WorldWideScience

Sample records for scavenger receptor cd36

  1. Identification of the Oxidized Low-Density Lipoprotein Scavenger Receptor CD36 in Plasma

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Handberg, Aase; Levin, Klaus; Højlund, Kurt

    2006-01-01

    BACKGROUND: Macrophage CD36 scavenges oxidized low-density lipoprotein, leading to foam cell formation, and appears to be a key proatherogenic molecule. Increased expression of CD36 has been attributed to hyperglycemia and to defective macrophage insulin signaling in insulin resistance. Premature...... atherosclerosis is the major cause of morbidity and mortality in type 2 diabetes. Here, we report the identification of a soluble form of CD36 (sCD36) in plasma and hypothesize that sCD36 would be elevated in patients with type 2 diabetes and insulin resistance. METHODS AND RESULTS: sCD36 in plasma...... lean (5-fold) and obese (2- to 3-fold) control subjects. There was a strong, inverse correlation between sCD36 and insulin-stimulated glucose disposal and a direct correlation with fasting plasma glucose, fasting insulin, and body mass index. CONCLUSIONS: Our study demonstrates sCD36 in plasma...

  2. Protective or deleterious role of scavenger receptors SR-A and CD36 on host resistance to Staphylococcus aureus depends on the site of infection.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Charlène Blanchet

    Full Text Available Staphylococcus aureus is a major human opportunistic pathogen responsible for a broad spectrum of infections ranging from benign skin infection to more severe life threatening disorders (e.g. pneumonia, sepsis, particularly in intensive care patients. Scavenger receptors (SR-A and CD36 are known to be involved in S. aureus recognition by immune cells in addition to MARCO, TLR2, NOD2 and α5β1 integrin. In the present study, we further deciphered the contribution of SR-A and CD36 scavenger receptors in the control of infection of mice by S. aureus. Using double SR-A/CD36 knockout mice (S/C-KO and S. aureus strain HG001, a clinically relevant non-mutagenized strain, we showed that the absence of these two scavenger receptors was protective in peritoneal infection. In contrast, the deletion of these two receptors was detrimental in pulmonary infection following intranasal instillation. For pulmonary infection, susceptible mice (S/C-KO had more colony-forming units (CFU in their broncho-alveolar lavages fluids, associated with increased recruitment of macrophages and neutrophils. For peritoneal infection, susceptible mice (wild-type had more CFU in their blood, but recruited less macrophages and neutrophils in the peritoneal cavity than resistant mice. Exacerbated cytokine levels were often observed in the susceptible mice in the infected compartment as well as in the plasma. The exception was the enhanced compartmentalized expression of IL-1β for the resistant mice (S/C-KO after peritoneal infection. A similar mirrored susceptibility to S. aureus infection was also observed for MARCO and TLR2. Marco and tlr2 -/- mice were more resistant to peritoneal infection but more susceptible to pulmonary infection than wild type mice. In conclusion, our results show that innate immune receptors can play distinct and opposite roles depending on the site of infection. Their presence is protective for local pulmonary infection, whereas it becomes detrimental

  3. Scavenger Receptor Class B, Type I, a CD36 Related Protein in Macrobrachium nipponense: Characterization, RNA Interference, and Expression Analysis with Different Dietary Lipid Sources

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Zhili Ding

    2016-01-01

    Full Text Available The scavenger receptor class B, type I (SR-BI, is a member of the CD36 superfamily comprising transmembrane proteins involved in mammalian and fish lipid homeostasis regulation. We hypothesize that this receptor plays an important role in Macrobrachium nipponense lipid metabolism. However, little attention has been paid to SR-BI in commercial crustaceans. In the present study, we report a cDNA encoding M. nipponense scavenger receptor class B, type I (designated as MnSR-BI, obtained from a hepatopancreas cDNA library. The complete MnSR-BI coding sequence was 1545 bp, encoding 514 amino acid peptides. The MnSR-BI primary structure consisted of a CD36 domain that contained two transmembrane regions at the N- and C-terminals of the protein. SR-BI mRNA expression was specifically detected in muscle, gill, ovum, intestine, hepatopancreas, stomach, and ovary tissues. Furthermore, its expression in the hepatopancreas was regulated by dietary lipid sources, with prawns fed soybean and linseed oils exhibiting higher expression levels. RNAi-based SR-BI silencing resulted in the suppression of its expression in the hepatopancreas and variation in the expression of lipid metabolism-related genes. This is the first report of SR-BI in freshwater prawns and provides the basis for further studies on SR-BI in crustaceans.

  4. The effect of albumin on podocytes: The role of the fatty acid moiety and the potential role of CD36 scavenger receptor

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Pawluczyk, I.Z.A., E-mail: izap1@le.ac.uk [Department of Infection, Immunity and inflammation, University of Leicester, Leicester (United Kingdom); John Walls Renal Unit, Leicester General Hospital Leicester (United Kingdom); Pervez, A.; Ghaderi Najafabadi, M. [Department of Infection, Immunity and inflammation, University of Leicester, Leicester (United Kingdom); Saleem, M.A. [Academic and Children' s Renal Unit, University of Bristol, Southmead Hospital, Bristol (United Kingdom); Topham, P.S. [Department of Infection, Immunity and inflammation, University of Leicester, Leicester (United Kingdom); John Walls Renal Unit, Leicester General Hospital Leicester (United Kingdom)

    2014-08-15

    Evidence is emerging that podocytes are able to endocytose proteins such as albumin using kinetics consistent with a receptor-mediated process. To date the role of the fatty acid moiety on albumin uptake kinetics has not been delineated and the receptor responsible for uptake is yet to be identified. Albumin uptake studies were carried out on cultured human podocytes exposed to FITC-labelled human serum albumin either carrying fatty acids (HSA{sub +FA}) or depleted of them (HSA{sub −FA}). Receptor-mediated endocytosis of FITC-HSA{sub +FA} over 60 min was 5 times greater than that of FITC-HSA{sub −FA}. 24 h exposure of podocytes to albumin up-regulated nephrin expression and induced the activation of caspase-3. These effects were more pronounced in response to HSA{sub −FA.} Individually, anti-CD36 antibodies had no effect upon endocytosis of FITC-HSA. However, a cocktail of 2 antibodies reduced uptake by nearly 50%. Albumin endocytosis was enhanced in the presence of the CD36 specific inhibitor sulfo-N-succinimidyl oleate (SSO) while knock-down of CD36 using CD36siRNA had no effect on uptake. These data suggest that receptor-mediated endocytosis of albumin by podocytes is regulated by the fatty acid moiety, although, some of the detrimental effects are induced independently of it. CD36 does not play a direct role in the uptake of albumin. - Highlights: • The fatty acid moiety is essential for receptor mediated endocytosis of albumin. • Fatty acid depleted albumin is more pathogenic to podocytes. • CD36 is not directly involved in albumin uptake by podocytes.

  5. Lowbush blueberries inhibit scavenger receptors CD36 and SR-A expression and attenuate foam cell formation in ApoE-deficient mice

    Science.gov (United States)

    Blueberries have recently been reported to reduce atherosclerotic lesion progression in apoE deficient (apoE-/-) mice. However, the underlying mechanisms are not fully understood. The objective of this study was to determine whether blueberries altered scavenger receptors expression and foam cell fo...

  6. CD36 is important for adipocyte recruitment and affects lipolysis

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Vroegrijk, I.O.; Klinken, J.B. van; Diepen, J.A. van; Berg, S.A. van den; Febbraio, M.; Steinbusch, L.K.; Glatz, J.F.; Havekes, L.M.; Voshol, P.J.; Rensen, P.C.; Dijk, K.W. van; Harmelen, V. van

    2013-01-01

    Objective: The scavenger receptor CD36 facilitates the cellular uptake of long-chain fatty acids. As CD36-deficiency attenuates the development of high fat diet (HFD)-induced obesity, the role of CD36-deficiency in preadipocyte recruitment and adipocyte function was set out to characterize. Design

  7. CD36 is important for adipocyte recruitment and affects lipolysis

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Vroegrijk, I.O.; Klinken, J.B. van; Diepen, J.A. van; Berg, S.A. van den; Febbraio, M.; Steinbusch, L.K.; Glatz, J.F.C.; Havekes, L.M.; Voshol, P.J.; Rensen, P.C.; Dijk, K.W. van; Harmelen, V. van

    2013-01-01

    OBJECTIVE: The scavenger receptor CD36 facilitates the cellular uptake of long-chain fatty acids. As CD36-deficiency attenuates the development of high fat diet (HFD)-induced obesity, the role of CD36-deficiency in preadipocyte recruitment and adipocyte function was set out to characterize. DESIGN

  8. Soluble CD36- a marker of the (pathophysiological) role of CD36 in the metabolic syndrome?

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Koonen, Debby P Y; Jensen, Majken K; Handberg, Aase

    2011-01-01

    CD36 is a class B scavenger receptor observed in many cell types and tissues throughout the body. Recent literature has implicated CD36 in the pathogenesis of metabolic dysregulation such as found in obesity, insulin resistance, and atherosclerosis. Genetic variation at the CD36 loci have been......CD36 in the context of the metabolic syndrome. We will also highlight recent findings from human genetic studies looking at the CD36 locus in relation to metabolic profile in the general population. Finally, we present a model in which insulin resistance, oxLDL, low-grade inflammation and liver...

  9. Molecular Basis of Human CD36 Gene Mutations

    OpenAIRE

    Rać, Monika Ewa; Safranow, Krzysztof; Poncyljusz, Wojciech

    2007-01-01

    CD36 is a transmembrane glycoprotein of the class B scavenger receptor family. The CD36 gene is located on chromosome 7 q11.2 and is encoded by 15 exons. Defective CD36 is a likely candidate gene for impaired fatty acid metabolism, glucose intolerance, atherosclerosis, arterial hypertension, diabetes, cardiomyopathy, Alzheimer disease, and modification of the clinical course of malaria. Contradictory data concerning the effects of antiatherosclerotic drugs on CD36 expression indicate that fur...

  10. Targeting metastasis-initiating cells through the fatty acid receptor CD36.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pascual, Gloria; Avgustinova, Alexandra; Mejetta, Stefania; Martín, Mercè; Castellanos, Andrés; Attolini, Camille Stephan-Otto; Berenguer, Antoni; Prats, Neus; Toll, Agustí; Hueto, Juan Antonio; Bescós, Coro; Di Croce, Luciano; Benitah, Salvador Aznar

    2017-01-05

    The fact that the identity of the cells that initiate metastasis in most human cancers is unknown hampers the development of antimetastatic therapies. Here we describe a subpopulation of CD44bright cells in human oral carcinomas that do not overexpress mesenchymal genes, are slow-cycling, express high levels of the fatty acid receptor CD36 and lipid metabolism genes, and are unique in their ability to initiate metastasis. Palmitic acid or a high-fat diet specifically boosts the metastatic potential of CD36+ metastasis-initiating cells in a CD36-dependent manner. The use of neutralizing antibodies to block CD36 causes almost complete inhibition of metastasis in immunodeficient or immunocompetent orthotopic mouse models of human oral cancer, with no side effects. Clinically, the presence of CD36+ metastasis-initiating cells correlates with a poor prognosis for numerous types of carcinomas, and inhibition of CD36 also impairs metastasis, at least in human melanoma- and breast cancer-derived tumours. Together, our results indicate that metastasis-initiating cells particularly rely on dietary lipids to promote metastasis.

  11. CD36 deficiency attenuates experimental mycobacterial infection

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Min-Oo Gundula

    2010-10-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background Members of the CD36 scavenger receptor family have been implicated as sensors of microbial products that mediate phagocytosis and inflammation in response to a broad range of pathogens. We investigated the role of CD36 in host response to mycobacterial infection. Methods Experimental Mycobacterium bovis Bacillus Calmette-Guérin (BCG infection in Cd36+/+ and Cd36-/- mice, and in vitro co-cultivation of M. tuberculosis, BCG and M. marinum with Cd36+/+ and Cd36-/-murine macrophages. Results Using an in vivo model of BCG infection in Cd36+/+ and Cd36-/- mice, we found that mycobacterial burden in liver and spleen is reduced (83% lower peak splenic colony forming units, p Cd36-/- animals. Intracellular growth of all three mycobacterial species was reduced in Cd36-/- relative to wild type Cd36+/+ macrophages in vitro. This difference was not attributable to alterations in mycobacterial uptake, macrophage viability, rate of macrophage apoptosis, production of reactive oxygen and/or nitrogen species, TNF or interleukin-10. Using an in vitro model designed to recapitulate cellular events implicated in mycobacterial infection and dissemination in vivo (i.e., phagocytosis of apoptotic macrophages containing mycobacteria, we demonstrated reduced recovery of viable mycobacteria within Cd36-/- macrophages. Conclusions Together, these data indicate that CD36 deficiency confers resistance to mycobacterial infection. This observation is best explained by reduced intracellular survival of mycobacteria in the Cd36-/- macrophage and a role for CD36 in the cellular events involved in granuloma formation that promote early bacterial expansion and dissemination.

  12. CD36 and Platelet-Activating Factor Receptor Promote House Dust Mite Allergy Development.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Patel, Preeyam S; Kearney, John F

    2017-08-01

    Over 89% of asthmatic children in underdeveloped countries demonstrate sensitivity to house dust mites (HDMs). The allergic response to HDMs is partially mediated by epithelial cell-derived cytokines that activate group 2 innate lymphoid cells, induce migration and activation of dendritic cells, and promote effector differentiation of HDM-specific TH2 cells. However, the contribution of innate receptor engagement on epithelial or dendritic cells by HDMs that ultimately mediates said innate and adaptive allergic responses is poorly understood. We and other investigators have demonstrated that HDMs express phosphorylcholine (PC) moieties. The major PC receptors involved in immune responses include CD36 and platelet-activating factor receptor (PAFR). Because CD36 and PAFR are expressed by epithelial cells and dendritic cells, and expression of these receptors is higher in human asthmatics, we determined whether engagement of CD36 or PAFR on epithelial or dendritic cells contributes to HDM allergy development. Testing bone marrow chimeric mice revealed that CD36 engagement on radioresistant cells and PAFR engagement on radioresistant and radiosensitive cells in the lung promote allergic responses to HDMs. Additionally, passive anti-PC IgM Abs administered intratracheally with HDMs decreased allergen uptake by epithelial cells and APCs in the lungs of C57BL/6 mice but not CD36-/- or PAFR-/- mice. These results show that CD36 and PAFR are important mediators of HDM allergy development and that inhibiting HDM engagement with PC receptors in the lung protects against allergic airway disease. Copyright © 2017 by The American Association of Immunologists, Inc.

  13. Molecular basis of human CD36 gene mutations.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rać, Monika Ewa; Safranow, Krzysztof; Poncyljusz, Wojciech

    2007-01-01

    CD36 is a transmembrane glycoprotein of the class B scavenger receptor family. The CD36 gene is located on chromosome 7 q11.2 and is encoded by 15 exons. Defective CD36 is a likely candidate gene for impaired fatty acid metabolism, glucose intolerance, atherosclerosis, arterial hypertension, diabetes, cardiomyopathy, Alzheimer disease, and modification of the clinical course of malaria. Contradictory data concerning the effects of antiatherosclerotic drugs on CD36 expression indicate that further investigation of the role of CD36 in the development of atherosclerosis may be important for the prevention and treatment of this disease. This review summarizes current knowledge of CD36 gene structure, splicing, and mutations and the molecular, metabolic, and clinical consequences of these phenomena.

  14. Alpha-Tocopheryl phosphate induces VEGF expression via CD36/PI3Kgamma in THP-1 monocytes

    Science.gov (United States)

    The CD36 scavenger receptor binds several ligands and mediates ligand uptake and ligand-dependent signal transduction and gene expression, events that may involve CD36 internalization. Here we show that CD36 internalization in THP-1 monocytes is triggered by alpha-tocopherol (alpha-T) and more stron...

  15. CD36 is important for adipocyte recruitment and affects lipolysis.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Vroegrijk, Irene O C M; van Klinken, Jan Bert; van Diepen, Janna A; van den Berg, Sjoerd A A; Febbraio, Maria; Steinbusch, Laura K M; Glatz, Jan F C; Havekes, Louis M; Voshol, Peter J; Rensen, Patrick C N; van Dijk, Ko Willems; van Harmelen, Vanessa

    2013-10-01

    The scavenger receptor CD36 facilitates the cellular uptake of long-chain fatty acids. As CD36-deficiency attenuates the development of high fat diet (HFD)-induced obesity, the role of CD36-deficiency in preadipocyte recruitment and adipocyte function was set out to characterize. Fat cell size and number were determined in gonadal, visceral, and subcutaneous adipose tissue of CD36(-/-) and WT mice after 6 weeks on HFD. Basal lipolysis and insulin-inhibited lipolysis were investigated in gonadal adipose tissue. CD36(-/-) mice showed a reduction in adipocyte size in all fat pads. Gonadal adipose tissue also showed a lower total number of adipocytes because of a lower number of very small adipocytes (diameter adipocytes. Regarding lipolysis, in adipose tissue from CD36(-/-) mice, cAMP levels were increased and both basal and 8-bromo-cAMP stimulated lipolysis were higher. However, insulin-mediated inhibition of lipolysis was more potent in CD36(-/-) mice. These results indicate that during fat depot expansion, CD36-deficiency negatively affects preadipocyte recruitment and that in mature adipocytes, CD36-deficiency is associated with increased basal lipolysis and insulin responsiveness. Copyright © 2013 The Obesity Society.

  16. Comparative Studies of Vertebrate Platelet Glycoprotein 4 (CD36

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Roger S. Holmes

    2012-09-01

    Full Text Available Platelet glycoprotein 4 (CD36 (or fatty acyl translocase [FAT], or scavenger receptor class B, member 3 [SCARB3] is an essential cell surface and skeletal muscle outer mitochondrial membrane glycoprotein involved in multiple functions in the body. CD36 serves as a ligand receptor of thrombospondin, long chain fatty acids, oxidized low density lipoproteins (LDLs and malaria-infected erythrocytes. CD36 also influences various diseases, including angiogenesis, thrombosis, atherosclerosis, malaria, diabetes, steatosis, dementia and obesity. Genetic deficiency of this protein results in significant changes in fatty acid and oxidized lipid uptake. Comparative CD36 amino acid sequences and structures and CD36 gene locations were examined using data from several vertebrate genome projects. Vertebrate CD36 sequences shared 53–100% identity as compared with 29–32% sequence identities with other CD36-like superfamily members, SCARB1 and SCARB2. At least eight vertebrate CD36 N-glycosylation sites were conserved which are required for membrane integration. Sequence alignments, key amino acid residues and predicted secondary structures were also studied. Three CD36 domains were identified including cytoplasmic, transmembrane and exoplasmic sequences. Conserved sequences included N- and C-terminal transmembrane glycines; and exoplasmic cysteine disulphide residues; TSP-1 and PE binding sites, Thr92 and His242, respectively; 17 conserved proline and 14 glycine residues, which may participate in forming CD36 ‘short loops’; and basic amino acid residues, and may contribute to fatty acid and thrombospondin binding. Vertebrate CD36 genes usually contained 12 coding exons. The human CD36 gene contained transcription factor binding sites (including PPARG and PPARA contributing to a high gene expression level (6.6 times average. Phylogenetic analyses examined the relationships and potential evolutionary origins of the vertebrate CD36 gene with vertebrate

  17. Low-bone-mass phenotype of deficient mice for the cluster of differentiation 36 (CD36.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Olha Kevorkova

    Full Text Available Bone tissue is continuously remodeled by bone cells and maintenance of its mass relies on the balance between the processes of resorption and formation. We have reported the expression of numerous scavenger receptors, namely scavenger receptor (SR class B type I and II (SR-BI and SR-BII, and CD36, in bone-forming osteoblasts but their physiological roles in bone metabolism are still unknown. To unravel the role of CD36 in bone metabolism, we determined the bone phenotype of CD36 knockout (CD36KO mice and characterized the cell functions of osteoblasts lacking CD36. Weights of CD36KO mice were significantly lower than corresponding wild-type (WT mice, yet no significant difference was found in femoral nor tibial length between CD36KO and WT mice. Analysis of bone architecture by micro-computed tomography revealed a low bone mass phenotype in CD36KO mice of both genders. Femoral trabecular bone from 1 to 6 month-old CD36KO mice showed lower bone volume, higher trabecular separation and reduced trabeculae number compared to WT mice; similar alterations were noticed for lumbar vertebrae. Plasma levels of osteocalcin (OCN and N-terminal propeptide of type I procollagen (PINP, two known markers of bone formation, were significantly lower in CD36KO mice than in WT mice, whereas plasma levels of bone resorption markers were similar. Accordingly, histology highlighted lower osteoblast perimeter and reduced bone formation rate. In vitro functional characterization of bone marrow stromal cells and osteoblasts isolated from CD36KO mice showed reduced cell culture expansion and survival, lower gene expression of osteoblastic Runt-related transcription factor 2 (Runx2 and osterix (Osx, as well as bone sialoprotein (BSP and osteocalcin (OCN. Our results indicate that CD36 is mandatory for adequate bone metabolism, playing a role in osteoblast functions ensuring adequate bone formation.

  18. The structural basis for CD36 binding by the malaria parasite

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Hsieh, Fu-Lien; Turner, Louise; Bolla, Jani Reddy

    2016-01-01

    CD36 is a scavenger receptor involved in fatty acid metabolism, innate immunity and angiogenesis. It interacts with lipoprotein particles and facilitates uptake of long chain fatty acids. It is also the most common target of the PfEMP1 proteins of the malaria parasite, Plasmodium falciparum...

  19. Multiple metabolic hits converge on CD36 as novel mediator of tubular epithelial apoptosis in diabetic nephropathy.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Katalin Susztak

    2005-02-01

    Full Text Available Diabetic nephropathy (DNP is a common complication of type 1 and type 2 diabetes mellitus and the most common cause of kidney failure. While DNP manifests with albuminuria and diabetic glomerulopathy, its progression correlates best with tubular epithelial degeneration (TED and interstitial fibrosis. However, mechanisms leading to TED in DNP remain poorly understood.We found that expression of scavenger receptor CD36 coincided with proximal tubular epithelial cell (PTEC apoptosis and TED specifically in human DNP. High glucose stimulated cell surface expression of CD36 in PTECs. CD36 expression was necessary and sufficient to mediate PTEC apoptosis induced by glycated albumins (AGE-BSA and CML-BSA and free fatty acid palmitate through sequential activation of src kinase, and proapoptotic p38 MAPK and caspase 3. In contrast, paucity of expression of CD36 in PTECs in diabetic mice with diabetic glomerulopathy was associated with normal tubular epithelium and the absence of tubular apoptosis. Mouse PTECs lacked CD36 and were resistant to AGE-BSA-induced apoptosis. Recombinant expression of CD36 in mouse PTECs conferred susceptibility to AGE-BSA-induced apoptosis.Our findings suggest a novel role for CD36 as an essential mediator of proximal tubular apoptosis in human DNP. Because CD36 expression was induced by glucose in PTECs, and because increased CD36 mediated AGE-BSA-, CML-BSA-, and palmitate-induced PTEC apoptosis, we propose a two-step metabolic hit model for TED, a hallmark of progression in DNP.

  20. Microglial Scavenger Receptors and Their Roles in the Pathogenesis of Alzheimer's Disease

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Kim Wilkinson

    2012-01-01

    Full Text Available Alzheimer’s disease (AD is increasing in prevalence with the aging population. Deposition of amyloid-β (Aβ in the brain of AD patients is a hallmark of the disease and is associated with increased microglial numbers and activation state. The interaction of microglia with Aβ appears to play a dichotomous role in AD pathogenesis. On one hand, microglia can phagocytose and clear Aβ, but binding of microglia to Aβ also increases their ability to produce inflammatory cytokines, chemokines, and neurotoxic reactive oxygen species (ROS. Scavenger receptors, a group of evolutionally conserved proteins expressed on the surface of microglia act as receptors for Aβ. Of particular interest are SCARA-1 (scavenger receptor A-1, CD36, and RAGE (receptor for advanced glycation end products. SCARA-1 appears to be involved in the clearance of Aβ, while CD36 and RAGE are involved in activation of microglia by Aβ. In this review, we discuss the roles of various scavenger receptors in the interaction of microglia with Aβ and propose that these receptors play complementary, nonredundant functions in the development of AD pathology. We also discuss potential therapeutic applications for these receptors in AD.

  1. Leishmania amazonensis Engages CD36 to Drive Parasitophorous Vacuole Maturation.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Kendi Okuda

    2016-06-01

    Full Text Available Leishmania amastigotes manipulate the activity of macrophages to favor their own success. However, very little is known about the role of innate recognition and signaling triggered by amastigotes in this host-parasite interaction. In this work we developed a new infection model in adult Drosophila to take advantage of its superior genetic resources to identify novel host factors limiting Leishmania amazonensis infection. The model is based on the capacity of macrophage-like cells, plasmatocytes, to phagocytose and control the proliferation of parasites injected into adult flies. Using this model, we screened a collection of RNAi-expressing flies for anti-Leishmania defense factors. Notably, we found three CD36-like scavenger receptors that were important for defending against Leishmania infection. Mechanistic studies in mouse macrophages showed that CD36 accumulates specifically at sites where the parasite contacts the parasitophorous vacuole membrane. Furthermore, CD36-deficient macrophages were defective in the formation of the large parasitophorous vacuole typical of L. amazonensis infection, a phenotype caused by inefficient fusion with late endosomes and/or lysosomes. These data identify an unprecedented role for CD36 in the biogenesis of the parasitophorous vacuole and further highlight the utility of Drosophila as a model system for dissecting innate immune responses to infection.

  2. CD36 deficiency leads to choroidal involution via COX2 down-regulation in rodents.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Marianne Houssier

    2008-02-01

    Full Text Available BACKGROUND: In the Western world, a major cause of blindness is age-related macular degeneration (AMD. Recent research in angiogenesis has furthered the understanding of choroidal neovascularization, which occurs in the "wet" form of AMD. In contrast, very little is known about the mechanisms of the predominant, "dry" form of AMD, which is characterized by retinal atrophy and choroidal involution. The aim of this study is to elucidate the possible implication of the scavenger receptor CD36 in retinal degeneration and choroidal involution, the cardinal features of the dry form of AMD. METHODS AND FINDINGS: We here show that deficiency of CD36, which participates in outer segment (OS phagocytosis by the retinal pigment epithelium (RPE in vitro, leads to significant progressive age-related photoreceptor degeneration evaluated histologically at different ages in two rodent models of CD36 invalidation in vivo (Spontaneous hypertensive rats (SHR and CD36-/- mice. Furthermore, these animals developed significant age related choroidal involution reflected in a 100%-300% increase in the avascular area of the choriocapillaries measured on vascular corrosion casts of aged animals. We also show that proangiogenic COX2 expression in RPE is stimulated by CD36 activating antibody and that CD36-deficient RPE cells from SHR rats fail to induce COX2 and subsequent vascular endothelial growth factor (VEGF expression upon OS or antibody stimulation in vitro. CD36-/- mice express reduced levels of COX2 and VEGF in vivo, and COX2-/- mice develop progressive choroidal degeneration similar to what is seen in CD36 deficiency. CONCLUSIONS: CD36 deficiency leads to choroidal involution via COX2 down-regulation in the RPE. These results show a novel molecular mechanism of choroidal degeneration, a key feature of dry AMD. These findings unveil a pathogenic process, to our knowledge previously undescribed, with important implications for the development of new therapies.

  3. The Natural Compound Dansameum Reduces foam Cell Formation by Downregulating CD36 and Peroxisome Proliferator-activated Receptor-gamma; Expression.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Park, Kang-Seo; Ahn, Sang Hyun; Lee, Kang Pa; Park, Sun-Young; Cheon, Jin Hong; Choi, Jun-Yong; Kim, Kibong

    2018-01-01

    Atherosclerosis-induced vascular disorders are major causes of death in most western countries. During the development of atherosclerotic lesions, foam cell formation is essential and formed through the expression of CD36 and the peroxisome proliferator-activated receptor gamma (PPAR-γ). To investigate whether dansameum extract (DSE) could show anti-atherosclerotic effect through down-regulating cellular redox state including CD36 and PARP-γ expression in oxidative low-density lipoprotein (oxLDL)-treated RAW264.7 cells and on differentiated foam cells in ApoE Knockout (ApoE-/-) mice. The Korean polyherbal medicine DSE was prepared from three plants in the following proportions: 40 g of Salvia miltiorrhiza root, 4 g of Amomumxanthioides fruit, and 4 g of Santalum album lignum. The immunohistochemistry and reverse transcription-polymerase chain reaction was used for analysis of protein and mRNA involved in foam cell formation. We first showed that effects of DSE on foam cell formation in both oxLDL-induced RAW264.7 cells and in blood vessels from apolipoprotein E deficientApoE-/- mice with high fat diet-fed. DSE treatment significantly reduced the expression of CD36 and PPAR-γ in oxLDL-stimulated RAW264.7 cells and ApoE-/-mice, in the latter case by regulating heme oxygenase-1. Furthermore, DSE treatment also reduced cellular lipid content in vitro and in vivo experiments. Our data suggest that DSE may have anti-atherosclerotic properties through regulating foam cell formation. Dansameum extract (DSE) Regulates the expression of CD36 and peroxisome proliferator-activated receptor gamma in oxidative low-density lipoprotein-stimulated RAW264.7 Cells and ApoE Knockout (ApoE Knockout [ApoE-/-]) miceDSE Regulates Cholesterol Levels in the Serum of ApoE-deficient (ApoE-/-) miceDSE Reduced the Formation of Foam Cells by Regulating heme oxygenase-1 in ApoE-/- mice with high fat diet-fed. Abbreviations used: DSE: Dansameum extract, PPAR-γ: Peroxisome proliferator

  4. CD36 is essential for regulation of the host innate response to Staphylococcus aureus alpha-toxin-mediated dermonecrosis

    Science.gov (United States)

    Castleman, Moriah J.; Febbraio, Maria; Hall, Pamela R.

    2015-01-01

    Staphylococcus aureus is the primary cause of skin and skin structure infections (SSSI) in the USA. Alpha-hemolysin (Hla), a pore-forming toxin secreted by S. aureus and a major contributor to tissue necrosis, prompts recruitment of neutrophils critical for host defense against S. aureus infections. However, the failure to clear apoptotic neutrophils can result in damage to host tissues, suggesting that mechanisms of neutrophil clearance are essential to limiting Hla-mediated dermonecrosis. We hypothesized that CD36, a scavenger receptor which facilitates recognition of apoptosing cells, would play a significant role in regulating Hla-mediated inflammation and tissue injury during S. aureus SSSI. Here we show that CD36 on macrophages negatively regulates dermonecrosis caused by Hla-producing S. aureus. This regulation is independent of bacterial burden, as CD36 also limits dermonecrosis caused by intoxication with sterile bacterial supernatant or purified Hla. Dermonecrotic lesions of supernatant intoxicated CD36−/− mice are significantly larger, with increased neutrophil accumulation and IL-1β expression, compared to CD36+/+ (wild-type) mice. Neutrophil depletion of CD36−/− mice prevents this phenotype, demonstrating the contribution of neutrophils to tissue injury in this model. Furthermore, administration of CD36+/+, but not CD36−/−, macrophages near the site of intoxication reduces dermonecrosis, IL-1β production and neutrophil accumulation to levels seen in wild-type mice. This therapeutic effect is reversed by inhibiting actin polymerization in the CD36+/+ macrophages, supporting a mechanism of action whereby CD36-dependent macrophage phagocytosis of apoptotic neutrophils regulates Hla-mediated dermonecrosis. Together, these data demonstrate that CD36 is essential for controlling the host innate response to S. aureus skin infection. PMID:26223653

  5. CD36 inhibitors reduce postprandial hypertriglyceridemia and protect against diabetic dyslipidemia and atherosclerosis.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Alain Geloen

    Full Text Available CD36 is recognized as a lipid and fatty acid receptor and plays an important role in the metabolic syndrome and associated cardiac events. The pleiotropic activity and the multiple molecular associations of this scavenger receptor with membrane associated molecules in different cells and tissues have however questioned its potential as a therapeutic target. The present study shows that it is possible to identify low molecular weight chemicals that can block the CD36 binding and uptake functions. These inhibitors were able to reduce arterial lipid deposition, fatty acid intestinal transit, plasma concentration of triglycerides and glucose, to improve insulin sensitivity, glucose tolerance and to reduce the plasma concentration of HbAc1 in different and independent rodent models. Correlation between the anti-CD36 activity of these inhibitors and the known pathophysiological activity of this scavenger receptor in the development of atherosclerosis and diabetes were observed at pharmacological doses. Thus, CD36 might represent an attractive therapeutic target.

  6. CD36 in chronic kidney disease: novel insights and therapeutic opportunities.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yang, Xiaochun; Okamura, Daryl M; Lu, Xifeng; Chen, Yaxi; Moorhead, John; Varghese, Zac; Ruan, Xiong Z

    2017-12-01

    CD36 (also known as scavenger receptor B2) is a multifunctional receptor that mediates the binding and cellular uptake of long-chain fatty acids, oxidized lipids and phospholipids, advanced oxidation protein products, thrombospondin and advanced glycation end products, and has roles in lipid accumulation, inflammatory signalling, energy reprogramming, apoptosis and kidney fibrosis. Renal CD36 is mainly expressed in tubular epithelial cells, podocytes and mesangial cells, and is markedly upregulated in the setting of chronic kidney disease (CKD). As fatty acids are the preferred energy source for proximal tubule cells, a reduction in fatty acid oxidation in CKD affects kidney lipid metabolism by disrupting the balance between fatty acid synthesis, uptake and consumption. The outcome is intracellular lipid accumulation, which has an important role in the pathogenesis of kidney fibrosis. In experimental models, antagonist blockade or genetic knockout of CD36 prevents kidney injury, suggesting that CD36 could be a novel target for therapy. Here, we discuss the regulation and post-translational modification of CD36, its role in renal pathophysiology and its potential as a biomarker and as a therapeutic target for the prevention of kidney fibrosis.

  7. Immunohistochemical study of thrombospondin and its receptors alpha root of beta 3 and CD36 in normal thyroid and in thyroid tumours.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Patey, M; Delemer, B; Bellon, G; Martiny, L; Pluot, M; Haye, B

    1999-01-01

    AIM: To describe the pattern of distribution of thrombospondin (TSP1) and its receptors, alpha root of beta 3 integrin and CD36, in normal human thyroid tissue and to compare their expression in different benign and malignant thyroid conditions. METHODS: Immunohistochemistry was used to study TSP1 and its receptors in 40 surgical thyroidectomy specimens (normal parenchyma, 7; follicular adenoma, 4; multinodular goitre, 13; papillary carcinoma, 6; follicular carcinoma, 8; anaplastic carcinoma, 2). RESULTS: In the normal thyroid parenchyma, there was weak expression of TSP1 limited to the vessels with no staining of the extracellular matrix. In goitres, the expression of TSP1 was more pronounced in areas of fibrosis, with staining of alpha root of beta 3 on thyrocytes located in the vicinity. In thyroid adenomas, expression of TSP1 was slightly enhanced compared with normal tissue, located in the basement membrane of vessels. In papillary carcinomas, TSP1 was abundant in the desmoplastic stroma with a cytoplasmic distribution of alpha root of beta 3 integrin in thyrocytes. In follicular carcinomas, TSP1 was less abundant in the extracellular matrix, limited to the vessels of the stroma with a weaker expression of alpha root of beta 3 on thyrocytes than in papillary carcinomas. In anaplastic carcinomas, TSP1 was only present in the numerous capillaries of the stroma, with a marked positivity for alpha root of beta 3 in one case. No immunostaining of thyrocytes is observed with CD36. CONCLUSIONS: These results suggest the importance of the interaction between alpha root of beta 3 integrin and TSP1 during remodelling of the matrix in fibrous goitres with areas of early sclerosis comparable with wound healing. In papillary carcinomas, the overexpression of TSP1 restricted to the stroma suggests protective effects against tumour progression. Images PMID:10711252

  8. Formulation, characteristics and antiatherogenic bioactivities of CD36-targeted epigallocatechin gallate (EGCG)-loaded nanoparticles.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zhang, Jia; Nie, Shufang; Martinez-Zaguilan, Raul; Sennoune, Souad R; Wang, Shu

    2016-04-01

    Intimal macrophages are determinant cells for atherosclerotic lesion formation by releasing inflammatory factors and taking up oxidized low-density lipoprotein (oxLDL) via scavenger receptors, primarily the CD36 receptor. (-)-Epigallocatechin-3-gallate (EGCG) has a potential to decrease cholesterol accumulation and inflammatory responses in macrophages. We made EGCG-loaded nanoparticles (Enano) using phosphatidylcholine, kolliphor HS15, alpha-tocopherol acetate and EGCG. 1-(Palmitoyl)-2-(5-keto-6-octene-dioyl) phosphatidylcholine (KOdiA-PC), a CD36-targeted ligand found on oxLDL, was incorporated on the surface of Enano to make ligand-Enano (L-Enano). The objectives of this study are to deliver EGCG to macrophages via CD36-targeted L-Enano and to determine its antiatherogenic bioactivities. The optimized nanoparticles obtained in our study were spherical and around 108 nm in diameter, and had about 10% of EGCG loading capacity and 96% of EGCG encapsulation efficiency. Compared to Enano, CD36-targeted L-Enano had significantly higher binding affinity to and uptake by macrophages at the same pattern as oxLDL. CD36-targeted L-Enano dramatically improved EGCG stability, increased macrophage EGCG content, delivered EGCG to macrophage cytosol and avoided lysosomes. L-Enano significantly decreased macrophage mRNA levels and protein secretion of monocyte chemoattractant protein 1, but did not significantly change macrophage cholesterol content. The innovative CD36-targeted nanoparticles may facilitate targeted delivery of diagnostic, preventive and therapeutic compounds to intimal macrophages for the diagnosis, prevention and treatment of atherosclerosis with enhanced efficacy and decreased side effects. Copyright © 2015 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  9. Low Levels of CD36 in Peripheral Blood Monocytes in Subclinical Atherosclerosis in Rheumatoid Arthritis: A Cross-Sectional Study in a Mexican Population

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gómez-Bañuelos, Eduardo; Martín-Márquez, Beatriz Teresita; Martínez-García, Erika Aurora; Figueroa-Sanchez, Mauricio; Nuñez-Atahualpa, Lourdes; Rocha-Muñoz, Alberto Daniel; Sánchez-Hernández, Pedro Ernesto; Navarro-Hernandez, Rosa Elena; Madrigal-Ruiz, Perla Monserrat; Saldaña-Millan, Adan Alberto; Duran-Barragan, Sergio; Gonzalez-Lopez, Laura; Gamez-Nava, Jorge Ivan; Vázquez-Del Mercado, Mónica

    2014-01-01

    Patients with rheumatoid arthritis (RA) have a higher risk for atherosclerosis. There is no clinical information about scavenger receptor CD36 and the development of subclinical atherosclerosis in patients with RA. The aim of this study was to evaluate the association between membrane expression of CD36 in peripheral blood mononuclear cells (PBMC) and carotid intima-media thickness (cIMT) in patients with RA. Methods. We included 67 patients with RA from the Rheumatology Department of Hospital Civil “Dr. Juan I. Menchaca,” Guadalajara, Jalisco, Mexico. We evaluated the cIMT, considering subclinical atherosclerosis when >0.6 mm. Since our main objective was to associate the membrane expression of CD36 with subclinical atherosclerosis, other molecules related with cardiovascular risk such as ox-LDL, IL-6, and TNFα were tested. Results. We found low CD36 membrane expression in PBMC from RA patients with subclinical atherosclerosis (P < 0.001). CD36 mean fluorescence intensity had negative correlations with cIMT (r = −0.578, P < 0.001), ox-LDL (r = −0.427, P = 0.05), TNFα (r = −0.729, P < 0.001), and IL-6 (r = −0.822, P < 0.001). Conclusion. RA patients with subclinical atherosclerosis showed low membrane expression of CD36 in PBMC and increased serum proinflammatory cytokines. Further studies are needed to clarify the regulation of CD36 in RA. PMID:25006585

  10. Low Levels of CD36 in Peripheral Blood Monocytes in Subclinical Atherosclerosis in Rheumatoid Arthritis: A Cross-Sectional Study in a Mexican Population

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Eduardo Gómez-Bañuelos

    2014-01-01

    Full Text Available Patients with rheumatoid arthritis (RA have a higher risk for atherosclerosis. There is no clinical information about scavenger receptor CD36 and the development of subclinical atherosclerosis in patients with RA. The aim of this study was to evaluate the association between membrane expression of CD36 in peripheral blood mononuclear cells (PBMC and carotid intima-media thickness (cIMT in patients with RA. Methods. We included 67 patients with RA from the Rheumatology Department of Hospital Civil “Dr. Juan I. Menchaca,” Guadalajara, Jalisco, Mexico. We evaluated the cIMT, considering subclinical atherosclerosis when >0.6 mm. Since our main objective was to associate the membrane expression of CD36 with subclinical atherosclerosis, other molecules related with cardiovascular risk such as ox-LDL, IL-6, and TNFα were tested. Results. We found low CD36 membrane expression in PBMC from RA patients with subclinical atherosclerosis (P<0.001. CD36 mean fluorescence intensity had negative correlations with cIMT (r = −0.578, P<0.001, ox-LDL (r = −0.427, P = 0.05, TNFα (r = −0.729, P<0.001, and IL-6 (r = −0.822, P<0.001. Conclusion. RA patients with subclinical atherosclerosis showed low membrane expression of CD36 in PBMC and increased serum proinflammatory cytokines. Further studies are needed to clarify the regulation of CD36 in RA.

  11. CD36 T188G gene polymorphism and severe falciparum malaria in India.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Das, A; Das, T K; Sahu, U; Das, B P; Kar, S K; Ranjit, M R

    2009-07-01

    Sequestration of parasitized erythrocytes (PE) in the microvasculature contributes directly to the virulence and severe pathology of Plasmodium falciparum malaria. The scavenger receptor CD36 appears to play an important role in PE adherence. Recently several mutations in the CD36 gene have been found to be associated with variability in susceptibility to P. falciparum infection in different ethnic populations. We investigated the possible association of T188G CD36 gene polymorphism with severe clinical manifestations of malaria in 95 adult patients with severe malaria admitted to SCB Medical College Hospital, Cuttack, Orissa, India ('severe' group) and 95 ethnically matched controls attending outpatient clinics at primary health centres ('mild' group). The frequency of the wild-type (T188T) allele of the CD36 gene was 0.91 in the 'severe' group and 0.78 in the 'mild' group of patients, while mutant (T188G) allele frequency was 0.09 in the severe group and 0.22 in the mild group. The Hardy-Weinberg equation indicates that the mutant allele is under selection pressure and disease association analysis shows that the presence of the heterozygote mutant allele renders protection against severe malaria (chi(2)=10.67, odds ratio=3.51, 95% CI 1.67-7.36).

  12. Apoptosis induced by oxidized low density lipoprotein in human monocyte-derived macrophages involves CD36 and activation of caspase-3.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wintergerst, E S; Jelk, J; Rahner, C; Asmis, R

    2000-10-01

    Macrophage death may play a crucial role in the progression of atherosclerotic lesions. Here we present evidence that CD36 is involved in oxidized LDL (OxLDL)-induced apoptosis in human monocyte-derived macrophages. Anti-CD36 mAb SMO and OKM-5 reduced the number of apoptotic cells in OxLDL-treated macrophages by more than 94%, but they did not block ceramide-triggered apoptosis. Thrombospondin inhibited the induction of apoptosis by OxLDL in a dose-dependent manner with an IC50 of 10-30 microM. OxLDL did not induce apoptosis in CD36-negative macrophages, demonstrating the essential role of this scavenger receptor in OxLDL-triggered programmed cell death. Neither anti-CD36 Ig nor thrombospondin triggered programmed cell death suggesting that binding to CD36 alone is not sufficient to initiate apoptosis. However, inhibitors of OxLDL-induced apoptosis did not block the uptake of 3H-labeled OxLDL. In contrast, acetylated LDL and polyinosinic acid, ligands of scavenger receptor A (SRA), inhibited uptake of 3H-labeled OxLDL by 65 and 49%, respectively, but did not block OxLDL-induced apoptosis, indicating that SRA is not involved in this process. OxLDL also stimulated caspase-3 activity in human macrophages. Activation of caspase-3 was blocked by anti-CD36 Ig and the caspase-3 inhibitor Z-DEVD-FMK. These results suggest that binding of OxLDL to CD36 initiates a yet unknown OxLDL-specific signaling event, which leads to the rapid activation of caspase-3 resulting in apoptosis of human macrophages. Our data demonstrate a novel role for CD36 in macrophage biology with likely consequences for the development of atherosclerotic lesions.

  13. CD36 and Fyn kinase mediate malaria-induced lung endothelial barrier dysfunction in mice infected with Plasmodium berghei.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ifeanyi U Anidi

    Full Text Available Severe malaria can trigger acute lung injury characterized by pulmonary edema resulting from increased endothelial permeability. However, the mechanism through which lung fluid conductance is altered during malaria remains unclear. To define the role that the scavenger receptor CD36 may play in mediating this response, C57BL/6J (WT and CD36-/- mice were infected with P. berghei ANKA and monitored for changes in pulmonary endothelial barrier function employing an isolated perfused lung system. WT lungs demonstrated a >10-fold increase in two measures of paracellular fluid conductance and a decrease in the albumin reflection coefficient (σalb compared to control lungs indicating a loss of barrier function. In contrast, malaria-infected CD36-/- mice had near normal fluid conductance but a similar reduction in σalb. In WT mice, lung sequestered iRBCs demonstrated production of reactive oxygen species (ROS. To determine whether knockout of CD36 could protect against ROS-induced endothelial barrier dysfunction, mouse lung microvascular endothelial monolayers (MLMVEC from WT and CD36-/- mice were exposed to H2O2. Unlike WT monolayers, which showed dose-dependent decreases in transendothelial electrical resistance (TER from H2O2 indicating loss of barrier function, CD36-/- MLMVEC demonstrated dose-dependent increases in TER. The differences between responses in WT and CD36-/- endothelial cells correlated with important differences in the intracellular compartmentalization of the CD36-associated Fyn kinase. Malaria infection increased total lung Fyn levels in CD36-/- lungs compared to WT, but this increase was due to elevated production of the inactive form of Fyn further suggesting a dysregulation of Fyn-mediated signaling. The importance of Fyn in CD36-dependent endothelial signaling was confirmed using in vitro Fyn knockdown as well as Fyn-/- mice, which were also protected from H2O2- and malaria-induced lung endothelial leak, respectively. Our

  14. Effect of cinnamon water extract on monocyte-to-macrophage differentiation and scavenger receptor activity.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kang, Hee; Park, Sung-Hyun; Yun, Jeong-Moon; Nam, Tae-Gyu; Kim, Young-Eun; Kim, Dae-Ok; Kim, Youn Jung

    2014-03-07

    Water soluble cinnamon extract has been shown to increase insulin sensitivity and modulate macrophage activation, a desirable trait for the management of obesity or atherosclerosis. Our present study investigated whether cinnamon water extract (CWE) may influence the differentiation of monocytes into macrophages and the activity of macrophage scavenger receptors, commonly observed in atherosclerotic lesions. We investigated the effect of CWE on the expression of various surface markers and the uptake of acetylated low density lipoprotein (LDL) in phorbol-12-myristate-13-acetate (PMA)-stimulated THP-1 cells. The protein levels of PMA or macrophage-colony stimulating factor (M-CSF)-stimulated type 1 macrophage scavenger receptor (SRA) were analyzed. Finally, the role of extracellar signal-related kinase (ERK) 1/2 in SRA synthesis and the effect of CWE on PMA-stimulated ERK1/2 were determined. CWE inhibited the differentiation of monocyte by decreasing the expression of CD11b, CD36 and SRA and the uptake of acetyl LDL. CWE suppressed the upregulation of SRA by M-CSF and modulated ERK1/2 activity, which was required for PMA-induced SRA synthesis. Our results demonstrate that CWE was able to interfere with monocyte differentiation and macrophage scavenger activity, indicating its potential in preventing the development of atherosclerotic lesions.

  15. CD36/SR-B2-TLR2 Dependent Pathways Enhance Porphyromonas gingivalis Mediated Atherosclerosis in the Ldlr KO Mouse Model.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Brown, Paul M; Kennedy, David J; Morton, Richard E; Febbraio, Maria

    2015-01-01

    There is strong epidemiological association between periodontal disease and cardiovascular disease but underlying mechanisms remain ill-defined. Because the human periodontal disease pathogen, Porphyromonas gingivalis (Pg), interacts with innate immune receptors Toll-like Receptor (TLR) 2 and CD36/scavenger receptor-B2 (SR-B2), we studied how CD36/SR-B2 and TLR pathways promote Pg-mediated atherosclerosis. Western diet fed low density lipoprotein receptor knockout (Ldlr°) mice infected orally with Pg had a significant increase in lesion burden compared with uninfected controls.This increase was entirely CD36/SR-B2-dependent, as there was no significant change in lesion burden between infected and uninfected Cd36o/Ldlro mice [corrected]. Western diet feeding promoted enhanced CD36/SR-B2-dependent IL1β generation and foam cell formation as a result of Pg lipopolysaccharide (PgLPS) exposure. CD36/SR-B2 and TLR2 were necessary for inflammasome activation and optimal IL1ß generation, but also resulted in LPS induced lethality (pyroptosis). Modified forms of LDL inhibited Pg-mediated IL1ß generation in a CD36/SR-B2-dependent manner and prevented pyroptosis, but promoted foam cell formation. Our data show that Pg infection in the oral cavity can lead to significant TLR2-CD36/SR-B2 dependent IL1ß release. In the vessel wall, macrophages encountering systemic release of IL1ß, PgLPS and modified LDL have increased lipid uptake, foam cell formation, and release of IL1ß, but because pyroptosis is inhibited, this enables macrophage survival and promotes increased plaque development. These studies may explain increased lesion burden as a result of periodontal disease, and suggest strategies for development of therapeutics.

  16. CD36/SR-B2-TLR2 Dependent Pathways Enhance Porphyromonas gingivalis Mediated Atherosclerosis in the Ldlr KO Mouse Model.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Paul M Brown

    Full Text Available There is strong epidemiological association between periodontal disease and cardiovascular disease but underlying mechanisms remain ill-defined. Because the human periodontal disease pathogen, Porphyromonas gingivalis (Pg, interacts with innate immune receptors Toll-like Receptor (TLR 2 and CD36/scavenger receptor-B2 (SR-B2, we studied how CD36/SR-B2 and TLR pathways promote Pg-mediated atherosclerosis. Western diet fed low density lipoprotein receptor knockout (Ldlr° mice infected orally with Pg had a significant increase in lesion burden compared with uninfected controls.This increase was entirely CD36/SR-B2-dependent, as there was no significant change in lesion burden between infected and uninfected Cd36o/Ldlro mice [corrected]. Western diet feeding promoted enhanced CD36/SR-B2-dependent IL1β generation and foam cell formation as a result of Pg lipopolysaccharide (PgLPS exposure. CD36/SR-B2 and TLR2 were necessary for inflammasome activation and optimal IL1ß generation, but also resulted in LPS induced lethality (pyroptosis. Modified forms of LDL inhibited Pg-mediated IL1ß generation in a CD36/SR-B2-dependent manner and prevented pyroptosis, but promoted foam cell formation. Our data show that Pg infection in the oral cavity can lead to significant TLR2-CD36/SR-B2 dependent IL1ß release. In the vessel wall, macrophages encountering systemic release of IL1ß, PgLPS and modified LDL have increased lipid uptake, foam cell formation, and release of IL1ß, but because pyroptosis is inhibited, this enables macrophage survival and promotes increased plaque development. These studies may explain increased lesion burden as a result of periodontal disease, and suggest strategies for development of therapeutics.

  17. Downregulations of CD36 and Calpain-1, Inflammation, and Atherosclerosis by Simvastatin in Apolipoprotein E Knockout Mice.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yin, Meihui; Liu, Qianqian; Yu, Lan; Yang, Yueyan; Lu, Meili; Wang, Hongxin; Luo, Duosheng; Rong, Xianglu; Tang, Futian; Guo, Jiao

    2017-01-01

    In the previous in vitro study, we found that simvastatin decreased the protein expression of CD36, the scavenger receptor, and calpain-1, the Ca2+-sensitive cysteine protease, in oxidized low-density lipoprotein (oxLDL)-treated macrophages. In this in vivo study, we investigated whether simvastatin downregulates the expression of CD36 and calpain-1 and inhibits the inflammation and atherosclerosis in apolipoprotein E knockout (ApoE KO) mice. Twenty male 6-week-old ApoE KO mice were divided into 2 groups: the ApoE KO group and the ApoE KO + simvastatin (ApoE KO + Sim) group. Atherosclerotic lesions were evaluated and the expressions of CD68, CD36, and calpain-1 in aorta were examined. Simvastatin inhibited the atherosclerotic lesion in ApoE KO mice. In addition, simvastatin reduced the contents of oxLDL, thiobarbituric acid reactive substances, interleukin-6 (IL-6) and tumor necrosis factor-α (TNF-α) in serum, decreased the mRNA and protein expressions of CD36 and reduced the mRNA expression of TNF-α and IL-6 in the aortas. Furthermore, simvastatin reduced the calpain activity and the protein expression of calpain-1 in the aorta. The results suggested that the attenuation of atherosclerotic lesions in ApoE KO mice by simvastatin might be associated with the downregulations of CD36 and calpain-1 and with inflammation. © 2017 S. Karger AG, Basel.

  18. Amyloid-β inhibits No-cGMP signaling in a CD36- and CD47-dependent manner.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Thomas W Miller

    2010-12-01

    Full Text Available Amyloid-β interacts with two cell surface receptors, CD36 and CD47, through which the matricellular protein thrombospondin-1 inhibits soluble guanylate cyclase activation. Here we examine whether amyloid-β shares this inhibitory activity. Amyloid-β inhibited both drug and nitric oxide-mediated activation of soluble guanylate cyclase in several cell types. Known cGMP-dependent functional responses to nitric oxide in platelets and vascular smooth muscle cells were correspondingly inhibited by amyloid-β. Functional interaction of amyloid-β with the scavenger receptor CD36 was indicated by inhibition of free fatty acid uptake via this receptor. Both soluble oligomer and fibrillar forms of amyloid-β were active. In contrast, amyloid-β did not compete with the known ligand SIRPα for binding to CD47. However, both receptors were necessary for amyloid-β to inhibit cGMP accumulation. These data suggest that amyloid-β interaction with CD36 induces a CD47-dependent signal that inhibits soluble guanylate cyclase activation. Combined with the pleiotropic effects of inhibiting free fatty acid transport via CD36, these data provides a molecular mechanism through which amyloid-β can contribute to the nitric oxide signaling deficiencies associated with Alzheimer's disease.

  19. ROS via BTK-p300-STAT1-PPARγ signaling activation mediates cholesterol crystals-induced CD36 expression and foam cell formation

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Sivareddy Kotla

    2017-04-01

    Full Text Available In understanding the mechanisms of cholesterol in the pathogenesis of atherosclerosis, previous studies from other laboratories have demonstrated that cholesterol crystals (CC induce scavenger receptor CD36 expression and NLRP3-mediated inflammasome formation. In elucidating the mechanisms by which CC could enhance CD36 expression and foam cell formation, here we report that CC via NADPH and xanthine oxidases-mediated ROS production activates BTK, a non-receptor tyrosine kinase. In addition, CC induce p300 tyrosine phosphorylation and activation in a BTK-dependent manner, which in turn, leads to STAT1 acetylation and its interaction with PPARγ in CD36 expression, oxLDL uptake and foam cell formation. Furthermore, p300, STAT1 and PPARγ bound to a STAT binding site at −107 nt in CD36 promoter and enhanced its activity in ROS and BTK-dependent manner. Disruption of this STAT binding site by site-directed mutagenesis abolished CC-induced CD36 promoter activity. Together these results reveal for the first time that CC via producing ROS and activating BTK causes p300-mediated STAT1 acetylation and its interaction with PPARγ in CD36 expression, oxLDL uptake and foam cell formation.

  20. The Effect of Low-Dose Marine n-3 Fatty Acids on Plasma Levels of sCD36 in Overweight Subjects: A Randomized, Double-Blind, Placebo-Controlled Trial

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Erik Berg Schmidt

    2013-08-01

    Full Text Available CD36 is a scavenger receptor involved in lipid uptake and inflammation. Recently, non-cell-bound CD36 (sCD36 was identified in plasma and suggested to be a marker of lipid accumulation in the vessel wall. Marine n-3 polyunsaturated fatty acids (PUFA may have cardioprotective effects. This study evaluated the effect of marine n-3 PUFA on sCD36 levels in overweight subjects. Fifty overweight subjects were randomized to 1.1 g of n-3 PUFA or 2 g of olive oil daily for six weeks. Neutrophils were isolated at baseline and after six weeks of treatment while an adipose tissue biopsy was obtained at baseline. The content of n-3 PUFA in adipose tissue and neutrophils was analyzed by gas chromatography, while plasma levels of sCD36 were determined using an enzyme-linked immunosorbent assay (ELISA. After six weeks of supplement plasma sCD36 did not differ between supplements (P = 0.18. There was no significant correlation between plasma sCD36 levels and n-3 PUFA in neutrophils at baseline (r = −0.02, P = 0.88, after six weeks supplement (r = −0.03, P = 0.85 or in adipose tissue (r = 0.14, P = 0.34. This study therefore does not provide evidence for a cardioprotective effect of n-3 PUFA acting through a CD36-dependent mechanism.

  1. Formulation, Characteristics and Anti-atherogenic Bioactivities of CD36-Targeted Epigallocatechin Gallate (EGCG)-Loaded Nanoparticles

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zhang, Jia; Nie, Shufang; Martinez-Zaguilan, Raul; Sennoune, Souad R.; Wang, Shu

    2015-01-01

    Intimal macrophages are determinant cells for atherosclerotic lesion formation by releasing inflammatory factors and taking up oxidized low density lipoprotein (oxLDL) via scavenger receptors, primarily the CD36 receptor. (−)-Epigallocatechin-3-gallate (EGCG) has a potential to decrease cholesterol accumulation and inflammatory responses in macrophages. We made EGCG-loaded nanoparticles (Enano) using phosphatidylcholine, kolliphor HS15, alpha-tocopherol acetate and EGCG. 1-(Palmitoyl)-2-(5-keto-6-octene-dioyl) phosphatidylcholine (KOdiA-PC), a CD36-targeted ligand found on oxLDL, was incorporated on the surface of Enano to make ligand-Enano (L-Enano). The objectives of this study are to deliver EGCG to macrophages via CD36-targeted L-Enano and to determine its anti-atherogenic bioactivities. The optimized nanoparticles obtained in our study were spherical and around 108 nm in diameter, had about 10% of EGCG loading capacity and 96% of EGCG encapsulation efficiency. Compared to Enano, CD36-targeted L-Enano had significantly higher binding affinity to and uptake by macrophages at the same pattern as oxLDL. CD36-targeted L-Enano dramatically improved EGCG stability, increased macrophage EGCG content, delivered EGCG to macrophage cytosol and avoided lysosomes. L-Enano significantly decreased macrophage mRNA levels and protein secretion of monocyte chemoattractant protein 1, but did not significantly change macrophage cholesterol content. The innovative CD36-targeted nanoparticles may facilitate targeted delivery of diagnostic, preventive and therapeutic compounds to intimal macrophages for the diagnosis, prevention and treatment of atherosclerosis with enhanced efficacy and decreased side effects. PMID:27012617

  2. Epigallocatechin-3-gallate Reduces Scavenger Receptor A Expression and Foam Cell Formation in Human Macrophages.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chen, Sy-Jou; Kao, Yung-Hsi; Jing, Li; Chuang, Yi-Ping; Wu, Wan-Lin; Liu, Shu-Ting; Huang, Shih-Ming; Lai, Jenn-Haung; Ho, Ling-Jun; Tsai, Min-Chien; Lin, Chin-Sheng

    2017-04-19

    Foam cells are formed when macrophages imbibe low-density lipoprotein (LDL) through scavenger receptors. Here we examined how epigallocatechin-3-gallate (EGCG) influences foam cell formation. We found that EGCG dose-dependently reduced oxidized LDL (oxLDL) uptake in THP-1 (10 μM, 20.0 ± 0.50, p < 0.05) and primary macrophages (134.6 ± 15.6, p < 0.05) and reduced intracellular cholesterol content in these cells, respectively (10 μM, 32.6 ± 0.14, p < 0.05; 31.7 ± 1.26, p < 0.05). EGCG treatment decreased scavenger receptor A expression, but not the expression of CD36 or of reverse cholesterol transporters. Moreover, EGCG stimulated translocation of the p50 and p65 subunits of NF-κB and enhanced NF-κB DNA-binding activity, thus suppressing SR-A promoter activity. EGCG's suppression of SR-A expression was blocked by the NF-κB inhibitor Bay. The present findings suggest that EGCG regulates NF-κB activity and thus suppresses SR-A expression, oxLDL uptake, and foam cell formation.

  3. Low levels of CD36 in peripheral blood monocytes in subclinical atherosclerosis in rheumatoid arthritis: a cross-sectional study in a Mexican population.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gómez-Bañuelos, Eduardo; Martín-Márquez, Beatriz Teresita; Martínez-García, Erika Aurora; Figueroa-Sanchez, Mauricio; Nuñez-Atahualpa, Lourdes; Rocha-Muñoz, Alberto Daniel; Sánchez-Hernández, Pedro Ernesto; Navarro-Hernandez, Rosa Elena; Madrigal-Ruiz, Perla Monserrat; Saldaña-Millan, Adan Alberto; Duran-Barragan, Sergio; Gonzalez-Lopez, Laura; Gamez-Nava, Jorge Ivan; Vázquez-Del Mercado, Mónica

    2014-01-01

    Patients with rheumatoid arthritis (RA) have a higher risk for atherosclerosis. There is no clinical information about scavenger receptor CD36 and the development of subclinical atherosclerosis in patients with RA. The aim of this study was to evaluate the association between membrane expression of CD36 in peripheral blood mononuclear cells (PBMC) and carotid intima-media thickness (cIMT) in patients with RA. We included 67 patients with RA from the Rheumatology Department of Hospital Civil "Dr. Juan I. Menchaca," Guadalajara, Jalisco, Mexico. We evaluated the cIMT, considering subclinical atherosclerosis when >0.6 mm. Since our main objective was to associate the membrane expression of CD36 with subclinical atherosclerosis, other molecules related with cardiovascular risk such as ox-LDL, IL-6, and TNFα were tested. We found low CD36 membrane expression in PBMC from RA patients with subclinical atherosclerosis (P subclinical atherosclerosis showed low membrane expression of CD36 in PBMC and increased serum proinflammatory cytokines. Further studies are needed to clarify the regulation of CD36 in RA.

  4. The Evolution of the Scavenger Receptor Cysteine-Rich Domain of the Class A Scavenger Receptors

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Nicholas eYap

    2015-07-01

    Full Text Available The class A Scavenger Receptor (cA-SR family is a group of five evolutionarily related innate immune receptors. The cA-SRs are known for their promiscuous ligand binding; as they have been shown to bind bacteria such as Streptococcus pneumoniae, and Escherichia coli, as well as different modified forms of low-density lipoprotein. Three of the five family members possess a Scavenger Receptor Cysteine Rich (SRCR domain while the remaining two receptors lack the domain. Previous work has suggested that the Macrophage Associated Receptor with COllagenous structure (MARCO shares a recent common ancestor with the non-SRCR-containing receptors; however the origin of the SRCR domain within the cA-SRs remains unknown. We hypothesize that the SRCR domains of the cA-SRs have a common origin that predates teleost fish. Using the newly available sequence data from sea lamprey and ghost shark genome projects, we have shown that MARCO shares a common ancestor with the SRCR-containing proteins. In addition, we explored the evolutionary relationships within the SRCR domain by reconstructing the ancestral SRCR domains of the cA-SRs. We identified a motif that is highly conserved between the cA-SR SRCR domains and the ancestral SRCR domain that consist of WGTVCDD. We also show that the GRAEVYY motif, a functionally important motif within MARCO, is poorly conserved in the other cA-SRs and in the reconstructed ancestral domain. Further, we identified three sites within MARCO’s SRCR domain which are under positive selection. Two of these sites lie adjacent to the conserved WGTVCDD motif, and may indicate a potential biological function for these sites. Together these findings indicate a common origin of the SRCR domain within the cA-SRs; however different selective pressures between the proteins may have caused MARCOs SRCR domain to evolve to contain different functional motifs when compared to the other SRCR-containing cA-SRs.

  5. CD36 Provides Host Protection Against Klebsiella pneumoniae Intrapulmonary Infection by Enhancing Lipopolysaccharide Responsiveness and Macrophage Phagocytosis.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Olonisakin, Tolani F; Li, Huihua; Xiong, Zeyu; Kochman, Elizabeth J K; Yu, Minting; Qu, Yanyan; Hulver, Mei; Kolls, Jay K; St Croix, Claudette; Doi, Yohei; Nguyen, Minh-Hong; Shanks, Robert M Q; Mallampalli, Rama K; Kagan, Valerian E; Ray, Anuradha; Silverstein, Roy L; Ray, Prabir; Lee, Janet S

    2016-12-15

    Klebsiella pneumoniae remains an important cause of intrapulmonary infection and invasive disease worldwide. K. pneumoniae can evade serum killing and phagocytosis primarily through the expression of a polysaccharide capsule, but its pathogenicity is also influenced by host factors. We examined whether CD36, a scavenger receptor that recognizes pathogen and modified self ligands, is a host determinant of K. pneumoniae pathogenicity. Despite differences in serum sensitivity and virulence of 3 distinct K. pneumoniae (hypermucoviscous K1, research K2, and carbapenemase-producing ST258) strains, the absence of CD36 significantly increased host susceptibility to acute intrapulmonary infection by K. pneumoniae, regardless of strain. We demonstrate that CD36 enhances LPS responsiveness to K. pneumoniae to increase downstream cytokine production and macrophage phagocytosis that is independent of polysaccharide capsular antigen. Our study provides new insights into host determinants of K. pneumoniae pathogenicity and raises the possibility that functional mutations in CD36 may predispose individuals to K. pneumoniae syndromes. © The Author 2016. Published by Oxford University Press for the Infectious Diseases Society of America. All rights reserved. For permissions, e-mail journals.permissions@oup.com.

  6. Scavenger

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    2009-01-01

    Scavenger is one of the cyber foraging frameworks developed in the Locusts project. It has been released as open source software at http://code.google.com/p/scavenger-cf/......Scavenger is one of the cyber foraging frameworks developed in the Locusts project. It has been released as open source software at http://code.google.com/p/scavenger-cf/...

  7. Antiatherogenic effect of Pistacia lentiscus via GSH restoration and downregulation of CD36 mRNA expression.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Dedoussis, George V Z; Kaliora, Andriana C; Psarras, Stellios; Chiou, Antonia; Mylona, Anastasia; Papadopoulos, Nikolaos G; Andrikopoulos, Nikolaos K

    2004-06-01

    Pistacia lentiscus var. Chia (Anacardiaceae) grows almost exclusively on Chios Island, Greece, and gives a resinous exudate resin used for culinary purposes by Mediterranean people. We investigated the molecular mechanisms through which total polar extract of the resin inhibits oxidized low-density lipoprotein (oxLDL) cytotoxic effect on peripheral blood mononuclear cell (PBMC). Cells exposed to oxLDL underwent apoptosis and necrosis, dependent on the duration of exposure. When culturing cells with oxLDL and the polar extract concurrently, we observed inhibition of both the phenomena. Because under oxidative stress the pro-oxidant systems outbalance the antioxidant, potentially producing oxidative damage and ultimately leading to cell death, we measured the levels of intracellular antioxidant glutathione (GSH). Additionally, we measured CD36 expression, a class B scavenger receptor, on CD14-positive cells, as CD36 has been identified as the oxLDL receptor in macrophages and may play a pivotal role in atherosclerotic foam cell formation. oxLDL decreased GSH levels and upregulated CD36 expression. P. lentiscus extract restored GSH levels and downregulated CD36 expression, even at the mRNA level. In order to find out the biologically drastic constituents of the resin's polar extract, fractions derived from RP-HPLC analysis were examined for their antioxidant effect on oxidatively stressed PBMC. The triterpenoid fraction revealed remarkable increase in intracellular GSH. We suggest GSH restoration and downregulation of CD36 mRNA expression as the pathways via which P. lentiscus triterpenes exert antioxidant/antiatherogenic effect. Additionally, our results provide strong evidence of the resin's antiatherogenic effect; therefore it is credited with beneficial health aspects.

  8. Is plasma-soluble CD36 associated with density of atheromatous plaque and ankle-brachial index in early-onset coronary artery disease patients?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rać, Monika; Krzystolik, Andrzej; Rać, Michał; Safranow, Krzysztof; Dziedziejko, Violetta; Goschorska, Marta; Poncyljusz, Wojciech; Chlubek, Dariusz

    2016-01-01

    CD36 is a major macrophage scavenger receptor for oxidised low-density lipoprotein particles. Soluble CD36 (sCD36) is circulating as a ligand-bound complex and may be present in microparticles shed from cells such as platelets, monocytes/macrophages, or adipocytes. Positive association of plasma sCD36 with insulin resistance has been reported, and it has been proposed that sCD36 might represent a marker of macrophage activation and inflammation leading to atherosclerosis. Recently we have identified an association between CD36 polymorphism and low thickness of atheromatous plaque, suggesting its protective effect against atherosclerosis development. To obtain insight into the relationship between plasma concentration of sCD36 and radiological parameters of atherosclerosis in patients with early-onset coronary artery disease (CAD). The study group comprised 70 clinically stable patients (18 women and 52 men) with early CAD (aged no more than 50 years for men and 55 years for women). Fasting blood sample was taken for serum glucose, lipid profile, ApoA1, ApoB, Lp(a), and plasma sCD36 protein measurements. Each subject's weight, height, waist and hip circumference, and systolic and diastolic blood pressure were measured, and the body mass index, waist-to-hip ratio, and mean arterial pressure were calculated. Doppler ultrasound examinations of carotid and peripheral arteries were performed in all patients. Thickness of intima-media complex (IMC) of common carotid (CCA) and brachial arteries, as well as density and thickness of atheromatous plaque at CCA bifurcation, were measured with M'Ath programme. Plasma concentrations of CD36 antigen were measured by ELISA. Correlations between quantitative variables and sCD36 plasma concentration were assessed with the Spearman rank correlation coefficient (Rs). Associations between qualitative variables and sCD36 plasma concentration were tested with the Mann-Whitney U test. We observed no significant correlations between sCD36

  9. The macrophage scavenger receptor CD163

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Nielsen, Marianne Jensby; Madsen, Mette; Møller, Holger J

    2006-01-01

    CD163 is the monocyte/macrophage-specific receptor for haptoglobin-hemoglobin (Hp-Hb) complexes. The cytoplasmic tail of human CD163 exists as a short tail variant and two long tail variants. Reverse transcriptase-polymerase chain reaction analysis indicated that all three CD163 variants are subs......CD163 is the monocyte/macrophage-specific receptor for haptoglobin-hemoglobin (Hp-Hb) complexes. The cytoplasmic tail of human CD163 exists as a short tail variant and two long tail variants. Reverse transcriptase-polymerase chain reaction analysis indicated that all three CD163 variants...

  10. Scavenger receptor AI/II truncation, lung function and COPD

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Thomsen, M; Nordestgaard, B G; Tybjaerg-Hansen, A

    2011-01-01

    The scavenger receptor A-I/II (SRA-I/II) on alveolar macrophages is involved in recognition and clearance of modified lipids and inhaled particulates. A rare variant of the SRA-I/II gene, Arg293X, truncates the distal collagen-like domain, which is essential for ligand recognition. We tested whet...

  11. Supporting roles of platelet thrombospondin-1 and CD36 in thrombus formation on collagen.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kuijpers, Marijke J E; de Witt, Susanne; Nergiz-Unal, Reyhan; van Kruchten, Roger; Korporaal, Suzanne J A; Verhamme, Peter; Febbraio, Maria; Tjwa, Marc; Voshol, Peter J; Hoylaerts, Marc F; Cosemans, Judith M E M; Heemskerk, Johan W M

    2014-06-01

    Platelets abundantly express the membrane receptor CD36 and store its ligand thrombospondin-1 (TSP1) in the α-granules. We investigated whether released TSP1 can support platelet adhesion and thrombus formation via interaction with CD36. Mouse platelets deficient in CD36 showed reduced adhesion to TSP1 and subsequent phosphatidylserine expression. Deficiency in either CD36 or TSP1 resulted in markedly increased dissolution of thrombi formed on collagen, although thrombus buildup was unchanged. In mesenteric vessels in vivo, deficiency in CD36 prolonged the time to occlusion and enhanced embolization, which was in agreement with earlier observations in TSP1-deficient mice. Thrombi formed using wild-type blood stained positively for secreted TSP1. Releasate from wild-type but not from TSP1-deficient platelets enhanced platelet activation, phosphatidylserine expression, and thrombus formation on collagen. The enhancement was dependent on CD36 because it was without effect on thrombus formation by CD36-deficient platelets. These results demonstrate an anchoring role of platelet-released TSP1 via CD36 in platelet adhesion and collagen-dependent thrombus stabilization. Thus, the TSP1-CD36 tandem is another platelet ligand-receptor axis contributing to the maintenance of a stable thrombus. © 2014 American Heart Association, Inc.

  12. Activated human mast cells induce LOX-1-specific scavenger receptor expression in human monocyte-derived macrophages.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Mervi Alanne-Kinnunen

    Full Text Available Activated mast cells in atherosclerotic lesions degranulate and release bioactive compounds capable of regulating atherogenesis. Here we examined the ability of activated human primary mast cells to regulate the expression of the major scavenger receptors in cultured human primary monocyte-derived macrophages (HMDMs.Components released by immunologically activated human primary mast cells induced a transient expression of lectin-like oxidized LDL receptor (LOX-1 mRNA in HMDMs, while the expression of two other scavenger receptors, MSR1 and CD36, remained unaffected. The LOX-1-inducing secretory components were identified as histamine, tumor necrosis factor alpha (TNF-α, and transforming growth factor beta (TGF-β1, which exhibited a synergistic effect on LOX-1 mRNA expression. Histamine induced a transient expression of LOX-1 protein. Mast cell -induced increase in LOX-1 expression was not associated with increased uptake of oxidized LDL by the macrophages.Mast cell-derived histamine, TNF-α, and TGF-β1 act in concert to induce a transient increase in LOX-1 expression in human primary monocyte-derived macrophages. The LOX-1-inducing activity potentially endows mast cells a hitherto unrecognized role in the regulation of innate immune reactions in atherogenesis.

  13. The scavenger receptor repertoire in six cnidarian species and its putative role in cnidarian-dinoflagellate symbiosis

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Emilie F. Neubauer

    2016-11-01

    Full Text Available Many cnidarians engage in a mutualism with endosymbiotic photosynthetic dinoflagellates that forms the basis of the coral reef ecosystem. Interpartner interaction and regulation includes involvement of the host innate immune system. Basal metazoans, including cnidarians have diverse and complex innate immune repertoires that are just beginning to be described. Scavenger receptors (SR are a diverse superfamily of innate immunity genes that recognize a broad array of microbial ligands and participate in phagocytosis of invading microbes. The superfamily includes subclades named SR-A through SR-I that are categorized based on the arrangement of sequence domains including the scavenger receptor cysteine rich (SRCR, the C-type lectin (CTLD and the CD36 domains. Previous functional and gene expression studies on cnidarian-dinoflagellate symbiosis have implicated SR-like proteins in interpartner communication and regulation. In this study, we characterized the SR repertoire from a combination of genomic and transcriptomic resources from six cnidarian species in the Class Anthozoa. We combined these bioinformatic analyses with functional experiments using the SR inhibitor fucoidan to explore a role for SRs in cnidarian symbiosis and immunity. Bioinformatic searches revealed a large diversity of SR-like genes that resembled SR-As, SR-Bs, SR-Es and SR-Is. SRCRs, CTLDs and CD36 domains were identified in multiple sequences in combinations that were highly homologous to vertebrate SRs as well as in proteins with novel domain combinations. Phylogenetic analyses of CD36 domains of the SR-B-like sequences from a diversity of metazoans grouped cnidarian with bilaterian sequences separate from other basal metazoans. All cnidarian sequences grouped together with moderate support in a subclade separately from bilaterian sequences. Functional experiments were carried out on the sea anemone Aiptasia pallida that engages in a symbiosis with Symbiodinium minutum

  14. Phagocytosis of cholesteryl ester is amplified in diabetic mouse macrophages and is largely mediated by CD36 and SR-A.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Guest, Christopher B; Hartman, Matthew E; O'Connor, Jason C; Chakour, Kenneth S; Sovari, Ali A; Freund, Gregory G

    2007-06-06

    Type 2 diabetes (T2D) is associated with accelerated atherosclerosis, which accounts for approximately 75% of all diabetes-related deaths. Here we investigate the link between diabetes and macrophage cholesteryl ester accumulation. When diabetic (db/db) mice are given cholesteryl ester intraperitoneally (IP), peritoneal macrophages (PerMPhis) recovered from these animals showed a 58% increase in intracellular cholesteryl ester accumulation over PerMPhis from heterozygote control (db/+) mice. Notably, PerMPhi fluid-phase endocytosis and large particle phagocytosis was equivalent in db/+and db/db mice. However, IP administration of CD36 and SR-A blocking antibodies led to 37% and 25% reductions in cholesteryl ester accumulation in PerMPhi. Finally, in order to determine if these scavenger receptors (SRs) were part of the mechanism responsible for the increased accumulation of cholesteryl esters observed in the diabetic mouse macrophages, receptor expression was quantified by flow cytometry. Importantly, db/db PerMPhis showed a 43% increase in CD36 expression and an 80% increase in SR-A expression. Taken together, these data indicate that direct cholesteryl ester accumulation in mouse macrophages is mediated by CD36 and SR-A, and the magnitude of accumulation is increased in db/db macrophages due to increased scavenger receptor expression.

