Sample records for scattering techniques nuclear

  1. Nuclear matter and electron scattering

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Sick, I. [Dept. fuer Physik und Astronomie, Univ. Basel (Switzerland)


    We show that inclusive electron scattering at large momentum transfer allows a measurement of short-range properties of nuclear matter. This provides a very valuable constraint in selecting the calculations appropriate for predicting nuclear matter properties at the densities of astrophysical interest. (orig.)

  2. Radar interferometry persistent scatterer technique

    CERN Document Server

    Kampes, Bert M


    This volume is devoted to the Persistent Scatterer Technique, the latest development in radar interferometric data processing. It is the only book on Permanent Scatterer (PS) technique of radar interferometry, and it details a newly developed stochastic model and estimator algorithm to cope with possible problems for the application of the PS technique. The STUN (spatio-temporal unwrapping network) algorithm, developed to cope with these issues in a robust way, is presented and applied to two test sites.

  3. Mechanism of nuclear rainbow scattering

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Ohkubo, S. [Department of Applied Science and Environment, Kochi Women University, Kochi 780-8515 (Japan)


    Full text: Nuclear rainbow phenomenon has been widely observed in light heavy ion scattering such as {sup 16} 0 + {sup 16} 0, {sup 16} 0 + {sup 12} C and {sup 12} C + {sup 12} C and great progress has been made experimentally and theoretically especially in the nineties. The nuclear rainbow has been understood quite often in analogy to meteorological rainbow caused by scattering of light from water droplets, because they are both considered to be a refractive phenomenon. Traditionally nuclear rain- bow has been explained by the far side component of the scattering amplitudes in the presence of a strong attractive force: The observed Airy structure in the angular distributions has been understood by the interference between it's two sub amplitudes in analogy to the interference of two refractive waves in meteorological rainbow, although it was not easy to theoretically extract its components separately. By studying the {sup 16} 0 + {sup 16} 0 scattering measured at Strasbourg, we have theoretically succeeded in extracting the sub amplitudes of the far side scattering in a rigorous but easy way: the sub amplitudes are obtained by decomposing the calculated scattering amplitude into its internal wave and barrier wave components. It is found that the Airy structure observed in the angular distributions in the E L = 75-145 MeV is caused by the interference between the far side internal-wave and far side barrier-wave. The minima in the 90-excitation function, which has been interpreted to be the passage of the Airy elephants, can also be explained as the interference between the far side internal- wave and barrier-wave. It is noted that although the internal wave is a refracted wave the barrier wave is a reflected wave, which does not feel the attractive potential in the very internal region. This means that the nuclear Airy structure is caused by the interference between the refractive wave and reflective wave. This finding is very different from the traditional

  4. New Techniques in Neutron Scattering

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Birk, Jonas Okkels

    Neutron scattering is an important experimental technique in amongst others solid state physics, biophysics, and engineering. This year construction of European Spallation Source (ESS) was commenced in Lund, Sweeden. The facility will use a new long pulsed source principle to obtain higher....... The instrument is ideally suited for solid state experiments with extreme sample environments such as large pressures and strong magnetic fields. CAMEA combines the time-of-flight technique to determine the energy of the incoming neutrons with a complex multiplex backend that will analyse and detect...

  5. Rotational nuclear models and electron scattering

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Moya de Guerra, E.


    A review is made of the basic formalism involved in the application of nuclear rotational models to the problem of electron scattering from axially symmetric deformed nuclei. Emphasis is made on the use of electron scattering to extract information on the nature of the collective rotational model. In this respect, the interest of using polarized beam and target is discussed with the help of illustrative examples. Concerning the nuclear structure four rotational models are considered: Two microscopic models, namely the Projected Hartree-Fock (PHF) and cranking models; and two collective models, the rigid rotor and the irrotational flow models. The problem of current conservation within the different models is also discussed.

  6. Nuclear techniques in analytical chemistry

    CERN Document Server

    Moses, Alfred J; Gordon, L


    Nuclear Techniques in Analytical Chemistry discusses highly sensitive nuclear techniques that determine the micro- and macro-amounts or trace elements of materials. With the increasingly frequent demand for the chemical determination of trace amounts of elements in materials, the analytical chemist had to search for more sensitive methods of analysis. This book accustoms analytical chemists with nuclear techniques that possess the desired sensitivity and applicability at trace levels. The topics covered include safe handling of radioactivity; measurement of natural radioactivity; and neutron a

  7. Techniques in high pressure neutron scattering

    CERN Document Server

    Klotz, Stefan


    Drawing on the author's practical work from the last 20 years, Techniques in High Pressure Neutron Scattering is one of the first books to gather recent methods that allow neutron scattering well beyond 10 GPa. The author shows how neutron scattering has to be adapted to the pressure range and type of measurement.Suitable for both newcomers and experienced high pressure scientists and engineers, the book describes various solutions spanning two to three orders of magnitude in pressure that have emerged in the past three decades. Many engineering concepts are illustrated through examples of rea

  8. Neutron Scattering in Biology Techniques and Applications

    CERN Document Server

    Fitter, Jörg; Katsaras, John


    The advent of new neutron facilities and the improvement of existing sources and instruments world wide supply the biological community with many new opportunities in the areas of structural biology and biological physics. The present volume offers a clear description of the various neutron-scattering techniques currently being used to answer biologically relevant questions. Their utility is illustrated through examples by some of the leading researchers in the field of neutron scattering. This volume will be a reference for researchers and a step-by-step guide for young scientists entering the field and the advanced graduate student.

  9. Nuclear resonance scattering measurement of human iron stores

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Wielopolski, L.; Ancona, R.C.; Mossey, R.T.; Vaswani, A.N.; Cohn, S.H.


    Hepatic iron stores were measured noninvasively in 31 patients (thalassemia, hemodialysis, hemosiderosis, refractory anemia) with suspected iron overload, employing a nuclear resonance scattering (NRS) technique. The thalassemia patients were undergoing desferrioxamine chelation therapy during the NRS measurements. The hemodialysis patients were measured before chelation therapy. Iron levels measured by NRS were in general agreement with those determined in liver biopsies by atomic absorption spectroscopy. In addition, NRS measurements from the thorax of some of these patients suggest that this method may also prove useful for clinical assessment of cardiac iron.

  10. Flow microfluorometric and light-scatter measurement of nuclear and cytoplasmic size in mammalian cells

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Steinkamp, J.A.; Hansen, K.M.; Crissman, H.A.


    A technique for rapid measurement of nuclear and cytoplasmic size relationships in mammalian cell populations has been developed. Based on fluorescence staining of either the nucleus alone or in combination with the cytoplasm using two-color fluorescence methods, this technique permits the simultaneous determination of nuclear and cytoplasmic diameters from fluorescence and light-scatter measurements. Cells stained in liquid suspension pass through a flow chamber at a constant velocity, intersecting a laser beam which excites cell fluorescence and causes light scatter. Depending upon which analysis procedure is used, optical sensors measure nuclear fluorescence and light scatter (whole cell size) or two-color nuclear and cytoplasmic fluorescence from individual cells crossing the laser beam. The time durations of signals generated by the nucleus and cytoplasm are converted electronically into signals proportional to the respective diameters and are displayed as frequency distribution histograms. Illustrative examples of measurements on uniform microspheres, cultured mammalian cells and human exfoliated gynecologic cells are presented.

  11. Nuclear techniques of analysis in diamond synthesis and annealing

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Jamieson, D. N.; Prawer, S.; Gonon, P.; Walker, R.; Dooley, S.; Bettiol, A.; Pearce, J. [Melbourne Univ., Parkville, VIC (Australia). School of Physics


    Nuclear techniques of analysis have played an important role in the study of synthetic and laser annealed diamond. These measurements have mainly used ion beam analysis with a focused MeV ion beam in a nuclear microprobe system. A variety of techniques have been employed. One of the most important is nuclear elastic scattering, sometimes called non-Rutherford scattering, which has been used to accurately characterise diamond films for thickness and composition. This is possible by the use of a database of measured scattering cross sections. Recently, this work has been extended and nuclear elastic scattering cross sections for both natural boron isotopes have been measured. For radiation damaged diamond, a focused laser annealing scheme has been developed which produces near complete regrowth of MeV phosphorus implanted diamonds. In the laser annealed regions, proton induced x-ray emission has been used to show that 50 % of the P atoms occupy lattice sites. This opens the way to produce n-type diamond for microelectronic device applications. All these analytical applications utilize a focused MeV microbeam which is ideally suited for diamond analysis. This presentation reviews these applications, as well as the technology of nuclear techniques of analysis for diamond with a focused beam. 9 refs., 6 figs.

  12. Biological Small Angle Scattering: Techniques, Strategies and Tips

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Chaudhuri, Barnali [University at Buffalo (SUNY); Muñoz, Inés G. [Centro Nacional de Investigaciones Oncológicas Madrid, Madrid, Spain; Urban, Volker S. [ORNL; Qian, Shuo [ORNL


    This book provides a clear, comprehensible and up-to-date description of how Small Angle Scattering (SAS) can help structural biology researchers. SAS is an efficient technique that offers structural information on how biological macromolecules behave in solution. SAS provides distinct and complementary data for integrative structural biology approaches in combination with other widely used probes, such as X-ray crystallography, Nuclear magnetic resonance, Mass spectrometry and Cryo-electron Microscopy. The development of brilliant synchrotron small-angle X-ray scattering (SAXS) beam lines has increased the number of researchers interested in solution scattering. SAS is especially useful for studying conformational changes in proteins, highly flexible proteins, and intrinsically disordered proteins. Small-angle neutron scattering (SANS) with neutron contrast variation is ideally suited for studying multi-component assemblies as well as membrane proteins that are stabilized in surfactant micelles or vesicles. SAS is also used for studying dynamic processes of protein fibrillation in amyloid diseases, and pharmaceutical drug delivery. The combination with size-exclusion chromatography further increases the range of SAS applications.The book is written by leading experts in solution SAS methodologies. The principles and theoretical background of various SAS techniques are included, along with practical aspects that range from sample preparation to data presentation for publication. Topics covered include techniques for improving data quality and analysis, as well as different scientific applications of SAS. With abundant illustrations and practical tips, we hope the clear explanations of the principles and the reviews on the latest progresses will serve as a guide through all aspects of biological solution SAS.The scope of this book is particularly relevant for structural biology researchers who are new to SAS. Advanced users of the technique will find it helpful for

  13. A Discrete Scatterer Technique for Evaluating Electromagnetic Scattering from Trees (United States)


    distribution is unlimited. 1 1. Introduction Developing sensing capabilities for the detection of ground targets concealed in a forest environment...scatterer simulation are 369 MB and 33 min/frequency, respectively, on a Dell Precision T7500 workstation with Intel Xeon CPU of 2.67 GHz, while those...2. Thirion L, Colin E, Dahon C. Capabilities of a forest coherent scattering model applied to radiometry, interferometry, and polarimetry at P

  14. Measurement of Nuclear Dependence in Inclusive Charged Current Neutrino Scattering

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Tice, Brian George [Rutgers Univ., New Brunswick, NJ (United States)


    Neutrino experiments use heavy nuclei (C, Fe, Pb) to achieve necessary statistics. However, the use of heavy nuclei exposes these experiments to the nuclear dependence of neutrino-nucleus cross sections, which are poorly known and difficult to model. This dissertation presents an analysis of the nuclear dependence of inclusive chargedcurrent neutrino scattering using events in carbon, iron, lead, and scintillator targets of the MINERvA detector. MINERvA (Main INjector ExpeRiment for -A) is a few-GeV neutrinonucleus scattering experiment at Fermilab.

  15. Experimental techniques in nuclear and particle physics

    CERN Document Server

    Tavernier, Stefaan


    The book is based on a course in nuclear and particle physics that the author has taught over many years to physics students, students in nuclear engineering and students in biomedical engineering. It provides the basic understanding that any student or researcher using such instruments and techniques should have about the subject. After an introduction to the structure of matter at the subatomic scale, it covers the experimental aspects of nuclear and particle physics. Ideally complementing a theoretically-oriented textbook on nuclear physics and/or particle physics, it introduces the reader to the different techniques used in nuclear and particle physics to accelerate particles and to measurement techniques (detectors) in nuclear and particle physics. The main subjects treated are: interactions of subatomic particles in matter; particle accelerators; basics of different types of detectors; and nuclear electronics. The book will be of interest to undergraduates, graduates and researchers in both particle and...

  16. Neutralino Inelastic Scattering with Subsequent Detection of Nuclear Gamma Rays


    Engel, J; Vogel, P


    We consider the potential benefits of searching for supersymmetric dark-matter through its inelastic excitation, via the "scalar current", of low-lying collective nuclear states in a detector. If such states live long enough so that the gamma radiation from their decay can be separated from the signal due to nuclear recoil, then background can be dramatically reduced. We show how the kinematics of neutralino-nucleus scattering is modified when the nucleus is excited and derive expressions for...

  17. Phase-function method for Coulomb-distorted nuclear scattering

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Sett, G.C.; Laha, U.; Talukdar, B.


    The phase-function method is very effective in treating quantum mechanical scattering problems for short-range local potentials. We adapt the phase method to deal with Coulomb plus Graz non-local separable potentials and derive a closed-form expression for the scattering phase shift. Our approach to the problem circumvents in a rather natural way the typical difficulties of incorporating the Coulomb interaction in a nuclear phase-shift calculation. We demonstrate the usefulness of our constructed expression by means of a model calculation.

  18. Plasma scattering of electromagnetic radiation theory and measurement techniques

    CERN Document Server

    Froula, Dustin H; Luhmann, Neville C Jr; Sheffield, John


    This work presents one of the most powerful methods of plasma diagnosis in exquisite detail to guide researchers in the theory and measurement techniques of light scattering in plasmas. Light scattering in plasmas is essential in the research and development of fusion energy, environmental solutions, and electronics.Referred to as the "Bible" by researchers the work encompasses fusion and industrial applications essential in plasma research. It is the only comprehensive resource specific to the plasma scattering technique. It provides a wide-range of experimental examples and discussion of the

  19. Analysis of Jordanian phosphate using nuclear techniques

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Saleh, N.S.; Al-Saleh, K.A.


    The concentrations of major, minor and trace element content of Jordanian phosphate ores were determined using different complementary nuclear techniques. These techniques were: Gamma-Ray Spectrometry (GRS), X-Ray Fluorescence (XRF) and Proton Induced X-ray Emission (PIXE). Special emphasis was given to the determination of Uranium and rare earth element concentrations.

  20. Analysis of Spent Nuclear Fuel Imaging Using Multiple Coulomb Scattering of Cosmic Muons (United States)

    Chatzidakis, Stylianos; Choi, Chan K.; Tsoukalas, Lefteri H.


    Cosmic ray muons passing through matter lose energy from inelastic collisions with electrons and are deflected from nuclei due to multiple Coulomb scattering. The strong dependence of scattering on atomic number Z and the recent developments on position sensitive muon detectors indicate that multiple Coulomb scattering could be an excellent candidate for spent nuclear fuel imaging. Muons present significant advantages over existing monitoring and imaging techniques and can play a central role in monitoring nuclear waste and spent nuclear fuel stored in dense well shielded containers. The main purpose of this paper is to investigate the applicability of multiple Coulomb scattering for imaging of spent nuclear fuel dry casks stored within vertical and horizontal commercial storage dry casks. Calculations of muon scattering were performed for various scenarios, including vertical and horizontal fully loaded dry casks, half loaded dry casks, dry casks with one row of fuel assemblies missing, dry casks with one fuel assembly missing and empty dry casks. Various detector sizes (1.2 m ×1.2 m, 2.4 m ×2.4 m and 3.6 m ×3.6 m) and number of muons (105, 5 · 105, 106 and 107) were used to assess the effect on image resolution. The Point-of-Closest-Approach (PoCA) algorithm was used for the reconstruction of the stored contents. The results demonstrate that multiple Coulomb scattering can be used to successfully reconstruct the dry cask contents and allow identification of all scenarios with the exception of one fuel assembly missing. In this case, an indication exists that a fuel assembly is not present; however, the resolution of the imaging algorithm was not enough to identify exact location.

  1. Solution of electromagnetic scattering problems using time domain techniques (United States)

    Britt, Charles L.


    New methods are developed to calculate the electromagnetic diffraction or scattering characteristics of objects of arbitrary material and shape. The methods extend the efforts of previous researchers in the use of finite-difference and pulse response techniques. Examples are given of the scattering from infinite conducting and nonconducting cylinders, open channel, sphere, cone, cone sphere, coated disk, open boxes, and open and closed finite cylinders with axially incident waves.

  2. A planar Mie scattering technique for visualizing supersonic mixing flows (United States)

    Clemens, N. T.; Mungal, M. G.


    A planar Mie scattering technique is described which allows for the direct visualization of fluid mixing in supersonic flows. The mixed fluid is visualized by laser light sheet scattering from small alcohol droplets which condense as a result of the mixing of a vapor laden subsonic stream with a cold supersonic stream. Issues related to the formation, growth and size of the droplets are addressed. The technique reveals details of the turbulent structure which are masked by the spatial integration of schlieren and shadowgraph methods. Comparative visualizations using the vapor screen method to uniformly mark the high-speed fluid are also shown.


    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)



    Full Text Available It is very important to detect and identify small anomalies and component failures for the safe operation of complex and large-scale artifacts such as nuclear power plants. Each diagnostic technique has its own advantages and limitations. These facts inspire us not only to enhance the capability of diagnostic techniques but also to integrate the results of diagnostic subsystems in order to obtain more accurate diagnostic results. The article describes the outline of four diagnostic techniques developed for the condition monitoring of the fast breeder reactor “Monju”. The techniques are (1 estimation technique of important state variables based on a physical model of the component, (2 a state identification technique by non-linear discrimination function applying SVM (Support Vector Machine, (3 a diagnostic technique applying WT (Wavelet Transformation to detect changes in the characteristics of measurement signals, and (4 a state identification technique effectively using past cases. In addition, a hybrid diagnostic system in which a final diagnostic result is given by integrating the results from subsystems is introduced, where two sets of values called confidence values and trust values are used. A technique to determine the trust value is investigated under the condition that the confidence value is determined by each subsystem.

  4. The use of neutron scattering in nuclear weapons research

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Juzaitis, R.J. [Los Alamos National Lab., NM (United States)


    We had a weapons science breakout session last week. Although it would have been better to hold it closer in time to this workshop, I think that it was very valuable. it may have been less of a {open_quotes}short-sleeve{close_quotes} workshop environment than we would have liked, but as the first time two communities-the weapons community and the neutron scattering community- got together, it was a wonderful opportunity to transfer information during the 24 presentations that were made. This report contains discussions on the fundamental analysis of documentation of the enduring stockpile; LANSCE`s contribution to weapons; spallation is critical to understanding; weapons safety assessments; applied nuclear physics requires cross section information; fission models need refinement; and establishing teams on collaborative projects.

  5. Nuclear isospin mixing and elastic parity-violating electron scattering

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Moreno, O. [Instituto de Estructura de la Materia, CSIC, Serrano 123, E-28006 Madrid (Spain); Sarriguren, P. [Instituto de Estructura de la Materia, CSIC, Serrano 123, E-28006 Madrid (Spain)], E-mail:; Moya de Guerra, E.; Udias, J.M. [Departamento de Fisica Atomica, Molecular y Nuclear, Universidad Complutense de Madrid, E-28040 Madrid (Spain); Donnelly, T.W. [Center for Theoretical Physics, Laboratory for Nuclear Science and Department of Physics, Massachusetts Institute of Technology, Cambridge, MA 02139 (United States); Sick, I. [Departement fuer Physik, Universitaet Basel, CH-4056 Basel (Switzerland)


    The influence of nuclear isospin mixing on parity-violating elastic electron scattering is studied for the even-even, N=Z nuclei {sup 12}C, {sup 24}Mg, {sup 28}Si, and {sup 32}S. Their ground-state wave functions have been obtained using a self-consistent axially-symmetric mean-field approximation with density-dependent effective two-body Skyrme interactions. Some differences from previous shell-model calculations appear for the isovector Coulomb form factors which play a role in determining the parity-violating asymmetry. To gain an understanding of how these differences arise, the results have been expanded in a spherical harmonic oscillator basis. Results are obtained not only within the plane-wave Born approximation, but also using the distorted-wave Born approximation for comparison with potential future experimental studies of parity-violating electron scattering. To this end, for each nucleus the focus is placed on kinematic ranges where the signal (isospin-mixing effects on the parity-violating asymmetry) and the experimental figure-of-merit are maximized. Strangeness contributions to the asymmetry are also briefly discussed, since they and the isospin mixing contributions may play comparable roles for the nuclei being studied at the low momentum transfers of interest in the present work.

  6. Nuclear radioactive techniques applied to materials research

    CERN Document Server

    Correia, João Guilherme; Wahl, Ulrich


    In this paper we review materials characterization techniques using radioactive isotopes at the ISOLDE/CERN facility. At ISOLDE intense beams of chemically clean radioactive isotopes are provided by selective ion-sources and high-resolution isotope separators, which are coupled on-line with particle accelerators. There, new experiments are performed by an increasing number of materials researchers, which use nuclear spectroscopic techniques such as Mössbauer, Perturbed Angular Correlations (PAC), beta-NMR and Emission Channeling with short-lived isotopes not available elsewhere. Additionally, diffusion studies and traditionally non-radioactive techniques as Deep Level Transient Spectroscopy, Hall effect and Photoluminescence measurements are performed on radioactive doped samples, providing in this way the element signature upon correlation of the time dependence of the signal with the isotope transmutation half-life. Current developments, applications and perspectives of using radioactive ion beams and tech...

  7. Refraction and Faraday rotation in the incoherent scatter radar technique (United States)

    Shpynev, Boris G.


    In this paper we consider the radiolocation equation for the incoherent scatter radar (ISR) method; the equation accounts for refraction effect and Faraday rotation in the VHF frequency domain. Our research shows that we cannot ignore refraction in processing the incoherent scatter data when lag-product is used to obtain the ionospheric characteristics. Effect of refraction can explain some uncertainties that arise during processing and interpretation of the ISR data. This effect shows that together with the "ion line" of incoherent scatter spectrum, a relatively small "electron line" also plays a significant role in forming the ionosphere response. The "electron line" behaves as an additional "radar induced" wideband radiolocation signal affected by refraction and Faraday rotation; it depends on the ionosphere temperature and ion composition. The presence of a wideband "electron line" produces specific distortions of the ISR spectrum during 3D-forming of the ionosphere response inside the ISR antenna diagram pattern. During testing, we found that the signal from the ISR "electron line" can be measured at much higher altitudes comparing to the "ion line." Hence, to improve the incoherent scatter technique, we can take the "electron line" and refraction into account.

  8. Assessment of Jordanian salt using nuclear techniques

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Al-Saleh, K.A.; Arafah, D.E.; Jabr, I.J.; Saleh, N.S.


    Elemental study and concentration determinations have been conducted on Jordanian crude salt using Rutherford Back-Scattering (RBS) and X-ray Fluorescence (SRF) spectrometry techniques. Analysis have also been carried out on different purified salt samples available in the local market. The concentration of some elements, in particular bromide, content and its significance on human health and nutrition is discussed. Results reveal relatively high traces of elemental concentrations in crude salt. For example, bromide concentration ranges from 178 to 384 ppm in comparison to a tolerance limit of 30 ppm set by the Unites States Food and Drug Administration (USDA) and other International Agencies like FAO/WHO. It is suggested that refining crude salt may result in a reduction of bromide concentration and other traces considerably, thus making it feasible for human consumption.

  9. Computer simulation, nuclear techniques and surface analysis

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Reis, A. D.


    Full Text Available This article is about computer simulation and surface analysis by nuclear techniques, which are non-destructive. The “energy method of analysis” for nuclear reactions is used. Energy spectra are computer simulated and compared with experimental data, giving target composition and concentration profile information. Details of prediction stages are given for thick flat target yields. Predictions are made for non-flat targets having asymmetric triangular surface contours. The method is successfully applied to depth profiling of 12C and 18O nuclei in thick targets, by deuteron (d,p and proton (p,α induced reactions, respectively.

    Este artículo trata de simulación por ordenador y del análisis de superficies mediante técnicas nucleares, que son no destructivas. Se usa el “método de análisis en energía” para reacciones nucleares. Se simulan en ordenador espectros en energía que se comparan con datos experimentales, de lo que resulta la obtención de información sobre la composición y los perfiles de concentración de la muestra. Se dan detalles de las etapas de las predicciones de espectros para muestras espesas y planas. Se hacen predicciones para muestras no planas que tienen contornos superficiales triangulares asimétricos. Este método se aplica con éxito en el cálculo de perfiles en profundidad de núcleos de 12C y de 18O en muestras espesas a través de reacciones (d,p y (p,α inducidas por deuterones y protones, respectivamente.

  10. Novel techniques towards nuclear spin detection (United States)

    Houck, Andrew A.

    Measurement of small numbers of nuclear spins remains an important scientific problem, with potential applications in medical imaging and quantum computation. Significant progress will likely require novel techniques rather than incremental improvements of existing technology. Two possibilities are explored in this thesis: using materials with a negative index of refraction (NIM) to image nuclear spins, and using molecular electronics to probe single nuclear spins. The first approach was to use NIM lenses for non-local detection of a nuclear magnetic resonance signal. Two experiments were used to confirm the existence of artificially-structured NIM at X-band microwave frequencies. First, a Snell's Law refraction experiment measured the deflection of a microwave beam at an air-NIM interface. Second, direct phase measurements indicated a negative phase velocity inside the material. Flat slab NIM lenses were used to focus radiation from a point source. Frequency and size dependence were consistent with theoretical predictions, and qualitative features of the transmission profile were consistent with numerical simulations. However, sub-wavelength resolution was not attained, due to material loss and inhomogeneity; significant engineering challenges must be overcome before these materials are useful for spin detection. The second approach to spin detection used electronic transport through single molecules; for an electron tightly bound to an atom with strong hyperfine coupling, Coulomb blockade spectroscopy could resolve nuclear spin levels. However, fabrication of single molecule transistors remains beyond the limit of conventional lithography. In this thesis, an actively-controlled electromigration process was developed for generating electrode pairs with atomic-scale separation with 70% yield. Transport measurements on bare gold junctions revealed a surprising result: localized states that gave rise to the Kondo effect exist even in the absence of deposited

  11. Recent applications of nuclear track emulsion technique

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Zarubin, P. I., E-mail: [Joint Institute for Nuclear Research, Veksler and Baldin Laboratory of High Energy Physics (Russian Federation)


    A survey of recent results obtained using the nuclear track emulsion (NTE) technique in low energy applications is given. NTE irradiation with 60 MeV {sup 8}He nuclei provides identification of their decays at stopping, evaluation of the possibility of α range spectrometry, and observation of drift of thermalized {sup 8}He atoms. Correlations of α particles studied in {sup 12}C → 3α splitting induced by 14.1 MeV neutrons indicate the presence of a superposition of 0{sup +} and 2{sup +} states of the {sup 8}Be nucleus in the ground state of {sup 12}C. Angular correlations of fragments are studied in boron-enriched NTE, and the prospects of NTE application in radioactivity and nuclear fission research are discussed. It is proposed to use an automated microscope to search for collinear tripartition of heavy nuclei implanted in NTE. Surface irradiation of NTE by a {sup 252}Cf source is started. Planar events containing fragment pairs and long range α particles, as well as fragment triples, are studied. NTE samples are calibrated using Kr and Xe ions with an energy of 1.2 and 3 A MeV.

  12. Electromagnetic scattering using the iterative multi-region technique

    CERN Document Server

    Al Sharkawy, Mohamed H


    In this work, an iterative approach using the finite difference frequency domain method is presented to solve the problem of scattering from large-scale electromagnetic structures. The idea of the proposed iterative approach is to divide one computational domain into smaller subregions and solve each subregion separately. Then the subregion solutions are combined iteratively to obtain a solution for the complete domain. As a result, a considerable reduction in the computation time and memory is achieved. This procedure is referred to as the iterative multiregion (IMR) technique.Different enhan

  13. Applications of computer simulation, nuclear reactions and elastic scattering to surface analysis of materials

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Pacheco de Carvalho, J. A.


    Full Text Available This article involves computer simulation and surface analysis by nuclear techniques, which are non-destructive. Both the “energy method of analysis” for nuclear reactions and elastic scattering are used. Energy spectra are computer simulated and compared with experimental data, giving target composition and concentration profile information. The method is successfully applied to thick flat targets of graphite, quartz and sapphire and targets containing thin films of aluminium oxide. Depth profiles of 12C and 16O nuclei are determined using (d,p and (d,α deuteron induced reactions. Rutherford and resonance elastic scattering of (4He+ ions are also used.

    Este artículo trata de simulación por ordenador y del análisis de superficies mediante técnicas nucleares, que son no destructivas. Se usa el “método de análisis en energia” para reacciones nucleares, así como el de difusión elástica. Se simulan en ordenador espectros en energía que se comparan com datos experimentales, de lo que resulta la obención de información sobre la composición y los perfiles de concentración de la muestra. Este método se aplica con éxito em muestras espesas y planas de grafito, cuarzo y zafiro y muestras conteniendo películas finas de óxido de aluminio. Se calculan perfiles en profundidad de núcleos de 12C y de 16O a través de reacciones (d,p y (d,α inducidas por deuterones. Se utiliza también la difusión elástica de iones (4He+, tanto a Rutherford como resonante.

  14. Department of Nuclear Spectroscopy and Technique: Overview

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Kozlowski, T. [The Andrzej Soltan Institute for Nuclear Studies, Otwock-Swierk (Poland)


    (full text) According to the Department`s name, our activity is focused on ``spectroscopy`` (basic research) and ``technique`` (applications). Our Department is also involved in the new subject in our Institute, namely Consulting. The exhibition commemorating the 100 anniversary of the birth of Prof. Andrzej Soltan and the discovery of Polonium and Radium was presented with a strong support of our Department. At present, three Ph.D and five M.Sc. students are working for their degrees. In 1997 one Ph.D was obtained. Many results obtained profited by cooperation with Polish, European and USA centres like the Heavy Ion Laboratory at Warsaw University, GSI in Darmstadt (Germany), PSI in Villigen (Switzerland) etc. Our own equipment: C-30 proton cyclotron, electromagnetic mass-separator and low background gamma detection facility has allowed us to obtain new results. The Theory Group was involved in further studies of nuclear dynamics, particularly of the nature and strength of nuclear dissipation in compound-nucleus fission and strongly damped nucleus-nucleus collisions. A comprehensive program for studying nucleus-nucleus collision dynamics with inclusion of fluctuations and shell effects has been started. In-beam spectroscopic studies have been continued in collaboration with Argonne National Lab., University of Notre Dame, USA and KFA Juelich (Germany). Level schemes of several nuclei in the vicinity of Z,N=50 have been extended to very high spins. New evidence of shell breaking effect has been found at Ru nuclei. New isomers have been discovered in heavy {sup 182,183}Ir. In collaboration with Heavy Ion Lab. a study of high spin states in {sup 110}Sn and several high spin isomers in this region was undertaken. A search for lepton flavour violating nuclear processes has been continued at PSI - new data for the Au target have recently been collected. Many new results in high energy atomic physics have been obtained in collaboration with PSI and GSI. A systematic

  15. Status of a facility for measuring nuclear recoils by neutron scattering from cryogenic particle detectors (United States)

    van den Putte, M. J. J.; Hoess, C.; Giles, T. J.; Angrave, L.; Booth, N. E.; Cooper, S.; Esposito, E.; Gaitskell, R. J.; Houwman, E. P.; Salmon, G. L.; Wänninger, S.


    We are setting up a dedicated neutron-scattering facility in order to study the response of cryogenic detectors to nuclear recoils in preparation for dark matter searches. The design and status of the facility are presented.

  16. Status of a facility for measuring nuclear recoils by neutron scattering from cryogenic particle detectors

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Van den Putte, M.J.J. [Oxford Univ. (United Kingdom). Dept. of Physics; Hoess, C. [Oxford Univ. (United Kingdom). Dept. of Physics; Giles, T.J. [Oxford Univ. (United Kingdom). Dept. of Physics; Angrave, L. [Oxford Univ. (United Kingdom). Dept. of Physics; Booth, N.E. [Oxford Univ. (United Kingdom). Dept. of Physics; Cooper, S. [Oxford Univ. (United Kingdom). Dept. of Physics; Esposito, E. [Oxford Univ. (United Kingdom). Dept. of Physics; Gaitskell, R.J. [Oxford Univ. (United Kingdom). Dept. of Physics; Houwman, E.P. [Oxford Univ. (United Kingdom). Dept. of Physics; Salmon, G.L. [Oxford Univ. (United Kingdom). Dept. of Physics; Waenninger, S. [Oxford Univ. (United Kingdom). Dept. of Physics


    We are setting up a dedicated neutron-scattering facility in order to study the response of cryogenic detectors to nuclear recoils in preparation for dark matter searches. The design and status of the facility are presented. (orig.).

  17. A Comparison of Nuclear Effects in High-Energy Leptonic and Hadronic Scattering

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Rees, Claude David [Univ. of Washington, Seattle, WA (United States)


    A neutrino-Neon scattering experiment using the Fermilab 15 foot bubble chamber for analysis is compared with a pi plus-(pi minus)-Neon scattering experiment at 30 and 64 GeV/c in the CERN BEBC bubbble chamber. The comparison analyzes nuclear effects excluding the EMC effect.

  18. Nuclear resonance scattering study of iridates, iridium and antimony based pyrochlores

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Alexeev, P.


    This thesis shows the first synchrotron-based Moessbauer spectroscopy studies on iridium containing compounds and first vibrational spectroscopy on Sb containing compounds carried out at the P01 beamline of PETRA III. In this context, two types of X-ray monochromators have been developed: a monochromator for 73 keV photons with medium energy resolution, and a high-resolution backscattering monochromator based on a sapphire crystal. The monochromator for 73 keV X-rays is the key instrument for hyperfine spectroscopy on Iridium compounds, while the sapphire backscattering monochromator is purposed to vibrational spectroscopy on any Moessbauer resonances with the transition energies in the 20-50 keV range. Additionally, the signal detection for nuclear resonance scattering experiments at the beamline was significantly improved during this work, inspired by the high energies and low lifetimes of the employed resonances. The first synchrotron-based hyperfine spectroscopy on Iridium-containing compounds was demonstrated by NRS on 73 keV resonance in {sup 193}Ir. The results can be interpreted by dynamical theory of nuclear resonance scattering. In this work, special emphasis is set onto the electronic and magnetic properties of Ir nuclei in IrO{sub 2} and in Ruddlesden-Popper (RP) phases of strontium iridates Sr{sub n+1}Ir{sub n}O{sub 3n+1} (n=0,1). These systems are well-suited for studies with X-ray scattering techniques, since the scattered signal contains vast information about the widely tunable crystallographic and electronic structure of these systems; furthermore, studies with X-rays are less limited by absorption from iridium as it is the case for neutron scattering experiments. The hyperfine parameters in IrO{sub 2}, SrIrO{sub 3} and Sr{sub 2}IrO{sub 4} have been measured via Nuclear Forward Scattering for the first time. Using the dynamical theory of NRS, the temperature and magnetic field dependence of the electric field gradient and magnetic hyperfine field

  19. Applications of nuclear techniques for in vivo body composition studies at Brookhaven National Laboratory

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Cohn, S.H.; Ellis, K.J.; Vartsky, D.; Vaswani, A.N.; Wielopolski, L.


    A series of technical developments and their clinical applications in various nuclear technologies at Brookhaven National Laboratory is described. These include the development of a portable neutron activation facility for measuring cadmium in vivo in kidney and liver, a technique for the measurement of body iron utilizing nuclear resonant scattering of gamma rays, a non-invasive measure of the skeletal levels of lead by an x-ray fluorescence technique, and the development of a pulsed Van de Graaff generator as a source of pulsed neutrons for the measurement of lung silicon. (ACR)

  20. Comparative evaluation of scatter correction techniques in 3D positron emission tomography

    CERN Document Server

    Zaidi, H


    Much research and development has been concentrated on the scatter compensation required for quantitative 3D PET. Increasingly sophisticated scatter correction procedures are under investigation, particularly those based on accurate scatter models, and iterative reconstruction-based scatter compensation approaches. The main difference among the correction methods is the way in which the scatter component in the selected energy window is estimated. Monte Carlo methods give further insight and might in themselves offer a possible correction procedure. Methods: Five scatter correction methods are compared in this paper where applicable. The dual-energy window (DEW) technique, the convolution-subtraction (CVS) method, two variants of the Monte Carlo-based scatter correction technique (MCBSC1 and MCBSC2) and our newly developed statistical reconstruction-based scatter correction (SRBSC) method. These scatter correction techniques are evaluated using Monte Carlo simulation studies, experimental phantom measurements...

  1. Automatically identifying scatter in fluorescence data using robust techniques

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Engelen, S.; Frosch, Stina; Hubert, M.


    First and second order Rayleigh and Raman scatter is a common problem when fitting Parallel Factor Analysis (PARAFAC) to fluorescence excitation-emission data (EEM). The scatter does not contain any relevant chemical information and does not conform to the low-rank trilinear model. The scatter...... complicates the analysis instead and contributes to model inadequacy. As such, scatter can be considered as an example of element-wise outliers. However, no straightforward method for identifying the scatter region can be found in the literature. In this paper an automatic scatter identification method...... is developed based on robust statistical methods. The method does not demand any visual inspection of the data prior to modeling, and can handle first and second order Rayleigh scatter as well as Raman scatter in various types of EEM data. The results of the automated scatter identification method were used...

  2. Low-lying optical modes in filled skutterudites using inelastic x-ray scattering techniques

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Tsutsui, S [Japan Synchrotron Radiation Research Institute, SPring-8, Sayo, Hyogo 679-5198 (Japan); Kobayashi, H [Graduate School of Materials Science, University of Hyogo, Kamigori, Hyogo 678-1298 (Japan); Sutter, J P [Japan Synchrotron Radiation Research Institute, SPring-8, Sayo, Hyogo 679-5198, Japan (Japan); Baron, A R [Japan Synchrotron Radiation Research Institute, SPring-8, Sayo, Hyogo 679-5198 (Japan); Hasegawa, T [Graduate School of Integrated Arts and Sciences, Hiroshima University, Higashi-Hiroshima, Hiroshima 739-8527 (Japan); Ogita, N [Graduate School of Integrated Arts and Sciences, Hiroshima University, Higashi-Hiroshima, Hiroshima 739-8527 (Japan); Udagawa, M [Graduate School of Integrated Arts and Sciences, Hiroshima University, Higashi-Hiroshima, Hiroshima 739-8527 (Japan); Yoda, Y [Japan Synchrotron Radiation Research Institute, SPring-8, Sayo, Hyogo 679-5198 (Japan); Sekine, C [Department of Electric and Electronic Engineering, Muroran Institute of Technology, Muroran, Hokkaido 050-8585 (Japan); Shirotani, I [Department of Electric and Electronic Engineering, Muroran Institute of Technology, Muroran, Hokkaido 050-8585 (Japan); Kikuchi, D [Department of Physics, Tokyo Metropolitan University, Hachioji, Tokyo 192-0937 (Japan); Sugawara, H [Faculty of Integrated Arts and Sciences, University of Tokushima, Tokushima, Tokushima 770-8502 (Japan); Sato, H [Department of Physics, Tokyo Metropolitan University, Hachioji, Tokyo 192-0937 (Japan)


    We have carried out high resolution inelastic x-ray scattering and {sup 149}Sm nuclear resonant inelastic scattering of a skutterudite SmRu{sub 4}P{sub 12}. The inelastic x-ray scattering spectra and dispersion show q-dependence and zone-dependence except for the modes lying at 9 meV. The dispersionless modes, which are zone-independent, are observed at 9 meV. The energy of this mode agrees with that obtained by {sup 149}Sm nuclear resonant inelastic scattering. The dispersion suggests the presence of strong hybridization between low-lying optical mode at 9 meV and acoustic ones.

  3. Magnetic structure and interlayer exchange coupling in spring magnets-studied via nuclear resonant scattering

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Klein, T. [Institut fuer Physik, Universitaet Rostock, August-Bebel-Str. 55, 18055 Rostock (Germany)]. E-mail:; Roehlsberger, R. [Deutsches Elektronen Synchrotron DESY, Notkestrasse 85, 22607 Hamburg (Germany); Crisan, O. [Institut fuer Physik, Universitaet Rostock, August-Bebel-Str. 55, 18055 Rostock (Germany); National Institute for Materials Physics, PO Box MG-7, 77125 Bucharest (Romania); Schlage, K. [Institut fuer Physik, Universitaet Rostock, August-Bebel-Str. 55, 18055 Rostock (Germany); Burkel, E. [Institut fuer Physik, Universitaet Rostock, August-Bebel-Str. 55, 18055 Rostock (Germany)


    Magnetic properties of FePt/Ag/Fe and FePt/Pd/Fe layer systems, prepared by magnetron sputtering, were investigated using the nuclear resonant forward scattering of synchrotron radiation. This technique allows the accurate determination of magnetic hyperfine field orientations by using an extremely thin {sup 57}Fe probe layer suitably embedded within the soft magnetic layer. From an evaluation of these measurements within a one-dimensional micromagnetic model, the interlayer exchange coupling constants between the magnetically hard (FePt) and soft (Fe) layers were determined as function of the Ag and Pd interlayer thickness. The interlayer thickness dependence of the bilinear coupling constants provides evidence for the superposition of Ruderman-Kittel-Kasuya-Yoshida coupling and a magnetostatic interaction between the magnetic layers.

  4. Some notes on data analysis for nuclear resonant inelastic x-ray scattering

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Hu, Michael Y., E-mail: [Argonne National Laboratory (United States)


    Nuclear Resonant Inelastic X-ray Scattering (NRIXS) is a spectroscopy method to study atomic vibrations and dynamics, currently done with synchrotron radiation at a few high energy third generation facilities. It finds a wide range of applications in condensed matter physics, materials science, chemistry, biophysics, geosciences, and high-pressure researches. Many atomic dynamics and lattice thermodynamics information can be derived from NRIXS measurements. Phonon Density of States (DOS) characterizes lattice dynamics of a material and can be derived under the quasi-harmonic approximation. Combined with modeling and simulations, results from NRIXS can provide unique and clarifying insights into many fields of research. As for a spectroscopic technique, in order to be able to provide reliable information, close attention should be paid to many issues during experiments and data analysis afterwards. Here we discuss several issues relevant to its data analysis, namely, those of multiple sites, background treatments, and error estimates for some derived quantities.

  5. Plasma filtering techniques for nuclear waste remediation. (United States)

    Gueroult, Renaud; Hobbs, David T; Fisch, Nathaniel J


    Nuclear waste cleanup is challenged by the handling of feed stocks that are both unknown and complex. Plasma filtering, operating on dissociated elements, offers advantages over chemical methods in processing such wastes. The costs incurred by plasma mass filtering for nuclear waste pretreatment, before ultimate disposal, are similar to those for chemical pretreatment. However, significant savings might be achieved in minimizing the waste mass. This advantage may be realized over a large range of chemical waste compositions, thereby addressing the heterogeneity of legacy nuclear waste. Copyright © 2015 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  6. Neutron scattering and models: Iron. Nuclear data and measurements series

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Smith, A.B. [Argonne National Lab., IL (United States)


    Differential elastic and inelastic neutron-scattering cross sections of elemental iron are measured from 4.5 to 10 MeV in increments of {approx} 0.5 MeV. At each incident energy the measurements are made at forty or more scattering angles distributed between {approx} 17{degrees} and 160{degrees}, with emphasis on elastic scattering and inelastic scattering due to the excitation of the yrast 2{sup +} state. The measured data is combined with earlier lower-energy results from this laboratory, with recent high-precision {approx} 9.5 {yields} 15 MeV results from the Physilalisch Technische Bundesanstalt and with selected values from the literature to provide a detailed neutron-scattering data base extending from {approx} 1.5 to 26 MeV. This data is interpreted in the context of phenomenological spherical-optical and coupled-channels (vibrational and rotational) models, and physical implications discussed. Deformation, coupling, asymmetry and dispersive effects are explored. It is shown that, particularly in a collective context, a good description of the interaction of neutrons with iron is achieved over the energy range {approx} 0 {yields} 26 MeV, avoiding the dichotomy between high and low-energy interpretations found in previous work.

  7. Detection of Nuclear Explosions Using Infrasound Techniques

    National Research Council Canada - National Science Library

    Christie, D. R; Kennett, B. L


    The performance of typical IMS infrasound monitoring stations has been examined in detail in order to evaluate the detection capability of the global network for regional and distant nuclear explosions...

  8. Relaxation transition in glass-forming polybutadiene as revealed by nuclear resonance X-ray scattering. (United States)

    Kanaya, Toshiji; Inoue, Rintaro; Saito, Makina; Seto, Makoto; Yoda, Yoshitaka


    We investigated the arrest mechanism of molecular motions in a glass forming polybutadiene near the glass transition using a new nuclear resonance synchrotron X-ray scattering technique to cover a wide time range (10(-9) to 10(-5) s) and a scattering vector Q range (9.6-40 nm(-1)), which have never been accessed by other methods. Owing to the wide time and Q ranges it was found for the first time that a transition of the α-process to the slow β-process (or the Johari-Goldstein process) was observed in a Q range higher than the first peak in the structure factor S(Q) at the critical temperature T(c) in the mode coupling theory. The results suggest the important roles of hopping motions below T(c), which was predicted by the recent extended mode coupling theory and the cooperative motions due to the strong correlation at the first peak in S(Q) in the arrest mechanism.

  9. Separating form factor and nuclear model effects in quasielastic neutrino-nucleus scattering (United States)

    Wieske, Joseph


    When studying neutrino oscillations an understanding of charged current quasielastic (CCQE) neutrino-nucleus scattering is imperative. This interaction depends on a nuclear model as well as knowledge of form factors. In the past, CCQE data from the MiniBooNE experiment was analyzed assuming the Relativistic Fermi Gas (RFG) nuclear model, an axial dipole form factor in, and using the the z-expansion for the axial form factor in. We present the first analysis that combines a non-RFG nuclear model, in particular the Correlated Fermi Gas nuclear model (CFG) of, and the z expansion for the axial form factor. This will allow us to separate form factor and nuclear model effects in CCQE scattering. This project was supported through the Wayne State University REU program under NSF Grant PHY-1460853 and by the DOE Grant DE-SC0007983.

  10. Probing droplets on superhydrophobic surfaces by synchrotron radiation scattering techniques

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Accardo, Angelo [Istituto Italiano di Tecnologia, Via Morego 30, Genova 16163 (Italy); Di Fabrizio, Enzo [KAUST (King Abdullah University of Science and Technology), Jeddah (Saudi Arabia); BIONEM Lab at University Magna Graecia, Campus Salvatore Venuta, Viale Europa 88100, Germaneto-Catanzaro (Italy); Limongi, Tania [KAUST (King Abdullah University of Science and Technology), Jeddah (Saudi Arabia); Marinaro, Giovanni [Istituto Italiano di Tecnologia, Via Morego 30, Genova 16163 (Italy); European Synchrotron Radiation Facility, BP 220, 38043 Grenoble Cedex (France); Riekel, Christian, E-mail: [European Synchrotron Radiation Facility, BP 220, 38043 Grenoble Cedex (France)


    A comprehensive review about the use of micro- and nanostructured superhydrophobic surfaces as a tool for in situ X-ray scattering investigations of soft matter and biological materials. Droplets on artificially structured superhydrophobic surfaces represent quasi contact-free sample environments which can be probed by X-ray microbeams and nanobeams in the absence of obstructing walls. This review will discuss basic surface wettability concepts and introduce the technology of structuring surfaces. Quasi contact-free droplets are compared with contact-free droplets; processes related to deposition and evaporation on solid surfaces are discussed. Droplet coalescence based on the electrowetting effect allows the probing of short-time mixing and reaction processes. The review will show for several materials of biological interest that structural processes related to conformational changes, nucleation and assembly during droplet evaporation can be spatially and temporally resolved by raster-scan diffraction techniques. Orientational ordering of anisotropic materials deposited during solidification at pinning sites facilitates the interpretation of structural data.

  11. Modern integral equation techniques for quantum reactive scattering theory

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Auerbach, Scott Michael [Univ. of California, Berkeley, CA (United States)


    Rigorous calculations of cross sections and rate constants for elementary gas phase chemical reactions are performed for comparison with experiment, to ensure that our picture of the chemical reaction is complete. We focus on the H/D+H2 → H2/DH + H reaction, and use the time independent integral equation technique in quantum reactive scattering theory. We examine the sensitivity of H+H2 state resolved integral cross sections σ{sub v'j',vj}(E) for the transitions (v = 0,j = 0) to (v'} = 1,j' = 1,3), to the difference between the Liu-Siegbahn-Truhlar-Horowitz (LSTH) and double many body expansion (DMBE) ab initio potential energy surfaces (PES). This sensitivity analysis is performed to determine the origin of a large discrepancy between experimental cross sections with sharply peaked energy dependence and theoretical ones with smooth energy dependence. We find that the LSTH and DMBE PESs give virtually identical cross sections, which lends credence to the theoretical energy dependence.

  12. Nuclear analysis techniques as a component of thermoluminescence dating

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Prescott, J.R.; Hutton, J.T.; Habermehl, M.A. [Adelaide Univ., SA (Australia); Van Moort, J. [Tasmania Univ., Sandy Bay, TAS (Australia)


    In luminescence dating, an age is found by first measuring dose accumulated since the event being dated, then dividing by the annual dose rate. Analyses of minor and trace elements performed by nuclear techniques have long formed an essential component of dating. Results from some Australian sites are reported to illustrate the application of nuclear techniques of analysis in this context. In particular, a variety of methods for finding dose rates are compared, an example of a site where radioactive disequilibrium is significant and a brief summary is given of a problem which was not resolved by nuclear techniques. 5 refs., 2 tabs.

  13. 10th Australian conference on nuclear techniques of analysis. Proceedings

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)



    These proceedings contains abstracts and extended abstracts of 80 lectures and posters presented at the 10th Australian conference on nuclear techniques of analysis hosted by the Australian National University in Canberra, Australia from 24-26 of November 1997. The conference was divided into sessions on the following topics : ion beam analysis and its applications; surface science; novel nuclear techniques of analysis, characterization of thin films, electronic and optoelectronic material formed by ion implantation, nanometre science and technology, plasma science and technology. A special session was dedicated to new nuclear techniques of analysis, future trends and developments. Separate abstracts were prepared for the individual presentation included in this volume.

  14. Implementing the correlated fermi gas nuclear model for quasielastic neutrino-nucleus scattering (United States)

    Tockstein, Jameson


    When studying neutrino oscillations an understanding of charged current quasielastic (CCQE) neutrino-nucleus scattering is imperative. This interaction depends on a nuclear model as well as knowledge of form factors. Neutrino experiments, such as MiniBooNE, often use the Relativistic Fermi Gas (RFG) nuclear model. Recently, the Correlated Fermi Gas (CFG) nuclear model was suggested in, based on inclusive and exclusive scattering experiments at JLab. We implement the CFG model for CCQE scattering. In particular, we provide analytic expressions for this implementation that can be used to analyze current and future neutrino CCQE data. This project was supported through the Wayne State University REU program under NSF Grant PHY-1460853 and by the DOE Grant DE-SC0007983.

  15. Graphite in Science and Nuclear Technique


    Zhmurikov, E. I.; Bubnenkov, I. A.; Dremov, V. V.; Samarin, S. I.; Pokrovsky, A. S.; Harkov, D. V.


    The monograph is devoted to the application of graphite and graphite composites in science and technology. The structure and electrical properties, the technological aspects of production of high-strength synthetic graphites, the dynamics of the graphite destruction, traditionally used in the nuclear industry are discussed. It is focuses on the characteristics of graphitization and properties of graphite composites based on carbon isotope 13C. The book is based, generally, on the original res...

  16. Proton elastic scattering from stable and unstable nuclei - Extraction of nuclear densities (United States)

    Sakaguchi, H.; Zenihiro, J.


    Progress in proton elastic scattering at intermediate energies to determine nuclear density distributions is reviewed. After challenges of about 15 years to explain proton elastic scattering and associated polarization phenomena at intermediate energies, we have reached to some conclusions regarding proton elastic scattering as a means of obtaining nuclear densities. During this same period, physics of unstable nuclei has become of interest, and the density distributions of protons and neutrons play more important roles in unstable nuclei, since the differences in proton and neutron numbers and densities are expected to be significant. As such, proton elastic scattering experiments at intermediate energies using the inverse kinematic method have started to determine density distributions of unstable nuclei. In the region of unstable nuclei, we are confronted with a new problem when attempting to find proton and neutron densities separately from elastic proton scattering data, since electron scattering data for unstable nuclei are not presently available. We introduce a new means of determining proton and neutron densities separately by double-energy proton elastic scattering at intermediate energies.

  17. Indirect techniques in nuclear astrophysics: a review. (United States)

    Tribble, R E; Bertulani, C A; Cognata, M La; Mukhamedzhanov, A M; Spitaleri, C


    In this review, we discuss the present status of three indirect techniques that are used to determine reaction rates for stellar burning processes, asymptotic normalization coefficients, the Trojan Horse method and Coulomb dissociation. A comprehensive review of the theory behind each of these techniques is presented. This is followed by an overview of the experiments that have been carried out using these indirect approaches.

  18. Persistent Scatterer Interferometry (PSI Technique for Landslide Characterization and Monitoring

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Nicola Casagli


    Full Text Available : The measurement of landslide superficial displacement often represents the most effective method for defining its behavior, allowing one to observe the relationship with triggering factors and to assess the effectiveness of the mitigation measures. Persistent Scatterer Interferometry (PSI represents a powerful tool to measure landslide displacement, as it offers a synoptic view that can be repeated at different time intervals and at various scales. In many cases, PSI data are integrated with in situ monitoring instrumentation, since the joint use of satellite and ground-based data facilitates the geological interpretation of a landslide and allows a better understanding of landslide geometry and kinematics. In this work, PSI interferometry and conventional ground-based monitoring techniques have been used to characterize and to monitor the Santo Stefano d’Aveto landslide located in the Northern Apennines, Italy. This landslide can be defined as an earth rotational slide. PSI analysis has contributed to a more in-depth investigation of the phenomenon. In particular, PSI measurements have allowed better redefining of the boundaries of the landslide and the state of activity, while the time series analysis has permitted better understanding of the deformation pattern and its relation with the causes of the landslide itself. The integration of ground-based monitoring data and PSI data have provided sound results for landslide characterization. The punctual information deriving from inclinometers can help in defining the actual location of the sliding surface and the involved volumes, while the measuring of pore water pressure conditions or water table level can suggest a correlation between the deformation patterns and the triggering factors.

  19. Proton radiography, nuclear cross sections and multiple Coulomb scattering

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Sjue, Sky K. [Los Alamos National Lab. (LANL), Los Alamos, NM (United States)


    The principles behind proton radiography including multiple Coulomb scattering are discussed for a purely imaginary square well nucleus in the eikonal approximation. It is found that a very crude model can reproduce the angular dependence of the cross sections measured at 24 GeV/c. The largest differences are ~3% for the 4.56 mrad data, and ~4% for the 6.68 mrad data. The prospect of understanding how to model deterministically high-energy proton radiography over a very large range of energies is promising, but it should be tested more thoroughly.

  20. Physics of nuclear radiations concepts, techniques and applications

    CERN Document Server

    Rangacharyulu, Chary


    Physics of Nuclear Radiations: Concepts, Techniques and Applications makes the physics of nuclear radiations accessible to students with a basic background in physics and mathematics. Rather than convince students one way or the other about the hazards of nuclear radiations, the text empowers them with tools to calculate and assess nuclear radiations and their impact. It discusses the meaning behind mathematical formulae as well as the areas in which the equations can be applied. After reviewing the physics preliminaries, the author addresses the growth and decay of nuclear radiations, the stability of nuclei or particles against radioactive transformations, and the behavior of heavy charged particles, electrons, photons, and neutrons. He then presents the nomenclature and physics reasoning of dosimetry, covers typical nuclear facilities (such as medical x-ray machines and particle accelerators), and describes the physics principles of diverse detectors. The book also discusses methods for measuring energy a...

  1. Field control of single x-ray photons in nuclear forward scattering

    CERN Document Server

    Kong, Xiangjin; Pálffy, Adriana


    Means to coherently control single x-ray photons in resonant scattering of light off nuclei by electric or magnetic fields are investigated theoretically. In order to derive the time response in nuclear forward scattering, we adapt the Maxwell-Bloch equations known from quantum optics to describe the resonant light pulse propagation through a nuclear medium. Two types of time-dependent perturbations of nuclear forward scattering are considered for coherent control of the resonantly scattered x-ray quanta. First, the simultaneous coherent propagation of two pulses through the nuclear sample is addressed. We find that the signal of a weak pulse can be enhanced or suppressed by a stronger pulse simultaneously propagating through the sample in counter-propagating geometry. Second, the effect of a time-dependent hyperfine splitting is investigated and we put forward a scheme that allows parts of the spectrum to be shifted forward in time. This is the inverse effect of coherent photon storage and may become a valua...

  2. Investigation of the nuclear matter distribution of Ni-56 by elastic proton scattering in inverse kinematics

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    von Schmid, M.; Bagchi, S.; Bonig, S.; Csatlos, M.; Dillmann, I.; Dimopoulou, C.; Egelhof, P.; Eremin, V.; Furuno, T.; Geissel, H.; Gernhaeuser, R.; Harakeh, M. N.; Hartig, A-L; Ilieva, S.; Kalantar-Nayestanaki, N.; Kiselev, O.; Kollmus, H.; Kozhuharov, C.; Krasznahorkay, A.; Kroell, T.; Kuilman, M.; Litvinov, S.; Litvinov, Yu A.; Mahjour-Shafiei, M.; Mutterer, M.; Nagae, D.; Najafi, M. A.; Nociforo, C.; Nolden, F.; Popp, U.; Rigollet, C.; Roy, S.; Scheidenberger, C.; Steck, M.; Streicher, B.; Stuhl, L.; Thuerauf, M.; Uesaka, T.; Weick, H.; Winfield, J. S.; Winters, D.; Woods, P. J.; Yamaguchi, T.; Yue, K.; Zamora, J. C.; Zenihiro, J.


    We have measured the nuclear-matter distribution of the doubly-magic N = Z nucleus Ni-56 by investigating elastic proton scattering in inverse kinematics. The radioactive beam of Ni-56 was injected and stored in the experimental storage ring (ESR, GSI) and interacted with an internal hydrogen

  3. Direct extraction of nuclear effects in quasielastic scattering on carbon

    CERN Document Server

    Wilkinson, Callum


    The differences between neutrino and antineutrino CCQE cross sections measured on hydrocarbon targets are due to fundamental differences in the cross section, different neutrino and antineutrino fluxes from the same beamline, and the additional interactions on hydrogen for antineutrinos that are absent for neutrinos. In this analysis we correct for the former two differences to extract a constraint on the ratio of the CCQE cross section for free and bound protons from MINERvA and MiniBooNE data. This measures nuclear effects in carbon, and we compare this measurement to models.

  4. Nuclear dependence of structure functions in the shadowing region of deep inelastic scattering

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Berger, E.L.; Qiu, Jianwei


    A discussion of nuclear shadowing in deep inelastic lepton scattering is presented. We show that the parton recombination model suggests that shadowing should begin to occur at larger values of Bjorken x as A increases. This expectation as well as that of weak dependence on Q/sup 2/, and the trend of the x dependence of the shadowing phenomenon are consistent with recent data. Shadowing at small x is combined with nuclear bound state effects, responsible for nuclear dependence at larger x, to provide description of the A dependence of the structure function for the entire range of x. 21 refs., 5 figs.

  5. A dimensionality reduction technique for scattering problems in photonics

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Ivanova, Alyona; Stoffer, Remco; Lohmeyer, Manfred


    Optical scattering problems in guided wave photonics are addressed. We represent the unknown optical fields as superpositions of 1D slab modes bounded by PMLs. By applying a variational principle, the problems are reduced to lower dimensional systems of differential equations for the unknown

  6. Nuclear techniques using radioactive beams for biophysical studies

    CERN Document Server

    Stachura, Monika Kinga

    Perturbed angular correlation of "-rays (PAC) spectroscopy and nuclear magnetic resonance measured by !-decay (betaNMR) spectroscopy are two very sensitive and, among life-scientists, infrequently encountered nuclear techniques. Both of them belong to the family of hyperfine techniques, which allow for measurements of the interactions of extra-nuclear electromagnetic fields with the nuclear moments. In this way - they can provide useful information about the local structure of the investigated systems. The first part of the work presented here focuses on investigating the fundamental chemistry of heavy metal ion - protein interactions mainly with PAC spectroscopy. A variety of questions concerning both the function of metal ions in natural systems and in synthetic biomolecules on the one hand and the toxic effects of some metal ions on the other were addressed, the results of which are described in four different papers. Paper I is a review article entitled ”Selected applications of perturbed angular correl...

  7. Scanning angle Raman spectroscopy: Investigation of Raman scatter enhancement techniques for chemical analysis

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Meyer, Matthew W. [Iowa State Univ., Ames, IA (United States)


    This thesis outlines advancements in Raman scatter enhancement techniques by applying evanescent fields, standing-waves (waveguides) and surface enhancements to increase the generated mean square electric field, which is directly related to the intensity of Raman scattering. These techniques are accomplished by employing scanning angle Raman spectroscopy and surface enhanced Raman spectroscopy. A 1064 nm multichannel Raman spectrometer is discussed for chemical analysis of lignin. Extending dispersive multichannel Raman spectroscopy to 1064 nm reduces the fluorescence interference that can mask the weaker Raman scattering. Overall, these techniques help address the major obstacles in Raman spectroscopy for chemical analysis, which include the inherently weak Raman cross section and susceptibility to fluorescence interference.

