WorldWideScience

Sample records for scattering tissue phantoms

  1. Tissue Equivalent Phantom Design for Characterization of a Coherent Scatter X-ray Imaging System

    Science.gov (United States)

    Albanese, Kathryn Elizabeth

    Scatter in medical imaging is typically cast off as image-related noise that detracts from meaningful diagnosis. It is therefore typically rejected or removed from medical images. However, it has been found that every material, including cancerous tissue, has a unique X-ray coherent scatter signature that can be used to identify the material or tissue. Such scatter-based tissue-identification provides the advantage of locating and identifying particular materials over conventional anatomical imaging through X-ray radiography. A coded aperture X-ray coherent scatter spectral imaging system has been developed in our group to classify different tissue types based on their unique scatter signatures. Previous experiments using our prototype have demonstrated that the depth-resolved coherent scatter spectral imaging system (CACSSI) can discriminate healthy and cancerous tissue present in the path of a non-destructive x-ray beam. A key to the successful optimization of CACSSI as a clinical imaging method is to obtain anatomically accurate phantoms of the human body. This thesis describes the development and fabrication of 3D printed anatomical scatter phantoms of the breast and lung. The purpose of this work is to accurately model different breast geometries using a tissue equivalent phantom, and to classify these tissues in a coherent x-ray scatter imaging system. Tissue-equivalent anatomical phantoms were designed to assess the capability of the CACSSI system to classify different types of breast tissue (adipose, fibroglandular, malignant). These phantoms were 3D printed based on DICOM data obtained from CT scans of prone breasts. The phantoms were tested through comparison of measured scatter signatures with those of adipose and fibroglandular tissue from literature. Tumors in the phantom were modeled using a variety of biological tissue including actual surgically excised benign and malignant tissue specimens. Lung based phantoms have also been printed for future

  2. TH-AB-209-12: Tissue Equivalent Phantom with Excised Human Tissue for Assessing Clinical Capabilities of Coherent Scatter Imaging Applications

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Albanese, K; Morris, R; Spencer, J [Medical Physics Graduate Program, Duke University, Durham, NC (United States); Greenberg, J [Dept. of Electrical and Computer Engineering, Duke University, Durham, NC (United States); Kapadia, A [Carl E Ravin Advanced Imaging Laboratories, Durham, NC (United States)

    2016-06-15

    Purpose: Previously we reported the development of anthropomorphic tissue-equivalent scatter phantoms of the human breast. Here we present the first results from the scatter imaging of the tissue equivalent breast phantoms for breast cancer diagnosis. Methods: A breast phantom was designed to assess the capability of coded aperture coherent x-ray scatter imaging to classify different types of breast tissue (adipose, fibroglandular, tumor). The phantom geometry was obtained from a prone breast geometry scanned on a dedicated breast CT system. The phantom was 3D printed using the segmented DICOM breast CT data. The 3D breast phantom was filled with lard (as a surrogate for adipose tissue) and scanned in different geometries alongside excised human breast tissues (obtained from lumpectomy and mastectomy procedures). The raw data were reconstructed using a model-based reconstruction algorithm and yielded the location and form factor (i.e., momentum transfer (q) spectrum) of the materials that were imaged. The measured material form factors were then compared to the ground truth measurements acquired by x-ray diffraction (XRD) imaging. Results: Our scatter imaging system was able to define the location and composition of the various materials and tissues within the phantom. Cancerous breast tissue was detected and classified through automated spectral matching and an 86% correlation threshold. The total scan time for the sample was approximately 10 minutes and approaches workflow times for clinical use in intra-operative or other diagnostic tasks. Conclusion: This work demonstrates the first results from an anthropomorphic tissue equivalent scatter phantom to characterize a coherent scatter imaging system. The functionality of the system shows promise in applications such as intra-operative margin detection or virtual biopsy in the diagnosis of breast cancer. Future work includes using additional patient-derived tissues (e.g., human fat), and modeling additional organs

  3. NADH-fluorescence scattering correction for absolute concentration determination in a liquid tissue phantom using a novel multispectral magnetic-resonance-imaging-compatible needle probe

    Science.gov (United States)

    Braun, Frank; Schalk, Robert; Heintz, Annabell; Feike, Patrick; Firmowski, Sebastian; Beuermann, Thomas; Methner, Frank-Jürgen; Kränzlin, Bettina; Gretz, Norbert; Rädle, Matthias

    2017-07-01

    In this report, a quantitative nicotinamide adenine dinucleotide hydrate (NADH) fluorescence measurement algorithm in a liquid tissue phantom using a fiber-optic needle probe is presented. To determine the absolute concentrations of NADH in this phantom, the fluorescence emission spectra at 465 nm were corrected using diffuse reflectance spectroscopy between 600 nm and 940 nm. The patented autoclavable Nitinol needle probe enables the acquisition of multispectral backscattering measurements of ultraviolet, visible, near-infrared and fluorescence spectra. As a phantom, a suspension of calcium carbonate (Calcilit) and water with physiological NADH concentrations between 0 mmol l-1 and 2.0 mmol l-1 were used to mimic human tissue. The light scattering characteristics were adjusted to match the backscattering attributes of human skin by modifying the concentration of Calcilit. To correct the scattering effects caused by the matrices of the samples, an algorithm based on the backscattered remission spectrum was employed to compensate the influence of multiscattering on the optical pathway through the dispersed phase. The monitored backscattered visible light was used to correct the fluorescence spectra and thereby to determine the true NADH concentrations at unknown Calcilit concentrations. Despite the simplicity of the presented algorithm, the root-mean-square error of prediction (RMSEP) was 0.093 mmol l-1.

  4. Deformable and durable phantoms with controlled density of scatterers

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Bisaillon, Charles-Etienne; Lamouche, Guy; Dufour, Marc; Monchalin, Jean-Pierre [Industrial Materials Institute, National Research Council Canada, 75 de Mortagne, Boucherville, Quebec J4B 6Y4 (Canada); Maciejko, Romain [Optoelectronics Laboratory, Engineering Physics, Ecole Polytechnique de Montreal, PO Box 6079, Station ' Centre-ville' Montreal, Quebec H3C 3A7 (Canada)], E-mail: charles-etienne.bisaillon@cnrc-nrc.gc.ca, E-mail: guy.lamouche@cnrc-nrc.gc.ca, E-mail: marc.dufour@cnrc-nrc.gc.ca, E-mail: jean-pierre.monchalin@cnrc-nrc.gc.ca, E-mail: romain.maciejko@polytml.ca

    2008-07-07

    We have developed deformable and durable optical tissue phantoms with a simple and well-defined microstructure including a novel combination of scatterers and a matrix material. These were developed for speckle and elastography investigations in optical coherence tomography, but should prove useful in many other fields. We present in detail the fabrication process which involves embedding silica microspheres in a silicone matrix. We also characterize the resulting phantoms with scanning electron microscopy and optical measurements. To our knowledge, no such phantoms were proposed in the literature before. Our technique has a wide range of applicability and could also be adapted to fabricate phantoms with various optical and mechanical properties. (note)

  5. A solid tissue phantom for photon migration studies

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Cubeddu, Rinaldo; Pifferi, Antonio; Taroni, Paola; Torricelli, Alessandro; Valentini, Gianluca

    1997-01-01

    A solid tissue phantom made of agar, Intralipid and black ink is described and characterized. The preparation procedure is fast and easily implemented with standard laboratory equipment. An instrumentation for time-resolved transmittance measurements was used to determine the optical properties of the phantom. The absorption and the reduced scattering coefficients are linear with the ink and Intralipid concentrations, respectively. A systematic decrease of the reduced scattering coefficient dependent on the agar content is observed, but can easily be managed. The phantom is highly homogeneous and shows good repeatability among different preparations. Moreover, agar inclusions can be easily embedded in either solid or liquid matrixes, and no artefacts are caused by the solid - solid or solid - liquid interfaces. This allows one to produce reliable and realistic inhomogeneous phantoms with known optical properties, particularly interesting for studies on optical imaging through turbid media. (author)

  6. Tissue quantification for development of pediatric phantom

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Alves, A.F.F.; Miranda, J.R.A.; Pina, D.R.

    2013-01-01

    The optimization of the risk- benefit ratio is a major concern in the pediatric radiology, due to the greater vulnerability of children to the late somatic effects and genetic effects of exposure to radiation compared to adults. In Brazil, it is estimated that the causes of death from head trauma are 18 % for the age group between 1-5 years and the radiograph is the primary diagnostic test for the detection of skull fracture . Knowing that the image quality is essential to ensure the identification of structures anatomical and minimizing errors diagnostic interpretation, this paper proposed the development and construction of homogeneous phantoms skull, for the age group 1-5 years. The construction of the phantoms homogeneous was performed using the classification and quantification of tissue present in the skull of pediatric patients. In this procedure computational algorithms were used, using Matlab, to quantify distinct biological tissues present in the anatomical regions studied , using pictures retrospective CT scans. Preliminary data obtained from measurements show that between the ages of 1-5 years, assuming an average anteroposterior diameter of the pediatric skull region of the 145.73 ± 2.97 mm, can be represented by 92.34 mm ± 5.22 of lucite and 1.75 ± 0:21 mm of aluminum plates of a provision of PEP (Pacient equivalent phantom). After its construction, the phantoms will be used for image and dose optimization in pediatric protocols process to examinations of computerized radiography

  7. Solid tissue simulating phantoms having absorption at 970 nm for diffuse optics

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kennedy, Gordon T.; Lentsch, Griffin R.; Trieu, Brandon; Ponticorvo, Adrien; Saager, Rolf B.; Durkin, Anthony J.

    2017-07-01

    Tissue simulating phantoms can provide a valuable platform for quantitative evaluation of the performance of diffuse optical devices. While solid phantoms have been developed for applications related to characterizing exogenous fluorescence and intrinsic chromophores such as hemoglobin and melanin, we report the development of a poly(dimethylsiloxane) (PDMS) tissue phantom that mimics the spectral characteristics of tissue water. We have developed these phantoms to mimic different water fractions in tissue, with the purpose of testing new devices within the context of clinical applications such as burn wound triage. Compared to liquid phantoms, cured PDMS phantoms are easier to transport and use and have a longer usable life than gelatin-based phantoms. As silicone is hydrophobic, 9606 dye was used to mimic the optical absorption feature of water in the vicinity of 970 nm. Scattering properties are determined by adding titanium dioxide, which yields a wavelength-dependent scattering coefficient similar to that observed in tissue in the near-infrared. Phantom properties were characterized and validated using the techniques of inverse adding-doubling and spatial frequency domain imaging. Results presented here demonstrate that we can fabricate solid phantoms that can be used to simulate different water fractions.

  8. Photoacoustic microscopy of bilirubin in tissue phantoms

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zhou, Yong; Zhang, Chi; Yao, Da-Kang; Wang, Lihong V.

    2012-12-01

    Determining both bilirubin's concentration and its spatial distribution are important in disease diagnosis. Here, for the first time, we applied quantitative multiwavelength photoacoustic microscopy (PAM) to detect bilirubin concentration and distribution simultaneously. By measuring tissue-mimicking phantoms with different bilirubin concentrations, we showed that the root-mean-square error of prediction has reached 0.52 and 0.83 mg/dL for pure bilirubin and for blood-mixed bilirubin detection (with 100% oxygen saturation), respectively. We further demonstrated the capability of the PAM system to image bilirubin distribution both with and without blood. Finally, by underlaying bilirubin phantoms with mouse skins, we showed that bilirubin can be imaged with consistent accuracy down to >400 μm in depth. Our results show that PAM has potential for noninvasive bilirubin monitoring in vivo, as well as for further clinical applications.

  9. Studying the distribution of deep Raman spectroscopy signals using liquid tissue phantoms with varying optical properties.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Vardaki, Martha Z; Gardner, Benjamin; Stone, Nicholas; Matousek, Pavel

    2015-08-07

    In this study we employed large volume liquid tissue phantoms, consisting of a scattering agent (Intralipid), an absorption agent (Indian ink) and a synthesized calcification powder (calcium hydroxyapatite (HAP)) similar to that found in cancerous tissues (e.g. breast and prostate), to simulate human tissues. We studied experimentally the magnitude and origin of Raman signals in a transmission Raman geometry as a function of optical properties of the medium and the location of calcifications within the phantom. The goal was to inform the development of future noninvasive cancer screening applications in vivo. The results provide insight into light propagation and Raman scattering distribution in deep Raman measurements, exploring also the effect of the variation of relative absorbance of laser and Raman photons within the phantoms. Most notably when modeling breast and prostate tissues it follows that maximum signals is obtained from the front and back faces of the tissue with the central region contributing less to the measured spectrum.

  10. Composition of MRI phantom equivalent to human tissues

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Kato, Hirokazu; Kuroda, Masahiro; Yoshimura, Koichi; Yoshida, Atsushi; Hanamoto, Katsumi; Kawasaki, Shoji; Shibuya, Koichi; Kanazawa, Susumu

    2005-01-01

    We previously developed two new MRI phantoms (called the CAG phantom and the CAGN phantom), with T1 and T2 relaxation times equivalent to those of any human tissue at 1.5 T. The conductivity of the CAGN phantom is equivalent to that of most types of human tissue in the frequency range of 1 to 130 MHz. In this paper, the relaxation times of human tissues are summarized, and the composition of the corresponding phantoms are provided in table form. The ingredients of these phantoms are carrageenan as the gelling agent, GdCl 3 as a T1 modifier, agarose as a T2 modifier, NaCl (CAGN phantom only) as a conductivity modifier, NaN 3 as an antiseptic, and distilled water. The phantoms have T1 values of 202-1904 ms and T2 values of 38-423 ms when the concentrations of GdCl 3 and agarose are varied from 0-140 μmol/kg, and 0%-1.6%, respectively, and the CAGN phantom has a conductivity of 0.27-1.26 S/m when the NaCl concentration is varied from 0%-0.7%. These phantoms have sufficient strength to replicate a torso without the use of reinforcing agents, and can be cut by a knife into any shape. We anticipate the CAGN phantom to be highly useful and practical for MRI and hyperthermia-related research

  11. Toxicology Analysis of Tissue-Mimicking Phantom Made From Gelatin

    Science.gov (United States)

    Dolbashid, A. S.; Hamzah, N.; Zaman, W. S. W. K.; Mokhtar, M. S.

    2017-06-01

    Skin phantom mimics the biological skin tissues as it have the ability to respond to changes in its environment. The development of tissue-mimicking phantom could contributes towards the reduce usage of animal in cosmetics and pharmacokinetics. In this study, the skin phantoms made from gelatin were tested with four different commonly available cosmetic products to determine the toxicity of each substance. The four substances used were; mercury-based whitening face cream, carcinogenic liquid make-up foundation, paraben-based acne cleanser, and organic lip balm. Toxicity test were performed on all of the phantoms. For toxicity testing, topographical and electrophysiological changes of the phantoms were evaluated. The ability of each respective phantom to react with mild toxic substances and its electrical resistance were analysed in to determine the toxicity of all the phantom models. Four-electrode method along with custom made electrical impedance analyser was used to differentiate electrical resistance between intoxicated phantom and non-intoxicated phantom in this study. Electrical resistance values obtained from the phantom models were significantly higher than the control group. The result obtained suggests the phantom as a promising candidate to be used as alternative for toxicology testing in the future.

  12. Temporal analysis of reflected optical signals for short pulse laser interaction with nonhomogeneous tissue phantoms

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Trivedi, Ashish; Basu, Soumyadipta; Mitra, Kunal

    2005-01-01

    The use of short pulse laser for minimally invasive detection scheme has become an indispensable tool in the technological arsenal of modern medicine and biomedical engineering. In this work, a time-resolved technique has been used to detect tumors/inhomogeneities in tissues by measuring transmitted and reflected scattered temporal optical signals when a short pulse laser source is incident on tissue phantoms. A parametric study involving different scattering and absorption coefficients of tissue phantoms and inhomogeneities, size of inhomogeneity as well as the detector position is performed. The experimental measurements are validated with a numerical solution of the transient radiative transport equation obtained by using discrete ordinates method. Thus, both simultaneous experimental and numerical studies are critical for predicting the optical properties of tissues and inhomogeneities from temporal scattered optical signal measurements

  13. Customized three-dimensional printed optical phantoms with user defined absorption and scattering

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pannem, Sanjana; Sweer, Jordan; Diep, Phuong; Lo, Justine; Snyder, Michael; Stueber, Gabriella; Zhao, Yanyu; Tabassum, Syeda; Istfan, Raeef; Wu, Junjie; Erramilli, Shyamsunder; Roblyer, Darren M.

    2016-03-01

    The use of reliable tissue-simulating phantoms spans multiple applications in spectroscopic imaging including device calibration and testing of new imaging procedures. Three-dimensional (3D) printing allows for the possibility of optical phantoms with arbitrary geometries and spatially varying optical properties. We recently demonstrated the ability to 3D print tissue-simulating phantoms with customized absorption (μa) and reduced scattering (μs`) by incorporating nigrosin, an absorbing dye, and titanium dioxide (TiO2), a scattering agent, to acrylonitrile butadiene styrene (ABS) during filament extrusion. A physiologically relevant range of μa and μs` was demonstrated with high repeatability. We expand our prior work here by evaluating the effect of two important 3D-printing parameters, percent infill and layer height, on both μa and μs`. 2 cm3 cubes were printed with percent infill ranging from 10% to 100% and layer height ranging from 0.15 to 0.40 mm. The range in μa and μs` was 27.3% and 19.5% respectively for different percent infills at 471 nm. For varying layer height, the range in μa and μs` was 27.8% and 15.4% respectively at 471 nm. These results indicate that percent infill and layer height substantially alter optical properties and should be carefully controlled during phantom fabrication. Through the use of inexpensive hobby-level printers, the fabrication of optical phantoms may advance the complexity and availability of fully customizable phantoms over multiple spatial scales. This technique exhibits a wider range of adaptability than other common methods of fabricating optical phantoms and may lead to improved instrument characterization and calibration.

  14. Breast phantom for mammary tissue characterization by near infrared spectroscopy

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Miranda, D A; Cristiano, K L; Gutiérrez, J C

    2013-01-01

    Breast cancer is a disease associated to a high morbidity and mortality in the entire world. In the study of early detection of breast cancer the development of phantom is so important. In this research we fabricate a breast phantom using a ballistic gel with special modifications to simulate a normal and abnormal human breast. Optical properties of woman breast in the near infrared region were modelled with the phantom we developed. The developed phantom was evaluated with near infrared spectroscopy in order to study its relation with breast tissue. A good optical behaviour was achieved with the model fabricated

  15. SU-E-T-499: Comparison of Measured Tissue Phantom Ratios (TPR) Against Calculated From Percent Depth Doses (PDD) with and Without Peak Scatter Factor (PSF) in 6MV Open Beam

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Narayanasamy, G; Cruz, W; Gutierrez, Alonso; Mavroidis, Panayiotis; Papanikolaou, N; Stathakis, S; Breton, C

    2014-01-01

    Purpose: To examine the accuracy of measured tissue phantom ratios (TPR) values with TPR calculated from percentage depth dose (PDD) with and without peak scatter fraction (PSF) correction. Methods: For 6MV open beam, TPR and PDD values were measured using PTW Semiflex (31010) ionization field and reference chambers (0.125cc volume) in a PTW MP3-M water tank. PDD curves were measured at SSD of 100cm for 7 square fields from 3cm to 30cm. The TPR values were measured up to 22cm depth for the same fields by continuous water draining method with ionization chamber static at 100cm from source. A comparison study was performed between the (a) measured TPR, (b) TPR calculated from PDD without PSF, (c) TPR calculated from PDD with PSF and (d) clinical TPR from RadCalc (ver 6.2, Sun Nuclear Corp). Results: There is a field size, depth dependence on TPR values. For 10cmx10cm, the differences in surface dose (DDs), dose at 10cm depth (DD10) <0.5%; differences in dmax (Ddmax) <2mm for the 4 methods. The corresponding values for 30cmx30cm are DDs, DD10 <0.2% and Ddmax<3mm. Even though for 3cmx3cm field, DDs and DD10 <1% and Ddmax<1mm, the calculated TPR values with and without PSF correction differed by 2% at >20cm depth. In all field sizes at depths>28cm, (d) clinical TPR values are larger than that from (b) and (c) by >3%. Conclusion: Measured TPR in method (a) differ from calculated TPR in methods (b) and (c) to within 1% for depths < 28cm in all 7 fields in open 6MV beam. The dmax values are within 3mm of each other. The largest deviation of >3% was observed in clinical TPR values in method (d) for all fields at depths < 28cm

  16. Tissue-phantom dose ratio R(t, F) in irradiation planning. 2

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Hegewald, H.

    1986-01-01

    The principles for measuring doses are represented to complete the developed tissue-phantom dose ratio R(t, F). The functional dependence of the tissue-phantom dose ratio on the field size results from the different spectral energy distribution in the buildup range compared to greater depths. This once more illustrates the demand, to move the calibration and reference depths into greater depths than the dose maximum depth on account of a high precision. The scattering factors and their dependence on the type of collimator are represented and tables are made up for practical use. In a supplement the derivations of the equation systems are given, to find out the tissue-phantom dose ratio by computation and the correspondence is tested. The measurements are more relevant in the megavolt range since dose values typically for the equipment are measured in the buildup range and depth dose tables are not available in the required completeness. (author)

  17. Tissue Cancellation in Dual Energy Mammography Using a Calibration Phantom Customized for Direct Mapping.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Han, Seokmin; Kang, Dong-Goo

    2014-01-01

    An easily implementable tissue cancellation method for dual energy mammography is proposed to reduce anatomical noise and enhance lesion visibility. For dual energy calibration, the images of an imaging object are directly mapped onto the images of a customized calibration phantom. Each pixel pair of the low and high energy images of the imaging object was compared to pixel pairs of the low and high energy images of the calibration phantom. The correspondence was measured by absolute difference between the pixel values of imaged object and those of the calibration phantom. Then the closest pixel pair of the calibration phantom images is marked and selected. After the calibration using direct mapping, the regions with lesion yielded different thickness from the background tissues. Taking advantage of the different thickness, the visibility of cancerous lesions was enhanced with increased contrast-to-noise ratio, depending on the size of lesion and breast thickness. However, some tissues near the edge of imaged object still remained after tissue cancellation. These remaining residuals seem to occur due to the heel effect, scattering, nonparallel X-ray beam geometry and Poisson distribution of photons. To improve its performance further, scattering and the heel effect should be compensated.

  18. Dynamic tissue phantoms and their use in assessment of a noninvasive optical plethysmography imaging device

    Science.gov (United States)

    Thatcher, Jeffrey E.; Plant, Kevin D.; King, Darlene R.; Block, Kenneth L.; Fan, Wensheng; DiMaio, J. Michael

    2014-05-01

    Non-contact photoplethysmography (PPG) has been studied as a method to provide low-cost and non-invasive medical imaging for a variety of near-surface pathologies and two dimensional blood oxygenation measurements. Dynamic tissue phantoms were developed to evaluate this technology in a laboratory setting. The purpose of these phantoms was to generate a tissue model with tunable parameters including: blood vessel volume change; pulse wave frequency; and optical scattering and absorption parameters. A non-contact PPG imaging system was evaluated on this model and compared against laser Doppler imaging (LDI) and a traditional pulse oximeter. Results indicate non-contact PPG accurately identifies pulse frequency and appears to identify signals from optically dense phantoms with significantly higher detection thresholds than LDI.

  19. Multilayered phantoms with tunable optical properties for a better understanding of light/tissue interactions

    Science.gov (United States)

    Roig, Blandine; Koenig, Anne; Perraut, François; Piot, Olivier; Vignoud, Séverine; Lavaud, Jonathan; Manfait, Michel; Dinten, Jean-Marc

    2015-03-01

    Light/tissue interactions, like diffuse reflectance, endogenous fluorescence and Raman scattering, are a powerful means for providing skin diagnosis. Instrument calibration is an important step. We thus developed multilayered phantoms for calibration of optical systems. These phantoms mimic the optical properties of biological tissues such as skin. Our final objective is to better understand light/tissue interactions especially in the case of confocal Raman spectroscopy. The phantom preparation procedure is described, including the employed method to obtain a stratified object. PDMS was chosen as the bulk material. TiO2 was used as light scattering agent. Dye and ink were adopted to mimic, respectively, oxy-hemoglobin and melanin absorption spectra. By varying the amount of the incorporated components, we created a material with tunable optical properties. Monolayer and multilayered phantoms were designed to allow several characterization methods. Among them, we can name: X-ray tomography for structural information; Diffuse Reflectance Spectroscopy (DRS) with a homemade fibered bundle system for optical characterization; and Raman depth profiling with a commercial confocal Raman microscope for structural information and for our final objective. For each technique, the obtained results are presented and correlated when possible. A few words are said on our final objective. Raman depth profiles of the multilayered phantoms are distorted by elastic scattering. The signal attenuation through each single layer is directly dependent on its own scattering property. Therefore, determining the optical properties, obtained here with DRS, is crucial to properly correct Raman depth profiles. Thus, it would be permitted to consider quantitative studies on skin for drug permeation follow-up or hydration assessment, for instance.

  20. Tissue-mimicking bladder wall phantoms for evaluating acoustic radiation force-optical coherence elastography systems.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ejofodomi, O'tega A; Zderic, Vesna; Zara, Jason M

    2010-04-01

    Acoustic radiation force-optical coherence elastography (ARF-OCE) systems are novel imaging systems that have the potential to simultaneously quantify and characterize the optical and mechanical properties of in vivo tissues. This article presents the construction of bladder wall phantoms for use in ARF-OCE systems. Mechanical, acoustic, and optical properties are reported and compared to published values for the urinary bladder. The phantom consisted of 0.2000 +/- 0.0089 and 6.0000 +/- 0.2830 microm polystyrene microspheres (Polysciences Inc., Warrington, PA, Catalog Nos. 07304 and 07312), 7.5 +/- 1.5 microm copolymer microspheres composed of acrylonitrile and vinylidene chloride, (Expancel, Duluth, GA, Catalog No. 461 DU 20), and bovine serum albumin within a gelatin matrix. Young's modulus was measured by successive compression of the phantom and obtaining the slope of the resulting force-displacement data. Acoustic measurements were performed using the transmission method. The phantoms were submerged in a water bath and placed between transmitting and receiving 13 mm diameter unfocused transducers operating at a frequency of 3.5 MHz. A MATLAB algorithm to extract the optical scattering coefficient from optical coherence tomography (OCT) images of the phantom was used. The phantoms possess a Young's modulus of 17.12 +/- 2.72 kPa, a mass density of 1.05 +/- 0.02 g/cm3, an acoustic attenuation coefficient of 0.66 +/- 0.08 dB/cm/MHz, a speed of sound of 1591 +/- 8.76 m/s, and an optical scattering coefficient of 1.80 +/- 0.23 mm(-1). Ultrasound and OCT images of the bladder wall phantom are presented. A material that mimics the mechanical, optical, and acoustic properties of healthy bladder wall has been developed. This tissue-mimicking bladder wall phantom was developed as a control tool to investigate the feasibility of using ARF-OCE to detect the mechanical and optical changes that may be indicative of the onset or development of cancer in the urinary bladder

  1. Effect of Graphite Concentration on Shear-Wave Speed in Gelatin-Based Tissue-Mimicking Phantoms

    Science.gov (United States)

    Anderson, Pamela G.; Rouze, Ned C.; Palmeri, Mark L.

    2011-01-01

    Elasticity-based imaging modalities are becoming popular diagnostic tools in clinical practice. Gelatin-based, tissue mimicking phantoms that contain graphite as the acoustic scattering material are commonly used in testing and validating elasticity-imaging methods to quantify tissue stiffness. The gelatin bloom strength and concentration are used to control phantom stiffness. While it is known that graphite concentration can be modulated to control acoustic attenuation, the impact of graphite concentrationon phantom elasticity has not been characterized in these gelatin phantoms. This work investigates the impact of graphite concentration on phantom shear stiffness as characterized by shear-wave speed measurements using impulsive acoustic-radiation-force excitations. Phantom shear-wave speed increased by 0.83 (m/s)/(dB/(cm MHz)) when increasing the attenuation coefficient slope of the phantom material through increasing graphite concentration. Therefore, gelatin-phantom stiffness can be affected by the conventional ways that attenuation is modulated through graphite concentration in these phantoms. PMID:21710828

  2. Evaluation of penetration and scattering components in conventional pinhole SPECT: phantom studies using Monte Carlo simulation

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Deloar, Hossain M; Watabe, Hiroshi; Aoi, Toshiyuki; Iida, Hidehiro

    2003-01-01

    In quantitative pinhole SPECT, photon penetration through the collimator edges (penetration), and photon scattering by the object (object scatter) and collimator (collimator scatter) have not been investigated rigorously. Monte Carlo simulation was used to evaluate these three physical processes for different tungsten knife-edge pinhole collimators using uniform, hotspot and donut phantoms filled with 201 Tl, 99m Tc, 123 I and 131 I solutions. For the hotspot phantom, the penetration levels with respect to total counts for a 1 mm pinhole aperture were 78%, 28% and 23% for 131 I, 123 I and 99m Tc, respectively. For a 2 mm aperture, these values were 65% for 131 I, 16% for 123 I and 12% for 99m Tc. For all pinholes, 201 Tl penetration was less than 4%. The evaluated scatter (from object and collimator) with a hotspot phantom for the 1 mm pinhole was 24%, 16%, 18% and 13% for 201 Tl, 99m Tc, 123 I and 131 I, respectively. Summation of the object and collimator scatter for the uniform phantom was approximately 20% higher than that for the hotspot phantom. Significant counts due to penetration and object and collimator scatter in the reconstructed image were observed inside the core of the donut phantom. The collimator scatter can be neglected for all isotopes used in this study except for 131 I. Object scatter correction for all radionuclides used in this study is necessary and correction for the penetration contribution is necessary for all radionuclides but 201 Tl

  3. Hydrodynamic effects in laser cutting of biological tissue phantoms

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zhigarkov, V. S.; Yusupov, V. I.; Tsypina, S. I.; Bagratashvili, V. N.

    2017-11-01

    We study the thermal and transport processes that occur in the course of incision formation at the surface of a biological tissue phantom under the action of near-IR, moderate-power, continuous-wave laser radiation (λ = 1.94 μm) delivered by means of an optical fibre with an absorbing coating on its exit face. It is shown that in addition to the thermal effect, the laser-induced hydrodynamic effects caused by the explosive boiling of the interstitial water make a large contribution to the phantom destruction mechanism. These effects lead to the tissue rupture accompanied by the ejection of part of the fragmented substance from the site of laser impact and the formation of highly porous structure near the incision surface. We have found that the depth, the width and the relief of the laser incision wall in the case of using the optical fibre moving with a constant velocity, depend on the fibre tilt angle with respect to the phantom surface, as well as the direction of the fibre motion.

  4. Neutron measurements with a tissue-equivalent phantom

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Smith, J W [Health Physics Division, Atomic Energy Establishment, Harwell (United Kingdom)

    1962-03-15

    This Appendix 3E of the dosimetry experiment at the R-B reactor describes the apparatus used and presents the obtained results. The phantom used was a 1/4-inch thick polythene container, 60 cm high, of elliptical cross-section, with a major axis of 36 cm and a minor axis of 20 cm. This was filled with an approximately tissue-equivalent liquid. A light but rigid internal framework of Perspex supported a series of small detectors through the phantom. The detectors used in the first high-level run at Vinca, to measure flux above 0.5 MeV, were 0.5-cm wide track plates wrapped in cadmium foil. Each track plate was a sandwich of two Ilford El 50 - mu emulsions, with glass backing, separated by a 250-mu polythene radiator, and was oriented at an angle of 45 deg to the front surface of the phantom. Under these conditions the response is constant with neutron energy between 0.5 MeV and 8 MeV at 1.26 X 10 sup - sup 3 tracks/neutron to within +- 15%. The detectors used in the second high-level run were gold foils (260 mg/cm sup 2 thick) for determination of the show neutron distribution. Previous experiments with 0.13 MeV, 2.5 MeV, 14 MeV and Po-Be neutrons have shown that the shape of the curve through a phantom obtained from these gold foils is the same as that given by either manganese foils or sodium samples despite the difference in resonance integrals. From the relaxation length of the neutron flux in the phantom, as measured by the track plates, the mean energy of the neutrons with energies greater than 0.5 MeV may be found by comparison with the relaxation lengths obtained by irradiation of the phantom with monoenergetic neutrons. The results of these experiments are given. Track plate results from the Vinca experiment are shown. It can be seen that the backscattered fast flux is about one-third of the incident fast flux and that the energy indicated by the shape of the curve is considerably lower than the energy of the direct neutrons. It seems possible that the high

  5. Neutron measurements with a tissue-equivalent phantom

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Smith, J W [Health Physics Division, Atomic Energy Establishment, Harwell (United Kingdom)

    1962-03-01

    This Appendix 3E of the dosimetry experiment at the R-B reactor describes the apparatus used and presents the obtained results. The phantom used was a 1/4-inch thick polythene container, 60 cm high, of elliptical cross-section, with a major axis of 36 cm and a minor axis of 20 cm. This was filled with an approximately tissue-equivalent liquid. A light but rigid internal framework of Perspex supported a series of small detectors through the phantom. The detectors used in the first high-level run at Vinca, to measure flux above 0.5 MeV, were 0.5-cm wide track plates wrapped in cadmium foil. Each track plate was a sandwich of two Ilford El 50 - {mu} emulsions, with glass backing, separated by a 250-{mu} polythene radiator, and was oriented at an angle of 45 deg to the front surface of the phantom. Under these conditions the response is constant with neutron energy between 0.5 MeV and 8 MeV at 1.26 X 10{sup -3} tracks/neutron to within {+-} 15%. The detectors used in the second high-level run were gold foils (260 mg/cm{sup 2} thick) for determination of the show neutron distribution. Previous experiments with 0.13 MeV, 2.5 MeV, 14 MeV and Po-Be neutrons have shown that the shape of the curve through a phantom obtained from these gold foils is the same as that given by either manganese foils or sodium samples despite the difference in resonance integrals. From the relaxation length of the neutron flux in the phantom, as measured by the track plates, the mean energy of the neutrons with energies greater than 0.5 MeV may be found by comparison with the relaxation lengths obtained by irradiation of the phantom with monoenergetic neutrons. The results of these experiments are given. Track plate results from the Vinca experiment are shown. It can be seen that the backscattered fast flux is about one-third of the incident fast flux and that the energy indicated by the shape of the curve is considerably lower than the energy of the direct neutrons. It seems possible that the

  6. Texture analysis of speckle in optical coherence tomography images of tissue phantoms

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Gossage, Kirk W; Smith, Cynthia M; Kanter, Elizabeth M; Hariri, Lida P; Stone, Alice L; Rodriguez, Jeffrey J; Williams, Stuart K; Barton, Jennifer K

    2006-01-01

    Optical coherence tomography (OCT) is an imaging modality capable of acquiring cross-sectional images of tissue using back-reflected light. Conventional OCT images have a resolution of 10-15 μm, and are thus best suited for visualizing tissue layers and structures. OCT images of collagen (with and without endothelial cells) have no resolvable features and may appear to simply show an exponential decrease in intensity with depth. However, examination of these images reveals that they display a characteristic repetitive structure due to speckle.The purpose of this study is to evaluate the application of statistical and spectral texture analysis techniques for differentiating living and non-living tissue phantoms containing various sizes and distributions of scatterers based on speckle content in OCT images. Statistically significant differences between texture parameters and excellent classification rates were obtained when comparing various endothelial cell concentrations ranging from 0 cells/ml to 25 million cells/ml. Statistically significant results and excellent classification rates were also obtained using various sizes of microspheres with concentrations ranging from 0 microspheres/ml to 500 million microspheres/ml. This study has shown that texture analysis of OCT images may be capable of differentiating tissue phantoms containing various sizes and distributions of scatterers

  7. Optical Characterization of Tissue Phantoms Using a Silicon Integrated fdNIRS System on Chip.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sthalekar, Chirag C; Miao, Yun; Koomson, Valencia Joyner

    2017-04-01

    An interface circuit with signal processing and digitizing circuits for a high frequency, large area avalanche photodiode (APD) has been integrated in a 130 nm BiCMOS chip. The system enables the absolute oximetry of tissue using frequency domain Near Infrared Spectroscopy (fdNIRS). The system measures the light absorbed and scattered by the tissue by measuring the reduction in the amplitude of signal and phase shift introduced between the light source and detector which are placed a finite distance away from each other. The received 80 MHz RF signal is downconverted to a low frequency and amplified using a heterodyning scheme. The front-end transimpedance amplifier has a 3-level programmable gain that increases the dynamic range to 60 dB. The phase difference between an identical reference channel and the optical channel is measured with a 0.5° accuracy. The detectable current range is [Formula: see text] and with a 40 A/W reponsivity using the APD, power levels as low as 500 pW can be detected. Measurements of the absorption and reduced scattering coefficients of solid tissue phantoms using this system are compared with those using a commercial instrument with differences within 30%. Measurement of a milk based liquid tissue phantom show an increase in absorption coefficient with addition of black ink. The miniaturized circuit serves as an efficiently scalable system for multi-site detection for applications in neonatal cerebral oximetry and optical mammography.

  8. Scatter correction method for x-ray CT using primary modulation: Phantom studies

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Gao Hewei; Fahrig, Rebecca; Bennett, N. Robert; Sun Mingshan; Star-Lack, Josh; Zhu Lei

    2010-01-01

    Purpose: Scatter correction is a major challenge in x-ray imaging using large area detectors. Recently, the authors proposed a promising scatter correction method for x-ray computed tomography (CT) using primary modulation. Proof of concept was previously illustrated by Monte Carlo simulations and physical experiments on a small phantom with a simple geometry. In this work, the authors provide a quantitative evaluation of the primary modulation technique and demonstrate its performance in applications where scatter correction is more challenging. Methods: The authors first analyze the potential errors of the estimated scatter in the primary modulation method. On two tabletop CT systems, the method is investigated using three phantoms: A Catphan(c)600 phantom, an anthropomorphic chest phantom, and the Catphan(c)600 phantom with two annuli. Two different primary modulators are also designed to show the impact of the modulator parameters on the scatter correction efficiency. The first is an aluminum modulator with a weak modulation and a low modulation frequency, and the second is a copper modulator with a strong modulation and a high modulation frequency. Results: On the Catphan(c)600 phantom in the first study, the method reduces the error of the CT number in the selected regions of interest (ROIs) from 371.4 to 21.9 Hounsfield units (HU); the contrast to noise ratio also increases from 10.9 to 19.2. On the anthropomorphic chest phantom in the second study, which represents a more difficult case due to the high scatter signals and object heterogeneity, the method reduces the error of the CT number from 327 to 19 HU in the selected ROIs and from 31.4% to 5.7% on the overall average. The third study is to investigate the impact of object size on the efficiency of our method. The scatter-to-primary ratio estimation error on the Catphan(c)600 phantom without any annulus (20 cm in diameter) is at the level of 0.04, it rises to 0.07 and 0.1 on the phantom with an

  9. Optimization of phantom backscatter thickness and lateral scatter volume for radiographic film dosimetry

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Srivastava, R.P.; De Wagter, C.

    2012-01-01

    The aim of this study is to determine the optimal backscatter thickness and lateral phantom dimension beyond the irradiated volume for the dosimetric verification with radiographic film when applying large field sizes. Polystyrene and Virtual Water™ phantoms were used to study the influence of the phantom backscatter thickness. EDR2 and XV films were used in 6 and 18 MV photon beams. The results show 11.4% and 6.4% over-response of the XV2 film when compared to the ion chamber for 6 MV 30×30 and 10×10 cm 2 field sizes, respectively, when the phantom backscatter thickness is 5 cm. For the same setup, measurements with EDR2 films indicate 8.5% and 1.7% over-response. The XV2 film response in the polystyrene phantom is about 2.0% higher than in the Virtual Water™ phantom for the 6 MV beam and 20 cm backscatter thickness. Similar results were obtained for EDR2 film. In the lateral scatter study, film response was nearly constant within 5 cm of lateral thickness and it increases when lateral thickness increases due to more multiple scatter of low energy photons. The backscatter thickness of the phantom should be kept below 7 cm for the accuracy of the film dosimetry. The lateral extension of the phantom should not be more than 5 cm from the field boundary in case of large irradiated volumes.

  10. Compton-scatter tissue densitometry: calculation of single and multiple scatter photon fluences

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Battista, J.J.; Bronskill, M.J.

    1978-01-01

    The accurate measurement of in vivo electron densities by the Compton-scatter method is limited by attenuations and multiple scattering in the patient. Using analytic and Monte Carlo calculation methods, the Clarke tissue density scanner has been modelled for incident monoenergetic photon energies from 300 to 2000 keV and for mean scattering angles of 30 to 130 degrees. For a single detector focussed to a central position in a uniform water phantom (25 x 25 x 25 cm 3 ) it has been demonstrated that: (1) Multiple scatter contamination is an inherent limitation of the Compton-scatter method of densitometry which can be minimised, but not eliminated, by improving the energy resolution of the scattered radiation detector. (2) The choice of the incident photon energy is a compromise between the permissible radiation dose to the patient and the tolerable level of multiple scatter contamination. For a mean scattering angle of 40 degrees, the intrinsic multiple-single scatter ratio decreases from 64 to 35%, and the radiation dose (per measurement) increases from 1.0 to 4.1 rad, as the incident photon energy increases from 300 to 2000 keV. These doses apply to a sampled volume of approximately 0.3 cm 3 and an electron density precision of 0.5%. (3) The forward scatter densitometer configuration is optimum, minimising both the dose and the multiple scatter contamination. For an incident photon energy of 1250 keV, the intrinsic multiple-single scatter ratio reduces from 122 to 27%, and the dose reduces from 14.3 to 1.2 rad, as the mean scattering angle decreases from 130 to 30 degrees. These calculations have been confirmed by experimental measurements. (author)

  11. Verification of a table of phantom scatter factors for radiotherapy treatment planning

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Arts, J.K.; Bailey, M.J.; Hill, R.

    2004-01-01

    Full text: Many commercially available treatment planning systems require the medical physicist to measure and enter significant quantities of data for the verification of physics based algorithms. The CMS XiO (St. Louis, USA) treatment planning system requires a table of phantom scatter factors amongst other data. In a previous paper by Storchi et al, a table of phantom scatter factors is described. This table gives the phantom scatter factor as a function of field size and quality index determined from a collection of measured data for the total scatter factor and the collimator scatter factor from 25 different beam qualities ranging from 4MV up to 25MV. These factors have been determined at a fixed reference depth of 10cm for square fields of various sizes. This work investigates the claim that this table can be used as an alternative to calculated phantom scatter curve from measured data of a particular treatment unit. According to definition, it is difficult to directly measure the phantom scatter correction factor (Sp). This problem can be solved using the relation; S cp (A) = S c (A)S p (A) where S cp (A)) is the measured total scatter factor for a field size of square side dimension, A and S c (A) is the measured collimator scatter factor for a field size of square side dimension, A (Khan et al 1980, van Gasteren et al 1991). The total scatter correction factor (Sc,p) was measured in a full phantom, and the collimator scatter factor (Sc) measured using an ESTRO mini-phantom. These factors were measured on three Siemens linear accelerators (Concord, USA) with energies 6MV and 18MV and square field sizes ranging from 4x4cm to 40x40cm. The Primus and KD Mevatron produced 6 and 18MV X-rays and the MXE Mevatron produced 6Mv X-rays only. The values for Sp were calculated by rearranging equation (1). Phantom scatter factors were calculated from the data provided by Storchi et al using the quality index of each beam. For comparison, a set of Sp values was

  12. Radiation dose verification using real tissue phantom in modern radiotherapy techniques

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Gurjar, Om Prakash; Mishra, S.P.; Bhandari, Virendra; Pathak, Pankaj; Patel, Prapti; Shrivastav, Garima

    2014-01-01

    In vitro dosimetric verification prior to patient treatment has a key role in accurate and precision radiotherapy treatment delivery. Most of commercially available dosimetric phantoms have almost homogeneous density throughout their volume, while real interior of patient body has variable and varying densities inside. In this study an attempt has been made to verify the physical dosimetry in actual human body scenario by using goat head as 'head phantom' and goat meat as 'tissue phantom'. The mean percentage variation between planned and measured doses was found to be 2.48 (standard deviation (SD): 0.74), 2.36 (SD: 0.77), 3.62 (SD: 1.05), and 3.31 (SD: 0.78) for three-dimensional conformal radiotherapy (3DCRT) (head phantom), intensity modulated radiotherapy (IMRT; head phantom), 3DCRT (tissue phantom), and IMRT (tissue phantom), respectively. Although percentage variations in case of head phantom were within tolerance limit (< ± 3%), but still it is higher than the results obtained by using commercially available phantoms. And the percentage variations in most of cases of tissue phantom were out of tolerance limit. On the basis of these preliminary results it is logical and rational to develop radiation dosimetry methods based on real human body and also to develop an artificial phantom which should truly represent the interior of human body. (author)

  13. Radiation dose verification using real tissue phantom in modern radiotherapy techniques

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Om Prakash Gurjar

    2014-01-01

    Full Text Available In vitro dosimetric verification prior to patient treatment has a key role in accurate and precision radiotherapy treatment delivery. Most of commercially available dosimetric phantoms have almost homogeneous density throughout their volume, while real interior of patient body has variable and varying densities inside. In this study an attempt has been made to verify the physical dosimetry in actual human body scenario by using goat head as "head phantom" and goat meat as "tissue phantom". The mean percentage variation between planned and measured doses was found to be 2.48 (standard deviation (SD: 0.74, 2.36 (SD: 0.77, 3.62 (SD: 1.05, and 3.31 (SD: 0.78 for three-dimensional conformal radiotherapy (3DCRT (head phantom, intensity modulated radiotherapy (IMRT; head phantom, 3DCRT (tissue phantom, and IMRT (tissue phantom, respectively. Although percentage variations in case of head phantom were within tolerance limit (< ± 3%, but still it is higher than the results obtained by using commercially available phantoms. And the percentage variations in most of cases of tissue phantom were out of tolerance limit. On the basis of these preliminary results it is logical and rational to develop radiation dosimetry methods based on real human body and also to develop an artificial phantom which should truly represent the interior of human body.

  14. Fabrication and characterization of a 3-D non-homogeneous tissue-like mouse phantom for optical imaging

    Science.gov (United States)

    Avtzi, Stella; Zacharopoulos, Athanasios; Psycharakis, Stylianos; Zacharakis, Giannis

    2013-11-01

    In vivo optical imaging of biological tissue not only requires the development of new theoretical models and experimental procedures, but also the design and construction of realistic tissue-mimicking phantoms. However, most of the phantoms available currently in literature or the market, have either simple geometrical shapes (cubes, slabs, cylinders) or when realistic in shape they use homogeneous approximations of the tissue or animal under investigation. The goal of this study is to develop a non-homogeneous realistic phantom that matches the anatomical geometry and optical characteristics of the mouse head in the visible and near-infrared spectral range. The fabrication of the phantom consisted of three stages. Initially, anatomical information extracted from either mouse head atlases or structural imaging modalities (MRI, XCT) was used to design a digital phantom comprising of the three main layers of the mouse head; the brain, skull and skin. Based on that, initial prototypes were manufactured by using accurate 3D printing, allowing complex objects to be built layer by layer with sub-millimeter resolution. During the second stage the fabrication of individual molds was performed by embedding the prototypes into a rubber-like silicone mixture. In the final stage the detailed phantom was constructed by loading the molds with epoxy resin of controlled optical properties. The optical properties of the resin were regulated by using appropriate quantities of India ink and intralipid. The final phantom consisted of 3 layers, each one with different absorption and scattering coefficient (μa,μs) to simulate the region of the mouse brain, skull and skin.

  15. Comparison of Ultrasound Attenuation and Backscatter Estimates in Layered Tissue-Mimicking Phantoms among Three Clinical Scanners

    Science.gov (United States)

    Nam, Kibo; Rosado-Mendez, Ivan M.; Wirtzfeld, Lauren A.; Ghoshal, Goutam; Pawlicki, Alexander D.; Madsen, Ernest L.; Lavarello, Roberto J.; Oelze, Michael L.; Zagzebski, James A.; O’Brien, William D.; Hall, Timothy J.

    2013-01-01

    Backscatter and attenuation coefficient estimates are needed in many quantitative ultrasound strategies. In clinical applications, these parameters may not be easily obtained because of variations in scattering by tissues overlying a region of interest (ROI). The goal of this study is to assess the accuracy of backscatter and attenuation estimates for regions distal to nonuniform layers of tissue-mimicking materials. In addition, this work compares results of these estimates for “layered” phantoms scanned using different clinical ultrasound machines. Two tissue-mimicking phantoms were constructed, each exhibiting depth-dependent variations in attenuation or backscatter. The phantoms were scanned with three ultrasound imaging systems, acquiring radio frequency echo data for offline analysis. The attenuation coefficient and the backscatter coefficient (BSC) for sections of the phantoms were estimated using the reference phantom method. Properties of each layer were also measured with laboratory techniques on test samples manufactured during the construction of the phantom. Estimates of the attenuation coefficient versus frequency slope, α0, using backscatter data from the different systems agreed to within 0.24 dB/cm-MHz. Bias in the α0 estimates varied with the location of the ROI. BSC estimates for phantom sections whose locations ranged from 0 to 7 cm from the transducer agreed among the different systems and with theoretical predictions, with a mean bias error of 1.01 dB over the used bandwidths. This study demonstrates that attenuation and BSCs can be accurately estimated in layered inhomogeneous media using pulse-echo data from clinical imaging systems. PMID:23160474

  16. A tissue phantom for visualization and measurement of ultrasound-induced cavitation damage.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Maxwell, Adam D; Wang, Tzu-Yin; Yuan, Lingqian; Duryea, Alexander P; Xu, Zhen; Cain, Charles A

    2010-12-01

    Many ultrasound studies involve the use of tissue-mimicking materials to research phenomena in vitro and predict in vivo bioeffects. We have developed a tissue phantom to study cavitation-induced damage to tissue. The phantom consists of red blood cells suspended in an agarose hydrogel. The acoustic and mechanical properties of the gel phantom were found to be similar to soft tissue properties. The phantom's response to cavitation was evaluated using histotripsy. Histotripsy causes breakdown of tissue structures by the generation of controlled cavitation using short, focused, high-intensity ultrasound pulses. Histotripsy lesions were generated in the phantom and kidney tissue using a spherically focused 1-MHz transducer generating 15 cycle pulses, at a pulse repetition frequency of 100 Hz with a peak negative pressure of 14 MPa. Damage appeared clearly as increased optical transparency of the phantom due to rupture of individual red blood cells. The morphology of lesions generated in the phantom was very similar to that generated in kidney tissue at both macroscopic and cellular levels. Additionally, lesions in the phantom could be visualized as hypoechoic regions on a B-mode ultrasound image, similar to histotripsy lesions in tissue. High-speed imaging of the optically transparent phantom was used to show that damage coincides with the presence of cavitation. These results indicate that the phantom can accurately mimic the response of soft tissue to cavitation and provide a useful tool for studying damage induced by acoustic cavitation. Copyright © 2010 World Federation for Ultrasound in Medicine & Biology. Published by Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  17. Calculation of cobalt-60 primary and scatter dose in layered heterogeneous phantoms using primary and scatter dose spread arrays

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Iwasaki, Akira

    1993-01-01

    A method of making 60 Co γ-ray primary and scatter dose spread arrays in water is described. The primary dose spread array is made using forward and backward primary dose spread equations (h 1 and h 2 ), where both equations contain a laterally spread primary dose equation (G), made from measured dose data in a cork phantom. The scatter dose spread array is made using differential scatter-maximum ratio (dSMR) and differential backscatter factor (dBSF) equations (k 1 and k 2 ), where both equations are made to be continuous on the boundary. Primary and scatter dose calculations are performed along the beam axis in layered cork heterogeneous phantoms. It is found, even for 60 Co γ-rays, that when a small tumor in the lung is irradiated with a field that just surrounds the tumor, the beam entrance surface and lateral side of the tumor may obtain no therapeutic dose, because of loss of longitudinal and lateral electronic equilibrium, and when a large tumor in the lung is irradiated with a field just surrounding the tumor, the lateral side of the tumor may obtain no therapeutic dose due to loss of lateral electronic equilibrium. (author)

  18. Calculation of microplanar beam dose profiles in a tissue/lung/tissue phantom

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Company, F.Z.; Allen, B.J.

    1998-01-01

    Recent advances in synchrotron generated x-ray beams with a high fluence rate permit investigation of the application of an array of closely spaced, parallel or converging microplanar beams in radiotherapy. The proposed technique takes advantage of the hypothesized repair mechanism of capillary cells between alternate microbeam zones, which regenerates the lethally irradiated endothelial cells. The lateral and depth doses of 100 keV microplanar beams are investigated for different beam dimensions and spacings in a tissue, lung and tissue/lung/tissue phantom. The EGS4 Monte Carlo code is used to calculate dose profiles at different depths and bundles of beams (up to 20x20cm square cross section). The maximum dose on the beam axis (peak) and the minimum interbeam dose (valley) are compared at different depths, bundles, heights, widths and beam spacings. (author)

  19. An Alternative Method of Evaluating 1540NM Exposure Laser Damage using an Optical Tissue Phantom

    National Research Council Canada - National Science Library

    Jindra, Nichole M; Figueroa, Manuel A; Rockwell, Benjamin A; Chavey, Lucas J; Zohner, Justin J

    2006-01-01

    An optical phantom was designed to physically and optically resemble human tissue, in an effort to provide an alternative for detecting visual damage resulting from inadvertent exposure to infrared lasers...

  20. Study of the optical properties of solid tissue phantoms using single and double integrating sphere systems

    CSIR Research Space (South Africa)

    Monem, S

    2015-12-01

    Full Text Available light propagation mechanisms inside the tissues. In this work, two calibration models based on measurements adopting integrating sphere systems have been used to determine the optical properties of the studied solid phantoms. Integrating sphere...

  1. Mixing formula for tissue-mimicking silicone phantoms in the near infrared

    Science.gov (United States)

    Böcklin, C.; Baumann, D.; Stuker, F.; Fröhlich, Jürg

    2015-03-01

    The knowledge of accurate optical parameters of materials is paramount in biomedical optics applications and numerical simulations of such systems. Phantom materials with variable but predefined parameters are needed to optimise these systems. An optimised integrating sphere measurement setup and reconstruction algorithm are presented in this work to determine the optical properties of silicone rubber based phantoms whose absorption and scattering properties are altered with TiO2 and carbon black particles. A mixing formula for all constituents is derived and allows to create phantoms with predefined optical properties.

  2. Quantitative characterization of viscoelastic behavior in tissue-mimicking phantoms and ex vivo animal tissues.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ashkan Maccabi

    Full Text Available Viscoelasticity of soft tissue is often related to pathology, and therefore, has become an important diagnostic indicator in the clinical assessment of suspect tissue. Surgeons, particularly within head and neck subsites, typically use palpation techniques for intra-operative tumor detection. This detection method, however, is highly subjective and often fails to detect small or deep abnormalities. Vibroacoustography (VA and similar methods have previously been used to distinguish tissue with high-contrast, but a firm understanding of the main contrast mechanism has yet to be verified. The contributions of tissue mechanical properties in VA images have been difficult to verify given the limited literature on viscoelastic properties of various normal and diseased tissue. This paper aims to investigate viscoelasticity theory and present a detailed description of viscoelastic experimental results obtained in tissue-mimicking phantoms (TMPs and ex vivo tissues to verify the main contrast mechanism in VA and similar imaging modalities. A spherical-tip micro-indentation technique was employed with the Hertzian model to acquire absolute, quantitative, point measurements of the elastic modulus (E, long term shear modulus (η, and time constant (τ in homogeneous TMPs and ex vivo tissue in rat liver and porcine liver and gallbladder. Viscoelastic differences observed between porcine liver and gallbladder tissue suggest that imaging modalities which utilize the mechanical properties of tissue as a primary contrast mechanism can potentially be used to quantitatively differentiate between proximate organs in a clinical setting. These results may facilitate more accurate tissue modeling and add information not currently available to the field of systems characterization and biomedical research.

  3. Quantitative characterization of viscoelastic behavior in tissue-mimicking phantoms and ex vivo animal tissues.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Maccabi, Ashkan; Shin, Andrew; Namiri, Nikan K; Bajwa, Neha; St John, Maie; Taylor, Zachary D; Grundfest, Warren; Saddik, George N

    2018-01-01

    Viscoelasticity of soft tissue is often related to pathology, and therefore, has become an important diagnostic indicator in the clinical assessment of suspect tissue. Surgeons, particularly within head and neck subsites, typically use palpation techniques for intra-operative tumor detection. This detection method, however, is highly subjective and often fails to detect small or deep abnormalities. Vibroacoustography (VA) and similar methods have previously been used to distinguish tissue with high-contrast, but a firm understanding of the main contrast mechanism has yet to be verified. The contributions of tissue mechanical properties in VA images have been difficult to verify given the limited literature on viscoelastic properties of various normal and diseased tissue. This paper aims to investigate viscoelasticity theory and present a detailed description of viscoelastic experimental results obtained in tissue-mimicking phantoms (TMPs) and ex vivo tissues to verify the main contrast mechanism in VA and similar imaging modalities. A spherical-tip micro-indentation technique was employed with the Hertzian model to acquire absolute, quantitative, point measurements of the elastic modulus (E), long term shear modulus (η), and time constant (τ) in homogeneous TMPs and ex vivo tissue in rat liver and porcine liver and gallbladder. Viscoelastic differences observed between porcine liver and gallbladder tissue suggest that imaging modalities which utilize the mechanical properties of tissue as a primary contrast mechanism can potentially be used to quantitatively differentiate between proximate organs in a clinical setting. These results may facilitate more accurate tissue modeling and add information not currently available to the field of systems characterization and biomedical research.

  4. The collapsed cone algorithm for (192)Ir dosimetry using phantom-size adaptive multiple-scatter point kernels.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tedgren, Åsa Carlsson; Plamondon, Mathieu; Beaulieu, Luc

    2015-07-07

    The aim of this work was to investigate how dose distributions calculated with the collapsed cone (CC) algorithm depend on the size of the water phantom used in deriving the point kernel for multiple scatter. A research version of the CC algorithm equipped with a set of selectable point kernels for multiple-scatter dose that had initially been derived in water phantoms of various dimensions was used. The new point kernels were generated using EGSnrc in spherical water phantoms of radii 5 cm, 7.5 cm, 10 cm, 15 cm, 20 cm, 30 cm and 50 cm. Dose distributions derived with CC in water phantoms of different dimensions and in a CT-based clinical breast geometry were compared to Monte Carlo (MC) simulations using the Geant4-based brachytherapy specific MC code Algebra. Agreement with MC within 1% was obtained when the dimensions of the phantom used to derive the multiple-scatter kernel were similar to those of the calculation phantom. Doses are overestimated at phantom edges when kernels are derived in larger phantoms and underestimated when derived in smaller phantoms (by around 2% to 7% depending on distance from source and phantom dimensions). CC agrees well with MC in the high dose region of a breast implant and is superior to TG43 in determining skin doses for all multiple-scatter point kernel sizes. Increased agreement between CC and MC is achieved when the point kernel is comparable to breast dimensions. The investigated approximation in multiple scatter dose depends on the choice of point kernel in relation to phantom size and yields a significant fraction of the total dose only at distances of several centimeters from a source/implant which correspond to volumes of low doses. The current implementation of the CC algorithm utilizes a point kernel derived in a comparatively large (radius 20 cm) water phantom. A fixed point kernel leads to predictable behaviour of the algorithm with the worst case being a source/implant located well within a patient/phantom

  5. ITERATIVE SCATTER CORRECTION FOR GRID-LESS BEDSIDE CHEST RADIOGRAPHY: PERFORMANCE FOR A CHEST PHANTOM.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mentrup, Detlef; Jockel, Sascha; Menser, Bernd; Neitzel, Ulrich

    2016-06-01

    The aim of this work was to experimentally compare the contrast improvement factors (CIFs) of a newly developed software-based scatter correction to the CIFs achieved by an antiscatter grid. To this end, three aluminium discs were placed in the lung, the retrocardial and the abdominal areas of a thorax phantom, and digital radiographs of the phantom were acquired both with and without a stationary grid. The contrast generated by the discs was measured in both images, and the CIFs achieved by grid usage were determined for each disc. Additionally, the non-grid images were processed with a scatter correction software. The contrasts generated by the discs were determined in the scatter-corrected images, and the corresponding CIFs were calculated. The CIFs obtained with the grid and with the software were in good agreement. In conclusion, the experiment demonstrates quantitatively that software-based scatter correction allows restoring the image contrast of a non-grid image in a manner comparable with an antiscatter grid. © The Author 2015. Published by Oxford University Press. All rights reserved. For Permissions, please email: journals.permissions@oup.com.

  6. A new Monte Carlo program for calculations of dose distributions within tissue equivalent phantoms irradiated from π--meson beams

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Przybilla, G.

    1980-11-01

    The present paper reports on the structure and first results from a new Monte Carlo programme for calculations of energy distributions within tissue equivalent phantoms irradiated from π - -beams. Each pion or generated secondary particle is transported until to the complete loss of its kinetic energy taking into account pion processes like multiple Coulomb scattering, pion reactions in flight and absorption of stopped pions. The code uses mainly data from experiments, and physical models have been added only in cases of lacking data. Depth dose curves for a pensil beam of 170 MeV/c within a water phantom are discussed as a function of various parameters. Isodose contours are plotted resulting from a convolution of an extended beam profile and the dose distribution of a pencil beams. (orig.) [de

  7. A heterogeneous human tissue mimicking phantom for RF heating and MRI thermal monitoring verification.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yuan, Yu; Wyatt, Cory; Maccarini, Paolo; Stauffer, Paul; Craciunescu, Oana; Macfall, James; Dewhirst, Mark; Das, Shiva K

    2012-04-07

    This paper describes a heterogeneous phantom that mimics a human thigh with a deep-seated tumor, for the purpose of studying the performance of radiofrequency (RF) heating equipment and non-invasive temperature monitoring with magnetic resonance imaging (MRI). The heterogeneous cylindrical phantom was constructed with an outer fat layer surrounding an inner core of phantom material mimicking muscle, tumor and marrow-filled bone. The component materials were formulated to have dielectric and thermal properties similar to human tissues. The dielectric properties of the tissue mimicking phantom materials were measured with a microwave vector network analyzer and impedance probe over the frequency range of 80-500 MHz and at temperatures of 24, 37 and 45 °C. The specific heat values of the component materials were measured using a differential scanning calorimeter over the temperature range of 15-55 °C. The thermal conductivity value was obtained from fitting the curves obtained from one-dimensional heat transfer measurement. The phantom was used to verify the operation of a cylindrical four-antenna annular phased array extremity applicator (140 MHz) by examining the proton resonance frequency shift (PRFS) thermal imaging patterns for various magnitude/phase settings (including settings to focus heating in tumors). For muscle and tumor materials, MRI was also used to measure T1/T2* values (1.5 T) and to obtain the slope of the PRFS phase change versus temperature change curve. The dielectric and thermal properties of the phantom materials were in close agreement to well-accepted published results for human tissues. The phantom was able to successfully demonstrate satisfactory operation of the tested heating equipment. The MRI-measured thermal distributions matched the expected patterns for various magnitude/phase settings of the applicator, allowing the phantom to be used as a quality assurance tool. Importantly, the material formulations for the various tissue types

  8. Initial investigation of a novel light-scattering gel phantom for evaluation of optical CT scanners for radiotherapy gel dosimetry

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Bosi, Stephen; Naseri, Pourandokht; Puran, Alicia; Davies, Justin; Baldock, Clive

    2007-01-01

    There is a need for stable gel materials for phantoms used to validate optical computerized tomography (CT) scanners used in conjunction with radiation-induced polymerizing gel dosimeters. Phantoms based on addition of light-absorbing dyes to gelatine to simulate gel dosimeters have been employed. However, to more accurately simulate polymerizing gels one requires phantoms that employ light-scattering colloidal suspensions added to the gel. In this paper, we present the initial results of using an optical CT scanner to evaluate a novel phantom in which radiation-exposed polymer gels are simulated by the addition of colloidal suspensions of varying turbidity. The phantom may be useful as a calibration transfer standard for polymer gel dosimeters. The tests reveal some phenomena peculiar to light-scattering gels that need to be taken into account when calibrating polymer gel dosimeters

  9. The justification for the use of table of equivalent squares with respect to reference depth total scatter factor, and phantom scatter factor, for cobalt-60 teletherapy

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Afari, F.

    2011-01-01

    The use of equivalent squares is of great value and importance when determining output and depth dose data for rectangular fields. The variation with field shape of collimator scatter factors (S c ), phantom scatter factors (S c,p ) were studied using measurements on GWGP 80 cobalt - 60 teletherapy machine at the National Centre of Radiotherapy and Nuclear Medicine in the Korle-Bu Teaching Hospital. Measurements of the collimator scatter factors (S c ), phantom scatter factors (S p ) and total scatter factors (S c, p) were made at the depth of 5 cm, 10 cm, 15 cm and 20 cm in full scatter water phantom for square field side and rectangular fields of varying dimensions. The measurements were done using the source - axis distance (Sad) technique. The values of total scatter factor (S c,p ), phantom scatter factor and collimator scatter factor (S c ) obtained were used to estimate equivalent squares for the rectangular fields at the various depths. The equivalent squares were computed using the method of interpolation which is based on the scatter analysis of these scatter factors and these estimated equivalent squares were then compared with equivalent squares were then compared with equivalent square fields from BJR (supplement 21) tables of equivalent squares. The research revealed that there were average deviation of 1.5% for smaller rectangular field sizes and 8.8% for elongated rectangular field sizes between the estimated square field sizes and the equivalent square field from BJR (supplement 21) Table of equivalent square fields. The 8.8% for the elongated rectangular fields is not accepted, though such fields are rarely used in our Hospitals. It was found that the values of the equivalent square at the various depth were very consistent and do not vary with reference depth. These findings confirm that the clinical use of the BJR (supplement 21) Table of equivalent squares for total scatter factors and phantom scatter related quantities of rectangular fields is

  10. Analysis of biological tissues in infant chest for the development of an equivalent radiographic phantom

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Pina, D. R.; Souza, Rafael T. F.; Duarte, Sergio B.; Alvarez, Matheus; Miranda, Jose R. A.

    2012-01-01

    Purpose: The main purpose of the present study was to determine the amounts of different tissues in the chest of the newborn patient (age ≤1 year), with the aim of developing a homogeneous phantom chest equivalent. This type of phantom is indispensable in the development of optimization procedures for radiographic techniques, including dosimetric control, which is a crucial aspect of pediatric radiology. The authors present a systematic set of procedures, including a computational algorithm, to estimate the amounts of tissues and thicknesses of the corresponding simulator material plates used to construct the phantom. Methods: The Gaussian fit of computed tomographic (CT) analysis was applied to classify and quantify different biological tissues. The methodology is summarized with a computational algorithm, which was used to quantify tissues through automated CT analysis. The thicknesses of the equivalent homogeneous simulator material plates were determined to construct the phantom. Results: A total of 180 retrospective CT examinations with anterior-posterior diameter values ranging 8.5-13.0 cm were examined. The amounts of different tissues were evaluated. The results provided elements to construct a phantom to simulate the infant chest in the posterior-anterior or anterior-posterior (PA/AP) view. Conclusions: To our knowledge, this report represents the first demonstration of an infant chest phantom dedicated to the radiology of children younger than one year. This phantom is a key element in the development of clinical charts for optimizing radiographic technique in pediatric patients. Optimization procedures for nonstandard patients were reported previously [Pina et al., Phys. Med. Biol. 49, N215-N226 (2004) and Pina et al., Appl. Radiat. Isot. 67, 61-69 (2009)]. The constructed phantom represents a starting point to obtain radiologic protocols for the infant patient.

  11. 3D printed optical phantoms and deep tissue imaging for in vivo applications including oral surgery

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bentz, Brian Z.; Costas, Alfonso; Gaind, Vaibhav; Garcia, Jose M.; Webb, Kevin J.

    2017-03-01

    Progress in developing optical imaging for biomedical applications requires customizable and often complex objects known as "phantoms" for testing, evaluation, and calibration. This work demonstrates that 3D printing is an ideal method for fabricating such objects, allowing intricate inhomogeneities to be placed at exact locations in complex or anatomically realistic geometries, a process that is difficult or impossible using molds. We show printed mouse phantoms we have fabricated for developing deep tissue fluorescence imaging methods, and measurements of both their optical and mechanical properties. Additionally, we present a printed phantom of the human mouth that we use to develop an artery localization method to assist in oral surgery.

  12. FABRICATION OF TISSUE-SIMULATIVE PHANTOMS AND CAPILLARIES AND THEIR INVESTIGATION BY OPTICAL COHERENCE TOMOGRAPHY TECHNIQUES

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    A. V. Bykov

    2013-03-01

    Full Text Available Methods of tissue-simulative phantoms and capillaries fabrication from PVC-plastisol and silicone for application as test-objects in optical coherence tomography (OCT and skin and capillary emulation are considered. Comparison characteristics of these materials and recommendations for their application are given. Examples of phantoms visualization by optical coherence tomography method are given. Possibility of information using from B-scans for refractive index evaluation is shown.

  13. Characterization of tissue-equivalent materials for use in construction of physical phantoms

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Souza, Edvan V. de; Oliveira, Alex C.H. de; Vieira, Jose W.; Lima, Fernando R.A.

    2013-01-01

    Phantoms are physical or computational models used to simulate the transport of ionizing radiation, their interactions with human body tissues and evaluate the deposition of energy. Depending on the application, you can build phantoms of various types and features. The physical phantoms are made of materials with behavior similar to human tissues exposed to ionizing radiation, the so-called tissue-equivalent materials. The characterization of various tissue-equivalent materials is important for the choice of materials to be used is appropriate, seeking a better cost-benefit ratio. The main objective of this work is to produce tables containing the main characteristics of tissue-equivalent materials. These tables were produced in Microsoft Office Excel. Among the main features of tissue-equivalent materials that were added to the tables, are density, chemical composition, physical state, chemical stability and solubility. The main importance of this work is to contribute to the construction of high-quality physical phantoms and avoid the waste of materials

  14. Preliminary Examination of X-ray Scattering from Human Tissues

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Desouky, O.S.; Wilkinson, S.; Hall, C.; Rogers, K.; Round, A.

    2008-01-01

    Small Angle x-ray scattering (SAXS) and wide angle x-ray scattering (WAXS) patterns have been recorded from different human soft tissues using x-ray synchrotron radiation.Pathological breast, normal kidney and lung tissues show SAXS peaks at q-values equal to 0.291 nm -1 and 0.481 nm -1 (d 21.6 nm and d =13. nm) which are the 3 r d and 5 t h order of the well known axial D-spacing of collagen fibrils. The diffraction is particularly intense in the meridional direction indicating some febrile alignment. In contrast, the normal tissue of brain, liver and heart shows diffuse scatter.The wide-angle coherent scattering from normal human tissues of brain, liver, heart, lung, and kidney is typical of that for amorphous materials. The scatter of the healthy adipose breast tissue shows a sharp peak at momentum transfer 1.24 nm -1 (d= 0.417 nm). The data of the other tissues appears to consist of a broad scattering peak. The two scattering regimes succeed in differentiating between the two major components of breast tissue, collagen and adipose tissue. The results of this study suggest that the soft tissues may have scattering patterns that are characteristics for the particular tissue types and tissue disease state. These results indicate that it may be possible use the coherent scattering as a diagnostic tool

  15. Tissue-equivalent torso phantom for calibration of transuranic-nuclide counting facilities

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Griffith, R.V.; Anderson, A.L.; Dean, P.N.; Fisher, J.C.; Sundbeck, C.W.