  15. Phagocytosis of cholesteryl ester is amplified in diabetic mouse macrophages and is largely mediated by CD36 and SR-A.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Christopher B Guest

    Full Text Available Type 2 diabetes (T2D is associated with accelerated atherosclerosis, which accounts for approximately 75% of all diabetes-related deaths. Here we investigate the link between diabetes and macrophage cholesteryl ester accumulation. When diabetic (db/db mice are given cholesteryl ester intraperitoneally (IP, peritoneal macrophages (PerMPhis recovered from these animals showed a 58% increase in intracellular cholesteryl ester accumulation over PerMPhis from heterozygote control (db/+ mice. Notably, PerMPhi fluid-phase endocytosis and large particle phagocytosis was equivalent in db/+and db/db mice. However, IP administration of CD36 and SR-A blocking antibodies led to 37% and 25% reductions in cholesteryl ester accumulation in PerMPhi. Finally, in order to determine if these scavenger receptors (SRs were part of the mechanism responsible for the increased accumulation of cholesteryl esters observed in the diabetic mouse macrophages, receptor expression was quantified by flow cytometry. Importantly, db/db PerMPhis showed a 43% increase in CD36 expression and an 80% increase in SR-A expression. Taken together, these data indicate that direct cholesteryl ester accumulation in mouse macrophages is mediated by CD36 and SR-A, and the magnitude of accumulation is increased in db/db macrophages due to increased scavenger receptor expression.

  16. HlSRB, a Class B scavenger receptor, is key to the granulocyte-mediated microbial phagocytosis in ticks.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Kyaw Min Aung

    Full Text Available Ixodid ticks transmit various pathogens of deadly diseases to humans and animals. However, the specific molecule that functions in the recognition and control of pathogens inside ticks is not yet to be identified. Class B scavenger receptor CD36 (SRB participates in internalization of apoptotic cells, certain bacterial and fungal pathogens, and modified low-density lipoproteins. Recently, we have reported on recombinant HlSRB, a 50-kDa protein with one hydrophobic SRB domain from the hard tick, Haemaphysalis longicornis. Here, we show that HlSRB plays vital roles in granulocyte-mediated phagocytosis to invading Escherichia coli and contributes to the first-line host defense against various pathogens. Data clearly revealed that granulocytes that up-regulated the expression of cell surface HlSRB are almost exclusively involved in hemocyte-mediated phagocytosis for E. coli in ticks, and post-transcriptional silencing of the HlSRB-specific gene ablated the granulocytes' ability to phagocytose E. coli and resulted in the mortality of ticks due to high bacteremia. This is the first report demonstrating that a scavenger receptor molecule contributes to hemocyte-mediated phagocytosis against exogenous pathogens, isolated and characterized from hematophagous arthropods.

  17. Dependence of Brown Adipose Tissue Function on CD36-Mediated Coenzyme Q Uptake

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Courtney M. Anderson

    2015-02-01

    Full Text Available Brown adipose tissue (BAT possesses the inherent ability to dissipate metabolic energy as heat through uncoupled mitochondrial respiration. An essential component of the mitochondrial electron transport chain is coenzyme Q (CoQ. While cells synthesize CoQ mostly endogenously, exogenous supplementation with CoQ has been successful as a therapy for patients with CoQ deficiency. However, which tissues depend on exogenous CoQ uptake as well as the mechanism by which CoQ is taken up by cells and the role of this process in BAT function are not well understood. Here, we report that the scavenger receptor CD36 drives the uptake of CoQ by BAT and is required for normal BAT function. BAT from mice lacking CD36 displays CoQ deficiency, impaired CoQ uptake, hypertrophy, altered lipid metabolism, mitochondrial dysfunction, and defective nonshivering thermogenesis. Together, these data reveal an important new role for the systemic transport of CoQ to BAT and its function in thermogenesis.

  18. CD36 is involved in oleic acid detection by the murine olfactory system.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Sonja eOberland

    2015-09-01

    Full Text Available Olfactory signals influence food intake in a variety of species. To maximize the chances of finding a source of calories, an animal’s preference for fatty foods and triglycerides already becomes apparent during olfactory food search behavior. However, the molecular identity of both receptors and ligands mediating olfactory-dependent fatty acid recognition are, so far, undescribed. We here describe that a subset of olfactory sensory neurons expresses the fatty acid receptor CD36 and demonstrate a receptor-like localization of CD36 in olfactory cilia by STED microscopy. CD36-positive olfactory neurons share olfaction-specific transduction elements and project to numerous glomeruli in the ventral olfactory bulb. In accordance with the described roles of CD36 as fatty acid receptor or co-receptor in other sensory systems, the number of olfactory neurons responding to oleic acid, a major milk component, in Ca2+ imaging experiments is drastically reduced in young CD36 knock-out mice. Strikingly, we also observe marked age-dependent changes in CD36 localization, which is prominently present in the ciliary compartment only during the suckling period. Our results support the involvement of CD36 in fatty acid detection by the mammalian olfactory system.

  19. Modulation of cAMP levels by high fat diet and curcumin and regulatory effects on CD36/FAT scavenger receptor/fatty acids transporter gene expression

    Science.gov (United States)

    Curcumin, a polyphenol from turmeric (Curcuma longa), reduces inflammation, atherosclerosis, and obesity in several animal studies. In Ldlr-/- mice fed a high-fat diet (HFD), curcumin reduces plasma lipid levels, therefore contributing to a lower accumulation of lipids and to reduced expression of f...

  20. PPARγ-induced upregulation of CD36 enhances hematoma resolution and attenuates long-term neurological deficits after germinal matrix hemorrhage in neonatal rats.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Flores, Jerry J; Klebe, Damon; Rolland, William B; Lekic, Tim; Krafft, Paul R; Zhang, John H

    2016-03-01

    Germinal matrix hemorrhage remains the leading cause of morbidity and mortality in preterm infants in the United States with little progress made in its clinical management. Survivors are often afflicted with long-term neurological sequelae, including cerebral palsy, mental retardation, hydrocephalus, and psychiatric disorders. Blood clots disrupting normal cerebrospinal fluid circulation and absorption after germinal matrix hemorrhage are thought to be important contributors towards post-hemorrhagic hydrocephalus development. We evaluated if upregulating CD36 scavenger receptor expression in microglia and macrophages through PPARγ stimulation, which was effective in experimental adult cerebral hemorrhage models and is being evaluated clinically, will enhance hematoma resolution and ameliorate long-term brain sequelae using a neonatal rat germinal matrix hemorrhage model. PPARγ stimulation (15d-PGJ2) increased short-term PPARγ and CD36 expression levels as well as enhanced hematoma resolution, which was reversed by a PPARγ antagonist (GW9662) and CD36 siRNA. PPARγ stimulation (15d-PGJ2) also reduced long-term white matter loss and post-hemorrhagic ventricular dilation as well as improved neurofunctional outcomes, which were reversed by a PPARγ antagonist (GW9662). PPARγ-induced upregulation of CD36 in macrophages and microglia is, therefore, critical for enhancing hematoma resolution and ameliorating long-term brain sequelae. Copyright © 2015 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  1. Polymorphism rs1761667 in the CD36 Gene Is Associated to Changes in Fatty Acid Metabolism and Circulating Endocannabinoid Levels Distinctively in Normal Weight and Obese Subjects

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Melania Melis

    2017-12-01

    Full Text Available The multifunctional CD36 scavenger receptor facilitates fatty acid (FA uptake and oxidation and it has been involved in the pathophysiology related to dysfunctional FA metabolism. The common variant in the CD36 gene, rs1761667 (A/G, whose allele A is characterized by a reduced protein expression, has been associated with taste sensitivity to and preference for fat. We therefore aimed at evaluating whether the CD36 polymorphism may influence fatty acid metabolism and endocannabinoid biosynthesis in normal weight (NW and obese (OB subjects. Red blood cell (RBC fatty acid composition, and plasma endocannabinoid levels were determined. In NW subjects with AA genotype was found a marked reduction of RBC saturated fatty acids and palmitic/linoleic ratio (PA/LA, considered as de novo lipogenesis (DNL biomarkers. Remarkably, to the reduction of DNL biomarkers corresponded an increase of omega-6 index, an indirect marker of the impact on fatty acid metabolism of dietary omega-6 fatty acids, endocannabinoid levels and a higher waist/hip ratio. The presence of the G allele was instead associated with increased endocannabinoid plasma levels and a trend for increased waist/hip ratio in obese subjects, even though exhibited decreased BMI with respect to those with AA genotype. These data indicate that the CD36 polymorphism, rs1761667, leads to a distinct metabolic pattern in NW and in OB subjects. Therefore, their determination may be crucial in developing personalized therapeutic strategies for ameliorating dyslipidemia and other metabolic disorders.

  2. CD36 mRNA and Protein Expression Levels Are Significantly Increased in the Heart and Testis of apoE Deficient Mice in Comparison to Wild Type (C57BL/6

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Kazem Zibara

    2002-01-01

    Full Text Available CD36, an 88kd-adhesion molecule, plays a major role as a scavenging receptor implicated in cellular lipid metabolism. Secretory mammary epithelium, microvasculature endothelium, adipocytes, smooth muscle cells, and platelets express CD36. In addition, CD36 expression is significantly enhanced in macrophages differentiating into foam cells. The effect of pathological levels of cholesterol, as observed in apoE−/−, on vascular CD36 expression is, at this stage, not known. In this study, a quantitative analysis of CD36 transcription and protein expression levels, present in tissues of male C57BL/6 and apolipoprotein-E (apoE deficient mice was carried out by Northern and Western blots. Four-week-old animals were fed a chow diet over different periods of time (0, 6, 16, or 20 weeks. Immunohistochemistry was used to localize CD36 protein expression in the heart and testis. Results indicate that CD36 transcription is increased in hearts of apoE deficient animals (100% higher at 6 weeks, and 30% higher at 16 and 20 weeks in comparison to wild type. This was confirmed at the protein level, which showed an increase of at least 100% at 6 weeks, and between 40% to 50% increase at 16 and 20 weeks of apoE−/− mice compared to controls. In addition, CD36 transcription levels were significantly increased in testis of apoE animals (at least 100% at 6, 16, and 20 weeks compared to C57BL/6 wild type. Such an increase was also confirmed at the protein level (65% increase at 16 weeks in apoE mice compared to control. Finally, localization of CD36 protein expression by immunohistochemistry showed that it was expressed in the capillaries of heart and testis endothelial cells and also at the head of spermatozoid during spermatogenesis. These results indicate that high circulating cholesterol levels, in apoE deficient mice, significantly enhance the expression of CD36 in the heart and testis. Such enhanced CD36 expression might lead to organ remodeling and

  3. Blocking Wnt5a signaling decreases CD36 expression and foam cell formation in atherosclerosis.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ackers, Ian; Szymanski, Candice; Duckett, K Jordan; Consitt, Leslie A; Silver, Mitchell J; Malgor, Ramiro

    2018-02-20

    Wnt5a is a highly studied member of the Wnt family and recently has been implicated in the pathogenesis of atherosclerosis, but its precise role is unknown. Foam cell development is a critical process to atherosclerotic plaque formation. In the present study, we investigated the role of noncanonical Wnt5a signaling in the development of foam cells. Human carotid atherosclerotic tissue and THP-1-derived macrophages were used to investigate the contribution of Wnt5a signaling in the formation of foam cells. Immunohistochemistry was used to evaluate protein expression of scavenger receptors and noncanonical Wnt5a receptors [frizzled 5 (Fz5) and receptor tyrosine kinase-like orphan receptor 2 (Ror2)] in human atherosclerotic macrophages/foam cells. Changes in protein expression in response to Wnt5a stimulation/inhibition were determined by Western blot, and lipid accumulation was evaluated by fluorescent lipid droplet staining. Wnt5a (Pfoam cells within the plaque. In vitro studies revealed that Wnt5a significantly increased the expression of the lipid uptake receptor CD36 (P.05). rWnt5a also significantly increased lipid accumulation in THP-1 macrophages (Pfoam cells. Copyright © 2018. Published by Elsevier Inc.

  4. The macrophage scavenger receptor (CD163): a double-edged sword in treatment of malignant disease

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Maniecki, Maciej Bogdan

    2009-01-01

    The hemoglobin scavenger receptor CD163 is a transmembrane glycoprotein belonging to the scavenger receptor cysteine-rich (SRCR) domain family. It mediates the clearance of hemoglobin released to the circulation during intravascular hemolysis, and it is also involved in the regulation of inflamma......The hemoglobin scavenger receptor CD163 is a transmembrane glycoprotein belonging to the scavenger receptor cysteine-rich (SRCR) domain family. It mediates the clearance of hemoglobin released to the circulation during intravascular hemolysis, and it is also involved in the regulation...

  5. A Consensus Definitive Classification of Scavenger Receptors and Their Roles in Health and Disease

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    PrabhuDas, Mercy R; Baldwin, Cynthia L; Bollyky, Paul L

    2017-01-01

    Diseases, National Institutes of Health, to help develop a clear definition of scavenger receptors and a standardized nomenclature based on that definition. Fifteen experts in the scavenger receptor field attended the workshop and, after extensive discussion, reached a consensus regarding the definition...

  6. CD36 is upregulated in mice with periodontitis and metabolic syndrome and involved in macrophage gene upregulation by palmitate.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lu, Z; Li, Y; Brinson, C W; Kirkwood, K L; Lopes-Virella, M F; Huang, Y

    2017-03-01

    We reported that high-fat diet (HFD)-induced metabolic syndrome (MetS) exacerbates lipopolysaccharide (LPS)-stimulated periodontitis and palmitate, the major saturated fatty acid in the HFD, amplified LPS-stimulated gene expression in vitro. As CD36 is a major receptor for fatty acids, we investigated periodontal CD36 expression in mice with periodontitis and MetS, and the role of CD36 in inflammatory gene expression in macrophages stimulated by palmitate. MetS and periodontitis were induced in mice by HFD and periodontal injection of LPS, respectively. The periodontal CD36 expression and its relationship with alveolar bone loss were studied using immunohistochemistry, real-time PCR, and correlation analysis. The role of CD36 in upregulation of inflammatory mediators by LPS and palmitate in macrophages was assessed using pharmacological inhibitor and small interfering RNA. Periodontal CD36 expression was higher in mice with both MetS and periodontitis than that in mice with periodontitis or MetS alone and was correlated with osteoclastogenesis and alveolar bone loss. In vitro studies showed that CD36 expression in macrophages was upregulated by LPS and palmitate, and targeting CD36 attenuated palmitate-enhanced gene expression. CD36 expression is upregulated in mice with periodontitis and MetS and involved in gene expression in macrophages stimulated by palmitate and LPS. © 2016 John Wiley & Sons A/S. Published by John Wiley & Sons Ltd.

  7. Circulating CD36 Is Reduced in HNF1A-MODY Carriers.

    LENUS (Irish Health Repository)

    Bacon, Siobhan

    2013-01-01

    Premature atherosclerosis is a significant cause of morbidity and mortality in type 2 diabetes mellitus. Maturity onset diabetes of the young (MODY) accounts for approximately 2% of all diabetes, with mutations in the transcription factor; hepatocyte nuclear factor 1 alpha (HNF1A) accounting for the majority of MODY cases. There is somewhat limited data available on the prevalence of macrovascular disease in HNF1A-MODY carriers with diabetes. Marked insulin resistance and the associated dyslipidaemia are not clinical features of HNF1A-MODY carriers. The scavenger protein CD36 has been shown to play a substantial role in the pathogenesis of atherosclerosis, largely through its interaction with oxidised LDL. Higher levels of monocyte CD36 and plasma CD36(sCD36) are seen to cluster with insulin resistance and diabetes. The aim of this study was to determine levels of sCD36 in participants with HNF1A-MODY diabetes and to compare them with unaffected normoglycaemic family members and participants with type 2 diabetes mellitus.

  8. Scavenger Receptors and Their Potential as Therapeutic Targets in the Treatment of Cardiovascular Disease

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Sam L. Stephen

    2010-01-01

    Full Text Available Scavenger receptors act as membrane-bound and soluble proteins that bind to macromolecular complexes and pathogens. This diverse supergroup of proteins mediates binding to modified lipoprotein particles which regulate the initiation and progression of atherosclerotic plaques. In vascular tissues, scavenger receptors are implicated in regulating intracellular signaling, lipid accumulation, foam cell development, and cellular apoptosis or necrosis linked to the pathophysiology of atherosclerosis. One approach is using gene therapy to modulate scavenger receptor function in atherosclerosis. Ectopic expression of membrane-bound scavenger receptors using viral vectors can modify lipid profiles and reduce the incidence of atherosclerosis. Alternatively, expression of soluble scavenger receptors can also block plaque initiation and progression. Inhibition of scavenger receptor expression using a combined gene therapy and RNA interference strategy also holds promise for long-term therapy. Here we review our current understanding of the gene delivery by viral vectors to cells and tissues in gene therapy strategies and its application to the modulation of scavenger receptor function in atherosclerosis.

  9. Identification of Inhibitors of CD36-Amyloid Beta Binding as Potential Agents for Alzheimer's Disease.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Doens, Deborah; Valiente, Pedro A; Mfuh, Adelphe M; X T Vo, Anh; Tristan, Adilia; Carreño, Lizmar; Quijada, Mario; Nguyen, Vu T; Perry, George; Larionov, Oleg V; Lleonart, Ricardo; Fernández, Patricia L

    2017-06-21

    Neuroinflammation is one of the hallmarks of Alzheimer's disease pathology. Amyloid β has a central role in microglia activation and the subsequent secretion of inflammatory mediators that are associated with neuronal toxicity. The recognition of amyloid β by microglia depends on the expression of several receptors implicated in the clearance of amyloid and in cell activation. CD36 receptor expressed on microglia interacts with fibrils of amyloid inducing the release of proinflammatory cytokines and amyloid internalization. The interruption of the interaction CD36-amyloid β compromises the activation of microglia cells. We have developed and validated a new colorimetric assay to identify potential inhibitors of the binding of amyloid β to CD36. We have found seven molecules, structural analogues of the Trichodermamide family of natural products that interfere with the interaction CD36-amyloid β. By combining molecular docking and dynamics simulations, we suggested the second fatty acids binding site within the large luminal hydrophobic tunnel, present in the extracellular domain of CD36, as the binding pocket of these compounds. Free energy calculations predicted the nonpolar component as the driving force for the binding of these inhibitors. These molecules also inhibited the production of TNF-α, IL-6, and IL-1β by peritoneal macrophages stimulated with fibrils of amyloid β. This work serves as a platform for the identification of new potential anti-inflammatory agents for the treatment of Alzheimer's disease.

  10. CD36 is required for myoblast fusion during myogenic differentiation

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Park, Seung-Yoon [Department of Biochemistry, College of Medicine, Dongguk University and Medical Institute of Dongguk University, Gyeongju 780-714 (Korea, Republic of); Yun, Youngeun [Department of Biochemistry and Cell Biology, Cell and Matrix Research Institute, School of Medicine, Kyungpook National University, Daegu 700-422 (Korea, Republic of); Kim, In-San, E-mail: iskim@knu.ac.kr [Department of Biochemistry and Cell Biology, Cell and Matrix Research Institute, School of Medicine, Kyungpook National University, Daegu 700-422 (Korea, Republic of); Biomedical Research Institute, Korea Institute Science and Technology, Seoul (Korea, Republic of)

    2012-11-02

    Highlights: Black-Right-Pointing-Pointer CD36 expression was induced during myogenic differentiation. Black-Right-Pointing-Pointer CD36 expression was localized in multinucleated myotubes. Black-Right-Pointing-Pointer The expression of myogenic markers is attenuated in CD36 knockdown C2C12 cells. Black-Right-Pointing-Pointer Knockdown of CD36 significantly inhibited myotube formation during differentiation. -- Abstract: Recently, CD36 has been found to be involved in the cytokine-induced fusion of macrophage. Myoblast fusion to form multinucleated myotubes is required for myogenesis and muscle regeneration. Because a search of gene expression database revealed the attenuation of CD36 expression in the muscles of muscular dystrophy patients, the possibility that CD36 could be required for myoblast fusion was investigated. CD36 expression was markedly up-regulated during myoblast differentiation and localized in multinucleated myotubes. Knockdown of endogenous CD36 significantly decreased the expression of myogenic markers as well as myotube formation. These results support the notion that CD36 plays an important role in cell fusion during myogenic differentiation. Our finding will aid the elucidation of the common mechanism governing cell-to-cell fusion in various fusion models.

  11. Different patterns of {sup 123}I-BMIPP myocardial accumulation in patients with type I and II CD36 deficiency

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Watanabe, Kenichi; Nagatomo, Takafumi [Niigata Coll. of Pharmacy (Japan); Toba, Ken; Ogawa, Yusuke; Aizawa, Yoshifusa; Tanabe, Naohito; Miyajima, Seiichi; Kusano, Yoriko; Hirokawa, Yoichi

    1997-12-01

    The CD36 molecule is a multifunctional membrane type receptor glycoprotein that reacts with thrombospondin, collagen, oxidized LDL and long-chain fatty acids (LCFA). LCFA are one of the major cardiac energy substrates, hence LCFA metabolism may have an important role in cardiac diseases. In this study, we analyzed CD36 expression in 200 patients with heart diseases (44 patients with hypertrophic cardiomyopathy (HCM), 16 with dilated cardiomyopathy (DCM), 26 with old myocardial infarction (OMI), 55 with angina pectoris (AP) and 59 with other miscellaneous heart diseases) using a flow cytometer. {sup 123}I-{beta}-methyl-p-iodophenylpentadecanoic acid (BMIPP) myocardial accumulation was also examined in some patients. Eight patients (2 with HCM, 1 with DCM, 2 with OMI, and 3 with AP) were diagnosed as having type I CD36 deficiency (neither platelets nor monocytes expressed CD36). Sixteen patients (3 with HCM, 1 with DCM, 1 with OMI, 8 with AP, and 3 with other heart diseases) showed type II CD36 deficiency (monocytes expressed CD36 but platelets did not). In all 8 patients with type I CD36 deficiency, there was no BMIPP accumulation in the heart. However, in 13 patients with type II CD36 deficiency, focally reduced BMIPP accumulation was observed, but there were no patients without BMIPP accumulation. CD36 deficiency was observed in a higher proportion (12%) of patients with heart disease in this study than in a reported control study. Type I CD36 deficiency is associated with absence of BMIPP accumulation in the heart, hence it may have an important role in LCFA metabolic disorders and some types of cardiac hypertrophy as well as other heart diseases. (author)

  12. Rare variant in scavenger receptor BI raises HDL cholesterol and increases risk of coronary heart disease

    Science.gov (United States)

    Scavenger receptor BI (SR-BI) is the major receptor for high-density lipoprotein (HDL) cholesterol (HDL-C). In humans, high amounts of HDL-C in plasma are associated with a lower risk of coronary heart disease (CHD). Mice that have depleted Scarb1 (SR-BI knockout mice) have markedly elevated HDL-C l...

  13. Rare variant in scavenger receptor BI raises HDL cholesterol and increases risk of coronary heart disease

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Zanoni, Paolo; Khetarpal, Sumeet A; Larach, Daniel B

    2016-01-01

    Scavenger receptor BI (SR-BI) is the major receptor for high-density lipoprotein (HDL) cholesterol (HDL-C). In humans, high amounts of HDL-C in plasma are associated with a lower risk of coronary heart disease (CHD). Mice that have depleted Scarb1 (SR-BI knockout mice) have markedly elevated HDL...

  14. Higher chylomicron remnants and LDL particle numbers associate with CD36 SNPs and DNA methylation sites that reduce CD36

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cluster of differentiation 36 (CD36) variants influence fasting lipids and risk of metabolic syndrome, but their impact on postprandial lipids, an independent risk factor for cardiovascular disease, is unclear. We determined the effects of SNPs within a ~410 kb region encompassing CD36 and its proxi...

  15. Implication of scavenger receptors in the interactions between diesel exhaust particles and immature or mature dendritic cells

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Lassalle Philippe

    2009-03-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background The exposure to pollutants such as diesel exhaust particles (DEP is associated with an increased incidence of respiratory diseases. However, the mechanisms by which DEP have an effect on human health are not completely understood. In addition to their action on macrophages and airway epithelial cells, DEP also modulate the functions of dendritic cells (DC. These professional antigen-presenting cells are able to discriminate unmodified self from non-self thanks to pattern recognition receptors such as the Toll like Receptors (TLR and Scavenger Receptors (SR. SR were originally identified by their ability to bind and internalize modified lipoproteins and microorganisms but also particles and TLR agonists. In this study, we assessed the implication of SR in the effects of DEP associated or not with TLR agonists on monocyte-derived DC (MDDC. For this, we studied the regulation of CD36, CXCL16, LOX-1, SR-A1 and SR-B1 expression on MDDC treated with DEP associated or not with TLR2, 3 and 4 ligands. Then, the capacity of SR ligands (dextran sulfate and maleylated-ovalbumin to block the effects of DEP on the function of lipopolysaccharide (LPS-activated DC has been evaluated. Results Our data demonstrate that TLR2 agonists mainly augmented CXCL16, LOX-1 and SR-B1 expression whereas DEP alone had only a weak effect. Interestingly, DEP modulated the action of TLR2 and TLR4 ligands on the expression of LOX-1 and SR-B1. Pretreatment with the SR ligand maleylated-ovalbumin but not dextran sulfate inhibited the endocytosis of DEP by MDDC. Moreover, this SR ligand blocked the effect by DEP at low dose (1 μg/ml on MDDC phenotype (a decrease of CD86 and HLA-DR expression and on the secretion of CXCL10, IL-12 and TNF-α. In contrast, the decrease of IL-12 and CXCL10 secretion and the generation of oxygen metabolite induced by DEP at 10 μg/ml was not affected by SR ligands Conclusion Our results show for the first time that the modulation of

  16. Nrf2, a PPARγ Alternative Pathway to Promote CD36 Expression on Inflammatory Macrophages: Implication for Malaria

    Science.gov (United States)

    Olagnier, David; Lavergne, Rose-Anne; Meunier, Etienne; Lefèvre, Lise; Dardenne, Christophe; Aubouy, Agnès; Benoit-Vical, Françoise; Ryffel, Bernhard; Coste, Agnès; Berry, Antoine; Pipy, Bernard

    2011-01-01

    CD36 is the major receptor mediating nonopsonic phagocytosis of Plasmodium falciparum-parasitized erythrocytes by macrophages. Its expression on macrophages is mainly controlled by the nuclear receptor PPARγ. Here, we demonstrate that inflammatory processes negatively regulate CD36 expression on human and murine macrophages, and hence decrease Plasmodium clearance directly favoring the worsening of malaria infection. This CD36 downregulation in inflammatory conditions is associated with a failure in the expression and activation of PPARγ. Interestingly, using siRNA mediating knock down of Nrf2 in macrophages or Nrf2- and PPARγ-deficient macrophages, we establish that in inflammatory conditions, the Nrf2 transcription factor controls CD36 expression independently of PPARγ. In these conditions, Nrf2 activators, but not PPARγ ligands, enhance CD36 expression and CD36-mediated Plasmodium phagocytosis. These results were confirmed in human macrophages and in vivo where only Nrf2 activators improve the outcome of severe malaria. Collectively, this report highlights that the Nrf2 transcription factor could be an alternative target to PPARγ in the control of severe malaria through parasite clearance. PMID:21949655

  17. Nrf2, a PPARγ alternative pathway to promote CD36 expression on inflammatory macrophages: implication for malaria.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    David Olagnier

    2011-09-01

    Full Text Available CD36 is the major receptor mediating nonopsonic phagocytosis of Plasmodium falciparum-parasitized erythrocytes by macrophages. Its expression on macrophages is mainly controlled by the nuclear receptor PPARγ. Here, we demonstrate that inflammatory processes negatively regulate CD36 expression on human and murine macrophages, and hence decrease Plasmodium clearance directly favoring the worsening of malaria infection. This CD36 downregulation in inflammatory conditions is associated with a failure in the expression and activation of PPARγ. Interestingly, using siRNA mediating knock down of Nrf2 in macrophages or Nrf2- and PPARγ-deficient macrophages, we establish that in inflammatory conditions, the Nrf2 transcription factor controls CD36 expression independently of PPARγ. In these conditions, Nrf2 activators, but not PPARγ ligands, enhance CD36 expression and CD36-mediated Plasmodium phagocytosis. These results were confirmed in human macrophages and in vivo where only Nrf2 activators improve the outcome of severe malaria. Collectively, this report highlights that the Nrf2 transcription factor could be an alternative target to PPARγ in the control of severe malaria through parasite clearance.

  18. Lingual CD36 and nutritional status differentially regulate fat preference in obesity-prone and obesity-resistant rats.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Douglas Braymer, H; Zachary, Hannah; Schreiber, Allyson L; Primeaux, Stefany D

    2017-05-15

    Lingual fatty acid receptors (i.e. CD36) mediate the orosensory perception of fat/fatty acids and may contribute to the susceptibility to develop obesity. The current study tested the hypothesis that fat/fatty acid preference in obesity-prone (OP, Osborne-Mendel) and obesity-resistant (OR, S5B/Pl) rats is mediated by nutritional status and lingual CD36. To determine if nutritional status affected linoleic acid (LA) preference in OP and OR rats, rats were either fasted overnight or fed a high fat diet (60% kcal from fat). In OR rats, fasting increased the preference for higher concentrations of LA (1.0%), while consumption of a high fat diet decreased LA preference. In OP rats, fasting increased the preference for lower concentrations of LA (0.25%), however high fat diet consumption did not alter LA preference. To determine if lingual CD36 mediated the effects of an overnight fast on LA preference, the expression of lingual CD36 mRNA was assessed and the effect of lingual application of CD36 siRNA on LA preference was determined. Fasting increased lingual CD36 mRNA expression in OR rats, but failed to alter lingual CD36 mRNA in OP rats. Following an overnight fast, application of lingual CD36 siRNA led to a decrease in LA preference in OR, but not OP rats. Lingual application of CD36 siRNA was also used to determine if lingual CD36 mediated the intake and preference for a high fat diet in OP and OR rats. CD36 siRNA decreased the preference and intake of high fat diet in OR rats, but not OP rats. The results from this study suggest that the dysregulation of lingual CD36 in OP rats is a potential factor leading to increased fat intake and fat preference and an enhanced susceptibility to develop obesity. Copyright © 2017 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  19. Type I macrophage scavenger receptor contains α-helical and collagen-like coiled coils

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kodama, Tatsuhiko; Freeman, Mason; Rohrer, Lucia; Zabrecky, James; Matsudaira, Paul; Krieger, Monty

    1990-02-01

    The macrophage scavenger receptor is a trimeric membrane glycoprotein with unusual ligand-binding properties which has been implicated in the development of atherosclerosis. The trimeric structure of the bovine type I scavenger receptor, deduced by complementary DNA cloning, contains three extracellular C-terminal cysteine-rich domains connected to the transmembrane domain by a long fibrous stalk. This stalk structure, composed of an a-helical coiled coil and a collagen-like triple helix, has not previously been observed in an integral membrane protein.

  20. Simvastatin inhibited oxLDL-induced proatherogenic effects through calpain-1-PPARγ-CD36 pathway.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yang, Xueyan; Yin, Meihui; Yu, Lan; Lu, Meili; Wang, Hongxin; Tang, Futian; Zhang, Yingjie

    2016-12-01

    We previously reported that simvastatin, an inhibitor of HMG-CoA reductase, inhibits atherosclerosis in rats. The present study was designed to investigate the effect of simvastatin on mouse peritoneal macrophage foam cell formation, the early feature of atherosclerosis, and explore its mechanisms. The results showed that simvastatin decreased cholesterol content and DiI-oxLDL (1,1'-didodecyl 3,3,3',3'-indocarbocyanine perchlorate - oxidized low-density lipoprotein) uptake, reduced the levels of tumor necrosis factor-α (TNF-α) and interleukin-6 (IL-6) in the medium, down-regulated the mRNA and protein expression of CD36 (a fatty acid receptor), and reduced the mRNA expressions of peroxisome proliferator-activated receptor gamma (PPARγ), TNF-α, and IL-6 in macrophages treated with oxLDL. However, PPARγ agonist troglitazone partly abolished the effects of simvastatin on foam cells. In addition, simvastatin reduced the protein expression of calpain-1, a Ca(2+)-sensitive cysteine protease, in oxLDL-treated macrophages. Furthermore, PD150606, a specific calpain inhibitor, reduced mRNA expressions of PPARγ and CD36 in macrophages treated with oxLDL. Combination of simvastatin and PD150606 had no further effect on mRNA expression of PPARγ and CD36 compared with either alone. However, over-expression of calpain-1 in macrophages partly reversed the simvastatin effects, including cell cholesterol content, mRNA expressions of PPARγ, and CD36. The results suggested that simvastatin inhibits foam cell formation of oxLDL-treated macrophages through a calpain-1-PPARγ-CD36 pathway.

  1. CD36 deficiency in mice impairs lipoprotein lipase-mediated triglyceride clearance

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Goudriaan, J.R.; oer, M.A.M. den; Rensen, P.C.N.; Febbraio, M.; Kuipers, F.; Romijn, J.A.; Havekes, L.M.; Voshol, P.J.

    2005-01-01

    CD36 is involved in high-affinity peripheral FFA uptake. CD36-deficient (cd36-/-) mice exhibit increased plasma FFA and triglyceride (TG) levels. The aim of the present study was to elucidate the cause of the increased plasma TG levels in cd36-/- mice. cd36-/- mice showed no differences in hepatic

  2. Diabetes mellitus tipo 2: qual o papel da insulina na expressão de NF-kappaB, PPARγ e CD36?

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Cristina de Oliveira SILVA

    2014-12-01

    Full Text Available No diabetes mellitus tipo 2 (DM2 e na síndrome de resistência à insulina, as complicações cardiovasculares resultam de um conjunto de processos aterogênicos envolvendo hiperglicemia crônica, excessiva glicação de proteínas (AGEs, ativação do fator nuclear kappa B (NKκB associada com o aumento da expressão de citocinas inflamatórias e estresse oxidativo, observando-se ainda alteração de LDL e expressão do receptor de scavenger CD36. A contribuição da hiperinsulinemia nesta sequência não é completamente elucidada. Nesta revisão, relata-se como a insulina pode modular a expressão proteica de NFκB, PPAR gama (PPARγ e CD36 em células da musculatura lisa vascular (CMLV da aorta de ratos estimuladas pelos AGE.

  3. CD36 enhances fatty acid uptake by increasing the rate of intracellular esterification but not transport across the plasma membrane.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Xu, Su; Jay, Anthony; Brunaldi, Kellen; Huang, Nasi; Hamilton, James A

    2013-10-15

    CD36 is a multifunctional protein that enhances cellular fatty acid (FA) uptake, a key step in energy metabolism, and its dysregulation in multiple tissue sites is central to obesity-linked diabetes, a risk factor for atherosclerosis. Although CD36 has been implicated in FA uptake in a correlative way, the molecular mechanisms are not known. Their elucidation in cells is confounded by receptor-mediated uptake of low-density lipoprotein by CD36 and the competitive and/or contributive effects of other proteins involved in FA transport and metabolism, which include caveolin(s), fatty acid transport protein (FATP), intracellular fatty acid binding protein, and enzymes involved in the conversion of FAs to esters. Here we utilized a simpler cellular system (HEK cells), which lack caveolin-1, CD36, and FATP and metabolize FAs slowly compared to the time frame of transmembrane FA movement. Our previous studies of HEK cells showed that caveolin-1 affects FA binding and translocation across the plasma membrane and but not FA esterification [Simard, J. R., et al. (2010) J. Lipid Res. 51 (5), 914-922]. Our key new finding is that CD36 accelerates FA uptake and extensive incorporation into triglycerides, a process that is slower (minutes) than transmembrane movement (seconds). Real-time fluorescence measurements showed that the rates of binding and transport of oleic acid into cells with and without CD36 were not different. Thus, CD36 enhances intracellular metabolism, i.e., esterification, and thereby increases the rate of FA uptake without catalyzing the translocation of FA across the plasma membrane, suggesting that CD36 is central to FA uptake via its effects on intracellular metabolism.

  4. Identification of the hemoglobin scavenger receptor/CD163 as a natural soluble protein in plasma

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Møller, Holger Jon; Peterslund, Niels Anker; Graversen, Jonas Heilskov

    2002-01-01

    The hemoglobin scavenger receptor (HbSR/CD163) is an interleukin-6- and glucocorticoid-regulated macrophage/monocyte receptor for uptake of haptoglobin-hemoglobin complexes. Moreover, there are strong indications that HbSR serves an anti-inflammatory function. Immunoprecipitation and immunoblotting...... enabled identification of a soluble plasma form of HbSR (sHbSR) having an electrophoretic mobility equal to that of recombinant HbSR consisting of the extracellular domain (scavenger receptor cysteine-rich 1-9). A sandwich enzyme-linked immunosorbent assay was established and used to measure the s...... a level of sHbSR above the range of healthy persons. Patients with myelomonocytic leukemias and pneumonia/sepsis exhibited the highest levels (up to 67.3 mg/L). In conclusion, sHbSR is an abundant plasma protein potentially valuable in monitoring patients with infections and myelomonocytic leukemia....

  5. Phytosterol-enriched yogurt increases LDL affinity and reduces CD36 expression in polygenic hypercholesterolemia.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ruiu, Gianluca; Pinach, Silvia; Veglia, Fabrizio; Gambino, Roberto; Marena, Saverio; Uberti, Barbara; Alemanno, Natalina; Burt, Davina; Pagano, Gianfranco; Cassader, Maurizio

    2009-02-01

    Dietary enrichment with phytosterols (plant sterols similar to cholesterol) is able to reduce plasma cholesterol levels due to reduced intestinal absorption. The aim of this study was to investigate the effect of phytosterol-enriched yogurt consumption on the major serum lipid parameters, low density lipoprotein (LDL) receptor activity, LDL-receptor affinity, and CD36 expression in hypercholesterolemic subjects. Fifteen patients affected by polygenic hypercholesterolemia were evaluated in a single-blind randomized crossover study after a 4 weeks treatment with a phytosterol-enriched yogurt containing 1.6 g esterefied phytosterols (equivalent to 1.0 g free phytosterol). Lipid parameters were compared with a phytosterol-free placebo-controlled diet. The effect of the two treatments on each variable, measured as percentage change, was compared by paired samples t test and covariance analysis. The treatment induced a modest but significant decrease in LDL-cholesterol levels (4.3%, P = 0.03) and a significant increase in high density lipoprotein (HDL) 3-cholesterol (17.1%, P = 0.01). Phytosterol consumption had no effect on LDL-receptor activity whereas patient LDL-receptor affinity significantly increased (9.7%, P = 0.01) and CD36 expression showed a marked significant decrease (18.2%, P = 0.01) in the phytosterol-enriched yoghurt patients. Our data show that the oral administration of a phytosterol-enriched yogurt has modest but significant effects on commonly measured lipid parameters. The improvement of LDL-receptor affinity and the reduction in CD36 expression may reflect an important antiatherogenic effect.

  6. Alternative promoter usage of the membrane glycoprotein CD36

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Whatling Carl

    2006-03-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background CD36 is a membrane glycoprotein involved in a variety of cellular processes such as lipid transport, immune regulation, hemostasis, adhesion, angiogenesis and atherosclerosis. It is expressed in many tissues and cell types, with a tissue specific expression pattern that is a result of a complex regulation for which the molecular mechanisms are not yet fully understood. There are several alternative mRNA isoforms described for the gene. We have investigated the expression patterns of five alternative first exons of the CD36 gene in several human tissues and cell types, to better understand the molecular details behind its regulation. Results We have identified one novel alternative first exon of the CD36 gene, and confirmed the expression of four previously known alternative first exons of the gene. The alternative transcripts are all expressed in more than one human tissue and their expression patterns vary highly in skeletal muscle, heart, liver, adipose tissue, placenta, spinal cord, cerebrum and monocytes. All alternative first exons are upregulated in THP-1 macrophages in response to oxidized low density lipoproteins. The alternative promoters lack TATA-boxes and CpG islands. The upstream region of exon 1b contains several features common for house keeping gene and monocyte specific gene promoters. Conclusion Tissue-specific expression patterns of the alternative first exons of CD36 suggest that the alternative first exons of the gene are regulated individually and tissue specifically. At the same time, the fact that all first exons are upregulated in THP-1 macrophages in response to oxidized low density lipoproteins may suggest that the alternative first exons are coregulated in this cell type and environmental condition. The molecular mechanisms regulating CD36 thus appear to be unusually complex, which might reflect the multifunctional role of the gene in different tissues and cellular conditions.

  7. Receptor targeting of hemoglobin mediated by the haptoglobins: roles beyond heme scavenging.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Nielsen, Marianne Jensby; Moestrup, Søren Kragh

    2009-07-23

    Haptoglobin, the haptoglobin-hemoglobin receptor CD163, and the heme oxygenase-1 are proteins with a well-established function in the clearance and metabolism of "free" hemoglobin released during intravascular hemolysis. This scavenging system counteracts the potentially harmful oxidative and NO-scavenging effects associated with "free" hemoglobin, and, furthermore, elicits an anti-inflammatory response. In the late primate evolution, haptoglobin variants with distinct functions have arisen, including haptoglobin polymers and the haptoglobin-related protein. The latter associates with a subspecies of high-density lipoprotein (HDL) particles playing a crucial role in the innate immunity against certain trypanosome parasites. Recent studies have elucidated this fairly sophisticated immune defense mechanism that takes advantage of a trypanosomal haptoglobin-hemoglobin receptor evolved to supply the parasite with heme. Because of the high resemblance between haptoglobin and haptoglobin-related protein, the receptor also takes up the complex of hemoglobin and the HDL-bound haptoglobin-related protein. This tricks the parasite into internalizing another HDL-associated protein and toxin, apolipoprotein L-I, that kills the parasite. In conclusion, variant human homologous hemoglobin-binding proteins that collectively may be designated the haptoglobins have diverted from the haptoglobin gene. On hemoglobin and receptor interaction, these haptoglobins contribute to different biologic events that go beyond simple removal from plasma of the toxic hemoglobin.

  8. Scavenger receptors mediate the role of SUMO and Ftz-f1 in Drosophila steroidogenesis.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ana Talamillo

    2013-04-01

    Full Text Available SUMOylation participates in ecdysteroid biosynthesis at the onset of metamorphosis in Drosophila melanogaster. Silencing the Drosophila SUMO homologue smt3 in the prothoracic gland leads to reduced lipid content, low ecdysone titers, and a block in the larval-pupal transition. Here we show that the SR-BI family of Scavenger Receptors mediates SUMO functions. Reduced levels of Snmp1 compromise lipid uptake in the prothoracic gland. In addition, overexpression of Snmp1 is able to recover lipid droplet levels in the smt3 knockdown prothoracic gland cells. Snmp1 expression depends on Ftz-f1 (an NR5A-type orphan nuclear receptor, the expression of which, in turn, depends on SUMO. Furthermore, we show by in vitro and in vivo experiments that Ftz-f1 is SUMOylated. RNAi-mediated knockdown of ftz-f1 phenocopies that of smt3 at the larval to pupal transition, thus Ftz-f1 is an interesting candidate to mediate some of the functions of SUMO at the onset of metamorphosis. Additionally, we demonstrate that the role of SUMOylation, Ftz-f1, and the Scavenger Receptors in lipid capture and mobilization is conserved in other steroidogenic tissues such as the follicle cells of the ovary. smt3 knockdown, as well as ftz-f1 or Scavenger knockdown, depleted the lipid content of the follicle cells, which could be rescued by Snmp1 overexpression. Therefore, our data provide new insights into the regulation of metamorphosis via lipid homeostasis, showing that Drosophila Smt3, Ftz-f1, and SR-BIs are part of a general mechanism for uptake of lipids such as cholesterol, required during development in steroidogenic tissues.

  9. Design and synthesis of a stable oxidized phospholipid mimic with specific binding recognition for macrophage scavenger receptors

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Turner, William W; Hartvigsen, Karsten; Boullier, Agnes

    2012-01-01

    Macrophage scavenger receptors appear to play a major role in the clearance of oxidized phospholipid (OxPL) products. Discrete peptide-phospholipid conjugates with the phosphatidylcholine headgroup have been shown to exhibit binding affinity for these receptors. We report the preparation of a water...

  10. In vitro photodynamic effects of scavenger receptor targeted-photoactivatable nanoagents on activated macrophages.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yi, Bong Gu; Park, Ok Kyu; Jeong, Myeong Seon; Kwon, Seung Hae; Jung, Jae In; Lee, Seongsoo; Ryoo, Sungwoo; Kim, Sung Eun; Kim, Jin Won; Moon, Won-Jin; Park, Kyeongsoon

    2017-04-01

    Scavenger receptors (SRs) expressed on the activated macrophages in inflammation sites have been considered as the most interesting and important target biomarker for targeted drug delivery, imaging and therapy. In the present study, we fabricated the scavenger receptor-A (SR-A) targeted-photoactivatable nanoagents (termed as Ce6/DS-DOCA) by entrapping chlorin e6 (Ce6) into the amphiphilic dextran sulfate-deoxycholic acid (DS-DOCA) conjugates via physically hydrophobic interactions. Insoluble Ce6 was easily encapsulated into DS-DOCA nanoparticles by a dialysis method and the loading efficiency was approximately 51.7%. The Ce6/DS-DOCA formed nano-sized self-assembled aggregates (28.8±5.6nm in diameter), confirmed by transmission electron microscope, UV/Vis and fluorescence spectrophotometer. The Ce6/DS-DOCA nanoagents could generate highly reactive singlet oxygen under laser irradiation. Also, in vitro studies showed that they were more specifically taken up by lipopolysaccharide (LPS)-induced activated macrophages (RAW 264.7) via a SR-A-mediated endocytosis, relative to by non-activated macrophages, and notably induced cell death of activated macrophages under laser irradiation. Therefore, SR-A targetable and photoactivatable Ce6/DS-DOCA nanoagents with more selective targeting to the activated macrophages will have great potential for treatment of inflammatory diseases. Copyright © 2017 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  11. The gustatory pathway is involved in CD36-mediated orosensory perception of long-chain fatty acids in the mouse.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gaillard, Dany; Laugerette, Fabienne; Darcel, Nicolas; El-Yassimi, Abdelghani; Passilly-Degrace, Patricia; Hichami, Aziz; Khan, Naim Akhtar; Montmayeur, Jean-Pierre; Besnard, Philippe

    2008-05-01

    The sense of taste informs the body about the quality of ingested foods. Tastant-mediated signals are generated by a rise in free intracellular calcium levels ([Ca(2+)]i) in the taste bud cells and then are transferred to the gustatory area of brain via connections between the gustatory nerves (chorda tympani and glossopharyngeal nerves) and the nucleus of solitary tract in the brain stem. We have recently shown that lingual CD36 contributes to fat preference and early digestive secretions in the mouse. We show here that 1) the induction of an increase in [Ca(2+)]i by linoleic acid is CD36-dependent in taste receptor cells, 2) the spontaneous preference for or conversely conditioned aversion to linoleic acid requires intact gustatory nerves, and 3) the activation of gustatory neurons in the nucleus of the solitary tract elicited by a linoleic acid deposition on the tongue in wild-type mice cannot be reproduced in CD36-null animals. We conclude that the CD36-mediated perception of long-chain fatty acids involves the gustatory pathway, suggesting that the mouse may have a "taste" for fatty foods. This system would constitute a potential physiological advantage under conditions of food scarcity by leading the mouse to select and absorb fatty foods. However, it might also lead to a risk of obesity and associated diseases in a context of constantly abundant food.

  12. The superoxide scavenger TEMPOL induces urokinase receptor (uPAR expression in human prostate cancer cells

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Francis Joseph

    2006-06-01

    Full Text Available Abstract There is little understanding of the effect that reactive oxygen metabolites have on cellular behavior during the processes of invasion and metastasis. These oxygen metabolites could interact with a number of targets modulating their function such as enzymes involved in basement membrane dissolution, adhesion molecules involved in motility or receptors involved in proliferation. We investigated the effect of increased scavenging of superoxide anions on the expression of the urokinase receptor (uPAR in PC-3M human prostate cancer cells. Urokinase receptor is a GPI-linked cell surface molecule which mediates multiple functions including adhesion, proliferation and pericellular proteolysis. Addition of the superoxide scavenger 4-hydroxy-2,2,6,6-tetramethylpiperidinyloxy (TEMPOL to PC-3M cultures stimulated expression of uPAR protein peaking between 48 and 72 hours. Cell surface expression of the uPAR was also increased. Surprisingly, uPAR transcript levels increased only slightly and this mild increase did not coincide with the striking degree of protein increase. This disparity indicates that the TEMPOL effect on uPAR occurs through a post-transcriptional mechanism. TEMPOL presence in PC-3M cultures reduced intracellular superoxide-type species by 75% as assayed by NBT dye conversion; however this reduction significantly diminished within hours following TEMPOL removal. The time gap between TEMPOL treatment and peak uPAR protein expression suggests that reduction of reactive oxygen metabolites in prostate cancer cells initiates a multistep pathway which requires several hours to culminate in uPAR induction. These findings reveal a novel pathway for uPAR regulation involving reactive oxygens such as superoxide anion.

  13. Cloning and characterization of SCART1, a novel scavenger receptor cysteine-rich type I transmembrane molecule

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Holm, Dorte; Fink, Dorte Rosenbek; Grønlund, Jørn

    2009-01-01

    We have cloned and characterized a novel murine transmembrane molecule, mSCART1 belonging to the scavenger receptor cysteine-rich superfamily. The cDNA encodes a polypeptide chain of 989 amino acids, organized as a type I transmembrane protein that contains eight extracellular SRCR domains followed...... family of the SRCR superfamily. Finally, a novel human scavenger receptor cysteine-rich molecule with high homology to mSCART1 was identified by searching in the human genomic databases using the mSCART1 cDNA sequence....

  14. Sulfated Cholecystokinin-8 Promotes CD36—Mediated Fatty Acid Uptake into Primary Mouse Duodenal Enterocytes

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Claire Demenis

    2017-09-01

    Full Text Available Cholecystokinin (CCK is an archetypal incretin hormone secreted by intestinal enteroendocrine cells (EEC in response to ingested nutrients. The aim of this study was to determine whether CCK modulates enterocyte fatty acid uptake by primary mouse duodenal cells. Exposure of primary mouse duodenal cells to 10 pM sulfated CCK-8 caused a two fold increase in dodecanoic acid fatty acid (FA uptake. The selective CCK A receptor antagonist loxiglumide (100 μM completely abolished the CCK-8 induced FA uptake. The CD36 fatty acid translocase-specific inhibitor sulfo-N-succinimidyl oleate (1 μM also completely inhibited CCK-8 induced FA uptake, as did treatment with 200 μM phloretin. Together these data show CCK induces FA uptake into duodenal enterocytes; this action involves the CCK-RA receptor and is carrier mediated by CD36.

  15. CBLB502, an agonist of Toll-like receptor 5, has antioxidant and scavenging free radicals activities in vitro.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Li, Weiguang; Ge, Changhui; Yang, Liu; Wang, Ruixue; Lu, Yiming; Gao, Yan; Li, Zhihui; Wu, Yonghong; Zheng, Xiaofei; Wang, Zhaoyan; Zhang, Chenggang

    2016-01-01

    The bacterial protein flagellin is the known agonist of Toll-like receptor 5 (TLR5). It has been reported that CBLB502, a novel agonist of TLR5 derived from Salmonella flagellin, could reduce radiation toxicity in mouse and primate models, protect mice from dermatitis and oral mucositis caused by radiation, inhibit acute renal ischemic failure, and inhibit the growth of A549 lung cancer cell. The property of CBLB502 is able to bind to TLR5 and activates NF-κB signaling. In this study, we investigated the antioxidant potential and free radicals scavenging properties of CBLB502 in vitro. Interestingly, we found that CBLB502 has a direct and distinct antioxidant capacity and can efficiently scavenge a variety of free radicals, including superoxide anion, hydroxyl radical, and ABTS cation (ABTS(+)). Through wave scanning and kinetic evaluation of scavenging ABTS(+), we found that the ABTS(+) scavenging process of CBLB502 is relatively slow, and the ABTS(+) scavenging activity of CBLB502 has a consistently kinetics characteristics. In conclusion, our results suggested that CBLB502 has antioxidant and scavenging free radicals activities in vitro. It is implied that CBLB502 might partially promote the beneficial protective effect through its scavenging free radicals. Copyright © 2015. Published by Elsevier B.V.

  16. The class A macrophage scavenger receptor is a major pattern recognition receptor for Neisseria meningitidis which is independent of lipopolysaccharide and not required for secretory responses

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Peiser, Leanne; de Winther, Menno P. J.; Makepeace, Katherine; Hollinshead, Michael; Coull, Philip; Plested, Joyce; Kodama, Tatsuhiko; Moxon, E. Richard; Gordon, Siamon

    2002-01-01

    Macrophages (Mphi) play a key role in the pathogenesis of invasive meningococcal infections. The roles of two pattern recognition molecules, the Mphi scavenger receptor (SR-A) and Toll-like receptor 4 (TLR-4), have been investigated using bone marrow culture-derived Mphi (BMMphi). Surprisingly, a

  17. Recognition of dextran-superparamagnetic iron oxide nanoparticle conjugates (Feridex) via macrophage scavenger receptor charged domains.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chao, Ying; Makale, Milan; Karmali, Priya Prakash; Sharikov, Yuriy; Tsigelny, Igor; Merkulov, Sergei; Kesari, Santosh; Wrasidlo, Wolf; Ruoslahti, Erkki; Simberg, Dmitri

    2012-05-16

    Dextran-coated superparamagnetic iron oxide nanoparticles (dextran-SPIO conjugates) offer the attractive possibility of enhancing MRI imaging sensitivity so that small or diffuse lesions can be detected. However, systemically injected SPIOs are rapidly removed by macrophages. We engineered embryonic cells (HEK293T) to express major macrophage scavenger receptor (SR) subtypes including SR-AI, MARCO, and endothelial receptor collectin-12. These SRs possess a positively charged collagen-like (CL) domain and they promoted SPIO uptake, while the charge neutral lipoprotein receptor SR-BI did not. In silico modeling indicated a positive net charge on the CL domain and a net negative charge on the cysteine-rich (CR) domain of MARCO and SR-AI. In vitro experiments revealed that CR domain deletion in SR-AI boosted uptake of SPIO 3-fold, while deletion of MARCO's CR domain abolished this uptake. These data suggest that future studies might productively focus on the validation and further exploration of SR charge fields in SPIO recognition.

  18. Hypocholesterolemia, foam cell accumulation, but no atherosclerosis in mice lacking ABC-transporter A1 and scavenger receptor BI

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Zhao, Ying; Pennings, Marieke; Vrins, Carlos L. J.; Calpe-Berdiel, Laura; Hoekstra, Menno; Kruijt, J. Kar; Ottenhoff, Roelof; Hildebrand, Reeni B.; van der Sluis, Ronald; Jessup, Wendy; Le Goff, Wilfried; Chapman, M. John; Huby, Thierry; Groen, Albert K.; Van Berkel, Theo J. C.; Van Eck, Miranda

    2011-01-01

    High-density lipoprotein (HDL) mediated reverse cholesterol transport (RCT) is regarded to be crucial for prevention of foam cell formation and atherosclerosis. ABC-transporter A1 (ABCA1) and scavenger receptor BI (SR-BI) are involved in the biogenesis of HDL and the selective delivery of HDL

  19. Efficient intracellular drug-targeting of macrophages using stealth liposomes directed to the hemoglobin scavenger receptor CD163

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Etzerodt, Anders; Maniecki, Maciej Bogdan; Graversen, Jonas Heilskov

    2012-01-01

    The hemoglobin scavenger receptor CD163 is exclusively expressed in the monocytic lineage and preferentially in tissue resident macrophages of the M2 phenotype and in macrophages in sites of inflammation and tumor growth. In the present study we have designed liposomes specifically targeting CD16...

  20. The formyl peptide receptor like-1 and scavenger receptor MARCO are involved in glial cell activation in bacterial meningitis

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Jansen Sandra

    2011-02-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background Recent studies have suggested that the scavenger receptor MARCO (macrophage receptor with collagenous structure mediates activation of the immune response in bacterial infection of the central nervous system (CNS. The chemotactic G-protein-coupled receptor (GPCR formyl-peptide-receptor like-1 (FPRL1 plays an essential role in the inflammatory responses of host defence mechanisms and neurodegenerative disorders such as Alzheimer's disease (AD. Expression of the antimicrobial peptide cathelicidin CRAMP/LL-37 is up-regulated in bacterial meningitis, but the mechanisms underlying CRAMP expression are far from clear. Methods Using a rat meningitis model, we investigated the influence of MARCO and FPRL1 on rCRAMP (rat cathelin-related antimicrobial peptide expression after infection with bacterial supernatants of Streptococcus pneumoniae (SP and Neisseria meningitides (NM. Expression of FPRL1 and MARCO was analyzed by immunofluorescence and real-time RT-PCR in a rat meningitis model. Furthermore, we examined the receptor involvement by real-time RT-PCR, extracellular-signal regulated kinases 1/2 (ERK1/2 phosphorylation and cAMP level measurement in glial cells (astrocytes and microglia and transfected HEK293 cells using receptor deactivation by antagonists. Receptors were inhibited by small interference RNA and the consequences in NM- and SP-induced Camp (rCRAMP gene expression and signal transduction were determined. Results We show an NM-induced increase of MARCO expression by immunofluorescence and real-time RT-PCR in glial and meningeal cells. Receptor deactivation by antagonists and small interfering RNA (siRNA verified the importance of FPRL1 and MARCO for NM- and SP-induced Camp and interleukin-1β expression in glial cells. Furthermore, we demonstrated a functional interaction between FPRL1 and MARCO in NM-induced signalling by real-time RT-PCR, ERK1/2 phosphorylation and cAMP level measurement and show differences between

  1. Class A scavenger receptor promotes osteoclast differentiation via the enhanced expression of receptor activator of NF-{kappa}B (RANK)

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Takemura, Kenichi [Department of Cell Pathology, Graduate School of Medical Sciences, Kumamoto University, 1-1-1 Honjo, Kumamoto 860-8556 (Japan); Department of Orthopaedic and Neuro-Musculoskeletal Surgery, Graduate School of Medical Sciences, Kumamoto University, Kumamoto (Japan); Sakashita, Naomi; Fujiwara, Yukio; Komohara, Yoshihiro; Lei, XiaoFeng; Ohnishi, Koji [Department of Cell Pathology, Graduate School of Medical Sciences, Kumamoto University, 1-1-1 Honjo, Kumamoto 860-8556 (Japan); Suzuki, Hiroshi [National Research Center for Protozoan Diseases, Obihiro University of Agriculture and Veterinary Medicine, Hokkaido (Japan); Kodama, Tatsuhiko [Department of Molecular Biology and Medicine, Research Center for Advanced Science and Technology, The University of Tokyo, Tokyo (Japan); Mizuta, Hiroshi [Department of Orthopaedic and Neuro-Musculoskeletal Surgery, Graduate School of Medical Sciences, Kumamoto University, Kumamoto (Japan); Takeya, Motohiro, E-mail: takeya@kumamoto-u.ac.jp [Department of Cell Pathology, Graduate School of Medical Sciences, Kumamoto University, 1-1-1 Honjo, Kumamoto 860-8556 (Japan)

    2010-01-22

    Osteoclasts originate from bone marrow monocyte/macrophage lineage cells, and their differentiation depends on macrophage colony-stimulating factor (M-CSF) and receptor activator nuclear factor kappa B (RANK) ligand. Class A scavenger receptor (SR-A) is one of the principal functional molecules of macrophages, and its level of expression declines during osteoclast differentiation. To investigate the role of SR-A in osteoclastogenesis, we examined pathological changes in femoral bone and the expression levels of osteoclastogenesis-related molecules in SR-A{sup -/-} mice. The femoral osseous density of SR-A{sup -/-} mice was higher than that of SR-A{sup +/+} mice, and the number of multinucleated osteoclasts was significantly decreased. An in vitro differentiation assay revealed that the differentiation of multinucleated osteoclasts from bone marrow-derived progenitor cells is impaired in SR-A{sup -/-} mice. Elimination of SR-A did not alter the expression level of the M-CSF receptor, c-fms; however, the expression levels of RANK and RANK-related osteoclast-differentiation molecules such as nuclear factor of activated T-cells, cytoplasmic, calcineurin-dependent 1 (NFATc1) and microphthalmia-associated transcription factor (MITF) significantly decreased. Furthermore, acetylated low-density lipoprotein (AcLDL), an SR-A ligand, significantly increased the expression level of RANK and MITF during osteoclast differentiation. These data indicate that SR-A promotes osteoclastogenesis via augmentation of the expression level of RANK and its related molecules.

  2. Scavenger receptor class B type 1 regulates neuroblastoma cell proliferation, migration and invasion.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Panchoo, Marlyn; Lacko, Andras

    2018-01-01

    Neuroblastoma (NB) is an extra cranial pediatric embryonal tumor most prevalent in children less than 1 year of age. NB accounts for 7% of all pediatric cancers but accounts for 15% of all childhood cancer deaths. Scavenger receptor class B type 1 (SR-B1), a mediator of cellular cholesterol uptake, is overexpressed in and have been linked to the aggressiveness of many cancers. Nevertheless, no studies have so far investigated the relationship between SR-B1 and NB. Elucidation of receptors that promote NB may pave the way for discovery of new therapeutic targets. Here we show that inhibition of SR-B1 reduced cell survival, migration and invasion, and cholesterol content in NB cell lines. Additionally analysis of SR-B1 levels in NB patient biopsies using the R2: Genomics Analysis and Visualization Platform showed that high SR-B1 expression correlated with decreased overall and event-free survival. Copyright © 2017 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  3. Rare variant in scavenger receptor BI raises HDL cholesterol and increases risk of coronary heart disease.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zanoni, Paolo; Khetarpal, Sumeet A; Larach, Daniel B; Hancock-Cerutti, William F; Millar, John S; Cuchel, Marina; DerOhannessian, Stephanie; Kontush, Anatol; Surendran, Praveen; Saleheen, Danish; Trompet, Stella; Jukema, J Wouter; De Craen, Anton; Deloukas, Panos; Sattar, Naveed; Ford, Ian; Packard, Chris; Majumder, Abdullah al Shafi; Alam, Dewan S; Di Angelantonio, Emanuele; Abecasis, Goncalo; Chowdhury, Rajiv; Erdmann, Jeanette; Nordestgaard, Børge G; Nielsen, Sune F; Tybjærg-Hansen, Anne; Schmidt, Ruth Frikke; Kuulasmaa, Kari; Liu, Dajiang J; Perola, Markus; Blankenberg, Stefan; Salomaa, Veikko; Männistö, Satu; Amouyel, Philippe; Arveiler, Dominique; Ferrieres, Jean; Müller-Nurasyid, Martina; Ferrario, Marco; Kee, Frank; Willer, Cristen J; Samani, Nilesh; Schunkert, Heribert; Butterworth, Adam S; Howson, Joanna M M; Peloso, Gina M; Stitziel, Nathan O; Danesh, John; Kathiresan, Sekar; Rader, Daniel J

    2016-03-11

    Scavenger receptor BI (SR-BI) is the major receptor for high-density lipoprotein (HDL) cholesterol (HDL-C). In humans, high amounts of HDL-C in plasma are associated with a lower risk of coronary heart disease (CHD). Mice that have depleted Scarb1 (SR-BI knockout mice) have markedly elevated HDL-C levels but, paradoxically, increased atherosclerosis. The impact of SR-BI on HDL metabolism and CHD risk in humans remains unclear. Through targeted sequencing of coding regions of lipid-modifying genes in 328 individuals with extremely high plasma HDL-C levels, we identified a homozygote for a loss-of-function variant, in which leucine replaces proline 376 (P376L), in SCARB1, the gene encoding SR-BI. The P376L variant impairs posttranslational processing of SR-BI and abrogates selective HDL cholesterol uptake in transfected cells, in hepatocyte-like cells derived from induced pluripotent stem cells from the homozygous subject, and in mice. Large population-based studies revealed that subjects who are heterozygous carriers of the P376L variant have significantly increased levels of plasma HDL-C. P376L carriers have a profound HDL-related phenotype and an increased risk of CHD (odds ratio = 1.79, which is statistically significant). Copyright © 2016, American Association for the Advancement of Science.

  4. Scavenger receptor B1 facilitates macrophage uptake of silver nanoparticles and cellular activation

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Aldossari, Abdullah A.; Shannahan, Jonathan H. [The University of Colorado Anschutz Medical Campus, Department of Pharmaceutical Sciences, Skaggs School of Pharmacy and Pharmaceutical Sciences (United States); Podila, Ramakrishna [Clemson University, Department of Physics and Astronomy (United States); Brown, Jared M., E-mail: jared.brown@ucdenver.edu [The University of Colorado Anschutz Medical Campus, Department of Pharmaceutical Sciences, Skaggs School of Pharmacy and Pharmaceutical Sciences (United States)

    2015-07-15

    Due to increased use of silver nanoparticles (AgNPs) for their antimicrobial activity, concerns have risen regarding potential adverse human health effects. Scavenger receptor B1 (SR-B1), a major receptor for high-density lipoprotein (HDL), is expressed by macrophages and has also been reported to play a role in recognition of negatively charged particles. We, therefore, hypothesized that SR-B1 mediates macrophage uptake of AgNPs and inflammatory activation. To test this hypothesis, we exposed a mouse macrophage cell line RAW264.7 (RAW) and bone marrow-derived macrophages (BMDM) to 20 nm citrate-suspended AgNPs. To verify the role of the SR-B1 receptor, we utilized a SR-B1 inhibitor (Blt2). In vitro studies demonstrated uptake of AgNPs and HDL-coated AgNPs by macrophages which were significantly reduced following pretreatment with Blt2. Inflammatory cytokine arrays revealed that macrophages exposed to AgNPs up-regulated expression of Tnf-α, Oncostatin m (OSM), Ccl4, Il17f, Ccl7, and Ccl2, whereas Il16 was found to be down-regulated. Macrophage activation was observed following AgNP and HDL-coated AgNP exposure as measured by OSM protein production and increased surface expression of CD86. These markers of activation were reduced with Blt2 pretreatment. The in vitro findings were confirmed in vivo through pulmonary instillation of AgNPs in mice. Pulmonary instillation of AgNPs resulted in a recruitment of inflammatory cells that were reduced in SR-B1-deficient mice or following Blt2 pretreatment. This study suggests that SR-B1 plays a major role in cellular recognition of AgNPs and the induction of cell responses that could contribute to inflammation caused by AgNP exposure.

  5. The scavenger receptor MARCO modulates TLR-induced responses in dendritic cells.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Haydn T Kissick

    Full Text Available The scavenger receptor MARCO mediates macrophage recognition and clearance of pathogens and their polyanionic ligands. However, recent studies demonstrate MARCO expression and function in dendritic cells, suggesting MARCO might serve to bridge innate and adaptive immunity. To gain additional insight into the role of MARCO in dendritic cell activation and function, we profiled transcriptomes of mouse splenic dendritic cells obtained from MARCO deficient mice and their wild type counterparts under resting and activating conditions. In silico analysis uncovered major alterations in gene expression in MARCO deficient dendritic cells resulting in dramatic alterations in key dendritic cell-specific pathways and functions. Specifically, changes in CD209, FCGR4 and Complement factors can have major consequences on DC-mediated innate responses. Notably, these perturbations were magnified following activation with the TLR-4 agonist lipopolysaccharide. To validate our in silico data, we challenged DC's with various agonists that recognize all mouse TLRs and assessed expression of a set of immune and inflammatory marker genes. This approach identified a differential contribution of MARCO to TLR activation and validated a major role for MARCO in mounting an inflammatory response. Together, our data demonstrate that MARCO differentially affects TLR-induced DC activation and suggest targeting of MARCO could lead to different outcomes that depend on the inflammatory context encountered by DC.

  6. Formation of a Protein Corona on Silver Nanoparticles Mediates Cellular Toxicity via Scavenger Receptors

    Science.gov (United States)

    Shannahan, Jonathan H.; Podila, Ramakrishna; Aldossari, Abdullah A.; Emerson, Hilary; Powell, Brian A.; Ke, Pu Chun; Rao, Apparao M.; Brown, Jared M.

    2015-01-01

    Addition of a protein corona (PC) or protein adsorption layer on the surface of nanomaterials following their introduction into physiological environments may modify their activity, bio-distribution, cellular uptake, clearance, and toxicity. We hypothesize that silver nanoparticles (AgNPs) will associate with proteins common to human serum and cell culture media forming a PC that will impact cell activation and cytotoxicity. Furthermore, the role of scavenger receptor BI (SR-BI) in mediating this toxicity was evaluated. Citrate-suspended 20 nm AgNPs were incubated with human serum albumin (HSA), bovine serum albumin (BSA), high-density lipoprotein (HDL), or water (control) to form a PC. AgNPs associated with each protein (HSA, BSA, and HDL) forming PCs as assessed by electron microscopy, hyperspectral analysis, ζ-potential, and hydrodynamic size. Addition of the PC decreased uptake of AgNPs by rat lung epithelial and rat aortic endothelial cells. Hyperspectral analysis demonstrated a loss of the AgNP PC following internalization. Cells demonstrated concentration-dependent cytotoxicity following exposure to AgNPs with or without PCs (0, 6.25, 12.5, 25 or 50 μg/ml). All PC-coated AgNPs were found to activate cells by inducing IL-6 mRNA expression. A small molecule SR-BI inhibitor was utilized to determine the role of SR-BI in the observed effects. Pretreatment with the SR-BI inhibitor decreased internalization of AgNPs with or without PCs, and reduced both cytotoxicity and IL-6 mRNA expression. This study characterizes the formation of a PC on AgNPs and demonstrates its influence on cytotoxicity and cell activation through a cell surface receptor. PMID:25326241

  7. Effect of human scavenger receptor class A overexpression in bone marrow-derived cells on lipoprotein metabolism and atherosclerosis in low density lipoprotein receptor knockout mice

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Herijgers, N.; Winther, M.P.J. de; Eck, M. van; Havekes, L.M.; Hofker, M.H.; Hoogerbrugge, P.M.; Berkel, T.J.C. van

    2000-01-01

    Scavenger receptors, which include various classes, play an important role in atherogenesis by mediating the unrestricted uptake of modified lipoproteins, resulting in the massive accumulation of cholesteryl esters. Because macrophage-derived foam cells are considered to be an important feature in

  8. Adiponectin has a pivotal role in the cardioprotective effect of CP-3(iv), a selective CD36 azapeptide ligand, after transient coronary artery occlusion in mice.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Huynh, David N; Bessi, Valérie L; Ménard, Liliane; Piquereau, Jérôme; Proulx, Caroline; Febbraio, Maria; Lubell, William D; Carpentier, André C; Burelle, Yan; Ong, Huy; Marleau, Sylvie

    2018-02-01

    CD36 is a multiligand receptor involved in lipid metabolism. We investigated the mechanisms underlying the cardioprotective effect of CP-3(iv), an azapeptide belonging to a new class of selective CD36 ligands. The role of CP-3(iv) in mediating cardioprotection was investigated because CD36 signaling leads to activation of peroxisome proliferator-activated receptor-γ, a transcriptional regulator of adiponectin. CP-3(iv) pretreatment reduced infarct size by 54% and preserved hemodynamics in C57BL/6 mice subjected to 30 min coronary ligation and reperfusion but had no effect in CD36-deficient mice. The effects of CP-3(iv) were associated with an increase in circulating adiponectin levels, epididymal fat adiponectin gene expression, and adiponectin transcriptional regulators ( Pparg, Cebpb, Sirt1) after 6 h of reperfusion. Reduced myocardial oxidative stress and apoptosis were observed along with an increase in expression of myocardial adiponectin target proteins, including cyclooxygenase-2, phospho-AMPK, and phospho-Akt. Moreover, CP-3(iv) increased myocardial performance in isolated hearts, whereas blockade of adiponectin with an anti-adiponectin antibody abrogated it. CP-3(iv) exerts cardioprotection against myocardial ischemia and reperfusion (MI/R) injury and dysfunction, at least in part, by increasing circulating and myocardial adiponectin levels. Hence, both paracrine and endocrine effects of adiponectin may contribute to reduced reactive oxygen species generation and apoptosis after MI/R, in a CD36-dependent manner.-Huynh, D. N., Bessi, V. L., Ménard, L., Piquereau, J., Proulx, C., Febbraio, M., Lubell, W. D., Carpentier, A. C., Burelle, Y., Ong, H., Marleau, S. Adiponectin has a pivotal role in the cardioprotective effect of CP-3(iv), a selective CD36 azapeptide ligand, after transient coronary artery occlusion in mice.

  9. Suppression of TLR4-mediated inflammatory response by macrophage class A scavenger receptor (CD204)

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Ohnishi, Koji; Komohara, Yoshihiro; Fujiwara, Yukio; Takemura, Kenichi [Department of Cell Pathology, Graduate School of Medical Sciences, Faculty of Life Sciences, Kumamoto University, Kumamoto (Japan); Lei, XiaoFeng [Department of Cell Pathology, Graduate School of Medical Sciences, Faculty of Life Sciences, Kumamoto University, Kumamoto (Japan); Department of Biochemistry, Showa University School of Medicine, Tokyo (Japan); Nakagawa, Takenobu [Department of Cell Pathology, Graduate School of Medical Sciences, Faculty of Life Sciences, Kumamoto University, Kumamoto (Japan); Sakashita, Naomi [Department of Cell Pathology, Graduate School of Medical Sciences, Faculty of Life Sciences, Kumamoto University, Kumamoto (Japan); Department of Human Pathology, Institute of Health Biosciences, The University of Tokushima, Tokushima (Japan); Takeya, Motohiro, E-mail: takeya@kumamoto-u.ac.jp [Department of Cell Pathology, Graduate School of Medical Sciences, Faculty of Life Sciences, Kumamoto University, Kumamoto (Japan)

    2011-08-05

    Highlights: {yields} We focused on the interaction between SR-A and TLR4 signaling in this study. {yields} SR-A deletion promoted NF{kappa}B activation in macrophages in septic model mouse. {yields} SR-A suppresses both MyD88-dependent and -independent TLR4 signaling in vitro. {yields} SR-A clears LPS binding to TLR4 which resulting in the suppression of TLR4 signals. -- Abstract: The class A scavenger receptor (SR-A, CD204), one of the principal receptors expressed on macrophages, has been found to regulate inflammatory response and attenuate septic endotoxemia. However, the detailed mechanism of this process has not yet been well characterized. To clarify the regulative mechanisms of lipopolysaccharide (LPS)-induced macrophage activation by SR-A, we evaluated the activation of Toll-like receptor 4 (TLR4)-mediated signaling molecules in SR-A-deficient (SR-A{sup -/-}) macrophages. In a septic shock model, the blood levels of tumor necrosis factor (TNF)-{alpha}, interleukin (IL)-6 and interferon (IFN)-{beta} were significantly increased in SR-A{sup -/-} mice compared to wild-type mice, and elevated nuclear factor kappa B (NF{kappa}B) activation was detected in SR-A{sup -/-} macrophages. SR-A deletion increased the production of pro-inflammatory cytokines, and the phosphorylation of mitogen-activated protein kinase (MAPK) and NF{kappa}B in vitro. SR-A deletion also promoted the nuclear translocation of NF{kappa}B and IFN regulatory factor (IRF)-3. In addition, a competitive binding assay with acetylated low-density lipoprotein, an SR-A-specific ligand, and anti-SR-A antibody induced significant activation of TLR4-mediated signaling molecules in wild-type macrophages but not in SR-A{sup -/-} macrophages. These results suggest that SR-A suppresses the macrophage activation by inhibiting the binding of LPS to TLR4 in a competitive manner and it plays a pivotal role in the regulation of the LPS-induced inflammatory response.

  10. Fatty acid translocase gene CD36 rs1527483 variant influences oral fat perception in Malaysian subjects.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ong, Hing-Huat; Tan, Yen-Nee; Say, Yee-How

    2017-01-01

    We determined whether single nucleotide polymorphisms (SNPs; rs1761667 and rs1527483) in the fatty acid translocase CD36 gene - a receptor for fatty acids - is associated with oral fat perception (OFP) of different fat contents in custards and commercially-available foods, and obesity measures in Malaysian subjects (n=313; 118 males, 293 ethnic Chinese; 20 ethnic Indians). A 170-mm visual analogue scale was used to assess the ratings of perceived fat content, oiliness and creaminess of 0%, 2%, 6% and 10% fat content-by-weight custards and low-fat/regular versions of commercially-available milk, mayonnaise and cream crackers. Overall, the subjects managed to significantly discriminate the fat content, oiliness and creaminess between low-fat/regular versions of milk and mayonnaise. Females rated the perception of fat content and oiliness of both milks higher, but ethnicity, obesity and adiposity status did not seem to play a role in influencing most of OFP. The overall minor allele frequencies for rs1761667 and rs1527483 were 0.30 and 0.26, respectively. Females and individuals with rs1527483 TT genotype significantly perceived greater creaminess of 10% fat-by-weight custard. Also, individuals with rs1527483 TT genotype and T allele significantly perceived greater fat content of cream crackers, independent of fat concentration. rs1761667 SNP did not significantly affect OFP, except for cream crackers. Both gene variants were also not associated with obesity measures. Taken together, this study supports the notion that CD36 - specifically rs1527483, plays a role in OFP, but not in influencing obesity in Malaysian subjects. Besides, gender is an important factor for OFP, where females had higher sensitivity. Copyright © 2016 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  11. Subcellular trafficking of the substrate transporters GLUT4 and CD36 in cardiomyocytes

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Steinbusch, L.K.M.; Schwenk, R.W.; Ouwens, D.M.; Diamant, M.; Glatz, J.F.C.; Luiken, J.J.F.P.