  8. Passive 3D imaging of nuclear waste containers with Muon Scattering Tomography (United States)

    Thomay, C.; Velthuis, J.; Poffley, T.; Baesso, P.; Cussans, D.; Frazão, L.


    The non-invasive imaging of dense objects is of particular interest in the context of nuclear waste management, where it is important to know the contents of waste containers without opening them. Using Muon Scattering Tomography (MST), it is possible to obtain a detailed 3D image of the contents of a waste container on reasonable timescales, showing both the high and low density materials inside. We show the performance of such a method on a Monte Carlo simulation of a dummy waste drum object containing objects of different shapes and materials. The simulation has been tuned with our MST prototype detector performance. In particular, we show that both a tungsten penny of 2 cm radius and 1 cm thickness, and a uranium sheet of 0.5 cm thickness can be clearly identified. We also show the performance of a novel edge finding technique, by which the edges of embedded objects can be identified more precisely than by solely using the imaging method.

  9. Department of Nuclear Spectroscopy and Technique - Overview

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Kozlowski, T. [Soltan Inst. for Nuclear Studies, Otwock-Swierk (Poland)


    method for the `Pomorzany` coal power plant coordinated by the Institute of Nuclear Chemistry and Technology under the supervision of the IAEA in Vienna. (author).

  10. Nuclear structure of 76Se from inelastic neutron scattering measurements (United States)

    Mukhopadhyay, Sharmistha


    The low-lying, low-spin levels of 76Se were studied with the (n,n' γ) reaction. Gamma-ray excitation function measurements were performed at incident neutron energies from 2.0 to 3.5 MeV, and γ-ray angular distributions were measured at neutron energies of 2.4, 3.0 and 3.7 MeV. From these measurements, level spins, level lifetimes, γ-ray intensities, and multipole mixing ratios were determined. Interpreting the nuclear structure of the stable Se nuclei is challenging, with shape transitions, shape coexistence, and triaxiality in evidence. The low-lying structure of 76Se appears to be the most vibrational of the Se isotopes, with a two-phonon (0+, 2+, 4+) triplet of collective states. In addition to these clearly collective excitations, we have identified and characterized a 4+ ->2+ ->0+ cascade of two E 2 transitions built on the first excited 0+ state at 1122 keV. The picture for 76Se thus differs from 72Se and 74Se, and indicates that the configuration mixing of this coexisting band is less than exhibited in the other Se nuclei. Comparison of the low-lying level schemes of 76Ge and 76Se, the double-beta decay daughter, shows a marked difference. This material is based upon work supported by the U.S. National Science Foundation under Grant No. PHY-1606890.

  11. Existence of inelastic supernumerary nuclear rainbow in 16O+12C scattering (United States)

    Ohkubo, S.; Hirabayashi, Y.; Ogloblin, A. A.


    The existence of a supernumerary nuclear rainbow in inelastic scattering is reported. This is done by studying inelastic 16O scattering from 12C, exciting the 2+ (4.44 MeV) state of 12C and elastic scattering at the incident energies in the range 124-200 MeV, using the coupled channels method. An extended double folding potential is used. This is derived from realistic wave functions for 12C and 16O calculated with a microscopic α cluster model and a finite-range density-dependent nucleon-nucleon force. Excitations to the 2+ (4.44 MeV), 3- (9.64 MeV), and 4+ (14.08 MeV) states of 12C, and the 3- (6.13 MeV) and 2+ (6.92 MeV) states of 16O are included in the coupled channels calculations. The emergence of the supernumerary bow is understood by the properties of both the Luneburg-lens-like potential in the internal region and diffuse attraction in the outer region. The existence of a supernumerary rainbow for inelastic scattering in addition to the existence of a dynamically created secondary rainbow and a dynamically refracted primary rainbow for elastic scattering, which are not observed in meteorological rainbows, further deepens the understanding of nuclear rainbows.

  12. Development of remaining wall thickness measurement system for boiler wall tube using gamma scattering technique (United States)

    Durongsak, K.; Yenjai, C.; Rassame, S.


    In this study, the General Monte Carlo N-Particle version 5 (MCNP5) simulation of the measuring system for the remaining thickness of the wall tube using gamma scattering technique is performed to investigate the applicability of this technique and to find the optimum geometrical setup for the experimental setup. The numerical results show that the optimal geometry condition to provide the highest ratio between the gamma flux changes per thickness variation, namely, the measurement sensitivity, is the alignment of the source incidence angle of 30 degree and detector scattering angle of 30 degrees. Sequentially, the preliminary experiment of thickness measurement system for the tube using the gamma scattering technique is conducted based on the selected geometrical test setup by the simulation. It is found that the experimental results have generally a good agreement with the calculated results. Conclusively, it is suggested that the gamma scattering technique has a potential method to measure the remaining wall thickness in the boiler wall tube.

  13. Exchange nonlocal effects in the nuclear heavy-ion elastic scattering

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Ribeiro, M.A.C.; Chamon, L.C.; Pereira, D. [Sao Paulo Univ., SP (Brazil). Inst. de Fisica; Galetti, D. [Instituto de Fisica Teorica (IFT), Sao Paulo, SP (Brazil)


    An interesting feature of the presence of exchange nonlocal effects in the nucleus-nucleus collision description in the modification of the nuclear barrier. This results, on the one hand, in an enhancement of the nuclear fusion cross sections due to the modification introduced in the basic quantum mechanical tunnelling calculation and, on the other hand, leads one to the study of the consequences of those effects in the nuclear elastic scattering. In this paper, we discuss the manifestations of the presence of those effects through an approximated model Schroedinger equation describing a nuclear system colliding at energies around the barrier. An an application, the elastic channel and, concomitantly, the fusion processes are studied for the {sup 16} O + {sup 60} Ni system at energies close to the barrier. (author). 15 refs., 4 figs.

  14. Robust techniques for polarization and detection of nuclear spin ensembles (United States)

    Scheuer, Jochen; Schwartz, Ilai; Müller, Samuel; Chen, Qiong; Dhand, Ish; Plenio, Martin B.; Naydenov, Boris; Jelezko, Fedor


    Highly sensitive nuclear spin detection is crucial in many scientific areas including nuclear magnetic resonance spectroscopy, magnetic resonance imaging (MRI), and quantum computing. The tiny thermal nuclear spin polarization represents a major obstacle towards this goal which may be overcome by dynamic nuclear spin polarization (DNP) methods. The latter often rely on the transfer of the thermally polarized electron spins to nearby nuclear spins, which is limited by the Boltzmann distribution of the former. Here we utilize microwave dressed states to transfer the high (>92 % ) nonequilibrium electron spin polarization of a single nitrogen-vacancy center (NV) induced by short laser pulses to the surrounding 13C carbon nuclear spins. The NV is repeatedly repolarized optically, thus providing an effectively infinite polarization reservoir. A saturation of the polarization of the nearby nuclear spins is achieved, which is confirmed by the decay of the polarization transfer signal and shows an excellent agreement with theoretical simulations. Hereby we introduce the polarization readout by polarization inversion method as a quantitative magnetization measure of the nuclear spin bath, which allows us to observe by ensemble averaging macroscopically hidden polarization dynamics like Landau-Zener-Stückelberg oscillations. Moreover, we show that using the integrated solid effect both for single- and double-quantum transitions nuclear spin polarization can be achieved even when the static magnetic field is not aligned along the NV's crystal axis. This opens a path for the application of our DNP technique to spins in and outside of nanodiamonds, enabling their application as MRI tracers. Furthermore, the methods reported here can be applied to other solid state systems where a central electron spin is coupled to a nuclear spin bath, e.g., phosphor donors in silicon and color centers in silicon carbide.

  15. Subsurface Scattering-Based Object Rendering Techniques for Real-Time Smartphone Games

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Won-Sun Lee


    Full Text Available Subsurface scattering that simulates the path of a light through the material in a scene is one of the advanced rendering techniques in the field of computer graphics society. Since it takes a number of long operations, it cannot be easily implemented in real-time smartphone games. In this paper, we propose a subsurface scattering-based object rendering technique that is optimized for smartphone games. We employ our subsurface scattering method that is utilized for a real-time smartphone game. And an example game is designed to validate how the proposed method can be operated seamlessly in real time. Finally, we show the comparison results between bidirectional reflectance distribution function, bidirectional scattering distribution function, and our proposed subsurface scattering method on a smartphone game.

  16. Exploring the Nuclear Landscape by Image Reconstruction Techniques

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Morales, I.; Mendoza T, J.; Lopez V, J.C.; Barea, J.; Hirsch, J.G.; Frank, A. [Instituto de Ciencias Nucleares, UNAM, AP 70-543, 04510 Mexico D.F. (Mexico); Velazquez, V. [Departamento de Fisica, Facultad de Ciencias, UNAM, AP 70-348, 04511 Mexico D.F. (Mexico)]. e-mail:


    In spite of the development of ever more elaborate techniques for the calculation of nuclear properties, the calculation of the most basic property of atomic nuclei, their mass, still represents a challenging task. The differences between measured masses and Liquid Drop Model (LDM) predictions have well known regularities. They contain information related to shell closures, nuclear deformation and the residual nuclear interactions, and display a well defined pattern, which can be viewed as a two-dimensional image. In the present work the more than 2000 known nuclear masses are studied as an array in the N-Z plane viewed through a mask, behind which the approximately 7000 unknown unstable nuclei that can exist between the proton and neutron drip lines are hidden. Employing a Fourier transform deconvolution method these masses can be predicted. Measured masses are reconstructed with and r.m.s. error of less than 100 keV. Potential applications of the present approach are outlined. (Author)

  17. Measurement of void fractions by nuclear techniques; Medicion de fracciones de vacio por tecnicas nucleares

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Hernandez G, A.; Vazquez G, J.; Diaz H, C.; Salinas R, G.A. [Instituto Nacional de Investigaciones Nucleares, A.P. 18-1027, 11801 Mexico D.F. (Mexico)


    In this work it is done a general analysis of those techniques used to determine void fractions and it is chosen a nuclear technique to be used in the heat transfer circuit of the Physics Department of the Basic Sciences Management. The used methods for the determination of void fractions are: radioactive absorption, acoustic techniques, average velocity measurement, electromagnetic flow measurement, optical methods, oscillating absorption, nuclear magnetic resonance, relation between pressure and flow oscillation, infrared absorption methods, sound neutron analysis. For the case of this work it will be treated about the radioactive absorption method which is based in the gamma rays absorption. (Author)

  18. Optimizing Nuclear Reactor Operation Using Soft Computing Techniques

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Entzinger, J.O.; Ruan, D.; Kahraman, Cengiz


    The strict safety regulations for nuclear reactor control make it di±cult to implement new control techniques such as fuzzy logic control (FLC). FLC however, can provide very desirable advantages over classical control, like robustness, adaptation and the capability to include human experience into

  19. The energy loss and nuclear absorption effects in semi-inclusive deep inelastic scattering on nucleus (United States)

    Song, Li-Hua; Xin, Shang-Fei; Liu, Na


    Semi-inclusive deep inelastic lepton-nucleus scattering provides a good opportunity to investigate the cold nuclear effects on quark propagation and hadronization. Considering the nuclear modification of the quark energy loss and nuclear absorption effects in final state, the leading-order computations on hadron multiplicity ratios for both hadronization occurring outside and inside the medium are performed with the nuclear geometry effect of the path length L of the struck quark in the medium. By fitting the HERMES two-dimensional data on the multiplicity ratios for positively and negatively charged pions and kaons produced on neon, the hadron–nucleon inelastic cross section {σ }h for different identified hadrons is determined, respectively. It is found that our predictions obtained with the analytic parameterizations of quenching weights based on BDMPS formalism and the nuclear absorption factor {N}A(z,ν ) are in good agreement with the experimental measurements. This indicates that the energy loss and nuclear absorption are the main nuclear effects inducing a reduction of the hadron yield for quark hadronization occurring outside and inside the nucleus, respectively.

  20. Modern Theory of Gratings Resonant Scattering: Analysis Techniques and Phenomena

    CERN Document Server

    Sirenko, Yuriy K


    Diffraction gratings are one of the most popular objects of analysis in electromagnetic theory. The requirements of applied optics and microwave engineering lead to many new problems and challenges for the theory of diffraction gratings, which force us to search for new methods and tools for their resolution. In Modern Theory of Gratings, the authors present results of the electromagnetic theory of diffraction gratings that will constitute the base of further development of this theory, which meet the challenges provided by modern requirements of fundamental and applied science. This volume covers: spectral theory of gratings (Chapter 1) giving reliable grounds for physical analysis of space-frequency and space-time transformations of the electromagnetic field in open periodic resonators and waveguides; authentic analytic regularization procedures (Chapter 2) that, in contradistinction to the traditional frequency-domain approaches, fit perfectly for the analysis of resonant wave scattering processes; paramet...

  1. Research achievements in Bangladesh agriculture using nuclear techniques

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Sattar, M.A. [Bangladesh Institute of Nuclear Agriculture, Mymensingh, (Bangladesh)


    Application of isotope and radiation techniques in Bangladesh agriculture has been initiated in 1961 with the establishment of Atomic Energy Agricultural Research Centre, Dhaka under the then Pakistan Atomic Energy Commission. The activity of the centre was strengthened and upgraded to the level of an institute as a constituent organization of Bangladesh Atomic Energy Commission in 1972. It was further reorganized, made an autonomous research organization under the Ministry of Agriculture in 1982 and renamed as Bangladesh Institute of Nuclear Agriculture. The other organizations involved in nuclear agricultural research are Institute of Food and Radiation Biology and Bangladesh Agricultural University. A number of technologies have been developed using nuclear techniques that imparted on agricultural development. Sixteen new crops were developed using physical (200-700 Gy gamma rays) and chemical mutagen (NaN{sub 3}). Soil fertility and plant nutrition technologies were developed using both stable and radio isotopes. The improved feeding strategies and utilization of locally available low quality feed material (rice straw) were determined using {sup 51}Cr-EDTA and {sup 125}I in order to have better livestock growth and reproduction ability. Several constraints related to nuclear research were identified. Increased government commitment and international cooperation are of the utmost importance for effective utilization of the benefits of nuclear technology and to face the increasing demand for food for the ever increasing population in years to come 32 refs., 1 tab.


    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Grogan, Brandon R [ORNL


    This report presents a novel method for removing scattering effects from Nuclear Materials Identification System (NMIS) imaging. The NMIS uses fast neutron radiography to generate images of the internal structure of objects nonintrusively. If the correct attenuation through the object is measured, the positions and macroscopic cross sections of features inside the object can be determined. The cross sections can then be used to identify the materials, and a 3D map of the interior of the object can be reconstructed. Unfortunately, the measured attenuation values are always too low because scattered neutrons contribute to the unattenuated neutron signal. Previous efforts to remove the scatter from NMIS imaging have focused on minimizing the fraction of scattered neutrons that are misidentified as directly transmitted by electronically collimating and time tagging the source neutrons. The parameterized scatter removal algorithm (PSRA) approaches the problem from an entirely new direction by using Monte Carlo simulations to estimate the point scatter functions (PScFs) produced by neutrons scattering in the object. PScFs have been used to remove scattering successfully in other applications, but only with simple 2D detector models. This work represents the first time PScFs have ever been applied to an imaging detector geometry as complicated as the NMIS. By fitting the PScFs using a Gaussian function, they can be parameterized, and the proper scatter for a given problem can be removed without the need for rerunning the simulations each time. In order to model the PScFs, an entirely new method for simulating NMIS measurements was developed for this work. The development of the new models and the codes required to simulate them are presented in detail. The PSRA was used on several simulated and experimental measurements, and chi-squared goodness of fit tests were used to compare the corrected values to the ideal values that would be expected with no scattering. Using the

  3. The Development of a Parameterized Scatter Removal Algorithm for Nuclear Materials Identification System Imaging

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Grogan, Brandon Robert [Univ. of Tennessee, Knoxville, TN (United States)


    This dissertation presents a novel method for removing scattering effects from Nuclear Materials Identification System (NMIS) imaging. The NMIS uses fast neutron radiography to generate images of the internal structure of objects non-intrusively. If the correct attenuation through the object is measured, the positions and macroscopic cross-sections of features inside the object can be determined. The cross sections can then be used to identify the materials and a 3D map of the interior of the object can be reconstructed. Unfortunately, the measured attenuation values are always too low because scattered neutrons contribute to the unattenuated neutron signal. Previous efforts to remove the scatter from NMIS imaging have focused on minimizing the fraction of scattered neutrons which are misidentified as directly transmitted by electronically collimating and time tagging the source neutrons. The parameterized scatter removal algorithm (PSRA) approaches the problem from an entirely new direction by using Monte Carlo simulations to estimate the point scatter functions (PScFs) produced by neutrons scattering in the object. PScFs have been used to remove scattering successfully in other applications, but only with simple 2D detector models. This work represents the first time PScFs have ever been applied to an imaging detector geometry as complicated as the NMIS. By fitting the PScFs using a Gaussian function, they can be parameterized and the proper scatter for a given problem can be removed without the need for rerunning the simulations each time. In order to model the PScFs, an entirely new method for simulating NMIS measurements was developed for this work. The development of the new models and the codes required to simulate them are presented in detail. The PSRA was used on several simulated and experimental measurements and chi-squared goodness of fit tests were used to compare the corrected values to the ideal values that would be expected with no scattering. Using

  4. A Novel Scanning Land Mine Detector Based on the Technique of Neutron Back Scattering Imaging

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Bom, V.; Osman, A.M.; Monem, A.M.A.


    The neutron back-scattering (NBS) technique is a well established method to find hydrogen in objects. It can be applied in land mine detection taking advantage of the fact that land mines are abundant in hydrogen. The NBS technique is suitable for land mine scanning e.g., seeking for land mines with

  5. 77 FR 24228 - Condition Monitoring Techniques for Electric Cables Used in Nuclear Power Plants (United States)


    ... COMMISSION Condition Monitoring Techniques for Electric Cables Used in Nuclear Power Plants AGENCY: Nuclear... Techniques for Electric Cables Used in Nuclear Power Plants.'' This guide describes techniques that the staff of the NRC considers acceptable for condition monitoring of electric cables for nuclear power plants...

  6. Measurement of Partonic Nuclear Effects in Deep-Inelastic Neutrino Scattering using MINERvA

    CERN Document Server

    Mousseau, J; Aliaga, L; Altinok, O; Bellantoni, L; Bercellie, A; Betancourt, M; Bodek, A; Bravar, A; Budd, H; Cai, T; Carneiro, M F; Christy, M E; Chvojka, J; da Motta, H; Devan, J; Dytman, S A; Díaz, G A; Eberly, B; Felix, J; Fields, L; Fine, R; Gago, A M; Galindo, R; Gallagher, H; Ghosh, A; Golan, T; Gran, R; Harris, D A; Higuera, A; Hurtado, K; Kiveni, M; Kleykamp, J; Kordosky, M; Le, T; Maher, E; Manly, S; Mann, W A; Marshall, C M; Caicedo, D A Martinez; McFarland, K S; McGivern, C L; McGowan, A M; Messerly, B; Miller, J; Mislivec, A; Morfín, J G; Naples, D; Nelson, J K; Norrick, A; Nuruzzaman,; Osta, J; Paolone, V; Park, J; Patrick, C E; Perdue, G N; Rakotondravohitra, L; Ramirez, M A; Ransome, R D; Ray, H; Ren, L; Rimal, D; Rodrigues, P A; Ruterbories, D; Schellman, H; Schmitz, D W; Salinas, C J Solano; Tagg, N; Tice, B G; Valencia, E; Walton, T; Wolcott, J; Zavala, G; Zhang, D


    The MINERvA collaboration reports a novel study of neutrino-nucleus charged-current deep inelastic scattering (DIS) using the same neutrino beam incident on targets of polystyrene, graphite, iron, and lead. Results are presented as ratios of C, Fe, and Pb to CH. The ratios of total DIS cross sections as a function of neutrino energy and flux-integrated differential cross sections as a function of the Bjorken scaling variable x are presented in the neutrino-energy range of 5 - 50 GeV. Good agreement is found between the data and predicted ratios, based on charged-lepton nucleus scattering, at medium x and low neutrino energies. However, the data rate appears depleted in the vicinity of the nuclear shadowing region, x < 0.1. This apparent deficit, reflected in the DIS cross-section ratio at high neutrino energy , is consistent with previous MINERvA observations and with the predicted onset of nuclear shadowing with the the axial-vector current in neutrino scattering.

  7. Research in nondestructive evaluation techniques for nuclear reactor concrete structures (United States)

    Clayton, Dwight; Smith, Cyrus


    The purpose of the Materials Aging and Degradation (MAaD) Pathway of the Department of Energy's Light Water Reactor Sustainability (LWRS) Program is to develop the scientific basis for understanding and predicting longterm environmental degradation behavior of material in nuclear power plants and to provide data and methods to assess the performance of systems, structures, and components (SSCs) essential to safe and sustained nuclear power plant operations. The understanding of aging-related phenomena and their impacts on SSCs is expected to be a significant issue for any nuclear power plant planning for long-term operations (i.e. service beyond the initial license renewal period). Management of those phenomena and their impacts during long-term operations can be better enable by improved methods and techniques for detection, monitoring, and prediction of SSC degradation. The MAaD Pathway R&D Roadmap for Concrete, "Light Water Reactor Sustainability Nondestructive Evaluation for Concrete Research and Development Roadmap", focused initial research efforts on understanding the recent concrete issues at nuclear power plants and identifying the availability of concrete samples for NDE techniques evaluation and testing. [1] An overview of the research performed by ORNL in these two areas is presented here.

  8. Nuclear and Isotopic Techniques Applied to Nutritional and ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Nuclear and related isotopic techniques have been demonstrated as a unique tool to measure micronutrient bioavailability. ... la quantité de protéine dans le corps ; et (vi) l'utilisation des isotopes stables de fer, zinc, calcium, magnésium, cuivre et sélénium pour les études de biodisponibilité et la surveillance nutritionnel.

  9. Application of geometric algebra to electromagnetic scattering the Clifford-Cauchy-Dirac technique

    CERN Document Server

    Seagar, Andrew


    This work presents the Clifford-Cauchy-Dirac (CCD) technique for solving problems involving the scattering of electromagnetic radiation from materials of all kinds. It allows anyone who is interested to master techniques that lead to simpler and more efficient solutions to problems of electromagnetic scattering than are currently in use. The technique is formulated in terms of the Cauchy kernel, single integrals, Clifford algebra and a whole-field approach. This is in contrast to many conventional techniques that are formulated in terms of Green's functions, double integrals, vector calculus and the combined field integral equation (CFIE). Whereas these conventional techniques lead to an implementation using the method of moments (MoM), the CCD technique is implemented as alternating projections onto convex sets in a Banach space. The ultimate outcome is an integral formulation that lends itself to a more direct and efficient solution than conventionally is the case, and applies without exception to all types...

  10. Probing droplets on superhydrophobic surfaces by synchrotron radiation scattering techniques

    KAUST Repository

    Accardo, Angelo


    Droplets on artificially structured superhydrophobic surfaces represent quasi contact-free sample environments which can be probed by X-ray microbeams and nanobeams in the absence of obstructing walls. This review will discuss basic surface wettability concepts and introduce the technology of structuring surfaces. Quasi contact-free droplets are compared with contact-free droplets; processes related to deposition and evaporation on solid surfaces are discussed. Droplet coalescence based on the electrowetting effect allows the probing of short-time mixing and reaction processes. The review will show for several materials of biological interest that structural processes related to conformational changes, nucleation and assembly during droplet evaporation can be spatially and temporally resolved by raster-scan diffraction techniques. Orientational ordering of anisotropic materials deposited during solidification at pinning sites facilitates the interpretation of structural data. 2014 International Union of Crystallography.

  11. Lattice dynamics in spin-crossover nanoparticles through nuclear inelastic scattering (United States)

    Félix, Gautier; Mikolasek, Mirko; Peng, Haonan; Nicolazzi, William; Molnár, Gábor; Chumakov, Aleksandr I.; Salmon, Lionel; Bousseksou, Azzedine


    We used nuclear inelastic scattering (NIS) to investigate the lattice dynamics in [Fe(pyrazine)(Ni(CN)4)] spin crossover nanoparticles. The vibrational density of states of iron was extracted from the NIS data, which allowed to determine characteristic thermodynamical and lattice dynamical parameters as well as their spin-state dependence. The optical part of the NIS spectra compares well with the Raman scattering data reflecting the expansion/contraction of the coordination octahedron during the spin transition. From the acoustic part, we extracted the sound velocity in the low-spin (vLS=2073 ±31 m s-1) and high-spin (vHS=1942 ±23 m s-1) states of the particles. The spin-state dependence of this parameter is of primary interest to rationalize the spin-transition behavior in solids as well as its dynamics and finite size effects.

  12. Applications of nuclear and isotopic techniques in Indonesia

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Hilmy, N.; Hendranto, K. [Centre for Applications of Isotopes and Radiation, Batan (Indonesia)


    Applications of Nuclear and Isotopic Techniques have been developed by the National Atomic Energy Agency (BATAN) since early 1970 in Indonesia. The scope of these applications covers various fields such as agriculture, hydrology, sedimentology and industry. Some applications of tracer techniques in industry which have been done such as measurement of homogeneity of mixing process in fertiliser and paper factory, residence time distribution in gold processing plant, mercury inventory in caustic soda plant, enhanced oil recovery in oil production wells, leakage investigation in dust chamber of fertiliser plant and blockage of pipeline, are presented in this paper. In the field of NDT by radiographic technique, BATAN regularly conducts training courses and also issues licences for Level I and II. Some applications of nuclear techniques in agriculture such as mutation breeding, animal production and animal health have shown the potential of radiation in creating variability as a basis for varietal improvements in several food crop species, the potential of using isotopes as tracers in the studies on metabolism, particularly in relation to the efficiency of rumen fermentative digestion and biological evaluation of locally available feedstuffs from agricultural and agro-industrial byproducts. So far, four varieties of nice, two varieties of soybean, and one variety of mungbean have been officially approved for release, and one formulation of feed supplement utilizing locally available agricultural and agro-industrial byproducts has been established and used for cattle and goats. In animal health, a radiovaccine against coccidiosis in poultry has been produced and used routinely.

  13. X-ray Scattering Techniques for Characterization of Nanosystems in Lifescience

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Saw, C K


    The intent of this chapter is to provide the basics of using x-ray diffraction techniques in order to obtain information on the structure and morphology of the nanosystems, and also to point out some of its strengths and weaknesses when compare to other characterization techniques. X-ray scattering examines over a wide range of density domains from a tenth to a thousandth angstrom. Essentially, this covers a whole range of condensed matter, including the structure and morphology of nanosystems, particularly useful for examining nanostructures in lifescience. This range of domain size requires both the wide-angle x-ray scattering (WAXS) and small-angle (SAXS) x-ray scattering techniques. Roughly WAXS covers from 2 nm down, and SAXS covers from .5 nm to 100 nm and possibly 1,000 nm for a finely tuned instrument. Brief theoretical description of both WAXS and SAXS will be given in this chapter. WAXS, by itself is a powerful technique in providing information on the crystallographic structure or lack of structure, atomic positions and sizes in a unit cell, to some extend, chemical compositions and as well as chemical stoichiometry. Examples of such experiments will also be given. In order to be able to describe the technique of x-ray scattering, some historical and theoretical background will be given in the hope of making this subject interesting and simple.

  14. A compact membrane-driven diamond anvil cell and cryostat system for nuclear resonant scattering at high pressure and low temperature (United States)

    Zhao, J. Y.; Bi, W.; Sinogeikin, S.; Hu, M. Y.; Alp, E. E.; Wang, X. C.; Jin, C. Q.; Lin, J. F.


    A new miniature panoramic diamond anvil cell (mini-pDAC) as well as a unique gas membrane-driven mechanism is developed and implemented to measure electronic, magnetic, vibrational, and thermodynamic properties of materials using the nuclear resonant inelastic X-ray scattering (NRIXS) and the synchrotron Mössbauer spectroscopy (SMS) simultaneously at high pressure (over Mbar) and low temperature (T Advanced Photon Source, for NRIXS and SMS studies. The same instrument can easily be used for other X-ray techniques, such as X-ray radial diffraction, X-ray Raman scattering, X-ray emission spectroscopy, and X-ray inelastic scattering under high pressure and low temperature. In this paper, technical details of the mini-pDAC, membrane engaging mechanism, and the cryostat system are described, and some experimental results are discussed.

  15. Measurement of scattered radiation in a volumetric 64-slice CT scanner using three experimental techniques

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Akbarzadeh, A; Ay, M R; Sarkar, S [Department of Medical Physics and Biomedical Engineering, Tehran University of Medical Sciences, Tehran (Iran, Islamic Republic of); Ghadiri, H [Research Center for Science and Technology in Medicine, Tehran University of Medical Sciences, Tehran (Iran, Islamic Republic of); Zaidi, H [Division of Nuclear Medicine, Geneva University Hospital, CH-1211 Geneva (Switzerland)], E-mail:


    Compton scatter poses a significant threat to volumetric x-ray computed tomography, bringing cupping and streak artefacts thus impacting qualitative and quantitative imaging procedures. To perform appropriate scatter compensation, it is necessary to estimate the magnitude and spatial distribution of x-ray scatter. The aim of this study is to compare three experimental methods for measurement of the scattered radiation profile in a 64-slice CT scanner. The explored techniques involve the use of collimator shadow, a single blocker (a lead bar that suppresses the primary radiation) and an array blocker. The latter was recently proposed and validated by our group. The collimator shadow technique was used as reference for comparison since it established itself as the most accurate experimental procedure available today. The mean relative error of measurements in all tube voltages was 3.9 {+-} 5.5% (with a maximum value of 20%) for the single blocker method whereas it was 1.4 {+-} 1.1% (with a maximum value of 5%) for the proposed blocker array method. The calculated scatter-to-primary ratio (SPR) using the blocker array method for the tube voltages of 140 kVp and 80 kVp was 0.148 and 1.034, respectively. For a larger polypropylene phantom, the maximum SPR achieved was 0.803 and 6.458 at 140 kVp and 80 kVp, respectively. Although the three compared methods present a reasonable accuracy for calculation of the scattered profile in the region corresponding to the object, the collimator shadow method is by far the most accurate empirical technique. Nevertheless, the blocker array method is relatively straightforward for scatter estimation providing minor additional radiation exposure to the patient.

  16. One centimeter spatial resolution temperature measurements in a nuclear reactor using Rayleigh scatter in optical fiber (United States)

    Sang, A. K.; Gifford, D. K.; Dickerson, B. D.; Fielder, B. F.; Froggatt, M. E.


    We present the use of swept wavelength interferometry for distributed fiber-optic temperature measurements in a Nuclear Reactor. The sensors consisted of 2 m segments of commercially available, single mode optical fibers. The interrogation technique is based on measuring the spectral shift of the intrinsic Rayleigh backscatter signal along the optical fiber and converting the spectral shift to temperature.

  17. The Effect of Nuclear Elastic Scattering on Temperature Equilibration Rate of Ions in Fusion Plasma

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    M. Mahdavi


    Full Text Available A plasma with two different particle types and at different temperatures has been considered, so that each type of ion with Maxwell-Boltzmann distribution function is in temperature equilibrium with itself. Using the extracted nuclear elastic scattering differential cross-section from experimental data, solving the Boltzmann equation, and also taking into account the mobility of the background particles, temperature equilibration rate between two different ions in a fusion plasma is calculated. The results show that, at higher temperature differences, effect of nuclear elastic scattering is more important in calculating the temperature equilibration rate. The obtained expressions have general form so that they are applicable to each type of particle for background (b and each type for projectile (p. In this paper, for example, an equimolar Deuterium-Hydrogen plasma with density n=5×1025 cm−3 is chosen in which the deuteron is the background particle with temperature (also electron temperature Tb=1 keV (usual conditions for a fusion plasma at the ignition instant and the proton is the projectile with temperature Tp>Tb. These calculations, particularly, are very important for ion fast ignition in inertial confinement fusion concept.

  18. Study of Shadowing and Hadron Production in High Energy $\\mu$ Scattering Using Nuclear Targets

    CERN Multimedia


    The experiment is based on the full EMC apparatus (Expts. NA2/NA9) and will in addition use a system of fine hodoscopes to trigger on scattered muons at very small angle. The trajectory of these scattered muons will be measured in proportional wire chambers which are live also in the beam region. \\\\ \\\\ The basic aim of the experiment are twofold: \\item a) Study of the components, point-like and hadron-like of the photon through a study of shadowing. This involves the measurement of the total virtual photon cross section as a function of its total mass squared (Q$^{2}$) and the Bjorken invariant x$_{bj}$ on a series of nuclear targets. Since two essential nuclei are H$^{2}$ and D$^{2}$, information will also be obtained on the proton and deuteron structure functions for very low x$_{bj}$ values. \\end{enumerate} \\item b) By examining the change of the distribution of hadrons produced by muon scattering on nuclei, information can be obtained on the evolution of the elementary quark system into the observed hadro...

  19. A versatile setup using femtosecond adaptive spectroscopic techniques for coherent anti-Stokes Raman scattering

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Shen, Yujie, E-mail: [Texas A& M University, College Station, Texas 77843 (United States); Voronine, Dmitri V.; Sokolov, Alexei V. [Texas A& M University, College Station, Texas 77843 (United States); Baylor University, Waco, Texas 76798 (United States); Scully, Marlan O. [Texas A& M University, College Station, Texas 77843 (United States); Baylor University, Waco, Texas 76798 (United States); Princeton University, Princeton, New Jersey 08544 (United States)


    We report a versatile setup based on the femtosecond adaptive spectroscopic techniques for coherent anti-Stokes Raman scattering. The setup uses a femtosecond Ti:Sapphire oscillator source and a folded 4f pulse shaper, in which the pulse shaping is carried out through conventional optical elements and does not require a spatial light modulator. Our setup is simple in alignment, and can be easily switched between the collinear single-beam and the noncollinear two-beam configurations. We demonstrate the capability for investigating both transparent and highly scattering samples by detecting transmitted and reflected signals, respectively.

  20. Fast-neutron total and scattering cross sections of sup 58 Ni and nuclear models

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Smith, A.B.; Guenther, P.T.; Whalen, J.F. (Argonne National Lab., IL (United States)); Chiba, S. (Japan Atomic Energy Research Inst., Tokai, Ibaraki (Japan). Tokai Research Establishment)


    The neutron total cross sections of {sup 58}Ni were measured from {approx} 1 to > 10 MeV using white-source techniques. Differential neutron elastic-scattering cross sections were measured from {approx} 4.5 to 10 MeV at {approx} 0.5 MeV intervals with {ge} 75 differential values per distribution. Differential neutron inelastic-scattering cross sections were measured, corresponding to fourteen levels with excitations up to 4.8 MeV. The measured results, combined with relevant values available in the literature, were interpreted in terms of optical-statistical and coupled-channels model using both vibrational and rotational coupling schemes. The physical implications of the experimental results nd their interpretation are discussed in the contexts of optical-statistical, dispersive-optical, and coupled-channels models. 61 refs.

  1. Evaluation of various energy windows at different radionuclides for scatter and attenuation correction in nuclear medicine. (United States)

    Asgari, Afrouz; Ashoor, Mansour; Sohrabpour, Mostafa; Shokrani, Parvaneh; Rezaei, Ali


    Improving signal to noise ratio (SNR) and qualified images by the various methods is very important for detecting the abnormalities at the body organs. Scatter and attenuation of photons by the organs lead to errors in radiopharmaceutical estimation as well as degradation of images. The choice of suitable energy window and the radionuclide have a key role in nuclear medicine which appearing the lowest scatter fraction as well as having a nearly constant linear attenuation coefficient as a function of phantom thickness. The energy windows of symmetrical window (SW), asymmetric window (ASW), high window (WH) and low window (WL) using Tc-99m and Sm-153 radionuclide with solid water slab phantom (RW3) and Teflon bone phantoms have been compared, and Matlab software and Monte Carlo N-Particle (MCNP4C) code were modified to simulate these methods and obtaining the amounts of FWHM and full width at tenth maximum (FWTM) using line spread functions (LSFs). The experimental data were obtained from the Orbiter Scintron gamma camera. Based on the results of the simulation as well as experimental work, the performance of WH and ASW display of the results, lowest scatter fraction as well as constant linear attenuation coefficient as a function of phantom thickness. WH and ASW were optimal windows in nuclear medicine imaging for Tc-99m in RW3 phantom and Sm-153 in Teflon bone phantom. Attenuation correction was done for WH and ASW optimal windows and for these radionuclides using filtered back projection algorithm. Results of simulation and experimental show that very good agreement between the set of experimental with simulation as well as theoretical values with simulation data were obtained which was nominally less than 7.07 % for Tc-99m and less than 8.00 % for Sm-153. Corrected counts were not affected by the thickness of scattering material. The Simulated results of Line Spread Function (LSF) for Sm-153 and Tc-99m in phantom based on four windows and TEW method were

  2. Solution of Cavity Resonance and Waveguide Scattering Problems Using the Eigenmode Projection Technique

    CERN Document Server

    Nasr, Mamdouh H; Eshrah, Islam A; Abuelfadl, Tamer M


    An eigenmode projection technique (EPT) is developed and employed to solve problems of electromagnetic resonance in closed cavities and scattering from discontinuities in guided-wave structures. The EPT invokes the eigenmodes of a canonical predefined cavity in the solution procedure and uses the expansion of these eigenmodes to solve Maxwell's equations, in conjunction with a convenient choice of port boundary conditions. For closed cavities, resonance frequencies of arbitrary-shaped cavities are accurately determined with a robust and efficient separation method of spurious modes. For waveguide scattering problems, the EPT is combined with the generalized scattering matrix approach to solve problems involving waveguide discontinuities with arbitrary dielectric profiles. Convergence studies show stable solutions for a relatively small number of expansion modes, and the proposed method shows great robustness over conventional solvers in analyzing electromagnetic problems with inhomogeneous materials.

  3. γ-Particle coincidence technique for the study of nuclear reactions

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Zagatto, V.A.B., E-mail: [Instituto de Física da Universidade de São Paulo (Brazil); Oliveira, J.R.B.; Allegro, P.R.P.; Chamon, L.C.; Cybulska, E.W.; Medina, N.H.; Ribas, R.V.; Seale, W.A.; Silva, C.P.; Gasques, L.R. [Instituto de Física da Universidade de São Paulo (Brazil); Zahn, G.S.; Genezini, F.A.; Shorto, J.M.B. [Instituto de Pesquisas Energéticas e Nucleares (Brazil); Lubian, J.; Linares, R. [Instituto de Física da Universidade Federal Fluminense (Brazil); Toufen, D.L. [Instituto Federal de Educação, Ciência e Tecnologia (Brazil); Silveira, M.A.G. [Centro Universitário da FEI (Brazil); Rossi, E.S. [Centro Universitário FIEO – UNIFIEO (Brazil); Nobre, G.P. [Lawrence Livermore National Laboratory (United States)


    The Saci-Perere γ ray spectrometer (located at the Pelletron AcceleratorLaboratory – IFUSP) was employed to implement the γ-particle coincidence technique for the study of nuclear reaction mechanisms. For this, the {sup 18}O+{sup 110}Pd reaction has been studied in the beam energy range of 45–54 MeV. Several corrections to the data due to various effects (energy and angle integrations, beam spot size, γ detector finite size and the vacuum de-alignment) are small and well controlled. The aim of this work was to establish a proper method to analyze the data and identify the reaction mechanisms involved. To achieve this goal the inelastic scattering to the first excited state of {sup 110}Pd has been extracted and compared to coupled channel calculations using the São Paulo Potential (PSP), being reasonably well described by it.

  4. Gravitational Scattering of Asteroidal and Cometary Particles on the Planets: Analytical Technique (United States)

    Gor'kavyi, N.; Ozernoy, L.; Mather, J.; Taidakova, T.


    As we have demonstrated earlier (1997, ApJ 474, 496), the kinetic equation written in the space of orbital coordinates such as semimajor axis a and eccentricity e makes it possible to investigate the gravitational scattering of particles on the planets in a fast and effective way. In the present work, we expand our previous 2-D analysis (inclination i=0) to a much more general 3-D situation when inot =0 and also include the Poynting-Robertson drag (the latter is based on our method described in 1997, ApJ 488, 268). For a drifting particle (i.e. for its orbital torus), we compute a sample of N gravitationally scattered particles flying by the planet at N distances from the planet's center. The weight of each scattered particle is proportional to the probability of the flyby within the ring whose inner and outer radii are (r, r+dr), respectively. This enables us to derive the scattering angle phi as a function of r and the particle's velocity V relative to the planet. Actually, for each (a,e,i)-particle of velocity V, we find the distribution in r and therefore the distribution in phi . By evaluating the sum of such distribution for all drifting particles produced by all available sources of dust, we get the distribution in the net scattering angle. With the knowledge of initial velocity components of particles, we compute the particle's velocity components after scattering and therefore its new (a,e.i). We illustrate this technique by computing the gravitational scattering for dust particles of both asteroidal and cometary origin. The three main results worth noting are: (i) the gravitational scattering leads to a much thicker shape of the zodiacal cloud compared to the distribution of the flat component of dust sources; (ii) large particles are scattered more efficiently and therefore they would occupy a larger volume than the smaller-size particles; and (iii) the drifting asteroidal dust is scattered in a much more efficient way than the dust of cometary origin

  5. Simple and efficient technique for evaluating the optical losses from surface scattering and volume attenuation in a thin film. (United States)

    Zhang, Xi-Jing; Fan, Xi-Zhi; Wang, Hui-Tian; He, Jing-Liang; Ming, N


    We present a simple and efficient technique for evaluating the optical losses of a planar film by use of a quasi-waveguide configuration and a prism film coupler configuration. The technique can separate two contributions to optical loss: that from the surface scattering caused by the roughness of surface and that from volume losses including volume scattering and volume absorption.

  6. Development of Mössbauer diffractometer by using nuclear resonant scattering at SPring-8 BL11XU

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Nakamura, Shin, E-mail: [Teikyo University, Department of Science and Engineering (Japan); Mitsui, Takaya [National Institutes for Quantum and Radiological Science and Technology (Japan); Fujiwara, Kosuke; Ikeda, Naoshi [Okayama University (Japan); Kobayashi, Yasuhiro [Kyoto University, Research Reactor Institute (Japan); Shimomura, Susumu [Kyoto Sangyo University (Japan)


    A Mössbauer diffractometer has been developed by using {sup 57}Fe nuclear resonant scattering apparatus at SPring-8 BL11XU in order to obtain a crystal-site-selective Mössbauer spectrum. A #Mathematical Italic Small Theta#-2#Mathematical Italic Small Theta# goniometer was newly installed between the nuclear monochromator and a detector. From a single crystal Fe{sub 3}O{sub 4} mounted on the goniometer, the 111, 222, and 220 reflected γ-rays were used to collect the diffraction spectra at room temperature. The intensity ratio of the two subspectra, corresponding to A- and B-site Fe ions, changes notably according to the reflection index. The diffraction spectrum is composed of a major absorption spectrum and a minor emission spectrum. The former is given by the γ-ray due to the electron scattering and nuclear absorption, whereas the latter is given by the γ-ray due to the nuclear resonant scattering. Interference effects between these two γ-rays are also seen as line broadenings, asymmetric line shapes, and slope of the base lines. These features can be successfully expressed by a Fano function. We consider that the emission spectrum due to the nuclear resonant scattering represents crystal-site-selective Mössbauer spectrum.

  7. Development of Mössbauer diffractometer by using nuclear resonant scattering at SPring-8 BL11XU (United States)

    Nakamura, Shin; Mitsui, Takaya; Fujiwara, Kosuke; Ikeda, Naoshi; Kobayashi, Yasuhiro; Shimomura, Susumu


    A Mössbauer diffractometer has been developed by using 57Fe nuclear resonant scattering apparatus at SPring-8 BL11XU in order to obtain a crystal-site-selective Mössbauer spectrum. A 𝜃-2 𝜃 goniometer was newly installed between the nuclear monochromator and a detector. From a single crystal Fe3 O 4 mounted on the goniometer, the 111, 222, and 220 reflected γ-rays were used to collect the diffraction spectra at room temperature. The intensity ratio of the two subspectra, corresponding to A- and B-site Fe ions, changes notably according to the reflection index. The diffraction spectrum is composed of a major absorption spectrum and a minor emission spectrum. The former is given by the γ-ray due to the electron scattering and nuclear absorption, whereas the latter is given by the γ-ray due to the nuclear resonant scattering. Interference effects between these two γ-rays are also seen as line broadenings, asymmetric line shapes, and slope of the base lines. These features can be successfully expressed by a Fano function. We consider that the emission spectrum due to the nuclear resonant scattering represents crystal-site-selective Mössbauer spectrum.

  8. Seismic margin analysis technique for nuclear power plant structures

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Seo, Jeong Moon; Choi, In Kil


    In general, the Seismic Probabilistic Risk Assessment (SPRA) and the Seismic Margin Assessment(SAM) are used for the evaluation of realistic seismic capacity of nuclear power plant structures. Seismic PRA is a systematic process to evaluate the seismic safety of nuclear power plant. In our country, SPRA has been used to perform the probabilistic safety assessment for the earthquake event. SMA is a simple and cost effective manner to quantify the seismic margin of individual structural elements. This study was performed to improve the reliability of SMA results and to confirm the assessment procedure. To achieve this goal, review for the current status of the techniques and procedures was performed. Two methodologies, CDFM (Conservative Deterministic Failure Margin) sponsored by NRC and FA (Fragility Analysis) sponsored by EPRI, were developed for the seismic margin review of NPP structures. FA method was originally developed for Seismic PRA. CDFM approach is more amenable to use by experienced design engineers including utility staff design engineers. In this study, detailed review on the procedures of CDFM and FA methodology was performed.

  9. Development of nonintrusive, scatter-independent techniques for measurement of liquid density inside dense sprays (United States)

    Hartfield, Roy


    A nonintrusive optical technique for measuring the liquid density in sprays used to simulate LOX injector flows is under development. This manuscript is a report on work toward that development which is currently in progress. The technique is a scatter-independent, absorption-based approach which depends on the numerical inversion of a collection of absorption profiles. For the case in which visible radiation passes through liquid-gas interfaces so numerous in sprays, substantial reductions and alterations in the signal result from scattering even in the absence of absorption. To avoid these problems, X-Rays will be used as the absorbed radiation. The experimental process is simulated by integrating the absorption spectrum for a known distribution, adding instrument noise to this 'measurement', creating a projection from the 'measurement', filtering the projection, inverting the projection, and comparing the results with the original prescribed distribution.

  10. Nuclear Technology Series. Course 20: Radiation Monitoring Techniques (Radiochemical). (United States)

    Center for Occupational Research and Development, Inc., Waco, TX.

    This technical specialty course is one of thirty-five courses designed for use by two-year postsecondary institutions in five nuclear technician curriculum areas: (1) radiation protection technician, (2) nuclear instrumentation and control technician, (3) nuclear materials processing technician, (4) nuclear quality-assurance/quality-control…

  11. Intercomparison of gamma scattering, gammatography, and radiography techniques for mild steel nonuniform corrosion detection (United States)

    Priyada, P.; Margret, M.; Ramar, R.; Shivaramu, Menaka, M.; Thilagam, L.; Venkataraman, B.; Raj, Baldev


    This paper focuses on the mild steel (MS) corrosion detection and intercomparison of results obtained by gamma scattering, gammatography, and radiography techniques. The gamma scattering non-destructive evaluation (NDE) method utilizes scattered gamma radiation for the detection of corrosion, and the scattering experimental setup is an indigenously designed automated personal computer (PC) controlled scanning system consisting of computerized numerical control (CNC) controlled six-axis source detector system and four-axis job positioning system. The system has been successfully used to quantify the magnitude of corrosion and the thickness profile of a MS plate with nonuniform corrosion, and the results are correlated with those obtained from the conventional gammatography and radiography imaging measurements. A simple and straightforward reconstruction algorithm to reconstruct the densities of the objects under investigation and an unambiguous interpretation of the signal as a function of material density at any point of the thick object being inspected is described. In this simple and straightforward method the density of the target need not be known and only the knowledge of the target material's mass attenuation coefficients (composition) for the incident and scattered energies is enough to reconstruct the density of the each voxel of the specimen being studied. The Monte Carlo (MC) numerical simulation of the phenomena is done using the Monte Carlo N-Particle Transport Code (MCNP) and the quantitative estimates of the values of signal-to-noise ratio for different percentages of MS corrosion derived from these simulations are presented and the spectra are compared with the experimental data. The gammatography experiments are carried out using the same PC controlled scanning system in a narrow beam, good geometry setup, and the thickness loss is estimated from the measured transmitted intensity. Radiography of the MS plates is carried out using 160 kV x

  12. Quantitative Evaluation of 2 Scatter-Correction Techniques for 18F-FDG Brain PET/MRI in Regard to MR-Based Attenuation Correction. (United States)

    Teuho, Jarmo; Saunavaara, Virva; Tolvanen, Tuula; Tuokkola, Terhi; Karlsson, Antti; Tuisku, Jouni; Teräs, Mika


    In PET, corrections for photon scatter and attenuation are essential for visual and quantitative consistency. MR attenuation correction (MRAC) is generally conducted by image segmentation and assignment of discrete attenuation coefficients, which offer limited accuracy compared with CT attenuation correction. Potential inaccuracies in MRAC may affect scatter correction, because the attenuation image (μ-map) is used in single scatter simulation (SSS) to calculate the scatter estimate. We assessed the impact of MRAC to scatter correction using 2 scatter-correction techniques and 3 μ-maps for MRAC. Methods: The tail-fitted SSS (TF-SSS) and a Monte Carlo-based single scatter simulation (MC-SSS) algorithm implementations on the Philips Ingenuity TF PET/MR were used with 1 CT-based and 2 MR-based μ-maps. Data from 7 subjects were used in the clinical evaluation, and a phantom study using an anatomic brain phantom was conducted. Scatter-correction sinograms were evaluated for each scatter correction method and μ-map. Absolute image quantification was investigated with the phantom data. Quantitative assessment of PET images was performed by volume-of-interest and ratio image analysis. Results: MRAC did not result in large differences in scatter algorithm performance, especially with TF-SSS. Scatter sinograms and scatter fractions did not reveal large differences regardless of the μ-map used. TF-SSS showed slightly higher absolute quantification. The differences in volume-of-interest analysis between TF-SSS and MC-SSS were 3% at maximum in the phantom and 4% in the patient study. Both algorithms showed excellent correlation with each other with no visual differences between PET images. MC-SSS showed a slight dependency on the μ-map used, with a difference of 2% on average and 4% at maximum when a μ-map without bone was used. Conclusion: The effect of different MR-based μ-maps on the performance of scatter correction was minimal in non-time-of-flight 18F-FDG PET

  13. Laser Shockwave Technique For Characterization Of Nuclear Fuel Plate Interfaces

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    James A. Smith; Barry H. Rabin; Mathieu Perton; Daniel Lévesque; Jean-Pierre Monchalin; Martin Lord


    The US National Nuclear Security Agency is tasked with minimizing the worldwide use of high-enriched uranium. One aspect of that effort is the conversion of research reactors to monolithic fuel plates of low-enriched uranium. The manufacturing process includes hot isostatic press bonding of an aluminum cladding to the fuel foil. The Laser Shockwave Technique (LST) is here evaluated for characterizing the interface strength of fuel plates using depleted Uranium/Mo foils. LST is a non-contact method that uses lasers for the generation and detection of large amplitude acoustic waves and is therefore well adapted to the quality assurance of this process. Preliminary results show a clear signature of well-bonded and debonded interfaces and the method is able to classify/rank the bond strength of fuel plates prepared under different HIP conditions.

  14. Nuclear emulsion readout techniques developed for the CHORUS experiment

    CERN Document Server

    Papadopoulos, I M


    The CHORUS experiment is pursuing the study of the production and decay of short lived particles from neutrino interactions in a nuclear emulsion target. The extraction of the full information from the emulsion sheets has been possible only thanks to the development of fully automatic microscopes. The technique of automatic scanning, pioneered in Nagoya, involves precision mechanics, high quality optics and a readout scheme allowing for fast decisions. From the R&D efforts within the various institutes of the CHORUS collaboration, the complementary approaches adopted by the Nagoya and CERN/NIKHEF groups are described here. Both are based on the principle that all information from the emulsion sheets should be extracted at the highest possible rate, limited only by the camera readout and the mechanical stability of the microscope stage. (12 refs).

  15. X-ray transmission/scattering technique for thickness-independent density measurement

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Giacomelli, E.J.


    A nondestructive technique, using penetrating x radiation, has been developed to measure the density uniformity of low-Z, compressible materials that is independent of material thickness. Thickness independence is achieved by simultaneously monitoring the transmitted and scattered x rays. Results on samples of pressed carbon materials have demonstrated that there is the expected linear relationship between measured quantities and material density, independent of material thickness, and that this is a viable means of measuring density uniformity.

  16. Electromagnetic Time-Reversal Imaging and Tracking Techniques for Inverse Scattering and Wireless Communications (United States)

    Fouda, Ahmed E.

    Time-reversal (TR) was originated in acoustics as a technique for re-focusing waves around their source location. Under certain conditions, the wave equation is invariant under TR, therefore, waves emanated from a source or scattered from a passive target, and recorded by a transceivers array, will retrace their forward path and automatically focus at the source/target location if back propagated in a time-reversed (last-in first-out) fashion from that array. Focusing resolution of time-reversed back propagation in rich scattering environments beats that in free space, yielding what is known as 'superresolution'. Moreover, under ultrawideband (UWB) operation, TR exhibits the distinctive property of 'statistical stability', which makes it an attractive technique for imaging in disordered media whose characteristics are not known deterministically (random media). Over the past few years, TR has been exploited in a variety of electromagnetic sensing and imaging applications such as ground penetrating radar, breast cancer detection, nondestructive testing, and through-wall imaging. In addition, TR has been extensively applied in UWB wireless communication providing myriad of advantages including reduced receiver complexity, power saving, increased system capacity, and enhanced information secrecy. In this work, we introduce new TR-based signal processing techniques for imaging, tracking, and communicating with targets/users embedded in rich scattering environments. We start by demonstrating, both numerically and experimentally, the statistical stability of UWB TR imaging in inhomogeneous random media, under different combinations of random medium parameters and interrogating signal properties. We examine conditions under which frequency decorrelation in random media provides a more effective 'self-averaging' and therefore better statistical stability. Then, we devise a technique for detecting and tracking multiple moving targets in cluttered environments based on

  17. Novel nuclear magnetic resonance techniques for studying biological molecules

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Laws, David Douglas [Univ. of California, Berkeley, CA (United States)


    Over the fifty-five year history of Nuclear Magnetic Resonance (NMR), considerable progress has been made in the development of techniques for studying the structure, function, and dynamics of biological molecules. The majority of this research has involved the development of multi-dimensional NMR experiments for studying molecules in solution, although in recent years a number of groups have begun to explore NMR methods for studying biological systems in the solid-state. Despite this new effort, a need still exists for the development of techniques that improve sensitivity, maximize information, and take advantage of all the NMR interactions available in biological molecules. In this dissertation, a variety of novel NMR techniques for studying biomolecules are discussed. A method for determining backbone (Φ/Ψ) dihedral angles by comparing experimentally determined 13Ca, chemical-shift anisotropies with theoretical calculations is presented, along with a brief description of the theory behind chemical-shift computation in proteins and peptides. The utility of the Spin-Polarization Induced Nuclear Overhauser Effect (SPINOE) to selectively enhance NMR signals in solution is examined in a variety of systems, as are methods for extracting structural information from cross-relaxation rates that can be measured in SPINOE experiments. Techniques for the production of supercritical and liquid laser-polarized xenon are discussed, as well as the prospects for using optically pumped xenon as a polarizing solvent. In addition, a detailed study of the structure of PrP 89-143 is presented. PrP 89-143 is a 54 residue fragment of the prion proteins which, upon mutation and aggregation, can induce prion diseases in transgenic mice. Whereas the structure of the wild-type PrP 89-143 is a generally unstructured mixture of α-helical and β-sheet conformers in the solid state, the aggregates formed from the PrP 89-143 mutants appear to be mostly β-sheet.

  18. Optical coherence tomography of scattering media using frequency-modulated continuous-wave techniques with tunable near-infrared laser (United States)

    Haberland, Udo; Jansen, Peter; Blazek, Vladimir; Schmitt, Hans J.


    A new near-infrared coherent imaging technique that can reveal scattering bodies embedded in highly scattering media is presented. Its underlying principle is extended from frequency modulated continuous wave radar systems. This technique has advantages over low coherence tomography as it does not require the reference mirror to be scanned. The tunable laser is characterized and the system's performance is demonstrated on images recorded from solid scattering phantoms. Furthermore a combination of our chirp-tomography (C-OCT) and laser Doppler perfusion imaging (LDPI) is demonstrated. The influence of moving scatterers on the tomographic images are discussed.

  19. Reaction intermediates in the catalytic Gif-type oxidation from nuclear inelastic scattering

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Rajagopalan, S., E-mail: [Indira Gandhi Centre for Atomic Research, Materials Science Group (India); Asthalter, T., E-mail: [Universität Stuttgart, Institute of Physical Chemistry (Germany); Rabe, V.; Laschat, S. [Universität Stuttgart, Institute of Organic Chemistry (Germany)


    Nuclear inelastic scattering (NIS) of synchrotron radiation, also known as nuclear resonant vibrational spectroscopy (NRVS), has been shown to provide valuable insights into metal-centered vibrations at Mössbauer-active nuclei. We present a study of the iron-centered vibrational density of states (VDOS) during the first step of the Gif-type oxidation of cyclohexene with a novel trinuclear Fe{sub 3}(μ{sub 3}-O) complex as catalyst precursor. The experiments were carried out on shock-frozen solutions for different combinations of reactants: Fe{sub 3}(μ{sub 3}-O) in pyridine solution, Fe{sub 3}(μ{sub 3}-O) plus Zn/acetic acid in pyridine without and with addition of either oxygen or cyclohexene, and Fe{sub 3}(μ{sub 3}-O)/Zn/acetic acid/pyridine/cyclohexene (reaction mixture) for reaction times of 1 min, 5 min, and 30 min. The projected VDOS of the Fe atoms was calculated on the basis of pseudopotential density functional calculations. Two possible reaction intermediates were identified as [Fe{sup (III)}(C{sub 5}H{sub 5}N){sub 2}(O{sub 2}CCH{sub 3}){sub 2}]{sup +} and Fe{sup (II)}(C{sub 5}H{sub 5}N){sub 4}(O{sub 2}CCH{sub 3}){sub 2}, yielding evidence that NIS (NRVS) allows to identify the presence of iron-centered intermediates also in complex reaction mixtures.

  20. Nuclear inelastic scattering study of a dinuclear iron(II) complex showing a direct spin transition

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Wolny, J. A., E-mail: [University of Kaiserslautern, Department of Physics (Germany); Garcia, Y. [Université Catholique de Louvain, Institute of Condensed Matter and Nanosciences, Molecules, Solids and Reactivity (IMCN/MOST) (Belgium); Faus, I.; Rackwitz, S. [University of Kaiserslautern, Department of Physics (Germany); Schlage, K.; Wille, H.-C. [DESY (Germany); Schünemann, V. [University of Kaiserslautern, Department of Physics (Germany)


    The results of the nuclear inelastic scattering (NIS)/nuclear resonance vibrational spectroscopy (NRVS) for the powder spectra of dimeric [Fe {sub 2}L{sub 5}(NCS) {sub 4}] (L = N-salicylidene-4-amino-1,2,4-triazole) complex are presented. This system is spin crossover (SCO) material tagged with a fluorophore that can sense or “feel” the SCO signal ripping through the molecular network and thereby providing an opportunity to register the SCO transition. The spectra have been measured for the low-spin and high-spin phases of the complex. The high-spin isomer reveals one broad band above 200 cm {sup −1}, while the low-spin one displays two intense bands in the range from 390 to 430 cm {sup −1}, accompanied by a number of weaker bands below this area and one at ca. 490 cm {sup −1}. A normal coordinate analysis based on density functional calculations yields the assignment of the spin marker bands to particular molecular modes. In addition the vibrational contribution to the spin transition has been estimated.

  1. Holographic scattering as a technique to determine the activation energy for thermal fixing in photorefractive materials (United States)

    Ellabban, M. A.; Mandula, G.; Fally, M.; Rupp, R. A.; Kovács, L.


    We introduce holographic scattering as a technique to determine the activation energy for thermal fixing of refractive index patterns in photorefractive crystals. After recording a parasitic hologram at ambient temperature, we measured the time dependence of the transmitted intensity at the fixing temperature, to determine the time constant. The temperature dependence of the latter allowed us to evaluate the thermal activation energy. For comparison, we performed an equivalent experiment employing the standard two-wave mixing method. The values obtained using the two techniques agree very well.

  2. Characterization of Nanocellulose Using Small-Angle Neutron, X-ray, and Dynamic Light Scattering Techniques. (United States)

    Mao, Yimin; Liu, Kai; Zhan, Chengbo; Geng, Lihong; Chu, Benjamin; Hsiao, Benjamin S


    Nanocellulose extracted from wood pulps using TEMPO (2,2,6,6-tetramethylpiperidine-1-oxyl radical)-mediated oxidation and sulfuric acid hydrolysis methods was characterized by small-angle neutron scattering (SANS), small-angle X-ray scattering (SAXS), and dynamic light scattering (DLS) techniques. The dimensions of this nanocellulose (TEMPO-oxidized cellulose nanofiber (TOCN) and sulfuric acid hydrolyzed cellulose nanocrystal (SACN)) revealed by the different scattering methods were compared with those characterized by transmission electron microscopy (TEM). The SANS and SAXS data were analyzed using a parallelepiped-based form factor. The width and thickness of the nanocellulose cross section were ∼8 and ∼2 nm for TOCN and ∼20 and ∼3 nm for SACN, respectively, where the fitting results from SANS and SAXS profiles were consistent with each other. DLS was carried out under both the VV mode with the polarizer and analyzer parallel to each other and the HV mode having them perpendicular to each other. Using rotational and translational diffusion coefficients obtained under the HV mode yielded a nanocellulose length qualitatively consistent with that observed by TEM, whereas the length derived by the translational diffusion coefficient under the VV mode appeared to be overestimated.

