(2)=0.12 for O(2)(·-); R(2)=0.29 for HO(·); R(2)=0.40 for H(2)O(2); R(2)=0.86 for ROO(·); R(2)=0.03 for NO(·) and R(2)=0.73 for ClO(-). Our results indicate potential utilisation of extracts as natural antioxidants. Copyright © 2011 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  18. Screening reactive oxygen species scavenging properties of platinum nanoparticles on a microfluidic chip.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zheng, Wenfu; Jiang, Bo; Hao, Yi; Zhao, Yuyun; Zhang, Wei; Jiang, Xingyu

    2014-09-12

    Hyperglycemia, hyperlipidemia and inflammation are key risk factors for atherosclerosis and can lead to overproduction of reactive oxygen species (ROS), which plays a critical role in vascular endothelial dysfunction and subsequent progress of atherosclerosis. However, there is currently a lack of effective drugs that deal with ROS. Platinum nanoparticles (Pt-NPs) have proven to be promising antioxidant drugs in vitro and in vivo. To optimize the efficacy of Pt-NP based drugs, we synthesized and characterized the ROS scavenging properties of three kinds of small molecules that capped Pt-NPs (Pt-AMP-NPs, Pt-ATT-NPs, Pt-MI-NPs) on a blood vessel-mimicking microfluidic chip. The Pt-NPs showed superior superoxide dismutase (SOD)-like functions and can scavenge ROS and recover compromised cell-cell junctions under hyperglycemic, hyperlipidemic and proinflammatory conditions. Amongst these NPs, Pt-AMP-NPs showed the most superior antioxidant properties, suggesting its potency to serve as a novel drug to treat vascular diseases such as atherosclerosis. Our microfluidic chip, providing physiological hemodynamic conditions for the experiments, is potentially a promising tool for a wide range of biological research on the vascular system.

  19. Selenium and Zinc content and radical scavenging capacity of edible mushrooms Armilaria mellea and Lycoperdon saccatum

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Z. Zeković

    2010-01-01

    Full Text Available Armillaria mellea and Lycoperdon saccatum are two delicious mushrooms growing widely trough all Balkan region. Investigation of A. mellea and L. saccatum antioxidant properties includes preparation of mushrooms extracts, determination of Selenium and Zinc content and evaluation of theirs antioxidant activity involving scavenging activity of ˙O2- radicals, DPPH and reducing power assay. Higher extraction yield of 24.48 % has been achieved for L. saccatum, but higher content of Selenium and Zinc was determined in A. mallea extract, 2.359 mg/kg and 50.380 mg/kg, respectively. The radical scavenging activity was found to exhibit 50 % of inhibition value (IC50 value at the extracts concentration of 0.0161±0.0001 mg/ml for the L. saccatum extract and 0.0108±0.0002 mg/ml for A. mallea extract. The determined relative inhibition of ˙O2- radicals for L. sacatum extract is lower than for A. malea. It was determined that both mushrooms extract posses’ reductive capabilities and thus were capable of reducing iron (III.

  20. Biomineralization-Inspired Synthesis of Cerium-Doped Carbonaceous Nanoparticles for Highly Hydroxyl Radical Scavenging Activity

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zou, Shenqiang; Zhu, Xiaofang; Zhang, Lirong; Guo, Fan; Zhang, Miaomiao; Tan, Youwen; Gong, Aihua; Fang, Zhengzou; Ju, Huixiang; Wu, Chaoyang; Du, Fengyi

    2018-03-01

    Cerium oxide nanoparticles recently have received extensive attention in biomedical applications due to their excellent anti-oxidation performance. In this study, a simple, mild, and green approach was developed to synthesize cerium-doped carbonaceous nanoparticles (Ce-doped CNPs) using bio-mineralization of bull serum albumin (BSA) as precursor. The resultant Ce-doped CNPs exhibited uniform and ultrasmall morphology with an average size of 14.7 nm. XPS and FTIR results revealed the presence of hydrophilic group on the surface of Ce-doped CNPs, which resulted in excellent dispersity in water. The CCK-8 assay demonstrated that Ce-doped CNPs possessed favorable biocompatibility and negligible cytotoxicity. Using H2O2-induced reactive oxygen species (ROS) as model, Ce-doped CNPs showed highly hydroxyl radical scavenging capability. Furthermore, flow cytometry and live-dead staining results indicated that Ce-doped CNPs protected cells from H2O2-induced damage in a dose-dependent effect, which provided a direct evidence for anti-oxidative performance. These findings suggest that Ce-doped CNPs as novel ROS scavengers may provide a potential therapeutic prospect in treating diseases associated with oxidative stress.