    2011-01-01

    Cardiomyocytes use glucose as well as fatty acids for ATP production. These substrates are transported into the cell by glucose transporter 4 (GLUT4) and the fatty acid transporter CD36. Besides being located at the sarcolemma, GLUT4 and CD36 are stored in intracellular compartments. Raised plasma

  12. The dual role of scavenger receptor class A in development of diabetes in autoimmune NOD mice.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Mami Shimizu

    Full Text Available Human type 1 diabetes is an autoimmune disease that results from the autoreactive destruction of pancreatic β cells by T cells. Antigen presenting cells including dendritic cells and macrophages are required to activate and suppress antigen-specific T cells. It has been suggested that antigen uptake from live cells by dendritic cells via scavenger receptor class A (SR-A may be important. However, the role of SR-A in autoimmune disease is unknown. In this study, SR-A-/- nonobese diabetic (NOD mice showed significant attenuation of insulitis, lower levels of insulin autoantibodies, and suppression of diabetes development compared with NOD mice. We also found that diabetes progression in SR-A-/- NOD mice treated with low-dose polyinosinic-polycytidylic acid (poly(I:C was significantly accelerated compared with that in disease-resistant NOD mice treated with low-dose poly(I:C. In addition, injection of high-dose poly(I: C to mimic an acute RNA virus infection significantly accelerated diabetes development in young SR-A-/- NOD mice compared with untreated SR-A-/- NOD mice. Pathogenic cells including CD4+CD25+ activated T cells were increased more in SR-A-/- NOD mice treated with poly(I:C than in untreated SR-A-/- NOD mice. These results suggested that viral infection might accelerate diabetes development even in diabetes-resistant subjects. In conclusion, our studies demonstrated that diabetes progression was suppressed in SR-A-/- NOD mice and that acceleration of diabetes development could be induced in young mice by poly(I:C treatment even in SR-A-/- NOD mice. These results suggest that SR-A on antigen presenting cells such as dendritic cells may play an unfavorable role in the steady state and a protective role in a mild infection. Our findings imply that SR-A may be an important target for improving therapeutic strategies for type 1 diabetes.

  13. Scavenger Receptor C-Type Lectin Binds to the Leukocyte Cell Surface Glycan Lewis By a Novel Mechanism

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Feinberg, H.; Taylor, M.E.; Weis, W.I.; /Stanford U., Med. School /Imperial Coll., London

    2007-07-10

    The scavenger receptor C-type lectin (SRCL) is unique in the family of class A scavenger receptors, because in addition to binding sites for oxidized lipoproteins it also contains a C-type carbohydrate-recognition domain (CRD) that interacts with specific glycans. Both human and mouse SRCL are highly specific for the Lewis(x) trisaccharide, which is commonly found on the surfaces of leukocytes and some tumor cells. Structural analysis of the CRD of mouse SRCL in complex with Lewis(x) and mutagenesis show the basis for this specificity. The interaction between mouse SRCL and Lewis(x) is analogous to the way that selectins and DC-SIGN bind to related fucosylated glycans, but the mechanism of the interaction is novel, because it is based on a primary galactose-binding site similar to the binding site in the asialoglycoprotein receptor. Crystals of the human receptor lacking bound calcium ions reveal an alternative conformation in which a glycan ligand would be released during receptor-mediated endocytosis.

  14. Ligand-specific conformational transitions and intracellular transport required for atypical chemokine receptor 3-mediated chemokine scavenging.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Montpas, Nicolas; St-Onge, Geneviève; Nama, Nassr; Rhainds, David; Benredjem, Besma; Girard, Mélanie; Hickson, Gilles; Pons, Véronique; Heveker, Nikolaus

    2017-11-27

    The atypical chemokine receptor ACKR3 contributes to chemotaxis by binding, internalizing, and degrading the chemokines CXCL11 and CXCL12 to shape and terminate chemotactic gradients during development and immune responses. Although unable to trigger G protein activation, both ligands activate G protein-independent ACKR3 responses and prompt arrestin recruitment. This offers a model to specifically study ligand-specific receptor conformations leading to G protein-independent signaling, and to functional parameters such as receptor transport and chemokine degradation. We here show chemokine specificity in arrestin recruitment, by different effects of single amino acid substitutions in ACKR3 on arrestin in response to CXCL12 or CXCL11. Chemokine specificity in receptor transport was also observed, as CXCL11 induced faster receptor internalization, slower recycling, and longer intracellular sojourn of ACKR3 than CXCL12. Internalization and recycling rates of the ACKR3-R1423.50A substitution in response to each chemokine were similar; however, ACKR3-R1423.50A degraded only CXCL12, but not CXCL11. This suggests that ligand-specific intracellular receptor transport is required for chemokine degradation. Remarkably, failure of ACKR3-R1423.50A to degrade CXCL11 was not caused by the lacking arrestin recruitment; rather, arrestin was entirely dispensable for scavenging of either chemokine. This suggests involvement of another, yet unidentified, ACKR3 effector in scavenging. In summary, our study correlates ACKR3 ligand-specific conformational transitions with chemokine-dependent receptor transport dynamics and points toward unexpected ligand specificity in the mechanisms of chemokine degradation. Copyright © 2017, The American Society for Biochemistry and Molecular Biology.

  15. Scavenger receptor class B member 1 (SCARB1) variants modulate hepatitis C virus replication cycle and viral load.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Westhaus, Sandra; Deest, Maximilian; Nguyen, Anna T X; Stanke, Frauke; Heckl, Dirk; Costa, Rui; Schambach, Axel; Manns, Michael P; Berg, Thomas; Vondran, Florian W R; Sarrazin, Christoph; Ciesek, Sandra; von Hahn, Thomas

    2017-08-01

    There are numerous coding and non-coding variants in the SCARB1 gene that encodes scavenger receptor class B member 1 (SR-BI), a key receptor for both high density lipoproteins and hepatitis C virus (HCV). Many have been linked to clinical phenotypes, yet their impact on the HCV replication cycle is incompletely understood. The aim of this study was to analyze the impact of these variants on the molecular biology and clinical course of HCV. We analyzed key coding non-synonymous as well as non-coding SCARB1 variants using virological in vitro and human genetics approaches. Non-synonymous variants: S112F and T175A have greatly reduced HCV receptor function. When present on the cell surface, these variants are impaired in their ability to interact with HCV E2. Non-coding variants: The G allele in rs3782287 is associated with decreased viral load. Haplotype analysis confirmed these findings and identified haplotype rs3782287 A/rs5888 C as a risk allele associated with increased viral load. We also detected a trend towards lower hepatic SR-BI expression in individuals with the rs3782287 GG genotype associated with low viral load suggesting a potential underlying mechanism. Coding and non-coding genetic SCARB1 variants modulate the HCV replication cycle and possibly clinical features of hepatitis C. These findings underscore the relevance of SR-BI as an HCV receptor and contribute to our understanding of inter-individual variation in HCV infection. The cell surface receptor SR-BI (scavenger receptor class B member 1), is essential for hepatitis C virus (HCV) entry into hepatocytes. Variations in the gene coding this receptor influence infectivity and viral load. We analyzed these variations to gain a better understanding of inter-individual differences over the course of HCV infection. Copyright © 2017 European Association for the Study of the Liver. Published by Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  16. CD36 is indispensable for thermogenesis under conditions of fasting and cold stress.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Putri, Mirasari; Syamsunarno, Mas Rizky A A; Iso, Tatsuya; Yamaguchi, Aiko; Hanaoka, Hirofumi; Sunaga, Hiroaki; Koitabashi, Norimichi; Matsui, Hiroki; Yamazaki, Chiho; Kameo, Satomi; Tsushima, Yoshito; Yokoyama, Tomoyuki; Koyama, Hiroshi; Abumrad, Nada A; Kurabayashi, Masahiko

    2015-02-20

    Hypothermia can occur during fasting when thermoregulatory mechanisms, involving fatty acid (FA) utilization, are disturbed. CD36/FA translocase is a membrane protein which facilitates membrane transport of long-chain FA in the FA consuming heart, skeletal muscle (SkM) and adipose tissues. It also accelerates uptake of triglyceride-rich lipoprotein by brown adipose tissue (BAT) in a cold environment. In mice deficient for CD36 (CD36(-/-) mice), FA uptake is markedly reduced with a compensatory increase in glucose uptake in the heart and SkM, resulting in lower levels of blood glucose especially during fasting. However, the role of CD36 in thermogenic activity during fasting remains to be determined. In fasted CD36(-/-) mice, body temperature drastically decreased shortly after cold exposure. The hypothermia was accompanied by a marked reduction in blood glucose and in stores of triacylglycerols in BAT and of glycogen in glycolytic SkM. Biodistribution analysis using the FA analogue (125)I-BMIPP and the glucose analogue (18)F-FDG revealed that uptake of FA and glucose was severely impaired in BAT and glycolytic SkM in cold-exposed CD36(-/-) mice. Further, induction of the genes of thermogenesis in BAT was blunted in fasted CD36(-/-) mice after cold exposure. These findings strongly suggest that CD36(-/-) mice exhibit pronounced hypothermia after fasting due to depletion of energy storage in BAT and glycolytic SkM and to reduced supply of energy substrates to these tissues. Our study underscores the importance of CD36 for nutrient homeostasis to survive potentially life-threatening challenges, such as cold and starvation. Copyright © 2015 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  17. Cluster Differentiating 36 (CD36 Deficiency Attenuates Obesity-Associated Oxidative Stress in the Heart.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Mohamed Gharib

    Full Text Available Obesity is often associated with a state of oxidative stress and increased lipid deposition in the heart. More importantly, obesity increases lipid influx into the heart and induces excessive production of reactive oxygen species (ROS leading to cell toxicity and metabolic dysfunction. Cluster differentiating 36 (CD36 protein is highly expressed in the heart and regulates lipid utilization but its role in obesity-associated oxidative stress is still not clear.The aim of this study was to determine the impact of CD36 deficiency on cardiac steatosis, oxidative stress and lipotoxicity associated with obesity.Studies were conducted in control (Lean, obese leptin-deficient (Lepob/ob and leptin-CD36 double null (Lepob/obCD36-/- mice. Compared to lean mice, cardiac steatosis, and fatty acid (FA uptake and oxidation were increased in Lepob/ob mice, while glucose uptake and oxidation was reduced. Moreover, insulin resistance, oxidative stress markers and NADPH oxidase-dependent ROS production were markedly enhanced. This was associated with the induction of NADPH oxidase expression, and increased membrane-associated p47phox, p67phox and protein kinase C. Silencing CD36 in Lepob/ob mice prevented cardiac steatosis, increased insulin sensitivity and glucose utilization, but reduced FA uptake and oxidation. Moreover, CD36 deficiency reduced NADPH oxidase activity and decreased NADPH oxidase-dependent ROS production. In isolated cardiomyocytes, CD36 deficiency reduced palmitate-induced ROS production and normalized NADPH oxidase activity.CD36 deficiency prevented obesity-associated cardiac steatosis and insulin resistance, and reduced NADPH oxidase-dependent ROS production. The study demonstrates that CD36 regulates NADPH oxidase activity and mediates FA-induced oxidative stress.

  18. Cluster Differentiating 36 (CD36) Deficiency Attenuates Obesity-Associated Oxidative Stress in the Heart.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gharib, Mohamed; Tao, Huan; Fungwe, Thomas V; Hajri, Tahar

    2016-01-01

    Obesity is often associated with a state of oxidative stress and increased lipid deposition in the heart. More importantly, obesity increases lipid influx into the heart and induces excessive production of reactive oxygen species (ROS) leading to cell toxicity and metabolic dysfunction. Cluster differentiating 36 (CD36) protein is highly expressed in the heart and regulates lipid utilization but its role in obesity-associated oxidative stress is still not clear. The aim of this study was to determine the impact of CD36 deficiency on cardiac steatosis, oxidative stress and lipotoxicity associated with obesity. Studies were conducted in control (Lean), obese leptin-deficient (Lepob/ob) and leptin-CD36 double null (Lepob/obCD36-/-) mice. Compared to lean mice, cardiac steatosis, and fatty acid (FA) uptake and oxidation were increased in Lepob/ob mice, while glucose uptake and oxidation was reduced. Moreover, insulin resistance, oxidative stress markers and NADPH oxidase-dependent ROS production were markedly enhanced. This was associated with the induction of NADPH oxidase expression, and increased membrane-associated p47phox, p67phox and protein kinase C. Silencing CD36 in Lepob/ob mice prevented cardiac steatosis, increased insulin sensitivity and glucose utilization, but reduced FA uptake and oxidation. Moreover, CD36 deficiency reduced NADPH oxidase activity and decreased NADPH oxidase-dependent ROS production. In isolated cardiomyocytes, CD36 deficiency reduced palmitate-induced ROS production and normalized NADPH oxidase activity. CD36 deficiency prevented obesity-associated cardiac steatosis and insulin resistance, and reduced NADPH oxidase-dependent ROS production. The study demonstrates that CD36 regulates NADPH oxidase activity and mediates FA-induced oxidative stress.

  19. Binding of Plasmodium falciparum to CD36 can be shielded by the glycocalyx

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Hempel, Casper; Wang, Christian William; Kurtzhals, Jorgen Anders Lindholm

    2017-01-01

    . It was investigated if the cellular glycocalyx affects the binding of P. falciparum-infected erythrocytes to CD36 in vitro. Methods: Glycocalyx growth was followed in vitro by using azido sugars and cationized ferritin detecting O-glycoproteins and negatively charged proteoglycans, respectively. P. falciparum (clone...... FCR3/IT) was selected on Chinese hamster ovary (CHO) cells transfected with human CD36. Cytoadhesion to CHO CD36 at 1-4 days after seeding was quantified by using a static binding assay. Results: The glycocalyx thickness of CHO cells increased during 4 days in culture as assessed by metabolic...

  20. Differential effects of strength training and testosterone treatment on soluble CD36 in aging men

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Glintborg, Dorte; Christensen, Louise L; Kvorning, Thue

    2015-01-01

    PURPOSE: We measured soluble CD36 (sCD36) and body composition to determine the effects of testosterone treatment (TT) and/or strength training (ST) on cardiovascular risk in men with low normal testosterone levels. METHODS: Double-blinded, placebo-controlled study in 54 men aged 60-78 years...... central fat mass (r = 0.84). CONCLUSIONS: Compared to testosterone treatment, six months of strength training reduced sCD36 levels suggesting decreased cardiovascular risk, possibly due to a reduction in central fat mass....

  1. CD36 is indispensable for thermogenesis under conditions of fasting and cold stress

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Putri, Mirasari [Department of Medicine and Biological Science, Gunma University Graduate School of Medicine, 3-39-22 Showa-machi, Maebashi, Gunma 371-8511 (Japan); Department of Public Health, Gunma University Graduate School of Medicine, 3-39-22 Showa-machi, Maebashi, Gunma 371-8511 (Japan); Syamsunarno, Mas Rizky A.A. [Department of Medicine and Biological Science, Gunma University Graduate School of Medicine, 3-39-22 Showa-machi, Maebashi, Gunma 371-8511 (Japan); Department of Biochemistry, Universitas Padjadjaran, Jl. Raya Bandung Sumedang KM 21, Jatinangor, West Java 45363 (Indonesia); Iso, Tatsuya, E-mail: isot@gunma-u.ac.jp [Department of Medicine and Biological Science, Gunma University Graduate School of Medicine, 3-39-22 Showa-machi, Maebashi, Gunma 371-8511 (Japan); Education and Research Support Center, Gunma University Graduate School of Medicine, 3-39-22 Showa-machi, Maebashi, Gunma 371-8511 (Japan); Yamaguchi, Aiko; Hanaoka, Hirofumi [Department of Bioimaging Information Analysis, Gunma University Graduate School of Medicine, 3-39-22 Showa-machi, Maebashi, Gunma 371-8511 (Japan); Sunaga, Hiroaki [Department of Laboratory Sciences, Gunma University Graduate School of Health Sciences, 3-39-22 Showa-machi, Maebashi, Gunma 371-8511 (Japan); Koitabashi, Norimichi [Department of Medicine and Biological Science, Gunma University Graduate School of Medicine, 3-39-22 Showa-machi, Maebashi, Gunma 371-8511 (Japan); Matsui, Hiroki [Department of Laboratory Sciences, Gunma University Graduate School of Health Sciences, 3-39-22 Showa-machi, Maebashi, Gunma 371-8511 (Japan); Yamazaki, Chiho; Kameo, Satomi [Department of Public Health, Gunma University Graduate School of Medicine, 3-39-22 Showa-machi, Maebashi, Gunma 371-8511 (Japan); Tsushima, Yoshito [Department of Diagnostic Radiology and Nuclear Medicine, Gunma University Graduate School of Medicine, 3-39-22 Showa-machi, Maebashi, Gunma 371-8511 (Japan); and others

    2015-02-20

    Hypothermia can occur during fasting when thermoregulatory mechanisms, involving fatty acid (FA) utilization, are disturbed. CD36/FA translocase is a membrane protein which facilitates membrane transport of long-chain FA in the FA consuming heart, skeletal muscle (SkM) and adipose tissues. It also accelerates uptake of triglyceride-rich lipoprotein by brown adipose tissue (BAT) in a cold environment. In mice deficient for CD36 (CD36{sup −/−} mice), FA uptake is markedly reduced with a compensatory increase in glucose uptake in the heart and SkM, resulting in lower levels of blood glucose especially during fasting. However, the role of CD36 in thermogenic activity during fasting remains to be determined. In fasted CD36{sup −/−} mice, body temperature drastically decreased shortly after cold exposure. The hypothermia was accompanied by a marked reduction in blood glucose and in stores of triacylglycerols in BAT and of glycogen in glycolytic SkM. Biodistribution analysis using the FA analogue {sup 125}I-BMIPP and the glucose analogue {sup 18}F-FDG revealed that uptake of FA and glucose was severely impaired in BAT and glycolytic SkM in cold-exposed CD36{sup −/−} mice. Further, induction of the genes of thermogenesis in BAT was blunted in fasted CD36{sup −/−} mice after cold exposure. These findings strongly suggest that CD36{sup −/−} mice exhibit pronounced hypothermia after fasting due to depletion of energy storage in BAT and glycolytic SkM and to reduced supply of energy substrates to these tissues. Our study underscores the importance of CD36 for nutrient homeostasis to survive potentially life-threatening challenges, such as cold and starvation. - Highlights: • We examined the role of CD36 in thermogenesis during cold exposure. • CD36{sup −/−} mice exhibit rapid hypothermia after cold exposure during fasting. • Uptake of fatty acid and glucose is impaired in thermogenic tissues during fasting. • Storage of energy substrates is

  2. Increased soluble CD36 is linked to advanced steatosis in nonalcoholic fatty liver disease.

    Science.gov (United States)

    García-Monzón, Carmelo; Lo Iacono, Oreste; Crespo, Javier; Romero-Gómez, Manuel; García-Samaniego, Javier; Fernández-Bermejo, Miguel; Domínguez-Díez, Agustín; Rodríguez de Cía, Javier; Sáez, Alicia; Porrero, José Luís; Vargas-Castrillón, Javier; Chávez-Jiménez, Enrique; Soto-Fernández, Susana; Díaz, Ainhoa; Gallego-Durán, Rocío; Madejón, Antonio; Miquilena-Colina, María Eugenia

    2014-01-01

    Soluble CD36 (sCD36) clusters with insulin resistance, but no evidence exists on its relationship with hepatic fat content. We determined sCD36 to assess its link to steatosis in nonalcoholic fatty liver disease (NAFLD) and chronic hepatitis C (CHC) patients. Two hundred and twenty-seven NAFLD, eighty-seven CHC, and eighty-five patients with histologically normal liver (NL) were studied. Steatosis was graded by Kleiner's histological scoring system. Serum sCD36 and hepatic CD36 expression was assessed by immunoassay and immunohistochemistry, respectively. In NAFLD, serum sCD36 levels were significantly higher in simple steatosis than in NL (361.4 ± 286.4 vs. 173.9 ± 137.4 pg/mL, respectively; P < 0.001), but not in steatohepatitis (229.6 ± 202.5 pg/mL; P = 0.153). In CHC, serum sCD36 levels were similar regardless of the absence (428.7 ± 260.3 pg/mL) or presence of steatosis (387.2 ± 283.6 pg/mL; P = 0.173). A progressive increase in serum sCD36 values was found in NAFLD depending on the histological grade of steatosis (P < 0.001), but not in CHC (P = 0.151). Serum sCD36 concentrations were independently associated with advanced steatosis in NAFLD when adjusted by demographic and anthropometric features [odds ratio (OR), 1.001; 95% confidence interval (CI), 1.000 to 1.002; P = 0.021] and by metabolic variables (OR, 1.002; 95% CI, 1.000 to 1.003; P = 0.001). Interestingly, a significant correlation was observed between hepatic CD36 and serum sCD36 (ρ = 0.499, P < 0.001). Increased serum sCD36 is an independent factor associated with advanced steatosis in NAFLD. © 2013 Stichting European Society for Clinical Investigation Journal Foundation. Published by John Wiley & Sons Ltd.

  3. Molecular characterization of the haptoglobin.hemoglobin receptor CD163. Ligand binding properties of the scavenger receptor cysteine-rich domain region

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Madsen, Mette; Møller, Holger J; Nielsen, Marianne Jensby

    2004-01-01

    CD163 is the macrophage receptor for endocytosis of haptoglobin.hemoglobin complexes. The extracellular region consisting of nine scavenger receptor cysteine rich (SRCR) domains also circulates in plasma as a soluble protein. By ligand binding analysis of a broad spectrum of soluble CD163...... to CD163 demonstrated that optimal ligand binding requires physiological plasma calcium concentrations, and an immediate ligand release occurs at the low calcium concentrations measured in acidifying endosomes. In conclusion, SRCR domain 3 of CD163 is an exposed domain and a critical determinant...

  4. Association of CD36 gene polymorphisms with echo- and electrocardiographic parameters in patients with early onset coronary artery disease

    OpenAIRE

    Rac, Monika; Kurzawski, Grzegorz; Safranow, Krzysztof; Rac, Michal; Sagasz-Tysiewicz, Dagmara; Krzystolik, Andrzej; Poncyljusz, Wojciech; Olszewska, Maria; Dawid, Gra?yna; Chlubek, Dariusz

    2012-01-01

    Introduction CD36 plays an important role in long-chain fatty acid homeostasis in skeletal muscle and the myocardium. CD36 deficiency may lead to reduced myocardial uptake of long-chain fatty acid. Therefore, different mutations of the CD36 gene may contribute to the clinical heterogeneity of cardiac hypertrophy. Material and methods The objective of the study was to investigate whether there is an association between the sequence changes in CD36 and echocardiographic and electrocardiographic...

  5. Circulating soluble CD36 is a novel marker of liver injury in subjects with altered glucose tolerance

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Fernández-Real, Jose-Manuel; Handberg, Aase; Ortega, Francisco

    2008-01-01

    Liver injury linked to insulin resistance is characterized by mild to moderate increases in aminotransferase activity. A soluble form of CD36 (sCD36) was recently identified in human plasma. The aim of this study was to evaluate the relationships among plasma sCD36, insulin sensitivity (SI) and i...

  6. Oral Fat Sensing and CD36 Gene Polymorphism in Algerian Lean and Obese Teenagers

    Czech Academy of Sciences Publication Activity Database

    Daoudi, A.; Plesník, J.; Sayed, A.; Šerý, Omar; Rouabah, A.; Rouabah, L.; Khan, N. A.

    2015-01-01

    Roč. 7, č. 11 (2015), s. 9096-9104 ISSN 2072-6643 Institutional support: RVO:67985904 Keywords : CD36 * taste * obesity Subject RIV: EB - Genetics ; Molecular Biology Impact factor: 3.759, year: 2015

  7. Circulating sCD36 levels in patients with non-alcoholic fatty liver disease and controls

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Heebøll, S; Poulsen, M K; Ornstrup, M J

    2017-01-01

    resonance imaging (n=94, subcutaneous and visceral adipose tissue) and liver biopsy (n=28 NAFLD patients) performed. Plasma sCD36 was assessed by ELISA. RESULTS: NAFLD patients had elevated sCD36 levels compared to controls (0.68 (0.12-2.27) versus 0.43 (0.10-1.18), P...BACKGROUND AND OBJECTIVE: CD36 is implicated in fatty acid uptake in multiple tissues, including hepatocytes and adipocytes. Circulating CD36 (sCD36) is increased in non-alcoholic fatty liver disease (NAFLD).We explored this association further by investigating correlations between sCD36 levels....... An unhealthy and unbalanced CD36 expression in adipose and hepatic tissue may shift the fatty acid load to the liver.Clinical Trials.gov (NCT01464801, NCT01412645, NCT01446276).International Journal of Obesity accepted article preview online, 05 December 2016. doi:10.1038/ijo.2016.223....

  8. Circulating sCD36 levels in patients with non-alcoholic fatty liver disease and controls

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Heebøll, Sara; Poulsen, Marianne Kjær; Ørnstrup, Marie Juul

    2017-01-01

    BACKGROUND AND OBJECTIVE: CD36 is implicated in fatty acid uptake in multiple tissues, including hepatocytes and adipocytes. Circulating CD36 (sCD36) is increased in non-alcoholic fatty liver disease (NAFLD).We explored this association further by investigating correlations between sCD36 levels....... An unhealthy and unbalanced CD36 expression in adipose and hepatic tissue may shift the fatty acid load to the liver.Clinical Trials.gov (NCT01464801, NCT01412645, NCT01446276).International Journal of Obesity accepted article preview online, 05 December 2016. doi:10.1038/ijo.2016.223....... resonance imaging (n=94, subcutaneous and visceral adipose tissue) and liver biopsy (n=28 NAFLD patients) performed. Plasma sCD36 was assessed by ELISA. RESULTS: NAFLD patients had elevated sCD36 levels compared to controls (0.68 (0.12-2.27) versus 0.43 (0.10-1.18), P

  9. The Scavenger Receptor SSc5D Physically Interacts with Bacteria through the SRCR-Containing N-Terminal Domain.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bessa Pereira, Catarina; Bocková, Markéta; Santos, Rita F; Santos, Ana Mafalda; Martins de Araújo, Mafalda; Oliveira, Liliana; Homola, Jiří; Carmo, Alexandre M

    2016-01-01

    The scavenger receptor cysteine-rich (SRCR) family comprises a group of membrane-attached or secreted proteins that contain one or more modules/domains structurally similar to the membrane distal domain of type I macrophage scavenger receptor. Although no all-inclusive biological function has been ascribed to the SRCR family, some of these receptors have been shown to recognize pathogen-associated molecular patterns (PAMP) of bacteria, fungi, or other microbes. SSc5D is a recently described soluble SRCR receptor produced by monocytes/macrophages and T lymphocytes, consisting of an N-terminal portion, which contains five SRCR modules, and a large C-terminal mucin-like domain. Toward establishing a global common role for SRCR domains, we interrogated whether the set of five SRCR domains of SSc5D displayed pattern recognition receptor (PRR) properties. For that purpose, we have expressed in a mammalian expression system the N-terminal SRCR-containing moiety of SSc5D (N-SSc5D), thus excluding the mucin-like domain likely by nature to bind microorganisms, and tested the capacity of the SRCR functional groups to physically interact with bacteria. Using conventional protein-bacteria binding assays, we showed that N-SSc5D had a superior capacity to bind to Escherichia coli strains RS218 and IHE3034 compared with that of the extracellular domains of the SRCR proteins CD5 and CD6 (sCD5 and sCD6, respectively), and similar E. coli-binding properties as Spα, a proven PRR of the SRCR family. We have further designed a more sensitive, real-time, and label-free surface plasmon resonance (SPR)-based assay and examined the capacity of N-SSc5D, Spα, sCD5, and sCD6 to bind to different bacteria. We demonstrated that N-SSc5D compares with Spα in the capacity to bind to E. coli and Listeria monocytogenes, and further that it can distinguish between pathogenic E. coli RS218 and IHE3034 strains and the non-pathogenic laboratory E. coli strain BL21(DE3). Our work thus advocates the

  10. The role of CD36 in the regulation of myocardial lipid metabolism.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kim, Ty T; Dyck, Jason R B

    2016-10-01

    Since the heart has one of the highest energy requirements of all organs in the body, it requires a constant and plentiful supply of fuel to function properly. Mitochondrial oxidation of lipids provides a major source of ATP for the heart, and the cellular processes that regulate lipid uptake and utilization are important contributors to maintaining proper myocardial energetic status. Although numerous proteins are coordinately regulated in order to ensure proper fatty acid utilization in the cardiomyocyte, a key first step in this process is the entry of fatty acids into the cell. An important protein involved in the transport of fatty acids into the cardiomyocyte is the plasma membrane-associated protein known as fatty acid translocase (FAT; also known as CD36). While multiple proteins are involved in facilitating fatty acid uptake in the heart, CD36 accounts for approximately 50-70% of the total fatty acid taken up in cardiomyocytes. As such, myocardial metabolism of fatty acids may depend upon proper CD36 function. Consistent with this, changes in CD36 levels/function have been implicated in the alteration of myocardial metabolism in the pathophysiology of certain cardiovascular diseases. As such, a better understanding of the role and function of CD36 in the heart may provide important insights for the development of new treatments for specific cardiovascular diseases. Herein, we review the role of CD36 in myocardial lipid metabolism in the healthy heart and describe how CD36-mediated alterations in lipid metabolism may contribute to cardiovascular disease. This article is part of a Special Issue entitled: Heart Lipid Metabolism edited by G.D. Lopaschuk. Copyright © 2016 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  11. Enhanced hepatic apoA-I secretion and peripheral efflux of cholesterol and phospholipid in CD36 null mice.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Pin Yue

    2010-03-01

    Full Text Available CD36 facilitates oxidized low density lipoprotein uptake and is implicated in development of atherosclerotic lesions. CD36 also binds unmodified high and very low density lipoproteins (HDL, VLDL but its role in the metabolism of these particles is unclear. Several polymorphisms in the CD36 gene were recently shown to associate with serum HDL cholesterol. To gain insight into potential mechanisms for these associations we examined HDL metabolism in CD36 null (CD36(-/- mice. Feeding CD36(-/- mice a high cholesterol diet significantly increased serum HDL, cholesterol and phospholipids, as compared to wild type mice. HDL apolipoproteins apoA-I and apoA-IV were increased and shifted to higher density HDL fractions suggesting altered particle maturation. Clearance of dual-labeled HDL was unchanged in CD36(-/- mice and cholesterol uptake from HDL or LDL by isolated CD36(-/- hepatocytes was unaltered. However, CD36(-/- hepatocytes had higher cholesterol and phospholipid efflux rates. In addition, expression and secretion of apoA-I and apoA-IV were increased reflecting enhanced PXR. Similar to hepatocytes, cholesterol and phospholipid efflux were enhanced in CD36(-/- macrophages without changes in protein levels of ABCA1, ABCG1 or SR-B1. However, biotinylation assays showed increased surface ABCA1 localization in CD36(-/- cells. In conclusion, CD36 influences reverse cholesterol transport and hepatic ApoA-I production. Both pathways are enhanced in CD36 deficiency, increasing HDL concentrations, which suggests the potential benefit of CD36 inhibition.

  12. Deregulated Lipid Sensing by Intestinal CD36 in Diet-Induced Hyperinsulinemic Obese Mouse Model.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Marjorie Buttet

    Full Text Available The metabolic syndrome (MetS greatly increases risk of cardiovascular disease and diabetes and is generally associated with abnormally elevated postprandial triglyceride levels. We evaluated intestinal synthesis of triglyceride-rich lipoproteins (TRL in a mouse model of the MetS obtained by feeding a palm oil-rich high fat diet (HFD. By contrast to control mice, MetS mice secreted two populations of TRL. If the smaller size population represented 44% of total particles in the beginning of intestinal lipid absorption in MetS mice, it accounted for only 17% after 4 h due to the secretion of larger size TRL. The MetS mice displayed accentuated postprandial hypertriglyceridemia up to 3 h due to a defective TRL clearance. These alterations reflected a delay in lipid induction of genes for key proteins of TRL formation (MTP, L-FABP and blood clearance (ApoC2. These abnormalities associated with blunted lipid sensing by CD36, which is normally required to optimize jejunal formation of large TRL. In MetS mice CD36 was not downregulated by lipid in contrast to control mice. Treatment of controls with the proteosomal inhibitor MG132, which prevented CD36 downregulation, resulted in blunted lipid-induction of MTP, L-FABP and ApoC2 gene expression, as in MetS mice. Absence of CD36 sensing was due to the hyperinsulinemia in MetS mice. Acute insulin treatment of controls before lipid administration abolished CD36 downregulation, lipid-induction of TRL genes and reduced postprandial triglycerides (TG, while streptozotocin-treatment of MetS mice restored lipid-induced CD36 degradation and TG secretion. In vitro, insulin treatment abolished CD36-mediated up-regulation of MTP in Caco-2 cells. In conclusion, HFD treatment impairs TRL formation in early stage of lipid absorption via insulin-mediated inhibition of CD36 lipid sensing. This impairment results in production of smaller TRL that are cleared slowly from the circulation, which might contribute to the

  13. Consequences of over-expression of rat Scavenger Receptor, SR-BI, in an adrenal cell model

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Azhar Salman

    2006-12-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background The plasma membrane scavenger receptor, SR-BI, mediates the 'selective uptake' process by which cholesteryl esters (CE from exogenously supplied HDL are taken up by target cells. Recent work suggests that dimer and higher order oligomeric forms of the SR-BI protein are important to this process. SR-BI has been shown to be particularly associated with microvilli and microvillar channels found at the cell surface of steroidogenic cells, and a study with the hormone stimulated adrenal gland has shown impressive changes in the size and complexity of the microvillar compartment as the mass of CE uptake (and accompanying steroidogenesis fluctuates. In the present study, we examine a cell line in which we overexpress the SR-BI protein to determine if morphological, biochemical and functional events associated with SR-BI in a controlled cell system are similar to those observed in the intact mammalian adrenal which is responsive to systemic factors. Methods Y1-BS1 mouse adrenocortical cells were transiently transfected using rat SR-BI-pcDNA6-V5-His, rat SR-BI-pcDNA6-cMyc-His or control pcDNA6-V5-His vector construct using a CaPO4 precipitation technique. Twenty four hours after transfection, cells were treated with, or without, Bt2cAMP, and SR-BI expression, CE uptake, and steroidogenesis was measured. SR-BI dimerization and cell surface architectural changes were assessed using immunoelectron microscopic techniques. Results Overexpression of the scavenger receptor protein, SR-BI, in Y1-BS1 cells results in major alterations in cell surface architecture designed to increase uptake of HDL supplied-CEs. Changes include 1 the formation of crater-like erosions of the surface with multiple double membraned channel structures lining the craters, and 2 dimerized formations of SR-BI lining the newly formed craters and associated double membraned channels. Conclusion These data show that overexpression of the scavenger receptor protein, SR

  14. Reduced sCD36 following weight loss corresponds to improved insulin sensitivity, dyslipidemia and liver fat in obese children.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Knøsgaard, L; Kazankov, K; Birkebæk, N H; Holland-Fischer, P; Lange, A; Solvig, J; Hørlyck, A; Kristensen, K; Rittig, S; Vilstrup, H; Grønbæk, H; Handberg, A

    2016-09-01

    Childhood obesity is a major health problem with serious long-term metabolic consequences. CD36 is important for the development of obesity-related complications among adults. We aimed to investigate circulating sCD36 during weight loss in childhood obesity and its associations with insulin resistance, dyslipidemia, hepatic fat accumulation and low-grade inflammation. The impact of a 10-week weight loss camp for obese children (N=113) on plasma sCD36 and further after a 12-month follow-up (N=68) was investigated. Clinical and biochemical data were collected, and sCD36 was measured by an in-house assay. Liver fat was estimated by ultrasonography and insulin resistance by the homeostasis model assessment (HOMA-IR). Along with marked weight loss, sCD36 was reduced by 21% (P=0.0013) following lifestyle intervention, and individual sCD36 reductions were significantly associated with the corresponding decreases in HOMA-IR, triglycerides and total cholesterol. The largest sCD36 decrease occurred among children who reduced HOMA-IR and liver fat. After 12 months of follow-up, sCD36 was increased (P=0.014) and the metabolic improvements were largely lost. Weight-loss-induced sCD36 reduction, coincident with improved insulin resistance, circulating lipids and hepatic fat accumulation, proposes that sCD36 may be an early marker of long-term health risk associated with obesity-related complications.

  15. Is plasma soluble CD36 associated with cardiovascular risk factors in early onset coronary artery disease patients?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Krzystolik, Andrzej; Dziedziejko, Violetta; Safranow, Krzysztof; Kurzawski, Grzegorz; Rać, Michał; Sagasz-Tysiewicz, Dagmara; Poncyljusz, Wojciech; Jakubowska, Katarzyna; Chlubek, Dariusz; Rać, Monika E

    2015-09-01

    This is the first study to investigate the relationship between plasma concentration of soluble CD36 (sCD36) and CD36 gene polymorphisms as well as clinical and echocardiographic parameters in patients with early onset coronary artery disease (CAD). sCD36 concentrations were measured by the ELISA kits. CD36 sequence alterations detected by the DHPLC technique comprised single nucleotide substitutions: rs3173798, rs3211892, rs5956 and rs141680676. There were significant negative correlations between sCD36 and red blood cell count, hemoglobin, hematocrit and glucose concentration, ApoB/ApoA1 ratio, patients' weight and waist circumference, BMI, WHR, systolic blood pressure, MAP values, left ventricular end-diastolic diameter and volume, left atrium diameter, right ventricular end-diastolic diameter. There were significant positive correlations between sCD36 and patients' age, mean corpuscular volume of erythrocytes, HDL-cholesterol, ApoA1 concentrations. Significantly higher CD36 plasma levels were found in female subgroup. There was no association between CD36 genotypes and sCD36 concentrations. Multiple linear regression analysis revealed that significant independent predictors of higher plasma sCD36 level were female gender, older age, lower serum glucose and lower RBC. The presented data suggest possible protective effects of higher sCD36 concentration in relation to metabolic syndrome components in CAD patients. Higher sCD36 concentration is also associated with lower risk of left ventricular hypertrophy, but on the other hand is a potential risk factor of impaired left ventricle diastolic function.

  16. Scavenger receptor class A member 3 (SCARA3) in disease progression and therapy resistance in multiple myeloma

    Science.gov (United States)

    Brown, Charles O.; Schibler, Jeanine; Fitzgerald, Matthew P.; Singh, Neeraj; Salem, Kelley; Zhan, Fenghuang; Goel, Apollina

    2013-01-01

    This study evaluates the role of scavenger receptor class A member 3 (SCARA3) in multiple myeloma (MM). SCARA3 expression was induced upon treatment with oxidative stressors (ionizing radiation and chemotherapeutic drugs). An epigenetic inactivation of SCARA3 was noted in MM.1S myeloma cells. Myeloma cell killing by dexamethasone and bortezomib was inhibited by up-regulation of SCARA3 while SCARA3 knockdown sensitized myeloma cells to the drugs. Clinical samples showed an inverse correlation between SCARA3 gene expression, myeloma progression, and favorable clinical prognosis. In MM, SCARA3 protects against oxidative stress-induced cell killing and can serve as predictor of MM progression and therapeutic response. PMID:23537707

  17. Human salivary agglutinin binds to lung surfactant protein-D and is identical with scavenger receptor protein gp-340

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Ligtenberg, T J; Bikker, F J; Groenink, J

    2001-01-01

    by quadrupole time-of-flight (Q-TOF) tandem MS. The sequence showed 100% identity with part of the scavenger receptor cysteine-rich ('SRCR') domain found in gp-340/DMBT1 (deleted in malignant brain tumours-1). The mass spectrum revealed 11 peaks with an identical mass as a computer-simulated trypsin digest....../PAGE and the amino acid composition of agglutinin, was found to be nearly identical with that of gp-340. It was shown by Western blotting that monoclonal antibodies against gp-340 reacted with salivary agglutinin, and monoclonals against agglutinin reacted with gp-340. It was demonstrated that gp-340 and agglutinin...... bound in a similar way to Streptococcus mutans and surfactant protein-D. Histochemically, the distribution of gp-340 in the submandibular salivary glands was identical with the agglutinin distribution, as shown in a previous paper [Takano, Bogert, Malamud, Lally and Hand (1991) Anat. Rec. 230, 307...

  18. Fatty acid transporter CD36 mediates hypothalamic effect of fatty acids on food intake in rats.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Valentine S Moullé

    Full Text Available Variations in plasma fatty acid (FA concentrations are detected by FA sensing neurons in specific brain areas such as the hypothalamus. These neurons play a physiological role in the control of food intake and the regulation of hepatic glucose production. Le Foll et al. previously showed in vitro that at least 50% of the FA sensing in ventromedial hypothalamic (VMH neurons is attributable to the interaction of long chain FA with FA translocase/CD36 (CD36. The present work assessed whether in vivo effects of hypothalamic FA sensing might be partly mediated by CD36 or intracellular events such as acylCoA synthesis or β-oxidation. To that end, a catheter was implanted in the carotid artery toward the brain in male Wistar rats. After 1 wk recovery, animals were food-deprived for 5 h, then 10 min infusions of triglyceride emulsion, Intralipid +/- heparin (IL, IL(H, respectively or saline/heparin (SH were carried out and food intake was assessed over the next 5 h. Experimental groups included: 1 Rats previously injected in ventromedian nucleus (VMN with shRNA against CD36 or scrambled RNA; 2 Etomoxir (CPT1 inhibitor or saline co-infused with IL(H/S(H; and 3 Triacsin C (acylCoA synthase inhibitor or saline co-infused with IL(H/S(H. IL(H significantly lowered food intake during refeeding compared to S(H (p<0.001. Five hours after refeeding, etomoxir did not affect this inhibitory effect of IL(H on food intake while VMN CD36 depletion totally prevented it. Triacsin C also prevented IL(H effects on food intake. In conclusion, the effect of FA to inhibit food intake is dependent on VMN CD36 and acylCoA synthesis but does not required FA oxidation.

  19. Plasma sCD36 is associated with markers of atherosclerosis, insulin resistance and fatty liver in a nondiabetic healthy population

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Handberg, A; Højlund, K; Gastaldelli, A

    2012-01-01

    Insulin resistance is associated with increased CD36 expression in a number of tissues. Moreover, excess macrophage CD36 may initiate atherosclerotic lesions. The aim of this study was to determine whether plasma soluble CD36 (sCD36) was associated with insulin resistance, fatty liver and carotid...

  20. Scavenger receptor class A type I/II determines matrix metalloproteinase-mediated cartilage destruction and chondrocyte death in antigen-induced arthritis.

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Lent, P.L.E.M. van; Hofkens, W.; Blom, A.B.; Grevers, L.C.; Sloetjes, A.W.; Takahashi, N.; Tits, L.J.H. van; Vogl, T.; Roth, J.; Winther, M.P. de; Berg, W.B. van den

    2009-01-01

    OBJECTIVE: Scavenger receptor class A type I (SR-AI) and SR-AII are expressed by macrophages in particular and bind and internalize a broad range of molecules (including endotoxins, apoptotic bodies, and oxidized low-density lipoprotein). This study was undertaken to investigate the role of SR-AI/II

  1. Bacteria binding by DMBT1/SAG/gp-340 is confined to the VEVLXXXXW motif in its scavenger receptor cysteine-rich domains

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Bikker, Floris J; Ligtenberg, Antoon J M; End, Caroline

    2004-01-01

    The scavenger receptor cysteine-rich (SRCR) proteins form an archaic group of metazoan proteins characterized by the presence of SRCR domains. These proteins are classified in group A and B based on the number of conserved cysteine residues in their SRCR domains, i.e. six for group A and eight fo...

  2. Cardiomyocyte-specific ablation of CD36 accelerates the progression from compensated cardiac hypertrophy to heart failure.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sung, Miranda M; Byrne, Nikole J; Kim, Ty T; Levasseur, Jody; Masson, Grant; Boisvenue, Jamie J; Febbraio, Maria; Dyck, Jason R B

    2017-03-01

    Previous studies have shown that loss of CD36 protects the heart from dysfunction induced by pressure overload in the presence of diet-induced insulin resistance and/or obesity. The beneficial effects of CD36 ablation in this context are mediated by preventing excessive cardiac fatty acid (FA) entry and reducing lipotoxic injury. However, whether or not the loss of CD36 can prevent pressure overload-induced cardiac dysfunction in the absence of chronic exposure to high circulating FAs is presently unknown. To address this, we utilized a tamoxifen-inducible cardiomyocyte-specific CD36 knockout (icCD36KO) mouse and genetically deleted CD36 in adulthood. Control mice (CD36 floxed/floxed mice) and icCD36KO mice were treated with tamoxifen and subsequently subjected to transverse aortic constriction (TAC) surgery to generate pressure overload-induced cardiac hypertrophy. Consistent with CD36 mediating a significant proportion of FA entry into the cardiomyocyte and subsequent FA utilization for ATP production, hearts from icCD36KO mice were metabolically inefficient and displayed signs of energetic stress, including activation of the energetic stress kinase, AMPK. In addition, impaired energetics in icCD36KO mice contributed to a rapid progression from compensated hypertrophy to heart failure. However, icCD36KO mice fed a medium-chain FA diet, whereby medium-chain FAs can enter into the cardiomyocyte independent from CD36, were protected from TAC-induced heart failure. Together these data suggest that limiting FA uptake and partial inhibition of FA oxidation in the heart via CD36 ablation may be detrimental for the compensated hypertrophic heart in the absence of sufficiently elevated circulating FAs to provide an adequate energy source. NEW & NOTEWORTHY Limiting CD36-mediated fatty acid uptake in the setting of obesity and/or insulin resistance protects the heart from cardiac hypertrophy and dysfunction. However, cardiomyocyte-specific CD36 ablation in the absence of

  3. Key Role of the Scavenger Receptor MARCO in Mediating Adenovirus Infection and Subsequent Innate Responses of Macrophages.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Maler, Mareike D; Nielsen, Peter J; Stichling, Nicole; Cohen, Idan; Ruzsics, Zsolt; Wood, Connor; Engelhard, Peggy; Suomalainen, Maarit; Gyory, Ildiko; Huber, Michael; Müller-Quernheim, Joachim; Schamel, Wolfgang W A; Gordon, Siamon; Jakob, Thilo; Martin, Stefan F; Jahnen-Dechent, Willi; Greber, Urs F; Freudenberg, Marina A; Fejer, György

    2017-08-01

    The scavenger receptor MARCO is expressed in several subsets of naive tissue-resident macrophages and has been shown to participate in the recognition of various bacterial pathogens. However, the role of MARCO in antiviral defense is largely unexplored. Here, we investigated whether MARCO might be involved in the innate sensing of infection with adenovirus and recombinant adenoviral vectors by macrophages, which elicit vigorous immune responses in vivo Using cells derived from mice, we show that adenovirus infection is significantly more efficient in MARCO-positive alveolar macrophages (AMs) and in AM-like primary macrophage lines (Max Planck Institute cells) than in MARCO-negative bone marrow-derived macrophages. Using antibodies blocking ligand binding to MARCO, as well as gene-deficient and MARCO-transfected cells, we show that MARCO mediates the rapid adenovirus transduction of macrophages. By enhancing adenovirus infection, MARCO contributes to efficient innate virus recognition through the cytoplasmic DNA sensor cGAS. This leads to strong proinflammatory responses, including the production of interleukin-6 (IL-6), alpha/beta interferon, and mature IL-1α. These findings contribute to the understanding of viral pathogenesis in macrophages and may open new possibilities for the development of tools to influence the outcome of infection with adenovirus or adenovirus vectors.IMPORTANCE Macrophages play crucial roles in inflammation and defense against infection. Several macrophage subtypes have been identified with differing abilities to respond to infection with both natural adenoviruses and recombinant adenoviral vectors. Adenoviruses are important respiratory pathogens that elicit vigorous innate responses in vitro and in vivo The cell surface receptors mediating macrophage type-specific adenovirus sensing are largely unknown. The scavenger receptor MARCO is expressed on some subsets of naive tissue-resident macrophages, including lung alveolar macrophages

  4. Association of decreased expression of the macrophage scavenger receptor MARCO with tumor progression and poor prognosis in human hepatocellular carcinoma.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sun, Haoyu; Song, Jiaxi; Weng, Chenchun; Xu, Jing; Huang, Mei; Huang, Qiang; Sun, Rui; Xiao, Weihua; Sun, Cheng

    2017-05-01

    The macrophage receptor with collagenous structure (MARCO) belongs to the scavenger receptor family; however, few studies have assessed their potentials in modulating inflammatory signaling other than the typical function of pattern recognition and phagocytic clearance. Interestingly, RNA-Seq analyses of hepatocellular carcinoma (HCC) have identified MARCO as one of the top 30 differentially expressed genes between cancerous and adjacent noncancerous tissues. However, no research has been performed to study MARCO in liver cancer. MARCO protein expression was evaluated by immunostaining liver tissue specimens collected from 88 HCC patients, 10 liver cirrhosis patients, 6 metastatic patients, and 5 healthy controls. All sections were reviewed by blinded observers followed by the interpretation of integral optical density per area as a measure of protein intensity. We observed significantly decreased expression of MARCO in intratumoral tissues of HCC compared with expression in peritumoral tissues. The expression of MARCO declined progressively as the disease condition was aggravated, with the highest expression found in healthy controls and the lowest found in patients with HCC metastasis. Furthermore, MARCO expression decreased along with tumor progression. MARCO + cells co-localized with CD68 + cells, indicating predominant expression on macrophages. The overall survival rate was significantly increased in patients with high intratumoral MARCO expression compared with that of patients with low intratumoral MARCO expression. Our study is the first to demonstrate an association between MARCO expression and the progression and prognosis of HCC. © 2016 Journal of Gastroenterology and Hepatology Foundation and John Wiley & Sons Australia, Ltd.

  5. CD36 homolog divergence is responsible for the selectivity of carotenoid species migration to the silk gland of the silkworm Bombyx mori[S

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sakudoh, Takashi; Kuwazaki, Seigo; Iizuka, Tetsuya; Narukawa, Junko; Yamamoto, Kimiko; Uchino, Keiro; Sezutsu, Hideki; Banno, Yutaka; Tsuchida, Kozo

    2013-01-01

    Dietary carotenoids are absorbed in the intestine and delivered to various tissues by circulating lipoproteins; however, the mechanism underlying selective delivery of different carotenoid species to individual tissues remains elusive. The products of the Yellow cocoon (C) gene and the Flesh (F) gene of the silkworm Bombyx mori determine the selectivity for transport of lutein and β-carotene, respectively, to the silk gland. We previously showed that the C gene encodes Cameo2, a CD36 family member, which is thought to function as a transmembrane lipoprotein receptor. Here, we elucidated the molecular identity of the F gene product by positional cloning, as SCRB15, a paralog of Cameo2 with 26% amino acid identity. In the F mutant, SCRB15 mRNA structure was severely disrupted, due to a 1.4 kb genomic insertion in a coding exon. Transgenic expression of SCRB15 in the middle silk gland using the binary GAL4-UAS expression system enhanced selective β-carotene uptake by the middle silk gland, while transgenic expression of Cameo2 enhanced selective lutein uptake under the same GAL4 driver. Our findings indicate that divergence of genes in the CD36 family determines the selectivity of carotenoid species uptake by silk gland tissue and that CD36-homologous proteins can discriminate among carotenoid species. PMID:23160179

  6. Oral Fat Sensing and CD36 Gene Polymorphism in Algerian Lean and Obese Teenagers.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Daoudi, Hadjer; Plesník, Jiří; Sayed, Amira; Šerý, Omar; Rouabah, Abdelkader; Rouabah, Leila; Khan, Naim Akhtar

    2015-11-04

    Growing number of evidences have suggested that oral fat sensing, mediated by a glycoprotein CD36 (cluster of differentiation 36), plays a significant role in the development of obesity. Indeed, a decreased expression of CD36 in some obese subjects is associated with high dietary fat intake. In the present study, we examined whether an increase in body mass index (BMI) is associated with altered oleic acid lingual detection thresholds and blood lipid profile in young Algerian teenagers (n = 165). The obese teenagers (n = 83; 14.01 ± 0.19 years; BMI z-score 2.67 ± 0.29) exhibited higher lingual detection threshold for oleic acid than lean participants (n = 82, 13.92 ± 0.23 years; BMI z-score 0.03 ± 0.0001). We also studied the association between rs1761667 polymorphism of CD36 gene and obesity. The AA and AG genotypes were more frequent in obese teenagers, whereas GG genotype was more common in lean participants. The A-allele frequency was higher in obese teenagers than that in lean children. We report that rs1761667 polymorphism of CD36 gene and oro-gustatory thresholds for fat might play a significant role in the development of obesity in young teenagers.

  7. Oral Fat Sensing and CD36 Gene Polymorphism in Algerian Lean and Obese Teenagers

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Hadjer Daoudi

    2015-11-01

    Full Text Available Growing number of evidences have suggested that oral fat sensing, mediated by a glycoprotein CD36 (cluster of differentiation 36, plays a significant role in the development of obesity. Indeed, a decreased expression of CD36 in some obese subjects is associated with high dietary fat intake. In the present study, we examined whether an increase in body mass index (BMI is associated with altered oleic acid lingual detection thresholds and blood lipid profile in young Algerian teenagers (n = 165. The obese teenagers (n = 83; 14.01 ± 0.19 years; BMI z-score 2.67 ± 0.29 exhibited higher lingual detection threshold for oleic acid than lean participants (n = 82, 13.92 ± 0.23 years; BMI z-score 0.03 ± 0.0001. We also studied the association between rs1761667 polymorphism of CD36 gene and obesity. The AA and AG genotypes were more frequent in obese teenagers, whereas GG genotype was more common in lean participants. The A-allele frequency was higher in obese teenagers than that in lean children. We report that rs1761667 polymorphism of CD36 gene and oro-gustatory thresholds for fat might play a significant role in the development of obesity in young teenagers.

  8. CML/CD36 accelerates atherosclerotic progression via inhibiting foam cell migration.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Xu, Suining; Li, Lihua; Yan, Jinchuan; Ye, Fei; Shao, Chen; Sun, Zhen; Bao, Zhengyang; Dai, Zhiyin; Zhu, Jie; Jing, Lele; Wang, Zhongqun

    2018-01-01

    Among the various complications of type 2 diabetes mellitus, atherosclerosis causes the highest disability and morbidity. A multitude of macrophage-derived foam cells are retained in atherosclerotic plaques resulting not only from recruitment of monocytes into lesions but also from a reduced rate of macrophage migration from lesions. Nε-carboxymethyl-Lysine (CML), an advanced glycation end product, is responsible for most complications of diabetes. This study was designed to investigate the mechanism of CML/CD36 accelerating atherosclerotic progression via inhibiting foam cell migration. In vivo study and in vitro study were performed. For the in vivo investigation, CML/CD36 accelerated atherosclerotic progression via promoting the accumulation of macrophage-derived foam cells in aorta and inhibited macrophage-derived foam cells in aorta migrating to the para-aorta lymph node of diabetic apoE -/- mice. For the in vitro investigation, CML/CD36 inhibited RAW264.7-derived foam cell migration through NOX-derived ROS, FAK phosphorylation, Arp2/3 complex activation and F-actin polymerization. Thus, we concluded that CML/CD36 inhibited foam cells of plaque migrating to para-aorta lymph nodes, accelerating atherosclerotic progression. The corresponding mechanism may be via free cholesterol, ROS generation, p-FAK, Arp2/3, F-actin polymerization. Copyright © 2017 Elsevier Masson SAS. All rights reserved.

  9. Plant carbohydrate scavenging through tonB-dependent receptors: a feature shared by phytopathogenic and aquatic bacteria.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Servane Blanvillain

    Full Text Available TonB-dependent receptors (TBDRs are outer membrane proteins mainly known for the active transport of iron siderophore complexes in Gram-negative bacteria. Analysis of the genome of the phytopathogenic bacterium Xanthomonas campestris pv. campestris (Xcc, predicts 72 TBDRs. Such an overrepresentation is common in Xanthomonas species but is limited to only a small number of bacteria. Here, we show that one Xcc TBDR transports sucrose with a very high affinity, suggesting that it might be a sucrose scavenger. This TBDR acts with an inner membrane transporter, an amylosucrase and a regulator to utilize sucrose, thus defining a new type of carbohydrate utilization locus, named CUT locus, involving a TBDR for the transport of substrate across the outer membrane. This sucrose CUT locus is required for full pathogenicity on Arabidopsis, showing its importance for the adaptation to host plants. A systematic analysis of Xcc TBDR genes and a genome context survey suggested that several Xcc TBDRs belong to other CUT loci involved in the utilization of various plant carbohydrates. Interestingly, several Xcc TBDRs and CUT loci are conserved in aquatic bacteria such as Caulobacter crescentus, Colwellia psychrerythraea, Saccharophagus degradans, Shewanella spp., Sphingomonas spp. or Pseudoalteromonas spp., which share the ability to degrade a wide variety of complex carbohydrates and display TBDR overrepresentation. We therefore propose that TBDR overrepresentation and the presence of CUT loci designate the ability to scavenge carbohydrates. Thus CUT loci, which seem to participate to the adaptation of phytopathogenic bacteria to their host plants, might also play a very important role in the biogeochemical cycling of plant-derived nutrients in marine environments. Moreover, the TBDRs and CUT loci identified in this study are clearly different from those characterized in the human gut symbiont Bacteroides thetaiotaomicron, which allow glycan foraging

  10. Associations between CD36 gene polymorphisms and susceptibility to coronary artery heart disease

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Zhang, Y.; Ling, Z.Y.; Deng, S.B.; Du, H.A.; Yin, Y.H.; Yuan, J.; She, Q.; Chen, Y.Q. [Department of Cardiology, The Second Affiliated Hospital, Chongqing Medical University, Chongqing (China)

    2014-08-08

    Associations between polymorphisms of the CD36 gene and susceptibility to coronary artery heart disease (CHD) are not clear. We assessed allele frequencies and genotype distributions of CD36 gene polymorphisms in 112 CHD patients and 129 control patients using semi-quantitative polymerase chain reaction (PCR) and restriction fragment length polymorphism (RFLP) analysis. Additionally, we detected CD36 mRNA expression by real-time quantitative PCR, and we quantified plasma levels of oxidized low-density lipoprotein (ox-LDL) using an enzyme-linked immunosorbent assay (ELISA). There were no significant differences between the two groups (P>0.05) in allele frequencies of rs1761667 or in genotype distribution and allele frequencies of rs3173798. The genotype distribution of rs1761667 significantly differed between CHD patients and controls (P=0.034), with a significantly higher frequency of the AG genotype in the CHD group compared to the control group (P=0.011). The plasma levels of ox-LDL in patients with the AG genotype were remarkably higher than those with the GG and AA genotypes (P=0.010). In a randomized sample taken from patients in the two groups, the CD36 mRNA expression of the CHD patients was higher than that of the controls. In CHD patients, the CD36 mRNA expression in AG genotype patients was remarkably higher than in those with an AA genotype (P=0.005). After adjusted logistic regression analysis, the AG genotype of rs1761667 was associated with an increased risk of CHD (OR=2.337, 95% CI=1.336-4.087, P=0.003). In conclusion, the rs1761667 polymorphism may be closely associated with developing CHD in the Chongqing Han population of China, and an AG genotype may be a genetic susceptibility factor for CHD.

  11. The scavenger receptor MARCO is involved in Leishmania major infection by CBA/J macrophages.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gomes, I N; Palma, L C; Campos, G O; Lima, J G B; DE Almeida, T F; DE Menezes, J P B; Ferreira, C A G; Santos, R R Dos; Buck, G A; Manque, P A M; Ozaki, L S; Probst, C M; DE Freitas, L A R; Krieger, M A; Veras, P S T

    2009-04-01

    CBA/J mice are resistant to Leishmania major infection but are permissive to L. amazonensis infection. In addition, CBA/J macrophages control L. major but not L. amazonensis infection in vitro. Phagocytosis by macrophages is known to determine the outcome of Leishmania infection. Pattern recognition receptors (PRR) adorning antigen presenting cell surfaces are known to coordinate the link between innate and adaptive immunity. The macrophage receptor with collagenous structure (MARCO) is a PRR that is preferably expressed by macrophages and is capable of binding Gram-positive and Gram-negative bacteria. No research on the role of MARCO in Leishmania-macrophage interactions has been reported. Here, we demonstrate, for the first time, that MARCO expression by CBA/J macrophages is increased in response to both in vitro and in vivo L. major infections, but not to L. amazonensis infection. In addition, a specific anti-MARCO monoclonal antibody reduced L. major infection of macrophages by 30%-40% in vitro. The draining lymph nodes of anti-MARCO-treated mice displayed a reduced presence of immunolabelled parasite and parasite antigens, as well as a reduced inflammatory response. These results support the hypothesis that MARCO has a role in macrophage infection by L. major in vitro as well as in vivo.

  12. Circulating sCD36 is associated with unhealthy fat distribution and elevated circulating triglycerides in morbidly obese individuals

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Knøsgaard, L; Thomsen, S B; Støckel, M

    2014-01-01

    CD36 among morbidly obese individuals. Furthermore, we investigated the levels of sCD36 in relation to obesity-related metabolic complications, low-grade inflammation and fat distribution. METHODS: Twenty morbidly obese individuals (body mass index (BMI) 43.0±5.4 kg m(-2)) with a referral to Roux...... the proposed role of sCD36 as a biochemical marker of obesity-related metabolic complications and risks.......BACKGROUND: The recently identified circulating sCD36 has been proposed to reflect tissue CD36 expression, and is upregulated in case of obesity, insulin resistance and hepatic steatosis. The aim of this study was to explore the effect of weight loss secondary to bariatric surgery in relation to s...

  13. Association of scavenger receptor class B type I polymorphisms with subclinical atherosclerosis: the Multi-Ethnic Study of Atherosclerosis.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Naj, Adam C; West, Michael; Rich, Stephen S; Post, Wendy; Kao, W H Linda; Wasserman, Bruce A; Herrington, David M; Rodriguez, Annabelle

    2010-02-01

    Little is known about the association of scavenger receptor class B type I (SCARB1) single-nucleotide polymorphisms (SNPs) and subclinical atherosclerosis, particularly in subjects of different racial/ethnic backgrounds. We examined this relationship in the Multi-Ethnic Study of Atherosclerosis. Forty-three SCARB1-tagging SNPs were genotyped. Baseline examinations included fasting lipids and subclinical atherosclerosis phenotypes (coronary artery calcification, common carotid intimal-medial artery thickness [CCIMT], and internal carotid intimal-medial artery thickness). Examining SNP associations with different subclinical atherosclerosis phenotypes across multiple racial/ethnic groups with adjustment for multiple covariates, we found that the C allele of SNP rs10846744 was associated with higher CCIMT in African American (P=0.03), Chinese (P=0.02), European American (P=0.05), and Hispanic participants (P=0.03) and was strongly associated in pooled analyses (P=0.0002). The results also showed that the association of this SNP with CCIMT was independent of lipids and other well-established cardiovascular risk factors. Stratifying by sex, there seemed to be a strong association of rs10846744 with CCIMT in women, but no genotype-sex interactions were observed. Variation in SCARB1 at rs10846744 was significantly associated with CCIMT across racial/ethnic groups in Multi-Ethnic Study of Atherosclerosis.

  14. Key Role of the Scavenger Receptor MARCO in Mediating Adenovirus Infection and Subsequent Innate Responses of Macrophages

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Mareike D. Maler

    2017-08-01

    Full Text Available The scavenger receptor MARCO is expressed in several subsets of naive tissue-resident macrophages and has been shown to participate in the recognition of various bacterial pathogens. However, the role of MARCO in antiviral defense is largely unexplored. Here, we investigated whether MARCO might be involved in the innate sensing of infection with adenovirus and recombinant adenoviral vectors by macrophages, which elicit vigorous immune responses in vivo. Using cells derived from mice, we show that adenovirus infection is significantly more efficient in MARCO-positive alveolar macrophages (AMs and in AM-like primary macrophage lines (Max Planck Institute cells than in MARCO-negative bone marrow-derived macrophages. Using antibodies blocking ligand binding to MARCO, as well as gene-deficient and MARCO-transfected cells, we show that MARCO mediates the rapid adenovirus transduction of macrophages. By enhancing adenovirus infection, MARCO contributes to efficient innate virus recognition through the cytoplasmic DNA sensor cGAS. This leads to strong proinflammatory responses, including the production of interleukin-6 (IL-6, alpha/beta interferon, and mature IL-1α. These findings contribute to the understanding of viral pathogenesis in macrophages and may open new possibilities for the development of tools to influence the outcome of infection with adenovirus or adenovirus vectors.

  15. Targeting the Hemoglobin Scavenger receptor CD163 in Macrophages Highly Increases the Anti-inflammatory Potency of Dexamethasone

    Science.gov (United States)

    Graversen, Jonas H; Svendsen, Pia; Dagnæs-Hansen, Frederik; Dal, Jakob; Anton, Gabriele; Etzerodt, Anders; Petersen, Mikkel D; Christensen, Peter A; Møller, Holger J; Moestrup, Søren K

    2012-01-01

    Synthetic glucocorticoids are potent anti-inflammatory drugs but serious side effects such as bone mobilization, muscle mass loss, immunosuppression, and metabolic alterations make glucocorticoid therapy a difficult balance. The therapeutic anti-inflammatory effect of glucocorticoids relies largely on the suppressed release of tumor-necrosis factor-α and other cytokines by macrophages at the sites of inflammation. We have now developed a new biodegradable anti-CD163 antibody-drug conjugate that specifically targets the glucocorticoid, dexamethasone to the hemoglobin scavenger receptor CD163 in macrophages. The conjugate, that in average contains four dexamethasone molecules per antibody, exhibits retained high functional affinity for CD163. In vitro studies in rat macrophages and in vivo studies of Lewis rats showed a strong anti-inflammatory effect of the conjugate measured as reduced lipopolysaccharide-induced secretion of tumor-necrosis factor-α. The in vivo potency of conjugated dexamethasone was about 50-fold that of nonconjugated dexamethasone. In contrast to a strong systemic effect of nonconjugated dexamethasone, the equipotent dose of the conjugate had no such effect, measured as thymus lymphocytes apoptosis, body weight loss, and suppression of endogenous cortisol levels. In conclusion, the study shows antibody-drug conjugates as a future approach in anti-inflammatory macrophage-directed therapy. Furthermore, the data demonstrate CD163 as an excellent macrophage target for anti-inflammatory drug delivery. PMID:22643864

  16. Scavenger receptor BI and ABCG5/G8 differentially impact biliary sterol secretion and reverse cholesterol transport in mice.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Dikkers, Arne; Freak de Boer, Jan; Annema, Wijtske; Groen, Albert K; Tietge, Uwe J F

    2013-07-01

    Biliary lipid secretion plays an important role in gallstone disease and reverse cholesterol transport (RCT). Using Sr-bI/Abcg5 double knockout mice (dko), the present study investigated the differential contribution of two of the most relevant transporters: adenosine triphosphate (ATP)-binding cassette subfamily G member 5 and 8 (ABCG5/G8) and scavenger receptor class B type I (SR-BI) to sterol metabolism and RCT. Plasma cholesterol levels increased in the following order, mainly due to differences in high density lipoprotein (HDL): Abcg5 ko Sr-bI ko (-16%) > Abcg5 ko (-75%) > Sr-bI/Abcg5 dko (-94%), all at least P G8-independent biliary cholesterol secretion under basal conditions; (2) biliary cholesterol mass secretion under maximal bile salt-stimulated conditions is fully dependent on ABCG5/G8; and (3) Sr-bI contributes to macrophage-to-feces RCT independent of Abcg5/g8. Copyright © 2013 American Association for the Study of Liver Diseases.

  17. Characterization of a novel human scavenger receptor cysteine-rich molecule SCART1 expressed by lymphocytes

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Holm, D.; Fink, D. R.; Steffensen, M. A.

    2013-01-01

    of hSCART1 in the small intestine and colon. An antibody raised against an N-terminal hSCART1 peptide stains a subset of cells in the small intestine, stomach, and gall bladder, and it also stains placental villi. In conclusion, the characterization of hSCART1 at the mRNA and protein level suggests...... that displays synteny to the position of mSCART1 in the murine genome. The primary structure of hSCART1 was established by molecular cloning. The longest cDNA sequence of hSCART1 that was found is 2200bp and encodes a protein composed of a signal peptide, 5 SRCR domains, and an in-frame potential cytoplasmic...... domain. Shorter splice forms have also been isolated. Quantitative real-time PCR analysis on human blood-fractions has shown that hSCART1 is expressed primarily by CD4(+) and CD8(+) T lymphocytes with either αβ or γδ T cell receptors, and real-time PCR on 22 different human tissues showed high expression...

  18. Inflammatory stress increases hepatic CD36 translational efficiency via activation of the mTOR signalling pathway.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Chuan Wang

    Full Text Available Inflammatory stress is an independent risk factor for the development of non-alcoholic fatty liver disease (NAFLD. Although CD36 is known to facilitate long-chain fatty acid uptake and contributes to NAFLD progression, the mechanisms that link inflammatory stress to hepatic CD36 expression and steatosis remain unclear. As the mammalian target of rapamycin (mTOR signalling pathway is involved in CD36 translational activation, this study was undertaken to investigate whether inflammatory stress enhances hepatic CD36 expression via mTOR signalling pathway and the underlying mechanisms. To induce inflammatory stress, we used tumour necrosis factor alpha (TNF-α and interleukin-6 (IL-6 stimulation of the human hepatoblastoma HepG2 cells in vitro and casein injection in C57BL/6J mice in vivo. The data showed that inflammatory stress increased hepatic CD36 protein levels but had no effect on mRNA expression. A protein degradation assay revealed that CD36 protein stability was not different between HepG2 cells treated with or without TNF-α or IL-6. A polysomal analysis indicated that CD36 translational efficiency was significantly increased by inflammatory stress. Additionally, inflammatory stress enhanced the phosphorylation of mTOR and its downstream translational regulators including p70S6K, 4E-BP1 and eIF4E. Rapamycin, an mTOR-specific inhibitor, reduced the phosphorylation of mTOR signalling pathway and decreased the CD36 translational efficiency and protein level even under inflammatory stress resulting in the alleviation of inflammatory stress-induced hepatic lipid accumulation. This study demonstrates that the activation of the mTOR signalling pathway increases hepatic CD36 translational efficiency, resulting in increased CD36 protein expression under inflammatory stress.

  19. CD36 abnormality and impaired myocardial long-chain fatty acid uptake in patients with hypertrophic cardiomyopathy

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Okamoto, Fumio; Tanaka, Takao; Sohmiya, Koichi; Kawamura, Keishiro [Osaka Medical Coll., Takatsuki (Japan)

    1998-07-01

    In this study, in order to discover the relationship between hypertrophic cardiomyopathy (HCM) and the CD36 molecular abnormality, the expression level of platelet CD36 and CD36 cDNA in 55 HCM patients was analyzed. Twelve patients showed negligible (<5%) CD36 expression on their platelets. Among them, one was found to be homozygous for the C-478{yields}T substitution and 6 were heterozygous for the C-478{yields}T substitution. In 9 patients, CD36 was expressed by less than 50% of the platelets. One of them was found to be heterozygous for the C-478{yields}T substitution. Two other patients were also found to be heterozygous for this point mutation, although their platelets expressed CD36. Thus, 23 out of 55 (41.8%) HCM patients had negligible (<5%) or reduced (<50%) levels of CD36 expression on platelets, or had a point mutation of CD36 cDNA. These 55 HCM patients were also evaluated with myocardial scintigraphy both for long-chain fatty acid (LCFA) uptake and perfusion, which showed a moderate to severe discrepancy between myocardial LCFA accumulation and myocardial perfusion in 95.5% of the patients (21/23). On the other hand, 70% of the patients with normal (>90%) CD36 expression (14/20) did not show any severe discrepancies between myocardial LCFA accumulation and myocardial perfusion. These data could suggest that abnormal myocardial LCFA metabolism seen in HCM patients may be related to abnormality of the CD36 molecule, and that abnormalities of this molecule may be linked to the cause of some types of HCM. (K.H.)

  20. Expression of placental low-density lipoprotein receptor-related protein and scavenger receptors AI/AII transcripts in the baboon.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Shi, Wenliang; Swan, Kenneth F; Henson, Michael C

    2003-05-01

    This study was undertaken to assess potential secondary lipoprotein-dependent mechanisms, scavenger receptor AI and AII (SR-AI and SR-AII), and low-density lipoprotein (LDL) receptor-related protein (LRP) in the baboon (Papio sp) placenta. Baboon placental villous tissue and enriched fractions of syncytiotrophoblast cells were collected at early (approximately day 60, n = 3), mid (approximately day 100, n = 4), and late (approximately day 160, n = 4) pregnancy (term = approximately 184 days). The abundance of messenger RNA (mRNA) transcripts for SR-AI, SR-AII, and LRP were determined relative to constitutively expressed, glyceraldehyde-3-phosphate-dehydrogenase (GAPDH). No quantitative differences (P >.05) in SR-AI, SR-AII, or LRP mRNAs were noted in respect to stage of gestation. However, SR-AII/GAPDH mRNA ratios in syncytiotrophoblast cells (0.38 +/- 0.09, n = 11) were significantly (P AII mRNA in baboon placenta appears to be expressed, in greatest abundance, in the endocrinologically active syncytiotrophoblast.

  1. Class A scavenger receptor 1 (MSR1 restricts hepatitis C virus replication by mediating toll-like receptor 3 recognition of viral RNAs produced in neighboring cells.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Hiromichi Dansako

    Full Text Available Persistent infections with hepatitis C virus (HCV may result in life-threatening liver disease, including cirrhosis and cancer, and impose an important burden on human health. Understanding how the virus is capable of achieving persistence in the majority of those infected is thus an important goal. Although HCV has evolved multiple mechanisms to disrupt and block cellular signaling pathways involved in the induction of interferon (IFN responses, IFN-stimulated gene (ISG expression is typically prominent in the HCV-infected liver. Here, we show that Toll-like receptor 3 (TLR3 expressed within uninfected hepatocytes is capable of sensing infection in adjacent cells, initiating a local antiviral response that partially restricts HCV replication. We demonstrate that this is dependent upon the expression of class A scavenger receptor type 1 (MSR1. MSR1 binds extracellular dsRNA, mediating its endocytosis and transport toward the endosome where it is engaged by TLR3, thereby triggering IFN responses in both infected and uninfected cells. RNAi-mediated knockdown of MSR1 expression blocks TLR3 sensing of HCV in infected hepatocyte cultures, leading to increased cellular permissiveness to virus infection. Exogenous expression of Myc-MSR1 restores TLR3 signaling in MSR1-depleted cells with subsequent induction of an antiviral state. A series of conserved basic residues within the carboxy-terminus of the collagen superfamily domain of MSR1 are required for binding and transport of dsRNA, and likely facilitate acidification-dependent release of dsRNA at the site of TLR3 expression in the endosome. Our findings reveal MSR1 to be a critical component of a TLR3-mediated pattern recognition receptor response that exerts an antiviral state in both infected and uninfected hepatocytes, thereby limiting the impact of HCV proteins that disrupt IFN signaling in infected cells and restricting the spread of HCV within the liver.

  2. High-Avidity Monoclonal Antibodies against the Human Scavenger Class B Type I Receptor Efficiently Block Hepatitis C Virus Infection in the Presence of High-Density Lipoprotein▿

    OpenAIRE

    Catanese, Maria Teresa; Graziani, Rita; von Hahn, Thomas; Moreau, Martine; Huby, Thierry; Paonessa, Giacomo; Santini, Claudia; Luzzago, Alessandra; Rice, Charles M.; Cortese, Riccardo; Vitelli, Alessandra; Nicosia, Alfredo

    2007-01-01

    The human scavenger class B type 1 receptor (SR-B1/Cla1) was identified as a putative receptor for hepatitis C virus (HCV) because it binds to soluble recombinant HCV envelope glycoprotein E2 (sE2). High-density lipoprotein (HDL), a natural SR-B1 ligand, was shown to increase the in vitro infectivity of retroviral pseudoparticles bearing HCV envelope glycoproteins and of cell culture-derived HCV (HCVcc), suggesting that SR-B1 promotes viral entry in an HDL-dependent manner. To determine wheth...