    1986-01-01

    Several tissue-equivalent human-torso phantoms have been constructed for the calibration of counting systems used for in-vivo measurement of transuranic radionuclides. The phantoms contain a simulated human rib cage (in some cases, real bone) and removable model organs, and they include tissue-equivalent chest plates that can be placed over the torso to simulate people with a wide range of statures. The organs included are the lungs, liver, and tracheobronchial lymph nodes. Polyurethane with varying concentrations of added calcium was used to simulate the linear photon-attenuation properties of various human tissues, including lean muscle, adipose-muscle mixtures, cartilage, and bone. Foamed polyurethane was used to simulate lung tissue. Organs have been loaded with highly pure 238 Pu, 239 Pu, 241 Am, and other radionuclides of interest. The validity of the phantom as a calibration standard has been checked in separate intercomparison studies using human subjects whose lungs contained a plutonium simulant. The resulting phantom calibration factors generally compared to within +-20% of the average calibration factors obtained for the human subjects

  16. A biomimetic tumor tissue phantom for validating diffusion-weighted MRI measurements.

    Science.gov (United States)

    McHugh, Damien J; Zhou, Feng-Lei; Wimpenny, Ian; Poologasundarampillai, Gowsihan; Naish, Josephine H; Hubbard Cristinacce, Penny L; Parker, Geoffrey J M

    2018-07-01

    To develop a biomimetic tumor tissue phantom which more closely reflects water diffusion in biological tissue than previously used phantoms, and to evaluate the stability of the phantom and its potential as a tool for validating diffusion-weighted (DW) MRI measurements. Coaxial-electrospraying was used to generate micron-sized hollow polymer spheres, which mimic cells. The bulk structure was immersed in water, providing a DW-MRI phantom whose apparent diffusion coefficient (ADC) and microstructural properties were evaluated over a period of 10 months. Independent characterization of the phantom's microstructure was performed using scanning electron microscopy (SEM). The repeatability of the construction process was investigated by generating a second phantom, which underwent high resolution synchrotron-CT as well as SEM and MR scans. ADC values were stable (coefficients of variation (CoVs) < 5%), and varied with diffusion time, with average values of 1.44 ± 0.03 µm 2 /ms (Δ = 12 ms) and 1.20 ± 0.05 µm 2 /ms (Δ = 45 ms). Microstructural parameters showed greater variability (CoVs up to 13%), with evidence of bias in sphere size estimates. Similar trends were observed in the second phantom. A novel biomimetic phantom has been developed and shown to be stable over 10 months. It is envisaged that such phantoms will be used for further investigation of microstructural models relevant to characterizing tumor tissue, and may also find application in evaluating acquisition protocols and comparing DW-MRI-derived biomarkers obtained from different scanners at different sites. Magn Reson Med 80:147-158, 2018. © 2017 The Authors Magnetic Resonance in Medicine published by Wiley Periodicals, Inc. on behalf of International Society for Magnetic Resonance in Medicine. This is an open access article under the terms of the Creative Commons Attribution License, which permits use, distribution and reproduction in any medium, provided the original work is

  17. Microdosimetry of 14.7 MeV neutrons in tissue equivalent phantom

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Amols, H.I.

    1974-01-01

    An experimental and theoretical investigation has been made of energy deposition in tissue by neutrons. A one-half inch diameter Rossi type proportional counter was used to simulate a one-micron sphere of tissue. Event-size spectra were taken in air, and at various positions in a large volume of tissue equivalent fluid. From the raw spectra, LET distributions were determined, as well as dose fractions for protons, alphas, and heavy ions, and dose average and track-average LET values. The shape of the D(L) vs. LET curve is found to undergo significant change in the phantom due to moderation of the neutron beam. In addition, previous calculations of LET spectra in air are shown to be in error, and theoretical RBE and OER values, based on data from this experiment are in better agreement with biological results. A two-step theoretical calculation has also been carried out. An original Monte Carlo computer code was used to calculate neutron fluences in phantom (1), which were converted to LET distributions via standard algorithms (2). Agreement with experiment is very good, both in air and in phantom. Edge effects, backscatter effects, and effects of phantom size were also studied

  18. 3D printing of microtube in solid phantom to simulate tissue oxygenation and perfusion (Conference Presentation)

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lv, Xiang; Xue, Yue; Wang, Haili; Shen, Shu Wei; Zhou, Ximing; Liu, Guangli; Dong, Erbao; Xu, Ronald X.

    2017-03-01

    Tissue-simulating phantoms with interior vascular network may facilitate traceable calibration and quantitative validation of many medical optical devices. However, a solid phantom that reliably simulates tissue oxygenation and blood perfusion is still not available. This paper presents a new method to fabricate hollow microtubes for blood vessel simulation in solid phantoms. The fabrication process combines ultraviolet (UV) rapid prototyping technique with fluid mechanics of a coaxial jet flow. Polydimethylsiloxane (PDMS) and a UV-curable polymer are mixed at the designated ratio and extruded through a coaxial needle device to produce a coaxial jet flow. The extruded jet flow is quickly photo-polymerized by ultraviolet (UV) light to form vessel-simulating solid structures at different sizes ranging from 700 μm to 1000 μm. Microtube structures with adequate mechanical properties can be fabricated by adjusting material compositions and illumination intensity. Curved, straight and stretched microtubes can be formed by adjusting the extrusion speed of the materials and the speed of the 3D printing platform. To simulate vascular structures in biologic tissue, we embed vessel-simulating microtubes in a gel wax phantom of 10 cm x10 cm x 5 cm at the depth from 1 to 2 mm. Bloods at different oxygenation and hemoglobin concentration levels are circulated through the microtubes at different flow rates in order to simulate different oxygenation and perfusion conditions. The simulated physiologic parameters are detected by a tissue oximeter and a laser speckle blood flow meter respectively and compared with the actual values. Our experiments demonstrate that the proposed 3D printing process is able to produce solid phantoms with simulated vascular networks for potential applications in medical device calibration and drug delivery studies.

  19. Electrical Impedance Spectroscopic Studies on Broiler Chicken Tissue Suitable for the Development of Practical Phantoms in Multifrequency EIT

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Tushar Kanti Bera

    2011-06-01

    Full Text Available Phantoms are essential for assessing the system performance in Electrical Impedance Tomography (EIT. Saline phantoms with insulator inhomogeneity fail to mimic the physiological structure of real body tissue in several aspects. Saline or any other salt solutions are purely resistive and hence studying multifrequency EIT systems cannot be assessed with saline phantoms because the response of the purely resistive materials do not change over frequency. Animal tissues show a variable response over a wide band of signal frequency due to their complex physiological and physiochemical structures and hence they can suitably be used as bathing medium and inhomogeneity in the phantoms of multifrequency EIT system. An efficient assessment of a multifrequency EIT system with real tissue phantom needs a prior knowledge of the impedance profile of the bathing medium as well as the inhomogeneity. In this direction Electrical Impedance Spectroscopy (EIS of broiler chicken muscle tissue paste and broiler chicken fat tissue is conducted from 10 Hz to 2 MHz using an impedance analyzer and their impedance profiles are thoroughly studied. Results show that the broiler chicken muscle tissue paste is less resistive than the fat tissue and hence it can be successfully used as the bathing medium of the phantoms for resistivity imaging in multifrequency EIT. Fat tissue is found more resistive than the muscle tissue which makes it more suitable for the inhomogeneity in phantoms of resistivity imaging study. doi:10.5617/jeb.174 J Electr Bioimp, vol. 2, pp. 48-63, 2011

  20. Infrared laser damage thresholds in corneal tissue phantoms using femtosecond laser pulses

    Science.gov (United States)

    Boretsky, Adam R.; Clary, Joseph E.; Noojin, Gary D.; Rockwell, Benjamin A.

    2018-02-01

    Ultrafast lasers have become a fixture in many biomedical, industrial, telecommunications, and defense applications in recent years. These sources are capable of generating extremely high peak power that can cause laser-induced tissue breakdown through the formation of a plasma upon exposure. Despite the increasing prevalence of such lasers, current safety standards (ANSI Z136.1-2014) do not include maximum permissible exposure (MPE) values for the cornea with pulse durations less than one nanosecond. This study was designed to measure damage thresholds in corneal tissue phantoms in the near-infrared and mid-infrared to identify the wavelength dependence of laser damage thresholds from 1200-2500 nm. A high-energy regenerative amplifier and optical parametric amplifier outputting 100 femtosecond pulses with pulse energies up to 2 mJ were used to perform exposures and determine damage thresholds in transparent collagen gel tissue phantoms. Three-dimensional imaging, primarily optical coherence tomography, was used to evaluate tissue phantoms following exposure to determine ablation characteristics at the surface and within the bulk material. The determination of laser damage thresholds in the near-IR and mid-IR for ultrafast lasers will help to guide safety standards and establish the appropriate MPE levels for exposure sensitive ocular tissue such as the cornea. These data will help promote the safe use of ultrafast lasers for a wide range of applications.

  1. Full experimental modelling of a liver tissue mimicking phantom for medical ultrasound studies employing different hydrogels.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Casciaro, Sergio; Conversano, Francesco; Musio, Stefano; Casciaro, Ernesto; Demitri, Christian; Sannino, Alessandro

    2009-04-01

    Tissue mimicking phantoms have been widely reported to be an important tool for development, optimisation and performance testing of ultrasound-based diagnostic techniques. In particular, modern applications of tissue mimicking phantoms often include characterisation of the nonlinear behaviour of experimental ultrasound contrast agents. In such cases, the tissue-mimicking materials should be chosen not only based on the values of their density, speed of sound and attenuation coefficient, but also considering their effect on the appearance of "native harmonics" due to nonlinear distortion of ultrasound signal during propagation. In a previous paper it was demonstrated that a cellulose-based hydrogel is suitable to simulate nonlinear acoustical behaviour of liver tissue for thicknesses up to 8 cm. In this paper we present the experimental characterisation of the nonlinear acoustical behaviour of a different polyethylene glycol diacrylate (PEGDA)-based hydrogel, in order to assess whether and how it can improve the performances and overcome some limitations of the cellulose-based hydrogel as liver tissue-mimicking material. Samples of pig liver tissue, cellulose-based hydrogel and PEGDA-based hydrogel were insonified in a through-transmission set-up, employing 2.25-MHz pulses with different mechanical index (MI) values. Second harmonic and first harmonic amplitudes were extracted from the spectra of received signals and their difference was then used to compare sample behaviours. Obtained results show how a new more accurate and combined experimental model of linear and nonlinear acoustical behaviour of liver tissue is feasible. In fact, a further confirmation of the cellulose-based hydrogel effectiveness to precisely simulate the liver tissue for penetration depths up to 8 cm was provided, and it was also shown that the employment of the PEGDA-based hydrogel can extend the range of useful tissue-mimicking material thicknesses up to 11 cm, moreover allowing a

  2. Hydrogel based tissue mimicking phantom for in-vitro ultrasound contrast agents studies.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Demitri, Christian; Sannino, Alessandro; Conversano, Francesco; Casciaro, Sergio; Distante, Alessandro; Maffezzoli, Alfonso

    2008-11-01

    Ultrasound medical imaging (UMI) is the most widely used image analysis technique, and often requires advanced in-vitro set up to perform morphological and functional investigations. These studies are based on contrast properties both related to tissue structure and injectable contrast agents (CA). In this work, we present a three-dimensional structure composed of two different hydrogels reassembly the microvascular network of a human tissue. This phantom was particularly suitable for the echocontrastographic measurements in human microvascular system. This phantom has been characterized to present the acoustic properties of an animal liver, that is, acoustic impedance (Z) and attenuation coefficient (AC), in UMI signal analysis in particular; the two different hydrogels have been selected to simulate the target organ and the acoustic properties of the vascular system. The two hydrogels were prepared starting from cellulose derivatives to simulating the target organ parenchyma and using a PEG-diacrylate to reproduce the vascular system. Moreover, harmonic analysis was performed on the hydrogel mimicking the liver parenchyma hydrogel to evaluate the ultrasound (US) distortion during echographic measurement. The phantom was employed in the characterization of an experimental US CA. Perfect agreement was found when comparing the hydrogel acoustical properties materials with the corresponding living reference tissues (i.e., vascular and parenchimal tissue).

  3. Numerical prediction and measurement of optoacoustic signals generated in PVA-H tissue phantoms

    Science.gov (United States)

    Melchert, Oliver; Blumenröther, Elias; Wollweber, Merve; Roth, Bernhard

    2018-01-01

    We present numerical simulations of optoacoustic (OA) signals, complementing laboratory experiments on melanin doped polyvinyl alcohol hydrogel (PVA-H) tissue phantoms. We review the computational approach to model the underlying mechanisms, i.e. optical absorption of laser energy and acoustic propagation of mechanical stress, geared toward experiments that involve absorbing media with homogeneous acoustic properties. We apply the numerical procedure to predict signals observed in the acoustic near- and farfield in both, forward and backward detection mode, in PVA-H tissue phantoms (i.e. an elastic solid). Further, we report on verification tests of our research code based on OA experiments on dye solution (i.e. a liquid) detailed in the literature and benchmark our 3D procedure via limiting cases described in terms of effectively 1D theoretical approaches.

  4. Tissue mimicking materials for a multi-imaging modality prostate phantom

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    D'Souza, Warren D.; Madsen, Ernest L.; Unal, Orhan; Vigen, Karl K.; Frank, Gary R.; Thomadsen, Bruce R.

    2001-01-01

    Materials that simultaneously mimic soft tissue in vivo for magnetic resonance imaging (MRI), ultrasound (US), and computed tomography (CT) for use in a prostate phantom have been developed. Prostate and muscle mimicking materials contain water, agarose, lipid particles, protein, Cu ++ , EDTA, glass beads, and thimerosal (preservative). Fat was mimicked with safflower oil suffusing a random mesh (network) of polyurethane. Phantom material properties were measured at 22 deg. C. (22 deg. C is a typical room temperature at which phantoms are used.) The values of material properties should match, as well as possible, the values for tissues at body temperature, 37 deg. C. For MRI, the primary properties of interest are T1 and T2 relaxations times, for US they are the attenuation coefficient, propagation speed, and backscatter, and for CT, the x-ray attenuation. Considering the large number of parameters to be mimicked, rather good agreement was found with actual tissue values obtained from the literature. Using published values for prostate parenchyma, T1 and T2 at 37 deg. C and 40 MHz are estimated to be about 1100 and 98 ms, respectively. The CT number for in vivo prostate is estimated to be 45 HU (Hounsfield units). The prostate mimicking material has a T1 of 937 ms and a T2 of 88 ms at 22 deg. C and 40 MHz; the propagation speed and attenuation coefficient slope are 1540 m/s and 0.36 dB/cm/MHz, respectively, and the CT number of tissue mimicking prostate is 43 HU. Tissue mimicking (TM) muscle differs from TM prostate in the amount of dry weight agarose, Cu ++ , EDTA, and the quality and quantity of glass beads. The 18 μm glass beads used in TM muscle increase US backscatter and US attenuation; the presence of the beads also has some effect on T1 but no effect on T2. The composition of tissue-mimicking materials developed is such that different versions can be placed in direct contact with one another in a phantom with no long term change in US, MRI, or CT

  5. Experimental evaluation of the thermal properties of two tissue equivalent phantom materials.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Craciunescu, O I; Howle, L E; Clegg, S T

    1999-01-01

    Tissue equivalent radio frequency (RF) phantoms provide a means for measuring the power deposition of various hyperthermia therapy applicators. Temperature measurements made in phantoms are used to verify the accuracy of various numerical approaches for computing the power and/or temperature distributions. For the numerical simulations to be accurate, the electrical and thermal properties of the materials that form the phantom should be accurately characterized. This paper reports on the experimentally measured thermal properties of two commonly used phantom materials, i.e. a rigid material with the electrical properties of human fat, and a low concentration polymer gel with the electrical properties of human muscle. Particularities of the two samples required the design of alternative measuring techniques for the specific heat and thermal conductivity. For the specific heat, a calorimeter method is used. For the thermal diffusivity, a method derived from the standard guarded comparative-longitudinal heat flow technique was used for both materials. For the 'muscle'-like material, the thermal conductivity, density and specific heat at constant pressure were measured as: k = 0.31 +/- 0.001 W(mK)(-1), p = 1026 +/- 7 kgm(-3), and c(p) = 4584 +/- 107 J(kgK)(-1). For the 'fat'-like material, the literature reports on the density and specific heat such that only the thermal conductivity was measured as k = 0.55 W(mK)(-1).

  6. Extraction of optical scattering parameters and attenuation compensation in optical coherence tomography images of multi-layered tissue structures

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Thrane, Lars; Frosz, Michael Henoch; Tycho, Andreas

    2004-01-01

    A recently developed analytical optical coherence tomography (OCT) model [Thrane et al., J. Opt. Soc. Am. A 17, 484 (2000)] allows the extraction of optical scattering parameters from OCT images, thereby permitting attenuation compensation in those images. By expanding this theoretical model, we...... have developed a new method for extracting optical scattering parameters from multilayered tissue structures in vivo. To verify this, we used a Monte Carlo (MC) OCT model as a numerical phantom to simulate the OCT signal for het-erogeneous multilayered tissue. Excellent agreement between the extracted......, and the results hold promise for expanding the functional imaging capabilities of OCT....

  7. Can fruits and vegetables be used as substitute phantoms for normal human brain tissues in magnetic resonance imaging?

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Teramoto, Daisuke; Ushioda, Yuichi; Sasaki, Ayaka; Sakurai Yuki; Nagahama, Hiroshi; Nakamura, Manami; Sugimori, Hiroyuki; Sakata, Motomichi

    2013-01-01

    Various custom-made phantoms designed to optimize magnetic resonance imaging (MRI) sequences have been created and subsequently reported in Japanese Society of Radiological Technology (JSRT). However, custom-made phantoms that correctly match the T 1 -value and T 2 -values of human brain tissue (gray matter and white matter) cannot be made easily or quickly. The aim of this project was to search for alternative materials, such as fruits and vegetables, for optimizing MRI sequences. The following eight fruits and vegetables were investigated: apple, tomato, melon, apple mango (Mangifera indica), banana, avocado, peach, and eggplant. Their potential was studied for use in modeling phantoms of normal human brain tissues. MRI (T 1 - and T 2 -weighted sequences) was performed on the human brain and the fruits and vegetables using various concentrations of contrast medium (gadolinium) in the same size tubes as the custom-made phantom. The authors compared the signal intensity (SI) in human brain tissue (gray matter and white matter) with that of the fruits and the custom-made phantom. The T 1 and T 2 values were measured for banana tissue and compared with those for human brain tissue in the literature. Our results indicated that banana tissue is similar to human brain tissue (both gray matter and white matter). Banana tissue can thus be employed as an alternative phantom for the human brain for the purpose of MRI. (author)

  8. Near-infrared spectral tomography integrated with digital breast tomosynthesis: Effects of tissue scattering on optical data acquisition design

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Michaelsen, Kelly; Krishnaswamy, Venkat; Pogue, Brian W.; Poplack, Steven P.; Paulsen, Keith D. [Thayer School of Engineering, Dartmouth College, Hanover, New Hampshire 03755 (United States); Department of Diagnostic Radiology, Dartmouth Medical School, Lebanon, New Hampshire 03756 (United States); Thayer School of Engineering, Dartmouth College, Hanover, New Hampshire 03755 and Department of Diagnostic Radiology, Dartmouth Medical School, Lebanon, New Hampshire 03756 (United States)

    2012-07-15

    Purpose: Design optimization and phantom validation of an integrated digital breast tomosynthesis (DBT) and near-infrared spectral tomography (NIRST) system targeting improvement in sensitivity and specificity of breast cancer detection is presented. Factors affecting instrumentation design include minimization of cost, complexity, and examination time while maintaining high fidelity NIRST measurements with sufficient information to recover accurate optical property maps. Methods: Reconstructed DBT slices from eight patients with abnormal mammograms provided anatomical information for the NIRST simulations. A limited frequency domain (FD) and extensive continuous wave (CW) NIRST system was modeled. The FD components provided tissue scattering estimations used in the reconstruction of the CW data. Scattering estimates were perturbed to study the effects on hemoglobin recovery. Breast mimicking agar phantoms with inclusions were imaged using the combined DBT/NIRST system for comparison with simulation results. Results: Patient simulations derived from DBT images show successful reconstruction of both normal and malignant lesions in the breast. They also demonstrate the importance of accurately quantifying tissue scattering. Specifically, 20% errors in optical scattering resulted in 22.6% or 35.1% error in quantification of total hemoglobin concentrations, depending on whether scattering was over- or underestimated, respectively. Limited frequency-domain optical signal sampling provided two regions scattering estimates (for fat and fibroglandular tissues) that led to hemoglobin concentrations that reduced the error in the tumor region by 31% relative to when a single estimate of optical scattering was used throughout the breast volume of interest. Acquiring frequency-domain data with six wavelengths instead of three did not significantly improve the hemoglobin concentration estimates. Simulation results were confirmed through experiments in two-region breast mimicking

  9. Near-infrared spectral tomography integrated with digital breast tomosynthesis: Effects of tissue scattering on optical data acquisition design

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Michaelsen, Kelly; Krishnaswamy, Venkat; Pogue, Brian W.; Poplack, Steven P.; Paulsen, Keith D.

    2012-01-01

    Purpose: Design optimization and phantom validation of an integrated digital breast tomosynthesis (DBT) and near-infrared spectral tomography (NIRST) system targeting improvement in sensitivity and specificity of breast cancer detection is presented. Factors affecting instrumentation design include minimization of cost, complexity, and examination time while maintaining high fidelity NIRST measurements with sufficient information to recover accurate optical property maps. Methods: Reconstructed DBT slices from eight patients with abnormal mammograms provided anatomical information for the NIRST simulations. A limited frequency domain (FD) and extensive continuous wave (CW) NIRST system was modeled. The FD components provided tissue scattering estimations used in the reconstruction of the CW data. Scattering estimates were perturbed to study the effects on hemoglobin recovery. Breast mimicking agar phantoms with inclusions were imaged using the combined DBT/NIRST system for comparison with simulation results. Results: Patient simulations derived from DBT images show successful reconstruction of both normal and malignant lesions in the breast. They also demonstrate the importance of accurately quantifying tissue scattering. Specifically, 20% errors in optical scattering resulted in 22.6% or 35.1% error in quantification of total hemoglobin concentrations, depending on whether scattering was over- or underestimated, respectively. Limited frequency-domain optical signal sampling provided two regions scattering estimates (for fat and fibroglandular tissues) that led to hemoglobin concentrations that reduced the error in the tumor region by 31% relative to when a single estimate of optical scattering was used throughout the breast volume of interest. Acquiring frequency-domain data with six wavelengths instead of three did not significantly improve the hemoglobin concentration estimates. Simulation results were confirmed through experiments in two-region breast mimicking

  10. Effects of scatter and attenuation corrections on phantom and clinical brain SPECT

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Prando, S.; Robilotta, C.C.R.; Oliveira, M.A.; Alves, T.C.; Busatto Filho, G.

    2002-01-01

    Aim: The present work evaluated the effects of combinations of scatter and attenuation corrections on the analysis of brain SPECT. Materials and Methods: We studied images of the 3D Hoffman brain phantom and from a group of 20 depressive patients with confirmed cardiac insufficiency (CI) and 14 matched healthy controls (HC). Data were acquired with a Sophy-DST/SMV-GE dual-head camera after venous injection of 1110MBq 99m Tc-HMPAO. Two energy windows, 15% on 140keV and 30% centered on 108keV of the Compton distribution, were used to obtain corresponding sets of 128x128x128 projections. Tomograms were reconstructed using OSEM (2 iterations, 8 sub-sets) and Metz filter (order 8, 4 pixels FWHM psf) and FBP with Butterworth filter (order 10, frequency 0.7 Nyquist). Ten combinations of Jaszczak correction (factors 0.3, 0.4 and 0.5) and the 1st order Chang correction (u=0.12cm -1 and 0.159cm -1 ) were applied on the phantom data. In all the phantom images, contrast and signal-noise ratio between 3 ROIs (ventricle, occipital and thalamus) and cerebellum, as well as the ratio between activities in gray and white matters, were calculated and compared with the expected values. The patients images were corrected with k=0.5 and u=0.159cm -1 and reconstructed with OSEM and Metz filter. The images were inspected visually and blood flow comparisons between the CI and the HC groups were performed using Statistical Parametric Mapping (SPM). Results: The best results in the analysis of the contrast and activities ratio were obtained with k=0.5 and u=0.159cm -1 . The results of the activities ratio obtained with OSEM e Metz filter are similar to those published by Laere et al.[J.Nucl.Med 2000;41:2051-2062]. The method of correction using effective attenuation coefficient produced results visually acceptable, but inadequate for the quantitative evaluation. The results of signal-noise ratio are better with OSEM than FBP reconstruction method. The corrections in the CI patients studies

  11. A Review on the 3D Printing of Functional Structures for Medical Phantoms and Regenerated Tissue and Organ Applications

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Kan Wang

    2017-10-01

    Full Text Available Medical models, or “phantoms,” have been widely used for medical training and for doctor-patient interactions. They are increasingly used for surgical planning, medical computational models, algorithm verification and validation, and medical devices development. Such new applications demand high-fidelity, patient-specific, tissue-mimicking medical phantoms that can not only closely emulate the geometric structures of human organs, but also possess the properties and functions of the organ structure. With the rapid advancement of three-dimensional (3D printing and 3D bioprinting technologies, many researchers have explored the use of these additive manufacturing techniques to fabricate functional medical phantoms for various applications. This paper reviews the applications of these 3D printing and 3D bioprinting technologies for the fabrication of functional medical phantoms and bio-structures. This review specifically discusses the state of the art along with new developments and trends in 3D printed functional medical phantoms (i.e., tissue-mimicking medical phantoms, radiologically relevant medical phantoms, and physiological medical phantoms and 3D bio-printed structures (i.e., hybrid scaffolding materials, convertible scaffolds, and integrated sensors for regenerated tissues and organs.

  12. Manufacture and characterization of breast tissue phantoms for emulating benign lesions

    Science.gov (United States)

    Villamarín, J. A.; Rojas, M. A.; Potosi, O. M.; Narváez-Semanate, J. L.; Gaviria, C.

    2017-11-01

    Phantoms elaboration has turned a very important field of study during the last decades due to its applications in medicine. These objects are capable of emulating or mimicking acoustically biological tissues in which parameters like speed of sound (SOS) and attenuation are successfully attained. However, these materials are expensive depending on their characteristics (USD 460.00 - 6000.00) and is difficult to have precise measurements because of their composition. This paper presents the elaboration and characterization of low cost ( USD $25.00) breast phantoms which emulate histological normality and pathological conditions in order to support algorithm calibration procedures in imaging diagnosis. Quantitative ultrasound (QUS) was applied to estimate SOS and attenuation values for breast tissue (background) and benign lesions (fibroadenoma and cysts). Results showed values of the SOS and attenuation for the background between 1410 - 1450 m/s and 0.40 - 0.55 dB/cm at 1 MHz sampling frequency, respectively. On the other hand, the SOS obtained for the lesions ranges from 1350 to 1700 m/s and attenuation values between 0.50 - 1.80 dB/cm at 1 MHz. Finally, the fabricated phantoms allowed for obtaining ultrasonograms comparable with real ones whose acoustic parameters are in agree with those reported in the literature.

  13. Temperature dependence of acoustic harmonics generated by nonlinear ultrasound beam propagation in ex vivo tissue and tissue-mimicking phantoms.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Maraghechi, Borna; Kolios, Michael C; Tavakkoli, Jahan

    2015-01-01

    Hyperthermia is a cancer treatment technique that could be delivered as a stand-alone modality or in conjunction with chemotherapy or radiation therapy. Noninvasive and real-time temperature monitoring of the heated tissue improves the efficacy and safety of the treatment. A temperature-sensitive acoustic parameter is required for ultrasound-based thermometry. In this paper the amplitude and the energy of the acoustic harmonics of the ultrasound backscattered signal are proposed as suitable parameters for noninvasive ultrasound thermometry. A commercial high frequency ultrasound imaging system was used to generate and detect acoustic harmonics in tissue-mimicking gel phantoms and ex vivo bovine muscle tissues. The pressure amplitude and the energy content of the backscattered fundamental frequency (p1 and E1), the second (p2 and E2) and the third (p3 and E3) harmonics were detected in pulse-echo mode. Temperature was increased from 26° to 46 °C uniformly through both samples. The amplitude and the energy content of the harmonics and their ratio were measured and analysed as a function of temperature. The average p1, p2 and p3 increased by 69%, 100% and 283%, respectively as the temperature was elevated from 26° to 46 °C in tissue samples. In the same experiment the average E1, E2 and E3 increased by 163%, 281% and 2257%, respectively. A similar trend was observed in tissue-mimicking gel phantoms. The findings suggest that the harmonics generated due to nonlinear ultrasound beam propagation are highly sensitive to temperature and could potentially be used for noninvasive ultrasound tissue thermometry.

  14. MOSFET dosimeter depth-dose measurements in heterogeneous tissue-equivalent phantoms at diagnostic x-ray energies

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Jones, A.K.; Pazik, F.D.; Hintenlang, D.E.; Bolch, W.E.

    2005-01-01

    The objective of the present study was to explore the use of the TN-1002RD metal-oxide-semiconductor field effect transistor (MOSFET) dosimeter for measuring tissue depth dose at diagnostic photon energies in both homogeneous and heterogeneous tissue-equivalent materials. Three cylindrical phantoms were constructed and utilized as a prelude to more complex measurements within tomographic physical phantoms of pediatric patients. Each cylindrical phantom was constructed as a stack of seven 5-cm-diameter and 1-cm-thick discs of materials radiographically representative of either soft tissue (S), bone (B), or lung tissue (L) at diagnostic photon energies. In addition to a homogeneous phantom of soft tissue (SSSSSSS), two heterogeneous phantoms were constructed: SSBBSSS and SBLLBSS. MOSFET dosimeters were then positioned at the interface of each disc, and the phantoms were then irradiated at 66 kVp and 200 mAs. Measured values of absorbed dose at depth were then compared to predicated values of point tissue dose as determined via Monte Carlo radiation transport modeling. At depths exceeding 2 cm, experimental results matched the computed values of dose with high accuracy regardless of the dosimeter orientation (epoxy bubble facing toward or away from the x-ray beam). Discrepancies were noted, however, between measured and calculated point doses near the surface of the phantom (surface to 2 cm depth) when the dosimeters were oriented with the epoxy bubble facing the x-ray beam. These discrepancies were largely eliminated when the dosimeters were placed with the flat side facing the x-ray beam. It is therefore recommended that the MOSFET dosimeters be oriented with their flat sides facing the beam when they are used at shallow depths or on the surface of either phantoms or patients

  15. Paraffin-gel tissue-mimicking material for ultrasound-guided needle biopsy phantom.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Vieira, Sílvio L; Pavan, Theo Z; Junior, Jorge E; Carneiro, Antonio A O

    2013-12-01

    Paraffin-gel waxes have been investigated as new soft tissue-mimicking materials for ultrasound-guided breast biopsy training. Breast phantoms were produced with a broad range of acoustical properties. The speed of sound for the phantoms ranged from 1425.4 ± 0.6 to 1480.3 ± 1.7 m/s at room temperature. The attenuation coefficients were easily controlled between 0.32 ± 0.27 dB/cm and 2.04 ± 0.65 dB/cm at 7.5 MHz, depending on the amount of carnauba wax added to the base material. The materials do not suffer dehydration and provide adequate needle penetration, with a Young's storage modulus varying between 14.7 ± 0.2 kPa and 34.9 ± 0.3 kPa. The phantom background material possesses long-term stability and can be employed in a supine position without changes in geometry. These results indicate that paraffin-gel waxes may be promising materials for training radiologists in ultrasound biopsy procedures. Copyright © 2013 World Federation for Ultrasound in Medicine & Biology. Published by Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  16. Measurement of hard tissue density of head phantom based on the HU by using CBCT

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Kim, Moon Sun; Kang, Dong Wan; Kim, Jae Duk

    2009-01-01

    The purpose of this study was to determine a conversion coefficient for Hounsfield Units(HU) to material density (g cm -3 ) obtained from cone-beam computed tomography (CBMercuRay TM ) data and to measure the hard tissue density based on the Hounsfield scale on dental head phantom. CT Scanner Phantom (AAPM) equipped with CT Number Insert consists of five cylindrical pins of materials with different densities and teflon ring was scanned by using the CBMercuRay TM (Hitachi, Tokyo, Japan) volume scanner. The raw data were converted into DICOM format and the HU of different areas of CT number insert measured by using CBWorks TM . Linear regression analysis and Student t-test were performed statistically. There was no significant difference (P>0.54) between real densities and measured densities. A linear regression was performed using the density, ρ (g cm -3 ), as the dependent variable in terms of the HU (H). The regression equation obtained was ρ=0.00072 H-0.01588 with an R2 value of 0.9968. Density values based on the Hounsfield scale was 1697.1 ± 24.9 HU in cortical bone, 526.5 ± 44.4 HU in trabecular bone, 2639.1 ± 48.7 HU in enamel, 1246.1 ± 39.4 HU in dentin of dental head phantom. CBCT provides an effective option for determination of material density expressed as Hounsfield Units.

  17. A novel phantom design for emission tomography enabling scatter- and attenuation-''free'' single-photon emission tomography imaging

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Larsson, S.A.; Johansson, L.; Jonsson, C.; Pagani, M.; Jacobsson, H.

    2000-01-01

    A newly designed technique for experimental single-photon emission tomography (SPET) and positron emission tomography (PET) data acquisition with minor disturbing effects from scatter and attenuation has been developed. In principle, the method is based on discrete sampling of the radioactivity distribution in 3D objects by means of equidistant 2D planes. The starting point is a set of digitised 2D sections representing the radioactivity distribution of the 3D object. Having a radioactivity-related grey scale, the 2D images are printed on paper sheets using radioactive ink. The radioactive sheets can be shaped to the outline of the object and stacked into a 3D structure with air or some arbitrary dense material in between. For this work, equidistantly spaced transverse images of a uniform cylindrical phantom and of the digitised Hoffman rCBF phantom were selected and printed out on paper sheets. The uniform radioactivity sheets were imaged on the surface of a low-energy ultra-high-resolution collimator (4 mm full-width at half-maximum) of a three-headed SPET camera. The reproducibility was 0.7% and the uniformity was 1.2%. Each rCBF sheet, containing between 8.3 and 80 MBq of 99m TcO 4 - depending on size, was first imaged on the collimator and then stacked into a 3D structure with constant 12 mm air spacing between the slices. SPET was performed with the sheets perpendicular to the central axis of the camera. The total weight of the stacked rCBF phantom in air was 63 g, giving a scatter contribution comparable to that of a point source in air. The overall attenuation losses were <20%. A second SPET study was performed with 12-mm polystyrene plates in between the radioactive sheets. With polystyrene plates, the total phantom weight was 2300 g, giving a scatter and attenuation magnitude similar to that of a patient study. With the proposed technique, it is possible to obtain ''ideal'' experimental images (essentially built up by primary photons) for comparison with

  18. A new test phantom with different breast tissue compositions for image quality assessment in conventional and digital mammography

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Pachoud, Marc; Lepori, D; Valley, Jean-Francois; Verdun, Francis R

    2004-01-01

    Our objective is to describe a new test phantom that permits the objective assessment of image quality in conventional and digital mammography for different types of breast tissue. A test phantom, designed to represent a compressed breast, was made from tissue equivalent materials. Three separate regions, with different breast tissue compositions, are used to evaluate low and high contrast resolution, spatial resolution and image noise. The phantom was imaged over a range of kV using a Contour 2000 (Bennett) mammography unit with a Kodak MinR 2190-MinR L screen-film combination and a Senograph 2000D (General Electric) digital mammography unit. Objective image quality assessments for different breast tissue compositions were performed using the phantom for conventional and digital mammography. For a similar mean glandular dose (MGD), the digital system gives a significantly higher contrast-to-noise ratio (CNR) than the screen-film system for 100% glandular tissue. In conclusion, in mammography, a range of exposure conditions is used for imaging because of the different breast tissue compositions encountered clinically. Ideally, the patient dose-image quality relationship should be optimized over the range of exposure conditions. The test phantom presented in this work permits image quality parameters to be evaluated objectively for three different types of breast tissue. Thus, it is a useful tool for optimizing the patient dose-image quality relationship

  19. Polarized Raman spectroscopy of bone tissue: watch the scattering

    Science.gov (United States)

    Raghavan, Mekhala; Sahar, Nadder D.; Wilson, Robert H.; Mycek, Mary-Ann; Pleshko, Nancy; Kohn, David H.; Morris, Michael D.

    2010-02-01

    Polarized Raman spectroscopy is widely used in the study of molecular composition and orientation in synthetic and natural polymer systems. Here, we describe the use of Raman spectroscopy to extract quantitative orientation information from bone tissue. Bone tissue poses special challenges to the use of polarized Raman spectroscopy for measurement of orientation distribution functions because the tissue is turbid and birefringent. Multiple scattering in turbid media depolarizes light and is potentially a source of error. Using a Raman microprobe, we show that repeating the measurements with a series of objectives of differing numerical apertures can be used to assess the contributions of sample turbidity and depth of field to the calculated orientation distribution functions. With this test, an optic can be chosen to minimize the systematic errors introduced by multiple scattering events. With adequate knowledge of the optical properties of these bone tissues, we can determine if elastic light scattering affects the polarized Raman measurements.

  20. POLARIZATION IMAGING AND SCATTERING MODEL OF CANCEROUS LIVER TISSUES

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    DONGZHI LI

    2013-07-01

    Full Text Available We apply different polarization imaging techniques for cancerous liver tissues, and compare the relative contrasts for difference polarization imaging (DPI, degree of polarization imaging (DOPI and rotating linear polarization imaging (RLPI. Experimental results show that a number of polarization imaging parameters are capable of differentiating cancerous cells in isotropic liver tissues. To analyze the contrast mechanism of the cancer-sensitive polarization imaging parameters, we propose a scattering model containing two types of spherical scatterers and carry on Monte Carlo simulations based on this bi-component model. Both the experimental and Monte Carlo simulated results show that the RLPI technique can provide a good imaging contrast of cancerous tissues. The bi-component scattering model provides a useful tool to analyze the contrast mechanism of polarization imaging of cancerous tissues.

  1. Fabrication and characterization of silica aerogel as synthetic tissues for medical imaging phantoms

    Science.gov (United States)

    In, Eunji; Naguib, Hani

    2015-05-01

    Medical imaging plays an important role in the field of healthcare industry both in clinical settings and in research and development. It is used in prevention, early detection of disease, in choosing the optimal treatment, during surgical interventions and monitoring of the treatment effects. Despite much advancement in the last few decades, rapid change on its technology development and variety of imaging parameters that differ with the manufacturer restrict its further development. Imaging phantom is a calibrating medium that is scanned or imaged in the field of medical imaging to evaluate, analyze and tune the performance of various imaging devices. A phantom used to evaluate an imaging device should respond in a similar manner to how human tissue and organs would act in that specific imaging modality. There has been many research on the phantom materials; however, there has been no attempt to study on the material that mimics the structure of lung or fibrous tissue. So with the need for development of gel with such structure, we tried to mimic this structure with aerogel. Silica aerogels have unique properties that include low density (0.003g/cm) and mesoporosity (pore size 2-50nm), with a high thermal insulation value (0.005W/mK) and high surface area (500-1200m-2/g).] In this study, we cross-linked with di-isocyanate, which is a group in polyurethane to covalently bond the polymer to the surface of silica aerogel to enhance the mechanical properties. By formation of covalent bonds, the structure can be reinforced by widening the interparticle necks while minimally reducing porosity.

  2. Pulmonary ultrasound elastography: a feasibility study with phantoms and ex-vivo tissue

    Science.gov (United States)

    Nguyen, Man Minh; Xie, Hua; Paluch, Kamila; Stanton, Douglas; Ramachandran, Bharat

    2013-03-01

    Elastography has become widely used for minimally invasive diagnosis in many tumors as seen with breast, liver and prostate. Among different modalities, ultrasound-based elastography stands out due to its advantages including being safe, real-time, and relatively low-cost. While lung cancer is the leading cause of cancer mortality among both men and women, the use of ultrasound elastography for lung cancer diagnosis has hardly been investigated due to the limitations of ultrasound in air. In this work, we investigate the use of static-compression based endobronchial ultrasound elastography by a 3D trans-oesophageal echocardiography (TEE) transducer for lung cancer diagnosis. A water-filled balloon was designed to 1) improve the visualization of endobronchial ultrasound and 2) to induce compression via pumping motion inside the trachea and bronchiole. In a phantom study, we have successfully generated strain images indicating the stiffness difference between the gelatin background and agar inclusion. A similar strain ratio was confirmed with Philips ultrasound strain-based elastography product. For ex-vivo porcine lung study, different tissue ablation methods including chemical injection, Radio Frequency (RF) ablation, and direct heating were implemented to achieve tumor-mimicking tissue. Stiff ablated lung tissues were obtained and detected with our proposed method. These results suggest the feasibility of pulmonary elastography to differentiate stiff tumor tissue from normal tissue.

  3. Optical absorption and scattering spectra of pathological stomach tissues

    Science.gov (United States)

    Giraev, K. M.; Ashurbekov, N. A.; Lakhina, M. A.

    2011-03-01

    Diffuse reflection spectra of biotissues in vivo and transmission and reflection coefficients for biotissues in vitro are measured over 300-800 nm. These data are used to determine the spectral absorption and scattering indices and the scattering anisotropy factor for stomach mucous membranes under normal and various pathological conditions (chronic atrophic and ulcerous defects, malignant neoplasms). The most importan tphysiological (hemodynamic and oxygenation levels) and structural-morphological (scatterer size and density) parameters are also determined. The results of a morphofunctional study correlate well with the optical properties and are consistent with data from a histomorphological analysis of the corresponding tissues.

  4. Contribution of ultrasound forward scattering to tissue structure study

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Edee, M.K.

    1987-12-01

    In this paper, we show how to get useful information of tissue structure by merely interpreting some experimental graphs such as energy spectral density and autocorrelation function of an ultrasonic beam travelling through tissues. To support these interpretations, we needed just some well-known theorems rather than heavy and complicated mathematical equations, so we measured the dimensions of scatterers within specimens by using the graphical representation of autocorrelation function. We related these measurements to the scattered peaks which appear in energy density spectrum. The values we found were equal to those obtained from biologists within ∼ 15%. (author) 26 refs, 6 figs, tabs

  5. Modelling the propagation of terahertz radiation through a tissue simulating phantom

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Walker, Gillian C; Berry, Elizabeth; Smye, Stephen W; Zinov'ev, Nick N; Fitzgerald, Anthony J; Miles, Robert E; Chamberlain, Martyn; Smith, Michael A

    2004-01-01

    Terahertz (THz) frequency radiation, 0.1 THz to 20 THz, is being investigated for biomedical imaging applications following the introduction of pulsed THz sources that produce picosecond pulses and function at room temperature. Owing to the broadband nature of the radiation, spectral and temporal information is available from radiation that has interacted with a sample; this information is exploited in the development of biomedical imaging tools and sensors. In this work, models to aid interpretation of broadband THz spectra were developed and evaluated. THz radiation lies on the boundary between regions best considered using a deterministic electromagnetic approach and those better analysed using a stochastic approach incorporating quantum mechanical effects, so two computational models to simulate the propagation of THz radiation in an absorbing medium were compared. The first was a thin film analysis and the second a stochastic Monte Carlo model. The Cole-Cole model was used to predict the variation with frequency of the physical properties of the sample and scattering was neglected. The two models were compared with measurements from a highly absorbing water-based phantom. The Monte Carlo model gave a prediction closer to experiment over 0.1 to 3 THz. Knowledge of the frequency-dependent physical properties, including the scattering characteristics, of the absorbing media is necessary. The thin film model is computationally simple to implement but is restricted by the geometry of the sample it can describe. The Monte Carlo framework, despite being initially more complex, provides greater flexibility to investigate more complicated sample geometries

  6. Optical coherence tomography detection of shear wave propagation in inhomogeneous tissue equivalent phantoms and ex-vivo carotid artery samples

    Science.gov (United States)

    Razani, Marjan; Luk, Timothy W.H.; Mariampillai, Adrian; Siegler, Peter; Kiehl, Tim-Rasmus; Kolios, Michael C.; Yang, Victor X.D.

    2014-01-01

    In this work, we explored the potential of measuring shear wave propagation using optical coherence elastography (OCE) in an inhomogeneous phantom and carotid artery samples based on a swept-source optical coherence tomography (OCT) system. Shear waves were generated using a piezoelectric transducer transmitting sine-wave bursts of 400 μs duration, applying acoustic radiation force (ARF) to inhomogeneous phantoms and carotid artery samples, synchronized with a swept-source OCT (SS-OCT) imaging system. The phantoms were composed of gelatin and titanium dioxide whereas the carotid artery samples were embedded in gel. Differential OCT phase maps, measured with and without the ARF, detected the microscopic displacement generated by shear wave propagation in these phantoms and samples of different stiffness. We present the technique for calculating tissue mechanical properties by propagating shear waves in inhomogeneous tissue equivalent phantoms and carotid artery samples using the ARF of an ultrasound transducer, and measuring the shear wave speed and its associated properties in the different layers with OCT phase maps. This method lays the foundation for future in-vitro and in-vivo studies of mechanical property measurements of biological tissues such as vascular tissues, where normal and pathological structures may exhibit significant contrast in the shear modulus. PMID:24688822

  7. Scattered and Fluorescent Photon Track Reconstruction in a Biological Tissue

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Maria N. Kholodtsova

    2014-01-01

    Full Text Available Appropriate analysis of biological tissue deep regions is important for tumor targeting. This paper is concentrated on photons’ paths analysis in such biotissue as brain, because optical probing depth of fluorescent and excitation radiation differs. A method for photon track reconstruction was developed. Images were captured focusing on the transparent wall close and parallel to the source fibres, placed in brain tissue phantoms. The images were processed to reconstruct the photons most probable paths between two fibres. Results were compared with Monte Carlo simulations and diffusion approximation of the radiative transfer equation. It was shown that the excitation radiation optical probing depth is twice more than for the fluorescent photons. The way of fluorescent radiation spreading was discussed. Because of fluorescent and excitation radiation spreads in different ways, and the effective anisotropy factor, geff, was proposed for fluorescent radiation. For the brain tissue phantoms it were found to be 0.62±0.05 and 0.66±0.05 for the irradiation wavelengths 532 nm and 632.8 nm, respectively. These calculations give more accurate information about the tumor location in biotissue. Reconstruction of photon paths allows fluorescent and excitation probing depths determination. The geff can be used as simplified parameter for calculations of fluorescence probing depth.

  8. Re-evaluation of model-based light-scattering spectroscopy for tissue spectroscopy

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lau, Condon; Šćepanović, Obrad; Mirkovic, Jelena; McGee, Sasha; Yu, Chung-Chieh; Fulghum, Stephen; Wallace, Michael; Tunnell, James; Bechtel, Kate; Feld, Michael

    2009-01-01

    Model-based light scattering spectroscopy (LSS) seemed a promising technique for in-vivo diagnosis of dysplasia in multiple organs. In the studies, the residual spectrum, the difference between the observed and modeled diffuse reflectance spectra, was attributed to single elastic light scattering from epithelial nuclei, and diagnostic information due to nuclear changes was extracted from it. We show that this picture is incorrect. The actual single scattering signal arising from epithelial nuclei is much smaller than the previously computed residual spectrum, and does not have the wavelength dependence characteristic of Mie scattering. Rather, the residual spectrum largely arises from assuming a uniform hemoglobin distribution. In fact, hemoglobin is packaged in blood vessels, which alters the reflectance. When we include vessel packaging, which accounts for an inhomogeneous hemoglobin distribution, in the diffuse reflectance model, the reflectance is modeled more accurately, greatly reducing the amplitude of the residual spectrum. These findings are verified via numerical estimates based on light propagation and Mie theory, tissue phantom experiments, and analysis of published data measured from Barrett’s esophagus. In future studies, vessel packaging should be included in the model of diffuse reflectance and use of model-based LSS should be discontinued. PMID:19405760

  9. The effect of magnetic nanoparticles on the acoustic properties of tissue-mimicking agar-gel phantoms

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Józefczak, A., E-mail: aras@amu.edu.pl [Institute of Acoustics, Faculty of Physics, Adam Mickiewicz University, Poznań (Poland); Kaczmarek, K. [Institute of Acoustics, Faculty of Physics, Adam Mickiewicz University, Poznań (Poland); Kubovčíková, M. [Institute of Experimental Physics, Slovak Academy of Sciences, Košice (Slovakia); Rozynek, Z.; Hornowski, T. [Institute of Acoustics, Faculty of Physics, Adam Mickiewicz University, Poznań (Poland)

    2017-06-01

    In ultrasonic hyperthermia, ultrasound-induced heating is achieved by the absorption of wave energy and its conversion into heat. The effectiveness of ultrasounds can be improved by using sonosensitisers that greatly attenuate ultrasonic waves and then dissipate the acquired energy in the form of heat. One possible candidate for such a sonosensitiser are superparamagnetic iron oxide nanoparticles. Here, we used magnetic nanoparticles embedded in a tissue-mimicking agar-gel matrix. Such tissue-mimicking phantoms possess acoustic properties similar to those of real tissues, and are used as a tool for performance testing and optimisation of medical ultrasound systems. In this work, we studied the effect of magnetic nanoparticles on the acoustic properties of agar-gel phantoms, including the attenuation of ultrasonic waves. - Highlights: • Ultrasonic insertion technique is used to study acoustic properties of agar-gel phantoms with and without magnetic particles. • The addition of magnetic nanoparticles improves effectiveness of ultrasound heating in agar phantoms. • Acoustics properties of a pure agar-gel phantom are altered by adding nanoparticles.

  10. Silicone-based composite materials simulate breast tissue to be used as ultrasonography training phantoms.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ustbas, Burcin; Kilic, Deniz; Bozkurt, Ayhan; Aribal, Mustafa Erkin; Akbulut, Ozge

    2018-03-02

    A silicone-based composite breast phantom is fabricated to be used as an education model in ultrasonography training. A matrix of silicone formulations is tracked to mimic the ultrasonography and tactile response of human breast tissue. The performance of two different additives: (i) silicone oil and (ii) vinyl-terminated poly (dimethylsiloxane) (PDMS) are monitored by a home-made acoustic setup. Through the use of 75 wt% vinyl-terminated PDMS in two-component silicone elastomer mixture, a sound velocity of 1.29 ± 0.09 × 10 3  m/s and an attenuation coefficient of 12.99 ± 0.08 dB/cm-values those match closely to the human breast tissue-are measured with 5 MHz probe. This model can also be used for needle biopsy as well as for self-exam trainings. Herein, we highlight the fabrication of a realistic, durable, accessible, and cost-effective training platform that contains skin layer, inner breast tissue, and tumor masses. Copyright © 2018. Published by Elsevier B.V.

  11. Calculation of dose distribution for 252Cf fission neutron source in tissue equivalent phantoms using Monte Carlo method

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Ji Gang; Guo Yong; Luo Yisheng; Zhang Wenzhong

    2001-01-01

    Objective: To provide useful parameters for neutron radiotherapy, the author presents results of a Monte Carlo simulation study investigating the dosimetric characteristics of linear 252 Cf fission neutron sources. Methods: A 252 Cf fission source and tissue equivalent phantom were modeled. The dose of neutron and gamma radiations were calculated using Monte Carlo Code. Results: The dose of neutron and gamma at several positions for 252 Cf in the phantom made of equivalent materials to water, blood, muscle, skin, bone and lung were calculated. Conclusion: The results by Monte Carlo methods were compared with the data by measurement and references. According to the calculation, the method using water phantom to simulate local tissues such as muscle, blood and skin is reasonable for the calculation and measurements of dose distribution for 252 Cf

  12. Construction of a preclinical multimodality phantom using tissue-mimicking materials for quality assurance in tumor size measurement.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lee, Yongsook C; Fullerton, Gary D; Goins, Beth A

    2013-07-29

    World Health Organization (WHO) and the Response Evaluation Criteria in Solid Tumors (RECIST) working groups advocated standardized criteria for radiologic assessment of solid tumors in response to anti-tumor drug therapy in the 1980s and 1990s, respectively. WHO criteria measure solid tumors in two-dimensions, whereas RECIST measurements use only one-dimension which is considered to be more reproducible (1, 2, 3,4,5). These criteria have been widely used as the only imaging biomarker approved by the United States Food and Drug Administration (FDA) (6). In order to measure tumor response to anti-tumor drugs on images with accuracy, therefore, a robust quality assurance (QA) procedures and corresponding QA phantom are needed. To address this need, the authors constructed a preclinical multimodality (for ultrasound (US), computed tomography (CT) and magnetic resonance imaging (MRI)) phantom using tissue-mimicking (TM) materials based on the limited number of target lesions required by RECIST by revising a Gammex US commercial phantom (7). The Appendix in Lee et al. demonstrates the procedures of phantom fabrication (7). In this article, all protocols are introduced in a step-by-step fashion beginning with procedures for preparing the silicone molds for casting tumor-simulating test objects in the phantom, followed by preparation of TM materials for multimodality imaging, and finally construction of the preclinical multimodality QA phantom. The primary purpose of this paper is to provide the protocols to allow anyone interested in independently constructing a phantom for their own projects. QA procedures for tumor size measurement, and RECIST, WHO and volume measurement results of test objects made at multiple institutions using this QA phantom are shown in detail in Lee et al. (8).

  13. Fabrication of a tissue-equivalent torso phantom for intercalibration of in-vivo transuranic-nuclide counting facilities

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Griffith, R.V.; Dean, P.N.; Anderson, A.L.; Fisher, J.C.

    1978-01-01

    A tissue-equivalent human-torso phantom has been constructed for calibration of the counting systems used for in-vivo measurement of transuranic nuclides. The phantom contains a human male rib cage, removable model organs, and includes tissue-equivalent chest plates that can be placed over the torso to simulate people with a wide range of statures. The organs included are lungs, heart, liver, kidneys, spleen, and tracheo-bronchial lymph nodes. Polyurethane with different concentrations of calcium carbonate was used to simulate the linear photon-attenuation properties of various human tissues--lean muscle, adipose-muscle mixtures, and cartilage. Foamed polyurethane with calcium carbonate simulates lung tissue. Transuranic isotopes can be incorporated uniformly in the phantom's lungs and other polyurethane-based organs by dissolution of the nitrate form in acetone with lanthanum nitrate carrier. Organs have now been labelled with highly pure 238 Pu, 239 Pu, and 241 Am for calibration measurements. This phantom is the first of three that will be used in a U.S. Department of Energy program of intercomparisons involving more than ten laboratories. The results of the intercomparison will allow participating laboratories to prepare sets of transmission curves that can be used to predict the performance of their counting systems for a wide range of subject builds and organ depositions. The intercomparison will also provide valuable information on the relative performance of a variety of detector systems and counting techniques

  14. Double-integrating-sphere system at the National Institute of Standards and Technology in support of measurement standards for the determination of optical properties of tissue-mimicking phantoms

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lemaillet, Paul; Bouchard, Jean-Pierre; Hwang, Jeeseong; Allen, David W.

    2015-12-01

    There is a need for a common reference point that will allow for the comparison of the optical properties of tissue-mimicking phantoms. After a brief review of the methods that have been used to measure the phantoms for a contextual backdrop to our approach, this paper reports on the establishment of a standardized double-integrating-sphere platform to measure absorption and reduced scattering coefficients of tissue-mimicking biomedical phantoms. The platform implements a user-friendly graphical user interface in which variations of experimental configurations and model-based analysis are implemented to compute the coefficients based on a modified inverse adding-doubling algorithm allowing a complete uncertainty evaluation. Repeatability and validation of the measurement results of solid phantoms are demonstrated for three samples of different thicknesses, d=5.08 mm, 7.09 mm, and 9.92 mm, with an absolute error estimate of 4.0% to 5.0% for the absorption coefficient and 11% to 12% for the reduced scattering coefficient (k=2). The results are in accordance with those provided by the manufacturer. Measurements with different polarization angles of the incident light are also presented, and the resulting optical properties were determined to be equivalent within the estimated uncertainties.

  15. Use of scatter correction in quantitative I-123 MIBG scintigraphy for differentiating patients with Parkinsonism: Results from Phantom experiment and clinical study

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Bai, J.; Hashimoto, J.; Suzuki, T.; Nakahara, T.; Kubo, A.; Ohira, M.; Takao, M.; Ogawa, K.

    2007-01-01

    The aims of this study were to elucidate the feasibility of scatter correction in improving the quantitative accuracy of the Heart-to-Mediastinum (H/M) ratio in I-123 MIBG imaging and to clarify whether the H/M ratio calculated from the scatter corrected image improves the accuracy of differentiating patients with Parkinsonism from other neurological disorders. The H/M ratio was calculated using the counts from planar images processed with and without scatter correction in the phantom and on patients. The triple energy window (TEW) method was used for scatter correction. Fifty five patients were enrolled in the clinical study. The Receiver Operating Characteristic (ROC) Curve analysis was used to evaluate diagnostic performance. The H/M ratio was found to be increased after scatter correction in the phantom simulating normal cardiac uptake, while no changes were observed in the phantom simulating no uptake. It was observed that scatter correction stabilized the H/M ratio by eliminating the influence of scatter photons originating from the liver, especially in the condition of no cardiac uptake. Similarly, scatter correction increased the H/M ratio in conditions other than Parkinson's disease but did not show any change in Parkinson's disease itself to widen the differences in the H/M ratios between the two groups. The overall power of the test did not show any significant improvement after scatter correction in differentiating patients with Parkinsonism. Based on the results of this study it has been concluded that scatter correction improves the quantitative accuracy of H/M ratio in MIBG imaging, but it does not offer any significant incremental diagnostic value over conventional imaging (without scatter correction). Nevertheless it is felt that the scatter correction technique deserves special consideration in order to make the test more robust and obtain stable H/M ratios. (author)

  16. Low angle X-ray scattering in biological tissues

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Lemos, Carla; Braz, Delson; Pinto, Nivia G.V.; Lima, Joao C.; Castro, Carlos R.F.; Filgueiras, R.A.; Mendonca, Leonardo; Lopes, Ricardo T.; Barroso, Regina C.

    2007-01-01

    Low-angle x-ray scatter (LAXS) for tissue characterization is based on the differences which result from the interference of photons coherently scattered from molecules of each sample. Biological samples (bone, blood and blood components) have been studied in recent years in our laboratory using powder diffractometer. The scattering information was obtained using a Shimadzu DRX 6000 diffractometer at the Nuclear Instrumentation Laboratory, Rio de Janeiro, Brazil. Unpolarized monoenergetic Kα radiation from Cu provided 8.04 keV photons. The measurements were made in reflection mode (θ-2θ geometry), with the sample stationary on a goniometer which rotates the sample and detector about an axis lying in the plane of the top of the sample holder. LAXS profiles from whole blood, plasma and formed elements were measured to investigate the nature of scattering from such lyophilized samples. The statistical analysis shows that the variation found for the characterization parameters is significant for whole blood considering the age. Gender was positively associated with the variation of the second peak position for the profiles obtained for formed elements. The correlation of the measured relative coherent intensity with the mineral content in the bone samples was investigated. These results suggest that the measurement of bone mineral content within trabecular bone can be performed by using quantitative coherent scattering information. (author)

  17. Understanding the scatter radiation distribution during C-arm CT examination. A body phantom study

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Norimasa, Toshiyo; Kakimi, Akihiko; Takao, Yoshinori; Sasaki, Shohei; Katayama, Yutaka; Himoto, Daisuke; Izuta, Shinichiro; Ichida, Takao

    2016-01-01

    The purpose of this study was to understand the scatter radiation distribution during C-arm CT examination in the interventional radiography (IVR) room to show the escaped area and the radiation protective method. The C-arm rotates 200deg in 5 s. The tube voltage was 90 kV, and the entrance dose to the detector was 0.36 μGy/frame during C-arm CT examination. The scattered doses were measured each 50 cm from the isocenter like a grid pattern. The heights of the measurement were 50, 100, and 150 cm from the floor. The maximum scattered doses were 38.23 ± 0.60 μGy at 50 cm, 43.86 ± 20 μGy at 100 cm, and 25.78 ± 0.37 μGy at 150 cm. The scatter radiation distribution at 100 cm was the highest scattered dose. The operator should protect their reproductive gland, thyroid, and lens. The scattered dose was low behind the C-arm body and the bed, so they will be able to become the escaped area for staff. (author)

  18. Anisotropic polyvinyl alcohol hydrogel phantom for shear wave elastography in fibrous biological soft tissue: a multimodality characterization

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Chatelin, Simon; Bernal, Miguel; Deffieux, Thomas; Papadacci, Clément; Nahas, Amir; Boccara, Claude; Gennisson, Jean-Luc; Tanter, Mickael; Pernot, Mathieu; Flaud, Patrice

    2014-01-01

    Shear wave elastography imaging techniques provide quantitative measurement of soft tissues elastic properties. Tendons, muscles and cerebral tissues are composed of fibers, which induce a strong anisotropic effect on the mechanical behavior. Currently, these tissues cannot be accurately represented by existing elastography phantoms. Recently, a novel approach for orthotropic hydrogel mimicking soft tissues has been developed (Millon et al 2006 J. Biomed. Mater. Res. B 305–11). The mechanical anisotropy is induced in a polyvinyl alcohol (PVA) cryogel by stretching the physical crosslinks of the polymeric chains while undergoing freeze/thaw cycles. In the present study we propose an original multimodality imaging characterization of this new transverse isotropic (TI) PVA hydrogel. Multiple properties were investigated using a large variety of techniques at different scales compared with an isotropic PVA hydrogel undergoing similar imaging and rheology protocols. The anisotropic mechanical (dynamic and static) properties were studied using supersonic shear wave imaging technique, full-field optical coherence tomography (FFOCT) strain imaging and classical linear rheometry using dynamic mechanical analysis. The anisotropic optical and ultrasonic spatial coherence properties were measured by FFOCT volumetric imaging and backscatter tensor imaging, respectively. Correlation of mechanical and optical properties demonstrates the complementarity of these techniques for the study of anisotropy on a multi-scale range as well as the potential of this TI phantom as fibrous tissue-mimicking phantom for shear wave elastographic applications. (paper)

  19. Anisotropic polyvinyl alcohol hydrogel phantom for shear wave elastography in fibrous biological soft tissue: a multimodality characterization

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chatelin, Simon; Bernal, Miguel; Deffieux, Thomas; Papadacci, Clément; Flaud, Patrice; Nahas, Amir; Boccara, Claude; Gennisson, Jean-Luc; Tanter, Mickael; Pernot, Mathieu

    2014-11-01

    Shear wave elastography imaging techniques provide quantitative measurement of soft tissues elastic properties. Tendons, muscles and cerebral tissues are composed of fibers, which induce a strong anisotropic effect on the mechanical behavior. Currently, these tissues cannot be accurately represented by existing elastography phantoms. Recently, a novel approach for orthotropic hydrogel mimicking soft tissues has been developed (Millon et al 2006 J. Biomed. Mater. Res. B 305-11). The mechanical anisotropy is induced in a polyvinyl alcohol (PVA) cryogel by stretching the physical crosslinks of the polymeric chains while undergoing freeze/thaw cycles. In the present study we propose an original multimodality imaging characterization of this new transverse isotropic (TI) PVA hydrogel. Multiple properties were investigated using a large variety of techniques at different scales compared with an isotropic PVA hydrogel undergoing similar imaging and rheology protocols. The anisotropic mechanical (dynamic and static) properties were studied using supersonic shear wave imaging technique, full-field optical coherence tomography (FFOCT) strain imaging and classical linear rheometry using dynamic mechanical analysis. The anisotropic optical and ultrasonic spatial coherence properties were measured by FFOCT volumetric imaging and backscatter tensor imaging, respectively. Correlation of mechanical and optical properties demonstrates the complementarity of these techniques for the study of anisotropy on a multi-scale range as well as the potential of this TI phantom as fibrous tissue-mimicking phantom for shear wave elastographic applications.

  20. Characterization of paraffin based breast tissue equivalent phantom using a CdTe detector pulse height analysis.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cubukcu, Solen; Yücel, Haluk

    2016-12-01

    In this study, paraffin was selected as a base material and mixed with different amounts of CaSO 4 ·2H 2 O and H 3 BO 3 compounds in order to mimic breast tissue. Slab phantoms were produced with suitable mixture ratios of the additives in the melted paraffin. Subsequently, these were characterized in terms of first half-value layer (HVL) in the mammographic X-ray range using a pulse-height spectroscopic analysis with a CdTe detector. Irradiations were performed in the energy range of 23-35 kV p under broad beam conditions from Mo/Mo and Mo/Rh target/filter combinations. X-ray spectra were acquired with a CdTe detector without and with phantom material interposition in increments of 1 cm thickness and then evaluated to obtain the transmission data. The net integral areas of the spectra for the slabs were used to plot the transmission curves and these curves were fitted to the Archer model function. The results obtained for the slabs were compared with those of standard mammographic phantoms such as CIRS BR series phantoms and polymethylmethacrylate plates (PMMA). From the evaluated transmission curves, the mass attenuation coefficients and HVLs of some mixtures are close to those of the commercially available standard mammography phantoms. Results indicated that when a suitable proportion of H 3 BO 3 and CaSO 4 ·2H 2 O is added to the paraffin, the resulting material may be a good candidate for a breast tissue equivalent phantom.

  1. Effects of tube potential and scatter rejection on image quality and effective dose in digital chest X-ray examination: An anthropomorphic phantom study

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Shaw, D.J., E-mail: daniel.shaw@christie.nhs.uk [Diagnostic Radiology, Department of Medical Physics and Engineering, Leeds Teaching Hospitals, Leeds General Infirmary, Great George Street, Leeds LS1 3EX (United Kingdom); Crawshaw, I. [Diagnostic X-ray Department, York Teaching Hospital NHS Foundation Trust, The York Hospital, Wigginton Road, York YO31 8HE (United Kingdom); Rimmer, S. D. [Diagnostic Radiology, Department of Medical Physics and Engineering, Leeds Teaching Hospitals, Leeds General Infirmary, Great George Street, Leeds LS1 3EX (United Kingdom)

    2013-11-15

    Objectives: The purpose of this study was to investigate the effects of tube potential and scatter rejection techniques on image quality of digital posteroanterior (PA) chest radiographs. Methods: An anthropomorphic phantom was imaged using a range of tube potentials (81–125 kV{sub p}) without scatter rejection, with an anti-scatter grid, and using a 10 cm air gap. Images were anonymised and randomised before being evaluated using a visual graded analysis (VGA) method. Results: The effects of tube potential on image quality were found to be negligible (p > 0.63) for the flat panel detector (FPD). Decreased image quality (p = 0.031) was noted for 125 kV{sub p} relative to 109 kV{sub p}, though no difference was noted for any of the other potentials (p > 0.398) for computed radiography (CR). Both scatter rejection techniques improved image quality (p < 0.01). For FPD imaging the anti-scatter grid offered slightly improved image quality relative to the air gap (p = 0.038) but this was not seen for CR (p = 0.404). Conclusions: For FPD chest imaging of the anthropomorphic phantom there was no dependence of image quality on tube potential. Scatter rejection improved image quality, with the anti-scatter grid giving greater improvements than an air-gap, but at the expense of increased effective dose. CR imaging of the chest phantom demonstrated negligible dependence on tube potential except at 125 kV{sub p}. Scatter rejection improved image quality, but with no difference found between techniques. The air-gap resulted in a smaller increase in effective dose than the anti-scatter grid and would be the preferred scatter rejection technique.

  2. Nonlinear scattering in hard tissue studied with ultrashort laser pulses

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Eichler, J.; Kim, B.M.

    2002-01-01

    The back-scattered spectrum of ultrashort laser pulses (800 nm, 0.2 ps) was studied in human dental and other hard tissues in vitro below the ablation threshold. Frequency doubled radiation (SHG), frequency tripled radiation and two-photon fluorescence were detected. The relative yield for these processes was measured for various pulse energies. The dependence of the SHG signal on probe thickness was determined in forward and back scattering geometry. SHG is sensitive to linear polarization of the incident laser radiation. SHG in human teeth was studied in vitro showing larger signals in dentin than in cementum and enamel. In carious areas no SHG signal could be detected. Possible applications of higher harmonic radiation for diagnostics and microscopy are discussed. (orig.)

  3. Evaluation and characterization of X-ray scattering in tissues and mammographic simulators using Monte Carlo simulation

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Oliveira, Monica G. Nunes; Braz, Delson; Silva, Regina Cely B. da S.

    2005-01-01

    The computer simulation has been widely used in physical researches by both the viability of the codes and the growth of the power of computers in the last decades. The Monte Carlo simulation program, EGS4 code is a simulation program used in the area of radiation transport. The simulators, surrogate tissues, phantoms are objects used to perform studies on dosimetric quantities and quality testing of images. The simulators have characteristics of scattering and absorption of radiation similar to tissues that make up the body. The aim of this work is to translate the effects of radiation interactions in a real healthy breast tissues, sick and on simulators using the EGS4 Monte Carlo simulation code

  4. Submicron scale tissue multifractal anisotropy in polarized laser light scattering

    Science.gov (United States)

    Das, Nandan Kumar; Dey, Rajib; Chakraborty, Semanti; Panigrahi, Prasanta K.; Meglinski, Igor; Ghosh, Nirmalya

    2018-03-01

    The spatial fluctuations of the refractive index within biological tissues exhibit multifractal anisotropy, leaving its signature as a spectral linear diattenuation of scattered polarized light. The multifractal anisotropy has been quantitatively assessed by the processing of relevant Mueller matrix elements in the Fourier domain, utilizing the Born approximation and subsequent multifractal analysis. The differential scaling exponent and width of the singularity spectrum appear to be highly sensitive to the structural multifractal anisotropy at the micron/sub-micron length scales. An immediate practical use of these multifractal anisotropy parameters was explored for non-invasive screening of cervical precancerous alterations ex vivo, with the indication of a strong potential for clinical diagnostic purposes.

  5. Development and evaluation of a connective tissue phantom model for subsurface visualization of cancers requiring wide local excision

    Science.gov (United States)

    Samkoe, Kimberley S.; Bates, Brent D.; Tselepidakis, Niki N.; DSouza, Alisha V.; Gunn, Jason R.; Ramkumar, Dipak B.; Paulsen, Keith D.; Pogue, Brian W.; Henderson, Eric R.

    2017-12-01

    Wide local excision (WLE) of tumors with negative margins remains a challenge because surgeons cannot directly visualize the mass. Fluorescence-guided surgery (FGS) may improve surgical accuracy; however, conventional methods with direct surface tumor visualization are not immediately applicable, and properties of tissues surrounding the cancer must be considered. We developed a phantom model for sarcoma resection with the near-infrared fluorophore IRDye 800CW and used it to iteratively define the properties of connective tissues that typically surround sarcoma tumors. We then tested the ability of a blinded surgeon to resect fluorescent tumor-simulating inclusions with ˜1-cm margins using predetermined target fluorescence intensities and a Solaris open-air fluorescence imaging system. In connective tissue-simulating phantoms, fluorescence intensity decreased with increasing blood concentration and increased with increasing intralipid concentrations. Fluorescent inclusions could be resolved at ≥1-cm depth in all inclusion concentrations and sizes tested. When inclusion depth was held constant, fluorescence intensity decreased with decreasing volume. Using targeted fluorescence intensities, a blinded surgeon was able to successfully excise inclusions with ˜1-cm margins from fat- and muscle-simulating phantoms with inclusion-to-background contrast ratios as low as 2∶1. Indirect, subsurface FGS is a promising tool for surgical resection of cancers requiring WLE.