  3. Speciation, in the nuclear fuel cycle by spectroscopic techniques

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Colette, S.; Plancque, G.; Allain, F.; Lamouroux, C.; Steiner, V.; Amekraz, B.; Moulin, C. [CEA/Saclay, Dept, des Procedes d' Enrichissement (DPE), 91 - Gif-sur-Yvette (France)


    New analytical techniques allowing to perform speciation in the framework of the nuclear fuel cycle are more and more needed. They have to be selective (since matrix encountered are very complex), sensitive (in order to work at representative concentration and below solubility limit), as well as non intrusive (in order to keep the image of the real solution). Among them, laser-based analytical techniques present these advantages together with the possibility to perform remote measurements via fiber optics. Hence, Time-Resolved Laser-Induced Fluorescence (TRLIF) has been used for actinides/lanthanides interaction and speciation studies in inorganic and organic matrices from the reprocessing to waste storage. Moreover, new ion detection methods such as Electro-Spray - Mass Spectrometry (ES-MS) seems promising for speciation studies. Hence, it is the first time that it is possible to directly couple a liquid at atmospheric pressure to a mass detection working at reduced pressure with a soft mode of ionisation that should allow to give informations on chemical species present. Principle, advantages and limitations as well as results obtained with the use of TRLIF and ES-MS on different systems of interest including actinides, lanthanides, fission products in interaction with simple organic molecules to very complex structure will be presented and discussed. (authors)

  4. Nuclear Analytical Techniques in Tanzania: A Review | Koleleni ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    It has been a tradition to perceive that Nuclear/Atomic radiations are only related to Nuclear/Atomic bombs, heavy ammunitions and consequently applications for human and non-peaceful destructions. In this paper the questions on how the Nuclear/Atomic radiations may be used for peaceful applications and specifically to ...

  5. CO[sub 2] laser scattering technique for studying Langmuir turbulence spectra

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Vyacheslavov, L.N.; Kruglyakov, E.P.; Losev, M.V.; Sanin, A.L. (Budker Institute of Nuclear Physics, Novosibirsk, 630090 (Russian Federation))


    A 12-channel system for resolving either the [omega] or [ital k] spectra of plasma Langmuir turbulence is developed. The direct detection system is operated with a scattering linewidth of order 100 GHz at scattering angles ranging from 10[sup [minus]1] to 10[sup [minus]3] rad. Stray light rejection of up to 13 orders of magnitude is provided by an ammonia-filled gas cell. It is possible to vary the absorption frequency width from 20 MHz to 5 GHz keeping absorption in the ammonia line center constant. The [omega] and [ital k] spectra of Langmuir turbulence excited in the plasma by a high-current relativistic electron beam are measured via the technique described.

  6. A full-angle Monte-Carlo scattering technique including cumulative and single-event Rutherford scattering in plasmas (United States)

    Higginson, Drew P.


    We describe and justify a full-angle scattering (FAS) method to faithfully reproduce the accumulated differential angular Rutherford scattering probability distribution function (pdf) of particles in a plasma. The FAS method splits the scattering events into two regions. At small angles it is described by cumulative scattering events resulting, via the central limit theorem, in a Gaussian-like pdf; at larger angles it is described by single-event scatters and retains a pdf that follows the form of the Rutherford differential cross-section. The FAS method is verified using discrete Monte-Carlo scattering simulations run at small timesteps to include each individual scattering event. We identify the FAS regime of interest as where the ratio of temporal/spatial scale-of-interest to slowing-down time/length is from 10-3 to 0.3-0.7; the upper limit corresponds to Coulomb logarithm of 20-2, respectively. Two test problems, high-velocity interpenetrating plasma flows and keV-temperature ion equilibration, are used to highlight systems where including FAS is important to capture relevant physics.

  7. Nuclear analytical techniques applied to forensic chemistry; Aplicacion de tecnicas analiticas nucleares en quimica forense

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Nicolau, Veronica; Montoro, Silvia [Universidad Nacional del Litoral, Santa Fe (Argentina). Facultad de Ingenieria Quimica. Dept. de Quimica Analitica; Pratta, Nora; Giandomenico, Angel Di [Consejo Nacional de Investigaciones Cientificas y Tecnicas, Santa Fe (Argentina). Centro Regional de Investigaciones y Desarrollo de Santa Fe


    Gun shot residues produced by firing guns are mainly composed by visible particles. The individual characterization of these particles allows distinguishing those ones containing heavy metals, from gun shot residues, from those having a different origin or history. In this work, the results obtained from the study of gun shot residues particles collected from hands are presented. The aim of the analysis is to establish whether a person has shot a firing gun has been in contact with one after the shot has been produced. As reference samples, particles collected hands of persons affected to different activities were studied to make comparisons. The complete study was based on the application of nuclear analytical techniques such as Scanning Electron Microscopy, Energy Dispersive X Ray Electron Probe Microanalysis and Graphite Furnace Atomic Absorption Spectrometry. The essays allow to be completed within time compatible with the forensic requirements. (author) 5 refs., 3 figs., 1 tab.; e-mail: csedax e adigian at

  8. First Search for the EMC Effect and Nuclear Shadowing in Neutrino Nucleus Deep Inelastic Scattering at MINERvA

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Mousseau, Joel A. [Univ. of Florida, Gainesville, FL (United States)


    Decades of research in electron-nucleus deep inelastic scattering (DIS) have provided a clear picture of nuclear physics at high momentum transfer. While these effects have been clearly demonstrated by experiment, the theoretical explanation of their origin in some kinematic regions has been lacking. Particularly, the effects in the intermediate regions of Bjorken-x, anti-shadowing and the EMC effect have no universally accepted quantum mechanical explanation. In addition, these effects have not been measured systematically with neutrino-nucleus deep inelastic scattering, due to experiments lacking multiple heavy targets.

  9. Dynamic light scattering and atomic force microscopy techniques for size determination of polyurethane nanoparticles

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Giehl Zanetti-Ramos, Betina [Laboratorio de Bioenergetica e Bioquimica de Macromoleculas, Departamento de Ciencias Farmaceuticas (Brazil)], E-mail:; Beddin Fritzen-Garcia, Mauricia [Laboratorio de Bioenergetica e Bioquimica de Macromoleculas, Departamento de Ciencias Farmaceuticas (Brazil); Schweitzer de Oliveira, Cristian; Avelino Pasa, Andre [Laboratorio de Filmes Finos e Superficie, Departamento de Fisica (Brazil); Soldi, Valdir [Grupo de Estudos em Materiais Polimericos, Departamento de Quimica, Universidade Federal de Santa Catarina, 88040-900, Florianopolis, SC (Brazil); Borsali, Redouane [Centre de Recherche sur les Macromolecules Vegetales CERMAV/CNRS, 38041 - Grenoble (France); Creczynski-Pasa, Tania Beatriz [Laboratorio de Bioenergetica e Bioquimica de Macromoleculas, Departamento de Ciencias Farmaceuticas (Brazil)


    Nanoparticles have applications in various industrial fields principally in drug delivery. Nowadays, there are several processes for manufacturing colloidal polymeric systems and methods of preparation as well as of characterization. In this work, Dynamic Light Scattering and Atomic Force Microscopy techniques were used to characterize polyurethane nanoparticles. The nanoparticles were prepared by miniemulsion technique. The lipophilic monomers, isophorone diisocyanate (IPDI) and natural triol, were emulsified in water containing surfactant. In some formulations the poly(ethylene glycol) was used as co-monomer to obtain the hydrophilic and pegylated nanoparticles. Polyurethane nanoparticles observed by atomic force microscopy (AFM) were spherical with diameter around 209 nm for nanoparticles prepared without PEG. From AFM imaging two populations of nanoparticles were observed in the formulation prepared with PEG (218 and 127 nm) while dynamic light scattering (DLS) measurements showed a monodisperse size distribution around 250 nm of diameters for both formulations. The polydispersity index of the formulations and the experimental procedures could influence the particle size determination with these techniques.

  10. Nuclear inelastic scattering at the diiron center of ribonucleotide reductase from Escherichia coli (United States)

    Marx, J.; Srinivas, V.; Faus, I.; Auerbach, H.; Scherthan, L.; Jenni, K.; Chumakov, A. I.; Rüffer, R.; Högbom, M.; Haumann, M.; Schünemann, V.


    The enzyme ribonucleotide reductase R2 catalyzes an important step in the synthesis of the building blocks of DNA, and harbors a dinuclear iron center required for activity. Not only the iron valence states but also the protonation of the iron ligands govern the enzymatic activity of the enzyme. We have performed Nuclear Inelastic Scattering (NIS) experiments on the 57Fe reconstituted ribonucleotide reductase R2 subunit from Escherichia coli ( Ec R2a). Accompanying Mössbauer spectroscopic investigations show that the partial density of vibrational states (pDOS) of the 57Fe reconstituted Ec R2a sample contained contributions from both 57Fe- Ec R2a protein as well as unspecifically bound 57Fe. Subtraction of a featureless pDOS as obtained from protein-coated iron oxide particles allowed modeling of the contribution of non-specifically bound iron and thus the pDOS of 57Fe- Ec R2a could be obtained. Quantum-mechanics/molecular-mechanics (QM/MM) calculations of the whole 57Fe- Ec R2a protein with variations of the cofactor protonation were performed in order to assign characteristic bands to their corresponding molecular vibrational modes.

  11. Monte Carlo simulations of ceiling scatter in nuclear medicine: 99m Tc, 131 I and 18 F. (United States)

    Schnerr, Roald S; de Jong, Anouk N; Landry, Guillaume; Jeukens, Cécile R L P N; Wierts, Roel


    In the design of nuclear medicine treatment and examination rooms, an important consideration is the shielding required for ionizing radiation from the radioactive isotopes used. The shielding in the walls is normally limited to a height lower than the actual ceiling height. The direct radiation, possibly with build-up correction, can be calculated relatively easily. However, little data are available to estimate the dose contribution from ionizing radiation traveling over the wall shielding and scattering off the ceiling. We aim to determine the contribution of the ceiling scatter to the radiation dose outside nuclear medicine rooms. Monte Carlo simulations were performed using Gate for different heights of lead shielding in the wall, and different ceiling heights. A point source in air of 99m Tc (141 keV), 131 I (365 keV) or 18 F (511 keV) was placed 1.0 m above the floor, 3.0 m from the lead shielding. Simulations of ceiling scatter only and for the total radiation dose were performed for these 3 isotopes, 5 different ceiling heights and 4-8 different wall shielding heights, resulting in a total of 165 simulations. This allowed us to compare the contribution of the radiation passing through the shielding and the ceiling scatter. We find that the shielding required for the primary radiation, measured in half-value layers, is an important factor in determining the relative contribution of ceiling scatter. When more than about 4 half-value layers of shielding are used, ceiling scatter becomes the dominant factor and should be taken into account in the shielding design. In many practical cases for low energy photons (e.g. from 99m Tc; 141 keV; half-value layer of 0.26 mm lead), 2 mm of lead is used and ceiling scatter is a dominating factor contributing >~70% of the dose outside the shielded room. For higher energies (e.g. 18 F; 511 keV; half-value layer of 3.9 mm lead) the ceiling scatter is typically less than about 15% when 8 mm of lead shielding is

  12. Systematic and Statistical Errors Associated with Nuclear Decay Constant Measurements Using the Counting Technique (United States)

    Koltick, David; Wang, Haoyu; Liu, Shih-Chieh; Heim, Jordan; Nistor, Jonathan


    Typical nuclear decay constants are measured at the accuracy level of 10-2. There are numerous reasons: tests of unconventional theories, dating of materials, and long term inventory evolution which require decay constants accuracy at a level of 10-4 to 10-5. The statistical and systematic errors associated with precision measurements of decays using the counting technique are presented. Precision requires high count rates, which introduces time dependent dead time and pile-up corrections. An approach to overcome these issues is presented by continuous recording of the detector current. Other systematic corrections include, the time dependent dead time due to background radiation, control of target motion and radiation flight path variation due to environmental conditions, and the time dependent effects caused by scattered events are presented. The incorporation of blind experimental techniques can help make measurement independent of past results. A spectrometer design and data analysis is reviewed that can accomplish these goals. The author would like to thank TechSource, Inc. and Advanced Physics Technologies, LLC. for their support in this work.

  13. Scatter reduction for grid-less mammography using the convolution-based image post-processing technique (United States)

    Marimón, Elena; Nait-Charif, Hammadi; Khan, Asmar; Marsden, Philip A.; Diaz, Oliver


    X-ray Mammography examinations are highly affected by scattered radiation, as it degrades the quality of the image and complicates the diagnosis process. Anti-scatter grids are currently used in planar mammography examinations as the standard physical scattering reduction technique. This method has been found to be inefficient, as it increases the dose delivered to the patient, does not remove all the scattered radiation and increases the price of the equipment. Alternative scattering reduction methods, based on post-processing algorithms, are being investigated to substitute anti-scatter grids. Methods such as the convolution-based scatter estimation have lately become attractive as they are quicker and more flexible than pure Monte Carlo (MC) simulations. In this study we make use of this specific method, which is based on the premise that the scatter in the system is spatially diffuse, thus it can be approximated by a two-dimensional low-pass convolution filter of the primary image. This algorithm uses the narrow pencil beam method to obtain the scatter kernel used to convolve an image, acquired without anti-scatter grid. The results obtained show an image quality comparable, in the worst case, to the grid image, in terms of uniformity and contrast to noise ratio. Further improvement is expected when using clinically-representative phantoms.

  14. Microwave Readout Techniques for Very Large Arrays of Nuclear Sensors

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Ullom, Joel [Univ. of Colorado, Boulder, CO (United States). Dept. of Physics


    During this project, we transformed the use of microwave readout techniques for nuclear sensors from a speculative idea to reality. The core of the project consisted of the development of a set of microwave electronics able to generate and process large numbers of microwave tones. The tones can be used to probe a circuit containing a series of electrical resonances whose frequency locations and widths depend on the state of a network of sensors, with one sensor per resonance. The amplitude and phase of the tones emerging from the circuit are processed by the same electronics and are reduced to the sensor signals after two demodulation steps. This approach allows a large number of sensors to be interrogated using a single pair of coaxial cables. We successfully developed hardware, firmware, and software to complete a scalable implementation of these microwave control electronics and demonstrated their use in two areas. First, we showed that the electronics can be used at room temperature to read out a network of diverse sensor types relevant to safeguards or process monitoring. Second, we showed that the electronics can be used to measure large numbers of ultrasensitive cryogenic sensors such as gamma-ray microcalorimeters. In particular, we demonstrated the undegraded readout of up to 128 channels and established a path to even higher multiplexing factors. These results have transformed the prospects for gamma-ray spectrometers based on cryogenic microcalorimeter arrays by enabling spectrometers whose collecting areas and count rates can be competitive with high purity germanium but with 10x better spectral resolution.

  15. Nuclear-mass dependence of azimuthal beam-helicity and beam-charge asymmetries in deeply virtual Compton scattering

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Airapetian, A. [Giessen Univ. (Germany). Physikalisches Inst.; Michigan Univ., Ann Arbor, MI (United States). Randall Lab. of Physics; Akopov, N. [Yerevan Physics Institute (Armenia); Akopov, Z. [DESY, Hamburg (DE)] (and others)


    The nuclear-mass dependence of azimuthal cross section asymmetries with respect to charge and longitudinal polarization of the lepton beam is studied for hard exclusive electroproduction of real photons. The observed beam-charge and beam-helicity asymmetries are attributed to the interference between the Bethe-Heitler and deeply virtual Compton scattering processes. For various nuclei, the asymmetries are extracted for both coherent and incoherent-enriched regions, which involve different (combinations of) generalized parton distributions. For both regions, the asymmetries are compared to those for a free proton, and no nuclear-mass dependence is found. (orig.)

  16. Enhancement of Raman scattering signal of a few molecules using photonic nanojet mediated SERS technique

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Das, G. M.; Parit, M. K.; Laha, R.; Dantham, V. R., E-mail: [Department of Physics, Indian Institute of Technology Patna, Bihta, Bihar, India 801103 (India)


    Now a days, single molecule surface enhanced Raman spectroscopy (SMSERS) has become a fascinating tool for studying the structural properties, static and dynamic events of single molecules (instead of ensemble average), with the help of efficient plasmonic nanostructures. This is extremely useful in the field of proteomics because the structural properties of protein molecules are heterogeneous. Even though, SMSERS provides wealthy information about single molecules, it demands high quality surface enhanced Raman scattering (SERS) substrates. So far, a very few researchers succeeded in demonstrating the single molecule Raman scattering using conventional SERS technique. However, the experimental S/N of the Raman signal has been found to be very poor. Recently, with the help of photonic nanojet of an optical microsphere, we were able to enhance the SERS signal of a few molecules adsorbed on the SERS substrates (gold symmetric and asymmetric nanodimers and trimers dispersed on a glass slide). Herein, we report a few details about photonic nanojet mediated SERS technique, a few experimental results and a detailed theoretical study on symmetric and asymmetric nanosphere dimers to understand the dependence of localised surface plasmon resonance (LSPR) wavelength of a nanodimer on the nanogap size and polarization of the excitation light.

  17. Monte Carlo simulation and parameterized treatment on the effect of nuclear elastic scattering in high-energy proton radiography (United States)

    Xu, Hai-Bo; Zheng, Na


    A version of Geant4 has been developed to treat high-energy proton radiography. This article presents the results of calculations simulating the effects of nuclear elastic scattering for various test step wedges. Comparisons with experimental data are also presented. The traditional expressions of the transmission should be correct if the angle distribution of the scattering is Gaussian multiple Coulomb scattering. The mean free path (which depends on the collimator angle) and the radiation length are treated as empirical parameters, according to transmission as a function of thickness obtained by simulations. The results can be used in density reconstruction, which depends on the transmission expressions. Supported by NSAF (11176001) and Science and Technology Developing Foundation of China Academy of Engineering Physics (2012A0202006)

  18. Communication techniques and nuclear energy; Tecnicas de comunicacion y energia nuclear

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Carpintero Santamaria, N.


    The paper presents some thoughts on several factors related to nuclear energy and the way they are presented by the mass media, usually provoking controversy to the Spanish society and thus, undermining public acceptance. Some possibilities for boosting nuclear energy among public opinion are suggested, emphasizing the fact that nuclear power is essential because it is both ecologically and economically sound. (Author)

  19. Resonance-based light scattering techniques for investigation of microdroplet processes. (United States)

    Ray, Asit K; Devarakonda, Venkat; Gao, Zhiqiang


    An elastic or a Raman scattering intensity versus size parameter spectrum from a droplet shows a series of resonances. Each resonance contains a unique relation between the size and the refractive index of the scattering droplet, and the resonances from homogeneous droplets behave significantly differently than the resonances from layered droplets. These characteristics can be used to analyze observed resonances, and to determine the size and the refractive index of a homogeneous droplet or the inner and outer radii and the core and shell refractive indices of a layered droplet. We show that many microdroplet processes can be studied by applying resonance-based light scattering techniques to single droplets suspended in an electrodynamic balance and to highly monodisperse droplets in linear arrays. This paper focuses on deciphering internal composition distributions in microdroplets that develop due to fast physical or chemical processes. Experiments were conducted on linear streams of droplets that were generated by a modified vibrating orifice aerosol generator from a solution of non-volatile dibutyl phthalate dissolved in volatile freon. The residence time of the droplets in the gas phase was altered by varying the distance between the droplet generator and a laser beam that illuminates the droplets. The variation of the frequency of the droplet generator causes the droplet size to change in a prescribed manner, and thus, the scattering intensity as a function of the frequency shows a series of resonances due to the variation of the size. We have analyzed the resonance peak frequencies to obtain the size and the composition distribution inside the droplets as functions of time. During evaporation, the resonances of non-uniform composition droplets shift differently from those of uniform composition droplets. Specifically, lower order resonances from non-uniform droplets shift significantly more than higher order resonances. This is the basis for the

  20. Asymmetrical flow field-flow fractionation with multi-angle light scattering and quasi-elastic light scattering for characterization of polymersomes: comparison with classical techniques. (United States)

    Till, Ugo; Gaucher-Delmas, Mireille; Saint-Aguet, Pascale; Hamon, Glenn; Marty, Jean-Daniel; Chassenieux, Christophe; Payré, Bruno; Goudounèche, Dominique; Mingotaud, Anne-Françoise; Violleau, Frédéric


    Polymersomes formed from amphiphilic block copolymers, such as poly(ethyleneoxide-b-ε-caprolactone) (PEO-b-PCL) or poly(ethyleneoxide-b-methylmethacrylate), were characterized by asymmetrical flow field-flow fractionation coupled with quasi-elastic light scattering (QELS), multi-angle light scattering (MALS), and refractive index detection, leading to the determination of their size, shape, and molecular weight. The method was cross-examined with more classical ones, like batch dynamic and static light scattering, electron microscopy, and atomic force microscopy. The results show good complementarities between all the techniques; asymmetrical flow field-flow fractionation being the most pertinent one when the sample exhibits several different types of population.

  1. Monte Carlo Techniques for Nuclear Systems - Theory Lectures

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Brown, Forrest B. [Los Alamos National Lab. (LANL), Los Alamos, NM (United States). Monte Carlo Methods, Codes, and Applications Group; Univ. of New Mexico, Albuquerque, NM (United States). Nuclear Engineering Dept.


    These are lecture notes for a Monte Carlo class given at the University of New Mexico. The following topics are covered: course information; nuclear eng. review & MC; random numbers and sampling; computational geometry; collision physics; tallies and statistics; eigenvalue calculations I; eigenvalue calculations II; eigenvalue calculations III; variance reduction; parallel Monte Carlo; parameter studies; fission matrix and higher eigenmodes; doppler broadening; Monte Carlo depletion; HTGR modeling; coupled MC and T/H calculations; fission energy deposition. Solving particle transport problems with the Monte Carlo method is simple - just simulate the particle behavior. The devil is in the details, however. These lectures provide a balanced approach to the theory and practice of Monte Carlo simulation codes. The first lectures provide an overview of Monte Carlo simulation methods, covering the transport equation, random sampling, computational geometry, collision physics, and statistics. The next lectures focus on the state-of-the-art in Monte Carlo criticality simulations, covering the theory of eigenvalue calculations, convergence analysis, dominance ratio calculations, bias in Keff and tallies, bias in uncertainties, a case study of a realistic calculation, and Wielandt acceleration techniques. The remaining lectures cover advanced topics, including HTGR modeling and stochastic geometry, temperature dependence, fission energy deposition, depletion calculations, parallel calculations, and parameter studies. This portion of the class focuses on using MCNP to perform criticality calculations for reactor physics and criticality safety applications. It is an intermediate level class, intended for those with at least some familiarity with MCNP. Class examples provide hands-on experience at running the code, plotting both geometry and results, and understanding the code output. The class includes lectures & hands-on computer use for a variety of Monte Carlo calculations

  2. Neutrons for Catalysis: A Workshop on Neutron Scattering Techniques for Studies in Catalysis

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Overbury, Steven {Steve} H [ORNL; Coates, Leighton [ORNL; Herwig, Kenneth W [ORNL; Kidder, Michelle [ORNL


    This report summarizes the Workshop on Neutron Scattering Techniques for Studies in Catalysis, held at the Spallation Neutron Source (SNS) at Oak Ridge National Laboratory (ORNL) on September 16 and 17, 2010. The goal of the Workshop was to bring experts in heterogeneous catalysis and biocatalysis together with neutron scattering experimenters to identify ways to attack new problems, especially Grand Challenge problems in catalysis, using neutron scattering. The Workshop locale was motivated by the neutron capabilities at ORNL, including the High Flux Isotope Reactor (HFIR) and the new and developing instrumentation at the SNS. Approximately 90 researchers met for 1 1/2 days with oral presentations and breakout sessions. Oral presentations were divided into five topical sessions aimed at a discussion of Grand Challenge problems in catalysis, dynamics studies, structure characterization, biocatalysis, and computational methods. Eleven internationally known invited experts spoke in these sessions. The Workshop was intended both to educate catalyst experts about the methods and possibilities of neutron methods and to educate the neutron community about the methods and scientific challenges in catalysis. Above all, it was intended to inspire new research ideas among the attendees. All attendees were asked to participate in one or more of three breakout sessions to share ideas and propose new experiments that could be performed using the ORNL neutron facilities. The Workshop was expected to lead to proposals for beam time at either the HFIR or the SNS; therefore, it was expected that each breakout session would identify a few experiments or proof-of-principle experiments and a leader who would pursue a proposal after the Workshop. Also, a refereed review article will be submitted to a prominent journal to present research and ideas illustrating the benefits and possibilities of neutron methods for catalysis research.

  3. Monte Carlo techniques for scattering foil design and dosimetry in total skin electron irradiations. (United States)

    Ye, Sung-Joon; Pareek, Prem N; Spencer, Sharon; Duan, Jun; Brezovich, Ivan A


    Total skin electron irradiation (TSEI) with single fields requires large electron beams having good dose uniformity, dmax at the skin surface, and low bremsstrahlung contamination. To satisfy these requirements, energy degraders and scattering foils have to be specially designed for the given accelerator and treatment room. We used Monte Carlo (MC) techniques based on EGS4 user codes (BEAM, DOSXYZ, and DOSRZ) as a guide in the beam modifier design of our TSEI system. The dosimetric characteristics at the treatment distance of 382 cm source-to-surface distance (SSD) were verified experimentally using a linear array of 47 ion chambers, a parallel plate chamber, and radiochromic film. By matching MC simulations to standard beam measurements at 100 cm SSD, the parameters of the electron beam incident on the vacuum window were determined. Best match was achieved assuming that electrons were monoenergetic at 6.72 MeV, parallel, and distributed in a circular pattern having a Gaussian radial distribution with full width at half maximum = 0.13 cm. These parameters were then used to simulate our TSEI unit with various scattering foils. Two of the foils were fabricated and experimentally evaluated by measuring off-axis dose uniformity and depth doses. A scattering foil, consisting of a 12 x 12 cm2 aluminum plate of 0.6 cm thickness and placed at isocenter perpendicular to the beam direction, was considered optimal. It produced a beam that was flat within +/-3% up to 60 cm off-axis distance, dropped by not more than 8% at a distance of 90 cm, and had an x-ray contamination of irradiations.

  4. Establishment and Analysis of Nuclear Structure Data DB for Nuclear Safety Regulation Technique Applications

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Lee, Young Ouk; Yoo, Jae Kwon; Gil, Choong; Cho, Young Sik; Kim, Hyung Il; Kim, Jong Woon; Kwon, Duk Hee; Lee, Jong Hwa


    The contents of the project consisting of four research fields carried out are: Ο Installation of DB with nuclear structure/decay datasets - Setup a computer system for production of nuclear structure/decay data in ENSDF format - Production of nuclear structure/decay data in ENSDF format({sup 211}, {sup 215}Po, {sup 136}Cs) and setup a data converting system from ENSDF format to ENDF-6 format. Ο Computer simulation of nuclear decay and burnup using the ENSDF DB - Calculation of decay heats of the several radioactive nuclides with Geant4 - Burnup calculation with full decay chain using Monte Carlo method Ο Comparison and analysis of nuclear structure/decay and fission product yields data. - Acquisitions and Analyses of decay and fission yields data in ENDF-6 format - Research for theoretical evaluation method of fission product yields data. Ο Analysis of SCALE(ORIGEN-s, -ARP) libraries - Analysis of ORIGEN library structure of nuclear decay/yields data. - Methodological studies to improve nuclear decay/yield ORIGEN libraries by use of nuclear structure/yield data in ENDF-6 format. The results of this project will be a basis to establish the nuclear decay and fission yield data DB in Korea. Additionally, new decay and yield data can be immediately served for the users to utilize those data for nuclear research and/or development.

  5. A hybrid MAS/MoM technique for 2D impedance scatterers illuminated by closely positioned sources

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Larsen, Niels Vesterdal; Breinbjerg, Olav


    A hybrid technique for 2D scattering problems with impedance structures and closely positioned illuminating sources is presented. This technique combines the method of auxiliary sources (MAS) with a localized method of moments (MoM) region near the source. Significant improvements over standard MAS...

  6. Fostering applications of neutron scattering techniques in developing countries: IAEA's role

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Paranjpe, Shriniwas K. [Division of Physical and Chemical Sciences, International Atomic Energy Agency, Wagramer Strasse 5, A-1400 Vienna (Austria)]. E-mail:; Mank, G. [Division of Physical and Chemical Sciences, International Atomic Energy Agency, Wagramer Strasse 5, A-1400 Vienna (Austria); Ramamoorthy, N. [Division of Physical and Chemical Sciences, International Atomic Energy Agency, Wagramer Strasse 5, A-1400 Vienna (Austria)


    Over the last 60 years research reactors have played an important role in technological and socio-economical development of mankind. Neutron scattering has been the workhorse for research and development in materials science. Developing countries with moderate flux research reactors have also been involved in using this technique. The reactors and the facilities around them have a large potential for applications, while their under-utilization has been a concern for many member states. The International Atomic Energy Agency (IAEA) has been supporting its member states in the enhancement of utilization of their research reactors. Technical meetings focussing on the area of current interests with potential applications are organized under the project on 'effective utilization of research reactors,' e.g. on residual stress measurement, neutron reflectometry. Coordinated research projects (CRPs) bring together scientists from developed and developing countries, build collaborations, and exchange expertise and technology. The CRPs on research reactor utilization include topics like development of small-angle neutron scattering applications and development of sources and imaging systems for neutron radiography. New CRPs on the measurement of residual stress and accelerator-driven neutron sources will be initiated soon. The results from these meetings of CRPs are published as technical documents of the IAEA that would act as guidelines for capacity building for research reactor managers. This paper will present some of the salient features of IAEA activities in promoting research reactor utilization.

  7. Integral equation technique for scatterers with mesoscopic insertions: Application to a carbon nanotube (United States)

    Shuba, M. V.; Melnikov, A. V.; Kuzhir, P. P.; Maksimenko, S. A.; Slepyan, G. Y.; Boag, A.; Conte, A. Mosca; Pulci, O.; Bellucci, S.


    We present the electromagnetic scattering theory for a finite-length nanowire with an embedded mesoscopic object. The theory is based on a synthesis of the integral equation technique of classical electrodynamics and the quantum transport formalism. We formulate Hallén-type integral equations, where the canonical integral operators from wire antenna theory are combined with special terms responsible for the mesoscopic structure. The theory is applied to calculate the polarizability of a finite-length single-walled carbon nanotube (CNT) with a short low-conductive section (LCS) in the microwave and subterahertz ranges. The LCS is modeled as a multichannel two-electrode mesoscopic system. The effective resistive sheet impedance boundary conditions for the scattered field are applied on the CNT surface. It is shown that the imaginary part of the polarizability spectrum has three peaks. Two of them are in the terahertz range, while the third is in the gigahertz range. The polarizability spectrum of the CNT with many LCSs has only one gigahertz peak, which shifts to low frequencies as the number of LCSs increases. The physical nature of these peaks is explained, and potential applications of nanoantennas are proposed.

  8. Solution of cavity resonance and waveguide scattering problems using the eigenmode projection technique (United States)

    Nasr, Mamdouh H.; Othman, Mohamed A. K.; Eshrah, Islam A.; Abuelfadl, Tamer M.


    New developments in the eigenmode projection technique (EPT) are introduced in solving problems of electromagnetic resonance in closed cavities as well as scattering from discontinuities in guided-wave structures. The EPT invokes the eigenmodes of a canonical predefined cavity in the solution procedure and uses the expansion of these eigenmodes to solve Maxwell's equations, in conjunction with a convenient choice of port boundary conditions. For closed cavities, a new spurious-mode separation method is developed, showing robust and efficient spurious-mode separation. This has been tested using more complex and practical examples demonstrating the powerful use of the presented approach. For waveguide scattering problems, convergence studies are being performed showing stable solutions for a relatively small number of expansion modes, and the proposed method has advantages over conventional solvers in analyzing electromagnetic problems with inhomogeneous materials. These convergence studies also lead to an efficient rule-of-thumb for the number of modes to be used in the simulation. The ability to handle closed and open structures is presented in a unified framework that highlights the generality of the EPT which could be used to analyze and design a variety of microwave components.

  9. Efficient combination of acceleration techniques applied to high frequency methods for solving radiation and scattering problems (United States)

    Lozano, Lorena; Algar, Ma Jesús; García, Eliseo; González, Iván; Cátedra, Felipe


    An improved ray-tracing method applied to high-frequency techniques such as the Uniform Theory of Diffraction (UTD) is presented. The main goal is to increase the speed of the analysis of complex structures while considering a vast number of observation directions and taking into account multiple bounces. The method is based on a combination of the Angular Z-Buffer (AZB), the Space Volumetric Partitioning (SVP) algorithm and the A∗ heuristic search method to treat multiple bounces. In addition, a Master Point strategy was developed to analyze efficiently a large number of Near-Field points or Far-Field directions. This technique can be applied to electromagnetic radiation problems, scattering analysis, propagation at urban or indoor environments and to the mutual coupling between antennas. Due to its efficiency, its application is suitable to study large antennas radiation patterns and even its interactions with complex environments, including satellites, ships, aircrafts, cities or another complex electrically large bodies. The new technique appears to be extremely efficient at these applications even when considering multiple bounces.

  10. Stimulated Brillouin scattering suppression in optical fibers by hydrogen-loading technique (United States)

    Kong, Fanting; Dong, Liang


    Further power scaling of single frequency fiber lasers is of significant interests for many scientific and defense applications. It is currently limited by stimulated Brillouin scattering (SBS). In recent years, a variety of techniques have been investigated for the suppression of SBS in optical fibers. A notable example is to design transverse acoustic properties of optical fibers in order to minimize optical and acoustic mode overlap. It was pointed out recently that SBS suppression from such transverse acoustic tailoring is limited when considering the existence of acoustic leaky modes. We demonstrate, for the first time, a post-processing technique where hydrogen is diffused in to a fiber core and then locally and permanently bonded to core glass by a subsequent UV exposure. Large local acoustic property can be altered this way for significant SBS suppression. It is also possible to use this technique to implement precisely tailored acoustic properties along a fiber for more optimized SBS suppression in a fiber amplifier. Change in Brillouin Stokes frequency of ~320MHz at 1.064μm has been demonstrated using hydrogen, corresponding to a SBS suppression of ~8dB. Much higher SBS suppression is possible at higher hydrogen concentrations.

  11. Transverse Isotropy: Disappearance of Mott oscillations in sub-barrier elastic scattering of identical heavy ions and the nuclear ineraction (United States)

    Hussein, Mahir; Canto, L. Felipe; Donangelo, Raul


    It is found that at a certain critical value of the Sommerfeld parameter the Mott oscillations usually present in the scattering of identical heavy ions, disappear and the cross section becomes quite flat. We call this effect Transverse Isotropy (TI) (L. F. Canto, R. Donangelo and M. S. Hussein, Mod. Phys. Lett. A, 16), 1027 (2001). The critical value of the Sommerfeld parameter at which TI sets in is found to be ηc =√{ 3 s + 2 } , where s is the spin of the nuclei participating in the scattering. No TI is found in the Mott scattering of identical Fermionic nuclei. The critical center of mass energy corresponding to ηc is found to be Ec = 0.40 MeV for α + α (s = 0), and 1.2 MeV for 6 Li + 6 LI (s = 1). We further found that the inclusion of the nuclear interaction induces a significant modification in the TI. This can be verified by calculating the second derivative of the cross section at θ =90° . We suggest measurements at these sub-barrier energies for the purpose of extracting useful information about the nuclear interaction between light heavy ions. Supported by CNPq, FAPESP, FAPERJ, CAPES/ITA.

  12. Review of nuclear data improvement needs for nuclear radiation measurement techniques used at the CEA experimental reactor facilities

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Destouches Christophe


    Full Text Available The constant improvement of the neutron and gamma calculation codes used in experimental nuclear reactors goes hand in hand with that of the associated nuclear data libraries. The validation of these calculation schemes always requires the confrontation with integral experiments performed in experimental reactors to be completed. Nuclear data of interest, straight as cross sections, or elaborated ones such as reactivity, are always derived from a reaction rate measurement which is the only measurable parameter in a nuclear sensor. So, in order to derive physical parameters from the electric signal of the sensor, one needs specific nuclear data libraries. This paper presents successively the main features of the measurement techniques used in the CEA experimental reactor facilities for the on-line and offline neutron/gamma flux characterizations: reactor dosimetry, neutron flux measurements with miniature fission chambers and Self Power Neutron Detector (SPND and gamma flux measurements with chamber ionization and TLD. For each technique, the nuclear data necessary for their interpretation will be presented, the main identified needs for improvement identified and an analysis of their impact on the quality of the measurement. Finally, a synthesis of the study will be done.

  13. Novel Observational Technique of Gravitational Wave (GW) Events: Detecting and Locating Electromagnetic Counterparts to GW Sources using Dust Scattering Halos (United States)

    Nederlander, Richard; Paerels, Frits


    We discuss a novel observational technique for detecting and locating the electromagnetic counterpart to its GW source, providing astronomers with a several-hour reprieve after a GW event’s occurrence. The technique relies on identifying a dust scattering halo caused by GW-produced X-rays scattering off Galactic dust clouds. The travel time delay of these scattered photons makes them detectable for up to several hours after the prompt event, and the location of the gravitational wave source will be at the geometric center of the halo. The center can be determined with precision sufficient enough to allow the host galaxy to be discerned. This novel technique will be especially relevant for binary black-hole mergers because their counterparts have, as of now, been difficult to detect.

  14. Nuclear and Non-Ionizing Energy-Loss for Coulomb Scattered Particles from Low Energy up to Relativistic Regime in Space Radiation Environment

    CERN Document Server

    Boschini, M.J.; Gervasi, M.; Giani, S.; Grandi, D.; Ivantchenko, V.; Pensotti, S.; Rancoita, P.G.; Tacconi, M.


    In the space environment, instruments onboard of spacecrafts can be affected by displacement damage due to radiation. The differential scattering cross section for screened nucleus--nucleus interactions - i.e., including the effects due to screened Coulomb nuclear fields -, nuclear stopping powers and non-ionization energy losses are treated from about 50\\,keV/nucleon up to relativistic energies.

  15. Characterization of Ag/Pt core-shell nanoparticles by UV-vis absorption, resonance light-scattering techniques. (United States)

    Chen, Langxing; Zhao, Wenfeng; Jiao, Yufen; He, Xiwen; Wang, Jing; Zhang, Yukui


    The water-soluble Ag/Pt core-shell nanoparticles were prepared by deposition Pt over Ag colloidal seeds with the seed-growth method using K2PtCl4 with trisodium citrate as reduced agent. The Ag:Pt ratio is varied from 9:1 to 1:3 for synthesizing Pt shell layer of different thickness. A remarkable shift and broadening of Ag surface plasmon band around 410 nm was observed. The contrast of TEM images of Ag/Pt colloids has been obtained. Various techniques, such as transmission electron microscopy (TEM), UV-vis absorption and resonance light-scattering spectroscopy were used to characterize nanoparticles. The data of TEM, UV-vis and resonance light-scattering spectrum all confirm formation of Ag/Pt core-shell nanoparticles. Resonance light-scattering and emission spectrum show the Ag and Ag/Pt core-shell nanoparticles have a nonlinear light-scattering characteristic.

  16. On the effects of systematic errors in analysis of nuclear scattering data.

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Bennett, M.T.; Steward, C.; Amos, K.; Allen, L.J.


    The effects of systematic errors on elastic scattering differential cross-section data upon the assessment of quality fits to that data have been studied. Three cases are studied, namely the differential cross-section data sets from elastic scattering of 200 MeV protons from {sup 12}C, of 350 MeV {sup 16}O-{sup 16}O scattering and of 288.6 MeV {sup 12}C-{sup 12}C scattering. First, to estimate the probability of any unknown systematic errors, select sets of data have been processed using the method of generalized cross validation; a method based upon the premise that any data set should satisfy an optimal smoothness criterion. In another case, the S function that provided a statistically significant fit to data, upon allowance for angle variation, became overdetermined. A far simpler S function form could then be found to describe the scattering process. The S functions so obtained have been used in a fixed energy inverse scattering study to specify effective, local, Schroedinger potentials for the collisions. An error analysis has been performed on the results to specify confidence levels for those interactions. 19 refs., 6 tabs., 15 figs.

  17. Thickness dependence of Morin transition temperature in iridium-doped hematite layers studied through nuclear resonant scattering (United States)

    Mibu, Ko; Mikami, Kazuaki; Tanaka, Masaaki; Masuda, Ryo; Yoda, Yoshitaka; Seto, Makoto


    The Morin transition of very thin Ir-doped α-Fe2O3 films, which is not detectable with conventional magnetization measurements, was studied by conversion electron Mössbauer spectroscopy using a 57Co source and nuclear resonant scattering using a synchrotron light source. It was found that (i) the Morin transition temperature increases as the Ir ratio increases, (ii) it decreases when the film thickness decreases, and (iii) the transition becomes irreversible when Ir ratio is small and the thickness is thin. These tendencies were found reproducible and systematic, although the mechanisms are to be clarified by further studies.

  18. Knowledge elicitation techniques and application to nuclear plant maintenance (United States)

    Doyle, E. Kevin

    The new millennium has brought with it the opportunity of global trade which in turn requires the utmost in efficiency from each individual industry. This includes the nuclear power industry, a point which was emphasized when the electrical generation industry began to be de regulated across North America the late 1990s and re-emphasized when the northeast power grid of North America collapsed in the summer of 2003. This dissertation deals with reducing the cost of the maintenance function of Candu nuclear power plants and initiating a strong link between universities and the Canadian nuclear industry. Various forms of RCM (reliability-centred maintenance) have been the tools of choice in industry for improving the maintenance function during the last 20 years. In this project, pilot studies, conducted at Bruce Power between 1999 and 2005, and reported on in this dissertation, lay out a path to implement statistical improvements as the next step after RCM in reducing the cost of the maintenance. Elicitation protocols, designed for the age group being elicited, address the much-documented issue of a lack of data. Clear, graphical, inferential statistical interfaces are accentuated and developed to aid in building the teams required to implement the various methodologies and to help in achieving funding targets. Graphical analysis and Crow/AMSAA (army materials systems analysis activity) plots are developed and demonstrated from the point of view of justifying the expenditures of cost reduction efforts. This dissertation ultimately speaks to the great opportunity being presented by this approach at this time: of capturing the baby-boom generation's huge pool of knowledge before those people retire. It is expected that the protocols and procedures referenced here will have applicability across the many disciplines where collecting expert information from a similar age group is required.

  19. Electromagnetic Signature Technique as a Promising Tool to Verify Nuclear Weapons Storage and Dismantlement under a Nuclear Arms Control Regime

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Bunch, Kyle J.; Williams, Laura S.; Jones, Anthony M.; Ramuhalli, Pradeep


    The 2010 ratification of the New START Treaty has been widely regarded as a noteworthy national security achievement for both the Obama administration and the Medvedev-Putin regime, but deeper cuts are envisioned under future arms control regimes. Future verification needs will include monitoring the storage of warhead components and fissile materials and verifying dismantlement of warheads, pits, secondaries, and other materials. From both the diplomatic and technical perspectives, verification under future arms control regimes will pose new challenges. Since acceptable verification technology must protect sensitive design information and attributes, non-nuclear non-sensitive signatures may provide a significant verification tool without the use of additional information barriers. The use of electromagnetic signatures to monitor nuclear material storage containers is a promising technology with the potential to fulfill these challenging requirements. Research performed at Pacific Northwest National Laboratory (PNNL) has demonstrated that low frequency electromagnetic signatures of sealed metallic containers can be used to confirm the presence of specific components on a “yes/no” basis without revealing classified information. Arms control inspectors might use this technique to verify the presence or absence of monitored items, including both nuclear and non-nuclear materials. Although additional research is needed to study signature aspects such as uniqueness and investigate container-specific scenarios, the technique potentially offers a rapid and cost-effective tool to verify reduction and dismantlement of U.S. and Russian nuclear weapons.

  20. A unified view of coherent and incoherent dihydrogen exchange in transition metal hydrides by nuclear resonance and inelastic neutron scattering

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Limbach, H.H.; Ulrich, S.; Buntkowsky, G. [Freie Univ. Berlin (Germany). Inst. fuer Organische Chemie; Sabo-Etienne, S.; Chaudret, B. [Toulouse-3 Univ., 31 (France). Lab. de Chimie de Coordination du C.N.R.S.; Kubas, G.J.; Eckert, J. [Los Alamos National Lab., NM (United States)


    In this paper a unified view of coherent and incoherent dihydrogen exchange in transition metal hydrides by nuclear magnetic resonance (NMR) and inelastic neutron scattering (INS) is presented. It is shown that both exchange processes coexist i.e. do not transform into each other although they may dominate the spectra in different temperature ranges. This superposition is the consequence of the incorporation of the tunnel frequency J of the coherent process into the nuclear two-spin hamiltonian of hydrogen pairs which allows to treat the problem using the well known density matrix theory of NMR line-shapes developed by Alexander and Binsch. It is shown that this theory can also be used to predict the line-shapes of the rotational tunneling transitions observed in the INS spectra of transition metal dihydrogen complexes and that both NMR and INS spectra depend on similar parameters.

  1. Simplification of bovine somatic cell nuclear transfer by application of a zona-free manipulation technique

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Booth, P J; Tan, S J; Reipurth, R


    Contemporary nuclear transfer techniques often require the involvement of skilled personnel and extended periods of micromanipulation. Here, we present details of the development of a nuclear transfer technique for somatic cells that is both simpler and faster than traditional methods.......8% of cultured oocytes). Subsequent application of the optimized technique for nuclear transfer using nine different granulosa cell primary cultures (cultured in 0.5% serum for 5-12 days) generated 37.6 +/- 3.9% (11 replicates; range, 16.4-58.1 blastocysts per successfully fused and surviving reconstructed...... embryo (after activation), and 33.6 +/- 3.7% blastocysts per attempted reconstructed embryo. Mean day 7 total blastocyst cell numbers from 5 clone families was 128.1 +/- 15.3. The ongoing pregnancy rate of recipients each receiving two nuclear transfer blastocysts is 3/13 (23.1 recipients pregnant at 5...

  2. Small-angle X-ray scattering: a high-throughput technique for investigating archaeological bone preservation

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Hiller, J.C.; Collins, M.J.; Chamberlain, A.T.; Wess, T.J.


    Diagenetic alteration to archaeological bone can cause significant disruption to both the biogenic mineral structure and the preservation of biomolecular resources such as protein and DNA over archaeological time. We report here the use of a technique, small-angle X-ray scattering, which makes it

  3. Rice starch granule characterization by flow cytometry scattering techniques hyphenated with sedimentation field-flow fractionation. (United States)

    Clédat, Dominique; Battu, Serge; Mokrini, Redouane; Cardot, Philippe J P


    Sedimentation field-flow fractionation (SdFFF) elution mode of micron sized particle is described generically as "Hyperlayer" and involves particle size, density, shape and rigidity. It requires the use of specific detectors of mass, size, surface, or of other characteristics of the eluted particles. Correlation of FFF retention data with such signals gives hyphenated information about particle properties. Flow cytometry (FC) is a multi dimensional particle counter, which permits specific particle property characterization using light scattering and fluorescence principles. It appears therefore as a powerful technique for micron sized species description. FC is mostly known for cell analyses, while its potential is much broader once proper calibration performed. In this report, forward angle signal (FS) is calibrated in size by using standard latex beads and produces, for a given particle sample, a number versus size histogram, describing particle size distribution. These histograms can be an alternative to Coulter counting. That methodology is tested with rice starch population (RSP) fractions obtained from FFF separation.

  4. Design and measurement technique of surface-enhanced Raman scattering for detection of bisphenol A (United States)

    Abu Bakar, Norhayati; Mat Salleh, Muhamad; Umar, Akrajas Ali; Shapter, Joseph George


    Surface-enhanced Raman scattering (SERS) is a highly sensitive measurement technique that provides Raman peaks at different Raman shift for different molecule structures. The SERS sensor is potentially used to detect food contamination and monitor environmental pollutants. A self-developed SERS system for specific analysis with low development cost is a challenging issue. This study attempts to develop a simple SERS sensor system for detection of bisphenol A (BPA) molecule using SERS substrate of silver nanoplate film. A SERS sensor system was developed, consisting of a light source to excite analyte molecules, Inphotonic Raman probe, sensor chamber and spectrophotometer as an analyser system. A duplex fibre optic is used to transmit light from the source to the probe and from the probe to the spectrophotometer. For SERS measurement, BPA detection was done by comparing the Raman signal spectra of the BPA on the quartz substrate and BPA on the silver nanoplate film. This SERS sensor successfully sensed BPA with SERS enhancement factor (EF) 5.55  ×  103 and a detection limit of BPA concentration at 1 mM.

  5. Comparison of the performance of different radar pulse compression techniques in an incoherent scatter radar measurement

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    B. Damtie


    Full Text Available Improving an estimate of an incoherent scatter radar signal is vital to provide reliable and unbiased information about the Earth's ionosphere. Thus optimizing the measurement spatial and temporal resolutions has attracted considerable attention. The optimization usually relies on employing different kinds of pulse compression filters in the analysis and a matched filter is perhaps the most widely used one. A mismatched filter has also been used in order to suppress the undesirable sidelobes that appear in the case of matched filtering. Moreover, recently an adaptive pulse compression method, which can be derived based on the minimum mean-square error estimate, has been proposed. In this paper we have investigated the performance of matched, mismatched and adaptive pulse compression methods in terms of the output signal-to-noise ratio (SNR and the variance and bias of the estimator. This is done by using different types of optimal radar waveforms. It is shown that for the case of low SNR the signal degradation associated to an adaptive filtering is less than that of the mismatched filtering. The SNR loss of both matched and adaptive pulse compression techniques was found to be nearly the same for most of the investigated codes for the case of high SNR. We have shown that the adaptive filtering technique is a compromise between matched and mismatched filtering method when one evaluates its performance in terms of the variance and the bias of the estimator. All the three analysis methods were found to have the same performance when a sidelobe-free matched filter code is employed.

  6. Nuclear physics experiments with in-beam fast-timing and plunger techniques (United States)

    Sotty, C.


    Nuclear lifetime and g factor are crucial observables in nuclear physics, as they give access to the excited states nuclear wave functions using the well-known electromagnetic transition operators. Thus, they are benchmarks to validate or discard nuclear structure theories. During the last decades, the evolution of the nuclear instruments and methods gave birth to several techniques used to measure lifetimes and moments. Among them, the in-beam Fast Electronic Scintillation Timing (FEST) technique is used to measure lifetimes of nuclear states in the picosecond to nanosecond range. Plunger devices originally developed to perform lifetime measurements of excited states in the picosecond range using the Recoil Distance Doppler Shift (RDDS) are now also employed to measure g factor using the new Time-Differential Recoil-In-Vacuum (TDRIV) technique. Recently commissioned, the ROmanian array for SPectroscopy in HEavy ion REactions (ROSPHERE) is dedicated to perform γ-ray spectroscopy, specially suited for lifetime measurements using the RDDS and in-beam fast-timing techniques at the 9 MV Bucharest-Tandem accelerator facility of the Horia Hulubei National Institute of Physics and Nuclear Engineering (IFIN-HH). An introduction of above-mentioned techniques is provided and selected results are illustrating them with physics cases. The in-beam fast-timing and RDDS techniques are described using lifetime measurements respectively in 67Cu and 120Te measured at the 9 MV Bucharest-Tandem accelerator. Finally, the precise g factor measurement of the first-excited state in 24Mg using by the new TDRIV technique at the ALTO-Tandem Orsay facility is presented.

  7. Application of nuclear techniques in Poland; Perspektywy wykorzystania atomistyki w Polsce

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Chmielewski, A.G.; Owczarczyk, A.; Urbanski, P. [Instytut Chemii i Techniki Jadrowej, Warsaw (Poland); Romanowski, M. [Biuro Studiow i Projektow Techniki Jadrowej `Proatom`, Warsaw (Poland); Stegowski, Z. [Akademia Gorniczo-Hutnicza, Cracow (Poland); Nowak, K. [Osrodek Badawczo-Rozwojowy Izotopow, Swierk-Otwock (Poland); Pachan, A. [Instytut Problemow Jadrowych, Swierk-Otwock (Poland); Tanczyk, R. [Centralne Laboratorium Ochrony Radiologicznej, Warsaw (Poland); Jablonski, R. [Zaklad Techniki Izotopowej `Polon-Izot`, Warsaw (Poland)


    The commercial applications of nuclear techniques in Poland have been presented. The special attention have been paid at: radiation technologies, application of radiometric gages in different branches of industry, tracer techniques, production and application of radiation sources in medicine, industry and material testing. 10 refs, 6 figs, 6 tabs.

  8. Use of nuclear technique in samples for agricultural purposes

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Oliveira, Kerley A. P. de; Sperling, Eduardo Von, E-mail:, E-mail: [Department of Sanitary and Environmental Engineering Federal University of Minas Gerais, Belo Horizonte (Brazil); Menezes, Maria Angela B. C.; Jacomino, Vanusa M.F. [Centro de Desenvolvimento da Tecnologia Nuclear (CDTN/CNEN-MG), Belo Horizonte, MG (Brazil)


    The concern related to environment is growing. Due to this, it is needed to determine chemical elements in a large range of concentration. The neutron activation technique (NAA) determines the elemental composition by the measurement of artificial radioactivity in a sample that was submitted to a neutron flux. NAA is a sensitive and accurate technique with low detection limits. An example of application of NAA was the measurement of concentrations of rare earth elements (REE) in waste samples of phosphogypsum (PG) and cerrado soil samples (clayey and sandy soils). Additionally, a soil reference material of the International Atomic Energy Agency (IAEA) was also analyzed. The REE concentration in PG samples was two times higher than those found in national fertilizers, (total of 4,000 mg kg{sup -1}), 154 times greater than the values found in the sandy soil (26 mg kg{sup -1}) and 14 times greater than the in clayey soil (280 mg kg{sup -1}). The experimental results for the reference material were inside the uncertainty of the certified values pointing out the accuracy of the method (95%). The determination of La, Ce, Pr, Nd, Pm, Sm, Eu, Tb, Dy, Ho, Er, Tm, Yb and Lu in the samples and reference material confirmed the versatility of the technique on REE determination in soil and phosphogypsum samples that are matrices for agricultural interest. (author)

  9. Techniques of the snubber testing in a nuclear power plant

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Hong, Soon Sin; Kim, Byung Chul [Korea Atomic Energy Research Institute, Taejon (Korea, Republic of)


    The performance of PSI/ISI is one of the important inspections which improve the safety, reliability and operability of nuclear power plant. Therefore, KAERI has performed the inspections for the safety-related piping systems, pressure vessel and support components of NPP by the NDT methods in accordance with the related technical codes and standards. ASME Sec.XI of 1989 requires to perform the visual inspection and functional test of snubbers in accordance with ASME/ANSI OM-Part 4 additionally. Especially, the inspection and functional test of heavy duty hydraulic snubbers attached to the steam generator and RC pump have also been added. The main role of snubbers protects the piping system and pressure vessel from the transient events such as water hammer and earthquake during operation. Throughout the analysis of the status of snubbers in NPP, the snubber failure cases in domestic and foreign countries, the requirements and technical standards of the inspection and test, problems of snubbers in NPP, and snubber reduction program, this report requires to follow the technical codes and standards for the inspection and functional test of snubbers now being insufficient in Korean NPP. As a following action, the safety verification analysis for the reliability of piping systems and components of NPP due to snubber failure causes will be studied, and also the snubber reduction program of NPP will simplify the control and maintenance of the expensive snubbers. The objective of this report is to provide the problems of snubber in Korean NPP and contribute to the integrity assurance of the piping systems and components by the inspection and test of snubbers. 17 figs., 9 tabs., 19 refs. (Author).

  10. Dictionary of nuclear sciences and techniques; Dictionnaire des sciences et techniques nucleaires

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Bigot, B.; Santarini, G. [CEA Saclay (HC), 91 - Gif-sur-Yvette (France)


    This reference book has been totally reworked in its fourth edition, in order to answer the needs of the numerous sectors of activity concerned by nuclear sciences and technologies: radiation protection, cancerology, neurology and pharmacology in the medical sector, power generation and more generally energy production, micro-electronics, quality control and on-line analysis in many industrial sectors, patrimony preservation, food safety, environmental and paleo-climate studies in relation with climate prospective, etc. This complete overview of the nuclear world integrates the regulatory aspects, necessary to shade light on it, and many other technological innovations. Elaborated with harmonization, clarification and exhaustiveness concerns, this dictionary is the result of a large consensus among the French-speaking nuclear community. It includes some 4800 entries with more than 250 color illustrations and an English-French glossary. Its aim is to offer to everyone a precise vocabulary, fully shared by everybody and necessary for exchanges and debates clarity. (J.S.)

  11. Determination of palladium in biological samples applying nuclear analytical techniques; Determinacao de paladio em amostras biologicas aplicando tecnicas analiticas nucleares

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Cavalcante, Cassio Q.; Sato, Ivone M.; Salvador, Vera L. R.; Saiki, Mitiko [Instituto de Pesquisas Energeticas e Nucleares (IPEN/CNEN-SP), Sao Paulo, SP (Brazil). Dept. de Analise por Ativacao Neutronica]. E-mail:


    This study presents Pd determinations in bovine tissue samples containing palladium prepared in the laboratory, and CCQM-P63 automotive catalyst materials of the Proficiency Test, using instrumental thermal and epithermal neutron activation analysis and energy dispersive X-ray fluorescence techniques. Solvent extraction and solid phase extraction procedures were also applied to separate Pd from interfering elements before the irradiation in the nuclear reactor. The results obtained by different techniques were compared against each other to examine sensitivity, precision and accuracy. (author)

  12. Integrating geographical information and augmented reality techniques for mobile escape guidelines on nuclear accident sites. (United States)

    Tsai, Ming-Kuan; Lee, Yung-Ching; Lu, Chung-Hsin; Chen, Mei-Hsin; Chou, Tien-Yin; Yau, Nie-Jia


    During nuclear accidents, when radioactive materials spread into the environment, the people in the affected areas should evacuate immediately. However, few information systems are available regarding escape guidelines for nuclear accidents. Therefore, this study constructs escape guidelines on mobile phones. This application is called Mobile Escape Guidelines (MEG) and adopts two techniques. One technique is the geographical information that offers multiple representations; the other is the augmented reality that provides semi-realistic information services. When this study tested the mobile escape guidelines, the results showed that this application was capable of identifying the correct locations of users, showing the escape routes, filtering geographical layers, and rapidly generating the relief reports. Users could evacuate from nuclear accident sites easily, even without relief personnel, since using slim devices to access the mobile escape guidelines is convenient. Overall, this study is a useful reference for a nuclear accident emergency response. Copyright © 2012 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  13. Algorithm for calculations of asymptotic nuclear coefficients using phase-shift data for charged-particle scattering (United States)

    Orlov, Yu. V.; Irgaziev, B. F.; Nabi, Jameel-Un


    A new algorithm for the asymptotic nuclear coefficients calculation, which we call the Δ method, is proved and developed. This method was proposed by Ramírez Suárez and Sparenberg (arXiv:1602.04082.) but no proof was given. We apply it to the bound state situated near the channel threshold when the Sommerfeld parameter is quite large within the experimental energy region. As a result, the value of the conventional effective-range function Kl(k2) is actually defined by the Coulomb term. One of the resulting effects is a wrong description of the energy behavior of the elastic scattering phase shift δl reproduced from the fitted total effective-range function Kl(k2) . This leads to an improper value of the asymptotic normalization coefficient (ANC) value. No such problem arises if we fit only the nuclear term. The difference between the total effective-range function and the Coulomb part at real energies is the same as the nuclear term. Then we can proceed using just this Δ method to calculate the pole position values and the ANC. We apply it to the vertices 4He+12C ↔16O and 3He+4He↔7Be . The calculated ANCs can be used to find the radiative capture reaction cross sections of the transfers to the 16O bound final states as well as to the 7Be.

  14. Life-assessment technique for nuclear power plant cables

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Bartonicek, B.; Hnat, V.; Placek, V


    The condition of polymer-based cable material can be best characterized by measuring elongation at break of its insulating materials. However, it is not often possible to take sufficiently large samples for measurement with the tensile testing machine. The problem has been conveniently solved by utilizing differential scanning calorimetry technique. From the tested cable, several microsamples are taken and the oxidation induction time (OIT) is determined. For each cable which is subject to the assessment of the lifetime, the correlation of OIT with elongation at break and the correlation of elongation at break with the cable service time has to be performed. A reliable assessment of the cable lifetime depends on accuracy of these correlations. Consequently, synergistic effects well known at this time - dose rate effects and effects resulting from the different sequence of applying radiation and elevated temperature must be taken into account.

  15. Modern approaches for the theoretical description of multiparticle scattering and nuclear reactions (United States)

    Kukulin, V. I.; Rubtsova, O. A.


    A review of novel approaches to solution of multiparticle scattering problems in the area above three-body breakup together with the review of new computational technologies which provide very effective and ultrafast realization of the novel approaches with ordinary PC are given. The novel direction presented here is based on two key points: a new formulation of the quantum scattering theory in a discrete Hilbert space of stationary wave packets and the massive-parallel solution of the resulted matrix equations with usage of ultrafast graphic processors (the so called GPU-computations). For the reader's convenience, a short review of the modern GPU calculations for the medicine, physics, military applications etc. is presented.

  16. A deconvolution technique to correct deep images of galaxies from instrumental scattered light (United States)

    Karabal, E.; Duc, P.-A.; Kuntschner, H.; Chanial, P.; Cuillandre, J.-C.; Gwyn, S.