  3. Reversal of adipose tissue loss by probucol in mice with deficiency of both scavenger receptor class B type 1 and LDL receptor on high fat diet.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Guo, Xin; Liao, Jiawei; Huang, Xiaomin; Wang, Yuhui; Huang, Wei; Liu, George

    2017-05-15

    Scavenger receptor class B type 1(SR-B1) and low density lipoprotein receptor (LDLR) play vital roles in cholesterol homeostasis. Previous studies indicated a strong link between cholesterol and adipose tissue (AT). In this study, adult male SR-B1 and LDLR double knockout (DKO) mice were fed with high fat diet (HFD) for 3 months. Interestingly, we found severe loss of AT in DKO mice fed with HFD. To reverse the AT loss in DKO mice, 1% probucol was added in HFD. In DKO mice on HFD, plasma total cholesterol (TC) and free cholesterol (FC) levels were increased 6 and 15 folds respectively compared with wild type (WT) mice. We found severe loss of AT in whole body of DKO mice compared with WT or single KO mice. In AT of DKO mice, histology showed the very small size of adipocytes and infiltration of inflammatory cells; Genes expressions related to fatty acid uptake, lipogenesis and adipogenesis were decreased; TUNEL analysis and related genes expressions of endoplasmic reticulum (ER) stress and inflammation were significantly higher than those of WT or single KO mice. Probucol could reduce increased TC and FC levels, and reverse the loss of fat and apoptosis of AT in DKO mice. AT loss in DKO mice with HFD was probably due to high levels of FC which led to apoptosis induced by ER stress and inflammation of AT. This study provided a novel utility of probucol in rescue of fat loss in DKO mice. Copyright © 2017 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  4. Hepatic fat accumulation and regulation of FAT/CD36: an effect of hepatic irradiation

    Science.gov (United States)

    Martius, Gesa; Alwahsh, Salamah Mohammad; Rave-Fränk, Margret; Hess, Clemens Friedrich; Christiansen, Hans; Ramadori, Giuliano; Malik, Ihtzaz Ahmed

    2014-01-01

    Irradiation is known to induce inflammation and affect fat metabolic pathways. The current study investigates hepatic fat accumulation and fatty acid transportation in a rat model of single dose liver irradiation (25-Gy). Rat livers were selectively irradiated in-vivo (25-Gy), sham-irradiated rats served as controls. Hepatic lipids were studied by colorimetric assays in liver and serum. Intracellular lipids, protein and mRNA were studied by Nile red staining, immunohistology, Western Blot analysis and RT-PCR in liver, respectively. Changes in FAT/CD36 expression were studied in-vitro in a human monocyte cell line U937 after irradiation in presence or absence of infliximab (IFX). Nile Red staining of liver cryosections showed a quick (12-48 h) increase in fat droplets. Accordingly, hepatic triglycerides (TG) and free fatty acids (FFA) were elevated. An early increase (3-6 h) in the serum level of HDL-C, TG and cholesterol was measured after single dose irradiation followed by a decrease thereafter. Furthermore, expression of the fat transporter protein FAT/CD36 was increased, immunohistochemistry revealed basolateral and cytoplasmic expression in hepatocytes. Moreover, apolipoprotein-B100, -C3 and enzymes (acetyl-CoA carboxylase, lipoprotein-lipase, carnitine-palmitoyltransferase, malonyl-CoA-decarboxylase) involved in fat metabolism were induced at 12-24 h. Early activation of the NFkβ pathway (IκBα) by TNF-α was seen, followed by a significant elevation of serum markers for liver damage (AST and GLDH). TNF-α blockage by anti-TNF-α in cell culture (U937) prevented the increase of FAT/CD36 caused by irradiation. Selective liver irradiation is a model for rapid induction of steatosis hepatis and fat accumulation could be triggered by irradiation-induced inflammatory mediators (e.g. TNF-α). PMID:25197426

  5. Association of CD36 gene polymorphisms with echo- and electrocardiographic parameters in patients with early onset coronary artery disease.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rac, Monika; Kurzawski, Grzegorz; Safranow, Krzysztof; Rac, Michal; Sagasz-Tysiewicz, Dagmara; Krzystolik, Andrzej; Poncyljusz, Wojciech; Olszewska, Maria; Dawid, Grażyna; Chlubek, Dariusz

    2013-08-30

    CD36 plays an important role in long-chain fatty acid homeostasis in skeletal muscle and the myocardium. CD36 deficiency may lead to reduced myocardial uptake of long-chain fatty acid. Therefore, different mutations of the CD36 gene may contribute to the clinical heterogeneity of cardiac hypertrophy. The objective of the study was to investigate whether there is an association between the sequence changes in CD36 and echocardiographic and electrocardiographic parameters in Caucasian patients with early onset coronary artery disease. The study group comprised 100 patients. Electrocardiography and echocardiography were performed in all patients. Amplicons of exons 4 to 6 including fragments of introns were studied using the denaturing high-performance liquid chromatography technique. IVS3-6TC (rs3173798) heterozygotes had impaired left ventricle diastolic function. 573GA heterozygotes (rs5956) had higher frequency of pseudonormal left ventricular diastolic function and it was confirmed by the increase in wave A' in the tissue Doppler. 591AT genotype was associated with borderline higher posterior wall end-diastolic thickness and lower E/A ratio. These results are consistent with electrocardiography parameters which could reflect left ventricular hypertrophy (higher RV5(6) and RV5(6) + SV1(2) parameters, depressed ST segments and tendency to longer Qtc II interval) in 591AT heterozygotes. Detected variant alleles of CD36 may be associated with features of left ventricular hypertrophy and impaired diastolic function.

  6. The physiological expression of scavenger receptor SR-B1 in canine endometrial and placental epithelial cells and its potential involvement in pathogenesis of pyometra.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gabriel, C; Becher-Deichsel, A; Hlavaty, J; Mair, G; Walter, I

    2016-06-01

    Pyometra, the purulent inflammation of the uterus, is a common uterine disease of bitches that has potentially life-threatening consequences. The opportunistic bacterial infection of the uterus often progresses into the serious systemic inflammatory response syndrome. In a previous study, we characterized epithelial foam cells in the canine endometrial surface occurring in metestrus, and we regularly observed pronounced epithelial foam-cell formations in pyometra-affected uteri. Therefore, it was assumed that the mechanism behind lipid droplet accumulation in surface epithelial cells might even increase bacterial binding capacity and promote pyometra development. Lipid droplet accumulation in epithelial cells is accomplished via specialized lipid receptors called scavenger receptors (SR). Scavenger receptor class B type 1 (SR-B1) is an important receptor for lipid accumulation in diverse cell types, but it is also a strong binding partner for bacteria, and thereby enhances bacterial adhesion and clinical signs of systemic inflammatory response syndrome. In the present study, after the isolation of metestrous surface epithelial cells from canine uteri by laser capture microdissection, SR-B1 was identified at the messenger RNA (mRNA) level by quantitative real time polymerase chain reaction and also at the protein level by means of immunohistochemistry. In pyometra-affected uteri, SR-B1 mRNA expression was higher than that in the healthy control samples, and SR-B1 protein was expressed in the surface and crypt epithelial cells. Furthermore, to understand the physiological role of SR-B1 expression in the metestrus surface epithelial cells, we investigated its expression in the epithelial cells of the glandular chambers of canine placenta in different stages of gestation because these cells are also characterized by lipid droplet accumulation. SR-B1 was present in the placental epithelial cells of the glandular chambers from 25 to 30 and 45 to 50 days of gestation

  7. Kimchi methanol extract and the kimchi active compound, 3'-(4'-hydroxyl-3',5'-dimethoxyphenyl)propionic acid, downregulate CD36 in THP-1 macrophages stimulated by oxLDL.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yun, Ye-Rang; Kim, Hyun-Ju; Song, Yeong-Ok

    2014-08-01

    Macrophage foam cell formation by oxidized low-density lipoprotein (oxLDL) is a key step in the progression of atherosclerosis, which is involved in cholesterol influx and efflux in macrophages mediated by related proteins such as peroxisome proliferator-activated receptor γ (PPARγ), CD36, PPARα, liver-X receptor α (LXRα), and ATP-binding cassette transporter A1 (ABCA1). The aim of this study was to investigate the beneficial effects of kimchi methanol extract (KME) and a kimchi active compound, 3-(4'-hydroxyl-3',5'-dimethoxyphenyl)propionic acid (HDMPPA) on cholesterol flux in THP-1-derived macrophages treated with oxLDL. The effects of KME and HDMPPA on cell viability and lipid peroxidation were determined. Furthermore, the protein expression of PPARγ, CD36, PPARα, LXRα, and ABCA1 was examined. OxLDL strongly induced cell death and lipid peroxidation in THP-1-derived macrophages. However, KME and HDMPPA significantly improved cell viability and inhibited lipid peroxidation induced by oxLDL in THP-1-derived macrophages (P<.05). Moreover, KME and HDMPPA suppressed CD36 and PPARγ expressions, both of which participate in cholesterol influx. In contrast, KME and HDMPPA augmented LXRα, PPARα, and ABCA1 expression, which are associated with cholesterol efflux. Consequently, KME and HDMPPA suppressed lipid accumulation. These results indicate that KME and HDMPPA may inhibit lipid accumulation, in part, by regulating cholesterol influx- and efflux-related proteins. These findings will thus be useful for future prevention strategies against atherosclerosis.

  8. Three-dimensional solution structure and conformational plasticity of the N-terminal scavenger receptor cysteine-rich domain of human CD5.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Garza-Garcia, Acely; Esposito, Diego; Rieping, Wolfgang; Harris, Richard; Briggs, Cherry; Brown, Marion H; Driscoll, Paul C

    2008-04-18

    The lymphocyte receptor CD5 influences cell activation by modifying the strength of the intracellular response initiated by antigen engagement. Regulation through CD5 involves the interaction of one or more of its three scavenger receptor cysteine-rich domains present in the extracellular region. Here, we present the 3D solution structure of a non-glycosylated double mutant of the N-terminal domain of human CD5 expressed in Escherichia coli (eCD5d1m), which has enhanced solubility compared to the non-glycosylated wild-type (eCD5d1). In common with a glycosylated form expressed in Pichia pastoris, the [(15)N,(1)H]-correlation spectra of both eCD5d1 and eCD5d1m exhibit non-uniform temperature-dependent signal intensities, indicating extensive conformational fluctuations on the micro-millisecond timescale. Although approximately one half of the signals expected for the domain are absent at 298 K, essentially complete resonance assignments and a solution structure could be obtained at 318 K. Because of the sparse nature of the experimental restraint data and the potentially important contribution of conformational exchange to the nuclear Overhauser effect peak intensity, we applied inferential structure determination to calculate the eCD5d1m structure. The inferential structure determination ensemble has similar features to that obtained by traditional simulated annealing methods, but displays superior definition and structural quality. The eCD5d1m structure is similar to other members of the scavenger receptor cysteine-rich superfamily, but the position of the lone alpha helix differs due to interactions with the unique N-terminal region of the domain. The availability of an experimentally tractable form of CD5d1, together with its 3D structure, provides new tools for further investigation of its function within intact CD5.

  9. Increased hepatic CD36 expression with age is associated with enhanced susceptibility to nonalcoholic fatty liver disease

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Sheedfar, Fareeba; Sung, Miranda My; Aparicio-Vergara, Marcela; Kloosterhuis, Niels J; Miquilena-Colina, Maria Eugenia; Vargas-Castrillón, Javier; Febbraio, Maria; Jacobs, René L; de Bruin, Alain|info:eu-repo/dai/nl/304837261; Vinciguerra, Manlio; García-Monzón, Carmelo; Hofker, Marten H; Dyck, Jason Rb; Koonen, Debby P Y

    CD36 has been associated with obesity and diabetes in human liver diseases, however, its role in age-associated nonalcoholic fatty liver disease (NAFLD) is unknown. Therefore, liver biopsies were collected from individuals with histologically normal livers (n=30), and from patients diagnosed with

  10. CD36 Is Significantly Correlated with Adipophilin in Human Carotid Lesions and Inversely Correlated with Plasma ApoAI

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Sophie Collot-Teixeira

    2008-01-01

    Full Text Available OxLDL uptake and cholesterol efflux inhibition in macrophages play a key role in atherosclerotic plaque formation, rupture, and thrombotic ischemia. This study investigates genes implicated in OxLDL uptake (CD36, SRA, cholesterol efflux inhibition (adipophilin, ADFP, and inflammatory recruitments of leukocytes (IL-8 in plaque lesion areas (PLAs compared to nonplaque lesion areas NPLAs in human carotid endarterectomy specimens. Gene and protein expressions were assayed using quantitative PCR and quantitative immunohistochemistry. Pearson tests were used to investigate potential correlation between (a different gene expressions and (b gene expression and patient's plasma constituents. CD36, SRA, ADFP, and IL-8 were shown to be significantly more expressed in PLA compared to NPLA. In PLA, a significant correlation was observed between CD36, SRA, ADFP, and IL-8 mRNA levels. Moreover, CD36 expression level was significantly inversely correlated to plasma marker ApoAI. The above investigated genes/proteins may play a key role in the maturation of atherosclerotic lesions.

  11. miR-758-5p regulates cholesterol uptake via targeting the CD36 3'UTR.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Li, Bi-Rong; Xia, Lin-Qin; Liu, Jing; Liao, Lin-Ling; Zhang, Yang; Deng, Min; Zhong, Hui-Juan; Feng, Ting-Ting; He, Ping-Ping; Ouyang, Xin-Ping

    2017-12-09

    miR-758-3p plays an important role via regulting ABCA1-mediated cholesterol efflux in atherosclerosis. However, the mechanism of miR-758-5p in cholesterol metabolism is still unclear. Here, we revealed that miR-758-5p decreased total cholesterol accumulation in THP-1 macrophage derived foam cells through markedly reducing cholesterol uptake, and no effect on the cholesterol efflux. Interestingly, computational analysis suggests that CD36 may be a target gene of miR-758-5p. Our study further demonstrated that miR-758-5p decreased CD36 expression at both protein and mRNA levels via targeting the CD36 3'UTR in THP-1 macrophage derived foam cells. The present present study concluded that miR-758-5p decreases lipid accumulation of foam cell via regulating CD36-mediated the cholesterol uptake. Therefore, targeting miR-758-5p may offer a promising strategy to treat atherosclerotic vascular disease. Copyright © 2017. Published by Elsevier Inc.

  12. Identification of the bacteria-binding peptide domain on salivary agglutinin (gp-340/DMBT1), a member of the scavenger receptor cysteine-rich superfamily

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Bikker, Floris J; Ligtenberg, Antoon J M; Nazmi, Kamran

    2002-01-01

    Salivary agglutinin is encoded by DMBT1 and identical to gp-340, a member of the scavenger receptor cysteine-rich (SRCR) superfamily. Salivary agglutinin/DMBT1 is known for its Streptococcus mutans agglutinating properties. This 300-400 kDa glycoprotein is composed of conserved peptide motifs: 14...... SRCR domains that are separated by SRCR-interspersed domains (SIDs), 2 CUB (C1r/C1s Uegf Bmp1) domains, and a zona pellucida domain. We have searched for the peptide domains of agglutinin/DMBT1 responsible for bacteria binding. Digestion with endoproteinase Lys-C resulted in a protein fragment....... Strikingly, this peptide was also able to induce agglutination of S. mutans and a number of other bacteria. The repeated presence of this peptide in the native molecule endows agglutinin/DMBT1 with a general bacterial binding feature with a multivalent character. Moreover, our studies demonstrate...

  13. Parvovirus B19 integration into human CD36+ erythroid progenitor cells.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Janovitz, Tyler; Wong, Susan; Young, Neal S; Oliveira, Thiago; Falck-Pedersen, Erik

    2017-11-01

    The pathogenic autonomous human parvovirus B19 (B19V) productively infects erythroid progenitor cells (EPCs). Functional similarities between B19V nonstructural protein (NS1), a DNA binding endonuclease, and the Rep proteins of Adeno-Associated Virus (AAV) led us to hypothesize that NS1 may facilitate targeted nicking of the human genome and B19 vDNA integration. We adapted an integration capture sequencing protocol (IC-Seq) to screen B19V infected human CD36+ EPCs for viral integrants, and discovered 40,000 unique B19V integration events distributed throughout the human genome. Computational analysis of integration patterns revealed strong correlations with gene intronic regions, H3K9me3 sites, and the identification of 41 base pair consensus sequence with an octanucleotide core motif. The octanucleotide core has homology to a single region of B19V, adjacent to the P6 promoter TATA box. We present the first direct evidence that B19V infection of erythroid progenitor cells disrupts the human genome and facilitates viral DNA integration. Copyright © 2017 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  14. CD36 selection of 3D7 Plasmodium falciparum associated with severe childhood malaria results in reduced VAR4 expression

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Hviid Lars

    2008-10-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background A subset of the Plasmodium falciparum erythrocyte membrane protein 1 (PfEMP1SM is involved in the cytoadherence of P. falciparum-infected red blood cells (iRBC contributing to the pathogenesis of severe disease among young children in malaria endemic areas. The PfEMP1SM are encoded by group A var genes that are composed of a more constrained range of amino acid sequences than groups B and C var genes encoding PfEMP1UM associated with uncomplicated malaria. Also, unlike var genes from groups B and C, those from group A do not have sequences consistent with CD36 binding – a major cytoadhesion phenotype of P. falciparum isolates. Methods A 3D7 PfEMP1SM sub-line (3D7SM expressing VAR4 (PFD1235w/MAL8P1.207 was selected for binding to CD36. The protein expression of this parasite line was monitored by surface staining of iRBC using VAR4-specific antibodies. The serological phenotype of the 3D7SM parasites was determined by flow cytometry using malaria semi-immune and immune plasma and transcription of the 59 var genes in 3D7 were analysed by real-time quantitative reverse transcriptase-polymerase chain reaction (RT-PCR using var-specific primers. Results A selection-induced increased adhesion of 3D7SM iRBC to CD36 resulted in a reduced var4 transcription and VAR4 surface expression. Conclusion VAR4 is not involved in CD36 adhesion. The current findings are consistent with the notion that CD36 adhesion is not associated with particular virulent parasite phenotypes, such as those believed to be exhibited by VAR4 expressing parasites.

  15. Circulating CD36 and oxLDL levels are associated with cardiovascular risk factors in young subjects.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ramos-Arellano, Luz E; Muñoz-Valle, José F; De la Cruz-Mosso, Ulises; Salgado-Bernabé, Aralia B; Castro-Alarcón, Natividad; Parra-Rojas, Isela

    2014-04-28

    Cardiovascular disease (CVD) results from a combination of abnormalities in lipoprotein metabolism, oxidative stress, chronic inflammation, and susceptibility to thrombosis. Atherosclerosis is the major cause of CVD. CD36 has been shown to play a critical role in the development of atherosclerotic lesions by its capacity to bind and promote endocytosis of oxidized low-density lipoprotein (oxLDL) and is implicated in the formation of foam cells. The purpose of this research was to evaluate whether there is an association of sCD36 and oxLDL levels with cardiovascular risk factors in young subjects. A total of 188 subjects, 18 to 25 years old, 133 normal-weight and 55 obese subjects from the state of Guerrero, Mexico were recruited in the study. The lipid profile and glucose levels were measured by enzymatic colorimetric assays. Enzyme-linked immunosorbant assays (ELISA) for oxLDL and sCD36 were performed. Statistical analyses of data were performed with Wilcoxon- Mann Whitney and chi-square tests as well as with multinomial regression. TC, LDL-C, TG, oxLDL and sCD36 levels were higher in obese subjects than in normal-weight controls, as well as, monocyte and platelet counts (P Obese subjects had 5.8 times higher risk of sCD36 in the third tertil (>97.8 ng/mL) than normal-weight controls (P = 0.014), and 7.4 times higher risk of oxLDL levels in third tertile (>48 U/L) than control group. The subjects with hypercholesterolemia, hypertriglyceridemia, fasting impaired LDL-C had a higher risk of oxLDL levels in the third tertile (>48 U/L) than the control group (P cardiovascular risk factors in young subjects and may be potential early markers for cardiovascular disease (CVD).

  16. CD36 Gene Promoter Polymorphisms Are Associated With Low Density Lipoprotein-Cholesterol in Normal Twins and After a Low-Calorie Diet in Obese Subjects

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Goyenechea, Estibaliz; Collins, Laura J.; Parra, Dolores; Liu, Gaifen; Snieder, Harold; Swaminathan, Ramasamyiyer; Spector, Tim D.; Martinez, J. Alfredo; O'Dell, Sandra D.

    2008-01-01

    Common polymorphisms of the CD36 fatty acid transporter gene have been associated with lipid metabolism and cardiovascular disease. Association of a CD36 promoter single nucleotide polymorphism genotype with anthropometry and serum lipids was investigated in normal subjects, and in obese subjects

  17. Restoration of high-density lipoprotein levels by cholesteryl ester transfer protein expression in scavenger receptor class B type I (SR-BI) knockout mice does not normalize pathologies associated with SR-BI deficiency

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Hildebrand, Reeni B; Lammers, Bart; Meurs, Illiana; Korporaal, Suzanne J A; De Haan, Willeke; Zhao, Ying; Kruijt, J Kar; Praticò, Domenico; Schimmel, Alinda W M; Holleboom, Adriaan G; Hoekstra, Menno; Kuivenhoven, Jan Albert; Van Berkel, Theo J C; Rensen, Patrick C N; Van Eck, Miranda

    OBJECTIVE: Disruption of scavenger receptor class B type I (SR-BI) in mice impairs high-density lipoprotein (HDL)-cholesterol (HDL-C) delivery to the liver and induces susceptibility to atherosclerosis. In this study, it was investigated whether introduction of cholesteryl ester transfer protein

  18. 25(OH) vitamin D suppresses macrophage adhesion and migration by downregulation of ER stress and scavenger receptor A1 in type 2 diabetes.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Riek, Amy E; Oh, Jisu; Darwech, Isra; Moynihan, Clare E; Bruchas, Robin R; Bernal-Mizrachi, Carlos

    2014-10-01

    Cardiovascular disease (CVD) is the leading cause of mortality in patients with type 2 diabetes mellitus (T2DM). Vitamin D deficiency is not only more prevalent in diabetics but also doubles the risk of developing CVD. However, it is unknown whether 25-hydroxy vitamin D [25(OH)D3] replacement slows monocyte adhesion and migration, critical mechanisms involved in atherosclerosis progression. In this study, monocytes from vitamin D-deficient diabetic patients were cultured either in the patient's serum or in vitamin D-deficient media with or without 25(OH)D3 treatment. Adding 25(OH)D3 to monocytes cultured in vitamin D-deficient serum or media decreased monocyte adhesion to fibronectin and migration stimulated by monocyte chemotactic protein 1 (MCP-1). Accordingly, 25(OH)D3 decreased adhesion marker β1- and β2-integrin expression and migration receptor chemokine (C-C motif) receptor 2 (CCR2) expression. 25(OH)D3 treatment downregulated monocyte endoplasmic reticulum (ER) stress and scavenger receptor class A, type 1 (SR-A1) expression. The absence of SR-A1 prevented the increased macrophage adhesion and migration induced by vitamin D deficiency. Moreover, the absence of SR-A1 prevented the induction of adhesion and migration and expression of their associated membrane receptors by Thapsigargin, an ER stress inducer. These results identify cellular activation of monocyte/macrophage vitamin D signaling through 25(OH)D3 as a potential mechanism that could modulate adhesion and migration in diabetic subjects. This article is part of a Special Issue entitled '16th Vitamin D Workshop'. Copyright © 2013 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  19. TmSR-C, scavenger receptor class C, plays a pivotal role in antifungal and antibacterial immunity in the coleopteran insect Tenebrio molitor.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kim, Soo Gon; Jo, Yong Hun; Seong, Jeong Hwan; Park, Ki Beom; Noh, Mi Young; Cho, Jun Ho; Ko, Hye Jin; Kim, Chang Eun; Tindwa, Hamisi; Patnaik, Bharat Bhusan; Bang, In Seok; Lee, Yong Seok; Han, Yeon Soo

    2017-10-01

    Scavenger receptors (SRs) constitute a family of membrane-bound receptors that bind to multiple ligands. The SR family of proteins is involved in removing cellular debris, oxidized low-density lipoproteins, and pathogens. Specifically, class C scavenger receptors (SR-C) have also been reported to be involved in phagocytosis of gram-positive and -negative bacteria in Drosophila and viruses in shrimp. However, reports are unavailable regarding the role of SR-C in antifungal immune mechanisms in insects. In this study, a full-length Tenebrio molitor SR-C (TmSR-C) sequence was obtained by 5'- and 3'-Rapid amplification of cDNA ends-polymerase chain reaction (RACE-PCR). The TmSR-C full-length cDNA comprised 1671 bp with 5'- and 3'-untranslated regions of 23- and 107-bp, respectively. TmSR-C encodes a putative protein of 556 amino acid residues that is constitutively expressed in all tissues of late instar larvae and 2-day-old adults, with the highest transcript levels observed in hemocytes of larvae and adults. TmSR-C mRNA showed a 2.5-fold and 3-fold increase at 24 and 6 h after infection with Candida albicans and β-glucan, respectively. Immunoassay with TmSR-C polyclonal antibody showed induction of the putative protein in the cytosols of hemocytes at 3 h after inoculation of C. albicans. RNA interference (RNAi)-based gene silencing and phagocytosis assays were used to understand the role of TmSR-C in antifungal immunity. Silencing of TmSR-C transcripts reduced the survivability of late instar larvae at 2 days post-inoculation of C. albicans, Escherichia coli, or Staphylococcus aureus. Furthermore, in TmSR-C-silenced larvae, there was a decline in the rate of microorganism phagocytosis. Taken together, results of this study suggest that TmSR-C plays a pivotal role in phagocytosing not only fungi but also gram-negative and -positive bacteria in T. molitor. Copyright © 2017. Published by Elsevier Ltd.

  20. Chronic psychosocial stress in male mice causes an up-regulation of scavenger receptor class B type 1 protein in the adrenal glands.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Füchsl, Andrea M; Uschold-Schmidt, Nicole; Reber, Stefan O

    2013-07-01

    Mice exposed to chronic subordinate colony housing (CSC, 19 days) show an exaggerated adrenal corticosterone response to an acute heterotypic stressor (elevated platform (EPF), 5 min) despite no difference from EPF-exposed single-housed control (SHC) mice in corticotropin (ACTH) secretion. In the present study, we asked the question whether this CSC-induced increase in adrenal capability to produce and secrete corticosterone is paralleled by an enhanced adrenal availability and/or mobilization capacity of the corticosterone precursor molecule cholesterol. Employing oil-red staining and western blot analysis we revealed comparable relative density of cortical lipid droplets and relative protein expression of hormone-sensitive lipase, 3-hydroxy-3-methylglutaryl coenzyme A (HMG-CoA) reductase and low-density lipoprotein receptor (LDL-R) between CSC and SHC mice. However, relative protein expression of the scavenger receptor class B type 1 (SR-BI) was increased following CSC exposure. Moreover, analysis of plasma high-density lipoprotein-cholesterol (HDL-C) and LDL-cholesterol (LDL-C) revealed increased LDL-C levels in CSC mice. Together with the pronounced increase in adrenal weight, evidently mediated by hyperplasia of adrenocortical cells, these data strongly indicate an enhanced adrenal availability of and capacity to mobilize cholesterol in chronic psychosocially-stressed mice, contributing to their increased in vivo corticosterone response during acute heterotypic stressor exposure.

  1. Suppression of FAT/CD36 mRNA by human growth hormone in pancreatic ß-cells

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Dalgaard, Louise Torp; Thams, Peter Grevsen; Gaarn, Louise Winkel

    2011-01-01

    of this study was to examine the effect of human growth hormone (hGH) on mRNAs of fatty acid transport and binding proteins expressed in pancreatic ß-cells, and to examine this in relation to ß-cell survival after exposure to fatty acids. hGH decreased mRNA levels of FAT/CD36, whereas mRNAs of GPR40, FASN, FABP...

  2. Suppression of FAT/CD36 mRNA by human growth hormone in pancreatic β-cells

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Dalgaard, Louise Torp; Thams, Peter Grevsen; Gaarn, Louise Winkel

    2011-01-01

    of this study was to examine the effect of human growth hormone (hGH) on mRNAs of fatty acid transport and binding proteins expressed in pancreatic β-cells, and to examine this in relation to β-cell survival after exposure to fatty acids. hGH decreased mRNA levels of FAT/CD36, whereas mRNAs of GPR40, FASN, FABP...

  3. The role of the class A scavenger receptors, SR-A and MARCO, in the immune system. Part 1. The structure of receptors, their ligand binding repertoires and ability to initiate intracellular signaling

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Szczepan Józefowski

    2012-02-01

    Full Text Available  Recognition of pathogens by innate immune cells is mediated by pattern recognition receptors (PRR, which include scavenger receptors (SR. The class A SR, SR-A/CD204 and MARCO, are characterized by the presence of collagenous and SR cysteine-rich domains in their extracellular portions. Both receptors are expressed mainly on macrophages and dendritic cells. Thanks to their ability to bind to a wide range of polyanionic ligands, the class A SR may participate in numerous functions of these cells, such as endocytosis, and adhesion to extracellular matrix and to other cells. Among SR-A ligands are oxidized lipoproteins and β-amyloid fibrils, which link SR-A to the pathogenesis of arteriosclerosis and Alzheimer’s disease. Despite the demonstration of class A SR involvement in so many processes, the lack of selective ligands precluded reaching definite conclusions concerning their signaling abilities. Using specific receptor ligation with antibodies, we showed that SR-A and MARCO trigger intracellular signaling, modulating pro-inflammatory and microbicidal activities of macrophages. Surprisingly, despite similarities in structure and ligand binding repertoires, SR-A and MARCO exert opposite effects on interleukin-12 (IL-12 production in macrophages. SR-A ligation also stimulated H2O2 and IL-10 production, but had no effect on the release of several other cytokines. These limited effects of specific SR-A ligation contrast with generalized enhancement of immune responses observed in SR-A-deficient mice. Recent studies have revealed that many of these effects of SR-A deficiency may be caused by compensatory changes in the expression of other receptors and/or disinhibition of signal transduction from receptors belonging to the Toll/IL-1R family, rather than by the loss of the receptor function of SR-A.

  4. Kimchi Methanol Extract and the Kimchi Active Compound, 3′-(4′-Hydroxyl-3′,5′-Dimethoxyphenyl)Propionic Acid, Downregulate CD36 in THP-1 Macrophages Stimulated by oxLDL

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yun, Ye-Rang; Kim, Hyun-Ju

    2014-01-01

    Abstract Macrophage foam cell formation by oxidized low-density lipoprotein (oxLDL) is a key step in the progression of atherosclerosis, which is involved in cholesterol influx and efflux in macrophages mediated by related proteins such as peroxisome proliferator-activated receptor γ (PPARγ), CD36, PPARα, liver-X receptor α (LXRα), and ATP-binding cassette transporter A1 (ABCA1). The aim of this study was to investigate the beneficial effects of kimchi methanol extract (KME) and a kimchi active compound, 3-(4′-hydroxyl-3′,5′-dimethoxyphenyl)propionic acid (HDMPPA) on cholesterol flux in THP-1-derived macrophages treated with oxLDL. The effects of KME and HDMPPA on cell viability and lipid peroxidation were determined. Furthermore, the protein expression of PPARγ, CD36, PPARα, LXRα, and ABCA1 was examined. OxLDL strongly induced cell death and lipid peroxidation in THP-1-derived macrophages. However, KME and HDMPPA significantly improved cell viability and inhibited lipid peroxidation induced by oxLDL in THP-1-derived macrophages (P<.05). Moreover, KME and HDMPPA suppressed CD36 and PPARγ expressions, both of which participate in cholesterol influx. In contrast, KME and HDMPPA augmented LXRα, PPARα, and ABCA1 expression, which are associated with cholesterol efflux. Consequently, KME and HDMPPA suppressed lipid accumulation. These results indicate that KME and HDMPPA may inhibit lipid accumulation, in part, by regulating cholesterol influx- and efflux-related proteins. These findings will thus be useful for future prevention strategies against atherosclerosis. PMID:25010893

  5. Hypervariable region 1 deletion and required adaptive envelope mutations confer decreased dependency on scavenger receptor class B type I and low-density lipoprotein receptor for hepatitis C virus

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Prentoe, Jannick; Serre, Stéphanie B N; Ramirez, Santseharay

    2014-01-01

    -deleted viruses. Apolipoprotein E (ApoE)-specific HCV neutralization was similar for H77, J6, and S52 viruses with and without HVR1. In conclusion, HVR1 and HVR1-related adaptive envelope mutations appeared to be involved in LDLr and SR-BI dependency, respectively. Also, LDLr served Apo......) entry. We investigated receptor usage by antibody blocking and receptor silencing in Huh7.5 cells, followed by inoculation of parental and HVR1-deleted HCV recombinants. Compared to parental viruses, scavenger receptor class B type I (SR-BI) dependency was decreased for H77(ΔHVR1/N476D/S733F), H77(N476D....../S733F), S52(ΔHVR1/A369V), and S52(A369V), but not for J6(ΔHVR1). Low-density lipoprotein receptor (LDLr) dependency was decreased for HVR1-deleted viruses, but not for H77(N476D/S733F) and S52(A369V). Soluble LDLr neutralization revealed strong inhibition of parental HCV but limited effect against HVR1...

  6. Differential effects of strength training and testosterone treatment on soluble CD36 in aging men: Possible relation to changes in body composition

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Glintborg, Dorte; Christensen, Louise L; Kvorning, Thue

    2015-01-01

    Purpose. We measured soluble CD36 (sCD36) and body composition to determine the effects of testosterone treatment (TT) and/or strength training (ST) on cardiovascular risk in men with low normal testosterone levels. Methods. Double-blinded, placebo-controlled study in 54 men aged 60-78 years....... units] vs. TT and vs. placebo (p change bioavailable testosterone and lean body mass. Fat mass measures significantly improved during ST + placebo, ST + TT, and TT vs. placebo. During ST + placebo, delta sCD36 was associated with delta total fat mass (r = 0.81) and delta...

  7. Polymorphisms of the scavenger receptor class B member 1 are associated with insulin resistance with evidence of gene by sex interaction.

    Science.gov (United States)

    McCarthy, Jeanette J; Somji, Aleefia; Weiss, Lauren A; Steffy, Brian; Vega, Raquel; Barrett-Connor, Elizabeth; Talavera, Gregory; Glynne, Richard

    2009-05-01

    Genetic variation in diabetes-associated genes cumulatively explain little of the overall heritability of this trait. We sought to determine whether polymorphisms of the scavenger receptor class B, member I (SCARB1), an estrogen-regulated chromosome 12q24 positional candidate diabetes gene, were associated with type 2 diabetes or insulin resistance in a sex-specific fashion. We evaluated 34 haplotype-tagged single-nucleotide polymorphisms (SNPs) of SCARB1 for their association with type 2 diabetes and measures of insulin resistance in two populations: a clinic-based sample of 444 Mexican-American women from Proyecto SALSA and a community-based sample of 830 white women from the Rancho Bernardo Study. We identified significant associations between a tagged SNP in intron 9, rs9919713, and fasting glucose in the SALSA population (P = 2.3 x 10(-4)). In the Rancho Bernardo Study, the same SNP also showed significant association with the related traits homeostasis model assessment for insulin resistance (P = 3.0 x 10(-4)), fasting glucose (P = 1.1 x 10(-3)), and type 2 diabetes (P = 9.0 x 10(-3)). In men from the Rancho Bernardo population, the opposite effect was found (genotype by sex interaction in the Rancho Bernardo population P sex interaction. These findings warrant further investigation in additional populations and prompt exploration of a role for SR-BI in the development of insulin resistance.

  8. The age effect on the association between the scavenger receptor class B type I (SR-BI) polymorphism and HDL-C level: Tehran Lipid and Glucose Study.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Faam, Bita; Daneshpour, Maryam Sadat; Hedayati, Mehdi; Halalkhor, Sohrab; Mansournia, Mohammad Ali; Zarkesh, Maryam; Azizi, Fereidoun

    2014-01-01

    The scavenger receptor class B type I (SR-BI) is a key component in the reverse cholesterol transportation. The aim of this study was to assess the association between exon1 (G → A) polymorphism of SR-BI gene and lipid profiles among the Tehran Lipid and Glucose Study (TLGS) population. This cross-sectional study included 774 adults (322 males and 452 females) aged 20-70 years who were randomly selected from among TLGS population. Anthropometrical and biochemical variables for participants were measured. Selected SR-BI gene polymorphism was determined with restriction fragment length polymorphism, via Alu restriction enzyme. Minor allele frequency for SR-BI polymorphism in the selected population was 0.159. Allele frequencies were in conformity with Hardy-Weinberg equilibrium. Association between (G → A) SR-BI polymorphism and high density lipoprotein cholesterol (HDL-C) and HDL3 was significant only after adjustment for age as a potential covariate (p = 0.046, 0.041, respectively); however, the results did not improve after adjustment for sex. The result of this study confirms the role of age as a potential confounder which could modify the association between the SR-BI single nucleotide polymorphism and HDL-C level.

  9. Determinants of host susceptibility to murine respiratory syncytial virus (RSV) disease identify a role for the innate immunity scavenger receptor MARCO gene in human infants.

    Science.gov (United States)

    High, Monica; Cho, Hye-Youn; Marzec, Jacqui; Wiltshire, Tim; Verhein, Kirsten C; Caballero, Mauricio T; Acosta, Patricio L; Ciencewicki, Jonathan; McCaw, Zackary R; Kobzik, Lester; Miller-DeGraff, Laura; Gladwell, Wes; Peden, David B; Serra, M Elina; Shi, Min; Weinberg, Clarice; Suzuki, Oscar; Wang, Xuting; Bell, Douglas A; Polack, Fernando P; Kleeberger, Steven R

    2016-09-01

    Respiratory syncytial virus (RSV) is the global leading cause of lower respiratory tract infection in infants. Nearly 30% of all infected infants develop severe disease including bronchiolitis, but susceptibility mechanisms remain unclear. We infected a panel of 30 inbred strains of mice with RSV and measured changes in lung disease parameters 1 and 5days post-infection and they were used in genome-wide association (GWA) studies to identify quantitative trait loci (QTL) and susceptibility gene candidates. GWA identified QTLs for RSV disease phenotypes, and the innate immunity scavenger receptor Marco was a candidate susceptibility gene; targeted deletion of Marco worsened murine RSV disease. We characterized a human MARCO promoter SNP that caused loss of gene expression, increased in vitro cellular response to RSV infection, and associated with increased risk of disease severity in two independent populations of children infected with RSV. Translational integration of a genetic animal model and in vitro human studies identified a role for MARCO in human RSV disease severity. Because no RSV vaccines are approved for clinical use, genetic studies have implications for diagnosing individuals who are at risk for severe RSV disease, and disease prevention strategies (e.g. RSV antibodies). Published by Elsevier B.V.

  10. Artesunate Reduces Serum Lipopolysaccharide in Cecal Ligation/Puncture Mice via Enhanced LPS Internalization by Macrophages through Increased mRNA Expression of Scavenger Receptors

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Bin Li

    2014-01-01

    Full Text Available Innate immunity is the first line of defense in human beings against pathogen infection; monocytes/macrophages are the primary cells of the innate immune system. Recently, macrophages/monocytes have been discovered to participate in LPS clearance, and the clearance efficiency determines the magnitude of the inflammatory response and subsequent organ injury. Previously, we reported that artesunate (AS protected sepsis mice against heat-killed E. coli challenge. Herein, we further confirmed that AS protected cecal ligation/puncture (CLP sepsis mice. Its protection on sepsis mice was related to not only reduction of pro-inflammatory cytokines and serum LPS levels but also improvement of liver function. Based on the fact that AS did not directly bind and neutralize LPS, we hypothesized that the reduction of serum LPS level might be related to enhancement of LPS internalization and subsequent detoxification. Our results showed that AS increased FITC-LPS internalization by peritoneal macrophage and liver Kupffer cell, but enhancement of LPS internalization by AS was not related to the clathrin-dependent pathway. However, AS induced mRNA expression of important scavenger receptors (SRs; SR-A and MARCO mRNA expression was upregulated, suggesting that AS enhancement of LPS internalization and inhibition of pro-inflammatory cytokines was related to changes in mRNA expression of SRs.

  11. Glycation of a food allergen by the Maillard reaction enhances its T-cell immunogenicity: role of macrophage scavenger receptor class A type I and II.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ilchmann, Anne; Burgdorf, Sven; Scheurer, Stephan; Waibler, Zoe; Nagai, Ryoji; Wellner, Anne; Yamamoto, Yasuhiko; Yamamoto, Hiroshi; Henle, Thomas; Kurts, Christian; Kalinke, Ulrich; Vieths, Stefan; Toda, Masako

    2010-01-01

    The Maillard reaction occurs between reducing sugars and proteins during thermal processing of foods. It produces chemically glycated proteins termed advanced glycation end products (AGEs). The glycation structures of AGEs are suggested to function as pathogenesis-related immune epitopes in food allergy. This study aimed at defining the T-cell immunogenicity of food AGEs by using ovalbumin (OVA) as a model allergen. AGE-OVA was prepared by means of thermal processing of OVA in the presence of glucose. Activation of OVA-specific CD4(+) T cells by AGE-OVA was evaluated in cocultures with bone marrow-derived murine myeloid dendritic cells (mDCs) as antigen-presenting cells. The uptake mechanisms of mDCs for AGE-OVA were investigated by using inhibitors of putative cell-surface receptors for AGEs, as well as mDCs deficient for these receptors. Compared with the controls (native OVA and OVA thermally processed without glucose), AGE-OVA enhanced the activation of OVA-specific CD4(+) T cells on coculture with mDCs, indicating that the glycation of OVA enhanced the T-cell immunogenicity of the allergen. The mDC uptake of AGE-OVA was significantly higher than that of the controls. We identified scavenger receptor class A type I and II (SR-AI/II) as a mediator of the AGE-OVA uptake, whereas the receptor for AGEs and galectin-3 were not responsible. Importantly, the activation of OVA-specific CD4(+) T cells by AGE-OVA was attenuated on coculture with SR-AI/II-deficient mDCs. SR-AI/II targets AGE-OVA to the MHC class II loading pathway in mDCs, leading to an enhanced CD4(+) T-cell activation. The Maillard reaction might thus play an important role in the T-cell immunogenicity of food allergens. Copyright 2010 American Academy of Allergy, Asthma & Immunology. Published by Mosby, Inc. All rights reserved.

  12. HDL protects against doxorubicin induced cardiotoxicity in a scavenger receptor class B type 1, PI3K, and AKT dependent manner.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Durham, Kristina; Chathely, Kevin; Mak, Kei Cheng; Momen, Abdul; Thomas, Cyrus T; Zhao, Yuan-Yuan; MacDonald, Melissa E; Curtis, Jonathan M; Husain, Mansoor; Trigatti, Bernardo L

    2017-10-06

    Doxorubicin is a widely used chemotherapeutic with deleterious cardiotoxic side effects. HDL has been shown to protect cardiomyocytes in vitro against doxorubicin-induced apoptosis. The scavenger receptor class B type I (SR-B1), a high affinity HDL receptor, mediates cytoprotective signaling by HDL through AKT. Here we assess whether increased HDL levels protects against doxorubicin-induced cardiotoxicity in vivo, and in cardiomyocytes in culture, and explore the intracellular signaling mechanisms involved, in particular the role of SR-B1. Mice with increased HDL levels, through overexpression of human ApoA1 (ApoA1(Tg/Tg)) and wild type mice (ApoA1(+/+)) with normal HDL levels were treated repeatedly with doxorubicin. Following treatment, ApoA1(+/+) mice displayed cardiac dysfunction as evidenced by reduced LVESP and +dP/dt, and histological analysis revealed cardiomyocyte atrophy and increased cardiomyocyte apoptosis following doxorubicin treatment. In contrast, ApoA1(Tg/Tg) mice were protected against doxorubicin-induced cardiac dysfunction and cardiomyocyte atrophy and apoptosis. When SR-B1 was knocked out, however, overexpression of ApoA1 overexpression did not protect against doxorubicin-induced cardiotoxicity. Using primary neonatal mouse cardiomyocytes and human immortalized ventricular cardiomyocytes in combination with genetic knockout, inhibitors, or siRNA mediated knockdown, we demonstrate that SR-B1 is required for HDL mediated protection of cardiomyocytes against doxorubicin-induced apoptosis in vitro, via a pathway involving PI3K and AKT1/2. Our findings provide proof of concept that raising ApoA1 to supra-physiological levels can dramatically protect against doxorubicin-induced cardiotoxicity via a pathway that is mediated by SR-B1 and involves AKT1/2 activation in cardiomyocytes. Copyright © 2016, American Journal of Physiology-Heart and Circulatory Physiology.

  13. High-avidity monoclonal antibodies against the human scavenger class B type I receptor efficiently block hepatitis C virus infection in the presence of high-density lipoprotein.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Catanese, Maria Teresa; Graziani, Rita; von Hahn, Thomas; Moreau, Martine; Huby, Thierry; Paonessa, Giacomo; Santini, Claudia; Luzzago, Alessandra; Rice, Charles M; Cortese, Riccardo; Vitelli, Alessandra; Nicosia, Alfredo

    2007-08-01

    The human scavenger class B type 1 receptor (SR-B1/Cla1) was identified as a putative receptor for hepatitis C virus (HCV) because it binds to soluble recombinant HCV envelope glycoprotein E2 (sE2). High-density lipoprotein (HDL), a natural SR-B1 ligand, was shown to increase the in vitro infectivity of retroviral pseudoparticles bearing HCV envelope glycoproteins and of cell culture-derived HCV (HCVcc), suggesting that SR-B1 promotes viral entry in an HDL-dependent manner. To determine whether SR-B1 participates directly in HCV infection or facilitates HCV entry through lipoprotein uptake, we generated a panel of monoclonal antibodies (MAbs) against native human SR-B1. Two of them, 3D5 and C167, bound to conformation-dependent SR-B1 determinants and inhibited the interaction of sE2 with SR-B1. These antibodies efficiently blocked HCVcc infection of Huh-7.5 hepatoma cells in a dose-dependent manner. To examine the role of HDL in SR-B1-mediated HCVcc infection, we set up conditions for HCVcc production and infection in serum-free medium. HCVcc efficiently infected Huh-7.5 cells in the absence of serum lipoproteins, and addition of HDL led to a twofold increase in infectivity. However, the HDL-induced enhancement of infection had no impact on the neutralization potency of MAb C167, despite its ability to inhibit both HDL binding to cells and SR-B1-mediated lipid transfer. Of note, MAb C167 also potently blocked Huh-7.5 infection by an HCV strain recovered from HCVcc-infected chimpanzees. These results demonstrate that SR-B1 is essential for infection with HCV produced in vitro and in vivo and suggest the possible use of anti-SR-B1 antibodies as therapeutic agents.

  14. Brain ischaemia induces shedding of a BDNF-scavenger ectodomain from TrkB receptors by excitotoxicity activation of metalloproteinases and γ-secretases.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tejeda, Gonzalo S; Ayuso-Dolado, Sara; Arbeteta, Raquel; Esteban-Ortega, Gema M; Vidaurre, Oscar G; Díaz-Guerra, Margarita

    2016-04-01

    Stroke remains a leading cause of death and disability in the world with limited therapies available to restrict brain damage or improve functional recovery after cerebral ischaemia. A promising strategy currently under investigation is the promotion of brain-derived neurotrophic factor (BDNF) signalling through tropomyosin-related kinase B (TrkB) receptors, a pathway essential for neuronal survival and function. However, TrkB and BDNF-signalling are impaired by excitotoxicity, a primary pathological process in stroke also associated with neurodegenerative diseases. Pathological imbalance of TrkB isoforms is critical in neurodegeneration and is caused by calpain processing of BDNF high affinity full-length receptor (TrkB-FL) and an inversion of the transcriptional pattern of the Ntrk2 gene, to favour expression of the truncated isoform TrkB-T1 over TrkB-FL. We report here that both TrkB-FL and neuronal TrkB-T1 also undergo ectodomain shedding by metalloproteinases activated after ischaemic injury or excitotoxic damage of cortical neurons. Subsequently, the remaining membrane-bound C-terminal fragments (CTFs) are cleaved by γ-secretases within the transmembrane region, releasing their intracellular domains (ICDs) into the cytosol. Therefore, we identify TrkB-FL and TrkB-T1 as new substrates of regulated intramembrane proteolysis (RIP), a mechanism that highly contributes to TrkB-T1 regulation in ischaemia but is minor for TrkB-FL which is mainly processed by calpain. However, since the secreted TrkB ectodomain acts as a BDNF scavenger and significantly alters BDNF/TrkB signalling, the mechanism of RIP could contribute to neuronal death in excitotoxicity. These results are highly relevant since they reveal new targets for the rational design of therapies to treat stroke and other pathologies with an excitotoxic component. Copyright © 2015 Pathological Society of Great Britain and Ireland. Published by John Wiley & Sons, Ltd.

  15. Different requirements for scavenger receptor class B type I in hepatitis C virus cell-free versus cell-to-cell transmission.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Catanese, Maria Teresa; Loureiro, Joana; Jones, Christopher T; Dorner, Marcus; von Hahn, Thomas; Rice, Charles M

    2013-08-01

    Hepatitis C virus (HCV) is believed to initially infect the liver through the basolateral side of hepatocytes, where it engages attachment factors and the coreceptors CD81 and scavenger receptor class B type I (SR-BI). Active transport toward the apical side brings the virus in close proximity of additional entry factors, the tight junction molecules claudin-1 and occludin. HCV is also thought to propagate via cell-to-cell spread, which allows highly efficient virion delivery to neighboring cells. In this study, we compared an adapted HCV genome, clone 2, characterized by superior cell-to cell spread, to its parental genome, J6/JFH-1, with the goal of elucidating the molecular mechanisms of HCV cell-to-cell transmission. We show that CD81 levels on the donor cells influence the efficiency of cell-to-cell spread and CD81 transfer between neighboring cells correlates with the capacity of target cells to become infected. Spread of J6/JFH-1 was blocked by anti-SR-BI antibody or in cells knocked down for SR-BI, suggesting a direct role for this receptor in HCV cell-to-cell transmission. In contrast, clone 2 displayed a significantly reduced dependence on SR-BI for lateral spread. Mutations in E1 and E2 responsible for the enhanced cell-to-cell spread phenotype of clone 2 rendered cell-free virus more susceptible to antibody-mediated neutralization. Our results indicate that although HCV can lose SR-BI dependence for cell-to-cell spread, vulnerability to neutralizing antibodies may limit this evolutionary option in vivo. Combination therapies targeting both the HCV glycoproteins and SR-BI may therefore hold promise for effective control of HCV dissemination.

  16. Intestinal scavenger receptor class B type I as a novel regulator of chylomicron production in healthy and diet-induced obese states.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lino, Marsel; Farr, Sarah; Baker, Chris; Fuller, Mark; Trigatti, Bernardo; Adeli, Khosrow

    2015-09-01

    The small intestine contributes to diabetic dyslipidemia through the overproduction of apolipoprotein B48 (apoB48)-containing chylomicron particles. An important regulator of chylomicron generation is dietary lipid absorption, underlining the potential involvement of intestinal lipid transporters for developing dyslipidemia. Intestinal expression of scavenger receptor class B type I (SR-BI) has been found to be upregulated in animal models of insulin resistance. Here we characterized the potential importance of SR-BI in contributing to chylomicron production and postprandial hypertriglyceridemia in vivo. Postprandial triglyceride (TG)-rich lipoprotein (TRL) production was characterized in hamsters treated with the SR-BI inhibitor to block lipid transport-1 (BLT-1) under healthy conditions or conditions of diet-induced obesity and dyslipidemia. BLT-1 (1 mg/kg) or vehicle was administered acutely in chow-fed hamsters or gavaged twice daily over 10 days during high-fructose, high-fat, high-cholesterol (FFC) feeding. Effects of acute SR-BI inhibition by BLT-1 were confirmed in healthy fat-loaded rats. Finally, plasma lipid levels were compared between SR-BI(-/-) mice and their wild-type counterparts fed either chow or a 12-wk high-fat diet. Acute BLT-1 treatment reduced postprandial plasma and TRL TG levels in healthy hamsters and rats. Chronic BLT-1 treatment of FFC-fed hamsters blunted diet-induced weight gain and fasting hypertriglyceridemia, and lowered postprandial TRL-TG, -cholesterol, and -apoB48 levels. Finally, SR-BI(-/-) mice displayed lower plasma and TRL TG levels relative to wild type, and diet-induced weight gain and postprandial hypertriglyceridemia were hindered in SR-BI(-/-) mice. We conclude that intestinal SR-BI is a critical regulator of postprandial lipoprotein production, emphasizing its potential as a target for preventing diabetic dyslipidemia. Copyright © 2015 the American Physiological Society.

  17. Scavenger receptor B1 (SR-B1) profoundly excludes high density lipoprotein (HDL) apolipoprotein AII as it nibbles HDL-cholesteryl ester.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gillard, Baiba K; Bassett, G Randall; Gotto, Antonio M; Rosales, Corina; Pownall, Henry J

    2017-05-26

    Reverse cholesterol transport (transfer of macrophage-cholesterol in the subendothelial space of the arterial wall to the liver) is terminated by selective high density lipoprotein (HDL)-cholesteryl ester (CE) uptake, mediated by scavenger receptor class B, type 1 (SR-B1). We tested the validity of two models for this process: "gobbling," i.e. one-step transfer of all HDL-CE to the cell and "nibbling," multiple successive cycles of SR-B1-HDL association during which a few CEs transfer to the cell. Concurrently, we compared cellular uptake of apoAI with that of apoAII, which is more lipophilic than apoAI, using HDL-[(3)H]CE labeled with [(125)I]apoAI or [(125)I]apoAII. The studies were conducted in CHO-K1 and CHO-ldlA7 cells (LDLR(-/-)) with (CHO-SR-B1) and without SR-B1 overexpression and in human Huh7 hepatocytes. Relative to CE, both apoAI and apoAII were excluded from uptake by all cells. However, apoAII was more highly excluded from uptake (2-4×) than apoAI. To distinguish gobbling versus nibbling mechanisms, media from incubations of HDL with CHO-SR-B1 cells were analyzed by non-denaturing PAGE, size-exclusion chromatography, and the distribution of apoAI, apoAII, cholesterol, and phospholipid among HDL species as a function of incubation time. HDL size gradually decreased, i.e. nibbling, with the concurrent release of lipid-free apoAI; apoAII was retained in an HDL remnant. Our data support an SR-B1 nibbling mechanism that is similar to that of streptococcal serum opacity factor, which also selectively removes CE and releases apoAI, leaving an apoAII-rich remnant. © 2017 by The American Society for Biochemistry and Molecular Biology, Inc.

  18. Heat shock protein-27 attenuates foam cell formation and atherogenesis by down-regulating scavenger receptor-A expression via NF-κB signaling.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Raizman, Joshua E; Chen, Yong-Xiang; Seibert, Tara; Hibbert, Benjamin; Cuerrier, Charles M; Salari, Samira; Zhao, Xiaoling; Hu, Tieqiang; Shi, Chunhua; Ma, Xiaoli; Simard, Trevor; Caravaggio, Justin; Rayner, Katey; Bowdish, Dawn; Moore, Kathryn; O'Brien, Edward R

    2013-12-01

    Previously, we showed an inverse correlation between HSP27 serum levels and experimental atherogenesis in ApoE(-/-) mice that over-express HSP27 and speculated that the apparent binding of HSP27 to scavenger receptor-A (SR-A) was of mechanistic importance in attenuating foam cell formation. However, the nature and importance of the interplay between HSP27 and SR-A in atheroprotection remained unclear. Treatment of THP-1 macrophages with recombinant HSP27 (rHSP27) inhibited acLDL binding (-34%; p<0.005) and uptake (-38%, p<0.05). rHSP27 reduced SR-A mRNA (-39%, p=0.02), total protein (-56%, p=0.01) and cell surface (-53%, p<0.001) expression. The reduction in SR-A expression by rHSP27 was associated with a 4-fold increase in nuclear factor-kappa B (NF-κB) signaling (p<0.001 versus control), while an inhibitor of NF-κB signaling, BAY11-7082, attenuated the negative effects of rHSP27 on both SR-A expression and lipid uptake. To determine if SR-A is required for HSP27 mediated atheroprotection in vivo, ApoE(-/-) and ApoE(-/-) SR-A(-/-) mice fed with a high fat diet were treated for 3weeks with rHSP25. Compared to controls, rHSP25 therapy reduced aortic en face and aortic sinus atherosclerotic lesion size in ApoE(-/-) mice by 39% and 36% (p<0.05), respectively, but not in ApoE(-/-)SR-A(-/-) mice. In conclusion, rHSP27 diminishes SR-A expression, resulting in attenuated foam cell formation in vitro. Regulation of SR-A by HSP27 may involve the participation of NF-κB signaling. Lastly, SR-A is required for HSP27-mediated atheroprotection in vivo. © 2013.

  19. Expression of Scavenger receptor A on antigen presenting cells is important for CD4+ T-cells proliferation in EAE mouse model

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Levy-Barazany Hilit

    2012-06-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background Multiple sclerosis (MS is an autoimmune disease of the central nervous system (CNS characterized by damage to the neuronal myelin sheath. One of the key effectors for inflammatory injury is the antigen-presenting cell (APC. The class A scavenger receptor (SRA, constitutively expressed by APCs, such as macrophages and dendritic cells in peripheral tissues and the CNS, was shown to play a role in the phagocytosis of myelin; however, the role of SRA in the development of experimental autoimmune encephalomyelitis (EAE and autoimmune reaction in the periphery has not yet been studied. Methods We investigated EAE progression in wild-type (WT vs. SRA−/− mice using clinical score measurements and characterized CNS pathology using staining. Furthermore, we assessed SRA role in mediating anti myelin pro-inflammatory response in cell cultures. Results We discovered that EAE progression and CNS demyelination were significantly reduced in SRA−/− mice compared to WT mice. In addition, there was a reduction of infiltrating peripheral immune cells, such as T cells and macrophages, in the CNS lesion of SRA−/− mice, which was associated with reduced astrogliosis. Immunological assessment showed that SRA deficiency resulted in significant reduction of pro-inflammatory cytokines that play a major role in EAE progression, such as IL-2, IFN-gamma, IL-17 and IL-6. Furthermore, we discovered that SRA−/− APCs showed impairments in activation and in their ability to induce pro-inflammatory CD4+ T cell proliferation. Conclusion Expression of SRA on APCs is important for CD4+ T-cells proliferation in EAE mouse model. Further studies of SRA-mediated cellular pathways in APCs may offer useful insights into the development of MS and other autoimmune diseases, providing future avenues for therapeutic intervention.

  20. Increased DNA methylation of scavenger receptor class B type I contributes to inhibitory effects of prenatal caffeine ingestion on cholesterol uptake and steroidogenesis in fetal adrenals.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wu, Dong-Mei; He, Zheng; Ma, Liang-Peng; Wang, Lin-Long; Ping, Jie; Wang, Hui

    2015-06-01

    Steroid hormones synthesized from cholesterol in the fetal adrenal are crucial for fetal development. We have observed the inhibited fetal adrenal corticosterone synthesis and increased intrauterine growth retardation (IUGR) rate in rats under prenatal caffeine ingestion. The aim of this study is to evaluate the effects of prenatal caffeine ingestion on cholesterol supply in fetal adrenal steroidogenesis in rats and explore the underlying epigenetic mechanisms. Pregnant Wistar rats were treated with 60 mg/kg · d caffeine from gestational day (GD) 7 to GD17. Histological changes of fetal adrenals and increased IUGR rates were observed in the caffeine group. There were significantly decreased steroid hormone contents and cholesterol supply in caffeine-treated fetal adrenals. Data from the gene expression array suggested that prenatal caffeine ingestion caused increased expression of genes related to DNA methylation and decreased expression of genes related to cholesterol uptake. The following conjoint analysis of DNA methylation array with these differentially expressed genes suggested that scavenger receptor class B type I (SR-BI) may play an important role in caffeine-induced cholesterol supply deficiency. Moreover, real-time RT-PCR and immunohistochemical detection certified the inhibitory effects of caffeine on both mRNA expression and protein expression of SR-BI in the fetal adrenal. And the increased DNA methylation frequency in the proximal promoter of SR-BI was confirmed by bisulfite-sequencing PCR. In conclusion, prenatal caffeine ingestion can induce DNA hypermethylation of the SR-BI promoter in the rat fetal adrenal. These effects may lead to decreased SR-BI expression and cholesterol uptake, which inhibits steroidogenesis in the fetal adrenal. Copyright © 2015 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  1. Increased DNA methylation of scavenger receptor class B type I contributes to inhibitory effects of prenatal caffeine ingestion on cholesterol uptake and steroidogenesis in fetal adrenals

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Wu, Dong-Mei; He, Zheng; Ma, Liang-Peng; Wang, Lin-Long [Department of Pharmacology, Wuhan University School of Basic Medical Sciences, Wuhan 430071 (China); Ping, Jie, E-mail: pingjie@whu.edu.cn [Department of Pharmacology, Wuhan University School of Basic Medical Sciences, Wuhan 430071 (China); Hubei Provincial Key Laboratory of Developmentally Originated Diseases, Wuhan 430071 (China); Research Center of Food and Drug Evaluation, Wuhan University, Wuhan 430071 (China); Wang, Hui [Department of Pharmacology, Wuhan University School of Basic Medical Sciences, Wuhan 430071 (China); Hubei Provincial Key Laboratory of Developmentally Originated Diseases, Wuhan 430071 (China); Research Center of Food and Drug Evaluation, Wuhan University, Wuhan 430071 (China)

    2015-06-01

    Steroid hormones synthesized from cholesterol in the fetal adrenal are crucial for fetal development. We have observed the inhibited fetal adrenal corticosterone synthesis and increased intrauterine growth retardation (IUGR) rate in rats under prenatal caffeine ingestion. The aim of this study is to evaluate the effects of prenatal caffeine ingestion on cholesterol supply in fetal adrenal steroidogenesis in rats and explore the underlying epigenetic mechanisms. Pregnant Wistar rats were treated with 60 mg/kg·d caffeine from gestational day (GD) 7 to GD17. Histological changes of fetal adrenals and increased IUGR rates were observed in the caffeine group. There were significantly decreased steroid hormone contents and cholesterol supply in caffeine-treated fetal adrenals. Data from the gene expression array suggested that prenatal caffeine ingestion caused increased expression of genes related to DNA methylation and decreased expression of genes related to cholesterol uptake. The following conjoint analysis of DNA methylation array with these differentially expressed genes suggested that scavenger receptor class B type I (SR-BI) may play an important role in caffeine-induced cholesterol supply deficiency. Moreover, real-time RT-PCR and immunohistochemical detection certified the inhibitory effects of caffeine on both mRNA expression and protein expression of SR-BI in the fetal adrenal. And the increased DNA methylation frequency in the proximal promoter of SR-BI was confirmed by bisulfite-sequencing PCR. In conclusion, prenatal caffeine ingestion can induce DNA hypermethylation of the SR-BI promoter in the rat fetal adrenal. These effects may lead to decreased SR-BI expression and cholesterol uptake, which inhibits steroidogenesis in the fetal adrenal. - Highlights: • Prenatal caffeine ingestion inhibits steroid hormone production in the fetal adrenal. • Prenatal caffeine ingestion inhibits cholesterol uptake in the fetal adrenal. • Prenatal caffeine

  2. [The study of the influence of different shear stress on the mRNA expression of scavenger receptor class B type 1 in endothelial cells].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yu, Fengxu; Zhang, Ying; Ling, Shenglin; Shi, Yingkang; Liao, Bin; Wu, Jiang

    2011-02-01

    The present paper is to research the expression level of the mRNA of scavenger receptor class B type 1-receptor of high-density lipoprotein in endothelial cells after being treated by different shear stress. The second to fourth generations of the cultured human umbilical vein endothelial cells (HUVECs) were used in the experiment. The cells were divided into two groups. The first group was the control group which was not dealt with shear stress; the second group was the experimental group which concluded low shear stress group (4.2 dyne/cm2), moderate shear stress group (8.4 dyne/cm2) and high shear stress group (15 dyne/cm2). The load time was 1h, 2h, 4h and 8h, respectively. Harvesting the cells and extracting total RNA after being treated by different shear stresses, the expression level of the SR-B1 mRNA was detected by semi-quantitative RT-PCR technic. It was found that the expression of SR-B1 mRNA became weaker and weaker compared to the control group when it was stimulated continuously by the low shear stress, the lowest expression of SR-B1 mRNA appeared at 8h. In the moderate shear stress group, the expression of SR-B1 mRNA increased obviously. Compared to the control group, there was significant difference after being treated with 2h. In the high shear stress group, the expression of SR-B1 mRNA increased immediately when it was stimulated by the shear stress. And the expression of SR-B1 mRNA arrived peak value at 4h. Compared to the control group, there was significant difference after being treated for 1h. It was concluded that the harmful mechanism of the low shear stress is that it can increase the incidence of the atherosclerosis by reducing the reverse cholesterol transport and endothelial protection through decreasing the expression of the SR-B1. Otherwise, the high shear stress prevent the genesis of atherosclerosis by the contrary mechanism.

  3. Hemoglobin and heme scavenger receptors

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Nielsen, Marianne Jensby; Møller, Holger Jon; Moestrup, Søren Kragh

    2010-01-01

    Heme, the functional group of hemoglobin, myoglobin, and other hemoproteins, is a highly toxic substance when it appears in the extracellular milieu. To circumvent potential harmful effects of heme from hemoproteins released during physiological or pathological cell damage (such as hemolysis...

  4. A Novel Index Using Soluble CD36 Is Associated with the Prevalence of Type 2 Diabetes Mellitus: Comparison Study with Triglyceride-Glucose Index

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ho Jin Kim

    2017-09-01

    Full Text Available BackgroundPlasma soluble cluster determinant 36 (sCD36 level is closely related with insulin resistance and atherosclerosis, but little is known whether it could be a surrogate for estimating risk of developing diabetes or not. To address this, we evaluated association between sCD36 index, the product of sCD36 and fasting plasma glucose (FPG, and the prevalence of type 2 diabetes mellitus (T2DM, and then compared with triglyceride-glucose (TyG index which has been suggested simple index for insulin resistance.MethodsThis was cross-sectional study, and participants were classified as normal glucose tolerance (NGT, prediabetes, and T2DM according to glucose tolerance. The formula of TyG index was ‘ln [FPG (mg/dL×triglyceride (mg/dL/2],’ and the sCD36 index was ‘ln [sCD36 (pg/mL×FPG (mg/dL/2].’ResultsOne hundred and fifty-five subjects (mean age, 55.2 years were enrolled, and patients with T2DM were 75. Both indexes were significantly increased in prediabetes and T2DM rather than NGT, and sCD36 index was positively correlated with both glycosylated hemoglobin and homeostasis model assessment of insulin resistance (r=0.767 and r=0.453, respectively; P<0.05 and negatively with homeostasis model assessment estimate of β-cell function (r=−0.317. The odds ratio (OR of sCD36 index for T2DM was 4.39 (95% confidential interval, 1.51 to 12.77 after adjusting age, gender, blood pressure, smoking, alcohol, non-high density lipoprotein cholesterol and high-sensitivity C-reactive protein. However, OR of TyG index did not remained significance after adjustment.ConclusionsCD36 index has an independent association with the risk of T2DM, and showed better correlation than TyG index. These results suggest sCD36 index might be useful surrogate marker for the risk of diabetes.

  5. Soluble CD36 and risk markers of insulin resistance and atherosclerosis are elevated in polycystic ovary syndrome and significantly reduced during pioglitazone treatment

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Glintborg, Dorte; Højlund, Kurt; Andersen, Marianne

    2008-01-01

    during insulin stimulation in PCOS patients and control subjects (n = 44). sCD36 and oxLDL were significant independent predictors of glucose and lipid metabolism, whereas hsCRP and IL-6 showed no significant contribution. Following pioglitazone treatment, insulin sensitivity increased, whereas sCD36 (3......OBJECTIVE: We investigated the relation between soluble CD36 (sCD36), risk markers of atherosclerosis and body composition, and glucose and lipid metabolism in polycystic ovary syndrome (PCOS). RESEARCH DESIGN AND METHODS: Thirty PCOS patients were randomized to 30 mg/day pioglitazone or placebo......: sCD36 (2.87 relative units [0.88-9.36] vs. 1.67 relative units [0.72-3.89]), oxLDL (44.9 units/l [26.9-75.1] vs. 36.1 units/l [23.4-55.5]), and hsCRP (0.26 mg/dl [0.03-2.41] vs. 0.12 mg/dl [0.02-0.81]) were significantly increased in PCOS patients versus control subjects (geometric mean +/- 2 SD...

  6. Serum levels of TWEAK and scavenger receptor CD163 in type 1 diabetes mellitus: relationship with cardiovascular risk factors. a case-control study.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Gemma Llauradó

    Full Text Available OBJECTIVE: To test the usefulness of serum concentrations of tumor necrosis factor-like weak inducer of apoptosis (sTWEAK and soluble scavenger receptor CD163 (sCD163 as markers of subtle inflammation in patients with type 1 diabetes mellitus (T1DM without clinical cardiovascular (CV disease and to evaluate their relationship with arterial stiffness (AS. METHODS: Sixty-eight patients with T1DM and 68 age and sex-matched, healthy subjects were evaluated. Anthropometrical variables and CV risk factors were recorded. Serum concentrations of sTWEAK and sCD163 were measured. AS was assessed by aortic pulse wave velocity (aPWV. All statistical analyses were stratified by gender. RESULTS: T1DM patients showed lower serum concentrations of sTWEAK (Men: 1636.5 (1146.3-3754.8 pg/mL vs. 765.9 (650.4-1097.1 pg/mL; p<0.001. Women: 1401.0 (788.0-2422.2 pg/mL vs. 830.1 (562.6-1175.9 pg/mL; p = 0.011 compared with their respective controls. Additionally, T1DM men had higher serum concentrations of sCD163 (285.0 (247.7-357.1 ng/mL vs. 224.8 (193.3-296.5 ng/mL; p = 0.012 compared with their respective controls. sTWEAK correlated negatively with aPWV in men (r = -0.443; p<0.001. However, this association disappeared after adjusting for potential confounders. In men, the best multiple linear regression model showed that the independent predictors of sTWEAK were T1DM and WHR (R(2 = 0.640; p<0.001. In women, T1DM and SBP were the independent predictors for sTWEAK (R(2 = 0.231; p = 0.001. CONCLUSION: sTWEAK is decreased in T1DM patients compared with age and sex-matched healthy subjects after adjusting for classic CV risk factors, although sTWEAK levels may be partially influenced by some of them. Additionally, T1DM men have higher serum concentrations of sCD163. These results point out an association between the inflammatory system and CV risk in T1DM.

  7. Scavenger Receptor Class B Type 1 Deletion Led to Coronary Atherosclerosis and Ischemic Heart Disease in Low-density Lipoprotein Receptor Knockout Mice on Modified Western-type Diet.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Liao, Jiawei; Guo, Xin; Wang, Mengyu; Dong, Chengyan; Gao, Mingming; Wang, Huan; Kayoumu, Abudurexiti; Shen, Qiang; Wang, Yuhui; Wang, Fan; Huang, Wei; Liu, George

    2017-02-01

    Atherosclerosis-prone apolipoprotein E (apoE) or low-density lipoprotein receptor (LDL-R) knockout (KO) mice are generally resistant to developing coronary atherosclerosis (CA) and ischemic heart disease (IHD). However, studies have demonstrated the occurrence of spontaneous CA and IHD in scavenger receptor class B type 1 (SR-BI)/apoE double KO (dKO) mice, which suggests that SR-BI could be a potential target for the prevention and therapy of CA and IHD. This possibility was later investigated in SR-BI/LDL-R dKO mice, but no signs of CA or IHD was identified when mice were fed a normal western-type diet. Here we explored whether SR-BI deletion could result in CA and IHD in LDL-R KO mice when fed a modified western-type diet containing higher (0.5%) cholesterol. Cardiac functions were detected by electrocardiography, single photon emission computed tomography (SPECT), echocardiography (Echo) and 2,3,5-triphenyltetrazolium chloride staining. CA was visualized by hematoxylin-eosin staining. After 12 weeks on the modified diet, SR-BI/LDL-R dKO mice developed cardiac ischemia/infarction, together with systolic dysfunction and left ventricular dilatation. CA was most severe at the aortic sinus level to an extent that no dKO mice survived to 20 weeks on the modified diet. None of control mice, however, developed CA or IHD. SR-BI deletion led to CA and IHD in LDL-R KO mice when fed the modified western-type diet. We established SR-BI/LDL-R dKO mice as a diet-induced murine model of human IHD and developed detection methods, using a combination of SPECT and Echo, for effective in vivo evaluation of cardiac functions.

  8. Expression of genes encoding IGFBPs, SNARK, CD36, and PECAM1 in the liver of mice treated with chromium disilicide and titanium nitride nanoparticles.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Minchenko, Dmytro O; Tsymbal, D O; Yavorovsky, O P; Solokha, N V; Minchenko, O H

    2017-04-25

    The aim of the present study was to examine the effect of chromium disilicide and titanium nitride nanoparticles on the expression level of genes encoding important regulatory factors (IGFBP1, IGFBP2, IGFBP3, IGFBP4, IGFBP5, SNARK/NUAK2, CD36, and PECAM1/CD31) in mouse liver for evaluation of possible toxic effects of these nanoparticles. Male mice received 20 mg chromium disilicide nanoparticles (45 nm) and titanium nitride nanoparticles (20 nm) with food every working day for 2 months. The expression of IGFBP1, IGFBP2, IGFBP3, IGFBP4, IGFBP5, SNARK, CD36, and PECAM1 genes in mouse liver was studied by quantitative polymerase chain reaction. Treatment of mice with chromium disilicide nanoparticles led to down-regulation of the expression of IGFBP2, IGFBP5, PECAM1, and SNARK genes in the liver in comparison with control mice, with more prominent changes for SNARK gene. At the same time, the expression of IGFBP3 and CD36 genes was increased in mouse liver upon treatment with chromium disilicide nanoparticles. We have also shown that treatment with titanium nitride nanoparticles resulted in down-regulation of the expression of IGFBP2 and SNARK genes in the liver with more prominent changes for SNARK gene. At the same time, the expression of IGFBP3, IGFBP4, and CD36 genes was increased in the liver of mice treated with titanium nitride nanoparticles. Furthermore, the effect of chromium disilicide nanoparticles on IGFBP2 and CD36 genes expression was significantly stronger as compared to titanium nitride nanoparticles. The results of this study demonstrate that chromium disilicide and titanium nitride nanoparticles have variable effects on the expression of IGFBP2, IGFBP3, IGFBP4, IGFBP5, SNARK, CD36, and PECAM1 genes in mouse liver, which may reflect the genotoxic activities of the studied nanoparticles.

  9. Crucial role for LKB1 to AMPKalpha2 axis in the regulation of CD36-mediated long-chain fatty acid uptake into cardiomyocytes

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Habets, Daphna D. J.; Coumans, Will A.; El Hasnaoui, Mohammed

    2009-01-01

    Enhanced contractile activity increases cardiac long-chain fatty acid (LCFA) uptake via translocation of CD36 to the sarcolemma, similarly to increase in glucose uptake via GLUT4 translocation. AMP-activated protein kinase (AMPK) is assumed to mediate contraction-induced LCFA utilization. However...

  10. CD36 gene is associated with thickness of atheromatous plaque and ankle-brachial index in patients with early coronary artery disease.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rać, Monika Ewa; Safranow, Krzysztof; Rać, Michał; Kurzawski, Grzegorz; Krzystolik, Andrzej; Sagasz-Tysiewicz, Dagmara; Jakubowska, Katarzyna; Poncyljusz, Wojciech; Chlubek, Dariusz

    2012-01-01

    CD36 is a multifunctional molecule engaged in the removal of oxidised LDL from plasma. It is unclear whether mutation of the CD36 gene protects against, or increases, the risk of hypercholesterolaemia, atherosclerosis and its complications. To search for associations between the CD36 gene polymorphisms and radiological markers of atherosclerosis progress in Caucasian patients with coronary artery disease (CAD) diagnosed at a young age. The study group comprised 70 patients with early CAD. Doppler ultrasound of carotid and peripheral arteries was carried out and genomic DNA was isolated from each patient. We found two single nucleotide substitutions in introns (IVS3-6 T/C - rs3173798 and IVS4-10 G/A - rs3211892) and two synonymous polymorphisms in exon 6 (G573A - rs5956 and A591T). The allele frequencies were: 10.7% for the IVS3-6C, 3.6% for the IVS4-10A, 3.6% for the 573A, and 2.1% for the 591T. The 573A allele of CD36 rs5956 polymorphism is associated with low thickness of atheromatous plaque. The 591T allele is associated with lower ankle-brachial index. The 573A allele has a protective effect against atherosclerosis development and the 591T allele is a cardiovascular risk factor. Assessment of their functional implications requires further research.