  6. Feasibility of salvage interstitial microwave thermal therapy for prostate carcinoma following failed brachytherapy: studies in a tissue equivalent phantom

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    McCann, Claire; Kumaradas, J Carl; Gertner, Mark R; Davidson, Sean R H; Dolan, Alfred M; Sherar, Michael D

    2003-01-01

    Thermal therapy is an experimental treatment to destroy solid tumours by heating them to temperatures ranging from 55 deg C to 90 deg C, inducing thermal coagulation and necrosis of the tumour. We are investigating the feasibility of interstitial microwave thermal therapy as a salvage treatment for prostate cancer patients with local recurrence following failed brachytherapy. Due to the electrical and thermal conductivity of the brachytherapy seeds, we hypothesized that the seeds could scatter the microwave energy and cause unpredictable heating. To investigate this, a 915 MHz helical antenna was inserted into a muscle-equivalent phantom with and without brachytherapy seeds. Following a 10 W, 5 s input to the antenna, the temperature rise was used to calculate absorbed power, also referred to as specific absorption rate (SAR). Plane wave models based on Maxwell's equations were also used to characterize the electromagnetic scattering effect of the seeds. In addition, the phantom was heated with 8 W for 5 min to quantify the effect of the seeds on the temperature distribution during extended heating. SAR measurements indicated that the seeds had no significant effect on the shape and size of the SAR pattern of the antenna. However, the plane wave simulations indicated that the seeds could scatter the microwave energy resulting in hot spots at the seed edges. Lack of experimental evidence of these hot spots was probably due to the complex polarization of the microwaves emitted by the helical antenna. Extended heating experiments also demonstrated that the seeds had no significant effect on the temperature distributions and rates of temperature rise measured in the phantom. The results indicate that brachytherapy seeds are not a technical impediment to interstitial microwave thermal therapy as a salvage treatment following failed brachytherapy

  7. Technical Note: Radiological properties of tissue surrogates used in a multimodality deformable pelvic phantom for MR-guided radiotherapy

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Niebuhr, Nina I.; Johnen, Wibke; Güldaglar, Timur; Runz, Armin; Echner, Gernot; Mann, Philipp; Möhler, Christian; Pfaffenberger, Asja; Greilich, Steffen; Jäkel, Oliver

    2016-01-01

    Purpose: Phantom surrogates were developed to allow multimodal [computed tomography (CT), magnetic resonance imaging (MRI), and teletherapy] and anthropomorphic tissue simulation as well as materials and methods to construct deformable organ shapes and anthropomorphic bone models. Methods: Agarose gels of variable concentrations and loadings were investigated to simulate various soft tissue types. Oils, fats, and Vaseline were investigated as surrogates for adipose tissue and bone marrow. Anthropomorphic shapes of bone and organs were realized using 3D-printing techniques based on segmentations of patient CT-scans. All materials were characterized in dual energy CT and MRI to adapt CT numbers, electron density, effective atomic number, as well as T1- and T2-relaxation times to patient and literature values. Results: Soft tissue simulation could be achieved with agarose gels in combination with a gadolinium-based contrast agent and NaF to simulate muscle, prostate, and tumor tissues. Vegetable oils were shown to be a good representation for adipose tissue in all modalities. Inner bone was realized using a mixture of Vaseline and K_2HPO_4, resulting in both a fatty bone marrow signal in MRI and inhomogeneous areas of low and high attenuation in CT. The high attenuation of outer bone was additionally adapted by applying gypsum bandages to the 3D-printed hollow bone case with values up to 1200 HU. Deformable hollow organs were manufactured using silicone. Signal loss in the MR images based on the conductivity of the gels needs to be further investigated. Conclusions: The presented surrogates and techniques allow the customized construction of multimodality, anthropomorphic, and deformable phantoms as exemplarily shown for a pelvic phantom, which is intended to study adaptive treatment scenarios in MR-guided radiation therapy

  8. Technical Note: Radiological properties of tissue surrogates used in a multimodality deformable pelvic phantom for MR-guided radiotherapy

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Niebuhr, Nina I., E-mail: n.niebuhr@dkfz.de; Johnen, Wibke; Güldaglar, Timur; Runz, Armin; Echner, Gernot; Mann, Philipp; Möhler, Christian; Pfaffenberger, Asja; Greilich, Steffen [Division of Medical Physics in Radiation Oncology, German Cancer Research Center (DKFZ), Im Neuenheimer Feld 280, Heidelberg 69120, Germany and Heidelberg Institute for Radiation Oncology (HIRO), National Center for Radiation Research in Oncology, Im Neuenheimer Feld 280, Heidelberg 69120 (Germany); Jäkel, Oliver [Division of Medical Physics in Radiation Oncology, German Cancer Research Center (DKFZ), Im Neuenheimer Feld 280, Heidelberg 69120 (Germany); Heidelberg Institute for Radiation Oncology (HIRO), National Center for Radiation Research in Oncology, Im Neuenheimer Feld 280, Heidelberg 69120 (Germany); Department of Medical Physics, Heidelberg Ion-Beam Therapy Center (HIT), Im Neuenheimer Feld 450, Heidelberg 69120 (Germany)

    2016-02-15

    Purpose: Phantom surrogates were developed to allow multimodal [computed tomography (CT), magnetic resonance imaging (MRI), and teletherapy] and anthropomorphic tissue simulation as well as materials and methods to construct deformable organ shapes and anthropomorphic bone models. Methods: Agarose gels of variable concentrations and loadings were investigated to simulate various soft tissue types. Oils, fats, and Vaseline were investigated as surrogates for adipose tissue and bone marrow. Anthropomorphic shapes of bone and organs were realized using 3D-printing techniques based on segmentations of patient CT-scans. All materials were characterized in dual energy CT and MRI to adapt CT numbers, electron density, effective atomic number, as well as T1- and T2-relaxation times to patient and literature values. Results: Soft tissue simulation could be achieved with agarose gels in combination with a gadolinium-based contrast agent and NaF to simulate muscle, prostate, and tumor tissues. Vegetable oils were shown to be a good representation for adipose tissue in all modalities. Inner bone was realized using a mixture of Vaseline and K{sub 2}HPO{sub 4}, resulting in both a fatty bone marrow signal in MRI and inhomogeneous areas of low and high attenuation in CT. The high attenuation of outer bone was additionally adapted by applying gypsum bandages to the 3D-printed hollow bone case with values up to 1200 HU. Deformable hollow organs were manufactured using silicone. Signal loss in the MR images based on the conductivity of the gels needs to be further investigated. Conclusions: The presented surrogates and techniques allow the customized construction of multimodality, anthropomorphic, and deformable phantoms as exemplarily shown for a pelvic phantom, which is intended to study adaptive treatment scenarios in MR-guided radiation therapy.

  9. SU-C-213-01: 3D Printed Patient Specific Phantom Composed of Bone and Soft Tissue Substitute Plastics for Radiation Therapy

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Ehler, E; Sterling, D; Higgins, P [University of Minnesota, Minneapolis, MN (United States)

    2015-06-15

    Purpose: 3D printed phantoms constructed of multiple tissue approximating materials could be useful in both clinical and research aspects of radiotherapy. This work describes a 3D printed phantom constructed with tissue substitute plastics for both bone and soft tissue; air cavities were included as well. Methods: 3D models of an anonymized nasopharynx patient were generated for air cavities, soft tissues, and bone, which were segmented by Hounsfield Unit (HU) thresholds. HU thresholds were chosen to define air-to-soft tissue boundaries of 0.65 g/cc and soft tissue-to-bone boundaries of 1.18 g/cc based on clinical HU to density tables. After evaluation of several composite plastics, a bone tissue substitute was identified as an acceptable material for typical radiotherapy x-ray energies, composed of iron and PLA plastic. PET plastic was determined to be an acceptable soft tissue substitute. 3D printing was performed on a consumer grade dual extrusion fused deposition model 3D printer. Results: MVCT scans of the 3D printed heterogeneous phantom were acquired. Rigid image registration of the patient and the 3D printed phantom scans was performed. The average physical density of the soft tissue and bone regions was 1.02 ± 0.08 g/cc and 1.39 ± 0.14 g/cc, respectively, for the patient kVCT scan. In the 3D printed phantom MVCT scan, the average density of the soft tissue and bone was 1.01 ± 0.09 g/cc and 1.44 ± 0.12 g/cc, respectively. Conclusion: A patient specific phantom, constructed of heterogeneous tissue substitute materials was constructed by 3D printing. MVCT of the 3D printed phantom showed realistic tissue densities were recreated by the 3D printing materials. Funding provided by intra-department grant by University of Minnesota Department of Radiation Oncology.

  10. SU-C-213-01: 3D Printed Patient Specific Phantom Composed of Bone and Soft Tissue Substitute Plastics for Radiation Therapy

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Ehler, E; Sterling, D; Higgins, P

    2015-01-01

    Purpose: 3D printed phantoms constructed of multiple tissue approximating materials could be useful in both clinical and research aspects of radiotherapy. This work describes a 3D printed phantom constructed with tissue substitute plastics for both bone and soft tissue; air cavities were included as well. Methods: 3D models of an anonymized nasopharynx patient were generated for air cavities, soft tissues, and bone, which were segmented by Hounsfield Unit (HU) thresholds. HU thresholds were chosen to define air-to-soft tissue boundaries of 0.65 g/cc and soft tissue-to-bone boundaries of 1.18 g/cc based on clinical HU to density tables. After evaluation of several composite plastics, a bone tissue substitute was identified as an acceptable material for typical radiotherapy x-ray energies, composed of iron and PLA plastic. PET plastic was determined to be an acceptable soft tissue substitute. 3D printing was performed on a consumer grade dual extrusion fused deposition model 3D printer. Results: MVCT scans of the 3D printed heterogeneous phantom were acquired. Rigid image registration of the patient and the 3D printed phantom scans was performed. The average physical density of the soft tissue and bone regions was 1.02 ± 0.08 g/cc and 1.39 ± 0.14 g/cc, respectively, for the patient kVCT scan. In the 3D printed phantom MVCT scan, the average density of the soft tissue and bone was 1.01 ± 0.09 g/cc and 1.44 ± 0.12 g/cc, respectively. Conclusion: A patient specific phantom, constructed of heterogeneous tissue substitute materials was constructed by 3D printing. MVCT of the 3D printed phantom showed realistic tissue densities were recreated by the 3D printing materials. Funding provided by intra-department grant by University of Minnesota Department of Radiation Oncology

  11. Determination of tissue equivalent materials of a physical 8-year-old phantom for use in computed tomography

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Akhlaghi, Parisa; Miri Hakimabad, Hashem; Rafat Motavalli, Laleh

    2015-01-01

    This paper reports on the methodology applied to select suitable tissue equivalent materials of an 8-year phantom for use in computed tomography (CT) examinations. To find the appropriate tissue substitutes, first physical properties (physical density, electronic density, effective atomic number, mass attenuation coefficient and CT number) of different materials were studied. Results showed that, the physical properties of water and polyurethane (as soft tissue), B-100 and polyvinyl chloride (PVC) (as bone) and polyurethane foam (as lung) agree more with those of original tissues. Then in the next step, the absorbed doses in the location of 25 thermoluminescent dosimeters (TLDs) as well as dose distribution in one slice of phantom were calculated for original and these proposed materials by Monte Carlo simulation at different tube voltages. The comparisons suggested that at tube voltages of 80 and 100 kVp using B-100 as bone, water as soft tissue and polyurethane foam as lung is suitable for dosimetric study in pediatric CT examinations. In addition, it was concluded that by considering just the mass attenuation coefficient of different materials, the appropriate tissue equivalent substitutes in each desired X-ray energy range could be found. - Highlights: • A methodology to select tissue equivalent materials for use in CT was proposed. • Physical properties of different materials were studied. • TLDs dose and dose distribution were calculated for original and proposed materials. • B-100 as bone, and water as soft tissue are best substitute materials at 80 kVp. • Mass attenuation coefficient is determinant for selecting best tissue substitutes

  12. An examination of the elastic properties of tissue-mimicking phantoms using vibro-acoustography and a muscle motor system

    Science.gov (United States)

    Maccabi, A.; Taylor, Z.; Bajwa, N.; Mallen-St. Clair, J.; St. John, M.; Sung, S.; Grundfest, W.; Saddik, G.

    2016-02-01

    Tissue hardness, often quantified in terms of elasticity, is an important differentiating criterion for pathological identity and is extensively used by surgeons for tumor localization. Delineation of malignant regions from benign regions is typically performed by visual inspection and palpation. Although practical, this method is highly subjective and does not provide quantitative metrics. We have previously reported on Vibro-Acoustography (VA) for tumor delineation. VA is unique in that it uses the specific, non-linear properties of tumor tissue in response to an amplitude modulated ultrasound beam to generate spatially resolved, high contrast maps of tissue. Although the lateral and axial resolutions (sub-millimeter and sub-centimeter, respectively) of VA have been extensively characterized, the relationship between static stiffness assessment (palpation) and dynamic stiffness characterization (VA) has not been explicitly established. Here we perform a correlative exploration of the static and dynamic properties of tissue-mimicking phantoms, specifically elasticity, using VA and a muscle motor system. Muscle motor systems, commonly used to probe the mechanical properties of materials, provide absolute, quantitative point measurements of the elastic modulus, analogous to Young's modulus, of a target. For phantoms of varying percent-by-weight concentrations, parallel VA and muscle motor studies conducted on 18 phantoms reveal a negative correlation (p < - 0.85) between mean signal amplitude levels observed with VA and calculated elastic modulus values from force vs. indentation depth curves. Comparison of these elasticity measurements may provide additional information to improve tissue modeling, system characterization, as well as offer valuable insights for in vivo applications, specifically surgical extirpation of tumors.

  13. Effect of scatter and attenuation correction in ROI analysis of brain perfusion scintigraphy. Phantom experiment and clinical study in patients with unilateral cerebrovascular disease

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Bai, J. [Keio Univ., Tokyo (Japan). 21st Century Center of Excellence Program; Hashimoto, J.; Kubo, A. [Keio Univ., Tokyo (Japan). Dept. of Radiology; Ogawa, K. [Hosei Univ., Tokyo (Japan). Dept. of Electronic Informatics; Fukunaga, A.; Onozuka, S. [Keio Univ., Tokyo (Japan). Dept. of Neurosurgery

    2007-07-01

    The aim of this study was to evaluate the effect of scatter and attenuation correction in region of interest (ROI) analysis of brain perfusion single-photon emission tomography (SPECT), and to assess the influence of selecting the reference area on the calculation of lesion-to-reference count ratios. Patients, methods: Data were collected from a brain phantom and ten patients with unilateral internal carotid artery stenosis. A simultaneous emission and transmission scan was performed after injecting {sup 123}I-iodoamphetamine. We reconstructed three SPECT images from common projection data: with scatter correction and nonuniform attenuation correction, with scatter correction and uniform attenuation correction, and with uniform attenuation correction applied to data without scatter correction. Regional count ratios were calculated by using four different reference areas (contralateral intact side, ipsilateral cerebellum, whole brain and hemisphere). Results: Scatter correction improved the accuracy of measuring the count ratios in the phantom experiment. It also yielded marked difference in the count ratio in the clinical study when using the cerebellum, whole brain or hemisphere as the reference. Difference between nonuniform and uniform attenuation correction was not significant in the phantom and clinical studies except when the cerebellar reference was used. Calculation of the lesion-to-normal count ratios referring the same site in the contralateral hemisphere was not dependent on the use of scatter correction or transmission scan-based attenuation correction. Conclusion: Scatter correction was indispensable for accurate measurement in most of the ROI analyses. Nonuniform attenuation correction is not necessary when using the reference area other than the cerebellum. (orig.)

  14. Electrical impedance spectroscopy (EIS)-based evaluation of biological tissue phantoms to study multifrequency electrical impedance tomography (Mf-EIT) systems

    KAUST Repository

    Bera, Tushar Kanti

    2016-03-18

    Abstract: Electrical impedance tomography (EIT) phantoms are essential for the calibration, comparison and evaluation of the EIT systems. In EIT, the practical phantoms are typically developed based on inhomogeneities surrounded by a homogeneous background to simulate a suitable conductivity contrast. In multifrequency EIT (Mf-EIT) evaluation, the phantoms must be developed with the materials which have recognizable or distinguishable impedance variations over a wide range of frequencies. In this direction the impedance responses of the saline solution (background) and a number vegetable and fruit tissues (inhomogeneities) are studied with electrical impedance spectroscopy (EIS) and the frequency responses of bioelectrical impedance and conductivity are analyzed. A number of practical phantoms with different tissue inhomogeneities and different inhomogeneity configurations are developed and the multifrequency impedance imaging is studied with the Mf-EIT system to evaluate the phantoms. The conductivity of the vegetable inhomogeneities reconstructed from the EIT imaging is compared with the conductivity values obtained from the EIS studies. Experimental results obtained from multifrequency EIT reconstruction demonstrate that the electrical impedance of all the biological tissues inhomogenity decreases with frequency. The potato tissue phantom produces better impedance image in high frequency ranges compared to the cucumber phantom, because the cucumber impedance at high frequency becomes lesser than that of the potato at the same frequency range. Graphical Abstract: [Figure not available: see fulltext.] © 2016 The Visualization Society of Japan

  15. Phantom Pain

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... Because this is yet another version of tangled sensory wires, the result can be pain. A number of other factors are believed to contribute to phantom pain, including damaged nerve endings, scar tissue at the site of the amputation and the physical memory of pre-amputation pain in the affected area. ...

  16. TU-H-CAMPUS-IeP2-05: Breast and Soft Tissue-Equivalent 3D Printed Phantoms for Imaging and Dosimetry

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Hintenlang, D; Terracino, B [University Florida, Gainesville, FL (United States)

    2016-06-15

    Purpose: The study has the goal to demonstrate that breast and soft tissue-equivalent phantoms for dosimetry applications in the diagnostic energy range can be fabricated using common 3D printing methods. Methods: 3D printing provides the opportunity to rapidly prototype uniquely designed objects from a variety of materials. Common 3D printers are usually limited to printing objects based on thermoplastic materials such as PLA, or ABS. The most commonly available plastic is PLA, which has a density significantly greater than soft tissue. We utilized a popular 3D printer to demonstrate that tissue specific phantom materials can be generated through the careful selection of 3D printing parameters. A series of stepwedges were designed and printed using a Makerbot Replicator2 3D printing system. The print file provides custom adjustment of the infill density, orientation and position of the object on the printer stage, selection of infill patterns, and other control parameters. The x-ray attenuation and uniformity of fabricated phantoms were evaluated and compared to common tissue-equivalent phantom materials, acrylic and BR12. X-ray exposure measurements were made using narrow beam geometry on a clinical mammography unit at 28 kVp on the series of phantoms. The 3D printed phantoms were imaged at 28 kVp to visualize the internal structure and uniformity in different planes of the phantoms. Results: By utilizing specific in-fill density and patterns we are able to produce a phantom closely matching the attenuation characteristics of BR12 at 28 kVp. The in-fill patterns used are heterogeneous, so a judicious selection of fill pattern and the orientation of the fill pattern must be made in order to obtain homogenous attenuation along the intended direction of beam propagation. Conclusions: By careful manipulation of the printing parameters, breast and soft tissue-equivalent phantoms appropriate for use at imaging energies can be fabricated using 3D printing techniques.

  17. TU-H-CAMPUS-IeP2-05: Breast and Soft Tissue-Equivalent 3D Printed Phantoms for Imaging and Dosimetry

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Hintenlang, D; Terracino, B

    2016-01-01

    Purpose: The study has the goal to demonstrate that breast and soft tissue-equivalent phantoms for dosimetry applications in the diagnostic energy range can be fabricated using common 3D printing methods. Methods: 3D printing provides the opportunity to rapidly prototype uniquely designed objects from a variety of materials. Common 3D printers are usually limited to printing objects based on thermoplastic materials such as PLA, or ABS. The most commonly available plastic is PLA, which has a density significantly greater than soft tissue. We utilized a popular 3D printer to demonstrate that tissue specific phantom materials can be generated through the careful selection of 3D printing parameters. A series of stepwedges were designed and printed using a Makerbot Replicator2 3D printing system. The print file provides custom adjustment of the infill density, orientation and position of the object on the printer stage, selection of infill patterns, and other control parameters. The x-ray attenuation and uniformity of fabricated phantoms were evaluated and compared to common tissue-equivalent phantom materials, acrylic and BR12. X-ray exposure measurements were made using narrow beam geometry on a clinical mammography unit at 28 kVp on the series of phantoms. The 3D printed phantoms were imaged at 28 kVp to visualize the internal structure and uniformity in different planes of the phantoms. Results: By utilizing specific in-fill density and patterns we are able to produce a phantom closely matching the attenuation characteristics of BR12 at 28 kVp. The in-fill patterns used are heterogeneous, so a judicious selection of fill pattern and the orientation of the fill pattern must be made in order to obtain homogenous attenuation along the intended direction of beam propagation. Conclusions: By careful manipulation of the printing parameters, breast and soft tissue-equivalent phantoms appropriate for use at imaging energies can be fabricated using 3D printing techniques.

  18. Spectral filtering modulation method for estimation of hemoglobin concentration and oxygenation based on a single fluorescence emission spectrum in tissue phantoms.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Liu, Quan; Vo-Dinh, Tuan

    2009-10-01

    Hemoglobin concentration and oxygenation in tissue are important biomarkers that are useful in both research and clinical diagnostics of a wide variety of diseases such as cancer. The authors aim to develop simple ratiometric method based on the spectral filtering modulation (SFM) of fluorescence spectra to estimate the total hemoglobin concentration and oxygenation in tissue using only a single fluorescence emission spectrum, which will eliminate the need of diffuse reflectance measurements and prolonged data processing as required by most current methods, thus enabling rapid clinical measurements. The proposed method consists of two steps. In the first step, the total hemoglobin concentration is determined by comparing a ratio of fluorescence intensities at two emission wavelengths to a calibration curve. The second step is to estimate oxygen saturation by comparing a double ratio that involves three emission wavelengths to another calibration curve that is a function of oxygen saturation for known total hemoglobin concentration. Theoretical derivation shows that the ratio in the first step is linearly proportional to the total hemoglobin concentrations and the double ratio in the second step is related to both total hemoglobin concentration and hemoglobin oxygenation for the chosen fiber-optic probe geometry. Experiments on synthetic fluorescent tissue phantoms, which included hemoglobin with both constant and varying oxygenation as the absorber, polystyrene spheres as scatterers, and flavin adenine dinucleotide as the fluorophore, were carried out to validate the theoretical prediction. Tissue phantom experiments confirm that the ratio in the first step is linearly proportional to the total hemoglobin concentration and the double ratio in the second step is related to both total hemoglobin concentrations and hemoglobin oxygenation. Furthermore, the relations between the two ratios and the total hemoglobin concentration and hemoglobin oxygenation are insensitive

  19. Scatter and leakage contributions to the out-of-field absorbed dose distribution in water phantom around the medical LINAC radiation beams

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Bordy, J.M.; Bessiere, I.; Ostrowsky, A.; Poumarede, B.; Sorel, S.; Vermesse, D.

    2013-01-01

    This work is carried out within the framework of EURADOS Working Group 9 (WG9) whose general objective is 'to assess non-target organ doses in radiotherapy and the related risks of second cancers, with the emphasis on dosimetry'. The objective of the present work is to provide reference values (i) to evaluate the current methods of deriving three-dimensional dose distributions in and around the target volume using passive dosimeters, (ii) to derive the leakage dose from the head of the medical linear accelerator (LINAC) and the doses due to scattered radiation from the collimator edges and the body (phantom) itself. Radiation qualities of 6, 12 and 20 MV are used with standard calibration conditions described in IAEA TRS 398 and nonstandard conditions at a reference facility at the Laboratoire National Henri Becquerel (CEA LIST/LNE LNHB). An ionisation chamber is used to measure profile and depth dose in especially design water phantom built to enable investigation of doses up to 60 cm from the beam axis. A first set of experiments is carried out with the beam passing through the tank. From this first experiment, penumbra and out-of-field dose profiles including water and collimator scatter and leakage are found over three orders of magnitude. Two further sets of experiments using the same experimental arrangement with the beam outside the tank, to avoid water scatter, are designed to measure collimator scatter and leakage by closing the jaws of the collimator. It is shown that the ratios between water scatter, collimator scatter and leakage depend on the photon energy. Depending on the energy, typical leakage and collimator scatter represents 10-40% and 30-50% of the total out-of-field doses respectively. Water scatter decreases with energy while leakage increases with energy, and collimator scatter varies only slowly with energy. (authors)

  20. Dosimetric Comparison of Simulated Human Eye And Water Phantom in Investigation of Iodine Source Effects on Tumour And Healthy Tissues

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Sadi, A.S.; Masoudi, F.S. K.N.Toosi University of Technology

    2011-01-01

    For better clinical analysis in ophthalmic brachytherapy dosimetry, there is a need for the dose determination in different parts of the eye, so simulating the eye and defining the material of any parts of that, is helpful for better investigating dosimetry in human eye. However in brachytherapy dosimetry, it is common to consider the water phantom as human eye globe. In this work, a full human eye is simulated with MCNP-4C code by considering all parts of the eye like; lens, cornea, retina, choroid, sclera, anterior chamber, optic nerve, bulk of the eye comprising vitreous body and tumour. The average dose in different parts of this full model of human eye is determined and the results are compared with the dose calculated in water phantom. The central axes depth dose and the dose in whole of the tumour for these two simulated eye model are calculated too, and the results are compared. At long last, as the aim of this work is comparing the result of investigating dosimetry between two water phantom as human eye and simulated eye globe, the ratios of the absorbed dose by the healthy tissues to the absorbed dose by the tumour are calculated in these simulations and the comparison between results is done eventually.

  1. Determination of scattering coefficient considering wavelength and absorption dependence of anisotropy factor measured by polarized beam for biological tissues

    Science.gov (United States)

    Fukutomi, D.; Ishii, K.; Awazu, K.

    2015-12-01

    Anisotropy factor g, one of the optical properties of biological tissues, is the most important parameter to accurately determine scattering coefficient μs in the inverse Monte Carlo (iMC) simulation. It has been reported that g has wavelength and absorption dependence, however, there are few attempts in order to calculate μs of biological tissue considering the wavelength and absorption dependence of g. In this study, the scattering angular distributions of biological tissue phantoms were measured in order to determine g by using goniometric measurements with three polarization conditions at strongly and weakly absorbing wavelengths of hemoglobin. Then, optical properties, especially, μs were measured by integrating sphere measurements and iMC simulation in order to confirm the influence of measured g on optical properties in comparison of with general value of g (0.9) for soft biological tissue. Consequently, it was found that μs was overestimated at strongly absorbing wavelength, however, μs was underestimated at weakly absorbing wavelength if the g was not considered its wavelength and absorption dependence.

  2. Optimizing signal output: effects of viscoelasticity and difference frequency on vibroacoustic radiation of tissue-mimicking phantoms

    Science.gov (United States)

    Namiri, Nikan K.; Maccabi, Ashkan; Bajwa, Neha; Badran, Karam W.; Taylor, Zachary D.; St. John, Maie A.; Grundfest, Warren S.; Saddik, George N.

    2018-02-01

    Vibroacoustography (VA) is an imaging technology that utilizes the acoustic response of tissues to a localized, low frequency radiation force to generate a spatially resolved, high contrast image. Previous studies have demonstrated the utility of VA for tissue identification and margin delineation in cancer tissues. However, the relationship between specimen viscoelasticity and vibroacoustic emission remains to be fully quantified. This work utilizes the effects of variable acoustic wave profiles on unique tissue-mimicking phantoms (TMPs) to maximize VA signal power according to tissue mechanical properties, particularly elasticity. A micro-indentation method was utilized to provide measurements of the elastic modulus for each biological replica. An inverse relationship was found between elastic modulus (E) and VA signal amplitude among homogeneous TMPs. Additionally, the difference frequency (Δf ) required to reach maximum VA signal correlated with specimen elastic modulus. Peak signal diminished with increasing Δf among the polyvinyl alcohol specimen, suggesting an inefficient vibroacoustic response by the specimen beyond a threshold of resonant Δf. Comparison of these measurements may provide additional information to improve tissue modeling, system characterization, as well as insights into the unique tissue composition of tumors in head and neck cancer patients.

  3. A simple method to evaluate the composition of tissue-equivalent phantom materials

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Geske, G.

    1977-01-01

    A description is given of a method to calculate the composition of phantom materials with given density and radiation-physical parameters mixed of components, of which are known their chemical composition and their effective specific volumes. By an example of a simple composition with three components the method is illustrated. The results of this example and some experimental details that must be considered are discussed. (orig.) [de

  4. Comparison of the local dose of scattered radiation of a special dental - phantom and a real human head by using a Digital Volume Tomography (DVT)

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Neuwirth, J.; Hefner, A.

    2008-01-01

    Dental Radiography Digital Volume Tomography (DVT) gains more and more importance due to its possibility of three-dimensional imaging of teeth, jaw and visercoranium and the reduced radiation dose in comparison to conventional Computer Tomography (CT). Contrary to other, well documented radiographic procedures like dental panorama X-ray imaging there are no national or international guidelines or recommendations relating to DVT which regulate the designation of areas and standardize risk assessment. This study aims to assess the parameters necessary for local radiation protection in dental practices. Measurements were carried out in dental practices in order to evaluate the local dose resulting from different DVT devices. A special dental-phantom and a real human head were used in the irradiations in order to define the local dose of scattered radiation by nominal voltage. The dental-phantom was created for conventional dental panorama X-ray devices which make use of lower nominal voltages. This poses the question if the scatter performance of the special dental-phantom is comparable to a real human head and therefore applicable to the estimation of the radiation quality of a DVT when using 120 kV. The existing guidelines for dental panorama xray are analyzed and suggestions for future recommendations concerning the designation of areas and risk assessment for DVT are then deducted by comparing both sets of measurements. The results show that the special dental-phantom is absolutely suitable for the definition of the local dose resulting from the scattered radiation of a DVT. (author)

  5. Evaluation of radiotherapy beams attenuation and scattering caused by a printed phantom filled with an organic solution used in nanoparticle synthesis

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Correa, Eduardo L.; Bosch-Santos, Brianna; Veneziani, Glauco R.; Vivolo, Vitor; Carbonari, Artur W.; Potiens, Maria da Penha A.

    2015-01-01

    In the past years nanotechnology has been distinguishing as a quick growing field, with many medical applications including drug delivery and medical images. For medical procedures gold nanoparticles (AuNPs) have been widely studied. The characteristics that make this material a good option to improve radiosensitivity in a specific tissue are their stability in a biological ambient and affinity to polyethylene glycol, which reduces its toxicity in mammals. A good method to produce AuNPs for medical applications is thermal decomposition, which is known for providing homogenous nanostructures and narrow size distribution. This production process consists in mixing gold acetate in an organic solution containing diphenyl ether, oleylamine, oleic acid and 1,2 octanediol, which is kept in a temperature of 300 deg C for about two hours. After cooled the mixture must be centrifuged and washed in order to obtain the nanostructured grains. In this study a behavior comparison between water and the organic solution was made. The goal is to verify the viability of using this solution, instead of water, with a 3D printed phantom, as a dosimetric reference, since the removal process of nanoparticles from this solution to take them to water may cause a huge material loss. The comparison procedure was made in an industrial X-ray system operating in a voltage range from 10 kV to 50 kV. The results presented a variation up to 42.2 % between water and the organic solution radiation attenuation and up to 30 % for radiation scattering. (author)

  6. Calculating Error Percentage in Using Water Phantom Instead of Soft Tissue Concerning 103Pd Brachytherapy Source Distribution via Monte Carlo Method

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    OL Ahmadi

    2015-12-01

    Full Text Available Introduction: 103Pd is a low energy source, which is used in brachytherapy. According to the standards of American Association of Physicists in Medicine, dosimetric parameters determination of brachytherapy sources before the clinical application was considered significantly important. Therfore, the present study aimed to compare the dosimetric parameters of the target source using the water phantom and soft tissue. Methods: According to the TG-43U1 protocol, the dosimetric parameters were compared around the 103Pd source in regard with water phantom with the density of 0.998 gr/cm3 and the soft tissue with the density of 1.04 gr/cm3 on the longitudinal and transverse axes using the MCNP4C code and the relative differences were compared between the both conditions. Results: The simulation results indicated that the dosimetric parameters depended on the radial dose function and the anisotropy function in the application of the water phantom instead of soft tissue up to a distance of 1.5 cm,  between which a good consistency was observed. With increasing the distance, the difference increased, so as within 6 cm from the source, this difference increased to 4%. Conclusions: The results of  the soft tissue phantom compared with those of the water phantom indicated 4% relative difference at a distance of 6 cm from the source. Therefore, the results of the water phantom with a maximum error of 4% can be used in practical applications instead of soft tissue. Moreover, the amount of differences obtained in each distance regarding using the soft tissue phantom could be corrected.

  7. Effects of tube potential and scatter rejection on image quality and effective dose in digital chest X-ray examination: An anthropomorphic phantom study

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Shaw, D.J.; Crawshaw, I.; Rimmer, S.D.

    2013-01-01

    Objectives: The purpose of this study was to investigate the effects of tube potential and scatter rejection techniques on image quality of digital posteroanterior (PA) chest radiographs. Methods: An anthropomorphic phantom was imaged using a range of tube potentials (81–125 kV p ) without scatter rejection, with an anti-scatter grid, and using a 10 cm air gap. Images were anonymised and randomised before being evaluated using a visual graded analysis (VGA) method. Results: The effects of tube potential on image quality were found to be negligible (p > 0.63) for the flat panel detector (FPD). Decreased image quality (p = 0.031) was noted for 125 kV p relative to 109 kV p , though no difference was noted for any of the other potentials (p > 0.398) for computed radiography (CR). Both scatter rejection techniques improved image quality (p p . Scatter rejection improved image quality, but with no difference found between techniques. The air-gap resulted in a smaller increase in effective dose than the anti-scatter grid and would be the preferred scatter rejection technique

  8. Comparison of Head Scatter Factor for 6MV and 10MV flattened (FB) and Unflattened (FFF) Photon Beam using indigenously Designed Columnar Mini Phantom.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ashokkumar, Sigamani; Nambi Raj, N Arunai; Sinha, Sujit Nath; Yadav, Girigesh; Thiyagarajan, Rajesh; Raman, Kothanda; Mishra, Manindra Bhushan

    2014-07-01

    To measure and compare the head scatter factor for flattened (FB) and unflattened (FFF) of 6MV and 10MV photon beam using indigenously designed mini phantom. A columnar mini phantom was designed as recommended by AAPM Task Group 74 with low and high atomic number materials at 10 cm (mini phantom) and at approximately twice the depth of maximum dose water equivalent thickness (brass build-up cap). Scatter in the accelerator (Sc) values of 6MV-FFF photon beams are lesser than that of the 6MV-FB photon beams (0.66-2.8%; Clinac iX, 2300CD) and (0.47-1.74%; True beam) for field sizes ranging from 10 × 10 cm(2) to 40 × 40 cm(2). Sc values of 10MV-FFF photon beams are lesser (0.61-2.19%; True beam) than that of the 10MV-FB photons beams for field sizes ranging from 10 × 10 cm(2) to 40 × 40 cm(2). The SSD had no influence on head scatter for both flattened and unflattened beams and irrespective of head design of the different linear accelerators. The presence of field shaping device influences the Sc values. The collimator exchange effect reveals that the opening of the upper jaw increases Sc irrespective of FB or FFF photon beams and different linear accelerators, and it is less significant in FFF beams. Sc values of 6MV-FB square field were in good agreement with that of AAPM, TG-74 published data for Varian (Clinac iX, 2300CD) accelerator. Our results confirm that the removal of flattening filter decreases in the head scatter factor compared to flattened beam. This could reduce the out-of-field dose in advanced treatment delivery techniques.

  9. SU-F-J-174: A Series of Computational Human Phantoms in DICOM-RT Format for Normal Tissue Dose Reconstruction in Epidemiological Studies

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Pyakuryal, A; Moroz, B; Lee, C; Pelletier, C; Jung, J; Lee, C

    2016-01-01

    Purpose: Epidemiological studies of second cancer risk in radiotherapy patients often require individualized dose estimates of normal tissues. Prior to 3D conformal radiation therapy planning, patient anatomy information was mostly limited to 2D radiological images or not even available. Generic patient CT images are often used in commercial radiotherapy treatment planning system (TPS) to reconstruct normal tissue doses. The objective of the current work was to develop a series of reference size computational human phantoms in DICOM-RT format for direct use in dose reconstruction in TPS. Methods: Contours of 93 organs and tissues were extracted from a series of pediatric and adult hybrid computational human phantoms (newborn, 1-, 5-, 10-, 15-year-old, and adult males and females) using Rhinoceros software. A MATLAB script was created to convert the contours into the DICOM-RT structure format. The simulated CT images with the resolution of 1×1×3 mm3 were also generated from the binary phantom format and coupled with the DICOM-structure files. Accurate volumes of the organs were drawn in the format using precise delineation of the contours in converted format. Due to complex geometry of organs, higher resolution (1×1×1 mm3) was found to be more efficient in the conversion of newborn and 1-year-old phantoms. Results: Contour sets were efficiently converted into DICOM-RT structures in relatively short time (about 30 minutes for each phantom). A good agreement was observed in the volumes between the original phantoms and the converted contours for large organs (NRMSD<1.0%) and small organs (NRMSD<7.7%). Conclusion: A comprehensive series of computational human phantoms in DICOM-RT format was created to support epidemiological studies of second cancer risks in radiotherapy patients. We confirmed the DICOM-RT phantoms were successfully imported into the TPS programs of major vendors.

  10. SU-F-J-174: A Series of Computational Human Phantoms in DICOM-RT Format for Normal Tissue Dose Reconstruction in Epidemiological Studies

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Pyakuryal, A; Moroz, B [National Cancer Institute, National Institutes of Health, Rockville, MD (United States); Lee, C [University of Michigan, Ann Arbor, MI (United States); Pelletier, C; Jung, J [East Carolina University Greenville, NC (United States); Lee, C [National Cancer Institute, Rockville, MD (United States)

    2016-06-15

    Purpose: Epidemiological studies of second cancer risk in radiotherapy patients often require individualized dose estimates of normal tissues. Prior to 3D conformal radiation therapy planning, patient anatomy information was mostly limited to 2D radiological images or not even available. Generic patient CT images are often used in commercial radiotherapy treatment planning system (TPS) to reconstruct normal tissue doses. The objective of the current work was to develop a series of reference size computational human phantoms in DICOM-RT format for direct use in dose reconstruction in TPS. Methods: Contours of 93 organs and tissues were extracted from a series of pediatric and adult hybrid computational human phantoms (newborn, 1-, 5-, 10-, 15-year-old, and adult males and females) using Rhinoceros software. A MATLAB script was created to convert the contours into the DICOM-RT structure format. The simulated CT images with the resolution of 1×1×3 mm3 were also generated from the binary phantom format and coupled with the DICOM-structure files. Accurate volumes of the organs were drawn in the format using precise delineation of the contours in converted format. Due to complex geometry of organs, higher resolution (1×1×1 mm3) was found to be more efficient in the conversion of newborn and 1-year-old phantoms. Results: Contour sets were efficiently converted into DICOM-RT structures in relatively short time (about 30 minutes for each phantom). A good agreement was observed in the volumes between the original phantoms and the converted contours for large organs (NRMSD<1.0%) and small organs (NRMSD<7.7%). Conclusion: A comprehensive series of computational human phantoms in DICOM-RT format was created to support epidemiological studies of second cancer risks in radiotherapy patients. We confirmed the DICOM-RT phantoms were successfully imported into the TPS programs of major vendors.

  11. Experimental study on tissue phantoms to understand the effect of injury and suturing on human skin mechanical properties.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chanda, Arnab; Unnikrishnan, Vinu; Flynn, Zachary; Lackey, Kim

    2017-01-01

    Skin injuries are the most common type of injuries occurring in day-to-day life. A skin injury usually manifests itself in the form of a wound or a cut. While a shallow wound may heal by itself within a short time, deep wounds require surgical interventions such as suturing for timely healing. To date, suturing practices are based on a surgeon's experience and may vary widely from one situation to another. Understanding the mechanics of wound closure and suturing of the skin is crucial to improve clinical suturing practices and also to plan automated robotic surgeries. In the literature, phenomenological two-dimensional computational skin models have been developed to study the mechanics of wound closure. Additionally, the effect of skin pre-stress (due to the natural tension of the skin) on wound closure mechanics has been studied. However, in most of these analyses, idealistic two-dimensional skin geometries, materials and loads have been assumed, which are far from reality, and would clearly generate inaccurate quantitative results. In this work, for the first time, a biofidelic human skin tissue phantom was developed using a two-part silicone material. A wound was created on the phantom material and sutures were placed to close the wound. Uniaxial mechanical tests were carried out on the phantom specimens to study the effect of varying wound size, quantity, suture and pre-stress on the mechanical behavior of human skin. Also, the average mechanical behavior of the human skin surrogate was characterized using hyperelastic material models, in the presence of a wound and sutures. To date, such a robust experimental study on the effect of injury and sutures on human skin mechanics has not been attempted. The results of this novel investigation will provide important guidelines for surgical planning and validation of results from computational models in the future.

  12. TU-D-209-06: Head and Neck Tissue Dose From X-Ray Scatter to Physicians Performing Cardiovascular Procedures

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Fetterly, K; Schueler, B; Grams, M [Mayo Clinic, Rochester, MN (United States); Sturchio, G [Mayo Clinic, Jacksonville, FL (United States)

    2016-06-15

    Purpose: The purpose of this work was to characterize the spatial distribution of scatter radiation to the head and neck of a physician performing an x-ray interventional procedure and assess brain, eye lens, and carotid artery dose. Methods: Radiographic x-ray beams were tuned to match the peak energy (56 to 106 keV) and HVL (3.5 to 6.5 mm Al) of x-ray scatter originating from a patient during a fluoroscopic procedure. The radiographic beam was directed upon a Rando phantom from an inferior-left location to mimic a typical patient-operator geometric relationship. A lead-equivalent protective garment was secured to the phantom. Direct exposure Gafchromic film (XRQA2) was placed between the transverse plane layers of the head and neck region of the phantom and exposed with 4 scatter-equivalent radiographic beams. A 3×3 cm{sup 2} film placed at the left collar of the phantom was used to monitor incident dose in the position of a radiation monitoring badge. The films were converted to 2D dose distribution maps using FilmQA Pro software and an Epson 11000-XL scanner. The 2D dose distributions maps were normalized by the left collar dose and the percent of left collar dose (%LCD) was calculated for select tissues. Results: The dose maps had high dynamic range (10{sub 4}) and spatial detail. Considering all transverse planes and 4 scatter beam qualities, the median %LCD values were: whole brain 8.5%, left brain 13%, right brain 5.4%, left eye lens 67%, right eye lens 25%, left carotid artery 72%, and right carotid artery 28%. Conclusion: Scatter radiation dose to an operator can be simulated using a tuned radiographic beam and used to expose a phantom and Gafchromic film, thereby creating detailed 2D dose distribution maps. This work facilitates individualized estimation of dose to select head and neck tissues based on an operator’s radiation monitoring badge value.

  13. TU-F-CAMPUS-T-05: Replacement Computational Phantoms to Estimate Dose in Out-Of-Field Organs and Tissues

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Gallagher, K [Oregon State University, Corvallis, Oregon (United States); Oregon Health and Science University, Portland, Oregon (United States); Tannous, J; Nabha, R; Feghali, J; Ayoub, Z; Jalbout, W; Youssef, B [American University of Beirut Medical Center, Beirut (Lebanon); Taddei, P [American University of Beirut Medical Center, Beirut (Lebanon); The University of Texas MD Anderson Cancer Center, Houston, TX (United States)

    2015-06-15

    Purpose: To estimate the absorbed dose in organs and tissues at risk for radiogenic cancer for children receiving photon radiotherapy for localized brain tumors (LBTs) by supplementing their missing body anatomies with those of replacement computational phantoms. Applied beyond the extent of the RT Images collected by computed tomography simulation, these phantoms included RT Image and RT Structure Set objects that encompassed sufficient extents and contours for dosimetric calculations. Method: Nine children, aged 2 to 14 years, who received three-dimensional conformal radiotherapy for low-grade LBTs, were randomly selected for this study under Institutional-Review-Board protocol. Because the extents of their RT Images were cranial only, they were matched for size and sex with patients from a previous study with larger extents and for whom contours of organs at risk for radiogenic cancer had already been delineated. Rigid fusion was performed between the patients’ data and those of the replacement computational phantoms using commercial software. In-field dose was calculated with a clinically-commissioned treatment planning system, and out-of-field dose was estimated with an analytical model. Results: Averaged over all nine children and normalized for a therapeutic dose of 54 Gy prescribed to the PTV, where the PTV is the GTV, the highest mean organ doses were 3.27, 2.41, 1.07, 1.02, 0.24, and 0.24 Gy in the non-tumor remainder, red bone marrow, thyroid, skin, breasts, and lungs, respectively. The mean organ doses ranged by a factor of 3 between the smallest and largest children. Conclusion: For children receiving photon radiotherapy for LBTs, we found their doses in organs at risk for second cancer to be non-negligible, especially in the non-tumor remainder, red bone marrow, thyroid, skin, breasts, and lungs. This study demonstrated the feasibility for patient dosimetry studies to augment missing patient anatomy by applying size- and sex-matched replacement

  14. Characterization of tissue-equivalent materials for use in construction of physical phantoms; Caracterizacao de materiais tecido-equivalentes para uso em construcao de fantomas fisicos

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Souza, Edvan V. de, E-mail: edvanmsn@hotmail.com [Instituto Federal de Educacao, Ciencia e Tecnologia de Pernambuco (IFFPE), Recife, PE (Brazil); Oliveira, Alex C.H. de, E-mail: oliveira_ach@yahoo.com [Universidade Federal de Pernambuco (UFPE), Recife, PE (Brazil); Vieira, Jose W., E-mail: jose.wilson59@uol.com.br [Escola Politecnica de Pernambuco (UPE), Recife, PE (Brazil); Lima, Fernando R.A., E-mail: falima@cenen.gov.br [Centro Regional de Ciencias Nucleares (CRCN-NE/CNEN-PE), Recife, PE (Brazil)

    2013-07-01

    Phantoms are physical or computational models used to simulate the transport of ionizing radiation, their interactions with human body tissues and evaluate the deposition of energy. Depending on the application, you can build phantoms of various types and features. The physical phantoms are made of materials with behavior similar to human tissues exposed to ionizing radiation, the so-called tissue-equivalent materials. The characterization of various tissue-equivalent materials is important for the choice of materials to be used is appropriate, seeking a better cost-benefit ratio. The main objective of this work is to produce tables containing the main characteristics of tissue-equivalent materials. These tables were produced in Microsoft Office Excel. Among the main features of tissue-equivalent materials that were added to the tables, are density, chemical composition, physical state, chemical stability and solubility. The main importance of this work is to contribute to the construction of high-quality physical phantoms and avoid the waste of materials.

  15. Characterization of the angular memory effect of scattered light in biological tissues.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Schott, Sam; Bertolotti, Jacopo; Léger, Jean-Francois; Bourdieu, Laurent; Gigan, Sylvain

    2015-05-18

    High resolution optical microscopy is essential in neuroscience but suffers from scattering in biological tissues and therefore grants access to superficial brain layers only. Recently developed techniques use scattered photons for imaging by exploiting angular correlations in transmitted light and could potentially increase imaging depths. But those correlations ('angular memory effect') are of a very short range and should theoretically be only present behind and not inside scattering media. From measurements on neural tissues and complementary simulations, we find that strong forward scattering in biological tissues can enhance the memory effect range and thus the possible field-of-view by more than an order of magnitude compared to isotropic scattering for ∼1 mm thick tissue layers.

  16. Determination of the scattering coefficient of biological tissue considering the wavelength and absorption dependence of the anisotropy factor

    Science.gov (United States)

    Fukutomi, Daichi; Ishii, Katsunori; Awazu, Kunio

    2016-04-01

    The anisotropy factor g, one of the optical properties of biological tissues, has a strong influence on the calculation of the scattering coefficient μ s in inverse Monte Carlo (iMC) simulations. It has been reported that g has the wavelength and absorption dependence; however, few attempts have been made to calculate μ s using g values by taking the wavelength and absorption dependence into account. In this study, the angular distributions of scattered light for biological tissue phantoms containing hemoglobin as a light absorber were measured by a goniometric optical setup at strongly (405 nm) and weakly (664 nm) absorbing wavelengths to obtain g. Subsequently, the optical properties were calculated with the measured values of g by integrating sphere measurements and an iMC simulation, and compared with the results obtained with a conventional g value of 0.9. The μ s values with measured g were overestimated at the strongly absorbing wavelength, but underestimated at the weakly absorbing wavelength if 0.9 was used in the iMC simulation.

  17. In vivo proton dosimetry using a MOSFET detector in an anthropomorphic phantom with tissue inhomogeneity.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kohno, Ryosuke; Hotta, Kenji; Matsubara, Kana; Nishioka, Shie; Matsuura, Taeko; Kawashima, Mitsuhiko

    2012-03-08

    When in vivo proton dosimetry is performed with a metal-oxide semiconductor field-effect transistor (MOSFET) detector, the response of the detector depends strongly on the linear energy transfer. The present study reports a practical method to correct the MOSFET response for linear energy transfer dependence by using a simplified Monte Carlo dose calculation method (SMC). A depth-output curve for a mono-energetic proton beam in polyethylene was measured with the MOSFET detector. This curve was used to calculate MOSFET output distributions with the SMC (SMC(MOSFET)). The SMC(MOSFET) output value at an arbitrary point was compared with the value obtained by the conventional SMC(PPIC), which calculates proton dose distributions by using the depth-dose curve determined by a parallel-plate ionization chamber (PPIC). The ratio of the two values was used to calculate the correction factor of the MOSFET response at an arbitrary point. The dose obtained by the MOSFET detector was determined from the product of the correction factor and the MOSFET raw dose. When in vivo proton dosimetry was performed with the MOSFET detector in an anthropomorphic phantom, the corrected MOSFET doses agreed with the SMC(PPIC) results within the measurement error. To our knowledge, this is the first report of successful in vivo proton dosimetry with a MOSFET detector.

  18. Evaluation of influence by room-scattered neutrons and source-to-phantom geometrical effect for calibration of personal neutron dosemeters

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Yoshida, Tadayoshi; Tsujimura, Norio

    2005-01-01

    Correction for the influence of room-scattered neutrons in irradiation rooms is essential in the case of calibrating neutron dosemeters. The ISO8529-2 recommends some correction method such as the shadow-cone method and the generalized-fit method for the calibration of neutron ambient dose equivalent (rate) meters. However, the ISO standard does not describe the correction methods for personal neutron dosemeters in detail. The authors investigated the variation of responses of neutron detectors mounted on phantom as a function of source-to-phantom distance, and discussed the applicability of the shadow-cone method and generalized-fit method for calibrating personal neutron dosemeters. The measurements were carried out using 3 He and hydrogen-filled proportional counters as surrogates of albedo and recoil-proton type dosemeters, respectively, at different distances ranging from 30 cm to 400 cm. As a result, it was clarified that both correction methods are applicable for recoil-proton type detectors over any distance. Contrarily, for albedo-type detectors, the variation of response does not follow the curve predicted from the generalized fit method at distances smaller than 70 cm. This result strongly suggests that the correction for source-to-phantom geometry effect should be made for calibrating albedo-type detectors at smaller distances. (author)

  19. [The model of geometrical human body phantom for calculating tissue doses in the service module of the International Space Station].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bondarenko, V A; Mitrikas, V G

    2007-01-01

    The model of a geometrical human body phantom developed for calculating the shielding functions of representative points of the body organs and systems is similar to the anthropomorphic phantom. This form of phantom can be integrated with the shielding model of the ISS Russian orbital segment to make analysis of radiation loading of crewmembers in different compartments of the vehicle. Calculation of doses absorbed by the body systems in terms of the representative points makes it clear that doses essentially depend on the phantom spatial orientation (eye direction). It also enables the absorbed dose evaluation from the shielding functions as the mean of the representative points and phantom orientation.

  20. Light scattering properties of bovine muscle tissue in vitro, a comparison of methods

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Zijp, J.R.; ten Bosch, JJ; Benaron, DA; Chance, B; Ferrari, M; Kohl, M

    1998-01-01

    We measured the light scattering properties of muscular tissue using several methods, and compared the obtained results. Calculation of the extinction coefficient by using collimated transmission measurements and applying Beer's law is not appropriate. Probably surface roughness of the sample

  1. High-Resolution Ultrasound-Switchable Fluorescence Imaging in Centimeter-Deep Tissue Phantoms with High Signal-To-Noise Ratio and High Sensitivity via Novel Contrast Agents.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cheng, Bingbing; Bandi, Venugopal; Wei, Ming-Yuan; Pei, Yanbo; D'Souza, Francis; Nguyen, Kytai T; Hong, Yi; Yuan, Baohong

    2016-01-01

    For many years, investigators have sought after high-resolution fluorescence imaging in centimeter-deep tissue because many interesting in vivo phenomena-such as the presence of immune system cells, tumor angiogenesis, and metastasis-may be located deep in tissue. Previously, we developed a new imaging technique to achieve high spatial resolution in sub-centimeter deep tissue phantoms named continuous-wave ultrasound-switchable fluorescence (CW-USF). The principle is to use a focused ultrasound wave to externally and locally switch on and off the fluorophore emission from a small volume (close to ultrasound focal volume). By making improvements in three aspects of this technique: excellent near-infrared USF contrast agents, a sensitive frequency-domain USF imaging system, and an effective signal processing algorithm, for the first time this study has achieved high spatial resolution (~ 900 μm) in 3-centimeter-deep tissue phantoms with high signal-to-noise ratio (SNR) and high sensitivity (3.4 picomoles of fluorophore in a volume of 68 nanoliters can be detected). We have achieved these results in both tissue-mimic phantoms and porcine muscle tissues. We have also demonstrated multi-color USF to image and distinguish two fluorophores with different wavelengths, which might be very useful for simultaneously imaging of multiple targets and observing their interactions in the future. This work has opened the door for future studies of high-resolution centimeter-deep tissue fluorescence imaging.

  2. The response of MRI contrast parameters in in vitro tissues and tissue mimicking phantoms to fractionation by histotripsy

    Science.gov (United States)

    Allen, Steven P.; Vlaisavljevich, Eli; Shi, Jiaqi; Hernandez-Garcia, Luis; Cain, Charles A.; Xu, Zhen; Hall, Timothy L.

    2017-09-01

    Histotripsy is a non-invasive, focused ultrasound lesioning technique that can ablate precise volumes of soft tissue using a novel mechanical fractionation mechanism. Previous research suggests that magnetic resonance imaging (MRI) may be a sensitive image-based feedback mechanism for histotripsy. However, there are insufficient data to form some unified understanding of the response of the MR contrast mechanisms in tissues to histotripsy. In this paper, we investigate the response of the MR contrast parameters R1, R2, and the apparent diffusion coefficient (ADC) to various treatment levels of histotripsy in in vitro porcine liver, kidney, muscle, and blood clot as well in formulations of bovine red blood cells suspended in agar gel. We also make a histological analysis of histotripsy lesions in porcine liver. We find that R2 and the ADC are both sensitive to ablation in all materials tested here, and the degree of response varies with tissue type. Correspondingly, under histologic analysis, the porcine liver exhibited various levels of mechanical disruption and necrotic debris that are characteristic of histotripsy. While the area of intact red blood cells and nuclei found within these lesions both decreased with increasing amounts of treatment, the area of red blood cells decreased much more rapidly than the area of intact nuclei. Additionally, the decrease in area of intact red blood cells saturated at the same treatment levels at which the response of the R2 saturated while the area of intact nuclei appeared to vary linearly with the response of the ADC.

  3. Breast tissue classification using x-ray scattering measurements and multivariate data analysis

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ryan, Elaine A.; Farquharson, Michael J.

    2007-11-01

    This study utilized two radiation scatter interactions in order to differentiate malignant from non-malignant breast tissue. These two interactions were Compton scatter, used to measure the electron density of the tissues, and coherent scatter to obtain a measure of structure. Measurements of these parameters were made using a laboratory experimental set-up comprising an x-ray tube and HPGe detector. The breast tissue samples investigated comprise five different tissue classifications: adipose, malignancy, fibroadenoma, normal fibrous tissue and tissue that had undergone fibrocystic change. The coherent scatter spectra were analysed using a peak fitting routine, and a technique involving multivariate analysis was used to combine the peak fitted scatter profile spectra and the electron density values into a tissue classification model. The number of variables used in the model was refined by finding the sensitivity and specificity of each model and concentrating on differentiating between two tissues at a time. The best model that was formulated had a sensitivity of 54% and a specificity of 100%.

  4. Breast tissue classification using x-ray scattering measurements and multivariate data analysis

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Ryan, Elaine A; Farquharson, Michael J [School of Allied Health Sciences, City University, Charterhouse Square, London EC1M 6PA (United Kingdom)

    2007-11-21

    This study utilized two radiation scatter interactions in order to differentiate malignant from non-malignant breast tissue. These two interactions were Compton scatter, used to measure the electron density of the tissues, and coherent scatter to obtain a measure of structure. Measurements of these parameters were made using a laboratory experimental set-up comprising an x-ray tube and HPGe detector. The breast tissue samples investigated comprise five different tissue classifications: adipose, malignancy, fibroadenoma, normal fibrous tissue and tissue that had undergone fibrocystic change. The coherent scatter spectra were analysed using a peak fitting routine, and a technique involving multivariate analysis was used to combine the peak fitted scatter profile spectra and the electron density values into a tissue classification model. The number of variables used in the model was refined by finding the sensitivity and specificity of each model and concentrating on differentiating between two tissues at a time. The best model that was formulated had a sensitivity of 54% and a specificity of 100%.

  5. Freeform fabrication of tissue-simulating phantom for potential use of surgical planning in conjoined twins separation surgery.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Shen, Shuwei; Wang, Haili; Xue, Yue; Yuan, Li; Zhou, Ximing; Zhao, Zuhua; Dong, Erbao; Liu, Bin; Liu, Wendong; Cromeens, Barrett; Adler, Brent; Besner, Gail; Xu, Ronald X

    2017-09-08

    Preoperative assessment of tissue anatomy and accurate surgical planning is crucial in conjoined twin separation surgery. We developed a new method that combines three-dimensional (3D) printing, assembling, and casting to produce anatomic models of high fidelity for surgical planning. The related anatomic features of the conjoined twins were captured by computed tomography (CT), classified as five organ groups, and reconstructed as five computer models. Among these organ groups, the skeleton was produced by fused deposition modeling (FDM) using acrylonitrile-butadiene-styrene. For the other four organ groups, shell molds were prepared by FDM and cast with silica gel to simulate soft tissues, with contrast enhancement pigments added to simulate different CT and visual contrasts. The produced models were assembled, positioned firmly within a 3D printed shell mold simulating the skin boundary, and cast with transparent silica gel. The produced phantom was subject to further CT scan in comparison with that of the patient data for fidelity evaluation. Further data analysis showed that the produced model reassembled the geometric features of the original CT data with an overall mean deviation of less than 2 mm, indicating the clinical potential to use this method for surgical planning in conjoined twin separation surgery.

  6. Realistic deformable 3D numeric phantom for transcutaneous ultrasound

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Cardoso, Fernando Mitsuyama; Moraes, Matheus Cardoso; Furuie, Sergio Shiguemi, E-mail: fernando.okara@gmail.com [Universidade de Sao Paulo (USP), SP (Brazil). Escola de Engenharia

    2017-01-15

    Introduction: Numerical phantoms are important tools to design, calibrate and evaluate several methods in various image-processing applications, such as echocardiography and mammography. We present a framework for creating ultrasound numerical deformable phantoms based on Finite Element Method (FEM), Linear Isomorphism and Field II. The proposed method considers that the scatterers map is a property of the tissue; therefore, the scatterers should move according to the tissue strain. Methods: First, a volume representing the target tissue is loaded. Second, parameter values, such as Young's Modulus, scatterers density, attenuation and scattering amplitudes are inserted for each different regions of the phantom. Then, other parameters related to the ultrasound equipment, such as ultrasound frequency and number of transducer elements, are also defined in order to perform the ultrasound acquisition using Field II. Third, the size and position of the transducer and the pressures that are applied against the tissue are defined. Subsequently, FEM is executed and deformation is computed. Next, 3D linear isomorphism is performed to displace the scatterers according to the deformation. Finally, Field II is carried out to generate the non-deformed and deformed ultrasound data. Results: The framework is evaluated by comparing strain values obtained the numerical simulation and from the physical phantom from CIRS. The mean difference between both phantoms is lesser than 10%. Conclusion: The acoustic and deformation outcomes are similar to those obtained using a physical phantom. This framework led to a tool, which is available online and free of charges for educational and research purposes. (author)

  7. Study of effective atomic number of breast tissues determined using the elastic to inelastic scattering ratio

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Antoniassi, M.; Conceicao, A.L.C. [Departamento de Fisica e Matematica, Faculdade de Filosofia Ciencias e Letras de Ribeirao Preto, Universidade de Sao Paulo, Ribeirao Preto, Sao Paulo (Brazil); Poletti, M.E., E-mail: poletti@ffclrp.usp.br [Departamento de Fisica e Matematica, Faculdade de Filosofia Ciencias e Letras de Ribeirao Preto, Universidade de Sao Paulo, Ribeirao Preto, Sao Paulo (Brazil)

    2011-10-01

    In this work we have measured Compton and Rayleigh scattering radiation from normal (adipose and fibroglandular), benign (fibroadenoma) and malignant (ductal carcinoma) breast tissues using a monoenergetic beam of 17.44 keV and a scattering angle of 90{sup o} (x=0.99 A{sup -1}). A practical method using the area of Rayleigh and Compton scattering was used for determining the effective atomic number (Z{sub eff}) of the samples, being validated through measurements of several reference materials. The results show that there are differences in the distributions of Z{sub eff} of breast tissues, which are mainly related to the elemental composition of carbon (Z=6) and oxygen (Z=8) of each tissue type. The results suggest that is possible to use the method to characterize the breast tissues permitting study histological features of the breast tissues related to their elemental composition.

  8. Study of effective atomic number of breast tissues determined using the elastic to inelastic scattering ratio

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Antoniassi, M.; Conceicao, A.L.C.; Poletti, M.E.

    2011-01-01

    In this work we have measured Compton and Rayleigh scattering radiation from normal (adipose and fibroglandular), benign (fibroadenoma) and malignant (ductal carcinoma) breast tissues using a monoenergetic beam of 17.44 keV and a scattering angle of 90 o (x=0.99 A -1 ). A practical method using the area of Rayleigh and Compton scattering was used for determining the effective atomic number (Z eff ) of the samples, being validated through measurements of several reference materials. The results show that there are differences in the distributions of Z eff of breast tissues, which are mainly related to the elemental composition of carbon (Z=6) and oxygen (Z=8) of each tissue type. The results suggest that is possible to use the method to characterize the breast tissues permitting study histological features of the breast tissues related to their elemental composition.

  9. Study of effective atomic number of breast tissues determined using the elastic to inelastic scattering ratio

    Science.gov (United States)

    Antoniassi, M.; Conceição, A. L. C.; Poletti, M. E.

    2011-10-01

    In this work we have measured Compton and Rayleigh scattering radiation from normal (adipose and fibroglandular), benign (fibroadenoma) and malignant (ductal carcinoma) breast tissues using a monoenergetic beam of 17.44 keV and a scattering angle of 90° ( x=0.99 Å -1). A practical method using the area of Rayleigh and Compton scattering was used for determining the effective atomic number ( Zeff) of the samples, being validated through measurements of several reference materials. The results show that there are differences in the distributions of Zeff of breast tissues, which are mainly related to the elemental composition of carbon ( Z=6) and oxygen ( Z=8) of each tissue type. The results suggest that is possible to use the method to characterize the breast tissues permitting study histological features of the breast tissues related to their elemental composition.

  10. Absorption and scattering coefficient dependence of laser-Doppler flowmetry models for large tissue volumes

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Binzoni, T; Leung, T S; Ruefenacht, D; Delpy, D T

    2006-01-01

    Based on quasi-elastic scattering theory (and random walk on a lattice approach), a model of laser-Doppler flowmetry (LDF) has been derived which can be applied to measurements in large tissue volumes (e.g. when the interoptode distance is >30 mm). The model holds for a semi-infinite medium and takes into account the transport-corrected scattering coefficient and the absorption coefficient of the tissue, and the scattering coefficient of the red blood cells. The model holds for anisotropic scattering and for multiple scattering of the photons by the moving scatterers of finite size. In particular, it has also been possible to take into account the simultaneous presence of both Brownian and pure translational movements. An analytical and simplified version of the model has also been derived and its validity investigated, for the case of measurements in human skeletal muscle tissue. It is shown that at large optode spacing it is possible to use the simplified model, taking into account only a 'mean' light pathlength, to predict the blood flow related parameters. It is also demonstrated that the 'classical' blood volume parameter, derived from LDF instruments, may not represent the actual blood volume variations when the investigated tissue volume is large. The simplified model does not need knowledge of the tissue optical parameters and thus should allow the development of very simple and cost-effective LDF hardware

  11. Optimizing cone beam CT scatter estimation in egs-cbct for a clinical and virtual chest phantom

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Thing, Rune Slot; Mainegra-Hing, Ernesto

    2014-01-01

    Purpose: Cone beam computed tomography (CBCT) image quality suffers from contamination from scattered photons in the projection images. Monte Carlo simulations are a powerful tool to investigate the properties of scattered photons.egs-cbct, a recent EGSnrc user code, provides the ability of performing fast scatter calculations in CBCT projection images. This paper investigates how optimization of user inputs can provide the most efficient scatter calculations. Methods: Two simulation geometries with two different x-ray sources were simulated, while the user input parameters for the efficiency improving techniques (EITs) implemented inegs-cbct were varied. Simulation efficiencies were compared to analog simulations performed without using any EITs. Resulting scatter distributions were confirmed unbiased against the analog simulations. Results: The optimal EIT parameter selection depends on the simulation geometry and x-ray source. Forced detection improved the scatter calculation efficiency by 80%. Delta transport improved calculation efficiency by a further 34%, while particle splitting combined with Russian roulette improved the efficiency by a factor of 45 or more. Combining these variance reduction techniques with a built-in denoising algorithm, efficiency improvements of 4 orders of magnitude were achieved. Conclusions: Using the built-in EITs inegs-cbct can improve scatter calculation efficiencies by more than 4 orders of magnitude. To achieve this, the user must optimize the input parameters to the specific simulation geometry. Realizing the full potential of the denoising algorithm requires keeping the statistical uncertainty below a threshold value above which the efficiency drops exponentially

  12. Design and fabrication of a realistic anthropomorphic heterogeneous head phantom for MR purposes.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Sossena Wood

    Full Text Available The purpose of this study is to design an anthropomorphic heterogeneous head phantom that can be used for MRI and other electromagnetic applications.An eight compartment, physical anthropomorphic head phantom was developed from a 3T MRI dataset of a healthy male. The designed phantom was successfully built and preliminarily evaluated through an application that involves electromagnetic-tissue interactions: MRI (due to it being an available resource. The developed phantom was filled with media possessing electromagnetic constitutive parameters that correspond to biological tissues at ~297 MHz. A preliminary comparison between an in-vivo human volunteer (based on whom the anthropomorphic head phantom was created and various phantoms types, one being the anthropomorphic heterogeneous head phantom, were performed using a 7 Tesla human MRI scanner.Echo planar imaging was performed and minimal ghosting and fluctuations were observed using the proposed anthropomorphic phantom. The magnetic field distributions (during MRI experiments at 7 Tesla and the scattering parameter (measured using a network analyzer were most comparable between the anthropomorphic heterogeneous head phantom and an in-vivo human volunteer.The developed anthropomorphic heterogeneous head phantom can be used as a resource to various researchers in applications that involve electromagnetic-biological tissue interactions such as MRI.

  13. Simulation on scattering features of biological tissue based on generated refractive-index model

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Wang Baoyong; Ding Zhihua

    2011-01-01

    Important information on morphology of biological tissue can be deduced from elastic scattering spectra, and their analyses are based on the known refractive-index model of tissue. In this paper, a new numerical refractive-index model is put forward, and its scattering properties are intensively studied. Spectral decomposition [1] is a widely used method to generate random medium in geology, but it is never used in biology. Biological tissue is different from geology in the sense of random medium. Autocorrelation function describe almost all of features in geology, but biological tissue is not as random as geology, its structure is regular in the sense of fractal geometry [2] , and fractal dimension can be used to describe its regularity under random. Firstly scattering theories of this fractal media are reviewed. Secondly the detailed generation process of refractive-index is presented. Finally the scattering features are simulated in FDTD (Finite Difference Time Domain) Solutions software. From the simulation results, we find that autocorrelation length and fractal dimension controls scattering feature of biological tissue.

  14. Optimizing cone beam CT scatter estimation in egs_cbct for a clinical and virtual chest phantom

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Slot Thing, Rune; Mainegra-Hing, Ernesto

    2014-01-01

    improving techniques (EITs) implemented inegs_cbct were varied. Simulation efficiencies were compared to analog simulations performed without using any EITs. Resulting scatter distributions were confirmed unbiased against the analog simulations. RESULTS: The optimal EIT parameter selection depends...... reduction techniques with a built-in denoising algorithm, efficiency improvements of 4 orders of magnitude were achieved. CONCLUSIONS: Using the built-in EITs inegs_cbct can improve scatter calculation efficiencies by more than 4 orders of magnitude. To achieve this, the user must optimize the input...