    Deep imaging of the diffuse light that is emitted by stellar fine structures and outer halos around galaxies is often now used to probe their past mass assembly. Because the extended halos survive longer than the relatively fragile tidal features, they trace more ancient mergers. We use images that reach surface brightness limits as low as 28.5-29 mag arcsec-2 (g-band) to obtain light and color profiles up to 5-10 effective radii of a sample of nearby early-type galaxies. These were acquired with MegaCam as part of the CFHT MATLAS large programme. These profiles may be compared to those produced using simulations of galaxy formation and evolution, once corrected for instrumental effects. Indeed they can be heavily contaminated by the scattered light caused by internal reflections within the instrument. In particular, the nucleus of galaxies generates artificial flux in the outer halo, which has to be precisely subtracted. We present a deconvolution technique to remove the artificial halos that makes use of very large kernels. The technique, which is based on PyOperators, is more time efficient than the model-convolution methods that are also used for that purpose. This is especially the case for galaxies with complex structures that are hard to model. Having a good knowledge of the point spread function (PSF), including its outer wings, is critical for the method. A database of MegaCam PSF models corresponding to different seeing conditions and bands was generated directly from the deep images. We show that the difference in the PSFs in different bands causes artificial changes in the color profiles, in particular a reddening of the outskirts of galaxies having a bright nucleus. The method is validated with a set of simulated images and applied to three representative test cases: NGC 3599, NGC 3489, and NGC 4274, which exhibits a prominent ghost halo for two of them. This method successfully removes this. The library of PSFs (FITS files) is only available at the

  17. Protein analysis by dynamic light scattering: Methods and techniques for students

    National Research Council Canada - National Science Library

    Lorber, Bernard; Fischer, Frédéric; Bailly, Marc; Roy, Hervé; Kern, Daniel


    Dynamic light scattering (DLS) analyses are routinely used in biology laboratories to detect aggregates in macromolecular solutions, to determine the size of proteins, nucleic acids, and complexes or to monitor the binding of ligands...

  18. About diffractive scattering of hypernuclei subLAMBDA sup 3 H and subLAMBDA sup 6 He on nuclei with allowance for the diffuseness of the nuclear edge, hypernuclear structure and multiple scattering effects

    CERN Document Server

    Evlanov, M V; Tartakovskij, V K


    The dependences of the elastic scattering differential cross sections and total cross sections for subLAMBDA sup 3 H and subLAMBDA sup 6 He hypernuclei on the magnitude of the nuclear edge diffuseness, the binding energy of the incident hypernuclei, on the finite ranges of the nuclear forces between clusters in hypernuclei, and on processes of multiple (double and triple) scattering are calculated with the use of the obtained convenient general formulae for elastic scattering amplitudes of two- and three-cluster weakly-bound nuclei on spherical nuclei for arbitrary dependence of profile functions on the impact parameter. The influence on the behavior of the cross sections during transition from two-cluster model to three-cluster one for the studied hypernuclei, is clarified as well


    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Sampayan, S; Caporaso, G; Chen, Y; Carazo, V; Falabella, S; Guethlein, G; Guse, S; Harris, J R; Hawkins, S; Holmes, C; Krogh, M; Nelson, S; Paul, A C; Pearson, D; Poole, B; Schmidt, R; Sanders, D; Selenes, K; Sitaraman, S; Sullivan, J; Wang, L; Watson, J


    We report on compact accelerator technology development for potential use as a pulsed neutron source quantitative post verifier. The technology is derived from our on-going compact accelerator technology development program for radiography under the US Department of Energy and for a clinic sized compact proton therapy systems under an industry sponsored Cooperative Research and Development Agreement. The accelerator technique relies on the synchronous discharge of a prompt pulse generating stacked transmission line structure with the beam transit. The goal of this technology is to achieve {approx}10 MV/m gradients for 10s of nanoseconds pulses and to {approx}100 MV/m gradients for {approx}1 ns systems. As a post verifier for supplementing existing x-ray equipment, this system can remain in a charged, stand-by state with little or no energy consumption. We detail the progress of our overall component development effort with the multilayer dielectric wall insulators (i.e., the accelerator wall), compact power supply technology, kHz repetition-rate surface flashover ion sources, and the prompt pulse generation system consisting of wide-bandgap switches and high performance dielectric materials.

  20. Nuclear and related techniques in parasitology: A laboratory manual

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Hayunga, E.G.; Stek, M. Jr. (eds.)


    The course, entitled ''Atomic Energy Applications in Parasitology'', was offered by the Division of Tropical Public Health, Department of Preventive Medicine, and Biometrics, Uniformed Services University of the Health Sciences, Bethesda, Maryland. It was an intensive 3-week endeavor during which students attended lectures and acquired practical hands-on experience with the most recent laboratory tools. The course began with an exhaustive introduction to radiation physics, then encompassed a variety of practical applications including irradiation attenuation, radioisotope labeling, tracer techniques and radioimmunoassays. This laboratory manual was written by the faculty in an attempt to document the learning experience of the training course and to provide a detailed description of state-of-the-art technology with up-to-date references. Clearly, the manual has value as a historical document. However, the chapters were written with the explicit intention that they be useful to future investigators who wish to apply these methods to their particular research problem.

  1. Macro elemental analysis of food samples by nuclear analytical technique (United States)

    Syahfitri, W. Y. N.; Kurniawati, S.; Adventini, N.; Damastuti, E.; Lestiani, D. D.


    Energy-dispersive X-ray fluorescence (EDXRF) spectrometry is a non-destructive, rapid, multi elemental, accurate, and environment friendly analysis compared with other detection methods. Thus, EDXRF spectrometry is applicable for food inspection. The macro elements calcium and potassium constitute important nutrients required by the human body for optimal physiological functions. Therefore, the determination of Ca and K content in various foods needs to be done. The aim of this work is to demonstrate the applicability of EDXRF for food analysis. The analytical performance of non-destructive EDXRF was compared with other analytical techniques; neutron activation analysis and atomic absorption spectrometry. Comparison of methods performed as cross checking results of the analysis and to overcome the limitations of the three methods. Analysis results showed that Ca found in food using EDXRF and AAS were not significantly different with p-value 0.9687, whereas p-value of K between EDXRF and NAA is 0.6575. The correlation between those results was also examined. The Pearson correlations for Ca and K were 0.9871 and 0.9558, respectively. Method validation using SRM NIST 1548a Typical Diet was also applied. The results showed good agreement between methods; therefore EDXRF method can be used as an alternative method for the determination of Ca and K in food samples.

  2. Investigation of thermally induced anion disorder in fluorites using neutron scattering techniques

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Hutchings, M T; Clausen, Kurt Nørgaard; Dickens, M H


    the coherent diffuse quasielastic neutron scattering from single crystals of three such fluorite compounds PbF2, SrCl2 and CaF2, was investigated. The diffuse scattering intensity, and its energy width, increases with temperature into the fast-ion phase, and when integrated over energy transfer the intensity...... anion Frenkel interstitials, anion vacancies and relaxed anions has been developed which satisfactorily accounts for the distribution of intensity....

  3. Visualization of the evaporation of a diesel spray using combined Mie and Rayleigh scattering techniques (United States)

    Adam, Anne; Leick, Philippe; Bittlinger, Gerd; Schulz, Christof


    Evaporating Diesel sprays are studied by laser Rayleigh scattering measurements in an optically accessible high-pressure/high-temperature cell that reproduces the thermodynamic conditions which exist in the combustion chamber of a Diesel engine during injection. n-Decane is injected into the vessel using a state-of-the-art near-production three-hole nozzle. Global images of the distributions of the liquid and vapor phases of the injected fuel are obtained using a combined Schlieren and Mie scattering setup. More details about the evaporation are revealed when the spray is illuminated by a laser light sheet: laser light can be scattered by molecules in the gas phase (Rayleigh scattering) or comparably large fuel droplets (Mie scattering). The former is seen in regions where the fuel has completely evaporated, and the latter is dominant in regions with high droplet concentrations. Studying the polarization of the signal light allows the distinction of three different regions in the spray that are characterized by a moderate, low or negligible concentration of liquid fuel droplets. The characteristics of fuel evaporation are investigated for different observation times after the start of injection, chamber conditions and injection pressures. For the quantification of the fuel concentration measurements based on Rayleigh scattering, a calibration method that uses propane as a reference gas is presented and tested. At high ambient temperatures, the accuracy of the concentration measurements is limited by pyrolysis of the fuel molecules.

  4. Status and development of nuclear techniques for commercial application in Sichuan

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Chen Hao; Pan Pingchuan; Chen Zhuping; Zhu Yun; Chao Xiaochuan [Sichuan Province Institute of Nuclear Technology Application, Chengdu, Sichuan (China)


    This article presents information on fields of radiation techniques in Sichuan and their potential development in future. Sichuan is one of biggest provinces and is a center of economy and art in the southwest of China. Research of nuclear technology began from 1960. The studies at the beginning had focused on agriculture, radiation chemistry industry and radiation medicine. Over the past 30 years, nuclear techniques are used in a wide range of applications, from food preservation to crosslinking. They play an increasingly valuable and often unique role in Sichuan economy. (J.P.N.)

  5. Nuclear structure functions in the large-x large-Q2 kinematic region in neutrino deep inelastic scattering (United States)

    Vakili, M.; Arroyo, C. G.; Auchincloss, P.; de Barbaro, L.; de Barbaro, P.; Bazarko, A. O.; Bernstein, R. H.; Bodek, A.; Bolton, T.; Budd, H.; Conrad, J.; Harris, D. A.; Johnson, R. A.; Kim, J. H.; King, B. J.; Kinnel, T.; Koizumi, G.; Koutsoliotas, S.; Lamm, M. J.; Lefmann, W. C.; Marsh, W.; McFarland, K. S.; McNulty, C.; Mishra, S. R.; Naples, D.; Nienaber, P.; Oreglia, M. J.; Perera, L.; Quintas, P. Z.; Romosan, A.; Sakumoto, W. K.; Schumm, B. A.; Sciulli, F. J.; Seligman, W. G.; Shaevitz, M. H.; Smith, W. H.; Spentzouris, P.; Steiner, R.; Stern, E. G.; Yang, U. K.; Yu, J.


    Data from the CCFR E770 neutrino deep inelastic scattering experiment at Fermilab contain events with a large Bjorken x (x>0.7) and high momentum transfer [Q2>50 (GeV/c)2]. A comparison of the data with a model based on no nuclear effects at large x shows a significant excess of events in the data. The addition of Fermi gas motion of the nucleons in the nucleus to the model does not explain the excess. Adding a higher momentum tail due to the formation of ``quasi-deuterons'' makes some improvement. An exponentially falling F2~e-s(x-x0) at large x, predicted by ``multi-quark clusters'' and ``few-nucleon correlations,'' can describe the data. A value of s=8.3+/-0.7(stat)+/-0.7(syst) yields the best agreement with the data.

  6. A Hybrid SBR/MoM Technique for Analysis of Scattering from Small Protrusions on a Large Conducting Body (United States)

    Jin, J. M.; Ling, F.; Carolan, S. T.; Song, J. M.; Gibson, W. C.; Chew, W. C.; Lu, C. C.; Kipp, R.


    For analysis of large-scale electromagnetic scattering problems, high-frequency asymptotic methods are fast but approximate, whereas low-frequency numerical methods are accurate but slow. Neither can produce an efficient and accurate solution to scattering by large bodies containing small structures. A promising approach is to combine the best features of both types of methods to produce a hybrid technique that is sufficiently fast, reasonably accurate, and applicable to a class of unsolvable problems such as the scatterers mentioned above. There are two extremes for this type of hybridization. One is simply to superimpose solutions from asymptotic and numerical methods. While this approach is most widely used in practical applications, it neglects the interactions between the two solutions, which can be significant in many problems. The other extreme is to combine an asymptotic and a numerical method in an exact manner. In this approach, the effect of a large body is included by incorporating its diffraction into the Green's function in the integral equation for the small structures, which accounts for all interactions. While this approach is accurate, it is difficult to be implemented in a general-purpose computer code because of its complex nature. A more practical approach is to develop a technique that can include all significant interactions and neglect all trivial interactions. The resulting hybrid technique can produce sufficient accuracy and can be implemented in a general-purpose computer code. In this paper, we develop a technique that combines the shooting and- bouncing-ray (SBR) method and the method of moments (MoM) to solve for the scattering by large conducting bodies with small structures mounted on their surfaces.

  7. Neutron-proton scattering at next-to-next-to-leading order in Nuclear Lattice Effective Field Theory

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Alarcon, Jose Manuel [Universitaet Bonn, Helmholtz-Institut fuer Strahlen- und Kernphysik and Bethe Center for Theoretical Physics, Bonn (Germany); Thomas Jefferson National Accelerator Facility, Theory Center, Newport News, VA (United States); Du, Dechuan; Laehde, Timo A.; Li, Ning; Lu, Bing-Nan; Luu, Thomas [Institute for Advanced Simulation, Institut fuer Kernphysik, and Juelich Center for Hadron Physics, Forschungszentrum Juelich, Juelich (Germany); Klein, Nico [Universitaet Bonn, Helmholtz-Institut fuer Strahlen- und Kernphysik and Bethe Center for Theoretical Physics, Bonn (Germany); Lee, Dean [North Carolina State University, Department of Physics, Raleigh, NC (United States); Meissner, Ulf G. [Universitaet Bonn, Helmholtz-Institut fuer Strahlen- und Kernphysik and Bethe Center for Theoretical Physics, Bonn (Germany); Institute for Advanced Simulation, Institut fuer Kernphysik, and Juelich Center for Hadron Physics, Forschungszentrum Juelich, Juelich (Germany); Forschungszentrum Juelich, JARA - High Performance Computing, Juelich (Germany)


    We present a systematic study of neutron-proton scattering in Nuclear Lattice Effective Field Theory (NLEFT), in terms of the computationally efficient radial Hamiltonian method. Our leading-order (LO) interaction consists of smeared, local contact terms and static one-pion exchange. We show results for a fully non-perturbative analysis up to next-to-next-to-leading order (NNLO), followed by a perturbative treatment of contributions beyond LO. The latter analysis anticipates practical Monte Carlo simulations of heavier nuclei. We explore how our results depend on the lattice spacing a, and estimate sources of uncertainty in the determination of the low-energy constants of the next-to-leading-order (NLO) two-nucleon force. We give results for lattice spacings ranging from a = 1.97 fm down to a = 0.98 fm, and discuss the effects of lattice artifacts on the scattering observables. At a = 0.98 fm, lattice artifacts appear small, and our NNLO results agree well with the Nijmegen partial-wave analysis for S-wave and P-wave channels. We expect the peripheral partial waves to be equally well described once the lattice momenta in the pion-nucleon coupling are taken to coincide with the continuum dispersion relation, and higher-order (N3LO) contributions are included. We stress that for center-of-mass momenta below 100 MeV, the physics of the two-nucleon system is independent of the lattice spacing. (orig.)

  8. Neutron scattering and nuclear magnetic resonance spectroscopy structural studies of protein-DNA complexes

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Bradbury, E.M.; Catasti, P.; Chen, X.; Gupta, G.; Imai, B.; Moyzis, R.; Ratliff, R.; Velupillai, S.


    This is the final report of a one-year, Laboratory-Directed Research and Development (LDRD) project at the Los Alamos National Laboratory (LANL). The project sought to employ advanced biophysical measurements to study the structure of nucleosomes and the structure of origins of DNA replication. The fundamental repeating unit of human chromosomes is the nucleosome, which contains about 200 base pairs of DNA and 9 histone proteins. Genome replication is strictly associated with the reversible acetylations of histones that unfold chromatin to allow access of factors to origins of DNA replications. The authors have studied two major structural problems: (1) the effects of histone acetylation on nucleosome structure, and (2) the structure of DNA origins of replication. They have recently completed preliminary X-ray scattering experiments at Stanford on positioned nucleosomes with defined DNA sequence and length, histone composition and level of acetylation. These experiments have shown that lengths of the DNA and acetylations of the histone H4 result in nucleosome structural changes. To understand internucleosomal interactions and the roles of histone H1 the authors have made preliminary x-ray scatter studies on native dinucleosomes that have demonstrated the feasibility of these experiments. The DNA sequence of the yeast replication origin has been synthesized for structure determination by multi-dimensional NMR spectroscopy.

  9. Voigt, Reuss, Hill, and self-consistent techniques for modeling ultrasonic scattering (United States)

    Kube, Christopher M.; Turner, Joseph A.


    An elastic wave propagating in a metal loses a portion of its energy from scattering caused by acoustic impedance differences existing at the boundaries of anisotropic grains. Theoretical scattering models capture this phenomena by assuming the incoming wave is described by an average elastic moduli tensor Cijkl0(x) that is perturbed by a grain with elasticity Cijkl(x') where the scattering event occurs when x = x'. Previous models have assumed that Cijkl0(x) is the Voigt average of the single-crystal elastic moduli tensor. However, this assumption may be incorrect because the Voigt average overestimates the wave's phase velocity. Thus, the use of alternate definitions of Cijkl0(x) to describe the incoming wave is posed. Voigt, Reuss, Hill, and self-consistent definitions of Cijkl0(x) are derived in the context of ultrasonic scattering models. The scattering-based models describing ultrasonic backscatter, attenuation, and diffusion are shown to be highly dependent on the definition of Cijkl0(x) .

  10. Research in decommissioning techniques for nuclear fuel cycle facilities in JNC. 7. JWTF decommissioning techniques

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Ogawa, Ryuichiro; Ishijima, Noboru [Japan Nuclear Cycle Development Inst., Oarai, Ibaraki (Japan). Oarai Engineering Center


    Decommissioning techniques such as radiation measuring and monitoring, decontamination, dismantling and remote handling in the world were surveyed to upgrading technical know-how database for decommissioning of Joyo Waste Treatment Facility (JWTF). As the result, five literatures for measuring and monitoring techniques, 14 for decontamination and 22 for dismantling feasible for JWTF decommissioning were obtained and were summarized in tables. On the basis of the research, practical applicability of those techniques to decommissioning of JWTF was evaluated. This report contains brief surveyed summaries related to JWTF decommissioning. (H. Itami)

  11. State of the art review of radioactive waste volume reduction techniques for commercial nuclear power plants

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)


    A review is made of the state of the art of volume reduction techniques for low level liquid and solid radioactive wastes produced as a result of: (1) operation of commercial nuclear power plants, (2) storage of spent fuel in away-from-reactor facilities, and (3) decontamination/decommissioning of commercial nuclear power plants. The types of wastes and their chemical, physical, and radiological characteristics are identified. Methods used by industry for processing radioactive wastes are reviewed and compared to the new techniques for processing and reducing the volume of radioactive wastes. A detailed system description and report on operating experiences follow for each of the new volume reduction techniques. In addition, descriptions of volume reduction methods presently under development are provided. The Appendix records data collected during site surveys of vendor facilities and operating power plants. A Bibliography is provided for each of the various volume reduction techniques discussed in the report.

  12. The effects of different maceration techniques on nuclear DNA amplification using human bone. (United States)

    Lee, Esther J; Luedtke, Jennifer G; Allison, Jamie L; Arber, Carolyn E; Merriwether, D Andrew; Steadman, Dawnie Wolfe


    Forensic anthropologists routinely macerate human bone for the purposes of identity and trauma analysis, but the heat and chemical treatments used can destroy genetic evidence. As a follow-up to a previous study on nuclear DNA recovery that used pig ribs, this study utilizes human skeletal remains treated with various bone maceration techniques for nuclear DNA amplification using the standard Combined DNA Index System (CODIS) markers. DNA was extracted from 18 samples of human lower leg bones subjected to nine chemical and heat maceration techniques. Genotyping was carried out using the AmpFlSTR COfiler and AmpFlSTR Profiler Plus ID kits. Results showed that heat treatments via microwave or Biz/Na(2)CO(3) in sub-boiling water efficiently macerate bone and produce amplifiable nuclear DNA for genetic analysis. Long-term use of chemicals such as hydrogen peroxide is discouraged as it results in poor bone quality and has deleterious effects on DNA amplification.

  13. Proceedings of the 8. Australian conference on nuclear techniques of analysis

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)



    These proceedings contain the abstracts or extended abstracts of 72 out of 77 presentations. The topics focus on instrumentation, nuclear techniques and their applications for material science, surfaces, archaeometry, art, geological, environmental and biomedical studies. An outline of the Australian facilities available for research purposes is also provided. Separate abstracts were prepared for the individual papers in this volume.

  14. Hybrid theory and calculation of e-N2 scattering. [quantum mechanics - nuclei (nuclear physics) (United States)

    Chandra, N.; Temkin, A.


    A theory of electron-molecule scattering was developed which was a synthesis of close coupling and adiabatic-nuclei theories. The theory is shown to be a close coupling theory with respect to vibrational degrees of freedom but is a adiabatic-nuclei theory with respect to rotation. It can be applied to any number of partial waves required, and the remaining ones can be calculated purely in one or the other approximation. A theoretical criterion based on fixed-nuclei calculations and not on experiment can be given as to which partial waves and energy domains require the various approximations. The theory allows all cross sections (i.e., pure rotational, vibrational, simultaneous vibration-rotation, differential and total) to be calculated. Explicit formulae for all the cross sections are presented.

  15. Detection of neurotransmitters by a light scattering technique based on seed-mediated growth of gold nanoparticles

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Shang Li; Dong Shaojun [State Key Laboratory of Electroanalytical Chemistry, Changchun Institute of Applied Chemistry, Graduate School of the Chinese Academy of Sciences, Chinese Academy of Sciences, Changchun 130022 (China)], E-mail:


    A simple light scattering detection method for neurotransmitters has been developed, based on the growth of gold nanoparticles. Neurotransmitters (dopamine, L-dopa, noradrenaline and adrenaline) can effectively function as active reducing agents for generating gold nanoparticles, which result in enhanced light scattering signals. The strong light scattering of gold nanoparticles then allows the quantitative detection of the neurotransmitters simply by using a common spectrofluorometer. In particular, Au-nanoparticle seeds were added to facilitate the growth of nanoparticles, which was found to enhance the sensing performance greatly. Using this light scattering technique based on the seed-mediated growth of gold nanoparticles, detection limits of 4.4 x 10{sup -7} M, 3.5 x 10{sup -7} M, 4.1 x 10{sup -7} M, and 7.7 x 10{sup -7} M were achieved for dopamine, L-dopa, noradrenaline and adrenaline, respectively. The present strategy can be extended to detect other biologically important molecules in a very fast, simple and sensitive way, and may have potential applications in a wide range of fields.

  16. Nuclear Symmetry Energy: constraints from Giant Quadrupole Resonances and Parity Violating Electron Scattering

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Roca-Maza X.


    Full Text Available Experimental and theoretical efforts are being devoted to the study of observables that can shed light on the properties of the nuclear symmetry energy. We present our new results on the excitation energy [1] and polarizability of the Isovector Giant Quadrupole Resonance (IVGQR, which has been the object of new experimental investigation[2]. We also present our theoretical analysis on the parity violating asymmetry at the kinematics of the Lead Radius Experiment (PREx [3] and highlight its relation with the density dependence of the symmetry energy [4].

  17. Exploring lipid dynamics in photosensitive membranes by quasielastic neutron scattering techniques

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Shen, Chen; Peters, Judith; Pieper, Jörg

    consisting a well- known 1-palmitoyl-2-oleoyl-sn-phosphatidyl-choline (POPC) matrix and embedded azo-chol. Lipid dynamics upon presence of azo-chol in either of the two conformations was studied at four temperatures by quasielastic neutron scattering experiments. The results involve dynamics of POPC...

  18. Scattering-parameter extraction and calibration techniques for RF free-space material characterization

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Kaniecki, M.; Saenz, E.; Rolo, L.


    This paper demonstrates a method for material characterization (permittivity, permeability, loss tangent) based on the scattering parameters. The performance of the extraction algorithm will be shown for modelled and measured data. The measurements were carried out at the European Space Agency...

  19. Protein Analysis by Dynamic Light Scattering: Methods and Techniques for Students (United States)

    Lorber, Bernard; Fischer, Frederic; Bailly, Marc; Roy, Herve; Kern, Daniel


    Dynamic light scattering (DLS) analyses are routinely used in biology laboratories to detect aggregates in macromolecular solutions, to determine the size of proteins, nucleic acids, and complexes or to monitor the binding of ligands. This article is written for graduate and undergraduate students with access to DLS and for faculty members who…

  20. Pulse sliced picosecond Ballistic Imaging and two planar elastic scattering: Development of the techniques and their application to diesel sprays (United States)

    Duran, Sean Patrick Hynes

    A line of sight imaging technique was developed which utilized pulse slicing of laser pulses to shorten the duration of the parent laser pulse, thereby making time gating more effective at removing multiple scattered light. This included the development of an optical train which utilized a Kerr cell to selectively pass the initial part of the laser pulse while rejecting photons contained later within the pulse. This line of sight ballistic imaging technique was applied to image high-pressure fuel sprays injected into conditions typically encountered in a diesel combustion chamber. Varying the environmental conditions into which the fuel was injected revealed trends in spray behavior which depend on both temperature and pressure. Different fuel types were also studied in this experiment which demonstrated remarkably different shedding structures from one another. Additional experiments were performed to characterize the imaging technique at ambient conditions. The technique was modified to use two wavelengths to allow further rejection of scattered light. The roles of spatial, temporal and polarization filtration were examined by imaging an USAF 1951 line-pair target through a highly scattering field of polystyrene micro-spheres. The optical density of the scattering field was varied by both the optical path length and number densities of the spheres. The equal optical density, but with variable path length results demonstrated the need for an aggressively shorter pulse length to effectively image the distance scales typical encountered in the primary breakup regions of diesel sprays. Results indicate that the system performance improved via the use of two wavelengths. A final investigation was undertaken to image coherent light which has elastically scattered orthogonal to the direction of the laser pulse. Two wavelengths were focused into ˜150 micron sheets via a cylindrical lens and passed under the injector nozzle. The two sheets were adjustable spatially to

  1. High temperature antigen retrieval and loss of nuclear morphology: a comparison of microwave and autoclave techniques. (United States)

    Hunt, N C; Attanoos, R; Jasani, B


    The use of high temperature antigen retrieval methods has been of major importance in increasing the diagnostic utility of immunocytochemistry. However, these techniques are not without their problems and in this report attention is drawn to a loss of nuclear morphological detail, including mitotic figures, following microwave antigen retrieval. This was not seen with an equivalent autoclave technique. This phenomenon was quantified using image analysis in a group of B cell lymphomas stained with the antibody L26. Loss of nuclear morphological detail may lead to difficulty in identifying cells accurately, which is important in the diagnostic setting-for example, when trying to distinguish a malignant lymphoid infiltrate within a mixed cell population. In such cases it would clearly be wise to consider the use of alternative high temperature retrieval methods and accept their slightly lower staining enhancement capability compared with the microwave technique. Images PMID:9038766

  2. Development of Optical Measurement Techniques for Thermo-Acoustic Diagnostics: Fibre-Optic Microphone, Rayleigh-Scattering, and Acoustic PIV

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    H. Konle


    Full Text Available Thermo-acoustic investigations require reliable measurement techniques in hot environments for pressure, density fluctuations with a high dynamic range and acoustic particle velocity. This paper presents recent developments of optical measurement techniques in combustion diagnostics. A fibre-optic microphone based on the interferometric detection of membrane deflections was designed to measure acoustic pressure oscillations. Due to the heat resistant design, the sensor has an upper temperature limitation of approximately 970 K. Rayleigh-Scattering measurements, using the density dependent intensity of scattered light were performed in an unconfined flame with approximately 1600 K to study amplitude and phase distribution of the flame pulsation. Acoustic particle velocity can be determined applying acoustic PIV (particle image velocimetry technique. This paper shows a way to measure simultaneously the acoustic particle velocity and the locally resolved mean flow velocity of a turbulent flow. Together these non-invasive techniques are applicable to study thermo-acoustic processes and sound generation in combustion chambers or turbines.

  3. Energy Dependence of Nuclear Transparency in C(p,2p) Scattering

    CERN Document Server

    Leksanov, A; Asryan, G A; Averichev, Y; Barton, D; Baturin, V; Bukhtoyarova, N; Carroll, A; Heppelmann, S; Kawabata, T; Makdisi, Y I; Minina, E; Navon, I; Malki, A; Nicholson, H; Ogawa, A; Panebratsev, Yu A; Piasetzky, E; Schetkovsky, A; Shimansky, S S; Tang, A; Watson, J W; Yoshida, H; Zhalov, D; Panebratsev, Yu.


    The transparency of carbon for (p,2p) quasi-elastic events was measured at beam energies ranging from 6 to 14.5 GeV at 90 degrees c.m. The four momentum transfer squared q*q ranged from 4.8 to 16.9 (GeV/c)**2. We present the observed energy dependence of the ratio of the carbon to hydrogen cross sections. We also apply a model for the nuclear momentum distribution of carbon to normalize this transparency ratio. We find a sharp rise in transparency as the beam energy is increased to 9 GeV and a reduction to approximately the Glauber level at higher energies.

  4. Level lifetimes and the nuclear structure of 134,136Xe from inelastic neutron scattering (United States)

    Peters, E. E.; Chakraborty, A.; Crider, B. P.; Ross, T. J.; Ashley, S. F.; Elhami, E.; Kumar, A.; Liu, S. H.; McEllistrem, M. T.; Mukhopadhyay, S.; Orce, J. N.; Prados-Estévez, F. M.; Yates, S. W.; Hicks, S. F.


    The level structures of 134,136Xe were studied with the inelastic neutron scattering reaction followed by γ-ray detection. Highly enriched solid XeF2 samples were used in the measurements. A number of level lifetimes were determined for the first time with the Doppler-shift attenuation method, and the low-lying excited states were characterized from this new spectroscopic information. In 134Xe, the third excited state, a tentative 0+ level, was verified. The 3- octupole phonon has been confirmed, and the complete negative-parity multiplet resulting from the ν (1h11 / 2 2d3 / 2) configuration has been tentatively identified for the first time in the N = 80 isotones. In 136Xe, a nucleus with a closed N = 82 neutron shell, several spins and parities of the states below 3 MeV in excitation energy have been firmly assigned for the first time, or have been re-assigned. New insights into the structures of these nuclei will be discussed. This material is based upon work supported by the U.S. National Science Foundation under Grant No. PHY-1606890.

  5. General Theory of Nuclear Scattering: the Feshbach Kerman-Koonin Approach (United States)

    Arbanas, Goran


    We extend the Feshbach-Kerman-Koonin theory (1) of low and medium energy (10-200 MeV) nucleon-nucleus scattering to describe multi-particle emission processes. The original FKK considered processes with only a single outgoing particle. However, multi-particle emission processes become significant at energies as low as 50 MeV and grow in importance at higher energies. Besides augmenting the Feshbach-Kerman-Koonin theory by adding a description of multi-particle processes, we have improved the theory at the low energy end (10-30 MeV) by uncovering a new class of multistep compound processes. We have developed a formalism within the Feshbach-Kerman-Koonin framework to describe these processes while retaining the elegant structure of the Feshbach-Kerman-Koonin theory. We use this formalism to analyze the 14 MeV ^ {93}Nb(n, n^' ) reaction and find an improved agreement between the theoretical prediction and the experimental data. (Copies available exclusively from MIT Libraries, Rm. 14-0551, Cambridge, MA 02139-4307. Ph. 617-253-5668; Fax 617-253 -1690.).

  6. Modeling and numerical techniques for high-speed digital simulation of nuclear power plants

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Wulff, W.; Cheng, H.S.; Mallen, A.N.


    Conventional computing methods are contrasted with newly developed high-speed and low-cost computing techniques for simulating normal and accidental transients in nuclear power plants. Six principles are formulated for cost-effective high-fidelity simulation with emphasis on modeling of transient two-phase flow coolant dynamics in nuclear reactors. Available computing architectures are characterized. It is shown that the combination of the newly developed modeling and computing principles with the use of existing special-purpose peripheral processors is capable of achieving low-cost and high-speed simulation with high-fidelity and outstanding user convenience, suitable for detailed reactor plant response analyses.

  7. Survey of technology for decommissioning of nuclear fuel cycle facilities. 8. Remote handling and cutting techniques

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Ogawa, Ryuichiro; Ishijima, Noboru [Japan Nuclear Cycle Development Inst., Oarai, Ibaraki (Japan). Oarai Engineering Center


    In nuclear fuel cycle facility decommissioning and refurbishment, the remote handling techniques such as dismantling, waste handling and decontamination are needed to reduce personnel radiation exposure. The survey research for the status of R and D activities on remote handling tools suitable for nuclear facilities in the world and domestic existing commercial cutting tools applicable to decommissioning of the facilities was conducted. In addition, the drive mechanism, sensing element and control system applicable to the remote handling devices were also surveyed. This report presents brief surveyed summaries. (H. Itami)

  8. Mapping of unfolding states of integral helical membrane proteins by GPS-NMR and scattering techniques

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Calcutta, Antonello; Jessen, Christian Moestrup; Behrens, Manja Annette


    addressing detergent properties and protein conformations at the same time. The mapping of the states reveals that KcsA undergoes a series of rearrangements which include expansion of the tetramer in several steps followed by dissociation into monomers at 29% TFE. Supplementary studies of DDM and TFE...... induced by unfolding of an integral membrane protein, namely TFE-induced unfolding of KcsA solubilized by the n-dodecyl ß-d-maltoside (DDM) surfactant is investigated by the recently introduced GPS-NMR (Global Protein folding State mapping by multivariate NMR) (Malmendal et al., PlosONE 5, e10262 (2010......)) along with dynamic light scattering (DLS) and small-angle X-ray scattering (SAXS). GPS-NMR is used as a tool for fast analysis of the protein unfolding processes upon external perturbation, and DLS and SAXS are used for further structural characterization of the unfolding states. The combination allows...

  9. Comparison between beam-stop and beam-hole array scatter correction techniques for industrial X-ray cone-beam CT

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Schoerner, K., E-mail: [Corporate Technology, Siemens AG, 81739 Muenchen (Germany); Physik-Department, Technische Universitaet Muenchen, 85748 Garching (Germany); Goldammer, M.; Stephan, J. [Corporate Technology, Siemens AG, 81739 Muenchen (Germany)


    Research highlights: {yields} We propose a scatter correction method employing a beam-hole array. {yields} Beam-hole and beam-stop array techniques are compared in respect of geometric and scattering properties. {yields} The beam-hole array method reduces overall scattering compared to a beam-stop array. {yields} Application of the beam-hole array method is successfully demonstrated for a CT of ceramic specimen. -- Abstract: In industrial X-ray cone-beam computed tomography, the inspection of large-scale samples is important because of increasing demands on their quality and long-term mechanical resilience. Large-scale samples, for example made of aluminum or iron, are strongly scattering X-rays. Scattered radiation leads to artifacts such as cupping, streaks, and a reduction in contrast in the reconstructed CT-volume. We propose a scatter correction method based on sampling primary signals by employing a beam-hole array (BHA). In this indirect method, a scatter estimate is calculated by subtraction of the sampled primary signal from the total signal, the latter taken from an image where the BHA is absent. This technique is considered complementary to the better known beam-stop array (BSA) method. The two scatter estimation methods are compared here with respect to geometric effects, scatter-to-total ratio and practicability. Scatter estimation with the BHA method yields more accurate scatter estimates in off-centered regions, and a lower scatter-to-total ratio in critical image regions where the primary signal is very low. Scatter correction with the proposed BHA method is then applied to a ceramic specimen from power generation technologies. In the reconstructed CT volume, cupping almost completely vanishes and contrast is enhanced significantly.

  10. Nuclear spectroscopy

    CERN Document Server

    Ajzenberg-Selove, Fay


    Nuclear Spectroscopy, Part A deals with the experimental and theoretical techniques involved in nuclear spectroscopy.This book discusses the interactions of charged particles with matter, gaseous ionization detectors, and particular mass attenuation coefficients. The magnetic gamma-ray spectrometers for photo or internal-conversion electrons, general characteristics of cross-section variation with energy, and measurement of fast neutron spectra are also elaborated. This text likewise covers the elastic scattering of photons by nuclei and measurement of widths of gamma-radiating levels.This pub

  11. Advanced nuclear analytical and related techniques for the growing challenges in nanotoxicology. (United States)

    Chen, Chunying; Li, Yu-Feng; Qu, Ying; Chai, Zhifang; Zhao, Yuliang


    Manufactured nanomaterials with novel physicochemical properties are an important basis for nanosciences and related technologies. Nanotoxicology, aiming to understand the principles of interactions at the nano-bio interface and the relationship between the physicochemical properties of nanomaterials and their toxicological profiles, has become a new frontier in nanoscience. Nearly one decade of nanotoxicology research has shown that the interactions between nanomaterials and proteins, cells, animals, humans and the environment as well as the underlying mechanisms of toxicity for nanomaterials are remarkably complicated, requiring dedicated analytical methodology and tools. Because of their advantages of absolute quantification, high sensitivity, excellent accuracy and precision, low matrix effects and non-destructiveness, nuclear analytical techniques have been playing important roles in the study of nanotoxicology. A systematic summary and comprehensive review of the advanced nuclear analytical and related techniques in nanotoxicology is greatly needed. In this review article, we present a comprehensive overview of nuclear analytical techniques applied to the physicochemical characterization of nanomaterials, structural analysis of bio-nano interactions, visualization of nanomaterials in vitro, quantification of bio-distribution, bio-accumulation, and transformation of nanomaterials in vivo. As important complementary tools, optical imaging technologies are also highlighted. Future directions regarding advanced nuclear analytical approaches for nanotoxicology are also discussed. The rapid development of advanced light source-based techniques will enable new high-throughput screening techniques and provide high sensitivity with low detection limits, which are required for the distribution, imaging, and structural analysis of nanomaterials, and the molecular information of biomarkers for all aspects of nanotoxicology.


    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)



    Much of our understanding of the atomic-scale magnetic structure and the dynamical properties of solids and liquids was gained from neutron-scattering studies. Elastic and inelastic neutron spectroscopy provided physicists with an unprecedented, detailed access to spin structures, magnetic-excitation spectra, soft-modes and critical dynamics at magnetic-phase transitions, which is unrivaled by other experimental techniques. Because the neutron has no electric charge, it is an ideal weakly interacting and highly penetrating probe of matter's inner structure and dynamics. Unlike techniques using photon electric fields or charged particles (e.g., electrons, muons) that significantly modify the local electronic environment, neutron spectroscopy allows determination of a material's intrinsic, unperturbed physical properties. The method is not sensitive to extraneous charges, electric fields, and the imperfection of surface layers. Because the neutron is a highly penetrating and non-destructive probe, neutron spectroscopy can probe the microscopic properties of bulk materials (not just their surface layers) and study samples embedded in complex environments, such as cryostats, magnets, and pressure cells, which are essential for understanding the physical origins of magnetic phenomena. Neutron scattering is arguably the most powerful and versatile experimental tool for studying the microscopic properties of the magnetic materials. The magnitude of the cross-section of the neutron magnetic scattering is similar to the cross-section of nuclear scattering by short-range nuclear forces, and is large enough to provide measurable scattering by the ordered magnetic structures and electron spin fluctuations. In the half-a-century or so that has passed since neutron beams with sufficient intensity for scattering applications became available with the advent of the nuclear reactors, they have became indispensable tools for studying a variety of important areas of modern

  13. Study and development of advanced control techniques for nuclear reactors and robots

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    March-Leuba, C.


    This report studies and develops some aspects of the optimal control theory with the objective of evaluating benefits that the nuclear industry could obtain by applying advanced control techniques. First, the basic relationship between optimal control theory and closed-loop control design has been identified. As a result of this work, new algorithms have been developed for feedback implementations. The applicability of these new algorithms to problems such as state estimation, filtering, model update, and model decoupling has been studied. In addition, new alternatives to control design that are not based on optimal control theory have been developed. A broad range of application examples has been presented for several physical systems, including pressurized water nuclear reactors, boiling water nuclear reactors, steam generators, and robotics. 22 refs., 26 figs.

  14. Polymeric surfactant vesicles. Synthesis and characterization by nuclear magnetic resonance spectroscopy and dynamic laser light scattering

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Kippenberger, D. (Texas A and M Univ., College Station); Rosenquist, K.; Odberg L.; Tundo, P.; Fendler, J.H.


    (CH/sub 3/(CH/sub 2/)/sub 15/)(CH/sub 2/==CH(CH/sub 2/)/sub 8/CONH(CH/sub 2/)/sub 6/)(CH/sub 3/)/sub 2/N/sup +/Br/sup -/(1),(CH/sub 3/(CH/sub 2/)/sub 14/CO/sub 2/(CH/sub 2/)/sub 2/)/sub 2/(CH/sub 3/)(CH/sub 2/CH==CH/sub 2/)N/sup +/Br/sup -/(2),(CH/sub 3/(CH/sub 2/)/sub 14/CO/sub 2/(CH/sub 2/)/sub 2/)/sub 2/NCOCH==CHCO/sub 2/H(3), and (CH/sub 3/(CH/sub 2/)/sub 17/)NCOCH==CHCO/sub 2/H(4) have been synthesized. Sonication of these surfactants led to the formation of vesicles. Vesicles could be polymerized by exposure to ultraviolet radiation or by the use of azoisobutyronitrile (AIBN) as an initiator. Vesicles prepared from 1 polymerized in their bilayers. Vesicles prepared from 2, 3, and 4 have double bonds on their headgroups and could, therefore, potentially polymerize both at the inner and outer surfaces or separately at either surface. Polymerization of vesicles prepared from 2, 3, and 4 by ultraviolet radiation resulted in the closing of both surfaces. Conversely, addition of AIBN to a solution of these vesicles and subsequent incubation at 80/sup 0/ led to the selective ''zipping-up'' of the outer surface only. Following the loss of vinyl protons of the surfactant vesicles by /sup 1/HNMR spectroscopy provided evidence for polymerization. Presence of vesicles has been demonstrated by substrate entrapment, gel filtration, and dynamic laser light scattering. Increasing the sonication time led to smaller and less polydisperse vesicles. On polymerization, vesicles maintaned the sizes of their nonpolymeric counterparts. Polymeric vesicles were found to be appreciably more stable than their unpolymerized analogues. Polymeric vesicles retained the fluidities of vesicles and underwent thermotropic phase transitions. Addition of KCl led to the growth of both unpolymerized and polymeric surfactant vesicles.

  15. Techniques and use of a tunable, laser-based, MeV-Class Compton scattering light source

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Albert, F; Anderson, S G; Gibson, D J; Hagmann, C A; Johnson, M S; Messerly, M; Semenov, V; Shverdin, M Y; Rusnak, B; Tremaine, A M; Hartemann, F V; Siders, C W; McNabb, D P; Barty, C P


    A Compton scattering {gamma}-ray source, capable of producing photons with energies ranging from 0.1 MeV to 0.9 MeV has been commissioned and characterized, and then used to perform nuclear resonance fluorescence (NRF) experiments. The key source parameters are the size (0.01 mm{sup 2}), horizontal and vertical divergence (6 x 10 mrad{sup 2}), duration (10 ps), spectrum and intensity (10{sup 5} photons/shot). These parameters are summarized by the peak brightness, 1.5 x 10{sup 15} photons/mm{sup 2}/mrad{sup 2}/s/0.1%bandwidth, measured at 478 keV. Additional measurements of the flux as a function of the timing difference between the drive laser pulse and the relativistic photoelectron bunch, {gamma}-ray beam profile, and background evaluations are presented. These results are systematically compared to theoretical models and computer simulations. NRF measurements performed on {sup 7}Li in LiH demonstrate the potential of Compton scattering photon sources to accurately detect isotopes in situ.

  16. Archaeometry: nuclear and conventional techniques applied to the archaeological research; Arqueometria: tecnicas nucleares y convencionales aplicadas a la investigacion arqueologica

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Esparza L, R.; Cardenas G, E. (ed.)


    The book that now is presented is formed by twelve articles that approach from different perspective topics as the archaeological prospecting, the analysis of the pre hispanic and colonial ceramic, the obsidian and the mural painting, besides dating and questions about the data ordaining. Following the chronological order in which the exploration techniques and laboratory studies are required, there are presented in the first place the texts about the systematic and detailed study of the archaeological sites, later we pass to relative topics to the application of diverse nuclear techniques as PIXE, RBS, XRD, NAA, SEM, Moessbauer spectroscopy and other conventional techniques. The multidisciplinary is an aspect that highlights in this work, that which owes to the great specialization of the work that is presented even in the archaeological studies including in the open ground of the topography, mapping, excavation and, of course, in the laboratory tests. Most of the articles are the result of several years of investigation and it has been consigned in the responsibility of each article. The texts here gathered emphasize the technical aspects of each investigation, the modern compute systems applied to the prospecting and the archaeological mapping, the chemical and physical analysis of organic materials, of metal artifacts, of diverse rocks used in the pre hispanic epoch, of mural and ceramic paintings, characteristics that justly underline the potential of the collective works. (Author)

  17. Surface enhanced Raman scattering technique for simultaneous detection of four trace polycyclic aromatic hydrocarbons

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    FU Shuyue


    Full Text Available Phytic acid modified Au (IP6@Au nanoparticles with high surface enhanced Raman scattering (SERS activity as well as hydrophobicity were synthesized.Based on IP6@Au and the molecular fingerprint information,we developed a SERS-based method for simultaneous detection of four polycyclic aromatic hydrocarbon species in river water by using a portable Raman system.The limit of detection for anthracene,fluoranthene,pyrene and benzopyrene were 100,100,10 and 1 μg/L,respectively.

  18. Ion Scattering Spectrometry: A Versatile Technique for a Variety of Materials. (United States)


    SCATTERING AND EQUIPMENT 1 III USE OF ISS FOR SURFACE CHEMISTRY CHARACTERIZATION 2 IV USE OF ISS FOR CRYSTALLOGRAPHY 4 V ISS FOR ELECTRONIC STRUCTURE...e U n for single crystal applications, but space does not permit Tb 2 further treatment. Table 2. Clases of satered lo yild curveb for venow in- atom...interactions CoseI Cie" It Cl&. M Ci.e" IV ISS FOR ELECTRONIC STRUCTURE ee’--. He-. He-. H ’-. DETERMINATION At, Si. Cu. Zn, GA, Go. In, As, S. Hf

  19. The molecular imaging approach to image infections and inflammation by nuclear medicine techniques. (United States)

    Signore, Alberto; Glaudemans, Andor W J M


    Inflammatory and infectious diseases are a heterogeneous class of diseases that may be divided into infections, acute inflammation and chronic inflammation. Radiological imaging techniques have, with the exception of functional MRI, high sensitivity but lack in specificity. Nuclear medicine techniques, by contrast, allow the in vivo detection in humans of different physiologic and pathologic phenomena and offer noninvasive tools to detect early pathophysiological changes before anatomical changes occur. In this review, we highlight the role of nuclear medicine in inflammation/infection with emphasis on molecular imaging for in vivo histological characterization of affected tissues for diagnostic purposes and follow-up of therapies. We also describe the clinical indications of all available radiopharmaceuticals in the light of the newly available guidelines.

  20. Use experiences of MCNP in nuclear energy study. 2. Review of variance reduction techniques

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Sakurai, Kiyoshi; Yamamoto, Toshihiro [Japan Atomic Energy Research Inst., Tokai, Ibaraki (Japan). Tokai Research Establishment] [eds.


    `MCNP Use Experience` Working Group was established in 1996 under the Special Committee on Nuclear Code Evaluation. This year`s main activity of the working group has been focused on the review of variance reduction techniques of Monte Carlo calculations. This working group dealt with the variance reduction techniques of (1) neutron and gamma ray transport calculation of fusion reactor system, (2) concept design of nuclear transmutation system using accelerator, (3) JMTR core calculation, (4) calculation of prompt neutron decay constant, (5) neutron and gamma ray transport calculation for exposure evaluation, (6) neutron and gamma ray transport calculation of shielding system, etc. Furthermore, this working group started an activity to compile `Guideline of Monte Carlo Calculation` which will be a standard in the future. The appendices of this report include this `Guideline`, the use experience of MCNP 4B and examples of Monte Carlo calculations of high energy charged particles. The 11 papers are indexed individually. (J.P.N.)

  1. Nuclear medicine imaging technique in the erectile dysfunction evaluation: a mini-review

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Ribeiro, Camila Godinho; Moura, Regina; Neves, Rosane de Figueiredo [Universidade do Estado do Rio de Janeiro (UERJ), RJ (Brazil). Inst. de Biologia Roberto Alcantara Gomes. Lab. de Radiofarmacia Experimental]. E-mail:; Spinosa, Jean Pierre [Hopital de Zone, Morges (Switzerland). Dept. of Gynecology and Obstetrics; Bernardo-Filho, Mario [Instituto Nacional do Cancer, Rio de Janeiro, RJ (Brazil). Coordenadoria de Pesquisa


    Functional imaging with positron emission tomography and single photon emission computed tomography is capable of visualizing subtle changes in physiological function in vivo. Erectile dysfunction (ED) diminishes quality of life for affected men and their partners. Identification of neural substrates may provide information regarding the pathophysiology of types of sexual dysfunction originating in the brain. The aim of this work is to verify the approaches of the nuclear medicine techniques in the evaluation of the erectile function/dysfunction. A search using the words ED and nuclear medicine, ED and scintigraphy, ED and SPECT and ED and PET was done in the PubMed. The number of citations in each subject was determined. Neuroimaging techniques offer insight into brain regions involved in sexual arousal and inhibition. To tackle problems such as hyposexual disorders or ED caused by brain disorders, it is crucial to understand how the human brain controls sexual arousal and penile erection. (author)

  2. Handbook of software quality assurance techniques applicable to the nuclear industry

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Bryant, J.L.; Wilburn, N.P.


    Pacific Northwest Laboratory is conducting a research project to recommend good engineering practices in the application of 10 CFR 50, Appendix B requirements to assure quality in the development and use of computer software for the design and operation of nuclear power plants for NRC and industry. This handbook defines the content of a software quality assurance program by enumerating the techniques applicable. Definitions, descriptions, and references where further information may be obtained are provided for each topic.

  3. Finite-size effects on the lattice dynamics in spin crossover nanomaterials. I. Nuclear inelastic scattering investigation (United States)

    Mikolasek, Mirko; Félix, Gautier; Peng, Haonan; Rat, Sylvain; Terki, Férial; Chumakov, Aleksandr I.; Salmon, Lionel; Molnár, Gábor; Nicolazzi, William; Bousseksou, Azzedine


    We report the investigation of the size evolution of lattice dynamics in spin crossover coordination nanoparticles of [ Fe (pyrazine ) (Ni (CN) 4) ] through nuclear inelastic scattering (NIS) measurements. Vibrational properties in these bistable molecular materials are of paramount importance and NIS permits access to the partial vibrational density of states in both spin states [high spin (HS) and low spin (LS)] from which thermodynamical and mechanical properties can be extracted. We show that the size reduction leads to the presence of inactive metal centers with the coexistence of HS and LS vibrational modes. The confinement effect has only weak impact on the vibrational properties of nanoparticles, especially on the optical modes which remain almost unchanged. On the other hand, the acoustic modes are much more affected which results in the increase of the vibrational entropy and also the Debye sound velocity in the smallest particles (spin states. This stiffening may be due to the elastic surface stress exerted by the external environment. An evidence of the influence of the host matrix on the vibrational properties of the nanoparticles is also highlighted through the matrix dependence of the sound velocity.

  4. Characterization of Nanomaterial Dispersion in Solution Prior to In Vitro Exposure Using Dynamic Light Scattering Technique

    National Research Council Canada - National Science Library

    Murdock, Richard C; Braydich-Stolle, Laura; Schrand, Amanda M; Schlager, John J; Hussain, Saber M


    .... Previously reported nanoparticle characterization techniques in aqueous or biological solutions have consisted of the use of ultra-high illumination light microscopy and disc centrifuge sedimentation...

  5. Sensitive Determination of Proteins with Naphthol Green B by Resonance Light Scattering Technique (United States)

    Gu, B.; Zhong, H.; Li, X.-M.; Wang, Y.-Z.; Ding, B.-C.; Cheng, Z.-P.; Zhang, L.-L.; Li, S.-P.; Yao, C.


    A new quantitative determination method for trace proteins using naphthol green B (NGB) by resonance light scattering (RLS) spectroscopy has been developed. The method is based on the interaction of protein and NGB at pH 3.00, which causes a substantial enhancement of the resonance scattering signal of NGB in the wavelength range 300-550 nm with the maximum RLS at 392.0 nm. Under optimum conditions, the linear range is 0.010-28.2 μg/ml for bovine serum albumin (BSA) and 0.010-31.3 μg/ml for human serum albumin (HSA). The detection limits (S/N=3) are 8.2 ng/ml for BSA and 7.9 ng/ml for HSA, respectively. There is little or no interference from amino acids, most of the metal ions, or other coexisting substances. The easy-to-use method, with high sensitivity and good reproducibility, was satisfactorily applied to the determination of total protein in human serum samples. The determination results for human serum samples are identical to those provided by clinical physicians.

  6. The formation of blood sediment at low hematocrit: a kinetic study by a laser scattering technique (United States)

    Grzegorzewski, Bronislaw; Gornicki, A.; Czarnecki, S.; Gutsze, A.


    In this paper the formation of erythrocyte aggregates and their sedimentation was studied by optical method. The movement and aggregation of erythrocytes produce a variation in scattered-light intensity. The well-mixed blood sample at hematocrit of 5% was vertically scanned by laser light. The scattered light intensity was continuously recorded and analyzed. The initially observed increase in the transmitted-light intensity reflected the reorganization of the structure formed by erythrocytes, and was followed by the decrease of light intensity due to an increase of blood sample optical density. In blood samples of 5% hematocrit the new, specific sedimentation curve was obtained. From this curve three different phases of sedimentation process can be distinguished. In the first phase no deposit is observed. This phase corresponds to falling of single cells as well as formation and sedimentation of small aggregates takes place. The second phase, when rapid growth of deposit is observed, corresponds to formation and sedimentation of rouleaux and large aggregates. Finally in the third phase the boundary between deposit and settling cells is slowly going down due to packing of erythrocyte aggregates. These results show that in blood samples of low hematocrit both the kinetics of erythrocyte aggregation and sedimentation process are different from those of the blood with normal and high hematocrit.

  7. Active Interrogation using Photofission Technique for Nuclear Materials Control and Accountability

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Yang, Haori [Oregon State Univ., Corvallis, OR (United States)


    Innovative systems with increased sensitivity and resolution are in great demand to detect diversion and to prevent misuse in support of nuclear materials management for the U.S. fuel cycle. Nuclear fission is the most important multiplicative process involved in non-destructive active interrogation. This process produces the most easily recognizable signature for nuclear materials. In addition to thermal or high-energy neutrons, high-energy gamma rays can also excite a nucleus and cause fission through a process known as photofission. Electron linear accelerators (linacs) are widely used as the interrogating photon sources for inspection methods involving photofission technique. After photofission reactions, prompt signals are much stronger than the delayed signals, but it is difficult to quantify them in practical measurements. Delayed signals are easily distinguishable from the interrogating radiation. Linac-based, advanced inspection techniques utilizing the delayed signals after photofission have been extensively studied for homeland security applications. Previous research also showed that a unique delayed gamma ray energy spectrum exists for each fissionable isotope. In this work, high-energy delayed γ-rays were demonstrated to be signatures for detection, identification, and quantification of special nuclear materials. Such γ-rays were measured in between linac pulses using independent data acquisition systems. A list-mode system was developed to measure low-energy delayed γ-rays after irradiation. Photofission product yields of 238U and 239Pu were determined based on the measured delayed γ-ray spectra. The differential yields of delayed γ-rays were also proven to be able to discriminate nuclear from non-nuclear materials. The measurement outcomes were compared with Monte Carlo simulation results. It was demonstrated that the current available codes have capabilities and limitations in the simulation of photofission process. A two

  8. A survey on reliability and safety analysis techniques of robot systems in nuclear power plants

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Eom, H.S.; Kim, J.H.; Lee, J.C.; Choi, Y.R.; Moon, S.S


    The reliability and safety analysis techniques was surveyed for the purpose of overall quality improvement of reactor inspection system which is under development in our current project. The contents of this report are : 1. Reliability and safety analysis techniques suvey - Reviewed reliability and safety analysis techniques are generally accepted techniques in many industries including nuclear industry. And we selected a few techniques which are suitable for our robot system. They are falut tree analysis, failure mode and effect analysis, reliability block diagram, markov model, combinational method, and simulation method. 2. Survey on the characteristics of robot systems which are distinguished from other systems and which are important to the analysis. 3. Survey on the nuclear environmental factors which affect the reliability and safety analysis of robot system 4. Collection of the case studies of robot reliability and safety analysis which are performed in foreign countries. The analysis results of this survey will be applied to the improvement of reliability and safety of our robot system and also will be used for the formal qualification and certification of our reactor inspection system.

  9. A no-gold-standard technique for objective assessment of quantitative nuclear-medicine imaging methods. (United States)

    Jha, Abhinav K; Caffo, Brian; Frey, Eric C


    The objective optimization and evaluation of nuclear-medicine quantitative imaging methods using patient data is highly desirable but often hindered by the lack of a gold standard. Previously, a regression-without-truth (RWT) approach has been proposed for evaluating quantitative imaging methods in the absence of a gold standard, but this approach implicitly assumes that bounds on the distribution of true values are known. Several quantitative imaging methods in nuclear-medicine imaging measure parameters where these bounds are not known, such as the activity concentration in an organ or the volume of a tumor. We extended upon the RWT approach to develop a no-gold-standard (NGS) technique for objectively evaluating such quantitative nuclear-medicine imaging methods with patient data in the absence of any ground truth. Using the parameters estimated with the NGS technique, a figure of merit, the noise-to-slope ratio (NSR), can be computed, which can rank the methods on the basis of precision. An issue with NGS evaluation techniques is the requirement of a large number of patient studies. To reduce this requirement, the proposed method explored the use of multiple quantitative measurements from the same patient, such as the activity concentration values from different organs in the same patient. The proposed technique was evaluated using rigorous numerical experiments and using data from realistic simulation studies. The numerical experiments demonstrated that the NSR was estimated accurately using the proposed NGS technique when the bounds on the distribution of true values were not precisely known, thus serving as a very reliable metric for ranking the methods on the basis of precision. In the realistic simulation study, the NGS technique was used to rank reconstruction methods for quantitative single-photon emission computed tomography (SPECT) based on their performance on the task of estimating the mean activity concentration within a known volume of interest

  10. Folding model study of the charge-exchange scattering to the isobaric analog state and implication for the nuclear symmetry energy

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Khoa, Dao T.; Thang, Dang Ngoc [VINATOM, Institute for Nuclear Science and Technique, Hanoi (Viet Nam); Loc, Bui Minh [VINATOM, Institute for Nuclear Science and Technique, Hanoi (Viet Nam); University of Pedagogy, Ho Chi Minh City (Viet Nam)


    The Fermi transition (ΔL = ΔS = 0 and ΔT = 1) between the nuclear isobaric analog states (IAS), induced by the charge-exchange (p, n) or ({sup 3}He, t) reaction, can be considered as ''elastic'' scattering of proton or {sup 3}He by the isovector term of the optical potential (OP) that flips the projectile isospin. The accurately measured (p, n) or ({sup 3}He, t) scattering cross section to the IAS can be used, therefore, to probe the isospin dependence of the proton or {sup 3}He optical potential. Within the folding model, the isovector part of the OP is determined exclusively by the neutron-proton difference in the nuclear densities and the isospin dependence of the effective nucleon-nucleon (NN) interaction. Because the isovector coupling explicitly links the isovector part of the proton or {sup 3}He optical potential to the cross section of the charge-exchange (p, n) or ({sup 3}He, t) scattering to the IAS, the isospin dependence of the effective (in-medium) NN interaction can be well tested in the folding model analysis of these charge-exchange reactions. On the other hand, the same isospin- and density-dependent NN interaction can also be used in a Hartree-Fock calculation of asymmetric nuclear matter, to estimate the nuclear matter energy and its asymmetry part (the nuclear symmetry energy). As a result, the fine-tuning of the isospin dependence of the effective NN interaction against the measured (p, n) or ({sup 3}He, t) cross sections should allow us to make some realistic prediction of the nuclear symmetry energy and its density dependence. (orig.)

  11. Beyond simple small-angle X-ray scattering: developments in online complementary techniques and sample environments

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Wim Bras


    Full Text Available Small- and wide-angle X-ray scattering (SAXS, WAXS are standard tools in materials research. The simultaneous measurement of SAXS and WAXS data in time-resolved studies has gained popularity due to the complementary information obtained. Furthermore, the combination of these data with non X-ray based techniques, via either simultaneous or independent measurements, has advanced understanding of the driving forces that lead to the structures and morphologies of materials, which in turn give rise to their properties. The simultaneous measurement of different data regimes and types, using either X-rays or neutrons, and the desire to control parameters that initiate and control structural changes have led to greater demands on sample environments. Examples of developments in technique combinations and sample environment design are discussed, together with a brief speculation about promising future developments.

  12. Asymmetric distribution of cone-shaped lipids in a highly curved bilayer revealed by a small angle neutron scattering technique (United States)

    Sakuma, Y.; Urakami, N.; Taniguchi, T.; Imai, M.


    We have investigated the lipid sorting in a binary small unilamellar vesicle (SUV) composed of cone-shaped (1,2-dihexanoyl-sn-glycero-3-phosphocholine: DHPC) and cylinder-shaped (1,2-dipalmitoyl-sn-glycero-3-phosphocholine: DPPC) lipids. In order to reveal the lipid sorting we adopted a contrast matching technique of small angle neutron scattering (SANS), which extracts the distribution of deuterated lipids in the bilayer quantitatively without steric modification of lipids as in fluorescence probe techniques. First the SANS profile of protonated SUVs at a film contrast condition showed that SUVs have a spherical shape with an inner radius of 190 Å and a bilayer thickness of 40 Å. The SANS profile of deuterated SUVs at a contrast matching condition showed a characteristic scattering profile, indicating an asymmetric distribution of cone-shaped lipids in the bilayer. The characteristic profile was described well by a spherical bilayer model. The fitting revealed that most DHPC molecules are localized in the outer leaflet. Thus the shape of the lipid is strongly coupled with the membrane curvature. We compared the obtained asymmetric distribution of the cone-shaped lipids in the bilayer with the theoretical prediction based on the curvature energy model.