  11. Botanical Scavenger Hunt

    Science.gov (United States)

    Walker-Livingston, Wendy

    2009-01-01

    Why not combine the use of technology with the excitement of a scavenger hunt that moves middle-level students out into the "wilds" of their school campus to classify plants? In the lesson plan described here, students embark on a botanical scavenger hunt and then document their findings using a digital camera. This project was designed to allow…

  12. Advanced oxidation protein products induce chondrocyte apoptosis via receptor for advanced glycation end products-mediated, redox-dependent intrinsic apoptosis pathway.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wu, Qian; Zhong, Zhao-Ming; Zhu, Si-Yuan; Liao, Cong-Rui; Pan, Ying; Zeng, Ji-Huan; Zheng, Shuai; Ding, Ruo-Ting; Lin, Qing-Song; Ye, Qing; Ye, Wen-Bin; Li, Wei; Chen, Jian-Ting

    2016-01-01

    Pro-inflammatory cytokine-induced chondrocyte apoptosis is a primary cause of cartilage destruction in the progression of rheumatoid arthritis (RA). Advanced oxidation protein products (AOPPs), a novel pro-inflammatory mediator, have been confirmed to accumulate in patients with RA. However, the effect of AOPPs accumulation on chondrocyte apoptosis and the associated cellular mechanisms remains unclear. The present study demonstrated that the plasma formation of AOPPs was enhanced in RA rats compared with normal. Then, chondrocyte were treated with AOPPs-modified rat serum albumin (AOPPs-RSA) in vitro. Exposure of chondrocyte to AOPPs activated nicotinamide adenine dinucleotide phosphate (NADPH) oxidase and increased expression of NADPH oxidase subunits, which was mediated by receptor for advanced glycation end products (RAGE), but not scavenger receptor CD36. Moreover, AOPPs challenge triggered NADPH oxidase-dependent ROS generation which induced mitochondrial dysfunction and endoplasmic reticulum stress resulted in activation of caspase family that eventually lead to apoptosis. Lastly, blockade of RAGE, instead of CD36, largely attenuated these signals. Our study demonstrated first time that AOPPs induce chondrocyte apoptosis via RAGE-mediated and redox-dependent intrinsic apoptosis pathway in vitro. These data implicates that AOPPs may represent a novel pathogenic factor that contributes to RA progression. Targeting AOPPs-triggered cellular mechanisms might emerge as a promising therapeutic option for patients with RA.

  13. Activation of murine macrophages by Neisseria meningitidis and IFN-gamma in vitro: distinct roles of class A scavenger and Toll-like pattern recognition receptors in selective modulation of surface phenotype.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mukhopadhyay, Subhankar; Peiser, Leanne; Gordon, Siamon

    2004-09-01

    Innate and adaptive immune activation of macrophages (Mphi) by microorganisms and antigen-activated lymphoid cells, respectively, plays an important role in host defense and immunopathology. Antigen-presenting cells express a range of pattern recognition receptors including the class A types I and II scavenger receptors (SR-A) and Toll-like receptors (TLR). Recognition of microbial products by SR-A and TLR controls uptake, killing, altered gene expression, and the adaptive immune response; however, the contribution of each receptor and interplay with cytokine stimuli such as interferon-gamma (IFN-gamma) are not defined. We used Neisseria meningitidis (NM), a potent activator of innate immunity, and IFN-gamma, a prototypic T helper cell type 1 proinflammatory cytokine, to compare surface antigens, secretion of mediators, and receptor functions in elicited peritoneal Mphi from wild-type and genetically modified mouse strains. We show that these stimuli regulate major histocompatibility complex type II (MHC-II) and costimulatory molecules differentially, as well as expression of the mannose receptor and of Mphi receptor with collagenous structure (MARCO), a distinct SR-A, which provides a selective marker for innate activation. In combination, NM inhibited up-regulation of MHC-II by IFN-gamma while priming enhanced release of tumor necrosis factor alpha and nitric oxide. The SR-A contributes to phagocytosis of the organisms but not to their ability to induce CD80, CD86, and MARCO or to inhibit MHC-II. Conversely, studies with lipopolysaccharide (LPS)-deficient organisms and/or TLR-4 mutant mice showed that LPS and TLR-4 are at least partially required to induce CD80, CD86, and MARCO, but LPS is not required to inhibit MHC-II. These studies provide an experimental model and identify surface markers for analysis of innate and acquired immune activation of Mphi.

  14. Salivary agglutinin and lung scavenger receptor cysteine-rich glycoprotein 340 have broad anti-influenza activities and interactions with surfactant protein D that vary according to donor source and sialylation

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Hartshorn, Kevan L.; Ligtenberg, Antoon; White, Mitchell R.

    2006-01-01

    has co-operative interactions with SP-D in viral neutralization and aggregation assays. We now report that salivary gp-340 can, in some cases, strongly antagonize certain antiviral activities of SP-D. This effect was associated with greater binding of salivary gp-340 to the carbohydrate recognition......We previously found that scavenger receptor cysteine-rich gp-340 (glycoprotein-340), isolated from lung or saliva, directly inhibits human IAVs (influenza A viruses). We now show that salivary gp-340 has broad antiviral activity against human, equine and porcine IAV strains. Although lung...... and salivary gp-340 are identical in protein sequence, salivary gp-340 from one donor had significantly greater antiviral activity against avian-like IAV strains which preferentially bind sialic acids in alpha(2,3) linkage. A greater density of alpha(2,3)-linked sialic acids was present on the salivary gp-340...

  15. The effect of caveolin-1 (Cav-1) on fatty acid uptake and CD36 localization and lipotoxicity in vascular smooth muscle (VSM) cells.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mattern, Heather M; Raikar, Leena S; Hardin, Christopher D

    2009-01-01

    The purpose of this study was to determine whether caveolin-1 (Cav-1) is involved in lipotoxicity in vascular smooth muscle (VSM) cells by altering CD36 membrane localization. Normal A7r5 cells (cultured rat aortic smooth muscle cells), Cav-1 overexpressing cells, and cells treated with 10 mM cyclodextrin for 30 minutes were immunolabeled with Cav-1 and CD36. The peripheral to central ratio of CD36 in Cav-1 overexpressing cells (1.52±0.19) was significantly higher than in control cells (1.05±0.16, p=0.035) and cyclodextrin-treated cells (0.861±0.279, p=0.035). Fatty acid uptake at 5, 10, and 15 seconds was quantified with fluorescence of C1BODIPY 500/510 C12, a long-chain fatty acid analog. A7r5 VSM cells overexpressing Cav-1 had decrease a in the rate of fatty acid uptake compared to control cells. Cells treated with cyclodextrin also had a decrease in fatty acid uptake compared to control. Cav-1 overexpressing cells incubated in 0.05 mM palmitate had 31.4±8.8% apoptosis, where only 3.9±1.0% of Cav-1 overexpressing cells incubated in palmitate were apoptotic (p=0.044). Cyclodextrin treatment resulted in a decrease in apoptosis in cells incubated in 0.1 mM palmitate (69.7±2.1%) compared to control cells incubated in palmitate (85.6±2.7%) (p=0.003). These data suggest that in cells overexpressing Cav-1, CD36 is relocated to the plasma membrane of VSM cells, where it may play an increased role in fatty acid uptake and possibly lipotoxicity.

  16. Differential translocation of the fatty acid transporter, FAT/CD36, and the glucose transporter, GLUT4, coordinates changes in cardiac substrate metabolism during ischemia and reperfusion.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Heather, Lisa C; Pates, Katharine M; Atherton, Helen J; Cole, Mark A; Ball, Daniel R; Evans, Rhys D; Glatz, Jan F; Luiken, Joost J; Griffin, Julian L; Clarke, Kieran

    2013-09-01

    Fatty acid and glucose transporters translocate between the sarcolemma and intracellular compartments to regulate substrate metabolism acutely. We hypothesised that during ischemia fatty acid translocase (FAT/CD36) would translocate away from the sarcolemma to limit fatty acid uptake when fatty acid oxidation is inhibited. Wistar rat hearts were perfused during preischemia, low-flow ischemia, and reperfusion, using (3)H-substrates for measurement of metabolic rates, followed by metabolomic analysis and subcellular fractionation. During ischemia, there was a 32% decrease in sarcolemmal FAT/CD36 accompanied by a 95% decrease in fatty acid oxidation rates, with no change in intramyocardial lipids. Concomitantly, the sarcolemmal content of the glucose transporter, GLUT4, increased by 90% during ischemia, associated with an 86% increase in glycolytic rates, 45% decrease in glycogen content, and a 3-fold increase in phosphorylated AMP-activated protein kinase. Following reperfusion, decreased sarcolemmal FAT/CD36 persisted, but fatty acid oxidation rates returned to preischemic levels, resulting in a 35% decrease in myocardial triglyceride content. Elevated sarcolemmal GLUT4 persisted during reperfusion; in contrast, glycolytic rates decreased to 30% of preischemic rates, accompanied by a 5-fold increase in intracellular citrate levels and restoration of glycogen content. During ischemia, FAT/CD36 moved away from the sarcolemma as GLUT4 moved toward the sarcolemma, associated with a shift from fatty acid oxidation to glycolysis, while intramyocardial lipid accumulation was prevented. This relocation was maintained during reperfusion, which was associated with replenishing glycogen stores as a priority, occurring at the expense of glycolysis and mediated by an increase in citrate levels.

  17. Pharmacogenetic interaction between dexamethasone and Cd36-deficient segment of spontaneously hypertensive rat chromosome 4 affects triacylglycerol and cholesterol distribution into lipoprotein fractions

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Křen Vladimír

    2010-04-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Dexamethasone (DEX is known to induce diabetes and dyslipidemia. We have compared fasting triacylglycerol and cholesterol concentrations across 20 lipoprotein fractions and glucose tolerance in control (standard diet and DEX-treated 7-month-old males of two rat strains, Brown Norway (BN and congenic BN.SHR-(Il6-Cd36/Cub (BN.SHR4. These two inbred strains differ in a defined segment of chromosome 4, originally transferred from the spontaneously hypertensive rat (SHR including the mutant Cd36 gene, a known target of DEX. Compared to BN, the standard-diet-fed BN.SHR4 showed higher cholesterol and triacylglycerol concentrations across many lipoprotein fractions, particularly in small VLDL and LDL particles. Total cholesterol was decreased by DEX by more than 21% in BN.SHR4 contrasting with the tendency to increase in BN (strain*DEX interaction p = 0.0017. Similar pattern was observed for triacylglycerol concentrations in LDL. The LDL particle size was significantly reduced by DEX in both strains. Also, while control BN and BN.SHR4 displayed comparable glycaemic profiles during oral glucose tolerance test, we observed a markedly blunted DEX induction of glucose intolerance in BN.SHR4 compared to BN. In summary, we report a pharmacogenetic interaction between limited genomic segment with mutated Cd36 gene and dexamethasone-induced glucose intolerance and triacylglycerol and cholesterol redistribution into lipoprotein fractions.

  18. Analysis of human CD36 gene sequence alterations in the oxidized low-density lipoprotein-binding region using denaturing high-performance liquid chromatography.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rać, Monika Ewa; Suchy, Janina; Kurzawski, Grzegorz; Safranow, Krzysztof; Jakubowska, Katarzyna; Olszewska, Maria; Garanty-Bogacka, Barbara; Rać, Michał; Poncyljusz, Wojciech; Chlubek, Dariusz

    2010-08-01

    Denaturing high-performance liquid chromatography (DHPLC) has been employed as a prescreening tool to reduce the amount of DNA sequencing. It could be a simple and cost-effective screening method for mutations and polymorphisms in exons 4, 5, and 6 of the CD36 gene, which encode the protein region responsible for the removal of oxidized low-density lipoprotein. Genomic DNA was isolated from 306 Caucasian infants of Polish origin. Six single-nucleotide substitutions were detected by DHPLC and confirmed by direct sequencing. The A591T, G550A, and C572T alterations have not been described so far. Each of two nonsynonymous substitutions (Asp184Asn, Pro191Leu) was found in one subject (0.2% minor allele frequency). The results suggest that nonsynonymous alterations in the analyzed CD36 region are rare in Caucasians. DHPLC is a specific and cost-effective technique that may prove to be particularly useful for the identification of polymorphisms and mutations in the CD36 gene.

  19. Genetic Variation in the Scavenger Receptor MARCO and Its Association with Chronic Obstructive Pulmonary Disease and Lung Infection in 10,604 Individuals

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Thomsen, Mette; Nordestgaard, Børge G; Kobzik, Lester

    2013-01-01

    Background: MARCO (macrophage receptor with collagenous structure) is a dominant receptor for unopsonized particles and bacteria in the lungs. Reduced function of this receptor due to genetic variation may be associated with susceptibility to chronic obstructive pulmonary disease (COPD) and lung...... infection. Objectives: To identify novel genetic variants in MARCO that are associated with reduced lung function, or increased risk of COPD or lung infection. Methods: We first screened 760 individuals with extreme lung phenotypes in a large general population study to identify novel variants in the MARCO...... the entire cohort for these variants, we found low minor allele frequencies ranging from 0.005 to 5%. None of the individual MARCO genotypes were associated with reduced lung function, or risk of COPD or lung infection. H101Q heterozygotes had an increased odds ratio for sepsis of 2.2 (95% CI: 1...

  20. N-methyl-D-aspartate receptor antagonist MK-801 and radical scavengers protect cholinergic nucleus basalis neurons against beta-amyloid neurotoxicity

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Harkany, T.; Mulder, J.; Sasvari, M.; Abraham, I.; Konya, C.; Zarandi, M.; Penke, B; Luiten, P.G.M.; Nyakas, C.

    Previous experimental data indicate the involvement of Ca2+-related excitotoxic processes, possibly mediated by N-Methyl-D-Aspartate (NMDA) receptors, in beta-amyloid (beta A) neurotoxicity. On the other hand, other lines of evidence support the view that free radical generation is a critical step

  1. Scavenger receptor class B type I (SR-BI) in pig enterocytes: trafficking from the brush border to lipid droplets during fat absorption

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Hansen, Gert Helge; Niels-Christiansen, Lise-Lotte W; Immerdal, Lissi

    2003-01-01

    but its role in the small intestine remains unclear. AIM AND METHODS: To gain insight into the possible function of pig SR-BI during uptake of dietary fat, its localisation in enterocytes was studied in the fasting state and during fat absorption by immunogold electron microscopy and subcellular...... fat, SR-BI is endocytosed from the enterocyte brush border and accumulates in cytoplasmic lipid droplets. Internalisation of the receptor occurs mainly by clathrin coated pits rather than by a caveolae/lipid raft based mechanism....

  2. Changes in FAT/CD36, UCP2, UCP3 and GLUT4 gene expression during lipid infusion in rat skeletal and heart muscle.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Vettor, R; Fabris, R; Serra, R; Lombardi, A M; Tonello, C; Granzotto, M; Marzolo, M O; Carruba, M O; Ricquier, D; Federspil, G; Nisoli, E

    2002-06-01

    It has been reported that an increased availability of free fatty acids (NEFA) not only interferes with glucose utilization in insulin-dependent tissues, but may also result in an uncoupling effect of heart metabolism. We aimed therefore to investigate the effect of an increased availability of NEFA on gene expression of proteins involved in transmembrane fatty acid (FAT/CD36) and glucose (GLUT4) transport and of the uncoupling proteins UCP2 and 3 at the heart and skeletal muscle level. Euglycemic hyperinsulinemic clamp was performed after 24 h Intralipid(R) plus heparin or saline infusion in lean Zucker rats. Skeletal and heart muscle glucose utilization was calculated by 2-deoxy-[1-(3)H]-D-glucose technique. Quantification of FAT/CD36, GLUT4, UCP2 and UCP3 mRNAs was obtained by Northern blot analysis or RT-PCR. In Intralipid(R) plus heparin infused animals a significant decrease in insulin-mediated glucose uptake was observed both in the heart (22.62+/-2.04 vs 10.37+/-2.33 ng/mg/min; Pmuscle (13.46+/-1.53 vs 6.84+/-2.58 ng/mg/min; Pmuscle tissue (+117.4+/-16.3%, Pmuscle (291.5+/-24.7 and 146.9+/-12.7%). As a result of the increased availability of NEFA, FAT/CD36 gene expression increases in skeletal muscle, but not at the heart level. The augmented lipid fuel supply is responsible for the depression of insulin-mediated glucose transport and for the increase of UCP2 and 3 gene expression in both skeletal and heart muscle.

  3. Polymorphism of the CD36 Gene and Cardiovascular Risk Factors in Patients with Coronary Artery Disease Manifested at a Young Age

    OpenAIRE

    Ra?, Monika Ewa; Suchy, Janina; Kurzawski, Grzegorz; Kurlapska, Agnieszka; Safranow, Krzysztof; Ra?, Micha?; Sagasz-Tysiewicz, Dagmara; Krzystolik, Andrzej; Poncyljusz, Wojciech; Jakubowska, Katarzyna; Olszewska, Maria; Krupa, Beata; Chlubek, Dariusz

    2011-01-01

    This study investigates potential associations between CD36 gene variants and the presence of risk factors in Caucasians with coronary artery disease (CAD) manifested at a young age. The study group consisted of 90 patients; the men were???50?years old and the women were???55?years old. Amplicons of exons 4 and 5 including fragments of introns were analyzed by DHPLC. Two polymorphisms were found: IVS3-6 T/C (rs3173798) and IVS4-10 G/A (rs3211892). The C allele of the IVS3-6 T/C polymorphism w...

  4. Differential effect on TCR:CD3 stimulation of a 90-kD glycoprotein (gp90/Mac-2BP), a member of the scavenger receptor cysteine-rich domain protein family

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Silvestri, B; Calderazzo, F; Coppola, V

    1998-01-01

    lymphocytes were stimulated with different anti-TCR:CD3 MoAbs, both in soluble and solid-phase form, gp90/Mac-2BP was able to down-regulate the proliferative response to anti-CD3 MoAb, whereas the response to anti-TCR alphabeta MoAb was enhanced. A similar differential effect was observed when a MoAb against...... CD5 (another member of the scavenger receptor superfamily) was added to anti-CD3 or anti-TCR-stimulated cells; anti-CD5 MoAb strongly down-modulated the CD3-mediated response, whereas its presence in culture was associated with potentiation of the response to TCR alphabeta agonists. gp90/Mac-2BP...... was able per se to up-regulate Ca2+ levels in freshly isolated lymphocytes; moreover, its presence in culture was associated with increased Ca2+ mobilization following stimulation with anti-TCR alphabeta, but not anti-CD3 MoAb. These data indicate that gp90/Mac-2BP could be able to influence some immune...

  5. Genetic variants at the PDZ-interacting domain of the scavenger receptor class B type I interact with diet to influence the risk of metabolic syndrome in obese men and women.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Junyent, Mireia; Arnett, Donna K; Tsai, Michael Y; Kabagambe, Edmond K; Straka, Robert J; Province, Michael; An, Ping; Lai, Chao-Qiang; Parnell, Laurence D; Shen, Jian; Lee, Yu-Chi; Borecki, Ingrid; Ordovás, Jose M

    2009-05-01

    The scaffolding protein PDZ domain containing 1 (PDZK1) regulates the HDL receptor scavenger receptor class B type I. However, the effect of PDZK1 genetic variants on lipids and metabolic syndrome (MetS) traits remains unknown. This study evaluated the association of 3 PDZK1 single nucleotide polymorphisms (SNP) (i33968C > T, i15371G > A, and i19738C > T) with lipids and risk of MetS and their potential interactions with diet. PDZK1 SNP were genotyped in 1000 participants (481 men, 519 women) included in the Genetics of Lipid Lowering Drugs and Diet Network study. Lipoprotein subfractions were measured by proton NMR spectroscopy and dietary intake was estimated using a validated questionnaire. The PDZK1_i33968C > T polymorphism was associated with MetS (P = 0.034), mainly driven by the association of the minor T allele with higher plasma triglycerides (P = 0.004) and VLDL (P = 0.021), and lower adiponectin concentrations (P = 0.022) than in participants homozygous for the major allele (C). We found a significant gene x BMI x diet interaction, in which the deleterious association of the i33968T allele with MetS was observed in obese participants with high PUFA and carbohydrate (P-values ranging from 0.004 to 0.020) intakes. Conversely, a there was a protective effect in nonobese participants with high PUFA intake (P T genetic variants may be associated with a higher risk of exhibiting MetS. This gene x BMI x diet interaction offers the potential to identify dietary and other lifestyle changes that may obviate the onset of MetS in individuals with a specific genetic background.

  6. 4,4′-Diaponeurosporene-Producing Bacillus subtilis Increased Mouse Resistance against Salmonella typhimurium Infection in a CD36-Dependent Manner

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Qian Yang

    2017-04-01

    Full Text Available Deficient mucosal innate immunity is a hallmark of infectious diarrhea, such as Salmonella typhimurium (S. typhimurium-induced gastroenteritis. Here, we report that oral administration of a 4,4′-diaponeurosporene-producing Bacillus subtilis (B.s-Dia could improve mice mucosal immunity, as showed by an increased resistance against S. typhimurium infection. Intragastric administration of B.s-Dia for 7 days could increase the secretion of CCL20 by intestinal epithelial cells (IECs and then recruit more dendritic cells. Meanwhile, the number of CD8αα+ intraepithelial lymphocytes, which play a critical role in downregulating immune responses, was also reduced, probably as a consequence of the decrease of IEC-derived TGFβ. Further study showed that CD36 played a critical role in B.s-Dia-induced immune enhancement, as blocking CD36 signal with a specific antagonist, sulfo-N-succinimidyl oleate, led to the inability of B.s-Dia to enhance mucosal innate immunity.

  7. Polymorphism of the CD36 Gene and Cardiovascular Risk Factors in Patients with Coronary Artery Disease Manifested at a Young Age.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rać, Monika Ewa; Suchy, Janina; Kurzawski, Grzegorz; Kurlapska, Agnieszka; Safranow, Krzysztof; Rać, Michał; Sagasz-Tysiewicz, Dagmara; Krzystolik, Andrzej; Poncyljusz, Wojciech; Jakubowska, Katarzyna; Olszewska, Maria; Krupa, Beata; Chlubek, Dariusz

    2012-02-01

    This study investigates potential associations between CD36 gene variants and the presence of risk factors in Caucasians with coronary artery disease (CAD) manifested at a young age. The study group consisted of 90 patients; the men were ≤ 50 years old and the women were ≤ 55 years old. Amplicons of exons 4 and 5 including fragments of introns were analyzed by DHPLC. Two polymorphisms were found: IVS3-6 T/C (rs3173798) and IVS4-10 G/A (rs3211892). The C allele of the IVS3-6 T/C polymorphism was associated with higher prevalence of obesity and diabetes, higher hsCRP, lower Lp(a) serum concentrations, and younger age at myocardial infarction. The A allele of the IVS4-10 G/A polymorphism was associated with older age of myocardial infarction and higher white blood cell count. The functional role of CD36 polymorphisms in CAD development needs further research.

  8. Palmitic acid interferes with energy metabolism balance by adversely switching the SIRT1-CD36-fatty acid pathway to the PKC zeta-GLUT4-glucose pathway in cardiomyoblasts.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chen, Yeh-Peng; Tsai, Chia-Wen; Shen, Chia-Yao; Day, Cecilia-Hsuan; Yeh, Yu-Lan; Chen, Ray-Jade; Ho, Tsung-Jung; Padma, V Vijaya; Kuo, Wei-Wen; Huang, Chih-Yang

    2016-05-01

    Metabolic regulation is inextricably linked with cardiac function. Fatty acid metabolism is a significant mechanism for creating energy for the heart. However, cardiomyocytes are able to switch the fatty acids or glucose, depending on different situations, such as ischemia or anoxia. Lipotoxicity in obesity causes impairments in energy metabolism and apoptosis in cardiomyocytes. We utilized the treatment of H9c2 cardiomyoblast cells palmitic acid (PA) as a model for hyperlipidemia to investigate the signaling mechanisms involved in these processes. Our results show PA induces time- and dose-dependent lipotoxicity in H9c2 cells. Moreover, PA enhances cluster of differentiation 36 (CD36) and reduces glucose transporter type 4 (GLUT4) pathway protein levels following a short period of treatment, but cells switch from CD36 back to the GLUT4 pathway after during long-term exposure to PA. As sirtuin 1 (SIRT1) and protein kinase Cζ (PKCζ) play important roles in CD36 and GLUT4 translocation, we used the SIRT1 activator resveratrol and si-PKCζ to identify the switches in metabolism. Although PA reduced CD36 and increased GLUT4 metabolic pathway proteins, when we pretreated cells with resveratrol to activate SIRT1 or transfected si-PKCζ, both were able to significantly increase CD36 metabolic pathway proteins and reduce GLUT4 pathway proteins. High-fat diets affect energy metabolism pathways in both normal and aging rats and involve switching the energy source from the CD36 pathway to GLUT4. In conclusion, PA and high-fat diets cause lipotoxicity in vivo and in vitro and adversely switch the energy source from the CD36 pathway to the GLUT4 pathway. Copyright © 2016 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  9. High density lipoprotein stimulated migration of macrophages depends on the scavenger receptor class B, type I, PDZK1 and Akt1 and is blocked by sphingosine 1 phosphate receptor antagonists.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Aishah Al-Jarallah

    Full Text Available HDL carries biologically active lipids such as sphingosine-1-phosphate (S1P and stimulates a variety of cell signaling pathways in diverse cell types, which may contribute to its ability to protect against atherosclerosis. HDL and sphingosine-1-phosphate receptor agonists, FTY720 and SEW2871 triggered macrophage migration. HDL-, but not FTY720-stimulated migration was inhibited by an antibody against the HDL receptor, SR-BI, and an inhibitor of SR-BI mediated lipid transfer. HDL and FTY720-stimulated migration was also inhibited in macrophages lacking either SR-BI or PDZK1, an adaptor protein that binds to SR-BI's C-terminal cytoplasmic tail. Migration in response to HDL and S1P receptor agonists was inhibited by treatment of macrophages with sphingosine-1-phosphate receptor type 1 (S1PR1 antagonists and by pertussis toxin. S1PR1 activates signaling pathways including PI3K-Akt, PKC, p38 MAPK, ERK1/2 and Rho kinases. Using selective inhibitors or macrophages from gene targeted mice, we demonstrated the involvement of each of these pathways in HDL-dependent macrophage migration. These data suggest that HDL stimulates the migration of macrophages in a manner that requires the activities of the HDL receptor SR-BI as well as S1PR1 activity.

  10. FIP2 and Rip11 specify Rab11a-mediated cellular distribution of GLUT4 and FAT/CD36 in H9c2-hIR cells.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Schwenk, Robert W; Luiken, Joost J F P; Eckel, Jürgen

    2007-11-09

    Rab11a has been shown to be involved in different vesicle trafficking processes. To further define the functional role of Rab11a in vesicle movement we knocked down gene expression of Rab11a and two of its effectors, Rip11 and FIP2, in H9c2-hIR cells and measured the cell surface abundance of GLUT4myc and FAT/CD36. We observed that by knocking down Rab11a, both GLUT4myc and FAT/CD36 abundance at the plasma membrane were substantially increased. In the case of GLUT4myc, the in vitro knockdown of FIP2 also increased the cell surface abundance of GLUT4myc. Knockdown of both FIP2 and Rip11 increase the abundance of FAT/CD36 at the plasma membrane. Stimulated translocation of GLUT4myc and FAT/CD36 is not altered after gene knockdown of Rab11a. These data therefore show that (i) Rab11a regulates cell surface abundance of both GLUT4 and FAT/CD36 and that (ii) both Rab11a-dependent processes are differently regulated by Rab11a effector proteins.

  11. Oxidation by neutrophils-derived HOCl increases immunogenicity of proteins by converting them into ligands of several endocytic receptors involved in antigen uptake by dendritic cells and macrophages.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Rafał Biedroń

    Full Text Available The initiation of adaptive immune responses to protein antigens has to be preceded by their uptake by antigen presenting cells and intracellular proteolytic processing. Paradoxically, endocytic receptors involved in antigen uptake do not bind the majority of proteins, which may be the main reason why purified proteins stimulate at most weak immune responses. A shared feature of different types of adjuvants, capable of boosting immunogenicity of protein vaccines, is their ability to induce acute inflammation, characterized by early influx of activated neutrophils. Neutrophils are also rapidly recruited to sites of tissue injury or infection. These cells are the source of potent oxidants, including hypochlorous acid (HOCl, causing oxidation of proteins present in inflammatory foci. We demonstrate that oxidation of proteins by endogenous, neutrophils-derived HOCl increases their immunogenicity. Upon oxidation, different, randomly chosen simple proteins (yeast alcohol dehydrogenase, human and bovine serum albumin and glycoproteins (human apo-transferrin, ovalbumin gain the ability to bind with high affinity to several endocytic receptors on antigen presenting cells, which seems to be the major mechanism of their increased immunogenicity. The mannose receptor (CD206, scavenger receptors A (CD204 and CD36 were responsible for the uptake and presentation of HOCl-modified proteins by murine dendritic cells and macrophages. Other scavenger receptors, SREC-I and LOX-1, as well as RAGE were also able to bind HOCl-modified proteins, but they did not contribute significantly to these ligands uptake by dendritic cells because they were either not expressed or exhibited preference for more heavily oxidised proteins. Our results indicate that oxidation by neutrophils-derived HOCl may be a physiological mechanism of conferring immunogenicity on proteins which in their native forms do not bind to endocytic receptors. This mechanism might enable the immune system

  12. The rs5888 single nucleotide polymorphism in scavenger receptor class B type 1 (SCARB1) gene and the risk of premature coronary artery disease: a case-control study.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Goodarzynejad, Hamidreza; Boroumand, Mohammadali; Behmanesh, Mehrdad; Ziaee, Shayan; Jalali, Arash

    2016-01-12

    Several single nucleotide polymorphisms (SNPs) in lipid transport genes have been shown to be associated with premature coronary artery disease (PCAD). The scavenger receptor BI (SCARB1) is a key component of the reverse cholesterol transport and lipid metabolism. We aimed to examine the relationship between the rs5888 SNP within SCARB1and the risk of angiographically determined PCAD. We used an age cut-off of 55 years for women and 45 years for men to define PCAD. Five-hundred and five patients with newly diagnosed angiographically documented PCAD (≥ 50 % luminal stenosis of any coronary vessel) as case group compared with 546 controls (subjects with no luminal stenosis at coronary arteries). The severity of CAD was determined by vessel score as well as Gensini score. A real-time polymerase chain reaction (PCR) and High Resolution Melting (HRM) analysis was used to distinguish between genotypes. T allele as compared to C allele was associated with increased odds of PCAD in total population (adjusted OR = 1.3, 95 % CI = 1.0 to 1.5; p = 0.020), and in women (adjusted OR = 1.3, 95 % CI = 1.0 to 1.8; p = 0.037), but not in men (adjusted OR = 1.2, 95 % CI = 0.9 to 1.5; p = 0.311). There was also no significant association between the examined polymorphism and the severity of CAD in whole or in men or women subgroups. Our findings suggest that the SNP (rs5888) within SCARB1 is independently associated with PCAD in a sex-dependent manner.

  13. Bilirubin inhibits the up-regulation of inducible nitric oxide synthase by scavenging reactive oxygen species generated by the toll-like receptor 4-dependent activation of NADPH oxidase

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Gila Idelman

    2015-08-01

    Full Text Available It has been previously shown that bilirubin prevents the up-regulation of inducible nitric oxide synthase (iNOS in response to LPS. The present study examines whether this effect is exerted through modulation of Toll-Like Receptor-4 (TLR4 signaling. LPS-stimulated iNOS and NADPH oxidase (Nox activity in RAW 264.7 murine macrophages was assessed by measuring cellular nitrate and superoxide (O2− production, respectively. The generation of both nitrate and O2− in response to LPS was suppressed by TLR4 inhibitors, indicating that activation of iNOS and Nox is TLR4-dependent. While treatment with superoxide dismutase (SOD and bilirubin effectively abolished LPS-mediated O2− production, hydrogen peroxide and nitrate release were inhibited by bilirubin and PEG-catalase, but not SOD, supporting that iNOS activation is primarily dependent upon intracellular H2O2. LPS treatment increased nuclear translocation of the redox-sensitive transcription factor Hypoxia Inducible Factor-1α (HIF-1α, an effect that was abolished by bilirubin. Cells transfected with murine iNOS reporter constructs in which the HIF-1α-specific hypoxia response element was disrupted exhibited a blunted response to LPS, supporting that HIF-1α mediates Nox-dependent iNOS expression. Bilirubin, but not SOD, blocked the cellular production of interferon-β, while interleukin-6 production remained unaffected. These data support that bilirubin inhibits the TLR4-mediated up-regulation of iNOS by preventing activation of HIF-1α through scavenging of Nox-derived reactive oxygen species. Bilirubin also suppresses interferon-β release via a ROS-independent mechanism. These findings characterize potential mechanisms for the anti-inflammatory effects of bilirubin.

  14. Bilirubin inhibits the up-regulation of inducible nitric oxide synthase by scavenging reactive oxygen species generated by the toll-like receptor 4-dependent activation of NADPH oxidase.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Idelman, Gila; Smith, Darcey L H; Zucker, Stephen D

    2015-08-01

    It has been previously shown that bilirubin prevents the up-regulation of inducible nitric oxide synthase (iNOS) in response to LPS. The present study examines whether this effect is exerted through modulation of Toll-Like Receptor-4 (TLR4) signaling. LPS-stimulated iNOS and NADPH oxidase (Nox) activity in RAW 264.7 murine macrophages was assessed by measuring cellular nitrate and superoxide ( [Formula: see text] ) production, respectively. The generation of both nitrate and [Formula: see text] in response to LPS was suppressed by TLR4 inhibitors, indicating that activation of iNOS and Nox is TLR4-dependent. While treatment with superoxide dismutase (SOD) and bilirubin effectively abolished LPS-mediated [Formula: see text] production, hydrogen peroxide and nitrate release were inhibited by bilirubin and PEG-catalase, but not SOD, supporting that iNOS activation is primarily dependent upon intracellular H2O2. LPS treatment increased nuclear translocation of the redox-sensitive transcription factor Hypoxia Inducible Factor-1α (HIF-1α), an effect that was abolished by bilirubin. Cells transfected with murine iNOS reporter constructs in which the HIF-1α-specific hypoxia response element was disrupted exhibited a blunted response to LPS, supporting that HIF-1α mediates Nox-dependent iNOS expression. Bilirubin, but not SOD, blocked the cellular production of interferon-β, while interleukin-6 production remained unaffected. These data support that bilirubin inhibits the TLR4-mediated up-regulation of iNOS by preventing activation of HIF-1α through scavenging of Nox-derived reactive oxygen species. Bilirubin also suppresses interferon-β release via a ROS-independent mechanism. These findings characterize potential mechanisms for the anti-inflammatory effects of bilirubin. Copyright © 2015. Published by Elsevier B.V.

  15. Short-Term Hypoxia Reverses Ox-LDL-Induced CD36 and GLUT4 Switching Metabolic Pathways in H9c2 Cardiomyoblast Cells.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chen, Yeh-Peng; Hsu, Hsi-Hsien; Baskaran, Rathinasamy; Wen, Su-Ying; Shen, Chia-Yao; Day, Cecilia-Hsuan; Ho, Tsung-Jung; Vijaya Padma, Viswanadha; Kuo, Wei-Wen; Huang, Chih-Yang

    2017-11-01

    High levels of circulating low-density lipoproteins (LDL, plasma proteins that carry cholesterol and triglycerides) are associated with type 2 diabetes, arteriosclerosis, obesity, and hyperlipidemia. In the heart, the accumulation of oxidized low-density lipoprotein (Ox-LDL) has been proposed to play a role in the development of cardiovascular disease. We obtain cholesterol from animals and animal-derived foods such as milk, eggs, and cheese. In previous studies, the ratio of low-density lipoprotein (LDL) and high-density lipoprotein (HDL) was shown to be important for our health. High levels of LDL cholesterol lead to atherosclerosis, increasing the risk of heart attack and ischemic stroke. In this study, we utilized Ox-LDL-treated H9c2 cardiomyoblast cells as a simulated hyperlipidemia model. CD36 metabolism pathway proteins (phospho-Akt, SIRT1, PGC1α, PPARα, CPT1β, and CD36) increased at low doses of Ox-LDL. However, high doses (150 and 200 mg/dL) of Ox-LDL reduced the levels of these proteins. Interestingly, expression of GLUT4 metabolism pathway proteins (phospho-PKCζ) were reduced at low doses, while the expression of phospho-AMPK, phospho-PI3K, phospho-PKCζ, GLUT4, and PDH proteins increased at high doses. Ox-LDL acute treatment induces apoptosis in cardiomyocytes as evidenced by apoptotic nuclei apparition, caspase-3 activation, and cytochrome c release from mitochondria. In our results, Ox-LDL induced lipotoxicity in cardiomyocytes, and subsequent exposure to short-term hypoxia or reversed the Ox-LDL-induced metabolic imbalance. The same result was obtained with the pharmacological activation of SIRT1 by resveratrol and si-PKCζ. The mechanism of metabolic switching during Ox-LDL lipotoxicity seems to be mediated by SIRT1 and PKC ζ. J. Cell. Biochem. 118: 3785-3795, 2017. © 2017 Wiley Periodicals, Inc. © 2017 Wiley Periodicals, Inc.

  16. A novel lipopeptide from skin commensal activates TLR2/CD36-p38 MAPK signaling to increase antibacterial defense against bacterial infection.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Dongqing Li

    Full Text Available Staphylococcus epidermidis (S.epidermidis plays important protective roles by directly producing or by stimulating hosts to produce antimicrobial peptides (AMPs against pathogenic infections. Although several AMPs from S.epidermidis have been identified, molecules that stimulate hosts to produce AMPs remain largly unknown. Here we demonstrate that a new lipopeptide (named LP01 purified from S.epidermidis culture media has a unique structure with heneicosanoic acid (21 carbons binding to lysine(11 of a peptide chain. In vitro LP01 increased the expression of β-defensin 2(hBD2 and hBD3 in neonatal human epidermal keratinocytes(NHEK, leading to increased capacity of cell lysates to inhibit the growth of S.aureus. In vivo LP01 induced the expression of mouse β-defensin 4(mBD4 to decrease the survival of local S.aureus in skin and systemic S.aureus survival in liver. The induction of beta-defensins by LP01 was dependent on TLR2 as Tlr2-deficient mice had decreased mBD4. Furthermore, knockdown of CD36 decreased the expression of hBD2 and hBD3, and p38 MAPK inhibitor significantly inhibited the expression of hBDs induced by LP01.Taken together, these findings demonstrate that lipopeptide LP01 from normal commensal S.epidermidis increases antimicrobial peptide hBD2 and hBD3 expression via the activation of TLR2/CD36-p38 MAPK, thus enhancing antimicrobial defense against pathogenic infections.

  17. Metabolic Syndrome is linked to Chromosome 7q21 and associated with genetic variants in CD36 and GNAT3 in Mexican Americans

    Science.gov (United States)

    Farook, VS; Puppala, S; Schneider, J; Fowler, SP; Chittoor, G; Dyer, TD; Allayee, H; Cole, SA; Arya, R; Black, MH; Curran, JE; Almasy, L; Buchanan, TA; Jenkinson, CP; Lehman, DM; Watanabe, RM; Blangero, J; Duggirala, R

    2014-01-01

    The prevalence of metabolic syndrome (MS) has been rising alarmingly worldwide, including in the United States, but knowledge on specific genetic determinants of MS is very limited. Therefore, we planned to identify the genetic determinants of MS as defined by National Cholesterol Education Program/Adult Treatment Panel III (NCEP/ATPIII) criteria. We performed linkage screen for MS using data from 692 Mexican Americans, who participated in the San Antonio Family Diabetes/Gallbladder Study (SAFDGS). We found strong evidence for linkage of MS on chromosome 7q (LOD = 3.6, empirical P = 6.0 × 10−5), between markers D7S2212 and D7S821. In addition, six chromosomal regions exhibited potential evidence for linkage (LOD ≥ 1.2) with MS. Further, we examined 29 single nucleotide polymorphisms (SNPs) from the fatty acid translocase (FAT or CD36, 18 SNPs) gene and guanine nucleotide binding protein, alpha transducing 3 (GNAT3, 11 SNPs) gene, located within the 1-LOD support interval region for their association with MS and its related traits. Several SNPs were associated with MS and its related traits. Remarkably, rs11760281 in GNAT3 and rs1194197 near CD36 exhibited the strongest associations with MS (P = 0.0003, relative risk [RR] = 1.6 and P = 0.004, RR = 1.7 respectively) and several other related traits. These two variants explained about 18% of the MS linkage evidence on chromosome 7q21, and together conferred approximately 3-fold increase in MS risk (RR = 2.7). In conclusion, our linkage and subsequent association studies implicate a region on chromosome 7q21 to influence MS in Mexican Americans. PMID:22456541

  18. A Library of Infectious Hepatitis C Viruses with Engineered Mutations in the E2 Gene Reveals Growth-Adaptive Mutations That Modulate Interactions with Scavenger Receptor Class B Type I.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zuiani, Adam; Chen, Kevin; Schwarz, Megan C; White, James P; Luca, Vincent C; Fremont, Daved H; Wang, David; Evans, Matthew J; Diamond, Michael S

    2016-12-01

    While natural hepatitis C virus (HCV) infection results in highly diverse quasispecies of related viruses over time, mutations accumulate more slowly in tissue culture, in part because of the inefficiency of replication in cells. To create a highly diverse population of HCV particles in cell culture and identify novel growth-enhancing mutations, we engineered a library of infectious HCV with all codons represented at most positions in the ectodomain of the E2 gene. We identified many putative growth-adaptive mutations and selected nine highly represented E2 mutants for further study: Q412R, T416R, S449P, T563V, A579R, L619T, V626S, K632T, and L644I. We evaluated these mutants for changes in particle-to-infectious-unit ratio, sensitivity to neutralizing antibody or CD81 large extracellular loop (CD81-LEL) inhibition, entry factor usage, and buoyant density profiles. Q412R, T416R, S449P, T563V, and L619T were neutralized more efficiently by anti-E2 antibodies and T416R, T563V, and L619T by CD81-LEL. Remarkably, all nine variants showed reduced dependence on scavenger receptor class B type I (SR-BI) for infection. This shift from SR-BI usage did not correlate with a change in the buoyant density profiles of the variants, suggesting an altered E2-SR-BI interaction rather than changes in the virus-associated lipoprotein-E2 interaction. Our results demonstrate that residues influencing SR-BI usage are distributed across E2 and support the development of large-scale mutagenesis studies to identify viral variants with unique functional properties. Characterizing variant viruses can reveal new information about the life cycle of HCV and the roles played by different viral genes. However, it is difficult to recapitulate high levels of diversity in the laboratory because of limitations in the HCV culture system. To overcome this limitation, we engineered a library of mutations into the E2 gene in the context of an infectious clone of the virus. We used this library of viruses

  19. Scavenger Receptors and Resistance to Inhaled Allergens

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-02-01

    to show that tyrosine kinases, PKC, PI-3K and MAPKs are necessary for SR-mediated phagocytosis by MØ. The requirement for PI-3K and tyro - sine...treatment of MØ cell lines with soluble SR ligands results in the tyro - sine phosphorylation of Src kinases, PLCγ and PI-3K as well as a tyrosine kinase

  20. Identification of the haemoglobin scavenger receptor

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Kristiansen, M; Graversen, Jonas Heilskov; Jacobsen, C

    2001-01-01

    Intravascular haemolysis is a physiological phenomenon as well as a severe pathological complication when accelerated in various autoimmune, infectious (such as malaria) and inherited (such as sickle cell disease) disorders. Haemoglobin released into plasma is captured by the acute phase protein...... of haemoglobin and dimeric haptoglobin (the 1-1 phenotype). Specific CD163-mediated endocytosis of haptoglobin-haemoglobin complexes is measurable in cells transfected with CD163 complementary DNA and in CD163-expressing myelo-monocytic lymphoma cells....

  1. 8-METHOXYNEORAUTENOL AND RADICAL SCAVENGING ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Preferred Customer

    8-METHOXYNEORAUTENOL AND RADICAL SCAVENGING FLAVONOIDS FROM. ERYTHRINA ABYSSINICA. Abiy Yenesew1*, Hannington Twinomuhwezi1 ... shown that the plant elaborates alkaloids [1], flavanones, pterocarpans, chalcones and isoflavonoids [1, 3]; some of which have been shown to have antimicrobial ...

  2. Mécanisme d’absorption intestinale des acides gras à longue chaîne : rôle émergent du CD36

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Tran Thi Thu Trang

    2012-07-01

    Full Text Available Excessive lipid intake, associated with a qualitative imbalance, favors the development of obesity and associated diseases. From organs involved in the lipid homeostasis, the small intestine remains the most poorly known although it is responsible for the lipid bioavailability and largely contributes to the regulation of postprandial hypertriglyceridemia. The mechanism of long chain fatty acid (LCFA intestinal absorption is not totally elucidated. Over the two last decades, cloning of lipid binding proteins (LBP, proteins involved in trafficking and metabolic fate of LCFA in gut have provided new insights on cellular and molecular mechanisms involved in fat absorption. The synthesis of recent literature indicates that intestine is able to adapt its absorption capacity to the fat content of the diet. This adaptation takes place through a fat-coordinated induction of LBP and apolipoproteins. CD36 could operate as a lipid sensor responsible for a transducing signal related to the lipid content of the diet at the origin of this intestinal adaptation. This lipid-mediated metabolic response may lead to the formation of large chylomicrons rapidly degraded in the blood. All together, these new data indicate that this intestinal lipid sensing mechanism may be a therapeutic target for reducing the postprandial hypertriglyceridemia and associated cardiovascular risks.

  3. RADICAL SCAVENGING ACTIVITY OF SOME NATURAL ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    (DFT) were applied to calculate the adiabatic ionization potential (IP), bond dissociation enthalpy (BDE) and other radical scavenging properties of antioxidant systems [5-11]. The ... scavenging processes of chain-breaking antioxidant (ArOH) [14, 15]. Both the mechanisms are significant for the scavenging activity of reactive ...

  4. CD36 c.1264 T>G null mutation impairs acquisition of IgG antibodies to Plasmodium falciparum MSP1₁₉ antigen and is associated with higher malaria incidences in Tanzanian children.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kajeguka, D; Mwanziva, C; Daou, M; Ndaro, A; Matondo, S; Mbugi, E; Dolmans, W; Chilongola, J

    2012-03-01

    Polymorphisms in genes that encode crucial signalling molecules have been proposed as factors that influence susceptibility to, and outcome of malaria. We studied the role of a mutation, c.1264 T>G, that causes CD36 deficiency on IgG responses to MSP-1₁₉ antigen and malaria incidence. Children were genotyped for the c.1264 T>G mutation at the beginning of the study using PCR-RFLP. IgG levels [optical density (OD) readings] and per cent seropositivity to MSP-1₁₉ were determined at baseline by ELISA. Children were followed for 12 months for acquisition of anti-MSP-1₁₉ IgG antibody and malaria incidence. We observed a significant increase in the production of anti-MSP-1₁₉ IgG antibody in normal and heterozygous children during the 12 months of follow-up, but not in homozygous mutants. Normal children had a significantly lower malaria incidence rate compared to other genotypes (χ² = 115.59; P G mutation that leads to CD36 deficiency is closely associated with reduced IgG production and higher malaria incidence. It is most likely that deficiency of CD36 which is known to modulate dendritic cell function suppresses the production of protective IgG antibodies directed to Plasmodium falciparum MSP-1₁₉ antigen, which predisposes to the acquisition of clinical malaria in children. © 2011 The Authors. Scandinavian Journal of Immunology © 2011 Blackwell Publishing Ltd.

  5. The HIV matrix protein p17 subverts nuclear receptors expression and induces a STAT1-dependent proinflammatory phenotype in monocytes.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Barbara Renga

    Full Text Available BACKGROUND: Long-term remission of HIV-1 disease can be readily achieved by combinations of highly effective antiretroviral therapy (HAART. However, a residual persistent immune activation caused by circulating non infectious particles or viral proteins is observed under HAART and might contribute to an higher risk of non-AIDS pathologies and death in HIV infected persons. A sustained immune activation supports lipid dysmetabolism and increased risk for development of accelerated atehrosclerosis and ischemic complication in virologically suppressed HIV-infected persons receiving HAART. AIM: While several HIV proteins have been identified and characterized for their ability to maintain immune activation, the role of HIV-p17, a matrix protein involved in the viral replication, is still undefined. RESULTS: Here, we report that exposure of macrophages to recombinant human p17 induces the expression of proinflammatory and proatherogenic genes (MCP-1, ICAM-1, CD40, CD86 and CD36 while downregulating the expression of nuclear receptors (FXR and PPARγ that counter-regulate the proinflammatory response and modulate lipid metabolism in these cells. Exposure of macrophage cell lines to p17 activates a signaling pathway mediated by Rack-1/Jak-1/STAT-1 and causes a promoter-dependent regulation of STAT-1 target genes. These effects are abrogated by sera obtained from HIV-infected persons vaccinated with a p17 peptide. Ligands for FXR and PPARγ counteract the effects of p17. CONCLUSIONS: The results of this study show that HIV p17 highjacks a Rack-1/Jak-1/STAT-1 pathway in macrophages, and that the activation of this pathway leads to a simultaneous dysregulation of immune and metabolic functions. The binding of STAT-1 to specific responsive elements in the promoter of PPARγ and FXR and MCP-1 shifts macrophages toward a pro-atherogenetic phenotype characterized by high levels of expression of the scavenger receptor CD36. The present work identifies p17 as a

  6. Free radical scavenging, antioxidant and cancer chemoprevention by grape seed proanthocyanidin: an overview.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bagchi, Debasis; Swaroop, Anand; Preuss, Harry G; Bagchi, Manashi

    2014-10-01

    A large number of investigations have demonstrated a broad spectrum of pharmacological and therapeutic benefits of grape seed proanthocyanidins (GSP) against oxidative stress and degenerative diseases including cardiovascular dysfunctions, acute and chronic stress, gastrointestinal distress, neurological disorders, pancreatitis, various stages of neoplastic processes and carcinogenesis including detoxification of carcinogenic metabolites. GSP exhibited potent free radical scavenging abilities in both in vitro and in vivo models. GSP exerted significant in vivo protection against structurally diverse drug and chemical-induced hepatotoxicity, cardiotoxicity, neurotoxicity, nephrotoxicity and spleentoxicity. GSP also protected against idarubicin and 4-hydroxyperoxy-cyclophosphamide-induced cytotoxicity toward human normal liver cells. GSP exhibited selective cytotoxicity toward selected human cancer cells, while enhancing the growth and viability of normal cells. GSP exhibited potent modulatory effects of pro-apoptotic and apoptotic regulatory bcl-XL, p53, c-myc, c-JUN, JNK-1 and CD36 genes. Long-term exposure to GSP may serve as a novel chemoprotectant against three stages of DMN-induced liver carcinogenesis and tumorigenesis including initiation, promotion and progression. GSP may selectively protect against oxidative stress, genomic integrity and cell death patterns in vivo. These results demonstrate that GSP may serve as a novel therapeutic intervention against carcinogenesis. Copyright © 2014 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  7. Radical scavenging compounds from Ethiopian medicinal plants ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    All the secondary metabolites isolated from these active fractions were found to exhibit significant antioxidant activity, as judged by scavenging stable DPPH free radicals. However, the flavonol glycoside rutin figured as the most active radical scavenger with an IC50 value of 9.5 mM. Ethiopian Pharmaceutical Journal Vol.

  8. Melatonin and its precursors scavenge nitric oxide

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Noda, Y.; Mori, A.; Liburdy, R.; Packer, L.

    1998-12-01

    Nitric oxide (NO) scavenging activity of melatonin, N-acetyl-5-hydroxytryptamine, serotonin, 5-hydroxytryptophan and L-tryptophan was examined by the Griess reaction using flow injection analysis. 1-Hydroxy-2-oxo-3-(N-methyl-3-aminopropyl)-3-methyl-1-triazene(NOC-7) was used as NO generator. The Griess reagent stoichiometrically reacts with NO2-, which was converted by a cadmium-copper reduction column from the stable end products of NO oxidation. Except for tryptophan, all the compounds examined scavenged NO in a dose-dependent manner. Melatonin, which has a methoxy group in the 5-position and an acetyl side chain, exhibited the most potent scavenging activity among the compounds tested. Serotonin, N-acetyl-5-hydroxytryptamine, and 5-hydroxytryptophan, respectively, showed moderate scavenging activity compared to melatonin. Tryptophan, which has neither a methoxy nor a hydroxyl group in the 5-position, exhibited the least NO scavenging activity.

  9. Anaesthesia machine: Checklist, hazards, scavenging

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Umesh Goneppanavar

    2013-01-01

    Full Text Available From a simple pneumatic device of the early 20 th century, the anaesthesia machine has evolved to incorporate various mechanical, electrical and electronic components to be more appropriately called anaesthesia workstation. Modern machines have overcome many drawbacks associated with the older machines. However, addition of several mechanical, electronic and electric components has contributed to recurrence of some of the older problems such as leak or obstruction attributable to newer gadgets and development of newer problems. No single checklist can satisfactorily test the integrity and safety of all existing anaesthesia machines due to their complex nature as well as variations in design among manufacturers. Human factors have contributed to greater complications than machine faults. Therefore, better understanding of the basics of anaesthesia machine and checking each component of the machine for proper functioning prior to use is essential to minimise these hazards. Clear documentation of regular and appropriate servicing of the anaesthesia machine, its components and their satisfactory functioning following servicing and repair is also equally important. Trace anaesthetic gases polluting the theatre atmosphere can have several adverse effects on the health of theatre personnel. Therefore, safe disposal of these gases away from the workplace with efficiently functioning scavenging system is necessary. Other ways of minimising atmospheric pollution such as gas delivery equipment with negligible leaks, low flow anaesthesia, minimal leak around the airway equipment (facemask, tracheal tube, laryngeal mask airway, etc. more than 15 air changes/hour and total intravenous anaesthesia should also be considered.

  10. Procollagen C-endopeptidase Enhancer Protein 2 (PCPE2) Reduces Atherosclerosis in Mice by Enhancing Scavenger Receptor Class B1 (SR-BI)-mediated High-density Lipoprotein (HDL)-Cholesteryl Ester Uptake.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pollard, Ricquita D; Blesso, Christopher N; Zabalawi, Manal; Fulp, Brian; Gerelus, Mark; Zhu, Xuewei; Lyons, Erica W; Nuradin, Nebil; Francone, Omar L; Li, Xiang-An; Sahoo, Daisy; Thomas, Michael J; Sorci-Thomas, Mary G

    2015-06-19

    Studies in human populations have shown a significant correlation between procollagen C-endopeptidase enhancer protein 2 (PCPE2) single nucleotide polymorphisms and plasma HDL cholesterol concentrations. PCPE2, a 52-kDa glycoprotein located in the extracellular matrix, enhances the cleavage of C-terminal procollagen by bone morphogenetic protein 1 (BMP1). Our studies here focused on investigating the basis for the elevated concentration of enlarged plasma HDL in PCPE2-deficient mice to determine whether they protected against diet-induced atherosclerosis. PCPE2-deficient mice were crossed with LDL receptor-deficient mice to obtain LDLr(-/-), PCPE2(-/-) mice, which had elevated HDL levels compared with LDLr(-/-) mice with similar LDL concentrations. We found that LDLr(-/-), PCPE2(-/-) mice had significantly more neutral lipid and CD68+ infiltration in the aortic root than LDLr(-/-) mice. Surprisingly, in light of their elevated HDL levels, the extent of aortic lipid deposition in LDLr(-/-), PCPE2(-/-) mice was similar to that reported for LDLr(-/-), apoA-I(-/-) mice, which lack any apoA-I/HDL. Furthermore, LDLr(-/-), PCPE2(-/-) mice had reduced HDL apoA-I fractional clearance and macrophage to fecal reverse cholesterol transport rates compared with LDLr(-/-) mice, despite a 2-fold increase in liver SR-BI expression. PCPE2 was shown to enhance SR-BI function by increasing the rate of HDL-associated cholesteryl ester uptake, possibly by optimizing SR-BI localization and/or conformation. We conclude that PCPE2 is atheroprotective and an important component of the reverse cholesterol transport HDL system. © 2015 by The American Society for Biochemistry and Molecular Biology, Inc.

  11. Impact of gene variants on sex-specific regulation of human Scavenger receptor class B type 1 (SR-BI expression in liver and association with lipid levels in a population-based study

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Barrett-Connor Elizabeth

    2010-01-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background Several studies have noted that genetic variants of SCARB1, a lipoprotein receptor involved in reverse cholesterol transport, are associated with serum lipid levels in a sex-dependent fashion. However, the mechanism underlying this gene by sex interaction has not been explored. Methods We utilized both epidemiological and molecular methods to study how estrogen and gene variants interact to influence SCARB1 expression and lipid levels. Interaction between 35 SCARB1 haplotype-tagged polymorphisms and endogenous estradiol levels was assessed in 498 postmenopausal Caucasian women from the population-based Rancho Bernardo Study. We further examined associated variants with overall and SCARB1 splice variant (SR-BI and SR-BII expression in 91 human liver tissues using quantitative real-time PCR. Results Several variants on a haplotype block spanning intron 11 to intron 12 of SCARB1 showed significant gene by estradiol interaction affecting serum lipid levels, the strongest for rs838895 with HDL-cholesterol (p = 9.2 × 10-4 and triglycerides (p = 1.3 × 10-3 and the triglyceride:HDL cholesterol ratio (p = 2.7 × 10-4. These same variants were associated with expression of the SR-BI isoform in a sex-specific fashion, with the strongest association found among liver tissue from 52 young women Conclusions Estrogen and SCARB1 genotype may act synergistically to regulate expression of SCARB1 isoforms and impact serum levels of HDL cholesterol and triglycerides. This work highlights the importance of considering sex-dependent effects of gene variants on serum lipid levels.

  12. Scavenging of superoxide anion radical by chaparral.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zang, L Y; Cosma, G; Gardner, H; Starks, K; Shi, X; Vallyathan, V

    1999-06-01

    Chaparral is considered to act as an antioxidant. However, the inhibitory effects of chaparral on specific radical species are not well understood. Using electron paramagnetic resonance (EPR) spectroscopy in combination with spin trapping techniques, we have found that chaparral scavenges superoxide anion radical (O2*-) in a dose-dependent manner. 5,5-dimethyl-lpyrroline-N-oxide (DMPO) was used as a spin trapping agent and the reaction of xanthine and xanthine oxidase as a source of O2*-. The kinetic parameters, IC50 and Vmax, for chaparral scavenging of O2*- were found to be 0.899 microg/mL and 8.4 ng/mL/sec, respectively. The rate constant for chaparral scavenging O2*- was found to be 1.22 x 10(6) g(-1) s(-1). Our studies suggest that the antioxidant properties of chaparral may involve a direct scavenging effect of the primary oxygen radical, O2*-.

  13. 21 CFR 868.5590 - Scavenging mask.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-04-01

    ... scavenging mask is a device positioned over a patient's nose to deliver anesthetic or analgesic gases to the upper airway and to remove excess and exhaled gas. It is usually used during dentistry. (b...

  14. Beyond the windshield: scavenging community data.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hays, J C

    1989-01-01

    Faculty developed a scavenger hunt game to introduce baccalaureate and generic registered nurse (RN) students to the concept of community in a brief, interactive, and challenging way. The game enabled students to examine community structures and processes. It stimulated skill-building in caseload management and reduced student anxiety about community-based care. The author discusses the outcomes, benefits, and limitations of the scavenger hunt.

  15. receptores

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Salete Regina Daronco Benetti

    2006-01-01

    Full Text Available Se trata de un estudio etnográfico, que tuvo lo objetivo de interpretar el sistema de conocimiento y del significado atribuidos a la sangre referente a la transfusión sanguínea por los donadores y receptores de un banco de sangre. Para la colecta de las informaciones se observaron los participantes y la entrevista etnográfica se realizó el análisis de dominio, taxonómicos y temáticos. Los dominios culturales fueron: la sangre es vida: fuente de vida y alimento valioso; creencias religiosas: fuentes simbólicas de apoyos; donación sanguínea: un gesto colaborador que exige cuidarse, gratifica y trae felicidad; donación sanguínea: fuente simbólica de inseguridad; estar enfermo es una condición para realizar transfusión sanguínea; transfusión sanguínea: esperanza de vida; Creencias populares: transfusión sanguínea como riesgo para la salud; donadores de sangre: personas benditas; donar y recibir sangre: como significado de felicidad. Temática: “líquido precioso que origina, sostiene, modifica la vida, provoca miedo e inseguridad”.

  16. Understanding how mammalian scavengers use information from avian scavengers: cue from above.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kane, Adam; Kendall, Corinne J

    2017-07-01

    Interspecific social information transfer can play a key role in many aspects of animal ecology from foraging to habitat selection to predator avoidance. Within scavenging communities, avian scavengers often act as producers and mammalian scavengers act as scroungers, but we predict that species-specific cueing will allow for mammalian scavengers to utilize particular avian scavenger species using preferred food sources similar to their own preferences. We use empirical and theoretic approaches to assess interactions between mammalian and avian scavengers in one of the most diverse scavenging guilds in Masai Mara National Reserve, Kenya. Using a spatially explicit model and data from experimental carcasses, we found evidence that mammals benefit from local enhancement provided by vultures and that mammalian-avian following patterns are consistent with the idea that species-specific cueing is occurring. Results suggest that ongoing population declines in avian scavengers may have significant impacts on mammalian scavengers and potentially create trophic cascades. © 2017 The Authors. Journal of Animal Ecology © 2017 British Ecological Society.

  17. Ethanol extract of propolis protects macrophages from oxidized low density lipoprotein-induced apoptosis by inhibiting CD36 expression and endoplasmic reticulum stress-C/EBP homologous protein pathway.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tian, Hua; Sun, Hong-Wei; Zhang, Jia-Jun; Zhang, Xiao-Wei; Zhao, Li; Guo, Shou-Dong; Li, Yan-Yan; Jiao, Peng; Wang, Hao; Qin, Shu-Cun; Yao, Shu-Tong

    2015-07-14

    -apoptotic protein CHOP. Furthermore, EEP significantly suppressed ox-LDL intake by macrophages and the upregulation of CD36 induced by ox-LDL. These data indicate that EEP may protect macrophages from ox-LDL-induced apoptosis and the mechanism at least partially involves its ability to suppress the CD36-mediated ox-LDL intake and subsequent activation of ER stress-CHOP signalling pathway.

  18. [Screening DPPH radical scavengers from Monascus sp].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wu, G; Wu, X

    2000-08-01

    A strain belongs to Monascus sp. was separated from hongqu(Chinese beni-coji) which was used to brew red wine in Changxin county, Zhejiang province, and its DPPH radical scavenging metabolites were studied. Results showed that the yield and radical scavenging activity of neutral extract with EtOAc were higher than that of acid and basic extract. After shaken at 30 degrees C, 100 r/min for 5 days, this strain produced largest amount of neutral extract. Further partitioning the neutral fraction with silica gel column chromatograph, LH-20 column chromatograph, MPLC and HPLC, we screened 15 free radical scavengers whose yield was more than 2 mg and purity was higher than 85% in HPLC (260 nm absorption). Several of them were analyzed with 1H-NMR and 13C-NMR spectrum from which we concluded that B1-3 and C3-1-7 were two kinds of substitute of benzene, and C3-1-7 may be 3-OH-4-OCH3-benzoic acid. The scavenging activity of 40 mumol/L B1-3 was about 65%, and that of C3-1-7 was lower than 56%, while as the control the scavenging activity of 40 mumol/L Vc and Ve was 80.4% and 78.4% respectively.

  19. Killer whales and whaling: the scavenging hypothesis.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Whitehead, Hal; Reeves, Randall

    2005-12-22

    Killer whales (Orcinus orca) frequently scavenged from the carcasses produced by whalers. This practice became especially prominent with large-scale mechanical whaling in the twentieth century, which provided temporally and spatially clustered floating carcasses associated with loud acoustic signals. The carcasses were often of species of large whale preferred by killer whales but that normally sink beyond their diving range. In the middle years of the twentieth century floating whaled carcasses were much more abundant than those resulting from natural mortality of whales, and we propose that scavenging killer whales multiplied through diet shifts and reproduction. During the 1970s the numbers of available carcasses fell dramatically with the cessation of most whaling (in contrast to a reasonably stable abundance of living whales), and the scavenging killer whales needed an alternative source of nutrition. Diet shifts may have triggered declines in other prey species, potentially affecting ecosystems, as well as increasing direct predation on living whales.

  20. Free Radical Scavenging Properties of Annona squamosa

    Science.gov (United States)

    Vikas, Biba; Akhil B, S; P, Remani; Sujathan, K

    2017-10-26

    Annona squamosa has extensively been used in the traditional and folkloric medicine and found to possess many biological activities. Different solvents, petroleum ether, chloroform, ethyl acetate and methanol extracts of Annona squamosa seeds (ASPE, ASCH, ASEA, ASME) have been used to prepare plant extracts. The present investigations dealt with the free radical scavenging activity of four extracts using various techniques such as total reducing power estimation, total phenolic count, 1,1-diphenyl-2-picryl hydrazyl (DPPH) radical scavenging effect, evaluation of ABTS cation decolorisation capacity, FRAP assay, hdroxyl radical scavenging assay, super oxide assay and Nitric oxide radical scavenging assay of the extracts. The results showed that the four extracts of Annona squamosa showed significant reducing power in four extracts. The total phenolic contents in petroleum ether, chloroform, ethyl acetate, methanol extracts and positive control were 0.64±0.17, 0.54±0.27, 0.49±0.24, 0.57±0.22 and 0.66±0.33. The antioxidant capacity by ABTS assay of ASPE, ASCH, ASEA, ASME and positive control, trolox showed 77.75±0.5,73.25±1.7,78.5± 1.2 , 80 ± 0.8 μg/ml and 94.2 ± 0.9 respectively. The (50 % scavenging activity) SA50 of ASPE and ASCH, ASEA and ASME was found to be 34.4 μg/ml, 43.8 μg/ml 34.7 μg/m and 28.8 μg/ml respectively by DPPH assay. The percentage of hydroxyl radical scavenging increased with the increasing concentration of the extracts. ASPE, ASCH, ASEA and ASME showed superoxide radical scavenging activity, as indicated by their values 66 ± 0.5, 68 ± 1 ,63 ± 1 and 70 ± 0.5 μg/ml respectively compared to gallic acid which was 97 ± 0.5 μg/ml. The values for scavenging of nitric oxide for ASPE, ASCH, ASEA and ASME were 91.0 ± 1.0, 66.75 ± 0.5, 71.75 ± 1.1 and 75.75 ± 1.15 μg/ml while value for standard ascorbic acid was 91.0 ± 1.0 μg/ml. The results revealed strong antioxidants in four extracts may lead to the development of potent

  1. Hydroxyl radical scavenging ability of bacterioruberin

    Science.gov (United States)

    Saito, Takeshi; Miyabe, Yuko; Ide, Hiroshi; Yamamoto, Osamu

    1997-09-01

    A red carotenoid pigment, bacterioruberin, was extracted from Rubrobacter radiotolerans. The OH scavenging effect of this pigment was studied using a system of thymine degradation and compared with those of cysteine and β-carotene. Thymine solution (5 × 10 -4 mol/dm 3 with 0.2% SDS buffered at pH 7.0) was irradiated with 60Co γ-rays in the presence and absence of the scavengers. We found that the dose reducing factor (5.3) of bacterioruberin is much higher than that (2.5) of cysteine and β-carotene.

  2. Identification of the receptor scavenging hemopexin-heme complexes

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Hvidberg, Vibeke; Maniecki, Maciej B; Jacobsen, Christian

    2005-01-01

    Heme released from heme-binding proteins on internal hemorrhage, hemolysis, myolysis, or other cell damage is highly toxic due to oxidative and proinflammatory effects. Complex formation with hemopexin, the high-affinity heme-binding protein in plasma and cerebrospinal fluid, dampens these effects...

  3. Scavenger Receptor A : A New Route for Adenovirus 5

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Haisma, Hidde J.; Boesjes, Marije; Beerens, Antoine M.; van der Strate, Barry W. A.; Curiel, David T.; Plueddemann, Annette; Gordon, Siamon; Bellu, Anna Rita

    2009-01-01

    Adenoviruses are common pathogens associated with respiratory diseases, gastrointestinal illnesses and/or conjunctivitis. Currently, this virus is used as a vector in gene therapy trials. The promise of viral gene therapy applications is substantially reduced because the virus is cleared by liver

  4. Free radical scavenging activity of Lafoensia pacari.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Solon, S; Lopes, L; Teixeira de Sousa, P; Schmeda-Hirschmann, G

    2000-09-01

    The methanolic extract of the stem bark of Lafoensia pacari (Lythraceae) showed free radical scavenging activity in the diphenyl picryl hydrazyl radical (DPPH) decoloration assay and inhibited the enzyme xanthine oxidase 'in vitro'. Bioassay-guided isolation led to ellagic acid (EA) as the main active compound of Brazilian and Paraguayan collections of the plant.

  5. Decreasing Pica by Targeting Antecedent Scavenging Behaviors.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bluestone, Michael A.

    A nonverbal, severely retarded, 24-year-old female, who had undergone abdominal surgery due to pica (compulsive eating of inedible substances) participated in the study. Antecendent scavenging behavior was reliably identified and redirected. Pica was prevented by using a short duration physical restraint. Giving non-edible items that might be…

  6. Role of antioxidant scavenging enzymes and extracellular ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    In the present work, we studied the role of antioxidant scavenging enzymes of plant pathogenic bacteria: catalase, ascorbate peroxidase and a virulence factor; extracelluar polysaccharide production in determining the virulence of Xanthomonas oryzae pv. oryzae (Xoo) isolates and its differential reaction to rice cultivars.

  7. Phytochemical screening, free radical scavenging and antibacterial ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    The phytochemical screening of the extracts revealed the presence of saponins, flavonoids, tannins, anthraquinones, phenolics, alkaloids, carbohydrates, steroids/triterpenoids and cardiac glycosides. Qualitatively screening for free radical scavenging compounds using 1,1-Diphenyl-2-PicrylHydrazyl (DPPH) was carried ...

  8. Nature or Nurture? Gender Roles Scavenger Hunt

    Science.gov (United States)

    Whalen, Shannon; Maurer-Starks, Suanne

    2008-01-01

    The examination of gender roles and stereotypes and their subsequent impact on sexual behavior is a concept for discussion in many sex education courses in college and sex education units in high school. This analysis often leads to a discussion of the impact of nature vs. nurture on gender roles. The gender roles scavenger hunt is an interactive…

  9. Radical Scavenging, Antimicrobial and Insecticidal Efficacy of ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Lichens are self-supporting symbiotic association of mycobiont and photobiont. The present study was conducted to investigate antimicrobial, insecticidal and radical scavenging potential of methanol extract of two macrolichens viz. Parmotrema cristiferum (Taylor) Hale and Dirinaria applanata (Fée) D.D. Awasthi.

  10. Sphingomyelinase inhibitory and free radical scavenging potential ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    The extractsf sphingomyelinase inhibitory potencies were assessed colorimetrically and their free radical scavenging capabilities were assayed by the ability to quench 2,2]diphenyl]1]picrylhydrazyl (DPPH) radical and superoxide anion (O2.]) radical. Considering their IC50 (ƒÊg/ml) values, the extracts inhibited the ...

  11. Radical Scavenging Activity and Preliminary Phytochemical ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Results of preliminary phytochemical screening indicated the possible presence of anthraquinones, carbohydrates, deoxy-sugars, saponins, tannins, and terpenoids. It can be concluded that pods of C. arereh may contain medicinally relevant constituents such as terpenoids and displayed strong radical scavenging activity, ...

  12. Oral lipase activities and fat-taste receptors for fat-taste sensing in chickens.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kawabata, Yuko; Kawabata, Fuminori; Nishimura, Shotaro; Tabata, Shoji

    2018-01-01

    It has been reported that a functional fat-taste receptor, GPR120, is present in chicken oral tissues, and that chickens can detect fat taste in a behavioral test. However, although triglycerides need to be digested to free fatty acids to be recognized by fat-taste receptors such as GPR120, it remains unknown whether lipase activities exist in chicken oral tissues. To examine this question, we first cloned another fat-taste receptor candidate gene, CD36, from the chicken palate. Then, using RT-PCR, we determined that GPR120 and CD36 were broadly expressed in chicken oral and gastrointestinal tissues. Also by RT-PCR, we confirmed that several lipase genes were expressed in both oral and gastrointestinal tissues. Finally, we analyzed the lipase activities of oral tissues by using a fluorogenic triglyceride analog as a lipase substrate. We found there are functional lipases in oral tissues as well as in the stomach and pancreas. These results suggested that chickens have a basic fat-taste reception system that incorporates a triglycerides/oral-lipases/free fatty acids/GPR120 axis and CD36 axis. Copyright © 2017 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  13. Ca2+ Binding/Permeation via Calcium Channel, CaV1.1, Regulates the Intracellular Distribution of the Fatty Acid Transport Protein, CD36, and Fatty Acid Metabolism.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Georgiou, Dimitra K; Dagnino-Acosta, Adan; Lee, Chang Seok; Griffin, Deric M; Wang, Hui; Lagor, William R; Pautler, Robia G; Dirksen, Robert T; Hamilton, Susan L

    2015-09-25

    Ca(2+) permeation and/or binding to the skeletal muscle L-type Ca(2+) channel (CaV1.1) facilitates activation of Ca(2+)/calmodulin kinase type II (CaMKII) and Ca(2+) store refilling to reduce muscle fatigue and atrophy (Lee, C. S., Dagnino-Acosta, A., Yarotskyy, V., Hanna, A., Lyfenko, A., Knoblauch, M., Georgiou, D. K., Poché, R. A., Swank, M. W., Long, C., Ismailov, I. I., Lanner, J., Tran, T., Dong, K., Rodney, G. G., Dickinson, M. E., Beeton, C., Zhang, P., Dirksen, R. T., and Hamilton, S. L. (2015) Skelet. Muscle 5, 4). Mice with a mutation (E1014K) in the Cacna1s (α1 subunit of CaV1.1) gene that abolishes Ca(2+) binding within the CaV1.1 pore gain more body weight and fat on a chow diet than control mice, without changes in food intake or activity, suggesting that CaV1.1-mediated CaMKII activation impacts muscle energy expenditure. We delineate a pathway (Cav1.1→ CaMKII→ NOS) in normal skeletal muscle that regulates the intracellular distribution of the fatty acid transport protein, CD36, altering fatty acid metabolism. The consequences of blocking this pathway are decreased mitochondrial β-oxidation and decreased energy expenditure. This study delineates a previously uncharacterized CaV1.1-mediated pathway that regulates energy utilization in skeletal muscle. © 2015 by The American Society for Biochemistry and Molecular Biology, Inc.

  14. Vapor scavenging by atmospheric aerosol particles

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Andrews, E.

    1996-05-01

    Particle growth due to vapor scavenging was studied using both experimental and computational techniques. Vapor scavenging by particles is an important physical process in the atmosphere because it can result in changes to particle properties (e.g., size, shape, composition, and activity) and, thus, influence atmospheric phenomena in which particles play a role, such as cloud formation and long range transport. The influence of organic vapor on the evolution of a particle mass size distribution was investigated using a modified version of MAEROS (a multicomponent aerosol dynamics code). The modeling study attempted to identify the sources of organic aerosol observed by Novakov and Penner (1993) in a field study in Puerto Rico. Experimentally, vapor scavenging and particle growth were investigated using two techniques. The influence of the presence of organic vapor on the particle`s hydroscopicity was investigated using an electrodynamic balance. The charge on a particle was investigated theoretically and experimentally. A prototype apparatus--the refractive index thermal diffusion chamber (RITDC)--was developed to study multiple particles in the same environment at the same time.

  15. Energy scavenging sources for biomedical sensors.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Romero, E; Warrington, R O; Neuman, M R

    2009-09-01

    Energy scavenging has increasingly become an interesting option for powering electronic devices because of the almost infinite lifetime and the non-dependence on fuels for energy generation. Moreover, the rise of wireless technologies promises new applications in medical monitoring systems, but these still face limitations due to battery lifetime and size. A trade-off of these two factors has typically governed the size, useful life and capabilities of an autonomous system. Energy generation from sources such as motion, light and temperature gradients has been established as commercially viable alternatives to batteries for human-powered flashlights, solar calculators, radio receivers and thermal-powered wristwatches, among others. Research on energy harvesting from human activities has also addressed the feasibility of powering wearable or implantable systems. Biomedical sensors can take advantage of human-based activities as the energy source for energy scavengers. This review describes the state of the art of energy scavenging technologies for powering sensors and instrumentation of physiological variables. After a short description of the human power and the energy generation limits, the different transduction mechanisms, recent developments and challenges faced are reviewed and discussed.

  16. Scavenging Effects of Dexrazoxane on Free Radicals

    Science.gov (United States)

    Junjing, Zhang; Yan, Zhao; Baolu, Zhao

    2010-01-01

    Dexrazoxane (ICRF-187) has been clinically used to reduce doxorubicin-induced cardiotoxicity for more than 20 years. It has been proposed that dexrazoxane may act through its rings-opened hydrolysis product ADR-925, which can either remove iron from the iron-doxorubicin complex or bind to free iron, thus preventing iron-based oxygen radical formation. However, it is not known whether the antioxidant actions of dexrazoxane are totally dependent on its metabolization to its rings-opened hydrolysis product and whether dexrazoxane has any effect on the iron-independent oxygen free radical production. In this study, we examined the scavenging effect of dexrazoxane on hydroxyl, superoxide, lipid, DPPH and ABTS+ free radicals in vitro solution systems. The results demonstrated that dexrazoxane was an antioxidant that could effectively scavenge these free radicals and the scavenging effects of dexrazoxane did not require the enzymatic hydrolysis. In addition, dexrazoxane was capable to inhibit the generation superoxide and hydroxyl radicals in iron free reaction system, indicating that the antioxidant properties of dexrazoxane were not solely dependent on iron chelation. Thus the application of dexrazoxane should not be limited to doxorubicin-induced cardiotoxicity. Instead, as an effective antioxidant that has been clinically proven safe, dexrazoxane may be used in a broader spectrum of diseases that are known to be benefited by antioxidant treatments. PMID:21103033

  17. Kinetic evaluation of polyamines as radical scavengers.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Fujisawa, Seiichiro; Kadoma, Yoshinori

    2005-01-01

    To clarify whether polyamines scavenge alkyl (carbon-centered) and peroxy (oxygen-centered) radicals, we analyzed their effects on the kinetics of polymerization of methyl methacrylate (MMA) induced by 2,2'-azobisisobutyronitrile (AIBN, a R* radical) and benzoyl peroxide (BPO, a PhCOO* radical) under nearly anaerobic conditions. Stoichiometric factors (n; number of free radicals trapped by one mole of antioxidant moiety) were determined by the induction period method. The n value for polyamines (putrescine, spermidine and spermine) was 0.1-0.7, whereas that for conventional synthetic antioxidants, BHA and BHT, was about 2. These n values were not different between the AIBN and BPO systems. The n value for polyamines declined in the order spermine > spermidine > putrescine. The K(inh)/K(p) value for polyamines (20-115) was greater than that (4-7) for BHT or BHA. Radical-scavenging activity largely depends on the stoichiometric factor of antioxidants rather than their effects on initial rate of polymerization, a rate of propagation. Polyamines may scavenge alkyl or peroxy radicals derived from polyunsaturated fatty acids in biological systems.