  15. Dose distribution around Ir192 brachytherapy source in non-full scattering conditions: comparison of in-phantom measurements and Nucletron-Oldelft plato system calculations

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Jastrzembski, Michal; Kabacinska, Renata; Makarewicz, Roman

    1996-01-01

    Introduction: Comparing the values of doses measured in vivo during gynaecological brachytherapy with those computed with the use of Nucletron-Oldelft brachytherapy treatment planning system a high level of uncertainty appears. In case of points located close to the media border this is also due to the lack of scattering in this region. The influence of the lack of scattering on dose distribution has been investigated. Measured data has been compared to those given by Nucletron-Oldelft BPS. Materials and methods: Profiles in a large water phantom (PTW MP3 system) has been measured in directions perpendicular to the long axis of the fixed source at varied water level and at varied source-to-detector distances. Normalization values for the curves has been acquired by absolute dose measurements. Obtained data has been compared to profiles calculated in the same axes by Nucletron-Oldelft BPS. Results: The lack of scattering in the region close to water surface (up to 8cm) results in significant drop in measured dose. The decrease depends both on the distance from the medium border and on the distance from the source. For source-to-detector distance of 6.5cm the difference between calculated and measured dose is 8% for 3cm and 21% for 1cm of water above the source. Profiles in this region become flattened and asymmetric according to the drop in dose level. Conclusions: The lack of scattering in the region close to the patient skin results in significant drop in dose which is not taken into account by Nucletron-Oldelft BPS. This means that dose distribution calculated in this region by the System is not correct

  16. Measurement of fluorophore concentrations and fluorescence quantum yield in tissue-simulating phantoms using three diffusion models of steady-state spatially resolved fluorescence

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Diamond, Kevin R; Farrell, Thomas J; Patterson, Michael S [Department of Medical Physics, Juravinski Cancer Centre and McMaster University, 699 Concession Street, Hamilton, Ontario L8V 5C2 (Canada)

    2003-12-21

    Steady-state diffusion theory models of fluorescence in tissue have been investigated for recovering fluorophore concentrations and fluorescence quantum yield. Spatially resolved fluorescence, excitation and emission reflectance were calculated by diffusion theory and Monte Carlo simulations, and measured using a multi-fibre probe on tissue-simulating phantoms containing either aluminium phthalocyanine tetrasulfonate (AlPcS{sub 4}), Photofrin or meso-tetra-(4-sulfonatophenyl)-porphine dihydrochloride (TPPS{sub 4}). The accuracy of the fluorophore concentration and fluorescence quantum yield recovered by three different models of spatially resolved fluorescence were compared. The models were based on: (a) weighted difference of the excitation and emission reflectance, (b) fluorescence due to a point excitation source or (c) fluorescence due to a pencil beam excitation source. When literature values for the fluorescence quantum yield were used for each of the fluorophores, the fluorophore absorption coefficient (and hence concentration) at the excitation wavelengthwas recovered with a root-mean-square accuracy of 11.4% using the point source model of fluorescence and 8.0% using the more complicated pencil beam excitation model. The accuracy was calculated over a broad range of optical properties and fluorophore concentrations. The weighted difference of reflectance model performed poorly, with a root-mean-square error in concentration of about 50%. Monte Carlo simulations suggest that there are some situations where the weighted difference of reflectance is as accurate as the other two models, although this was not confirmed experimentally. Estimates of the fluorescence quantum yield in multiple scattering media were also made by determining independently from the fitted absorption spectrum and applying the various diffusion theory models. The fluorescence quantum yields for AlPcS{sub 4} and TPPS{sub 4} were calculated to be 0.59 {+-} 0.03 and 0.121 {+-} 0

  17. Measurement of fluorophore concentrations and fluorescence quantum yield in tissue-simulating phantoms using three diffusion models of steady-state spatially resolved fluorescence

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Diamond, Kevin R; Farrell, Thomas J; Patterson, Michael S

    2003-01-01

    Steady-state diffusion theory models of fluorescence in tissue have been investigated for recovering fluorophore concentrations and fluorescence quantum yield. Spatially resolved fluorescence, excitation and emission reflectance were calculated by diffusion theory and Monte Carlo simulations, and measured using a multi-fibre probe on tissue-simulating phantoms containing either aluminium phthalocyanine tetrasulfonate (AlPcS 4 ), Photofrin or meso-tetra-(4-sulfonatophenyl)-porphine dihydrochloride (TPPS 4 ). The accuracy of the fluorophore concentration and fluorescence quantum yield recovered by three different models of spatially resolved fluorescence were compared. The models were based on: (a) weighted difference of the excitation and emission reflectance, (b) fluorescence due to a point excitation source or (c) fluorescence due to a pencil beam excitation source. When literature values for the fluorescence quantum yield were used for each of the fluorophores, the fluorophore absorption coefficient (and hence concentration) at the excitation wavelengthwas recovered with a root-mean-square accuracy of 11.4% using the point source model of fluorescence and 8.0% using the more complicated pencil beam excitation model. The accuracy was calculated over a broad range of optical properties and fluorophore concentrations. The weighted difference of reflectance model performed poorly, with a root-mean-square error in concentration of about 50%. Monte Carlo simulations suggest that there are some situations where the weighted difference of reflectance is as accurate as the other two models, although this was not confirmed experimentally. Estimates of the fluorescence quantum yield in multiple scattering media were also made by determining independently from the fitted absorption spectrum and applying the various diffusion theory models. The fluorescence quantum yields for AlPcS 4 and TPPS 4 were calculated to be 0.59 ± 0.03 and 0.121 ± 0.001 respectively using the point

  18. Symbol phantoms

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Yamaguchi, Hiroshi; Hongo, Syozo; Takeshita, Hiroshi

    1990-01-01

    We have developed Japanese phantoms in two procedures for computation of organ doses exposed to internal and/or external radiation sources. One method is to make mathematical phantoms on the basis of ORNL mathematical phantoms. Parameters to specify organs of Japanese mathematical phantom are determined by interpolations of the ORNL data, which define the organs of Caucasian males and females of various ages, i.e. new born, 1, 5, 10, 15 years and adult, with survey data for Japanese physiques. Another procedure is to build 'symbol phantoms' for the Japanese public. The concept and its method of the symbol phantom enables us to make a phantom for an individual when we have all of his transversal section images obtained by a medical imaging device like MRI, and thus we may achieve more realistic phantoms for Japanese public than the mathematical phantoms. Both studies are in progress in NIRS. (author)

  19. CHARACTERISTIC FEATURES OF MUELLER MATRIX PATTERNS FOR POLARIZATION SCATTERING MODEL OF BIOLOGICAL TISSUES

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    E DU

    2014-01-01

    Full Text Available We developed a model to describe polarized photon scattering in biological tissues. In this model, tissues are simplified to a mixture of scatterers and surrounding medium. There are two types of scatterers in the model: solid spheres and infinitely long solid cylinders. Variables related to the scatterers include: the densities and sizes of the spheres and cylinders, the orientation and angular distribution of cylinders. Variables related to the surrounding medium include: the refractive index, absorption coefficient and birefringence. In this paper, as a development we introduce an optical activity effect to the model. By comparing experiments and Monte Carlo simulations, we analyze the backscattering Mueller matrix patterns of several tissue-like media, and summarize the different effects coming from anisotropic scattering and optical properties. In addition, we propose a possible method to extract the optical activity values for tissues. Both the experimental and simulated results show that, by analyzing the Mueller matrix patterns, the microstructure and optical properties of the medium can be obtained. The characteristic features of Mueller matrix patterns are potentially powerful tools for studying the contrast mechanisms of polarization imaging for medical diagnosis.

  20. Piecewise parabolic method for simulating one-dimensional shear shock wave propagation in tissue-mimicking phantoms

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tripathi, B. B.; Espíndola, D.; Pinton, G. F.

    2017-11-01

    The recent discovery of shear shock wave generation and propagation in the porcine brain suggests that this new shock phenomenology may be responsible for a broad range of traumatic injuries. Blast-induced head movement can indirectly lead to shear wave generation in the brain, which could be a primary mechanism for injury. Shear shock waves amplify the local acceleration deep in the brain by up to a factor of 8.5, which may tear and damage neurons. Currently, there are numerical methods that can model compressional shock waves, such as comparatively well-studied blast waves, but there are no numerical full-wave solvers that can simulate nonlinear shear shock waves in soft solids. Unlike simplified representations, e.g., retarded time, full-wave representations describe fundamental physical behavior such as reflection and heterogeneities. Here we present a piecewise parabolic method-based solver for one-dimensional linearly polarized nonlinear shear wave in a homogeneous medium and with empirical frequency-dependent attenuation. This method has the advantage of being higher order and more directly extendable to multiple dimensions and heterogeneous media. The proposed numerical scheme is validated analytically and experimentally and compared to other shock capturing methods. A Riemann step-shock problem is used to characterize the numerical dissipation. This dissipation is then tuned to be negligible with respect to the physical attenuation by choosing an appropriate grid spacing. The numerical results are compared to ultrasound-based experiments that measure planar polarized shear shock wave propagation in a tissue-mimicking gelatin phantom. Good agreement is found between numerical results and experiment across a 40 mm propagation distance. We anticipate that the proposed method will be a starting point for the development of a two- and three-dimensional full-wave code for the propagation of nonlinear shear waves in heterogeneous media.

  1. Comparison of average glandular dose in screen-film and digital mammography using breast tissue-equivalent phantom

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Shin, Gwi Soon; Kim, Jung Min; Kim, You Hyun; Choi, Jong Hak; Kim, Chang Kyun

    2007-01-01

    In recent years, mammography system is changed rapidly from conventional screen-film system to digital system for application to screening and diagnosis. Digital mammography system provides several advantages over screen-film mammography system. According to the information provided by the manufacturer, digital mammography system offers radiation dose reduction in comparison with screen-film mammography system, because of digital detector, particularly direct digital detector has higher x-ray absorption efficiency than screen-film combination or imaging plate (IP). We measured average glandular doses (ADG) in screen-film mammography (SFM) system with slow screen-film combination, computed mammography (CM) system, indirect digital mammography (IDM) system and direct digital mammography (DDM) system using breast tissue-equivalent phantom (glandularity 30%, 50% and 70%). The results were shown as follows: AGD values for DDM system were highest than those for other systems. Although automatic exposure control (AEC) mode was selected, the curve of the AGD values against thickness or glandularity increased significantly for the SFM system with the uniform target/filter (Mo/Mo) combination. Therefore, the AGD values for the high energy examinations were highest in the SFM system, and those for the low energy examinations were highest in the DDM system. But the curve of the AGD values against thickness and glandularity increased gently for CM system with the automatic selection of the target/filter combination (from Mo/Mo to Mo/Rh or from Mo/Rh to Rh/Rh), and the AGD values were lowest. Consequently, the parameters in mammography for each exposure besides detection efficiency play an important role in order to estimate a patient radiation dose

  2. A comparison of small-field tissue phantom ratio data generation methods for an Elekta Agility 6 MV photon beam.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Richmond, Neil; Brackenridge, Robert

    2014-01-01

    Tissue-phantom ratios (TPRs) are a common dosimetric quantity used to describe the change in dose with depth in tissue. These can be challenging and time consuming to measure. The conversion of percentage depth dose (PDD) data using standard formulae is widely employed as an alternative method in generating TPR. However, the applicability of these formulae for small fields has been questioned in the literature. Functional representation has also been proposed for small-field TPR production. This article compares measured TPR data for small 6 MV photon fields against that generated by conversion of PDD using standard formulae to assess the efficacy of the conversion data. By functionally fitting the measured TPR data for square fields greater than 4cm in length, the TPR curves for smaller fields are generated and compared with measurements. TPRs and PDDs were measured in a water tank for a range of square field sizes. The PDDs were converted to TPRs using standard formulae. TPRs for fields of 4 × 4cm(2) and larger were used to create functional fits. The parameterization coefficients were used to construct extrapolated TPR curves for 1 × 1 cm(2), 2 × 2-cm(2), and 3 × 3-cm(2) fields. The TPR data generated using standard formulae were in excellent agreement with direct TPR measurements. The TPR data for 1 × 1-cm(2), 2 × 2-cm(2), and 3 × 3-cm(2) fields created by extrapolation of the larger field functional fits gave inaccurate initial results. The corresponding mean differences for the 3 fields were 4.0%, 2.0%, and 0.9%. Generation of TPR data using a standard PDD-conversion methodology has been shown to give good agreement with our directly measured data for small fields. However, extrapolation of TPR data using the functional fit to fields of 4 × 4cm(2) or larger resulted in generation of TPR curves that did not compare well with the measured data. © 2013 Published by American Association of Medical Dosimetrists on behalf of American Association of Medical

  3. Anthropomorphic phantom materials

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    White, D.R.; Constantinou, C.

    1982-01-01

    The need, terminology and history of tissue substitutes are outlined. Radiation properties of real tissues are described and simulation procedures are outlined. Recent tissue substitutes are described and charted, as are calculated radiation classifications. Manufacturing procedures and quality control are presented. Recent phantom studies are reviewed and a discussion recorded. Elemental compositions of the recommended tissue substitutes are charted with elemental composition given for each tissue substitute

  4. The use of Compton scattering to differentiate between classifications of normal and diseased breast tissue

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Ryan, Elaine A; Farquharson, Michael J; Flinton, David M [School of Allied Health Sciences, City University, Charterhouse Square, London EC1M 6PA (United Kingdom)

    2005-07-21

    This study describes a technique for measuring the electron density of breast tissue utilizing Compton scattered photons. The K{sub {alpha}}{sub 2} line from a tungsten target industrial x-ray tube (57.97 keV) was used and the scattered x-rays collected at an angle of 30{sup 0}. At this angle the Compton and coherent photon peaks can be resolved using an energy dispersive detector and a peak fitting algorithm. The system was calibrated using solutions of known electron density. The results obtained from a pilot study of 22 tissues are presented. The tissue samples investigated comprise four different tissue classifications: adipose, malignancy, fibroadenoma and fibrocystic change (FCC). It is shown that there is a difference between adipose and malignant tissue, to a value of 9.0%, and between adipose and FCC, to a value of 12.7%. These figures are found to be significant by statistical analysis. The differences between adipose and fibroadenoma tissues (2.2%) and between malignancy and FCC (3.4%) are not significant. It is hypothesized that the alteration in glucose uptake within malignant cells may cause these tissues to have an elevated electron density. The fibrotic nature of tissue that has undergone FCC gives the highest measure of all tissue types.

  5. The use of Compton scattering to differentiate between classifications of normal and diseased breast tissue

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ryan, Elaine A.; Farquharson, Michael J.; Flinton, David M.

    2005-07-01

    This study describes a technique for measuring the electron density of breast tissue utilizing Compton scattered photons. The Kα2 line from a tungsten target industrial x-ray tube (57.97 keV) was used and the scattered x-rays collected at an angle of 30°. At this angle the Compton and coherent photon peaks can be resolved using an energy dispersive detector and a peak fitting algorithm. The system was calibrated using solutions of known electron density. The results obtained from a pilot study of 22 tissues are presented. The tissue samples investigated comprise four different tissue classifications: adipose, malignancy, fibroadenoma and fibrocystic change (FCC). It is shown that there is a difference between adipose and malignant tissue, to a value of 9.0%, and between adipose and FCC, to a value of 12.7%. These figures are found to be significant by statistical analysis. The differences between adipose and fibroadenoma tissues (2.2%) and between malignancy and FCC (3.4%) are not significant. It is hypothesized that the alteration in glucose uptake within malignant cells may cause these tissues to have an elevated electron density. The fibrotic nature of tissue that has undergone FCC gives the highest measure of all tissue types.

  6. The use of Compton scattering to differentiate between classifications of normal and diseased breast tissue

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Ryan, Elaine A; Farquharson, Michael J; Flinton, David M

    2005-01-01

    This study describes a technique for measuring the electron density of breast tissue utilizing Compton scattered photons. The K α2 line from a tungsten target industrial x-ray tube (57.97 keV) was used and the scattered x-rays collected at an angle of 30 0 . At this angle the Compton and coherent photon peaks can be resolved using an energy dispersive detector and a peak fitting algorithm. The system was calibrated using solutions of known electron density. The results obtained from a pilot study of 22 tissues are presented. The tissue samples investigated comprise four different tissue classifications: adipose, malignancy, fibroadenoma and fibrocystic change (FCC). It is shown that there is a difference between adipose and malignant tissue, to a value of 9.0%, and between adipose and FCC, to a value of 12.7%. These figures are found to be significant by statistical analysis. The differences between adipose and fibroadenoma tissues (2.2%) and between malignancy and FCC (3.4%) are not significant. It is hypothesized that the alteration in glucose uptake within malignant cells may cause these tissues to have an elevated electron density. The fibrotic nature of tissue that has undergone FCC gives the highest measure of all tissue types

  7. Photon migration in non-scattering tissue and the effects on image reconstruction

    Science.gov (United States)

    Dehghani, H.; Delpy, D. T.; Arridge, S. R.

    1999-12-01

    Photon propagation in tissue can be calculated using the relationship described by the transport equation. For scattering tissue this relationship is often simplified and expressed in terms of the diffusion approximation. This approximation, however, is not valid for non-scattering regions, for example cerebrospinal fluid (CSF) below the skull. This study looks at the effects of a thin clear layer in a simple model representing the head and examines its effect on image reconstruction. Specifically, boundary photon intensities (total number of photons exiting at a point on the boundary due to a source input at another point on the boundary) are calculated using the transport equation and compared with data calculated using the diffusion approximation for both non-scattering and scattering regions. The effect of non-scattering regions on the calculated boundary photon intensities is presented together with the advantages and restrictions of the transport code used. Reconstructed images are then presented where the forward problem is solved using the transport equation for a simple two-dimensional system containing a non-scattering ring and the inverse problem is solved using the diffusion approximation to the transport equation.

  8. Photon migration in non-scattering tissue and the effects on image reconstruction

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Dehghani, H.; Delpy, D.T.; Arridge, S.R.

    1999-01-01

    Photon propagation in tissue can be calculated using the relationship described by the transport equation. For scattering tissue this relationship is often simplified and expressed in terms of the diffusion approximation. This approximation, however, is not valid for non-scattering regions, for example cerebrospinal fluid (CSF) below the skull. This study looks at the effects of a thin clear layer in a simple model representing the head and examines its effect on image reconstruction. Specifically, boundary photon intensities (total number of photons exiting at a point on the boundary due to a source input at another point on the boundary) are calculated using the transport equation and compared with data calculated using the diffusion approximation for both non-scattering and scattering regions. The effect of non-scattering regions on the calculated boundary photon intensities is presented together with the advantages and restrictions of the transport code used. Reconstructed images are then presented where the forward problem is solved using the transport equation for a simple two-dimensional system containing a non-scattering ring and the inverse problem is solved using the diffusion approximation to the transport equation. (author)

  9. Poly(vinyl alcohol) gels as photoacoustic breast phantoms revisited.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Xia, Wenfeng; Piras, Daniele; Heijblom, Michelle; Steenbergen, Wiendelt; van Leeuwen, Ton G; Manohar, Srirang

    2011-07-01

    A popular phantom in photoacoustic imaging is poly(vinyl alcohol) (PVA) hydrogel fabricated by freezing and thawing (F-T) aqueous solutions of PVA. The material possesses acoustic and optical properties similar to those of tissue. Earlier work characterized PVA gels in small test specimens where temperature distributions during F-T are relatively homogeneous. In this work, in breast-sized samples we observed substantial temperature differences between the shallow regions and the interior during the F-T procedure. We investigated whether spatial variations were also present in the acoustic and optical properties. The speed of sound, acoustic attenuation, and optical reduced scattering coefficients were measured on specimens sampled at various locations in a large phantom. In general, the properties matched values quoted for breast tissue. But while acoustic properties were relatively homogeneous, the reduced scattering was substantially different at the surface compared with the interior. We correlated these variations with gel microstructure inspected using scanning electron microscopy. Interestingly, the phantom's reduced scattering spatial distribution matches the optical properties of the standard two-layer breast model used in x ray dosimetry. We conclude that large PVA samples prepared using the standard recipe make excellent breast tissue phantoms.

  10. Simulation of laser-tattoo pigment interaction in a tissue-mimicking phantom using Q-switched and long-pulsed lasers.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ahn, K J; Kim, B J; Cho, S B

    2017-08-01

    Laser therapy is the treatment of choice in tattoo removal. However, the precise mechanisms of laser-tattoo pigment interactions remain to be evaluated. We evaluated the geometric patterns of laser-tattoo pigment particle interactions using a tattoo pigment-embedded tissue-mimicking (TM) phantom. A Q-switched (QS) neodymium-doped yttrium aluminum garnet laser was used at settings of 532-, 660-, and 1064-nm wavelengths, single-pulse and quick pulse-to-pulse treatment modes, and spot sizes of 4 and 7 mm. Most of the laser-tattoo interactions in the experimental conditions formed cocoon-shaped or oval photothermal and photoacoustic injury zones, which contained fragmented tattoo particles in various sizes depending on the conditions. In addition, a long-pulsed 755-nm alexandrite laser was used at a spot size of 6 mm and pulse widths of 3, 5, and 10 ms. The finer granular pattern of tattoo destruction was observed in TM phantoms treated with 3- and 5-ms pulse durations compared to those treated with a 10-ms pulse. We outlined various patterns of laser-tattoo pigment interactions in a tattoo-embedded TM phantom to predict macroscopic tattoo and surrounding tissue reactions after laser treatment for tattoo removal. © 2016 John Wiley & Sons A/S. Published by John Wiley & Sons Ltd.

  11. Shear wave elastography using ultrasound: effects of anisotropy and stretch stress on a tissue phantom and reactive lymph nodes in the neck

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ha Young Lee

    2017-01-01

    Full Text Available Purpose The purpose of this study was to evaluate how the anisotropy and the static stretch stress of the cervical musculature influence the measured shear modulus in a tissue-mimicking phantom and in cervical lymph nodes in vivo by using shear wave elastography (SWE. Methods SWE was performed on a phantom using a pig muscle and on the middle jugular cervical lymph nodes in six volunteers. Tissue elasticity was quantified using the shear modulus and a supersonic shear wave imaging technique. For the phantom study, first, the optimal depth for measurement was determined, and then, SWE was performed in parallel and perpendicular to the muscle fiber orientation with and without strain stress. For the in vivo study, SWE was performed on the cervical lymph nodes in parallel and perpendicular to the sternocleidomastoid muscle fiber direction with and without neck stretching. The mean values of the shear modulus (meanSM were then analyzed. Results In the phantom study, the measured depth significantly influenced the meanSM with a sharp decrease at the depth of 1.5 cm (P<0.001. Strain stress increased the meanSM, irrespective of the muscle fiber orientation (P<0.001. In the in vivo study, the meanSM values obtained in parallel to the muscle fiber orientation were greater than those obtained perpendicular to the fiber orientation, irrespective of the stretch stress (P<0.001. However, meanSM was affected significantly by the stretch stress parallel to the muscle fiber orientation (P<0.001. Conclusion The anisotropic nature of the cervical musculature and the applied stretch stress explain the variability of the SWE measurements and should be identified before applying SWE for the interpretation of the measured shear modulus values.

  12. X-ray scattering for the characterization of lyophilized breast tissue samples

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Elshemey, Wael M.; Mohamed, Fayrouz S.; Khater, Ibrahim M.

    2013-01-01

    This work investigates the possibility of characterizing breast cancer by measuring the X-ray scattering profiles of lyophilized excised breast tissue samples. Since X-ray scattering from water-rich tissue is dominated by scattering from water, the removal of water by lyophilization would enhance the characterization process. In the present study, X-ray scattering profiles of 22 normal, 22 malignant and 10 benign breast tissue samples are measured. The cut-offs of scatter diagrams, sensitivity, specificity and diagnostic accuracy of three characterization parameters (full width at half maximum (FWHM) for the peak at 1.1 nm −1 , area under curve (AUC), and ratio of 1st to 2nd scattering peak intensities (I 1 /I 2 %)) are calculated and compared to the data from non-lyophilized samples. Results show increased sensitivity (up to 100%) of the present data on lyophilized breast tissue samples compared to previously reported data for non-lyophilized samples while the specificity (up to 95.4%), diagnostic accuracy (up to 95.4%) and receiver operating characteristic (ROC) curve values (up to 0.9979) for both sets of data are comparable. The present study shows significant differences between normal samples and each of malignant and benign samples. Only subtle differences exist between malignant and benign lyophilized breast tissue samples where FWHM=0.7±0.1 and 0.8±0.3, AUC=1.3±0.2 and 1.4±0.2 and I 1 /I 2 %=44.9±11.0 and 52.4±7.6 for malignant and benign samples respectively. - Highlights: • X-ray scattering profiles of breast tissue samples are acquired. • Three X-ray profile characterization parameters are calculated. • The cut-offs, sensitivity, specificity and diagnostic accuracy are calculated. • They are compared to the data from non-lyophilized samples. • Results show increased sensitivity in case of lyophilized samples

  13. Bimodal spectroscopy in elastic scattering and spatially resolved auto-fluorescence: instrumentation, light-tissues interaction modeling and application to ex vivo and in vivo biological tissues characterization for cancers detection

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Pery, Emilie

    2007-01-01

    This research activity aims at developing and validating a multimodal spectroscopy method in elastic scattering and auto-fluorescence to characterize biological tissues in vitro and in vivo. It is articulated in four axes. At first, instrumentation is considered with the development, the engineering and the experimental characterization of a fibers bimodal, multi-points spectrometry system allowing the acquisition of spectra in vivo (variable distances, fast acquisition). Secondly, the optical properties of tissues are modelled with the development and the experimental validation on phantoms of a photons propagation simulation algorithm in turbid media and multi-fluorescent. Thirdly, an experimental study has been conducted ex vivo on fresh and cryo-preserved arterial rings. It confirms the complementarity of spectroscopic measurements in elastic scattering and auto-fluorescence, and validates the method of multi-modality spectroscopy and the simulation of photons propagation algorithm. Results have well proved a correlation between rheological and optical properties. Finally, one second experimental study in vivo related to a pre-clinical tumoral model of bladder has been carried out. It highlights a significant difference in diffuse reflectance and/or auto-fluorescence and/or intrinsic fluorescence between healthy, inflammatory and tumoral tissues, on the basis of specific wavelength. The results of not supervised classification show that the combination of various spectroscopic approaches increases the reliability of the diagnosis. (author) [fr

  14. X-ray scattering evaluation of ultrastructural changes in human dental tissues with thermal treatment.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sandholzer, Michael A; Sui, Tan; Korsunsky, Alexander M; Walmsley, Anthony Damien; Lumley, Philip J; Landini, Gabriel

    2014-05-01

    Micro- and ultrastructural analysis of burned skeletal remains is crucial for obtaining a reliable estimation of cremation temperature. Earlier studies mainly focused on heat-induced changes in bone tissue, while this study extends this research to human dental tissues using a novel quantitative analytical approach. Twelve tooth sections were burned at 400-900°C (30-min exposure, increments of 100°C). Subsequent combined small- and wide-angle X-ray scattering (SAXS/WAXS) experiments were performed at the Diamond Light Source synchrotron facility, where 28 scattering patterns were collected within each tooth section. In comparison with the control sample, an increase in mean crystal thickness was found in burned dentine (2.8-fold) and enamel (1.4-fold), however at a smaller rate than reported earlier for bone tissue (5-10.7-fold). The results provide a structural reference for traditional X-ray scattering methods and emphasize the need to investigate bone and dental tissues separately to obtain a reliable estimation of cremation temperature. © 2014 American Academy of Forensic Sciences.

  15. Contrast-enhanced near-infrared laser mammography with a prototype breast scanner: feasibility study with tissue phantoms and preliminary results of imaging experimental tumors.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Boehm, T; Hochmuth, A; Malich, A; Reichenbach, J R; Fleck, M; Kaiser, W A

    2001-10-01

    Near-infrared (NIR) optical mammography without contrast has a low specificity. The application of optical contrast medium may improve the performance. The concentration-dependent detectability of a new NIR contrast medium was determined with a prototype optical breast scanner. In vivo imaging of experimental tumors was performed. The NIR contrast agent NIR96010 is a newly synthesized, hydrophilic contrast agent for NIR mammography. A concentration-dependent contrast resolution was determined for tissue phantoms consisting of whole milk powder and gelatin. A central part of the phantoms measuring 2 x 2 cm2 without contrast was replaced with phantom material containing 1 micromol/L to 25 nmol/L NIR96010. The composite phantoms were measured with a prototype NIR breast scanner with lasers of lambda1 = 785 nm and lambda2 = 850 nm wavelength. Intensity profiles and standard deviations of the transmission signal in areas with and without contrast were determined by linear fit procedures. Signal-to-noise ratios and spatial resolution as a function of contrast concentration were determined. Near-infrared imaging of five tumor-bearing SCID mice (MX1 breast adenocarcinoma, tumor diameter 5-10 mm) was performed before and after intravenous application of 2 micromol/kg NIR96010. Spectrometry showed an absorption maximum of the contrast agent at 755 nm. No spectral shifts occurred in protein-containing solution. Signal-to-noise ratio in the transmission intensity profiles ranged from 1.1 at 25 nmol/L contrast to 28 at 1 micromol/L. At concentrations contrast-enhanced images, with better delineation after contrast administration. In postcontrast absorption profiles, a 44.1% +/- 11.3% greater absorption increase was seen in tumor tissue compared with normal tissue. The laser wavelength lambda1 of the prototype laser mammography device was not situated at maximum absorption of the contrast agent NIR96010 but on the descending shoulder of the absorption spectrum. This implies a 20

  16. Quantitative investigation of the edge enhancement in in-line phase contrast projections and tomosynthesis provided by distributing microbubbles on the interface between two tissues: a phantom study

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wu, Di; Donovan Wong, Molly; Li, Yuhua; Fajardo, Laurie; Zheng, Bin; Wu, Xizeng; Liu, Hong

    2017-12-01

    The objective of this study was to quantitatively investigate the ability to distribute microbubbles along the interface between two tissues, in an effort to improve the edge and/or boundary features in phase contrast imaging. The experiments were conducted by employing a custom designed tissue simulating phantom, which also simulated a clinical condition where the ligand-targeted microbubbles are self-aggregated on the endothelium of blood vessels surrounding malignant cells. Four different concentrations of microbubble suspensions were injected into the phantom: 0%, 0.1%, 0.2%, and 0.4%. A time delay of 5 min was implemented before image acquisition to allow the microbubbles to become distributed at the interface between the acrylic and the cavity simulating a blood vessel segment. For comparison purposes, images were acquired using three system configurations for both projection and tomosynthesis imaging with a fixed radiation dose delivery: conventional low-energy contact mode, low-energy in-line phase contrast and high-energy in-line phase contrast. The resultant images illustrate the edge feature enhancements in the in-line phase contrast imaging mode when the microbubble concentration is extremely low. The quantitative edge-enhancement-to-noise ratio calculations not only agree with the direct image observations, but also indicate that the edge feature enhancement can be improved by increasing the microbubble concentration. In addition, high-energy in-line phase contrast imaging provided better performance in detecting low-concentration microbubble distributions.

  17. Multimodal, 3D pathology-mimicking bladder phantom for evaluation of cystoscopic technologies (Conference Presentation)

    Science.gov (United States)

    Smith, Gennifer T.; Lurie, Kristen L.; Zlatev, Dimitar V.; Liao, Joseph C.; Ellerbee, Audrey K.

    2016-02-01

    Optical coherence tomography (OCT) and blue light cystoscopy (BLC) have shown significant potential as complementary technologies to traditional white light cystoscopy (WLC) for early bladder cancer detection. Three-dimensional (3D) organ-mimicking phantoms provide realistic imaging environments for testing new technology designs, the diagnostic potential of systems, and novel image processing algorithms prior to validation in real tissue. Importantly, the phantom should mimic features of healthy and diseased tissue as they appear under WLC, BLC, and OCT, which are sensitive to tissue color and structure, fluorescent contrast, and optical scattering of subsurface layers, respectively. We present a phantom posing the hollow shape of the bladder and fabricated using a combination of 3D-printing and spray-coating with Dragon Skin (DS) (Smooth-On Inc.), a highly elastic polymer to mimic the layered structure of the bladder. Optical scattering of DS was tuned by addition of titanium dioxide, resulting in scattering coefficients sufficient to cover the human bladder range (0.49 to 2.0 mm^-1). Mucosal vasculature and tissue coloration were mimicked with elastic cord and red dye, respectively. Urethral access was provided through a small hole excised from the base of the phantom. Inserted features of bladder pathology included altered tissue color (WLC), fluorescence emission (BLC), and variations in layered structure (OCT). The phantom surface and underlying material were assessed on the basis of elasticity, optical scattering, layer thicknesses, and qualitative image appearance. WLC, BLC, and OCT images of normal and cancerous features in the phantom qualitatively matched corresponding images from human bladders.

  18. Study of electron densities of normal and neoplastic human breast tissues by Compton scattering using synchrotron radiation

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Antoniassi, M.; Conceição, A.L.C.; Poletti, M.E.

    2012-01-01

    Electron densities of 33 samples of normal (adipose and fibroglangular) and neoplastic (benign and malignant) human breast tissues were determined through Compton scattering data using a monochromatic synchrotron radiation source and an energy dispersive detector. The area of Compton peaks was used to determine the electron densities of the samples. Adipose tissue exhibits the lowest values of electron density whereas malignant tissue the highest. The relationship with their histology was discussed. Comparison with previous results showed differences smaller than 4%. - Highlights: ► Electron density of normal and neoplastic breast tissues was measured using Compton scattering. ► Monochromatic synchrotron radiation was used to obtain the Compton scattering data. ► The area of Compton peaks was used to determine the electron densities of samples. ► Adipose tissue shows the lowest electron density values whereas the malignant tissue the highest. ► Comparison with previous results showed differences smaller than 4%.

  19. Electron density values of various human tissues: in vitro Compton scatter measurements and calculated ranges

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Shrimpton, P.C.

    1981-01-01

    Accurate direct measurements of electron density have been performed on specimens from 10 different tissue types of the human body, representing the major organs, using a Compton scatter technique. As a supplement to these experimental values, calculations have been carried out to determine the electron densities expected for these tissue types. The densities observed are in good agreement with the broad ranges deduced from the basic data previously published. The results of both the in vitro sample measurements and the approximate calculations indicate that the electron density of most normal healthy soft tissue can be expected to fall within the fairly restricted range of +- 5% around 3.4 X 10 23 electrons per cm 3 . The obvious exception to this generalisation is the result for lung tissue, which falls considerably below this range owing to the high air content inherent in its construction. In view of such an overall limited variation with little difference between tissues, it would appear that electron density alone is likely to be a rather poor clinical parameter for tissue analysis, with high accuracy and precision being essential in any in vivo Compton measurements for imaging or diagnosis on specific organs. (author)

  20. Optical scatter imaging of cellular and mitochondrial swelling in brain tissue models of stroke

    Science.gov (United States)

    Johnson, Lee James

    2001-08-01

    The severity of brain edema resulting from a stroke can determine a patient's survival and the extent of their recovery. Cellular swelling is the microscopic source of a significant part of brain edema. Mitochondrial swelling also appears to be a determining event in the death or survival of the cells that are injured during a stroke. Therapies for reducing brain edema are not effective in many cases and current treatments of stroke do not address mitochondrial swelling at all. This dissertation is motivated by the lack of a complete understanding of cellular swelling resulting from stroke and the lack of a good method to begin to study mitochondrial swelling resulting from stroke in living brain tissue. In this dissertation, a novel method of detecting mitochondrial and cellular swelling in living hippocampal slices is developed and validated. The system is used to obtain spatial and temporal information about cellular and mitochondrial swelling resulting from various models of stroke. The effect of changes in water content on light scatter and absorption are examined in two models of brain edema. The results of this study demonstrate that optical techniques can be used to detect changes in water content. Mie scatter theory, the theoretical basis of the dual- angle scatter ratio imaging system, is presented. Computer simulations based on Mie scatter theory are used to determine the optimal angles for imaging. A detailed account of the early systems is presented to explain the motivations for the system design, especially polarization, wavelength and light path. Mitochondrial sized latex particles are used to determine the system response to changes in scattering particle size and concentration. The dual-angle scatter ratio imaging system is used to distinguish between osmotic and excitotoxic models of stroke injury. Such distinction cannot be achieved using the current techniques to study cellular swelling in hippocampal slices. The change in the scatter ratio is

  1. Spectra from 2.5-15 μm of tissue phantom materials, optical clearing agents and ex vivo human skin: implications for depth profiling of human skin

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Viator, John A; Choi, Bernard; Peavy, George M; Kimel, Sol; Nelson, J Stuart

    2003-01-01

    Infrared measurements have been used to profile or image biological tissue, including human skin. Usually, analysis of such measurements has assumed that infrared absorption is due to water and collagen. Such an assumption may be reasonable for soft tissue, but introduction of exogenous agents into skin or the measurement of tissue phantoms has raised the question of their infrared absorption spectrum. We used Fourier transform infrared spectroscopy in attenuated total reflection mode to measure the infrared absorption spectra, in the range of 2-15 μm, of water, polyacrylamide, Intralipid, collagen gels, four hyperosmotic clearing agents (glycerol, 1,3-butylene glycol, trimethylolpropane, Topicare TM ), and ex vivo human stratum corneum and dermis. The absorption spectra of the phantom materials were similar to that of water, although additional structure was noted in the range of 6-10 μm. The absorption spectra of the clearing agents were more complex, with molecular absorption bands dominating between 6 and 12 μm. Dermis was similar to water, with collagen structure evident in the 6-10 μm range. Stratum corneum had a significantly lower absorption than dermis due to a lower content of water. These results suggest that the assumption of water-dominated absorption in the 2.5-6 μm range is valid. At longer wavelengths, clearing agent absorption spectra differ significantly from the water spectrum. This spectral information can be used in pulsed photothermal radiometry or utilized in the interpretation of reconstructions in which a constant μ ir is used. In such cases, overestimating μ ir will underestimate chromophore depth and vice versa, although the effect is dependent on actual chromophore depth. (note)

  2. A Wearable Goggle Navigation System for Dual-Mode Optical and Ultrasound Localization of Suspicious Lesions: Validation Studies Using Tissue-Simulating Phantoms and an Ex Vivo Human Breast Tissue Model.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Zeshu Zhang

    Full Text Available Surgical resection remains the primary curative treatment for many early-stage cancers, including breast cancer. The development of intraoperative guidance systems for identifying all sites of disease and improving the likelihood of complete surgical resection is an area of active ongoing research, as this can lead to a decrease in the need of subsequent additional surgical procedures. We develop a wearable goggle navigation system for dual-mode optical and ultrasound imaging of suspicious lesions. The system consists of a light source module, a monochromatic CCD camera, an ultrasound system, a Google Glass, and a host computer. It is tested in tissue-simulating phantoms and an ex vivo human breast tissue model. Our experiments demonstrate that the surgical navigation system provides useful guidance for localization and core needle biopsy of simulated tumor within the tissue-simulating phantom, as well as a core needle biopsy and subsequent excision of Indocyanine Green (ICG-fluorescing sentinel lymph nodes. Our experiments support the contention that this wearable goggle navigation system can be potentially very useful and fully integrated by the surgeon for optimizing many aspects of oncologic surgery. Further engineering optimization and additional in vivo clinical validation work is necessary before such a surgical navigation system can be fully realized in the everyday clinical setting.

  3. A neural network based approach for determination of optical scattering and absorption coefficients of biological tissue

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Warncke, D; Lewis, E; Leahy, M; Lochmann, S

    2009-01-01

    The propagation of light in biological tissue depends on the absorption and reduced scattering coefficient. The aim of this project is the determination of these two optical properties using spatially resolved reflectance measurements. The sensor system consists of five laser sources at different wavelengths, an optical fibre probe and five photodiodes. For these kinds of measurements it has been shown that an often used solution of the diffusion equation can not be applied. Therefore a neural network is being developed to extract the needed optical properties out of the reflectance data. Data sets for the training, validation and testing process are provided by Monte Carlo Simulations.

  4. MO-F-CAMPUS-T-01: IROC Houston QA Center’s Anthropomorphic Proton Phantom Program

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Lujano, C; Hernandez, N; Keith, T; Nguyen, T; Taylor, P; Molineu, A; Followill, D

    2015-01-01

    Purpose: To describe the proton phantoms that IROC Houston uses to approve and credential proton institutions to participate in NCI-sponsored clinical trials. Methods: Photon phantoms cannot necessarily be used for proton measurements because protons react differently than photons in some plastics. As such plastics that are tissue equivalent for protons were identified. Another required alteration is to ensure that the film dosimeters are housed in the phantom with no air gap to avoid proton streaming. Proton-equivalent plastics/materials used include RMI Solid Water, Techron HPV, blue water, RANDO soft tissue material, balsa wood, compressed cork and polyethylene. Institutions wishing to be approved or credentialed request a phantom and are prioritized for delivery. At the institution, the phantom is imaged, a treatment plan is developed, positioned on the treatment couch and the treatment is delivered. The phantom is returned and the measured dose distributions are compared to the institution’s electronically submitted treatment plan dosimetry data. Results: IROC Houston has developed an extensive proton phantom approval/credentialing program consisting of five different phantoms designs: head, prostate, lung, liver and spine. The phantoms are made with proton equivalent plastics that have HU and relative stopping powers similar (within 5%) of human tissues. They also have imageable targets, avoidance structures, and heterogeneities. TLD and radiochromic film are contained in the target structures. There have been 13 head, 33 prostate, 18 lung, 2 liver and 16 spine irradiations with either passive scatter, or scanned proton beams. The pass rates have been: 100%, 69.7%, 72.2%, 50%, and 81.3%, respectively. Conclusion: IROC Houston has responded to the recent surge in proton facilities by developing a family of anthropomorphic phantoms that are able to be used for remote audits of proton beams. Work supported by PHS grant CA10953 and CA081647

  5. MO-F-CAMPUS-T-01: IROC Houston QA Center’s Anthropomorphic Proton Phantom Program

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Lujano, C; Hernandez, N; Keith, T; Nguyen, T; Taylor, P; Molineu, A; Followill, D [UT MD Anderson Cancer Center, Houston, TX (United States)

    2015-06-15

    Purpose: To describe the proton phantoms that IROC Houston uses to approve and credential proton institutions to participate in NCI-sponsored clinical trials. Methods: Photon phantoms cannot necessarily be used for proton measurements because protons react differently than photons in some plastics. As such plastics that are tissue equivalent for protons were identified. Another required alteration is to ensure that the film dosimeters are housed in the phantom with no air gap to avoid proton streaming. Proton-equivalent plastics/materials used include RMI Solid Water, Techron HPV, blue water, RANDO soft tissue material, balsa wood, compressed cork and polyethylene. Institutions wishing to be approved or credentialed request a phantom and are prioritized for delivery. At the institution, the phantom is imaged, a treatment plan is developed, positioned on the treatment couch and the treatment is delivered. The phantom is returned and the measured dose distributions are compared to the institution’s electronically submitted treatment plan dosimetry data. Results: IROC Houston has developed an extensive proton phantom approval/credentialing program consisting of five different phantoms designs: head, prostate, lung, liver and spine. The phantoms are made with proton equivalent plastics that have HU and relative stopping powers similar (within 5%) of human tissues. They also have imageable targets, avoidance structures, and heterogeneities. TLD and radiochromic film are contained in the target structures. There have been 13 head, 33 prostate, 18 lung, 2 liver and 16 spine irradiations with either passive scatter, or scanned proton beams. The pass rates have been: 100%, 69.7%, 72.2%, 50%, and 81.3%, respectively. Conclusion: IROC Houston has responded to the recent surge in proton facilities by developing a family of anthropomorphic phantoms that are able to be used for remote audits of proton beams. Work supported by PHS grant CA10953 and CA081647.

  6. SCATTER

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Broome, J.

    1965-11-01

    The programme SCATTER is a KDF9 programme in the Egtran dialect of Fortran to generate normalized angular distributions for elastically scattered neutrons from data input as the coefficients of a Legendre polynomial series, or from differential cross-section data. Also, differential cross-section data may be analysed to produce Legendre polynomial coefficients. Output on cards punched in the format of the U.K. A. E. A. Nuclear Data Library is optional. (author)

  7. 3D conformal MRI-controlled transurethral ultrasound prostate therapy: validation of numerical simulations and demonstration in tissue-mimicking gel phantoms.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Burtnyk, Mathieu; N'Djin, William Apoutou; Kobelevskiy, Ilya; Bronskill, Michael; Chopra, Rajiv

    2010-11-21

    MRI-controlled transurethral ultrasound therapy uses a linear array of transducer elements and active temperature feedback to create volumes of thermal coagulation shaped to predefined prostate geometries in 3D. The specific aims of this work were to demonstrate the accuracy and repeatability of producing large volumes of thermal coagulation (>10 cc) that conform to 3D human prostate shapes in a tissue-mimicking gel phantom, and to evaluate quantitatively the accuracy with which numerical simulations predict these 3D heating volumes under carefully controlled conditions. Eleven conformal 3D experiments were performed in a tissue-mimicking phantom within a 1.5T MR imager to obtain non-invasive temperature measurements during heating. Temperature feedback was used to control the rotation rate and ultrasound power of transurethral devices with up to five 3.5 × 5 mm active transducer elements. Heating patterns shaped to human prostate geometries were generated using devices operating at 4.7 or 8.0 MHz with surface acoustic intensities of up to 10 W cm(-2). Simulations were informed by transducer surface velocity measurements acquired with a scanning laser vibrometer enabling improved calculations of the acoustic pressure distribution in a gel phantom. Temperature dynamics were determined according to a FDTD solution to Pennes' BHTE. The 3D heating patterns produced in vitro were shaped very accurately to the prostate target volumes, within the spatial resolution of the MRI thermometry images. The volume of the treatment difference falling outside ± 1 mm of the target boundary was, on average, 0.21 cc or 1.5% of the prostate volume. The numerical simulations predicted the extent and shape of the coagulation boundary produced in gel to within (mean ± stdev [min, max]): 0.5 ± 0.4 [-1.0, 2.1] and -0.05 ± 0.4 [-1.2, 1.4] mm for the treatments at 4.7 and 8.0 MHz, respectively. The temperatures across all MRI thermometry images were predicted within -0.3 ± 1.6 °C and 0

  8. Monte Carlo simulation of a mammographic test phantom

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Hunt, R. A.; Dance, D. R.; Pachoud, M.; Carlsson, G. A.; Sandborg, M.; Ullman, G.

    2005-01-01

    A test phantom, including a wide range of mammographic tissue equivalent materials and test details, was imaged on a digital mammographic system. In order to quantify the effect of scatter on the contrast obtained for the test details, calculations of the scatter-to-primary ratio (S/P) have been made using a Monte Carlo simulation of the digital mammographic imaging chain, grid and test phantom. The results show that the S/P values corresponding to the imaging conditions used were in the range 0.084-0.126. Calculated and measured pixel values in different regions of the image were compared as a validation of the model and showed excellent agreement. The results indicate the potential of Monte Carlo methods in the image quality-patient dose process optimisation, especially in the assessment of imaging conditions not available on standard mammographic units. (authors)

  9. Acquiring molecular interference functions of X-ray coherent scattering for breast tissues by combination of simulation and experimental methods

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Chaparian, A.; Oghabian, M. A.; Changizi, V.

    2009-01-01

    Recently, it has been indicated that X-ray coherent scatter from biological tissues can be used to access signature of tissue. Some scientists are interested in studying this effect to get early detection of breast cancer. Since experimental methods for optimization are time consuming and expensive, some scientists suggest using simulation. Monte Carlo codes are the best option for radiation simulation: however, one permanent defect with Monte Carlo codes has been the lack of a sufficient physical model for coherent (Rayleigh) scattering, including molecular interference effects. Materials and Methods: It was decided to obtain molecular interference functions of coherent X-ray scattering for normal breast tissues by combination of modeling and experimental methods. A Monte Carlo simulation program was written to simulate the angular distribution of scattered photons for the normal breast tissue samples. Moreover, experimental diffraction patterns of these tissues were measured by means of energy dispersive X-ray diffraction method. The simulation and experimental data were used to obtain a tabulation of molecular interference functions for breast tissues. Results: With this study a tabulation of molecular interference functions for normal breast tissues Was prepared to facilitate the simulation diffraction patterns of the tissues without any experimental. Conclusion: The method may lead to design new systems for early detection of breast cancer.

  10. Dual-window dual-bandwidth spectroscopic optical coherence tomography metric for qualitative scatterer size differentiation in tissues.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tay, Benjamin Chia-Meng; Chow, Tzu-Hao; Ng, Beng-Koon; Loh, Thomas Kwok-Seng

    2012-09-01

    This study investigates the autocorrelation bandwidths of dual-window (DW) optical coherence tomography (OCT) k-space scattering profile of different-sized microspheres and their correlation to scatterer size. A dual-bandwidth spectroscopic metric defined as the ratio of the 10% to 90% autocorrelation bandwidths is found to change monotonically with microsphere size and gives the best contrast enhancement for scatterer size differentiation in the resulting spectroscopic image. A simulation model supports the experimental results and revealed a tradeoff between the smallest detectable scatterer size and the maximum scatterer size in the linear range of the dual-window dual-bandwidth (DWDB) metric, which depends on the choice of the light source optical bandwidth. Spectroscopic OCT (SOCT) images of microspheres and tonsil tissue samples based on the proposed DWDB metric showed clear differentiation between different-sized scatterers as compared to those derived from conventional short-time Fourier transform metrics. The DWDB metric significantly improves the contrast in SOCT imaging and can aid the visualization and identification of dissimilar scatterer size in a sample. Potential applications include the early detection of cell nuclear changes in tissue carcinogenesis, the monitoring of healing tendons, and cell proliferation in tissue scaffolds.

  11. In vivo imaging of cerebral hemodynamics and tissue scattering in rat brain using a surgical microscope camera system

    Science.gov (United States)

    Nishidate, Izumi; Kanie, Takuya; Mustari, Afrina; Kawauchi, Satoko; Sato, Shunichi; Sato, Manabu; Kokubo, Yasuaki

    2018-02-01

    We investigated a rapid imaging method to monitor the spatial distribution of total hemoglobin concentration (CHbT), the tissue oxygen saturation (StO2), and the scattering power b in the expression of musp=a(lambda)^-b as the scattering parameters in cerebral cortex using a digital red-green-blue camera. In the method, Monte Carlo simulation (MCS) for light transport in brain tissue is used to specify a relation among the RGB-values and the concentration of oxygenated hemoglobin (CHbO), that of deoxygenated hemoglobin (CHbR), and the scattering power b. In the present study, we performed sequential recordings of RGB images of in vivo exposed brain of rats while changing the fraction of inspired oxygen (FiO2), using a surgical microscope camera system. The time courses of CHbO, CHbR, CHbT, and StO2 indicated the well-known physiological responses in cerebral cortex. On the other hand, a fast decrease in the scattering power b was observed immediately after the respiratory arrest, which is similar to the negative deflection of the extracellular DC potential so-called anoxic depolarization. It is said that the DC shift coincident with a rise in extracellular potassium and can evoke cell deformation generated by water movement between intracellular and extracellular compartments, and hence the light scattering by tissue. Therefore, the decrease in the scattering power b after the respiratory arrest is indicative of changes in light scattering by tissue. The results in this study indicate potential of the method to evaluate the pathophysiological conditions and loss of tissue viability in brain tissue.

  12. Compton scattering spectrum as a source of information of normal and neoplastic breast tissues' composition

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Antoniassi, M.; Conceicao, A.L.C. [Departamento de Fisica-Faculdade de Filosofia Ciencias e Letras de Ribeirao Preto, Universidade de Sao Paulo, Ribeirao Preto, 14040-901 Sao Paulo (Brazil); Poletti, M.E., E-mail: poletti@ffclrp.usp.br [Departamento de Fisica-Faculdade de Filosofia Ciencias e Letras de Ribeirao Preto, Universidade de Sao Paulo, Ribeirao Preto, 14040-901 Sao Paulo (Brazil)

    2012-07-15

    In this work we measured X-ray scatter spectra from normal and neoplastic breast tissues using photon energy of 17.44 keV and a scattering angle of 90 Degree-Sign , in order to study the shape (FWHM) of the Compton peaks. The obtained results for FWHM were discussed in terms of composition and histological characteristics of each tissue type. The statistical analysis shows that the distribution of FWHM of normal adipose breast tissue clearly differs from all other investigated tissues. Comparison between experimental values of FWHM and effective atomic number revealed a strong correlation between them, showing that the FWHM values can be used to provide information about elemental composition of the tissues. - Highlights: Black-Right-Pointing-Pointer X-ray scatter spectra from normal and neoplastic breast tissues were measured. Black-Right-Pointing-Pointer Shape (FWHM) of Compton peak was related with elemental composition and characteristics of each tissue type. Black-Right-Pointing-Pointer A statistical hypothesis test showed clear differences between normal and neoplastic breast tissues. Black-Right-Pointing-Pointer There is a strong correlation between experimental values of FWHM and effective atomic number. Black-Right-Pointing-Pointer Shape (FWHM) of Compton peak can be used to provide information about elemental composition of the tissues.

  13. Dosimetric characterization of model Cs-1 Rev2 cesium-131 brachytherapy source in water phantoms and human tissues with MCNP5 Monte Carlo simulation

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Wang Jianhua; Zhang Hualin

    2008-01-01

    A recently developed alternative brachytherapy seed, Cs-1 Rev2 cesium-131, has begun to be used in clinical practice. The dosimetric characteristics of this source in various media, particularly in human tissues, have not been fully evaluated. The aim of this study was to calculate the dosimetric parameters for the Cs-1 Rev2 cesium-131 seed following the recommendations of the AAPM TG-43U1 report [Rivard et al., Med. Phys. 31, 633-674 (2004)] for new sources in brachytherapy applications. Dose rate constants, radial dose functions, and anisotropy functions of the source in water, Virtual Water, and relevant human soft tissues were calculated using MCNP5 Monte Carlo simulations following the TG-43U1 formalism. The results yielded dose rate constants of 1.048, 1.024, 1.041, and 1.044 cGy h -1 U -1 in water, Virtual Water, muscle, and prostate tissue, respectively. The conversion factor for this new source between water and Virtual Water was 1.02, between muscle and water was 1.006, and between prostate and water was 1.004. The authors' calculation of anisotropy functions in a Virtual Water phantom agreed closely with Murphy's measurements [Murphy et al., Med. Phys. 31, 1529-1538 (2004)]. Our calculations of the radial dose function in water and Virtual Water have good agreement with those in previous experimental and Monte Carlo studies. The TG-43U1 parameters for clinical applications in water, muscle, and prostate tissue are presented in this work

  14. SU-E-J-210: Characterizing Tissue Equivalent Materials for the Development of a Dual MRI-CT Heterogeneous Anthropomorphic Phantom Designed Specifically for MRI Guided Radiotherapy Systems

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Steinmann, A; Stafford, R; Yung, J; Followill, D [UT MD Anderson Cancer Center, Houston, TX (United States)

    2015-06-15

    Purpose: MRI guided radiotherapy (MRIgRT) is an emerging technology which will eventually require a proficient quality auditing system. Due to different principles in which MR and CT acquire images, there is a need for a multi-imaging-modality, end-to-end QA phantom for MRIgRT. The purpose of this study is to identify lung, soft tissue, and tumor equivalent substitutes that share similar human-like CT and MR properties (i.e. Hounsfield units and relaxation times). Methods: Materials of interested such as common CT QA phantom materials, and other proprietary gels/silicones from Polytek, SmoothOn, and CompositeOne were first scanned on a GE 1.5T Signa HDxT MR. Materials that could be seen on both T1-weighted and T2-weighted images were then scanned on a GE Lightspeed RT16 CT simulator and a GE Discovery 750HD CT scanner and their HU values were then measured. The materials with matching HU values of lung (−500 to −700HU), muscle (+40HU) and soft tissue (+100 to +300HU) were further scanned on GE 1.5T Signa HDx to measure their T1 and T2 relaxation times from varying parameters of TI and TE. Results: Materials that could be visualized on T1-weighted and T2-weighted images from a 1.5T MR unit and had an appropriate average CT number, −650, −685, 46,169, and 168 HUs were: compressed cork saturated with water, Polytek Platsil™ Gel-00 combined with mini styrofoam balls, radiotherapy bolus material, SmoothOn Dragon-Skin™ and SmoothOn Ecoflex™, respectively. Conclusion: Post processing analysis is currently being performed to accurately map T1 and T2 values for each material tested. From previous MR visualization and CT examinations it is expected that Dragon-Skin™, Ecoflex™ and bolus will have values consistent with tissue and tumor substitutes. We also expect compressed cork statured with water, and Polytek™-styrofoam combination to have approximate T1 and T2 values suitable for lung-equivalent materials.

  15. SU-E-J-210: Characterizing Tissue Equivalent Materials for the Development of a Dual MRI-CT Heterogeneous Anthropomorphic Phantom Designed Specifically for MRI Guided Radiotherapy Systems

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Steinmann, A; Stafford, R; Yung, J; Followill, D

    2015-01-01

    Purpose: MRI guided radiotherapy (MRIgRT) is an emerging technology which will eventually require a proficient quality auditing system. Due to different principles in which MR and CT acquire images, there is a need for a multi-imaging-modality, end-to-end QA phantom for MRIgRT. The purpose of this study is to identify lung, soft tissue, and tumor equivalent substitutes that share similar human-like CT and MR properties (i.e. Hounsfield units and relaxation times). Methods: Materials of interested such as common CT QA phantom materials, and other proprietary gels/silicones from Polytek, SmoothOn, and CompositeOne were first scanned on a GE 1.5T Signa HDxT MR. Materials that could be seen on both T1-weighted and T2-weighted images were then scanned on a GE Lightspeed RT16 CT simulator and a GE Discovery 750HD CT scanner and their HU values were then measured. The materials with matching HU values of lung (−500 to −700HU), muscle (+40HU) and soft tissue (+100 to +300HU) were further scanned on GE 1.5T Signa HDx to measure their T1 and T2 relaxation times from varying parameters of TI and TE. Results: Materials that could be visualized on T1-weighted and T2-weighted images from a 1.5T MR unit and had an appropriate average CT number, −650, −685, 46,169, and 168 HUs were: compressed cork saturated with water, Polytek Platsil™ Gel-00 combined with mini styrofoam balls, radiotherapy bolus material, SmoothOn Dragon-Skin™ and SmoothOn Ecoflex™, respectively. Conclusion: Post processing analysis is currently being performed to accurately map T1 and T2 values for each material tested. From previous MR visualization and CT examinations it is expected that Dragon-Skin™, Ecoflex™ and bolus will have values consistent with tissue and tumor substitutes. We also expect compressed cork statured with water, and Polytek™-styrofoam combination to have approximate T1 and T2 values suitable for lung-equivalent materials

  16. A Software Phantom : Application in Digital Tomosynthesis

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Lazos, D; Kolitsi, Z; Badea, C; Pallikarakis, N [Medical Physics Laboratory, School of Medicine, Univercity of Patras (Greece)

    1999-12-31

    A software phantom intended to be used in radiographic applications has been developed. The application was used for research in the field of Digital Tomosynthesis and specifically for studying tomographic noise removal methods. The application consists of a phantom design and a phantom imaging module. The radiation-matter interaction is based on the exponential relation of attenuation. Projections are formed by simulated irradiation with selectable geometrical parameters, source spectrum and detector response. Phantoms are defined either as sets containing certain geometrical objects or as groups of voxels. Comparison with real projections taken from a physical phantom with identical geometry and composition with the simulated one, showed good approximation with improved contrast due to the absence of scatter in the simulated projections. The software phantom proved to be a very useful tool for DTS investigations. Further development to include scatter is expected to expand the use of the application to more areas in radiological imaging research. (author) 4 refs., 3 figs

  17. A Software Phantom : Application in Digital Tomosynthesis

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Lazos, D.; Kolitsi, Z.; Badea, C.; Pallikarakis, N.

    1998-01-01

    A software phantom intended to be used in radiographic applications has been developed. The application was used for research in the field of Digital Tomosynthesis and specifically for studying tomographic noise removal methods. The application consists of a phantom design and a phantom imaging module. The radiation-matter interaction is based on the exponential relation of attenuation. Projections are formed by simulated irradiation with selectable geometrical parameters, source spectrum and detector response. Phantoms are defined either as sets containing certain geometrical objects or as groups of voxels. Comparison with real projections taken from a physical phantom with identical geometry and composition with the simulated one, showed good approximation with improved contrast due to the absence of scatter in the simulated projections. The software phantom proved to be a very useful tool for DTS investigations. Further development to include scatter is expected to expand the use of the application to more areas in radiological imaging research. (author)

  18. TH-CD-207A-08: Simulated Real-Time Image Guidance for Lung SBRT Patients Using Scatter Imaging

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Redler, G; Cifter, G; Templeton, A; Lee, C; Bernard, D; Liao, Y; Zhen, H; Turian, J; Chu, J [Rush University Medical Center, Chicago, IL (United States)

    2016-06-15

    Purpose: To develop a comprehensive Monte Carlo-based model for the acquisition of scatter images of patient anatomy in real-time, during lung SBRT treatment. Methods: During SBRT treatment, images of patient anatomy can be acquired from scattered radiation. To rigorously examine the utility of scatter images for image guidance, a model is developed using MCNP code to simulate scatter images of phantoms and lung cancer patients. The model is validated by comparing experimental and simulated images of phantoms of different complexity. The differentiation between tissue types is investigated by imaging objects of known compositions (water, lung, and bone equivalent). A lung tumor phantom, simulating materials and geometry encountered during lung SBRT treatments, is used to investigate image noise properties for various quantities of delivered radiation (monitor units(MU)). Patient scatter images are simulated using the validated simulation model. 4DCT patient data is converted to an MCNP input geometry accounting for different tissue composition and densities. Lung tumor phantom images acquired with decreasing imaging time (decreasing MU) are used to model the expected noise amplitude in patient scatter images, producing realistic simulated patient scatter images with varying temporal resolution. Results: Image intensity in simulated and experimental scatter images of tissue equivalent objects (water, lung, bone) match within the uncertainty (∼3%). Lung tumor phantom images agree as well. Specifically, tumor-to-lung contrast matches within the uncertainty. The addition of random noise approximating quantum noise in experimental images to simulated patient images shows that scatter images of lung tumors can provide images in as fast as 0.5 seconds with CNR∼2.7. Conclusions: A scatter imaging simulation model is developed and validated using experimental phantom scatter images. Following validation, lung cancer patient scatter images are simulated. These simulated

  19. TH-CD-207A-08: Simulated Real-Time Image Guidance for Lung SBRT Patients Using Scatter Imaging

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Redler, G; Cifter, G; Templeton, A; Lee, C; Bernard, D; Liao, Y; Zhen, H; Turian, J; Chu, J

    2016-01-01

    Purpose: To develop a comprehensive Monte Carlo-based model for the acquisition of scatter images of patient anatomy in real-time, during lung SBRT treatment. Methods: During SBRT treatment, images of patient anatomy can be acquired from scattered radiation. To rigorously examine the utility of scatter images for image guidance, a model is developed using MCNP code to simulate scatter images of phantoms and lung cancer patients. The model is validated by comparing experimental and simulated images of phantoms of different complexity. The differentiation between tissue types is investigated by imaging objects of known compositions (water, lung, and bone equivalent). A lung tumor phantom, simulating materials and geometry encountered during lung SBRT treatments, is used to investigate image noise properties for various quantities of delivered radiation (monitor units(MU)). Patient scatter images are simulated using the validated simulation model. 4DCT patient data is converted to an MCNP input geometry accounting for different tissue composition and densities. Lung tumor phantom images acquired with decreasing imaging time (decreasing MU) are used to model the expected noise amplitude in patient scatter images, producing realistic simulated patient scatter images with varying temporal resolution. Results: Image intensity in simulated and experimental scatter images of tissue equivalent objects (water, lung, bone) match within the uncertainty (∼3%). Lung tumor phantom images agree as well. Specifically, tumor-to-lung contrast matches within the uncertainty. The addition of random noise approximating quantum noise in experimental images to simulated patient images shows that scatter images of lung tumors can provide images in as fast as 0.5 seconds with CNR∼2.7. Conclusions: A scatter imaging simulation model is developed and validated using experimental phantom scatter images. Following validation, lung cancer patient scatter images are simulated. These simulated

  20. The importance of fast neutron scattering cross sections for neutron dosimetry in soft tissues

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Jahr, R.; Brede, H.J.

    1979-05-01

    Tissue equivalent plastic materials are used for the construction of accurate neutron dosemeters. As compared to real tissue, in materials most of the oxygen content is replaced by carbon. In order to determine the dose to human tissue a kerma correction factor has to be used. It is shown that the uncertainty (corresponding to 1 delta) of the correction factor at E = 14.5 MeV amounts to at least 5.2%. An important contribution to the uncertainties results from the lack of experimental data of the 12 C(n, n' 3α), 16 O(n,n'p) and 16 O(n,n'α)-cross-sections. These data are to be calculated by subtracting all other cross sections from the total cross section of ( 16 O + n) and ( 12 C + n). It is shown that the uncertainties of the kerma correction factor can be considerably reduced by an accurate measurement of the scattering cross sections of carbon and oxygen. (orig.) [de

  1. Quantitative assessment of submicron scale anisotropy in tissue multifractality by scattering Mueller matrix in the framework of Born approximation

    Science.gov (United States)

    Das, Nandan Kumar; Dey, Rajib; Chakraborty, Semanti; Panigrahi, Prasanta K.; Meglinski, Igor; Ghosh, Nirmalya

    2018-04-01

    A number of tissue-like disordered media exhibit local anisotropy of scattering in the scaling behavior. Scaling behavior contains wealth of fractal or multifractal properties. We demonstrate that the spatial dielectric fluctuations in a sample of biological tissue exhibit multifractal anisotropy. Multifractal anisotropy encoded in the wavelength variation of the light scattering Mueller matrix and manifesting as an intriguing spectral diattenuation effect. We developed an inverse method for the quantitative assessment of the multifractal anisotropy. The method is based on the processing of relevant Mueller matrix elements in Fourier domain by using Born approximation, followed by the multifractal analysis. The approach promises for probing subtle micro-structural changes in biological tissues associated with the cancer and precancer, as well as for non-destructive characterization of a wide range of scattering materials.

  2. Black-box modeling to estimate tissue temperature during radiofrequency catheter cardiac ablation: feasibility study on an agar phantom model

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Blasco-Gimenez, Ramón; Lequerica, Juan L; Herrero, Maria; Hornero, Fernando; Berjano, Enrique J

    2010-01-01

    The aim of this work was to study linear deterministic models to predict tissue temperature during radiofrequency cardiac ablation (RFCA) by measuring magnitudes such as electrode temperature, power and impedance between active and dispersive electrodes. The concept involves autoregressive models with exogenous input (ARX), which is a particular case of the autoregressive moving average model with exogenous input (ARMAX). The values of the mode parameters were determined from a least-squares fit of experimental data. The data were obtained from radiofrequency ablations conducted on agar models with different contact pressure conditions between electrode and agar (0 and 20 g) and different flow rates around the electrode (1, 1.5 and 2 L min −1 ). Half of all the ablations were chosen randomly to be used for identification (i.e. determination of model parameters) and the other half were used for model validation. The results suggest that (1) a linear model can be developed to predict tissue temperature at a depth of 4.5 mm during RF cardiac ablation by using the variables applied power, impedance and electrode temperature; (2) the best model provides a reasonably accurate estimate of tissue temperature with a 60% probability of achieving average errors better than 5 °C; (3) substantial errors (larger than 15 °C) were found only in 6.6% of cases and were associated with abnormal experiments (e.g. those involving the displacement of the ablation electrode) and (4) the impact of measuring impedance on the overall estimate is negligible (around 1 °C)

  3. Application of the method of phantom experimental simulation for evaluation of tissue doses for the Ukrytie object personnel at the Chernobyl' NPP

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Shcherbina, V.G.; Kochetkov, O.A.; Sokolova, I.K.; Timofeev, L.B.; Ponomarev, V.N.; Drabkin, Yu.A.; Tsov'yanov, A.G.; Panfilenko, V.I.

    1992-01-01

    It is suggested to use the method of experimental phantom simulation when solving the problem of minimization of personnel external irradiation dose loading. The method discussed gives an opportunity to obtain information on dose distributions on surface, inside human body and data on dose loading for individual organs of a human organism. The phantoms, which are used for determination of the laws of external irradiation dose distribution of several positions of the machine room of the fourth unit Ukrytie object, are described. The scheme of the phantom arrangement and the values of does in organism of the human head phantom are given. 6 refs.; 7 figs.; 2 tabs

  4. Classification of breast tissue using a laboratory system for small-angle x-ray scattering (SAXS)

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Sidhu, S; Siu, K K W; Falzon, G; Hart, S A; Fox, J G; Lewis, R A

    2011-01-01

    Structural changes in breast tissue at the nanometre scale have been shown to differentiate between tissue types using synchrotron SAXS techniques. Classification of breast tissues using information acquired from a laboratory SAXS camera source could possibly provide a means of adopting SAXS as a viable diagnostic procedure. Tissue samples were obtained from surgical waste from 66 patients and structural components of the tissues were examined between q = 0.25 and 2.3 nm -1 . Principal component analysis showed that the amplitude of the fifth-order axial Bragg peak, the magnitude of the integrated intensity and the full-width at half-maximum of the fat peak were significantly different between tissue types. A discriminant analysis showed that excellent classification can be achieved; however, only 30% of the tissue samples provided the 16 variables required for classification. This suggests that the presence of disease is represented by a combination of factors, rather than one specific trait. A closer examination of the amorphous scattering intensity showed not only a trend of increased scattering intensity with disease severity, but also a corresponding decrease in the size of the scatterers contributing to this intensity.

  5. Analysis of light scattering from human breast tissue using a custom dual-optical scanning near-field optical microscope.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kyle, Jennifer Reiber; Kyle, Michael D; Raghavan, Ravi; Budak, Gurer; Ozkan, Cengiz S; Ozkan, Mihrimah

    2011-03-01

    In this paper we introduce a custom scanning near-field optical microscope (SNOM) that simultaneously collects reflection and transmission near-field images along with topography. This dual-optical SNOM uses a bent probe, which allows for axial reflection imaging, accurate surface scanning, and easy identification of topographic artifacts. Using this novel dual-optical SNOM, we image desiccated and non-desiccated human breast epithelial tissue. By comparing the simultaneous SNOM images, we isolate the effects of tissue morphology and variations in refractive indices on the forward- and back-scattering of light from the tissue. We find that the reduction in back-scattering from tissue, relative to the glass slide, is caused by dense packing of the scattering sites in the cytoplasm (morphology) in the desiccated tissue and a thin-film of water adhering to the glass slide (refractive index) in the non-desiccated tissue sample. Our work demonstrates the potential of our customized dual-optical SNOM system for label-free tissue diagnostics. Copyright © 2011 WILEY-VCH Verlag GmbH & Co. KGaA, Weinheim.

  6. Scattering and absorption measurements of cervical tissues measures using low cost multi-spectral imaging

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bernat, Amir S.; Bar-Am, Kfir; Cataldo, Leigh; Bolton, Frank J.; Kahn, Bruce S.; Levitz, David

    2018-02-01

    Cervical cancer is a leading cause of death for women in low resource settings. In order to better detect cervical dysplasia, a low cost multi-spectral colposcope was developed utilizing low costs LEDs and an area scan camera. The device is capable of both traditional colposcopic imaging and multi-spectral image capture. Following initial bench testing, the device was deployed to a gynecology clinic where it was used to image patients in a colposcopy setting. Both traditional colposcopic images and spectral data from patients were uploaded to a cloud server for remote analysis. Multi-spectral imaging ( 30 second capture) took place before any clinical procedure; the standard of care was followed thereafter. If acetic acid was used in the standard of care, a post-acetowhitening colposcopic image was also captured. In analyzing the data, normal and abnormal regions were identified in the colposcopic images by an expert clinician. Spectral data were fit to a theoretical model based on diffusion theory, yielding information on scattering and absorption parameters. Data were grouped according to clinician labeling of the tissue, as well as any additional clinical test results available (Pap, HPV, biopsy). Altogether, N=20 patients were imaged in this study, with 9 of them abnormal. In comparing normal and abnormal regions of interest from patients, substantial differences were measured in blood content, while differences in oxygen saturation parameters were more subtle. These results suggest that optical measurements made using low cost spectral imaging systems can distinguish between normal and pathological tissues.