  13. Asymmetric distribution of cone-shaped lipids in a highly curved bilayer revealed by a small angle neutron scattering technique

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Sakuma, Y; Imai, M [Department of Physics, Ochanomizu University, Bunkyo, Tokyo 112-8610 (Japan); Urakami, N [Department of Physics and Information Sciences, Yamaguchi University, Yamaguchi 753-8512 (Japan); Taniguchi, T, E-mail: [Department of Chemical Engineering, Kyoto University, Kyoto 606-8510 (Japan)


    We have investigated the lipid sorting in a binary small unilamellar vesicle (SUV) composed of cone-shaped (1,2-dihexanoyl-sn-glycero-3-phosphocholine: DHPC) and cylinder-shaped (1,2-dipalmitoyl-sn-glycero-3-phosphocholine: DPPC) lipids. In order to reveal the lipid sorting we adopted a contrast matching technique of small angle neutron scattering (SANS), which extracts the distribution of deuterated lipids in the bilayer quantitatively without steric modification of lipids as in fluorescence probe techniques. First the SANS profile of protonated SUVs at a film contrast condition showed that SUVs have a spherical shape with an inner radius of 190 A and a bilayer thickness of 40 A. The SANS profile of deuterated SUVs at a contrast matching condition showed a characteristic scattering profile, indicating an asymmetric distribution of cone-shaped lipids in the bilayer. The characteristic profile was described well by a spherical bilayer model. The fitting revealed that most DHPC molecules are localized in the outer leaflet. Thus the shape of the lipid is strongly coupled with the membrane curvature. We compared the obtained asymmetric distribution of the cone-shaped lipids in the bilayer with the theoretical prediction based on the curvature energy model.

  14. Riemann-Hilbert technique scattering analysis of metamaterial-based asymmetric 2D open resonators (United States)

    Kamiński, Piotr M.; Ziolkowski, Richard W.; Arslanagić, Samel


    The scattering properties of metamaterial-based asymmetric two-dimensional open resonators excited by an electric line source are investigated analytically. The resonators are, in general, composed of two infinite and concentric cylindrical layers covered with an infinitely thin, perfect conducting shell that has an infinite axial aperture. The line source is oriented parallel to the cylinder axis. An exact analytical solution of this problem is derived. It is based on the dual-series approach and its transformation to the equivalent Riemann-Hilbert problem. Asymmetric metamaterial-based configurations are found to lead simultaneously to large enhancements of the radiated power and to highly steerable Huygens-like directivity patterns; properties not attainable with the corresponding structurally symmetric resonators. The presented open resonator designs are thus interesting candidates for many scientific and engineering applications where enhanced directional near- and far-field responses, tailored with beam shaping and steering capabilities, are highly desired.

  15. Resonance light scattering technique for the determination of proteins with polymethacrylic acid (PMAA) (United States)

    Chen, Yanhua; Gao, Dejiang; Tian, Yuan; Ai, Peng; Zhang, Hanqi; Yu, Aimin


    As a resonance light scattering (RLS) probe, the polyelectrolyte polymethacrylic acid (PMAA) was applied in this assay. The bovine serum albumin (BSA) and human serum albumin (HSA) were determined by the electrostatic interaction of PMAA and proteins. At pH 3.8 Na 2HPO 4-citric acid buffer solution, the RLS intensities of PMAA-BSA (HSA) system were greatly enhanced. The characteristic peaks were appeared at the wavelength 320, 546 and 594 nm. The optimization conditions of the reaction were also examined and selected. Under the selected conditions, the RLS intensities were proportional to the protein concentrations in the range of (0.0200-2.00) × 10 -6 mol/L for BSA and (0.0200-2.40) × 10 -6 mol/L for HSA. The influences of some foreign substances were also examined. The synthetic samples containing proteins and some real samples were analyzed and the results obtained were satisfactory.

  16. Resonance light scattering technique for the determination of protein with rutin and cetylpyridine bromide system (United States)

    Liu, Yang; Yang, Jinghe; Liu, Shufang; Wu, Xia; Su, Benyu; Wu, Tao


    A new resonance light scattering (RLS) assay of protein is presented. In Tris-NaOH (pH = 10.93) buffer, the RLS of rutin-cetylpyridine bromide (CPB) system can be greatly enhanced by protein, including bovine serum albumin (BSA) and human serum albumin (HSA). The enhanced RLS intensities are in proportion to the concentration of proteins in the range of 5 × 10 -9 to 2.5 × 10 -6 g ml -1 for BSA and 2.5 × 10 -8 to 3.5 × 10 -6 g ml -1 for HSA. The detection limits (S/N = 3) are 3.0 ng ml -1 for BSA and 10.0 ng ml -1 for HSA. Samples are determined satisfactorily.

  17. Determination of protein by resonance light scattering technique using dithiothreitol-sodium dodecylbenzene sulphonate as probe (United States)

    Wu, Lihang; Mu, Dan; Gao, Dejiang; Deng, Xinyu; Tian, Yuan; Zhang, Hanqi; Yu, Aimin


    The resonance light scattering (RLS) spectra of bovine serum albumin (BSA)-dithiothreitol (DTT)-sodium dodecylbenzene sulphonate (SDBS) and its analytical application were investigated. The RLS intensity of this system can be effectively enhanced in the presence of BSA. Based on the enhanced RLS intensity, a simple assay for BSA was developed. The experimental results indicate that the enhanced RLS intensity is proportional to the concentration of BSA in the range from 1.0 × 10 -8 to 7.5 × 10 -7 mol L -1 with the determination limit of 5.0 × 10 -9 mol L -1. The effects of pH, concentration of SDBS and DTT on the RLS enhancement were discussed. Most metal ions have little interference on the determination of BSA. Some synthetic and real samples were analyzed, and the results obtained were in good agreement with those obtained by Bradford method.

  18. Gross alpha determination in radioactive wastes from nuclear power plants using the track registration technique

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Suarez-Navarro, M.J. [Universidad Politecnica de Madrid (UPM) E.T.S.I de Caminos, Canales y Puertos, Profesor Aranguren, s/n, 28040 Madrid (Spain)]. E-mail:; Pujol, Ll. [Centro de Estudios y Experimentacion de Obras Publicas (CEDEX), Alfonso XII, 3, 28014 Madrid (Spain); Gonzalez-Gonzalez, J.A. [Universidad Politecnica de Madrid (UPM) E.T.S.I de Caminos, Canales y Puertos, Profesor Aranguren, s/n, 28040 Madrid (Spain)


    Low and intermediate level nuclear wastes (ion-exchange resins and evaporator concentrates) essentially contain beta and gamma emitters, with very few alpha emitters. Several techniques may be used to determine gross alpha activity but, in this case, solid-state nuclear track detectors (SSNTDs) are a suitable technique for gross alpha determination because track detectors are not sensitive to beta and gamma emitters. Also, this technique is simple and inexpensive. In this paper, we studied the parameters (background, efficiency and self-absorption) that could affect the gross alpha determination using SSNTDs for both sample preparation methods, the 'dry method' with tensioactives and the 'wet method'. For the 'dry method', a self-absorption curve for {sup 241}Am standard was prepared using a set of varying thickness of sodium salt and for two different tensioactives: Tween{sup (R)}20 and Teg. The results showed that, below 1mg/cm{sup 2}, the self-absorption factor can be considered similar for both tensioactives and equal to unity. Several detectors for gross alpha determination were compared and we found that the most suitable techniques were ZnS(Ag) solid scintillator and track detectors. Both detectors were used to compare radioactive waste samples. Finally, the proposed methods ('dry method' with Teg tensioactive and 'wet method') using track detectors were tested by analysing the gross alpha activity of several radioactive wastes.

  19. Neutron scattering treatise on materials science and technology

    CERN Document Server

    Kostorz, G


    Treatise on Materials Science and Technology, Volume 15: Neutron Scattering shows how neutron scattering methods can be used to obtain important information on materials. The book discusses the general principles of neutron scattering; the techniques used in neutron crystallography; and the applications of nuclear and magnetic scattering. The text also describes the measurement of phonons, their role in phase transformations, and their behavior in the presence of crystal defects; and quasi-elastic scattering, with its special merits in the study of microscopic dynamical phenomena in solids and

  20. Investigation of CTBT OSI Radionuclide Techniques at the DILUTED WATERS Nuclear Test Site

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Baciak, James E.; Milbrath, Brian D.; Detwiler, Rebecca S.; Kirkham, Randy R.; Keillor, Martin E.; Lepel, Elwood A.; Seifert, Allen; Emer, Dudley; Floyd, Michael


    Under the Comprehensive Nuclear-Test-Ban Treaty (CTBT), a verification regime that includes the ability to conduct an On-Site Inspection (OSI) will be established. The Treaty allows for an OSI to include many techniques, including the radionuclide techniques of gamma radiation surveying and spectrometry and environmental sampling and analysis. Such radioactivity detection techniques can provide the “smoking gun” evidence that a nuclear test has occurred through the detection and quantification of indicative recent fission products. An OSI faces restrictions in time and manpower, as dictated by the Treaty; not to mention possible logistics difficulties due to the location and climate of the suspected explosion site. It is thus necessary to have a good understanding of the possible source term an OSI will encounter and the proper techniques that will be necessary for an effective OSI regime. One of the challenges during an OSI is to locate radioactive debris that has escaped an underground nuclear explosion (UNE) and settled on the surface near and downwind of ground zero. To support the understanding and selection of sampling and survey techniques for use in an OSI, we are currently designing an experiment, the Particulate Release Experiment (PRex), to simulate a small-scale vent from an underground nuclear explosion. PRex will occur at the Nevada National Security Site (NNSS). The project is conducted under the National Center for Nuclear Security (NCNS) funded by the National Nuclear Security Agency (NNSA). Prior to the release experiment, scheduled for Spring of 2013, the project scheduled a number of activities at the NNSS to prepare for the release experiment as well as to utilize the nuclear testing past of the NNSS for the development of OSI techniques for CTBT. One such activity—the focus of this report—was a survey and sampling campaign at the site of an old UNE that vented: DILUTED WATERS. Activities at DILUTED WATERS included vehicle-based survey

  1. Heavy particle scattering by atomic and nuclear systems; Etude de la diffusion de particules lourdes sur des systemes atomiques et nucleaires

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Lazauskas, R


    In this thesis quantum mechanical non-relativistic few-body problem is discussed. Basing on fundamentals ideas from Faddeev and Yakubovski three and four body equations are formulated and solved for fermionic atomic and nuclear systems. Former equations are modified to include long range interactions. Original results for nuclear and molecular physics were obtained: -) positively charged particle scattering on hydrogen atoms was considered; predictions for {pi}{sup +} {yields} H, {mu}{sup +} {yields} H and p{sup +} {yields} H scattering lengths were given. Existence of an unknown, very weakly bound H{sup +}{sub 2} bound state was predicted. -) Motivated by the possible observation of bound four neutron structure at GANIL we have studied compatibility of such an existence within the current nuclear interaction models. -) 4 nucleon scattering at low energies was investigated. Results for n {yields} {sup 3}H, p {yields} {sup 3}H and p {yields} {sup 3}He systems were compared with the experimental data. Validity of realistic nucleon-nucleon interaction models is questioned. (author)

  2. Determination of proteins with tetracarboxy manganese(II) phthalocyanine by resonance light scattering technique (United States)

    Tang, Ning-Li; Peng, Jin-Yun


    A novel method for the determination of proteins by using tetracarboxy manganese(II) phthalocyanine (MnC 4Pc) as a resonance light scattering (RLS) probe has been developed. At pH 3.0 Britton-Robinson (B-R) buffer solution, the RLS intensity of MnC 4Pc at 385 nm is greatly enhanced in the presence of proteins. The effects of pH, reaction time, concentration of MnC 4Pc and interfering substances on the enhanced RLS intensity are investigated, respectively. Under optimal conditions, the linear ranges of the calibration curves are 0-2.00 μg mL -1 for bovine serum albumin (BSA) and human serum albumin (HSA), 0.0-1.75 μg mL -1 for human-IgG and ovalbumin, with a detection limit of 16.37 ng mL -1 BSA, 17.62 ng mL -1 HSA, 19.41 ng mL -1 human-IgG and 20.72 ng mL -1 ovalbumin. The method has been applied to the determination of total proteins in human serum samples collected from a hospital and the results are in good agreement with those reported by the hospital.

  3. The Synergy Between Total Scattering and Advanced Simulation Techniques: Quantifying Geopolymer Gel Evolution

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    White, Claire [Los Alamos National Laboratory; Bloomer, Breaunnah E. [Los Alamos National Laboratory; Provis, John L. [The University of Melbourne; Henson, Neil J. [Los Alamos National Laboratory; Page, Katharine L. [Los Alamos National Laboratory


    With the ever increasing demands for technologically advanced structural materials, together with emerging environmental consciousness due to climate change, geopolymer cement is fast becoming a viable alternative to traditional cements due to proven mechanical engineering characteristics and the reduction in CO2 emitted (approximately 80% less CO2 emitted compared to ordinary Portland cement). Nevertheless, much remains unknown regarding the kinetics of the molecular changes responsible for nanostructural evolution during the geopolymerization process. Here, in-situ total scattering measurements in the form of X-ray pair distribution function (PDF) analysis are used to quantify the extent of reaction of metakaolin/slag alkali-activated geopolymer binders, including the effects of various activators (alkali hydroxide/silicate) on the kinetics of the geopolymerization reaction. Restricting quantification of the kinetics to the initial ten hours of reaction does not enable elucidation of the true extent of the reaction, but using X-ray PDF data obtained after 128 days of reaction enables more accurate determination of the initial extent of reaction. The synergies between the in-situ X-ray PDF data and simulations conducted by multiscale density functional theory-based coarse-grained Monte Carlo analysis are outlined, particularly with regard to the potential for the X-ray data to provide a time scale for kinetic analysis of the extent of reaction obtained from the multiscale simulation methodology.

  4. A sensitive resveratrol assay with a simple probe methylene blue by resonance light scattering technique (United States)

    Xiang, Haiyan; Dai, Kaijin; Luo, Qizhi; Duan, Wenjun; Xie, Yang


    A novel resonance light scattering (RLS) method was developed for the determination of resveratrol based on the interaction between resveratrol and methylene blue (MB). It was found that at pH 8.69, the weak RLS intensity of MB was remarkably enhanced by the addition of trace amount of resveratrol with the maximum peak located at 385.0 nm. Under the optimum conditions, a good linear relationship between the enhanced RLS intensities and the concentrations of resveratrol was obtained over the range of 2.0-14.0 μg ml -1 with the detection limit (3 σ) of 0.63 μg ml -1. The results of the analysis of resveratrol in synthetic samples and human urine are satisfactory, which showed it may provide a more sensitive, convenient, rapid and reproducible method for the detection of resveratrol, especially in biological and pharmaceutical field. In this work, the characteristics of RLS, absorption and fluorescence spectra of the resveratrol-MB system, the influencing factors and the optimum conditions of the reaction were investigated.

  5. A reusable aptasensor of thrombin based on DNA machine employing resonance light scattering technique. (United States)

    Hou, Yining; Liu, Jifeng; Hong, Min; Li, Xia; Ma, Yanhua; Yue, Qiaoli; Li, Chen-Zhong


    The design of molecular nanodevices attracted great interest in these years. Herein, a reusable, sensitive and specific aptasensor was constructed based on an extension-contraction movement of DNA interconversion for the application of human thrombin detection. The present biosensor was based on resonance light scattering (RLS) using magnetic nanoparticles (MNPs) as the RLS probe. MNPs coated with streptavidin can combine with biotin labeled thrombin aptamers. The combined nanoparticles composite is monodispersed in aqueous medium. When thrombin was added a sandwich structure can form on the surface of MNPs, which induced MNPs aggregation. RLS signal was therefore enhanced, and there is a linear relationship between RLS increment and thrombin concentration in the range of 60pM-6.0nM with a limit of detection at 3.5pM (3.29SB/m, according to the recent recommendation of IUPAC). The present aptasensor can be repeatedly used for at least 6 cycling times by heat to transfer G-quadruplex conformation to single strand of DNA sequence and release thrombin. MNPs can be captured by applying the external magnetic field. Furthermore, the proposed biosensor was successfully applied to detect thrombin in human plasma. Copyright © 2017 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  6. Assessment of beryllium and molybdenum nuclear data files with the RPI neutron scattering system in the energy region from 0.5 to 20 MeV (United States)

    Daskalakis, Adam; Blain, Ezekiel; Leinweber, Gregory; Rapp, Michael; Barry, Devin; Block, Robert; Danon, Yaron


    A series of neutron scattering benchmark measurements were performed on beryllium and molybdenum with the Rensselaer Polytechnic Institute's Neutron Scattering System. The pulsed neutron source was produced by the Rensselaer Polytechnic Institute's Linear Accelerator and a well collimated neutron beam was incident onto the samples located at a distance of 30.07 m. Neutrons that scattered from the sample were measured using the time-of-flight by eight EJ-301 liquid scintillator detectors positioned 0.5 m from the sample of interest. A total of eight experiments were performed with two sample thicknesses each, measured by detectors placed at two sets of angles. All data were processed using pulse shape analysis that separated the neutron and gamma ray events and included a gamma misclassification correction to account for erroneously identified gamma rays. A detailed model of the neutron scattering system simulated each experiment with several current evaluated nuclear data libraries and their predecessors. Results for each evaluation were compared to the experimental data using a figure-of-merit. The neutron scattering system has been used as a means to quantify a library's performance.

  7. Quantifying lithium in the solid electrolyte interphase layer and beyond using Lithium- Nuclear Reaction Analysis technique (United States)

    Schulz, Adam; Bakhru, Hassaram; DeRosa, Don; Higashiya, Seiichiro; Rane-Fondacaro, Manisha; Haldar, Pradeep


    Accurate knowledge of lithium content within the solid electrolyte interphase (SEI) layer and anode would significantly enhance the current understanding of the lithium ion battery (LIB) degradation mechanisms, enabling knowledge-based improvements in the technology. For the first time, we have demonstrated the capabilities of highly selective Lithium Nuclear Reaction Analysis (Li-NRA) as a non-destructive depth profiling technique for quantifying Li within the SEI and anode without accurate knowledge of the composition, which is unavailable with other depth profiling techniques. The Li-NRA technique detects the gamma radiation resulting from a nuclear reaction at characteristic resonance energy between an incident high-energy proton and Li. The intensity of γ-ray is directly proportional to the Li content, and the energy of the incident proton is increased stepwise to depth profile the sample. We performed Li-NRA on the carbonaceous negative electrodes of commercial LIB coin cells at varying states of charge (SOC) and states of health (SOH) conditions. We used three simple models for the composition of SEI and anode material to show concurrence between theoretical and experimental value for Li content at varying SOC conditions, estimated the average SEI layer thickness, and correlated the residual Li content within the SOH samples with electrochemical data.

  8. Development of a systematic methodology to select hazard analysis techniques for nuclear facilities

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Vasconcelos, Vanderley de; Reis, Sergio Carneiro dos; Costa, Antonio Carlos Lopes da [Centro de Desenvolvimento da Tecnologia Nuclear (CDTN/CNEN-MG), Belo Horizonte, MG (Brazil)]. E-mails:;;; Jordao, Elizabete [Universidade Estadual de Campinas (UNICAMP), SP (Brazil). Faculdade de Engenharia Quimica]. E-mail:


    In order to comply with licensing requirements of regulatory bodies risk assessments of nuclear facilities should be carried out. In Brazil, such assessments are part of the Safety Analysis Reports, required by CNEN (Brazilian Nuclear Energy Commission), and of the Risk Analysis Studies, required by the competent environmental bodies. A risk assessment generally includes the identification of the hazards and accident sequences that can occur, as well as the estimation of the frequencies and effects of these unwanted events on the plant, people, and environment. The hazard identification and analysis are also particularly important when implementing an Integrated Safety, Health, and Environment Management System following ISO 14001, BS 8800 and OHSAS 18001 standards. Among the myriad of tools that help the process of hazard analysis can be highlighted: CCA (Cause- Consequence Analysis); CL (Checklist Analysis); ETA (Event Tree Analysis); FMEA (Failure Mode and Effects Analysis); FMECA (Failure Mode, Effects and Criticality Analysis); FTA (Fault Tree Analysis); HAZOP (Hazard and Operability Study); HRA (Human Reliability Analysis); Pareto Analysis; PHA (Preliminary Hazard Analysis); RR (Relative Ranking); SR (Safety Review); WI (What-If); and WI/CL (What-If/Checklist Analysis). The choice of a particular technique or a combination of techniques depends on many factors like motivation of the analysis, available data, complexity of the process being analyzed, expertise available on hazard analysis, and initial perception of the involved risks. This paper presents a systematic methodology to select the most suitable set of tools to conduct the hazard analysis, taking into account the mentioned involved factors. Considering that non-reactor nuclear facilities are, to a large extent, chemical processing plants, the developed approach can also be applied to analysis of chemical and petrochemical plants. The selected hazard analysis techniques can support cost

  9. Nuclear scattering radiography

    CERN Document Server

    Garreta, D


    This method consists in producing three dimensional radiographs of samples that can be large by using medium energy proton beams (E/sub p / of the order of 1 GeV) and standard particle physics detection systems. For medical applications low radiation dose and fast data acquisition are required. A first step was taken at CERN where the solid angle of detection was increased so that a human head could be imaged with a radiation dose of 0.3 rad, and a faster acquisition rate but still leading to a prohibitive exposure time. Further improvement aims, by increasing the acquisition rate, to obtain such a radiograph in 20 minutes which would allow in vivo applications. (8 refs).

  10. Stokes-Mueller matrix polarimetry technique for circular dichroism/birefringence sensing with scattering effects. (United States)

    Phan, Quoc-Hung; Lo, Yu-Lung


    A surface plasmon resonance (SPR)-enhanced method is proposed for measuring the circular dichroism (CD), circular birefringence (CB), and degree of polarization (DOP) of turbid media using a Stokes–Mueller matrix polarimetry technique. The validity of the analytical model is confirmed by means of numerical simulations. The simulation results show that the proposed detection method enables the CD and CB properties to be measured with a resolution of 10 ? 4 refractive index unit (RIU) and 10 ? 5 ?? RIU , respectively, for refractive indices in the range of 1.3 to 1.4. The practical feasibility of the proposed method is demonstrated by detecting the CB/CD/DOP properties of glucose–chlorophyllin compound samples containing polystyrene microspheres. It is shown that the extracted CB value decreases linearly with the glucose concentration, while the extracted CD value increases linearly with the chlorophyllin concentration. However, the DOP is insensitive to both the glucose concentration and the chlorophyllin concentration. Consequently, the potential of the proposed SPR-enhanced Stokes–Mueller matrix polarimetry method for high-resolution CB/CD/DOP detection is confirmed. Notably, in contrast to conventional SPR techniques designed to detect relative refractive index changes, the SPR technique proposed in the present study allows absolute measurements of the optical properties (CB/CD/DOP) to be obtained.

  11. Nuclear techniques in the prospecting and exploitation of petroleum; Tecnicas nucleares en la prospeccion y explotacion de petroleo

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Balcazar, M.; Lopez, A.; Castellanos, J.P. [ININ, 52045 Ocoyoacac, Estado de Mexico (Mexico)]. e-mail:


    The apatite is a mineral that is found in the perforation nucleus of petroleum exploration whose natural content of Uranium is of around 10 ppm. This uranium is spontaneously fissioned producing fission traces whose number it is proportional to the age of the apatite and whose longitudes remained stable to temperatures smaller than 60 C, they decreased partially in the temperature range of 60 to 120 C and they faded totally if the nucleus of perforation was to temperatures bigger than 120 C. This agreement in the call 'thermal formation window' of the petroleum among 60 and 120 C and the partial erased of the longitudes of fission traces in the apatite, it allows to use this to determine not only the age of the petroleum field, but also their geologic thermal history (paleo temperature), it also allows to model the formation of the petroleum field and to contribute to outline to PEMEX on exploitation and exploration strategies. In this work it is presented: the visualization of the fission traces in the apatite of Cerro de Mercado, Durango, considered as an international standard of dating; the basic principles of this nuclear technique that allow to determine the age of the apatite; the formation of horizontal fission traces inside the apatite, by irradiation with fission fragments; and as the analysis of the thermal instability of the lengths of the fission traces it provides information of the paleo temperature of the petroleum basin. (Author)

  12. Effective atomic numbers of blue topaz at different gamma-rays energies obtained from Compton scattering technique

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Tuschareon, S., E-mail:; Limkitjaroenporn, P., E-mail:; Kaewkhao, J., E-mail: [Center of Excellence in Glass Technology and Materials Science (CEGM), Nakhon Pathom Rajabhat University, Nakhon Pathom, 73000, Thailand and Science Program, Faculty of Science and Technology, Nakhon Pathom Rajabhat University, Nakhon Pathom, 73000 (Thailand)


    Topaz occurs in a wide range of colors, including yellow, orange, brown, pink-to-violet and blue. All of these color differences are due to color centers. In order to improve the color of natural colorless topaz, the most commonly used is irradiated with x- or gamma-rays, indicated that attenuation parameters is important to enhancements by irradiation. In this work, the mass attenuation coefficients of blue topaz were measured at the different energy of γ-rays using the Compton scattering technique. The results show that, the experimental values of mass attenuation coefficient are in good agreement with the theoretical values. The mass attenuation coefficients increase with the decrease in gamma rays energies. This may be attributed to the higher photon interaction probability of blue topaz at lower energy. This result is a first report of mass attenuation coefficient of blue topaz at different gamma rays energies.

  13. Deconvoluting Protein (Unfolding Structural Ensembles Using X-Ray Scattering, Nuclear Magnetic Resonance Spectroscopy and Molecular Dynamics Simulation.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Alexandr Nasedkin

    Full Text Available The folding and unfolding of protein domains is an apparently cooperative process, but transient intermediates have been detected in some cases. Such (unfolding intermediates are challenging to investigate structurally as they are typically not long-lived and their role in the (unfolding reaction has often been questioned. One of the most well studied (unfolding pathways is that of Drosophila melanogaster Engrailed homeodomain (EnHD: this 61-residue protein forms a three helix bundle in the native state and folds via a helical intermediate. Here we used molecular dynamics simulations to derive sample conformations of EnHD in the native, intermediate, and unfolded states and selected the relevant structural clusters by comparing to small/wide angle X-ray scattering data at four different temperatures. The results are corroborated using residual dipolar couplings determined by NMR spectroscopy. Our results agree well with the previously proposed (unfolding pathway. However, they also suggest that the fully unfolded state is present at a low fraction throughout the investigated temperature interval, and that the (unfolding intermediate is highly populated at the thermal midpoint in line with the view that this intermediate can be regarded to be the denatured state under physiological conditions. Further, the combination of ensemble structural techniques with MD allows for determination of structures and populations of multiple interconverting structures in solution.

  14. Long term volcano monitoring by using advanced Persistent Scatterer SAR Interferometry technique: A case study at Unimak Island, Alaska (United States)

    Gong, W.; Meyer, F. J.; Freymueller, J. T.; Lu, Z.


    Unimak Island, the largest island in the eastern Aleutians of Alaska, is home to three major active volcanoes: Shishaldin, Fisher, and Westdahl. Shishaldin and Westdahl erupted within the past 2 decades and Fisher has shown persistent hydrothermal activity (Mann and Freymueller, 2003). Therefore, Unimak Island is of particular interest to geoscientists. Surface deformation on Unimak Island has been studied in several previous efforts. Lu et al. (2000, 2003) applied conventional InSAR techniques to study surface inflation at Westdahl during 1991 and 2000. Mann and Freymueller (2003) used GPS measurements to analyze inflation at Westdahl and subsidence at Fisher during 1998-2001. Moran et al., ( 2006) reported that Shishaldin, the most active volcano in the island , experienced no significant deformation during the 1993 to 2003 period bracketing two eruptions. In this paper, we present deformation measurements at Unimak Islank during 2003-2010 using advanced persistent scatterer InSAR (PSI). Due to the non-urban setting in a subarctic environment and the limited data acquisition, the number of images usable for PSI processing is limited to about 1-3 acquisitions per year. The relatively smaller image stack and the irregular acquisition distribution in time pose challenges in the PSI time-series processing. Therefore, we have developed a modified PSI technique that integrates external atmospheric information from numerical weather predication models to assist in the removal of atmospheric artifacts [1]. Deformation modeling based on PSI results will be also presented. Our new results will be combined with previous findings to address the magma plumbing system at Unimak Island. 1) W. Gong, F. J. Meyer (2012): Optimized filter design for irregular acquired data stack in Persistent Scatterers Synthetic Aperture Radar Interferometry, Proceeding of Geosciences and Remote Sensing Symposium (IGARSS), 2012 IEEE International, Munich, Germany.

  15. The gated integration technique for the accurate measurement of the autocorrelation function of speckle intensities scattered from random phase screens (United States)

    Zhang, Ningyu; Cheng, Chuanfu; Teng, Shuyun; Chen, Xiaoyi; Xu, Zhizhan


    A new approach based on the gated integration technique is proposed for the accurate measurement of the autocorrelation function of speckle intensities scattered from a random phase screen. The Boxcar used for this technique in the acquisition of the speckle intensity data integrates the photoelectric signal during its sampling gate open, and it repeats the sampling by a preset number, m. The average analog of the m samplings output by the Boxcar enhances the signal-to-noise ratio by √{m}, because the repeated sampling and the average make the useful speckle signals stable, while the randomly varied photoelectric noise is suppressed by 1/√{m}. In the experiment, we use an analog-to-digital converter module to synchronize all the actions such as the stepped movement of the phase screen, the repeated sampling, the readout of the averaged output of the Boxcar, etc. The experimental results show that speckle signals are better recovered from contaminated signals, and the autocorrelation function with the secondary maximum is obtained, indicating that the accuracy of the measurement of the autocorrelation function is greatly improved by the gated integration technique.

  16. Investigations of astrophysically interesting nuclear reactions by the use of gas target techniques

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Hammer, J.W. [Inst. fuer Strahlenphysik, Univ. Stuttgart, Stuttgart (Germany)


    A brief review of the common properties of windowless and recirculating gas targets is presented. As example the Stuttgart gas target facility Rhinoceros in the extended and in the supersonic jet mode with its properties and techniques is explained, also with respect to gas purification techniques. Furthermore several typical experiments from the field of nuclear astrophysics with characteristic results are described (D({alpha},{gamma}){sup 6}Li, {sup 15}N({alpha},{gamma}){sup 19}F, {sup 16}O(p,{gamma}){sup 17}F, {sup 16}O({alpha},{gamma}){sup 20}Ne, {sup 20}Ne({alpha},{gamma}){sup 24}Mg, {sup 21}Ne({alpha},n){sup 24}Mg, {sup 18}O({alpha},n){sup 21}Ne, {sup 17}O({alpha},n){sup 20}Ne). In several cases the experimental sensitivity could be raised by up to a factor of 10{sup 6}. (orig.)

  17. Development of Advanced Nuclide Separation and Recovery Methods using Ion-Exchanhge Techniques in Nuclear Backend (United States)

    Miura, Hitoshi

    The development of compact separation and recovery methods using selective ion-exchange techniques is very important for the reprocessing and high-level liquid wastes (HLLWs) treatment in the nuclear backend field. The selective nuclide separation techniques are effective for the volume reduction of wastes and the utilization of valuable nuclides, and expected for the construction of advanced nuclear fuel cycle system and the rationalization of waste treatment. In order to accomplish the selective nuclide separation, the design and synthesis of novel adsorbents are essential for the development of compact and precise separation processes. The present paper deals with the preparation of highly functional and selective hybrid microcapsules enclosing nano-adsorbents in the alginate gel polymer matrices by sol-gel methods, their characterization and the clarification of selective adsorption properties by batch and column methods. The selective separation of Cs, Pd and Re in real HLLW was further accomplished by using novel microcapsules, and an advanced nuclide separation system was proposed by the combination of selective processes using microcapsules.

  18. Integration of ab-initio nuclear calculation with derivative free optimization technique

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Sharda, Anurag [Iowa State Univ., Ames, IA (United States)


    Optimization techniques are finding their inroads into the field of nuclear physics calculations where the objective functions are very complex and computationally intensive. A vast space of parameters needs searching to obtain a good match between theoretical (computed) and experimental observables, such as energy levels and spectra. Manual calculation defies the scope of such complex calculation and are prone to error at the same time. This body of work attempts to formulate a design and implement it which would integrate the ab initio nuclear physics code MFDn and the VTDIRECT95 code. VTDIRECT95 is a Fortran95 suite of parallel code implementing the derivative-free optimization algorithm DIRECT. Proposed design is implemented for a serial and parallel version of the optimization technique. Experiment with the initial implementation of the design showing good matches for several single-nucleus cases are conducted. Determination and assignment of appropriate number of processors for parallel integration code is implemented to increase the efficiency and resource utilization in the case of multiple nuclei parameter search.

  19. Available post-irradiation examination techniques at Romanian institute for nuclear research

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Parvan, Marcel; Sorescu, Antonius; Mincu, Marin; Uta, Octavian; Dobrin, Relu


    The Romanian Institute for Nuclear Research (INR) has a set of nuclear facilities consisting of TRIGA 14 MW(th) materials testing reactor and LEPI (Romanian acronym for post-irradiation examination laboratory) which enable to investigate the behaviour of the nuclear fuel and materials under various irradiation conditions. The available techniques of post-irradiation examination (PIE) and purposes of PIE for CANDU reactor fuel are as follows. 1) Visual inspection and photography by periscope: To examine the surface condition such as deposits, corrosion etc. 2) Eddy current testing: To verify the cladding integrity. 3) Profilometry and length measurement performed both before and after irradiation: To measure the parameters which highlight the dimensional changes i.e. diameter, length, diametral and axial sheath deformation, circumferential sheath ridging height, bow and ovality. 4) Gamma scanning and Tomography: To determine the burnup, axial and radial fission products activity distribution and to check for flux peaking and loading homogeneity. 5) Puncture test: To measure the pressure, volume and composition of fission gas and the inner free volume. 6) Optical microscopy: To highlight the structural changes and hydriding, to examine the condition of the fuel-sheath interface and to measure the oxide thickness and Vickers microhardness. 7) Mass spectrometry: To measure the burnup. 8) Tensile testing: To check the mechanical properties. So far, non-destructive and destructive post-irradiation examinations have been performed on a significant number of CANDU fuel rods (about 100) manufactured by INR and irradiated to different power histories in the INR 14 MW(th) TRIGA reactor. These examinations have been performed as part of the Romanian research programme for the manufacturing, development and safety of the CANDU fuel. The paper describes the PIE techniques and some results. (Author)

  20. A Coordinated Research Project on the Implementation of Nuclear Techniques to Improve Food Traceability (United States)

    Frew, Russell; Cannavan, Andrew; Zandric, Zora; Maestroni, Britt; Abrahim, Aiman


    Traceability systems play a key role in assuring a safe and reliable food supply. Analytical techniques harnessing the spatial patterns in distribution of stable isotope and trace element ratios can be used for the determination of the provenance of food. Such techniques offer the potential to enhance global trade by providing an independent means of verifying "paper" traceability systems and can also help to prove authenticity, to combat fraudulent practices, and to control adulteration, which are important issues for economic, religious or cultural reasons. To address some of the challenges that developing countries face in attempting to implement effective food traceability systems, the IAEA, through its Joint FAO/IAEA Division on Nuclear Techniques in Food and Agriculture, has initiated a 5-year coordinated research project involving institutes in 15 developing and developed countries (Austria, Botswana, Chile, China, France, India, Lebanon, Morocco, Portugal, Singapore, Sweden, Thailand, Uganda, UK, USA). The objective is to help in member state laboratories to establish robust analytical techniques and databases, validated to international standards, to determine the provenance of food. Nuclear techniques such as stable isotope and multi-element analysis, along with complementary methods, will be applied for the verification of food traceability systems and claims related to food origin, production, and authenticity. This integrated and multidisciplinary approach to strengthening capacity in food traceability will contribute to the effective implementation of holistic systems for food safety and control. The project focuses mainly on the development of techniques to confirm product authenticity, with several research partners also considering food safety issues. Research topics encompass determination of the geographical origin of a variety of commodities, including seed oils, rice, wine, olive oil, wheat, orange juice, fish, groundnuts, tea, pork, honey and

  1. Damage, crack growth and fracture characteristics of nuclear grade graphite using the Double Torsion technique

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Becker, T.H., E-mail: [University of Cape Town, The University of Manchester, Materials Performance Centre, School of Materials, Manchester M13 9PL (United Kingdom); Marrow, T.J., E-mail: [Department of Materials, University of Oxford (United Kingdom); Tait, R.B., E-mail: [Department of Mechanical Engineering, University of Cape Town, Cape Town (South Africa)


    The crack initiation and propagation characteristics of two medium grained polygranular graphites, nuclear block graphite (NBG10) and Gilsocarbon (GCMB grade) graphite, have been studied using the Double Torsion (DT) technique. The DT technique allows stable crack propagation and easy crack tip observation of such brittle materials. The linear elastic fracture mechanics (LEFM) methodology of the DT technique was adapted for elastic-plastic fracture mechanics (EPFM) in conjunction with a methodology for directly calculating the J-integral from in-plane displacement fields (JMAN) to account for the non-linearity of graphite deformation. The full field surface displacement measurement techniques of electronic speckle pattern interferometry (ESPI) and digital image correlation (DIC) were used to observe and measure crack initiation and propagation. Significant micro-cracking in the fracture process zone (FPZ) was observed as well as crack bridging in the wake of the crack tip. The R-curve behaviour was measured to determine the critical J-integral for crack propagation in both materials. Micro-cracks tended to nucleate at pores, causing deflection of the crack path. Rising R-curve behaviour was observed, which is attributed to the formation of the FPZ, while crack bridging and distributed micro-cracks are responsible for the increase in fracture resistance. Each contributes around 50% of the irreversible energy dissipation in both graphites.

  2. Atmospheric extinction coefficient retrieval and validation for the single-band Mie-scattering Scheimpflug lidar technique. (United States)

    Mei, Liang; Guan, Peng; Yang, Yang; Kong, Zheng


    An 808 nm single-band Mie scattering Scheimpflug lidar system is developed in Dalian, Northern China, for real-time, large-area atmospheric aerosol/particle remote sensing. Atmospheric measurement has been performed in urban area during a typical haze weather condition, and time-range distribution of atmospheric backscattering signal is recorded from March 18th to 22nd, 2017, by employing the Scheimpflug lidar system. Atmospheric extinction coefficient is then retrieved according to the Klett-inversion algorithm, while the boundary value is obtained by the slope-method in the far end where the atmosphere is homogeneous in a subinterval region. The correlation between the extinction coefficients retrieved from the Scheimpflug lidar technique and the PM10/PM2.5 concentrations measured by a conventional air pollution monitoring station is also studied. The good agreement between the measurement results, i.e., a correlation coefficient of 0.85, successfully demonstrates the feasibility and great potential of the Scheimpflug lidar technique for atmospheric studies and applications.

  3. APLICACIONES CLÍNICAS DE LAS TÉCNICAS NUCLEARES EN EL ESTUDIO DEL SINCRONISMO VENTRICULAR / Clinical applications of nuclear techniques in the study of ventricular synchronism

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Amalia Peix González


    Full Text Available ResumenTécnicas incruentas como la ecocardiografía, la resonancia magnética nuclear y los estudios de Medicina Nuclear (ventriculografía radioisotópica y gammagrafía de perfusión miocárdica con tomografía de emisión de fotón único, proporcionan información indirecta sobre el sincronismo ventricular cuando se utilizan parámetros de contractilidad mecánica. El análisis de fase de Fourier es un instrumento útil para el empleo de técnicas nucleares con este propósito y se ha aplicado, tanto en la ventriculografía radioisotópica como en la gammagrafía de perfusión. En este trabajo se presenta una revisión en el tiempo de los fundamentos y aplicaciones clínicas de las técnicas nucleares en el estudio del sincronismo ventricular. En la actualidad es la gammagrafía SPECT-gatillada, dentro de las técnicas nucleares, la más utilizada, por la posibilidad que ofrece de evaluar perfusión, función y sincronismo intraventricular en el mismo examen. / AbstractNoninvasive techniques such as echocardiography, nuclear magnetic resonance imaging and nuclear medicine studies (radionuclide ventriculography and myocardial perfusion scintigraphy with single photon emission tomography, provide indirect information about ventricular synchronism when parameters of mechanical contractility are used. The Fourier phase analysis is a useful tool for the use of nuclear techniques for this purpose, and has been applied in both radionuclide ventriculography and perfusion scintigraphy. A review in time of the basics and clinical applications of nuclear techniques in the study of ventricular synchronism is presented in this article. Nowadays, the gated-SPECT scintigraphy is the most common among nuclear techniques because it allows assessing perfusion, function, and intraventricular synchronism in the same test.

  4. Nuclear medicine imaging technique in the erectile dysfunction evaluation: a mini-review

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Camila Godinho Ribeiro


    Full Text Available Functional imaging with positron emission tomography and single photon emission computed tomography is capable of visualizing subtle changes in physiological function in vivo. Erectile dysfunction(ED diminishes quality of life for affected men and their partners. Identification of neural substrates may provide information regarding the pathophysiology of types of sexual dysfunction originating in the brain. The aim of this work is to verify the approaches of the nuclear medicine techniques in the evaluation of the erectile function/disfunction. A search using the words ED and nuclear medicine, ED and scintigraphy, ED and spect and ED and pet was done in the PubMed. The number of citations in each subject was determined. Neuroimaging techniques offer insight into brain regions involved in sexual arousal and inhibition. To tackle problems such as hyposexual disorders or ED caused by brain disorders, it is crucial to understand how the human brain controls sexual arousal and penile erection.Imagens functionais, como o positron emission tomography e o single photon emission computed tomography são capazes de identificar súbitas alterações fisiológicas in vivo. A disfunção er��til diminui a qualidade de vida do casal. A identificação de substratos neurais pode esclarecer a fisiopatologia dos diferentes tipos de disfunções sexuais originadas no cérebro. O objetivo deste trabalho é verificar a abordagem das técnicas da medicina nuclear na avaliação da função/disfunção erétil. Uma pesquisa utilizando as palavras disfunção erétil e medicina nuclear, disfunção erétil e cintigrafia, disfunção erétil e SPECT e disfunção erétil e PET foi realizada no PubMed. O número de citações em cada palavra estudada foi determinado. Técnicas de neuroimagem permitem a avaliação das regiões cerebrais durante o estímulo ou inibição sexual. Para resolver alterações como disfunções hipossexuais ou disfunção erétil causada

  5. Direct observation of electronic and nuclear ground state splitting in external magnetic field by inelastic neutron scattering on oxidized ferrocene and ferrocene containing polymers (United States)

    Appel, Markus; Frick, Bernhard; Elbert, Johannes; Gallei, Markus; Stühn, Bernd


    The quantum mechanical splitting of states by interaction of a magnetic moment with an external magnetic field is well known, e.g., as Zeeman effect in optical transitions, and is also often seen in magnetic neutron scattering. We report excitations observed in inelastic neutron spectroscopy on the redox-responsive polymer poly(vinylferrocene). They are interpreted as splitting of the electronic ground state in the organometallic ferrocene units attached to the polymer chain where a magnetic moment is created by oxidation. In a second experiment using high resolution neutron backscattering spectroscopy we observe the hyperfine splitting, i.e., interaction of nuclear magnetic moments with external magnetic fields leading to sub-μeV excitations observable in incoherent neutron spin-flip scattering on hydrogen and vanadium nuclei.

  6. Direct observation of electronic and nuclear ground state splitting in external magnetic field by inelastic neutron scattering on oxidized ferrocene and ferrocene containing polymers

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Appel Markus


    Full Text Available The quantum mechanical splitting of states by interaction of a magnetic moment with an external magnetic field is well known, e.g., as Zeeman effect in optical transitions, and is also often seen in magnetic neutron scattering. We report excitations observed in inelastic neutron spectroscopy on the redox-responsive polymer poly(vinylferrocene. They are interpreted as splitting of the electronic ground state in the organometallic ferrocene units attached to the polymer chain where a magnetic moment is created by oxidation. In a second experiment using high resolution neutron backscattering spectroscopy we observe the hyperfine splitting, i.e., interaction of nuclear magnetic moments with external magnetic fields leading to sub-μeV excitations observable in incoherent neutron spin-flip scattering on hydrogen and vanadium nuclei.

  7. Detection of a nuclear, EBNA-type antigen in apparently EBNA-negative Herpesvirus papio (HVP)-transformed lymphoid lines by the acid-fixed nuclear binding technique. (United States)

    Ohno, S; Luka, J; Falk, L; Klein, G


    In agreement with the findings of previous authors, we could not detect a virally determined nuclear antigen in Herpesvirus papio (HVP)-transformed baboon lymphoid lines by anticomplementary staining in situ, as for EBNA. However, by means of our recently developed acid-fixed nuclear binding technique an EBNA-like antigen could be readily demonstrated, after extraction from both producer and non-producer lines. We propose to designate the antigen as HUPNA. It can be detected by a human anti-EBNA antibody, suggesting cross-reactivity, if not identity, between EBNA and HUPNA. HVP-DNA carrying non-producer lines, negative for in situ ACIF stainability but capable of yielding HUPNA by the nuclear binding technique, can be superinfected with EBV, with brilliant EBNA expression as the result, suggesting that the defective in situ staining is a property associated with the baboon HVP, rather than the baboon lymphoid cell per se.

  8. Results of a nuclear power plant application of A New Technique for Human Error Analysis (ATHEANA)

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Whitehead, D.W.; Forester, J.A. [Sandia National Labs., Albuquerque, NM (United States); Bley, D.C. [Buttonwood Consulting, Inc. (United States)] [and others


    A new method to analyze human errors has been demonstrated at a pressurized water reactor (PWR) nuclear power plant. This was the first application of the new method referred to as A Technique for Human Error Analysis (ATHEANA). The main goals of the demonstration were to test the ATHEANA process as described in the frame-of-reference manual and the implementation guideline, test a training package developed for the method, test the hypothesis that plant operators and trainers have significant insight into the error-forcing-contexts (EFCs) that can make unsafe actions (UAs) more likely, and to identify ways to improve the method and its documentation. A set of criteria to evaluate the success of the ATHEANA method as used in the demonstration was identified. A human reliability analysis (HRA) team was formed that consisted of an expert in probabilistic risk assessment (PRA) with some background in HRA (not ATHEANA) and four personnel from the nuclear power plant. Personnel from the plant included two individuals from their PRA staff and two individuals from their training staff. Both individuals from training are currently licensed operators and one of them was a senior reactor operator on shift until a few months before the demonstration. The demonstration was conducted over a 5-month period and was observed by members of the Nuclear Regulatory Commission`s ATHEANA development team, who also served as consultants to the HRA team when necessary. Example results of the demonstration to date, including identified human failure events (HFEs), UAs, and EFCs are discussed. Also addressed is how simulator exercises are used in the ATHEANA demonstration project.

  9. Nuclear management in manual small incision cataract surgery by snare technique

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Bhattacharya Debasish


    Full Text Available Manual small incision cataract surgery has evolved into a popular method of cataract surgery in India. However, in supra hard cataract, bringing out the whole nucleus through the sclerocorneal flap valve incision becomes difficult. A bigger incision required in such cataracts loses its value action, as the internal incision and corneal valve slips beyond the limbus into sclera. Struggling with the supra hard cataracts through a regular small incision. Phacofracture in the anterior chamber becomes a useful option in these cases. In the snare technique, a stainless steel wire loop when lassoed around the nucleus in the anterior chamber constricts from the equator, easily dividing the hardest of the nuclei into two halves. The wire loop constricts in a controlled way when the second cannula of snare is pulled. The divided halves can easily be brought out by serrated crocodile forceps. This nuclear management can be safely performed through a smaller sclerocorneal flap valve incision where the corneal valve action is retained within the limbus without sutures, and the endothelium or the incision is not disturbed. However, the technique requires space in the anterior chamber to maneuver the wire loop and anterior chamber depth more than 2.5 mm is recommended. Much evidence to this wonderful technique is not available in literature, as its popularity grew through live surgical workshops and small interactive conferences.

  10. Application of variance reduction technique to nuclear transmutation system driven by accelerator

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Sasa, Toshinobu [Japan Atomic Energy Research Inst., Tokai, Ibaraki (Japan). Tokai Research Establishment


    In Japan, it is the basic policy to dispose the high level radioactive waste arising from spent nuclear fuel in stable deep strata after glass solidification. If the useful elements in the waste can be separated and utilized, resources are effectively used, and it can be expected to guarantee high economical efficiency and safety in the disposal in strata. Japan Atomic Energy Research Institute proposed the hybrid type transmutation system, in which high intensity proton accelerator and subcritical fast core are combined, or the nuclear reactor which is optimized for the exclusive use for transmutation. The tungsten target, minor actinide nitride fuel transmutation system and the melted minor actinide chloride salt target fuel transmutation system are outlined. The conceptual figures of both systems are shown. As the method of analysis, Version 2.70 of Lahet Code System which was developed by Los Alamos National Laboratory in USA was adopted. In case of carrying out the analysis of accelerator-driven subcritical core in the energy range below 20 MeV, variance reduction technique must be applied. (K.I.)

  11. A survey on the task analysis methods and techniques for nuclear power plant operators

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Lee, Yong Heui; Chun, Se Woo; Suh, Sang Moon; Lee, Jung Woon [Korea Atomic Energy Research Institute, Taejon (Korea, Republic of)


    We have surveyed techniques and methods of task analysis from very traditional ones to recently developed ones that are being applicated to various industrial fields. We compare each other and analyse their fundamental characteristics and methodological specification in order to find a proper one enough to apply to nuclear power plant operators tasks. Generally, the fundamental process of task analyses has well been understandable, but its process of application in practice has not been so simple due to the wide and varying range of applications according to specific domain. Operators` tasks in NPPs are supposed to be performed strictly according to operational procedures written in a text and well trained, so the method of task analysis for operators` tasks in NPPs can be established to have its unique characteristics of task analysis based on the operational procedures. 8 figs., 10 tabs., 18 refs. (Author).

  12. Application of the zona-free manipulation technique to porcine somatic nuclear transfer

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Booth, P J; Tan, S J; Holm, P


    The recent demonstration of a successful zona-free manipulation technique for bovine somatic nuclear transfer (NT) that is both simpler and less labor intensive is of considerable benefit to advance the applications of this technology. Here, we describe that this method is also applicable...... to porcine somatic NT. Porcine cumulus oocyte complexes were matured in TCM-199 medium before sequential removal of the cumulus and zonae. Zona-free oocytes were bisected using a microknife, and the halves containing the metaphase plate (as determined by Hoechst 33342 staining) were discarded. Each half...... activated in calcium ionophore A23187 followed by DMAP and were then individually cultured in microwells in NCSU-23 medium. On day 7 after activation, blastocyst yield and total cell numbers were counted. Of 279 attempted reconstructed NT embryos, 85.0 +/- 2.8% (mean +/- SEM; n = 5 replicates) successfully...

  13. NATO Advanced Research Workshop on Explosives Detection Using Magnetic and Nuclear Resonance Techniques

    CERN Document Server

    Fraissard, Jacques


    Nuclear quadrupole resonance (NQR) a highly promising new technique for bulk explosives detection: relatively inexpensive, more compact than NMR, but with considerable selectivity. Since the NQR frequency is insensitive to long-range variations in composition, mixing explosives with other materials, such as the plasticizers in plastic explosives, makes no difference. The NQR signal strength varies linearly with the amount of explosive, and is independent of its distribution within the volume monitored. NQR spots explosive types in configurations missed by the X-ray imaging method. But if NQR is so good, why it is not used everywhere? Its main limitation is the low signal-to-noise ratio, particularly with the radio-frequency interference that exists in a field environment, NQR polarization being much weaker than that from an external magnetic field. The distinctive signatures are there, but are difficult to extract from the noise. In addition, the high selectivity is partly a disadvantage, as it is hard to bui...

  14. Thermal-hydraulic analysis techniques for axisymmetric pebble bed nuclear reactor cores. [PEBBLE code

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Stroh, K.R.


    The pebble bed reactor's cylindrical core volume contains a random bed of small, spherical fuel-moderator elements. These graphite spheres, containing a central region of dispersed coated-particle fissile and fertile material, are cooled by high pressure helium flowing through the connected interstitial voids. A mathematical model and numerical solution technique have been developed which allow calculation of macroscopic values of thermal-hydraulic variables in an axisymmetric pebble bed nuclear reactor core. The computer program PEBBLE is based on a mathematical model which treats the bed macroscopically as a generating, conducting porous medium. The steady-state model uses a nonlinear Forchheimer-type relation between the coolant pressure gradient and mass flux, with newly derived coefficients for the linear and quadratic resistance terms. The remaining equations in the model make use of mass continuity, and thermal energy balances for the solid and fluid phases.

  15. Improved cost-benefit techniques in the US Nuclear Regulatory Commission

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Cronin, F.J.; Nesse, R.J.; Vaeth, M.; Wusterbarth, A.R.; Currie, J.W.


    The major objective of this report is to help the US Nuclear Regulatory Commission (NRC) in its regulatory mission, particularly with respect to improving the use of cost-benefit analysis and the economic evaluation of resources within the NRC. The objectives of this effort are: (1) to identify current and future NRC requirements (e.g., licensing) for valuing nonmarket goods; (2) to identify, highlight, and present the relevant efforts of selected federal agencies, some with over two decades of experience in valuing nonmarket goods, in this area; and (3) to review methods for valuing nonmarket impacts and to provide estimats of their magnitudes. Recently proposed legislation may result in a requirement for not only more sophisticated valuation analyses, but more extensive applications of these techniques to issues of concern to the NRC. This paper is intended to provide the NRC with information to more efficiently meet such requirements.

  16. Experimental study of TJ-1 plasma using scattering and radiation emission techniques; Analisis experimental del plasma TJ-1 con tecnicas de scattering y emision de radiacion

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Pardo, C.; Zurro, B.


    The Thomson scattering system of TJ-1 is described in detail. The radial profiles of Te and ne obtained in TJ-1 discharges are presented. This data make possible to deduce characteristic parameters of the plasma confinement in this machine, as energy confinement times, Zeff B. Using also radiation measurements (global and in the visible range) we obtained the particle confinement time and Zeff without non experimental assumptions. (Author) 52 refs.

  17. Microstructural Examination to Aid in Understanding Friction Bonding Fabrication Technique for Monolithic Nuclear Fuel

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Karen L. Shropshire


    Monolithic nuclear fuel is currently being developed for use in research reactors, and friction bonding (FB) is a technique being developed to help in this fuel’s fabrication. Since both FB and monolithic fuel are new concepts, research is needed to understand the impact of varying FB fabrication parameters on fuel plate characteristics. This thesis research provides insight into the FB process and its application to the monolithic fuel design by recognizing and understanding the microstructural effects of varying fabrication parameters (a) FB tool load, and (b) FB tool face alloy. These two fabrication parameters help drive material temperature during fabrication, and thus the material properties, bond strength, and possible formation of interface reaction layers. This study analyzed temperatures and tool loads measured during those FB processes and examined microstructural characteristics of materials and bonds in samples taken from the resulting fuel plates. This study shows that higher tool load increases aluminum plasticization and forging during FB, and that the tool face alloy helps determine the tool’s heat extraction efficacy. The study concludes that successful aluminum bonds can be attained in fuel plates using a wide range of FB tool loads. The range of tool loads yielding successful uranium-aluminum bonding was not established, but it was demonstrated that such bonding can be attained with FB tool load of 48,900 N (11,000 lbf) when using a FB tool faced with a tungsten alloy. This tool successfully performed FB, and with better results than tools faced with other materials. Results of this study correlate well with results reported for similar aluminum bonding techniques. This study’s results also provide support and validation for other nuclear fuel development studies and conclusions. Recommendations are offered for further research.

  18. Surface-enhanced Raman scattering by colloidal CdSe nanocrystal submonolayers fabricated by the Langmuir–Blodgett technique

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Alexander G. Milekhin


    Full Text Available We present the results of an investigation of surface-enhanced Raman scattering (SERS by optical phonons in colloidal CdSe nanocrystals (NCs homogeneously deposited on both arrays of Au nanoclusters and Au dimers using the Langmuir–Blodgett technique. The coverage of the deposited NCs was less than one monolayer, as determined by transmission and scanning electron microscopy. SERS by optical phonons in CdSe nanocrystals showed a significant enhancement that depends resonantly on the Au nanocluster and dimer size, and thus on the localized surface plasmon resonance (LSPR energy. The deposition of CdSe nanocrystals on the Au dimer nanocluster arrays enabled us to study the polarization dependence of SERS. The maximal SERS signal was observed for light polarization parallel to the dimer axis. The polarization ratio of the SERS signal parallel and perpendicular to the dimer axis was 20. The SERS signal intensity was also investigated as a function of the distance between nanoclusters in a dimer. Here the maximal SERS enhancement was observed for the minimal distance studied (about 10 nm, confirming the formation of SERS “hot spots”.

  19. Determination of serum albumin in the presence of poly(diallyldimethylammonium chloride) by resonance light scattering technique (United States)

    Chen, Yanhua; Tian, Yuan; Gao, Dejiang; Bai, Yu; Yu, Aimin; Zhang, Hanqi


    By means of the resonance light scattering (RLS) technique, a new method was developed to determine the bovine serum albumin (BSA) and human serum albumin (HSA) by the interaction of serum albumin with poly(diallyldimethylammonium chloride) (PDDA). At Tris-NaOH buffer solution, the RLS intensity of serum albumin at the wavelength 320, 550 and 590 nm was obviously enhanced in the presence of PDDA. The influences of some experimental factors, including incubation time, addition sequence of reagents, pH value, concentration of PDDA and foreign substances, on the enhancement of the RLS intensity were examined. The optimum conditions of the experiment were selected. Under the selected experimental condition, the enhanced RLS intensities were directly proportional to the concentrations in the range of (0.0250-2.75) × 10 -6 mol/L for BSA and (0.0235-1.17) × 10 -6 mol/L for HSA. The detection limits (S/N = 3) were 8.40 × 10 -9 mol/L for BSA and 7.39 × 10 -9 mol/L for HSA. The synthetic samples were analysed and the results obtained were satisfactory.

  20. Use of nuclear techniques and hydrochemical analysis to evaluate the impact of tailings dams

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Fernandes, Flaviane M.; Fleming, Peter M.; Fonseca, Flávio H. da R.; Pimenta, Rafael C.; Moreira, Rubens M., E-mail:, E-mail:, E-mail:, E-mail:, E-mail: [Centro de Desenvolvimento da Tecnologia Nuclear (CDTN/CNEN-MG), Belo Horizonte, MG (Brazil)


    The mining industry is a most important productive segment to country's economy. However, it is important to recognize and monitor the environmental impacts caused by mining, such as dams. They are structures built to store the waste produced by the beneficiation of ores, through chemical and mechanical processes classified as concentrate, crude ore or tailings. Tailings dams are associated with a potential risk of disruption and can therefore cause various images to the environment and population. Seepage flows and transport mechanisms are parameters to indicate the structural integrity. Nuclear technology can be used as a tool to trace these parameters. The objective of this work is to use isotopic techniques and hydrochemical characterization to detect leaks in dams belonging to a mining company. The isotopic techniques are used to measure the concentration of environmental isotopes in dam waters and their mediations, among which deuterium ({sup 2}H) and oxygen-18 ({sup 18}O) are measured. These isotopes will be used as environmental tracers to investigate the presence of infiltrations through the displacement of the water in its flow in the aquifer, since they are constituent of the molecule of water. In parallel, the basic physical chemical parameters and water quality parameters will be measured in-situ to aid in the interpretation of the results of the isotopic analyzes. Thus, it is intended to provide data that can help the environmental agencies to make decisions regarding the decommissioning of the mine. (author)

  1. Potential for α -induced nuclear scattering, reaction and decay, and a resonance-pole-decay model with exact explicit analytical solutions (United States)

    Sahu, Basudeb; Bhoi, Swagatika


    The decay of α particle from a nucleus is viewed as a quantum resonance state of a two-body scattering process of the α +daughter nucleus pair governed by a novel nucleus-nucleus potential in squared Woods-Saxon form. By the application of the rigorous optical model (OM) potential scattering (S -matrix) theory the genuineness of the potential for the system is established by giving a good explanation of the elastic scattering and reaction cross sections data of the α +nucleus pair. From the pole position in the complex momentum (k ) plane of the S matrix of the real part of the OM potential defined above, the energy and width of the resonance state akin to the decaying state of emission of α particle are extracted and from this width, the result of the α -decay half-life is derived to account for the experimental result of the half-life in the cases of a large number of α emitters including heavy and superheavy nuclei. The S matrix of the real OM potential is replaced by an analytical function expressed in terms of exact Schrödinger solutions of a global potential that closely represents the real Coulomb-nuclear interaction in the interior and the pure Coulomb wave functions outside, and the resonant poles of this S matrix in the complex momentum plane are used to give satisfactory results of decay half-lives of α coming out from varieties of nuclei.

  2. Structural studies on protein solutions by using solution x-ray scattering technique at RIKEN structural biology beamline I (BL45XU)

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Fujisawa, Tetsuro [Structural Biophysics Laboratory, RIKEN Harima Institute, Mikazuki, Hyogo (Japan)


    RIKEN structural biology beamline I (BL45XU) is an undulator beamline with two branches. One is for protein crystallography (PX) and the other is for small-angle x-ray scattering (SAXS). PX and SAXS experiments can be done simultaneously [Yamamoto et al. (1995) Rev. Sci. Instrum. 66, 1833-1835]. For SAXS branch the clean and stable optics were realized. The use of this beamline extends the various limits of small-angle scattering technique: measurements of dilute protein solutions, large protein complex and fast time-resolved experiments. These advantages will be fully utilized for high-pressure SAXS measurements. (author)

  3. Approximate calculational techniques for radiation protection applications (collection of papers presented at the November 1985 American Nuclear Society meeting)

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Rice, A.F.; Roussin, R.W. (comps.)