  18. Superoxide anion radical scavenging property of catecholamines.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kładna, Aleksandra; Berczyński, Paweł; Kruk, Irena; Michalska, Teresa; Aboul-Enein, Hassan Y

    2013-01-01

    The direct effect of the four catecholamines (adrenaline, noradrenaline, dopamine and isoproterenol) on superoxide anion radicals (O2•) was investigated. The reaction between 18-crown-6-ether and potassium superoxide in dimethylsulfoxide was used as a source of O2•. The reactivity of catecholamines with O2• was examined using chemiluminescence, reduction of nitroblue tetrazolium and electron paramagnetic resonance spin-trapping techniques. 5,5-Dimethyl-1-pyrroline-N-oxide was included as the spin trap. The results showed that the four catecholamines were effective and efficient in inhibiting chemiluminescence accompanying the potassium superoxide/18-crown-6-ether system in a dose-dependent manner over the range 0.05-2 mM in the following order: adrenaline > noradrenaline > dopamine > isoproterenol, with, IC50 = 0.15 ± 0.02 mM 0.21 ± 0.03 mM, 0.27 ± 0.03 mM and 0.50 ± 0.04 mM, respectively. The catecholamines examined also exhibited a strong scavenging effect towards O2• when evaluated this property by the inhibition of nitroblue tetrazolium reduction (56-73% at 1 M concentration). A very similar capacity of O2• scavenging was monitored in the 5,5-dimethyl-1-pyrroline-N-oxide spin-trapping assay. The results suggest that catecholamines tested may involve a direct effect on scavenging O2- radicals. Copyright © 2013 John Wiley & Sons, Ltd.

  19. Nutritional regulation and role of peroxisome proliferator-activated receptor delta in fatty acid catabolism in skeletal muscle

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Holst, Dorte; Luquet, Serge; Nogueira, Véronique

    2003-01-01

    Peroxisome proliferator-activated receptors (PPARs) are nuclear receptors primarily involved in lipid homeostasis. PPARdelta displays strong expression in tissues with high lipid metabolism, such as adipose, intestine and muscle. Its role in skeletal muscle remains largely unknown. After a 24-h...... starvation period, PPARdelta mRNA levels are dramatically up-regulated in gastrocnemius muscle of mice and restored to control level upon refeeding. The rise of PPARdelta is accompanied by parallel up-regulations of fatty acid translocase/CD36 (FAT/CD36) and heart fatty acid binding protein (H-FABP), while...... refeeding promotes down-regulation of both genes. To directly access the role of PPARdelta in muscle cells, we forced its expression and that of a dominant-negative PPARdelta mutant in C2C12 myogenic cells. Differentiated C2C12 cells responds to 2-bromopalmitate or synthetic PPARdelta agonist by induction...

  20. Power conversion from environmentally scavenged energy sources.

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Druxman, Lee Daniel

    2007-09-01

    As the power requirements for modern electronics continue to decrease, many devices which were once dependent on wired power are now being implemented as portable devices operating from self-contained power sources. The most prominent source of portable power is the electrochemical battery, which converts chemical energy into electricity. However, long lasting batteries require large amounts of space for chemical storage, and inevitably require replacement when the chemical reaction no longer takes place. There are many transducers and scavenging energy sources (SES) that are able to exploit their environment to generate low levels of electrical power over a long-term time period, including photovoltaic cells, thermoelectric generators, thermionic generators, and kinetic/piezoelectric power generators. This generated power is sustainable as long as specific environmental conditions exist and also does not require the large volume of a long lifetime battery. In addition to the required voltage generation, stable power conversion requires excess energy to be efficiently stored in an ultracapacitor or similar device and monitoring control algorithms to be implemented, while computer modeling and simulation can be used to complement experimental testing. However, building an efficient and stable power source scavenged from a varying input source is challenging.

  1. Radical scavenging activity of crude polysaccharides from Camellia sinensis

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Yang Fan

    2011-01-01

    Full Text Available A preparation of crude polysaccharides (TPS was isolated from Camellia sinensis by precipitation and ultrafiltration. TPS1, TPS2, and TPS3 had molecular weights of 240, 21.4, and 2.46 kDa, respectively. The radical scavenging activities of TPS were evaluated by DPPH free radical, hydroxyl radical and superoxide radical scavenging. These results revealed that TPS exhibited strong radical scavenging activity in a concentration-dependent manner. TPS3 with lowest molecular weight showed a higher radical scavenging activity.

  2. Scavenging dissolved oxygen via acoustic droplet vaporization.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Radhakrishnan, Kirthi; Holland, Christy K; Haworth, Kevin J

    2016-07-01

    Acoustic droplet vaporization (ADV) of perfluorocarbon emulsions has been explored for diagnostic and therapeutic applications. Previous studies have demonstrated that vaporization of a liquid droplet results in a gas microbubble with a diameter 5-6 times larger than the initial droplet diameter. The expansion factor can increase to a factor of 10 in gassy fluids as a result of air diffusing from the surrounding fluid into the microbubble. This study investigates the potential of this process to serve as an ultrasound-mediated gas scavenging technology. Perfluoropentane droplets diluted in phosphate-buffered saline (PBS) were insonified by a 2 MHz transducer at peak rarefactional pressures lower than and greater than the ADV pressure amplitude threshold in an in vitro flow phantom. The change in dissolved oxygen (DO) of the PBS before and after ADV was measured. A numerical model of gas scavenging, based on conservation of mass and equal partial pressures of gases at equilibrium, was developed. At insonation pressures exceeding the ADV threshold, the DO of air-saturated PBS decreased with increasing insonation pressures, dropping as low as 25% of air saturation within 20s. The decrease in DO of the PBS during ADV was dependent on the volumetric size distribution of the droplets and the fraction of droplets transitioned during ultrasound exposure. Numerically predicted changes in DO from the model agreed with the experimentally measured DO, indicating that concentration gradients can explain this phenomenon. Using computationally modified droplet size distributions that would be suitable for in vivo applications, the DO of the PBS was found to decrease with increasing concentrations. This study demonstrates that ADV can significantly decrease the DO in an aqueous fluid, which may have direct therapeutic applications and should be considered for ADV-based diagnostic or therapeutic applications. Copyright © 2016 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  3. Carcass Type Affects Local Scavenger Guilds More than Habitat Connectivity.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Zachary H Olson

    Full Text Available Scavengers and decomposers provide an important ecosystem service by removing carrion from the environment. Scavenging and decomposition are known to be temperature-dependent, but less is known about other factors that might affect carrion removal. We conducted an experiment in which we manipulated combinations of patch connectivity and carcass type, and measured responses by local scavenger guilds along with aspects of carcass depletion. We conducted twelve, 1-month trials in which five raccoon (Procyon lotor, Virginia opossum (Didelphis virginiana, and domestic rabbit (Oryctolagus spp. carcasses (180 trials total were monitored using remote cameras in 21 forest patches in north-central Indiana, USA. Of 143 trials with complete data, we identified fifteen species of vertebrate scavengers divided evenly among mammalian (N = 8 and avian species (N = 7. Fourteen carcasses (9.8% were completely consumed by invertebrates, vertebrates exhibited scavenging behavior at 125 carcasses (87.4%, and four carcasses (2.8% remained unexploited. Among vertebrates, mammals scavenged 106 carcasses, birds scavenged 88 carcasses, and mammals and birds scavenged 69 carcasses. Contrary to our expectations, carcass type affected the assemblage of local scavenger guilds more than patch connectivity. However, neither carcass type nor connectivity explained variation in temporal measures of carcass removal. Interestingly, increasing richness of local vertebrate scavenger guilds contributed moderately to rates of carrion removal (≈6% per species increase in richness. We conclude that scavenger-specific differences in carrion utilization exist among carcass types and that reliable delivery of carrion removal as an ecosystem service may depend on robust vertebrate and invertebrate communities acting synergistically.

  4. Identification of Radical Scavengers in Sweet Grass (Hierochloe odorata)

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Pukalskas, A.; Beek, van T.A.; Venskutonis, R.P.; Linssen, J.P.H.; Veldhuizen, van A.; Groot, de Æ.

    2002-01-01

    Extracts from aerial parts of sweet grass (Hierochloe odorata) were active DPPH free radical scavengers, The active compounds were detected in extract fractions using HPLC with on-line radical scavenging detection. After multistep fractionation of the extract, two new natural products possessing

  5. Modeling of an Integrated Electromagnetic Generator for Energy Scavenging

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Lu, J.; Kovalgin, Alexeij Y.; Schmitz, Jurriaan

    2007-01-01

    The ubiquitous deploying of wireless electronic devices due to pervasive computing results in the idea of Energy Scavenging, i.e., harvesting ambient energy from surroundings of the electronic devices. As an approach to possible practical realization of such an energy scavenger, we aim at the

  6. Nitric oxide radical scavenging potential of some Elburz medicinal ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Some plants scavenge nitric oxide (NO) with high affinity. For this purpose, forty extracts from 26 medicinal plants, growing extensively in Elburz mountains, were evaluated for their NO scavenging activity. Total phenolic and flavonoid contents of these extracts were also measured by Folin Ciocalteu and AlCl3 colorimetric ...

  7. The evolutionary pathway to obligate scavenging in Gyps vultures

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Dermody, B.; Tanner, C.J.; Jackson, A.L.

    2011-01-01

    The evolutionary pathway to obligate scavenging in Gyps vultures remains unclear. We propose that communal roosting plays a central role in setting up the information transfer network critical for obligate scavengers in ephemeral environments and that the formation of a flotilla-like foraging group

  8. Anti-bacterial, free radical scavenging activity and cytotoxicity of ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    2017-09-03

    Sep 3, 2017 ... Quantitative analysis of the scavenging ability showed that acetone extracts exhibited good free radical scavenging activity in a dose-dependent manner. The berries extract had the highest LC50 (lowest toxicity) of 551.68 68 µg/mL. Conclusion: Acetone extract of leaves and roots of Grewia flava contain ...

  9. Acquired superoxide-scavenging ability of ceria nanoparticles.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Li, Yuanyuan; He, Xiao; Yin, Jun-Jie; Ma, Yuhui; Zhang, Peng; Li, Jingyuan; Ding, Yayun; Zhang, Jing; Zhao, Yuliang; Chai, Zhifang; Zhang, Zhiyong

    2015-02-02

    Ceria nanoparticles (nanoceria) are well known as a superoxide scavenger. However, inherent superoxide-scavenging ability has only been found in the nanoceria with sizes of less than 5 nm and with very limited shape diversity. Reported herein is a strategy to significantly improve the superoxide-scavenging activity of nanoceria sized at greater than 5 nm. The nanoceria with sizes of greater than 5 nm, with different shapes, and with a negligible Ce(3+)/Ce(4+) ratio can acquire remarkable superoxide-scavenging abilities through electron transfer. This method will make it possible to develop nanoceria-based superoxide-scavengers with long-acting activity and tailorable characteristics. © 2015 WILEY-VCH Verlag GmbH & Co. KGaA, Weinheim.

  10. Scavenger hunt in the CERN Computing Centre

    CERN Multimedia

    CERN Bulletin

    2013-01-01

    Hidden among the racks of servers and disks in the CERN Computing Centre, you’ll find Hawaiian dancers, space aliens, gorillas… all LEGO® figurines! These characters were placed about the Centre for the arrival of Google’s Street View team for the world to discover.   PLEASE NOTE THAT THE COMPETITION IS OVER. ONLY FOR REFERENCE, HERE IS THE ORIGINAL ARTICLE. We’re pleased to announce our first global scavenger hunt! Spot three LEGO® figurines using Google’s Street View and you’ll be entered to win a gift of your choice from our CERN Gift Guide. A LEGO® figurine in the CERN Computing Centre, as seen on Google Street View. Here are the details: Find at least three LEGO® figurines hidden around the CERN Computing Centre using Google Street View.   Take screencaps of the figurines and e-mail the pictures to TreasureHunt-ComputingCentre@cern.ch. This email is no longer active.   The...

  11. Scavenging energy from human limb motions

    Science.gov (United States)

    Fan, Kangqi; Yu, Bo; Tang, Lihua

    2017-04-01

    This paper proposes a nonlinear piezoelectric energy harvester (PEH) to scavenge energy from human limb motions. The proposed PEH is composed of a ferromagnetic ball, a sleeve, and two piezoelectric cantilever beams each with a magnetic tip mass. The ball is used to sense the swing motions of human limbs and excite the beams to vibrate. The two beams, which are sensitive to the excitation along the radialis or tibial axis, generate electrical outputs. Theoretical and experimental studies are carried out to examine the performance of the proposed PEH when it is fixed at the wrist, thigh and ankle of a male who travels at constant velocities of 2 km/h, 4 km/h, 6 km/h, and 8 km/h on a treadmill. The results indicate that the low-frequency swing motions of human limbs are converted to higher-frequency vibrations of piezoelectric beams. During each gait cycle, different excitations produced by human limbs can be superposed and multiple peaks in the voltage output can be generated by the proposed PEH. Moreover, the voltage outputs of the PEH increase monotonously with the walking speed, and the maximum effective voltage is obtained when the PEH is mounted at the ankle under the walking speed of 8 km/h.

  12. Magnetic graphene based nanocomposite for uranium scavenging

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    El-Maghrabi, Heba H. [Egyptian Petroleum Research Institute, 11727, Cairo (Egypt); Abdelmaged, Shaimaa M. [Nuclear Materials Authority, 6530 P.O. Box Maadi, Cairo (Egypt); Nada, Amr A. [Egyptian Petroleum Research Institute, 11727, Cairo (Egypt); Zahran, Fouad, E-mail: f.zahran@quim.ucm.es [Faculty of Science, Helwan University, 11795, Cairo (Egypt); El-Wahab, Saad Abd; Yahea, Dena [Faculty of Science, Ain shams University, Cairo (Egypt); Hussein, G.M.; Atrees, M.S. [Nuclear Materials Authority, 6530 P.O. Box Maadi, Cairo (Egypt)

    2017-01-15

    Graphical abstract: Graphical representation of U{sup 6+} adsorption on Magnetic Ferberite-Graphene Nanocomposite. - Highlights: • Synthesis of new magnetic wolframite bimetallic nanostructure on graphene. • A promising adsorption capacity of 455 mg/g was recorded for FG-20 within 60 min at room temperature. • The uranium removal was followed pseudo-second order kinetics and Langmuir isotherm. - Abstract: Magnetic graphene based ferberite nanocomposite was tailored by simple, green, low cost and industrial effective method. The microstructure and morphology of the designed nanomaterials were examined via XRD, Raman, FTIR, TEM, EDX and VSM. The prepared nanocomposites were introduced as a novel adsorbent for uranium ions scavenging from aqueous solution. Different operating conditions of time, pH, initial uranium concentration, adsorbent amount and temperature were investigated. The experimental data shows a promising adsorption capacity. In particular, a maximum value of 455 mg/g was obtained within 60 min at room temperature with adsorption efficiency of 90.5%. The kinetics and isotherms adsorption data were fitted with the pseudo-second order model and Langmuir equation, respectively. Finally, the designed nanocomposites were found to have a great degree of sustainability (above 5 times of profiteering) with a complete maintenance of their parental morphology and adsorption capacity.

  13. HUNT: Scavenger Hunt with Augmented Reality

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Yan Lu

    2015-04-01

    Full Text Available This project shows a creative approach to the familiar scavenger hunt game. It involved the implementation of an iPhone application, HUNT, with Augmented Reality (AR capability for the users to play the game as well as an administrative website that game organizers can use to create and make available games for users to play. Using the HUNT mobile app, users will first make a selection from a list of games, and they will then be shown a list of objects that they must seek. Once the user finds a correct object and scans it with the built-in camera on the smartphone, the application will attempt to verify if it is the correct object and then display associated multi-media AR content that may include images and videos overlaid on top of real world views. HUNT not only provides entertaining activities within an environment that players can explore, but the AR contents can serve as an educational tool. The project is designed to increase user involvement by using a familiar and enjoyable game as a basis and adding an educational dimension by incorporating AR technology and engaging and interactive multimedia to provide users with facts about the objects that they have located

  14. Radical Scavenging Efficacy of Thiol Capped Silver Nanoparticles

    Indian Academy of Sciences (India)

    picryl hydrazil (DPPH), nitric oxide (NO) and hydroxyl (OH) radicals as spectrophotometric assay. The hydrogen peroxide (H2O2) scaveng- ing efficacy has been determined by titration method. Ascorbic acid has been used as standard for all ...

  15. Free Radical Scavenging and Cellular Antioxidant Properties of Astaxanthin

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Janina Dose

    2016-01-01

    Full Text Available Astaxanthin is a coloring agent which is used as a feed additive in aquaculture nutrition. Recently, potential health benefits of astaxanthin have been discussed which may be partly related to its free radical scavenging and antioxidant properties. Our electron spin resonance (ESR and spin trapping data suggest that synthetic astaxanthin is a potent free radical scavenger in terms of diphenylpicryl-hydrazyl (DPPH and galvinoxyl free radicals. Furthermore, astaxanthin dose-dependently quenched singlet oxygen as determined by photon counting. In addition to free radical scavenging and singlet oxygen quenching properties, astaxanthin induced the antioxidant enzyme paroxoanase-1, enhanced glutathione concentrations and prevented lipid peroxidation in cultured hepatocytes. Present results suggest that, beyond its coloring properties, synthetic astaxanthin exhibits free radical scavenging, singlet oxygen quenching, and antioxidant activities which could probably positively affect animal and human health.

  16. Antimicrobial and free radical scavenging activities of five ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Extracts from five indigenous Palestinian medicinal plants including Rosmarinus officinalis, Pisidium guajava, Punica granatum peel, grape seeds and Teucrium polium were investigated for antimicrobial and free radical scavenging activities against eight microorganisms, using well diffusion method. The microorganisms ...

  17. Shark scavenging behavior in the presence of competition

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Shannon P. GERRY, Andrea J. SCOTT

    2010-02-01

    Full Text Available The distribution of organisms within a community can often be determined by the degree of plasticity or degree of specialization of resource acquisition. Resource acquisition is often based on the morphology of an organism, behavior, or a combination of both. Performance tests of feeding can identify the possible interactions that allow one species to better exploit a prey item. Scavenging behaviors in the presence or absence of a competitor were investigated by quantifying prey selection in a trophic generalist, spiny dogfish Squalus acanthias, and a trophic specialist, smooth-hounds Mustelus canis, in order to determine if each shark scavenged according to its jaw morphology. The diet of dogfish consists of small fishes, squid, ctenophores, and bivalves; they are expected to be nonselective predators. Smooth-hounds primarily feed on crustaceans; therefore, they are predicted to select crabs over other prey types. Prey selection was quantified by ranking each prey item according to the order it was consumed. Dietary shifts were analyzed by comparing the percentage of each prey item selected during solitary versus competitive scavenging. When scavenging alone, dogfish prefer herring and squid, which are easily handled by the cutting dentition of dogfish. Dogfish shift their diet to include a greater number of prey types when scavenging with a competitor. Smooth-hounds scavenge on squid, herring, and shrimp when alone, but increase the number of crabs in the diet when scavenging competitively. Competition causes smooth-hounds to scavenge according to their jaw morphology and locomotor abilities, which enables them to feed on a specialized resource [Current Zoology 56 (1: 100–108 2010].

  18. Formaldehyde scavengers function as novel antigen retrieval agents

    Science.gov (United States)

    Vollert, Craig T.; Moree, Wilna J.; Gregory, Steven; Bark, Steven J.; Eriksen, Jason L.

    2015-01-01

    Antigen retrieval agents improve the detection of formaldehyde-fixed proteins, but how they work is not well understood. We demonstrate that formaldehyde scavenging represents a key characteristic associated with effective antigen retrieval; under controlled temperature and pH conditions, scavenging improves the typical antigen retrieval process through reversal of formaldehyde-protein adduct formation. This approach provides a rational framework for the identification and development of more effective antigen retrieval agents. PMID:26612041

  19. Human Tear Lipocalin Exhibits Antimicrobial Activity by Scavenging Microbial Siderophores

    OpenAIRE

    Fluckinger, Maria; Haas, Hubertus; Merschak, Petra; Glasgow, Ben J.; Redl, Bernhard

    2004-01-01

    Human tear lipocalin (TL; also known as Lcn1) is a secretory protein present in large amounts in fluids that cover epithelial surfaces such as tears and respiratory secretions. It is supposed to act as a physiological scavenger of hydrophobic, potentially harmful molecules, but there is evidence that it also inhibits bacterial growth. In the present study, we reconsidered the possibility that TL might interfere with microbial growth by scavenging of siderophores, as described for human neutro...

  20. Rapid scavenging of peroxynitrous acid by monohydroascorbate.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kurz, Christophe R; Kissner, Reinhard; Nauser, Thomas; Perrin, Daniel; Koppenol, Willem H

    2003-12-15

    The reaction of peroxynitrous acid with monohydroascorbate, over the concentration range of 250 microM to 50 mM of monohydroascorbate at pH 5.8 and at 25 degrees C, was reinvestigated and the rate constant of the reaction found to be much higher than reported earlier (Bartlett, D.; Church, D. F.; Bounds, P. L.; Koppenol, W. H. The kinetics of oxidation of L-ascorbic acid by peroxynitrite. Free Radic. Biol. Med. 18:85-92; 1995; Squadrito, G. L.; Jin, X.; Pryor, W. A. Stopped-flow kinetics of the reaction of ascorbic acid with peroxynitrite. Arch. Biochem. Biophys. 322:53-59; 1995). The new rate constants at pH 5.8 are k1 = 1 x 10(6) M(-1) s(-1) and k(-1) = 500 s(-1) for 25 degrees C and k1 = 1.5 x 10(6) M(-1) s(-1) and k(-1) = 1 x 10(3) s(-1) for 37 degrees C. These values indicate that even at low monohydroascorbate concentrations most of peroxynitrous acid forms an adduct with this antioxidant. The mechanism of the reaction involves formation of an intermediate, which decays to a second intermediate with an absorption maximum at 345 nm. At low monohydroascorbate concentrations, the second intermediate decays to nitrate and monohydroascorbate, while at monohydroascorbate concentrations greater than 4 mM, this second intermediate reacts with a second monohydroascorbate to form nitrite, dehydroascorbate, and monohydroascorbate. EPR experiments indicate that the yield of the ascorbyl radical is 0.24% relative to the initial peroxynitrous acid concentration, and that this small amount of ascorbyl radicals is formed concomitantly with the decrease of the absorption at 345 nm. Thus, the ascorbyl radical is not a primary reaction product. Under the conditions of these experiments, no homolysis of peroxynitrous acid to nitrogen dioxide and hydroxyl radical was observed. Aside from monohydroascorbate's ability to "repair" oxidatively modified biomolecules, it may play a role as scavenger of peroxynitrous acid.

  1. Kinetic radical-scavenging activity of melatonin.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Fujisawa, Seiichiro; Kadoma, Yoshinori; Ishihara, Mariko; Shibuya, Kazutoshi; Yokoe, Ichiro

    2006-01-01

    able to scavenge harmful carbon-centred radicals in vivo.

  2. Eco-scavenging : environmental friendly manual scavenging of M.S.W. : a pilot study in Karachi

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Akhtar, W.; Khan, A.F. [NED Univ. of Engineering and Technology, Karachi (Pakistan)

    2000-07-01

    A proposed municipal waste management system for the coastal city of Karachi, Pakistan was discussed. The system includes an organized, sustainable and environmentally friendly manual sorting system, called eco-scavenging, in which a high machined technology is replaced by scavengers, people hired to sort municipal landfill refuse. This paper presented the results of a pilot scale operation at a landfill site which was designed to accommodate scavengers on both sides of a concrete platform to sort salable items including paper, plastics, glass, metals, bread and bones. The scavengers are provided with protective hand gloves, shoes, rubber aprons, caps and masks. The speed and efficiency of separating the desired salable items was determined. Results showed that the system is technically and economically sustainable. It would make a significant contribution to the city's revenue, and would provide employment opportunities for operators. 5 refs., 2 tabs., 1 fig.

  3. Scavengers for bacteria: Rainbow trout have two functional variants of MARCO that bind to gram-negative and -positive bacteria.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Poynter, Sarah J; Monjo, Andrea L; Micheli, Gabriella; DeWitte-Orr, Stephanie J

    2017-12-01

    Class A scavenger receptors (SR-As) are a family of surface-expressed receptors who bind a wide range of polyanionic ligands including bacterial components and nucleic acids and play a role in innate immunity. Macrophage receptor with collagenous structure (MARCO) is a SR-A family member that has been studied in mammals largely for its role in binding bacteria. To date there is little information about SR-As in general and MARCO specifically in fish, particularly what ligands individual SR-A family members bind remains largely unknown. In the present study two novel rainbow trout MARCO transcript variants have been identified and their sequence and putative protein domains have been analyzed. When overexpressed in CHSE-214, a cell line that appears to lack functional scavenger receptors, GFP-tagged rtMARCO-1 and rtMARCO-2 were able to bind gram-positive, and gram-negative bacteria of both mammalian and aquatic sources. rtMARCO appears to bind bacteria via its scavenger receptor cysteine-rich (SRCR) domain, because SRCR deleted rtMARCO-1 and -2 were unable to bind bacteria. rtMARCO did not show any binding to the yeast cell wall component zymosan or to double-stranded (ds)RNA. This is the first time rainbow trout MARCO sequences have been identified and the first in-depth study exploring their ligand binding profile. This study provides novel insight into the role of rainbow trout MARCO in bacterial innate immunity. Copyright © 2017 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  4. In vitro free radical scavenging activity of Ixora coccinea L

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Moni Rani Saha

    2008-06-01

    Full Text Available Antioxidant activity of the methanol extract of Ixora coccinea L. was determined by DPPH free radical scavenging assay, reducing power and total antioxidant capacity using phosphomolybdenum method. Preliminary phytochemical screening revealed that the extract of the flower of I. coccinea possesses flavonoids, steroids and tannin materials. The extract showed significant activities in all antioxidant assays compared to the standard antioxidant in a dose dependent manner and remarkable activities to scavenge reactive oxygen species (ROS may be attributed to the high amount of hydrophilic phenolics. In DPPH radical scavenging assay the IC50 value of the extract was found to be 100.53 μg/mL while ascorbic acid had the IC50 value 58.92 μg/mL. Moreover, I. coccinea extract showed strong reducing power and total antioxidant capacity.

  5. Scavenging energy from human motion with tubular dielectric polymer

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jean-Mistral, Claire; Basrour, Skandar

    2010-04-01

    Scavenging energy from human motion is a challenge to supply low consumption systems for sport or medical applications. A promising solution is to use electroactive polymers and especially dielectric polymers to scavenge mechanical energy during walk. In this paper, we present a tubular dielectric generator which is the first step toward an integration of these structures into textiles. For a 10cm length and under a strain of 100%, the structure is able to scavenge 1.5μJ for a poling voltage of 200V and up to 40μJ for a poling voltage of 1000V. A 30cm length structure is finally compared to our previous planar structure, and the power management module for those structures is discussed.

  6. Nitric oxide-scavenging properties of some chalcone derivatives.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Herencia, Felipe; López-García, M Pilar; Ubeda, Amalia; Ferrándiz, M Luisa

    2002-03-01

    The implication of NO in many inflammatory diseases has been well documented. We have previously reported that some chalcone derivatives can control the iNOS pathway in inflammatory processes. In the present study, we have assessed the NO-scavenging capacity of three chalcone derivatives (CH8, CH11, and CH12) in a competitive assay with HbO(2), a well-known physiologically relevant NO scavenger. Our data identify these chalcones as new NO scavengers. The estimated second-order rate constants (k(s)) for the reaction of the three derivatives with NO is in the same range as the value obtained for HbO(2), with CH11 exerting the greatest effect. These results suggest an additional action of these compounds on NO regulation. (C)2001 Elsevier Science (USA).

  7. The Impact of Flight Hardware Scavenging on Space Logistics

    Science.gov (United States)

    Oeftering, Richard C.

    2011-01-01

    For a given fixed launch vehicle capacity the logistics payload delivered to the moon may be only roughly 20 percent of the payload delivered to the International Space Station (ISS). This is compounded by the much lower flight frequency to the moon and thus low availability of spares for maintenance. This implies that lunar hardware is much more scarce and more costly per kilogram than ISS and thus there is much more incentive to preserve hardware. The Constellation Lunar Surface System (LSS) program is considering ways of utilizing hardware scavenged from vehicles including the Altair lunar lander. In general, the hardware will have only had a matter of hours of operation yet there may be years of operational life remaining. By scavenging this hardware the program, in effect, is treating vehicle hardware as part of the payload. Flight hardware may provide logistics spares for system maintenance and reduce the overall logistics footprint. This hardware has a wide array of potential applications including expanding the power infrastructure, and exploiting in-situ resources. Scavenging can also be seen as a way of recovering the value of, literally, billions of dollars worth of hardware that would normally be discarded. Scavenging flight hardware adds operational complexity and steps must be taken to augment the crew s capability with robotics, capabilities embedded in flight hardware itself, and external processes. New embedded technologies are needed to make hardware more serviceable and scavengable. Process technologies are needed to extract hardware, evaluate hardware, reconfigure or repair hardware, and reintegrate it into new applications. This paper also illustrates how scavenging can be used to drive down the cost of the overall program by exploiting the intrinsic value of otherwise discarded flight hardware.

  8. High throughput assay for evaluation of reactive carbonyl scavenging capacity

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    N. Vidal

    2014-01-01

    Full Text Available Many carbonyl species from either lipid peroxidation or glycoxidation are extremely reactive and can disrupt the function of proteins and enzymes. 4-hydroxynonenal and methylglyoxal are the most abundant and toxic lipid-derived reactive carbonyl species. The presence of these toxics leads to carbonyl stress and cause a significant amount of macromolecular damages in several diseases. Much evidence indicates trapping of reactive carbonyl intermediates may be a useful strategy for inhibiting or decreasing carbonyl stress-associated pathologies. There is no rapid and convenient analytical method available for the assessment of direct carbonyl scavenging capacity, and a very limited number of carbonyl scavengers have been identified to date, their therapeutic potential being highlighted only recently. In this context, we have developed a new and rapid sensitive fluorimetric method for the assessment of reactive carbonyl scavengers without involvement glycoxidation systems. Efficacy of various thiol- and non-thiol-carbonyl scavenger pharmacophores was tested both using this screening assay adapted to 96-well microplates and in cultured cells. The scavenging effects on the formation of Advanced Glycation End-product of Bovine Serum Albumin formed with methylglyoxal, 4-hydroxynonenal and glucose-glycated as molecular models were also examined. Low molecular mass thiols with an α-amino-β-mercaptoethane structure showed the highest degree of inhibitory activity toward both α,β-unsaturated aldehydes and dicarbonyls. Cysteine and cysteamine have the best scavenging ability toward methylglyoxal. WR-1065 which is currently approved for clinical use as a protective agent against radiation and renal toxicity was identified as the best inhibitor of 4-hydroxynonenal.

  9. Free radical scavenging activity of Eagle tea and their flavonoids

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Qiong Meng

    2012-06-01

    Full Text Available In this study, an online HPLC-DAD-MS coupled with 2,2′-azinobis (3-ethylbenzthiazoline-6-sulfonic acid diammonium salt (ABTS assay was employed for evaluating free radical scavenging activity of Eagle tea and their active components. Twenty-three chromatographic peaks were detected, and nineteen components had free radical scavenging activity. Among them, eight compounds were identified as flavonoids (hyperin, isoquercitrin, quercitrin, quercetin, kaempferol, catechins, chlorogenic acid and epicatechin based on MS data and standard chromatographic characters.

  10. Free radical scavenging potential of Picrorhiza kurrooa Royle ex Benth.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Govindarajan, R; Vijayakumar, M; Rawat, A K S; Mehrotra, Shanta

    2003-08-01

    For assessing free radical scavenging potential of P. kurrooa, the antioxidant activity of P. kurrooa extract was studied by lipid peroxidation assay using rat liver homogenate. The extract (1 mg/ml) showed marked protection (up to 66.68%) against peroxidation of liver phospholipids. Besides, reduced glutathione showed very encouraging activity. The extract also exhibited significant scavenging activity. Thus augmenting the wide use of plant in the indigenous system of medicine, which may partly be due to antioxidant and free radical scavening activity of the extract.

  11. Confrontational scavenging as a possible source for language and cooperation

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Szathmáry Eörs

    2011-09-01

    Full Text Available Abstract The emergence of language and the high degree of cooperation found among humans seems to require more than a straightforward enhancement of primate traits. Some triggering episode unique to human ancestors was likely necessary. Here it is argued that confrontational scavenging was such an episode. Arguments for and against an established confrontational scavenging niche are discussed, as well as the probable effects of such a niche on language and co-operation. Finally, several possible directions for future research are suggested.

  12. Scavenging Capacities of Some Wines and Wine Phenolic Extracts

    OpenAIRE

    Roussis, Ioannis G.; Lambropoulos, Ioannis; Soulti, Kalliopi

    2005-01-01

    The aim of this study was to assess the ability of different wines – a sweet red, a dry red, a sweet white, and a dry white – to scavenge the stable 1,1’-diphenyl-2-picryl-hydrazyl radical (DPPH.) and to determine their phenolic composition. Both red wines contained, apart from anthocyanins, also higher concentration of total phenolics, tartaric esters, and flavonols than the two white wines. All wines exhibited scavenging activity analogous to their total phenolic content. However, their phe...

  13. Radical scavenging, antioxidant and cytotoxic activity of Brazilian Caatinga plants.

    Science.gov (United States)

    David, Juceni P; Meira, Marilena; David, Jorge M; Brandão, Hugo N; Branco, Alexsandro; de Fátima Agra, M; Barbosa, M Regina V; de Queiroz, Luciano P; Giulietti, Ana M

    2007-04-01

    Extracts of 32 plants from the Brazilian northeastern semi-arid region called Caatinga were evaluated through DPPH radical scavenging assay, beta-carotene bleaching, and brine shrimp lethality tests (BST). Among the extracts studied Byrsonima cf. gardneriana, Mascagnia coriacea, Cordia globosa, Diodia apiculata and Hypenia salzmannii showed the highest activities in DPPH radical scavenging test. In the beta-carotene bleaching test the highest activities were observed for Passiflora cincinnata, Chamaecrista repens, B. cf. gardneriana, Rollinia leptopetala, Serjania glabrata, Diospyros gaultheriifolia, C. globosa, Mimosa ophtalmocentra, M. coriacea and Lippia cf. microphylla. In contrast, R. leptopetala, Zornia cf. brasiliensis and Leonotis nepetifolia were the most active species in the BST.

  14. The Atypical Receptor CCRL2 (C-C Chemokine Receptor-Like 2) Does Not Act As a Decoy Receptor in Endothelial Cells.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mazzotti, Chiara; Gagliostro, Vincenzo; Bosisio, Daniela; Del Prete, Annalisa; Tiberio, Laura; Thelen, Marcus; Sozzani, Silvano

    2017-01-01

    C-C chemokine receptor-like 2 (CCRL2) is a non-signaling seven-transmembrane domain (7-TMD) receptor related to the atypical chemokine receptor (ACKR) family. ACKRs bind chemokines but do not activate G protein-dependent signaling or cell functions. ACKRs were shown to regulate immune functions in vivo by their ability to scavenge chemokines from the local environment. This study was performed to investigate whether CCRL2 shares two of the main characteristics of ACKRs, namely the ability to internalize and scavenge the ligands. Cell membrane analysis of CCRL2-transfected cells revealed a weak, constitutive, ligand-independent internalization, and recycling of CCRL2, with a kinetics that was slower than those observed with ACKR3, a prototypic ACKR, or other chemotactic signaling receptors [i.e., chemokine-like receptor 1 and C-X-C motif chemokine receptor 2]. Intracellularly, CCRL2 colocalized with early endosome antigen 1-positive and Rab5-positive vesicles and with recycling compartments mainly characterized by Rab11-positive vesicles. CCRL2-transfected cells and activated mouse blood endothelial cells, that endogenously express CCRL2, were used to investigate the scavenging ability of CCRL2. These experiments confirmed the ability of CCRL2 to bind chemerin, the only recognized ligand, but excluded the ability of CCRL2 to perform scavenging. Collectively, these results identify unique functional properties for this member of the non-signaling 7-TMD receptor family.

  15. Radioprotection of tendon tissue via crosslinking and free radical scavenging.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Seto, Aaron; Gatt, Charles J; Dunn, Michael G

    2008-08-01

    Ionizing radiation could supplement tissue bank screening to further reduce the probability of diseases transmitted by allografts if denaturation effects can be minimized. It is important, however, such sterilization procedures be nondetrimental to tissues. We compared crosslinking and free radical scavenging potential methods to accomplish this task in tendon tissue. In addition, two forms of ionizing irradiation, gamma and electron beam (e-beam), were also compared. Crosslinkers included 1-ethyl-3-(3-dimethylaminopropyl) carbodiimide (EDC) and glucose, which were used to add exogenous crosslinks to collagen. Free radical scavengers included mannitol, ascorbate, and riboflavin. Radioprotective effects were assessed through tensile testing and collagenase resistance testing after irradiation at 25 kGy and 50 kGy. Gamma and e-beam irradiation produced similar degenerative effects. Crosslinkers had the highest strength at 50 kGy, EDC treated tendons had 54% and 49% higher strength than untreated, for gamma and e-beam irradiation respectively. Free radical scavengers showed protective effects up to 25 kGy, especially for ascorbate and riboflavin. Crosslinked samples had higher resistance to collagenase and over a wider dose range than scavenger-treated. Of the options studied, the data suggest EDC precrosslinking or glucose treatment provides the best maintenance of native tendon properties after exposure to ionizing irradiation.

  16. Free radical-scavenging and antimutagenic potential of acetone ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    The antioxidant potency of acetone, chloroform and methanol extracts of Argemone mexicana was investigated by employing in vitro systems like nitroblue tetrazolium (NBT) and 1,1-Diphenyl-2- picrylhydrazyl (DPPH) free radical scavenging assay whereas antimutagenic activity was determined by Maron and Ames assay ...

  17. Ectoparasite infestation of free scavenging chickens reared under ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    This study was carried out to determine the prevalence and types of ectoparasite faunas and the associated host-related risk factors in free scavenging chickens in Wolayita Zone, Southern Ethiopia. Physical examination that involves hand picking and skin scrapping and laboratory investigation was employed in a total 450 ...

  18. Scavenging Activity of Enzymatic Hydrolysates from Wheat Bran

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Jing Wang

    2009-01-01

    Full Text Available Wheat bran was destarched and deproteinated by α-amylase, protease and amyloglucosidase successively, and further hydrolyzed using Bacillus subtilis xylanases. The yield of enzymatic hydrolysates from wheat bran (EHWB was 1.84 %. The total phenolics were 0.3712 g of ferulic acid equivalents per gram of EHWB. The antioxidant potency of EHWB was evaluated using different assays, such as iron ion chelation, reducing power, scavenging activity against 2,2’-diphenyl-1-picrylhydrazyl (DPPH and reactive oxygen species under in vitro conditions. EHWB exhibited an effective ferrous ion chelating activity and strong reducing power. It also showed a high DPPH radical scavenging activity (89.4 % at 5.0 mg/mL, which was comparable to that of the synthetic antioxidant, butylated hydroxytoluene. EHWB also exerted a marked scavenging effect on ·OH with an EC50 value of 0.46 mg/mL, which was lower than that of mannitol (1.03 mg/mL, a classical hydroxyl radical scavenger, and obvious antioxidant activities toward O2·- and H2O2.

  19. Anti-oxidative, metal chelating and radical scavenging effects of ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Purpose: To evaluate protein hydrolysates and membrane ultrafiltration fractions of blue-spotted stingray for metal chelating and radical scavenging activities, as well as protection against oxidative protein damage. Methods: Stingray protein isolates were hydrolysed with alcalase, papain and trypsin for 3 h. Alcalase ...

  20. Scavenging for wealth or death? Exploring the health risk ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    By sheer dint of necessity, the urban poor in Ghana have invented an endless series of survival strategies to endure the high rate of unemployment and widespread poverty by engaging in occupations such as waste scavenging. Whilst literature is replete with evidence of the economic significance of this livelihood activity, ...

  1. Antioxidant and free radical scavenging activities of plant extracts ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    STORAGESEVER

    2008-06-17

    Jun 17, 2008 ... Departamento de Alimentos y Biotecnología, Facultad de Química, Universidad Nacional Autónoma de México, Circuito. Exterior, Ciudad Universitaria, México, D.F., 04510, México. Accepted 25 April ..... In general, extracts with the highest radical scavenging and antioxidant activity showed the highest ...

  2. Radical scavenging activity of some natural tropolones by density ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    We shed light on the electro-optical and molecular properties, e.g. energy gaps, highest occupied molecular orbitals, lowest unoccupied molecular orbitals, absorption wavelengths, electronegativity (χ), hardness (η), electrophilicity (ω), softness (S), electrophilicity index (ωi) and the radical scavenging activity (RSA).

  3. Scavenger and antioxidant properties of prenylflavones isolated from Artocarpus heterophyllus.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ko, F N; Cheng, Z J; Lin, C N; Teng, C M

    1998-07-15

    The antioxidant properties of prenylflavones, isolated from Artocarpus heterophyllus Lam., was evaluated in this study. Among them, artocarpine, artocarpetin, artocarpetin A, and cycloheterophyllin diacetate and peracetate had no effect on iron-induced lipid peroxidation in rat brain homogenate. They also did not scavenge the stable free radical 1,1-diphenyl-2-picrylhydrazyl. In contrast, cycloheterophyllin and artonins A and B inhibited iron-induced lipid peroxidation in rat brain homogenate and scavenged 1,1-diphenyl-2-picrylhydrazyl. They also scavenged peroxyl radicals and hydroxyl radicals that were generated by 2,2'-azobis(2-amidinopropane) dihydrochloride and the Fe3+-ascorbate-EDTA-H2O2 system, respectively. However, they did not inhibit xanthine oxidase activity or scavenge superoxide anion, hydrogen peroxide, carbon radical, or peroxyl radicals derived from 2,2'-azobis(2,4-dimethylvaleronitrile) in hexane. Moreover, cycloheterophyllin and artonins A and B inhibited copper-catalyzed oxidation of human low-density lipoprotein, as measured by fluorescence intensity, thiobarbituric acid-reactive substance and conjugated-diene formations and electrophoretic mobility. It is concluded that cycloheterophyllin and artonins A and B serve as powerful antioxidants against lipid peroxidation when biomembranes are exposed to oxygen radicals.

  4. Scavenging birds of Kampala: 1973–2009 | Ssemmanda | Scopus ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Scavenging birds are very conspicuous in Kampala and a number of counts have been made of their numbers since the 1970s. Between the 1970s and mid- 2000s the breeding population of Marabou Storks Leptoptilos crumeniferus increased from about 100 pairs to nearly a thousand, whilst roost counts of Black Kites ...

  5. Phytochemical Screening and Free Radical Scavenging Activities of ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Purpose: To compare the phytochemical constituents in the leaves and fruits of Allanblackia floribunda and determine their free radical scavenging activity. Methods: The fruit and leaves of AF collected from the uncultivated farmlands of Okeigbo, Ondo State, Nigeria, were dried, milled and extracted with methanol.

  6. Evaluation of Antioxidant and Free Radical Scavenging Abilities of ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Objective: This study was aimed at determining the antioxidants and free radical scavenging abilities of some packaged fruit juices (PFJ) widely used as source of fluids in Nigeria. Materials and methods: Packaged fruit juice samples produced by The Coca cola Company and Chi company namely: Apple(AP), blackcurrant, ...

  7. Antioxidant and free radical scavenging activities of plant extracts ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Twenty-two species of medicinal plants collected in the Mexican state of Morelos were selected to evaluate their free radical scavenging and antioxidant activities. The extracts from the aerial parts of the plants were obtained using hexane, acetone and methanol (66 extracts). The initial qualitative screening of antioxidants ...

  8. Ectoparasite infestation of free scavenging chickens reared under ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Ethiopian Veterinary Journal 2015, 19 (2):55-66. Ectoparasite infestation of free scavenging chickens reared under traditional backyard production system in Wolayita Zone, southern Ethiopia. Tesfaheywet Zeryehun1. • and Yonas Yohannes1. 'College of Veterinary Medicine, Haramaya University, P.O.Box 138, Dire Dawa, ...

  9. Reward Your Students with an Online Scavenger Hunt!

    Science.gov (United States)

    Board, Keith

    2013-01-01

    Do you have a class of students who do excellent work and whom you would like to give an enjoyable reward? Try an "Internet scavenger hunt" for a fun and educational change of pace! This article shares how to run the activity.

  10. Supplanting ecosystem services provided by scavengers raises greenhouse gas emissions

    Science.gov (United States)

    Morales-Reyes, Zebensui; Pérez-García, Juan M.; Moleón, Marcos; Botella, Francisco; Carrete, Martina; Lazcano, Carolina; Moreno-Opo, Rubén; Margalida, Antoni; Donázar, José A.; Sánchez-Zapata, José A.

    2015-01-01

    Global warming due to human-induced increments in atmospheric concentrations of greenhouse gases (GHG) is one of the most debated topics among environmentalists and politicians worldwide. In this paper we assess a novel source of GHG emissions emerged following a controversial policy decision. After the outbreak of bovine spongiform encephalopathy in Europe, the sanitary regulation required that livestock carcasses were collected from farms and transformed or destroyed in authorised plants, contradicting not only the obligations of member states to conserve scavenger species but also generating unprecedented GHG emission. However, how much of this emission could be prevented in the return to traditional and natural scenario in which scavengers freely remove livestock carcasses is largely unknown. Here we show that, in Spain (home of 95% of European vultures), supplanting the natural removal of dead extensive livestock by scavengers with carcass collection and transport to intermediate and processing plants meant the emission of 77,344 metric tons of CO2 eq. to the atmosphere per year, in addition to annual payments of ca. $50 million to insurance companies. Thus, replacing the ecosystem services provided by scavengers has not only conservation costs, but also important and unnecessary environmental and economic costs.

  11. Free radical scavenging activity of some fungi indigenous to Tanzania

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    The objective of this study was to evaluate free radical scavenging capacity of crude extracts from forest basidiomycetous fungi, domestic zygomycetous fungi and marine ascomycetous fungi. Lethal concentration values that kill 50% of the brine shrimps (LC50) were determined from 19 fungal extracts using brine shrimp test ...

  12. Effect of nitric oxide scavengers, carboxy-PTIO on endotoxin ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    values of the cardiovascular parameters considered in this study. This indicates that carboxy-PTIO is an efficient nitric oxide scavenger chemical of trapping nitric oxide immediately after its synthesis. Therefore, based on the current result, carboxy-PTIO can be used as one possible treatment agent against septic shock.

  13. Antibacterial and Radical Scavenging Activity of Selected Orchids of ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    The present study was carried out to determine antibacterial and radical scavenging activity of extract of four epiphytic orchids (Orchidaceae family) namely Luisia zeylanica Lindl., Pholidota pallida Lindl., Dendrobium nutantiflorum A. D. Hawkes and A. H. Heller and Coelogyne breviscapa Lindl collected at different places ...

  14. scavenging activity, anti-inflammatory and diabetes related enzyme

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    2013-12-31

    Dec 31, 2013 ... ENZYME INHIBITION PROPERTIES OF ETHANOL LEAVES EXTRACT OF. PHOENYX ... extracts, using superoxide anions inhibition, radical scavenging activity "DPPH" and total antioxidant activity .... Briefly, 100 µL of both the sample and the standard (gallic acid) of known concentrations were made up to.

  15. Study of antioxidant activity and free radical scavenging power of ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    ... the possibility of substituting these materials with effective compounds of herbal plants have been considered by the researchers. In this study, at first, the Physalis Alkekengi flower extract was extracted by using maceration method with methanol. The Phenolic compounds and the amount of free radical scavenging activity ...

  16. Free radical scavenging and cytotoxic activity of five commercial ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Polygonum cuspidatum), and pomegranate (Punica granatum). It shows radical scavenging activity in the following order, according to their median effective concentration (EC

  17. Roasting effects on phenolic content and free-radical scavenging ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Their mechanisms of action include scavenging reactive oxygen and decreasing localised oxygen concentration thereby reducing molecular oxygen's oxidation potential, metabolising lipid peroxides to non-radical products and chelating metal ions to prevent generation of free radicals in humans. The study aimed at ...

  18. Hydroxyl radical scavenging activity of peptide from sea cucumber ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    enzyme complex, sea cucumber protein hydrolysis was carried out to obtain hydrolysates that have hydroxyl-radical-scavenging activity (HRSA). The hydrolytic process was monitored by HRSA and conditions for this process were optimized as follows: pH 6.5, temperature 35°C, 12 mg enzyme complex in a reaction solution ...

  19. Flexible autonomous scavengers: the combination of dielectric polymers and electrets

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jean-Mistral, C.; Vu Cong, T.; Sylvestre, A.

    2012-04-01

    Thanks to their high energy density and their flexibility, scavenging energy with dielectric polymer is a promising alternative to ensure the autonomy of various sensors such as in e-textiles or biomedical applications. Nevertheless, they are passive materials requiring a high bias voltage source to polarize them. Thus, we present here a new design of scavenger using polymer electrets for poling the dielectric polymer. Our scavenger is composed of commercial dielectric polymer (3M VHB 4910) with Teflon electrets developing a potential of -300V, and patterned grease electrodes. The transducer works in a pure shear mode with a maximal strain of 50% at 1Hz. The typical "3D-textured" structure of the scavenger allows the electrets to follow the movement of the dielectric. A complete electromechanical analytical model has been developed thank to the combination of electrets theory and dielectric modelling. Our new autonomous structure, on an optimal resistance, can produce about 0.637mJ.g-1.

  20. Detection of NSAIDs in livestock animals and scavenging birds of ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Detection of NSAIDs in livestock animals and scavenging birds of prey with emphasis on vultures and condors. ... Asked Questions about PDFs. Alternatively, you can download the PDF file directly to your computer, from where it can be opened using a PDF reader. To download the PDF, click the Download link above.

  1. Free radical scavenging activity and phenolic contents of ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Anthocleista djalonensis extract is widely used in Nigerian folk medicine to treat conditions whose pathogenesis implicate oxidative stress, such as diabetes and hepatitis. However, little is known of the mechanism underlying these activities. In this study, the free radical scavenging potential of a methanol extract of A.

  2. Radical scavenging compounds from the aerial parts of ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Background: Solenostemon monostachys Briq. (Lamiaceae) is a weed widely used in ethno medicine to treat infections and inflammatory conditions but the active compounds are yet to be identified. This study isolated and identified the radical scavenging compounds from S. monostachys crude extract using diphenyl-1, ...

  3. Free-radical scavenging capacity and antimicrobial activity of wild ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Free-radical scavenging capacity and antimicrobial activity of wild edible mushroom from Turkey. ... concentration of both RF ethanol extract and the standards the higher the inhibition effect. ... The ethanol extract of R. flava inhibited the growth of Gram-positive bacteria better than Gram-negative bacteria and yeast.

  4. Free Radical Scavenging Activities of Methanol Extract and ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Picralima nitida commonly called picralima or pile plant is a tree or shrub with widely varied applications in West African folk medicine. The study evaluated the free radical scavenging activities of the crude methanol extract of Picralima nitida root bark and its various fractions. The methanol extract of P. nitida and its fractions ...

  5. Using Scavenger Hunts to Familiarize Students with Scientific Journal Articles.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lijek, Rebeccah S; Fankhauser, Sarah C

    2016-03-01

    Primary scientific literature can be difficult to navigate for anyone unfamiliar with its foreign, formal structure. We sought to create a fun, easy learning tool to help familiarize students of all ages with the structure of a scientific article. Our main learning objective was for the student to realize that science writing is formulaic-that specific information is found in predictable locations within an article-and that, with an understanding of the formula, anyone can comfortably navigate any journal article and accurately predict what to expect to find in each section. To this end, we designed a Journal Article Scavenger Hunt that requires the user to find and identify a series of commonplace features of a primary research article. The scavenger hunt activity is quick and easy to implement, and is adaptable to various ages and settings, including the classroom, lab, and at outreach events. The questions in the scavenger hunt can be scaled in difficulty and specificity to suit the instructor's needs. Over many years of using this activity, we have received positive feedback from students of all ages, from elementary school students to lay adult-learners as well as science teachers themselves. By making the unknown seem predictable and approachable, the scavenger hunt helps a variety of audiences feel more comfortable with science and more confident in their ability to engage directly with the scientific literature. Journal of Microbiology & Biology Education.

  6. Kinetics of Ce and Nd scavenging in Black Sea waters

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Schijf, Johan; Baar, Hein J.W. de; Millero, Frank J.

    1994-01-01

    Mixing experiments were performed during Leg 5 of the 1988 Black Sea Expedition in order to learn more about the mechanism and kinetics of rare earth element (REE) scavenging at the oxic-anoxic interface of anoxic basins and, more specifically, in the suboxic zone of the Black Sea. Water from the

  7. Estrogenic/antiestrogenic and scavenging properties of (E)- and (Z)-resveratrol.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Basly, J P; Marre-Fournier, F; Le Bail, J C; Habrioux, G; Chulia, A J

    2000-01-21

    Resveratrol, natural compound found in grapes and wine, has been reported to have a variety of health benefit properties. Based on the structural similarity to the synthetic estrogen diethylstilbestrol, we investigated estrogenic/antiestrogenic effects on human breast cancer cell lines, MCF-7 and MVLN, and scavenging properties using DPPH of both (E)- and (Z)-isomers. Both isomers increased the in vitro growth of MCF-7 cell lines at medium concentrations (10 and 25 microM) whereas the low concentrations (0.1 and 1 microM) had no effect and the high concentration (50 microM) decreased the cell growth and was cytotoxic. The 25 microM (E)-isomer alone was able to reduced the proliferation induced by the estradiol. Low concentrations of (E)- and (Z)-resveratrol (0.1 and 1 microM) and medium concentration 10 microM (Z)-resveratrol did not interfere with the estrogen receptor. In contrast, medium concentrations of (E)-resveratrol (10 and 25 microM) and (Z)-resveratrol (25 microM) functioned as superagonists of estradiol. Whatever the model used, MCF-7 or MVLN cell lines, (Z)-resveratrol was less effective than (E)-resveratrol. Extinction of DPPH and Fe(III) reduction experiments showed that both isomers of resveratrol could act as free radicals scavengers or pro-oxidant compounds. The properties of low concentrations of resveratrol raise the possibility that structure-function studies could lead to the development of more selective estrogen receptor agonists and antagonists, which could be useful as a therapeutic agent.

  8. Scavenging Capacities of Some Wines and Wine Phenolic Extracts

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ioannis G. Roussis

    2005-01-01

    Full Text Available The aim of this study was to assess the ability of different wines – a sweet red, a dry red, a sweet white, and a dry white – to scavenge the stable 1,1’-diphenyl-2-picryl-hydrazyl radical (DPPH. and to determine their phenolic composition. Both red wines contained, apart from anthocyanins, also higher concentration of total phenolics, tartaric esters, and flavonols than the two white wines. All wines exhibited scavenging activity analogous to their total phenolic content. However, their phenolics differed in antiradical potency, which was visible in their EC50 values. The dry red wine, Xinomavro, had a lower EC50 value, indicating the higher antiradical potency of its phenolics. The scavenging capacities of phenolic extracts from Xinomavro red wine on hydroxyl radicals, superoxide radicals, and singlet oxygen were also assessed. Wine total extract was fractionated by extraction, and each of the three fractions was then subfractionated by column chromatography into two subfractions. Wine total extract, and its fractions and subfractions exhibited scavenging capacity on hydroxyl radicals, superoxide radicals, and singlet oxygen, indicating the activity of many wine phenolics. The most active wine extracts towards hydroxyl radicals were characterized by the high peaks of flavanols, anthocyanins and flavonols in their HPLC-DAD chromatograms. The most active extract towards superoxide radicals was rich in flavanols and anthocyanins. The characteristic phenolics of the most active wine extracts towards singlet oxygen were flavanols, flavonols and phenolic acids. The ability of all red wine phenolic extracts to scavenge singlet oxygen, along with hydroxyl and superoxide radicals, emphasizes its health functionality.

  9. Scavenge flow analysis of opposed-piston two-stroke engine based on dynamic characteristics

    National Research Council Canada - National Science Library

    Ma, Fu-kang; Zhao, Chang-lu; Zhao, Zhen-feng; Zhang, Shuan-lu

    2015-01-01

    .... In order to study opposed-piston two-stroke engine scavenging flow, a scavenging system was configured using a three-dimensional computational fluid dynamics model effectively coupled to experiments...

  10. Nitric Oxide Scavenging by Hemoglobin in Health, Disease, and Therapeutics

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kim-Shapiro, Daniel

    2007-11-01

    Nitric oxide (NO) is the endothelium-derived relaxing factor (EDRF). It is made in endothelial cells lining blood vessels and diffuses to smooth muscle cells where it leads to muscle relaxation, vessel dilatation, and increased blood flow and also plays a large role in controlling platelet aggregation and inflammation. Hemoglobin (Hb), the oxygen carrying molecule in the blood, reacts at nearly diffusion limited rates with nitric oxide to (in some reactions) form nitrate ands thereby destroy NO activity. The presence of such large amounts of such a potent NO scavenger in the blood challenges the idea that NO is indeed the EDRF. Encapsulation in red blood cells in healthy individuals limits NO scavenging by Hb. Biophysical experiments will be described exploring and evaluating these mechanisms. Other studies will be described discussing how red cells break open (lyse) in pathological situations and the cell-free Hb reduces NO bioavailability. Finally, methods to restore NO bioavailability through therapeutics will be discussed.

  11. Kinetic Study of Free Radicals Scavenging by Saffron Petal Extracts

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    T. Ardalan

    2013-01-01

    Full Text Available Saffron petal is the main by-product of saffron processing which is produced in large amounts, annually. The objectives of this study were to study the antioxidant activity and free radical-scavenging effects of saffron petal extracts. The ability of saffron petal to act as an antioxidant using the 2, 2-diphenyl-1-picrylhydrazyl (DPPH free-radical method was investigated by applying the Uv–Vis spectrometry. The Uv–Vis spectra of reaction mixtures in acetonitrile revealed that saffron petal has a considerable effect on scavenging free radical. Kinetic studies were conducted by measuring the disappearance of DPPH in acetonitrile over the wavelength range of 515-522 nm under pseudo-first-order conditions at 37oC. Furthermore, the pseudo first order rate constants were determined

  12. Antioxidant and free radical scavenging activity of Spondias pinnata

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Mandal Nripendranath

    2008-12-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background Many diseases are associated with oxidative stress caused by free radicals. Current research is directed towards finding naturally-occurring antioxidants of plant origin. The aim of the present study was to evaluate the in vitro antioxidant activities of Spondias pinnata stem bark extract. Methods A 70% methanol extract of Spondias pinnata stem bark was studied in vitro for total antioxidant activity, for scavenging of hydroxyl radicals, superoxide anions, nitric oxide, hydrogen peroxide, peroxynitrite, singlet oxygen and hypochlorous acid, and for iron chelating capacity, reducing power, and phenolic and flavonoid contents. Results The extract showed total antioxidant activity with a trolox equivalent antioxidant concentration (TEAC value of 0.78 ± 0.02. The IC50 values for scavenging of free radicals were 112.18 ± 3.27 μg/ml, 13.46 ± 0.66 μg/ml and 24.48 ± 2.31 μg/ml for hydroxyl, superoxide and nitric oxide, respectively. The IC50 for hydrogen peroxide scavenging was 44.74 ± 25.61 mg/ml. For the peroxynitrite, singlet oxygen and hypochlorous acid scavenging activities the IC50 values were 716.32 ± 32.25 μg/ml, 58.07 ± 5.36 μg/ml and 127.99 ± 6.26 μg/ml, respectively. The extract was found to be a potent iron chelator with IC50 = 66.54 ± 0.84 μg/ml. The reducing power was increased with increasing amounts of extract. The plant extract (100 mg yielded 91.47 ± 0.004 mg/ml gallic acid-equivalent phenolic content and 350.5 ± 0.004 mg/ml quercetin-equivalent flavonoid content. Conclusion The present study provides evidence that a 70% methanol extract of Spondias pinnata stem bark is a potential source of natural antioxidants.

  13. Antioxidant and free radical scavenging activity of Spondias pinnata.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hazra, Bibhabasu; Biswas, Santanu; Mandal, Nripendranath

    2008-12-09

    Many diseases are associated with oxidative stress caused by free radicals. Current research is directed towards finding naturally-occurring antioxidants of plant origin. The aim of the present study was to evaluate the in vitro antioxidant activities of Spondias pinnata stem bark extract. A 70% methanol extract of Spondias pinnata stem bark was studied in vitro for total antioxidant activity, for scavenging of hydroxyl radicals, superoxide anions, nitric oxide, hydrogen peroxide, peroxynitrite, singlet oxygen and hypochlorous acid, and for iron chelating capacity, reducing power, and phenolic and flavonoid contents. The extract showed total antioxidant activity with a trolox equivalent antioxidant concentration (TEAC) value of 0.78 +/- 0.02. The IC50 values for scavenging of free radicals were 112.18 +/- 3.27 microg/ml, 13.46 +/- 0.66 microg/ml and 24.48 +/- 2.31 microg/ml for hydroxyl, superoxide and nitric oxide, respectively. The IC50 for hydrogen peroxide scavenging was 44.74 +/- 25.61 mg/ml. For the peroxynitrite, singlet oxygen and hypochlorous acid scavenging activities the IC50 values were 716.32 +/- 32.25 microg/ml, 58.07 +/- 5.36 microg/ml and 127.99 +/- 6.26 microg/ml, respectively. The extract was found to be a potent iron chelator with IC50 = 66.54 +/- 0.84 microg/ml. The reducing power was increased with increasing amounts of extract. The plant extract (100 mg) yielded 91.47 +/- 0.004 mg/ml gallic acid-equivalent phenolic content and 350.5 +/- 0.004 mg/ml quercetin-equivalent flavonoid content. The present study provides evidence that a 70% methanol extract of Spondias pinnata stem bark is a potential source of natural antioxidants.

  14. Scavenger deterrent factor (SDF) from symbiotic bacteria of entomopathogenic nematodes.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gulcu, Baris; Hazir, Selcuk; Kaya, Harry K

    2012-07-01

    Entomopathogenic nematodes (EPNs) in the genera Steinernema and Heterorhabditis are symbiotically associated with bacteria in the genera Xenorhabdus and Photorhabdus, respectively. The symbiotic bacteria produce a chemical compound(s) that deterred ants from feeding on nematode-killed insects (i.e., cadavers) and has been previously referred to as an Ant Deterrent Factor (ADF). We studied the response of different arthropod scavenger species which included the ant Lepisiota frauenfeldi, cricket Gryllus bimaculatus, wasps Vespa orientalis and Paravespula sp., and calliphorid fly Chrysomya albiceps, to ADF. These scavengers (ants, crickets, and wasps) were exposed to cadavers with and without the nematode/bacterium complex or to Photorhabdus luminescens cultures of different ages on different substrates. The ant, cricket, and wasp species did not feed on nematode-killed insects containing the nematode/bacterium complex that were 2 days old and older but fed on 1-day-old nematode-killed and freeze -killed insects. Crickets consumed 2- to 7-day-old axenic nematode-killed insects, 1-, 4-, and 5-day-old insects killed by the bacterium, Serratia marcescens, and freeze-killed, putrid insects that were up to 10 days old. The crickets only partially consumed 2- and 3-day-old insects killed by S. marcescens which differed significantly from the 1-, 4-, and 5-day-old killed insects by this bacterium. Ants fed only on 5% sucrose solution (control) and 1- to 3- day old cultures of P. luminescens containing 5% sucrose but not on older cultures of P. luminescens. Wasps did not feed on meat treated with P. luminescens supernatant, whereas they fed on meat treated with Escherichia coli supernatant and control meat. Calliphorid flies did not oviposit on meat treated with P. luminescens supernatant but did oviposit on untreated meat. Based on the response of these scavengers, the chemical compound(s) responsible for this deterrent activity should be called "scavenger deterrent factor

  15. Free radical scavenging activities of tea drinks on the market

    OpenAIRE

    中川, 一夫; Nakagawa, Kazuo; 仲村, 明子; Nakamura, Akiko; 松永, 博絵; Matsunaga, Hiroe

    2002-01-01

    Tea drinks, prepared from the tea plant classified as Camellia sinensis, contain antioxidative phenolic compounds, like catechins and flavonols. We evaluated the free radical scavenging activities of tea drinks on the market by measuring luminol-amplified chemiluminescence stimulated by the free radical initiator 2,2'-azobis (2-amidinopropane9 dihydrochloride, and the absorption of 2,2'-azinobis (3-ethylbenzothiazoline-6-sulphonic acid) radica cation at 734 nm. Black tea drinks and green tea ...

  16. Re-evaluation of superoxide scavenging capacity of xanthohumol.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Schempp, Harald; Vogel, Susanne; Hückelhoven, Ralph; Heilmann, Jörg

    2010-12-01

    The chemopreventive chalcone xanthohumol (Xh) has been reported to decrease xanthine oxidase (XOD) catalysed formation of formazan from nitroblue tetrazolium (NBT) and is discussed as a potent scavenger of superoxide. Re-evaluation of the scavenging capacity indicated that Xh disturbed detection of superoxide with NBT, in case of an insufficient NBT/Xh ratio. Xh lacked superoxide scavenging activity in contrast to the Xh-derivative 3'-hydroxy-Xh with catechol substructure, used as positive control. This was shown by the use of sufficient concentration of NBT and other detectors such as hydroxylamine, XTT, cytochrome c and hydroethidine. HPLC analysis of reaction products in a xanthine/XOD/peroxidase system demonstrated beside enhanced inhibition of NBT-formazan by Xh that NBT even prevented oxidation of Xh. p-coumaric acid or ferulic acid could replace Xh in that system, indicating that superoxide detection using NBT is likely jeopardized by interference of phenoxyl-radicals. Furthermore, this study provides evidence that Xh can moderately generate superoxide via auto-oxidation.

  17. Chlorhexidine markedly potentiates the oxidants scavenging abilities of Candida albicans.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ginsburg, I; Koren, E; Feuerstein, O; Zogakis, I P; Shalish, M; Gorelik, S

    2015-10-01

    The oxidant scavenging ability (OSA) of catalase-rich Candida albicans is markedly enhanced by chlorhexidine digluconate (CHX), polymyxin B, the bile salt ursodeoxycholate and by lysophosphatidylcholine, which all act as detergents facilitating the penetration of oxidants and their intracellular decomposition. Quantifications of the OSA of Candida albicans were measured by a highly sensitive luminol-dependent chemiluminescence assay and by the Thurman's assay, to quantify hydrogen peroxide (H2O2). The OSA enhancing activity by CHX depends to some extent on the media on which candida grew. The OSA of candida treated by CHX was modulated by whole human saliva, red blood cells, lysozyme, cationic peptides and by polyphenols. Concentrations of CHX, which killed over 95 % of Candida albicans cells, did not affect the cells' abilities to scavenge reactive oxygen species (ROS). The OSA of Candida cells treated by CHX is highly refractory to H2O2 (50 mM) but is strongly inhibited by hypochlorous acid, lecithin, trypan blue and by heparin. We speculate that similarly to catalase-rich red blood cells, Candida albicans and additional catalase-rich microbiota may also have the ability to scavenge oxidants and thus can protect catalase-negative anaerobes and facultative anaerobes cariogenic streptococci against peroxide and thus secure their survival in the oral cavity.

  18. Diet and scavenging habits of the smooth skate Dipturus innominatus.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Forman, J S; Dunn, M R

    2012-04-01

    The diet of smooth skate Dipturus innominatus was determined from examination of stomach contents of 321 specimens of 29·3-152·0 cm pelvic length, sampled from research and commercial trawlers at depths of 231-789 m on Chatham Rise, New Zealand. The diet was dominated by the benthic decapods Metanephrops challengeri and Munida gracilis, the natant decapod Campylonotus rathbunae and fishes from 17 families, of which hoki Macruronus novaezelandiae, sea perch Helicolenus barathri, various Macrouridae and a variety of discarded fishes were the most important. Multivariate analyses indicated the best predictors of diet variability were D. innominatus length and a spatial model. The diet of small D. innominatus was predominantly small crustaceans, with larger crustaceans, fishes and then scavenged discarded fishes increasing in importance as D. innominatus got larger. Scavenged discards were obvious as fish heads or tails only, or skeletal remains after filleting, often from pelagic species. Demersal fish prey were most frequent on the south and west Chatham Rise, in areas where commercial fishing was most active. Dipturus innominatus are highly vulnerable to overfishing, but discarding practices by commercial fishing vessels may provide a positive feedback to populations through improved scavenging opportunities. © 2012 NIWA. Journal of Fish Biology © 2012 The Fisheries Society of the British Isles.

  19. Shape similarities and differences in the skulls of scavenging raptors.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Guangdi, S I; Dong, Yiyi; Ma, Yujun; Zhang, Zihui

    2015-04-01

    Feeding adaptations are a conspicuous feature of avian evolution. Bill and cranial shape as well as the jaw muscles are closely related to diet choice and feeding behaviors. Diurnal raptors of Falconiformes exhibit a wide range of foraging behaviors and prey preferences, and are assigned to seven dietary groups in this study. Skulls of 156 species are compared from the dorsal, lateral and ventral views, by using geometric morphometric techniques with those landmarks capturing as much information as possible on the overall shape of cranium, bill, orbits, nostrils and attachment area for different jaw muscles. The morphometric data showed that the skull shape of scavengers differ significantly from other raptors, primarily because of different feeding adaptations. As a result of convergent evolution, different scavengers share generalized common morphology, possessing relatively slender and lower skulls, longer bills, smaller and more sideward orbits, and more caudally positioned quadrates. Significant phylogenetic signals suggested that phylogeny also played important role in shape variation within scavengers. New World vultures can be distinguished by their large nostrils, narrow crania and small orbits; Caracaras typically show large palatines, crania and orbits, as well as short, deep and sharp bill.

  20. Body Size as a Driver of Scavenging in Theropod Dinosaurs.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kane, Adam; Healy, Kevin; Ruxton, Graeme D; Jackson, Andrew L

    2016-06-01

    Theropod dinosaurs dominated Earth's terrestrial ecosystem as a diverse group of predators for more than 160 million years, yet little is known about their foraging ecology. Maintaining a balanced energy budget presented a major challenge for therapods, which ranged from the chicken-sized Microraptor up to the whale-sized Giganotosaurus, in the face of intense competition and the demands of ontogenetic growth. Facultative scavenging, a behavior present in almost all modern predators, may have been important in supplementing energetically expensive lifestyles. By using agent-based models based on the allometric relationship between size and foraging behaviors, we show that theropods between 27 and 1,044 kg would have gained a significant energetic advantage over individuals at both the small and large extremes of theropod body mass through their scavenging efficiency. These results were robust to rate of competition, primary productivity, and detection distance. Our models demonstrate the potential importance of facultative scavenging in theropods and the role of body size in defining its prevalence in Mesozoic terrestrial systems.

  1. CD36 expression contributes to age induced cardiomyopathy in mice

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cardiac remodeling and impaired cardiac performance in the elderly significantly increase the risk of developing heart disease. Although vascular abnormalities associated with aging contribute to the age-related decline in cardiac function, myocardium-specific events may also be involved. We show th...

  2. Effect of Heating on DPPH Radical Scavenging Activity of Meat Substitute.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Song, Hyeun Sung; Bae, Jun Kyu; Park, Inshik

    2013-03-01

    This study was conducted to evaluate the increase of DPPH radical scavenging activity of meat substitute by heating. The meat substitute showed higher DPPH radical scavenging activity than those of other foods rich in protein such as beef, pork, chicken, and soybean curd. The DPPH radical scavenging activity of meat substitute was dependent upon concentration, heating temperature and heating time of meat substitute. The DPPH radical scavenging activity of meat substitute was enhanced with increasing heating temperature and time. The increase of DPPH radical scavenging activity was only applied to meat substitute without showing any activation in other foods rich in protein such as beef, pork, chicken, and soybean curd.

  3. Cytotoxic and free radical scavenging activities of Zingiberaceous rhizomes

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Niwat Keawpradub

    2005-07-01

    Full Text Available Methanol extracts, water extracts and volatile oils of the fresh rhizomes of Alpinia galanga, Boesenbergia pandurata, Curcuma longa, Kaempferia galanga and Zingiber officinale have been assessed for free radical scavenging activity against 1,1-diphenyl-2-picrylhydrazyl (DPPH radical and cytotoxic activity against MCF7 (breast adenocarcinoma and LS174T (colon adenocarcinoma cell lines. Methanol extract of C. longa exhibited the most pronounced radical scavenging activity with an EC50 value of 9.7 μg/ml, whereas the water extracts and volatile oils showed weak activity. All volatile oils and the methanol extract of C. longa showed strong activity against MCF7 and LS174T with IC50 less than 50 μg/ml. The oils of A. galanga (AGV, B. pandurata (BPV, C. longa (CLV, K. galanga (KGV and Z. officinale (ZOV were analyzed by GC/MS. Trans-3-acetoxy-1,8-cineole, camphor, ar-turmerone, ethyl cinnamate and geranial (E-citral were detected as main compounds in AGV, BPV, CLV, KGV and ZOV, respectively. The novel compound, pcoumaryl- 9-methyl ether, was isolated from methanol extract of A. galanga. ar-Turmerone, curcumin, demethoxycurcumin and bisdemethoxycurcumin were isolated from the methanol extract of C. longa while 6-shogaol, 6-dehydrogingerdione (or 1-dehydrogingerdione and 6-gingerol were isolated from the methanol extract of Z. officinale. Curcumin was the most potent compound for free radical scavenging activity with an EC50 value of 2.0 μg/ml. Demethoxycurcumin was found to be the most active compound against LS174T with an IC50 value of 0.8 μg/ml and 6-shogaol was the most potent compound against MCF7 with an IC50 value of 1.7 μg/ml.

  4. Scavenging of particulate elemental carbon into stratus cloud

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Kaneyasu, Naoki; Maeda, Takahisa [National Inst. for Resources and Environment, Tsukuba (Japan)

    1995-12-31

    The role of atmospheric aerosols on the alternation of cloud radiative properties has widely been recognized since 1977 when Tomey and his coworkers have numerically demonstrated the effect of increased cloud condensation nuclei (CCN). At the same time, cloud processes are one of the most important factor in controlling the residence time of atmospheric aerosols through the wet removal process. The redistribution of the size and the composition of pre-cloud aerosols is also the important role of cloud process on the nature of atmospheric aerosols. In order to study these cloud-aerosol interaction phenomena, the incorporation of aerosols into cloud droplets is the first mechanism to be investigated. Among the several mechanisms for the incorporation of aerosols into cloud droplets, nucleation scavenging, is the potentially important process in the view of cloud-aerosol interactions. This critical supersaturation for a given radius of a particle can be theoretically calculated only for pure species, e.g., NaCl. However, a significant portion of the atmospheric aerosols is in the form of internal mixture of multiple components, such as SO{sub 4}{sup 2-}, NO{sub 3}{sup -}, NH{sub 4}{sup +} and particulate elemental carbon. The knowledge acquired by field measurements is therefore essential on this subject. The present study focuses on the scavenging of major components of urban atmospheric aerosols, in particular the incorporation of particulate elemental carbon into stratus cloud. Particulate elemental carbon is the strongest light absorbing species in visible region, and has potential to change the optical property of cloud. On the basis of the measurements conducted at a mountain located in the suburb of Tokyo Metropolitan area, Japan, some insights on the scavenging of particulate elemental carbon into cloud droplet will be presented

  5. The oxidant scavenging capacity of the oral Mycoplasma salivarium.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kornspan, J D; Ginsburg, I; Rottem, S

    2013-10-01

    Mycoplasma salivarium is a human oral potential pathogen that preferentially resides in dental plaques and gingival sulci. It has been suggested that this organism may play an etiological role in inflammatory processes in the oral cavity. The aim of this work was to determine whether M. salivarium possesses a potent oxidant scavenging capacity (OSC). The OSC of M. salivarium was quantified by a highly sensitive luminal-dependent chemiluminescence assay in the presence of cocktails that induced a constant flux of luminescence resulting from the generation of peroxide, hydroxyl radical (cocktail A) and NO, superoxide and peroxynitrites (cocktail B). M. salivarium markedly reduced oxidative stress by scavenging both free reactive oxygen and nitrogen species. The OSC of M. salivarium was much higher than that of other Mycoplasma species. Most of M. salivarium OSC was confined to the cytosolic fraction and was markedly increased in the presence of tannic acid, red blood cells or mucin. The cytosolic OSC of M. salivarium was heat stable and not affected by sodium azide or prolonged proteolysis. However, it was markedly decreased upon dialysis, suggesting that the major reducing activity is not enzymatic but rather, a low molecular weight compound(s). The ability of M. salivarium to scavenge oxidants may play a role in the survival and pathogenicity of this microorganism. The enhanced OSC of M. salivarium in the presence of tannic acid, red blood cells or mucin might have a significant importance to assess complex interactions with polyphenols from nutrients, salivary proteins and red blood cells extravasated from injured capillaries during infection and inflammation in oral tissues. Copyright © 2013 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  6. Catalytic oxidant scavenging by selenium-containing compounds

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Carroll, Luke; Pattison, David I; Fu, Shanlin

    2017-01-01

    of NADPH via formation of GSSG, whereas thioredoxin reductase acts only on SeMetO. The presence of SeMet and SeTal also increased the rate at which NADPH was consumed by the glutathione reductase system in the presence of N-chloramines. In contrast, the presence of SeMet and SeTal reduced the rate of NADPH...... consumption by the thioredoxin reductase system after addition of N-chloramines, consistent with the rapid formation of selenoxides, but only slow reduction by thioredoxin reductase. These results support a potential role of seleno compounds to act as catalytic scavengers of MPO-derived oxidants, particularly...