  7. Initial implementation of the conversion from the energy-subtracted CT number to electron density in tissue inhomogeneity corrections: An anthropomorphic phantom study of radiotherapy treatment planning

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Tsukihara, Masayoshi [Division of Radiological Technology, Graduate School of Health Sciences, Niigata University, Niigata 951-8518 (Japan); Noto, Yoshiyuki [Department of Radiology, Niigata University Medical and Dental Hospital, Niigata 951-8520 (Japan); Sasamoto, Ryuta; Hayakawa, Takahide; Saito, Masatoshi, E-mail: masaito@clg.niigata-u.ac.jp [Department of Radiological Technology, School of Health Sciences, Faculty of Medicine, Niigata University, Niigata 951-8518 (Japan)

    2015-03-15

    Purpose: To achieve accurate tissue inhomogeneity corrections in radiotherapy treatment planning, the authors had previously proposed a novel conversion of the energy-subtracted computed tomography (CT) number to an electron density (ΔHU–ρ{sub e} conversion), which provides a single linear relationship between ΔHU and ρ{sub e} over a wide range of ρ{sub e}. The purpose of this study is to present an initial implementation of the ΔHU–ρ{sub e} conversion method for a treatment planning system (TPS). In this paper, two example radiotherapy plans are used to evaluate the reliability of dose calculations in the ΔHU–ρ{sub e} conversion method. Methods: CT images were acquired using a clinical dual-source CT (DSCT) scanner operated in the dual-energy mode with two tube potential pairs and an additional tin (Sn) filter for the high-kV tube (80–140 kV/Sn and 100–140 kV/Sn). Single-energy CT using the same DSCT scanner was also performed at 120 kV to compare the ΔHU–ρ{sub e} conversion method with a conventional conversion from a CT number to ρ{sub e} (Hounsfield units, HU–ρ{sub e} conversion). Lookup tables for ρ{sub e} calibration were obtained from the CT image acquisitions for tissue substitutes in an electron density phantom (EDP). To investigate the beam-hardening effect on dosimetric uncertainties, two EDPs with different sizes (a body EDP and a head EDP) were used for the ρ{sub e} calibration. Each acquired lookup table was applied to two radiotherapy plans designed using the XiO TPS with the superposition algorithm for an anthropomorphic phantom. The first radiotherapy plan was for an oral cavity tumor and the second was for a lung tumor. Results: In both treatment plans, the performance of the ΔHU–ρ{sub e} conversion was superior to that of the conventional HU–ρ{sub e} conversion in terms of the reliability of dose calculations. Especially, for the oral tumor plan, which dealt with dentition and bony structures, treatment

  8. Study of electron densities of normal and neoplastic human breast tissues by Compton scattering using synchrotron radiation

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Antoniassi, M.; Conceicao, A.L.C. [Departamento de Fisica-Faculdade de Filosofia Ciencias e Letras de Ribeirao Preto-Universidade de Sao Paulo, Ribeirao Preto, Sao Paulo (Brazil); Poletti, M.E., E-mail: poletti@ffclrp.usp.br [Departamento de Fisica-Faculdade de Filosofia Ciencias e Letras de Ribeirao Preto-Universidade de Sao Paulo, Ribeirao Preto, Sao Paulo (Brazil)

    2012-07-15

    Electron densities of 33 samples of normal (adipose and fibroglangular) and neoplastic (benign and malignant) human breast tissues were determined through Compton scattering data using a monochromatic synchrotron radiation source and an energy dispersive detector. The area of Compton peaks was used to determine the electron densities of the samples. Adipose tissue exhibits the lowest values of electron density whereas malignant tissue the highest. The relationship with their histology was discussed. Comparison with previous results showed differences smaller than 4%. - Highlights: Black-Right-Pointing-Pointer Electron density of normal and neoplastic breast tissues was measured using Compton scattering. Black-Right-Pointing-Pointer Monochromatic synchrotron radiation was used to obtain the Compton scattering data. Black-Right-Pointing-Pointer The area of Compton peaks was used to determine the electron densities of samples. Black-Right-Pointing-Pointer Adipose tissue shows the lowest electron density values whereas the malignant tissue the highest. Black-Right-Pointing-Pointer Comparison with previous results showed differences smaller than 4%.

  9. Probing multi-scale self-similarity of tissue structures using light scattering spectroscopy: prospects in pre-cancer detection

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chatterjee, Subhasri; Das, Nandan K.; Kumar, Satish; Mohapatra, Sonali; Pradhan, Asima; Panigrahi, Prasanta K.; Ghosh, Nirmalya

    2013-02-01

    Multi-resolution analysis on the spatial refractive index inhomogeneities in the connective tissue regions of human cervix reveals clear signature of multifractality. We have thus developed an inverse analysis strategy for extraction and quantification of the multifractality of spatial refractive index fluctuations from the recorded light scattering signal. The method is based on Fourier domain pre-processing of light scattering data using Born approximation, and its subsequent analysis through Multifractal Detrended Fluctuation Analysis model. The method has been validated on several mono- and multi-fractal scattering objects whose self-similar properties are user controlled and known a-priori. Following successful validation, this approach has initially been explored for differentiating between different grades of precancerous human cervical tissues.

  10. Wavelet-based feature extraction applied to small-angle x-ray scattering patterns from breast tissue: a tool for differentiating between tissue types

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Falzon, G; Pearson, S; Murison, R; Hall, C; Siu, K; Evans, A; Rogers, K; Lewis, R

    2006-01-01

    This paper reports on the application of wavelet decomposition to small-angle x-ray scattering (SAXS) patterns from human breast tissue produced by a synchrotron source. The pixel intensities of SAXS patterns of normal, benign and malignant tissue types were transformed into wavelet coefficients. Statistical analysis found significant differences between the wavelet coefficients describing the patterns produced by different tissue types. These differences were then correlated with position in the image and have been linked to the supra-molecular structural changes that occur in breast tissue in the presence of disease. Specifically, results indicate that there are significant differences between healthy and diseased tissues in the wavelet coefficients that describe the peaks produced by the axial d-spacing of collagen. These differences suggest that a useful classification tool could be based upon the spectral information within the axial peaks

  11. Estimation of dose enhancement to soft tissue due to backscatter radiation near metal interfaces during head and neck radiothearpy - A phantom dosimetric study with radiochromic film

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Rajesh Ashok Kinhikar

    2014-01-01

    Full Text Available The objective of this study was to investigate the dose enhancement to soft tissue due to backscatter radiation near metal interfaces during head and neck radiotherapy. The influence of titanium-mandibular plate with the screws on radiation dose was tested on four real bones from mandible with the metal and screws fixed. Radiochromic films were used for dosimetry. The bone and metal were inserted through the film at the center symmetrically. This was then placed in a small jig (7 cm × 7 cm × 10 cm to hold the film vertically straight. The polymer granules (tissue-equivalent were placed around the film for homogeneous scatter medium. The film was irradiated with 6 MV X-rays for 200 monitor units in Trilogy linear accelerator for 10 cm × 10 cm field size with source to axis distance of 100 cm at 5 cm. A single film was also irradiated without any bone and metal interface for reference data. The absolute dose and the vertical dose profile were measured from the film. There was 10% dose enhancement due to the backscatter radiation just adjacent to the metal-bone interface for all the materials. The extent of the backscatter effect was up to 4 mm. There is significant higher dose enhancement in the soft tissue/skin due to the backscatter radiation from the metallic components in the treatment region.

  12. Dependence of light scattering profile in tissue on blood vessel diameter and distribution: a computer simulation study.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Duadi, Hamootal; Fixler, Dror; Popovtzer, Rachela

    2013-11-01

    Most methods for measuring light-tissue interactions focus on the volume reflectance while very few measure the transmission. We investigate both diffusion reflection and diffuse transmission at all exit angles to receive the full scattering profile. We also investigate the influence of blood vessel diameter on the scattering profile of a circular tissue. The photon propagation path at a wavelength of 850 nm is calculated from the absorption and scattering constants via Monte Carlo simulation. Several simulations are performed where a different vessel diameter and location were chosen but the blood volume was kept constant. The fraction of photons exiting the tissue at several central angles is presented for each vessel diameter. The main result is that there is a central angle that below which the photon transmission decreased for lower vessel diameters while above this angle the opposite occurred. We find this central angle to be 135 deg for a two-dimensional 10-mm diameter circular tissue cross-section containing blood vessels. These findings can be useful for monitoring blood perfusion and oxygen delivery in the ear lobe and pinched tissues. © 2013 Society of Photo-Optical Instrumentation Engineers (SPIE)

  13. Introduction of a stack-phantom for PET

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Jonsson, C.; Schnell, P.O.; Jacobsson, H.; Engelin, L.; Danielsson, A.M.; Johansson, L.; Larsson, S.A.; Pagani, M.; Stone-Elander, S.

    2002-01-01

    Aim: We have previously developed a new flexible phantom system for SPECT, i.e. 'the stack phantom' (Eur. J. Nucl. Med. 27, No.2, 131-139, 2000). The unique feature of this phantom system is that it allows studies with, as well as without major degrading impacts from photon attenuation and Compton scattering. The specific aim of this work was to further develop the system with special reference to PET. Material and methods: The principle of the phantom concept is discrete sampling of 3D objects by a series of equidistant 2D planes. The 2D planes are a digitised set of 2D sections, representing the radioactivity distribution in the object of interest. Using a grey scale related to the radioactivity concentration, selected images are printed by radioactive ink on thin paper sheets and stacked into the 3D structure with low-density or with tissue equivalent material in between. Using positron emitting radionuclides, the paper sheets alone may not be sufficiently thick to avoid annihilation losses due to escaping positrons. In order to investigate the amount of additional material needed, a spot of radioactivity ( 18 F) was printed out and subsequently covered by adding thin plastic films (0.055mm) on both sides of the paper. Short PET scans (ECAT 921) were performed and the count-rate was registered after each additional layer of plastic cover. A first prototype, a cylindrical cold-spot phantom was constructed on the basis of these results. Nine identical sheets were printed out and first mounted in between 4 mm plates of polystyrene (density 1.04 g/cm 3 ). After a PET-scan, the paper sheets were re-mounted in between a low-density material (Divinycell, H30, density 0.03 g/cm 3 ) before repeating the PET scan. Results: For 18 F, the number of registered annihilation photons increased with increasing number of plastic sheets from 70% for the pure paper sheet to about 100% with 0.5 mm plastic cover on each side. PET of the low-density stacked cold spot phantom

  14. Comparison of scatter rejection and low-contrast performance of scan equalization digital radiography (SEDR), slot-scan digital radiography, and full-field digital radiography systems for chest phantom imaging

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Liu Xinming; Shaw, Chris C.; Lai, Chao-Jen; Wang Tianpeng [Department of Imaging Physics, Digital Imaging Research Laboratory, University of Texas M. D. Anderson Cancer Center, Houston, Texas 77030-4009 (United States)

    2011-01-15

    Purpose: To investigate and compare the scatter rejection properties and low-contrast performance of the scan equalization digital radiography (SEDR) technique to the slot-scan and conventional full-field digital radiography techniques for chest imaging. Methods: A prototype SEDR system was designed and constructed with an a-Se flat-panel (FP) detector to improve image quality in heavily attenuating regions of an anthropomorphic chest phantom. Slot-scanning geometry was used to reject scattered radiation without attenuating primary x rays. The readout scheme of the FP was modified to erase accumulated scatter signals prior to image readout. A 24-segment beam width modulator was developed to regulate x-ray exposures regionally and compensate for the low x-ray flux in heavily attenuating regions. To measure the scatter-to-primary ratios (SPRs), a 2 mm thick lead plate with a 2-D array of aperture holes was used to measure the primary signals, which were then subtracted from those obtained without the lead plate to determine scatter components. A 2-D array of aluminum beads (3 mm in diameter) was used as the low-contrast objects to measure the contrast ratios (CRs) and contrast-to-noise ratios (CNRs) for evaluating the low-contrast performance in chest phantom images. A set of two images acquired with the same techniques were subtracted from each other to measure the noise levels. SPRs, CRs, and CNRs of the SEDR images were measured in four anatomical regions of chest phantom images and compared to those of slot-scan images and full-field images acquired with and without antiscatter grid. Results: The percentage reduction of SPR (percentage of SPRs reduced with scatter removal/rejection methods relative to that for nongrid full-field imaging) averaged over four anatomical regions was measured to be 80%, 83%, and 71% for SEDR, slot-scan, and full-field with grid, respectively. The average CR over four regions was found to improve over that for nongrid full

  15. Comparison of scatter rejection and low-contrast performance of scan equalization digital radiography (SEDR), slot-scan digital radiography, and full-field digital radiography systems for chest phantom imaging

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Liu Xinming; Shaw, Chris C.; Lai, Chao-Jen; Wang Tianpeng

    2011-01-01

    Purpose: To investigate and compare the scatter rejection properties and low-contrast performance of the scan equalization digital radiography (SEDR) technique to the slot-scan and conventional full-field digital radiography techniques for chest imaging. Methods: A prototype SEDR system was designed and constructed with an a-Se flat-panel (FP) detector to improve image quality in heavily attenuating regions of an anthropomorphic chest phantom. Slot-scanning geometry was used to reject scattered radiation without attenuating primary x rays. The readout scheme of the FP was modified to erase accumulated scatter signals prior to image readout. A 24-segment beam width modulator was developed to regulate x-ray exposures regionally and compensate for the low x-ray flux in heavily attenuating regions. To measure the scatter-to-primary ratios (SPRs), a 2 mm thick lead plate with a 2-D array of aperture holes was used to measure the primary signals, which were then subtracted from those obtained without the lead plate to determine scatter components. A 2-D array of aluminum beads (3 mm in diameter) was used as the low-contrast objects to measure the contrast ratios (CRs) and contrast-to-noise ratios (CNRs) for evaluating the low-contrast performance in chest phantom images. A set of two images acquired with the same techniques were subtracted from each other to measure the noise levels. SPRs, CRs, and CNRs of the SEDR images were measured in four anatomical regions of chest phantom images and compared to those of slot-scan images and full-field images acquired with and without antiscatter grid. Results: The percentage reduction of SPR (percentage of SPRs reduced with scatter removal/rejection methods relative to that for nongrid full-field imaging) averaged over four anatomical regions was measured to be 80%, 83%, and 71% for SEDR, slot-scan, and full-field with grid, respectively. The average CR over four regions was found to improve over that for nongrid full

  16. A comparative study on patient specific absolute dosimetry using slab phantom, acrylic body phantom and goat head phantom

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Om Prakash Gurjar

    2015-01-01

    Full Text Available Purpose: To compare the results of patient specific absolute dosimetry using slab phantom, acrylic body phantom and goat head phantom. Methods: Fifteen intensity modulated radiotherapy (IMRT plans already planned on treatment planning system (TPS for head-and-neck cancer patients were exported on all three kinds of phantoms viz. slab phantom, acrylic body phantom and goat head phantom, and dose was calculated using anisotropic analytic algorithm (AAA. All the gantry angles were set to zero in case of slab phantom while set to as it is in actual plan in case of other two phantoms. All the plans were delivered by linear accelerator (LA and dose for each plan was measured by 0.13 cc ion chamber. The percentage (% variations between planned and measured doses were calculated and analyzed. Results: The mean % variations between planned and measured doses of all IMRT quality assurance (QA plans were as 0.65 (Standard deviation (SD: 0.38 with confidence limit (CL 1.39, 1.16 (SD: 0.61 with CL 2.36 and 2.40 (SD: 0.86 with CL 4.09 for slab phantom, acrylic head phantom and goat head phantom respectively. Conclusion: Higher dose variations found in case of real tissue phantom compare to results in case of slab and acrylic body phantoms. The algorithm AAA does not calculate doses in heterogeneous medium as accurate as it calculates in homogeneous medium. Therefore the patient specific absolute dosimetry should be done using heterogeneous phantom mimicking density wise as well as design wise to the actual human body.  

  17. Scientific Instrument for a Controlled Choice of Optimal Photon Energy Spectrum: A Comparison Between Calculational Methods and Laboratory Irradiations of Comparable Hard Tissue Phantoms

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Helmrot, E.; Sandborg, M.; Eckerdal, O.; Alm Carlsson, G.

    1998-01-01

    Basic performance parameters are defined and analysed in order to optimise physical image quality in relation to the energy imparted to the patient in dental radiology. Air cavities were embedded in well-defined multi material, hard tissue phantoms to represent various objects in dento-maxillo-facial examinations. Basic performance parameters were: object contrast (C), energy imparted (ε) to the patient, signal-to-noise ration (SNR), C 2 /ε (film) and (SNR) / ε (digital imaging system) as functions of HVL (half-value layer), used to describe the photon energy spectrum. For the film receptor, the performance index C 2 /ε is maximum (optimal) at HVL values of 1.5-1.7 mm Al in the simulated Incisive, Premolar and Molar examinations. Other imaging tasks (examinations), not simulated here, may require other optimal HVL. For the digital imaging system (Digora) the performance index (SNR) 2 /ε, theoretically calculated, indicates that a lower value of HVL is optimal than with film as receptor. However, due to the limited number of bits (8 bits) in the analogue to digital converter (ADC) contrast resolution is degraded and calls for use of higher photon energies (HVL). Customised optimisations with proper concern for patient category, type of examination, diagnostic task is the ultimate goal of this work. The conclusions stated above give some general advice on the appropriate choice of photon energy spectrum (HVL). In particular situations, it may be necessary to use more dose demanding kV settings (lower HVL) in order to get sufficient image quality for the diagnostic task. (author)

  18. High-angle scattering events strongly affect light collection in clinically relevant measurement geometries for light transport through tissue

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Canpolat, M.; Mourant, J.R.

    2000-01-01

    Measurement of light transport in tissue has the potential to be an inexpensive and practical tool for non-invasive tissue diagnosis in medical applications because it can provide information on both morphological and biochemical properties. To capitalize on the potential of light transport as a diagnostic tool, an understanding of what information can be gleaned from light transport measurements is needed. We present data concerning the sensitivity of light transport measurements, made in clinically relevant geometries, to scattering properties. The intensity of the backscattered light at small source-detector separations is shown to be sensitive to the phase function, and furthermore the collected light intensity is found to be correlated with the amount of high-angle scattering in the medium. (author)

  19. Reflectance of Biological Turbid Tissues under Wide Area Illumination: Single Backward Scattering Approach

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Guennadi Saiko

    2014-01-01

    Full Text Available Various scenarios of light propagation paths in turbid media (single backward scattering, multiple backward scattering, banana shape are discussed and their contributions to reflectance spectra are estimated. It has been found that a single backward or multiple forward scattering quasi-1D paths can be the major contributors to reflected spectra in wide area illumination scenario. Such a single backward scattering (SBS approximation allows developing of an analytical approach which can take into account refractive index mismatched boundary conditions and multilayer geometry and can be used for real-time spectral processing. The SBS approach can be potentially applied for the distances between the transport and reduced scattering domains. Its validation versus the Kubelka-Munk model, path integrals, and diffusion approximation of the radiation transport theory is discussed.

  20. Contrast detail phantom for SPECT

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Cabrejas, M.L. de; Arashiro, J G; Giannone, C. [Comision Nacional de Energia Atomica, Buenos Aires (Argentina); Camuyrano, M; Nohara, G [Universidad de Buenos Aires, Buenos Aires (Argentina). Facultad Ciencias Exactas

    1996-06-01

    A new low variable contrast phantom for single photon emission computed tomography (SPECT) was constructed, tested and compared with other existing phantoms. It contains simulated cylindrical lesions of four different diameters (D{sub i}), embedded in a cylindrical scattering medium and a uniform section to evaluate tomographic uniformity. The concentration of tracer in the simulated lesions and the scattering medium (background) can be varied to simulate hot and cold lesions. Different applications of the phantom were tested, including determination of the minimum object contrast (OCm) necessary to detect lesions as a function of lesion size, lesion type (hot or cold) and acquisition and processing protocols by visual inspection. This parameter allows categorization of instruments comparing an `image quality index` (IQI). Preliminary comparison with the Britten contrast processing method showed that the detectable OCm was of the same order of magnitude, but the presented device seems more suitable for training and intercomparison purposes. The constructed phantom, of simple design, has proved to be useful for acquisition and processing condition evaluation, OCm estimation and external quality control. (author). 11 refs, 4 figs.

  1. Evaluation of light scattering properties and chromophore concentrations in skin tissue based on diffuse reflectance signals at isosbestic wavelengths of hemoglobin

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yokokawa, Takumi; Nishidate, Izumi

    2016-04-01

    We investigate a method to evaluate light-scattering properties and chromophore concentrations in human skin tissue through diffuse reflectance spectroscopy using the reflectance signals acquired at isosbestic wavelengths of hemoglobin (420, 450, 500, and 585 nm). In the proposed method, Monte Carlo simulation-based empirical formulas are used to specify the scattering parameters of skin tissue, such as the scattering amplitude a and the scattering power b, as well as the concentration of melanin C m and the total blood concentration C tb. The use of isosbestic wavelengths of hemoglobin enables the values of C m, C tb, a, and b to be estimated independently of the oxygenation of hemoglobin. The spectrum of the reduced scattering coefficient is reconstructed from the scattering parameters. Experiments using in vivo human skin tissues were performed to confirm the feasibility of the proposed method for evaluating the changes in scattering properties and chromophore concentrations in skin tissue. The experimental results revealed that light scattering is significantly reduced by the application of a glycerol solution, which indicates an optical clearing effect due to osmotic dehydration and the matching of the refractive indices of scatterers in the epidermis.

  2. Importance of scatter compensation algorithm in heterogeneous tissue for the radiation dose calculation of small lung nodules. A clinical study

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Baba, Yuji; Murakami, Ryuji; Mizukami, Naohisa; Morishita, Shoji; Yamashita, Yasuyuki; Araki, Fujio; Moribe, Nobuyuki; Hirata, Yukinori

    2004-01-01

    The purpose of this study was to compare radiation doses of small lung nodules calculated with beam scattering compensation and those without compensation in heterogeneous tissues. Computed tomography (CT) data of 34 small (1-2 cm: 12 nodules, 2-3 cm 11 nodules, 3-4 cm 11 nodules) lung nodules were used in the radiation dose measurements. Radiation planning for lung nodule was performed with a commercially available unit using two different radiation dose calculation methods: the superposition method (with scatter compensation in heterogeneous tissues), and the Clarkson method (without scatter compensation in heterogeneous tissues). The energy of the linac photon used in this study was 10 MV and 4 MV. Monitor unit (MU) to deliver 10 Gy at the center of the radiation field (center of the nodule) calculated with the two methods were compared. In 1-2 cm nodules, MU calculated by Clarkson method (MUc) was 90.0±1.1% (4 MV photon) and 80.5±2.7% (10 MV photon) compared to MU calculated by superposion method (MUs), in 2-3 cm nodules, MUc was 92.9±1.1% (4 MV photon) and 86.6±2.8% (10 MV photon) compared to MUs, and in 3-4 cm nodules, MUc was 90.5±2.0% (4 MV photon) and 90.1±1.7% (10 MV photon) compared to MUs. In 1-2 cm nodules, MU calculated without lung compensation (MUn) was 120.6±8.3% (4 MV photon) and 95.1±4.1% (10 MV photon) compared to MU calculated by superposion method (MUs), in 2-3 cm nodules, MUc was 120.3±11.5% (4 MV photon) and 100.5±4.6% (10 MV photon) compared to MUs, and in 3-4 cm nodules, MUc was 105.3±9.0% (4 MV photon) and 103.4±4.9% (10 MV photon) compared to MUs. The MU calculated without lung compensation was not significantly different from the MU calculated by superposition method in 2-3 cm nodules. We found that the conventional dose calculation algorithm without scatter compensation in heterogeneous tissues substantially overestimated the radiation dose of small nodules in the lung field. In the calculation of dose distribution of small

  3. Phantom position dependence

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Thorson, M.R.; Endres, G.W.R.

    1981-01-01

    Sensitivity of the Hanford dosimeter response to its position relative to the phantom and the neutron source has always been recognized. A thorough investigation was performed to quantify dosimeter response according to: (a) dosimeter position on phantom, (b) dosimeter distance from phantom, and (c) angular relationship of dosimeter relative to neutron source and phantom. Results were obtained for neutron irradiation at several different energies

  4. Hybrid Monte Carlo-Diffusion Method For Light Propagation in Tissue With a Low-Scattering Region

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hayashi, Toshiyuki; Kashio, Yoshihiko; Okada, Eiji

    2003-06-01

    The heterogeneity of the tissues in a head, especially the low-scattering cerebrospinal fluid (CSF) layer surrounding the brain has previously been shown to strongly affect light propagation in the brain. The radiosity-diffusion method, in which the light propagation in the CSF layer is assumed to obey the radiosity theory, has been employed to predict the light propagation in head models. Although the CSF layer is assumed to be a nonscattering region in the radiosity-diffusion method, fine arachnoid trabeculae cause faint scattering in the CSF layer in real heads. A novel approach, the hybrid Monte Carlo-diffusion method, is proposed to calculate the head models, including the low-scattering region in which the light propagation does not obey neither the diffusion approximation nor the radiosity theory. The light propagation in the high-scattering region is calculated by means of the diffusion approximation solved by the finite-element method and that in the low-scattering region is predicted by the Monte Carlo method. The intensity and mean time of flight of the detected light for the head model with a low-scattering CSF layer calculated by the hybrid method agreed well with those by the Monte Carlo method, whereas the results calculated by means of the diffusion approximation included considerable error caused by the effect of the CSF layer. In the hybrid method, the time-consuming Monte Carlo calculation is employed only for the thin CSF layer, and hence, the computation time of the hybrid method is dramatically shorter than that of the Monte Carlo method.

  5. Multiplex coherent anti-Stokes Raman scattering microspectroscopy of brain tissue with higher ranking data classification for biomedical imaging

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pohling, Christoph; Bocklitz, Thomas; Duarte, Alex S.; Emmanuello, Cinzia; Ishikawa, Mariana S.; Dietzeck, Benjamin; Buckup, Tiago; Uckermann, Ortrud; Schackert, Gabriele; Kirsch, Matthias; Schmitt, Michael; Popp, Jürgen; Motzkus, Marcus

    2017-06-01

    Multiplex coherent anti-Stokes Raman scattering (MCARS) microscopy was carried out to map a solid tumor in mouse brain tissue. The border between normal and tumor tissue was visualized using support vector machines (SVM) as a higher ranking type of data classification. Training data were collected separately in both tissue types, and the image contrast is based on class affiliation of the single spectra. Color coding in the image generated by SVM is then related to pathological information instead of single spectral intensities or spectral differences within the data set. The results show good agreement with the H&E stained reference and spontaneous Raman microscopy, proving the validity of the MCARS approach in combination with SVM.

  6. ICRU activity in the field of phantoms in diagnostic radiology

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Wambersie, A.

    1992-01-01

    The ICRU Report on 'Phantoms and Computational Models in Radiation Therapy, Diagnosis and Protection' is presented. Different types of phantoms may be defined. They may be broadly categorized according to their primary function: dosimetry, calibration and imaging. Within each functional category, there are 3 types or designs of phantoms: body phantoms (anthropomorphic), standard phantoms and reference phantoms (used in the definition and specification of certain radiation quantities). In radiological imaging, anthropomorphic body phantoms are used for measuring the absorbed dose distribution resulting from imaging procedures. Standard phantoms have simple reproducible geometry and are used for comparing measurements under standard conditions of exposure. Imaging phantoms are useful for evaluating a given imaging system; they contain different types of test pieces. The report contains a major section on human anatomy, from fetus to adult with the variations due to ethnic origin. Tolerance levels for the phantoms (composition, dimensions) are proposed and quality assurance programs are outlined. The report contains extensive appendices; human anatomical data and full specification of over 80 phantoms and computational models. ICRU Report 46 on 'Photon, electron, proton and neutron interaction data for body tissues' is closely related to the field of phantoms. It is a logical continuation on ICRU Report 44 (1989) on 'Tissue substitutes in radiation dosimetry and measurements' and contains the interaction data for more than 100 tissues, from fetal to adult, including some diseased tissues

  7. Non-Directional Radiation Spread Modeling and Non-Invasive Estimating the Radiation Scattering and Absorption Parameters in Biological Tissue

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    S. Yu. Makarov

    2015-01-01

    Full Text Available The article dwells on a development of new non-invasive measurement methods of optical parameters of biological tissues, which are responsible for the scattering and absorption of monochromatic radiation. It is known from the theory of radiation transfer [1] that for strongly scattering media, to which many biological tissues pertain, such parameters are parameters of diffusion approximation, as well as a scattering coefficient and an anisotropy parameter.Based on statistical modeling the paper examines a spread of non-directional radiation from a Lambert light beam with the natural polarization that illuminates a surface of the biological tissue. Statistical modeling is based on the Monte Carlo method [2]. Thus, to have the correct energy coefficient values of Fresnel reflection and transmission in simulation of such radiation by Monte Carlo method the author uses his finding that is a function of the statistical representation for the incidence of model photons [3]. The paper describes in detail a principle of fixing the power transmitted by the non-directional radiation into biological tissue [3], and the equations of a power balance in this case.Further, the paper describes the diffusion approximation of a radiation transfer theory, often used in simulation of radiation propagation in strongly scattering media and shows its application in case of fixing the power transmitted into the tissue. Thus, to represent an uneven power distribution is used an approximating expression in conditions of fixing a total input power. The paper reveals behavior peculiarities of solution on the surface of the biological tissue inside and outside of the incident beam. It is shown that the solution in the region outside of the incident beam (especially far away from it, essentially, depends neither on the particular power distribution across the surface, being a part of the tissue, nor on the refractive index of the biological tissue. It is determined only by

  8. An improved Virtual Torso phantom

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Kramer, Gary H; Crowley, Paul

    2000-01-01

    The virtual phantom that was previously designed by the Human Monitoring Laboratory had some limitations. It contained no sternum and the ribs extended all the way round the torso, whereas in reality the central part of the chest is covered with a mixture of cartilage (ribs) and bone (sternum). The ribs were located below the chest wall which added to the thickness of the chest wall. The lungs did not touch the inner surface of the chest wall along their length due to the differences in curvature between the ellipsoidal lungs and the ellipsoidal cylinder that defined the torso. As a result there was extra intervening tissue between the lungs and the chest wall. This was shown to have a noticeable effect on the simulation of low energy photons. The virtual phantom has been redesigned and comparison of measured and calculated counting efficiencies shows that it is a good representation of both of LLNL or JAERI at all photon energies measured. The redesigned virtual phantom agrees to within 11% of the torsos' counting efficiency over the energy range 17 - 240 keV. Before modification, the virtual phantom's counting efficiency was a of factor three lower at 17 keV and a factor of two lower at 20 keV; now it is within 5% at 17 keV and within 10% at 20 keV. This phantom can now be reliably used to simulate lung counting. The virtual phantom still contains no sternum and the ribs extend all the way round the torso, whereas in reality the central part of the chest is covered with cartilage (ribs) and bone (sternum). However, the above results indicate that this is not a major flaw in the design of the virtual phantom, as agreement between the Monte Carlo results and experimental data is good. (author)

  9. Phantom breast syndrome

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ramesh

    2009-01-01

    Full Text Available Phantom breast syndrome is a type of condition in which patients have a sensation of residual breast tissue and can include both non-painful sensations as well as phantom breast pain. The incidence varies in different studies, ranging from approximately 30% to as high as 80% of patients after mastectomy. It seriously affects quality of life through the combined impact of physical disability and emotional distress. The breast cancer incidence rate in India as well as Western countries has risen in recent years while survival rates have improved; this has effectively increased the number of women for whom post-treatment quality of life is important. In this context, chronic pain following treatment for breast cancer surgery is a significantly under-recognized and under-treated problem. Various types of chronic neuropathic pain may arise following breast cancer surgery due to surgical trauma. The cause of these syndromes is damage to various nerves during surgery. There are a number of assumed factors causing or perpetuating persistent neuropathic pain after breast cancer surgery. Most well-established risk factors for developing phantom breast pain and other related neuropathic pain syndromes are severe acute postoperative pain and greater postoperative use of analgesics. Based upon current evidence, the goals of prophylactic strategies could first target optimal peri-operative pain control and minimizing damage to nerves during surgery. There is some evidence that chronic pain and sensory abnormalities do decrease over time. The main group of oral medications studied includes anti-depressants, anticonvulsants, opioids, N-methyl-D-asparate receptor antagonists, mexilitine, topical lidocaine, cannabinoids, topical capsaicin and glysine antagonists. Neuromodulation techniques such as motor cortex stimulation, spinal cord stimulation, and intrathecal drug therapies have been used to treat various neuropathic pain syndromes.

  10. Determination of effective atomic number of breast tissues using scattered radiation; Determinacao do numero atomico efetivo de tecidos mamarios usando a radiacao espalhada

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Antoniassi, M.; Conceicao, A.L.C.; Poletti, M.E. [Universidade de Sao Paulo (USP), Ribeirao Preto, SP (Brazil). Fac. de Filosofia, Ciencias e Letras. Dept. de Fisica e Matematica

    2010-07-01

    The scattered radiation has been used in several industrial and clinical applications since it permits to characterize the scattering material. Several types of information can be extracted from the spectrum of scattered radiation which can be used to characterization of biological tissues such as breast tissues. In this work we have measured Compton and Rayleigh scattering radiation from normal (adipose), benign (fibroadenoma) and malignant (carcinoma) neoplastic breast tissues using a monoenergetic beam of 17.44 keV and a scattering angle of 90 deg C (x = 0.99 angstrom-1). A practical method using the area of elastic and inelastic scattering was used for determining the effective atomic number (Z{sub eff}) of the samples, being validated comparing the experimental obtained values of Z{sub eff} of several standard materials with calculated values using traditional method based on total cross-section of compounds. The obtained results show that exist differences in the distributions of Z{sub eff} of breast tissues, which are related to the content of carbon (Z=6) and oxygen (Z=8) in each tissue type. The results suggest that is possible to use this parameter for characterizing breast tissues, pointing the possibility of its use as a complementary tool for the diagnosis of the breast cancer. (author)

  11. Experimental research on specific activity of 24Na using Chinese reference man phantom irradiated by 252Cf neutrons source

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Wang Yuexing; Yang Yifang; Lu Yongjie; Zhang Jianguo; Xing Hongchuan

    2011-01-01

    Objective: To investigate the specific activity of '2 4 Na per unit neutron fluence, A B/Φ ,in blood produced for Chinese reference man irradiated by 252 Cf neutron source,and to analyze the effects of scattering neutrons from ground,wall,and ceiling in irradiation site on it.Methods: A 252 Cf neutron source of 3×10 8 n/s and the anthropomorphic phantom were used for experiments. The phantom was made from 4 mm thick of outer covering by perspex and the liquid tissue-equivalent substitute in it. The data of phantom dimensions fit into Chinese reference man.The weight ratios of H, N, O and C in substitute equal from source to long axis of phantom were 1.1, 2.1, 3.1 and 4.1 m, respectively. Both the neutron source and the position of xiphisternum of the phantom were 1.6 m above the floor. Results: The average specific activity of 24 Na per unit neutron fluence was related to the irradiation-distances, d, and its maximum value, A B/ΦM , deduced by experimental data was about 1.85×10 -7 Bq·cm 2 ·g -1 . Conclusions: The A B/ΦM corresponds to that of phantom irradiated by plane-parallel beams, and the value is about more 3% than that by BOMAB phantom reported in literature. It has shown that floor-(wall-)scattered neutrons in irradiation site have significant contribution to the specific activity of 24 Na, but they contributed relatively little to the induced neutron doses. Consequently,using the specific activity of 24 Na for assessing accidental neutron doses received by an individual, the contribution of scattered neutrons in accident site will lead dose to be overestimated, and need to be correct. (authors)

  12. TH-AB-209-10: Breast Cancer Identification Through X-Ray Coherent Scatter Spectral Imaging

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Kapadia, A; Morris, R; Albanese, K; Spencer, J; McCall, S; Greenberg, J [Duke University, Durham, NC (United States)

    2016-06-15

    Purpose: We have previously described the development and testing of a coherent-scatter spectral imaging system for identification of cancer. Our prior evaluations were performed using either tissue surrogate phantoms or formalin-fixed tissue obtained from pathology. Here we present the first results from a scatter imaging study using fresh breast tumor tissues obtained through surgical excision. Methods: A coherent-scatter imaging system was built using a clinical X-ray tube, photon counting detectors, and custom-designed coded-apertures. System performance was characterized using calibration phantoms of biological materials. Fresh breast tumors were obtained from patients undergoing mastectomy and lumpectomy surgeries for breast cancer. Each specimen was vacuum-sealed, scanned using the scatter imaging system, and then sent to pathology for histological workup. Scatter images were generated separately for each tissue specimen and analyzed to identify voxels containing malignant tissue. The images were compared against histological analysis (H&E + pathologist identification of tumors) to assess the match between scatter-based and histological diagnosis. Results: In all specimens scanned, the scatter images showed the location of cancerous regions within the specimen. The detection and classification was performed through automated spectral matching without the need for manual intervention. The scatter spectra corresponding to cancer tissue were found to be in agreement with those reported in literature. Inter-patient variability was found to be within limits reported in literature. The scatter images showed agreement with pathologist-identified regions of cancer. Spatial resolution for this configuration of the scanner was determined to be 2–3 mm, and the total scan time for each specimen was under 15 minutes. Conclusion: This work demonstrates the utility of coherent scatter imaging in identifying cancer based on the scatter properties of the tissue. It

  13. Sulfates as chromophores for multiwavelength photoacoustic imaging phantoms

    Science.gov (United States)

    Fonseca, Martina; An, Lu; Beard, Paul; Cox, Ben

    2017-12-01

    As multiwavelength photoacoustic imaging becomes increasingly widely used to obtain quantitative estimates, the need for validation studies conducted on well-characterized experimental phantoms becomes ever more pressing. One challenge that such studies face is the design of stable, well-characterized phantoms and absorbers with properties in a physiologically realistic range. This paper performs a full experimental characterization of aqueous solutions of copper and nickel sulfate, whose properties make them close to ideal as chromophores in multiwavelength photoacoustic imaging phantoms. Their absorption varies linearly with concentration, and they mix linearly. The concentrations needed to yield absorption values within the physiological range are below the saturation limit. The shape of their absorption spectra makes them useful analogs for oxy- and deoxyhemoglobin. They display long-term photostability (no indication of bleaching) as well as resistance to transient effects (no saturable absorption phenomena), and are therefore suitable for exposure to typical pulsed photoacoustic light sources, even when exposed to the high number of pulses required in scanning photoacoustic imaging systems. In addition, solutions with tissue-realistic, predictable, and stable scattering can be prepared by mixing sulfates and Intralipid, as long as an appropriate emulsifier is used. Finally, the Grüneisen parameter of the sulfates was found to be larger than that of water and increased linearly with concentration.

  14. Development of realistic physical breast phantoms matched to virtual breast phantoms based on human subject data

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Kiarashi, Nooshin; Nolte, Adam C.; Sturgeon, Gregory M.; Ghate, Sujata V.; Segars, William P.; Nolte, Loren W.; Samei, Ehsan

    2015-01-01

    Purpose: Physical phantoms are essential for the development, optimization, and evaluation of x-ray breast imaging systems. Recognizing the major effect of anatomy on image quality and clinical performance, such phantoms should ideally reflect the three-dimensional structure of the human breast. Currently, there is no commercially available three-dimensional physical breast phantom that is anthropomorphic. The authors present the development of a new suite of physical breast phantoms based on human data. Methods: The phantoms were designed to match the extended cardiac-torso virtual breast phantoms that were based on dedicated breast computed tomography images of human subjects. The phantoms were fabricated by high-resolution multimaterial additive manufacturing (3D printing) technology. The glandular equivalency of the photopolymer materials was measured relative to breast tissue-equivalent plastic materials. Based on the current state-of-the-art in the technology and available materials, two variations were fabricated. The first was a dual-material phantom, the Doublet. Fibroglandular tissue and skin were represented by the most radiographically dense material available; adipose tissue was represented by the least radiographically dense material. The second variation, the Singlet, was fabricated with a single material to represent fibroglandular tissue and skin. It was subsequently filled with adipose-equivalent materials including oil, beeswax, and permanent urethane-based polymer. Simulated microcalcification clusters were further included in the phantoms via crushed eggshells. The phantoms were imaged and characterized visually and quantitatively. Results: The mammographic projections and tomosynthesis reconstructed images of the fabricated phantoms yielded realistic breast background. The mammograms of the phantoms demonstrated close correlation with simulated mammographic projection images of the corresponding virtual phantoms. Furthermore, power

  15. Development of realistic physical breast phantoms matched to virtual breast phantoms based on human subject data

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Kiarashi, Nooshin [Carl E. Ravin Advanced Imaging Laboratories, Department of Radiology, Duke University Medical Center, Durham, North Carolina 27710 and Department of Electrical and Computer Engineering, Duke University, Durham, North Carolina 27708 (United States); Nolte, Adam C. [Carl E. Ravin Advanced Imaging Laboratories, Department of Radiology, Duke University Medical Center, Durham, North Carolina 27710 and Department of Biomedical Engineering, Duke University, Durham, North Carolina 27708 (United States); Sturgeon, Gregory M.; Ghate, Sujata V. [Carl E. Ravin Advanced Imaging Laboratories, Department of Radiology, Duke University Medical Center, Durham, North Carolina 27710 (United States); Segars, William P. [Carl E. Ravin Advanced Imaging Laboratories, Department of Radiology, Duke University Medical Center, Durham, North Carolina 27710 and Medical Physics Graduate Program, Duke University, Durham, North Carolina 27708 (United States); Nolte, Loren W. [Department of Electrical and Computer Engineering, Duke University, Durham, North Carolina 27708 and Department of Biomedical Engineering, Duke University, Durham, North Carolina 27708 (United States); Samei, Ehsan [Carl E. Ravin Advanced Imaging Laboratories, Department of Radiology, Duke University Medical Center, Durham, North Carolina 27710 (United States); Department of Electrical and Computer Engineering, Duke University, Durham, North Carolina 27708 (United States); Department of Biomedical Engineering, Duke University, Durham, North Carolina 27708 (United States); Medical Physics Graduate Program, Duke University, Durham, North Carolina 27708 (United States); Department of Physics, Duke University, Durham, North Carolina 27708 (United States); and others

    2015-07-15

    Purpose: Physical phantoms are essential for the development, optimization, and evaluation of x-ray breast imaging systems. Recognizing the major effect of anatomy on image quality and clinical performance, such phantoms should ideally reflect the three-dimensional structure of the human breast. Currently, there is no commercially available three-dimensional physical breast phantom that is anthropomorphic. The authors present the development of a new suite of physical breast phantoms based on human data. Methods: The phantoms were designed to match the extended cardiac-torso virtual breast phantoms that were based on dedicated breast computed tomography images of human subjects. The phantoms were fabricated by high-resolution multimaterial additive manufacturing (3D printing) technology. The glandular equivalency of the photopolymer materials was measured relative to breast tissue-equivalent plastic materials. Based on the current state-of-the-art in the technology and available materials, two variations were fabricated. The first was a dual-material phantom, the Doublet. Fibroglandular tissue and skin were represented by the most radiographically dense material available; adipose tissue was represented by the least radiographically dense material. The second variation, the Singlet, was fabricated with a single material to represent fibroglandular tissue and skin. It was subsequently filled with adipose-equivalent materials including oil, beeswax, and permanent urethane-based polymer. Simulated microcalcification clusters were further included in the phantoms via crushed eggshells. The phantoms were imaged and characterized visually and quantitatively. Results: The mammographic projections and tomosynthesis reconstructed images of the fabricated phantoms yielded realistic breast background. The mammograms of the phantoms demonstrated close correlation with simulated mammographic projection images of the corresponding virtual phantoms. Furthermore, power

  16. Computer tomographic phantom

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Lonn, A.H.R.; Jacobsen, D.R.; Zech, D.J.

    1988-01-01

    A reference phantom for computer tomography employs a flexible member with means for urging the flexible member into contact along the curved surface of the lumbar region of a human patient. In one embodiment, the reference phantom is pre-curved in an arc greater than required. Pressure from the weight of a patient laying upon the reference phantom is effective for straightening out the curvature sufficiently to achieve substantial contact along the lumbar region. The curvature of the reference phantom may be additionally distorted by a resilient pad between the resilient phantom and a table for urging it into contact with the lumbar region. In a second embodiment of the invention, a flexible reference phantom is disposed in a slot in the top of a resilient cushion. The resilient cushion and reference phantom may be enclosed in a flexible container. A partially curved reference phantom in a slot in a resilient cushion is also contemplated. (author)

  17. Evolution of dosimetric phantoms

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Reddy, A.R.

    2010-01-01

    In this oration evolution of the dosimetric phantoms for radiation protection and for medical use is briefly reviewed. Some details of the development of Indian Reference Phantom for internal dose estimation are also presented

  18. A statistically defined anthropomorphic software breast phantom

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Lau, Beverly A.; Reiser, Ingrid; Nishikawa, Robert M.; Bakic, Predrag R.

    2012-01-01

    Purpose: Digital anthropomorphic breast phantoms have emerged in the past decade because of recent advances in 3D breast x-ray imaging techniques. Computer phantoms in the literature have incorporated power-law noise to represent glandular tissue and branching structures to represent linear components such as ducts. When power-law noise is added to those phantoms in one piece, the simulated fibroglandular tissue is distributed randomly throughout the breast, resulting in dense tissue placement that may not be observed in a real breast. The authors describe a method for enhancing an existing digital anthropomorphic breast phantom by adding binarized power-law noise to a limited area of the breast. Methods: Phantoms with (0.5 mm) 3 voxel size were generated using software developed by Bakic et al. Between 0% and 40% of adipose compartments in each phantom were replaced with binarized power-law noise (β = 3.0) ranging from 0.1 to 0.6 volumetric glandular fraction. The phantoms were compressed to 7.5 cm thickness, then blurred using a 3 × 3 boxcar kernel and up-sampled to (0.1 mm) 3 voxel size using trilinear interpolation. Following interpolation, the phantoms were adjusted for volumetric glandular fraction using global thresholding. Monoenergetic phantom projections were created, including quantum noise and simulated detector blur. Texture was quantified in the simulated projections using power-spectrum analysis to estimate the power-law exponent β from 25.6 × 25.6 mm 2 regions of interest. Results: Phantoms were generated with total volumetric glandular fraction ranging from 3% to 24%. Values for β (averaged per projection view) were found to be between 2.67 and 3.73. Thus, the range of textures of the simulated breasts covers the textures observed in clinical images. Conclusions: Using these new techniques, digital anthropomorphic breast phantoms can be generated with a variety of glandular fractions and patterns. β values for this new phantom are comparable

  19. Time- and position-resolved synchrotron x-ray scattering for structure research on biological connective tissue

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Zizak, I.

    2000-03-01

    Different experiments on connective tissue using synchrotron radiation were performed during the course of this thesis. The accent was on collagen containing connective tissue, such as tendon, bone and cartilage. The high brilliance of synchrotron radiation was used to perform the experiments with high temporal or spatial resolution. In particular, a device for scanning small-angle scattering was developed for the use at synchrotron radiation sources, and used to study the interface between bone and cartilage. Tensile experiments on tendons: Tendons are highly hierarchically structured tissue consisting mostly of collagen. Complex organization on all levels results in a complicated visco-elastic mechanical behavior. Stretched to small amounts, tendon is easily deformed. However, if the stress grows, the stress strain curve bends upwards and finally the fibers show linear stress-strain dependence. Due to the complex structure of the tissue, the processes that control these bio-mechanical properties are not known in detail yet. Thus, it is very important to determine the hierarchical levels at which the viscous and elastic processes occur. We concentrated our studies to rat tail tendons, which consist mostly of collagen fibers. By investigating this system, we could gain some fundamental information about the way of assembling the collagen molecules in the fibers, as well as the interfibrillar connections. Tensile measurements on tendons give insight into the stress-strain characteristic of the tendon. Simultaneous acquisition of the structure function in a scattering experiment provides information on the processes at the molecular level, particularly the stretching of the collagen fibrils. To perform these two kinds of measurements simultaneously, a special device was used. Due to the speed of the processes, relative fast x-ray detectors and high intensity of the x-ray beam were required. Thus, the experiments were performed at the synchrotron radiation source

  20. Influence of skin surface roughness degree on energy characteristics of light scattered by a biological tissue

    Science.gov (United States)

    Barun, V. V.; Ivanov, A. P.

    2017-05-01

    We present the results of modelling of photometric characteristics of light in soft tissues illuminated by a parallel beam along the normal to the surface, obtained with allowance for the skin roughness parameters and the angular structure of radiation approaching the surface from within the tissue. The depth structure of the fluence rate and the spectra of the diffuse reflection of light by the tissue in the interval of wavelengths 300 - 1000 nm are considered. We discuss the influence of the tilt angle variance of rough surface microelements and light refraction on the studied characteristics. It is shown that these factors lead to the reduction of the radiation flux only in the near-surface tissue layer and practically do not affect the depth of light penetration into the tissue. On the other hand, the degree of the surface roughness and the conditions of its illumination from within the tissue essentially affect the coefficient of diffuse reflection of light and lead to its considerable growth compared to the cases of a smooth interface and completely diffuse illumination, often considered to simplify the theoretical problem solution. The role of the roughness of skin surface is assessed in application to the solution of different direct and inverse problems of biomedical optics.

  1. Characterization of the Optical Properties of Turbid Media by Supervised Learning of Scattering Patterns.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hassaninia, Iman; Bostanabad, Ramin; Chen, Wei; Mohseni, Hooman

    2017-11-10

    Fabricated tissue phantoms are instrumental in optical in-vitro investigations concerning cancer diagnosis, therapeutic applications, and drug efficacy tests. We present a simple non-invasive computational technique that, when coupled with experiments, has the potential for characterization of a wide range of biological tissues. The fundamental idea of our approach is to find a supervised learner that links the scattering pattern of a turbid sample to its thickness and scattering parameters. Once found, this supervised learner is employed in an inverse optimization problem for estimating the scattering parameters of a sample given its thickness and scattering pattern. Multi-response Gaussian processes are used for the supervised learning task and a simple setup is introduced to obtain the scattering pattern of a tissue sample. To increase the predictive power of the supervised learner, the scattering patterns are filtered, enriched by a regressor, and finally characterized with two parameters, namely, transmitted power and scaled Gaussian width. We computationally illustrate that our approach achieves errors of roughly 5% in predicting the scattering properties of many biological tissues. Our method has the potential to facilitate the characterization of tissues and fabrication of phantoms used for diagnostic and therapeutic purposes over a wide range of optical spectrum.

  2. A paper sheet phantom for scintigraphic planar imaging. Usefulness of pouch-laminated paper source

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Takaki, Akihiro; Soma, Tsutomu; Murase, Kenya; Teraoka, Satomi; Murakami, Tomonori; Kojima, Akihiro; Matsumoto, Masanori

    2007-01-01

    In order to perform experimental measurements for evaluation of imaging device's performance, data acquisition technique, and clinical images on scintigraphic imaging, many kinds of phantoms are employed. However, since these materials are acrylic and plastic, the thickness and quality of those materials cause attenuation and scatter in itself. We developed a paper sheet phantom sealed with a pouch laminator, which can be a true radioactive source in air. In this study, the paper sheet phantom was compared to the acrylic liver phantom, with the thickness of 2 cm, which is commercially available. The results showed that although some scatter counts were contained within the image of the acrylic liver phantom, there were few scattered photons in the paper sheet phantom image. Furthermore, this laminated paper sheet phantom made handling of the source and its waste easier. If the paper sheet phantom will be designed more sophisticatedly, it becomes a useful tool for planar imaging experiments. (author)

  3. Creating 3D gelatin phantoms for experimental evaluation in biomedicine

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Stein Nils

    2015-09-01

    Full Text Available We describe and evaluate a setup to create gelatin phantoms by robotic 3D printing. Key aspects are the large workspace, reproducibility and resolution of the created phantoms. Given its soft tissue nature, the gelatin is kept fluid during inside the system and we present parameters for additive printing of homogeneous, solid objects. The results indicate that 3D printing of gelatin can be an alternative for quickly creating larger soft tissue phantoms without the need for casting a mold.

  4. The Japanese adult, child and infant phantoms

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Cristy, Mark; Egbert, Stephen D.

    1987-01-01

    The mathematical phantom for adult Japanese atomic-bomb survivors is a modification of the 57-kg ORNL (Oak Ridge National Laboratory) phantom for Western 15-year-old males and adult females. For younger Japanese survivors mathematical phantoms were similarly modified from the 18 and 9 kg ORNL phantoms for Western 5- and 1-year-olds, respectively. To make the phantom correspond more closely with dimensions and organ sizes recommended for Japanese adults by Maruyama and coworkers (cf E184), changes were made in the size of the lungs, the pancreas, the thyroid, and the testes and in the length of the legs. Also, the head-and-neck region was modified to improve the dose estimates for the thyroid from external radiation, after the ideas of Nagarajan et al. The arms were separated from the trunk to represent more accurately the shielding by the phantom in external exposures. Furthermore, provisions were made to provide a phantom in a kneeling posture. The elemental composition of the tissues was changed to that given by Kerr. The resulting phantom is slightly smaller in mass (55 kg). Details of these changes are given

  5. Study on Compression Induced Contrast in X-ray Mammograms Using Breast Mimicking Phantoms

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    A. B. M. Aowlad Hossain

    2015-09-01

    Full Text Available X-ray mammography is commonly used to scan cancer or tumors in breast using low dose x-rays. But mammograms suffer from low contrast problem. The breast is compressed in mammography to reduce x-ray scattering effects. As tumors are stiffer than normal tissues, they undergo smaller deformation under compression. Therefore, image intensity at tumor region may change less than the background tissues. In this study, we try to find out compression induced contrast from multiple mammographic images of tumorous breast phantoms taken with different compressions. This is an extended work of our previous simulation study with experiment and more analysis. We have used FEM models for synthetic phantom and constructed a phantom using agar and n-propanol for simulation and experiment. The x-ray images of deformed phantoms have been obtained under three compression steps and a non-rigid registration technique has been applied to register these images. It is noticeably observed that the image intensity changes at tumor are less than those at surrounding which induce a detectable contrast. Addition of this compression induced contrast to the simulated and experimental images has improved their original contrast by a factor of about 1.4

  6. Ultrasonographic Quantification of Fat Content in Fatty Liver Phantoms

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Kim, Il Young; Kim, Pyo Nyun; Joo, Gyung Soo; Kim, Ho Jung; Kim, Young Beom; Lee, Byoung Ho

    1995-01-01

    Assuming that the fat content of certain tissue might be quantified by measurirrg the ultrasound echo level, we analyzed the ultrasound histograms obtained from the fatty liver phantoms that contained various amount of fat. Various amount of margarine(Mazola. Cliff wood. USA) was mixed with 2% of agarin solution state to produce fatty liver phantoms that contained 5, 10, 20, 30 and 40% of fat. We obtained ultrasound histogram from each fatty liver phantom in gel state. We used 2% agar gel as a control. The ultrasound histograms from the control phantom showed gradual increase in echo level as the depth from the surface increased. The echo level from the phantom that contained 5% of fat showed gradual increase and subsequent decrease with the peak echo level at the depth of 3cm. The echo levels from the phantoms that contained more in 5% of fat gradually decreased as the depth from the surface increased; the change becoming more pronounced as the fat content of the phantom increased. The echo levels measured at the depth of 1cm were 9.3(control), 29.6(5%phantom), 3l.3 (10% phantom), 26.3 (20% phantom), l8.8 (30% phantom), and l6dB (40% phantom). Fat content of fatty phantoms can not be quantified by measuring only echo level. Simultaneous measurement of attenuation of ultrasound, which is not easy to do and not done in this study, is prerequisite to quantify fat content

  7. Spatial dose and microdose distribution in tissues. Ionization, nuclear reactions, multiple scattering simulation of beam transport

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Jacquot, C.

    1976-01-01

    Computer simulation and nuclear emulsion and gelatin techniques enabled to give the total elastic and inelastic cross sections and to forecast the spatial microdose distributions in cells, nuclei and molecules. For this purpose, the transport of a beam into tissues having a given composition is calculated, the nuclear reactions are generated and the energy depositions in standard planes perpendicular to the beam are recorded

  8. Vibrational imaging of glucose uptake activity in live cells and tissues by stimulated Raman scattering microscopy (Conference Presentation)

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hu, Fanghao; Chen, Zhixing; Zhang, Luyuan; Shen, Yihui; Wei, Lu; Min, Wei

    2016-03-01

    Glucose is consumed as an energy source by virtually all living organisms, from bacteria to humans. Its uptake activity closely reflects the cellular metabolic status in various pathophysiological transformations, such as diabetes and cancer. Extensive efforts such as positron emission tomography, magnetic resonance imaging and fluorescence microscopy have been made to specifically image glucose uptake activity but all with technical limitations. Here, we report a new platform to visualize glucose uptake activity in live cells and tissues with subcellular resolution and minimal perturbation. A novel glucose analogue with a small alkyne tag (carbon-carbon triple bond) is developed to mimic natural glucose for cellular uptake, which can be imaged with high sensitivity and specificity by targeting the strong and characteristic alkyne vibration on stimulated Raman scattering (SRS) microscope to generate a quantitative three dimensional concentration map. Cancer cells with differing metabolic characteristics can be distinguished. Heterogeneous uptake patterns are observed in tumor xenograft tissues, neuronal culture and mouse brain tissues with clear cell-cell variations. Therefore, by offering the distinct advantage of optical resolution but without the undesirable influence of bulky fluorophores, our method of coupling SRS with alkyne labeled glucose will be an attractive tool to study energy demands of living systems at the single cell level.

  9. SU-F-R-40: Robustness Test of Computed Tomography Textures of Lung Tissues to Varying Scanning Protocols Using a Realistic Phantom Environment

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Lee, S; Markel, D; Hegyi, G; El Naqa, I

    2016-01-01

    Purpose: The reliability of computed tomography (CT) textures is an important element of radiomics analysis. This study investigates the dependency of lung CT textures on different breathing phases and changes in CT image acquisition protocols in a realistic phantom setting. Methods: We investigated 11 CT texture features for radiation-induced lung disease from 3 categories (first-order, grey level co-ocurrence matrix (GLCM), and Law’s filter). A biomechanical swine lung phantom was scanned at two breathing phases (inhale/exhale) and two scanning protocols set for PET/CT and diagnostic CT scanning. Lung volumes acquired from the CT images were divided into 2-dimensional sub-regions with a grid spacing of 31 mm. The distribution of the evaluated texture features from these sub-regions were compared between the two scanning protocols and two breathing phases. The significance of each factor on feature values were tested at 95% significance level using analysis of covariance (ANCOVA) model with interaction terms included. Robustness of a feature to a scanning factor was defined as non-significant dependence on the factor. Results: Three GLCM textures (variance, sum entropy, difference entropy) were robust to breathing changes. Two GLCM (variance, sum entropy) and 3 Law’s filter textures (S5L5, E5L5, W5L5) were robust to scanner changes. Moreover, the two GLCM textures (variance, sum entropy) were consistent across all 4 scanning conditions. First-order features, especially Hounsfield unit intensity features, presented the most drastic variation up to 39%. Conclusion: Amongst the studied features, GLCM and Law’s filter texture features were more robust than first-order features. However, the majority of the features were modified by either breathing phase or scanner changes, suggesting a need for calibration when retrospectively comparing scans obtained at different conditions. Further investigation is necessary to identify the sensitivity of individual image

  10. SU-F-R-40: Robustness Test of Computed Tomography Textures of Lung Tissues to Varying Scanning Protocols Using a Realistic Phantom Environment

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Lee, S; Markel, D; Hegyi, G [Medical Physics Unit, McGill University, Montreal, Quebec (Canada); El Naqa, I [University of Michigan, Ann Arbor, MI (United States)

    2016-06-15

    Purpose: The reliability of computed tomography (CT) textures is an important element of radiomics analysis. This study investigates the dependency of lung CT textures on different breathing phases and changes in CT image acquisition protocols in a realistic phantom setting. Methods: We investigated 11 CT texture features for radiation-induced lung disease from 3 categories (first-order, grey level co-ocurrence matrix (GLCM), and Law’s filter). A biomechanical swine lung phantom was scanned at two breathing phases (inhale/exhale) and two scanning protocols set for PET/CT and diagnostic CT scanning. Lung volumes acquired from the CT images were divided into 2-dimensional sub-regions with a grid spacing of 31 mm. The distribution of the evaluated texture features from these sub-regions were compared between the two scanning protocols and two breathing phases. The significance of each factor on feature values were tested at 95% significance level using analysis of covariance (ANCOVA) model with interaction terms included. Robustness of a feature to a scanning factor was defined as non-significant dependence on the factor. Results: Three GLCM textures (variance, sum entropy, difference entropy) were robust to breathing changes. Two GLCM (variance, sum entropy) and 3 Law’s filter textures (S5L5, E5L5, W5L5) were robust to scanner changes. Moreover, the two GLCM textures (variance, sum entropy) were consistent across all 4 scanning conditions. First-order features, especially Hounsfield unit intensity features, presented the most drastic variation up to 39%. Conclusion: Amongst the studied features, GLCM and Law’s filter texture features were more robust than first-order features. However, the majority of the features were modified by either breathing phase or scanner changes, suggesting a need for calibration when retrospectively comparing scans obtained at different conditions. Further investigation is necessary to identify the sensitivity of individual image

  11. Computational anthropomorphic phantoms for radiation protection dosimetry: evolution and prospects

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Lee, Choonsik; Lee, Jaiki

    2006-01-01

    Computational anthropomorphic phantoms are computer models of human anatomy used in the calculation of radiation dose distribution in the human body upon exposure to a radiation source. Depending on the manner to represent human anatomy, they are categorized into two classes: stylized and tomographic phantoms. Stylized phantoms, which have mainly been developed at the Oak Ridge National Laboratory (ORNL), describe human anatomy by using simple mathematical equations of analytical geometry. Several improved stylized phantoms such as male and female adults, pediatric series, and enhanced organ models have been developed following the first hermaphrodite adult stylized phantom, Medical Internal Radiation Dose (MIRD)-5 phantom. Although stylized phantoms have significantly contributed to dosimetry calculation, they provide only approximations of the true anatomical features of the human body and the resulting organ dose distribution. An alternative class of computational phantom, the tomographic phantom, is based upon three-dimensional imaging techniques such as Magnetic Resonance (MR) imaging and Computed Tomography (CT). The tomographic phantoms represent the human anatomy with a large number of voxels that are assigned tissue type and organ identity. To date, a total of around 30 tomographic phantoms including male and female adults, pediatric phantoms, and even a pregnant female, have been developed and utilized for realistic radiation dosimetry calculation. They are based on MRI/CT images or sectional color photos from patients, volunteers or cadavers. Several investigators have compared tomographic phantoms with stylized phantoms, and demonstrated the superiority of tomographic phantoms in terms of realistic anatomy and dosimetry calculation. This paper summarizes the history and current status of both stylized and tomographic phantoms, including Korean computational phantoms. Advantages, limitations, and future prospects are also discussed

  12. Patient specific 3D printed phantom for IMRT quality assurance

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Ehler, Eric D; Higgins, Patrick D; Dusenbery, Kathryn E; Barney, Brett M

    2014-01-01

    The purpose of this study was to test the feasibility of a patient specific phantom for patient specific dosimetric verification. Using the head and neck region of an anthropomorphic phantom as a substitute for an actual patient, a soft-tissue equivalent model was constructed with the use of a 3D printer. Calculated and measured dose in the anthropomorphic phantom and the 3D printed phantom was compared for a parallel-opposed head and neck field geometry to establish tissue equivalence. A nine-field IMRT plan was constructed and dose verification measurements were performed for the 3D printed phantom as well as traditional standard phantoms. The maximum difference in calculated dose was 1.8% for the parallel-opposed configuration. Passing rates of various dosimetric parameters were compared for the IMRT plan measurements; the 3D printed phantom results showed greater disagreement at superficial depths than other methods. A custom phantom was created using a 3D printer. It was determined that the use of patient specific phantoms to perform dosimetric verification and estimate the dose in the patient is feasible. In addition, end-to-end testing on a per-patient basis was possible with the 3D printed phantom. Further refinement of the phantom construction process is needed for routine use. (paper)

  13. Influence of Manufacturing Processes on the Performance of Phantom Lungs

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Traub, Richard J.

    2008-01-01

    Chest counting is an important tool for estimating the radiation dose to individuals who have inhaled radioactive materials. Chest counting systems are calibrated by counting the activity in the lungs of phantoms where the activity in the phantom lungs is known. In the United States a commonly used calibration phantom was developed at the Lawrence Livermore National Laboratory and is referred to as the Livermore Torso Phantom. An important feature of this phantom is that the phantom lungs can be interchanged so that the counting system can be challenged by different combinations of radionuclides and activity. Phantom lungs are made from lung tissue substitutes whose constituents are foaming plastics and various adjuvants selected to make the lung tissue substitute similar to normal healthy lung tissue. Some of the properties of phantom lungs cannot be readily controlled by phantom lung manufacturers. Some, such as density, are a complex function of the manufacturing process, while others, such as elemental composition of the bulk plastic are controlled by the plastics manufacturer without input, or knowledge of the phantom manufacturer. Despite the fact that some of these items cannot be controlled, they can be measured and accounted for. This report describes how manufacturing processes can influence the performance of phantom lungs. It is proposed that a metric that describes the brightness of the lung be employed by the phantom lung manufacturer to determine how well the phantom lung approximates the characteristics of a human lung. For many purposes, the linear attenuation of the lung tissue substitute is an appropriate surrogate for the brightness

  14. Electrical impedance spectroscopy (EIS)-based evaluation of biological tissue phantoms to study multifrequency electrical impedance tomography (Mf-EIT) systems

    KAUST Repository

    Bera, Tushar Kanti; Nagaraju, J.; Lubineau, Gilles

    2016-01-01

    . In this direction the impedance responses of the saline solution (background) and a number vegetable and fruit tissues (inhomogeneities) are studied with electrical impedance spectroscopy (EIS) and the frequency responses of bioelectrical impedance and conductivity

  15. Silver nanoparticle based surface enhanced Raman scattering spectroscopy of diabetic and normal rat pancreatic tissue under near-infrared laser excitation

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Huang, H; Shi, H; Chen, W; Yu, Y; Lin, D; Xu, Q; Feng, S; Lin, J; Huang, Z; Li, Y; Chen, R

    2013-01-01

    This paper presents the use of high spatial resolution silver nanoparticle based near-infrared surface enhanced Raman scattering (SERS) from rat pancreatic tissue to obtain biochrmical information about the tissue. A high quality SERS signal from a mixture of pancreatic tissues and silver nanoparticles can be obtained within 10 s using a Renishaw micro-Raman system. Prominent SERS bands of pancreatic tissue were assigned to known molecular vibrations, such as the vibrations of DNA bases, RNA bases, proteins and lipids. Different tissue structures of diabetic and normal rat pancreatic tissues have characteristic features in SERS spectra. This exploratory study demonstrated great potential for using SERS imaging to distinguish diabetic and normal pancreatic tissues on frozen sections without using dye labeling of functionalized binding sites. (letter)

  16. Pattern analysis of laser-tattoo interactions for picosecond- and nanosecond-domain 1,064-nm neodymium-doped yttrium-aluminum-garnet lasers in tissue-mimicking phantom.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ahn, Keun Jae; Zheng, Zhenlong; Kwon, Tae Rin; Kim, Beom Joon; Lee, Hye Sun; Cho, Sung Bin

    2017-05-08

    During laser treatment for tattoo removal, pigment chromophores absorb laser energy, resulting in fragmentation of the ink particles via selective photothermolysis. The present study aimed to outline macroscopic laser-tattoo interactions in tissue-mimicking (TM) phantoms treated with picosecond- and nanosecond-domain lasers. Additionally, high-speed cinematographs were captured to visualize time-dependent tattoo-tissue interactions, from laser irradiation to the formation of photothermal and photoacoustic injury zones (PIZs). In all experimental settings using the nanosecond or picosecond laser, tattoo pigments fragmented into coarse particles after a single laser pulse, and further disintegrated into smaller particles that dispersed toward the boundaries of PIZs after repetitive delivery of laser energy. Particles fractured by picosecond treatment were more evenly dispersed throughout PIZs than those fractured by nanosecond treatment. Additionally, picosecond-then-picosecond laser treatment (5-pass-picosecond treatment + 5-pass-picosecond treatment) induced greater disintegration of tattoo particles within PIZs than picosecond-then-nanosecond laser treatment (5-pass-picosecond treatment + 5-pass-nanosecond treatment). High-speed cinematography recorded the formation of PIZs after repeated reflection and propagation of acoustic waves over hundreds of microseconds to a few milliseconds. The present data may be of use in predicting three-dimensional laser-tattoo interactions and associated reactions in surrounding tissue.

  17. Compton scatter correction for planner scintigraphic imaging

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Vaan Steelandt, E; Dobbeleir, A; Vanregemorter, J [Algemeen Ziekenhuis Middelheim, Antwerp (Belgium). Dept. of Nuclear Medicine and Radiotherapy

    1995-12-01

    A major problem in nuclear medicine is the image degradation due to Compton scatter in the patient. Photons emitted by the radioactive tracer scatter in collision with electrons of the surrounding tissue. Due to the resulting loss of energy and change in direction, the scattered photons induce an object dependant background on the images. This results in a degradation of the contrast of warm and cold lesions. Although theoretically interesting, most of the techniques proposed in literature like the use of symmetrical photopeaks can not be implemented on the commonly used gamma camera due to the energy/linearity/sensitivity corrections applied in the detector. A method for a single energy isotope based on existing methods with adjustments towards daily practice and clinical situations is proposed. It is assumed that the scatter image, recorded from photons collected within a scatter window adjacent to the photo peak, is a reasonable close approximation of the true scatter component of the image reconstructed from the photo peak window. A fraction `k` of the image using the scatter window is subtracted from the image recorded in the photo peak window to produce the compensated image. The principal matter of the method is the right value for the factor `k`, which is determined in a mathematical way and confirmed by experiments. To determine `k`, different kinds of scatter media are used and are positioned in different ways in order to simulate a clinical situation. For a secondary energy window from 100 to 124 keV below a photo peak window from 126 to 154 keV, a value of 0.7 is found. This value has been verified using both an antropomorph thyroid phantom and the Rollo contrast phantom.

  18. Fabrication of a set of realistic torso phantoms for calibration of transuranic nuclide lung counting facilities

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Griffith, R.V.; Anderson, A.L.; Sundbeck, C.W.; Alderson, S.W.

    1983-01-01

    A set of 16 tissue equivalent torso phantoms has been fabricated for use by major laboratories involved in counting transuranic nuclides in the lung. These phantoms, which have bone equivalent plastic rib cages, duplicate the performance of the DOE Realistic Phantom set. The new phantoms (and their successors) provide the user laboratories with a highly realistic calibration tool. Moreover, use of these phantoms will allow participating laboratories to intercompare calibration information, both on formal and informal bases. 3 refs., 2 figs

  19. The role of phantom and treatment head generated bremsstrahlung in high-energy electron beam dosimetry

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Sorcini, B.B.; Hyoedynmaa, S.; Brahme, A.

    1996-01-01

    An analytical expression has been derived for the phantom generated bremsstrahlung photons in plane-parallel monoenergetic electron beams normally incident on material of any atomic number (Be, H 2 O, Al, Cu and U). The expression is suitable for the energy range from 1 to 50 MeV and it is solely based on known scattering power and radiative and collision stopping power data for the material at the incident electron energy. The depth dose distribution due to the bremsstrahlung generated by the electrons in the phantom is derived by convolving the bremsstrahlung energy fluence produced in the phantom with a simple analytical energy deposition kernel. The kernel accounts for both electrons and photons set in motion by the bremsstrahlung photons. The energy loss by the primary electrons, the build-up of the electron fluence and the generation, attenuation and absorption of bremsstrahlung photons are all taken into account in the analytical formula. The longitudinal energy deposition kernel is derived analytically and it is consistent with both the classical biexponential relation describing the photon depth dose distribution and the exponential attenuation of the primary photons. For comparison Monte Carlo calculated energy deposition distributions using ITS3 code were used. Good agreement was found between the results with the analytical expression and the Monte Carlo calculation. For tissue equivalent materials, the maximum total energy deposition differs by less than 0.2% from Monte Carlo calculated dose distributions. The result can be used to estimate the depth dependence of phantom generated bremsstrahlung in different materials in therapeutic electron beams and the bremsstrahlung production in different electron absorbers such as scattering foils, transmission monitors and photon and electron collimators. By subtracting the phantom generated bremsstrahlung from the total bremsstrahlung background the photon contamination generated in the treatment head can be

  20. Improved Margins Detection of Regions Enriched with Gold Nanoparticles inside Biological Phantom

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Yossef Danan

    2017-02-01

    Full Text Available Utilizing the surface plasmon resonance (SPR effect of gold nanoparticles (GNPs enables their use as contrast agents in a variety of biomedical applications for diagnostics and treatment. These applications use both the very strong scattering and absorption properties of the GNPs due to their SPR effects. Most imaging methods use the light-scattering properties of the GNPs. However, the illumination source is in the same wavelength of the GNPs’ scattering wavelength, leading to background noise caused by light scattering from the tissue. In this paper we present a method to improve border detection of regions enriched with GNPs aiming for the real-time application of complete tumor resection by utilizing the absorption of specially targeted GNPs using photothermal imaging. Phantoms containing different concentrations of GNPs were irradiated with a continuous-wave laser and measured with a thermal imaging camera which detected the temperature field of the irradiated phantoms. By modulating the laser illumination, and use of a simple post processing, the border location was identified at an accuracy of better than 0.5 mm even when the surrounding area got heated. This work is a continuation of our previous research.