    Although radiation protection principles are, on the whole, well understood and a whole series of computer codes exist for their solution, it is felt that there is a need for practical, approximate techniques to be used by the practicing nuclear engineer for a variety of applications. Within the context of approximate techniques, the papers presented cover a broad overview of specific problems, for example, skyshine and penetration analysis, with applications extending from general nuclear reactor design to spent fuel storage and fusion. Separate abstracts have been prepared for individual papers.

  4. Land Deformation at the Thessaloniki - Giannitsa Plain (Greece) Deduced from 20- years Radar Observations using Persistent Scatterers Techniques (United States)

    Svigkas, N.; Papoutsis, I.; Loupasakis, K.; Kiratzi, A. A.; Kontoes, C.


    We present the detected deformation and interpret the results in the light of ground-truth hydrological data, for the Thessaloniki-Giannitsa plain, the largest deltaic plain in Greece, encircled by Mounts Vermio, Paiko and Pieria. The contemporary morphology was gradually developed from the tectonic variations of the upper Pleistocene. The area has been subjected to many changes due to both natural causes and to human intervention. ERS-1, 2 and Envisat data provided from the European Space Agency were analysed to produce a time-series analysis based on Persistent Scatterer techniques. The mass processing of the 81 satellite images led to the creation of more than 250 Interferograms. The broader area of interest consists primarily of agricultural lands, leading to limited Interferometric coherence, and therefore careful Interferogram filtering and phase unwrapping of the input stack was crucial for reliable velocity generation. Our results show a strong deformation signal in regions of significant lifelines, as the railway and road network. Moreover, the satellite imagery revealed two significantly deforming sites: Kalochori and Sindos. The broader Kalochori region, the locus of the industrial activity of the city of Thessaloniki, is located below sea level. Both sites are suffering from land subsidence for more than 50 years, with several marine invasions reported in the past. Interestingly enough the two datasets -that represent two decades- show a reversed deformation pattern: The period in-between 1993 to 2000 is characterized by subsidence up to 34 mm/y, whereas from 2002 to 2010 there is an uplifting trend (more than 20 mm/yr). This result is crosschecked with hydrogeological data; the interpretation depicts that at Kalochori and Sindos the human factor (i.e. over pumping) is the dominant driver of these surface displacements. Although this was an assumption of previous studies, here we present for the first time, systematic proof that the detected uplift of

  5. Nuclear and radiation techniques - state of art and development trends; Techniki jadrowe i radiacyjne - stan obecny oraz kierunki rozwoju

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Chmielewski, A.G. [Institute of Nuclear Chemistry and Technology, Warsaw (Poland)


    The state of art and development trends of nuclear and radiation techniques in Poland and worldwide have been presented. Among them the radiometric gages, radiation technologies, radiotracer methods and measuring systems for pipeline and vessels, brightness control have been described and their applications in industry, agriculture, health and environment protection have been shown and discussed. 35 refs, 1 fig.

  6. Nuclear forensics techniques for attributing material used in a radiological dispersal device event

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Knepper, P. L. (Paula L.); Eberhardt, Ariane Sibylle,; Leibrecht, E. A. (Erika Arendt); Ross, J. L. (Jessica L.); Scott, M. R. (Mark R.); Epresi, K. (Kristen); Giannangeli, D. (Don); Charlton, W. S. (William S.)


    If a radiological dispersal device (RDD) is detonated in the U.S. or near U.S. interests overseas, it will be crucial that the actors involved in the event can be identified quickly. Law enforcement officials will need information concerning the material used in the device, specifically what type of material it was and from where it originated. This information will then be used to help identify the specific individuals who manufactured the device and perpetrated the event. Texas A&M University and Los Alamos National Laboratory are collaborating on the development of a technique for identifying the material used in a radiological dispersal device. This methodology is currently focused on radiological dispersal devices that make use of spent nuclear fuel as the source material. The methodology developed makes use of both a forward model and an inverse model to identify specific spent fuel characteristics using isotopic composition of RDD debris. The forward model is based on sophisticated reactor physics calculations for the prediction of spent fuel isotopic compositions as a function of fuel type (e.g., PWR, BWR, CANDU, RBMK, etc.), fuel burnup (in MWd/MTHM), fuel age (in years since permanent discharge from the reactor), and operating characteristics (e.g., operating power level, time at power, etc.). These reactor physics calculations are benchmarked to measured data to establish their accuracy in predicting isotopic compositions. The inverse model makes use of a Bayesian inverse method to identify the specific spent fuel assembly (or assemblies) used based on measurements of actinide and fission product isotopic ratios in the RDD debris. A description of both the forward and inverse models, accuracies of the technique, and the results to date are given.

  7. Effective Oocyte Vitrification and Survival Techniques for Bovine Somatic Cell Nuclear Transfer. (United States)

    Park, Min Jee; Lee, Seung Eun; Kim, Eun Young; Lee, Jun Beom; Jeong, Chang Jin; Park, Se Pill


    Bovine somatic cell nuclear transfer (SCNT) using vitrified-thawed (VT) oocytes has been studied; however, the cloning efficiency of these oocytes is not comparable with that of nonvitrified (non-V) fresh oocytes. This study sought to optimize the survival and cryopreservation of VT oocytes for SCNT. Co-culture with feeder cells that had been preincubated for 15 h significantly improved the survival of VT oocytes and their in vitro developmental potential following SCNT in comparison to co-culture with feeder cells that had been preincubated for 2, 5, or 24 h (pvitrification groups [enucleated-vitrified-thawed (EVT) group, 13.7%; VT group, 15.0%; pvitrification groups (pvitrification groups than in the non-V group (pvitrification groups, blastocysts in the EAVT group had the best developmental potential, as judged by their high mRNA expression of developmental potential-related genes (POU5f1, Interferon-tau, and SLC2A5) and their low expression of proapoptotic (CASP3) and stress (Hsp70) genes. This study demonstrates that SCNT using bovine frozen-thawed oocytes can be successfully achieved using optimized vitrification and co-culture techniques.

  8. Imaging techniques in nuclear cardiology for the assessment of myocardial viability. (United States)

    Slart, Riemer H J A; Bax, Jeroen J; van Veldhuisen, Dirk J; van der Wall, Ernst E; Dierckx, Rudi A J O; Jager, Pieter L


    The assessment of myocardial viability has become an important aspect of the diagnostic and prognostic work-up of patients with ischemic cardiomyopathy. Although revascularization may be considered in patients with sufficient viable myocardium, patients with predominantly scar tissue should be treated medically. Patients with left ventricular dysfunction who have viable myocardium are the patients at highest risk because of the potential for ischemia but at the same time benefit most from revascularization. It is important to identify viable myocardium in these patients, and radionuclide myocardial scintigraphy is an excellent tool for this. Single-photon emission computed tomography perfusion scintigraphy (SPECT), whether using (201)thallium, (99m)Tc-sestamibi, or (99m)Tc-tetrofosmin, in stress and/or rest protocols, has consistently been shown to be an effective modality for identifying myocardial viability and guiding appropriate management. Metabolic and perfusion imaging with positron emission tomography (PET) radiotracers frequently adds additional information and is a powerful tool for predicting which patients will have an improved outcome from revascularization. New techniques in the nuclear cardiology field, like attenuation corrected SPECT, dual isotope simultaneous acquisition (DISA) SPECT and gated FDG PET are promising and will further improve the detection of myocardial viability. Also the combination of multislice computed tomography scanners with PET opens possibilities of adding coronary calcium scoring and non-invasive coronary angiography to myocardial perfusion imaging and quantification. Evaluation of the clinical role of these creative new possibilities warrants investigation.

  9. Atmospheric pollution in the Tula Industrial Corridor studied using a bio monitor and nuclear analytical techniques

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Martinez C, M. A.; Solis, C.; Andrade, E. [UNAM, Instituto de Fisica, Apdo. Postal 20-364, 01000 Mexico D. F. (Mexico); Beltran H, R. I. [Universidad Autonoma del Estado de Hidalgo, Centro de Investigaciones Quimicas, Carretera Pachuca-Tulancingo Km. 4.5, 42184 Pachuca, Hidalgo (Mexico); Issac O, K. [Universidad Autonoma del Estado de Mexico, Facultad de Medicina, Paseo Tollocan s/n, esq. Jesus Carranza, 50120 Toluca, Estado de Mexico (Mexico); Lucho C, C. A. [Universidad Politecnica de Pachuca, Carretera Pachuca-Cd. Sahagun Km. 20, Hidalgo (Mexico); Lopez R, M. C.; Longoria, L. C. [ININ, Carretera Mexico-Toluca s/n, 52750 Ocoyoacac, Estado de Mexico (Mexico)


    This study deals with the application of nuclear analytical techniques to analyze trace elements in the biological monitor Tillandsia usneoides. Biological monitors provides an alternative advantageous way of particulate matter sampling in air pollution studies, since there is no need of special sampling devices, accumulation time can be as long as desired. T. usneoides, which occurs naturally throughout Mexico, was used to monitor air quality of Tula-Vito-Apasco (TVA) industrial corridor at central Mexico. This area is considered one of the critical zones of the country because of atmospheric contaminants high concentration. Particulate matter is regulated by Mexican norms, but its chemical composition is not. Plants were transplanted from a clean environment to four sites at the TVA corridor, and exposed for 12 weeks from February to April 2008. Trace element accumulation of plants was determined by particle induced X-ray emission and neutron activation analysis. Results reveal differences in trace elements distribution among sites in the TVA corridor. Furthermore, anthropogenic elements (S, V) and crustal elements (Ca) in T. usneoides exhibit high levels. Highly toxic elements such as Hg, As and Cr although present at trace levels, showed un enrichment relative to the initial values, when transplanted to the TVA corridor. Results show that monitoring with T. usneoides allows a first approximation of air sources to provide insights of the atmospheric pollution in the TVA corridor. (Author)

  10. Borehole techniques identifying subsurface chimney heights in loose ground-some experiences above underground nuclear explosions (United States)

    Carroll, R.D.; Lacomb, J.W.


    The location of the subsurface top of the chimney formed by the collapse of the cavity resulting from an underground nuclear explosion is examined at five sites at the Nevada Test Site. The chimneys were investigated by drilling, coring, geophysical logging (density, gamma-ray, caliper), and seismic velocity surveys. The identification of the top of the chimney can be complicated by chimney termination in friable volcanic rock of relatively high porosity. The presence of an apical void in three of the five cases is confirmed as the chimney horizon by coincidence with anomalies observed in coring, caliper and gamma-ray logging (two cases), seismic velocity, and drilling. In the two cases where an apical void is not present, several of these techniques yield anomalies at identical horizons, however, the exact depth of chimney penetration is subject to some degree of uncertainty. This is due chiefly to the extent to which core recovery and seismic velocity may be affected by perturbations in the tuff above the chimney due to the explosion and collapse. The data suggest, however, that the depth uncertainty may be only of the order of 10 m if several indicators are available. Of all indicators, core recovery and seismic velocity indicate anomalous horizons in every case. Because radiation products associated with the explosion are contained within the immediate vicinity of the cavity, gamma-ray logs are generally not diagnostic of chimney penetration. In no case is the denisty log indicative of the presence of the chimney. ?? 1993.

  11. Nuclear inelastic scattering of 1D polymeric Fe(II) complexes of 1,2,4-aminotriazole in their high-spin and low-spin state

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Wolny, Juliusz A., E-mail:; Rackwitz, Sergej [University of Kaiserslautern, Department of Physics (Germany); Achterhold, Klaus [Technische Universitaet Muenchen, Department of Physics (Germany); Muffler, Kai; Schuenemann, Volker [University of Kaiserslautern, Department of Physics (Germany)


    The vibrational properties of Fe(II) 1D spin crossover polymers have been characterized by nuclear inelastic scattering (NIS). The complexes under study were the tosylate and perchlorate salts of ([Fe(4-amino-1,2,4-triazole){sub 3}] <{sup +2}){sub n} complexes. The complexes have LS (S = 0) marker bands in the range of 300-500 cm{sup - 1}, while the marker bands corresponding to the HS (S = 2) state are detected between 200 cm{sup - 1} and 300 cm{sup - 1}, in line with the decreasing Fe-N bond strengths during the transition from LS to HS. Accompanying DFT calculations using the functional B3LYP and the basis set CEP-31G confirm these assignments.

  12. Nuclear-plus-interference-scattering effect on the energy deposition of multi-MeV protons in a dense Be plasma. (United States)

    Wang, Zhigang; Fu, Zhenguo; He, Bin; Hu, Zehua; Zhang, Ping


    The nuclear plus interference scattering (NIS) effect on the stopping power of hot dense beryllium (Be) plasma for multi-MeV protons is theoretically investigated by using the generalized Brown-Preston-Singleton (BPS) model, in which a NIS term is taken into account. The analytical formula of the NIS term is detailedly derived. By using this formula, the density and temperature dependence of the NIS effect is numerically studied, and the results show that the NIS effect becomes more and more important with increasing the plasma temperature or density. Different from the cases of protons traveling through the deuterium-tritium plasmas, for a Be plasma, a prominent oscillation valley structure is observed in the NIS term when the proton's energy is close to E_{p}=7MeV. Furthermore, the penetration distance is remarkably reduced when the NIS term is considered.

  13. Atomic and Nuclear Analytical Methods XRF, Mössbauer, XPS, NAA and Ion-Beam Spectroscopic Techniques

    CERN Document Server

    Verma, H R


    This book is a blend of analytical methods based on the phenomenon of atomic and nuclear physics. It comprises comprehensive presentations about X-ray Fluorescence (XRF), Mössbauer Spectroscopy (MS), X-ray Photoelectron Spectroscopy (XPS), Neutron- Activation Analysis (NAA), Particle Induced X-ray Emission Analysis (PIXE), Rutherford Backscattering Analysis (RBS), Elastic Recoil Detection (ERD), Nuclear Reaction Analysis (NRA), Particle Induced Gamma-ray Emission Analysis (PIGE), and Accelerator Mass Spectrometry (AMS). These techniques are commonly applied in the fields of medicine, biology, environmental studies, archaeology or geology et al. and pursued in major international research laboratories.

  14. Recharge-area nuclear waste repository in southeastern Sweden. Demonstration of hydrogeologic siting concepts and techniques

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Provost, A.M.; Voss, C.I. [U.S. Geological Survey, Reston, VA (United States)


    Nuclear waste repositories located in regional ground-water recharge ('upstream') areas may provide the safety advantage that potentially released radionuclides would have long travel time and path length, and large path volume, within the bedrock before reaching the biosphere. Nuclear waste repositories located in ground-water discharge ('downstream') areas likely have much shorter travel time and path length and smaller path volume. Because most coastal areas are near the primary discharge areas for regional ground-water flow, coastal repositories may have a lower hydrogeologic safety margin than 'upstream' repositories located inland. Advantageous recharge-area sites may be located through careful use of regional three-dimensional, variable-density, ground-water modeling. Because of normal limitations of site-characterization programs in heterogeneous bedrock environments, the hydrogeologic structure and properties of the bedrock will generally remain unknown at the spatial scales required for the model analysis, and a number of alternative bedrock descriptions are equally likely. Model simulations need to be carried out for the full range of possible descriptions. The favorable sites are those that perform well for all of the modeled bedrock descriptions. Structural heterogeneities in the bedrock and local undulations in water-table topography, at a scale finer than considered by a given model, also may cause some locations in favored inland areas to have very short flow paths (of only hundreds of meters) and short travel times, compromising the long times and paths (of many kilometers) predicted by the analysis for these sites. However, in the absence of more detailed modeling, the favored upstream sites offer a greater chance of achieving long times and paths than do downstream discharge areas, where times and paths are expected to be short regardless of the level of detail included in the model. As an example of this siting

  15. The effect of the electron scattering phase shifts upon the computational outcomes of the Low-Energy Electron Diffraction technique (United States)

    Adas, Sonya; Meyers, Lisa; Caragiu, Mellita


    In a typical Low-Energy Electron Diffraction (LEED) investigation of a crystal surface, the electrons probing the surface are scattered by the atoms in the sample. The scattering process introduces phase shifts in the waves associated to the incoming electrons. An investigation of how these phase shifts influence the results of a LEED calculation are presented for the fairly complicated Cu(511) stepped surface. The phase shifts have been calculated using the Barbieri/Van Hove Phase Shift Package. The phase shifts considered correspond to copper atoms arranged in various planes of the copper crystal: (100), (111), and a close approximation of the (511) plane.

  16. Models of signal validation using artificial intelligence techniques applied to a nuclear reactor; Modelos de validacao de sinal utilizando tecnicas de inteligencia artificial aplicados a um reator nuclear

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Oliveira, Mauro V. [Instituto de Engenharia Nuclear (IEN), Rio de Janeiro, RJ (Brazil); Schirru, Roberto [Universidade Federal, Rio de Janeiro, RJ (Brazil). Coordenacao dos Programas de Pos-graduacao de Engenharia


    This work presents two models of signal validation in which the analytical redundancy of the monitored signals from a nuclear plant is made by neural networks. In one model the analytical redundancy is made by only one neural network while in the other it is done by several neural networks, each one working in a specific part of the entire operation region of the plant. Four cluster techniques were tested to separate the entire operation region in several specific regions. An additional information of systems' reliability is supplied by a fuzzy inference system. The models were implemented in C language and tested with signals acquired from Angra I nuclear power plant, from its start to 100% of power. (author)

  17. Investigation of mass reconstruction techniques for resonances in the scattering of $W^{\\pm}W^{\\pm} \\to W^{\\pm}W^{\\pm}$ at the LHC

    CERN Document Server

    Todt, Stefanie; Zuber, Kai

    Physics scenarios of electroweak symmetry breaking beyond the Standard Model introduce new resonances in the scattering of massive, weak gauge bosons. Due to the best signal to background ratio, the like-sign "W^{\\pm}W^{\\pm}"jj channel is the most favourable final state for a first glance at resonances in vector boson scattering (VBS) at a hadron collider such as the LHC. Resonances in this scattering process can be modelled with the approach of an effective field theory and the K-matrix unitarisation method. This thesis presents a study of mass reconstruction of resonances in the fully leptonic decay channel of like-sign "W^{\\pm}W^{\\pm}" scattering. Special emphasis lies on the technique of constrained minimisation leading to mass bound variables. For different resonance types, variables providing the best discovery potential in proton-proton collisions at a centre-of-mass energy of "\\unit[8]{TeV}" and an integrated luminosity of "\\unit[20]{fb^{-1}}" are determined and characterised.

  18. Structure, spectra and antioxidant action of ascorbic acid studied by density functional theory, Raman spectroscopic and nuclear magnetic resonance techniques. (United States)

    Singh, Gurpreet; Mohanty, B P; Saini, G S S


    Structure, vibrational and nuclear magnetic resonance spectra, and antioxidant action of ascorbic acid towards hydroxyl radicals have been studied computationally and in vitro by ultraviolet-visible, nuclear magnetic resonance and vibrational spectroscopic techniques. Time dependant density functional theory calculations have been employed to specify various electronic transitions in ultraviolet-visible spectra. Observed chemical shifts and vibrational bands in nuclear magnetic resonance and vibrational spectra, respectively have been assigned with the help of calculations. Changes in the structure of ascorbic acid in aqueous phase have been examined computationally and experimentally by recording Raman spectra in aqueous medium. Theoretical calculations of the interaction between ascorbic acid molecule and hydroxyl radical predicted the formation of dehydroascorbic acid as first product, which has been confirmed by comparing its simulated spectra with the corresponding spectra of ascorbic acid in presence of hydrogen peroxide. Copyright © 2015 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  19. Beam loss and backgrounds in the CDF and D0 detectors due to nuclear elastic beam-gas scattering

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Alexandr I. Drozhdin; Valery A. Lebedev; Nikolai V. Mokhov


    Detailed simulations were performed on beam loss rates in the vicinity of the Tevatron Collider detectors due to beam-gas nuclear elastic interactions. It turns out that this component can drive the accelerator-related background rates in the CDF and D0 detectors, exceeding those due to outscattering from collimation system, inelastic beam-gas interactions and other processes [1, 2]. Results of realistic simulations with the STRUCT and MARS codes are presented for the interaction region components and the CDF and D0 detectors. It is shown that a steel mask placed upstream of the detectors can reduce the background rates by almost an order of magnitude.

  20. FDTD scattered field formulation for scatterers in stratified dispersive media. (United States)

    Olkkonen, Juuso


    We introduce a simple scattered field (SF) technique that enables finite difference time domain (FDTD) modeling of light scattering from dispersive objects residing in stratified dispersive media. The introduced SF technique is verified against the total field scattered field (TFSF) technique. As an application example, we study surface plasmon polariton enhanced light transmission through a 100 nm wide slit in a silver film.

  1. Exploratory Nuclear Reactor Safety Analysis and Visualization via Integrated Topological and Geometric Techniques

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Maljovec, Dan [Univ. of Utah, Salt Lake City, UT (United States); Wang, Bei [Univ. of Utah, Salt Lake City, UT (United States); Pascucci, Valerio [Univ. of Utah, Salt Lake City, UT (United States); Bremer, Peer-Timo [Lawrence Livermore National Lab. (LLNL), Livermore, CA (United States); Mandelli, Diego [Idaho National Lab. (INL), Idaho Falls, ID (United States); Pernice, Michael [Idaho National Lab. (INL), Idaho Falls, ID (United States); Nourgaliev, Robert [Idaho National Lab. (INL), Idaho Falls, ID (United States)


    A recent trend in the nuclear power engineering field is the implementation of heavily computational and time consuming algorithms and codes for both design and safety analysis. In particular, the new generation of system analysis codes aim to embrace several phenomena such as thermo-hydraulic, structural behavior, and system dynamics, as well as uncertainty quantification and sensitivity analyses. The use of dynamic probabilistic risk assessment (PRA) methodologies allows a systematic approach to uncertainty quantification. Dynamic methodologies in PRA account for possible coupling between triggered or stochastic events through explicit consideration of the time element in system evolution, often through the use of dynamic system models (simulators). They are usually needed when the system has more than one failure mode, control loops, and/or hardware/process/software/human interaction. Dynamic methodologies are also capable of modeling the consequences of epistemic and aleatory uncertainties. The Monte-Carlo (MC) and the Dynamic Event Tree (DET) approaches belong to this new class of dynamic PRA methodologies. The major challenges in using MC and DET methodologies (as well as other dynamic methodologies) are the heavier computational and memory requirements compared to the classical ET analysis. This is due to the fact that each branch generated can contain time evolutions of a large number of variables (about 50,000 data channels are typically present in RELAP) and a large number of scenarios can be generated from a single initiating event (possibly on the order of hundreds or even thousands). Such large amounts of information are usually very difficult to organize in order to identify the main trends in scenario evolutions and the main risk contributors for each initiating event. This report aims to improve Dynamic PRA methodologies by tackling the two challenges mentioned above using: 1) adaptive sampling techniques to reduce computational cost of the analysis

  2. Nondestructive Inspection System for Special Nuclear Material Using Inertial Electrostatic Confinement Fusion Neutrons and Laser Compton Scattering Gamma-Rays (United States)

    Ohgaki, H.; Daito, I.; Zen, H.; Kii, T.; Masuda, K.; Misawa, T.; Hajima, R.; Hayakawa, T.; Shizuma, T.; Kando, M.; Fujimoto, S.


    A Neutron/Gamma-ray combined inspection system for hidden special nuclear materials (SNMs) in cargo containers has been developed under a program of Japan Science and Technology Agency in Japan. This inspection system consists of an active neutron-detection system for fast screening and a laser Compton backscattering gamma-ray source in coupling with nuclear resonance fluorescence (NRF) method for precise inspection. The inertial electrostatic confinement fusion device has been adopted as a neutron source and two neutron-detection methods, delayed neutron noise analysis method and high-energy neutron-detection method, have been developed to realize the fast screening system. The prototype system has been constructed and tested in the Reactor Research Institute, Kyoto University. For the generation of the laser Compton backscattering gamma-ray beam, a race track microtron accelerator has been used to reduce the size of the system. For the NRF measurement, an array of LaBr3(Ce) scintillation detectors has been adopted to realize a low-cost detection system. The prototype of the gamma-ray system has been demonstrated in the Kansai Photon Science Institute, National Institutes for Quantum and Radiological Science and Technology. By using numerical simulations based on the data taken from these prototype systems and the inspection-flow, the system designed by this program can detect 1 kg of highly enriched 235U (HEU) hidden in an empty 20-ft container within several minutes.

  3. Implementation of 3D-Imaging technique for visual testing in a nuclear reactor pressure vessel


    Tanco, André


    This master thesis has been performed by request of Dekra Industrial AB. Dekra Industrial AB is a Swedish subsidiary company of the German company Dekra and works for example with safety inspections within the nuclear power industry. The inspections performed by the company are often non-destructive testing (NDT) such as visual inspections of nuclear reactor pressure vessels. The inspection methods used today are considered to be further developed and there is a strong demand of improving the...

  4. CBRN Decontamination: Multiservice Tactics, Techniques, and Procedures for Chemical, Biological, Radiological, and Nuclear Decontamination (United States)


    conflict in the former Yugoslavia, Muslim forces deliberately positioned canisters of chlorine from the Tuzla industrial chemical plant to deter Serb...Listeriosis ( Listeria monocytogenes) Less than 24 hours Diffused light: 24 but not 48 hours In sun; soil surface: 12 days (2-3 cm...biological material Laboratories and storage facilities Radiological Nuclear fuel and medical sources Nuclear power plants , medical facilities, industrial

  5. Stereological estimates of nuclear volume and other quantitative variables in supratentorial brain tumors. Practical technique and use in prognostic evaluation

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Sørensen, Flemming Brandt; Braendgaard, H; Chistiansen, A O


    the practical technique. The continuous variables were correlated with the subjective, qualitative WHO classification of brain tumors, and the prognostic value of the parameters was assessed. Well differentiated astrocytomas (n = 14) had smaller estimates of the volume-weighted mean nuclear volume and mean...... was significantly increased in glioblastomas (2p = 0.01). Three-dimensional, shape-independent estimates of macroscopical tumor volume were not different in anaplastic astrocytomas and glioblastomas (2p = 0.39). Histological type of tumor and mitotic index were of significant prognostic value (2p = 8.2.10(-6) and 2...... techniques in the prognostic evaluation of primary brain tumors....


    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    O. N. Poklonskaya


    Full Text Available Results of measurements of Raman scattering at the room temperature in air in boron doped synthetic diamonds (five with boron concentrations 2·1017; 6·1017; 2·1018; 1,7·1019; 1·1020 cm–3 and one intentionally undoped are presented. The laser with wavelength 532 nm was used for Raman scattering excitation. Dependences of integral intensity and halfwidth of diamond Raman line with respect to the doping level are presented. In the geometrical optics approximation an expression for doped to undoped integral intensity ratio is obtained. Qualitative estimates of conductivity of the studied samples are conducted. The obtained results can be applied for mapping of near-surface laser radiation absorption coefficient of synthetic single crystal diamonds and for their quality control.

  7. Observation of Oxygen Frenkel Disorder in Uranium Dioxide above 2000 K by Use of Neutron-Scattering Techniques

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Clausen, Kurt Nørgaard; Hayes, W.; Macdonald, J E.


    Diffraction and coherent diffuse quasielastic scattering of neutrons have been used to investigate Frenkel disorder of the oxygen sublattice in single crystals of stoichiometric UO2. Measurements were made up to 2900 K using a special high-temperature furnace. The results provide the first direct...... evidence for the occurrence of Frenkel disorder in UO2 and enable estimates of the defect concentration and activation energy to be made....

  8. Simulation study of the backward-scattering effect in Compton imager. (United States)

    Xiaofeng, Guo; Qingpei, Xiang; Dongfeng, Tian; Yi, Wang; Fanhua, Hao; Yingzeng, Zhang; Chengsheng, Chu; Na, Liang


    In the field of nuclear medicine, nuclear security and astrophysics, Compton imaging is a promising technique for gamma-ray source imaging. We are developing a Compton imager using two layers of CdZnTe pixel array detectors. In this paper, the backward-scattering effect within such imagers is numerically studied using Geant4 Monte Carlo Package. From images reconstructed based on forward-scattering and backward-scattering imaging events, the imaging precision was investigated in a comparative analysis, in regard to energy resolution and position resolution. Furthermore, to establish a method to use backward-scattering imaging events properly so that the imaging efficiency can be significantly improved, the difference between reconstruction from forward-scattering and backward-scattering imaging events was analyzed to uncover a causal mechanism. Copyright © 2017 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  9. Elastic scattering phenomenology

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Mackintosh, R.S. [The Open University, School of Physical Sciences, Milton Keynes (United Kingdom)


    We argue that, in many situations, fits to elastic scattering data that were historically, and frequently still are, considered ''good'', are not justifiably so describable. Information about the dynamics of nucleon-nucleus and nucleus-nucleus scattering is lost when elastic scattering phenomenology is insufficiently ambitious. It is argued that in many situations, an alternative approach is appropriate for the phenomenology of nuclear elastic scattering of nucleons and other light nuclei. The approach affords an appropriate means of evaluating folding models, one that fully exploits available empirical data. It is particularly applicable for nucleons and other light ions. (orig.)

  10. EFDA Task TW6-TPDS-DIADEV deliverable 2: ITER Fast Ion Collective Scattering Development of diagnostic components and techniques

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Michelsen, S.; Bindslev, Henrik; Korsholm, Søren Bang

    In 2003 the Risø CTS group finished a feasibility study and a conceptual design of an ITER fast ion collective Thomson scattering system. The purpose of the CTS diagnostic is to measure the distribution function of fast ions in the plasma with particular interest in fusion alphas. The feasibility...... experiment was set up in order to test and support the theoretical and numerical results. From the design studies various R&D issues critical to the viability of the CTS diagnostic on ITER were identified; the most urgent ones are addressed in the presented R&D tasks....

  11. Implementation of variance-reduction techniques for Monte Carlo nuclear logging calculations with neutron sources

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Maucec, M


    Monte Carlo simulations for nuclear logging applications are considered to be highly demanding transport problems. In this paper, the implementation of weight-window variance reduction schemes in a 'manual' fashion to improve the efficiency of calculations for a neutron logging tool is presented.

  12. [Nuclear techniques in nutrition: assessment of body fat and intake of human milk in breast-fed infants]. (United States)

    Pallaro, Anabel; Tarducci, Gabriel


    The application of nuclear techniques in the area of nutrition is safe because they use stable isotopes. The deuterium dilution method is used in body composition and human milk intake analysis. It is a reference method for body fat and validates inexpensive tools because of its accuracy, simplicity of application in individuals and population and the background of its usefulness in adults and children as an evaluation tool in clinical and health programs. It is a non-invasive technique as it uses saliva, which facilitates the assessment in pediatric populations. Changes in body fat are associated with non-communicable diseases; moreover, normal weight individuals with high fat deposition were reported. Furthermore, this technique is the only accurate way to determine whether infants are exclusively breast-fed and validate conventional methods based on surveys to mothers.

  13. Porosity and hydraulic conductivity estimation of the basaltic aquifer in Southern Syria by using nuclear and electrical well logging techniques (United States)

    Asfahani, Jamal


    An alternative approach using nuclear neutron-porosity and electrical resistivity well logging of long (64 inch) and short (16 inch) normal techniques is proposed to estimate the porosity and the hydraulic conductivity ( K) of the basaltic aquifers in Southern Syria. This method is applied on the available logs of Kodana well in Southern Syria. It has been found that the obtained K value by applying this technique seems to be reasonable and comparable with the hydraulic conductivity value of 3.09 m/day obtained by the pumping test carried out at Kodana well. The proposed alternative well logging methodology seems as promising and could be practiced in the basaltic environments for the estimation of hydraulic conductivity parameter. However, more detailed researches are still required to make this proposed technique very performed in basaltic environments.

  14. Basalt identification by interpreting nuclear and electrical well logging measurements using fuzzy technique (case study from southern Syria). (United States)

    Asfahani, J; Abdul Ghani, B; Ahmad, Z


    Fuzzy analysis technique is proposed in this research for interpreting the combination of nuclear and electrical well logging data, which include natural gamma ray, density and neutron-porosity, while the electrical well logging include long and short normal. The main objective of this work is to describe, characterize and establish the lithology of the large extended basaltic areas in southern Syria. Kodana well logging measurements have been used and interpreted for testing and applying the proposed technique. The established lithological cross section shows the distribution and the identification of four kinds of basalt, which are hard massive basalt, hard basalt, pyroclastic basalt and the alteration basalt products, clay. The fuzzy analysis technique is successfully applied on the Kodana well logging data, and can be therefore utilized as a powerful tool for interpreting huge well logging data with higher number of variables required for lithological estimations. Copyright © 2015 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  15. Statistical factor analysis technique for characterizing basalt through interpreting nuclear and electrical well logging data (case study from Southern Syria). (United States)

    Asfahani, Jamal


    Factor analysis technique is proposed in this research for interpreting the combination of nuclear well logging, including natural gamma ray, density and neutron-porosity, and the electrical well logging of long and short normal, in order to characterize the large extended basaltic areas in southern Syria. Kodana well logging data are used for testing and applying the proposed technique. The four resulting score logs enable to establish the lithological score cross-section of the studied well. The established cross-section clearly shows the distribution and the identification of four kinds of basalt which are hard massive basalt, hard basalt, pyroclastic basalt and the alteration basalt products, clay. The factor analysis technique is successfully applied on the Kodana well logging data in southern Syria, and can be used efficiently when several wells and huge well logging data with high number of variables are required to be interpreted. © 2013 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  16. Review of geotechnical measurement techniques for a nuclear waste repository in bedded salt

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)


    This report presents a description of geotechnical measurement techniques that can provide the data necessary for safe development - i.e., location, design, construction, operation, decommissioning and abandonment - of a radioactive waste repository in bedded salt. Geotechnical data obtained by a diversity of measurement techniques are required during all phases of respository evolution. The techniques discussed in this report are grouped in the following categories: geologic, geophysical and geodetic; rock mechanics; hydrologic, hydrogeologic and water quality; and thermal. The major contribution of the report is the presentation of extensive tables that provide a review of available measurement techniques for each of these categories. The techniques are also discussed in the text to the extent necessary to describe the measurements and associated instruments, and to evaluate the applicability or limitations of the method. More detailed discussions of thermal phenomena, creep laws and geophysical methods are contained in the appendices; references to detailed explanations of measurement techniques and instrumentation are inluded throughout the report.

  17. Review of geochemical measurement techniques for a nuclear waste repository in bedded salt

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Knauss, K.G.; Steinborn, T.L.


    A broad, general review is presented of geochemical measurement techniques that can provide data necessary for site selection and repository effectiveness assessment for a radioactive waste repository in bedded salt. The available measurement techniques are organized according to the parameter measured. The list of geochemical parameters include all those measurable geochemical properties of a sample whole values determine the geochemical characteristics or behavior of the system. For each technique, remarks are made pertaining to the operating principles of the measurement instrument and the purpose for which the technique is used. Attention is drawn to areas where further research and development are needed.

  18. Uncertainty Quantification Techniques for Sensor Calibration Monitoring in Nuclear Power Plants

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Ramuhalli, Pradeep; Lin, Guang; Crawford, Susan L.; Konomi, Bledar A.; Braatz, Brett G.; Coble, Jamie B.; Shumaker, Brent; Hashemian, Hash


    This report describes the status of ongoing research towards the development of advanced algorithms for online calibration monitoring. The objective of this research is to develop the next generation of online monitoring technologies for sensor calibration interval extension and signal validation in operating and new reactors. These advances are expected to improve the safety and reliability of current and planned nuclear power systems as a result of higher accuracies and increased reliability of sensors used to monitor key parameters. The focus of this report is on documenting the outcomes of the first phase of R&D under this project, which addressed approaches to uncertainty quantification (UQ) in online monitoring that are data-driven, and can therefore adjust estimates of uncertainty as measurement conditions change. Such data-driven approaches to UQ are necessary to address changing plant conditions, for example, as nuclear power plants experience transients, or as next-generation small modular reactors (SMR) operate in load-following conditions.

  19. Uncertainty Quantification Techniques for Sensor Calibration Monitoring in Nuclear Power Plants

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Ramuhalli, Pradeep; Lin, Guang; Crawford, Susan L.; Konomi, Bledar A.; Coble, Jamie B.; Shumaker, Brent; Hashemian, Hash


    This report describes research towards the development of advanced algorithms for online calibration monitoring. The objective of this research is to develop the next generation of online monitoring technologies for sensor calibration interval extension and signal validation in operating and new reactors. These advances are expected to improve the safety and reliability of current and planned nuclear power systems as a result of higher accuracies and increased reliability of sensors used to monitor key parameters. The focus of this report is on documenting the outcomes of the first phase of R&D under this project, which addressed approaches to uncertainty quantification (UQ) in online monitoring that are data-driven, and can therefore adjust estimates of uncertainty as measurement conditions change. Such data-driven approaches to UQ are necessary to address changing plant conditions, for example, as nuclear power plants experience transients, or as next-generation small modular reactors (SMR) operate in load-following conditions.

  20. Formulation development of therapeutic monoclonal antibodies using high-throughput fluorescence and static light scattering techniques: role of conformational and colloidal stability. (United States)

    Goldberg, Deborah S; Bishop, Steven M; Shah, Ambarish U; Sathish, Hasige A


    In this work, we describe the application of two different high-throughput screening (HTS) techniques that can be used to determine protein stability during early formulation development. Differential scanning fluorescence (DSF) and differential static light scattering (DSLS) are used to determine the conformational and colloidal stability of therapeutic monoclonal antibodies (mAbs) during thermal denaturation in a high-throughput fashion. DSF utilizes SYPRO Orange, a polarity-sensitive extrinsic fluorescent probe, to monitor protein unfolding. We found that melting temperatures determined by DSF have a linear correlation with melting temperatures of the first domain unfolding determined by differential scanning calorimetry, establishing DSF as a reliable method for measuring thermal stability. The DSLS method employs static light scattering to evaluate protein stability during thermal denaturation in a 384-well format. Overall comparison between mAb aggregation under typical accelerated stress conditions (40°C) and the thermal stability obtained by DSF and DSLS is also presented. Both of these HTS methods are cost effective with high-throughput capability and can be implemented in any laboratory. Combined with other emerging HTS techniques, DSF and DSLS could be powerful tools for mAb formulation optimization. Copyright © 2010 Wiley-Liss, Inc.

  1. Measurement of nuclear fuel rod deformation using an image processing technique

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Cho, Jai Wan; Choi, Young Soo; Jeong, Kyung Min [Korea Atomic Energy Research Institute, Daejeon (Korea, Republic of); Shin, Jung Cheol [KEPCO Nuclear Fuel, Daejeon (Korea, Republic of)


    In this paper, a deformation measurement technology for nuclear fuel rods is proposed. The deformation measurement system includes a high-definition CMOS image sensor, a lens, a semiconductor laser line beam marker, and optical and mechanical accessories. The basic idea of the proposed deformation measurement system is to illuminate the outer surface of a fuel rod with a collimated laser line beam at an angle of 45 degrees or higher. For this method, it is assumed that a nuclear fuel rod and the optical axis of the image sensor for observing the rod are vertically composed. The relative motion of the fuel rod in the horizontal direction causes the illuminated laser line beam to move vertically along the surface of the fuel rod. The resulting change of the laser line beam position on the surface of the fuel rod is imaged as a parabolic beam in the high definition CMOS image sensor. An ellipse model is then extracted from the parabolic beam pattern. The center coordinates of the ellipse model are taken as the feature of the deformed fuel rod. The vertical offset of the feature point of the nuclear fuel rod is derived based on the displacement of the offset in the horizontal direction. Based on the experimental results for a nuclear fuel rod sample with a formation of surface crud, an inspection resolution of 50 is achieved using the proposed method. In terms of the degree of precision, this inspection resolution is an improvement of more than 300% from a 150 {mu}m resolution, which is the conventional measurement criteria required for the deformation of neutron irradiated fuel rods

  2. Helium diffusion in R7T7 nuclear glass investigated by NRA technique

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Chamssedine, F.; Sauvage, T. [CNRS-CEMHTI, Site Cyclotron, 3A rue de la Ferollerie, 45071 Orleans Cedex2 (France); Peuget, S. [CEA Valrho-Marcoule, DEN/DTCD/SECM/LMPA, BP 17171, 30207 Bagnols-sur-Ceze cedex (France); Martin, G. [CEA Cadarache, DEC/DEN/SESC/LLCC, 13108 St Paul Lez Durance cedex (France)


    The mechanisms related to helium migration into R7T7 nuclear waste glass is studied from the evolution of the concentration profiles as a function of the annealing conditions. The presence of helium is simulated by implantation of 600 keV {sup 3}He ions into nuclear glass disks at 150 K. The fluence analyzed in this paper is 2.10{sup 16}{sup -2} (36.10{sup 19} at./g). Helium depth profile after the various annealing stages is determined by the {sup 3}He(d,{alpha}){sup 1}H Nuclear Reaction Analysis method. The results show the mobility of helium at temperature as low as 253 K. Simple modeling based on a diffusion process using a Fick's law is used to determinate, from the depth profile change, thermal diffusion coefficient D at temperatures in the range 253 K to 323 K. The activation energy was then estimated by Arrhenius plot at 0.54 {+-} 0.01 eV. (authors)

  3. Evaluation of Non-Nuclear Techniques for Well Logging: Technology Evaluation

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Bond, Leonard J.; Denslow, Kayte M.; Griffin, Jeffrey W.; Dale, Gregory E.; Harris, Robert V.; Moran, Traci L.; Sheen, David M.; Schenkel, Thomas


    This report presents an initial review of the state-of-the-art nuclear and non-nuclear well logging methods and seeks to understand the technical and economic issues if AmBe, and potentially other isotope sources, are reduced or even eliminated in the oil-field services industry. Prior to considering alternative logging technologies, there is a definite need to open up discussions with industry regarding the feasibility and acceptability of source replacement. Industry views appear to range from those who see AmBe as vital and irreplaceable to those who believe that, with research and investment, it may be possible to transition to electronic neutron sources and employ combinations of non-nuclear technologies to acquire the desired petro-physical parameters. In one sense, the simple answer to the question as to whether petro-physical parameters can be sensed with technologies other than AmBe is probably "Yes". The challenges come when attention turns to record interpretation. The many decades of existing records form a very valuable proprietary resource, and the interpretation of subtle features contained in these records are of significant value to the oil-gas exploration community to correctly characterize a well. The demonstration of equivalence and correspondence/correlation between established and any new sensing modality, and correlations with historic records is critical to ensuring accurate data interpretation. Establishing the technical basis for such a demonstration represents a significant effort.

  4. Nuclear spectroscopy

    CERN Document Server

    Ajzenberg-Selove, Fay


    Nuclear Spectroscopy, Part B focuses on the ways in which experimental data may be analyzed to furnish information about nuclear parameters and nuclear models in terms of which the data are interpreted.This book discusses the elastic and inelastic potential scattering amplitudes, role of beta decay in nuclear physics, and general selection rules for electromagnetic transitions. The nuclear shell model, fundamental coupling procedure, vibrational spectra, and empirical determination of the complex potential are also covered. This publication is suitable for graduate students preparing for exper

  5. Early detection of precancer using Polarized Light Scattering Spectroscopy (United States)

    Gurjar, Rajan; Backman, Vadim; Itzkan, Irving; Dasari, Ramachandra; Perelman, Lev; Feld, Michael; Badizadegan, Kamran


    We have developed a light scattering technique to detect early pre-cancerous changes in the tissues which, line the epithelial surfaces of the body. The majority of cancers are epithelial in nature. We use light reflection spectroscopy to observe the earliest sign, the enlargement of the index of the cells which, line this layer. Our method is based on the feature that single scattering in the backward direction retains the polarization of the light incident on nucleus in the epithelial layer whereas multiple scattering destroys the polarization. Collecting the backscattering spectral intensities of both polarizations, and taking their difference, we extract the single scattering component. The signals are analyzed to extract the nuclear density, size and the relative refractive index. The experimental results will be presented to illustrate the physical basis of the technique, and its biological application.

  6. Stereological estimates of nuclear volume and other quantitative variables in supratentorial brain tumors. Practical technique and use in prognostic evaluation

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Sørensen, Flemming Brandt; Braendgaard, H; Chistiansen, A O


    the practical technique. The continuous variables were correlated with the subjective, qualitative WHO classification of brain tumors, and the prognostic value of the parameters was assessed. Well differentiated astrocytomas (n = 14) had smaller estimates of the volume-weighted mean nuclear volume and mean......p approximately 0.05, respectively). Age above the median and short duration of symptoms were significantly associated with short survival (2p = 0.01). Further investigations of larger series of patients are needed to define the clinical usefulness of these objective, reproducible, and quantitative...

  7. Relation between ultrasonic scattering and microstructure of polycrystalline materials

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Dupond, O; Feuilly, N; Chassignole, B [EDF R and D, Material and Mecanics of Components Department, Site des Renardieres, 77818 Moret-sur-Loing (France); Fouquet, T [EDF R and D, Neutronics simulation, information technologies and scientific calculations department, Clamart (France); Moysan, J; Corneloup, G [Laboratoire de Caracterisation Non-Destructive, Universite de la Mediterranee, 13625 Aix-en-Provence (France)


    Ultrasonic testing is a very common volumetric technique used in industry in order to detect and characterized defects. Within the framework of the maintenance of its nuclear power stations, Electricite de France (EDF) uses this technique on various components. In the case of polycrystalline materials, the scattering of the ultrasonic wave can result in an important attenuation of the signal and the appearance of structural noise. In the present study, we propose to analyze scattering noise in relation to the microstructure of the material. Both experimental and 2D finite elements modelling results are presented for different controlled structure of an homogeneous and isotropic Ni-based alloy.

  8. Nuclear and non-nuclear techniques for area-wide assessment of water use efficiency and ecohydrology outcomes among mixed land uses (United States)

    Burgess, S. S. O.; Nguyen, M. L.


    Managing water use efficiency and ecohydrology is important for providing food, water and essential ecosystem services. Many agricultural, ecological, atmospheric and hydrological processes cannot be meaningfully managed without an area-wide or catchment-level perspective. However a vast number of factors, including mixed land uses are incorporated at such scales. There is a need for integrative, mobile and adaptable techniques to make water related measurements over large areas and mixed land uses. Nuclear techniques and analogous non-nuclear techniques may be deployed in a number of spheres within the soil-plant-atmosphere continuum (e.g. rhizosphere and above-canopy microclimate) with nuclear techniques having a distinct contribution owing to their unique ability to trace biogeochemical processes including the movement and transformation of water, nutrients and agrochemicals. 1) Soils. Isotopes can be used to trace water sources to understand groundwater dependence, rooting depth, etc. but not at all sites: early success in central USA studies has not always been repeatable in climates which produce more uniform isotopic signatures in various water sources. Soil water resources available to crops can also be studied using neutron moisture meters, but training, transport and safety issues argue for stringent management and inclusion of electrical capacitance probes for routine or automated applications. Results from capacitance probes can benefit from benchmarking against neutron probe measurements, which remain more powerful for sampling larger volumes in cases of heterogenous soils or where salinity levels are problematic. Because interpretation of soil water content in terms of plant available water also requires knowledge of soil organic matter characteristics, 13C and compound specific stable isotopes can help to identify changes in soil organic matter composition and hence water and plant nutrient availability. 2) Plants. Analysis of carbon isotope

  9. A novel technique to detect special nuclear material using cosmic rays

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    C. Thomay


    Full Text Available Resistive plate chambers (RPCs are widely used in high energy physics for both tracking and triggering purposes, due to their excellent time resolution, rate capability, and good spatial resolution. RPCs can be produced cost-effectively on large scales, are of rugged build, and have excellent detection efficiency for charged particles. Our group has successfully built a muon scattering tomography (MST prototype, using 12 RPCs to obtain tracking information of muons going through a target volume of ∼ 50 cm × 50 cm × 70 cm, reconstructing both the incoming and outgoing muon tracks. The required spatial granularity is achieved by using 330 readout strips per RPC with 1.5 mm pitch. The RPCs have shown an efficiency above 99% and an estimated intrinsic resolution below 1.1 mm. Due to these qualities, RPCs serve as excellent candidates for usage in volcano radiography.

  10. 15 years in promoting the use of isotopic and nuclear technique for combating land degradation and soil erosion: the contribution of the Joint FAO/IAEA Division of Nuclear Techniques in Food and Agriculture (United States)

    Mabit, Lionel; Toloza, Arsenio; Heng, Lee


    Techniques in Food and Agriculture has developed research and development activities and capacity building to combat soil degradation (especially soil erosion) and to foster climate smart agriculture. More than 70 FAO/IAEA Member States have benefitted from the technical support and guidance in using fallout radionuclides (FRNs) and Compound-Specific Stable Isotope (CSSI) techniques to trace soil movement and assess soil erosion at different spatial and temporal scales, and to evaluate the effectiveness of soil conservation strategies to ensure sustainable land management. This contribution summarizes the historical background and the latest innovative activities conducted by the Joint FAO/IAEA Division, as well as the main advantages and complementarity of stable and radioisotopic tracers to conventional techniques when investigating land degradation. As examples of the significant role played by the Joint FAO/IAEA Division, two major outcomes achieved in Africa (i.e. Madagascar and Morocco) through the use of isotopic and nuclear techniques will be elaborated. The authors will also report on a new 5-year Co-ordinated Research Project (CRP) funded by the IAEA on "Nuclear Techniques for a Better Understanding of the Impact of Climate Change on Soil Erosion in Upland Agro-ecosystems" which involves key research institutions from 12 participating countries.

  11. Fundamentals of neutron scattering by condensed matter

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Scherm, R. [Institut Max von Laue - Paul Langevin (ILL), 38 - Grenoble (France)


    The purpose of this introductory lecture is to give the basic facts about the scattering of neutrons by condensed matter. This lecture is restricted to nuclear scattering, whereas magnetic scattering will be dealt with in an other course. Most of the formalism, however, can also be easily extended to magnetic scattering. (author) 17 figs., 3 tabs., 10 refs.

  12. A new SERS: scattering enhanced Raman scattering (United States)

    Bixler, Joel N.; Yakovlev, Vladislav V.


    Raman spectroscopy is a powerful technique that can be used to obtain detailed chemical information about a system without the need for chemical markers. It has been widely used for a variety of applications such as cancer diagnosis and material characterization. However, Raman scattering is a highly inefficient process, where only one in 1011 scattered photons carry the needed information. Several methods have been developed to enhance this inherently weak effect, including surface enhanced Raman scattering and coherent anti-Stokes Raman scattering. These techniques suffer from drawbacks limiting their commercial use, such as the need for spatial localization of target molecules to a `hot spot', or the need for complex laser systems. Here, we present a simple instrument to enhance spontaneous Raman scattering using elastic light scattering. Elastic scattering is used to substantially increase the interaction volume. Provided that the scattering medium exhibits very low absorption in the spectral range of interest, a large enhancement factor can be attained in a simple and inexpensive setting. In our experiments, we demonstrate an enhancement of 107 in Raman signal intensity. The proposed novel device is equally applicable for analyzing solids, liquids, and gases.

  13. Evaluation of Non-Nuclear Techniques for Well Logging: Final Report

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Bond, Leonard J.; Griffin, Jeffrey W.; Harris, R. V.; Denslow, Kayte M.; Moran, Traci L.


    The focus of this study is the understanding of the technical obstacles that hinder the replacement of and the disadvantages from the loss of extensive interpretation experience based on data accumulated with AmBe. Enhanced acoustic and electromagnetic sensing methods in combination with non-isotope-based well logging techniques have the potential to complement and/or replace existing isotope-based techniques, providing the opportunity to reduce oil industry dependence on isotopic sources such as AmBe.

  14. Morphologic characterization and quantitative analysis on in vitro bacteria by nuclear techniques of measurement; Caracterizacao morfologica e analise quantitativa de bacterias in vitro por tecnicas nucleares de medidas

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Lopes, Joana D' Arc Ramos


    The great difficulty to identify microorganisms (bacteria) from infectious processes is related to the necessary time to obtain a reliable result, about 72 hours. The purpose of this work is to establish a faster method to characterize bacterial morphologies through the use of neutron radiography, which can take about 5 hours. The samples containing the microorganisms, bacteria with different morphologies, after the appropriate microbiologic procedures were incubated with B{sup 10} for 30 minutes and soon after deposited in a plate of a solid detector of nuclear tracks (SSNTD), denominated CR-39. To obtain the images relative to bacteria, the detector was submitted to the flow of thermal neutrons of the order of 2.2 x 10{sup 5} n/cm{sup 2}.s from the J-9 channel of the Reactor Argonauta (IEN/CNEN). To observe the images from bacteria in each sample under an optical microscope, the sheets were chemically developed. The analysis of the images revealed morphologic differences among the genera (Gram positive from Gram-negative and coccus from bacillus), in samples containing either isolated or mixed bacteria. We thus verified the viability of the technique to achieve morphological characterization of different microorganisms. A quantitative approach seemed also to be feasible with the technique. The whole process took about 2 hours. (author)

  15. MMCT-mediated chromosome engineering technique applicable to functional analysis of lncRNA and nuclear dynamics. (United States)

    Meguro-Horike, Makiko; Horike, Shin-Ichi


    Recent evidence implicated several long noncoding RNA (lncRNA) in gene expression in cis or trans through regulating the local chromosomal architecture. However, the mechanisms underlying the lncRNA mediated silencing of multiple genes remain unknown. We believe that Microcell Mediated Chromosome Transfer (MMCT) is a suitable approach for functional analysis of lncRNAs and nuclear dynamics. MMCT is a unique research technique that can be generally used to transfer a single chromosome from one mammalian cell to another. Transferred chromosomes can be stably maintained as functioning in the recipient cells. Since there is no size limit to introducing genomic locus, an approach using the chromosome transfer technique is suitable for functional analysis of a large chromosomal domain. Here we describe a general strategy of MMCT, applications of which have potential to be an alternative tool of existing gene delivery system.

  16. Pharmacokinetic detection of penicillin excreted in urine using a totally internally reflected resonance light scattering technique with cetyltrimethylammonium bromide. (United States)

    Huang, Cheng Zhi; Feng, Ping; Li, Yuan Fang; Tan, Ke Jun


    A quantitative analysis method for penicillins including ampicillin (AmP), benzyl penicillin (BP), oxacillin (OA) and amoxycillin (AmO) is proposed that makes use of the totally internally reflected resonance light scattering (TIR-RLS) signal from the penicillin at the H2O/CCl4 interface in the presence of cetyltrimethylammonium bromide (CTMAB), and enables the pharmacokinetics of penicillin taken orally and excreted through urine to be monitored. Penicillin is coadsorbed with CTMAB at the H2O/CCl4 interface in neutral solution, resulting in the formation of ion associates that display greatly enhanced TIR-RLS signals (maximum at 368-372 nm). This enhanced TIR-RLS intensity was found to be proportional to the penicillin concentration over the range 0.2 x 10(-6) to 2.2 x 10(-6) mol L(-1), with limits of determination (3sigma) of 5.0 x 10(-8) to 7.0 x 10(-8) mol L(-1). Pharmacokinetics studies performed using the present method show that the excretion of orally-taken ampicillin through urine has a half-time of 1.05 h and an excremental quantum over 8 h of 49.3%, respectively.

  17. Assembly of AuNRs and eugenol for trace analysis of eugenol using resonance light scattering technique. (United States)

    Bi, Shuyun; Wang, Yu; Zhou, Huifeng; Zhao, Tingting


    A new resonance light scattering (RLS) method for determining eugenol was developed using gold nanorods (AuNRs) as probes which were synthesized in our lab. The weak RLS intensity of eugenol was obviously enhanced by the use of AuNRs. All of the results from the SEM, RLS and UV spectra indicated that eugenol induced the assembly of AuNRs; thus, a new complex of AuNRs-eugenol was formed. The assembly of this new complex was achieved through a coordination bond between eugenol and AuNRs. Under optimum experimental conditions, a direct linear relationship was established between the enhancement of RLS intensity and the concentration of eugenol in the range of 0.043-10.60 μg ml(-1) (r=0.9927). Moreover, the limit of detection (LOD) was found at a nanogram level (7.28 ng ml(-1) by 3S0/S). The recovery and RSD (n=5) of three synthetic samples were 99.7-104.2% and 0.81-1.19%, respectively. The method was successfully employed for the analysis of eugenol in curry powder samples. Copyright © 2015 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  18. The effects of chemical and heat maceration techniques on the recovery of nuclear and mitochondrial DNA from bone. (United States)

    Steadman, Dawnie Wolfe; DiAntonio, Lisa L; Wilson, Jeremy J; Sheridan, Kevin E; Tammariello, Steven P


    Forensic anthropologists use a number of maceration techniques to facilitate skeletal analysis of personal identity and trauma, but they may unwittingly eliminate valuable DNA evidence in the process. This study evaluated the effect of 10 maceration methods on gross bone structure and the preservation of DNA in ribs of 12 pigs (Sus scrofa). A scoring system was applied to evaluate the ease of maceration and resulting bone quality while DNA purity was quantified by optical densitometry analysis, followed by polymerase chain reaction (PCR) amplification of three mitochondrial and three nuclear loci. The results demonstrated that while mitochondrial DNA could be amplified for all experiments, cleaning treatments using bleach, hydrogen peroxide, ethylenediaminetetraacetic acid/papain, room temperature water and detergent/sodium carbonate followed by degreasing had low DNA concentrations and failed to generate nuclear PCR products. In general, treatments performed at high temperatures (90 degrees C or above) for short durations performed best. This study shows that traditionally "conservative" maceration techniques are not necessarily the best methods to yield DNA from skeletal tissue.

  19. Electrochemical transient techniques for study of the electrochemistry and thermodynamics of nuclear materials in molten salts

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Kuznetsov, S.A. [Institute of Chemistry, Kola Science Centre RAS, 14 Fersman Str., 184209 Apatity, Murmansk Region (Russian Federation)], E-mail:; Gaune-Escard, M. [Ecole Polytechnique, Mecanique Energetique, Technopole de Chateau Gombert, 5 Rue Enrico Fermi, 13453 Marseille cedex 13 (France)


    Advantages and disadvantages of electrochemical transient techniques and potentiometry for the determination of formal standard potentials were discussed. It was shown that long potentiometric measurements inevitability led to strong interaction between oxide materials and melts involving actinide or lanthanide compounds. Reactions of disproportionation were observed in melts containing lower oxidation states due to the appearance of oxide ions from oxide materials, because actinides and lanthanides have a great affinity to oxygen. Only at the final stage of each experimental set, was the reference electrode immersed in the melt for a short time for the determination by electrochemical transient techniques and the melt being no longer used after these measurements. It was shown that electrochemical transient techniques in contradiction to potentiometry can be used for the determination of formal standard potentials for irreversible process and redox process accompanied by reaction of disproportionation.

  20. A technique to identify core journals for neurosurgery using citation scatter analysis and the Bradford distribution across neurosurgery journals. (United States)

    Madhugiri, Venkatesh S; Ambekar, Sudheer; Strom, Shane F; Nanda, Anil


    The volume of scientific literature doubles approximately every 7 years. The coverage of this literature provided by online compendia is variable and incomplete. It would hence be useful to identify "core" journals in any field and validate whether the h index and impact factor truly identify the core journals in every subject. The core journals in every medical specialty would be those that provide a current and comprehensive coverage of the science in that specialty. Identifying these journals would make it possible for individual physicians to keep abreast of research and clinical progress. The top 10 neurosurgical journals (on the basis of impact factor and h index) were selected. A database of all articles cited in the reference lists of papers published in issues of these journals published in the first quarter of 2012 was generated. The journals were ranked based on the number of papers cited from each. This citation rank list was compared with the h index and impact factor rank lists. The rank list was also examined to see if the concept of core journals could be validated for neurosurgical literature using Bradford's law. A total of 22,850 papers spread across 2522 journals were cited in neurosurgical literature over 3 months. Although the top 10 journals were the same, irrespective of ranking criterion (h index, impact factor, citation ranking), the 3 rank lists were not congruent. The top 25% of cited articles obeyed the Bradford distribution; beyond this, there was a zone of increased scatter. Six core journals were identified for neurosurgery. The core journals for neurosurgery were identified to be Journal of Neurosurgery, Neurosurgery, Spine, Acta Neurochirurgica, Stroke, and Journal of Neurotrauma. A list of core journals could similarly be generated for every subject. This would facilitate a focused reading to keep abreast of current knowledge. Collated across specialties, these journals could depict the current status of medical science.

  1. Microfluidic chip based micro RNA detection through the combination of fluorescence and surface enhanced Raman scattering techniques (United States)

    Wang, Zhile; Zong, Shenfei; Wang, Zhuyuan; Wu, Lei; Chen, Peng; Yun, Binfeng; Cui, Yiping


    We present a novel microfluidic chip based method for the detection of micro RNA (miRNA) via the combination of fluorescence and surface enhanced Raman scattering (SERS) spectroscopies. First, silver nanoparticles (Ag NPs) are immobilized onto a glass slide, forming a SERS enhancing substrate. Then a specificially designed molecular beacon (MB) is attached to the SERS substrate. The 3‧ end of the MB is decorated with a thiol group to facilitate the attachment of the MB, while the 5‧ end of the MB is labeled with an organic dye 6-FAM, which is used both as the fluorophore and SERS reporter. In the absence of target miRNA, the MB will form a hairpin structure, making 6-FAM close to the Ag NPs. Hence, the fluorescence of 6-FAM will be quenched and the Raman signal of 6-FAM will be enhanced. On the contrary, with target miRNA present, hybridization between the miRNA and MB will unfold the MB and increase the distance between 6-FAM and the Ag NPs. Thus the fluorescence of 6-FAM will recover and the SERS signal of 6-FAM will decrease. So the target miRNA will simultaneously introduce opposite changing trends in the intensities of the fluorescence and SERS signals. By combining the opposite changes in the two optical spectra, an improved sensitivity and linearity toward the target miRNA is achieved as compared with using solely fluorescence or SERS. Moreover, introducing the microfluidic chip can reduce the reaction time, reagent dosage and complexity of detection. With the improved sensitivity and simplicity, we anticipate that the presented method can have great potential in the investigation of miRNA related diseases.