  7. Synthesis and evaluation of some amine compounds having surface active properties as H2S scavenger

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Nadia G. Kandile

    2014-09-01

    Full Text Available In this work three H2S scavengers were prepared by reacting monoethanolamine with formaldehyde in different ratios (1:1, 2:1 and 2:3 to give MF1, MF2 and MF3, respectively. The chemical structures of the prepared scavengers were confirmed by FT-IR spectroscopy. The effect of reaction time (the time required for completing the reaction between the scavenger and the H2S gas has been studied for the three prepared scavengers. The effects of concentration and temperature have been studied on the scavenging efficiency of H2S using three prepared products and two commercial products EPRI-710 and EPRI-730. The surface and thermodynamic parameters of the prepared scavengers were determined at 25 °C including, surface tension (γ, and effectiveness, maximum surface excess (Γmax and minimum surface area (Amin. Also, the standard free energy of micellization and adsorption was recorded. The results show that the efficiency of scavengers increased with increasing reaction time up to 50 min. Also, as concentration of scavengers and temperature increased, the removal efficiency of the scavengers increased. By comparing the efficiency of the prepared products with the commercial products EPRI-710 and EPRI 730, it was found that, MF3 exhibited a similar efficiency comparing with the commercial scavenger EPRI 730 (currently used in the field at different concentrations and temperatures.

  8. Interaction between Endothelial Protein C Receptor and Intercellular Adhesion Molecule 1 to Mediate Binding of Plasmodium falciparum-Infected Erythrocytes to Endothelial Cells.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Avril, Marion; Bernabeu, Maria; Benjamin, Maxwell; Brazier, Andrew Jay; Smith, Joseph D

    2016-07-12

    Intercellular adhesion molecule 1 (ICAM-1) and the endothelial protein C receptor (EPCR) are candidate receptors for the deadly complication cerebral malaria. However, it remains unclear if Plasmodium falciparum parasites with dual binding specificity are involved in cytoadhesion or different parasite subpopulations bind in brain microvessels. Here, we investigated this issue by studying different subtypes of ICAM-1-binding parasite lines. We show that two parasite lines expressing domain cassette 13 (DC13) of the P. falciparum erythrocyte membrane protein 1 (PfEMP1) family have dual binding specificity for EPCR and ICAM-1 and further mapped ICAM-1 binding to the first DBLβ domain following the PfEMP1 head structure in both proteins. As PfEMP1 head structures have diverged between group A (EPCR binders) and groups B and C (CD36 binders), we also investigated how ICAM-1-binding parasites with different coreceptor binding traits influence P. falciparum-infected erythrocyte binding to endothelial cells. Whereas levels of binding to tumor necrosis factor alpha (TNF-α)-stimulated endothelial cells from the lung and brain by all ICAM-1-binding parasite lines increased, group A (EPCR and ICAM-1) was less dependent than group B (CD36 and ICAM-1) on ICAM-1 upregulation. Furthermore, both group A DC13 parasite lines had higher binding levels to brain endothelial cells (a microvascular niche with limited CD36 expression). This study shows that ICAM-1 is a coreceptor for a subset of EPCR-binding parasites and provides the first evidence of how EPCR and ICAM-1 interact to mediate parasite binding to both resting and TNF-α-activated primary brain and lung endothelial cells. Cerebral malaria is a severe neurological complication of P. falciparum infection associated with infected erythrocyte (IE) binding in cerebral vessels. Yet little is known about the mechanisms by which parasites adhere in the brain or other microvascular sites. Here, we studied parasite lines

  9. Review and uncertainty assessment of size-resolved scavenging coefficient formulations for below-cloud snow scavenging of atmospheric aerosols

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    L. Zhang

    2013-10-01

    Full Text Available Theoretical parameterizations for the size-resolved scavenging coefficient for atmospheric aerosol particles scavenged by snow (Λsnow need assumptions regarding (i snow particle–aerosol particle collection efficiency E, (ii snow-particle size distribution N(Dp, (iii snow-particle terminal velocity VD, and (iv snow-particle cross-sectional area A. Existing formulas for these parameters are reviewed in the present study, and uncertainties in Λsnow caused by various combinations of these parameters are assessed. Different formulations of E can cause uncertainties in Λsnow of more than one order of magnitude for all aerosol sizes for typical snowfall intensities. E is the largest source of uncertainty among all the input parameters, similar to rain scavenging of atmospheric aerosols (Λrain as was found in a previous study by Wang et al. (2010. However, other parameters can also cause significant uncertainties in Λsnow, and the uncertainties from these parameters are much larger than for Λrain. Specifically, different N(Dp formulations can cause one-order-of-magnitude uncertainties in Λsnow for all aerosol sizes, as is also the case for a combination of uncertainties from both VD and A. Assumptions about dominant snow-particle shape (and thus different VD and A will cause an uncertainty of up to one order of magnitude in the calculated scavenging coefficient. In comparison, uncertainties in Λrain from N(Dp are smaller than a factor of 5, and those from VD are smaller than a factor of 2. As expected, Λsnow estimated from empirical formulas generated from field measurements falls in the upper range of, or is higher than, the theoretically estimated values, which can be explained by additional processes/mechanisms that influence field-derived Λsnow but that are not considered in the theoretical Λsnow formulas. Predicted aerosol concentrations obtained by using upper range vs. lower range of Λsnow values (a difference of around two orders

  10. Scavenging effect of Trolox released from brushite cements.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mestres, Gemma; Santos, Carlos F; Engman, Lars; Persson, Cecilia; Ott, Marjam Karlsson

    2015-01-01

    In this study a brushite cement was doped with the chain-breaking antioxidant Trolox. The effect of the antioxidant on the physical properties of the cement was evaluated and the release of Trolox was monitored by UV spectroscopy. The ability of the Trolox set free to scavenge reactive oxygen species (ROS) released by macrophages was determined in vitro using a luminol-amplified chemiluminescence assay. Trolox did not modify the crystalline phases of the set cement, which mainly formed crystalline brushite after 7 days in humid conditions. The setting time, compressive strength and morphology of the cement also remained unaltered after the addition of the antioxidant. Trolox was slowly released from the cement following a non-Fickian transport mechanism and nearly 64% of the total amount was released after 3 days. Moreover, the capacity of Trolox to scavenge the ROS released by macrophages increased in a dose-dependent manner. Trolox-loaded cements are expected to reduce some of the first harmful effects of acute inflammation and can thus potentially protect the surrounding tissue during implantation of these as well as other materials used in conjunction. Copyright © 2014 Acta Materialia Inc. Published by Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  11. Free radical scavenging, antimicrobial and immunomodulatory activities of Orthosiphon stamineus.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Alshawsh, Mohammed A; Abdulla, Mahmood A; Ismail, Salmah; Amin, Zahra A; Qader, Suhailah W; Hadi, Hamid A; Harmal, Nabil S

    2012-05-08

    Orthosiphon stamineus is considered an important traditional folk medicine. In this study ethanol and aqueous extracts of O. stamineus were evaluated in vitro for their antioxidant, antimicrobial as well as for their immunomodulatory properties on human peripheral blood mononuclear cells (PBMCs). The DPPH radical scavenging method was used for the determination of antioxidant activity, while the antibacterial efficacy was investigated by both disc diffusion method and Minimum Inhibitory Concentration (MIC) against four bacterial strains (Gram-positive and Gram-negative). Furthermore, the immunomodulatory potential of the extracts was investigated through the MTT assay. Aqueous extract of O. stamineus exhibited significant free radical scavenging activity with IC₅₀ 50 9.6 µg/mL, whereas the IC₅₀ for the ethanol extract was 21.4 µg/mL. The best antimicrobial activity was shown by the aqueous extract of O. stamineus against Staphylococcus aureus, with inhibition zone of 10.5 mm and MIC value 1.56 mg/mL. Moreover, the results observed from the MTT assay showed that both plant extracts stimulated the PBMCs proliferation in vitro in a concentration-dependent manner, but the aqueous extract has remarkable activity against PBMCs. These findings indicate that O. stamineus showed high antioxidant activity and may be considered as an immunomodulatory agent.

  12. Energy scavenging system by acoustic wave and integrated wireless communication

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kim, Albert

    The purpose of the project was developing an energy-scavenging device for other bio implantable devices. Researchers and scientist have studied energy scavenging method because of the limitation of traditional power source, especially for bio-implantable devices. In this research, piezoelectric power generator that activates by acoustic wave, or music was developed. Follow by power generator, a wireless communication also integrated with the device for monitoring the power generation. The Lead Zirconate Titanate (PZT) bimorph cantilever with a proof mass at the free end tip was studied to convert acoustic wave to power. The music or acoustic wave played through a speaker to vibrate piezoelectric power generator. The LC circuit integrated with the piezoelectric material for purpose of wireless monitoring power generation. However, wireless monitoring can be used as wireless power transmission, which means the signal received via wireless communication also can be used for power for other devices. Size of 74 by 7 by 7cm device could generate and transmit 100mVp from 70 mm distance away with electrical resonant frequency at 420.2 kHz..

  13. Human tear lipocalin exhibits antimicrobial activity by scavenging microbial siderophores.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Fluckinger, Maria; Haas, Hubertus; Merschak, Petra; Glasgow, Ben J; Redl, Bernhard

    2004-09-01

    Human tear lipocalin (TL; also known as Lcn1) is a secretory protein present in large amounts in fluids that cover epithelial surfaces such as tears and respiratory secretions. It is supposed to act as a physiological scavenger of hydrophobic, potentially harmful molecules, but there is evidence that it also inhibits bacterial growth. In the present study, we reconsidered the possibility that TL might interfere with microbial growth by scavenging of siderophores, as described for human neutrophil gelatinase-associated lipocalin (NGAL). Indeed, our experiments revealed that TL binds to microbial siderophores with high affinities. In contrast to NGAL, which was shown to have some specificity for bacterial catecholate-type siderophores, TL binds to a broad array of siderophores, including bacterial catecholate-type enterobactin and hydroxamate-type desferrioxamine B, and all major classes of fungal siderophores. By adding exogenous TL, bacterial and fungal growth could be inhibited under iron-limiting conditions. Thus, TL might be a novel member of the innate immune system especially involved in mucosal defense against fungal infections.

  14. Phytoconstituents with Radical Scavenging and Cytotoxic Activities from Diospyros shimbaensis

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Per Aronsson

    2016-01-01

    Full Text Available As part of our search for natural products having antioxidant and anticancer properties, the phytochemical investigation of Diospyros shimbaensis (Ebenaceae, a plant belonging to a genus widely used in East African traditional medicine, was carried out. From its stem and root barks the new naphthoquinone 8,8′-oxo-biplumbagin (1 was isolated along with the known tetralones trans-isoshinanolone (2 and cis-isoshinanolone (3, and the naphthoquinones plumbagin (4 and 3,3′-biplumbagin (5. Compounds 2, 4, and 5 showed cytotoxicity (IC50 520–82.1 μM against MDA-MB-231 breast cancer cells. Moderate to low cytotoxicity was observed for the hexane, dichloromethane, and methanol extracts of the root bark (IC50 16.1, 29.7 and > 100 μg/mL, respectively, and for the methanol extract of the stem bark (IC50 59.6 μg/mL. The radical scavenging activity of the isolated constituents (1–5 was evaluated on the 2,2-diphenyl-1-picrylhydrazyl (DPPH radical scavenging assay. The applicability of the crude extracts and of the isolated constituents for controlling degenerative diseases is discussed.

  15. Melanocortin 1 Receptor Signaling Regulates Cholesterol Transport in Macrophages.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rinne, Petteri; Rami, Martina; Nuutinen, Salla; Santovito, Donato; van der Vorst, Emiel P C; Guillamat-Prats, Raquel; Lyytikäinen, Leo-Pekka; Raitoharju, Emma; Oksala, Niku; Ring, Larisa; Cai, Minying; Hruby, Victor J; Lehtimäki, Terho; Weber, Christian; Steffens, Sabine

    2017-07-04

    The melanocortin 1 receptor (MC1-R) is expressed by monocytes and macrophages, where it exerts anti-inflammatory actions on stimulation with its natural ligand α-melanocyte-stimulating hormone. The present study was designed to investigate the specific role of MC1-R in the context of atherosclerosis and possible regulatory pathways of MC1-R beyond anti-inflammation. Human and mouse atherosclerotic samples and primary mouse macrophages were used to study the regulatory functions of MC1-R. The impact of pharmacological MC1-R activation on atherosclerosis was assessed in apolipoprotein E-deficient mice. Characterization of human and mouse atherosclerotic plaques revealed that MC1-R expression localizes in lesional macrophages and is significantly associated with the ATP-binding cassette transporters ABCA1 and ABCG1, which are responsible for initiating reverse cholesterol transport. Using bone marrow-derived macrophages, we observed that α-melanocyte-stimulating hormone and selective MC1-R agonists similarly promoted cholesterol efflux, which is a counterregulatory mechanism against foam cell formation. Mechanistically, MC1-R activation upregulated the levels of ABCA1 and ABCG1. These effects were accompanied by a reduction in cell surface CD36 expression and in cholesterol uptake, further protecting macrophages from excessive lipid accumulation. Conversely, macrophages deficient in functional MC1-R displayed a phenotype with impaired efflux and enhanced uptake of cholesterol. Pharmacological targeting of MC1-R in atherosclerotic apolipoprotein E-deficient mice reduced plasma cholesterol levels and aortic CD36 expression and increased plaque ABCG1 expression and signs of plaque stability. Our findings identify a novel role for MC1-R in macrophage cholesterol transport. Activation of MC1-R confers protection against macrophage foam cell formation through a dual mechanism: It prevents cholesterol uptake while concomitantly promoting ABCA1- and ABCG1-mediated reverse

  16. The administration of demethyl fruticulin A from Salvia corrugata to mammalian cells lines induces "anoikis", a special form of apoptosis.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Giannoni, Paolo; Narcisi, Roberto; De Totero, Daniela; Romussi, Giovanni; Quarto, Rodolfo; Bisio, Angela

    2010-05-01

    Recently demethyl fruticulin A was identified as the major diterpenoid component of the exudates produced by the trichomes of Salvia corrugata leafs. Given the documented apoptotic effects of some of the other known components of the exudates from Salvia species, we assessed if demethyl fruticulin A, once administered to mammalian cells, was involved in the onset of apoptosis and if its biological effects were exerted through the participation of a scavenger membrane receptor, CD36. Three model cell lines were chosen, one of which lacking CD36 expression. Functional availability of the receptor, or its transcriptional rate, were blocked/reduced with a specific antibody or by the administration of vitamin E. Immunodetection of cell cytoskeletal components and tunel analysis revealed that demethyl fruticulin A triggers the onset of anoikis, a special form of apoptosis induced by cell detachment from the substrate. Impairment of CD36 availability/transcription confirmed the receptor partial involvement in the intake of the substance and in anoikis, as also sustained by FACS analysis and by the downregulation of p95, a marker of anoikis, upon blockade of CD36 transcription. However, experiments with CD36-deficient cells suggested that alternate pathways, still to be determined, may take part in the biological effects exerted by demethyl fruticulin A. Copyright 2009 Elsevier GmbH. All rights reserved.

  17. CD163: a signal receptor scavenging haptoglobin-hemoglobin complexes from plasma

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Graversen, Jonas Heilskov; Madsen, Mette; Moestrup, Søren K

    2002-01-01

    hemolysis. Besides having a detoxificating effect by removing Hb from plasma, the CD163-mediated endocytosis of the Hp-Hb complex may represent a major pathway for uptake of iron in the tissue macrophages. The novel functional linkage of CD163 and Hp, which both are induced during inflammation, also reveal...

  18. Pteromalus puparum venom impairs host cellular immune responses by decreasing expression of its scavenger receptor gene

    Science.gov (United States)

    Insect host/parasitoid interactions are co-evolved systems in which host defenses are balanced by parasitoid mechanisms to disable or hide from host immune effectors. Although there is a rich literature on these systems, parasitoid immune-disabling mechanisms have not been fully elucidated. Here we ...

  19. The conserved scavenger receptor cysteine-rich superfamily in therapy and diagnosis

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Martínez, Vanesa Gabriela; Moestrup, Søren Kragh; Holmskov, Uffe

    2011-01-01

    members of the SRCR-SF, but also of the sequence versatility of the SRCR domains. Indeed, involvement of SRCR-SF members in quite different functions, such as pathogen recognition, modulation of the immune response, epithelial homeostasis, stem cell biology, and tumor development, have all been described...... expansion, now up to more than 30 members. The study of these members is attracting growing interest, which parallels that in innate immunity. No unifying function has been described to date for the SRCR domains, this being the result of the limited knowledge still available on the physiology of most...

  20. The amphipod scavenging guild in two Arctic fjords : seasonal variations, abundance and trophic interactions

    OpenAIRE

    Nygård, Henrik Andreas; Berge, Jørgen; Søreide, Janne; Vihtakari, Mikko; Falk-Petersen, Stig

    2012-01-01

    Scavenging amphipods are important for the circulation and dispersal of organic material in the marine environment. Despite their dominance in the scavenging guild and importance in the food web, little is known about Arctic amphipods and their feeding preferences. We studied the amphipod scavenging guild using baited traps for one full year to increase our understanding of its seasonal variations. Two Arctic fjords with contrasting hydrographical conditions were studied: Adventfjorden, which...

  1. Scavenging efficiency and red fox abundance in Mediterranean mountains with and without vultures

    Science.gov (United States)

    Morales-Reyes, Zebensui; Sánchez-Zapata, José A.; Sebastián-González, Esther; Botella, Francisco; Carrete, Martina; Moleón, Marcos

    2017-02-01

    Vertebrate scavenging assemblages include two major functional groups: obligate scavengers (i.e., vultures), which depend totally on carrion and are undergoing severe declines around the globe, and facultative scavengers, which exploit carrion opportunistically and are generally ubiquitous. Our goal was to investigate the hypothesis that vultures can indirectly regulate the abundance of mesopredators (i.e., facultative scavengers) through modulating their access to carrion resources. We studied scavenging efficiency and red fox (Vulpes vulpes) abundance in two neighbouring areas of South-eastern Spain where vultures (mainly griffon vultures Gyps fulvus) are present (Cazorla) and absent (Espuña). To do so, we monitored ungulate carcasses consumption during winter and summer, and counted red fox scats along walking transects as a proxy of fox density. Our results confirmed that scavenging efficiency was higher in Cazorla and in carcasses visited by vultures. This resulted in increasing scavenging opportunities for facultative scavengers where vultures were absent. Accordingly, mean red fox abundance was higher in Espuña. These results suggest the existence of a vulture-mediated mesopredator release (i.e., an increase of mesopredator numbers following vulture loss), which could trigger important indirect ecological effects. Also, our study demonstrates that facultative scavengers are hardly able to functionally replace vultures, mainly because the former exploit carrion on a slower time scale.

  2. Cordycepin Prevents Bone Loss through Inhibiting Osteoclastogenesis by Scavenging ROS Generation

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ce Dou

    2016-04-01

    Full Text Available Cordycepin was previously reported to have anti-tumor, anti-inflammatory and anti-oxidant activity. However, the potential role of cordycepin in bone metabolism and cell biology of osteoclasts remains unclear. In our study, we focused on the in vitro effects of cordycepin on osteoclastogenesis and its in vivo effects in ovariectomized (OVX mice. Osteoclast differentiation, formation and fusion were evaluated by Tartrate-resistant acid phosphatase (TRAP stain, focal adhesion stain and fusion assay, respectively. Osteoclastic bone resorption was evaluated by pit formation assay. Reactive oxygen species (ROS generation and removal were detected by the ROS assay. OVX mice were orally administered with 10 mg/kg of cordycepin daily for four weeks. In vitro results revealed that cordycepin inhibited receptor activator of nuclear factor κB ligand (RANKL-induced osteoclast differentiation, formation, fusion and bone resorption activity. We further proved that cordycepin treatments scavenged the generation of ROS, upregulated interferon regulatory factor 8 (IRF-8 and suppressed the activity of nuclear factor of activated T cells c1 (NFATc1 during osteoclastogenesis. In vivo results indicated cordycepin prevents bone loss, rescues bone microarchitecture, and restores bone mineralization in OVX mice. Our observations strongly suggested that cordycepin is an efficient osteoclast inhibitor and hold potential therapeutic value in preventing bone loss among postmenopausal osteoporosis patients.

  3. Scoparone attenuates RANKL-induced osteoclastic differentiation through controlling reactive oxygen species production and scavenging

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Lee, Sang-Hyun; Jang, Hae-Dong, E-mail: haedong@hnu.kr

    2015-02-15

    Scoparone, one of the bioactive components of Artemisia capillaris Thunb, has various biological properties including immunosuppressive, hepatoprotective, anti-allergic, anti-inflammatory, and antioxidant effects. This study aims at evaluating the anti-osteoporotic effect of scoparone and its underlying mechanism in vitro. Scoparone demonstrated potent cellular antioxidant capacity. It was also found that scoparone inhibited the receptor activator of nuclear factor-κB ligand (RANKL)-induced osteoclast differentiation and suppressed cathepsin K and tartrate-resistant acid phosphatase (TRAP) expression via c-jun N-terminal kinase (JNK)/extracellular signal-regulated kinase (ERK)/p38-mediated c-Fos–nuclear factor of activated T cells, cytoplasmic 1 (NFATc1) signaling pathway. During osteoclast differentiation, the production of general reactive oxygen species (ROS) and superoxide anions was dose-dependently attenuated by scoparone. In addition, scoparone diminished NADPH (nicotinamide adenine dinucleotide phosphate) oxidase 1 (Nox1) expression and activation via the tumor necrosis factor receptor-associated factor 6 (TRAF6)–cSrc–phosphatidylinositol 3-kinase (PI3k) signaling pathway and prevented the disruption of mitochondrial electron transport chain system. Furthermore, scoparone augmented the expression of superoxide dismutase 1 (SOD1) and catalase (CAT). The overall results indicate that the inhibitory effect of scoparone on RANKL-induced osteoclast differentiation is attributed to the suppressive effect on ROS and superoxide anion production by inhibiting Nox1 expression and activation and protecting the mitochondrial electron transport chain system and the scavenging effect of ROS resulting from elevated SOD1 and CAT expression. - Highlights: • Scoparone dose-dependently inhibited RANKL-induced osteoclast differentiation. • Scoparone diminished general ROS and superoxide anions in a dose-dependent manner. • Scoparone inhibited Nox1 expression and

  4. Enhanced radical scavenging activity of a procyanidin B3 analogue comprised of a dimer of planar catechin.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mizuno, Mirei; Nakanishi, Ikuo; Matsumoto, Ken-Ichiro; Fukuhara, Kiyoshi

    2017-11-15

    Proanthocyanidins are oligomers of catechins that exhibit potent antioxidative activity and inhibit binding of oxidized low-density lipoprotein (OxLDL) to the lectin-like oxidized LDL receptor (LOX-1), which is involved in the onset and development of arteriosclerosis. Previous attempts aimed at developing proanthocyanidin derivatives with more potent antioxidative activity and stronger inhibition for LOX-1 demonstrated the synthesis of a novel proanthocyanidin derivative (1), in which the geometry of one catechin molecule in procyanidin B3 was constrained to a planar orientation. The radical scavenging activity of 1 was 1.9-fold higher than that of procyanidin B3. Herein, we synthesized another procyanidin B3 analogue (2), in which the geometries of both catechin molecules in the dimer were constrained to planar orientations. The radical scavenging activity of 2 was 1.5-fold higher than that of 1, suggesting that 2 may be a more effective candidate than 1 as a therapeutic agent to reduce oxidative stress induced in arteriosclerosis or related cerebrovascular disease. Copyright © 2017. Published by Elsevier Ltd.

  5. Microbial copper reduction method to scavenge anthropogenic radioiodine

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lee, Seung Yeop; Lee, Ji Young; Min, Je Ho; Kim, Seung Soo; Baik, Min Hoon; Chung, Sang Yong; Lee, Minhee; Lee, Yongjae

    2016-06-01

    Unexpected reactor accidents and radioisotope production and consumption have led to a continuous increase in the global-scale contamination of radionuclides. In particular, anthropogenic radioiodine has become critical due to its highly volatile mobilization and recycling in global environments, resulting in widespread, negative impact on nature. We report a novel biostimulant method to effectively scavenge radioiodine that exhibits remarkable selectivity for the highly difficult-to-capture radioiodine of >500-fold over other anions, even under circumneutral pH. We discovered a useful mechanism by which microbially reducible copper (i.e., Cu2+ to Cu+) acts as a strong binder for iodide-iodide anions to form a crystalline halide salt of CuI that is highly insoluble in wastewater. The biocatalytic crystallization of radioiodine is a promising way to remove radioiodine in a great capacity with robust growth momentum, further ensuring its long-term stability through nuclear I- fixation via microcrystal formation.

  6. Kinetic radical-scavenging activity of colchicine and tropolone.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kadoma, Yoshinori; Ishihara, Mariko; Yokoe, Ichiro; Fujisawa, Seiichiro

    2007-01-01

    The kinetics of radical-scavenging activities for colchicine and tropolone remain unknown. Their antioxidant activities were determined by the induction period (IP) method in the polymerization of methyl methacrylate initiated by thermal decomposition of 2,2'-azobisisobutyronitrile (AIBN, R*) or benzoyl peroxide (BPO, PhCOO*) using differential scanning calorimetry (DSC) under nearly anaerobic conditions. The IPs for colchicine and tropolone were very short despite the addition of a high concentration of these compounds relative to initiators; the stoichiometric factor (n, the number of moles of PhCOO* trapped by the antioxidant) was approximately 0.03 and 0.04 for colchicine and tropolone, respectively. The n value of these compounds for R* was less than that for PhCOO*. The rate constant of inhibition to that of propagation (kinh/kp) for both compounds was 23-27, and the difference between them was considerably small. Both compounds had weak antioxidant properties at very high concentrations.

  7. Scavenger: Transparent Development of Efficient Cyber Foraging Applications

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Kristensen, Mads Darø

    2010-01-01

    Cyber foraging is a pervasive computing technique where small mobile devices offload resource intensive tasks to stronger computing machinery in the vicinity. This paper presents Scavenger-a new cyber foraging system supporting easy development of mobile cyber foraging applications, while still...... delivering efficient, mobile use of remote computing resources through the use of a custom built mobile code execution environment and a new dual-profiling scheduler. One of the main difficulties within cyber foraging is that it is very challenging for application programmers to develop cyber foraging...... enabled applications. An application using cyber foraging is working with mobile, distributed and, possibly, parallel computing; fields within computer science known to be hard for programmers to grasp. In this paper it is shown by example, how a highly distributed, parallel, cyber foraging enabled...

  8. The role of vasoactive intestinal peptide in scavenging singlet oxygen

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Misra, B.R.; Misra, H.P. (Virginia Polytechnic Inst. and State Univ., Blacksburg (United States))

    1990-02-26

    The neuropeptide vasoactive intestinal peptide (VIP), a highly basic 28 amino acid peptide, has a widespread distribution in the body. The functional specificity of this peptide not only includes its potent vasodilatory activity, but also its role in protecting lungs against acute injury, in preventing T-lymphocyte proliferation and in modulating immune function. The purpose of this study was to examine the possible antioxidant properties of VIP. The authors found that VIP up to 50 {mu}g/ml had no inhibitory effect on its reduction of cytochrome C by xanthine and xanthine oxidase, indicating that the peptide does not have significant O{sub 2} scavenging ability. However, VIP was found to inhibit, in a dose-dependent manner, the {sup 1}O{sub 2} dependent 2, 2, 6, 6 tetramethyl piperidine oxide (TEMPO) formation. {sup 1}O{sub 2} was produced by rose benzal photosensitizing system and was detected as TEMP-{sup 1}O{sub 2} adduct (TEMPO) by electron paramagnetic resonance (EPR) spectroscopic technique. The formation of TEMPO signal was strongly inhibited by {beta}-carotene, histidine as well as azide, but not by superoxide dismutase (48 {mu}g/ml), catalase (20 {mu}g/ml) and mannitol (6mM), indicating that TEMPO signal was a TEMP-{sup 1}O{sub 2} adduct. These results indicate that VIP has potent antioxidant activity and may serve as a singlet O{sub 2} scavenger, thus it may modulate the oxidative tissue injury caused by this reactive oxygen species.

  9. Hydroxybenzoic acids and their derivatives as peroxynitrite scavengers.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hubková, Beáta; Veliká, Beáta; Birková, Anna; Guzy, Juraj; Mareková, Mária

    2014-10-01

    A social challenge of the 21(st) century is to reduce the incidence of chronic diseases. A balanced diet rich in polyphenols could contribute to reduce the risk and to the prevention of diabetes, coronary heart disease, cancer, Alzheimer's diseases and cataract(1). Hydroxybenzoic acids (HBA) and their derivatives, which are one of the substances responsible for these beneficial properties, are known mainly due to their antioxidant properties(2). They are effective scavengers of free radicals and reactive nitrogen species, such as peroxynitrite. Peroxynitrite is resulting from the reaction of nitric oxide with superoxide, causes lipid peroxidation and subsequent cellular damage and is responsible for the inactivation of many enzymes, activation of stress signalling pathways, release of proapoptotic factors, as well as cardiovascular dysfunction in septic schock(3). In this study we have tested 2-HBA, 3-HBA, 4-HBA, acetylsalicylic acid, 4-HBA methyl and propyl esters, 2,3-dihydroxybenzoic acid (DHBA), 2,5-DHBA, 2,4-DHBA, 2,6-DHBA, 3,5-DHBA, 3,4-DHBA, gallic acid and caffeic acid, by UV/VIS spectroscopy. The best ability to scavenge peroxynitrite was observed for gallic acid, 2,4-DHBA, 3,5-DHBA and caffeic acid. Improved comprehension of the complex relationship between the antioxidant properties of substances and their structure is important to understand their proper use in the prevention and treatment of diseases and for the detection of pathological processes. Monitoring and improved understanding of the antioxidant properties of hydroxybenzoic acid derivatives are important due to their frequent use in modern medical nutrition therapies. Copyright © 2014. Published by Elsevier Inc.

  10. Molecular Mechanisms behind Free Radical Scavengers Function against Oxidative Stress.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ahmadinejad, Fereshteh; Geir Møller, Simon; Hashemzadeh-Chaleshtori, Morteza; Bidkhori, Gholamreza; Jami, Mohammad-Saeid

    2017-07-10

    Accumulating evidence shows that oxidative stress is involved in a wide variety of human diseases: rheumatoid arthritis, Alzheimer's disease, Parkinson's disease, cancers, etc. Here, we discuss the significance of oxidative conditions in different disease, with the focus on neurodegenerative disease including Parkinson's disease, which is mainly caused by oxidative stress. Reactive oxygen and nitrogen species (ROS and RNS, respectively), collectively known as RONS, are produced by cellular enzymes such as myeloperoxidase, NADPH-oxidase (nicotinamide adenine dinucleotide phosphate-oxidase) and nitric oxide synthase (NOS). Natural antioxidant systems are categorized into enzymatic and non-enzymatic antioxidant groups. The former includes a number of enzymes such as catalase and glutathione peroxidase, while the latter contains a number of antioxidants acquired from dietary sources including vitamin C, carotenoids, flavonoids and polyphenols. There are also scavengers used for therapeutic purposes, such as 3,4-dihydroxyphenylalanine (L-DOPA) used routinely in the treatment of Parkinson's disease (not as a free radical scavenger), and 3-methyl-1-phenyl-2-pyrazolin-5-one (Edaravone) that acts as a free radical detoxifier frequently used in acute ischemic stroke. The cell surviving properties of L-DOPA and Edaravone against oxidative stress conditions rely on the alteration of a number of stress proteins such as Annexin A1, Peroxiredoxin-6 and PARK7/DJ-1 (Parkinson disease protein 7, also known as Protein deglycase DJ-1). Although they share the targets in reversing the cytotoxic effects of H₂O₂, they seem to have distinct mechanism of function. Exposure to L-DOPA may result in hypoxia condition and further induction of ORP150 (150-kDa oxygen-regulated protein) with its concomitant cytoprotective effects but Edaravone seems to protect cells via direct induction of Peroxiredoxin-2 and inhibition of apoptosis.

  11. Molecular Mechanisms behind Free Radical Scavengers Function against Oxidative Stress

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Fereshteh Ahmadinejad

    2017-07-01

    Full Text Available Accumulating evidence shows that oxidative stress is involved in a wide variety of human diseases: rheumatoid arthritis, Alzheimer’s disease, Parkinson’s disease, cancers, etc. Here, we discuss the significance of oxidative conditions in different disease, with the focus on neurodegenerative disease including Parkinson’s disease, which is mainly caused by oxidative stress. Reactive oxygen and nitrogen species (ROS and RNS, respectively, collectively known as RONS, are produced by cellular enzymes such as myeloperoxidase, NADPH-oxidase (nicotinamide adenine dinucleotide phosphate-oxidase and nitric oxide synthase (NOS. Natural antioxidant systems are categorized into enzymatic and non-enzymatic antioxidant groups. The former includes a number of enzymes such as catalase and glutathione peroxidase, while the latter contains a number of antioxidants acquired from dietary sources including vitamin C, carotenoids, flavonoids and polyphenols. There are also scavengers used for therapeutic purposes, such as 3,4-dihydroxyphenylalanine (L-DOPA used routinely in the treatment of Parkinson’s disease (not as a free radical scavenger, and 3-methyl-1-phenyl-2-pyrazolin-5-one (Edaravone that acts as a free radical detoxifier frequently used in acute ischemic stroke. The cell surviving properties of L-DOPA and Edaravone against oxidative stress conditions rely on the alteration of a number of stress proteins such as Annexin A1, Peroxiredoxin-6 and PARK7/DJ-1 (Parkinson disease protein 7, also known as Protein deglycase DJ-1. Although they share the targets in reversing the cytotoxic effects of H2O2, they seem to have distinct mechanism of function. Exposure to L-DOPA may result in hypoxia condition and further induction of ORP150 (150-kDa oxygen-regulated protein with its concomitant cytoprotective effects but Edaravone seems to protect cells via direct induction of Peroxiredoxin-2 and inhibition of apoptosis.

  12. pH-dependent radical scavenging capacity of green tea catechins

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Muzolf, M.; Szymusiak, H.; Gliszczynska-Swiglo, A.; Rietjens, I.M.C.M.; Tyrakowska, B.

    2008-01-01

    The effect of pH on the radical scavenging capacity of green tea catechins was investigated using experimental as well as theoretical methods. It was shown that the radical scavenging capacity of the catechins, quantified by the TEAC value, increases with increasing pH of the medium. Comparison of

  13. In vitro anti-inflammatory and free radical scavenging activities of ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    The antiinflammatory potential was carried out using inhibition of protein denaturation of egg albumin as a model of anti-inflammatory capacity. Results: Both the crude methanolic extract and saponins showed inhibition of DPPH, ABTS and NO2 scavenging activity. However, the free radical scavenging activity of isolated ...

  14. Radical Scavenging Capacity of Wine Anthocyanins Is Strongly pH-Dependent

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Borowski, T.; Tyrakowska, B.; Oszmianski, J.; Rietjens, I.M.C.M.

    2005-01-01

    The radical scavenging capacity of red wine anthocyanins was quantified by the so-called TEAC assay with special emphasis on the influence of pH and conjugation on this activity. The pH appears to be a dominant factor in the radical scavenging capacity of wine anthocyanins, with higher pH values

  15. Identification of Radical Scavenging Compounds in Rhaponticum carthamoides by Means of LC-DAD-SPE-NMR

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Miliauskas, G.; Beek, van T.A.; Waard, de P.; Venskutonis, R.P.; Sudhölter, E.J.R.

    2005-01-01

    A hyphenated LC-DAD-SPE-NMR setup in combination with on-line radical scavenging detection has been applied for the identification of radical scavenging compounds in extracts of Rhaponticum carthamoides. After NMR measurements, the pure compounds were infused into a mass spectrometer. The technique

  16. Role of allyl group in the hydroxyl and peroxyl radical scavenging activity of S-allylcysteine.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Maldonado, Perla D; Alvarez-Idaboy, J Raúl; Aguilar-González, Adriana; Lira-Rocha, Alfonso; Jung-Cook, Helgi; Medina-Campos, Omar Noel; Pedraza-Chaverrí, José; Galano, Annia

    2011-11-17

    S-Allylcysteine (SAC) is the most abundant compound in aged garlic extracts, and its antioxidant properties have been demonstrated. It is known that SAC is able to scavenge different reactive species including hydroxyl radical (•OH), although its potential ability to scavenge peroxyl radical (ROO•) has not been explored. In this work the ability of SAC to scavenge ROO• was evaluated, as well as the role of the allyl group (-S-CH(2)-CH═CH(2)) in its free radical scavenging activity. Two derived compounds of SAC were prepared: S-benzylcysteine (SBC) and S-propylcysteine (SPC). Their abilities to scavenge •OH and ROO• were measured. A computational analysis was performed to elucidate the mechanism by which these compounds scavenge •OH and ROO•. SAC was able to scavenge •OH and ROO•, in a concentration-dependent way. Such activity was significantly ameliorated when the allyl group was replaced by benzyl or propyl groups. It was shown for the first time that SAC is able to scavenge ROO•.

  17. Flavonoids function as antioxidants: By scavenging reactive oxygen species or by chelating iron?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wuguo, Deng; Xingwang, Fang; Jilan, Wu

    1997-09-01

    Flavonoids have been reported to exhibit strong antioxidative activity. In the present work, a systematic mechanistic study has been performed on five flavonoids (baicalin, hesperidin, naringin, quercetin and rutin) selected according to their structural characteristics. The experimental results reveal that flavonoids function as antioxidant mainly by chelating iron ions and by scavenging peroxyl radicals whereas their OH radical scavenging effect is much less important.

  18. Model testing the two-phase scavenging system in a two-stroke petrol engine

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Cudina, M. [University of Ljubljana (Slovenia). Faculty of Mechanical Engineering

    2004-11-01

    Due to an inadequate scavenging process two-stroke petrol engines suffer from substantial fuel-specific consumption, as well as from considerable emissions of toxic components in exhaust gases. This paper describes the model testing and evaluation of a new scavenging system in a small two-stroke petrol engine with internal working mixture preparation. The scavenging process is performed by two different gas media in two successive phases and is more sophisticated and effective than the conventional single-phase (Schnuerle) principle. Using the similarity principle and dimensional analysis, a new mathematical model was developed for evaluation of the effectiveness of the scavenging systems. This makes it possible to establish relationships between the most important parameters of the model engine and of the real engine, which are independent of the dimensional parameters. The effectiveness of the scavenging systems was defined by means of qualitative scavenging efficiency. A special testing device for the model engine has been developed and a liquid working media (instead of gaseous) is used. A qualitative as well as a quantitative evaluation of the predicted values and a simulation of the working medium exchange process at different working conditions is possible. A visual observation of the slowed-down scavenging process in a transparent model cylinder was also made. The mathematical model can be applied to any scavenging system of two-stroke engines or to similar periodic events in the process technique. (author)

  19. Optimum injection dose rate of hydrogen sulfide scavenger for treatment of petroleum crude oil

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    T.M. Elshiekh

    2016-03-01

    Full Text Available Hydrogen sulfide H2S scavengers are chemicals that favorably react with hydrogen sulfide gas to eliminate it and produce environmental friendly products. These products depend on the type and composition of the scavenger and the conditions at which the reaction takes place. The scavenger should be widely available and economical for industry acceptance by having a low unit cost. The optimum values of H2S scavenger injection dose rate of scavenging hydrogen sulfide from the multiphase fluid produced at different wells conditions in one of the Petroleum Companies in Egypt were studied. The optimum values of H2S scavenger injection dose rate depend on pipe diameter, pipe length, gas molar mass velocity, inlet H2S concentration and pressure. The optimization results are obtained for different values of these parameters using the software program Lingo. In general, the optimum values of H2S scavenger injection dose rate of the scavenging of hydrogen sulfide are increased by increasing of the pipe diameter and increasing the inlet H2S concentration, and decreased by increasing the pipe length, gas molar mass velocity and pressure.

  20. Predatory blue crabs induce stronger nonconsumptive effects in eastern oysters Crassostrea virginica than scavenging blue crabs

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Avery E. Scherer

    2017-02-01

    Full Text Available By influencing critical prey traits such as foraging or habitat selection, predators can affect entire ecosystems, but the nature of cues that trigger prey reactions to predators are not well understood. Predators may scavenge to supplement their energetic needs and scavenging frequency may vary among individuals within a species due to preferences and prey availability. Yet prey reactions to consumers that are primarily scavengers versus those that are active foragers have not been investigated, even though variation in prey reactions to scavengers or predators might influence cascading nonconsumptive effects in food webs. Oysters Crassostrea virginica react to crab predators by growing stronger shells. We exposed oysters to exudates from crabs fed live oysters or fed aged oyster tissue to simulate scavenging, and to controls without crab cues. Oysters grew stronger shells when exposed to either crab exudate, but their shells were significantly stronger when crabs were fed live oysters. The stronger response to predators than scavengers could be due to inherent differences in diet cues representative of reduced risk in the presence of scavengers or to degradation of conspecific alarm cues in aged treatments, which may mask risk from potential predators subsisting by scavenging.

  1. The French Paradox: Determining the Superoxide-Scavenging Capacity of Red Wine and Other Beverages

    Science.gov (United States)

    Logan, Barry A.; Hammond, Matthew P.; Stormo, Benjamin M.

    2008-01-01

    Plant-derived phenolic compounds such as those found in red wine, tea, and certain fruit juices may protect against cardiovascular disease by detoxifying (scavenging) superoxide and other unstable reactive oxygen species. We present a laboratory exercise that can be used to assess the superoxide-scavenging capacity of beverages. Among the…

  2. Isolation and Structure Elucidation of Radical Scavengers from Thymus vulgaris Leaves

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Dapkevicius, A.; Beek, van T.A.; Lelyveld, G.P.; Veldhuizen, van A.; Groot, de Æ.; Linssen, J.P.H.; Venskutonis, R.

    2002-01-01

    2,2-Diphenyl-1-picrylhydrazyl radical (DPPH*) scavenging activity-guided fractionation of a leaf extract of Thymus vulgaris led to the isolation of the radical scavengers rosmarinic acid 1, eriodictyol, taxifolin, luteolin 7-glucuronide, p-cymene 2,3-diol, p-cymene 2,3-diol 6-6'-dimer, carvacrol,

  3. Evaluation of free radical scavenging properties of two classical polyherbal formulations.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bagul, Milind S; Kanaki, Niranjan S; Rajani, M

    2005-08-01

    Two polyherbal formulations of Ayurveda viz., Chandraprabha Vati and Maha yogaraja Guggulu were evaluated for their free radical scavenging properties. Methanolic extracts of the formulations were studied in four different in vitro and ex vivo models. Total phenolic content of Chandraprabha Vati and Maha yogaraja Guggulu was found to be 5.24% and 10.74% respectively. Methanolic extracts of the formulations were good scavengers of all the radicals but there was a difference in the activity of the two formulations in different models. Chandraprabha Vati was a good scavenger of superoxide radical and Maha yogaraja Guggulu was efficient in scavenging nitric oxide (NO), while both inhibited lipid peroxidation efficiently. Free radical scavenging activity of the different extracts can be attributed to the presence of various chemical components including phenolics.

  4. High-Performance Isocyanide Scavengers for Use in Low-Waste Purification of Olefin Metathesis Products.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Szczepaniak, Grzegorz; Urbaniak, Katarzyna; Wierzbicka, Celina; Kosiński, Krzysztof; Skowerski, Krzysztof; Grela, Karol

    2015-12-21

    Three isocyanides containing a tertiary nitrogen atom were investigated for use as small-molecule ruthenium scavenging agents in the workup of olefin metathesis reactions. The proposed compounds are odorless, easy to obtain, and highly effective in removing metal residues, sometimes bringing the metal content below 0.0015 ppm. The most successful of the tested compounds, II, performs very well, even with challenging polar products. The performance of these scavengers is compared and contrasted with other known techniques, such as silica gel filtration and the use of self-scavenging catalysts. As a result, a new hybrid purification method is devised, which gives better results than using either a self-scavenging catalyst or a scavenger alone. Additionally, isocyanide II is shown to be a deactivating (reaction quenching) agent for olefin metathesis and superior to ethyl vinyl ether. © 2015 The Authors. Published by Wiley-VCH Verlag GmbH & Co. KGaA.

  5. Solvent effects and improvements in the deoxyribose degradation assay for hydroxyl radical-scavenging.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Li, Xican

    2013-12-01

    The deoxyribose degradation assay is widely used to evaluate the hydroxyl (OH) radical-scavenging ability of food or medicines. We compared the hydroxyl radical-scavenging activity of 25 antioxidant samples prepared in ethanol solution with samples prepared after removing the ethanol (residue). The data suggested that there was an approximately 9-fold difference between assay results for the ethanol solution and residue samples. This indicated a strong alcoholic interference. To further study the mechanism, the scavenging activities of 18 organic solvents (including ethanol) were measured by the deoxyribose assay. Most pure organic solvents (especially alcohols) could effectively scavenge hydroxyl radicals. As hydroxyl radicals have extremely high reactivities, they will quickly react with surrounding solvent molecules. This shows that any organic solvent should be completely evaporated before measurement. The proposed method is regarded as a reliable hydroxyl radical-scavenging assay, suitable for all types of antioxidants. Copyright © 2013 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  6. Fatal embryo chondral damage associated with fluoroquinolones in eggs of threatened avian scavengers

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Lemus, J.A. [Departamento de Ecologia Evolutiva, Museo Nacional de Ciencias Naturales (CSIC), J. Gutierrez Abascal 2, 28006 Madrid (Spain); Blanco, G., E-mail: gublanco2@yahoo.e [Departamento de Ecologia Evolutiva, Museo Nacional de Ciencias Naturales (CSIC), J. Gutierrez Abascal 2, 28006 Madrid (Spain); Arroyo, B.; Martinez, F.; Grande, J. [Departamento de Ecologia Evolutiva, Museo Nacional de Ciencias Naturales (CSIC), J. Gutierrez Abascal 2, 28006 Madrid (Spain)

    2009-08-15

    Stabled livestock reared in housed conditions are often subjected to intensive treatments with veterinary drug, which residues may be present in livestock meat ingested by scavengers, but nothing is known about their presence in eggs of wild birds and their potential detrimental effects on breeding success. We searched for residues of veterinary drugs and other toxicants in infertile and embryonated unhatched eggs of griffon vultures (Gyps fulvus) and red kites (Milvus milvus), two threatened avian scavengers. Quinolones (ciprofloxacin and enrofloxacin) were found in most unhatched eggs of both scavenger species clearly associated with severe alterations in the development of embryo cartilage and bones that could preclude embryo movements and subsequently normal development, pre-hatch position and successful hatching. The detrimental effects on developing eggs of veterinary drugs from livestock operations may help to explain reduced breeding success of avian scavengers. - Fluoroquinolones used in livestock farming and found in eggs of avian scavenger caused severe alterations in embryo cartilage and bone development.

  7. Activation of pregnane X receptor by pregnenolone 16 α-carbonitrile prevents high-fat diet-induced obesity in AKR/J mice.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Yongjie Ma

    Full Text Available Pregnane X receptor (PXR is known to function as a xenobiotic sensor to regulate xenobiotic metabolism through selective transcription of genes responsible for maintaining physiological homeostasis. Here we report that the activation of PXR by pregnenolone 16α-carbonitrile (PCN in AKR/J mice can prevent the development of high-fat diet-induced obesity and insulin resistance. The beneficial effects of PCN treatment are seen with reduced lipogenesis and gluconeogenesis in the liver, and lack of hepatic accumulation of lipid and lipid storage in the adipose tissues. RT-PCR analysis of genes involved in gluconeogenesis, lipid metabolism and energy homeostasis reveal that PCN treatment on high-fat diet-fed mice reduces expression in the liver of G6Pase, Pepck, Cyp7a1, Cd36, L-Fabp, Srebp, and Fas genes and slightly enhances expression of Cyp27a1 and Abca1 genes. RT-PCR analysis of genes involved in adipocyte differentiation and lipid metabolism in white adipose tissue show that PCN treatment reduces expression of Pparγ2, Acc1, Cd36, but increases expression of Cpt1b and Pparα genes in mice fed with high-fat diet. Similarly, PCN treatment of animals on high-fat diet increases expression in brown adipose tissue of Pparα, Hsl, Cpt1b, and Cd36 genes, but reduces expression of Acc1 and Scd-1 genes. PXR activation by PCN in high-fat diet fed mice also increases expression of genes involved in thermogenesis in brown adipose tissue including Dio2, Pgc-1α, Pgc-1β, Cidea, and Ucp-3. These results verify the important function of PXR in lipid and energy metabolism and suggest that PXR represents a novel therapeutic target for prevention and treatment of obesity and insulin resistance.

  8. Biomass flow and scavengers use of carcasses after re-colonization of an apex predator.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Camilla Wikenros

    Full Text Available BACKGROUND: Reestablishment of apex predators influences the availability and distribution of biomass for scavengers and can therefore be an important agent for structuring species communities. We studied how the re-colonization of the Scandinavian Peninsula by wolves (Canis lupus affected the amount and temporal variation in use of moose (Alces alces carcasses. METHODOLOGY/PRINCIPAL FINDINGS: We compared the availability of biomass from remains at wolf kills with those killed by hunters, vehicle collisions and natural death. Movement-triggered cameras monitored patterns of use on wolf kills and remains from hunter harvest by scavengers (n = 15,276 in relation to time of year, available carcass biomass, time since the death of the moose and presence of wolves. Remains from hunter harvest were the largest food source for scavengers both within wolf territories (57% and in areas without wolves (81%. The total annual biomass available were similar in areas with (25,648 kg and without (24,289 kg wolves. Presence of wolves lowered the peak biomass available from hunter harvest in October (20% and increased biomass available during December to August (38-324% per month. The probability of scavengers being present decreased faster with time at remains from hunter harvest compared to wolf kills and both the probability of being present and the number of visits by scavengers to wolf kills increased as the amount of biomass available on the carcass increased. CONCLUSIONS/SIGNIFICANCE: Wolves reduced the seasonal variation of biomass from moose carcasses and most important increased it during spring. Scavengers also visited wolf kills most frequently during spring when most scavenging species have young, which may lead to an increase in survival and/or reproductive success of scavengers within wolf territories. This applies both for abundant scavenging species that were the most frequent visitors at wolf kills and threatened scavengers with lower visit

  9. Wet scavenging of soluble gases in DC3 deep convective storms using WRF-Chem simulations and aircraft observations: DEEP CONVECTIVE WET SCAVENGING OF GASES

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Bela, Megan M. [Department of Atmospheric and Oceanic Sciences, University of Colorado Boulder, Boulder Colorado USA; Laboratory for Atmospheric and Space Physics, University of Colorado Boulder, Boulder Colorado USA; Barth, Mary C. [National Center for Atmospheric Research, Boulder Colorado USA; Toon, Owen B. [Department of Atmospheric and Oceanic Sciences, University of Colorado Boulder, Boulder Colorado USA; Laboratory for Atmospheric and Space Physics, University of Colorado Boulder, Boulder Colorado USA; Fried, Alan [Institute of Arctic and Alpine Research, University of Colorado Boulder, Boulder Colorado USA; Homeyer, Cameron R. [School of Meteorology, University of Oklahoma, Norman Oklahoma USA; Morrison, Hugh [National Center for Atmospheric Research, Boulder Colorado USA; Cummings, Kristin A. [Department of Atmospheric and Oceanic Science, University of Maryland, College Park Maryland USA; Li, Yunyao [Department of Atmospheric and Oceanic Science, University of Maryland, College Park Maryland USA; Pickering, Kenneth E. [Department of Atmospheric and Oceanic Science, University of Maryland, College Park Maryland USA; National Aeronautics and Space Administration/Goddard Space Flight Center, Greenbelt Maryland USA; Allen, Dale J. [Department of Atmospheric and Oceanic Science, University of Maryland, College Park Maryland USA; Yang, Qing [Pacific Northwest National Laboratory, Richland Washington USA; Wennberg, Paul O. [Division of Geological and Planetary Sciences, California Institute of Technology, Pasadena California USA; Division of Engineering and Applied Science, California Institute of Technology, Pasadena California USA; Crounse, John D. [Division of Geological and Planetary Sciences, California Institute of Technology, Pasadena California USA; St. Clair, Jason M. [National Aeronautics and Space Administration/Goddard Space Flight Center, Greenbelt Maryland USA; Division of Geological and Planetary Sciences, California Institute of Technology, Pasadena California USA; Joint Center for Earth Systems Technology, University of Maryland, Baltimore County, Baltimore Maryland USA; Teng, Alex P. [Division of Geological and Planetary Sciences, California Institute of Technology, Pasadena California USA; O' Sullivan, Daniel [U.S. Naval Academy, Annapolis Maryland USA; Huey, L. Gregory [School of Earth and Atmospheric Sciences, Georgia Institute of Technology, Atlanta Georgia USA; Chen, Dexian [School of Earth and Atmospheric Sciences, Georgia Institute of Technology, Atlanta Georgia USA; Liu, Xiaoxi [School of Earth and Atmospheric Sciences, Georgia Institute of Technology, Atlanta Georgia USA; Blake, Donald R. [Department of Chemistry, University of California, Irvine California USA; Blake, Nicola J. [Department of Chemistry, University of California, Irvine California USA; Apel, Eric C. [National Center for Atmospheric Research, Boulder Colorado USA; Hornbrook, Rebecca S. [National Center for Atmospheric Research, Boulder Colorado USA; Flocke, Frank [National Center for Atmospheric Research, Boulder Colorado USA; Campos, Teresa [National Center for Atmospheric Research, Boulder Colorado USA; Diskin, Glenn [NASA Langley Research Center, Hampton Virginia USA

    2016-04-21

    We examine wet scavenging of soluble trace gases in storms observed during the Deep Convective Clouds and Chemistry (DC3) field campaign. We conduct high-resolution simulations with the Weather Research and Forecasting model with Chemistry (WRF-Chem) of a severe storm in Oklahoma. The model represents well the storm location, size, and structure as compared with Next Generation Weather Radar reflectivity, and simulated CO transport is consistent with aircraft observations. Scavenging efficiencies (SEs) between inflow and outflow of soluble species are calculated from aircraft measurements and model simulations. Using a simple wet scavenging scheme, we simulate the SE of each soluble species within the error bars of the observations. The simulated SEs of all species except nitric acid (HNO3) are highly sensitive to the values specified for the fractions retained in ice when cloud water freezes. To reproduce the observations, we must assume zero ice retention for formaldehyde (CH2O) and hydrogen peroxide (H2O2) and complete retention for methyl hydrogen peroxide (CH3OOH) and sulfur dioxide (SO2), likely to compensate for the lack of aqueous chemistry in the model. We then compare scavenging efficiencies among storms that formed in Alabama and northeast Colorado and the Oklahoma storm. Significant differences in SEs are seen among storms and species. More scavenging of HNO3 and less removal of CH3OOH are seen in storms with higher maximum flash rates, an indication of more graupel mass. Graupel is associated with mixed-phase scavenging and lightning production of nitrogen oxides (NOx ), processes that may explain the observed differences in HNO3 and CH3OOH scavenging.

  10. Carcass composition of Venda indigenous scavenging chickens under village management

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Thomas Raphulu

    2015-05-01

    Full Text Available Four Venda indigenous scavenging (VIS chickens (one young male and one young female of 10–16 weeks of age, a mature cockerel and a mature hen were randomly purchased from each of six adjacent rural villages during three different seasons (autumn, winter and spring to determine the meat yield and carcass chemical composition. A total of 72 chickens were slaughtered and feathers, head, neck, viscera, feet and lungs were removed. The live body weight, dressed carcass weight and also the mass of the breast without wings, thighs and drumsticks were recorded with bones and skin. The muscle tissues of the breast and both legs without tendons and fat were sampled for chemical analysis and were analysed for dry matter, ether extract, crude protein and ash. The carcass weight, dressing %, mass of the breast, mass of the thighs, mass of the drumsticks, breast yield, thighs yield and drumsticks yield of both grower and adult VIS chickens were not influenced by season. The crude protein of the grower chickens breast muscles and fat content of the adult chicken leg muscles differed with season. The meat from VIS chickens provided a constant nutrient (crude protein supply throughout the year to the rural communities.

  11. In vitro radical scavenging activity of two Columbian Magnoliaceae

    Science.gov (United States)

    Puertas M., Miguel A.; Mesa v., Ana M.; Sáez v., Jairo A.

    2005-08-01

    The recent interest in the conservation of the tropical forest is due, at least in part, to the potential economic and health benefits that can be exploited from several plants. This report shows the in vitro antioxidant activity of some fractions isolated from leaves of two Columbian Magnoliaceae, Talauma hernandezii G. Lozano-C and Dugandiodendron yarumalense Lozano. The activity was determined using the radical monocation 2,2'-azino-bis(3-ethylbenzothiazoline-6-sulfonic acid) (ABTS·+) and the stable free radical 2-2-diphenyl-1-picrylhydrazyl (DPPH·), as part of general biological screening of these plants. The antioxidant capacity obtained from fractions was similar to those of α-tocopherol, tert-butylated hydroxyanisole (BHA), and ascorbic acid. The most active scavenger extract was the fraction 7 (TAA = 48.6 mmol Trolox/kg extract and IC50 ≤ 0.01 kg extract/mmol DPPH); and the least active was the fraction 1 (TAA = 11.23 mmol Trolox/kg extract and IC50 = 0.21 kg extract/mmol DPPH) all of them isolated from D. yarumalense. These results suggest that these plants can be attractive as source of antioxidant compounds with the ability to reduce radicals like ATBS and DPPH.

  12. Rainwater capacities for BTEX scavenging from ambient air

    Science.gov (United States)

    Šoštarić, A.; Stanišić Stojić, S.; Vuković, G.; Mijić, Z.; Stojić, A.; Gržetić, I.

    2017-11-01

    The contribution of atmospheric precipitation to volatile organic compound (VOC) removal from the atmosphere remains a matter of scientific debate. The aim of this study was to examine the potential of rainwater for benzene, toluene, ethylbenzene and xylene (BTEX) scavenging from ambient air. To that end, air and rainwater samples were collected simultaneously during several rain events that occurred over two distinct time periods in the summer and autumn of 2015. BTEX concentrations in the gaseous and aqueous phases were determined using proton transfer reaction mass spectrometry. The results reveal that the registered amounts of BTEX in rainwater samples were higher than those predicted by Henry's law. Additional analysis, including physico-chemical characterization and source apportionment, was performed and a possible mechanism underlying the BTEX adsorption to the aqueous phase was considered and discussed herein. Finally, regression multivariate methods (MVA) were successfully applied (with relative errors from 20%) to examine the functional dependency of BTEX enrichment factor on gaseous concentrations, physico-chemical properties of rainwater and meteorological parameters.

  13. Quality assessment and scavenging activity of Siamese neem flower extract.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chaisawangwong, Worarat; Gritsanapan, Wandee

    2013-03-01

    Young leaves and flowers of Siamese neem tree (Azadirachta indica A. Juss. var. siamensis Valeton) are commonly consumed as a bitter tonic vegetable. Active antioxidant components in the flowers are rutin and quercetin flavonoids. The aqueous extracts of young flowers collected from 14 different locations in Thailand were quantitatively analysed using high-performance liquid chromatography for the contents of rutin and quercetin, and were determined for the loss on drying, heavy metals and pesticide residues, microbial contamination, solubility, chromatographic fingerprints and acute toxicity. The extracts contained rutin and quercetin in the ranges from 388 to 1178 mg% dry weight (average 772 mg%), and 1 to 10 mg% dry weight (average 5 mg%), respectively. EC50 of the scavenging activity of all extracts was found in the range of 27-133 µg mL(-1). Loss on drying of the extracts was less than 7% w/w and no sign of toxicity (LD50 > 5 g kg(-1)) was found.

  14. Study of air pollution scavenging. Fourteenth progress report

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Semonin, R.G.

    1976-04-01

    The field experiments were continued to estimate convective storm particulate scavenging efficiency in proximity to the St. Louis, Missouri urban-industrial complex. Complementary studies of the urban aerosol characterization, source strength, and removal processes were also studied. The 1975 field effort shifted emphasis from the immediate St. Louis area to the Alton-Wood River industrial complex. Along with the change in size and configuration of the network, there were increases in the numbers of most types of samplers. The new network yielded the following types of samples for analysis and interpretation: 1065 total rain samples from 85 sites; 68 sequential rainwater samples from 2 locations; 272 wet/dry samples from 7 locations; 216 air filter samples from 7 locations; 36 air filter samples from aircraft; and raindrop spectrometer data from 11 sites for the period 17 June-18 August. The analysis procedures require that all water samples undergo filtering for separate analyses of soluble and insoluble fractions of the elemental concentrations. This data collection effort provided a record number of samples for chemical analysis. Approximately 4000 pibals and over 370 radiosondes were released in the operational period, providing wind and thermodynamic data on 33 days. Aircraft missions were flown on 24 days, with one air tracer release of cesium on 19 July 1975. The status of the analysis of all types of data is described.

  15. Postmortem Scavenging of Human Remains by Domestic Cats

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ananya Suntirukpong, M.D.

    2017-11-01

    Full Text Available Objective: Crime scene investigators, forensic medicine doctors and pathologists, and forensic anthropologists frequently encounter postmortem scavenging of human remains by household pets. Case presentation: The authors present a case report of a partially skeletonized adult male found dead after more than three months in his apartment in Thailand. The body was in an advanced stage of decomposition with nearly complete skeletonization of the head, neck, hands, and feet. The presence of maggots and necrophagous (flesh eating beetles on the body confirmed that insects had consumed much of the soft tissues. Examination of the hand and foot bones revealed canine tooth puncture marks. Evidence of chewing indicated that one or more of the decedent’s three house cats had fed on the body after death. Recognizing and identifying carnivore and rodent activity on the soft flesh and bones of human remains is important in interpreting and reconstructing postmortem damage. Thorough analysis may help explain why skeletal elements are missing, damaged, or out of anatomical position. Conclusion: This report presents a multi-disciplinary approach combining forensic anthropology and forensic medicine in examining and interpreting human remains.

  16. Nasal secretion of the ozone scavenger uric acid

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Peden, D.B.; Swiersz, M.; Ohkubo, K.; Hahn, B.; Emery, B.; Kaliner, M.A. (Univ. of North Carolina, Chapel Hill (United States))

    1993-08-01

    Uric acid, an important scavenger of ozone, has been identified as the major low molecular weight antioxidant in baseline and cholinergically induced nasal secretions. The purpose of this study was to determine the specific tissue source of uric acid in airway secretions. The secretion of uric acid is increased by cholinergic stimulation and correlates closely with the secretion of lactoferrin (a nasal glandular protein), suggesting that submucosal glands are involved. Indeed, nasal turbinate tissue was found to contain uric acid. However, careful analysis of nasal turbinate tissue failed to reveal the presence of xanthine oxidase, the enzyme responsible for uric acid synthesis. These data suggest that uric acid might be taken up secondarily by glands from plasma. This possibility was strengthened by the observation that lowering the plasma urate level with probenecid concomitantly lowered urate secretion. These findings are consistent with the hypotheses that the principal source of uric acid in nasal secretions is plasma and that uric acid is taken up, concentrated, and secreted by nasal glands.

  17. Modelling of dielectric polymers for energy scavenging applications

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jean-Mistral, C.; Basrour, S.; Chaillout, J.-J.

    2010-10-01

    An increasing number of scavenging applications use dielectric polymers: for instance, on the heel of a shoe, behind the knee, on a navy buoy, etc. This emerging technology has the potential to be an alternative to traditional, well-known solutions using piezoelectricity or electromagnetism. Indeed, dielectric polymers are suitable for creating flexible and innovative structures working in a quasi-static range. Nevertheless, current analytical models of dielectric polymers in generator mode are too simple and not sufficiently predictive. This paper reports a more reliable method for modelling dielectric generators. This method is a tool for designing any plane structure. It can be used to calculate performance or to optimize a given structure. Moreover, it is modular and can be adapted to any kind of dielectric material and any plane structure. The method is illustrated on a biaxial plane generator comprising 3M's VHB 4910 polymer and conductive silver grease electrodes. Experiment data are provided to validate the analytical model and thus the whole method.

  18. Vultures acquire information on carcass location from scavenging eagles.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kane, Adam; Jackson, Andrew L; Ogada, Darcy L; Monadjem, Ara; McNally, Luke

    2014-10-22

    Vultures are recognized as the scroungers of the natural world, owing to their ecological role as obligate scavengers. While it is well known that vultures use intraspecific social information as they forage, the possibility of inter-guild social information transfer and the resulting multi-species social dilemmas has not been explored. Here, we use data on arrival times at carcasses to show that such social information transfer occurs, with raptors acting as producers of information and vultures acting as scroungers of information. We develop a game-theoretic model to show that competitive asymmetry, whereby vultures dominate raptors at carcasses, predicts this evolutionary outcome. We support this theoretical prediction using empirical data from competitive interactions at carcasses. Finally, we use an individual-based model to show that these producer-scrounger dynamics lead to vultures being vulnerable to declines in raptor populations. Our results show that social information transfer can lead to important non-trophic interactions among species and highlight important potential links among social evolution, community ecology and conservation biology. With vulture populations suffering global declines, our study underscores the importance of ecosystem-based management for these endangered keystone species.

  19. An Investigation of patterns of mammalian scavenging in relation to vertebrate skeletal remains in a Northwestern European context: forensic applications.

    OpenAIRE

    Young, Alexandria

    2013-01-01

    Mammalian scavenging, disarticulating, scattering and removal of human remains can alter and obscure both soft tissue and skeletal remains which are essential to making interpretations and identifications during forensic investigations. The effects of scavenging vary between regions, environments, scavenger species, and crime scene scenarios due to a variety of factors. Nonetheless, there is a gap in the knowledge of scavenger species found within Northwestern Europe. The red fox (Vulpes vulp...

  20. Scavenge flow analysis of opposed-piston two-stroke engine based on dynamic characteristics

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Fu-kang Ma

    2015-04-01

    Full Text Available Opposed-piston two-stroke engine has been proposed by Beijing Institute of Technology to improve power density and complete machine balance relative to conventional engines. In order to study opposed-piston two-stroke engine scavenging flow, a scavenging system was configured using a three-dimensional computational fluid dynamics model effectively coupled to experiments. The boundary conditions are obtained through one-dimensional working process simulation results and experiments. As the opposed-piston relative dynamic characteristics of opposed-piston two-stroke engine depend on different design and operating parameters including the opposed-piston motion phase difference and crank-connecting rod ratio, a numerical simulation program was built using MATLAB/Simulink to define opposed-piston motion profiles based on equivalent crank angle of opposed crank-connecting rod mechanism. The opposed-piston motion phase difference only affects scavenging timing while crank-connecting rod ratio affects scavenging timing and duration. Scavenging timing and duration are the main factors which affect scavenging performance. The results indicate that a match of opposed-piston motion phase difference and crank-connecting rod ratio has the potential to achieve high scavenging and trapping efficiency with a right flow in cylinder.

  1. Comparative Evaluation of the Radical-Scavenging Activities of Fucoxanthin and Its Stereoisomers

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Yiping Zhang

    2014-02-01

    Full Text Available Fucoxanthin (Fuco is a characteristic carotenoid of brown seaweeds. In the present study, Fuco and its stereoisomers 9'Z-Fuco, 13Z- and 13'Z-Fuco were extracted from Laminaria japonica Aresch. They were isolated and purified by silica gel column chromatography, Sephadex LH-20, and reversed-phase HPLC. The radical-scavenging activities of the three stereoisomers were evaluated toward 1,1-diphenyl-2-picrylhydrazyl (DPPH radical, 2-2'-azinobis-(3-ethylbenzothiazoline-6-sulfonic acid (ABTS radical, hydroxyl radical, and superoxide radical. The order of 1,1-diphenyl-2-picrylhydrazyl (DPPH radical-scavenging activity was 13Z- and 13'Z-Fuco > (all-E-Fuco > 9'Z-Fuco. The order of 2-2'-azinobis-(3-ethylbenzothiazoline-6-sulfonic acid (ABTS and hydroxyl radical-scavenging activities were 9'Z-Fuco > (all-E-Fuco > 13Z-and 13'Z-Fuco. The order of superoxide radical-scavenging activity was 13Z- and 13'Z-Fuco > (all-E-Fuco > 9'Z-Fuco. The scavenging activities of Fuco and its stereoisomers toward the four radical types were all dose-dependent. The ABTS, DPPH, and superoxide radical-scavenging activities were all weaker than that of tocopherol (VE, while their hydroxyl radical-scavenging activities were stronger than that of VE. The results confirmed that Fuco and its stereoisomers have potent antioxidant activities.

  2. Free radical scavenging by brain homogenate: implication to free radical damage and antioxidant defense in brain.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mori, A; Liu, J; Wang, X; Kawai, M

    1994-03-01

    To study the mechanisms of free radical-induced brain damage and the antioxidant defense in the brain, we quantified the superoxide and hydroxyl radical scavenging effects of brain homogenate using electron spin resonance spectrometry. Brain homogenate was found to scavenge both superoxide and hydroxyl radicals in concentration-dependent fashion. Heat denaturation significantly decreased these scavenging effects. The ability of brain homogenate to scavenge free radicals implies that brain damage can be induced by free radicals since they are known to react virtually with any type of molecule such as nucleic acids, membrane lipids, and proteins in the brain. On the other hand, some molecules which can be regenerated or repaired after free radical scavenging are considered to be antioxidants which include both enzymatic and non-enzymatic antioxidants. Measurement of the decrease in antioxidant activity following heat denaturation suggests that the contribution of enzymatic antioxidants is about 20-40% in scavenging superoxide radicals and about 10-20% in scavenging hydroxyl radicals.

  3. Hydroxyl radical scavenging activities of isoquinoline alkaloids isolated from Coptis chinensis.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jang, Moon Hee; Kim, Hyun Young; Kang, Ki Sung; Yokozawa, Takako; Park, Jeong Hill

    2009-03-01

    The hydroxyl radical (*OH) scavenging and ferrous ion chelating activities of four isoquinoline alkaloids isolated from Coptis chinensis Franch were studied for the identification of their structural characteristics to scavenge *OH. The *OH was generated via Fe(II)-catalazed Fenton reaction in this study and the reliable measurement of *OH scavenging activities of isoquinoline alkaloids were achieved using electron spin resonance (ESR) spectrometry method. At the 1 mM concentration, berberrubine (85%) showed the strongest *OH scavenging activity and the next were in the decreasing order of coptisine (79%), berberine (23%), and palmatine (22%). The ferrous ion chelating effects of the alkaloids showed similar pattern with their *OH scavenging effects. These results suggest that *OH scavenging effects of the alkaloids were closely related to their ferrous ion chelating activities. In addition, metal chelating functional groups such as hydroxy group at C-9 and methylenedioxy group at C-9 and C-10 were thought to contribute to the *OH scavenging activities of the isoquinoline alkaloids.

  4. Scavenging by spiders (Araneae) and its relationship to pest management of the brown recluse spider.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Vetter, Richard S

    2011-06-01

    Experiments reported in Sandidge (2003; Nature 426: 30) indicated that the brown recluse spider, Loxosceles reclusa Gertsch & Mulaik, preferred to scavenge dead prey over live prey and that the spiders were not detrimentally affected when fed insecticide-killed crickets. Extrapolations made in subsequent media coverage disseminating the results of this research made counter-intuitive statements that pesticide treatment in houses would increase brown recluse populations in homes. This information was presented as if the scavenging behavior was specialized in the brown recluse; however, it was more likely that this behavior has not been well studied in other species. To provide a comparison, the current laboratory study examined the likelihood of non-Loxosceles spiders to scavenge dead prey. Of 100 non-Loxosceles spiders that were tested (from 11 families, 24 genera, and at least 29 species from a variety of spider hunting guilds), 99 scavenged dead crickets when offered in petri dishes. Some of the spiders were webspinners in which real-world scavenging of dead prey is virtually impossible, yet they scavenge when given the opportunity. Therefore, scavenging is a flexible opportunistic predatory behavior that is spread across a variety of taxa and is not a unique behavior in brown recluses. These findings are discussed in relation to pest management practices.

  5. The effect of random precipitation times on the scavenging rate for tropospheric nitric acid

    Science.gov (United States)

    Stewart, Richard W.

    1988-01-01

    A model for the effective scavenging rate of a soluble species has been developed. The model takes into account the possibility of positive as well as negative correlations between departures from the mean of the scavenging rate and species concentration. The model is demonstrated for the case of late afternoon rainout of nitric acid occurring just prior to the nighttime cessation of its chemical production. The calculations give effective scavenging rates which are about a factor of 2 to 3 greater than those calculated using the models of Rodhe and Grandell (1972) and Giorgi and Chameides (1985).

  6. CFD analysis of the scavenging process in marine two-stroke diesel engines

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Andersen, Fredrik Herland; Hult, Johan; Nogenmyr, Karl-Johan

    2014-01-01

    /charge before the subsequent compression stroke. This implies that the scavenging process is integral to engine performance as it influence the initial condition for the combustion process, thus affecting the fuel economy, power output and emission of hazardous gases. Two-stroke diesel engines for marine......The scavenging process is an integral part of any two-stroke internal combustion engine regardless of being spark ignited (SI) or compression ignited (CI). The scavenging process is responsible for replacing the burned gas from the combustion process from the previous working stroke with fresh air...

  7. Attendance of scavenging seabirds at trawler discards off Galicia, Spain

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Julio Valeiras

    2003-07-01

    Full Text Available The occurrence of scavenger seabirds at fishing trawlers was studied off Galicia, Spain. A total of 9,368 seabirds of 23 species were recorded during 92 fishing operations in 1998 and 1999. The most common species were the yellow-legged and lesser black-backed gull (Larus cachinnans and L. fuscus, Sabine´s gull (L. sabini, the northern gannet (Morus bassanus, the great shearwater (Puffinus gravis, sooty shearwater (P. griseus, the Manx and Balearic shearwater (P. puffinus and P. mauretanicus, the great skua (Catharacta skua and terns (mainly Sterna hirundo and S. paradisaea. Other species occurred in small numbers: Leach´s petrel (Oceanodroma leucorhoa, the storm petrel (Hydrobates pelagicus, the little shearwater (Puffinus assimilis, Cory´s shearwater (Calonectris diomedea, the parasitic skua (Stercorarius parasiticus, the pomarine skua (S. pomarinus, the black-headed gull (Larus ridibundus, the glaucous gull (L. hyperboreus, the kittiwake (Rissa tridactyla, the sandwich tern (Sterna sandvicensis, the black tern (Chlidonias niger, the guillemot (Uria aalge and the little auk (Alle alle. The maximum number of seabirds recorded at a haul was 320. The maximum number of a particular species ranged from 120 great shearwaters to 250 yellow-legged/lesser black-backed gulls during a single haul. The differences in ship-follower species abundance are related to migratory movements but fisheries could also have a strong influence at a smaller scale on the distribution of seabirds off Galicia. The degree to which seabirds rely on fishery discards as food was not quantified, but may be important for several species.

  8. Polymorphic ROS scavenging revealed by CCCP in a lizard

    Science.gov (United States)

    Olsson, Mats; Wilson, Mark; Isaksson, Caroline; Uller, Tobias

    2009-07-01

    Ingestion of antioxidants has been argued to scavenge circulating reactive molecules (e.g., free radicals), play a part in mate choice (by mediating access to this important resource), and perhaps increase life span. However, recent work has come to question these relationships. We have shown elsewhere in the polychromatic lizard, Ctenophorus pictus, that diet supplementation of carotenoids as antioxidants does not depress circulating natural reactive oxygen species (ROS) levels and leads to no corresponding improvement of color traits. However, a much stronger test would be to experimentally manipulate the ROS levels themselves and assess carotenoid-induced ROS depression. Here, we achieve this by using carbonyl cyanide 3-chlorophenylhydrazone, which elevates superoxide (SO) formation approximately threefold at 10 μM in this model system. We then look for depressing effects on ROS of the carotenoids in order to assess whether ‘super-production’ of SO makes carotenoid effects on elevated ROS levels detectable. The rationale for this treatment was that if not even such elevated levels of SO are reduced by carotenoid supplementation, the putative link carotenoids, ROS depression, and mate quality (in terms of antioxidant capacity) is highly questionable. We conclude that there is no significant effect of carotenoids on mean SO levels even at the induced ROS levels. However, our results showed a significant interaction effect between carotenoid treatment and male color, with red males having higher ROS levels than yellow males. We suggest that this may be because different pigments are differently involved in the generation of the integumental colors in the two morphs with concomitant effects on ROS depletion depending on carotenoid uptake or allocation to coloration and antioxidation.