  1. Small photon beam measurements using radiochromic film and Monte Carlo simulations in a water phantom

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Garcia-Garduno, Olivia A.; Larraga-Gutierrez, Jose M.; Rodriguez-Villafuerte, Mercedes; Martinez-Davalos, Arnulfo; Celis, Miguel A.

    2010-01-01

    This work reports the use of both GafChromic EBT film immersed in a water phantom and Monte Carlo (MC) simulations for small photon beam stereotactic radiosurgery dosimetry. Circularly collimated photon beams with diameters in the 4-20 mm range of a dedicated 6 MV linear accelerator (Novalis (registered) , BrainLAB, Germany) were used to perform off-axis ratios, tissue maximum ratios and total scatter factors measurements, and MC simulations. GafChromic EBT film data show an excellent agreement with MC results (<2.7%) for all measured quantities.

  2. Phantom cosmologies and fermions

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Chimento, Luis P; Forte, Monica; Devecchi, Fernando P; Kremer, Gilberto M

    2008-01-01

    Form invariance transformations can be used for constructing phantom cosmologies starting with conventional cosmological models. In this work we reconsider the scalar field case and extend the discussion to fermionic fields, where the 'phantomization' process exhibits a new class of possible accelerated regimes. As an application we analyze the cosmological constant group for a fermionic seed fluid

  3. 21. Phantom pain.

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Wolff, A.P.; Vanduynhoven, E.; Kleef, M. van; Huygen, F.; Pope, J.E.; Mekhail, N.

    2011-01-01

    Phantom pain is pain caused by elimination or interruption of sensory nerve impulses by destroying or injuring the sensory nerve fibers after amputation or deafferentation. The reported incidence of phantom limb pain after trauma, injury or peripheral vascular diseases is 60% to 80%. Over half the

  4. Development of a physical 3D anthropomorphic breast phantom

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Carton, Ann-Katherine; Bakic, Predrag; Ullberg, Christer; Derand, Helen; Maidment, Andrew D. A. [Department of Radiology, University of Pennsylvania, 1 Silverstein Building, 3400 Spruce Street, Philadelphia, Pennsylvania 19104-4206 (United States); XCounter AB, Svaerdvaegen 11, SE-182 33 Danderyd (Sweden); Department of Radiology, University of Pennsylvania, 1 Silverstein Building, 3400 Spruce Street, Philadelphia, Pennsylvania 19104-4206 (United States)

    2011-02-15

    Purpose: Develop a technique to fabricate a 3D anthropomorphic breast phantom with known ground truth for image quality assessment of 2D and 3D breast x-ray imaging systems. Methods: The phantom design is based on an existing computer model that can generate breast voxel phantoms of varying composition, size, and shape. The physical phantom is produced in two steps. First, the portion of the voxel phantom consisting of the glandular tissue, skin, and Cooper's ligaments is separated into sections. These sections are then fabricated by high-resolution rapid prototyping using a single material with 50% glandular equivalence. The remaining adipose compartments are then filled using an epoxy-based resin (EBR) with 100% adipose equivalence. The phantom sections are stacked to form the physical anthropomorphic phantom. Results: The authors fabricated a prototype phantom corresponding to a 450 ml breast with 45% dense tissue, deformed to a 5 cm compressed thickness. Both the rapid prototype (RP) and EBR phantom materials are radiographically uniform. The coefficient of variation (CoV) of the relative attenuation between RP and EBR phantom samples was <1% and the CoV of the signal intensity within RP and EBR phantom samples was <1.5% on average. Digital mammography and reconstructed digital breast tomosynthesis images of the authors' phantom were reviewed by two radiologists; they reported that the images are similar in appearance to clinical images, noting there are still artifacts from air bubbles in the EBR. Conclusions: The authors have developed a technique to produce 3D anthropomorphic breast phantoms with known ground truth, yielding highly realistic x-ray images. Such phantoms may serve both qualitative and quantitative performance assessments for 2D and 3D breast x-ray imaging systems.

  5. Mathematical human phantoms and their application to radiation protection

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Yamaguchi, Yasuhiro

    1998-01-01

    This review described the characteristics of mathematical phantoms, their history over 30 years and their application. Mathematical phantoms are classified into two models of formula and voxel types. In the former, human body and organs are described by 2- and/or 3-D mathematical formula and can be seen as a combination of solid bodies like spheres, cubes and ovals. The phantom is composed from three tissue components (bone, lung and soft tissue) and made on data on Reference Man in ICRP Publ. 23. The latter voxel (volume pixel) phantom consists from a number of small cubes based on CT and MRI images of a certain man. For instance, the phantom CHILD, 1.54 x 1.54 x 8.00 mm 3 in size, is based on a 7-year old child, which consisting from about one million voxels. The mathematical phantom was first made in Oak Ridge National Laboratory in the middle of the nineteen-sixties, which have undergone various improvements to reach MIRD-5 phantom. Thereafter, many similitude phantoms have been made as a variation of MIRD-5, depending on age and sex (e.g., ADAM and EVA). Voxel phantom was made in the middle of nineteen-eighties and have undergone improvements which are continued even currently in Japan, U.S. etc. The mathematical phantoms are used for calculation of radiation transport program by Monte Carlo method in the field of radiation protection. Also in the field of medicine, the phantom is used for calculation of internal and external exposure doses, of correction constants of externally measuring instruments, of doses for neutron capture therapy and of A-bomb exposure doses in Hiroshima and Nagasaki for reevaluation. Recently, the development of phantom is in the current from formula phantom to voxel one due to the purpose of precision and standardization. (K.H.)

  6. Optoacoustic response of gold nanorods in soft phantoms using high-power diode laser assemblies at 870 and 905 nm.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Leggio, L; Gawali, S; Gallego, D; Rodríguez, S; Sánchez, M; Carpintero, G; Lamela, H

    2017-03-01

    In the present paper we show the optoacoustic (OA) response of two solutions of gold nanorods dispersed in distilled water (0.8 mg/ml) and hosted in tissue-like phantoms by using small arrays of HPDLs at 870 and 905 nm as excitation sources. The HPDLs are coupled to a 7-to-1 optical fiber bundle with output diameter of 675 μm. Each solution of gold nanorods exhibits an absorption peak close to the operating wavelength, i.e. ~860 nm and ~900 nm, respectively, to optimize the generation of OA signals. The phantoms are made of agar, intralipid and hemoglobin to simulate a soft biological tissue with reduced properties of scattering. Three 3-mm diameter tubes done in the phantoms at different depths (0.9 cm, 1.8 cm, and 2.7 cm) have been filled with gold nanorods. In this way, OA signals with appreciable SNR are generated at different depths in the phantoms. The high OA response exhibited by gold nanorods suggests their application in OA spectroscopy as exogenous contrast agents to detect and monitor emerging diseases like metastasis and arteriosclerotic plaques.

  7. Light transport in turbid media with non-scattering, low-scattering and high absorption heterogeneities based on hybrid simplified spherical harmonics with radiosity model.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yang, Defu; Chen, Xueli; Peng, Zhen; Wang, Xiaorui; Ripoll, Jorge; Wang, Jing; Liang, Jimin

    2013-01-01

    Modeling light propagation in the whole body is essential and necessary for optical imaging. However, non-scattering, low-scattering and high absorption regions commonly exist in biological tissues, which lead to inaccuracy of the existing light transport models. In this paper, a novel hybrid light transport model that couples the simplified spherical harmonics approximation (SPN) with the radiosity theory (HSRM) was presented, to accurately describe light transport in turbid media with non-scattering, low-scattering and high absorption heterogeneities. In the model, the radiosity theory was used to characterize the light transport in non-scattering regions and the SPN was employed to handle the scattering problems, including subsets of low-scattering and high absorption. A Neumann source constructed by the light transport in the non-scattering region and formed at the interface between the non-scattering and scattering regions was superposed into the original light source, to couple the SPN with the radiosity theory. The accuracy and effectiveness of the HSRM was first verified with both regular and digital mouse model based simulations and a physical phantom based experiment. The feasibility and applicability of the HSRM was then investigated by a broad range of optical properties. Lastly, the influence of depth of the light source on the model was also discussed. Primary results showed that the proposed model provided high performance for light transport in turbid media with non-scattering, low-scattering and high absorption heterogeneities.

  8. Mathematical phantoms for evaluation of age-specific internal dose

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Cristy, M.

    1980-01-01

    A series of mathematical phantoms representing children has been developed for use with photon transport codes. These phantoms, patterned after the Fisher-Snyder adult phantom, consist of simple mathematical expressions for the boundaries of the major organs and body sections. The location and shape of the organs are consistent with drawings depicting developmental anatomy, with the organ volumes assigned such that the masses at the various ages conform closely with the data presented in Reference Man. The explicit mathematical expressions for the various ages overcome the potential misrepresentation of organ sizes that occurred in phantoms derived from simple mathematical transformations of the adult phantom. Female breast tissue has been added to the phantoms, including the adult, now allowing assessment of doses to this organ

  9. ICRU activity in the field of phantoms in diagnostic radiology

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Wambersie, A.; White, D.R.

    1992-01-01

    The ICRU Report on 'Phantoms and Computational Models in Radiation Therapy, Diagnosis and Protection' is presented. The Report contains a major section on human anatomy, from fetus to adult with the variations due to ethnic origin. Tolerance levels for the phantoms (composition, dimensions) are proposed and quality assurance programs are outlined. The report contains extensive appendices: human anatomical data and full specification of over 80 phantoms and computational models. ICRU Report 46 on 'Photon, electron, proton and neutron interaction data for body tissues' is closely related to the field of phantoms. It is a logical continuation on ICRU Report 44 (1989) on 'Tissue substitutes in radiation dosimetry and measurements' and contains the interaction data for more than 100 tissues, from fetal to adult, including some diseased tissues. (author)

  10. Electron beam dosimetry in heterogeneous phantoms using a MAGIC normoxic polymer gel

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Ghahraman Asl, R.; Nedaie, H.; Bolouri, B.; Arbabi, A.

    2010-01-01

    Nowadays radiosensitive polymer gels are used as a reliable dosimetry tool for verification of 3D dose distributions. Special characteristics of these dosimeters have made them useful for verification of complex dose distributions in clinical situations. The aim of this work was to evaluate the capability of a normoxic polymer gel to determine electron dose distributions in different slab phantoms in presence of small heterogeneities. Materials and Methods: Different cylindrical phantoms consisting gel were used under slab phantoms during each irradiation. MR images of irradiated gel phantoms were obtained to determine their R2 relaxation maps. 1D and 2D lateral dose profiles were acquired at depths of 1 cm for an 8 MeV beam and 1 and 4 cm for the 15 MeV energy, and then compared with the lateral dose profiles measured using a diode detector. In addition, 3D dose distributions around these heterogeneities for the same energies and depths were measured using a gel dosimeter. Results: Dose resolution for MR gel images at the range of 0-10 Gy was less than 1.55 Gy. Mean dose difference and distance to agreement for dose profiles were 2.6% and 2.2 mm, respectively. The results of the MAGIC-type polymer gel for bone heterogeneity at 8 MeV showed a reduction in dose of approximately 50%, and 30% and 10% at depths 1 and 4 cm at 15 MeV. However, for air heterogeneity increases in dose of approximately 50% at depth 1 cm under the heterogeneity at 8 MeV and 20% and 45% respectively at 15 MeV were observed. Discussion and Conclusion: Generally, electron beam distributions are significantly altered in the presence of tissue inhomogeneities such as bone and air cavities, this being related to mass stopping and mass scattering powers of heterogeneous materials. At the same time, hot and cold scatter lobes under heterogeneity regions due to scatter edge effects were also seen. However, these effects (increased dose, reduced dose, hot and cold spots) at deeper depths, are

  11. Use of VAP3D software in the construction of pathological anthropomorphic phantoms for dosimetric evaluations

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Lima, Lindeval Fernandes de; Lima, Fernando R.A.

    2011-01-01

    This paper performs a new type of dosimetric evaluation, where it was used a phantom of pathological voxels (representative phantom of sick person). The software VAP3D (Visualization and Analysis of Phantoms 3D) were used for, from a healthy phantom (phantom representative of healthy person), to introduce three dimensional regions to simulate tumors. It was used the Monte Carlo ESGnrc code to simulate the X ray photon transport, his interaction with matter and evaluation of absorbed dose in organs and tissues from thorax region of the healthy phantom and his pathological version. This is a computer model of typical exposure for programming the treatments in radiodiagnostic

  12. The impact of anthropometric patient-phantom matching on organ dose: A hybrid phantom study for fluoroscopy guided interventions

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Johnson, Perry B.; Geyer, Amy; Borrego, David; Ficarrotta, Kayla; Johnson, Kevin; Bolch, Wesley E.

    2011-01-01

    Purpose: To investigate the benefits and limitations of patient-phantom matching for determining organ dose during fluoroscopy guided interventions. Methods: In this study, 27 CT datasets representing patients of different sizes and genders were contoured and converted into patient-specific computational models. Each model was matched, based on height and weight, to computational phantoms selected from the UF hybrid patient-dependent series. In order to investigate the influence of phantom type on patient organ dose, Monte Carlo methods were used to simulate two cardiac projections (PA/left lateral) and two abdominal projections (RAO/LPO). Organ dose conversion coefficients were then calculated for each patient-specific and patient-dependent phantom and also for a reference stylized and reference hybrid phantom. The coefficients were subsequently analyzed for any correlation between patient-specificity and the accuracy of the dose estimate. Accuracy was quantified by calculating an absolute percent difference using the patient-specific dose conversion coefficients as the reference. Results: Patient-phantom matching was shown most beneficial for estimating the dose to heavy patients. In these cases, the improvement over using a reference stylized phantom ranged from approximately 50% to 120% for abdominal projections and for a reference hybrid phantom from 20% to 60% for all projections. For lighter individuals, patient-phantom matching was clearly superior to using a reference stylized phantom, but not significantly better than using a reference hybrid phantom for certain fields and projections. Conclusions: The results indicate two sources of error when patients are matched with phantoms: Anatomical error, which is inherent due to differences in organ size and location, and error attributed to differences in the total soft tissue attenuation. For small patients, differences in soft tissue attenuation are minimal and are exceeded by inherent anatomical differences

  13. A dynamic phantom for radionuclide renography

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Heikkinen, J.O.

    1999-01-01

    The aim of the study was to develop and test a dynamic phantom simulating radionuclide renography. The phantom consisted of five partly lead covered plastic containers simulating kidneys, heart, bladder and background (soft tissues, liver and spleen). Dynamics were performed with multiple movable steel plates between containers and a gamma camera. Control of the plates is performed manually with a stopwatch following exact time schedules. The containers were filled with activities ( 99m Tc) which produce count rates close to clinical situations. Count rates produced by the phantom were compared with ten clinical renography cases: five 99m Tc MAG3 and five 99m Tc DTPA examinations. Two phantom simulations were repeated three times with separate fillings, acquisitions and analyses. Precision errors as a coefficient of variation (CV) of repeated measurements were calculated and theoretical values were compared with the corresponding measured ones. A multicentre comparison was made between 19 nuclear medicine laboratories and three clinical cases were simulated with the phantom. Correlations between count rates produced by the phantom and clinical studies were r=0.964 for 99m Tc MAG3 (p 99m Tc DTPA (p max was 4.0±1.6%. Images and curves of the scanned phantom were close to a real patient in all 19 laboratories but calculated parameters varied: the difference between theoretical and measured values for T max was 6.8±6.2%. The difference between laboratories is most probably due to variations in acquisition protocols and analysis programs: 19 laboratories with 18 different protocols and 8 different programs. The dynamics were found to be repeatable and suitable for calibration purposes for radionuclide renography programs and protocols as well as for multicentre comparisons. (author)

  14. Heterogeneous Breast Phantom Development for Microwave Imaging Using Regression Models

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Camerin Hahn

    2012-01-01

    Full Text Available As new algorithms for microwave imaging emerge, it is important to have standard accurate benchmarking tests. Currently, most researchers use homogeneous phantoms for testing new algorithms. These simple structures lack the heterogeneity of the dielectric properties of human tissue and are inadequate for testing these algorithms for medical imaging. To adequately test breast microwave imaging algorithms, the phantom has to resemble different breast tissues physically and in terms of dielectric properties. We propose a systematic approach in designing phantoms that not only have dielectric properties close to breast tissues but also can be easily shaped to realistic physical models. The approach is based on regression model to match phantom's dielectric properties with the breast tissue dielectric properties found in Lazebnik et al. (2007. However, the methodology proposed here can be used to create phantoms for any tissue type as long as ex vivo, in vitro, or in vivo tissue dielectric properties are measured and available. Therefore, using this method, accurate benchmarking phantoms for testing emerging microwave imaging algorithms can be developed.

  15. Comparison of different phantoms used in digital diagnostic imaging

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Bor, Dogan, E-mail: bor@eng.ankara.edu.tr [Ankara University, Faculty of Engineering, Department of Engineering Physics. Tandogan, 06100 Ankara (Turkey); Unal, Elif, E-mail: elf.unall@gmail.com [Radat Dosimetry Laboratory Services, 06830, Golbasi, Ankara (Turkey); Uslu, Anil, E-mail: m.aniluslu@gmail.com [Radat Dosimetry Laboratory Services, 06830, Golbasi, Ankara (Turkey)

    2015-09-21

    The organs of extremity, chest, skull and lumbar were physically simulated using uniform PMMA slabs with different thicknesses alone and using these slabs together with aluminum plates and air gaps (ANSI Phantoms). The variation of entrance surface air kerma and scatter fraction with X-ray beam qualities was investigated for these phantoms and the results were compared with those measured from anthropomorphic phantoms. A flat panel digital radiographic system was used for all the experiments. Considerable variations of entrance surface air kermas were found for the same organs of different designs, and highest doses were measured for the PMMA slabs. A low contrast test tool and a contrast detail test object (CDRAD) were used together with each organ simulation of PMMA slabs and ANSI phantoms in order to test the clinical image qualities. Digital images of these phantom combinations and anthropomorphic phantoms were acquired in raw and clinically processed formats. Variation of image quality with kVp and post processing was evaluated using the numerical metrics of these test tools and measured contrast values from the anthropomorphic phantoms. Our results indicated that design of some phantoms may not be efficient enough to reveal the expected performance of the post processing algorithms.

  16. Monte Carlo-based investigation of water-equivalence of solid phantoms at 137Cs energy

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Vishwakarma, Ramkrushna S.; Palani Selvam, T.; Sahoo, Sridhar; Mishra, Subhalaxmi; Chourasiya, Ghanshyam

    2013-01-01

    Investigation of solid phantom materials such as solid water, virtual water, plastic water, RW1, polystyrene, and polymethylmethacrylate (PMMA) for their equivalence to liquid water at 137 Cs energy (photon energy of 662 keV) under full scatter conditions is carried out using the EGSnrc Monte Carlo code system. Monte Carlo-based EGSnrc code system was used in the work to calculate distance-dependent phantom scatter corrections. The study also includes separation of primary and scattered dose components. Monte Carlo simulations are carried out using primary particle histories up to 5 x 10 9 to attain less than 0.3% statistical uncertainties in the estimation of dose. Water equivalence of various solid phantoms such as solid water, virtual water, RW1, PMMA, polystyrene, and plastic water materials are investigated at 137 Cs energy under full scatter conditions. The investigation reveals that solid water, virtual water, and RW1 phantoms are water equivalent up to 15 cm from the source. Phantom materials such as plastic water, PMMA, and polystyrene phantom materials are water equivalent up to 10 cm. At 15 cm from the source, the phantom scatter corrections are 1.035, 1.050, and 0.949 for the phantoms PMMA, plastic water, and polystyrene, respectively. (author)

  17. Development of the Reference Korean Female Voxel Phantom

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Ham, Bo Kyoung; Cho, Kun Woo; Yeom, Yoen Soo; Jeong, Jong Hwi; Kim, Chan Hyeong; Han, Min Cheol

    2012-01-01

    The objective of this study is for development of the reference Korean female phantom, HDRK-Woman. The phantom was constructed by adjusting a Korean woman voxel phantom to the Reference Korean data. The Korean woman phantom had been developed based on the high-resolution color slice images obtained from an adult Korean female cadaver. There were a total of 39 organs including the 27 organs specified in ICRP 103 for effective dose calculation. The voxel resolution of the phantom was 1.967 X 1.967 X X 2.0619 mm 3 and the voxel array size is 261 X 109 X 825 in the x, y and z directions. Then, the voxel resolution was changed to 2.0351 X 2.0351 X 2.0747 mm 3 for adjustment of the height and total bone mass of the phantom to the Reference Korean data. Finally, the internal organs and tissue were adjusted using in-house software program developed for 3D volume adjustment of the organs and tissue. The effective dose values of HDRK phantoms were calculated for broad parallel photon beams using MCNPX Monte Carlo code and compared with those of ICRP phantoms.

  18. Development of the Reference Korean Female Voxel Phantom

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Ham, Bo Kyoung; Cho, Kun Woo [University of Science and Technology, Korea Institute of Nuclear Safety, Daejeon (Korea, Republic of); Yeom, Yoen Soo; Jeong, Jong Hwi; Kim, Chan Hyeong; Han, Min Cheol [Hanyang University, Seoul (Korea, Republic of)

    2012-03-15

    The objective of this study is for development of the reference Korean female phantom, HDRK-Woman. The phantom was constructed by adjusting a Korean woman voxel phantom to the Reference Korean data. The Korean woman phantom had been developed based on the high-resolution color slice images obtained from an adult Korean female cadaver. There were a total of 39 organs including the 27 organs specified in ICRP 103 for effective dose calculation. The voxel resolution of the phantom was 1.967 X 1.967 X X 2.0619 mm{sup 3} and the voxel array size is 261 X 109 X 825 in the x, y and z directions. Then, the voxel resolution was changed to 2.0351 X 2.0351 X 2.0747 mm{sup 3} for adjustment of the height and total bone mass of the phantom to the Reference Korean data. Finally, the internal organs and tissue were adjusted using in-house software program developed for 3D volume adjustment of the organs and tissue. The effective dose values of HDRK phantoms were calculated for broad parallel photon beams using MCNPX Monte Carlo code and compared with those of ICRP phantoms.

  19. Construction of average adult Japanese voxel phantoms for dose assessment

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Sato, Kaoru; Takahashi, Fumiaki; Satoh, Daiki; Endo, Akira

    2011-12-01

    The International Commission on Radiological Protection (ICRP) adopted the adult reference voxel phantoms based on the physiological and anatomical reference data of Caucasian on October, 2007. The organs and tissues of these phantoms were segmented on the basis of ICRP Publication 103. In future, the dose coefficients for internal dose and dose conversion coefficients for external dose calculated using the adult reference voxel phantoms will be widely used for the radiation protection fields. On the other hand, the body sizes and organ masses of adult Japanese are generally smaller than those of adult Caucasian. In addition, there are some cases that the anatomical characteristics such as body sizes, organ masses and postures of subjects influence the organ doses in dose assessment for medical treatments and radiation accident. Therefore, it was needed to use human phantoms with average anatomical characteristics of Japanese. The authors constructed the averaged adult Japanese male and female voxel phantoms by modifying the previously developed high-resolution adult male (JM) and female (JF) voxel phantoms. It has been modified in the following three aspects: (1) The heights and weights were agreed with the Japanese averages; (2) The masses of organs and tissues were adjusted to the Japanese averages within 10%; (3) The organs and tissues, which were newly added for evaluation of the effective dose in ICRP Publication 103, were modeled. In this study, the organ masses, distances between organs, specific absorbed fractions (SAFs) and dose conversion coefficients of these phantoms were compared with those evaluated using the ICRP adult reference voxel phantoms. This report provides valuable information on the anatomical and dosimetric characteristics of the averaged adult Japanese male and female voxel phantoms developed as reference phantoms of adult Japanese. (author)

  20. Hybrid pregnant reference phantom series based on adult female ICRP reference phantom

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rafat-Motavalli, Laleh; Miri-Hakimabad, Hashem; Hoseinian-Azghadi, Elie

    2018-03-01

    This paper presents boundary representation (BREP) models of pregnant female and her fetus at the end of each trimester. The International Commission on Radiological Protection (ICRP) female reference voxel phantom was used as a base template in development process of the pregnant hybrid phantom series. The differences in shape and location of the displaced maternal organs caused by enlarging uterus were also taken into account. The CT and MR images of fetus specimens and pregnant patients of various ages were used to replace the maternal abdominal pelvic organs of template phantom and insert the fetus inside the gravid uterus. Each fetal model contains 21 different organs and tissues. The skeletal model of the fetus also includes age-dependent cartilaginous and ossified skeletal components. The replaced maternal organ models were converted to NURBS surfaces and then modified to conform to reference values of ICRP Publication 89. The particular feature of current series compared to the previously developed pregnant phantoms is being constructed upon the basis of ICRP reference phantom. The maternal replaced organ models are NURBS surfaces. With this great potential, they might have the feasibility of being converted to high quality polygon mesh phantoms.

  1. Development and test of sets of 3D printed age-specific thyroid phantoms for 131I measurements

    Science.gov (United States)

    Beaumont, Tiffany; Caldeira Ideias, Pedro; Rimlinger, Maeva; Broggio, David; Franck, Didier

    2017-06-01

    In the case of a nuclear reactor accident the release contains a high proportion of iodine-131 that can be inhaled or ingested by members of the public. Iodine-131 is naturally retained in the thyroid and increases the thyroid cancer risk. Since the radiation induced thyroid cancer risk is greater for children than for adults, the thyroid dose to children should be assessed as accurately as possible. For that purpose direct measurements should be carried out with age-specific calibration factors but, currently, there is no age-specific thyroid phantoms allowing a robust measurement protocol. A set of age-specific thyroid phantoms for 5, 10, 15 year old children and for the adult has been designed and 3D printed. A realistic thyroid shape has been selected and material properties taken into account to simulate the attenuation of biological tissues. The thyroid volumes follow ICRP recommendations and the phantoms also include the trachea and a spine model. Several versions, with or without spine, with our without trachea, with or without age-specific neck have been manufactured, in order to study the influence of these elements on calibration factors. The calibration factor obtained with the adult phantom and a reference phantom are in reasonable agreement. In vivo calibration experiments with germanium detectors have shown that the difference in counting efficiency, the inverse of the calibration factor, between the 5 year and adult phantoms is 25% for measurement at contact. It is also experimentally evidenced that the inverse of the calibration factor varies linearly with the thyroid volume. The influence of scattering elements like the neck or spine is not evidenced by experimental measurements.

  2. The Phantom Menace

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Vium, Christian

    2013-01-01

    as a phantom menace, which asserts itself through a form of omnipresent fear, nurtured by an inherent opaqueness. As this fundamental fear progressively permeates the nomadic landscape, it engenders a recasting of mobile strategies among the nomadic pastoralist groups who inhabit the interstitial desert spaces....

  3. Phantom crash confirms models

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Anon.

    1989-01-01

    To test computer models of how a nuclear reactor's containment building would fare if an airplane crashed into it, the Muto Institute in Tokyo sponsored a 3.2 million dollar project at Sandia National Laboratory to slam an F-4 Phantom jet into a 500 ton concrete wall. The results showed that the computer calculations were accurate

  4. Enhanced diagnostic of skin conditions by polarized laser speckles: phantom studies and computer modeling

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tchvialeva, Lioudmila; Lee, Tim K.; Markhvida, Igor; Zeng, Haishan; Doronin, Alexander; Meglinski, Igor

    2014-03-01

    The incidence of the skin melanoma, the most commonly fatal form of skin cancer, is increasing faster than any other potentially preventable cancer. Clinical practice is currently hampered by the lack of the ability to rapidly screen the functional and morphological properties of tissues. In our previous study we show that the quantification of scattered laser light polarization provides a useful metrics for diagnostics of the malignant melanoma. In this study we exploit whether the image speckle could improve skin cancer diagnostic in comparison with the previously used free-space speckle. The study includes skin phantom measurements and computer modeling. To characterize the depolarization of light we measure the spatial distribution of speckle patterns and analyse their depolarization ratio taken into account radial symmetry. We examine the dependences of depolarization ratio vs. roughness for phantoms which optical properties are of the order of skin lesions. We demonstrate that the variation in bulk optical properties initiates the assessable changes in the depolarization ratio. We show that image speckle differentiates phantoms significantly better than free-space speckle. The results of experimental measurements are compared with the results of Monte Carlo simulation.

  5. Tissue

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    David Morrissey

    2012-01-01

    Full Text Available Purpose. In vivo gene therapy directed at tissues of mesenchymal origin could potentially augment healing. We aimed to assess the duration and magnitude of transene expression in vivo in mice and ex vivo in human tissues. Methods. Using bioluminescence imaging, plasmid and adenoviral vector-based transgene expression in murine quadriceps in vivo was examined. Temporal control was assessed using a doxycycline-inducible system. An ex vivo model was developed and optimised using murine tissue, and applied in ex vivo human tissue. Results. In vivo plasmid-based transgene expression did not silence in murine muscle, unlike in liver. Although maximum luciferase expression was higher in muscle with adenoviral delivery compared with plasmid, expression reduced over time. The inducible promoter cassette successfully regulated gene expression with maximum levels a factor of 11 greater than baseline. Expression was re-induced to a similar level on a temporal basis. Luciferase expression was readily detected ex vivo in human muscle and tendon. Conclusions. Plasmid constructs resulted in long-term in vivo gene expression in skeletal muscle, in a controllable fashion utilising an inducible promoter in combination with oral agents. Successful plasmid gene transfection in human ex vivo mesenchymal tissue was demonstrated for the first time.

  6. The influence of tube voltage and phantom size in computed tomography on the dose-response relationship of dicentrics in human blood samples

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Jost, G; Pietsch, H; Lengsfeld, P; Voth, M; Schmid, E

    2010-01-01

    The aim of this study was to investigate the dose response relationship of dicentrics in human lymphocytes after CT scans at tube voltages of 80 and 140 kV. Blood samples from a healthy donor placed in tissue equivalent abdomen phantoms of standard, pediatric and adipose sizes were exposed at dose levels up to 0.1 Gy using a 64-slice CT scanner. It was found that both the tube voltage and the phantom size significantly influenced the CT scan-induced linear dose-response relationship of dicentrics in human lymphocytes. Using the same phantom (standard abdomen), 80 kV CT x-rays were biologically more effective than 140 kV CT x-rays. However, it could also be determined that the applied phantom size had much more influence on the biological effectiveness. Obviously, the increasing slopes of the CT scan-induced dose response relationships of dicentrics in human lymphocytes obtained in a pediatric, a standard and an adipose abdomen have been induced by scattering effects of photons, which strongly increase with increasing phantom size.

  7. The influence of tube voltage and phantom size in computed tomography on the dose-response relationship of dicentrics in human blood samples

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Jost, G; Pietsch, H [TRG Diagnostic Imaging, Bayer Schering Pharma AG, Berlin (Germany); Lengsfeld, P; Voth, M [Global Medical Affairs Diagnostic Imaging, Bayer Schering Pharma AG, Berlin (Germany); Schmid, E, E-mail: Ernst.Schmid@lrz.uni-muenchen.d [Institute for Cell Biology, Center for Integrated Protein Science, University of Munich (Germany)

    2010-06-07

    The aim of this study was to investigate the dose response relationship of dicentrics in human lymphocytes after CT scans at tube voltages of 80 and 140 kV. Blood samples from a healthy donor placed in tissue equivalent abdomen phantoms of standard, pediatric and adipose sizes were exposed at dose levels up to 0.1 Gy using a 64-slice CT scanner. It was found that both the tube voltage and the phantom size significantly influenced the CT scan-induced linear dose-response relationship of dicentrics in human lymphocytes. Using the same phantom (standard abdomen), 80 kV CT x-rays were biologically more effective than 140 kV CT x-rays. However, it could also be determined that the applied phantom size had much more influence on the biological effectiveness. Obviously, the increasing slopes of the CT scan-induced dose response relationships of dicentrics in human lymphocytes obtained in a pediatric, a standard and an adipose abdomen have been induced by scattering effects of photons, which strongly increase with increasing phantom size.

  8. Influence of variation in eumelanin content on absorbance spectra of liquid skin-like phantoms

    CSIR Research Space (South Africa)

    Smit, Jacoba E

    2011-01-01

    Full Text Available are often always limited. Hence the use of skin-like phantoms. Bashkatov et al. (25) measured the optical properties of gelatin skin-like phantoms prepared from different concentrations of synthetic and natural (from Sepia officianalis) melanin. Fat... emulsions like Intralipid are commonly used to mimic light propagation in turbit media (26) and hence Shimada et al. (27) used similar gelatin and Sepia melanin phantoms and added Intralipid to mimic the scattering properties of human skin. The purpose...

  9. Rayleigh scatter in kilovoltage x-ray imaging: is the independent atom approximation good enough?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Poludniowski, G.; Evans, P. M.; Webb, S.

    2009-11-01

    Monte Carlo simulation is the gold standard method for modelling scattering processes in medical x-ray imaging. General-purpose Monte Carlo codes, however, typically use the independent atom approximation (IAA). This is known to be inaccurate for Rayleigh scattering, for many materials, in the forward direction. This work addresses whether the IAA is sufficient for the typical modelling tasks in medical kilovoltage x-ray imaging. As a means of comparison, we incorporate a more realistic 'interference function' model into a custom-written Monte Carlo code. First, we conduct simulations of scatter from isolated voxels of soft tissue, adipose, cortical bone and spongiosa. Then, we simulate scatter profiles from a cylinder of water and from phantoms of a patient's head, thorax and pelvis, constructed from diagnostic-quality CT data sets. Lastly, we reconstruct CT numbers from simulated sets of projection images and investigate the quantitative effects of the approximation. We show that the IAA can produce errors of several per cent of the total scatter, across a projection image, for typical x-ray beams and patients. The errors in reconstructed CT number, however, for the phantoms simulated, were small (typically < 10 HU). The IAA can therefore be considered sufficient for the modelling of scatter correction in CT imaging. Where accurate quantitative estimates of scatter in individual projection images are required, however, the appropriate interference functions should be included.

  10. Benchmark calculations with simple phantom for neutron dosimetry (2)

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Yukio, Sakamoto; Shuichi, Tsuda; Tatsuhiko, Sato; Nobuaki, Yoshizawa; Hideo, Hirayama

    2004-01-01

    Benchmark calculations for high-energy neutron dosimetry were undertaken after SATIF-5. Energy deposition in a cylindrical phantom with 100 cm radius and 30 cm depth was calculated for the irradiation of neutrons from 100 MeV to 10 GeV. Using the ICRU four-element loft tissue phantom and four single-element (hydrogen, carbon, nitrogen and oxygen) phantoms, the depth distributions of deposition energy and those total at the central region of phantoms within l cm radius and at the whole region of phantoms within 100 cm radius were calculated. The calculated results of FLUKA, MCNPX, MARS, HETC-3STEP and NMTC/JAM codes were compared. It was found that FLUKA, MARS and NMTC/JAM showed almost the same results. For the high-energy neutron incident, the MCNP-X results showed the largest ones in the total deposition energy and the HETC-3STEP results show'ed smallest ones. (author)

  11. Characterization of Materials for Use as Optical Phantoms

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Rascon, E. Ortiz; Bruce, N. C.; Flores Flores, J. O.; Berru, R. Sato

    2010-01-01

    We present the results of optical characterization of silicon dioxide nanoparticle solutions. These are spherical particles with a controlled diameter between 100 nm and 600 nm. The importance of this work lies in using these solutions to develop a phantom with optical properties that closely match those of human breast tissue at near-IR wavelengths. Characterization involves illuminating the solution with a laser beam transmitted through a recipient of known width containing the solution. Resulting intensity profiles from the light spot are measured as function of the detector position. The experiments were realized using light with wavelengths 633 nm and 820 nm. Measured intensity profiles were fitted to the calculated profiles obtained from diffusion theory, using the method of images. Fitting results give us the absorption and transport scatter coefficients. These coefficients can be modified by changing the particle concentration of the solution. We found that these coefficients are the same order of magnitude as those of human tissue reported in published studies.

  12. Determination of optimum filter in myocardial SPECT: A phantom study

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Takavar, A.; Shamsipour, Gh.; Sohrabi, M.; Eftekhari, M.

    2004-01-01

    Background: In myocardial perfusion SPECT images are degraded by photon attenuation, the distance-dependent collimator, detector response and photons scatter. Filters greatly affect quality of nuclear medicine images. Materials and Methods: A phantom simulating heart left ventricle was built. About 1mCi of 99m Tc was injected into the phantom. Images was taken from this phantom. Some filters including Parzen, Hamming, Hanning, Butter worth and Gaussian were exerted on the phantom images. By defining some criteria such as contrast, signal to noise ratio, and defect size detectability, the best filter can be determined. Results: 0.325 Nyquist frequency and 0.5 nq was obtained as the optimum cut off frequencies respectively for hamming and handing filters. Order 11, cut off 0.45 Nq and order 20 cut off 0.5 Nq obtained optimum respectively for Butter worth and Gaussian filters. Conclusion: The optimum member of every filter's family was obtained

  13. Fabrication of subcutaneous veins phantom for vessel visualization system

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cheng, Kai; Narita, Kazuyuki; Morita, Yusuke; Nakamachi, Eiji; Honda, Norihiro; Awazu, Kunio

    2013-09-01

    The technique of subcutaneous veins imaging by using NIR (Near Infrared Radiation) is widely used in medical applications, such as the intravenous injection and the blood sampling. In the previous study, an automatic 3D blood vessel search and automatic blood sampling system was newly developed. In order to validate this NIR imaging system, we adopted the subcutaneous vein in the human arm and its artificial phantom, which imitate the human fat and blood vessel. The human skin and subcutaneous vein is characterized as the uncertainty object, which has the individual specificity, non-accurate depth information, non-steady state and hardly to be fixed in the examination apparatus. On the other hand, the conventional phantom was quite distinct from the human's characteristics, such as the non-multilayer structure, disagreement of optical property. In this study, we develop a multilayer phantom, which is quite similar with human skin, for improvement of NIR detection system evaluation. The phantom consists of three layers, such as the epidermis layer, the dermis layer and the subcutaneous fat layer. In subcutaneous fat layer, we built a blood vessel. We use the intralipid to imitate the optical scattering characteristics of human skin, and the hemoglobin and melanin for the optical absorption characteristics. In this study, we did two subjects. First, we decide the fabrication process of the phantom. Second, we compared newly developed phantoms with human skin by using our NIR detecting system, and confirm the availability of these phantoms.

  14. Experimental and computational development of a natural breast phantom for dosimetry studies

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Nogueira, Luciana B.; Campos, Tarcisio P.R.

    2013-01-01

    This paper describes the experimental and computational development of a natural breast phantom, anthropomorphic and anthropometric for studies in dosimetry of brachytherapy and teletherapy of breast. The natural breast phantom developed corresponding to fibroadipose breasts of women aged 30 to 50 years, presenting radiographically medium density. The experimental breast phantom was constituted of three tissue-equivalents (TE's): glandular TE, adipose TE and skin TE. These TE's were developed according to chemical composition of human breast and present radiological response to exposure. Completed the construction of experimental breast phantom this was mounted on a thorax phantom previously developed by the research group NRI/UFMG. Then the computational breast phantom was constructed by performing a computed tomography (CT) by axial slices of the chest phantom. Through the images generated by CT a computational model of voxels of the thorax phantom was developed by SISCODES computational program, being the computational breast phantom represented by the same TE's of the experimental breast phantom. The images generated by CT allowed evaluating the radiological equivalence of the tissues. The breast phantom is being used in studies of experimental dosimetry both in brachytherapy as in teletherapy of breast. Dosimetry studies by MCNP-5 code using the computational model of the phantom breast are in progress. (author)

  15. Solid water phantom

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Arguiropulo, M.Y.; Ghilardi Neto, T.; Pela, C.A.; Ghilardi, A.J.P.

    1992-01-01

    A phantom were developed for simulating water, based in plastics. The material was evaluated for different energies, and the measures of relative transmission showed that the transmission and the water were inside of 0,6% for gamma rays. The results of this new material were presented, showing that it could be used in photon beam calibration with energies on radiotherapy range. (C.G.C.)

  16. Development of realistic chest phantom for calibration of in-vivo plutonium counting facilities

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Shirotani, Takashi

    1987-06-01

    We have developed realistic chest phantom with removable model organs. The phantom is a torso and is terminated just above the femoral region. Tissue equivalent materials used in the phantom have been made of polyurethane with different amounts of ester of phosphoric acid, in order to simulate human soft tissues such as muscle, muscle-adipose mixtures and cartilage. Lung simulant has been made of foamed polyurethane. Capsulized small sources can be inserted into the holes, drilled in each sliced section of the model organ. Counting efficiencies, obtained with a pair of 12 cm diameter phoswich detectors set above the phantom chest, are 0.195 cpm/nCi for Pu-239 and 44.07 cpm/nCi for Am-241, respectively. The results agree well with efficiencies obtained with IAEA-Phantom. We conclude that the phantom can be used as a standard phantom for the calibration of Pu chest counting equipment. (author)

  17. High-speed stimulated Brillouin scattering spectroscopy at 780 nm

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Itay Remer

    2016-09-01

    Full Text Available We demonstrate a high-speed stimulated Brillouin scattering (SBS spectroscopy system that is able to acquire stimulated Brillouin gain point-spectra in water samples and Intralipid tissue phantoms over 2 GHz within 10 ms and 100 ms, respectively, showing a 10-100 fold increase in acquisition rates over current frequency-domain SBS spectrometers. This improvement was accomplished by integrating an ultra-narrowband hot rubidium-85 vapor notch filter in a simplified frequency-domain SBS spectrometer comprising nearly counter-propagating continuous-wave pump-probe light at 780 nm and conventional single-modulation lock-in detection. The optical notch filter significantly suppressed stray pump light, enabling detection of stimulated Brillouin gain spectra with substantially improved acquisition times at adequate signal-to-noise ratios (∼25 dB in water samples and ∼15 dB in tissue phantoms. These results represent an important step towards the use of SBS spectroscopy for high-speed measurements of Brillouin gain resonances in scattering and non-scattering samples.

  18. A simple, direct method for x-ray scatter estimation and correction in digital radiography and cone-beam CT

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Siewerdsen, J.H.; Daly, M.J.; Bakhtiar, B.

    2006-01-01

    X-ray scatter poses a significant limitation to image quality in cone-beam CT (CBCT), resulting in contrast reduction, image artifacts, and lack of CT number accuracy. We report the performance of a simple scatter correction method in which scatter fluence is estimated directly in each projection from pixel values near the edge of the detector behind the collimator leaves. The algorithm operates on the simple assumption that signal in the collimator shadow is attributable to x-ray scatter, and the 2D scatter fluence is estimated by interpolating between pixel values measured along the top and bottom edges of the detector behind the collimator leaves. The resulting scatter fluence estimate is subtracted from each projection to yield an estimate of the primary-only images for CBCT reconstruction. Performance was investigated in phantom experiments on an experimental CBCT benchtop, and the effect on image quality was demonstrated in patient images (head, abdomen, and pelvis sites) obtained on a preclinical system for CBCT-guided radiation therapy. The algorithm provides significant reduction in scatter artifacts without compromise in contrast-to-noise ratio (CNR). For example, in a head phantom, cupping artifact was essentially eliminated, CT number accuracy was restored to within 3%, and CNR (breast-to-water) was improved by up to 50%. Similarly in a body phantom, cupping artifact was reduced by at least a factor of 2 without loss in CNR. Patient images demonstrate significantly increased uniformity, accuracy, and contrast, with an overall improvement in image quality in all sites investigated. Qualitative evaluation illustrates that soft-tissue structures that are otherwise undetectable are clearly delineated in scatter-corrected reconstructions. Since scatter is estimated directly in each projection, the algorithm is robust with respect to system geometry, patient size and heterogeneity, patient motion, etc. Operating without prior information, analytical modeling

  19. Phantom pain after eye amputation

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Rasmussen, Marie L R; Prause, Jan U; Toft, Peter B

    2011-01-01

    Purpose: To characterize the quality of phantom pain, its intensity and frequency following eye amputation. Possible triggers and relievers of phantom pain are investigated. Methods: The hospital database was searched using surgery codes for patients who received ocular evisceration, enucleation...... was conducted by a trained interviewer. Results: Of the 173 patients in the study, 39 experienced phantom pain. The median age of patients who had experienced phantom pain was 45 years (range: 19–88). Follow-up time from eye amputation to participation in the investigation was 4 years (range: 2–46). Phantom...... scale, ranging from 0 to 100, was 36 (range: 1–89). One-third of the patients experienced phantom pain every day. Chilliness, windy weather and psychological stress/fatigue were the most commonly reported triggers for pain. Conclusions: Phantom pain after eye amputation is relatively common. The pain...

  20. Rapid prototyping of biomimetic vascular phantoms for hyperspectral reflectance imaging

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ghassemi, Pejhman; Wang, Jianting; Melchiorri, Anthony J.; Ramella-Roman, Jessica C.; Mathews, Scott A.; Coburn, James C.; Sorg, Brian S.; Chen, Yu; Joshua Pfefer, T.

    2015-12-01

    The emerging technique of rapid prototyping with three-dimensional (3-D) printers provides a simple yet revolutionary method for fabricating objects with arbitrary geometry. The use of 3-D printing for generating morphologically biomimetic tissue phantoms based on medical images represents a potentially major advance over existing phantom approaches. Toward the goal of image-defined phantoms, we converted a segmented fundus image of the human retina into a matrix format and edited it to achieve a geometry suitable for printing. Phantoms with vessel-simulating channels were then printed using a photoreactive resin providing biologically relevant turbidity, as determined by spectrophotometry. The morphology of printed vessels was validated by x-ray microcomputed tomography. Channels were filled with hemoglobin (Hb) solutions undergoing desaturation, and phantoms were imaged with a near-infrared hyperspectral reflectance imaging system. Additionally, a phantom was printed incorporating two disjoint vascular networks at different depths, each filled with Hb solutions at different saturation levels. Light propagation effects noted during these measurements-including the influence of vessel density and depth on Hb concentration and saturation estimates, and the effect of wavelength on vessel visualization depth-were evaluated. Overall, our findings indicated that 3-D-printed biomimetic phantoms hold significant potential as realistic and practical tools for elucidating light-tissue interactions and characterizing biophotonic system performance.

  1. Rapid prototyping of biomimetic vascular phantoms for hyperspectral reflectance imaging

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ghassemi, Pejhman; Wang, Jianting; Melchiorri, Anthony J.; Ramella-Roman, Jessica C.; Mathews, Scott A.; Coburn, James C.; Sorg, Brian S.; Chen, Yu; Joshua Pfefer, T.

    2015-01-01

    Abstract. The emerging technique of rapid prototyping with three-dimensional (3-D) printers provides a simple yet revolutionary method for fabricating objects with arbitrary geometry. The use of 3-D printing for generating morphologically biomimetic tissue phantoms based on medical images represents a potentially major advance over existing phantom approaches. Toward the goal of image-defined phantoms, we converted a segmented fundus image of the human retina into a matrix format and edited it to achieve a geometry suitable for printing. Phantoms with vessel-simulating channels were then printed using a photoreactive resin providing biologically relevant turbidity, as determined by spectrophotometry. The morphology of printed vessels was validated by x-ray microcomputed tomography. Channels were filled with hemoglobin (Hb) solutions undergoing desaturation, and phantoms were imaged with a near-infrared hyperspectral reflectance imaging system. Additionally, a phantom was printed incorporating two disjoint vascular networks at different depths, each filled with Hb solutions at different saturation levels. Light propagation effects noted during these measurements—including the influence of vessel density and depth on Hb concentration and saturation estimates, and the effect of wavelength on vessel visualization depth—were evaluated. Overall, our findings indicated that 3-D-printed biomimetic phantoms hold significant potential as realistic and practical tools for elucidating light–tissue interactions and characterizing biophotonic system performance. PMID:26662064

  2. Preliminary Study on Hybrid Computational Phantom for Radiation Dosimetry Based on Subdivision Surface

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Jeong, Jong Hwi; Choi, Sang Hyoun; Cho, Sung Koo; Kim, Chan Hyeong

    2007-01-01

    The anthropomorphic computational phantoms are classified into two groups. One group is the stylized phantoms, or MIRD phantoms, which are based on mathematical representations of the anatomical structures. The shapes and positions of the organs and tissues in these phantoms can be adjusted by changing the coefficients of the equations in use. The other group is the voxel phantoms, which are based on tomographic images of a real person such as CT, MR and serially sectioned color slice images from a cadaver. Obviously, the voxel phantoms represent the anatomical structures of a human body much more realistically than the stylized phantoms. A realistic representation of anatomical structure is very important for an accurate calculation of radiation dose in the human body. Consequently, the ICRP recently has decided to use the voxel phantoms for the forthcoming update of the dose conversion coefficients. However, the voxel phantoms also have some limitations: (1) The topology and dimensions of the organs and tissues in a voxel model are extremely difficult to change, and (2) The thin organs, such as oral mucosa and skin, cannot be realistically modeled unless the voxel resolution is prohibitively high. Recently, a new approach has been implemented by several investigators. The investigators converted their voxel phantoms to hybrid computational phantoms based on NURBS (Non-Uniform Rational B-Splines) surface, which is smooth and deformable. It is claimed that these new phantoms have the flexibility of the stylized phantom along with the realistic representations of the anatomical structures. The topology and dimensions of the anatomical structures can be easily changed as necessary. Thin organs can be modeled without affecting computational speed or memory requirement. The hybrid phantoms can be also used for 4-D Monte Carlo simulations. In this preliminary study, the external shape of a voxel phantom (i.e., skin), HDRK-Man, was converted to a hybrid computational

  3. Development of breast phantom for quality assessment of mammographic images

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Arvelos, Jeniffer Miranda; Flores, Mabel Bustos; Amaral, Fernando; Rio, Margarita Chevalier del; Mourao, Arnaldo Prata, E-mail: jenifferarvelos00@gmail.com [Centro Federal de Educação Tecnológica de Minas Gerais (CEFET-MG), Belo Horizonte, MG (Brazil). Centro de Engenharia Biomedica; Universidade Federal de Minas Gerais (UFMG), Belo Horizonte, MG (Brazil). Departamento de Engenharia Nuclear; Universidad Complutense de Madrid (UCM), Madrid (Spain). Faculdad de Medicina. Departmento de Radiologia

    2017-11-01

    Diagnosis of breast cancer in young women may be impaired by the tissue composition of breast in this age group, as fibroglandular tissue is present in greater amount in young women and it has higher density than fibrous and fatty tissues which predominate in women older than 40 years old. The higher density of breast tissue makes it difficult to identify nodules in two-dimensional techniques, due to the overlapping of dense layers. Breast phantoms are used in evaluation and quality control of clinical images, and therefore, it is important to develop non-homogeneous phantoms that may better simulate a real breast. Grouped microcalcifications are often the earliest changes associated with malignant neoplasm of breast. In this work, a phantom was developed in the form of a compressed breast using acrylic resin blend. The resin blend used to fulfill the interior of the phantom has similar mammographic density to the one in fibroglandular tissue, representing a dense breast. The lesions were made of acrylic resin blend and calcium compounds that might simulate breast abnormalities, representing nodules, macrocalcifications and microcalcifications of different dimensions and densities. They were distributed into the ma-terial representing fibroglandular tissue. The developed phantom has a thickness of 1 cm, and it may be matched with other plates to represent a dense breast of thickness between 5 and 6 cm. The main goal of the project is to evaluate the sensitivity of detection of these calcifications in relation to their density and location in the breast in two-dimensional images generated in mammography equipment. Mammographic images allow the visualization of the changes implemented in the phantom. The developed phantom may be used in evaluation of diagnostic images generated through two-dimensional and three-dimensional images. (author)

  4. Development of breast phantom for quality assessment of mammographic images

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Arvelos, Jeniffer Miranda; Flores, Mabel Bustos; Amaral, Fernando; Rio, Margarita Chevalier del; Mourao, Arnaldo Prata; Universidade Federal de Minas Gerais; Universidad Complutense de Madrid

    2017-01-01

    Diagnosis of breast cancer in young women may be impaired by the tissue composition of breast in this age group, as fibroglandular tissue is present in greater amount in young women and it has higher density than fibrous and fatty tissues which predominate in women older than 40 years old. The higher density of breast tissue makes it difficult to identify nodules in two-dimensional techniques, due to the overlapping of dense layers. Breast phantoms are used in evaluation and quality control of clinical images, and therefore, it is important to develop non-homogeneous phantoms that may better simulate a real breast. Grouped microcalcifications are often the earliest changes associated with malignant neoplasm of breast. In this work, a phantom was developed in the form of a compressed breast using acrylic resin blend. The resin blend used to fulfill the interior of the phantom has similar mammographic density to the one in fibroglandular tissue, representing a dense breast. The lesions were made of acrylic resin blend and calcium compounds that might simulate breast abnormalities, representing nodules, macrocalcifications and microcalcifications of different dimensions and densities. They were distributed into the ma-terial representing fibroglandular tissue. The developed phantom has a thickness of 1 cm, and it may be matched with other plates to represent a dense breast of thickness between 5 and 6 cm. The main goal of the project is to evaluate the sensitivity of detection of these calcifications in relation to their density and location in the breast in two-dimensional images generated in mammography equipment. Mammographic images allow the visualization of the changes implemented in the phantom. The developed phantom may be used in evaluation of diagnostic images generated through two-dimensional and three-dimensional images. (author)

  5. Simulation analysis of radiation fields inside phantoms for neutron irradiation

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Satoh, Daiki; Takahashi, Fumiaki; Endo, Akira; Ohmachi, Y.; Miyahara, N.

    2007-01-01

    Radiation fields inside phantoms have been calculated for neutron irradiation. Particle and heavy-ion transport code system PHITS was employed for the calculation. Energy and size dependences of neutron dose were analyzed using tissue equivalent spheres of different size. A voxel phantom of mouse was developed based on CT images of an 8-week-old male C3H/HeNs mouse. Deposition energy inside the mouse was calculated for 2- and 10-MeV neutron irradiation. (author)

  6. A new anthropometric phantom of the human leg for calibrating in vivo measurements of stable lead in bone using x-ray fluorescence

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Spitz, Henry; Jenkins, Mark; Lodwick, Jeffrey

    1997-01-01

    Full text. A new anthropometric phantom of the human leg has been developed for calibrating in vivo measurements of stable lead in the bone using x-ray fluorescence. The phantom reproduces the shape and radiological characteristics of the midshaft of the human leg and includes tissue substitutes for cortical bone, bone marrow, and muscle which have been formulated using polyurethanes and calcium carbonate to provide the desired characteristics of density x-ray attenuation, and calcium content. The phantom includes a set of simulated tibia bones, each containing a precisely known concentration of stable lead, that can be easily inserted into the leg. Formerly, of a set of plexiglas cylinders filled with plaster of-paris, each containing a known lead content, was the consensus standard calibration phantom. Tissue substitute materials used in the new anthropometric calibration phantom are much more uniform in density and composition than the plaster-of-paris phantoms and its realistic appearance provides a practical means of evaluating the variability in measurements results due to the changes in subject-detector positioning. Use of the new anthropometric calibration phantom results in a energy spectrum that closely resembles the spectrum observed when measuring a human subject. The energy spectrum produced by the plaster-of-paris phantom lacks the substantial Compton Scattering component produced by the leg muscle mass which leads to unrealistic estimates of in vivo measurement sensitivity. The minimum detection limit (MDL) for in vivo measurement of stable lead in bone, using an efficiency derived from the new anthropometric phantom, ranges from 18,6 parts per million (ppm) to 26,3 ppm using the K β1,3 /Elastic ratio or the K 1 /Elastic ratio, respectively. These values are significantly greater than the MDL cited in the literature obtained using a efficiency derived the conventional cylindrical plaster-of-paris phantom. Likewise, the realistic shape of the new

  7. Phantom models for neutron capture therapy

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Storr, G.J.

    1990-08-01

    The development of a two-dimensional phantom model using the neutron and photon transport code DOT-IV is detailed. The effects of varying basic parameters such as aperture width, neutron source energy and tissue composition have been studied. One important conclusion from the study is that narrow beam apertures will give little or no advantage for tumour dose over tissue dose even in the 'ideal beam' range of 2-7 keV. The model may be used for future filter and beam studies with confidence. 10 refs., 7 tabs., 13 figs

  8. Reconstruction of voxel phantoms for skin dosimetry

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Antunes, Paula Cristina Guimaraes

    2010-01-01

    Radiotherapy is a therapeutic modality that utilizes ionizing radiation for the destruction of neoplastic human cells. One of the requirements for this treatment methodology success lays on the appropriate use of planning systems, which performs, among other information, the patient's dose distribution estimate. Nowadays, transport codes have been providing huge subsidies to these planning systems, once it enables specific and accurate patient organ and tissue dosimetry. The model utilized by these codes to describe the human anatomy in a realistic way is known as voxel phantoms, which are represented by discrete volume elements (voxels) directly associated to tomographic data. Nowadays, voxel phantoms doable of being inserted and processed by the transport code MCNP (Monte Carlo N-Particle) presents a 3-4 mm image resolution; however, such resolution limits some thin body structure discrimination, such as skin. In this context, this work proposes a calculus routine that discriminates this region with thickness and localization in the voxel phantoms similar to the real, leading to an accurate dosimetric skin dose assessment by the MCNP code. Moreover, this methodology consists in manipulating the voxel phantoms volume elements by segmenting and subdividing it in different skin thickness. In addition to validate the skin dose calculated data, a set of experimental evaluations with thermoluminescent dosimeters were performed in an anthropomorphic phantom. Due to significant differences observed on the dose distribution of several skin representations, it was found that is important to discriminate the skin thickness similar to the real. The presented methodology is useful to obtain an accurate skin dosimetric evaluation for several radiotherapy procedures, with particular interest on the electron beam radiotherapy, in which highlights the whole body irradiation therapy (TSET), a procedure under implementation at the Hospital das Clinicas da Faculdade de Medicina da

  9. Evaluation of the 1Shot Phantom dedicated to the mammography system using FCR

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Nagashima, Chieko; Uchiyama, Nachiko; Moriyama, Noriyuki; Nagata, Mio; Kobayashi, Hiroyuki; Sankoda, Katsuhiro; Saotome, Shigeru; Tagi, Masahiro; Kusunoki, Tetsurou

    2009-01-01

    Currently daily quality control (QC) tests for mammography systems are generally evaluated by using visual analysis phantoms, which of course means subjective measurement. In our study, however, we evaluated a novel digital phantom, the 1Shot Phantom M plus (1Shot Phantom), together with automatic analysis software dedicated for mammography systems using Fuji computed radiography (FCR). The digital phantom enables objective evaluation by providing for actual physical measurement rather than subjective visual assessment. We measured contrast to noise ratio (CNR), image receptor homogeneity, missed tissue at chest wall side, modulation transfer function (MTF), and geometric distortion utilizing the 1Shot Phantom. We then compared the values obtained using the 1Shot Phantom with values obtained from the European guidelines and International Electrotechnical Commission (IEC) standards. In addition, we evaluated the convenience of using the digital phantom. The values utilizing the 1Shot Phantom and those from the European guidelines and IEC standards were consistent, but the QC tests for the European guidelines and IEC standards methods took about six hours while the same QC tests using the 1Shot Phantom took 10 minutes or less including exposure of the phantom image, measurement, and analysis. In conclusion, the digital phantom and dedicated software proved very useful and produced improved analysis for mammography systems using FCR in clinical daily QC testing because of their objectivity and substantial time-saving convenience. (author)

  10. A Novel Simple Phantom for Verifying the Dose of Radiation Therapy

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    J. H. Lee

    2015-01-01

    Full Text Available A standard protocol of dosimetric measurements is used by the organizations responsible for verifying that the doses delivered in radiation-therapy institutions are within authorized limits. This study evaluated a self-designed simple auditing phantom for use in verifying the dose of radiation therapy; the phantom design, dose audit system, and clinical tests are described. Thermoluminescent dosimeters (TLDs were used as postal dosimeters, and mailable phantoms were produced for use in postal audits. Correction factors are important for converting TLD readout values from phantoms into the absorbed dose in water. The phantom scatter correction factor was used to quantify the difference in the scattered dose between a solid water phantom and homemade phantoms; its value ranged from 1.084 to 1.031. The energy-dependence correction factor was used to compare the TLD readout of the unit dose irradiated by audit beam energies with 60Co in the solid water phantom; its value was 0.99 to 1.01. The setup-condition factor was used to correct for differences in dose-output calibration conditions. Clinical tests of the device calibrating the dose output revealed that the dose deviation was within 3%. Therefore, our homemade phantoms and dosimetric system can be applied for accurately verifying the doses applied in radiation-therapy institutions.

  11. Measurement of TLD Albedo response on various calibration phantoms

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Momose, T.; Tsujimura, N.; Shinohara, K.; Ishiguro, H.; Nakamura, T.

    1996-01-01

    The International Commission on Radiation Units and Measurements (ICRU) has recommended that individual dosemeter should be calibrated on a suitable phantom and has pointed out that the calibration factor of a neutron dosemeter is strongly influenced by the the exact size and shape of the body and the phantom to which the dosemeter is attached. As the principle of an albedo type thermoluminescent personal dosemeter (albedo TLD) is essentially based on a detection of scattered and moderated neutron from a human body, the sensitivity of albedo TLD is strongly influenced by the incident neutron energy and the calibration phantom. (1) Therefore for albedo type thermoluminescent personal dosemeter (albedo TLD), the information of neutron albedo response on the calibration phantom is important for appropriate dose estimation. In order to investigate the effect of phantom type on the reading of the albedo TLD, measurement of the TLD energy response and angular response on some typical calibration phantoms was performed using dynamitron accelerator and 252 Cf neutron source. (author)

  12. Bone-composition imaging using coherent-scatter computed tomography: Assessing bone health beyond bone mineral density

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Batchelar, Deidre L.; Davidson, Melanie T.M.; Dabrowski, Waldemar; Cunningham, Ian A.

    2006-01-01

    Quantitative analysis of bone composition is necessary for the accurate diagnosis and monitoring of metabolic bone diseases. Accurate assessment of the bone mineralization state is the first requirement for a comprehensive analysis. In diagnostic imaging, x-ray coherent scatter depends upon the molecular structure of tissues. Coherent-scatter computed tomography (CSCT) exploits this feature to identify tissue types in composite biological specimens. We have used CSCT to map the distributions of tissues relevant to bone disease (fat, soft tissue, collagen, and mineral) within bone-tissue phantoms and an excised cadaveric bone sample. Using a purpose-built scanner, we have measured hydroxyapatite (bone mineral) concentrations based on coherent-scatter patterns from a series of samples with varying hydroxyapatite content. The measured scatter intensity is proportional to mineral density in true g/cm 3 . Repeated measurements of the hydroxyapatite concentration in each sample were within, at most, 2% of each other, revealing an excellent precision in determining hydroxyapatite concentration. All measurements were also found to be accurate to within 3% of the known values. Phantoms simulating normal, over-, and under-mineralized bone were created by mixing known masses of pure collagen and hydroxyapatite. An analysis of the composite scatter patterns gave the density of each material. For each composite, the densities were within 2% of the known values. Collagen and hydroxyapatite concentrations were also examined in a bone-mimicking phantom, incorporating other bone constituents (fat, soft tissue). Tomographic maps of the coherent-scatter properties of each specimen were reconstructed, from which material-specific images were generated. Each tissue was clearly distinguished and the collagen-mineral ratio determined from this phantom was also within 2% of the known value. Existing bone analysis techniques cannot determine the collagen-mineral ratio in intact specimens

  13. Near-infrared spectroscopy of the adult head: effect of scattering and absorbing obstructions in the cerebrospinal fluid layer on light distribution in the tissue.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Dehghani, H; Delpy, D T

    2000-09-01

    Previous modeling of near-infrared (NIR) light distribution in models of the adult head incorporating a clear nonscattering cerebrospinal fluid (CSF) layer have shown the latter to have a profound effect on the resulting photon measurement density function (PMDF). In particular, the presence of the CSF limits the PMDF largely to the outer cortical gray matter with little signal contribution from the deeper white matter. In practice, the CSF is not a simple unobstructed clear layer but contains light-scattering membranes and is crossed by various blood vessels. Using a radiosity-diffusion finite-element model, we investigated the effect on the PMDF of introducing intrusions within the clear layer. The results show that the presence of such obstructions does not significantly increase the light penetration into the brain tissue, except immediately adjacent to the obstruction and that its presence also increases the light sampling of the adjacent skull tissues, which would lead to additional contamination of the NIR spectroscopy signal by the surface tissue layers.

  14. Phantoms and computational models in therapy, diagnosis and protection

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Anon.

    1992-01-01

    The development of realistic body phantoms and computational models is strongly dependent on the availability of comprehensive human anatomical data. This information is often missing, incomplete or not easily available. Therefore, emphasis is given in the Report to organ and body masses and geometries. The influence of age, sex and ethnic origins in human anatomy is considered. Suggestions are given on how suitable anatomical data can be either extracted from published information or obtained from measurements on the local population. Existing types of phantoms and computational models used with photons, electrons, protons and neutrons are reviewed in this Report. Specifications of those considered important to the maintenance and development of reliable radiation dosimetry and measurement are given. The information provided includes a description of the phantom or model, together with diagrams or photographs and physical dimensions. The tissues within body sections are identified and the tissue substitutes used or recommended are listed. The uses of the phantom or model in radiation dosimetry and measurement are outlined. The Report deals predominantly with phantom and computational models representing the human anatomy, with a short Section devoted to animal phantoms in radiobiology

  15. The UF family of reference hybrid phantoms for computational radiation dosimetry

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Lee, Choonsik; Lodwick, Daniel; Hurtado, Jorge; Pafundi, Deanna; Williams, Jonathan L; Bolch, Wesley E

    2010-01-01

    Computational human phantoms are computer models used to obtain dose distributions within the human body exposed to internal or external radiation sources. In addition, they are increasingly used to develop detector efficiencies for in vivo whole-body counters. Two classes of computational human phantoms have been widely utilized for dosimetry calculation: stylized and voxel phantoms that describe human anatomy through mathematical surface equations and 3D voxel matrices, respectively. Stylized phantoms are flexible in that changes to organ position and shape are possible given avoidance of region overlap, while voxel phantoms are typically fixed to a given patient anatomy, yet can be proportionally scaled to match individuals of larger or smaller stature, but of equivalent organ anatomy. Voxel phantoms provide much better anatomical realism as compared to stylized phantoms which are intrinsically limited by mathematical surface equations. To address the drawbacks of these phantoms, hybrid phantoms based on non-uniform rational B-spline (NURBS) surfaces have been introduced wherein anthropomorphic flexibility and anatomic realism are both preserved. Researchers at the University of Florida have introduced a series of hybrid phantoms representing the ICRP Publication 89 reference newborn, 15 year, and adult male and female. In this study, six additional phantoms are added to the UF family of hybrid phantoms-those of the reference 1 year, 5 year and 10 year child. Head and torso CT images of patients whose ages were close to the targeted ages were obtained under approved protocols. Major organs and tissues were segmented from these images using an image processing software, 3D-DOCTOR(TM). NURBS and polygon mesh surfaces were then used to model individual organs and tissues after importing the segmented organ models to the 3D NURBS modeling software, Rhinoceros(TM). The phantoms were matched to four reference datasets: (1) standard anthropometric data, (2) reference

  16. Proton nuclear scattering radiography

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Saudinos, J.

    1982-04-01

    Nuclear scattering of protons allows to radiograph objects with specific properties: 3-dimensional radiography, different information as compared to X-ray technique, hydrogen radiography. Furthermore the nuclear scattering radiography (NSR) is a well adapted method to gating techniques allowing the radiography of fast periodic moving objects. Results obtained on phantoms, formalin fixed head and moving object are shown and discussed. The dose delivery is compatible with clinical use, but at the moment, the irradiation time is too long between 1 and 4 hours. Perspectives to make the radiograph faster and to get a practical method are discussed

  17. The development and characterization of a novel yet simple 3D printed tool to facilitate phantom imaging of photoacoustic contrast agents

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Santiago J. Arconada-Alvarez

    2017-03-01

    Full Text Available We report a new approach to preparing phantoms using 3D printing. This device supports plastic tubing containing the contrast agent and is immersed in a solution with absorption or scattering properties that mimic tissue. Up to 12 tubing samples could be placed in the device with sample-to-sample spacing as low as 0.3 mm and at a constant distance from the transducer (±0.16 mm, which is critical in validating photoacoustic contrast agents. We also studied different types of tubing and found that tubing with a larger outside diameter has more inherent signal. Both 40% India Ink and lipids in the immersion media modulated the signal. Finally, we created a depth phantom and found that signal decayed following a linear relationship (R2 = 0.997 with respect to distance from the focal point. We include computer-assisted drafting code the community can use to print this phantom or customized versions of this phantom.

  18. Gamma knife simulation using the MCNP4C code and the zubal phantom and comparison with experimental data

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Gholami, S.; Kamali Asl, A.; Aghamiri, M.; Allahverdi, M.

    2010-01-01

    Gamma Knife is an instrument specially designed for treating brain disorders. In Gamma Knife, there are 201 narrow beams of cobalt-60 sources that intersect at an isocenter point to treat brain tumors. The tumor is placed at the isocenter and is treated by the emitted gamma rays. Therefore, there is a high dose at this point and a low dose is delivered to the normal tissue surrounding the tumor. Material and Method: In the current work, the MCNP simulation code was used to simulate the Gamma Knife. The calculated values were compared to the experimental ones and previous works. Dose distribution was compared for different collimators in a water phantom and the Zubal brain-equivalent phantom. The dose profiles were obtained along the x, y and z axes. Result: The evaluation of the developed code was performed using experimental data and we found a good agreement between our simulation and experimental data. Discussion: Our results showed that the skull bone has a high contribution to both scatter and absorbed dose. In other words, inserting the exact material of brain and other organs of the head in digital phantom improves the quality of treatment planning. This work is regarding the measurement of absorbed dose and improving the treatment planning procedure in Gamma-Knife radiosurgery in the brain.

  19. Gamma Knife Simulation Using the MCNP4C Code and the Zubal Phantom and Comparison with Experimental Data

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Somayeh Gholami

    2010-06-01

    Full Text Available Introduction: Gamma Knife is an instrument specially designed for treating brain disorders. In Gamma Knife, there are 201 narrow beams of cobalt-60 sources that intersect at an isocenter point to treat brain tumors. The tumor is placed at the isocenter and is treated by the emitted gamma rays. Therefore, there is a high dose at this point and a low dose is delivered to the normal tissue surrounding the tumor. Material and Method: In the current work, the MCNP simulation code was used to simulate the Gamma Knife. The calculated values were compared to the experimental ones and previous works. Dose distribution was compared for different collimators in a water phantom and the Zubal brain-equivalent phantom. The dose profiles were obtained along the x, y and z axes. Result: The evaluation of the developed code was performed using experimental data and we found a good agreement between our simulation and experimental data. Discussion: Our results showed that the skull bone has a high contribution to both scatter and absorbed dose. In other words, inserting the exact material of brain and other organs of the head in digital phantom improves the quality of treatment planning. This work is regarding the measurement of absorbed dose and improving the treatment planning procedure in Gamma-Knife radiosurgery in the brain.