  2. Application of fault detection and identification (FDI) techniques in power regulating systems of nuclear reactors (United States)

    Roy, K.; Banavar, R. N.; Thangasamy, S.


    Application of failure detection and identification (FDI) algorithms have essentially been limited to identification of a global fault in the system, and no further attempts have been made to locate subcomponent faults for root cause analysis. This paper presents Kalman filter-based methods for FDI in power regulating systems of nuclear reactors. The attempt here is to explain how the behavior of the states, residues, and covariances can be interpreted to identify subcomponent faults. An alternative to the Kalman filter-the risk-sensitive filter-is also introduced. Comparison of its performance with the Kalman filter-based FDI algorithms is studied. All simulation studies have been carried out on postulated faults in the power regulating system of heavy water moderated, low pressure vertical tank-type research reactors.

  3. Liver function testing with nuclear medicine techniques is coming of age. (United States)

    Bennink, Roelof J; Tulchinsky, Mark; de Graaf, Wilmar; Kadry, Zakiyah; van Gulik, Thomas M


    Liver function is a broad term, as the organ participates in a multitude of different physiological and biochemical processes, including metabolic, synthetic, and detoxifying functions. However, it is the function of the hepatocyte that is central to sustaining normal life and dealing with disease states. When the liver begins to fail in severely ill patients, it forecasts a terminal outcome. However, unlike the glomerular filtration rate which clearly quantifies the key renal function, at most practice sites, there is no clinically available quantitative test for liver function. Although it is commonplace to assess indirect evidence of that function (by measuring blood levels of its end products and by-products) and to detect an acute injury (by following rising transaminases), a widely available test that would directly measure hepatocellular function is lacking. This article reviews current knowledge on liver function studies and focuses on those nuclear medicine tests available to study the whole liver and regional liver function. The clinical application driving these tests, prediction of remnant liver function after partial hepatectomy for primary liver malignancy or metastatic disease, is addressed here in detail. The test was recently validated for this specific application and was shown to be better than the current standard of practice (computed tomography volumetry), particularly in patients with hepatic comorbidities like cirrhosis, steatosis, or cholestasis. Furthermore, early assessment of regional liver function increase after preoperative portal vein embolization becomes possible with this technology. The limiting factor to a wider acceptance of this test is based on the lack of clinical software that would allow calculation of liver function parameters. This article provides information that enables a clinical nuclear medicine facility to provide this test using readily available equipment. Furthermore, it addresses emerging clinical applications

  4. Nuclear techniques for the analysis and dating of cultural heritage with the tandetron accelerator at the CEDAD

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Lucio Calcagnile


    Full Text Available The Accelerator Mass Spectrometry technique for measuring carbon isotopes and dating artifacts, together with nuclear techniques of ion beam analysis are widely used in the field of cultural heritage owing to the great advantage of their being non-destructive. In Italy, CEDAD - CEntro Di DAtazione e Diagnostica of the University of Salento, with its tandetron accelerator of 3MV, has played a major role for over ten years, in studying materials of cultural assets requiring the determination of their elemental composition and determination of absolute chronology using radiocarbon. This study describes the Accelerator Mass Spectrometry technique used with the accelerator at CEDAD to determine age by means of radiocarbon and PIXE-PIGE techniques, and to determine elements, even in traces, present in materials. Some case studies carried out at CEDAD are reported, including those on the Riace Bronzes and Capitoline Wolf. The latter has been definitively dated to the Middle Ages, 17 centuries later than the previously attributed dating by historians. In addition, an important technical innovation is described, achieved within the framework of the IT@CHA Project enabling organic materials to be dated using only 10 μg of carbon.

  5. Application of the perspective-based reading technique in the nuclear I and C context. CORSICA work report 2011

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Lahtinen, J.


    Inspections and reviews are one of the most effective ways of detecting errors in software development. The methods are also cost-effective because defects can be spotted early in the development, and thus the cost of repairing the defects is lower. Reading techniques are the procedures that are used in the inspection or review of a software artefact. The most common procedures are simple ad-hoc reading and a checklist- based reading technique. However, more advanced and detailed procedures have been created for various purposes. This report reviews the state-of-the-art software reading techniques used in inspections and reviews, and briefly reviews some of the empirical research in this context. The majority of the empirical research results indicate that, for example, perspective-based reading is more cost-effective and can detect more defects than more basic reading techniques. This report also describes how perspective-based reading can be applied to the inspection of nuclear-domain requirement specifications. For this purpose, seven perspective-based reading scenarios have been created. (orig.)

  6. Nuclear Technology. Course 26: Nondestructive Examination (NDE) Techniques I. Module 26-5, Fundamentals of Radiography. (United States)

    Groseclose, Richard

    This fifth in a series of seven modules for a course titled Nondestructive Examination (NDE) Techniques I explains the radiographic process, from radiation source selection to equipment and specimen selection and arrangement, and film processing. The module follows a typical format that includes the following sections: (1) introduction, (2) module…

  7. Nuclear Technology. Course 26: Nondestructive Examination (NDE) Techniques I. Module 26-6, Radiography Inspection. (United States)

    Pelton, Rick; Espy, John

    This sixth in a series of seven modules for a course titled Nondestructive Examination (NDE) Techniques I explains radiographic inspection as a means of nondestructively examining components, assemblies, structures, and fabricated piping. The module follows a typical format that includes the following sections: (1) introduction, (2) module…

  8. Nuclear Technology. Course 26: Metrology. Module 27-7, Statistical Techniques in Metrology. (United States)

    Espy, John; Selleck, Ben

    This seventh in a series of eight modules for a course titled Metrology focuses on descriptive and inferential statistical techniques in metrology. The module follows a typical format that includes the following sections: (1) introduction, (2) module prerequisites, (3) objectives, (4) notes to instructor/student, (5) subject matter, (6) materials…

  9. Proposal and verification numerical simulation for a microwave forward scattering technique at upper hybrid resonance for the measurement of electron gyroscale density fluctuations in the electron cyclotron frequency range in magnetized plasmas (United States)

    Kawamori, E.; Igami, H.


    A diagnostic technique for detecting the wave numbers of electron density fluctuations at electron gyro-scales in an electron cyclotron frequency range is proposed, and the validity of the idea is checked by means of a particle-in-cell (PIC) numerical simulation. The technique is a modified version of the scattering technique invented by Novik et al. [Plasma Phys. Controlled Fusion 36, 357-381 (1994)] and Gusakov et al., [Plasma Phys. Controlled Fusion 41, 899-912 (1999)]. The novel method adopts forward scattering of injected extraordinary probe waves at the upper hybrid resonance layer instead of the backward-scattering adopted by the original method, enabling the measurement of the wave-numbers of the fine scale density fluctuations in the electron-cyclotron frequency band by means of phase measurement of the scattered waves. The verification numerical simulation with the PIC method shows that the technique has a potential to be applicable to the detection of electron gyro-scale fluctuations in laboratory plasmas if the upper-hybrid resonance layer is accessible to the probe wave. The technique is a suitable means to detect electron Bernstein waves excited via linear mode conversion from electromagnetic waves in torus plasma experiments. Through the numerical simulations, some problems that remain to be resolved are revealed, which include the influence of nonlinear processes such as the parametric decay instability of the probe wave in the scattering process, and so on.

  10. Combination of acoustic levitation with small angle scattering techniques and synchrotron radiation circular dichroism. Application to the study of protein solutions. (United States)

    Cristiglio, Viviana; Grillo, Isabelle; Fomina, Margarita; Wien, Frank; Shalaev, Evgenyi; Novikov, Alexey; Brassamin, Séverine; Réfrégiers, Matthieu; Pérez, Javier; Hennet, Louis


    The acoustic levitation technique is a useful sample handling method for small solid and liquids samples, suspended in air by means of an ultrasonic field. This method was previously used at synchrotron sources for studying pharmaceutical liquids and protein solutions using x-ray diffraction and small angle x-ray scattering (SAXS). In this work we combined for the first time this containerless method with small angle neutron scattering (SANS) and synchrotron radiation circular dichroism (SRCD) to study the structural behavior of proteins in solutions during the water evaporation. SANS results are also compared with SAXS experiments. The aggregation behavior of 45μl droplets of lysozyme protein diluted in water was followed during the continuous increase of the sample concentration by evaporating the solvent. The evaporation kinetics was followed at different drying stage by SANS and SAXS with a good data quality. In a prospective work using SRCD, we also studied the evolution of the secondary structure of the myoglobin protein in water solution in the same evaporation conditions. Acoustic levitation was applied for the first time with SANS and the high performances of the used neutron instruments made it possible to monitor fast container-less reactions in situ. A preliminary work using SRCD shows the potentiality of its combination with acoustic levitation for studying the evolution of the protein structure with time. This multi-techniques approach could give novel insights into crystallization and self-assembly phenomena of biological compound with promising potential applications in pharmaceutical, food and cosmetics industry. This article is part of a Special Issue entitled "Science for Life" Guest Editor: Dr. Austen Angell, Dr. Salvatore Magazù and Dr. Federica Migliardo. Copyright © 2016 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  11. Coronaries disease: the nuclear cardiology face to the new non-invasive techniques of imaging; Maladie coronaire: la cardiologie nucleaire face aux nouvelles techniques d'imagerie non invasive

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Vanzetto, G.; Fagret, D.; Thony, F.; Ferretti, G.; Saunier, C.; Machecourt, J. [Centre Hospitalier Universitaire, 38 - Grenoble (France)


    Different techniques of imaging in nuclear cardiology are available today: SPECT, NMR, tomodensitometry, scintigraphy, echography. This article sums up the situation on the actual performances of each technique and considers what could be their respective place in the future strategies to take in charge the coronary disease. (N.C.)

  12. Modeling and control of a nuclear power plant using AI techniques

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Oliveira, Mauro Vitor de; Almeida, Jose Carlos Soares de, E-mail:, E-mail: [Instituto de Engenharia Nuclear (IEN/CNEN-RJ), Rio de Janeiro, RJ (Brazil)


    In pressurized water reactor (PWR) nuclear power plants (NPPs) pressure control in the primary loops is fundamental for keeping the reactor in a safety condition and improve the generation process efficiency. The main component responsible for this task is the pressurizer. The pressurizer pressure control system (PPCS) utilizes heaters and spray valves to maintain the pressure within an operating band during steady state conditions, and limits the pressure changes during transient conditions. Relief and safety valves provide overpressure protection for the reactor coolant system (RCS) to ensure system integrity. Various protective reactor trips are generated if the system parameters exceed safe bounds. Historically, a proportional-integral-derivative (PID) controller is used in PWRs to keep the pressure in the set point, during those operation conditions. The purpose of this study is to develop fuzzy controllers for the PWR pressurizer modeled by an artificial neural network (ANN) and compare their performance with conventional ones. Data from a 2785 MWth Westinghouse 3-loop PWR simulator was used to test both the conventional and the fuzzy controllers. The simulation results show that the fuzzy controllers have better performance compared with conventional ones. (author)

  13. Nuclear Physics from Lattice QCD

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    William Detmold, Silas Beane, Konstantinos Orginos, Martin Savage


    We review recent progress toward establishing lattice Quantum Chromodynamics as a predictive calculational framework for nuclear physics. A survey of the current techniques that are used to extract low-energy hadronic scattering amplitudes and interactions is followed by a review of recent two-body and few-body calculations by the NPLQCD collaboration and others. An outline of the nuclear physics that is expected to be accomplished with Lattice QCD in the next decade, along with estimates of the required computational resources, is presented.

  14. Compton scatter correction for planner scintigraphic imaging

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Vaan Steelandt, E.; Dobbeleir, A.; Vanregemorter, J. [Algemeen Ziekenhuis Middelheim, Antwerp (Belgium). Dept. of Nuclear Medicine and Radiotherapy


    A major problem in nuclear medicine is the image degradation due to Compton scatter in the patient. Photons emitted by the radioactive tracer scatter in collision with electrons of the surrounding tissue. Due to the resulting loss of energy and change in direction, the scattered photons induce an object dependant background on the images. This results in a degradation of the contrast of warm and cold lesions. Although theoretically interesting, most of the techniques proposed in literature like the use of symmetrical photopeaks can not be implemented on the commonly used gamma camera due to the energy/linearity/sensitivity corrections applied in the detector. A method for a single energy isotope based on existing methods with adjustments towards daily practice and clinical situations is proposed. It is assumed that the scatter image, recorded from photons collected within a scatter window adjacent to the photo peak, is a reasonable close approximation of the true scatter component of the image reconstructed from the photo peak window. A fraction `k` of the image using the scatter window is subtracted from the image recorded in the photo peak window to produce the compensated image. The principal matter of the method is the right value for the factor `k`, which is determined in a mathematical way and confirmed by experiments. To determine `k`, different kinds of scatter media are used and are positioned in different ways in order to simulate a clinical situation. For a secondary energy window from 100 to 124 keV below a photo peak window from 126 to 154 keV, a value of 0.7 is found. This value has been verified using both an antropomorph thyroid phantom and the Rollo contrast phantom.

  15. Determination of NAPL contamination and evolution of remediation by means nuclear techniques; Determinacion de contaminacion NAPL y evolucion de remediacion mediante tecnicas nucleares

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Balcazar, M.; Pena, P.; Lopez, A.; Flores, J. H.; Villegas, D. [ININ, 52750 La Marquesa, Estado de Mexico (Mexico); Schubert, M.; Knoller, K. [UFZ, Helmholtz Centre for Environmental Research-UFZ, Permoserstr. 15, 04318 Leipzig (Germany)]. e-mail:


    In this work the application of two nuclear techniques is presented: Natural radioactive tracer and stable isotopics tracer, that allow the localization and delimitation of the contamination in ground and underground water for hydrocarbons denominated NAPL. The work was carry out on the whole and with access permission to facilities and technical information, in a storage center and distribution of fuel of hydrocarbons where occurred a spill for hydrocarbons, approaching actions of remediation that allow to the date to fulfill the normative one applicable. By means of measurement of {sup 222} Rn, in situ, it was possible to be related its ground concentration to the degree of contamination previously determined; the evaluation of {sup 222} Rn in underground water in group with the determination of stable isotope {delta}{sup 34}S, {delta}{sup 18}O and {delta}{sup 13}C as well as the dissolved inorganic coal allowed to locate the contamination source in underground water to 100 m of depth in the aquifer and to determine the existence of a natural bioremediation. (Author)

  16. Surface-enhanced resonance Raman scattering (SERRS) spectroscopy: a powerful technique for the forensic analysis of colorants? (United States)

    White, Peter C.; Rodger, Caroline; Rutherford, Vicky; Finnon, Yvonne; Smith, W. Ewen; Fitzgerald, Mary P.


    During the past five years work in our laboratory has been concentrated on developing SERRS spectroscopy and making it a simple and robust technique for the analyses of colorants. It has proved to be highly discriminative, extremely sensitive and possible to identify dyes in mixtures without their prior separation. Additionally, by using concentrated silver colloid solutions, in-situ analyses have now been accomplished with minimal or in some cases no visual destruction of the item being examined and with virtually no background interference from the surfaces on which the stains or smears have been deposited. To illustrate the methodology and the potential of SERRS various applications including the in-situ analyses of the dyes on cotton fibers and stains from cosmetics, shoe polishes, inks and drinks on various surfaces are presented.

  17. Molecular dynamics in porous media studied by nuclear magnetic resonance techniques

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Mattea, C.


    Field cycling NMR relaxometry was used to study dynamics of fluids under confinement in different scenarios: fluids flowing through porous media, fluids partially filling porous media and polymer melts in nanoscopic pores. Diffusion in partially filled porous media was also studied with the aid of an NMR diffusometry technique. It is shown that hydrodynamic flow influences the spin-lattice relaxation rate of water confined in mesoscopic porous media under certain conditions. The effect is predicted by an analytical theory and Monte Carlo simulations, and confirmed experimentally by field-cycling NMR relaxometry. Field-cycling NMR relaxometry has been applied to polar and non polar adsorbates in partially filled silica porous glasses. The dependence of the spin-lattice relaxation rate on the filling degree shows that limits for slow and fast exchange between different phases can be distinguished and identified depending on the pore size and polarity of the solvents. Diffusion in the same unsaturated systems was studied with the aid of NMR diffusometry technique. The effective diffusion coefficient of solvents with different polarities displays opposite tendencies as a function of the liquid content. A two-phase fast exchange model including Knudsen and ordinary diffusion and different effective tortuosities is presented accounting for these phenomena. In the case of polymer melts confined in narrow artificial tubes of a porous solid matrix with variable diameter (9 to 57 nm), the characteristics of reptation were experimentally verified using proton field cycling NMR relaxometry technique. This observation is independent of the molecular mass and pore size. In bulk, the same polymer melts show either Rouse or renormalized Rouse dynamics, depending on the molecular mass. The polymers under confinement show features specific for reptation even with a pore diameter 15 times larger than the Flory radius while bulk melts of the same polymers do not. (orig.)

  18. Nobel Prize in Physics 1994 "for pioneering contributions to the development of neutron scattering techniques for studies of condensed matter" : Bertram N. Brockhouse and Clifford G. Shull

    CERN Multimedia


    Prof. C. G. Shull presents "Early development of neutron scattering". A description of the early experiments and instrumentation problems starting in 1946 that led to the use of neutron scattering as a tool in augmenting and extending x-ray scattering from materials.

  19. Risk-informed decision making in the nuclear industry: Application and effectiveness comparison of different genetic algorithm techniques

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Gjorgiev, Blaze, E-mail: [Reactor Engineering Division, ' Jozef Stefan' Institute, Jamova 39, SI-1000 Ljubljana (Slovenia); Kancev, Dusko, E-mail: [Reactor Engineering Division, ' Jozef Stefan' Institute, Jamova 39, SI-1000 Ljubljana (Slovenia); Cepin, Marko, E-mail: [Faculty of Electrical Engineering, University of Ljubljana, Trzaska 25, SI-1000 Ljubljana (Slovenia)


    Highlights: Black-Right-Pointing-Pointer Multi-objective optimization of STI based on risk-informed decision making. Black-Right-Pointing-Pointer Four different genetic algorithms (GAs) techniques are used as optimization tool. Black-Right-Pointing-Pointer Advantages/disadvantages among the four different GAs applied are emphasized. - Abstract: The risk-informed decision making (RIDM) process, where insights gained from the probabilistic safety assessment are contemplated together with other engineering insights, is gaining an ever-increasing attention in the process industries. Increasing safety systems availability by applying RIDM is one of the prime goals for the authorities operating with nuclear power plants. Additionally, equipment ageing is gradually becoming a major concern in the process industries and especially in the nuclear industry, since more and more safety-related components are approaching or are already in their wear-out phase. A significant difficulty regarding the consideration of ageing effects on equipment (un)availability is the immense uncertainty the available equipment ageing data are associated to. This paper presents an approach for safety system unavailability reduction by optimizing the related test and maintenance schedule suggested by the technical specifications in the nuclear industry. Given the RIDM philosophy, two additional insights, i.e. ageing data uncertainty and test and maintenance costs, are considered along with unavailability insights gained from the probabilistic safety assessment for a selected standard safety system. In that sense, an approach for multi-objective optimization of the equipment surveillance test interval is proposed herein. Three different objective functions related to each one of the three different insights discussed above comprise the multi-objective nature of the optimization process. Genetic algorithm technique is utilized as an optimization tool. Four different types of genetic algorithms are

  20. A preliminary study for the production of high specific activity radionuclides for nuclear medicine obtained with the isotope separation on line technique. (United States)

    Borgna, F; Ballan, M; Corradetti, S; Vettorato, E; Monetti, A; Rossignoli, M; Manzolaro, M; Scarpa, D; Mazzi, U; Realdon, N; Andrighetto, A


    Radiopharmaceuticals represent a fundamental tool for nuclear medicine procedures, both for diagnostic and therapeutic purposes. The present work aims to explore the Isotope Separation On-Line (ISOL) technique for the production of carrier-free radionuclides for nuclear medicine at SPES, a nuclear physics facility under construction at INFN-LNL. Stable ion beams of strontium, yttrium and iodine were produced using the SPES test bench (Front-End) to simulate the production of 89Sr, 90Y, 125I and 131I and collected with good efficiency on suitable targets. Copyright © 2017 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  1. Improvement of traditional local rice varieties through induced mutations using nuclear techniques

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Pham Van Ro; Do Huu At [Cuu Long Delta Rice Research Institute (Viet Nam)


    'Improvement of local rice varieties for high yield, resistance to disease and insect pests (brown plant hopper and rice blast) and export quality through induced mutations for the Mekong Delta' started in 1993. After six years, it showed effecting on the field in the MD as well as at the south of Vietnam. TNDB-100 manifest very wide adaptation and yield stable variety. THDB is suitable for deepwater rice region, coastal area, where rice cultivation effected by acid sulphate and salinity conditions. Both varieties are good example for the method. Thank to good Co-operation from extension center from provinces, hundred classes of extension were organized to recommend to the farmers. And thank to the strongly supporting from IAEA so that nearly 400,000 ha of TNDB-100 occupied at the south of Vietnam as well as nearly 15,000 ha of THDB grown in the coastal as well as rainfed lowland rice areas at the South of Vietnam. To continue the rice improvement by this technique, seeds of six traditional local varieties were exposed under different dose of gamma rays to create new mutants. At present day hundred improved breeding lines were selected, a dozen of uniform lines were isolated and entranced the yield trail as well as regional testing program. From these improved varieties would be selected to contribute to the rice cultivation at the south of Vietnam in the next years. (author)

  2. Collection and characterization of aerosols from metal cutting techniques typically used in decommissioning nuclear facilities. (United States)

    Newton, G J; Hoover, M D; Barr, E B; Wong, B A; Ritter, P D


    This study was designed to collect and characterize aerosols released during metal cutting activities typically used in decommissioning radioactively contaminated facilities. Such information can guide in the selection of appropriate control technologies for these airborne materials. Mechanical cutting tools evaluated included a multi-wheel pipe cutter, reciprocating saw, band saw, chop saw, and large and small grinding wheels. Melting-vaporization cutting techniques included an oxy-acetylene torch, electric arc cut rod and plasma torch. With the exception of the multi-wheel pipe cutter, all devices created aerosols in the respirable size range (less than 10 micron aerodynamic diameter). Time required to cut 2-in. (5-cm) Schedule 40, Type 304L, stainless steel ranged from about 0.6 min for the plasma torch to about 3.0 min for the reciprocating saw. Aerosol production rate ranged from less than 10 mg/min for the reciprocating saw to more than 3000 mg/min for the electric arc cut rod. Particles from mechanical tools were irregular in shape, whereas particles from vaporization tools were spheres and ultrafine branched-chain aggregates.

  3. Structural Characterization of Natural and Processed Zircons with X-Rays and Nuclear Techniques

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Laura C. Damonte


    Full Text Available In ceramic industry, zircon sand is widely used in different applications because zirconia plays a role as common opacifying constituent. In particular, it is used as a basic component of glazes applied to ceramic tiles and sanitary ware as well as an opacifier in unglazed bulk porcelain stoneware. Natural zircon sands are the major source of zirconium minerals for industrial applications. In this paper, long, medium, and short range studies were conducted on zirconium minerals originated from Australia, South Africa, and United States of America using conventional and less conventional techniques (i.e., X-Ray Diffraction (XRD, Positron Annihilation Lifetime Spectroscopy (PALS, and Perturbed Angular Correlations (PAC in order to reveal the type and the extension of the regions that constitute the metamict state of zircon sands and the modifications therein produced as a consequence of the industrial milling process and the thermal treatment in the production line. Additionally, HPGe gamma-ray spectroscopy confirms the occurrence of significant levels of natural radioactivity responsible for metamictization in the investigated zircon samples. Results from XRD, PALS, and PAC analysis confirm that the metamict state of zircon is a dispersion of submicron disordered domains in a crystalline matrix of zircon.

  4. Porosity study of synthetic sandstones by non-destructive nuclear techniques; Estudo da porosidade de arenitos sinteticos por tecnicas nucleares nao-destrutivas

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Marques, Leonardo Carmezini


    In this paper, nuclear techniques have been used to describe structural characteristics of ceramic samples. These samples were produced to serve as simulates of sandstones and their mainly component was silica (SiO{sub 2}). Three sets of these samples with different characteristics were analyzed with the gamma ray transmission and the X-ray microtomography. They had the function to describe parameters as porosity point to point and total average porosity, for the transmission case, and 2D sections average porosity, total average porosity and size porous distribution for microtomography, as well as to investigate possible irregularities in bulk sample. The experimental set up for the Gamma Ray Transmission technique consisted of: a 2'' x 2'' crystal NaI(Tl) detector, an {sup 241}Am radioactive source (59.54 keV, 100 mCi), an automatic micrometric table for the sample XZ movement and standard gamma spectrometry electronics. Lead collimators with 2 mm diameter were placed on the source way out and on the detector entrance. The microtomographic measurements were done with a Skyscan system, model 1172, with a X -ray tube with 20 - 100 kV of voltage range and a CCD camera. Employing gamma ray transmission method was possible to obtain overall porosity values from 25.8 to 34.0 % and from 24.8 to 29.2 % for samples with parallelepiped and cylinder shape, respectively, for ceramic I set; from 58.5 to 61.0 % and from 57.1 to 61.7 % for the same geometric shape of ceramic II set. The samples analyzed by the microtomography achieved resolutions of 1.73 {mu}m, 0.64 {mu}m and 1.28 {mu}m for samples of ceramic set I, II and III, respectively. This methodology provided average total porosity values from 26.6 to 29.4 %, from 48.4 to 51.0 % and from 28.2 to 30.6 % to I, II and III ceramic sets, respectively. The porous size profiles of each ceramic sample were also measured. (author)

  5. Study of the porosity of synthetic sandstones by nondestructive nuclear techniques; Estudo da porosidade de arenitos sinteticos por tecnicas nucleares nao destrutivas

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Marques, Leonardo Carmezini


    In this paper, nuclear techniques have been used to describe structural characteristics of ceramic samples. These samples were produced to serve as simulates of sandstones and their mainly component was silica (SiO{sub 2}). Three sets of these samples with different characteristics were analyzed with the gamma ray transmission and the X-ray microtomography. They had the function to describe parameters as porosity point to point and total average porosity, for the transmission case, and 2D sections average porosity, total average porosity and size porous distribution for microtomography, as well as to investigate possible irregularities in bulk sample. The experimental set up for the gamma ray transmission technique consisted of: a 2 x 2 crystal NaI(Tl) detector, an {sup 241}Am radioactive source (59.54 keV, 100 mCi), an automatic micrometric table for the sample XZ movement and standard gamma spectrometry electronics. Lead collimators with 2 mm diameter were placed on the source way out and on the detector entrance. The microtomographic measurements were done with a Skyscan system, model 1172, with a X-ray tube with 20-100 kV of voltage range and a CCD camera. Employing gamma ray transmission method was possible to obtain overall porosity values from 25.8 to 34.0 % and from 24.8 to 29.2 % for samples with parallelepiped and cylinder shape, respectively, for ceramic I set; from 58.5 to 61.0 % and from 57.1 to 61.7 % for the same geometric shape of ceramic II set. The samples analyzed by the microtomography achieved resolutions of 1.73 {mu}m, 0.64 {mu}m and 1.28 {mu}m for samples of ceramic set I, II and III, respectively. This methodology provided average total porosity values from 26.6 to 29.4 %, from 48.4 to 51.0 % and from 28.2 to 30.6 % to I, II and III ceramic sets, respectively. The porous size profiles of each ceramic sample were also measured. (author)

  6. Nuclear-moment studies in the odd-mass In isotopes up to N=82 using the Tilted Foils technique

    CERN Multimedia

    We propose to study the magnetic moments of the neutron-rich odd-even In isotopes up to N=82 using the Tilted Foils technique and the recently installed $\\beta$-NMR setup at REX -ISOLDE. With only one proton hole in Z=50 and a neutron number approaching N=82, the indium isotopes should be a very good test ground for the extreme single-particle approximation and could provide essential data for tuning the nuclear interaction in the vicinity of the doubly-magic $^{132}$ Sn. Moments of single-particle states adjacent to closed shells are also crucial to determine the corrections to the M1 operator from core polarization and meson exchange effects. In addition to the 9/2$^{+}$, presumed to be of pure single proton hole configuration, the ½$^{-}$ isomeric states should shed light on a recent hypothesis of low-energy vibration/collectivity in the region. The detailed study of the Tilted Foils technique at higher masses is of crucial importance for its application for further g-factor studies and for the production...

  7. Determination of bidirectional permeability of proton exchange membranes using a {sup 1}H nuclear magnetic resonance technique

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Kim, Eun Ah; Pak, Chanho; Chang, Hyuk; Seung, Doyoung; Choi, Yeong Suk [Energy and Environment Laboratory, Samsung Advanced Institute of Technology (SAIT), P.O. Box 111, Suwon 449-600 (Korea); Kim, Tae Kyoung [Research Institute of Chemical and Electronic Materials, Cheil Industries Inc., Uiwang-si 437-711 (Korea)


    Bidirectional permeability of proton exchange membranes was measured using a {sup 1}H nuclear magnetic resonance (NMR) technique based on the assignment of characteristic peaks and derivation of a relationship between the peak areas and the concentrations of methanol, water and D{sub 2}O. The concentration variations of the liquids determined with NMR spectra showed that both methanol and the water transports were affected by the thickness and the chemical structure of membranes. Molar ratios of methanol to water diffused through membranes elucidated that chemical structures of membranes had a strong influence on the methanol transport, compared to thickness. Reverse-direction diffusion behaviors of membranes, back-diffusions, were also appraised with the D{sub 2}O amounts. The amounts of back-diffusions were much less than those of the water transported from the opposite direction, which is the first report on the direct measurements of back-diffusions. The results suggest that {sup 1}H NMR technique can evaluate bidirectional transports of proton exchange membranes. (author)

  8. Joint application of AI techniques, PRA and disturbance analysis methodology to problems in the maintenance and design of nuclear power plants

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Okrent, D.


    This final report summarizes the accomplishments of a two year research project entitled Joint Application of Artificial Intelligence Techniques, Probabilistic Risk Analysis, and Disturbance Analysis Methodology to Problems in the Maintenance and Design of Nuclear Power Plants. The objective of this project is to develop and apply appropriate combinations of techniques from artificial intelligence, (AI), reliability and risk analysis and disturbance analysis to well-defined programmatic problems of nuclear power plants. Reactor operations issues were added to those of design and maintenance as the project progressed.

  9. Joint application of AI techniques, PRA and disturbance analysis methodology to problems in the maintenance and design of nuclear power plants. Final report

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Okrent, D.


    This final report summarizes the accomplishments of a two year research project entitled ``Joint Application of Artificial Intelligence Techniques, Probabilistic Risk Analysis, and Disturbance Analysis Methodology to Problems in the Maintenance and Design of Nuclear Power Plants. The objective of this project is to develop and apply appropriate combinations of techniques from artificial intelligence, (AI), reliability and risk analysis and disturbance analysis to well-defined programmatic problems of nuclear power plants. Reactor operations issues were added to those of design and maintenance as the project progressed.

  10. Infrared studies of temperature-dependent phase transitions in ammonium sulfate aerosol and the development of a visible light scattering technique to measure atmospheric particle compositions (United States)

    Onasch, Timothy Bruce


    Sulfate containing particles exist globally throughout the atmosphere and impact its chemistry and radiative properties. Under the low temperature conditions found in the upper troposphere and lower stratosphere, sulfate particles act as nuclei for cirrus clouds and facilitate heterogeneous reactions which affect ozone chemistry. Both of these processes are dependent upon the chemical composition and phase of the background aerosol, and thus the behavior of these particles at low temperatures. This thesis represents two approaches undertaken to investigate the composition and phase of atmospheric aerosols. First, a flow tube system has been developed to study the low temperature behavior of atmospherically relevant particles within a controlled laboratory environment. Second, a visible light scattering technique has been developed to characterize the physical properties of particles in situ from an aircraft platform. The relative humidities of temperature-dependent phase transitions in ammonium sulfate aerosols were measured within a flow tube system. A chilled-mirror hygrometer measured the relative humidity and Fourier transform infrared spectroscopy was utilized to probe the phase of the particles and to characterize their microphysical properties. The relative humidity of deliquescence changed from 80% to 82% over the temperature range from 294.8 K to 258.0 K, in agreement with thermodynamic theory. The efflorescence relative humidity of submicron ammonium sulfate particles increased slightly from 32% to 39% as the temperature decreased from 294.8 K to 234.3 K. The latter result suggests that salt particles may exist as metastable solution droplets under low relative humidity conditions for significant time periods in the upper troposphere. To measure particle refractive indices in situ, a visible light scattering technique based on NCAR's Multiangle Aerosol Spectrometer Probe (MASP) was developed. The MASP was calibrated with monodisperse particles having

  11. Study on plasmatic metabolomics of Uygur patients with essential hypertension based on nuclear magnetic resonance technique. (United States)

    Zhong, L; Zhang, J-P; Nuermaimaiti, A-G; Yunusi, K-X


    Metabolomics is the analysis of the global constitution of endogenous metabolites in cells, tissue, and bodily fluids based on analysis techniques with high output, high sensitivity, and high resolution. The physiological and pathological state of the subject investigated could be identified and analyzed through examining metabolite changes. In this study, 1H-NMR metabolomics was employed to study plasma metabolites of both Uygur patients with hypertension and healthy people, thereby filtering out characteristic metabolites for Uygur patients with hypertension. The pathogenesis of hypertension was discussed via metabolic pathways. A total of 256 Uygur subjects were recruited for this study and divided into two groups, namely hypertension group (157 Uygur patients with hypertension) and normal group (99 healthy Uygur subjects). They were all taken from epidemiological surveys on the Uygur people of Qira County, Hotan, and Xinjiang between 2009 and 2012 conducted by Hypertension Research Group of Xinjiang Medical University. Furthermore, all subjects have Uygur blood within three generations. For the hypertension group, the recruitment criteria is systolic blood pressure (SBP) ≥ 140 mmHg (lmmHg = 0.133 kPa) and/or diastolic blood pressure (DBP) ≥ 90 mmHg at rest. Patients who had taken antihypertensive drugs within two weeks and those who were diagnosed with essential hypertension (EH) were also included in this group, while patients with secondary hypertension, myocardiosis, congenital heart disease, and rheumatic valvular heart disease were not included. In the healthy normal-pressure group, blood pressures were within normal range: SBP NMR) spectrometer to conduct the 1H-NMR experiment. Serum specimens from both the hypertension group and the healthy control group were used for NMR spectrograms before data pre-processing, where aggregate analysis was performed for NMR data/metabolic information with principal component analysis (PCA). Then, partial least

  12. Wear measurement using radioactive tracer technique based on proton, deuteron and {alpha}-particle induced nuclear reactions on molybdenum

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Ditroi, F., E-mail: [Institute of Nuclear Research of the Hungarian Academy of Sciences (ATOMKI), H-4026 Debrecen, Bem ter 18/c (Hungary); Tarkanyi, F.; Takacs, S. [Institute of Nuclear Research of the Hungarian Academy of Sciences (ATOMKI), H-4026 Debrecen, Bem ter 18/c (Hungary)


    Highlights: Black-Right-Pointing-Pointer Proton, deuteron, {sup 3}He and {alpha}-particle activation of Mo. Black-Right-Pointing-Pointer TLA (thin layer activation). Black-Right-Pointing-Pointer Wear measurement. Black-Right-Pointing-Pointer Integral production yields. Black-Right-Pointing-Pointer Wear curves (specific activity versus penetration depth). - Abstract: Excitation functions of light ion induced nuclear reactions on natural molybdenum have been studied in the frame of a systematic investigation of charged particle induced nuclear reactions on metals for various applications. Excitation functions of {sup 93,94g,94m,95g,95m,96,99m}Tc, {sup 90,93m,99}Mo, {sup 90,91m,92m,95m,95g,96}Nb and {sup 88,89}Zr were measured up to 50 MeV deuteron energy Tarkanyi et al., 2012 [1], {sup 93m,93g,94m,94g,95m,95g,96g,99m}Tc, {sup 90,93m,99}Mo, {sup 90,92m,95m,95g,96}Nb and {sup 88,89}Zr were measured up to 40 MeV proton energy Tarkanyi et al., 2012 [2] and {sup 93m,93g,94m,94g,95m,95g,96g,99m}Tc, {sup 93m,99}Mo, {sup 90}Nb, {sup 94,95,97,103}Ru and {sup 88}Zr were measured up to 40 MeV alpha energy Ditroi et al., 2012 [3] by using the stacked foil technique and activation method. The results for {sup 3}He induced reactions on natural Mo were taken from the literature Comparetto and Qaim, 1980 [4]. According to their half-lives, from the above listed radionuclides the {sup 95m,96}Tc, {sup 91m,92m,95m,95g}Nb, {sup 99}Mo, {sup 103,97}Ru and {sup 88}Zr are suitable candidates for wear measurement by using thin layer activation (TLA) method. The goal of this work was to determine the necessary nuclear data for TLA of the above radionuclides and to prove their applicability for wear measurements.

  13. Nuclear and conventional techniques applied to the analysis of Purhepecha metals of the Pareyon collection; Tecnicas nucleares y convencionales aplicadas al analisis de metales Purhepecha de la coleccion Pareyon

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Mendez, U.; Tenorio C, D. [ININ, 52045 Ocoyoacac, Estado de Mexico (Mexico); Ruvalcaba, J.L. [IFUNAM, 04510 Mexico D.F. (Mexico); Lopez, J.A. [Instituto Nacional de Antropologia e Historia, 11000 Mexico D.F. (Mexico)


    The main objective of this investigation was to determine the composition and microstructure of 13 metallic devices by means of the nuclear techniques of PIXE, RBS and conventional; which were elaborated starting from copper and gold, and they were in the offering of a tarasc personage located in the 'Matamoros' porch in Uruapan, Michoacan, Mexico. (Author)

  14. Design and construction of a spectrometer facility and experiment for intermediate energy proton scattering on helium. [Wave functions, preliminary experimental techniques

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Rolfe, R.M.


    The goal of the research was to investigate proton scattering on nuclei at intermediate energies and in particular to investigate proton scattering on helium. A theoretical investigation of the helium nucleus and the nature of the intermediate energy interaction, design and optimization of an energy-loss spectrometer facility for proton-nucleus scattering, and the unique superfluid helium target and experimental design are discussed.

  15. State of practice and emerging application of analytical techniques of nuclear forensic analysis: highlights from the 4th Collaborative Materials Exercise of the Nuclear Forensics International Technical Working Group (ITWG)

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Schwantes, Jon M.; Marsden, Oliva; Pellegrini, Kristi L.


    Founded in 1996 upon the initiative of the “Group of 8” governments (G8), the Nuclear Forensics International Technical Working Group (ITWG) is an ad hoc organization of official nuclear forensics practitioners (scientists, law enforcement, and regulators) that can be called upon to provide technical assistance to the global community in the event of a seizure of nuclear or radiological materials. The ITWG is supported by and is affiliated with roughly 40 countries and international partner organizations including the International Atomic Energy Agency (IAEA), EURATOM, INTERPOL, EUROPOL, and the United Nations Interregional Crime and Justice Research Institute (UNICRI). Besides providing a network of nuclear forensics laboratories that are able to assist law enforcement during a nuclear smuggling event, the ITWG is also committed to the advancement of the science of nuclear forensic analysis, largely through participation in periodic table top and Collaborative Materials Exercises (CMXs). Exercise scenarios use “real world” samples with realistic forensics investigation time constraints and reporting requirements. These exercises are designed to promote best practices in the field and test, evaluate, and improve new technical capabilities, methods and techniques in order to advance the science of nuclear forensics. The ITWG recently completed its fourth CMX in the 20 year history of the organization. This was also the largest materials exercise to date, with participating laboratories from 16 countries or organizations. Three samples of low enriched uranium were shipped to these laboratories as part of an illicit trafficking scenario, for which each laboratory was asked to conduct nuclear forensic analyses in support of a fictitious criminal investigation. An objective review of the State Of Practice and Art of international nuclear forensic analysis based upon the outcome of this most recent exercise is provided.

  16. Agglomeration behaviour of titanium dioxide nanoparticles in river waters: A multi-method approach combining light scattering and field-flow fractionation techniques. (United States)

    Chekli, L; Roy, M; Tijing, L D; Donner, E; Lombi, E; Shon, H K


    Titanium dioxide nanoparticles (TiO2 NPs) are currently one of the most prolifically used nanomaterials, resulting in an increasing likelihood of release to the environment. This is of concern as the potential toxicity of TiO2 NPs has been investigated in several recent studies. Research into their fate and behaviour once entering the environment is urgently needed to support risk assessment and policy development. In this study, we used a multi-method approach combining light scattering and field-flow fractionation techniques to assess both the aggregation behaviour and aggregate structure of TiO2 NPs in different river waters. Results showed that both the aggregate size and surface-adsorbed dissolved organic matter (DOM) were strongly related to the initial DOM concentration of the tested waters (i.e. R(2) > 0.90) suggesting that aggregation of TiO2 NPs is controlled by the presence and concentration of DOM. The conformation of the formed aggregates was also found to be strongly related to the surface-adsorbed DOM (i.e. R(2) > 0.95) with increasing surface-adsorbed DOM leading to more compact structures. Finally, the concentration of TiO2 NPs remaining in the supernatant after sedimentation of the larger aggregates was found to decrease proportionally with both increasing IS and decreasing DOM concentration, resulting in more than 95% sedimentation in the highest IS sample. Copyright © 2015 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  17. A novel method for study of the aggregation of protein induced by metal ion aluminum(III) using resonance Rayleigh scattering technique (United States)

    Long, Xiufen; Zhang, Caihua; Cheng, Jiongjia; Bi, Shuping


    We present a novel method for the study of the aggregation of protein induced by metal ion aluminum(III) using resonance Rayleigh scattering (RRS) technique. In neutral Tris-HCl medium, the effect of this aggregation of protein results in the enhancement of RRS intensity and the relationship between the enhancement of the RRS signal and the Al concentration is nonlinear. On this basis, we established a new method for the determination of the critical induced-aggregation concentrations ( CCIAC) of metal ion Al(III) inducing the protein aggregation. Our results show that many factors, such as, pH value, anions, salts, temperature and solvents have obvious effects. We also studied the extent of aggregation and structural changes using ultra-violet spectrometry, protein intrinsic fluorescence and circular dichroism to further understand the exact mechanisms of the aggregation characteristics of proteins induced by metal ion Al(III) at the molecular level, to help us to develop effective methods to investigate the toxicity of metal ion Al, and to provide theoretical and quantitative evidences for the development of appropriate treatments for neurodementia such as Parkinson's disease, Alzheimer's disease and dementia related to dialysis.

  18. Interseismic strain accumulation along the East Anatolian Fault (Turkey) mapped with Sentinel-1 TOPS data using persistent scatterers InSAR technique (United States)

    Senturk, Selver; Cakir, Ziyadin; Ergintav, Semih; Dogan, Ugur


    Forming the boundary between the Anatolian and Arabian plates in Turkey, the East Anatolian fault (EAF) is one of the most important tectonic structures in the Eastern Mediterranean region. Together with its conjugate, the North Anatolian Fault (NAF), it accommodates the westward motion of the Anatolian plate at a rate of 10 mm/y (Reilinger et al., 2006). We study the interseismic deformation along the eastern section of the EAF using Sentinel-1 (2014-2017) IW (interferometric wide scan) SAR data. Images on one descending (T123) and one ascending (T43) tracks are used to calculate interferograms using GMT5SAR software (Sandwell et al., 2011). The interferograms are then used to map the velocity field with the Stanford Method for Persistent Scatterers technique (STAMPS; Hooper et al., 2012). The results confirm the GPS observations (Reilinger et al., 2006) that the average slip rate of the EAF is about 10 mm/yr. The results also reveal that the 100-km-long Palu segment in the Elazıg-Bingöl seismic gap is exhibiting aseismic creep at the surface. The creep rate varies along the fault reaching, at some places, to the far field plate velocity (i.e., 10 mm/y), implying that significant portion of the elastic strain has been released aseismically. Preliminary modelling with elastic dislocations suggests that some sections of the fault may be creeping from surface down to the entire seismogenic crust.

  19. Utilization of the Differential Die-Away Self-Interrogation Technique for Characterization and Verification of Spent Nuclear Fuel

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Trahan, Alexis Chanel [Los Alamos National Lab. (LANL), Los Alamos, NM (United States)


    New nondestructive assay techniques are sought to better characterize spent nuclear fuel. One of the NDA instruments selected for possible deployment is differential die-away self-interrogation (DDSI). The proposed DDSI approach for spent fuel assembly assay utilizes primarily the spontaneous fission and (α, n) neutrons in the assemblies as an internal interrogating radiation source. The neutrons released in spontaneous fission or (α,n) reactions are thermalized in the surrounding water and induce fission in fissile isotopes, thereby creating a measurable signal from isotopes of interest that would be otherwise difficult to measure. The DDSI instrument employs neutron coincidence counting with 3He tubes and list-mode-based data acquisition to allow for production of Rossi-alpha distributions (RADs) in post-processing. The list-mode approach to data collection and subsequent construction of RADs has expanded the analytical possibilities, as will be demonstrated throughout this thesis. One of the primary advantages is that the measured signal in the form of a RAD can be analyzed in its entirety including determination of die-away times in different time domains. This capability led to the development of the early die-away method, a novel leakage multiplication determination method which is tested throughout the thesis on different sources in simulation space and fresh fuel experiments. The early die-away method is a robust, accurate, improved method of determining multiplication without the need for knowledge of the (α,n) source term. The DDSI technique and instrument are presented along with the many novel capabilities enabled by and discovered through RAD analysis. Among the new capabilities presented are the early die-away method, total plutonium content determination, and highly sensitive missing pin detection. Simulation of hundreds of different spent and fresh fuel assemblies were used to develop the analysis algorithms and the techniques were tested on a

  20. Diffuse scattering

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Kostorz, G. [Eidgenoessische Technische Hochschule, Angewandte Physik, Zurich (Switzerland)


    While Bragg scattering is characteristic for the average structure of crystals, static local deviations from the average lattice lead to diffuse elastic scattering around and between Bragg peaks. This scattering thus contains information on the occupation of lattice sites by different atomic species and on static local displacements, even in a macroscopically homogeneous crystalline sample. The various diffuse scattering effects, including those around the incident beam (small-angle scattering), are introduced and illustrated by typical results obtained for some Ni alloys. (author) 7 figs., 41 refs.

  1. National symposium: nuclear technique in industry, medicine, agriculture and environment protection. Abstracts of papers; Krajowe sympozjum: technika jadrowa w przemysle, medycynie, rolnictwie i ochronie srodowiska. Streszczenia referatow

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)



    The National Symposium `Nuclear Techniques in Industry, Medicine, Agriculture and Environment Protection` has been held in Rynia near Warsaw from 24 to 27 April 1995. Totally 94 lectures have been presented. The actual state of art in Polish investigations have been shown in all branches of applied nuclear sciences. The plenary session devoted to general topics has began the symposium. Further conference has been divided into 18 subject sessions. There were: (1) radiation technologies in environment protection; (2) radiation technologies in materials engineering; (3) radiation preservation in food; (4) radiation techniques for medical use; (5) radiotracers in industrial investigations; (6) radiotracers in water and sewage management and leak control; (7) tracers in hydrology; (8) radiotracers in materials testing; (9) instruments for environment protection, (10) radiometric industrial gages; (11) diagnostic and testing instruments; (12) application of nuclear techniques in materials testing; (13) applications of nuclear techniques in geology and hydrogeology; (14) radioanalytical methods; (15) radiation detectors; (16) radiation measurements; (17) data processing from radiometric experiments; (18) accelerators, isotopes manufacturing, INIS.

  2. Characterization of the CO2 fluid adsorption in coal as a function of pressure using neutron scattering techniques (SANS and USANS) (United States)

    Melnichenko, Y.B.; Radlinski, A.P.; Mastalerz, Maria; Cheng, G.; Rupp, J.


    Small angle neutron scattering techniques have been applied to investigate the phase behavior of CO2 injected into coal and possible changes in the coal pore structure that may result from this injection. Three coals were selected for this study: the Seelyville coal from the Illinois Basin (Ro = 0.53%), Baralaba coal from the Bowen Basin (Ro = 0.67%), and Bulli 4 coal from the Sydney Basin (Ro = 1.42%). The coals were selected from different depths to represent the range of the underground CO2 conditions (from subcritical to supercritical) which may be realized in the deep subsurface environment. The experiments were conducted in a high pressure cell and CO2 was injected under a range of pressure conditions, including those corresponding to in-situ hydrostatic subsurface conditions for each coal. Our experiments indicate that the porous matrix of all coals remains essentially unchanged after exposure to CO2 at pressures up to 200??bar (1??bar = 105??Pa). Each coal responds differently to the CO2 exposure and this response appears to be different in pores of various sizes within the same coal. For the Seelyville coal at reservoir conditions (16????C, 50??bar), CO2 condenses from a gas into liquid, which leads to increased average fluid density in the pores (??pore) with sizes (r) 1 ?? 105 ??? r ??? 1 ?? 104???? (??pore ??? 0.489??g/cm3) as well as in small pores with size between 30 and 300???? (??pore ??? 0.671??g/cm3). These values are by a factor of three to four higher than the density of bulk CO2 (??CO2) under similar thermodynamic conditions (??CO2 ??? 0.15??g/cm3). At the same time, in the intermediate size pores with r ??? 1000???? the average fluid density is similar to the density of bulk fluid, which indicates that adsorption does not occur in these pores. At in situ conditions for the Baralaba coal (35 OC, 100??bar), the average fluid density of CO2 in all pores is lower than that of the bulk fluid (??pore / ??CO2 ??? 0.6). Neutron scattering from the

  3. Fissile and fertile nuclear material measurements using a new differential die-away self-interrogation technique (United States)

    Menlove, H. O.; Menlove, S. H.; Tobin, S. J.


    This paper presents a new technique for the measurement of fissile and fertile nuclear materials in spent fuel and plutonium-laden materials such as mixed oxide (MOX) fuel. The technique, called differential die-away self-interrogation, is similar to traditional differential die-away analysis, but it does not require a pulsed neutron generator or pulsed beam accelerator, and it can measure the fertile mass in addition to the fissile mass. The new method uses the spontaneous fission neutrons from 244Cm in spent fuel and 240Pu effective neutrons in MOX as the "pulsed" neutron source, with an average of ˜2.7 neutrons per pulse. The time-correlated neutrons from the spontaneous fission and the subsequent induced fissions are analyzed as a function of time to determine the spontaneous fission rate, the induced fast-neutron fissions, and the induced thermal-neutron fissions. The fissile mass is determined from the induced thermal-neutron fissions that are produced by reflected thermal neutrons that originated from the spontaneous fission reaction. The sensitivity of the fissile mass measurement is enhanced by the use of two measurements, with and without a cadmium liner between the sample and a hydrogenous moderator that surrounds the sample. The fertile mass is determined from the multiplicity analysis of the neutrons detected soon after the initial triggering neutron is detected. The method obtains good sensitivity by the optimal design of two different neutron die-away regions: a short die-away for the neutron detector region and a longer die-away for the sample interrogation region.

  4. State of the Art Assessment of NDE Techniques for Aging Cable Management in Nuclear Power Plants FY2015

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Glass, Samuel W. [Pacific Northwest National Lab. (PNNL), Richland, WA (United States); Fifield, Leonard S. [Pacific Northwest National Lab. (PNNL), Richland, WA (United States); Dib, Gerges [Pacific Northwest National Lab. (PNNL), Richland, WA (United States); Tedeschi, Jonathan R. [Pacific Northwest National Lab. (PNNL), Richland, WA (United States); Jones, Anthony M. [Pacific Northwest National Lab. (PNNL), Richland, WA (United States); Hartman, Trenton S. [Pacific Northwest National Lab. (PNNL), Richland, WA (United States)


    This milestone report presents an update on the state-of-the-art review and research being conducted to identify key indicators of in-containment cable aging at nuclear power plants (NPPs), and devise in-situ measurement techniques that are sensitive to these key indicators. The motivation for this study stems from the need to address open questions related to nondestructive evaluation (NDE) of aging cables for degradation detection and estimation of condition-based remaining service life. These questions arise within the context of a second round of license extension for NPPs that would extend the operating license to 60 and 80 years. Within the introduction, a review of recently published U.S. and international research and guidance for cable aging management programs including NDE technologies is provided. As with any “state-of-the-art” report, the observations are deemed accurate as of the publication date but cannot anticipate evolution of the technology. Moreover, readers are advised that research and development of cable NDE technology is an ongoing issue of global concern.

  5. Analysis of a signal during bistable flow events in Laguna Verde Nuclear Power Station with wavelets techniques

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Nunez-Carrera, A. [Comision Nacional de Seguridad Nuclear y Salvaguardias, Doctor Barragan 779, Col. Narvarte, Mexico D.F. 03020 (Mexico); Prieto-Guerrero, A. [Division de Ciencias Basicas e Ingenieria, Universidad Autonoma Metropolitana-Iztapalapa, Av. San Rafael Atlixco, 186, Col. Vicentina, Mexico D.F. 09340 (Mexico); Espinosa-Martinez, E.-G. [Retorno Quebec 6, Col. Burgos de Cuernavaca 62580, Temixco, Mor. (Mexico); Espinosa-Paredes, G., E-mail: gepe@xanum.uam.m [Division de Ciencias Basicas e Ingenieria, Universidad Autonoma Metropolitana-Iztapalapa, Av. San Rafael Atlixco, 186, Col. Vicentina, Mexico D.F. 09340 (Mexico)


    This paper is concerned about bistable flow, which is manifested by a small and spontaneous change in the recirculation loop flow that has been reported in some Boiling Water Reactors. Here some real time series of the bistable flow from the Laguna Verde Nuclear Power Plant (LVNPP) are analyzed using a methodology based on wavelet transform. This methodology involves the decomposition of the original signal using the Continuous Wavelet Transform (CWT) and the application of the Discrete Wavelet Transform (DWT) based on the Multiresolution Analysis (MRA). The CWT provides information about ruptures, discontinuities and fractal behavior. The MRA allows a fast implementation of the Discrete Wavelet Transform providing information about frequencies, discontinuities and transients that can be detected with analysis at different levels of details coefficients. The combination of both techniques allows the definition of an integral methodology for the study of reactor signals. We found that the associated frequencies for the singularities observed due to bistable flow for the case of LVNPP, correspond to the interval 0.01-0.1 Hz.

  6. The CHARON detector an emulsion/counter hybrid set-up to measure the mean free path of near-elastic pion scattering in nuclear emulsion (white kink) at 2,3 and 5 GeV/c

    CERN Document Server

    Bülte, A; Litmaath, M; Gernitzky, Y; Goldberg, J; Grégoire, G; Niwa, W; Nakano, T; Komatsu, M; Itoh, K; Frekers, D; Bruski, N; Kuchmann, J


    White and grey kink events define a special class of soft hadron interactions in nuclear emulsion in which only one track (the scattered hadron) is leaving the interaction vertex. Due to their small and sometimes invisible activity at the scattering point, they represent a potential background source for all emulsion experiments hunting for decay topologies of short-lived particles like the lepton and charm mesons. For an extensive study of such hadronic kink signatures a dedicated experimental set-up has been built and exposed at the CERN PS hadron beam facility and it has collected about 300000 pions with a fixed momentum ranging from 2 to 5 GeV/c. Each particle was tracked by silicon strip detectors to connect it to the proper track in the nuclear emulsion located in between. Threshold Cherenkov detectors for electron discrimination, a muon counter and an MWPC- based magnetic spectrometer completed the experimental configuration. A total of 222 white and 271 grey kinks could be successfully located in the ...

  7. Plasma scattering of electromagnetic radiation

    CERN Document Server

    Sheffield, John


    Plasma Scattering of Electromagnetic Radiation covers the theory and experimental application of plasma scattering. The book discusses the basic properties of a plasma and of the interaction of radiation with a plasma; the relationship between the scattered power spectrum and the fluctuations in plasma density; and the incoherent scattering of low-temperature plasma. The text also describes the constraints and problems that arise in the application of scattering as a diagnostic technique; the characteristic performance of various dispersion elements, image dissectors, and detectors; and the ge

  8. Thulium-169 neutron inelastic scattering cross section measurements via the sup 1 sup 6 sup 9 Tm(n,n'gamma) reaction 25.40.fq; Inelastic neutron scattering; Nuclear reactions 169Tm(n,n'gamma); gamma-branching ratios; Neutron inelastic level cross sections; Compound and direct nuclear interaction; Time-of-flight method; High purity Ge detector

    CERN Document Server

    Ko, Y J; Kegel, G H R; Desimone, D J; Seo, P N; Young, P G


    Neutron inelastic scattering from thulium-169 has been studied for states above 100 keV via the (n,n'gamma) reaction at incident energies in the 0.2- to 1.0-MeV range. A high-resolution Ge spectrometer in conjunction with the time-of-flight technique was utilized. Thirty-six gamma-ray transitions from 16 levels were observed. Gamma-ray angular distributions were measured at E sub n =750 keV and excitation functions at 125 degrees were measured in 50 keV steps over the range of incident energies. Differential gamma-ray production cross sections and gamma-ray branching ratios were obtained. Inferred neutron inelastic level cross sections of the four lowest ground-state rotational band (K suppi=1/2 sup +) members are compared to the sum of calculated compound nucleus and direct interaction cross sections. For the remaining levels, measurements are compared to compound nucleus calculations only. The comparison shows generally good agreement particularly near threshold.

  9. Investigation of the nuclear matter density distributions of the exotic {sup 12}Be,{sup 14}Be and {sup 8}B nuclei by elastic proton scattering in inverse kinematics

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Ilieva, Stoyanka


    In the current experiment, the differential cross sections for proton elastic scattering on the isotopes {sup 7,9,10,11,12,14}Be and {sup 8}B were measured. As results from the experiment, the absolute differential cross sections d{sigma}/dt as a function of the four momentum transfer t were obtained. In this work the differential cross sections for elastic p-{sup 12}Be, p-{sup 14}Be and p-{sup 8}B scattering at low t (t{<=}0.05(GeV/c){sup 2}) are presented. The measured cross sections were analyzed within the Glauber multiple-scattering theory using different density parameterizations, and the nuclear matter density distributions and radii of the investigated isotopes were determined. The determined rms matter radius is 3.11{+-}0.04{+-}0.13 fm. In the case of the {sup 12}Be nucleus the results showed an extended matter distribution as well. For this nucleus a matter radius of 2.82{+-}0.03{+-}0.12 fm was determined. An interesting result is that the free {sup 12}Be nucleus behaves differently from the core of {sup 14}Be and is much more extended than it. Preliminary experimental results for the isotope {sup 8}B are also presented. An extended matter distribution was obtained (though much more compact as compared to the neutron halos). A proton halo structure was observed for the first time with the proton elastic scattering method. The deduced matter radius is 2.60{+-}0.02{+-}0.26 fm. Results from the feasibility studies of the EXL detector setup, performed at the present ESR storage ring, are presented. (orig.)

  10. Measurement/Evaluation Techniques and Nuclear Data Associated with Fission of 239Pu by Fission Spectrum Neutrons

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Baisden, P; Bauge, E; Ferguson, J; Gilliam, D; Granier, T; Jeanloz, R; McMillan, C; Robertson, D; Thompson, P; Verdon, C; Wilkerson, C; Young, P


    of both systematic and statistical uncertainties, including correlations, are critical to the assessment of both the experimental measurements (due to variations between experimental techniques, irradiation conditions, calibration procedures, etc.), and the evaluation of those experiments to extract fundamental nuclear data. A clear example of the importance of uncertainty analysis is in the justification for energy-dependent {sup 147}Nd fission product yield, where the magnitude of the effect is comparable to the uncertainties of the individual fission product yield measurements. Both LANL and LLNL are committed to the inclusion of full uncertainty analysis in their evaluations. (6) The Panel reviewed in detail two methods for determining/evaluating fission product yields from which fission assessments can be made: the K factor method and high-resolution gamma spectroscopy (both described more fully in Sections 3 and 4). The panel concluded that fission product yields, and thus fission assessments, derived using either approach are equally valid, provided that the data were obtained from well understood, direct fission measurements and that the key underlying calibrations and/or data are valid for each technique. (7) The Panel found the process of peer review of the two complementary but independent methods to be an extremely useful exercise. Although work is still ongoing and the numbers presented to the Panel may change slightly, both groups are now in much better agreement on not just one, but four key fission product yields. The groups also have a better appreciation of the strengths and weaknesses of each other's methods.

  11. Detection and characterization of nanoparticles in suspension at low concentrations using the X-ray total scattering pair distribution function technique

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Terban, Maxwell W. [Department of Applied Physics and Applied Mathematics; Columbia University; New York, USA; Johnson, Matthew [GlaxoSmithKline Medicines Research Centre; Hertfordshire, UK; Di Michiel, Marco [ESRF – The European Synchrotron; 38043 Grenoble Cedex 9, France; Billinge, Simon J. L. [Department of Applied Physics and Applied Mathematics; Columbia University; New York, USA; Condensed Matter Physics and Materials Science Department; Brookhaven National Laboratory


    Total scattering experiments are used with pair distribution function analysis to study nanoscale structure and morphology in highly disordered samples. We investigate sensitivity for the case of organic nanoparticles in dilute solution.