  9. Biochemical characterization of radical scavenging polyphenols from Nyctanthes arbortristis

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    S Meghashri

    2012-01-01

    Full Text Available Context: Antioxidants are quenchers of free radical that are responsible for inducing oxidative stress generated via reactive oxygen species-induced degenerative diseases such as cancer, diabetes, and cardiovascular diseases etc. Plant and plant products are recognized as safe and potential health promoting and nutritive sources. Aims: To investigate the antioxidant potency of polyphenol extract (PE of Nyctanthes arbortristis leaves and identification of the active constituent by HPLC. Materials and Methods: PE of N. arbortristis leaves was investigated for antioxidant activity employing various established in vitro systems, such as lipid peroxidation in liposome, DPPH and hydroxyl radical scavenging, reducing power assay, and iron ion chelation. Identification of active constituent in PE of N. arbortristis responsible for antioxidant activity by HPLC. Statistical analysis used: All experiments were carried out in triplicates. Data were shown as mean ± standard deviation (SD. SPSS 10.0.5 version for windows (SPSS software Inc., USA computer program was used for statistical analysis. Results: Identification of active constituent in PE revealed gallic acid 75.8 ± 0.21, protocatechuic acid 14.6 ± 0.5, chlorogenic acid 6.79 ± 0.43, and caffeic acid 5.34 ± 0.2 μg/ml. PE showed strong inhibitory activity of 73% at 200 μg/ml toward lipid peroxidation in egg lecithin, concentration-dependent inhibition of deoxyribose oxidation at 200 μg/ml was 85% inhibition, and considerable antioxidant activity in DPPH radical assay system at 200 μg/ml was 79% inhibition. BHA and gallic acid showed significant observations. Conclusion: The antioxidant potency significantly correlated with the phenolic content of PE. Considering that medicinal herbs contain potent phytochemicals, which is effectively utilized for various degenerative disease, these in vitro results showed that N. arbortristis leaves could be effectively employed in functional food, to

  10. Scavenging of urban air emissions by Fog at Delhi, India

    Science.gov (United States)

    Saxena, P.; Kulshrestha, U. C.

    2015-12-01

    The present study focuses upon the understanding of fog water chemistry in Delhi city. Total seventy fog water samples were collected at two different sites in Delhi during December 2014 to March 2015. Selected parameters such as pH, major anions (Cl-, F-, NO3- and SO42-) and major cations (NH4+, K+, Ca2+, Mg2+, Na+) were determined in the samples. The pH of the fog water collected during the monitoring period at Site I (traffic intersection) varied from 4.68 to 5.58 indicating the acidic nature of fog water while at the site II (green cover area), it ranged from 6.11 to 6.88 having slightly lower acidity. At the Site I, the average concentration of Cl-, Na+, SO42-, NH4+ was recorded as 1.5 X 10-2, 8 X 10-3, 4 X 10-3 and 1 X 10-2 μEqu/L respectively. Such values of ionic species may be attributed to the local sources, including factories, motor vehicle emissions and civil construction etc. However, non-local sources such as moderate- and long-range transport of sea salt also had significant influence on ionic content of fog water. In general the Na+ ratio values were found to be higher side suggesting the influence of non-marine sources. Extremely high values of Cl-/ Na+ ratios indicated the contribution from combustion of organochlorine compounds. Hence, the higher ratios of inorganic ions and acidic pH revealed that fog is an effective mechanism for the scavenging of various pollutants emitted by different sources in the city.

  11. Radical scavenging propensity of Cu2 +, Fe3 + complexes of flavonoids and in-vivo radical scavenging by Fe3 +-primuletin

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jabeen, Erum; Janjua, Naveed Kausar; Ahmed, Safeer; Murtaza, Iram; Ali, Tahir; Hameed, Shahid

    2017-01-01

    Cu2 + and Fe3 + complexes of three flavonoids (morin or mo, quercetin or quer and primuletin or prim) were synthesized with the objective of improving antioxidant capacities of flavonoids. The radical scavenging activities of pure flavonoids and their metal complexes were assayed to monitor their tendencies towards sequestering of radicals at physiological conditions. The scavenger potencies of metal-flavonoid complexes were significantly higher than those of the parent flavonoids. Further, influence of the solvent polarity on the radical capturing by flavonoids and their metal complexes was in favor for the polar solvent. Fe3 +-prim displayed its radical scavenging ability via up gradation of CAT and SOD activities in in-vivo antioxidant assays.

  12. Investigation of scavenging activities and distribution of paramagnetic species in Zanthoxylum limonella seeds.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Nakagawa, Kouichi; Promjareet, Apichet; Priprem, Aroonsri; Netweera, Vassana; Hara, Hideyuki

    2016-12-01

    We investigated the scavenging activities of methanol-extracted oil and the distribution of paramagnetic species in Zanthoxylum limonella (ZL) seeds using noninvasive 9 GHz electron paramagnetic resonance (EPR) imaging and continuous wave EPR. EPR detected three different stable paramagnetic species that were assigned to stable organic radicals, Mn 2+ , and other paramagnetic metal complexes. Two-dimensional EPR imaging showed that the stable paramagnetic species were located in the pigmented seed region with a strong intensity. Gas chromatography-mass spectrophotometric (GC-MS) analyses were then performed to identify the compound possibly related to the scavenging activity. The DPPH scavenging activities of ZL were slightly higher than those of Piper nigrum and Coriandrum sativum. Based on the results of EPR, GC-MS, and other methods, limonene in ZL is one of the major compounds that can be related to the scavenging activities.

  13. Screening of radical scavenging activity of some medicinal and aromatic plant extracts

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Miliauskas, G.; Venskutonis, R.P.; Beek, van T.A.

    2004-01-01

    Extracts of 12 medicinal and aromatic plants were investigated for their radical scavenging activity using DPPH and ABTS assays: Salvia sclarea, Salvia glutinosa, Salvia pratensis, Lavandula angustifolia, Calendula officinalis, Matricaria recutita, Echinacea purpurea, Rhaponticum carthamoides,

  14. Parametric Study of the Scavenging Process in Marine Two-Stroke Diesel Engines

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Andersen, Fredrik Herland; Mayer, Stefan

    2015-01-01

    Large commercial ships such as container vesselsand bulk carriers are propelled by low-speed, uniflowscavenged two-stroke diesel engines. The integral in-cylinderprocess in this type of engine is the scavenging process,where the burned gas from the combustion process isevacuated through the exhaust...... in axial velocity and the formation ofcentral recirculation zones, known as vortex breakdown. Thispaper will present a CFD analysis of the scavenging process ina MAN B&W two-stroke diesel engine. The study include aparameter sweep where the operating conditions such as airamount, port timing and scavenging...... pressure are varied. TheCFD model comprise the full geometry from scavenge receiverto exhaust receiver. Asymmetric inlet and outlet conditions isincluded as well as the dynamics of a moving piston and valve.Time resolved boundary conditions corresponding tomeasurements from an operating, full scale...

  15. Integrated Analysis of the Scavenging Process in Marine Two-Stroke Diesel Engines

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Andersen, Fredrik Herland

    Large commercial ships such as container vessels and bulk carriers are propelledby low-speed, uniow scavenged two-stroke diesel engines. An integralin-cylinder process in this type of engine is the scavenging process, where the burned gases from the combustion process are evacuated through...... the exhaust valve and replaced with fresh air for the subsequent compression stroke. The scavenging air enters the cylinder via inlet ports which are uncovered by the piston at bottom dead center (BDC). The exhaust gases are then displaced bythe fresh air entering the cylinder. The scavenging ports are cut...... in the center of the ow, which might lead to a local decit in axial velocity and the formation of central recirculation zones, known as vortex breakdown. Ever more stringent emission legislations over the last 10-15 years have changed the engine lay out diagram in the pursuit of an engine which is both fuel...

  16. Numerical Investigation of the Scavenging Process in Marine Two-Stroke Diesel Engines

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Andersen, Fredrik Herland; Hult, Johan; Nogenmyr, Karl-Johan

    2013-01-01

    The scavenging process is an integral part of any two-stroke internal combustion engine cycle whether it is spark ignited or compression ignited. The scavenging process is responsible for transporting the burned gases from the previous working stroke out of the combustion chamber to allow...... for the fresh charge or fresh air to enter for the next combustion/working stroke. This implies that the scavenging process is responsible for setting the initial condition for the combustion process, consequently affecting fuel economy, power output and emission of hazardous gases. Two-stroke diesel engines...... direction which gives the method its name. In this study a CFD analysis of the scavenging process in the 4T50ME-X test engine at MAN Diesel & Turbo is presented. The CFD model uses the full engine geometry including a moving piston and valve combined with time resolved measurement data as boundary...

  17. Use of bird carcass removals by urban scavengers to adjust bird-window collision estimates

    National Research Council Canada - National Science Library

    Kummer, Justine A; Nordell, Cameron J; Berry, Taylor M; Collins, Colina V; Tse, Casandra R.L; Bayne, Erin M

    2016-01-01

    .... Only two studies have examined carcass removal by scavengers in an urban environment, and previous estimates of bird-window collision mortality at houses have relied on carcass removal rates from wind turbine studies...

  18. Study on the free radical scavenging activity of sea cucumber (Paracaudina chinens var.) gelatin hydrolysate

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zeng, Mingyong; Xiao, Feng; Zhao, Yuanhui; Liu, Zunying; Li, Bafang; Dong, Shiyuan

    2007-07-01

    Gelatin from the sea cucumber (Paracaudina chinens var.) was hydrolyzed by bromelain and the hydrolysate was found to have a high free radical scavenging activity. The hydrolysate was fractionated through an ultrafiltration membrane with 5 kDa molecular weight cutoff (MWCO). The portion (less than 5 kDa) was further separated by Sephadex G-25. The active peak was collected and assayed for free radical scavenging activity. The scavenging rates for superoxide anion radicals (O2·-) and hydroxyl radicals (·OH) of the fraction with the highest activity were 29.02% and 75.41%, respectively. A rabbit liver mitochondrial free radical damage model was adopted to study the free radical scavenging activity of the fraction. The results showed that the sea cucumber gelatin hydrolysate can prevent the damage of rabbit liver and mitochondria.

  19. CFD analysis of the scavenging process in marine two-stroke diesel engines

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Andersen, Fredrik Herland; Hult, Johan; Nogenmyr, Karl-Johan

    2014-01-01

    The scavenging process is an integral part of any two-stroke internal combustion engine regardless of being spark ignited (SI) or compression ignited (CI). The scavenging process is responsible for replacing the burned gas from the combustion process from the previous working stroke with fresh air...... propulsion normally operates by the uniflow scavenging method, where the scavenge air enters the cylinder via inlet ports located near the bottom dead center and exits through one or several exhaust valves located in the cylinder head. This arrangement concentrates the airflow in one direction through...... with the swirling air in the combustion chamber during fuel injection. A known characteristic of swirling flows is an adverse pressure gradient in the center of the rotating flow which might lead to a local deficit in axial velocity and the formation of central recirculation zones, known as vortex breakdown...

  20. Radical-scavenging activity and phenolic constituents of propolis from different regions of Argentina.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kumazawa, Shigenori; Ahn, Mok-Ryeon; Fujimoto, Takunori; Kato, Masashi

    2010-05-01

    Propolis is a resinous substance collected by honeybees from various plant sources. The composition of propolis depends on the type of vegetation and the area of collection. We examined the radical-scavenging activity of propolis from the following regions of Argentina: Mendoza, Rio Negro, La Pampa, and Entre Rios. Ethanol extracts of propolis (EEP) were prepared and their 1,1-diphenyl-2-picrylhydrazyl (DPPH) radical-scavenging activities were evaluated. Furthermore, the major constituents in EEP were identified by HPLC with photodiode array (PDA) detection, and each component was quantitatively analysed. Almost all of the propolis samples, except La Pampa, had radical-scavenging activity. Propolis with strong radical-scavenging activity contained large amounts of antioxidative compounds, such as caffeic acid, ferulic acid and caffeic acid phenethyl ester.

  1. Effects of Reactive Nitrogen Scavengers on NK-Cell-Mediated Killing of K562 Cells

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Yili Zeng

    2012-01-01

    Full Text Available This study explored the effects of reactive nitrogen metabolites (RNMS on natural-killer- (NK- cell-mediated killing of K562 cells and the influence of RNM scavengers, such as tiopronin (TIP, glutamylcysteinylglycine (GSH, and histamine dihydrochloride (DHT, on reversing the suppressing effect of RNM. We administered exogenous and endogenous RNM in the NK + K562 culture system and then added RNM scavengers. The concentrations of RNM, TNF-β and IFN-γ, and NK-cell cytotoxicity (NCC and the percentage of living NK cells were then examined. We found that both exogenous and endogenous RNM caused the KIR to decrease (<0.01; however, RNM scavengers such as TIP and GSH rescued this phenomenon dose dependently. In conclusion, our data suggests that RNM scavengers such as TIP and GSH enhance the antineoplasmic activity of NK cells.

  2. About scavenging of near-water submicrometer aerosol in Arctic and Sub-Arctic regions

    Science.gov (United States)

    Polkin, V. V.; Polkin, Vas. V.

    2014-11-01

    Situations with scavenging of submicrometer aerosol particles by precipitation are analyzed. Experiments were carries out in Arctic region (NABOS expedition) onboard research vessels "Akademik Fedorov" and "Professor Khlyustin" in August-September 2013.

  3. Free radical-scavenging activity and flavonoid contents of Polygonum orientale leaf, stem, and seed extracts

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Jiang Xinyu

    2009-01-01

    Full Text Available The present study was designed to explore the total flavonoid and taxifolin contents and the radical-scavenging activity of 50% ethanol extracts of Polygonum orientale leaves, stems, and seeds by 2,2-diphenyl-1-picrylhydrazyl (DPPH assay. The extract with higher total flavonoid content has higher radical scavenging activity. Taxifolin (IC50 = 2.83 μmol/L has antioxidant activity stronger than that of rutin (IC50 = 3.08 μmol/L. The free radical-scavenging potentials of chloroform, ethyl acetate, water, ethanol, and methanol extracts of Polygonum orientale seeds were also investigated. The free radical-scavenging abilities of various extracts were determined as: methanol > ethanol > water > ethyl acetate > chloroform.

  4. Scavenging of superoxide anion by phosphorylethanolamine: studies in human neutrophils and in a cell free system.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gordon, L I; Weiss, D; Prachand, S; Weitzman, S A

    1991-01-01

    On the basis of previous observations, we attempted to characterize the effects of various products of phospholipid hydrolysis on neutrophil (PMN) respiratory burst activity. We studied the effects of phosphorylcholine (PC) and phosphorylethanoline (PE) on superoxide anion production in PMN and in cell free system. We found that PE but not PC inhibited measured superoxide anion, but that this was not due to inhibition of cellular superoxide generation but to scavenging of generated superoxide anion. Further, utilizing a system based upon the photo-oxidation of O-dianisidine sensitized by riboflavin, we were able to determine that the scavenging effect of PE was not superoxide dismutase (SOD)-like but rather a general scavenging or glutathione (GSH)-like effect. These data underscore the importance of identifying the mechanism of inhibition of superoxide generation by putative inhibitors as being due to a direct cellular effect or to a scavenging property.

  5. Effect of Exposure of Human Monocyte-Derived Macrophages to High, versus Normal, Glucose on Subsequent Lipid Accumulation from Glycated and Acetylated Low-Density Lipoproteins

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Fatemeh Moheimani

    2011-01-01

    Full Text Available During atherosclerosis monocyte-derived macrophages accumulate cholesteryl esters from low-density lipoproteins (LDLs via lectin-like oxidised LDL receptor-1 (LOX-1 and class AI and AII (SR-AI, SR-AII and class B (SR-BI, CD36 scavenger receptors. Here we examined the hypothesis that hyperglycaemia may modulate receptor expression and hence lipid accumulation in macrophages. Human monocytes were matured into macrophages in 30 versus 5 mM glucose and receptor expression and lipid accumulation quantified. High glucose elevated LOX1 mRNA, but decreased SR-AI, SR-BI, LDLR, and CD36 mRNA. SR-BI and CD36 protein levels were decreased. Normo- and hyperglycaemic cells accumulated cholesteryl esters from modified LDL to a greater extent than control LDL, but total and individual cholesteryl ester accumulation was not affected by glucose levels. It is concluded that, whilst macrophage scavenger receptor mRNA and protein levels can be modulated by high glucose, these are not key factors in lipid accumulation by human macrophages under the conditions examined.

  6. Supported p-toluenesulfonic acid as a highly robust and eco-friendly isocyanide scavenger.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Azuaje, Jhonny; Coelho, Alberto; Maatougui, Abdelaziz El; Blanco, José Manuel; Sotelo, Eddy

    2011-01-10

    We document here the use of polymer-supported p-toluenesulfonic acid as a highly effective, robust, economical and eco-friendly isocyanide scavenger. The herein described strategy circumvent the intense and repulsive odor of volatile isocyanides, enabling simplified and odorless workup and purifications. The usefulness of the new scavengers has been validated in a set of diverse isocyanide-based organic transformations and this approach is also amenable to parallel synthesis techniques.

  7. Studies on free radical scavenging activity in Chinese seaweeds part I. Screening results

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yan, Xiao-Jun; Fang, Guo-Ming; Lou, Qing-Xiang

    1999-09-01

    Antioxidants have attracted the attention of researchers due to their beneficial effects as free radical scavengers. Application of a stable free radical named 1, 1-diphenyl-2-picrylhydrazyl(DPPH) to screen the free radical scavenging activity in 27 species of Chinese seaweed showed that 15 of them had significant activity in at least one of the organic solvent extracts. The most interesting seaweed species were Gelidium amansii, Gloiosiphonia capillaris, Polysiphonia urceolata, Sargassum kjellmanianum, Desmarestia viridis, and Rhodomela teres.

  8. Trophic facilitation by introduced top predators: grey wolf subsidies to scavengers in Yellowstone National Park

    OpenAIRE

    Wilmers, C C; Crabtree, R L; Smith, D W; Murphy, K M; Getz, Wayne M.

    2003-01-01

    1. The reintroduction of grey wolves Canis lupus (L.) to Yellowstone National Park provides a natural experiment in which to study the effects of a keystone predator on ecosystem function. 2. Grey wolves often provision scavengers with carrion by partially consuming their prey. 3. In order to examine how grey wolf foraging behaviour influences the availability of carrion to scavengers, we observed consumption of 57 wolf-killed elk Cervus elaphus (L.) and determined the percentage of edible bi...

  9. Evaluation of the radical scavenging activity of a series of synthetic hydroxychalcones towards the DPPH radical

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    STOYAN P. PARUSHEV

    2011-04-01

    Full Text Available Sixteen hydroxychalcones were synthesized in sufficient purity by the Claisen–Schmidt condensation between appropriate acetophenones and aromatic aldehydes. All the compounds were evaluated for their ability to scavenge the stable free 2,2-diphenyl-1-picrylhydrazyl (DPPH radical. Important structure–activity relationships were observed that strongly contribute to the knowledge for the design of DPPH radical scavenging chalcones. Relevant theoretical parameters were computed in an attempt to understand and explain the obtained experimental results.

  10. Flavonoids function as antioxidants: by scavenging reactive oxygen species or by chelating iron?

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Wuguo Deng; Xingwang Fang; Jilan Wu [Peking Univ., Technical Physics Dept., Beijing (China)

    1997-09-01

    Flavonoids have been reported to exhibit strong antioxidative activity. In the present work, a systematic mechanistic study has been performed on five flavonoids (baicalin, hesperidin, naringin, quercetin and rutin) selected according to their structural characteristics. The experimental results reveal that flavonoids function as antioxidant mainly by chelating iron ions and by scavenging peroxyl radicals whereas their OH radical scavenging effect is much less important. (author).

  11. 3-Hydroxykynurenine as O2-. scavenger in the blowfly, Aldrichina grahami.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Goshima, N; Wadano, A; Miura, K

    1986-09-14

    We studied the distribution of O2-.-scavenging activity in 6-day-old larvae of Aldrichina grahami. Total activity was highest in the muscle. The specific activity per milligram of protein in the Malpighian tubules was highest, 10 times the highest elsewhere. Most of the O2-. scavenging activity in muscle depended on superoxide dismutase. However, the activity in the Malpighian tubules mostly depended on 3-hydroxykynurenine.

  12. The scavenger protein apoptosis inhibitor of macrophages (AIM potentiates the antimicrobial response against Mycobacterium tuberculosis by enhancing autophagy.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Lucía Sanjurjo

    Full Text Available Apoptosis inhibitor of macrophages (AIM, a scavenger protein secreted by tissue macrophages, is transcriptionally regulated by the nuclear receptor Liver X Receptor (LXR and Retinoid X Receptor (RXR heterodimer. Given that LXR exerts a protective immune response against M. tuberculosis, here we analyzed whether AIM is involved in this response. In an experimental murine model of tuberculosis, AIM serum levels peaked dramatically early after infection with M. tuberculosis, providing an in vivo biological link to the disease. We therefore studied the participation of AIM in macrophage response to M. tuberculosis in vitro. For this purpose, we used the H37Rv strain to infect THP-1 macrophages transfected to stably express AIM, thereby increasing infected macrophage survival. Furthermore, the expression of this protein enlarged foam cell formation by enhancing intracellular lipid content. Phagocytosis assays with FITC-labeled M. tuberculosis bacilli indicated that this protein was not involved in bacterial uptake; however, AIM expression decreased the number of intracellular cfus by up to 70% in bacterial killing assays, suggesting that AIM enhances macrophage mycobactericidal activity. Accordingly, M. tuberculosis-infected AIM-expressing cells upregulated the production of reactive oxygen species. Moreover, real-time PCR analysis showed increased mRNA levels of the antimicrobial peptides cathelicidin and defensin 4B. These increases were concomitant with greater cellular concentrations of the autophagy-related molecules Beclin 1 and LC3II, as well as enhanced acidification of mycobacterial phagosomes and LC3 co-localization. In summary, our data support the notion that AIM contributes to key macrophage responses to M. tuberculosis.

  13. Enhanced protection of PDMS-embedded palladium catalysts by co-embedding of sulphide-scavengers.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Comandella, Daniele; Ahn, Min Hyung; Kim, Hojeong; Mackenzie, Katrin

    2017-12-01

    For Pd-containing hydrodechlorination catalysts, coating with poly(dimethyl siloxane) (PDMS) was proposed earlier as promising protection scheme against poisoning. The PDMS coating can effectively repel non-permeating poisons (such as SO3(2-)) retaining the hydrodechlorination Pd activity. In the present study, the previously achieved protection efficiency was enhanced by incorporation of sulphide scavengers into the polymer. The embedded scavengers were able to bind permeating non-ionic poisons (such as H2S) during their passage through PDMS prior to Pd contact which ensured an extended catalyst lifetime. Three scavenger types forming non-permeable sulphur species from H2S - alkaline, oxidative or iron-based compounds - were either incorporated into single-layer coats around individual Pd/Al2O3 particles or into a second layer above Pd-containing PDMS films (Pd-PDMS). Hydrodechlorination and hydrogenation were chosen as model reactions, carried out in batch and continuous-flow reactors. Batch tests with all scavenger-containing catalysts showed extended Pd protection compared to scavenger-free catalysts. Solid alkaline compounds (Ca(OH)2, NaOH, CaO) and MnO2 showed the highest instantaneous scavenger efficiencies (retained Pd activity=30-60%), while iron-based catalysts, such as nano zero-valent iron (nZVI) or ferrocene (FeCp2), proved less efficient (1-10%). When stepwise poisoning was applied, the protection efficiency of iron-based and oxidizing compounds was higher in the long term than that of alkaline solids. Long-term experiments in mixed-flow reactors were performed with selected scavengers, revealing the following trend of protection efficiency: CaO2>Ca(OH)2>FeCp2. Under field-simulating conditions using a fixed-bed reactor, the combination of sulphide pre-oxidation in the water phase by H2O2 and local scavenger-enhanced Pd protection was successful. The oxidizing agent H2O2 does not disturb the Pd-catalysed reduction, while the PDMS

  14. A protocol for detecting and scavenging gas-phase free radicals in mainstream cigarette smoke.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yu, Long-Xi; Dzikovski, Boris G; Freed, Jack H

    2012-01-02

    Cigarette smoking is associated with human cancers. It has been reported that most of the lung cancer deaths are caused by cigarette smoking (5,6,7,12). Although tobacco tars and related products in the particle phase of cigarette smoke are major causes of carcinogenic and mutagenic related diseases, cigarette smoke contains significant amounts of free radicals that are also considered as an important group of carcinogens(9,10). Free radicals attack cell constituents by damaging protein structure, lipids and DNA sequences and increase the risks of developing various types of cancers. Inhaled radicals produce adducts that contribute to many of the negative health effects of tobacco smoke in the lung(3). Studies have been conducted to reduce free radicals in cigarette smoke to decrease risks of the smoking-induced damage. It has been reported that haemoglobin and heme-containing compounds could partially scavenge nitric oxide, reactive oxidants and carcinogenic volatile nitrosocompounds of cigarette smoke(4). A 'bio-filter' consisted of haemoglobin and activated carbon was used to scavenge the free radicals and to remove up to 90% of the free radicals from cigarette smoke(14). However, due to the cost-ineffectiveness, it has not been successfully commercialized. Another study showed good scavenging efficiency of shikonin, a component of Chinese herbal medicine(8). In the present study, we report a protocol for introducing common natural antioxidant extracts into the cigarette filter for scavenging gas phase free radicals in cigarette smoke and measurement of the scavenge effect on gas phase free radicals in mainstream cigarette smoke (MCS) using spin-trapping Electron Spin Resonance (ESR) Spectroscopy(1,2,14). We showed high scavenging capacity of lycopene and grape seed extract which could point to their future application in cigarette filters. An important advantage of these prospective scavengers is that they can be obtained in large quantities from byproducts of

  15. Investigation of the chemistry of liquid H{sub 2}S scavengers

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Buhaug, Janne Bjoerntvedt

    2002-07-01

    The production of natural gas in the North Sea is facing a growing problem: contamination of the natural gas with dihydrogen sulfide, H{sub 2}S. As a gas reservoir is emptied, seawater containing sulfates is pumped into it, and the sulfates are reduced to dihydrogen sulfide by sulfate-reducing bacteria. Dihydrogen sulfide is then pumped up along with the oil, gas and water from the reservoir, causing severe corrosion of pipelines and contamination of the final natural gas product. Dihydrogen sulfide is extremely toxic, and in fields with especially large concentrations of H{sub 2}S this is a severe health risk for the platform workers. Hence, it is desirable to remove the dihydrogen sulfide at the earliest stage possible. There are four main methods for removing H{sub 2}S from natural gas: (1) Liquid scavengers, (2) Solid scavengers, (3) Liquid redox processes, (4) Amine / Claus catalyst. Liquid scavengers are widely used in the natural gas industry, especially at sites with relatively low concentrations of H{sub 2}S. As a rule of thumb, liquid scavengers are economically favourable at sites with a removal of less than 50 kg/day of H{sub 2}S. This thesis is concerned with the cyclic amine 1,3,5 -tris(2-hydroxyethyl)-1,3,5-triazinane, often referred to as Triazine. This is used in fields with relatively low concentration of H{sub 2}S and dominates the liquid scavenger market.

  16. Invertebrates outcompete vertebrate facultative scavengers in simulated lynx kills in the Bavarian Forest National Park, Germany

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ray, R.–R.

    2014-06-01

    Full Text Available Understanding the role of scavengers in ecosystems is important for species conservation and wildlife management. We used road–killed animals, 15 in summer 2003 (June–August and nine in winter 2003/2004 (from November to January, to test the following hypotheses: (1 vertebrate scavengers such as raven (Corvus corax, red fox (Vulpes vulpes and wild boar (Sus scrofa consume a higher proportion of the carcasses than invertebrates; (2 the consumption rate is higher in winter than in summer due to the scarcity of other food resources; and (3 vertebrate scavengers are effective competitors of Eurasian lynx. We monitored 65 animals belonging to eight different mammal and bird species with camera traps. Surprisingly, Eurasian lynx (Lynx lynx was the most important vertebrate scavenger. However, in both seasons, the consumption of vertebrate scavengers was of minor impact. In summer, the carcasses were completely consumed within 10 days, mostly by invertebrates. In winter, only 5% of the carcasses were consumed within 10 days and 16% within 15 days. We conclude that vertebrates in the Bavarian Forest National Park are not strong competitors for lynx.

  17. Evaluation of free radical scavenging activity of an ayurvedic formulation, panchvalkala.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Anandjiwala, Sheetal; Bagul, M S; Parabia, M; Rajani, M

    2008-01-01

    We report the free radical scavenging activity of an Ayurvedic preparation Panchvalkala and its individual components (stem bark of Ficus benghalensis, F. glomerata, F. religiosa, F. virens and Thespesia populnea). Being stem barks, these samples contain phenolics (ranging from 3.5% to 10.8% w/w) and tannins (1.6% to 7.0% w/w). This prompted us to study the free radical scavenging activity of Panchvalkala and its components which was evaluated in three in vitro models viz. 1,1-diphenyl-2-picrylhydrazyl radical scavenging activity, superoxide radical scavenging activity and reducing power assay. Panchvalkala and its individual components showed significant antiradical activity by bleaching 1,1-diphenyl-2-picrylhydrazyl radical (EC(50) ranging from 7.27 to 12.08 microg) which was comparable to pyrogallol (EC(50) 4.85 microg). Thin layer chromatography of the methanol extracts when sprayed with 0.2% 1,1-diphenyl-2-picrylhydrazyl in methanol revealed several bands with antiradical activity as seen by bleaching of 1,1-diphenyl-2-picrylhydrazyl. All the samples showed good superoxide scavenging potential (EC(50) ranging from 41.55 to 73.56 microg) comparable to ascorbic acid (EC(50) 45.39 microg) in a dose-dependent manner. The reduction ability, Fe(3+) to Fe(2+) transformation was found to increase with increasing concentrations of all the sample extracts.

  18. Multi-dimensional scavenging analysis of a free-piston linear alternator based on numerical simulation

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Mao, Jinlong; Zuo, Zhengxing; Li, Wen; Feng, Huihua [School of Mechanical Engineering, Beijing Institute of Technology, Beijing 100081 (China)

    2011-04-15

    A free-piston linear alternator (FPLA) is being developed by the Beijing Institute of Technology to improve the thermal efficiency relative to conventional crank-driven engines. A two-stroke scavenging process recharges the engine and is crucial to realizing the continuous operation of a free-piston engine. In order to study the FPLA scavenging process, the scavenging system was configured using computational fluid dynamics. As the piston dynamics of the FPLA are different to conventional crank-driven two-stroke engines, a time-based numerical simulation program was built using Matlab to define the piston's motion profiles. A wide range of design and operating options were investigated including effective stroke length, valve overlapping distance, operating frequency and charging pressure to find out their effects on the scavenging performance. The results indicate that a combination of high effective stroke length to bore ratio and long valve overlapping distance with a low supercharging pressure has the potential to achieve high scavenging and trapping efficiencies with low short-circuiting losses. (author)

  19. In vitro screening of Crataegus succulenta extracts for free radical scavenging and 15-lipoxygenase inhibitory activities.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bedreag, Catrinel Florentina Giurescu; Trifan, Adriana; Vasincu, Al; Miron, S D; Aprotosoaie, Ana Clara; Miron, Anca

    2014-01-01

    Crataegus succulenta Schrad. ex Link is widely spread in North America. A literature survey revealed no studies on the chemical composition and biological effects of this species. The aim of the present study was to investigate the phenolic content, free radical scavenging and 15-lipoxygenase inhibitory effects of Crataegus succulenta leaf and flower extracts. Total phenolic, flavonoid and proanthocyanidin contents were quantified by spectrophotometric methods. Both extracts were evaluated for their ability to scavenge DPPH, superoxide anion and hydroxyl radicals and to inhibit 15-lipoxygenase activity. There were noticed no striking differences in the total phenolic, flavonoid and proanthocyanidin contents between leaf and flower extracts. Both extracts showed similar 15-lipoxygenase inhibitory effects. Flower extract scavenged more effectively DPPH and superoxide radicals while leave extract was more active against hydroxyl radical. In superoxide anion radical scavenging assay, both extracts were more active than (+)-catechin. In hydroxyl radical scavenging and 15-lipoxygenase inhibition assays, the extracts were only 4-5 times less active than (+)-catechin. The high antioxidant potential of Crataegus succulenta extracts suggest a possible use as ingredients in functional foods for the prevention of oxidative stress-related diseases.

  20. Low frequency energy scavenging using sub-wave length scale acousto-elastic metamaterial

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Riaz U. Ahmed

    2014-11-01

    Full Text Available This letter presents the possibility of energy scavenging (ES utilizing the physics of acousto-elastic metamaterial (AEMM at low frequencies (<∼3KHz. It is proposed to use the AEMM in a dual mode (Acoustic Filter and Energy Harvester, simultaneously. AEMM’s are typically reported for filtering acoustic waves by trapping or guiding the acoustic energy, whereas this letter shows that the dynamic energy trapped inside the soft constituent (matrix of metamaterials can be significantly harvested by strategically embedding piezoelectric wafers in the matrix. With unit cell AEMM model, we experimentally asserted that at lower acoustic frequencies (< ∼3 KHz, maximum power in the micro Watts (∼35µW range can be generated, whereas, recently reported phononic crystal based metamaterials harvested only nano Watt (∼30nW power against 10KΩ resistive load. Efficient energy scavengers at low acoustic frequencies are almost absent due to large required size relevant to the acoustic wavelength. Here we report sub wave length scale energy scavengers utilizing the coupled physics of local, structural and matrix resonances. Upon validation of the argument through analytical, numerical and experimental studies, a multi-frequency energy scavenger (ES with multi-cell model is designed with varying geometrical properties capable of scavenging energy (power output from ∼10µW – ∼90µW between 0.2 KHz and 1.5 KHz acoustic frequencies.

  1. Development of nitroxide radicals-containing polymer for scavenging reactive oxygen species from cigarette smoke

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yoshitomi, Toru; Kuramochi, Kazuhiro; Binh Vong, Long; Nagasaki, Yukio

    2014-06-01

    We developed a nitroxide radicals-containing polymer (NRP), which is composed of poly(4-methylstyrene) possessing nitroxide radicals as a side chain via amine linkage, to scavenge reactive oxygen species (ROS) from cigarette smoke. In this study, the NRP was coated onto cigarette filters and its ROS-scavenging activity from streaming cigarette smoke was evaluated. The intensity of electron spin resonance signals of the NRP in the filter decreased after exposure to cigarette smoke, indicating consumption of nitroxide radicals. To evaluate the ROS-scavenging activity of the NRP-coated filter, the amount of peroxy radicals in an extract of cigarette smoke was measured using UV-visible spectrophotometry and 1,1-diphenyl-2-picrylhydrazyl (DPPH). The absorbance of DPPH at 517 nm decreased with exposure to cigarette smoke. When NRP-coated filters were used, the decrease in the absorbance of DPPH was prevented. In contrast, both poly[4-(cyclohexylamino)methylstyrene]- and poly(acrylic acid)-coated filters, which have no nitroxide radical, did not show any effect, indicating that the nitroxide radicals in the NRP scavenge the ROS in cigarette smoke. As a result, the extract of cigarette smoke passed through the NRP-coated filter has a lower cellular toxicity than smoke passed through poly[4-(cyclohexylamino)methylstyrene]- and poly(acrylic acid)-coated filters. Accordingly, NRP is a promising material for ROS scavenging from cigarette smoke.

  2. Influence of operatory size and nitrous oxide concentration upon scavenger effectiveness

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Henry, R.J.; Primosch, R.E. (Department of Pediatric Dentistry, University of Florida College of Dentistry, J. Hillis Miller Health Center, Gainesville (United States))

    1991-09-01

    Concern regarding environmental health hazards for dental personnel chronically exposed to waste nitrous oxide (N2O) prompted this investigation. The influence on ambient N2O levels of scavenging, operatory size, and N2O concentration delivered to the patient was evaluated during treatment of 36 pediatric dental patients. The results showed that scavenging significantly reduced ambient N2O levels measured at 50-56 cm from the patient's nose. Scavenged ambient N2O levels were also observed to decrease when N2O concentrations administered to the patient were reduced from 50 to 30%. This concentration effect was not observed in the non-scavenged groups. ANOVA showed that operatory size exerted a non-significant influence on ambient N2O. The data collected during routine treatment of pediatric dental patients demonstrated that the scavenging system tested significantly reduced waste N2O in the operator's breathing zone, nearly approximating the 25-ppm recommendation established by the National Institute for Occupational Safety and Health (NIOSH).

  3. Hydroxylated chalcones with dual properties: Xanthine oxidase inhibitors and radical scavengers.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hofmann, Emily; Webster, Jonathan; Do, Thuy; Kline, Reid; Snider, Lindsey; Hauser, Quintin; Higginbottom, Grace; Campbell, Austin; Ma, Lili; Paula, Stefan

    2016-02-15

    In this study, we evaluated the abilities of a series of chalcones to inhibit the activity of the enzyme xanthine oxidase (XO) and to scavenge radicals. 20 mono- and polyhydroxylated chalcone derivatives were synthesized by Claisen-Schmidt condensation reactions and then tested for inhibitory potency against XO, a known generator of reactive oxygen species (ROS). In parallel, the ability of the synthesized chalcones to scavenge a stable radical was determined. Structure-activity relationship analysis in conjunction with molecular docking indicated that the most active XO inhibitors carried a minimum of three hydroxyl groups. Moreover, the most effective radical scavengers had two neighboring hydroxyl groups on at least one of the two phenyl rings. Since it has been proposed previously that XO inhibition and radical scavenging could be useful properties for reduction of ROS-levels in tissue, we determined the chalcones' effects to rescue neurons subjected to ROS-induced stress created by the addition of β-amyloid peptide. Best protection was provided by chalcones that combined good inhibitory potency with high radical scavenging ability in a single molecule, an observation that points to a potential therapeutic value of this compound class. Copyright © 2015 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  4. Increasing land-use intensity reverses the relative occupancy of two quadrupedal scavengers.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Joshua P Twining

    Full Text Available Human land use is continuously altering the natural environment, yet the greater ecological implications of this change for many groups that are key to healthy ecosystem functioning remains uncharacterised in the tropics. Terrestrial scavenging vertebrates are one such group, providing integral ecosystem services through the removal of carrion which is a crucial component of both nutrient cycling and disease dynamics. To explore how anthropogenic processes may affect forest scavengers, we investigated the changes in the relative occupancy of two important terrestrial scavengers along a gradient of land use intensity, ranging from protected forest to oil palm plantation in Borneo. We found the Malay civet (Viverra tangalunga had highest, albeit variable, occupancy in areas of low land use intensity and the Southeast Asian water monitor (Varanus salvator macromaculatus had highest occupancy in areas of high land use intensity. Land use had no effect on the combined occupancy of the two species. In high land use intensity sites, individual water monitors were larger and had better body condition, but at population level had a highly biased sex ratio with more males than females and increased signs of intraspecific conflict. We did not assess scavenging rate or efficiency as a process, but the high occupancy rates and apparent health of the scavengers in high land use intensity landscapes suggests this ecological process is robust to land use change.

  5. Changes in free-radical scavenging ability of kombucha tea during fermentation.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jayabalan, R; Subathradevi, P; Marimuthu, S; Sathishkumar, M; Swaminathan, K

    2008-07-01

    Kombucha tea is a fermented tea beverage produced by fermenting sugared black tea with tea fungus (kombucha). Free-radical scavenging abilities of kombucha tea prepared from green tea (GTK), black tea (BTK) and tea waste material (TWK) along with pH, phenolic compounds and reducing power were investigated during fermentation period. Phenolic compounds, scavenging activity on DPPH radical, superoxide radical (xanthine-xanthine oxidase system) and inhibitory activity against hydroxyl radical mediated linoleic acid oxidation (ammonium thiocyanate assay) were increased during fermentation period, whereas pH, reducing power, hydroxyl radical scavenging ability (ascorbic acid-iron EDTA) and anti-lipid peroxidation ability (thiobarbituric assay) were decreased. From the present study, it is obvious that there might be some chances of structural modification of components in tea due to enzymes liberated by bacteria and yeast during kombucha fermentation which results in better scavenging performance on nitrogen and superoxide radicals, and poor scavenging performance on hydroxyl radicals. Copyright © 2007 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  6. Carbohydrate clearance receptors in transfusion medicine

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Sørensen, Anne Louise Tølbøll; Clausen, Henrik; Wandall, Hans H

    2012-01-01

    are especially important to enhance size and reduce glomerular filtration loss. Carbohydrates are, however, also ligands for a large number of carbohydrate-binding lectins exposed to the circulatory system that serve as scavenger receptors for the innate immune system, or have more specific roles in targeting......Complex carbohydrates play important functions for circulation of proteins and cells. They provide protective shields and refraction from non-specific interactions with negative charges from sialic acids to enhance circulatory half-life. For recombinant protein therapeutics carbohydrates...

  7. A multistep continuous-flow system for rapid on-demand synthesis of receptor ligands

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Petersen, Trine P; Ritzén, Andreas; Ulven, Trond

    2009-01-01

    A multistep continuous-flow system for synthesis of receptor ligands by assembly of three variable building blocks in a single unbroken flow is described. The sequence consists of three reactions and two scavenger steps, where a Cbz-protected diamine is reacted with an isocyanate, deprotected, an...

  8. Reduction of cathodic delamination rates of anticorrosive coatings using free radical scavengers

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Sørensen, Per Aggerholm; Weinell, C. E.; Dam-Johansen, Kim

    2010-01-01

    formed as intermediates in the cathodic reaction during the corrosion process. In this study, antioxidants (i.e., free radical scavengers and peroxide decomposers) have been incorporated into various generic types of coatings to investigate the effect of antioxidants on the rate of cathodic delamination......, copper, aluminum, galvanized steel, and brass also showed a reduction in the rate of cathodic delamination when the coating was modified with a free radical scavenger. The protective mechanism of free radical scavengers investigated for the primers are similar to that of antioxidants used for protection...... against photochemical degradation by UV-radiation of top coatings. Both substrate corrosion and degradation of a coating exposed to UV-radiation lead to the formation of free radicals as reactive intermediates....

  9. Synthesis of novel carbazole chalcones as radical scavenger, antimicrobial and cancer chemopreventive agents.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bandgar, Babasaheb P; Adsul, Laxman K; Lonikar, Shrikant V; Chavan, Hemant V; Shringare, Sadanand N; Patil, Sachin A; Jalde, Shivkumar S; Koti, Basawaraj A; Dhole, Nagesh A; Gacche, Rajesh N; Shirfule, Amol

    2013-06-01

    A series of novel carbazole chalcones has been synthesised and evaluated for radical scavenging activity, cytotoxicity and antimicrobial activities. Compounds 12m, 12o and 12c exhibited good 2,2-diphenyl-1-picrylhydrazyl (DPPH) radical scavenging activity, compounds 12e, 12m and 12d were excellent hydroxyl radical scavengers and compounds 12a, 12e, 12g, 12n and 12m have shown inhibition of oxidative DNA damage induced by 2,2'-azobis (2-amidinopropane hydrochloride). Compounds 12j, 12i, 12n, 12c, 12m and 12e were most active against the selected cancer cell lines. Compounds 12a, 12e and 12m showed good antibacterial activity and compounds 12h and 12m have shown good antifungal activity. All the compounds were subjected for absorption, distribution, metabolism and excretion (ADME) predictions by computational method and found that these molecules could be considered as potential candidates for oral drug development.

  10. Scavenging of aerosol-fixed radionuclides with rain and snow; Ablagerung von aerosolgebundenen Radionukliden bei Regen und Schneefall

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Tschiersch, J.; Frank, G.; Winkler, R. [GSF - Forschungszentrum fuer Umwelt und Gesundheit Neuherberg GmbH, Oberschleissheim (Germany); Ebert, P. [Technische Univ. Darmstadt (Germany)

    2000-02-01

    In this report results are presented of field measurements to the process of below-cloud scavenging of aerosol-fixed radionuclides. The experiments were performed to quantify the washout process in dependence of the relevant parameters. Using a trace method, monodisperse particles of a wide size range (0.4-7.7 {mu}m) were emitted. The focus of the parameterisation is on the characterization of the hydrometeors: raindrops by their size, snow crystals by their shape and size. It was found that the scavenging coefficient depends strongly on the kind and size of the hydrometeors. An increase of the scavenging coefficient with increasing drop size is measured for raindrops, up to 3 orders of magnitude depending on the particle size. The increase of the scavenging coefficient with particle size, however, is not as large as expected, and the minimum of this relation is shifted to larger particles. For snow scavenging, differences between the crystal types are found, e.g. the scavenging by column crystals is about 3 times more effective than the scavenging by graupel. Comparing the means of the rain and snow scavenging experiments, snow scavenging is more than 10 times more effective than rain scavenging. (orig.) [German] Das Ziel dieses Berichts ist es, Ergebnisse von Freilandmessungen zum Auswachsen von aerosolgebundenen Radionukliden vorzustellen, die durchgefuehrt wurden, um diesen Depositionsprozess genauer zu quantifizieren und zu parametrisieren. Eingesetzt wurde eine Tracermethode, die es erlaubt, die Groesse der emittierten monodispersen Partikel ueber eine weiten Groessenbereich (0,4-7,7 {mu}m) zu variieren. Der Schwerpunkt der Parametrisierung liegt in der Charakterisierung der Hydrometeore: fuer Regentropfen durch ihre Groesse, fuer Schneekristalle durch ihre Kristallart und Groesse. Gefunden wird, dass der Scavenging-Koeffizient stark von Art und Groesse der Hydrometeore abhaengt. Fuer Regentropfen misst man eine Zunahme des Scavenging-Koeffizienten mit

  11. Analysis of the Scavenging Process of a Two-Stroke Free-Piston Engine Based on the Selection of Scavenging Ports or Valves

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Boru Jia

    2018-02-01

    Full Text Available The free-piston engine generator (FPEG is a linear energy conversion device with the objective of utilisation within a hybrid-electric automotive vehicle power system. In this research, the piston dynamic characteristics of an FPEG is compared with that of a conventional engine (CE of the same size, and the difference in the valve timing is compared for both port scavenging type and valve scavenging type, with the exhaust valve closing timing is selected as the parameter. A zero-dimensional simulation model is developed in Ricardo WAVE software (2016.1, with the piston dynamics obtained from the simulation model in Matlab/SIMULINK (R2017a. For the CE and FEPG using scavenging ports, in order to improve its power output to the same level as that of a CE, the inlet gas pressure is suggested to be improved to above 1.2 bar, approximately 0.2 bar higher than that used for a CE. If a CE cylinder with exhaust valves is adopted or referred to during the development of an FPEG prototype, the exhaust valve is suggested to be closed earlier to improve its power output, and a higher intake pressure is also suggested if its output power is expected to be the same or higher than that of a CE.

  12. The scavenging of volatile anesthetic agents in the cardiovascular intensive care unit environment: a technical report.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pickworth, Thomas; Jerath, Angela; DeVine, Rita; Kherani, Nazmin; Wąsowicz, Marcin

    2013-01-01

    The use of volatile-based sedation within critical care environments has been limited by difficulties of drug administration and safety concerns over environment pollution and staff exposure in an intensive care unit (ICU) with no scavenging. The aim of this study was to develop a simple scavenging system to be used with the Anesthesia Conserving Device (AnaConDa(®)) and to determine whether or not ambient concentrations of residual anesthetic are within current acceptable limits. The scavenging system consists of two Deltasorb(®) canisters attached to the ICU ventilator in series. AnaConDa is a miniature vaporizer designed to provide volatile-based sedation within an ICU. The first ten patients recruited into a larger randomized trial assessing outcomes after elective coronary graft bypass surgery were sedated within the cardiac ICU using either isoflurane or sevoflurane. Sedation was guided by the Sedation Agitation Scale, resulting in an end-tidal minimum anesthetic concentration of volatile agent ranging from 0.1-0.3. At one hour post ICU admission, infrared photometric analysis was used to assess environmental contamination at four points along the ventilator circuit and scavenging system and around the patient's head. All measurements taken within the patient's room were below 1 part per million, which satisfies criteria for occupational exposure. This study shows that volatile agents can be administered safely within critical care settings using a simple scavenging system. Our scavenging system used in conjunction with the AnaConDa device reduced the concentration of environmental contamination to a level that is acceptable to Canadian standards and standards in most Western countries and thus conforms to international safety standards. The related clinical trial was registered at www.clinicaltrials.gov (NCT01151254).

  13. Novel spectroscopic sensor for the hydroxyl radical scavenging activity measurement of biological samples.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bekdeşer, Burcu; Özyürek, Mustafa; Güçlü, Kubilay; Apak, Reşat

    2012-09-15

    A novel spectroscopic sensor was developed and validated for hydroxyl radical scavenging (HRS) activity estimation using terephthalate (TP) as probe. This sensor was designed by electrostatic immobilization of the chromogenic oxidizing agent of the CUPric Reducing Antioxidant Capacity (CUPRAC) method, Cu(II)-Neocuproine (Cu(II)-Nc) complex, on a Nafion cation-exchange membrane, and the spectrophotometric assay developed in aqueous-alcoholic solutions was integrated to the CUPRAC sensor. Hydroxyl radicals ((•)OH) generated from an equivalent mixture of Fe(II)+EDTA with hydrogen peroxide attacked both the probe and the (•)OH scavengers in 37 °C-incubated solutions for 1/2h. The HRS activity was measured using the decrease in CUPRAC absorbance at 450 nm - arising from the reduction of Cu(II)-Nc reagent to the Cu(I)-neocuproine chelate - of the hydroxylated probe (TP) undergoing radical attack in the presence of (•)OH scavengers. The HRS activity was evaluated as the second-order rate constants of biologically active compounds for (•)OH scavenging and also as the percentage scavenging of a measured compound or sample relative to a reference compound. Using this reaction, a kinetic approach was adopted to assess the HRS activity of amino acids, plasma- and thiol-antioxidants. This assay, applicable to small molecule antioxidants and tissue homogenates, proved to be efficient for serine and albumin for which the widely used TBARS (thiobarbituric acid-reactive substances) test is nonresponsive. Under optimal conditions, about half of the probe (TP) was converted into 2-hydroxyterephthalate (hTP), and this monohydroxylated derivative, being the only product of hydroxylation, was a more specific marker of (•)OH than the non-specific malondialdehyde end-product of the TBARS test. The sensor gave a linear response to scavenger concentration in the competition kinetic equation. Copyright © 2012 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  14. Whey protein film with oxygen scavenging function by incorporation of ascorbic acid.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Janjarasskul, Theeranun; Tananuwong, Kanitha; Krochta, John M

    2011-01-01

    Residual O(2) in a package headspace can be removed by an O(2)-absorbing sachet, which can be harmful if swallowed by the consumer, or by a chemically-active plastic packaging film, which is difficult to recycle. An edible, O(2)-absorbing film would avoid these disadvantages. The objective of our research was to assess the O(2)-scavenging potential of an edible whey protein isolate (WPI) film incorporating ascorbic acid (AA). AA at 0.05, 0.1, or 0.2 M was added to 5% (w/w) heat-denatured WPI film-forming solutions with WPI : glycerol (Gly) ratio of 1: 1.00, 1: 0.80, or 1: 0.67. The pH of solutions was then adjusted to 3.5 (below pK(a1) of AA), to stabilize AA against oxidation, before film casting. The mechanical properties, O(2) permeabilities, and thermal transitions of films were measured. Activation of the O(2)-scavenging function of the AA-incorporated films was accomplished by adjustment of the films to pH ≥ 7. O(2)-scavenging ability of AA-incorporated WPI films was determined by measuring residual O(2) in the headspace of a high-barrier container. Incorporation of AA into WPI film decreased film tensile strength and further reduced O(2) permeability at each WPI : Gly ratio. AA-containing films adjusted to pH ≥ 7 demonstrated O(2) absorption proportional to AA content, consistent with theoretical O(2)-scavenging capacity. Thermal transition measurements indicated that AA was involved in WPI structural modification and decreased the degradation temperature of WPI-based film. The demonstrated O(2)-scavenging function, improved O(2) barrier and acceptable mechanical properties of AA-incorporated films indicate potential commercial usefulness. Ascorbic acid-incorporated whey protein film with oxygen scavenging function can be used to extend shelf lives of a wide variety of oxygen-sensitive products by eliminating headspace oxygen as well as oxygen permeating through the packaging wall over time. Edible oxygen-scavenger film has the advantages of avoiding

  15. Screening of Antioxidant and Radical Scavenging Activities of Some Omani Medicinal Plants

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Saleh Al-Busafi

    2007-06-01

    Full Text Available n-Butanol extracts of nine medicinal plants, Cressa cretica, Ziziphus spina-christ, Acacia tortilis, Tephrosia haussknechti, Aristolochiae bracteolata, Citrullus colocynthis, Teucrium mascatense, Rhazya stricta and Nerium oleander, found in Oman were screened for their antioxidant activity using phosphomolybdenum complex assays and their radical scavenging activity using DPPH assays. Ocimumi basilicum, a plant with well documented antioxidant activity, was used as a reference. A. tortilis, and T. haussknechti extracts possessed very high antioxidant activity (AOA and high radical scavenging activity (RSA.

  16. Tronchuda cabbage (Brassica oleracea L. var. costata DC): scavenger of reactive nitrogen species.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sousa, Carla; Valentão, Patrícia; Ferreres, Federico; Seabra, Rosa M; Andrade, Paula B

    2008-06-11

    The ability of tronchuda cabbage ( Brassica oleracea L. var. costata DC) to act as a scavenger of the reactive nitrogen species nitric oxide and peroxynitrite was investigated. The aqueous extracts obtained from tronchuda cabbage seeds and from its external and internal leaves exhibited a concentration dependent scavenging capacity. The antioxidant potential observed against the two reactive species was as follows: seeds > external leaves > internal leaves. In order to establish a possible correlation with the chemical composition of the extracts, the activity of ascorbic and sinapic acids and kaempferol 3- O-rutinoside was also studied. Among the compounds tested, sinapic acid showed the strongest antioxidant activity against both species.

  17. Chemical Constituents and their DPPH Radical Scavenging Activity of Nepalese Crude Drug Begonia picta

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Khem Raj Joshi

    2015-04-01

    Full Text Available Vitexin (1, isovitexin (2, orientin (3, isoorientin (4 and 1, 3 - dih y d roxy - 6, 7 - dimethoxyxanthone (5 were isolated from the whole plant of Begonia picta , a Nepalese crude drug commonly known as “ Magarkaanche ”. Structures were elucidated on the basis of chemical and spectroscopic methods. All of these compounds were isolated for the first time from B. picta and their in vitro antioxidant activity was evaluated by diphenyl-2-picrylhydrazyl ( DPPH free radical scavenging assay. Compounds 3 and 4 showed significant free radical scavenging activity.

  18. New phenanthrene derivatives with nitric oxide inhibitory and radical-scavenging activities from Pholidota imbricata Hook.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wang, Jue; Wang, Tiejie; Xie, Pu; Yin, Guo; Li, Xiaofan

    2014-01-01

    One new phenanthrene derivative phoimbrtol A (1) with seven known compounds, loddigesiinol B (2), shanciol B (3), (-)-medioresinol (4), (-)-pinoresinol (5), quercetin 3-O-β-L-arabinofuranoside (6), luteolin 7-O-β-glucoside (7) and platycaryanin D (8) have been isolated from the ethyl acetate extract of the air-dried whole plant of Pholidota imbricata Hook. Their inhibitory effects on nitric oxide (NO) production and 1,1-diphenyl-2-picrylhydrazil (DPPH) radical scavenging activity were examined. Among these compounds, 8 exhibited the most potent activity at NO production inhibitory assay and DPPH radical scavenging assay, stronger than those of the familiar antioxidative agents, quercetin and resveratrol.

  19. Expression of scavenger receptor‐AI promotes alternative activation of murine macrophages to limit hepatic inflammation and fibrosis

    Science.gov (United States)

    Labonte, Adam C.; Sung, Sun‐Sang J.; Jennelle, Lucas T.; Dandekar, Aditya P.

    2016-01-01

    The liver maintains an immunologically tolerant environment as a result of continuous exposure to food and bacterial constituents from the digestive tract. Hepatotropic pathogens can take advantage of this niche and establish lifelong chronic infections causing hepatic fibrosis and hepatocellular carcinoma. Macrophages (Mϕ) play a critical role in regulation of immune responses to hepatic infection and regeneration of tissue. However, the factors crucial for Mϕ in limiting hepatic inflammation or resolving liver damage have not been fully understood. In this report, we demonstrate that expression of C‐type lectin receptor scavenger receptor‐AI (SR‐AI) is crucial for promoting M2‐like Mϕ activation and polarization during hepatic inflammation. Liver Mϕ uniquely up‐regulated SR‐AI during hepatotropic viral infection and displayed increased expression of alternative Mϕ activation markers, such as YM‐1, arginase‐1, and interleukin‐10 by activation of mer receptor tyrosine kinase associated with inhibition of mammalian target of rapamycin. Expression of these molecules was reduced on Mϕ obtained from livers of infected mice deficient for the gene encoding SR‐AI (msr1). Furthermore, in vitro studies using an SR‐AI‐deficient Mϕ cell line revealed impeded M2 polarization and decreased phagocytic capacity. Direct stimulation with virus was sufficient to activate M2 gene expression in the wild‐type (WT) cell line, but not in the knockdown cell line. Importantly, tissue damage and fibrosis were exacerbated in SR‐AI–/– mice following hepatic infection and adoptive transfer of WT bone‐marrow–derived Mϕ conferred protection against fibrosis in these mice. Conclusion: SR‐AI expression on liver Mϕ promotes recovery from infection‐induced tissue damage by mediating a switch to a proresolving Mϕ polarization state. (Hepatology 2017;65:32‐43). PMID:27770558

  20. Influences of in-cloud aerosol scavenging parameterizations on aerosol concentrations and wet deposition in ECHAM5-HAM

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    B. Croft

    2010-02-01

    Full Text Available A diagnostic cloud nucleation scavenging scheme, which determines stratiform cloud scavenging ratios for both aerosol mass and number distributions, based on cloud droplet, and ice crystal number concentrations, is introduced into the ECHAM5-HAM global climate model. This scheme is coupled with a size-dependent in-cloud impaction scavenging parameterization for both cloud droplet-aerosol, and ice crystal-aerosol collisions. The aerosol mass scavenged in stratiform clouds is found to be primarily (>90% scavenged by cloud nucleation processes for all aerosol species, except for dust (50%. The aerosol number scavenged is primarily (>90% attributed to impaction. 99% of this impaction scavenging occurs in clouds with temperatures less than 273 K. Sensitivity studies are presented, which compare aerosol concentrations, burdens, and deposition for a variety of in-cloud scavenging approaches: prescribed fractions, a more computationally expensive prognostic aerosol cloud processing treatment, and the new diagnostic scheme, also with modified assumptions about in-cloud impaction and nucleation scavenging. Our results show that while uncertainties in the representation of in-cloud scavenging processes can lead to differences in the range of 20–30% for the predicted annual, global mean aerosol mass burdens, and near to 50% for accumulation mode aerosol number burden, the differences in predicted aerosol mass concentrations can be up to one order of magnitude, particularly for regions of the middle troposphere with temperatures below 273 K where mixed and ice phase clouds exist. Different parameterizations for impaction scavenging changed the predicted global, annual mean number removal attributed to ice clouds by seven-fold, and the global, annual dust mass removal attributed to impaction by two orders of magnitude. Closer agreement with observations of black carbon profiles from aircraft (increases near to one order of magnitude for mixed phase clouds

  1. Evaluation of free radical scavenging activity of various extracts of leaves from Kedrostis foetidissima (Jacq. Cogn.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Kalaisezhiyen Pavithra

    2015-03-01

    Full Text Available The present study was aimed to investigate the in vitro free radical scavenging activity of various leaf extracts (aqueous, methanol, acetone chloroform and petroleum ether of Kedrostis foetidissima. In vitro free radical scavenging activities of the extracts were assessed against DPPH and hydroxyl radicals. The metal chelating activity and reducing power ability of the extracts were also determined. The free radical scavenging activity was found to be high in methanolic extract for DPPH and hydroxyl radicals in a concentration dependent manner followed by chloroform, aqueous, acetone and petroleum ether extracts. The metal chelating activity and reducing power ability was also found to be high in methanolic extract. The difference in scavenging potential of the extracts may be due to variation in the percentage of phytoconstituents extracted in various solvents. Thus the result suggests that the methanolic leaf extract of K. foetidissima could serve as a potential source of antioxidants and can be explored as a therapeutic agent in free radical induced diseases.

  2. Antioxidant and nitrite-scavenging capacities of phenolic compounds from sugarcane (Saccharum officinarum L.) tops.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sun, Jian; He, Xue-Mei; Zhao, Mou-Ming; Li, Li; Li, Chang-Bao; Dong, Yi

    2014-08-26

    Sugarcane tops were extracted with 50% ethanol and fractionated by petroleum ether, ethyl acetate (EtOAc), and n-butyl alcohol successively. Eight phenolic compounds in EtOAc extracts were purified through silica gel and Sephadex LH-20 column chromatographies, and then identified by nuclear magnetic resonance and electrospray ionization mass spectra. The results showed that eight phenolic compounds from EtOAc extracts were identified as caffeic acid, cis-p-hydroxycinnamic acid, quercetin, apigenin, albanin A, australone A, moracin M, and 5'-geranyl-5,7,2',4'-tetrahydroxyflavone. The antioxidant and nitrite-scavenging capacities of different solvent extracts correlated positively with their total phenolic (TP) contents. Amongst various extracts, EtOAc extracts possessed the highest TP content and presented the strongest oxygen radical absorbance capacity (ORAC), 1,1'-diphenyl-2-picrylhydrazyl (DPPH) radical-scavenging capacity, 2,2'-azobis-3-ethylbenthiaazoline-6-sulfonic acid (ABTS) radical-scavenging capacity, ferric reducing antioxidant power (FRAP) and nitrite-scavenging capacity. Thus, sugarcane tops could be promoted as a source of natural antioxidant.

  3. Antioxidant and Nitrite-Scavenging Capacities of Phenolic Compounds from Sugarcane (Saccharum officinarum L. Tops

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Jian Sun

    2014-08-01

    Full Text Available Sugarcane tops were extracted with 50% ethanol and fractionated by petroleum ether, ethyl acetate (EtOAc, and n-butyl alcohol successively. Eight phenolic compounds in EtOAc extracts were purified through silica gel and Sephadex LH-20 column chromatographies, and then identified by nuclear magnetic resonance and electrospray ionization mass spectra. The results showed that eight phenolic compounds from EtOAc extracts were identified as caffeic acid, cis-p-hydroxycinnamic acid, quercetin, apigenin, albanin A, australone A, moracin M, and 5'-geranyl-5,7,2',4'-tetrahydroxyflavone. The antioxidant and nitrite-scavenging capacities of different solvent extracts correlated positively with their total phenolic (TP contents. Amongst various extracts, EtOAc extracts possessed the highest TP content and presented the strongest oxygen radical absorbance capacity (ORAC, 1,1'-diphenyl-2-picrylhydrazyl (DPPH radical-scavenging capacity, 2,2'-azobis-3-ethylbenthiaazoline-6-sulfonic acid (ABTS radical-scavenging capacity, ferric reducing antioxidant power (FRAP and nitrite-scavenging capacity. Thus, sugarcane tops could be promoted as a source of natural antioxidant.

  4. Donor-Control of Scavenging Food Webs at the Land-Ocean Interface.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Thomas A Schlacher

    Full Text Available Food webs near the interface of adjacent ecosystems are potentially subsidised by the flux of organic matter across system boundaries. Such subsidies, including carrion of marine provenance, are predicted to be instrumental on open-coast sandy shores where in situ productivity is low and boundaries are long and highly permeable to imports from the sea. We tested the effect of carrion supply on the structure of consumer dynamics in a beach-dune system using broad-scale, repeated additions of carcasses at the strandline of an exposed beach in eastern Australia. Carrion inputs increased the abundance of large invertebrate scavengers (ghost crabs, Ocypode spp., a numerical response most strongly expressed by the largest size-class in the population, and likely due to aggregative behaviour in the short term. Consumption of carrion at the beach-dune interface was rapid and efficient, driven overwhelmingly by facultative avian scavengers. This guild of vertebrate scavengers comprises several species of birds of prey (sea eagles, kites, crows and gulls, which reacted strongly to concentrations of fish carrion, creating hotspots of intense scavenging activity along the shoreline. Detection of carrion effects at several trophic levels suggests that feeding links arising from carcasses shape the architecture and dynamics of food webs at the land-ocean interface.

  5. Roaming characteristics and feeding practices of village dogs scavenging sea-turtle nests

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Ruiz Izaguirre, E.; Woersem, A.; Eilers, C.H.A.M.; Wieren, van S.E.; Bosch, G.; Zijpp, van der A.J.; Boer, de I.J.M.

    2015-01-01

    Village dogs are reported to prey on sea-turtle nests at various beaches worldwide. Sea-turtle species present in Mexico include six species, which are listed under the International Union for Conservation of Nature Red List. It is however not clear why dogs scavenge and how they enter nesting

  6. Variations of Antioxidant Properties and NO Scavenging Abilities during Fermentation of Tea

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Yang Xu

    2011-07-01

    Full Text Available Tea is known as one of the most popular beverages in the world, which is believed to be beneficial for health. The main components in tea will change a lot depending on the different processes of fermentation, and thus the effects of different teas on human health may differ. The aim of this study is to explore the varied abilities of reactive oxygen species (ROS and nitric oxide (NO scavenging during the fermentation of tea. In this study, we conducted the in vitro experiments which involved some reaction systems indicating the abilities of scavenging ROS and NO. We also investigated the effects of tea and their components (catechins, theabrownins, caffeine on the intracellular levels of ROS and NO, using Raw 264.7 cells as the model. We found that regardless of whether it was out of cell system or in Raw 264.7 cells, the abilities of scavenging ROS would decrease during the fermentation of tea. Further, the post-fermented pu-erh tea showed the best effect on inhibiting the lipopolysaccharide (LPS-induced production of NO. These findings indicated that the fermentation process caused a change of the components which might be due to the changes of their antioxidant properties and NO scavenging abilities.

  7. [Correlation Between Functional Groups and Radical Scavenging Activities of Acidic Polysaccharides from Dendrobium].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Liao, Ying; Yuan, Wen-yu; Zheng, Wen-ke; Luo, Ao-xue; Fan, Yi-jun

    2015-11-01

    To compare the radical scavenging activity of five different acidic polysaccharides, and to find the correlation with the functional groups. Alkali extraction method and Stepwise ethanol precipitation method were used to extract and concentrate the five Dendrobium polysaccharides, and to determine the contents of sulfuric acid and uronic acid of each kind of acidic polysaccharides, and the scavenging activity to ABTS+ radical and hydroxyl radical. Functional group structures were examined by FTIR Spectrometer. Five kinds of Dendrobium polysaccharides had different ability of scavenging ABTS+ free radical and hydroxyl free radical. Moreover, the study had shown that five kinds of antioxidant activity of acidic polysaccharides had obvious correlation withuronic acid and sulfuric acid. The antioxidant activity of each sample was positively correlated with the content of uronic acid, and negatively correlated with the content of sulfuric acid. Sulfuric acid can inhibit the antioxidant activity of acidic polysaccharide but uronic acid can enhance the free radical scavenging activity. By analyzing the structure characteristics of five acidic polysaccharides, all samples have similar structures, however, Dendrobium denneanum, Dendrobium devonianum and Dendrobium officinale which had β configuration have higher antioxidant activity than Dendrobium nobile and Dendrobium fimbriatum which had a configuration.

  8. Ultimate Scaling of High-κ Gate Dielectrics: Higher-κ or Interfacial Layer Scavenging?

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Takashi Ando

    2012-03-01

    Full Text Available Current status and challenges of aggressive equivalent-oxide-thickness (EOT scaling of high-κ gate dielectrics via higher-κ ( > 20 materials and interfacial layer (IL scavenging techniques are reviewed. La-based higher-κ materials show aggressive EOT scaling (0.5–0.8 nm, but with effective workfunction (EWF values suitable only for n-type field-effect-transistor (FET. Further exploration for p-type FET-compatible higher-κ materials is needed. Meanwhile, IL scavenging is a promising approach to extend Hf-based high-κ dielectrics to future nodes. Remote IL scavenging techniques enable EOT scaling below 0.5 nm. Mobility-EOT trends in the literature suggest that short-channel performance improvement is attainable with aggressive EOT scaling via IL scavenging or La-silicate formation. However, extreme IL scaling (e.g., zero-IL is accompanied by loss of EWF control and with severe penalty in reliability. Therefore, highly precise IL thickness control in an ultra-thin IL regime ( < 0.5 nm will be the key technology to satisfy both performance and reliability requirements for future CMOS devices.

  9. Occurrence of antibodies to Toxoplasma gondii in the scavenging black vultures (Coragyps atratus) from Brazil

    Science.gov (United States)

    This is the first report of Toxoplasma gondii infection in black vultures (Coragyps atratus) that are are obligate scavenging birds found throughout the American continent. Serum samples from 121 wild black vultures captured in urban areas of the city of São Paulo, SP, Brazil, were tested for the pr...

  10. Scavenging and lubricating methods for reciprocating engines. Spuel- und Schmierverfahren fuer Hubkolbenmotoren

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Knott, F.J.

    1991-02-14

    Reciprocating engines have reached a high technological standard. However their development has still not come to an end. Attention is now not so much being paid to the mechanical side as to the mixture formation and combustion with the general aim of reducing fuel consumption and the more specific aim of reducing pollutant emissions. The invention is in line with this development: For mixture-compressed two-stroke engines it proposes layer scavenging and lubrication in the ring cylinder but still adheres to the simple principle of the blower embodied in the crankcase; for the four-stroke engine it proposes stratifying the gases for the carburettor function, good scavenging, internal cooling, improved filling as a result of the additional intake of air in the bottom dead centre, and, finally, valve-controlled gas exhaust and refilling. Layer scavenging aims at reducing the emission of nonburned hydrocarbons while the purpose of ring cylinder lubrication is to reduce combustion of petroil lubricants. Layer charging permits using a considerably leaner mixture and thus contributes to reducing carbon monoxide and nitrogen oxides. The drawing shows a two-stroke engine built according to the step piston principle and provided with reverse layer scavenging, a blower embodied in the crankcase and ring cylinder lubrication.

  11. A parameterization of size resolved below cloud scavenging of aerosols by rain

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Henzing, J.S.; Olivié, D.J.L.; Velthoven, P.F.J. van

    2006-01-01

    A size dependent parameterization for the removal of aerosol particles by falling rain droplets is developed. Scavenging coefficients are calculated explicitly as a function of aerosol particle size and precipitation intensity including the full interaction of rain droplet size distribution and

  12. Variations of Antioxidant Properties and NO Scavenging Abilities during Fermentation of Tea

    Science.gov (United States)

    Xu, Yang; Zhao, Hang; Zhang, Min; Li, Chun-Jie; Lin, Xue-Zhen; Sheng, Jun; Shi, Wei

    2011-01-01

    Tea is known as one of the most popular beverages in the world, which is believed to be beneficial for health. The main components in tea will change a lot depending on the different processes of fermentation, and thus the effects of different teas on human health may differ. The aim of this study is to explore the varied abilities of reactive oxygen species (ROS) and nitric oxide (NO) scavenging during the fermentation of tea. In this study, we conducted the in vitro experiments which involved some reaction systems indicating the abilities of scavenging ROS and NO. We also investigated the effects of tea and their components (catechins, theabrownins, caffeine) on the intracellular levels of ROS and NO, using Raw 264.7 cells as the model. We found that regardless of whether it was out of cell system or in Raw 264.7 cells, the abilities of scavenging ROS would decrease during the fermentation of tea. Further, the post-fermented pu-erh tea showed the best effect on inhibiting the lipopolysaccharide (LPS)-induced production of NO. These findings indicated that the fermentation process caused a change of the components which might be due to the changes of their antioxidant properties and NO scavenging abilities. PMID:21845097

  13. Wanted dead or alive: scavenging versus predation by three insect predators

    Science.gov (United States)

    Many generalist insect predators may engage in facultative scavenging. If an apparent predator frequently consumes dead prey instead of live prey then the biological control services provided by that predator may be overestimated. The use of unique protein markers on live and dead prey of the same s...

  14. The antioxidant and radical scavenging activities of black pepper (Piper nigrum) seeds.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gülçin, Ilhami

    2005-11-01

    Water and ethanol crude extracts from black pepper (Piper nigrum) were investigated for their antioxidant and radical scavenging activities in six different assay, namely, total antioxidant activity, reducing power, 1,1-Diphenyl-2-picryl-hydrazyl (DPPH) free radical scavenging, superoxide anion radical scavenging, hydrogen peroxide scavenging, and metal chelating activities. Both water extract (WEBP) and ethanol extract (EEBP) of black pepper exhibited strong total antioxidant activity. The 75 microg/ml concentration of WEBP and EEBP showed 95.5% and 93.3% inhibition on peroxidation of linoleic acid emulsion, respectively. On the other hand, at the same concentration, standard antioxidants such as butylated hydroxyanisole (BHA), butylated hydroxytoluene (BHT) and alpha-tocopherol exhibited 92.1%, 95.0%, and 70.4% inhibition on peroxidation of linoleic acid emulsion, respectively. Also, total phenolic content in both WEBP and EEBP were determined as gallic acid equivalents. The total phenolics content of water and ethanol extracts were determined by the Folin-Ciocalteu procedure and 54.3 and 42.8 microg gallic acid equivalent of phenols was detected in 1 mg WEBP and EEBP.

  15. Radical-scavenging-linked antioxidant activities of extracts from black chokeberry and blueberry cultivated in Korea.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hwang, Seok Joon; Yoon, Won Byong; Lee, Ok-Hwan; Cha, Seung Ju; Kim, Jong Dai

    2014-03-01

    The objective of this study was to investigate the radical-scavenging-linked antioxidant properties of the extracts from black chokeberry and blueberry cultivated in Korea. The 70% ethanol extracts were prepared from black chokeberry and blueberry, and evaluated for total phenolic content, total flavonoid content, total proanthocyanidin content, and antioxidative activities, using various in vitro assays, such as DPPH(2,2-diphenyl-1-picrylhydrazyl), ABTS(2,2-azino-bis-(3-ethylenebenzothiozoline-6-sulphonic acid)) radical-scavenging activity, FRAP(ferric-reducing antioxidant power) and reducing power. The major phenolic compounds, including cyanidin-3-galactoside, cyanidin-3-arabinoside, neochlorogenic acid, procyanidin B1, were analysed by HPLC with a photodiode array detector. Results showed that total phenol, flavonoid and proanthocyanidin contents of black chokeberry extract were higher than those of blueberry extract. In addition, black chokeberry extract exhibited higher free radical-scavenging activity and reducing power than did blueberry extract. Cyanidin-3-galactoside was identified as a major phenolic compound, with considerable content in black chokeberry, that correlated with its higher antioxidant and radical-scavenging effects. These results suggest that black chokeberry extracts could be considered as a good source of natural antioxidants and functional food ingredients. Copyright © 2013 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  16. A Cloud-Based Scavenger Hunt: Orienting Undergraduates to ACS National Meetings

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kubasik, Matthew A.; Van Dyke, Aaron R.; Harper-Leatherman, Amanda S.; Miecznikowski, John R.; Steffen, L. Kraig; Smith-Carpenter, Jillian

    2016-01-01

    American Chemical Society (ACS) National Meetings are valuable for the development of undergraduate researchers but can be overwhelming for first-time attendees. To orient and engage students with the range of offerings at an ACS meeting, we developed a cloud-based scavenger hunt. Using their mobile devices, teams of undergraduates…

  17. Variation in bird-window collision mortality and scavenging rates within an urban landscape

    Science.gov (United States)

    Annual avian mortality from collisions with windows and buildings is estimated to range from a million to a billion birds in the United States alone. However, estimates of mortality based on carcass counts suffer from bias due to imperfect detection and carcass scavenging. We stu...

  18. An anaerobic bacterium, Bacteroides thetaiotaomicron, uses a consortium of enzymes to scavenge hydrogen peroxide.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mishra, Surabhi; Imlay, James A

    2013-12-01

    Obligate anaerobes are periodically exposed to oxygen, and it has been conjectured that on such occasions their low-potential biochemistry will predispose them to rapid ROS formation. We sought to identify scavenging enzymes that might protect the anaerobe Bacteroides thetaiotaomicron from the H2 O2 that would be formed. Genetic analysis of eight candidate enzymes revealed that four of these scavenge H2 O2  in vivo: rubrerythrins 1 and 2, AhpCF, and catalase E. The rubrerythrins served as key peroxidases under anoxic conditions. However, they quickly lost activity upon aeration, and AhpCF and catalase were induced to compensate. The AhpCF is an NADH peroxidase that effectively degraded low micromolar levels of H2 O2 , while the catalytic cycle of catalase enabled it to quickly degrade higher concentratio