  20. Standing adult human phantoms based on 10th, 50th and 90th mass and height percentiles of male and female Caucasian populations

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Cassola, V F; Kramer, R; De Oliveira Lira, C A B; Khoury, H J [Department of Nuclear Energy, Federal University of Pernambuco, Avenida Professor Luiz Freire, 1000, CEP 50740-540, Recife, PE (Brazil); Milian, F M, E-mail: rkramer@uol.com.br [Department of Exact Science and Technology, State University of Santa Cruz, Campus Soane Nazare de Andrade, Km 16 Rodovia Ilheus-Itabuna, CEP 45662-000, Ilheus, BA (Brazil)

    2011-07-07

    Computational anthropomorphic human phantoms are useful tools developed for the calculation of absorbed or equivalent dose to radiosensitive organs and tissues of the human body. The problem is, however, that, strictly speaking, the results can be applied only to a person who has the same anatomy as the phantom, while for a person with different body mass and/or standing height the data could be wrong. In order to improve this situation for many areas in radiological protection, this study developed 18 anthropometric standing adult human phantoms, nine models per gender, as a function of the 10th, 50th and 90th mass and height percentiles of Caucasian populations. The anthropometric target parameters for body mass, standing height and other body measures were extracted from PeopleSize, a well-known software package used in the area of ergonomics. The phantoms were developed based on the assumption of a constant body-mass index for a given mass percentile and for different heights. For a given height, increase or decrease of body mass was considered to reflect mainly the change of subcutaneous adipose tissue mass, i.e. that organ masses were not changed. Organ mass scaling as a function of height was based on information extracted from autopsy data. The methods used here were compared with those used in other studies, anatomically as well as dosimetrically. For external exposure, the results show that equivalent dose decreases with increasing body mass for organs and tissues located below the subcutaneous adipose tissue layer, such as liver, colon, stomach, etc, while for organs located at the surface, such as breasts, testes and skin, the equivalent dose increases or remains constant with increasing body mass due to weak attenuation and more scatter radiation caused by the increasing adipose tissue mass. Changes of standing height have little influence on the equivalent dose to organs and tissues from external exposure. Specific absorbed fractions (SAFs) have also

  1. CT images of an anthropomorphic and anthropometric male pelvis phantom

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Matos, Andrea S.D. de; Campos, Tarcisio P.R. de, E-mail: campos@nuclear.ufmg.b [Universidade Federal de Minas Gerais (UFMG), Belo Horizonte, MG (Brazil). Programa de Pos-graduacao em Ciencias e Tecnicas Nucleares

    2009-07-01

    Actually, among of the most often neoplasm types are the cancer of prostate, bladder and intestine. The incidence of the intestine neoplasm in Brazil is at fourth among the most frequent tumors of the male sex, barely close to the stomach, lung and prostate incidences. Phantoms are objects used as simulators for investigating ionizing radiation transport on humans, especially during radiation therapy or radiological diagnostic. The purpose of this work is the achievement of a set of computerized tomography (CT) images of a male pelvis phantom, with anthropomorphic and anthropometric features. It investigates and analyses the set of phantom CT images in according to a correspondent human pelvis one. The reason to develop a pelvis phantom is the needs of reproducing well established spatial dose distribution in radiation therapy, especially during calibration and protocol setup for various pelvis neoplasms. It aims to produce dose optimization on radiation therapy, improving health tissue protection and keeping control tumor dose. A male pelvis phantom with similar shape made of equivalent tissues was built for simulating the ionizing radiation transport to the human body. At the phantom, pelvis organs were reproduced including the bladder, the intestine, the prostate, the muscular and greasy tissue, as well as the bone tissue and the skin. A set of CT images was carried out in axial thin sections of 2mm thickness. As results, the constituent tissues had a tomography response on Hounsfield scale similar to values found on the human pelvis. Each tissue has its respective Hounsfield value, demonstrated here. The CT images also show that the organs have equivalent anthropometric measures and anthropomorphic features of the radiological human anatomy. The anatomical physical arrangement of the organs is also similar to of the pelvis human male, having the scales of gray and numerical scale of Hounsfield compatible with the scale of the human tissue. The phantom presents

  2. CT images of an anthropomorphic and anthropometric male pelvis phantom

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Matos, Andrea S.D. de; Campos, Tarcisio P.R. de

    2009-01-01

    Actually, among of the most often neoplasm types are the cancer of prostate, bladder and intestine. The incidence of the intestine neoplasm in Brazil is at fourth among the most frequent tumors of the male sex, barely close to the stomach, lung and prostate incidences. Phantoms are objects used as simulators for investigating ionizing radiation transport on humans, especially during radiation therapy or radiological diagnostic. The purpose of this work is the achievement of a set of computerized tomography (CT) images of a male pelvis phantom, with anthropomorphic and anthropometric features. It investigates and analyses the set of phantom CT images in according to a correspondent human pelvis one. The reason to develop a pelvis phantom is the needs of reproducing well established spatial dose distribution in radiation therapy, especially during calibration and protocol setup for various pelvis neoplasms. It aims to produce dose optimization on radiation therapy, improving health tissue protection and keeping control tumor dose. A male pelvis phantom with similar shape made of equivalent tissues was built for simulating the ionizing radiation transport to the human body. At the phantom, pelvis organs were reproduced including the bladder, the intestine, the prostate, the muscular and greasy tissue, as well as the bone tissue and the skin. A set of CT images was carried out in axial thin sections of 2mm thickness. As results, the constituent tissues had a tomography response on Hounsfield scale similar to values found on the human pelvis. Each tissue has its respective Hounsfield value, demonstrated here. The CT images also show that the organs have equivalent anthropometric measures and anthropomorphic features of the radiological human anatomy. The anatomical physical arrangement of the organs is also similar to of the pelvis human male, having the scales of gray and numerical scale of Hounsfield compatible with the scale of the human tissue. The phantom presents

  3. Characterization of Scattered X-Ray Photons in Dental Cone-Beam Computed Tomography.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yang, Ching-Ching

    2016-01-01

    Scatter is a very important artifact causing factor in dental cone-beam CT (CBCT), which has a major influence on the detectability of details within images. This work aimed to improve the image quality of dental CBCT through scatter correction. Scatter was estimated in the projection domain from the low frequency component of the difference between the raw CBCT projection and the projection obtained by extrapolating the model fitted to the raw projections acquired with 2 different sizes of axial field-of-view (FOV). The function for curve fitting was optimized by using Monte Carlo simulation. To validate the proposed method, an anthropomorphic phantom and a water-filled cylindrical phantom with rod inserts simulating different tissue materials were scanned using 120 kVp, 5 mA and 9-second scanning time covering an axial FOV of 4 cm and 13 cm. The detectability of the CT image was evaluated by calculating the contrast-to-noise ratio (CNR). Beam hardening and cupping artifacts were observed in CBCT images without scatter correction, especially in those acquired with 13 cm FOV. These artifacts were reduced in CBCT images corrected by the proposed method, demonstrating its efficacy on scatter correction. After scatter correction, the image quality of CBCT was improved in terms of target detectability which was quantified as the CNR for rod inserts in the cylindrical phantom. Hopefully the calculations performed in this work can provide a route to reach a high level of diagnostic image quality for CBCT imaging used in oral and maxillofacial structures whilst ensuring patient dose as low as reasonably achievable, which may ultimately make CBCT scan a reliable and safe tool in clinical practice.

  4. Characterization of Scattered X-Ray Photons in Dental Cone-Beam Computed Tomography.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ching-Ching Yang

    Full Text Available Scatter is a very important artifact causing factor in dental cone-beam CT (CBCT, which has a major influence on the detectability of details within images. This work aimed to improve the image quality of dental CBCT through scatter correction.Scatter was estimated in the projection domain from the low frequency component of the difference between the raw CBCT projection and the projection obtained by extrapolating the model fitted to the raw projections acquired with 2 different sizes of axial field-of-view (FOV. The function for curve fitting was optimized by using Monte Carlo simulation. To validate the proposed method, an anthropomorphic phantom and a water-filled cylindrical phantom with rod inserts simulating different tissue materials were scanned using 120 kVp, 5 mA and 9-second scanning time covering an axial FOV of 4 cm and 13 cm. The detectability of the CT image was evaluated by calculating the contrast-to-noise ratio (CNR.Beam hardening and cupping artifacts were observed in CBCT images without scatter correction, especially in those acquired with 13 cm FOV. These artifacts were reduced in CBCT images corrected by the proposed method, demonstrating its efficacy on scatter correction. After scatter correction, the image quality of CBCT was improved in terms of target detectability which was quantified as the CNR for rod inserts in the cylindrical phantom.Hopefully the calculations performed in this work can provide a route to reach a high level of diagnostic image quality for CBCT imaging used in oral and maxillofacial structures whilst ensuring patient dose as low as reasonably achievable, which may ultimately make CBCT scan a reliable and safe tool in clinical practice.

  5. MO-AB-BRA-02: A Novel Scatter Imaging Modality for Real-Time Image Guidance During Lung SBRT

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Redler, G; Bernard, D; Templeton, A; Chu, J; Nair, C Kumaran; Turian, J

    2015-01-01

    Purpose: A novel scatter imaging modality is developed and its feasibility for image-guided radiation therapy (IGRT) during stereotactic body radiation therapy (SBRT) for lung cancer patients is assessed using analytic and Monte Carlo models as well as experimental testing. Methods: During treatment, incident radiation interacts and scatters from within the patient. The presented methodology forms an image of patient anatomy from the scattered radiation for real-time localization of the treatment target. A radiographic flat panel-based pinhole camera provides spatial information regarding the origin of detected scattered radiation. An analytical model is developed, which provides a mathematical formalism for describing the scatter imaging system. Experimental scatter images are acquired by irradiating an object using a Varian TrueBeam accelerator. The differentiation between tissue types is investigated by imaging simple objects of known compositions (water, lung, and cortical bone equivalent). A lung tumor phantom, simulating materials and geometry encountered during lung SBRT treatments, is fabricated and imaged to investigate image quality for various quantities of delivered radiation. Monte Carlo N-Particle (MCNP) code is used for validation and testing by simulating scatter image formation using the experimental pinhole camera setup. Results: Analytical calculations, MCNP simulations, and experimental results when imaging the water, lung, and cortical bone equivalent objects show close agreement, thus validating the proposed models and demonstrating that scatter imaging differentiates these materials well. Lung tumor phantom images have sufficient contrast-to-noise ratio (CNR) to clearly distinguish tumor from surrounding lung tissue. CNR=4.1 and CNR=29.1 for 10MU and 5000MU images (equivalent to 0.5 and 250 second images), respectively. Conclusion: Lung SBRT provides favorable treatment outcomes, but depends on accurate target localization. A comprehensive

  6. MO-AB-BRA-02: A Novel Scatter Imaging Modality for Real-Time Image Guidance During Lung SBRT

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Redler, G; Bernard, D; Templeton, A; Chu, J [Rush University Medical Center, Chicago, IL (United States); Nair, C Kumaran [University of Chicago, Chicago, IL (United States); Turian, J [Rush University Medical Center, Chicago, IL (United States); Rush Radiosurgery LLC, Chicago, IL (United States)

    2015-06-15

    Purpose: A novel scatter imaging modality is developed and its feasibility for image-guided radiation therapy (IGRT) during stereotactic body radiation therapy (SBRT) for lung cancer patients is assessed using analytic and Monte Carlo models as well as experimental testing. Methods: During treatment, incident radiation interacts and scatters from within the patient. The presented methodology forms an image of patient anatomy from the scattered radiation for real-time localization of the treatment target. A radiographic flat panel-based pinhole camera provides spatial information regarding the origin of detected scattered radiation. An analytical model is developed, which provides a mathematical formalism for describing the scatter imaging system. Experimental scatter images are acquired by irradiating an object using a Varian TrueBeam accelerator. The differentiation between tissue types is investigated by imaging simple objects of known compositions (water, lung, and cortical bone equivalent). A lung tumor phantom, simulating materials and geometry encountered during lung SBRT treatments, is fabricated and imaged to investigate image quality for various quantities of delivered radiation. Monte Carlo N-Particle (MCNP) code is used for validation and testing by simulating scatter image formation using the experimental pinhole camera setup. Results: Analytical calculations, MCNP simulations, and experimental results when imaging the water, lung, and cortical bone equivalent objects show close agreement, thus validating the proposed models and demonstrating that scatter imaging differentiates these materials well. Lung tumor phantom images have sufficient contrast-to-noise ratio (CNR) to clearly distinguish tumor from surrounding lung tissue. CNR=4.1 and CNR=29.1 for 10MU and 5000MU images (equivalent to 0.5 and 250 second images), respectively. Conclusion: Lung SBRT provides favorable treatment outcomes, but depends on accurate target localization. A comprehensive

  7. Distributions of neutron and gamma doses in phantom under a mixed field

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Beraud-Sudreau, E.

    1982-06-01

    A calculation program, based on Monte Carlo method, allowed to estimate the absorbed doses relatives to the reactor primary radiation, in a water cubic phantom and in cylindrical phantoms modelized from tissue compositions. This calculation is a theoretical approach of gamma and neutron dose gradient study in an animal phantom. PIN junction dosimetric characteristics have been studied experimentally. Air and water phantom radiation doses measured by PIN junction and lithium 7 fluoride, in reactor field have been compared to doses given by dosimetry classical techniques as tissue equivalent plastic and aluminium ionization chambers. Dosimeter responses have been employed to evaluate neutron and gamma doses in plastinaut (tissue equivalent plastic) and animal (piglet). Dose repartition in the piglet bone medulla has been also determined. This work has been completed by comparisons with Doerschell, Dousset and Brown results and by neutron dose calculations; the dose distribution related to lineic energy transfer in Auxier phantom has been also calculated [fr

  8. Development of a unique phantom to assess dose error of metal artifact in head and neck cancer

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Lee, Min Young; Kang, Sang Won; Suh, Tae Suk [Dept. of Biomedical Engineering, College of Medicine, The Catholic University of Korea, Seoul (Korea, Republic of); Lee, Jeong Woo [Dept. of Radiation Oncology, Konkuk University Medical Center, Seoul (Korea, Republic of); Park, Ji Yeon [Dept. of Pediatrics and Molecular Imaging Program at Stanford, Stanford University, Stanford (United States)

    2016-04-15

    The artifacts not only blur the CT images and lead to inaccuracies in diagnosis, but also make the delineation of anatomical structures intractable, which is important in image-guided intervention procedures. These artifacts obscure the underlying anatomy, leading to uncertainty in the delineation of the target volumes and compromising the integrity of the density representation that is crucial for accurate dose calculation. Because head and neck cancer patients tend to be over the age of 50 years, they constitute a group likely to have dental prostheses. This kind of side effects considerably disturbs the therapeutic procedure. Radiation scatter from high atomic number (Z) materials is established to cause both soft tissue and bony complications in the oral cavity, making scattered radiation an important factor in head and neck region radiotherapy planning. In this study, we carried out theoretical analysis of the metal artifact, that is, streak artifact and dark artifact, and also critical analysis of dosimetric effect which cause by dental implants in CT images of head and neck cancer patients with the genuine teeth and implants inserted humanoid phantom. The phantom provides a unique and useful tool in head and neck dosimetry research. It can be used in the development of new imaging instrumentation, image acquisition strategies, and image processing and reconstruction methods.

  9. Quantification of breast density using dual-energy mammography with liquid phantom calibration

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Lam, Alfonso R; Ding, Huanjun; Molloi, Sabee

    2014-01-01

    Breast density is a widely recognized potential risk factor for breast cancer. However, accurate quantification of breast density is a challenging task in mammography. The current use of plastic breast-equivalent phantoms for calibration provides limited accuracy in dual-energy mammography due to the chemical composition of the phantom. We implemented a breast-equivalent liquid phantom for dual-energy calibration in order to improve the accuracy of breast density measurement. To design these phantoms, three liquid compounds were chosen: water, isopropyl alcohol, and glycerol. Chemical compositions of glandular and adipose tissues, obtained from NIST database, were used as reference materials. Dual-energy signal of the liquid phantom at different breast densities (0% to 100%) and thicknesses (1 to 8 cm) were simulated. Glandular and adipose tissue thicknesses were estimated from a higher order polynomial of the signals. Our results indicated that the linear attenuation coefficients of the breast-equivalent liquid phantoms match those of the target material. Comparison between measured and known breast density data shows a linear correlation with a slope close to 1 and a non-zero intercept of 7%, while plastic phantoms showed a slope of 0.6 and a non-zero intercept of 8%. Breast density results derived from the liquid calibration phantoms showed higher accuracy than those derived from the plastic phantoms for different breast thicknesses and various tube voltages. We performed experimental phantom studies using liquid phantoms and then compared the computed breast density with those obtained using a bovine tissue model. The experimental data and the known values were in good correlation with a slope close to 1 (∼1.1). In conclusion, our results indicate that liquid phantoms are a reliable alternative for calibration in dual-energy mammography and better reproduce the chemical properties of the target material. (paper)

  10. Poly(vinyl alcohol) gels as photoacoustic breast phantoms revisited

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Xia, Wenfeng; Piras, Daniele; Heijblom, Michelle; Steenbergen, Wiendelt; van Leeuwen, Ton G.; Manohar, Srirang

    2011-01-01

    A popular phantom in photoacoustic imaging is poly(vinyl alcohol) (PVA) hydrogel fabricated by freezing and thawing (F-T) aqueous solutions of PVA. The material possesses acoustic and optical properties similar to those of tissue. Earlier work characterized PVA gels in small test specimens where

  11. Poly(vinyl alcohol) gels as photoacoustic breast phantoms revisited

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Xia, W.; Piras, D.; Heijblom, M.; Steenbergen, Wiendelt; van Leeuwen, Ton; Manohar, Srirang

    2011-01-01

    A popular phantom in photoacoustic imaging is poly(vinyl alcohol) (PVA) hydrogel fabricated by freezing and thawing (F–T) aqueous solutions of PVA. The material possesses acoustic and optical properties similar to those of tissue. Earlier work characterized PVA gels in small test specimens where

  12. Atypical Odontalgia (Phantom Tooth Pain)

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... atypical facial pain, phantom tooth pain, or neuropathic orofacial pain, is characterized by chronic pain in a tooth ... such as a specialist in oral medicine or orofacial pain. The information contained in this monograph is for ...

  13. A contribution to quality control in veterinary radiology. Development and calibration of a test-phantom for the control of the picture quality of radiographs of the abdomen of the cat

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Mueller-Wabro, A.

    1996-10-01

    The theme of this thesis was the extension of the application of a test phantom developed at the institute of medical physics (University of Veterinary Medicine/Vienna) and the calibration for the abdomen of the cat. The test phantom is a stepped test body consisting of a material, which absorbs and scatters X-rays similar to bony tissue. On the baseplate of the staircase there are holes 0.5 and 0.7 mm in diameter. Objective parameters of a radiograph - radiographic density latitude, contrast and detail visibility - can be examined with the phantom. By using subjective 'good' rated radiographs it was possible to establish an indirect relation between the soft tissue of the abdomen and the phantom by comparing the optical density. Thus the practicability of the application for abdominal radiographs could be demonstrated. The recognizability of the holes means a measure of detail visibility. For the represented parameters of an X-ray picture are connected, one can conclude radiograph quality from detail visibility. On the basis of the results of a judgement by test-persons a nomogram was designed, which is of use in quick classifying and controlling X-ray pictures. (author)

  14. A methodology for developing anisotropic AAA phantoms via additive manufacturing.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ruiz de Galarreta, Sergio; Antón, Raúl; Cazón, Aitor; Finol, Ender A

    2017-05-24

    An Abdominal Aortic Aneurysm (AAA) is a permanent focal dilatation of the abdominal aorta at least 1.5 times its normal diameter. The criterion of maximum diameter is still used in clinical practice, although numerical studies have demonstrated the importance of biomechanical factors for rupture risk assessment. AAA phantoms could be used for experimental validation of the numerical studies and for pre-intervention testing of endovascular grafts. We have applied multi-material 3D printing technology to manufacture idealized AAA phantoms with anisotropic mechanical behavior. Different composites were fabricated and the phantom specimens were characterized by biaxial tensile tests while using a constitutive model to fit the experimental data. One composite was chosen to manufacture the phantom based on having the same mechanical properties as those reported in the literature for human AAA tissue; the strain energy and anisotropic index were compared to make this choice. The materials for the matrix and fibers of the selected composite are, respectively, the digital materials FLX9940 and FLX9960 developed by Stratasys. The fiber proportion for the composite is equal to 0.15. The differences between the composite behavior and the AAA tissue are small, with a small difference in the strain energy (0.4%) and a maximum difference of 12.4% in the peak Green strain ratio. This work represents a step forward in the application of 3D printing technology for the manufacturing of AAA phantoms with anisotropic mechanical behavior. Copyright © 2017 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  15. OSL Based Anthropomorphic Phantom and Real-Time Organ Dosimetry

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Hintenlang, David E.

    2009-01-01

    The overall objective of this project was the development of a dosimetry system that provides the direct measurement of organ doses in real-time with a sensitivity that makes it an effective tool for applications in a wide variety of health physics applications. The system included the development of a real-time readout system for fiber optic coupled (FOC) dosimeters that is integrated with a state-of-art anthropomorphic phantom to provide instantaneous measures of organ doses throughout the phantom. The small size of the FOC detectors and optical fibers allow the sensitive volume of the detector to be located at organ centroids (or multiple locations distributed through the organ) within a tissue equivalent, anthropomorphic phantom without perturbing the tissue equivalent features of the phantom. The developed phantom/dosimetry system can be used in any environment where personnel may be exposed to gamma or x-ray radiations to provide the most accurate determinations of organ and effective doses possible to date

  16. OSL Based Anthropomorphic Phantom and Real-Time Organ Dosimetry

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    David E. Hintenlang, Ph.D

    2009-02-10

    The overall objective of this project was the development of a dosimetry system that provides the direct measurement of organ does in real-time with a sensitivity that makes it an effective tool for applications in a wide variety of health physics applications. The system included the development of a real-time readout system for fiber optic coupled (FOC) dosimeters that is integrated with a state-of-art anthropomorphic phantom to provide instantaneous measures of organ doses throughout the phantom. The small size of the FOC detectors and optical fibers allow the sensitive volume of the detector to be located at organ centroids (or multiple locations distributed through the organ) within a tissue equivalent, anthropomorphic phantom without perturbing the tissue equivalent features of the phantom. The developed phantom/dosimetry system can be used in any environment where personnel may be exposed to gamma or x-ray radiations to provide the most accurate determinations of organ and effective doses possible to date.

  17. Determination of equivalent copper thickness of patient equivalent phantoms in terms of attenuation, used in radiology

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Jansen, J.Th.M.; Suliman, I.I.; Zoetelief, J.

    2002-01-01

    Full text: In the radiation protection research programme of the European Union, as part of the DIMOND concerted action, constancy check protocols for fluoroscopic systems have been developed. For practical reasons copper filters are preferred to patients and tissue equivalent, water or PMMA, phantoms. The objectives are to derive patient entrance surface dose rates and the dose rate at the image intensifier input. The protocol states that copper sheets of either 1 mm or 1.5 mm thick may be used. The present study investigates the equivalent thickness of copper filters compared to PMMA phantoms in terms of attenuation for both geometries and different tube voltage and filter combinations. The geometry to determine the patient entrance surface dose is with the copper filter close to the image intensifier. The ionisation chamber is placed on the side of the copper sheet nearest to the X-ray tube. The inverse square law is used to correct for differences in position. Measurements are performed with different settings and with and without the use of an anti-scatter grid. The geometry to determine the air kerma rate at the image intensifier is with the copper filter attached to the X-ray tube diaphragm. The ionisation chamber is placed on the surface of the image intensifier housing. Again measurements are performed with different settings and with and without anti-scatter grid. If necessary, the inverse square law correction is applied. Two different radiation beam sizes are used, i.e., a small beam with a diameter of 0.10 m at a distance of 1.00 m from the focus and a large beam with a diameter of 0.23 m at a distance of 1.00 m from the focus. The applied tube voltages and PMMA phantom thickness combinations are 60 kV, 13 cm; 80 kV, 14 cm; 100 kV, 16 cm; 120 kV, 17 cm; 150 kV, 18 cm; 150 kV, 20 cm and 150 kV, 30 cm. The spectra for the different tube voltages are generated with the IPEM Report 78 software at an anode angle of 16 degree, 0% ripple and 2.5 mm added

  18. Scattered radiation in fan beam imaging systems

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Johns, P.C.; Yaffe, M.

    1982-01-01

    Scatter-to-primary energy fluence ratios (S/P) have been studied for fan x-ray beams as used in CT scanners and slit projection radiography systems. The dependence of S/P on phantom diameter, distance from phantom to image receptor, and kilovoltage is presented. An empirical equation is given that predicts S/P over a wide range of fan beam imaging configurations. For CT body scans on a 4th-generation machine, S/P is approximately 5%. Scattered radiation can produce a significant cupping artefact in CT images which is similar to that due to beam hardening. When multiple slices are used in scanned slit radiography, they can be arranged such that the increase in S/P is negligible. Calculations of scatter-to-primary ratios for first order scattering showed that for fan beams the contribution of coherent scatter is comparable to or greater than that of incoherent first scatter

  19. A photoacoustic tomography system for imaging of biological tissues

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Su Yixiong; Zhang Fan; Xu Kexin; Yao Jianquan; Wang, Ruikang K

    2005-01-01

    Non-invasive laser-induced photoacoustic tomography (PAT) is a promising imaging modality in the biomedical optical imaging field. This technology, based on the intrinsic optical properties of tissue and ultrasonic detection, overcomes the resolution disadvantage of pure-optical imaging caused by strong light scattering and the contrast and speckle disadvantages of pure ultrasonic imaging. Here, we report a PAT experimental system constructed in our laboratory. In our system, a Q-switched Nd : YAG pulse laser operated at 532 nm with a 8 ns pulse width is used to generate a photoacoustic signal. By using this system, the two-dimensional distribution of optical absorption in the tissue-mimicking phantom is reconstructed and has an excellent agreement with the original ones. The spatial resolution of the imaging system approaches 100 μm through about 4 cm of highly scattering medium

  20. A new head phantom with realistic shape and spatially varying skull resistivity distribution.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Li, Jian-Bo; Tang, Chi; Dai, Meng; Liu, Geng; Shi, Xue-Tao; Yang, Bin; Xu, Can-Hua; Fu, Feng; You, Fu-Sheng; Tang, Meng-Xing; Dong, Xiu-Zhen

    2014-02-01

    Brain electrical impedance tomography (EIT) is an emerging method for monitoring brain injuries. To effectively evaluate brain EIT systems and reconstruction algorithms, we have developed a novel head phantom that features realistic anatomy and spatially varying skull resistivity. The head phantom was created with three layers, representing scalp, skull, and brain tissues. The fabrication process entailed 3-D printing of the anatomical geometry for mold creation followed by casting to ensure high geometrical precision and accuracy of the resistivity distribution. We evaluated the accuracy and stability of the phantom. Results showed that the head phantom achieved high geometric accuracy, accurate skull resistivity values, and good stability over time and in the frequency domain. Experimental impedance reconstructions performed using the head phantom and computer simulations were found to be consistent for the same perturbation object. In conclusion, this new phantom could provide a more accurate test platform for brain EIT research.

  1. SU-F-BRE-04: Construction of 3D Printed Patient Specific Phantoms for Dosimetric Verification Measurements

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Ehler, E; Higgins, P; Dusenbery, K

    2014-01-01

    Purpose: To validate a method to create per patient phantoms for dosimetric verification measurements. Methods: Using a RANDO phantom as a substitute for an actual patient, a model of the external features of the head and neck region of the phantom was created. A phantom was used instead of a human for two reasons: to allow for dosimetric measurements that would not be possible in-vivo and to avoid patient privacy issues. Using acrylonitrile butadiene styrene thermoplastic as the building material, a hollow replica was created using the 3D printer filled with a custom tissue equivalent mixture of paraffin wax, magnesium oxide, and calcium carbonate. A traditional parallel-opposed head and neck plan was constructed. Measurements were performed with thermoluminescent dosimeters in both the RANDO phantom and in the 3D printed phantom. Calculated and measured dose was compared at 17 points phantoms including regions in high and low dose regions and at the field edges. On-board cone beam CT was used to localize both phantoms within 1mm and 1° prior to radiation. Results: The maximum difference in calculated dose between phantoms was 1.8% of the planned dose (180 cGy). The mean difference between calculated and measured dose in the anthropomorphic phantom and the 3D printed phantom was 1.9% ± 2.8% and −0.1% ± 4.9%, respectively. The difference between measured and calculated dose was determined in the RANDO and 3D printed phantoms. The differences between measured and calculated dose in each respective phantom was within 2% for 12 of 17 points. The overlap of the RANDO and 3D printed phantom was 0.956 (Jaccard Index). Conclusion: A custom phantom was created using a 3D printer. Dosimetric calculations and measurements showed good agreement between the dose in the RANDO phantom (patient substitute) and the 3D printed phantom

  2. SU-F-BRE-04: Construction of 3D Printed Patient Specific Phantoms for Dosimetric Verification Measurements

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Ehler, E; Higgins, P; Dusenbery, K [University of Minnesota, Minneapolis, MN (United States)

    2014-06-15

    Purpose: To validate a method to create per patient phantoms for dosimetric verification measurements. Methods: Using a RANDO phantom as a substitute for an actual patient, a model of the external features of the head and neck region of the phantom was created. A phantom was used instead of a human for two reasons: to allow for dosimetric measurements that would not be possible in-vivo and to avoid patient privacy issues. Using acrylonitrile butadiene styrene thermoplastic as the building material, a hollow replica was created using the 3D printer filled with a custom tissue equivalent mixture of paraffin wax, magnesium oxide, and calcium carbonate. A traditional parallel-opposed head and neck plan was constructed. Measurements were performed with thermoluminescent dosimeters in both the RANDO phantom and in the 3D printed phantom. Calculated and measured dose was compared at 17 points phantoms including regions in high and low dose regions and at the field edges. On-board cone beam CT was used to localize both phantoms within 1mm and 1° prior to radiation. Results: The maximum difference in calculated dose between phantoms was 1.8% of the planned dose (180 cGy). The mean difference between calculated and measured dose in the anthropomorphic phantom and the 3D printed phantom was 1.9% ± 2.8% and −0.1% ± 4.9%, respectively. The difference between measured and calculated dose was determined in the RANDO and 3D printed phantoms. The differences between measured and calculated dose in each respective phantom was within 2% for 12 of 17 points. The overlap of the RANDO and 3D printed phantom was 0.956 (Jaccard Index). Conclusion: A custom phantom was created using a 3D printer. Dosimetric calculations and measurements showed good agreement between the dose in the RANDO phantom (patient substitute) and the 3D printed phantom.

  3. SU-G-206-05: A Comparison of Head Phantoms Used for Dose Determination in Imaging Procedures

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Xiong, Z; Vijayan, S; Kilian-Meneghin, J; Rudin, S; Bednarek, D [Toshiba Stroke and Vascular Research Center, University at Buffalo, Buffalo, NY (United States)

    2016-06-15

    Purpose: To determine similarities and differences between various head phantoms that might be used for dose measurements in diagnostic imaging procedures. Methods: We chose four frequently used anthropomorphic head phantoms (SK-150, PBU-50, RS-240T and Alderson Rando), a computational patient phantom (Zubal) and the CTDI head phantom for comparison in our study. We did a CT scan of the head phantoms using the same protocol and compared their dimensions and CT numbers. The scan data was used to calculate dose values for each of the phantoms using EGSnrc Monte Carlo software. An .egsphant file was constructed to describe these phantoms using a Visual C++ program for DOSXYZnrc/EGSnrc simulation. The lens dose was calculated for a simulated CBCT scan using DOSXYZnrc/EGSnrc and the calculated doses were validated with measurements using Gafchromic film and an ionization chamber. Similar calculations and measurements were made for PA radiography to investigate the attenuation and backscatter differences between these phantoms. We used the Zubal phantom as the standard for comparison since it was developed based on a CT scan of a patient. Results: The lens dose for the Alderson Rando phantom is around 9% different than the Zubal phantom, while the lens dose for the PBU-50 phantom was about 50% higher, possibly because its skull thickness and the density of bone and soft tissue are lower than anthropometric values. The lens dose for the CTDI phantom is about 500% higher because of its totally different structure. The entrance dose profiles are similar for the five anthropomorphic phantoms, while that for the CTDI phantom was distinctly different. Conclusion: The CTDI and PBU-50 head phantoms have substantially larger lens dose estimates in CBCT. The other four head phantoms have similar entrance dose with backscatter hence should be preferred for dose measurement in imaging procedures of the head. Partial support from NIH Grant R01-EB002873 and Toshiba Medical Systems

  4. Computer phantoms for simulating ultrasound B-mode and CFM images

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Jensen, Jørgen Arendt; Munk, Peter

    1997-01-01

    in a file that defines their position and amplitude. Adjusting the number of scatterers and their relative amplitude yields the proper image.Five different computer phantoms are described. The first one consists of a number of point targets. It is used for studying the point spread function as a function...... of spatial position, and can give an indication of sidelobe levels and focusing abilities. The second phantom contains a number of cysts and point tagets along with a homogeneous speckle pattern. This is used for investigating image contrast, and the system's ability to detect low-contrast objects. The third...... phantom is for realistic clinical imaging. It contains the image of a 12 week old fetus, where the placenta and the upper body of the fetus is visible. This phantom gives an indication of the whole system's capability for real imaging. The current fetus phantom is only two-dimensional, as it is constant...

  5. Application of double-layered skin phantoms for optical flow imaging during laser tattoo treatments

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lee, Byeong-il; Song, Woosub; Kim, Hyejin; Kang, Hyun Wook

    2016-05-01

    The feasible application of double-layered skin phantoms was evaluated to identify artificial blood flow with a Doppler optical coherence tomography (DOCT) system for laser tattoo treatments. Polydimethylsiloxane (PDMS) was used to fabricate the artificial phantoms with flow channels embedded. A double-integrating sphere system with an inverse adding-doubling method quantified both the absorption and the reduced scattering coefficients for epidermis and dermis phantoms. Both OCT and caliper measurements confirmed the double-layered phantom structure (epidermis = 136 ± 17 µm vs. dermis = 3.0 ± 0.1 mm). The DOCT method demonstrated that high flow rates were associated with high image contrast, visualizing the position and the shape of the flow channel. Application of the channel-embedded skin phantoms in conjunction with DOCT can be a reliable technique to assess dynamic variations in the blood flow during and after laser tattoo treatments.

  6. Polyvinyl chloride plastisol breast phantoms for ultrasound imaging.

    Science.gov (United States)

    de Carvalho, Isabela Miller; De Matheo, Lucas Lobianco; Costa Júnior, José Francisco Silva; Borba, Cecília de Melo; von Krüger, Marco Antonio; Infantosi, Antonio Fernando Catelli; Pereira, Wagner Coelho de Albuquerque

    2016-08-01

    Ultrasonic phantoms are objects that mimic some features of biological tissues, allowing the study of their interactions with ultrasound (US). In the diagnostic-imaging field, breast phantoms are an important tool for testing performance and optimizing US systems, as well as for training medical professionals. This paper describes the design and manufacture of breast lesions by using polyvinyl chloride plastisol (PVCP) as the base material. Among the materials available for this study, PVCP was shown to be stable, durable, and easy to handle. Furthermore, it is a nontoxic, nonpolluting, and low-cost material. The breast's glandular tissue (image background) was simulated by adding graphite powder with a concentration of 1% to the base material. Mixing PVCP and graphite powder in differing concentrations allows one to simulate lesions with different echogenicity patterns (anechoic, hypoechoic, and hyperechoic). From this mixture, phantom materials were obtained with speed of sound varying from 1379.3 to 1397.9ms(-1) and an attenuation coefficient having values between 0.29 and 0.94dBcm(-1) for a frequency of 1MHz at 24°C. A single layer of carnauba wax was added to the lesion surface in order to evaluate its applicability for imaging. The images of the phantoms were acquired using commercial ultrasound equipment; a specialist rated the images, elaborating diagnoses representative of both benign and malignant lesions. The results indicated that it was possible to easily create a phantom by using low-cost materials, readily available in the market and stable at room temperature, as the basis of ultrasonic phantoms that reproduce the image characteristics of fatty breast tissue and typical lesions of the breast. Copyright © 2016 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  7. Fluence-to-dose conversion coefficients based on the posture modification of Adult Male (AM) and Adult Female (AF) reference phantoms of ICRP 110

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Galeano, D.C.; Santos, W.S.; Alves, M.C.; Souza, D.N.; Carvalho, A.B.

    2016-01-01

    The aim of this work was to modify the standing posture of the anthropomorphic reference phantoms of ICRP publication 110, AM (Adult Male) and AF (Adult Female), to the sitting posture. The change of posture was performed using the Visual Monte Carlo software (VMC) to rotate the thigh region of the phantoms and position it between the region of the leg and trunk. Scion Image software was used to reconstruct and smooth the knee and hip contours of the phantoms in a sitting posture. For 3D visualization of phantoms, the VolView software was used. In the change of postures, the organ and tissue masses were preserved. The MCNPX was used to calculate the equivalent and effective dose conversion coefficients (CCs) per fluence for photons for six irradiation geometries suggested by ICRP publication 110 (AP, PA, RLAT, LLAT, ROT and ISO) and energy range 0.010–10 MeV. The results were compared between the standing and sitting postures, for both sexes, in order to evaluate the differences of scattering and absorption of radiation for different postures. Significant differences in the CCs for equivalent dose were observed in the gonads, colon, prostate, urinary bladder and uterus, which are present in the pelvic region, and in organs distributed throughout the body, such as the lymphatic nodes, muscle, skeleton and skin, for the phantoms of both sexes. CCs for effective dose showed significant differences of up to 16% in the AP irradiation geometry, 27% in the PA irradiation geometry and 13% in the ROT irradiation geometry. These results demonstrate the importance of using phantoms in different postures in order to obtain more precise conversion coefficients for a given exposure scenario. - Highlights: • The reference phantoms AM and AF had modified its posture. • The AM and AF phantoms were irradiated in standing and sitting postures. • The irradiation geometry used were the AP, PA, LLAT, RLAT, ROT and ISO. • The CCs for standing and sitting postures were compared

  8. Diffuse reflectance relations based on diffusion dipole theory for large absorption and reduced scattering.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bremmer, Rolf H; van Gemert, Martin J C; Faber, Dirk J; van Leeuwen, Ton G; Aalders, Maurice C G

    2013-08-01

    Diffuse reflectance spectra are used to determine the optical properties of biological samples. In medicine and forensic science, the turbid objects under study often possess large absorption and/or scattering properties. However, data analysis is frequently based on the diffusion approximation to the radiative transfer equation, implying that it is limited to tissues where the reduced scattering coefficient dominates over the absorption coefficient. Nevertheless, up to absorption coefficients of 20  mm-1 at reduced scattering coefficients of 1 and 11.5  mm-1, we observed excellent agreement (r2=0.994) between reflectance measurements of phantoms and the diffuse reflectance equation proposed by Zonios et al. [Appl. Opt.38, 6628-6637 (1999)], derived as an approximation to one of the diffusion dipole equations of Farrell et al. [Med. Phys.19, 879-888 (1992)]. However, two parameters were fitted to all phantom experiments, including strongly absorbing samples, implying that the reflectance equation differs from diffusion theory. Yet, the exact diffusion dipole approximation at high reduced scattering and absorption also showed agreement with the phantom measurements. The mathematical structure of the diffuse reflectance relation used, derived by Zonios et al. [Appl. Opt.38, 6628-6637 (1999)], explains this observation. In conclusion, diffuse reflectance relations derived as an approximation to the diffusion dipole theory of Farrell et al. can analyze reflectance ratios accurately, even for much larger absorption than reduced scattering coefficients. This allows calibration of fiber-probe set-ups so that the object's diffuse reflectance can be related to its absorption even when large. These findings will greatly expand the application of diffuse reflection spectroscopy. In medicine, it may allow the use of blue/green wavelengths and measurements on whole blood, and in forensic science, it may allow inclusion of objects such as blood stains and cloth at crime

  9. Spherical phantom for research of radiation situation in outer space. Design-structural special features

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Kartsev, I.S.; Eremenko, V.G.; Petrov, V.I.; Polenov, B.V.; Yudin, V.N.; Akatov, Yu.A.; Petrov, V.M.; Shurshakov, V.A.

    2005-01-01

    The design-structural features of the updated spherical phantom applied within the frameworks of the space experiment Matreshka-R at the Russian segment of International space station during ISS-8 and ISS-9 expeditions are described. The replacement of 48 polyethylene containers with TLD and STD assemblies by 16 cases installed from external side of the phantom and 4 tissue-equivalent caps of the central disk by 4 cases with detector assemblies is carried out. The updated tissue-equivalent phantom contains the active dosemeter based on 5 MOS detectors. The phantom cover is made from the non-flammable material NT-7. The basic characteristics of the flight specimen of the phantom are presented. The results of its on-Earth testing and real space flights are analyzed [ru

  10. A 4D digital phantom for patient-specific simulation of brain CT perfusion protocols.

    Science.gov (United States)

    van den Boom, Rieneke; Manniesing, Rashindra; Oei, Marcel T H; van der Woude, Willem-Jan; Smit, Ewoud J; Laue, Hendrik O A; van Ginneken, Bram; Prokop, Mathias

    2014-07-01

    Optimizing CT brain perfusion protocols is a challenge because of the complex interaction between image acquisition, calculation of perfusion data, and patient hemodynamics. Several digital phantoms have been developed to avoid unnecessary patient exposure or suboptimum choice of parameters. The authors expand this idea by using realistic noise patterns and measured tissue attenuation curves representing patient-specific hemodynamics. The purpose of this work is to validate that this approach can realistically simulate mean perfusion values and noise on perfusion data for individual patients. The proposed 4D digital phantom consists of three major components: (1) a definition of the spatial structure of various brain tissues within the phantom, (2) measured tissue attenuation curves, and (3) measured noise patterns. Tissue attenuation curves were measured in patient data using regions of interest in gray matter and white matter. By assigning the tissue attenuation curves to the corresponding tissue curves within the phantom, patient-specific CTP acquisitions were retrospectively simulated. Noise patterns were acquired by repeatedly scanning an anthropomorphic skull phantom at various exposure settings. The authors selected 20 consecutive patients that were scanned for suspected ischemic stroke and constructed patient-specific 4D digital phantoms using the individual patients' hemodynamics. The perfusion maps of the patient data were compared with the digital phantom data. Agreement between phantom- and patient-derived data was determined for mean perfusion values and for standard deviation in de perfusion data using intraclass correlation coefficients (ICCs) and a linear fit. ICCs ranged between 0.92 and 0.99 for mean perfusion values. ICCs for the standard deviation in perfusion maps were between 0.86 and 0.93. Linear fitting yielded slope values between 0.90 and 1.06. A patient-specific 4D digital phantom allows for realistic simulation of mean values and

  11. Impact of patient weight on tumor visibility based on human-shaped phantom simulation study in PET imaging system

    Science.gov (United States)

    Musarudin, M.; Saripan, M. I.; Mashohor, S.; Saad, W. H. M.; Nordin, A. J.; Hashim, S.

    2015-10-01

    Energy window technique has been implemented in all positron emission tomography (PET) imaging protocol, with the aim to remove the unwanted low energy photons. Current practices in our institution however are performed by using default energy threshold level regardless of the weight of the patient. Phantom size, which represents the size of the patient's body, is the factor that determined the level of scatter fraction during PET imaging. Thus, the motivation of this study is to determine the optimum energy threshold level for different sizes of human-shaped phantom, to represent underweight, normal, overweight and obese patients. In this study, the scanner was modeled by using Monte Carlo code, version MCNP5. Five different sizes of elliptical-cylinder shaped of human-sized phantoms with diameter ranged from 15 to 30 cm were modeled. The tumor was modeled by a cylindrical line source filled with 1.02 MeV positron emitters at the center of the phantom. Various energy window widths, in the ranged of 10-50% were implemented to the data. In conclusion, the phantom mass volume did influence the scatter fraction within the volume. Bigger phantom caused more scattering events and thus led to coincidence counts lost. We evaluated the impact of phantom sizes on the sensitivity and visibility of the simulated models. Implementation of wider energy window improved the sensitivity of the system and retained the coincidence photons lost. Visibility of the tumor improved as an appropriate energy window implemented for the different sizes of phantom.

  12. Simultaneous observation of cavitation bubbles generated in biological tissue by high-speed optical and acoustic imaging methods

    Science.gov (United States)

    Suzuki, Kai; Iwasaki, Ryosuke; Takagi, Ryo; Yoshizawa, Shin; Umemura, Shin-ichiro

    2017-07-01

    Acoustic cavitation bubbles are useful for enhancing the heating effect in high-intensity focused ultrasound (HIFU) treatment. Many studies were conducted to investigate the behavior of such bubbles in tissue-mimicking materials, such as a transparent gel phantom; however, the detailed behavior in tissue was still unclear owing to the difficulty in optical observation. In this study, a new biological phantom was developed to observe cavitation bubbles generated in an optically shallow area of tissue. Two imaging methods, high-speed photography using light scattering and high-speed ultrasonic imaging, were used for detecting the behavior of the bubbles simultaneously. The results agreed well with each other for the area of bubble formation and the temporal change in the region of bubbles, suggesting that both methods are useful for visualizing the bubbles.

  13. Development of 5 and 10 years old infant phantoms based on polygonal meshes

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Lima, Vanildo Junior de Melo; Kramer, Richard; Cassola, Vagner Ferreira; Lira, Carlos Alberto Brayner de Oliveira; Khoury, Helen Jamil; Vieira, Jose Wilson; Universidade de Pernambuco

    2011-01-01

    This paper focuses the development of reference infant phantoms of 5 and 10 years old to be used in calculation of equivalent doses in the area of radiological protection. The method uses tools developed for the modelling of 3D objects. The forms and positions are available in the literature. The mass values of each organ and tissue were adjusted according to the reference data published by the International Commission Radiological Protection. The results are presented in image of organs and tissues, and in tables. Dosimetric calculations show concordance with adult and infant phantoms, considering the differences among phantoms

  14. A feasiblity study of an ultrasonic test phantom arm

    Science.gov (United States)

    Schneider, Philip

    This thesis is a feasibility study for the creation of a test phantom that replicates the physiological features, from an acoustic and mechanical standpoint, of that of a human arm. Physiological feature set includes; Heart, Arteries, Veins, Bone, Muscle, Fat, Skin, and Dermotographic Features (finger prints). Mechanical Aspects include, vascular compression and distention, elasticity of tissue layers, mechanics of human heart. The end goal of which to have a working understanding of each component in order to create a controllable, real time, physiologically accurate, test phantom for a wide range of ultrasonic based applications. These applications can range from devices like wearable technologies to medical training, to biometric "Liveness" detection methods. The proposed phantom would allow for a number of natural bodily functions to be measured including but not limited to vascular mapping, blood pressure, heart rate, subdermal imaging, and general ultrasonic imaging.

  15. SU-F-BRE-08: Feasibility of 3D Printed Patient Specific Phantoms for IMRT/IGRT QA

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Ehler, E; Higgins, P; Dusenbery, K

    2014-01-01

    Purpose: Test the feasibility of 3D printed, per-patient phantoms for IMRT QA to analyze the treatment delivery quality within the patient geometry. Methods: Using the head and neck region of an anthropomorphic phantom as a substitute for an actual patient, a soft-tissue equivalent model was constructed with the use of a 3D printer. A nine-field IMRT plan was constructed and dose verification measurements were performed for the 3D printed phantom. During the delivery of the IMRT QA on to the 3D printed phantom, the same patient positioning indexing system was used on the phantom and image guidance (cone beam CT) was used to localize the phantom, serving as a test of the IGRT system as well. The 3D printed phantom was designed to accommodate four radiochromic film planes (two axial, one coronal and one sagittal) and an ionization chamber measurement. As a frame of comparison, the IMRT QA was also performed on traditional phantoms. Dosimetric tolerance levels such as 3mm / 3% Gamma Index as well as 3% and 5% dose difference were considered. All detector systems were calibrated against a NIST traceable ionization chamber. Results: Comparison of results 3D printed patient phantom with the standard IMRT QA systems showed similar passing rates for the 3D printed phantom and the standard phantoms. However, the locations of the failing regions did not necessarily correlate. The 3D printed phantom was localized within 1 mm and 1° using on-board cone beam CT. Conclusion: A custom phantom was created using a 3D printer. It was determined that the use of patient specific phantoms to perform dosimetric verification and estimate the dose in the patient is feasible. In addition, end-to-end testing on a per-patient basis was possible with the 3D printed phantom. Further refinement of the phantom construction process is needed for routine clinical use

  16. SU-F-BRE-08: Feasibility of 3D Printed Patient Specific Phantoms for IMRT/IGRT QA

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Ehler, E; Higgins, P; Dusenbery, K [University of Minnesota, Minneapolis, MN (United States)

    2014-06-15

    Purpose: Test the feasibility of 3D printed, per-patient phantoms for IMRT QA to analyze the treatment delivery quality within the patient geometry. Methods: Using the head and neck region of an anthropomorphic phantom as a substitute for an actual patient, a soft-tissue equivalent model was constructed with the use of a 3D printer. A nine-field IMRT plan was constructed and dose verification measurements were performed for the 3D printed phantom. During the delivery of the IMRT QA on to the 3D printed phantom, the same patient positioning indexing system was used on the phantom and image guidance (cone beam CT) was used to localize the phantom, serving as a test of the IGRT system as well. The 3D printed phantom was designed to accommodate four radiochromic film planes (two axial, one coronal and one sagittal) and an ionization chamber measurement. As a frame of comparison, the IMRT QA was also performed on traditional phantoms. Dosimetric tolerance levels such as 3mm / 3% Gamma Index as well as 3% and 5% dose difference were considered. All detector systems were calibrated against a NIST traceable ionization chamber. Results: Comparison of results 3D printed patient phantom with the standard IMRT QA systems showed similar passing rates for the 3D printed phantom and the standard phantoms. However, the locations of the failing regions did not necessarily correlate. The 3D printed phantom was localized within 1 mm and 1° using on-board cone beam CT. Conclusion: A custom phantom was created using a 3D printer. It was determined that the use of patient specific phantoms to perform dosimetric verification and estimate the dose in the patient is feasible. In addition, end-to-end testing on a per-patient basis was possible with the 3D printed phantom. Further refinement of the phantom construction process is needed for routine clinical use.

  17. Transverse tomography by Compton scattering scintigraphy

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Askienazy, S.; Lumbroso, J.; Lacaille, J.M.; Fredy, D.; Constans, J.P.; Barritault, L.

    The technique of tomography by Compton-scattering was applied to the exploration of the brain. Studies were carried out on phantoms and on patients and the first results are considered highly encouraging. On a phantom skull, holes at a depth of 7 cm are visible even on analogue documents and whatever their position with regard to the bone. On patients the ventricle cavities were revealed and comparisons with gas encephalograpy showed good agreement between the two techniques. The studies on phantoms also testified to the very low dose received by the patient: about 300 mRem for 2 million counts per section [fr

  18. Radiographic test phantom for computed tomographic lung nodule analysis

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Zerhouni, E.A.

    1987-01-01

    This patent describes a method for evaluating a computed tomograph scan of a nodule in a lung of a human or non-human animal. The method comprises generating a computer tomograph of a transverse section of the animal containing lung and nodule tissue, and generating a second computer tomograph of a test phantom comprising a device which simulates the transverse section of the animal. The tissue simulating portions of the device are constructed of materials having radiographic densities substantially identical to those of the corresponding tissue in the simulated transverse section of the animal and have voids therein which simulate, in size and shape, the lung cavities in the transverse section and which contain a test reference nodule constructed of a material of predetermined radiographic density which simulates in size, shape and position within a lung cavity void of the test phantom the nodule in the transverse section of the animal and comparing the respective tomographs

  19. Construction tool and suitability of voxel phantom for skin dosimetry

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Antunes, Paula C.G.; Siqueira, Paulo T.D.; Fonseca, Gabriel P.; Yoriyaz, Helio

    2011-01-01

    This paper describes a new software tool called 'SkinVop' which was developed to enable accurate voxel phantom skin dosimetry. A voxel phantom is a model used to describe human anatomy in a realistic way in radiation transport codes. This model is a three-dimensional representation of the human body in the form of an array of identification numbers that are arranged in a 3D matrix. Each entry in this array represents a voxel (volume element) directly associated to the units of picture resolution (pixel) of medical images. Currently, these voxel phantoms, in association with the transport code MCNP (Monte Carlo N-Particle), have provided subsidies to the planning systems used on the hospital routine, once they afford accurate and personalized estimative of dose distribution. However, these assessments are limited to geometric representations of organs and tissues in the voxel phantom, which do not discriminates some thin body structure, such as the skin. In this context, to enable accurate dosimetric skin dose assessment by the MCNP code, it was developed this new software tool that discriminates this region with thickness and localization in the voxel phantoms similar to the real. This methodology consists in manipulating the skin volume elements by segmenting and subdividing them in different thicknesses. A graphical user interface was designed to fulfill display the modified voxel model. This methodology is extremely useful once the skin dose is inaccurately assessed of current hospital system planning, justified justly by its small thickness. (author)

  20. Construction tool and suitability of voxel phantom for skin dosimetry

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Antunes, Paula C.G.; Siqueira, Paulo T.D.; Fonseca, Gabriel P.; Yoriyaz, Helio, E-mail: ptsiquei@ipen.b, E-mail: hyoriyaz@ipen.b [Instituto de Pesquisas Energeticas e Nucleares (IPEN/CNEN-SP), Sao Paulo, SP (Brazil)

    2011-07-01

    This paper describes a new software tool called 'SkinVop' which was developed to enable accurate voxel phantom skin dosimetry. A voxel phantom is a model used to describe human anatomy in a realistic way in radiation transport codes. This model is a three-dimensional representation of the human body in the form of an array of identification numbers that are arranged in a 3D matrix. Each entry in this array represents a voxel (volume element) directly associated to the units of picture resolution (pixel) of medical images. Currently, these voxel phantoms, in association with the transport code MCNP (Monte Carlo N-Particle), have provided subsidies to the planning systems used on the hospital routine, once they afford accurate and personalized estimative of dose distribution. However, these assessments are limited to geometric representations of organs and tissues in the voxel phantom, which do not discriminates some thin body structure, such as the skin. In this context, to enable accurate dosimetric skin dose assessment by the MCNP code, it was developed this new software tool that discriminates this region with thickness and localization in the voxel phantoms similar to the real. This methodology consists in manipulating the skin volume elements by segmenting and subdividing them in different thicknesses. A graphical user interface was designed to fulfill display the modified voxel model. This methodology is extremely useful once the skin dose is inaccurately assessed of current hospital system planning, justified justly by its small thickness. (author)

  1. Design of a head phantom produced on a 3D rapid prototyping printer and comparison with a RANDO and 3M lucite head phantom in eye dosimetry applications.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Homolka, Peter; Figl, Michael; Wartak, Andreas; Glanzer, Mathias; Dünkelmeyer, Martina; Hojreh, Azadeh; Hummel, Johann

    2017-04-21

    An anthropomorphic head phantom including eye inserts allowing placement of TLDs 3 mm below the cornea has been produced on a 3D printer using a photo-cured acrylic resin to best allow tissue equivalence. Thus H p (3) can be determined in radiological and interventional photon radiation fields. Eye doses and doses to the forehead have been compared to an Alderson RANDO head and a 3M Lucite skull phantom in terms of surface dose per incident air kerma for frontal irradiation since the commercial phantoms do not allow placement of TLDs 3 mm below the corneal surface. A comparison of dose reduction factors (DRFs) of a common lead glasses model has also been performed. Eye dose per incident air kerma were comparable between all three phantoms (printed phantom: 1.40, standard error (SE) 0.04; RANDO: 1.36, SE 0.03; 3M: 1.37, SE 0.03). Doses to the forehead were identical to eye surface doses for the printed phantom and the RANDO head (ratio 1.00 SE 0.04, and 0.99 SE 0.03, respectively). In the 3M Lucite skull phantom dose on the forehead was 15% lower than dose to the eyes attributable to phantom properties. DRF of a sport frame style leaded glasses model with 0.75 mm lead equivalence measured were 6.8 SE 0.5, 9.3 SE 0.4 and 10.5 SE 0.5 for the RANDO head, the printed phantom, and the 3M Lucite head phantom, respectively, for frontal irradiation. A comparison of doses measured in 3 mm depth and on the surface of the eyes in the printed phantom revealed no difference larger than standard errors from TLD dosimetry. 3D printing offers an interesting opportunity for phantom design with increasing potential as printers allowing combinations of tissue substitutes will become available. Variations between phantoms may provide a useful indication of uncertainty budgets when using phantom measurements to estimate individual personnel doses.

  2. Construction of Chinese reference female phantom

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Sheng Yinxiangzi; Liu Lixing; Xia Xiaobin

    2013-01-01

    In this study, a Voxel-based Chinese Reference female Phantom (VCRP-woman) is developed from an individual female phantom which was based on high resolution cross-sectional color photographs. An in-house C ++ program was developed to adjust the phantom. Finally, a reference female phantom with have the same height, weighte and similar organs masses with the Chinese reference adult female data. The adjusted phantom is then imported to MCNPX to calculate the organs absorbed dose and effective dose conversion coefficients. Results are compared between VCRP-woman and the ICRP adult reference female phantom. (authors)

  3. A novel composite material specifically developed for ultrasound bone phantoms: cortical, trabecular and skull

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Wydra, A; Maev, R Gr

    2013-01-01

    In the various stages of developing diagnostic and therapeutic equipment, the use of phantoms can play a very important role in improving the process, help in implementation, testing and calibrations. Phantoms are especially useful in developing new applications and training new doctors in medical schools. However, devices that use different physical factors, such as MRI, Ultrasound, CT Scan, etc will require the phantom to be made of different physical properties. In this paper we introduce the properties of recently designed new materials for developing phantoms for ultrasonic human body investigation, which in today's market make up more than 30% in the world of phantoms. We developed a novel composite material which allows fabrication of various kinds of ultrasound bone phantoms to mimic most of the acoustical properties of human bones. In contrast to the ex vivo tissues, the proposed material can maintain the physical and acoustical properties unchanged for long periods of time; moreover, these properties can be custom designed and created to suit specific needs. As a result, we introduce three examples of ultrasound phantoms that we manufactured in our laboratory: cortical, trabecular and skull bone phantoms. The paper also presents the results of a comparison study between the acoustical and physical properties of actual human bones (reported in the referenced literatures) and the phantoms manufactured by us. (note)

  4. Physical measurements with a high-energy proton beam using liquid and solid tissue substitutes

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Constantinou, C.; Kember, N.F.; Huxtable, G.; Whitehead, C.

    1980-01-01

    The measurement of the physical parameters of a high-energy proton beam, using a range of liquid and solid tissue substitutes, is described. The system, the detectors used and the experimental verification of the tissue equivalence of the new tissue substitutes is presented. The measurements with the scattered but uncollimated proton beam in muscle-and brain-equivalent liquids and in water are compared to similar data obtained from the scattered but collimated beam. The effect of lung, fat and bone on the dose distributions in composite phantoms is also investigated and the necessary corrections established. A simulated patient treatment indicated that the Bragg peak can be positioned with an error not exceeding +-0.5 mm. (author)

  5. Software correction of scatter coincidence in positron CT

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Endo, M.; Iinuma, T.A.

    1984-01-01

    This paper describes a software correction of scatter coincidence in positron CT which is based on an estimation of scatter projections from true projections by an integral transform. Kernels for the integral transform are projected distributions of scatter coincidences for a line source at different positions in a water phantom and are calculated by Klein-Nishina's formula. True projections of any composite object can be determined from measured projections by iterative applications of the integral transform. The correction method was tested in computer simulations and phantom experiments with Positologica. The results showed that effects of scatter coincidence are not negligible in the quantitation of images, but the correction reduces them significantly. (orig.)

  6. A study on the directional dependence of scatter ray in radiography

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Oh, Hyun Joo; Kim, Sung Soo; Kim, Young Il; Lee, Who Min; Kim, Hak Sung; Lim, Han Young; Kim, Heung Tae; Lee, Sang Suk

    1995-01-01

    In this papper, the back, forward, side and 45 .deg. oblique scatter dose were measured the X-ray exposure conditions 60, 80, 100, 120 kV, FFD 100 cm, FS 20 x 20 cm, toward the 25 x 25cm x 10 ∼ 20cm of solid water, paraffin and MiX-DP phantom, and Pb, Cu, AI, and styrofoam materials, by the electrometer and 5.3 cc ionization chamber. The obtained results are summarized as following. 1. The percentage depth dose(PDD) at the range of the diagnostic x-ray energy were appeared 50 % depth dose at the 2 cm depth with 60 kV, and 5 cm depth with 120 kV X-ray, 10 % depth dose at the 10 cm depth with 60 kV and 14 cm depth with 120 kV X-ray, 5 % below depth dose at the 20 cm depth. 2. The back scatter dose which were generated the surface of Pb, Cu and Al metal plates were 10 % below, and than the back scatter dose at the Pb plate were a most amount of these which were about 10 %, and were appeared the order of Cu and AI. 3. The percentage forward scatter were appeared from 50 % to 65 %, and the more phantom thickness become, the more forward scatter were increased with the ratio of 5 % per 5 cm thickness. 4. The percentage back scatter which were generated the tissue equivalence materials solid water, paraffin and MiX-DP were from 20 % to 40 %, and than the back scatter dose at the solid water were a mast amount of those, and paraffin and MiX-DP were appeared with the next values. 5. The percentage 90 .deg. lateral and 45 .deg. oblique side scatter dose were measured from 4 % to 12 %. a most amount of scatter dose which were generated from the patient in radiography were the forward scatter, the next values were the back scatter, the third values were the 90 .deg. lateral scatter

  7. Membership function used to construction of a hand homogeneous phantom

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Pavan, Ana Luiza Menegatti; Alvarez, Matheus; Alves, Allan Felipe Fattori; Rosa, Maria Eugenia Dela; Miranda, Jose Ricardo de Arruda

    2014-01-01

    Fractures and dislocations of the hand are some injuries most frequently encountered in trauma of the musculoskeletal system. In evaluating these lesions, in addition to physical examination, radiography, in at least two incidents, is the investigation of choice, and rarely is necessary the help of other images to establish the diagnosis and treatment. The image quality of X-ray examination is therefore essential. In this study, a homogeneous phantom hand was developed to be used in the optimization of images from hand using computed radiography system process. In this procedure were quantified thicknesses of different tissues that constitute an anthropomorphic phantom hand. To perform the classification and quantification of tissue was applied membership functions for histograms of CT scans. The same procedure was adopted for retrospective examinations of 30 patients of the Hospital das Clinicas, Botucatu Medicine School, UNESP (HCFMB-UNESP). The results showed agreement between the thicknesses of tissues that make up the anthropomorphic phantom and sampling of patients, presenting variations between 12.63% and 6.48% for soft tissue and bone, respectively. (author)

  8. Dose calculation on voxels phantoms using the GEANT4 code

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Martins, Maximiano C.; Santos, Denison S.; Queiroz Filho, Pedro P.; Begalli, Marcia

    2009-01-01

    This work implemented an anthropomorphic phantom of voxels on the structure of Monte Carlo GEANT4, for utilization by professionals from the radioprotection, external dosimetry and medical physics. This phantom allows the source displacement that can be isotropic punctual, plain beam, linear or radioactive gas, in order to obtain diverse irradiation geometries. In them, the radioactive sources exposure is simulated viewing the determination of effective dose or the dose in each organ of the human body. The Zubal head and body trunk phantom was used, and we can differentiate the organs and tissues by the chemical constitution in soft tissue, lung tissue, bone tissue, water and air. The calculation method was validated through the comparison with other well established method, the Visual Monte Carlo (VMC). Besides, a comparison was done with the international recommendation for the evaluation of dose by exposure to punctual sources, described in the document TECDOC - 1162- Generic Procedures for Assessment and Response During a Radiological Emergency, where analytical expressions for this calculation are given. Considerations are made on the validity limits of these expressions for various irradiation geometries, including linear sources, immersion into clouds and contaminated soils

  9. Reflective terahertz (THz) imaging: system calibration using hydration phantoms

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bajwa, Neha; Garritano, James; Lee, Yoon Kyung; Tewari, Priyamvada; Sung, Shijun; Maccabi, Ashkan; Nowroozi, Bryan; Babakhanian, Meghedi; Sanghvi, Sajan; Singh, Rahul; Grundfest, Warren; Taylor, Zachary

    2013-02-01

    Terahertz (THz) hydration sensing continues to gain traction in the medical imaging community due to its unparalleled sensitivity to tissue water content. Rapid and accurate detection of fluid shifts following induction of thermal skin burns as well as remote corneal hydration sensing have been previously demonstrated in vivo using reflective, pulsed THz imaging. The hydration contrast sensing capabilities of this technology were recently confirmed in a parallel 7 Tesla Magnetic Resonance (MR) imaging study, in which burn areas are associated with increases in local mobile water content. Successful clinical translation of THz sensing, however, still requires quantitative assessments of system performance measurements, specifically hydration concentration sensitivity, with tissue substitutes. This research aims to calibrate the sensitivity of a novel, reflective THz system to tissue water content through the use of hydration phantoms for quantitative comparisons of THz hydration imagery.Gelatin phantoms were identified as an appropriate tissue-mimicking model for reflective THz applications, and gel composition, comprising mixtures of water and protein, was varied between 83% to 95% hydration, a physiologically relevant range. A comparison of four series of gelatin phantom studies demonstrated a positive linear relationship between THz reflectivity and water concentration, with statistically significant hydration sensitivities (p hydration). The THz-phantom interaction is simulated with a three-layer model using the Transfer Matrix Method with agreement in hydration trends. Having demonstrated the ability to accurately and noninvasively measure water content in tissue equivalent targets with high sensitivity, reflective THz imaging is explored as a potential tool for early detection and intervention of corneal pathologies.

  10. Field size dependence of wedge factor: miniphantom vs full phantom measurements

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Allen Li, X.; Szanto, J.; Soubra, M.; Gerig, L. H.

    1995-01-01

    It is empirically known that the transmission factor for wedge in a high-energy photon beam is dependent upon field size and depth of measurement. The field-size dependence of wedge factors may be attributed to changes in (i) head scatter, (ii) phantom scatter, and (iii) backscatter from the wedge into the linac monitor chamber. In this work we present the results of studies designed to examine each of these factors in isolation. The wedge factors for wedges with nominal wedge angles of 15 deg. , 30 deg. , 45 deg. and 60 deg. were measured with a 3-g/cm 2 -diameter narrow cylindrical phantom (miniphantom), a brass cap with 1.5-g/cm 2 side-wall thickness and a full water phantom for 6-, 10- and 18-MV photon beams. The measurements were performed with and without flattening filter in place. The wedge factors measured with the miniphantom and the brass cap exclude the phantom scatter contribution. It has been found that the field-size behaviour of wedge factor measured with full water phantom is similar to that measured with the miniphantom and cap. This indicates that the head scatter radiation is the major contributor to the field size dependence of wedge factors. Wedge factors measured with water phantom are up to 5.0% smaller than those measured with miniphantom. This difference increases with wedge angle. When Measured with the flattening filter removed, the field size dependence of the wedge factor is reduced. This justify that the flattening filter is one of the major contributors to head scatters. The measurement results made with the brass cap agree well with those made by using the miniphantom. By measuring the monitor chamber output, it is found that the backscatters from the wedge into the linac ion chamber have little effect on the field size dependence of the wedge factor

  11. Hybrid computational phantoms of the male and female newborn patient: NURBS-based whole-body models

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Lee, Choonsik; Lodwick, Daniel; Hasenauer, Deanna; Williams, Jonathan L; Lee, Choonik; Bolch, Wesley E

    2007-01-01

    phantom is performed in three steps: polygonization of the voxel phantom, organ modeling via NURBS surfaces and phantom voxelization. Two 3D graphic tools, 3D-DOCTOR(TM) and Rhinoceros(TM), were utilized to polygonize the newborn voxel phantom and generate NURBS surfaces, while an in-house MATLAB(TM) code was used to voxelize the resulting NURBS model into a final computational phantom ready for use in Monte Carlo radiation transport calculations. A total of 126 anatomical organ and tissue models, including 38 skeletal sites and 31 cartilage sites, were described within the hybrid phantom using either NURBS or polygon surfaces. A male hybrid newborn phantom was constructed following the development of the female phantom through the replacement of female-specific organs with male-specific organs. The outer body contour and internal anatomy of the NURBS-based phantoms were adjusted to match anthropometric and reference newborn data reported by the International Commission on Radiological Protection in their Publication 89. The voxelization process was designed to accurately convert NURBS models to a voxel phantom with minimum volumetric change. A sensitivity study was additionally performed to better understand how the meshing tolerance and voxel resolution would affect volumetric changes between the hybrid-NURBS and hybrid-voxel phantoms. The male and female hybrid-NURBS phantoms were constructed in a manner so that all internal organs approached their ICRP reference masses to within 1%, with the exception of the skin (-6.5% relative error) and brain (-15.4% relative error). Both hybrid-voxel phantoms were constructed with an isotropic voxel resolution of 0.663 mm-equivalent to the ICRP 89 reference thickness of the newborn skin (dermis and epidermis). Hybrid-NURBS phantoms used to create their voxel counterpart retain the non-uniform scalability of stylized phantoms, while maintaining the anatomic realism of segmented voxel phantoms with respect to organ shape, depth and

  12. All about FAX: a Female Adult voXel phantom for Monte Carlo calculation in radiation protection dosimetry.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kramer, R; Khoury, H J; Vieira, J W; Loureiro, E C M; Lima, V J M; Lima, F R A; Hoff, G

    2004-12-07

    The International Commission on Radiological Protection (ICRP) has created a task group on dose calculations, which, among other objectives, should replace the currently used mathematical MIRD phantoms by voxel phantoms. Voxel phantoms are based on digital images recorded from scanning of real persons by computed tomography or magnetic resonance imaging (MRI). Compared to the mathematical MIRD phantoms, voxel phantoms are true to the natural representations of a human body. Connected to a radiation transport code, voxel phantoms serve as virtual humans for which equivalent dose to organs and tissues from exposure to ionizing radiation can be calculated. The principal database for the construction of the FAX (Female Adult voXel) phantom consisted of 151 CT images recorded from scanning of trunk and head of a female patient, whose body weight and height were close to the corresponding data recommended by the ICRP in Publication 89. All 22 organs and tissues at risk, except for the red bone marrow and the osteogenic cells on the endosteal surface of bone ('bone surface'), have been segmented manually with a technique recently developed at the Departamento de Energia Nuclear of the UFPE in Recife, Brazil. After segmentation the volumes of the organs and tissues have been adjusted to agree with the organ and tissue masses recommended by ICRP for the Reference Adult Female in Publication 89. Comparisons have been made with the organ and tissue masses of the mathematical EVA phantom, as well as with the corresponding data for other female voxel phantoms. The three-dimensional matrix of the segmented images has eventually been connected to the EGS4 Monte Carlo code. Effective dose conversion coefficients have been calculated for exposures to photons, and compared to data determined for the mathematical MIRD-type phantoms, as well as for other voxel phantoms.

  13. Realistic torso phantom for calibration of in-vivo transuranic-nuclide counting facilities

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Shirotani, Takashi

    1988-11-01

    A realistic torso phantom with average body size of Japanese adult males has been developed for the calibration of counting systems used for in-vivo measurements of plutonium and other actinides. The phantom contains removable model organs (lungs, liver, kidneys and heart), model trachea and artificial rib cage, and also includes chest plates that can be placed over the chest to simulate wide range adipose/muscle ratio in the human chest. Tissue substitutes used in the phantom were made of polyurethane with different concentrations of ester of phosphoric acid. Model lungs were made of foamed polyurethane with small quantities of the additive, and the artificial rib cage was made of epoxy resin with calcium carbonate. The experimental data have shown that the phantom can be used as a standard phantom for the calibration.

  14. Applying the reciprocal dose principle to heterogeneous phantoms: practical experience from Monte Carlo studies

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Cristy, M.; Williams, L.R.

    1983-01-01

    The reciprocity theorem states that for any pair of regions in a uniform isotropic or uniform scatterless model, the specific fraction (PHI) is independent of which region is designated source and which is designated target. Although the conditions of these models are not met by phantoms heterogeneous in tissue composition and density, calculations with a Monte Carlo radiation transport code show that in many cases the reciprocal PHIs from photon radiation are approximately equal. This 'reciprocity principle' is valid within a factor of 2(Snyder) or about 20% (Mayneord and Clarke), except when one of the organs in the pair considered is the skeleton, where the reciprocal PHIs may differ by as much as a factor of 4. The principle holds within at least 10% when both organs are of near-unit-density. When one of the organs is near the tissue-vacuum boundary (skin, breasts, or testes), reciprocal PHIs may differ by as much as 10% or so at energies where scattering is marked. When one of the organs is the lungs or the whole body, a comparable error may occur at some energies. (author)

  15. Measurements of computed tomography radiation scatter

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Van Every, B.; Petty, R.J.

    1992-01-01

    This paper describes the measurement of scattered radiation from a computed tomography (CT) scanner in a clinical situation and compares the results with those obtained from a CT performance phantom and with data obtained from CT manufacturers. The results are presented as iso-dose contours. There are significant differences between the data obtained and that supplied by manufacturers, both in the shape of the iso-dose contours and in the nominal values. The observed scatter in a clinical situation (for an abdominal scan) varied between 3% and 430% of the manufacturers' stated values, with a marked reduction in scatter noted a the head and feet of the patient. These differences appear to be due to the fact that manufacturers use CT phantoms to obtain scatter data and these phantoms do not provide the same scatter absorption geometry as patients. CT scatter was observed to increase as scan field size and slice thickness increased, whilst there was little change in scatter with changes in gantry tilt and table slew. Using the iso-dose contours, the orientation of the CT scanner can be optimised with regard to the location and shielding requirements of doors and windows. Additionally, the positioning of staff who must remain in the room during scanning can be optimised to minimise their exposure. It is estimated that the data presented allows for realistic radiation protection assessments to be made. 13 refs., 5 tabs., 6 figs

  16. A comparison of methods to evaluate gray scale response of tomosynthesis systems using a software breast phantom

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sousa, Maria A. Z.; Bakic, Predrag R.; Schiabel, Homero; Maidment, Andrew D. A.

    2017-03-01

    Digital breast tomosynthesis (DBT) has been shown to be an effective imaging tool for breast cancer diagnosis as it provides three-dimensional images of the breast with minimal tissue overlap. The quality of the reconstructed image depends on many factors that can be assessed using uniform or realistic phantoms. In this paper, we created four models of phantoms using an anthropomorphic software breast phantom and compared four methods to evaluate the gray scale response in terms of the contrast, noise and detectability of adipose and glandular tissues binarized according to phantom ground truth. For each method, circular regions of interest (ROIs) were selected with various sizes, quantity and positions inside a square area in the phantom. We also estimated the percent density of the simulated breast and the capability of distinguishing both tissues by receiver operating characteristic (ROC) analysis. Results shows a sensitivity of the methods to the ROI size, placement and to the slices considered.

  17. Scatter factor corrections for elongated fields

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Higgins, P.D.; Sohn, W.H.; Sibata, C.H.; McCarthy, W.A.

    1989-01-01

    Measurements have been made to determine scatter factor corrections for elongated fields of Cobalt-60 and for nominal linear accelerator energies of 6 MV (Siemens Mevatron 67) and 18 MV (AECL Therac 20). It was found that for every energy the collimator scatter factor varies by 2% or more as the field length-to-width ratio increases beyond 3:1. The phantom scatter factor is independent of which collimator pair is elongated at these energies. For 18 MV photons it was found that the collimator scatter factor is complicated by field-size-dependent backscatter into the beam monitor

  18. Inverse-FEM Characterization of a Brain Tissue Phantom to Simulate Compression and Indentation Caracterización de tejido cerebral artificial utilizando Inverse-FEM para simular indentación y comprensión

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Elizabeth Mesa-Múnera

    2012-12-01

    Full Text Available The realistic simulation of tool-tissue interactions is necessary for the development of surgical simulators and one of the key element for it realism is accurate bio-mechanical tissue models. In this paper, we determined the mechanical properties of soft tissue by minimizing the difference between experimental measurements and the analytical or simulated solution of the deformation. Then, we selected the best model parameters that fit the experimental data to simulate a bonded compression and a needle indentation with a flat-tip. We show that the inverse FEM allows accurate material property estimation. We also validated our results using multiple tool-tissue interactions over the same specimen.Una simulación realista de la interacción tejido-herramienta es necesaria para desarrollar simuldores quirúrgicos, y la presición en modelos biomecánicos de tejidos es determinante para cumplir tal fin. Los trabajos previos han caracterizado las propiedades de tejidos blandos; sin embargo, ha faltado una validación apropiada de los resultados. En este trabajo se determinaron las propiedades mecánicas de un tejido blando minimizando la diferencia entre las mediciones experimentales y la solución analítica o simulada del problema. Luego, fueron seleccionados los parámetros que mejor se ajustaron a los datos experimentales para simular una compresión con fricción y la indentación de una aguja con punta plana. Se concluye que el inverse-FEM permite la precisa estimación de las propiedades del material. Además, estos resultados fueron validados con varias interacciones tejido-herramienta sobre el mismo espécimen.

  19. A phantom for assessing the personal dose equivalent, HP(10)

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Santoro, C.; Filho, J.A

    2013-01-01

    Characteristics of a phantom designed to evaluate the personal dose equivalent, H P (10), and appropriate for photographic dosimetry are presented. It is called HP(10) phantom due to cavities constructed to insert dosimetric films at a depth of 10 mm. The H P (10) phantom is irradiated with ionizing radiation energy, E, from 45 to 1250 keV, with doses ranging from 0.2 to 50 mSv. It is positioned in the direction α = 0 °, and the radiation field focusing perpendicular to its front surface. So, are established calibration curves of dosimeters in the position conventionally true and quantities H P (10). It made a comparison between the responses obtained with the H P (10) phantom and responses obtained when using the calibration procedure recommended by ISO dosimeters. The ISO recommends getting the air kerma, Ka, for photons at test point of the radiation field by an ionization chamber. And through conversion coefficients, h pK (10; E, α), becomes the air kerma for H P (10). The ISO 4037-3 recommendation has been studied by researchers to ensure that the low energy spectral differences occur in radiation fields which are generated by various X-ray equipment, and induce changes in the percentages of conversion coefficients on the order of 10% to 90% . On the basis of the recommendations ISO, this article develops phantom able to assess the dose to the influence of scattering and absorption of radiation, its implications with respect to dosimetry, providing improvement in the assessment of doses. (author)

  20. Multiple-energy tissue-cancellation applications of a digital beam attenuator to chest radiography

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Dobbins, J.T. III.

    1985-01-01

    The digitally-formed primary beam attenuator (DBA) spatially modulates the x-ray fluence incident upon the patient to selectively attenuate regions of interest. The DBA attenuating mask is constructed from CeO 2 powder by a modified printing technique and uses image information from an initial low-dose exposure. Two tissue-cancellation imaging techniques are investigated with the DBA: (1) energy-dependent information is used to form a beam attenuator that attenuates specific tissues in the primary x-ray beam for tissue-cancelled film radiography; (2) the beam attenuator is used to improve image signal-to-noise and scattered radiation properties in traditional energy-subtraction tissue-cancellation imaging with digital detectors. The tissue-cancellation techniques in the primary x-ray beam were capable of adequately removing either soft-tissue or bone from the final compensated film radiograph when using a phantom with well defined soft-tissue and bone sections. However, when tried on an anthropomorphic chest phantom the results were adequate for cancellation of large soft tissue structures, but unsatisfactory for cancellation of bony structures such as the ribs, because of the limited spatial frequency content of the attenuating mask. The second technique (with digital detectors) showed improved uniformity of image signal-to-noise and a two-fold increase in soft-tissue nodule contrast due to improved scattered radiation properties. The tissue-cancelled images contained residual image contributions from the presence of the attenuating mask, but this residual may be correctable by future algorithms

  1. Development of skeletal system for mesh-type ICRP reference adult phantoms

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yeom, Yeon Soo; Wang, Zhao Jun; Tat Nguyen, Thang; Kim, Han Sung; Choi, Chansoo; Han, Min Cheol; Kim, Chan Hyeong; Lee, Jai Ki; Chung, Beom Sun; Zankl, Maria; Petoussi-Henss, Nina; Bolch, Wesley E.; Lee, Choonsik

    2016-10-01

    The reference adult computational phantoms of the international commission on radiological protection (ICRP) described in Publication 110 are voxel-type computational phantoms based on whole-body computed tomography (CT) images of adult male and female patients. The voxel resolutions of these phantoms are in the order of a few millimeters and smaller tissues such as the eye lens, the skin, and the walls of some organs cannot be properly defined in the phantoms, resulting in limitations in dose coefficient calculations for weakly penetrating radiations. In order to address the limitations of the ICRP-110 phantoms, an ICRP Task Group has been recently formulated and the voxel phantoms are now being converted to a high-quality mesh format. As a part of the conversion project, in the present study, the skeleton models, one of the most important and complex organs of the body, were constructed. The constructed skeleton models were then tested by calculating red bone marrow (RBM) and endosteum dose coefficients (DCs) for broad parallel beams of photons and electrons and comparing the calculated values with those of the original ICRP-110 phantoms. The results show that for the photon exposures, there is a generally good agreement in the DCs between the mesh-type phantoms and the original voxel-type ICRP-110 phantoms; that is, the dose discrepancies were less than 7% in all cases except for the 0.03 MeV cases, for which the maximum difference was 14%. On the other hand, for the electron exposures (⩽4 MeV), the DCs of the mesh-type phantoms deviate from those of the ICRP-110 phantoms by up to ~1600 times at 0.03 MeV, which is indeed due to the improvement of the skeletal anatomy of the developed skeleton mesh models.

  2. Optical characterization of thin female breast biopsies based on the reduced scattering coefficient

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Garofalakis, A; Zacharakis, G; Filippidis, G; Sanidas, E; Tsiftsis, D D; Stathopoulos, E; Kafousi, M; Ripoll, J; Papazoglou, T G

    2005-01-01

    One of the main goals in optical characterization of biopsies is to discern between tissue types. Usually, the theory used for deriving the optical properties of such highly scattering media is based on the diffusion approximation. However, biopsies are usually small in size compared to the transport mean free path and thus cannot be treated with standard diffusion theory. To account for this, an improved theory was developed, by the authors, that can correctly describe light propagation in small geometries (Garofalakis et al 2004 J. Opt. A: Pure Appl. Opt. 6 725-35). The theory's limit was validated by both Monte Carlo simulations and experiments performed on tissue-like phantoms, and was found to be two transport mean free paths. With the aid of this theory, we have characterized 59 samples of breast tissue including cancerous samples by retrieving their reduced scattering coefficients from time-resolved transmission data. The mean values for the reduced scattering coefficients of the normal and the tumour tissue were measured to be 9.7 ± 2.2 cm -1 and 10.8 ± 1.8 cm -1 , respectively. The correlation with age was also investigated

  3. Characterisation of an anthropomorphic chest phantom for dose measurements in radiology beams

    Science.gov (United States)

    Henriques, L. M. S.; Cerqueira, R. A. D.; Santos, W. S.; Pereira, A. J. S.; Rodrigues, T. M. A.; Carvalho Júnior, A. B.; Maia, A. F.

    2014-02-01

    The objective of this study was to characterise an anthropomorphic chest phantom for dosimetric measurements of conventional radiology beams. This phantom was developed by a previous research project at the Federal University of Sergipe for image quality control tests. As the phantom consists of tissue-equivalent material, it is possible to characterise it for dosimetric studies. For comparison, a geometric chest phantom, consisting of PMMA (polymethylmethacrylate) with dimensions of 30×30×15 cm³ was used. Measurements of incident air kerma (Ki) and entrance surface dose (ESD) were performed using ionisation chambers. From the results, backscatter factors (BSFs) of the two phantoms were determined and compared with values estimated by CALDose_X software, based on a Monte Carlo simulation. For the technical parameters evaluated in this study, the ESD and BSF values obtained experimentally showed a good similarity between the two phantoms, with minimum and maximum difference of 0.2% and 7.0%, respectively, and showed good agreement with the results published in the literature. Organ doses and effective doses for the anthropomorphic phantom were also estimated by the determination of conversion coefficients (CCs) using the visual Monte Carlo (VMC) code. Therefore, the results of this study prove that the anthropomorphic thorax phantom proposed is a good tool to use in dosimetry and can be used for risk evaluation of X-ray diagnostic procedures.

  4. NMR-CT image and symbol phantoms

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Hongo, Syozo; Yamaguchi, Hiroshi; Takeshita, Hiroshi

    1990-01-01

    We have developed Japanese phantoms in two procedures. One is described as a mathematical expression. Another is 'symbol phantoms' in 3 dimensional picture-elements, each of which symbolize an organ name. The concept and the algorithm of the symbol phantom enables us to make a phantom for a individual in terms of all his transversal section images. We got 85 transversal section images of head and trunk parts, and those of 40 legs parts by using NMR-CT. We have made the individual phantom for computation of organ doses. The transversal section images were not so clear to identify all organs needed to dose estimation that we had to do hand-editing the shapes of organs with viewing a typical section images: we could not yet make symbol phantom in a automatic editing. Symbols were coded to be visual cords as ASCII characters. After we got the symbol phantom of the first stage, we can edit it easily using a word-processor. Symbol phantom could describe more freely the shape of organs than mathematical phantom. Symbol phantom has several advantages to be an individual phantom, but the only difficult point is how to determine its end-point as a reference man when we apply the method to build the reference man. (author)

  5. Compton radiography, 2. Clinical significance of Compton radiography of a chest phantom

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Okuyama, S; Sera, K; Fukuda, H; Shishido, F [Tohoku Univ., Sendai (Japan). Research Inst. for Tuberculosis, Leprosy and Cancer; Mishina, H

    1977-09-01

    Compton radiography, a tomographic technic with Compton-scattered rays of a monochromatic gamma ray beam, was feasible of tomographing a chest phantom. The result suggested that the technic could be extended to imaging of the lung and the surrounding structures of the chest wall, mediastinum and liver in Compton tomographic mode.

  6. 3D Printing Openable Imaging Phantom Design

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Kim, Myoung Keun; Won, Jun Hyeok; Lee, Seung Wook

    2017-01-01

    The purpose of this study is to design an openable phantom that can replace the internal measurement bar used for contrast comparison in order to increase the efficiency of manufacturing imaging phantom used in the medical industry and to improve convenience using 3D printer. Phantom concept design, 3D printing, and Image reconstruction were defined as the scope of the thesis. Also, we study metal artifact reduction with openable phantom. We have designed a Openable phantom using 3D printing, and have investigated metal artifact reduction after inserting a metallic material inside the phantom. The openable phantom can be adjusted at any time to suit the user's experiment and can be easily replaced and useful.

  7. A review of the benefits and pitfalls of phantoms in ultrasound-guided regional anesthesia.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hocking, Graham; Hebard, Simon; Mitchell, Christopher H

    2011-01-01

    With the growth of ultrasound-guided regional anesthesia, so has the requirement for training tools to practice needle guidance skills and evaluate echogenic needles. Ethically, skills in ultrasound-guided needle placement should be gained in a phantom before performance of nerve blocks on patients in clinical practice. However, phantom technology is varied, and critical evaluation of the images is needed to understand their application to clinical use. Needle visibility depends on the echogenicity of the needle relative to the echogenicity of the tissue adjacent the needle. We demonstrate this point using images of echogenic and nonechogenic needles in 5 different phantoms at both shallow angles (20 degrees) and steep angles (45 degrees). The echogenicity of phantoms varies enormously, and this impacts on how needles are visualized. Water is anechoic, making all needles highly visible, but does not fix the needle to allow practice placement. Gelatin phantoms and Blue Phantoms provide tactile feedback but have very low background echogenicity, which greatly exaggerates needle visibility. This makes skill acquisition easier but can lead to false confidence in regard to clinical ability. Fresh-frozen cadavers retain much of the textural feel of live human tissue and are nearly as echogenic. Similar to clinical practice, this makes needles inserted at steep angles practically invisible, unless they are highly echogenic. This review describes the uses and pitfalls of phantoms that have been described or commercially produced. Copyright © 2011 by American Society of Regional Anesthesia and Pain Medicine

  8. [Development of a Striatal and Skull Phantom for Quantitative 123I-FP-CIT SPECT].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ishiguro, Masanobu; Uno, Masaki; Miyazaki, Takuma; Kataoka, Yumi; Toyama, Hiroshi; Ichihara, Takashi

    123 Iodine-labelled N-(3-fluoropropyl) -2β-carbomethoxy-3β-(4-iodophenyl) nortropane ( 123 I-FP-CIT) single photon emission computerized tomography (SPECT) images are used for differential diagnosis such as Parkinson's disease (PD). Specific binding ratio (SBR) is affected by scattering and attenuation in SPECT imaging, because gender and age lead to changes in skull density. It is necessary to clarify and correct the influence of the phantom simulating the the skull. The purpose of this study was to develop phantoms that can evaluate scattering and attenuation correction. Skull phantoms were prepared based on the measuring the results of the average computed tomography (CT) value, average skull thickness of 12 males and 16 females. 123 I-FP-CIT SPECT imaging of striatal phantom was performed with these skull phantoms, which reproduced normal and PD. SPECT images, were reconstructed with scattering and attenuation correction. SBR with partial volume effect corrected (SBR act ) and conventional SBR (SBR Bolt ) were measured and compared. The striatum and the skull phantoms along with 123 I-FP-CIT were able to reproduce the normal accumulation and disease state of PD and further those reproduced the influence of skull density on SPECT imaging. The error rate with the true SBR, SBR act was much smaller than SBR Bolt . The effect on SBR could be corrected by scattering and attenuation correction even if the skull density changes with 123 I-FP-CIT on SPECT imaging. The combination of triple energy window method and CT-attenuation correction method would be the best correction method for SBR act .

  9. Development of PIMAL: Mathematical Phantom with Moving Arms and Legs

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Akkurt, Hatice [Oak Ridge National Lab. (ORNL), Oak Ridge, TN (United States); Eckerman, Keith F. [Oak Ridge National Lab. (ORNL), Oak Ridge, TN (United States)

    2007-05-01

    The computational model of the human anatomy (phantom) has gone through many revisions since its initial development in the 1970s. The computational phantom model currently used by the Nuclear Regulatory Commission (NRC) is based on a model published in 1974. Hence, the phantom model used by the NRC staff was missing some organs (e.g., neck, esophagus) and tissues. Further, locations of some organs were inappropriate (e.g., thyroid).Moreover, all the computational phantoms were assumed to be in the vertical-upright position. However, many occupational radiation exposures occur with the worker in other positions. In the first phase of this work, updates on the computational phantom models were reviewed and a revised phantom model, which includes the updates for the relevant organs and compositions, was identified. This revised model was adopted as the starting point for this development work, and hence a series of radiation transport computations, using the Monte Carlo code MCNP5, was performed. The computational results were compared against values reported by the International Commission on Radiation Protection (ICRP) in Publication 74. For some of the organs (e.g., thyroid), there were discrepancies between the computed values and the results reported in ICRP-74. The reasons behind these discrepancies have been investigated and are discussed in this report.Additionally, sensitivity computations were performed to determine the sensitivity of the organ doses for certain parameters, including composition and cross sections used in the simulations. To assess the dose for more realistic exposure configurations, the phantom model was revised to enable flexible positioning of the arms and legs. Furthermore, to reduce the user time for analyses, a graphical user interface (GUI) was developed. The GUI can be used to visualize the positioning of the arms and legs as desired posture is achieved to generate the input file, invoke the computations, and extract the organ dose

  10. Development of an Anthropomorphic Breast Phantom for Combined PET, B-Mode Ultrasound and Elastographic Imaging

    OpenAIRE

    Dang, J; Lecoq, P; Tavernier, S; Lasaygues, P; Mensah, S; Zhang, D C; Auffray, E; Frisch, B; Varela, J; Wan, M X; Felix, N

    2011-01-01

    International audience; Combining the advantages of different imaging modalities leads to improved clinical results. For example, ultrasound provides good real-time structural information without any radiation and PET provides sensitive functional information. For the ongoing ClearPEM-Sonic project combining ultrasound and PET for breast imaging, we developed a dual-modality PET/Ultrasound (US) phantom. The phantom reproduces the acoustic and elastic properties of human breast tissue and allo...

  11. [Development of a digital chest phantom for studies on energy subtraction techniques].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hayashi, Norio; Taniguchi, Anna; Noto, Kimiya; Shimosegawa, Masayuki; Ogura, Toshihiro; Doi, Kunio

    2014-03-01

    Digital chest phantoms continue to play a significant role in optimizing imaging parameters for chest X-ray examinations. The purpose of this study was to develop a digital chest phantom for studies on energy subtraction techniques under ideal conditions without image noise. Computed tomography (CT) images from the LIDC (Lung Image Database Consortium) were employed to develop a digital chest phantom. The method consisted of the following four steps: 1) segmentation of the lung and bone regions on CT images; 2) creation of simulated nodules; 3) transformation to attenuation coefficient maps from the segmented images; and 4) projection from attenuation coefficient maps. To evaluate the usefulness of digital chest phantoms, we determined the contrast of the simulated nodules in projection images of the digital chest phantom using high and low X-ray energies, soft tissue images obtained by energy subtraction, and "gold standard" images of the soft tissues. Using our method, the lung and bone regions were segmented on the original CT images. The contrast of simulated nodules in soft tissue images obtained by energy subtraction closely matched that obtained using the gold standard images. We thus conclude that it is possible to carry out simulation studies based on energy subtraction techniques using the created digital chest phantoms. Our method is potentially useful for performing simulation studies for optimizing the imaging parameters in chest X-ray examinations.

  12. Advanced Radiation DOSimetry phantom (ARDOS): a versatile breathing phantom for 4D radiation therapy and medical imaging

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kostiukhina, Natalia; Georg, Dietmar; Rollet, Sofia; Kuess, Peter; Sipaj, Andrej; Andrzejewski, Piotr; Furtado, Hugo; Rausch, Ivo; Lechner, Wolfgang; Steiner, Elisabeth; Kertész, Hunor; Knäusl, Barbara

    2017-10-01

    A novel breathing phantom was designed for being used in conventional and ion-beam radiotherapy as well as for medical imaging. Accurate dose delivery and patient safety are aimed to be verified for four-dimensional (4D) treatment techniques compensating for breathing-induced tumor motion. The phantom includes anthropomorphic components representing an average human thorax. It consists of real tissue equivalent materials to fulfill the requirements for dosimetric experiments and imaging purposes. The different parts of the torso (lungs, chest wall, and ribs) and the tumor can move independently. Simple regular movements, as well as more advanced patient-specific breathing cycles are feasible while a reproducible setup can be guaranteed. The phantom provides the flexibility to use different types of dosimetric devices and was designed in a way that it is robust, transportable and easy to handle. Tolerance levels and the reliability of the phantom setup were determined in combination with tests on motion accuracy and reproducibility by using infrared optical tracking technology. Different imaging was performed including positron emission tomography imaging, 4D computed tomography as well as real-time in-room imaging. The initial dosimetric benchmarking studies were performed in a photon beam where dose parameters are predictable and the dosimetric procedures well established.

  13. Advanced Radiation DOSimetry phantom (ARDOS): a versatile breathing phantom for 4D radiation therapy and medical imaging.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kostiukhina, Natalia; Georg, Dietmar; Rollet, Sofia; Kuess, Peter; Sipaj, Andrej; Andrzejewski, Piotr; Furtado, Hugo; Rausch, Ivo; Lechner, Wolfgang; Steiner, Elisabeth; Kertész, Hunor; Knäusl, Barbara

    2017-10-04

    A novel breathing phantom was designed for being used in conventional and ion-beam radiotherapy as well as for medical imaging. Accurate dose delivery and patient safety are aimed to be verified for four-dimensional (4D) treatment techniques compensating for breathing-induced tumor motion. The phantom includes anthropomorphic components representing an average human thorax. It consists of real tissue equivalent materials to fulfill the requirements for dosimetric experiments and imaging purposes. The different parts of the torso (lungs, chest wall, and ribs) and the tumor can move independently. Simple regular movements, as well as more advanced patient-specific breathing cycles are feasible while a reproducible setup can be guaranteed. The phantom provides the flexibility to use different types of dosimetric devices and was designed in a way that it is robust, transportable and easy to handle. Tolerance levels and the reliability of the phantom setup were determined in combination with tests on motion accuracy and reproducibility by using infrared optical tracking technology. Different imaging was performed including positron emission tomography imaging, 4D computed tomography as well as real-time in-room imaging. The initial dosimetric benchmarking studies were performed in a photon beam where dose parameters are predictable and the dosimetric procedures well established.

  14. Conversion of ICRP male reference phantom to polygon-surface phantom

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yeom, Yeon Soo; Han, Min Cheol; Kim, Chan Hyeong; Jeong, Jong Hwi

    2013-10-01

    The International Commission on Radiological Protection (ICRP) reference phantoms, developed based on computed tomography images of human bodies, provide much more realism of human anatomy than the previously used MIRD5 (Medical Internal Radiation Dose) mathematical phantoms. It has been, however, realized that the ICRP reference phantoms have some critical limitations showing a considerable amount of holes for the skin and wall organs mainly due to the nature of voxels of which the phantoms are made, especially due to their low voxel resolutions. To address this problem, we are planning to develop the polygon-surface version of ICRP reference phantoms by directly converting the ICRP reference phantoms (voxel phantoms) to polygon-surface phantoms. The objective of this preliminary study is to see if it is indeed possible to construct the high-quality polygon-surface phantoms based on the ICRP reference phantoms maintaining identical organ morphology and also to identify any potential issues, and technologies to address these issues, in advance. For this purpose, in the present study, the ICRP reference male phantom was roughly converted to a polygon-surface phantom. Then, the constructed phantom was implemented in Geant4, Monte Carlo particle transport code, for dose calculations, and the calculated dose values were compared with those of the original ICRP reference phantom to see how much the calculated dose values are sensitive to the accuracy of the conversion process. The results of the present study show that it is certainly possible to convert the ICRP reference phantoms to surface phantoms with enough accuracy. In spite of using relatively less resources (original ICRP reference phantoms, it is believed that the polygon-surface version of ICRP reference phantoms properly developed will not only provide the same or similar dose values (say, difference <5 or 10%) for highly penetrating radiations, but also provide correct dose values for the weakly penetrating

  15. Porous phantoms for PET and SPECT performance evaluation and quality assurance

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    DiFilippo, Frank P.; Price, James P.; Kelsch, Daniel N.; Muzic, Raymond F. Jr.

    2004-01-01

    providing thorough tests of lesion detection and of attenuation and scatter correction accuracy. Because the local activity concentration is set by the relative volume of radionuclide solution in the porous core, the quantitative accuracy is limited mainly by mechanical tolerance, and strict quality control during manufacturing is essential. Nonetheless, the single-chamber design of the porous core phantoms is inherently more reproducible and more practical for routine use compared to conventional multi-chamber phantoms

  16. Impact of patient weight on tumor visibility based on human-shaped phantom simulation study in PET imaging system

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Musarudin, M.; Saripan, M.I.; Mashohor, S.; Saad, W.H.M.; Nordin, A.J.; Hashim, S.

    2015-01-01

    Energy window technique has been implemented in all positron emission tomography (PET) imaging protocol, with the aim to remove the unwanted low energy photons. Current practices in our institution however are performed by using default energy threshold level regardless of the weight of the patient. Phantom size, which represents the size of the patient's body, is the factor that determined the level of scatter fraction during PET imaging. Thus, the motivation of this study is to determine the optimum energy threshold level for different sizes of human-shaped phantom, to represent underweight, normal, overweight and obese patients. In this study, the scanner was modeled by using Monte Carlo code, version MCNP5. Five different sizes of elliptical-cylinder shaped of human-sized phantoms with diameter ranged from 15 to 30 cm were modeled. The tumor was modeled by a cylindrical line source filled with 1.02 MeV positron emitters at the center of the phantom. Various energy window widths, in the ranged of 10–50% were implemented to the data. In conclusion, the phantom mass volume did influence the scatter fraction within the volume. Bigger phantom caused more scattering events and thus led to coincidence counts lost. We evaluated the impact of phantom sizes on the sensitivity and visibility of the simulated models. Implementation of wider energy window improved the sensitivity of the system and retained the coincidence photons lost. Visibility of the tumor improved as an appropriate energy window implemented for the different sizes of phantom. - Highlights: • Optimizing the energy window improved the sensitivity of the PET system. • Improving the visibility of the tumors using the optimized energy window. • Recommendations on the optimized energy windows for different body sizes. • Using simulated phantom using MCNP to determine various body sizes

  17. Effect of phantom voxelization in CT simulations

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Goertzen, Andrew L.; Beekman, Freek J.; Cherry, Simon R.

    2002-01-01

    In computer simulations of x-ray CT systems one can either use continuous geometrical descriptions for phantoms or a voxelized representation. The voxelized approach allows arbitrary phantoms to be defined without being confined to geometrical shapes. The disadvantage of the voxelized approach is that inherent errors are introduced due to the phantom voxelization. To study effects of phantom discretization, analytical CT simulations were run for a fan-beam geometry with phantom voxel sizes ranging from 0.0625 to 2 times the reconstructed pixel size and noise levels corresponding to 10 3 -10 7 photons per detector pixel prior to attenuation. The number of rays traced per detector element was varied from 1 to 16. Differences in the filtered backprojection images caused by changing the phantom matrix sizes and number of rays traced were assessed by calculating the difference between reconstructions based on the finest matrix and coarser matrix simulations. In noise free simulations, all phantom matrix sizes produced a measurable difference in comparison with the finest phantom matrix used. When even a small amount of noise was added to the projection data, the differences due to the phantom discretization were masked by the noise, and in all cases there was almost no improvement by using a phantom matrix that was more than twice as fine as the reconstruction matrix. No substantial improvement was achieved by tracing more than 4 rays per detector pixel

  18. Simulation of ultrasound interaction with tissue

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Edee, M.K.A.; Ogulu, A.

    1995-08-01

    We model the effect of an ultrasound beam on a water phantom by considering water as an incompressible Newtonian viscous fluid. The two-dimensional flow velocities (u,v) induced in the water phantom, mimic displacement in living tissues for a phantom of unit width. The displacements depend on the ultrasound signal which is emitted and the model also predicts the nature of the signal received. 13 refs, 3 figs

  19. A deformable head and neck phantom with in-vivo dosimetry for adaptive radiotherapy quality assurance

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Graves, Yan Jiang [Center for Advanced Radiotherapy Technologies and Department of Radiation Medicine and Applied Sciences, University of California San Diego, La Jolla, California 92037-0843 and Department of Physics, University of California San Diego, La Jolla, California 92093 (United States); Smith, Arthur-Allen; Mcilvena, David; Manilay, Zherrina; Lai, Yuet Kong [Department of Mechanical and Aerospace Engineering, University of California San Diego, La Jolla, California 92093 (United States); Rice, Roger; Mell, Loren; Cerviño, Laura, E-mail: lcervino@ucsd.edu, E-mail: steve.jiang@utsouthwestern.edu [Center for Advanced Radiotherapy Technologies and Department of Radiation Medicine and Applied Sciences, University of California San Diego, La Jolla, California 92037-0843 (United States); Jia, Xun; Jiang, Steve B., E-mail: lcervino@ucsd.edu, E-mail: steve.jiang@utsouthwestern.edu [Center for Advanced Radiotherapy Technologies and Department of Radiation Medicine and Applied Sciences, University of California San Diego, La Jolla, California 92037-0843 and Department of Radiation Oncology, University of Texas Southwestern Medical Center, Dallas, Texas 75235 (United States)

    2015-04-15

    Purpose: Patients’ interfractional anatomic changes can compromise the initial treatment plan quality. To overcome this issue, adaptive radiotherapy (ART) has been introduced. Deformable image registration (DIR) is an important tool for ART and several deformable phantoms have been built to evaluate the algorithms’ accuracy. However, there is a lack of deformable phantoms that can also provide dosimetric information to verify the accuracy of the whole ART process. The goal of this work is to design and construct a deformable head and neck (HN) ART quality assurance (QA) phantom with in vivo dosimetry. Methods: An axial slice of a HN patient is taken as a model for the phantom construction. Six anatomic materials are considered, with HU numbers similar to a real patient. A filled balloon inside the phantom tissue is inserted to simulate tumor. Deflation of the balloon simulates tumor shrinkage. Nonradiopaque surface markers, which do not influence DIR algorithms, provide the deformation ground truth. Fixed and movable holders are built in the phantom to hold a diode for dosimetric measurements. Results: The measured deformations at the surface marker positions can be compared with deformations calculated by a DIR algorithm to evaluate its accuracy. In this study, the authors selected a Demons algorithm as a DIR algorithm example for demonstration purposes. The average error magnitude is 2.1 mm. The point dose measurements from the in vivo diode dosimeters show a good agreement with the calculated doses from the treatment planning system with a maximum difference of 3.1% of prescription dose, when the treatment plans are delivered to the phantom with original or deformed geometry. Conclusions: In this study, the authors have presented the functionality of this deformable HN phantom for testing the accuracy of DIR algorithms and verifying the ART dosimetric accuracy. The authors’ experiments demonstrate the feasibility of this phantom serving as an end

  20. SU-C-209-07: Phantoms for Digital Breast Tomosynthesis Imaging System Evaluation

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Jacobson, D; Liu, Y [Medical College of Wisconsin, Milwaukee, WI (United States)

    2016-06-15

    Purpose: Digital Breast Tomosynthesis (DBT) is gaining importance in breast imaging. There is a need for phantoms that can be used for image evaluation and comparison. Existing commercially available phantoms for DBT are expensive and may lack clinically relevant test objects. The purpose of this study is to develop phantoms for DBT evaluation. Methods Four phantoms have been designed and constructed to assess the image quality (IQ) of two DBT systems. The first contains a spiral of 0.3 mm SiC beads in gelatin to measure the tomographic slice thickness profile and uniformity of coverage in a series of tomographic planes. The second contains simulated tumors inclined with respect to the phantom base to assess tomographic image quality. The third has a tilted array of discs with varying contrast and diameter. This phantom was imaged alone and in a stack of TE slabs giving 2 to 10 cm thickness. The fourth has a dual wedge of glandular and adipose simulating materials. One wedge contains discs with varying diameter and thickness; the other supports a mass with six simulated spicules of varying size and a cluster of simulated calcifications. The simulated glandular tissue material varies between 35 and 100% of the total thickness (5.5 cm). Results: All phantoms were scanned successfully. The best IQ comparison was achieved with the dual wedge phantom as demonstrated by the spiculated mass and calcifications. Images were evaluated by two radiologists and one physicist. The projection images and corresponding set of tomographic planes were comparable and the synthesized projection images were inferior to the projection images for both systems. Conclusion: Four phantoms were designed, constructed and imaged on two DBT systems. They successfully demonstrated performance differences between two systems, and between true and synthesized projection images. Future work will incorporate these designs into a single phantom.

  1. SU-F-T-292: Imaging and Radiation Oncology Core (IROC) Houston QA Center’s Anthropomorphic Phantom Program

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Mehrens, H; Lewis, B; Lujano, C; Nguyen, T; Hernandez, N; Alvarez, P; Molineu, A; Followill, D

    2016-01-01

    Purpose: To describe the results of IROC Houston’s international and domestic end-to-end QA phantom irradiations. Methods: IROC Houston has anthropomorphic lung, liver, head and neck, prostate, SRS and spine phantoms that are used for credentialing and quality assurance purposes. The phantoms include structures that closely mimic targets and organs at risk and are made from tissue equivalent materials: high impact polystyrene, solid water, cork and acrylic. Motion tables are used to mimic breathing motion for some lung and liver phantoms. Dose is measured with TLD and radiochromic film in various planes within the target of the phantoms. Results: The most common phantom requested is the head and neck followed by the lung phantom. The head and neck phantom was sent to 800 domestic and 148 international sites between 2011 and 2015, with average pass rates of 89% and 92%, respectively. During the past five years, a general upward trend exists regarding demand for the lung phantom for both international and domestic sites with international sites more than tripling from 5 (2011) to 16 (2015) and domestic sites doubling from 66 (2011) to 152 (2015). The pass rate for lung phantoms has been consistent from year to year despite this large increase in the number of phantoms irradiated with an average pass rate of 85% (domestic) and 95% (international) sites. The percentage of lung phantoms used in combination with motions tables increased from 38% to 79% over the 5 year time span. Conclusion: The number of domestic and international sites irradiating the head and neck and lung phantoms continues to increase and the pass rates remained constant. These end-to-end QA tests continue to be a crucial part of clinical trial credentialing and institution quality assurance. This investigation was supported by IROC grant CA180803 awarded by the NCI.

  2. SU-F-T-292: Imaging and Radiation Oncology Core (IROC) Houston QA Center’s Anthropomorphic Phantom Program

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Mehrens, H; Lewis, B; Lujano, C; Nguyen, T; Hernandez, N; Alvarez, P; Molineu, A; Followill, D [UT MD Anderson Cancer Center, Houston, TX (United States)

    2016-06-15

    Purpose: To describe the results of IROC Houston’s international and domestic end-to-end QA phantom irradiations. Methods: IROC Houston has anthropomorphic lung, liver, head and neck, prostate, SRS and spine phantoms that are used for credentialing and quality assurance purposes. The phantoms include structures that closely mimic targets and organs at risk and are made from tissue equivalent materials: high impact polystyrene, solid water, cork and acrylic. Motion tables are used to mimic breathing motion for some lung and liver phantoms. Dose is measured with TLD and radiochromic film in various planes within the target of the phantoms. Results: The most common phantom requested is the head and neck followed by the lung phantom. The head and neck phantom was sent to 800 domestic and 148 international sites between 2011 and 2015, with average pass rates of 89% and 92%, respectively. During the past five years, a general upward trend exists regarding demand for the lung phantom for both international and domestic sites with international sites more than tripling from 5 (2011) to 16 (2015) and domestic sites doubling from 66 (2011) to 152 (2015). The pass rate for lung phantoms has been consistent from year to year despite this large increase in the number of phantoms irradiated with an average pass rate of 85% (domestic) and 95% (international) sites. The percentage of lung phantoms used in combination with motions tables increased from 38% to 79% over the 5 year time span. Conclusion: The number of domestic and international sites irradiating the head and neck and lung phantoms continues to increase and the pass rates remained constant. These end-to-end QA tests continue to be a crucial part of clinical trial credentialing and institution quality assurance. This investigation was supported by IROC grant CA180803 awarded by the NCI.

  3. Internal dosimetry estimates using voxelized reference phantoms for thyroid agents

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Hoseinian-Azghadi, E.; Rafat-Motavalli, L.; Miri-Hakimabad, H.

    2014-01-01

    This work presents internal dosimetry estimates for diagnostic procedures performed for thyroid disorders by relevant radiopharmaceuticals. The organ doses for 131 Iodine, 123 Iodine and 99m Tc incorporated into the body were calculated for the International Commission on Radiological Protection (ICRP) reference voxel phantoms using the Monte Carlo transport method. A comparison between different thyroid uptakes of iodine in the range of 0–55% was made, and the effect of various techniques for administration of 99m Tc on organ doses was studied. To investigate the necessity of calculating organ dose from all source regions, the major source organ and its contribution to total dose were specified for each target organ. Moreover, we compared effective dose in ICRP voxel phantoms with that in stylized phantoms. In our method, we directly calculated the organ dose without using the S values or SAFs, as is commonly done. Hence, a distribution of the absorbed dose to entire tissues was obtained. The chord length distributions (CLDs) were also computed for the selected source–target pairs to make comparison across the genders. The results showed that the S values for radionuclides in the thyroid are not sufficient for calculating the organ doses, especially for 123 I and 99m Tc. The thyroid and its neighboring organs receive a greater dose as thyroid uptake increases. Our comparisons also revealed an underestimation of organ doses reported for the stylized phantoms compared with the values based on the ICRP voxel phantoms in the uptake range of 5–55%, and an overestimation of absorbed dose by up to 2-fold for Iodine administration using blocking agent and for 99m Tc incorporation. (author)

  4. Evaluation of tomosynthesis elastography in a breast-mimicking phantom

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Engelken, Florian Jan; Sack, Ingolf; Klatt, Dieter; Fischer, Thomas; Fallenberg, Eva Maria; Bick, Ulrich; Diekmann, Felix

    2012-01-01

    Objective: To evaluate whether measurement of strain under static compression in tomosynthesis of a breast-mimicking phantom can be used to distinguish tumor-simulating lesions of different elasticities and to compare the results to values predicted by rheometric analysis as well as results of ultrasound elastography. Materials and methods: We prepared three soft breast-mimicking phantoms containing simulated tumors of different elasticities. The phantoms were imaged using a wide angle tomosynthesis system with increasing compression settings ranging from 0 N to 105 N in steps of 15 N. Strain of the inclusions was measured in two planes using a commercially available mammography workstation. The elasticity of the phantom matrix and inclusion material was determined by rheometric analysis. Ultrasound elastography of the inclusions was performed using two different ultrasound elastography algorithms. Results: Strain at maximal compression was 24.4%/24.5% in plane 1/plane 2, respectively, for the soft inclusion, 19.6%/16.9% for the intermediate inclusion, and 6.0%/10.2% for the firm inclusion. The strain ratios predicted by rheometrical testing were 0.41, 0.83 and 1.26 for the soft, intermediate, and firm inclusions, respectively. The strain ratios obtained for the soft, intermediate, and firm inclusions were 0.72 ± 0.13, 1.02 ± 0.21 and 2.67 ± 1.70, respectively for tomosynthesis elastography, 0.91, 1.64 and 2.07, respectively, for ultrasound tissue strain imaging, and 0.97, 2.06 and 2.37, respectively, for ultrasound real-time elastography. Conclusions: Differentiation of tumor-simulating inclusions by elasticity in a breast mimicking phantom may be possible by measuring strain in tomosynthesis. This method may be useful for assessing elasticity of breast lesions tomosynthesis of the breast

  5. Use of VAP3D software in the construction of pathological anthropomorphic phantoms for dosimetric evaluations; Uso do software VAP3D na construcao de fantomas antropomorficos patologicos para avaliacoes dosimetricas

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Lima, Lindeval Fernandes de [Universidade Federal de Pernambuco (DEM/UFPE), Recife, PE (Brazil). Dept. de Engenharia Mecanica; Vieira, Jose Wilson [Instituto Federal de Educacao, Ciencia e Tecnologia de Pernambuco, Recife, PE (Brazil); Lima, Fernando R.A., E-mail: falima@cnen.gov.b [Centro Regional de Ciencias Nucleares do Nordeste (CRCN-NE/CNEN-PE), Recife, PE (Brazil)

    2011-10-26

    This paper performs a new type of dosimetric evaluation, where it was used a phantom of pathological voxels (representative phantom of sick person). The software VAP3D (Visualization and Analysis of Phantoms 3D) were used for, from a healthy phantom (phantom representative of healthy person), to introduce three dimensional regions to simulate tumors. It was used the Monte Carlo ESGnrc code to simulate the X ray photon transport, his interaction with matter and evaluation of absorbed dose in organs and tissues from thorax region of the healthy phantom and his pathological version. This is a computer model of typical exposure for programming the treatments in radiodiagnostic

  6. Do you believe in phantoms?

    CERN Multimedia

    Rosaria Marraffino

    2015-01-01

    “Phantoms” are tools that simulate a therapy’s response by mimicking the conditions of the human body. They are required in hadron therapy in order to optimise and verify the therapy before performing it on the patient. The better the phantom, the more accurate the treatment plan and the more effective the therapy. In the framework of the EU-funded project ENTERVISION*, a team of CERN researchers has designed an innovative piece of equipment able to evaluate radiobiology-related parameters in a very accurate way.   The ENTERVISION phantom being tested at HIT. A key challenge in hadron therapy – i.e. the medical use of hadrons to treat cancer – is to evaluate the biological effect of the delivered radiation. This can be achieved by using accurate dosimetry techniques to study the biological response in terms of the dose deposited and other physical parameters of the beam, such as the Linear Energy Transfer (LET). The job of the “phan...

  7. Transorbital therapy delivery: phantom testing

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ingram, Martha-Conley; Atuegwu, Nkiruka; Mawn, Louise; Galloway, Robert L.

    2011-03-01

    We have developed a combined image-guided and minimally invasive system for the delivery of therapy to the back of the eye. It is composed of a short 4.5 mm diameter endoscope with a magnetic tracker embedded in the tip. In previous work we have defined an optimized fiducial placement for accurate guidance to the back of the eye and are now moving to system testing. The fundamental difficulty in testing performance is establishing a target in a manner which closely mimics the physiological task. We have to have a penetrable material which obscures line of sight, similar to the orbital fat. In addition we need to have some independent measure of knowing when a target has been reached to compare to the ideal performance. Lastly, the target cannot be rigidly attached to the skull phantom since the optic nerve lies buried in the orbital fat. We have developed a skull phantom with white cloth stellate balls supporting a correctly sized globe. Placed in the white balls are red, blue, orange and yellow balls. One of the colored balls has been soaked in barium to make it bright on CT. The user guides the tracked endoscope to the target as defined by the images and tells us its color. We record task accuracy and time to target. We have tested this with 28 residents, fellows and attending physicians. Each physician performs the task twice guided and twice unguided. Results will be presented.

  8. Development of a patient-specific two-compartment anthropomorphic breast phantom

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Prionas, Nicolas D; Burkett, George W; McKenney, Sarah E; Chen, Lin; Boone, John M; Stern, Robin L

    2012-01-01

    The purpose of this paper is to develop a technique for the construction of a two-compartment anthropomorphic breast phantom specific to an individual patient's pendant breast anatomy. Three-dimensional breast images were acquired on a prototype dedicated breast computed tomography (bCT) scanner as part of an ongoing IRB-approved clinical trial of bCT. The images from the breast of a patient were segmented into adipose and glandular tissue regions and divided into 1.59 mm thick breast sections to correspond to the thickness of polyethylene stock. A computer-controlled water-jet cutting machine was used to cut the outer breast edge and the internal regions corresponding to glandular tissue from the polyethylene. The stack of polyethylene breast segments was encased in a thermoplastic ‘skin’ and filled with water. Water-filled spaces modeled glandular tissue structures and the surrounding polyethylene modeled the adipose tissue compartment. Utility of the phantom was demonstrated by inserting 200 µm microcalcifications as well as by measuring point dose deposition during bCT scanning. Affine registration of the original patient images with bCT images of the phantom showed similar tissue distribution. Linear profiles through the registered images demonstrated a mean coefficient of determination (r 2 ) between grayscale profiles of 0.881. The exponent of the power law describing the anatomical noise power spectrum was identical in the coronal images of the patient's breast and the phantom. Microcalcifications were visualized in the phantom at bCT scanning. The real-time air kerma rate was measured during bCT scanning and fluctuated with breast anatomy. On average, point dose deposition was 7.1% greater than the mean glandular dose. A technique to generate a two-compartment anthropomorphic breast phantom from bCT images has been demonstrated. The phantom is the first, to our knowledge, to accurately model the uncompressed pendant breast and the glandular tissue

  9. A calibration approach to glandular tissue composition estimation in digital mammography

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Kaufhold, J.; Thomas, J.A.; Eberhard, J.W.; Galbo, C.E.; Trotter, D.E. Gonzalez

    2002-01-01

    The healthy breast is almost entirely composed of a mixture of fatty, epithelial, and stromal tissues which can be grouped into two distinctly attenuating tissue types: fatty and glandular. Further, the amount of glandular tissue is linked to breast cancer risk, so an objective quantitative analysis of glandular tissue can aid in risk estimation. Highnam and Brady have measured glandular tissue composition objectively. However, they argue that their work should only be used for 'relative' tissue measurements unless a careful calibration has been performed. In this work, we perform such a 'careful calibration' on a digital mammography system and use it to estimate breast tissue composition of patient breasts. We imaged 0%, 50%, and 100% glandular-equivalent phantoms of varying thicknesses for a number of clinically relevant x-ray techniques on a digital mammography system. From these images, we extracted mean signal and noise levels and computed calibration curves that can be used for quantitative tissue composition estimation. In this way, we calculate the percent glandular composition of a patient breast on a pixelwise basis. This tissue composition estimation method was applied to 23 digital mammograms. We estimated the quantitative impact of different error sources on the estimates of tissue composition. These error sources include compressed breast height estimation error, residual scattered radiation, quantum noise, and beam hardening. Errors in the compressed breast height estimate contribute the most error in tissue composition--on the order of ±7% for a 4 cm compressed breast height. The spatially varying scattered radiation will contribute quantitatively less error overall, but may be significant in regions near the skinline. It is calculated that for a 4 cm compressed breast height, a residual scatter signal error is mitigated by approximately sixfold in the composition estimate. The error in composition due to the quantum noise, which is the limiting

  10. Methodology for the construction of a physical phantom for quality control of images in digital radiography

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Santos, Tayline T.; Vieira, Jose Wilson; Oliveira, Alex Cristovao H. de; Lima, Fernando R. de Andrade

    2013-01-01

    The advancement of technology in recent years has provided the production of increasingly sophisticated devices, aiming to acquire medical images with high technical level and also facilitate the operational readiness of the equipment. In order to ensure the most accurate diagnosis with minimum dose without exposing patients to obtain data and verify the performance of a radiographic system for quality control purposes we use the so-called phantoms. Phantoms are physical or computational models used to simulate the transport of ionizing radiation, their interactions in the tissues of the human body and evaluate the deposition of energy. Besides, they are made from materials with behavior similar to human tissues when exposed to ionizing radiation - the so-called tissue-equivalent materials. This paper describes the construction of a physical phantom that allows the execution of the main acceptance tests of the quality control protocols in digital radiography

  11. ANTHROPOMORPHIC PHANTOMS FOR ASSESSMENT OF STRAIN IMAGING METHODS INVOLVING SALINE-INFUSED SONOHYSTEROGRAPHY

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hobson, Maritza A.; Madsen, Ernest L.; Frank, Gary R.; Jiang, Jingfeng; Shi, Hairong; Hall, Timothy J.; Varghese, Tomy

    2008-01-01

    Two anthropomorphic uterine phantoms were developed which allow assessment and comparison of strain imaging systems adapted for use with saline-infused sonohysterography (SIS). Tissue-mimicking (TM) materials consist of dispersions of safflower oil in gelatin. TM fibroids are stiffer than the TM myometrium/cervix and TM polyps are softer. The first uterine phantom has 3-mm diameter TM fibroids randomly distributed in TM myometrium. The second uterine phantom has a 5-mm and an 8-mm spherical TM fibroid in addition to a 5-mm spherical and a 12.5-mm long (medicine-capsule-shaped) TM endometrial polyp protruding into the endometrial cavity; also, a 10-mm spherical TM fibroid projects from the serosal surface. Strain images using the first phantom show the stiffer 3-mm TM fibroids in the myometrium. Results from the second uterine phantom show that, as expected, parts of inclusions projecting into the uterine cavity will appear very stiff, whether they are stiff or soft. Results from both phantoms show that even though there is a five-fold difference in the Young’s moduli values, there is not a significant difference in the strain in the transition from the TM myometrium to the TM fat. These phantoms allow for realistic comparison and evolution of SIS strain imaging techniques and can aid clinical personnel to develop skills for SIS strain imaging. PMID:18514999

  12. Skin and cutaneous melanocytic lesion simulation in biomedical optics with multilayered phantoms

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Urso, P [Department of Occupational and Environmental Health, Hospital L. Sacco Unit, University of Milan, Via G B Grassi, 74-20157 Milan (Italy); Lualdi, M [Medical Physics Unit, Istituto Nazionale per lo Studio e la Cura dei Tumori, Via Venezian 1-20133 Milan (Italy); Colombo, A [Medical Physics Unit, Istituto Nazionale per lo Studio e la Cura dei Tumori, Via Venezian 1-20133 Milan (Italy); Carrara, M [Medical Physics Unit, Istituto Nazionale per lo Studio e la Cura dei Tumori, Via Venezian 1-20133 Milan (Italy); Tomatis, S [Medical Physics Unit, Istituto Nazionale per lo Studio e la Cura dei Tumori, Via Venezian 1-20133 Milan (Italy); Marchesini, R [Medical Physics Unit, Istituto Nazionale per lo Studio e la Cura dei Tumori, Via Venezian 1-20133 Milan (Italy)

    2007-05-21

    The complex inner layered structure of skin influences the photon diffusion inside the cutaneous tissues and determines the reflectance spectra formation. Phantoms are very useful tools to understand the biophysical meaning of parameters involved in light propagation through the skin. To simulate the skin reflectance spectrum, we realized a multilayered skin-like phantom and a multilayered skin phantom with a melanoma-like phantom embedded inside. Materials used were Al{sub 2}O{sub 3} particles, melanin of sepia officinalis and a calibrator for haematology systems dispersed in transparent silicon. Components were optically characterized with indirect techniques. Reflectance phantom spectra were compared with average values of in vivo spectra acquired on a sample of 573 voluntary subjects and 132 pigmented lesions. The phantoms' reflectance spectra agreed with those measured in vivo, mimicking the optical behaviour of the human skin. Further, the phantoms were optically stable and easily manageable, and represented a valid resource in spectra formation comprehension, in diagnostic laser applications and simulation model implementation, such as the Monte Carlo code for non-homogeneous media. (note)

  13. Skin and cutaneous melanocytic lesion simulation in biomedical optics with multilayered phantoms

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Urso, P; Lualdi, M; Colombo, A; Carrara, M; Tomatis, S; Marchesini, R

    2007-01-01

    The complex inner layered structure of skin influences the photon diffusion inside the cutaneous tissues and determines the reflectance spectra formation. Phantoms are very useful tools to understand the biophysical meaning of parameters involved in light propagation through the skin. To simulate the skin reflectance spectrum, we realized a multilayered skin-like phantom and a multilayered skin phantom with a melanoma-like phantom embedded inside. Materials used were Al 2 O 3 particles, melanin of sepia officinalis and a calibrator for haematology systems dispersed in transparent silicon. Components were optically characterized with indirect techniques. Reflectance phantom spectra were compared with average values of in vivo spectra acquired on a sample of 573 voluntary subjects and 132 pigmented lesions. The phantoms' reflectance spectra agreed with those measured in vivo, mimicking the optical behaviour of the human skin. Further, the phantoms were optically stable and easily manageable, and represented a valid resource in spectra formation comprehension, in diagnostic laser applications and simulation model implementation, such as the Monte Carlo code for non-homogeneous media. (note)

  14. Skin Dosimetry in Breast Teletherapy on a Phantom Anthropomorphic and Anthropometric Phantom

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Batista Nogueira, Luciana; Lemos Silva, Hugo Leonardo; Donato da Silva, Sabrina; Passos Ribeiro Campos, Tarcisio

    2015-01-01

    This paper addresses the breast teletherapy dosimetry. The goal is to evaluate and compare absorbed doses in equivalent skin tissue, TE-skin, of an anthropomorphic and anthropometric breast phantom submitted to breast radiotherapy. The methodology involved the reproduction of a set of tomographic images of the phantom; the elaboration of conformational radiotherapy planning in the SOMAVISION and CadPlan (TPS) software; and the synthetic breast irradiation by parallel opposed fields in 3D conformal teletherapy at 6 MV linear accelerator Clinac-2100 C from VARIAN with prescribed dose (PD) of 180 cGy to the target volume (PTV), referent to the glandular tissue. Radiochromic films EBT2 were selected as dosimeters. Two independent calibration processes of films with solid water Gammex 457 plates and water filled box were produced. Curves of optical density (OD) versus absorbed dose were produced. Dosimeters were positioned in the external region of the breast phantom in contact with TE-skin, area of 4.0 cm 2 each. The irradiation process was prepared in duplicate to check the reproducibility of the technique. The radiochromic films were scanned and their response in RGB (Red, Green, Blue) analyzed by the ImageJ software. The optical density was obtained and converted to dose based on the calibration curves. Thus, the spatial dose distribution in the skin was reproduced. The absorbed doses measured on the radiochromic films in TE-skin showed values between upper and lower quadrants at 9 o'clock in the range of 54% of PD, between the upper and lower quadrants 3 o'clock in the range of 72% and 6 o'clock at the lower quadrant in the range of 68 % of PD. The values are ±64% (p <0.05) according to the TPS. It is concluded that the depth dose measured in solid water plates or water box reproduce equivalent dose values for both calibration processes of the radiochromic films. It was observed that the skin received doses ranging from 50% to 78% of the prescribed

  15. Skin Dosimetry in Breast Teletherapy on a Phantom Anthropomorphic and Anthropometric Phantom

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Batista Nogueira, Luciana [Anatomy and Imaging Department, Federal University of Minas Gerais, Belo Horizonte (Brazil); Lemos Silva, Hugo Leonardo [Santa Casa Hospital, Belo Horizonte (Brazil); Donato da Silva, Sabrina; Passos Ribeiro Campos, Tarcisio [Nuclear Engineering Department, Federal University of Minas Gerais, Belo Horizonte (Brazil)

    2015-07-01

    This paper addresses the breast teletherapy dosimetry. The goal is to evaluate and compare absorbed doses in equivalent skin tissue, TE-skin, of an anthropomorphic and anthropometric breast phantom submitted to breast radiotherapy. The methodology involved the reproduction of a set of tomographic images of the phantom; the elaboration of conformational radiotherapy planning in the SOMAVISION and CadPlan (TPS) software; and the synthetic breast irradiation by parallel opposed fields in 3D conformal teletherapy at 6 MV linear accelerator Clinac-2100 C from VARIAN with prescribed dose (PD) of 180 cGy to the target volume (PTV), referent to the glandular tissue. Radiochromic films EBT2 were selected as dosimeters. Two independent calibration processes of films with solid water Gammex 457 plates and water filled box were produced. Curves of optical density (OD) versus absorbed dose were produced. Dosimeters were positioned in the external region of the breast phantom in contact with TE-skin, area of 4.0 cm{sup 2} each. The irradiation process was prepared in duplicate to check the reproducibility of the technique. The radiochromic films were scanned and their response in RGB (Red, Green, Blue) analyzed by the ImageJ software. The optical density was obtained and converted to dose based on the calibration curves. Thus, the spatial dose distribution in the skin was reproduced. The absorbed doses measured on the radiochromic films in TE-skin showed values between upper and lower quadrants at 9 o'clock in the range of 54% of PD, between the upper and lower quadrants 3 o'clock in the range of 72% and 6 o'clock at the lower quadrant in the range of 68 % of PD. The values are ±64% (p <0.05) according to the TPS. It is concluded that the depth dose measured in solid water plates or water box reproduce equivalent dose values for both calibration processes of the radiochromic films. It was observed that the skin received doses ranging from 50% to 78% of the

  16. Characterizing the optical properties of human brain tissue with high numerical aperture optical coherence tomography.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wang, Hui; Magnain, Caroline; Sakadžić, Sava; Fischl, Bruce; Boas, David A

    2017-12-01

    Quantification of tissue optical properties with optical coherence tomography (OCT) has proven to be useful in evaluating structural characteristics and pathological changes. Previous studies primarily used an exponential model to analyze low numerical aperture (NA) OCT measurements and obtain the total attenuation coefficient for biological tissue. In this study, we develop a systematic method that includes the confocal parameter for modeling the depth profiles of high NA OCT, when the confocal parameter cannot be ignored. This approach enables us to quantify tissue optical properties with higher lateral resolution. The model parameter predictions for the scattering coefficients were tested with calibrated microsphere phantoms. The application of the model to human brain tissue demonstrates that the scattering and back-scattering coefficients each provide unique information, allowing us to differentially identify laminar structures in primary visual cortex and distinguish various nuclei in the midbrain. The combination of the two optical properties greatly enhances the power of OCT to distinguish intricate structures in the human brain beyond what is achievable with measured OCT intensity information alone, and therefore has the potential to enable objective evaluation of normal brain structure as well as pathological conditions in brain diseases. These results represent a promising step for enabling the quantification of tissue optical properties from high NA OCT.

  17. Phantom pain and phantom sensations in upper limb amputees : an epidemiological study

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Kooijman, CM; Dijkstra, PU; Geertzen, JHB; Elzinga, A; van der Schans, CP

    Phantom pain in subjects with an amputated limb is a well-known problem. However, estimates of the prevalence of phantom pain differ considerably in the literature. Various factors associated with phantom pain have been described including pain before the amputation, gender, dominance, and time

  18. The development of a population of 4D pediatric XCAT phantoms for imaging research and optimization

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Segars, W. P., E-mail: paul.segars@duke.edu; Norris, Hannah; Sturgeon, Gregory M.; Zhang, Yakun; Bond, Jason; Samei, E. [Carl E. Ravin Advanced Imaging Laboratories, Department of Radiology, Duke University Medical Center, Durham, North Carolina 27705 (United States); Minhas, Anum; Frush, D. [Department of Radiology, Duke University Medical Center, Durham, North Carolina 27705 (United States); Tward, Daniel J.; Ratnanather, J. T.; Miller, M. I. [Center for Imaging Science, Johns Hopkins University, Baltimore, Maryland 21218 (United States)

    2015-08-15

    Purpose: We previously developed a set of highly detailed 4D reference pediatric extended cardiac-torso (XCAT) phantoms at ages of newborn, 1, 5, 10, and 15 yr with organ and tissue masses matched to ICRP Publication 89 values. In this work, we extended this reference set to a series of 64 pediatric phantoms of varying age and height and body mass percentiles representative of the public at large. The models will provide a library of pediatric phantoms for optimizing pediatric imaging protocols. Methods: High resolution positron emission tomography-computed tomography data obtained from the Duke University database were reviewed by a practicing experienced radiologist for anatomic regularity. The CT portion of the data was then segmented with manual and semiautomatic methods to form a target model defined using nonuniform rational B-spline surfaces. A multichannel large deformation diffeomorphic metric mapping algorithm was used to calculate the transform from the best age matching pediatric XCAT reference phantom to the patient target. The transform was used to complete the target, filling in the nonsegmented structures and defining models for the cardiac and respiratory motions. The complete phantoms, consisting of thousands of structures, were then manually inspected for anatomical accuracy. The mass for each major tissue was calculated and compared to linearly interpolated ICRP values for different ages. Results: Sixty four new pediatric phantoms were created in this manner. Each model contains the same level of detail as the original XCAT reference phantoms and also includes parameterized models for the cardiac and respiratory motions. For the phantoms that were 10 yr old and younger, we included both sets of reproductive organs. This gave them the capability to simulate both male and female anatomy. With this, the population can be expanded to 92. Wide anatomical variation was clearly seen amongst the phantom models, both in organ shape and size, even for

  19. Characterization and validation of the thorax phantom Lungman for dose assessment in chest radiography optimization studies.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rodríguez Pérez, Sunay; Marshall, Nicholas William; Struelens, Lara; Bosmans, Hilde

    2018-01-01

    This work concerns the validation of the Kyoto-Kagaku thorax anthropomorphic phantom Lungman for use in chest radiography optimization. The equivalence in terms of polymethyl methacrylate (PMMA) was established for the lung and mediastinum regions of the phantom. Patient chest examination data acquired under automatic exposure control were collated over a 2-year period for a standard x-ray room. Parameters surveyed included exposure index, air kerma area product, and exposure time, which were compared with Lungman values. Finally, a voxel model was developed by segmenting computed tomography images of the phantom and implemented in PENELOPE/penEasy Monte Carlo code to compare phantom tissue-equivalent materials with materials from ICRP Publication 89 in terms of organ dose. PMMA equivalence varied depending on tube voltage, from 9.5 to 10.0 cm and from 13.5 to 13.7 cm, for the lungs and mediastinum regions, respectively. For the survey, close agreement was found between the phantom and the patients' median values (deviations lay between 8% and 14%). Differences in lung doses, an important organ for optimization in chest radiography, were below 13% when comparing the use of phantom tissue-equivalent materials versus ICRP materials. The study confirms the value of the Lungman for chest optimization studies.

  20. Dosimetric study for the development of heterogeneous chest phantom for the purpose of patient-specific quality assurance

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Gurjar, Om Prakash; Mishra, Praveen Kumar; Mishra, Surendra Prasad; Singh, Navin; Bagdare, Priyusha

    2015-01-01

    To analyze the dose absorption patterns of 6 Megavoltage (MV) photon beam using computed tomography (CT) slices of thorax of patient, slab phantom, and slab-kailwood-slab phantom. Single beam of 6 MV with field size of 10 X 10 cm 2 was put on CT images of chest wall, slab phantom, and slab-kailwood-slab phantom perpendicular to the surface. Dose was calculated using anisotropic analytical algorithm. Densities of each medium were calculated by Hounsfield units measured from CT images of each medium. The depths of isodose curves of 100%, 95%, 90%, 85%, 80%, 70%, 60%, and 50% were measured in all the three mediums. The densities measured for chest wall, lung, Soft tissue behind lung, slab phantom, and slab-kailwood-slab phantom were 0.89, 0.301, 1.002, 0.998, and 0.379 g/cc, respectively. The isodose depth (100%, 95%, 90%, 85%, 80%, and 50%) for patient (1.5, 2.76, 3.97, 5.33, 7.01, and 20.01 cm), slab phantom (1.5, 2.74, 3.92, 5.06, 6.32, and 15.18 cm), and slab-kailwood-slab phantom (1.5, 2.65, 3.86, 4.98, 5.95, and 20 cm) is approximately same for 100%, 95%, 90%, and 85% isodose curves. The isodose depth pattern in the chest is equivalent to that in slab-kailwood-slab phantom. The radiation properties of the slab-kailwood-slab phantom are equivalent to that of chest wall, lung, and soft tissue in actual human. The chest phantom mimicking the actual thoracic region of human can be manufactured using polystyrene and the kailwood. (author)

  1. Calibration of lung counter using a CT model of Torso phantom and Monte Carlo method

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Zhang Binquan; Ma Jizeng; Yang Duanjie; Liu Liye; Cheng Jianping

    2006-01-01

    Tomography image of a Torso phantom was obtained from CT-Scan. The Torso phantom represents the trunk of an adult man that is 170 cm high and weight of 65 kg. After these images were segmented, cropped, and resized, a 3-dimension voxel phantom was created. The voxel phantom includes more than 2 million voxels, which size was 2.73 mm x 2.73 mm x 3 mm. This model could be used for the calibration of lung counter with Monte Carlo method. On the assumption that radioactive material was homogeneously distributed throughout the lung, counting efficiencies of a HPGe detector in different positions were calculated as Adipose Mass fraction (AMF) was different in the soft tissue in chest. The results showed that counting efficiencies of the lung counter changed up to 67% for 17.5 keV γ ray and 20% for 25 keV γ ray when AMF changed from 0 to 40%. (authors)

  2. Technical Note: A new phantom design for routine testing of Doppler ultrasound.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Grice, J V; Pickens, D R; Price, R R

    2016-07-01

    The objective of this project is to demonstrate the principle and operation for a simple, inexpensive, and highly portable Doppler ultrasound quality assurance (QA) phantom intended for routine QA testing. A prototype phantom has been designed, fabricated, and evaluated. The phantom described here is powered by gravity alone, requires no external equipment for operation, and produces a stable fluid velocity useful for quality assurance. Many commercially available Doppler ultrasound testing systems can suffer from issues such as a lengthy setup, prohibitive cost, nonportable size, or difficulty in use. This new phantom design aims to address some of these problems and create a phantom appropriate for assessing Doppler ultrasound stability. The phantom was fabricated using a 3D printer. The basic design of the phantom is to provide gravity-powered flow of a Doppler fluid between two reservoirs. The printed components were connected with latex tubing and then seated in a tissue mimicking gel. Spectral Doppler waveforms were sampled to evaluate variations in the data, and the phantom was evaluated using high frame rate video to find an alternate measure of mean fluid velocity flowing in the phantom. The current system design maintains stable flow from one reservoir to the other for approximately 7 s. Color Doppler imaging of the phantom was found to be qualitatively consistent with laminar flow. Using pulsed spectral Doppler, the average fluid velocity from a sample volume approximately centered in the synthetic vessel was measured to be 56 cm/s with a standard deviation of 3.2 cm/s across 118 measurements. An independent measure of the average fluid velocity was measured to be 51.9 cm/s with a standard deviation of 0.7 cm/s over 4 measurements. The developed phantom provides stable fluid flow useful for frequent clinical Doppler ultrasound testing and attempts to address several obstacles facing Doppler phantom testing. Such an ultrasound phantom can make routine

  3. Whole-body voxel phantoms of paediatric patients—UF Series B

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lee, Choonik; Lee, Choonsik; Williams, Jonathan L.; Bolch, Wesley E.

    2006-09-01

    Following the previous development of the head and torso voxel phantoms of paediatric patients for use in medical radiation protection (UF Series A), a set of whole-body voxel phantoms of paediatric patients (9-month male, 4-year female, 8-year female, 11-year male and 14-year male) has been developed through the attachment of arms and legs from segmented CT images of a healthy Korean adult (UF Series B). Even though partial-body phantoms (head-torso) may be used in a variety of medical dose reconstruction studies where the extremities are out-of-field or receive only very low levels of scatter radiation, whole-body phantoms play important roles in general radiation protection and in nuclear medicine dosimetry. Inclusion of the arms and legs is critical for dosimetry studies of paediatric patients due to the presence of active bone marrow within the extremities of children. While the UF Series A phantoms preserved the body dimensions and organ masses as seen in the original patients who were scanned, comprehensive adjustments were made for the Series B phantoms to better match International Commission on Radiological Protection (ICRP) age-interpolated reference body masses, body heights, sitting heights and internal organ masses. The CT images of arms and legs of a Korean adult were digitally rescaled and attached to each phantom of the UF series. After completion, the resolutions of the phantoms for the 9-month, 4-year, 8-year, 11-year and 14-year were set at 0.86 mm × 0.86 mm × 3.0 mm, 0.90 mm × 0.90 mm × 5.0 mm, 1.16 mm × 1.16 mm × 6.0 mm, 0.94 mm × 0.94 mm × 6.00 mm and 1.18 mm × 1.18 mm × 6.72 mm, respectively.

  4. Analytical expression for the phantom generated bremsstrahlung background in high energy electron beams

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Sorcini, B.B.; Hyoedynmaa, S; Brahme, A.

    1995-01-01

    Qualification of the bremsstrahlung photon background generated by an electron beam in a phantom is important for accurate high energy electron beam dosimetry in radiation therapy. An analytical expression has been derived for the background of phantom generated bremsstrahlung photons in plane parallel electron beams normally incident on phantoms of any atomic number between 4 and 92 (Be, C, H 2 O, Al, Cu, Ag, Pb and U). The expression can be used with fairly good accuracy in the energy range between 1 and 50 MeV. The expression is globally based on known scattering power and radiation and collision stopping power data for the phantom material at the mean energy of the incident electrons. The depth dose distribution due to the bremsstrahlung generated in the phantom is derived by folding the bremsstrahlung energy fluence with a simple analytical one-dimensional photon energy deposition kernel. The energy loss of the primary electrons and the generation, attenuation and absorption of bremsstrahlung photons are taken into account in the analytical formula. The photon energy deposition kernel is used to account for the bremsstrahlung produced at one depth that will contribute to the down stream dose. A simple analytical expression for photon energy deposition kernel is consistent with the classical analytical relation describing the photon depth dose distribution. From the surface to the practical range the photon dose increases almost linearly due to accumulation and buildup of the photon produced at different phantom layers. At depths beyond the practical range a simple exponential function can be use to describe the bremsstrahlung attenuation in the phantom. For comparison Monte Carlo calculated distributions using ITS3 Monte Carlo Code were used. Good agreement is found between the analytical expression and Monte Carlo calculation. Deviations of 5% from Monte Carlo calculated bremmstrahlung backgro