  12. Development of radiohalogenated muscarinic ligands for the in vivo imaging of m-AChR by nuclear medicine techniques

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    McPherson, D.W.; Luo, H.; Knapp, F.F. Jr.


    Alterations in the density of acetylcholinergic muscarinic receptors (m-AChR) have been observed in various dementias. This has spurred interest in the development of radiohalogenated ligands which can be used for the non-invasive in vivo detection of m-AChR by nuclear medicine techniques. We have developed a new ligand 1-azabicyclo[2.2.2]oct-3-yl ({alpha}-hydroxy-{alpha}-(1-iodo-1-propen-3-yl)-{alpha}-phenylacetate (IQNP,12) which demonstrates high affinity for the muscarinic receptor. When labeled with radioiodine it has been shown to be selective and specific for m-ACHR. Initial studies on the separation and in vivo evaluation of the various isomers of IQNP have shown that the stereochemistry of the chiral centers and the configuration around the double bond play an important role in m-AChR subtype specificity. In vivo evaluation of these stereoisomers demonstrate that E-(R,R)-IQNP has a high affinity for the M{sub 1} muscarinic subtype while Z-(R,R)-IQNP demonstrate a high affinity for M{sub 1} and M{sub 2} receptor subtypes. These data demonstrate IQNP (12) has potential for use in the non-evasive in vivo detection of m-AChR by single photon emission computed tomography (SPECT). A brominated analogue, ``BrQNP,`` in which the iodine has been replaced by a bromine atom, has also been prepared and was shown to block the in vivo uptake of IQNP in the brain and heart and therefore has potential for positron emission tomographic (PET) studies of m-AChR.

  13. The nuclear techniques in function of improving the efficiency of the station of treatment of industrial waste in PETROBRAS; Las tecnicas nucleares en funcion de mejorar la eficiencia de la estacion de tratamiento de desechos industriales en PETROBRAS

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Damera Martinez, Arnaldo; Ramos Espinosa, Kenia A. [Centro de Atencion a la Actividad Nuclear, Camaguey (Cuba)]. E-mail:; Pinto, Amenonia Ferreira; Barbalho, Andrea de Magalhaes [Centro de Desenvolvimento da Tecnologia Nuclear (CDTN), Belo Horizonte, MG (Brazil); Derivet Zarzabal, Milagros [Instituto Cubano de Investigaciones Azucareras, La Habana (Cuba)


    The industry of the petroleum has become in the last decades, an user of the Nuclear Techniques. Due to the amplification of activities in some of the technical and economic characteristics of this industry the possibilities of application of the nuclear techniques in the oil sector are proportionally bigger and more important than in many other sectors of the economy. This work was carried out in the Station of Treatment of Industrial Wastes in PETROBRAS (Brazil). It has the objective of determinating the time of real residence of the misture of waste inside the separator by means of radioactive tracer, using the Tc-99m. This has a great economic and environmental importance, because when obtaining the time of residence experimentally in the separators, you can compare with those obtained theoretically, which allows to influence with more precision on the system, optimizing their operation, and diminishing the magnitude of its possible negative environmental impact. (author)

  14. Simple aerosol correction technique based on the spectral relationships of the aerosol multiple-scattering reflectances for atmospheric correction over the oceans. (United States)

    Ahn, Jae-Hyun; Park, Young-Je; Kim, Wonkook; Lee, Boram


    An estimation of the aerosol multiple-scattering reflectance is an important part of the atmospheric correction procedure in satellite ocean color data processing. Most commonly, the utilization of two near-infrared (NIR) bands to estimate the aerosol optical properties has been adopted for the estimation of the effects of aerosols. Previously, the operational Geostationary Color Ocean Imager (GOCI) atmospheric correction scheme relies on a single-scattering reflectance ratio (SSE), which was developed for the processing of the Sea-viewing Wide Field-of-view Sensor (SeaWiFS) data to determine the appropriate aerosol models and their aerosol optical thicknesses. The scheme computes reflectance contributions (weighting factor) of candidate aerosol models in a single scattering domain then spectrally extrapolates the single-scattering aerosol reflectance from NIR to visible (VIS) bands using the SSE. However, it directly applies the weight value to all wavelengths in a multiple-scattering domain although the multiple-scattering aerosol reflectance has a non-linear relationship with the single-scattering reflectance and inter-band relationship of multiple scattering aerosol reflectances is non-linear. To avoid these issues, we propose an alternative scheme for estimating the aerosol reflectance that uses the spectral relationships in the aerosol multiple-scattering reflectance between different wavelengths (called SRAMS). The process directly calculates the multiple-scattering reflectance contributions in NIR with no residual errors for selected aerosol models. Then it spectrally extrapolates the reflectance contribution from NIR to visible bands for each selected model using the SRAMS. To assess the performance of the algorithm regarding the errors in the water reflectance at the surface or remote-sensing reflectance retrieval, we compared the SRAMS atmospheric correction results with the SSE atmospheric correction using both simulations and in situ match-ups with the

  15. Thomson Scattering

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Donne, A. J. H.


    Thomson scattering is a very powerful diagnostic which is applied at nearly every magnetic confinement device. Depending on the experimental conditions different plasma parameters can be diagnosed. When the wave vector is much larger than the plasma Debye length, the total scattered power is

  16. Application of fisheries management techniques to assessing impacts: task I report. [Assessment of chemical, radiological, and thermal impacts of nuclear power plants on fish populations

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    McKenzie, D.H.; Baker, K.S.; Fickeisen, D.H.; Metzger, R.M.; Skalski, J.R.


    Task I efforts examined the available fisheries management techniques and assessed their potential application in a confirmatory monitoring program. The objective of such monitoring programs is to confirm that the prediction of an insignificant impact (usually made in the FES) was correct. Fisheries resource managers have developed several tools for assessing the fish population response to stress (exploitation) and they were thought potentially useful for detecting nuclear power plant impacts. Techniques in three categories were examined; catch removal, population dynamics, and nondestructive censuses, and the report contains their description, examples of application, advantages, and disadvantages. The techniques applied at nuclear power plant sites were examined in detail to provide information on implementation and variability of specific approaches. The most suitable techniques to incorporate into a monitoring program confirming no impact appear to be those based on Catch Per Unity Effort (CPUE) and hydroacoustic data. In some specific cases, age and growth studies and indirect census techniques may be beneficial. Recommendations for task II efforts to incorporate these techniques into monitoring program designs are presented. These include development of guidelines for; (1) designing and implementing a data collection program; (2) interpreting these data and assessing the occurrence of impact, and (3) establishment of the monitoring program's ability to detect changes in the affected populations.

  17. T-matrix based inverse light scattering analysis using angle resolved low coherence interferometry (United States)

    Giacomelli, Michael; Chalut, Kevin; Ostrander, Julie; Wax, Adam


    Inverse light scattering methods have been applied by several groups as a means to probe cellular structure in both clinical and scientific applications with sub-wavelength accuracy. These methods determine the geometric properties of tissue scatterers based on far field scattering patterns. Generally, structure is determined by measuring scattering over some range of angles, wavelengths, or polarizations and then fitting the observed data to a database of simulated scattering selected from a range of probable geometries. We have developed new light scattering software based on the T-matrix method that creates databases of scattering from spheroidal objects, representing a substantial improvement over Mie theory, a method limited to simulating scattering from spheres. The computational cost of the T-matrix method is addressed through a simple but massively parallel program that concurrently simulates scattering across hundreds of PCs. We are exploring the use of these T-matrix databases in inverting interferometric measurements of angle-resolved scattering from spheroidal cell nuclei using a technique called angle-resolved low coherence interferometry (a/LCI). With a/LCI, we have previously distinguished between healthy and dysplastic tissue in both cell cultures and in ex vivo rat and hamster tissue using Mie theory to measure nuclear diameter. We now present nuclear volume and spheroidal aspect ratio measurements of unstained, living MCF7 cells using the improved T-matrix database to analyze a/LCI data. We achieve measurement accuracy equivalent to conventional image analysis of stained samples. We will further validate the approach by comparing experimental measurements of scattering from polystyrene microspheroids, and show that the T-matrix is a suitable replacement for Mie theory in ex vivo tissue samples.

  18. (Gamma scattering in condensed matter with high intensity Moessbauer radiation)

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)


    This report discusses: quasielastic scattering studies on glycerol; gamma-ray scattering from alkali halides; lattice dynamics in metals; Moessbauer neutron scattering, x-ray diffraction, and macroscopic studies of high {Tc} superconductors containing tungsten; NiAl scattering studies; and atomic interference factors and nuclear Casimir effect.

  19. Optimization of enrichment distributions in nuclear fuel assemblies loaded with Uranium and Plutonium via a modified linear programming technique

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Cuevas Vivas, Gabriel Francisco


    A methodology to optimize enrichment distributions in Light Water Reactor (LWR) fuel assemblies is developed and tested. The optimization technique employed is the linear programming revised simplex method, and the fuel assembly's performance is evaluated with a neutron transport code that is also utilized in the calculation of sensitivity coefficients. The enrichment distribution optimization procedure begins from a single-value (flat) enrichment distribution until a target, maximum local power peaking factor, is achieved. The optimum rod enrichment distribution, with 1.00 for the maximum local power peaking factor and with each rod having its own enrichment, is calculated at an intermediate stage of the analysis. Later, the best locations and values for a reduced number of rod enrichments is obtained as a function of a target maximum local power peaking factor by applying sensitivity to change techniques. Finally, a shuffling process that assigns individual rod enrichments among the enrichment groups is performed. The relative rod power distribution is then slightly modified and the rod grouping redefined until the optimum configuration is attained. To verify the accuracy of the relative rod power distribution, a full computation with the neutron transport code using the optimum enrichment distribution is carried out. The results are compared and tested for assembly designs loaded with fresh Low Enriched Uranium (LEU) and plutonium Mixed Oxide (MOX) isotopics for both reactor-grade and weapons-grade plutonium were utilized to demonstrate the wide range of applicability of the optimization technique. The feature of the assembly designs used for evaluation purposes included burnable absorbers and internal water regions, and were prepared to resemble the configurations of modern assemblies utilized in commercial Boiling Water Reactor (BWRs) and Pressurized Water Reactors (PWRs). In some cases, a net improvement in the relative rod power distribution or in the

  20. Comparative studies on chemical and natural coagulants and preservatives to get biocrude from the latex of Calotropsis procera (Ait. ) R. Br. and an alternative light-scattering technique to screen the coagulants

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Arora, M.; Behera, B.K. (MD Univ., Rohtak (India). Dept. of Bio-Sciences); Sharma, D.K. (Indian Inst. of Tech., New Delhi (India). Centre of Energy Studies)


    Preservation of Calotropis procera (Ait.) R.Br. latex was studied in terms of changes in pH, colour and the extent of coagulation on using various preservatives. In addition, a comparison of synthetic and natural coagulating agents was made for coagulation of C. procera latex for biocrude production. Natural coagulant (bark extract) was found to be better than synthetic coagulants. A quick light-scattering technique was developed to study the extent of coagulation and the yield of biocrude. (Author)

  1. Proposal of a radiological protection inspection technique for nuclear medicine facilities; Proposta de metodo de inspecao de radioprotecao aplicada em instalacoes de medicina nuclear

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Mendes, Leopoldino da Cruz Gouveia [Instituto de Radioprotecao e Dosimetria (IRD), Rio de Janeiro, RJ (Brazil); Fonseca, Lea Mirian Barbosa da [Universidade Federal, Rio de Janeiro, RJ (Brazil). Faculdade de Medicina. Disciplina de Medicina Nuclear; Carvalho, Antonio Carlos Pires [Universidade Federal, Rio de Janeiro, RJ (Brazil). Faculdade de Medicina. Dept. de Radiologia]. E-mail:


    The main objective of this study is to implement an impartial and efficient inspection method for a correct and secure use of ionizing radiation in nuclear medicine. The radiological protection model was tested in 113 nuclear medicine services (NMS) all over Brazil, following a biannual analysis schedule (1996, 1998, 2000 and 2002). In the analytical process, we adopted the methodology of assigning different importance levels to each of 82 features, based on the risk factors established by the 'Comissao Nacional de Energia Nuclear' (CNEN) and on the International Atomic Energy Agency (IAEA) recommendations. A feature was considered a radioprotection fault when in nonconformity with the rules mentioned above, and was imparted a grade. The sum of those grades, classified the NMS in one of the three different ranges, as follows: operating without restriction - 100 points and below; operating with restriction - between 100 and 300 points; temporary shutdown - above 300 points. Permission for the second group to carry on operation should be attached to a defined and restricted period of time (6 to 12 months), considered enough for the NMS to solve the problems and submit to a new evaluation. The NMS's classified in the third group are supposed to go back into operation only after compliance with all the pending radioprotection requirements. Until the next regular evaluation, a multiplication factor 2{sup n} was applied to the recalcitrant NMS's, where n is the number of unwilling occurrences. The previous establishment of those items of radioprotection, with their respective grades, excluded subjective and personal values in the judgement and technical evaluation of the institutions. (author)

  2. Comparison of optimization techniques applied to nuclear fuel reload design; Comparacion de tecnicas de optimizacion aplicadas al diseno de la recarga de combustible nuclear

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Ortiz, J.J.; Castillo, A.; Montes, J.L.; Perusquia, R. [ININ, Carretera Mexico-Toluca s/n, 52750 La Marquesa, Ocoyoacac Estado de Mexico (Mexico)]. e-mail:


    In this work a comparison of three techniques of optimization is presented applied to the design of the recharge of fuel in reactors of water in boil. In short, the techniques were applied to the design of a recharge of a cycle of balance of 18 months of the Laguna Verde Nucleo electric Central. The used techniques were Genetic Algorithms, Taboo Search and Neural Nets. The conditions to apply the different techniques were the same ones. The comparison of the results quality and the computational resources required to obtain them, it indicates that with the Taboo Search better results are achieved but the computational cost is very big. On the other hand the neural net with low computational cost obtains acceptable results. Additionally to this comparison, in this work a summary of the works that have been carried out for the fuel recharges optimization from the years 60 until the present time is presented. (Author)

  3. Scattering theory of molecules, atoms and nuclei

    CERN Document Server

    Canto, L Felipe


    The aim of the book is to give a coherent and comprehensive account of quantum scattering theory with applications to atomic, molecular and nuclear systems. The motivation for this is to supply the necessary theoretical tools to calculate scattering observables of these many-body systems. Concepts which are seemingly different for atomic/molecular scattering from those of nuclear systems, are shown to be the same once physical units such as energy and length are diligently clarified. Many-body resonances excited in nuclear systems are the same as those in atomic systems and come under the name

  4. Solutions for implementing time-of-flight techniques in low-angle neutron scattering, as realized on the Low-Q Diffractometer at Los Alamos

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Hjelm, R.P. Jr.; Seeger, P.A.


    The implementation of small-angle (Low-momentum transfer) neutron scattering at pulsed spallation sources, using time of flight methods, has meant the introduction of some new ideas in instrument design, data acquisition, data reduction and computer management of the experiment and the data. Here we recount some of the salient aspects of solutions for implementing time of fight small-angle neutron scattering instruments at pulsed sources, as realized on the Low-Q Diffractometer, LQD, at Los Alamos. We consider, fortlier, some of the problems that are yet to be solved, and take a short excursion into the future of SANS instrumentation at pulsed sources.

  5. Solutions for implementing time-of-flight techniques in low-angle neutron scattering, as realized on the Low-Q Diffractometer at Los Alamos

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Hjelm, R.P. Jr.; Seeger, P.A.


    The implementation of small-angle (Low-momentum transfer) neutron scattering at pulsed spallation sources, using time of flight methods, has meant the introduction of some new ideas in instrument design, data acquisition, data reduction and computer management of the experiment and the data. Here we recount some of the salient aspects of solutions for implementing time of fight small-angle neutron scattering instruments at pulsed sources, as realized on the Low-Q Diffractometer, LQD, at Los Alamos. We consider, fortlier, some of the problems that are yet to be solved, and take a short excursion into the future of SANS instrumentation at pulsed sources.

  6. Acceleration of calculation of nuclear heating distributions in ITER toroidal field coils using hybrid Monte Carlo/deterministic techniques

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Ibrahim, Ahmad M., E-mail: [Oak Ridge National Laboratory, P.O. Box 2008, Oak Ridge, TN 37831 (United States); Polunovskiy, Eduard; Loughlin, Michael J. [ITER Organization, Route de Vinon Sur Verdon, 13067 St. Paul Lez Durance (France); Grove, Robert E. [Oak Ridge National Laboratory, P.O. Box 2008, Oak Ridge, TN 37831 (United States); Sawan, Mohamed E. [University of Wisconsin-Madison, 1500 Engineering Dr., Madison, WI 53706 (United States)


    Highlights: • Assess the detailed distribution of the nuclear heating among the components of the ITER toroidal field coils. • Utilize the FW-CADIS method to dramatically accelerate the calculation of detailed nuclear analysis. • Compare the efficiency and reliability of the FW-CADIS method and the MCNP weight window generator. - Abstract: Because the superconductivity of the ITER toroidal field coils (TFC) must be protected against local overheating, detailed spatial distribution of the TFC nuclear heating is needed to assess the acceptability of the designs of the blanket, vacuum vessel (VV), and VV thermal shield. Accurate Monte Carlo calculations of the distributions of the TFC nuclear heating are challenged by the small volumes of the tally segmentations and by the thick layers of shielding provided by the blanket and VV. To speed up the MCNP calculation of the nuclear heating distribution in different segments of the coil casing, ground insulation, and winding packs of the ITER TFC, the ITER Organization (IO) used the MCNP weight window generator (WWG). The maximum relative uncertainty of the tallies in this calculation was 82.7%. In this work, this MCNP calculation was repeated using variance reduction parameters generated by the Oak Ridge National Laboratory AutomateD VAriaNce reducTion Generator (ADVANTG) code and both MCNP calculations were compared in terms of computational efficiency and reliability. Even though the ADVANTG MCNP calculation used less than one-sixth of the computational resources of the IO calculation, the relative uncertainties of all the tallies in the ADVANTG MCNP calculation were less than 6.1%. The nuclear heating results of the two calculations were significantly different by factors between 1.5 and 2.3 in some of the segments of the furthest winding pack turn from the plasma neutron source. Even though the nuclear heating in this turn may not affect the ITER design because it is much smaller than the nuclear heating in the

  7. Application perspectives of simulation techniques CFD in nuclear power plants; Perspectivas de aplicacion de tecnicas de modelado CFD en plantas nucleoelectricas

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Galindo G, I. F., E-mail: [Instituto de Investigaciones Electricas, Reforma No. 113, Col. Palmira, 62490 Cuernavaca, Morelos (Mexico)


    The scenarios simulation in nuclear power plants is usually carried out with system codes that are based on concentrated parameters networks. However situations exist in some components where the flow is predominantly 3-D, as they are the natural circulation, mixed and stratification phenomena. The simulation techniques of computational fluid dynamics (CFD) have the potential to simulate these flows numerically. The use of CFD simulations embraces many branches of the engineering and continues growing, however, in relation to its application with respect to the problems related with the safety in nuclear power plants, has a smaller development, although is accelerating quickly and is expected that in the future they play a more emphasized paper in the analyses. A main obstacle to be able to achieve a general acceptance of the CFD is that the simulations should have very complete validation studies, sometimes not available. In this article a general panorama of the state of the methods application CFD in nuclear power plants is presented and the problem associated to its routine application and acceptance, including the view point of the regulatory authorities. Application examples are revised in those that the CFD offers real benefits and are also presented two illustrative study cases of the application of CFD techniques. The case of a water recipient with a heat source in its interior, similar to spent fuel pool of a nuclear power plant is presented firstly; and later the case of the Boron dilution of a water volume that enters to a nuclear reactor is presented. We can conclude that the CFD technology represents a very important opportunity to improve the phenomena understanding with a strong component 3-D and to contribute in the uncertainty reduction. (Author)

  8. Critical scattering

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Stirling, W.G. [Liverpool Univ., Dep. of Physics, Liverpool (United Kingdom); Perry, S.C. [Keele Univ. (United Kingdom). Dept. of Physics


    We outline the theoretical and experimental background to neutron scattering studies of critical phenomena at magnetic and structural phase transitions. The displacive phase transition of SrTiO{sub 3} is discussed, along with examples from recent work on magnetic materials from the rare-earth (Ho, Dy) and actinide (NpAs, NpSb, USb) classes. The impact of synchrotron X-ray scattering is discussed in conclusion. (author) 13 figs., 18 refs.

  9. Nuclear Resonance Fluorescence for Materials Assay (United States)

    Quiter, Brian J.; Ludewigt, Bernhard A.; Mozin, Vladimir V.; Prussin, Stanley G.


    This paper discusses the use of nuclear resonance fluorescence (NRF) techniques for the isotopic and quantitative assaying of radioactive material. Potential applications include age-dating of an unknown radioactive source, pre- and post-detonation nuclear forensics and safeguards for nuclear fuel cycles Examples of age-dating a strong radioactive source and assaying a spent fuel pin are discussed. The modeling work has ben performed with the Monte Carlo radiation transport computer code MCNPX and the capability to simulate NRF has bee added to the code. Discussed are the limitations in MCNPX's photon transport physics for accurately describing photon scattering processes that are important contributions to the background and impact the applicability of the NRF assay technique.

  10. Dynamic nuclear spin polarization

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Stuhrmann, H.B. [GKSS-Forschungszentrum Geesthacht GmbH (Germany)


    Polarized neutron scattering from dynamic polarized targets has been applied to various hydrogenous materials at different laboratories. In situ structures of macromolecular components have been determined by nuclear spin contrast variation with an unprecedented precision. The experiments of selective nuclear spin depolarisation not only opened a new dimension to structural studies but also revealed phenomena related to propagation of nuclear spin polarization and the interplay of nuclear polarisation with the electronic spin system. The observation of electron spin label dependent nuclear spin polarisation domains by NMR and polarized neutron scattering opens a way to generalize the method of nuclear spin contrast variation and most importantly it avoids precontrasting by specific deuteration. It also likely might tell us more about the mechanism of dynamic nuclear spin polarisation. (author) 4 figs., refs.

  11. The Trojan Female Technique for pest control: a candidate mitochondrial mutation confers low male fertility across diverse nuclear backgrounds in Drosophila melanogaster. (United States)

    Dowling, Damian K; Tompkins, Daniel M; Gemmell, Neil J


    Pest species represent a major ongoing threat to global biodiversity. Effective management approaches are required that regulate pest numbers, while minimizing collateral damage to nontarget species. The Trojan Female Technique (TFT) was recently proposed as a prospective approach to biological pest control. The TFT draws on the evolutionary hypothesis that maternally inherited mitochondrial genomes are prone to the accumulation of male, but not female, harming mutations. These mutations could be harnessed to provide trans-generational fertility-based control of pest species. A candidate TFT mutation was recently described in the fruit fly, Drosophila melanogaster, which confers male-only sterility in the specific isogenic nuclear background in which it is maintained. However, applicability of the TFT relies on mitochondrial mutations whose male-sterilizing effects are general across nuclear genomic contexts. We test this assumption, expressing the candidate TFT-mutation bearing haplotype alongside a range of nuclear backgrounds and comparing its fertility in males, relative to that of control haplotypes. We document consistently lower fertility for males harbouring the TFT mutation, in both competitive and noncompetitive mating contexts, across all nuclear backgrounds screened. This indicates that TFT mutations conferring reduced male fertility can segregate within populations and could be harnessed to facilitate this novel form of pest control.

  12. Light scattering by small particles

    CERN Document Server

    Hulst, H C van de


    ""A must for researchers using the techniques of light scattering."" ? S. C. Snowdon, Journal of the Franklin InstituteThe measurement of light scattering of independent, homogeneous particles has many useful applications in physical chemistry, meteorology and astronomy. There is, however, a sizeable gap between the abstract formulae related to electromagnetic-wave-scattering phenomena, and the computation of reliable figures and curves. Dr. van de Hulst's book enables researchers to bridge that gap. The product of twelve years of work, it is an exhaustive study of light-scattering properties

  13. Structural analysis and characterization of synthesized ordered mesoporous silicate (MCM-41) using small angle X-rays scattering and complementary techniques (United States)

    Akinlalu, Ademola V.

    Mesoporous silicate have widespread potential applications, such as drug delivery, supports for catalysis, selective adsorption and host to guest molecules. Most important in the area of scientific research and industrial applications is their demand due to its extremely high surface areas (> 800m 2g-1) and larger pores with well defined structures. Mesoporous silicate (MCM-41) samples were prepared by hydrothermal method under various chemo-physical conditions and various experimental methods such as small angle X-rays scattering (SAXS), Nitrogen adsorption-desorption analysis at 77 K, Fourier transform infrared spectroscopy (FTIR) and scanning electron microscopy (SEM) were employed to investigate the changes in the structural morphology and subtle lattice parameter changes. With regards to the subtle changes in the structural characteristics of the synthesized mesoporous silicate, we seek to understand the electron density function changes as the synthesis parameter are varied from low molar concentration of ATAB/Si to higher concentration, the system becoming more acidity due to increase in the hydrolysis time of pH regulator as a result of increased production of ethanol and acetic acid and the changes due to extended reaction time. This Ph.D. research tries to understand the influence of various parameters like surfactant-Si molar ratio, reaction time, and the hydrolysis of the pH regulator on the orderliness/disorderliness of the lattice order, lattice spacing and electron density function. The stages during synthesis are carefully selected to better understand where the greater influence on the overall structural morphology exist so as to be able to ne tune this parameter for any desired specification and application. The SAXS measurement were conducted on a HECUS S3-Micro X-ray system at Rensselaer Polytechnic Institute, Troy, NY. while the data evaluation and visualization were carried in 3DView 4.2 and EasySWAXS software. The electron density functions

  14. Measurement of size-dependent single scattering albedo of fresh biomass burning aerosols using the extinction-minus-scattering technique with a combination of cavity ring-down spectroscopy and nephelometry

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    S. Singh


    Full Text Available Biomass burning (BB aerosols have a significant effect on regional climate, and represent a significant uncertainty in our understanding of climate change. Using a combination of cavity ring-down spectroscopy and integrating nephelometry, the single scattering albedo (SSA and Ångstrom absorption exponent (AAE were measured for several North American biomass fuels. This was done for several particle diameters for the smoldering and flaming stage of white pine, red oak, and cedar combustion. Measurements were done over a wider wavelength range than any previous direct measurement of BB particles. While the offline sampling system used in this work shows promise, some changes in particle size distribution were observed, and a thorough evaluation of this method is required. The uncertainty of SSA was 6 %, with the truncation angle correction of the nephelometer being the largest contributor to error. While scattering and extinction did show wavelength dependence, SSA did not. SSA values ranged from 0.46 to 0.74, and were not uniformly greater for the smoldering stage than the flaming stage. SSA values changed with particle size, and not systematically so, suggesting the proportion of tar balls to fractal black carbon change with fuel type/state and particle size. SSA differences of 0.15–0.4 or greater can be attributed to fuel type or fuel state for fresh soot. AAE values were quite high (1.59–5.57, despite SSA being lower than is typically observed in wildfires. The SSA and AAE values in this work do not fit well with current schemes that relate these factors to the modified combustion efficiency of a burn. Combustion stage, particle size, fuel type, and fuel condition were found to have the most significant effects on the intrinsic optical properties of fresh soot, though additional factors influence aged soot.

  15. Scattering of light by crystals

    CERN Document Server

    Hayes, William


    This authoritative graduate-level text describes inelastic light scattering by crystals and its use in the investigation of solid-state excitation, with experimental techniques common to all types of excitation. 1978 edition.

  16. Neutron scattering for the analysis of biological structures. Brookhaven symposia in biology. Number 27

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Schoenborn, B P [ed.


    Sessions were included on neutron scattering and biological structure analysis, protein crystallography, neutron scattering from oriented systems, solution scattering, preparation of deuterated specimens, inelastic scattering, data analysis, experimental techniques, and instrumentation. Separate entries were made for the individual papers.

  17. Nuclear techniques (PIXE and RBS) applied to analysis of pre hispanic metals of the Templo Mayor at Tenochtitlan; Tecnicas nucleares (PIXE y RBS) aplicadas al analisis de metales prehispanicos del Templo Mayor de Tenochtitlan

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Mendez U, I.; Tenorio, D.; Galvan, J.L. [Instituto Nacional de Investigaciones Nucleares, A.P. 18-1027, 11801 Mexico D.F. (Mexico)


    This work has the objective of determining by means of the utilization of nuclear techniques (PIXE and RBS) the composition and the alloy type of diverse aztec ornaments corresponding to Post classic period, they were manufactured principally with copper and gold such as bells, beads and disks; all they belonging at 9 oblations of Templo Mayor of Tenochtitlan. It is presented here briefly the historical and archaeological antecedents of the devices as well as the analytical methods for conclude with the results obtained. (Author)

  18. A new method for studying platelets, based upon the low-angle light scattering technique. 3. Aggregation hypersensitivity of platelets (ADP agonist) and search for corrective agents.


    Mindukshev, I. V.; Goncharov, Nikolay V.; Shabanova, E. Y.; Ermolaeva, E. E.; Mironova, M. O.; Radilov, Andrey S.; Jenkins, R. O.; Krivchenko. Alexander I.


    A new method for studying platelets based on low-angle light scattering has previously revealed that platelets taken from pregnant women with preeclampsia are hypersensitive to ADP, with aggregation developing at concentrations of 7–15 nmol l−1. The method has been applied to further studies in experimental toxicology and clinical pathology. Toxicological experiments with fluoroacetate (FA), an inhibitor of TCA cycle, showed that the platelet hypersensitivity could also be caused by energy de...

  19. Precision Measurement of the n-3He Incoherent Scattering Length Using Neutron Interferometry

    CERN Document Server

    Huber, M G; Black, T C; Chen, W C; Gentile, T R; Hussey, D S; Pushin, D; Wietfeldt, F E; Yang, L


    We report the first measurement of the low-energy neutron-3He incoherent scattering length using neutron interferometry: b_i' = (-2.417 +/- 0.012 statistical +/- 0.014 systematic) fm. It is in slight disagreement with the only previous measurement of this quantity by Zimmer, et al., b_i' = (-2.365 +/- 0.020) fm, which used a very different technique, pseudomagnetic spin rotation. The neutron-3He scattering lengths are important for testing and developing nuclear potential models that include three nucleon forces, effective field theories for few-body nuclear systems, and for understanding quantum excitations in liquid helium. This work demonstrates the first use of a polarized nuclear target in a neutron interferometer.

  20. Model for deployment of a Quality Assurance System in the nuclear fuel cycle facilities using Project Management techniques

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Lage, Ricardo F.; Ribeiro, Saulo F.Q., E-mail:, E-mail: [Industrias Nucleares do Brasil (INB), Rio de Janeiro, RJ (Brazil)


    The Nuclear Safety is the main goal in any nuclear facility. In this sense the Norm CNEN-NN-1.16 classifies the quality assurance issue as a management system to be deployed and implemented by the organization to achieving security goals. Quality Assurance is a set of systematic and planned actions necessary to provide adequate confidence ensuring that a structure, system, component or installation will work satisfactorily in s. Hence, the Quality Assurance System (QAS) is a complete and comprehensive methodology, going far beyond a management plan quality from the perspective of project management. The fundamental of QAS requirements is all activities that influence the quality, involving organizational, human resources, procurement, nuclear safety, projects, procedures and communication. Coordination of all these elements requires a great effort by the team responsible because it usually involves different areas and different levels of hierarchy within the organization. The objectives and desired benefits should be well set for everyone to understand what it means to be achieved and how to achieve. The support of senior management is critical at this stage, providing guidelines and resources necessary to get the job elapse clearly and efficiently, on time, cost and certain scope. The methodology of project management processes can be applied to facilitate and expedite the implementation of this system. Many of the principles of the QAS are correlated with knowledge areas of project management. The proposed model for implementation of a QAS in the nuclear fuel cycle facilities considered the best project management practices according to the Project Management Book of Knowledge (PMBOK - 5th edition) of the Project Management Institute (PMI). This knowledge is considered very good practices around the world. Since the model was defined, the deployment process becomes more practical and efficient, providing reduction in deployment time, better management of human

  1. Assessment of levels and 'health-effects' of airborne particulate matter in mining, metal refining and metal working industries using nuclear and related analytical techniques

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)



    The International Atomic Energy Agency (IAEA) has been supporting, over the years, several coordinated research programmes (CRPs) on various research topics related to environmental issues impacting human health. A variety of industrial environments such as: galvanisation, iron and steel production, steel construction, coal fired thermal power plants, mining and mineral beneficiation of monazite, zinc smelters, and phosphate fertilizer production plants were included in this CRP. Toxic elements specific for particular industries as potential pollutants were monitored within individual projects. The CRP focussed on the use of nuclear and related analytical techniques for studies of exposure to inorganic constituents and radionuclides from naturally occurring radioactive materials (NORMs), in the workplaces and their impacts on the health of the workers. The objectives were to: develop strategies and techniques for sampling of workplace airborne particulate matter (APM) and of bio-markers (e.g. hair, blood, nails, teeth, urine, breath) of exposed and non-exposed individuals; develop reliable analytical procedures for the analysis of such samples, using nuclear and related analytical techniques; carry out workplace and personal monitoring surveys, and assess workers' exposure to toxic elements on the basis of measurements results. This document provides an overview of the activities performed under the CRP by the participants. The overall achievements are summarized and those aspects that require a further deeper look are also pointed out. The individual country reports include details on the progress made by the respective participants during the CRP period.

  2. Compton scattering

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Botto, D.J.; Pratt, R.H.


    The current status of Compton scattering, both experimental observations and the theoretical predictions, is examined. Classes of experiments are distinguished and the results obtained are summarized. The validity of the incoherent scattering function approximation and the impulse approximation is discussed. These simple theoretical approaches are compared with predictions of the nonrelativistic dipole formula of Gavrila and with the relativistic results of Whittingham. It is noted that the A/sup -2/ based approximations fail to predict resonances and an infrared divergence, both of which have been observed. It appears that at present the various available theoretical approaches differ significantly in their predictions and that further and more systematic work is required.

  3. Kaons and antiproton-nucleus scattering

    CERN Document Server

    Haque, S; Rahman, S N


    The elastic scattering of Kaons and antiprotons from several nuclei is studied in the framework of the generalized diffraction model due to Frahn and Venter. The systematics of reaction cross section and the standard nuclear radius, as given by the model, are discussed. The parameters obtained from the elastic scattering analyses are used, without any adjustment, to reproduce some inelastic scattering angular distributions and the corresponding deformation parameters are determined.

  4. Compton scattering on $^{208}$Pb

    CERN Document Server

    Alberico, W M


    The authors briefly review the formalism of the nuclear Compton scattering in the frame of the low-energy theorems (LET). They treat the resonant terms of the amplitude, having collective intermediate nuclear states, as a superposition of Lorentz lines with energy, width and strength fixed by the photo-absorption experiments. The gauge terms are evaluated starting from a simple, but realistic, nuclear Hamiltonian. Dynamical nucleon-nucleon correlations are consistently taken into account, beyond those imposed by the Pauli principle. The comparison of the theoretical predictions with the data of elastic diffusion of photons from /sup 208/Pb shows that LET are insufficient to account for the experiment.


    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Authors, Various


    Papers are presented for the following topics: (1) Nuclear Structure and Nuclear Properties - (a) Nuclear Spectroscopy and Radioactivity; (b) Nuclear Reactions and Scattering; (c) Nuclear Theory; and (d) Fission. (2) Chemical and Atomic Physics - (a) Atomic and Molecular Spectroscopy; and (b) Hyperfine Interactions. (3) Physical, Inorganic, and Analytical Chemistry - (a) X-Ray Crystallography; (b) Physical and Inorganic Chemistry; (c) Radiation Chemistry; and (d) Chemical Engineering. (4) Instrumentation and Systems Development.

  6. Development of methodologies used in the areas of safeguards and nuclear forensics based on LA-HR-ICP-MS technique; Desenvolvimento de metodologias utilizadas nas areas de salvaguardas e forense nuclear baseadas na tecnica LA-HR-ICP-MS

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Marin, Rafael Coelho


    Environmental sampling performed by means of swipe samples is a methodology frequently employed by International Atomic Energy Agency (IAEA) to verify if the signatory States of the Safeguards Agreements are conducing unauthorized activities. Swipe samples analysis is complementary to the Safeguards ordinary procedures used to verify the information given by the States. In this work it was described a methodology intending to strengthen the nuclear safeguards and nuclear forensics procedures. The proposal is to study and evaluate the laser ablation high resolution inductively coupled plasma mass spectrometry (LA-HR-ICP-MS) technique as an alternative to analyze the real-life swipe samples. The precision achieved through the standard (CRM - 125A) measurements, represented by the relative standard deviation (RSD), was respectively 1.3 %, 0.2 % e 7.6 % for the {sup 234}U/{sup 238}U, {sup 235}U/{sup 238}U e {sup 236}U/{sup 238}U isotopes ratios. The percent uncertainties (u %), which covers the RSD, ranged from 3.5 % to 29.8 % to the {sup 235}U/{sup 238}U measurements and from 16.6 % to 42.9 % to the {sup 234}U/{sup 238}U isotope ratio. These results were compatible with former studies performed by the LA-HR-ICP-MS that analyzed real-life swipe samples collected at a nuclear facility. Swipe samples collected from several points of the nuclear facility presented enrichment level ranging from (2.3 ± 0.7) % (sample 3) to (17.3 ± 2.8) % (sample 18). They also allowed detecting different enrichment levels within the facility. (author)

  7. Study of hydrogen in coals, polymers, oxides, and muscle water by nuclear magnetic resonance; extension of solid-state high-resolution techniques. [Hydrogen molybdenum bronze

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Ryan, L.M.


    Nuclear magnetic resonance (NMR) spectroscopy has been an important analytical and physical research tool for several decades. One area of NMR which has undergone considerable development in recent years is high resolution NMR of solids. In particular, high resolution solid state /sup 13/C NMR spectra exhibiting features similar to those observed in liquids are currently achievable using sophisticated pulse techniques. The work described in this thesis develops analogous methods for high resolution /sup 1/H NMR of rigid solids. Applications include characterization of hydrogen aromaticities in fossil fuels, and studies of hydrogen in oxides and bound water in muscle.

  8. A methodology for semiautomatic taxonomy of concepts extraction from nuclear scientific documents using text mining techniques; Metodologia para extracao semiautomatica de uma taxonomia de conceitos a partir da producao cientifica da area nuclear utilizando tecnicas de mineracao de textos

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Braga, Fabiane dos Reis


    This thesis presents a text mining method for semi-automatic extraction of taxonomy of concepts, from a textual corpus composed of scientific papers related to nuclear area. The text classification is a natural human practice and a crucial task for work with large repositories. The document clustering technique provides a logical and understandable framework that facilitates the organization, browsing and searching. Most clustering algorithms using the bag of words model to represent the content of a document. This model generates a high dimensionality of the data, ignores the fact that different words can have the same meaning and does not consider the relationship between them, assuming that words are independent of each other. The methodology presents a combination of a model for document representation by concepts with a hierarchical document clustering method using frequency of co-occurrence concepts and a technique for clusters labeling more representatives, with the objective of producing a taxonomy of concepts which may reflect a structure of the knowledge domain. It is hoped that this work will contribute to the conceptual mapping of scientific production of nuclear area and thus support the management of research activities in this area. (author)

  9. Questions arising for future surface diffusion studies using scattering techniques-the case of benzene diffusion on graphite basal plane surfaces

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Calvo-Almazan, Irene; Seydel, Tilo; Fouquet, Peter, E-mail: fouquet@ill.e [Institut Laue Langevin, BP 156, F-38042 Grenoble Cedex 9 (France)


    This paper gives a review of recent work on benzene diffusion on graphitic carbon surfaces using neutron and helium scattering spectroscopy as well as computational modelling. Recent spin-echo spectroscopy measurements have demonstrated that benzene/graphite displays almost perfect Brownian diffusion and that it can be used as a tool to study dynamic friction. Incoherent neutron backscattering measurements, on the other hand, reveal a jump diffusion behaviour, related to the molecular rotational modes of the benzene rings. Molecular dynamics (MD) simulations have delivered a very detailed picture of the adsorbate dynamics. We use this review to illustrate the open questions and possible future directions of this research field.

  10. Use of nuclear technique in samples for agricultural purposes Uso de técnica nuclear em amostras de interesse na agricultura

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Kerley A. P. de Oliveira


    Full Text Available The concern related to environment is growing. Due to this, it is needed to determine chemical elements in a large range of concentration. The neutron activation technique (NAA determines the elemental composition by the measurement of artificial radioactivity in a sample that was submitted to a neutron flux. NAA is a sensitive and accurate technique with low detection limits. An example of application of NAA was the measurement of concentrations of rare earth elements (REE in waste samples of phosphogypsum (PG and cerrado soil samples (clayey and sandy soils. Additionally, a soil reference material of the International Atomic Energy Agency (IAEA was also analyzed. The REE concentration in PG samples was two times higher than those found in national fertilizers, (total of 4,000 mg kg-1 , 154 times greater than the values found in the sandy soil (26 mg kg-1 and 14 times greater than the in clayey soil (280 mg kg-1 . The experimental results for the reference material were inside the uncertainty of the certified values pointing out the accuracy of the method (95%. The determination of La, Ce, Pr, Nd, Pm, Sm, Eu, Tb, Dy, Ho, Er, Tm, Yb and Lu in the samples and reference material confirmed the versatility of the technique on REE determination in soil and phosphogypsum samples that are matrices for agricultural interest.A preocupação crescente com o meio ambiente leva à necessidade de serem determinados elementos químicos em faixas de concentração cada vez mais largas. Entre as técnicas existentes, está a ativação neutrônica (AAN, que determina a composição química elementar por meio da medida da radioatividade artificial induzida ao se submeter uma amostra a um fluxo de nêutrons. A AAN possui alta sensibilidade, exatidão, precisão e natureza não destrutiva (dispensa tratamento químico prévio. Como exemplo de aplicação da técnica, elementos terras raras (ETR foram determinados em amostras do resíduo fosfogesso (PG e de solo

  11. Small angle neutron scattering

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Cousin Fabrice


    Full Text Available Small Angle Neutron Scattering (SANS is a technique that enables to probe the 3-D structure of materials on a typical size range lying from ∼ 1 nm up to ∼ a few 100 nm, the obtained information being statistically averaged on a sample whose volume is ∼ 1 cm3. This very rich technique enables to make a full structural characterization of a given object of nanometric dimensions (radius of gyration, shape, volume or mass, fractal dimension, specific area… through the determination of the form factor as well as the determination of the way objects are organized within in a continuous media, and therefore to describe interactions between them, through the determination of the structure factor. The specific properties of neutrons (possibility of tuning the scattering intensity by using the isotopic substitution, sensitivity to magnetism, negligible absorption, low energy of the incident neutrons make it particularly interesting in the fields of soft matter, biophysics, magnetic materials and metallurgy. In particular, the contrast variation methods allow to extract some informations that cannot be obtained by any other experimental techniques. This course is divided in two parts. The first one is devoted to the description of the principle of SANS: basics (formalism, coherent scattering/incoherent scattering, notion of elementary scatterer, form factor analysis (I(q→0, Guinier regime, intermediate regime, Porod regime, polydisperse system, structure factor analysis (2nd Virial coefficient, integral equations, characterization of aggregates, and contrast variation methods (how to create contrast in an homogeneous system, matching in ternary systems, extrapolation to zero concentration, Zero Averaged Contrast. It is illustrated by some representative examples. The second one describes the experimental aspects of SANS to guide user in its future experiments: description of SANS spectrometer, resolution of the spectrometer, optimization of

  12. Nuclear parton distributions

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Kulagin S. A.


    Full Text Available We review a microscopic model of the nuclear parton distribution functions, which accounts for a number of nuclear effects including Fermi motion and nuclear binding, nuclear meson-exchange currents, off-shell corrections to bound nucleon distributions and nuclear shadowing. We also discuss applications of this model to a number of processes including lepton-nucleus deep inelastic scattering, proton-nucleus Drell-Yan lepton pair production at Fermilab, as well as W± and Z0 boson production in proton-lead collisions at the LHC.

  13. Light Scattering Spectroscopy: From Elastic to Inelastic (United States)

    Perelman, Lev T.; Modell, Mark D.; Vitkin, Edward; Hanlon, Eugene B.

    This chapter reviews light scattering spectroscopic techniques in which coherent effects are critical because they define the structure of the spectrum. In the case of elastic light scattering spectroscopy, the targets themselves, such as aerosol particles in environmental science or cells and subcellular organelles in biomedical applications, play the role of microscopic optical resonators. In the case of inelastic light scattering spectroscopy or Raman spectroscopy, the spectrum is created due to light scattering from vibrations in molecules or optical phonons in solids. We will show that light scattering spectroscopic techniques, both elastic and inelastic, are emerging as very useful tools in material and environmental science and in biomedicine.

  14. Small Angle Neutron Scattering

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Urban, Volker S [ORNL


    Small Angle Neutron Scattering (SANS) probes structural details at the nanometer scale in a non-destructive way. This article gives an introduction to scientists who have no prior small-angle scattering knowledge, but who seek a technique that allows elucidating structural information in challenging situations that thwart approaches by other methods. SANS is applicable to a wide variety of materials including metals and alloys, ceramics, concrete, glasses, polymers, composites and biological materials. Isotope and magnetic interactions provide unique methods for labeling and contrast variation to highlight specific structural features of interest. In situ studies of a material s responses to temperature, pressure, shear, magnetic and electric fields, etc., are feasible as a result of the high penetrating power of neutrons. SANS provides statistical information on significant structural features averaged over the probed sample volume, and one can use SANS to quantify with high precision the structural details that are observed, for example, in electron microscopy. Neutron scattering is non-destructive; there is no need to cut specimens into thin sections, and neutrons penetrate deeply, providing information on the bulk material, free from surface effects. The basic principles of a SANS experiment are fairly simple, but the measurement, analysis and interpretation of small angle scattering data involves theoretical concepts that are unique to the technique and that are not widely known. This article includes a concise description of the basics, as well as practical know-how that is essential for a successful SANS experiment.

  15. Assessment of suspected infection of hip or knee endoprosthesis by nuclear medicine techniques; Nuklearmedizinische Abklaerung bei vermuteter Infektion einer Hueft- oder Knie-TEP

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Schmidt, M.; Dietlein, M.; Schicha, H. [Koeln Univ. (Germany). Klinik und Poliklinik fuer Nuklearmedizin; Delank, K.S. [Koeln Univ. (Germany). Klinik und Poliklinik fuer Orthopaedie


    Complications after hip endoprosthesis operation occur with a frequency of 1-2 % after primary operation and with 3-5 % after revision arthroplasty and are even more frequent after knee arthroplasty. The differentiation between aseptic loosening and bacterial infection is very important. In aseptic loosening a one-step revision is usually possible. In case of bacterial infection, all foreign material has to be removed first to allow cure from the infection. After healing and absence of bacteria a follow-up operation is possible with insertion of a new prosthesis. Diagnosis and therapy of a painful hip or knee endoprosthesis are difficult, because patient history, clinical examination, laboratory results including microbiological investigation of puncture material and results of radiological examinations may all be inconclusive. Quite a number of nuclear medicine procedures have been published in the past to help in the differentiation between aseptic loosening and bacterial infection of a painful hip or knee endoprosthesis. No single method can be regarded as excellent and without disadvantages. In the international literature the combined leucocyte-marrow imaging has been propageted as superior technique. In Germany, combined leucocyte-marrow imaging is not available in the published form. Moreover, this technique is time consuming, cost intensive and requires direct work with blood. Therefore, infection imaging with labelled antibodies or labelled fragments of antibodies may be regarded as the method of choice for most nuclear medicine physicians. With semiquantitative evaluation a comparative diagnostic accuracy may be achieved. {sup 18}F-FDG-PET is not able to differentiate reliably between abacterial polyethylene abrasion and septic inflammation. However, with pattern recognition of the distribution of {sup 18}F-FDG around a hip prosthesis an approach with clinically acceptable results has been published. A normal {sup 18}F-FDG-PET can reliably exclude an

  16. Quantitative determination of proteins at nanogram levels by the resonance light-scattering technique with composite nanoparticles of CdS/PAA (United States)

    Chen, Hongqi; Xu, Fagong; Hong, Shi; Wang, Lun


    This paper describes the development of composite nanoparticles. A novel composite nanoparticle has been prepared by an in situ polymerization method. The nano-CdS has been prepared, then the polymerization of acrylic acid (AA) was carried out by initiator potassium persulfate (KPS) under ultrasonic irradiation. The surface of the composite nanoparticles was covered with abundant carboxylic groups (-COOH). The nanoparticles are water-soluble, stable and biocompatible. Reaction of the composite nanoparticles with proteins results in an enhanced resonance light scattering (RLS) at 380 nm. Based on this, a new resonance light-scattering (RLS) method was developed for the determination of proteins including BSA, HSA and human γ-IgG. Under the optimum conditions, the enhanced RLS intensity is linearly proportional to the concentration of proteins. The liner range is 0.1-15 μg mL -1 for HSA, 0.2-20 μg mL -1 for BSA and 0.1-50.0 μg mL -1 for human γ-IgG, respectively. The method has been applied to the determination of the total protein in human serum samples collected from the hospital and the results are in good agreement with those reported by the hospital. This method proved to be very sensitive, rapid, simple and tolerant of most interfering substances.

  17. Structure of Fucoidan from Brown Seaweed Turbinaria ornata as Studied by Electrospray Ionization Mass Spectrometry (ESIMS) and Small Angle X-ray Scattering (SAXS) Techniques (United States)

    Thanh, Thuy Thi Thu; Tran, Van Thi Thanh; Yuguchi, Yoshiaki; Bui, Ly Minh; Nguyen, Tai Tien


    The purpose of this study is to elucidate both the chemical and conformational structure of an unfractionated fucoidan extracted from brown seaweed Turbinaria ornata collected at Nha-trang bay, Vietnam. Electrospray ionization mass spectrometry (ESI-MS) was used for determining the chemical structure and small angle X-ray scattering (SAXS) provided conformational of the structure at the molecular level. The results showed that the fucoidan has a sulfate content of 25.6% and is mainly composed of fucose and galactose residues (Fuc:Gal ≈ 3:1). ESIMS analysis suggested that the fucoidan has a backbone of 3-linked α-l-Fucp residues with branches, →4)-Galp(1→ at C-4 of the fucan chain. Sulfate groups are attached mostly at C-2 and sometimes at C-4 of both fucose and galactose residues. A molecular model of the fucoidan was built based on obtained chemical structure and scattering curves estimated from molecular model and observed SAXS measurement were fitted. The results indicated that fucoidan under study has a rod-like bulky chain conformation. PMID:23857110

  18. Annual Report on Scientific Activities in 1997 of Department of Physics and Nuclear Techniques, Academy of Mining and Metallurgy, Cracow; Sprawozdanie z dzialalnosci naukowej w roku 1997, Wydzial Fizyki i Techniki Jadrowej, Akademia Gorniczo-Hutnicza, Cracow

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Wolny, J.; Olszynska, E. [eds.


    The Annual Report 1997 is the review of scientific activities of the Department of Nuclear Physics and Techniques (DNPT) of the Academy of Mining and Metallurgy, Cracow. The studies connected with: radiometric analysis, nuclear electronics, solid state physics, elementary particle and detectors, medical physics, physics of environment, theoretical physics, nuclear geophysics, energetic problems, industrial radiometry and tracer techniques have been broadly presented. The fill list of works being published and presented at scientific conferences in 1997 by the staff of DNPT are also included.

  19. Nuclear Physics Laboratory 1976 annual report. [Nuclear Physics Laboratory, Univ. of Washington

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)


    Laboratory activities for the period spring, 1975 to spring, 1976 are described. The emphasis of the work can be discerned from the chapter headings: accelerator development; ion source development; instrumentation, detectors, research techniques; computer and computing; atomic physics; nuclear astrophysics; fundamental symmetries in nuclei; nuclear structure; radiative capture measurements and calculations; scattering and reactions; reactions with polarized protons and deuterons; heavy-ion elastic and inelastic scattering; heavy-ion deeply inelastic and fusion reactions; heavy ion transfer and intermediate structure reactions; medium-energy physics; and energy studies. Research by users and visitors is also described; and laboratory personnel, degrees granted, and publications are listed. Those summaries having significant amounts of information are indexed individually. (RWR)

  20. Assessment of endocrine disorders of the hypothalamic-pituitary axis by nuclear medicine techniques; Nuklearmedizinische Verfahren zur Abklaerung endokrinologischer Erkrankungen der Hypothalamus-Hypophysen-Achse

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Schmidt, M.; Theissen, P.; Dietlein, M.; Schicha, H. [Koeln Univ. (Germany). Klinik und Poliklinik fuer Nuklearmedizin; Jackenhoevel, F.; Krone, W. [Koeln Univ. (Germany). Klinik II fuer Innere Medizin


    The following article reviews nuclear medicine techniques which can be used for assessment of endocrine disorders of the hypothalamic-pituitary axis. For planar and SPECT imaging somatostatin-receptor- and dopamine-D2-receptor-scintigraphy are the most widely distributed techniques. These nuclear medicine techniques may be indicated in selected cases to answer differential diagnostic problems. They can be helpful to search for presence and localization of receptor positive tissue. Furthermore they can detect metastasis in the rare cases of a pituitary carcinoma. Scintigraphy with Gallium-67 is suitable for further diagnostic evaluation in suspected hypophysitis. Other SPECT radiopharmaca do not have relevant clinical significance. F-18-FDG as PET radiopharmacon is not ideal because obvious pituitary adenomas could not be visualized. Other PET radiopharmaca including C-11-methionine, C-11-tyrosine, F-18-fluoroethylspiperone, C-11-methylspiperone, and C-11-raclopride are available in specialized centers only. Overall indications for nuclear medicine in studies for the assessment of endocrine disorders of the hypothalamic-pituitary-axis are rare. Original studies often report only about a small number of patients. According to the authors' opinion the relevance of nuclear medicine in studies of clinically important endocrinologic fields, e. g. localization of small ACTH-producing pituitary adenomas, tumor localization in ectopic ACTH syndrome, localization of recurrent pituitary tissue, assessment of small incidentalomas, can not be definitely given yet. (orig.) [German] Diese Uebersichtsarbeit fasst die nuklearmedizinischen Untersuchungsverfahren zur Abklaerung endokrinologischer Erkrankungen der Hypothalamus-Hypophysen-Achse zusammen. Bei den planaren und SPECT-Unter suchungen sind Somatostatin-Rezeptor- und Dopamin-D2-Rezeptor-Szintigraphie die verbreitetsten Untersuchungstechniken. Im Einzelfall sind sie zur Differenzialdiagnostik, zum Nachweis und zur

  1. Nuclear Structure (United States)

    Gargano, Angela


    An account of recent studies in the field of theoretical nuclear structure is reported. These studies concern essentially research activities performed under the Italian project "Fisica Teorica del Nucleo e dei Sistemi a Molti Corpi". Special attention is addressed to results obtained during the last two years as regards the development of new many-body techniques as well as the interpretation of new experimental aspects of nuclear structure.

  2. [Comparative prospective study of 14% and 67% duty cycles of the ultrasound power with WhiteStar in the phacoemulsification cataract surgery using the nuclear preslice technique]. (United States)

    Pereira, Antonio Eduardo; Pereira, Ana Cláudia Alves; Avila, Marcos Pereira


    To compare the 14% and 67% duty cycles of ultrasound power, continuous module, manual pulse control in the Sovereign phacoemulsification system with WhiteStar power modulation for cataract surgery. The phacoemulsification nuclear preslice technique was used to evaluate effective ultrasound time, ultrasound percentage, salt solution amount and endothelial cell loss. This was a prospective and comparative clinical trial in 32 patients (38 eyes) with senile nuclear cataract NO3 NC3 and NO4 NC4 (LOCS III) divided into two groups: A and B. To perform the cataract surgery phacoemulsification with nuclear preslice technique, manual pulse control was used; for group A with 14% duty cycle (n=21) and group B with 67% duty cycle (n=17). Both groups were subdivided according to crystalline opaque level in two subgroups. Preoperative measures included complete ophthalmologic examination, biometry, pachymetry and specular microscopy and 3 months after surgery specular microscopy. The surgeries that were used with the 67% duty cycle had significantly more ultrasound effective time than the 14% group in more dense cataracts. The ultrasound percentage in the 67% duty cycle, in different cataract densities, was significantly higher than in the 14% duty cycle. There was no difference in the salt solution amount used in the surgeries. There was no statistically significant difference of endothelial cell loss between both ultrasound cycles. There was a statistically significant correlation between the endothelial cell loss and the variables: ultrasound effective time (EPT) and salt solution amount used in surgeries in both cycles. This clinical trial showed less effective time of ultrasound and ultrasound percentage in the 14% duty cycle for more dense cataracts. The salt solution amount used and the endothelial cell loss were the same in both cycles. The ultrasound effective time and the salt solution amount used in the surgery were correlated to endothelial cell loss.

  3. Fluxes of radionuclides in the agricultural production after a nuclear accident: countermeasures and decontamination techniques; Flux des radionucleides dans les productions agricoles suite a un accident nucleaire: contre-mesures et techniques de rehabilitation

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Jouve, A. [CEA Centre d`Etudes Nucleaires de Cadarache, 13 -Saint-Paul-lez-Durance (France)]|[Universite de Provence, 13 - Marseille (France)


    This thesis deals with the radiological consequences of a nuclear accident through the radioactive contamination of the food chain and the subsequent countermeasures for decreasing the fluxes of radionuclides and decontaminating agricultural lands. After a brief summary of the radioprotection ground and context in case of a nuclear accident, this work surveys existing data on the fluxes of radionuclides in soils and from soil to plants. The research work focuses on both the prediction of the fluxes of radionuclides and possible countermeasures: the measurement of the bioavailability of radionuclides in the soil solution, its use in a mathematical expression to quantify the soil-to-plant transfer of caesium and strontium, and the perspectives of an innovative technique of soil decontamination. The obtained results show that based on 4 coefficients, it is possible to predict crop contamination within a 3 % confidence interval: the fluid solid distribution coefficient of radionuclides kd, the amount of chemical analogues of caesium and strontium, i.e. potassium and calcium, respectively, soil pH and a constant characterising the plant species that is concerned. However, it generally appears from soil to plant transfer studies that the reduction of the fluxes of radionuclides is not a promising way of radiological exposure mitigation after a nuclear accident. The work performed shows that it is more efficient to tackle the source of the contamination, i.e. decontaminate the soil. The proposed technique of soil scraping using a turf harvester appears to be the most advantageous among the tested options, for the decontamination of peat-bog meadows. (author).

  4. Low Momentum NN-interactions and Nuclear Matter Calculations


    Kohler, H. S.


    Separable nucleon-nucleon potentials are calculated using inverse scattering techniques as presented in previously published work. The dependence of the potentials on the momentum cut-off of the scattering phase-shifts is studied. Some comparison is made with the V-low-k potential. The effect of the cut-off on nuclear matter binding energy calculated by standard Brueckner theory is also presented. It is foumd that a cut-off larger than about 4 fm-1 will keep the error to within one Mev around...

  5. Development of hydroacoustical techniques for the monitoring and classification of benthic habitats in Puck Bay: Modeling of acoustic waves scattering by seagrass (United States)

    Raczkowska, A.; Gorska, N.


    Puck Bay is an area of high species biodiversity belonging to the Coastal Landscape Park of Baltic Sea Protected Areas (BSPA) and is also included in the list of the World Wide Fund for Nature (WWF) and covered by the protection program "Natura 2000". The underwater meadows of the Puck Bay are important for Europe's natural habitats due to their role in enhancing the productivity of marine ecosystems and providing shelter and optimal feeding conditions for many marine organisms. One of the dominant species comprising the underwater meadows of the Southern Baltic Sea is the seagrass Zostera marina. The spatial extent of underwater seagrass meadows is altered by pollution and eutrophication; therefore, to properly manage the area one must monitor its ecological state. Remote acoustic methods are useful tools for the monitoring of benthic habitats in many marine areas because they are non-invasive and allow researchers to obtain data from a large area in a short period of time. Currently there is a need to apply these methods in the Baltic Sea. Here we present an analysis of the mechanism of scattering of acoustic waves on seagrass in the Southern Baltic Sea based on the numerical modeling of acoustic wave scattering by the biological tissues of plants. The study was conducted by adapting a model developed on the basis of DWBA (Distorted Wave Born Approximation) developed by Stanton and Chu (2005) for fluid-like objects, including the characteristics of the Southern Baltic seagrass. Input data for the model, including the morphometry of seagrass leaves, their angle of inclination and the density plant cover, was obtained through the analysis of biological materials collected in the Puck Bay in the framework of a research project financed by the Polish Government (Development of hydroacoustic methods for studies of underwater meadows of Puck Bay, 6P04E 051 20). On the basis of the developed model, we have analyzed the dependence of the target strength of a single

  6. Scattering theory

    CERN Document Server

    Friedrich, Harald


    This corrected and updated second edition of "Scattering Theory" presents a concise and modern coverage of the subject. In the present treatment, special attention is given to the role played by the long-range behaviour of the projectile-target interaction, and a theory is developed, which is well suited to describe near-threshold bound and continuum states in realistic binary systems such as diatomic molecules or molecular ions. It is motivated by the fact that experimental advances have shifted and broadened the scope of applications where concepts from scattering theory are used, e.g. to the field of ultracold atoms and molecules, which has been experiencing enormous growth in recent years, largely triggered by the successful realization of Bose-Einstein condensates of dilute atomic gases in 1995. The book contains sections on special topics such as near-threshold quantization, quantum reflection, Feshbach resonances and the quantum description of scattering in two dimensions. The level of abstraction is k...

  7. Tilted Foils Nuclear Spin Polarization at REX-ISOLDE

    CERN Document Server

    Törnqvist, Hans Toshihide


    This thesis will explain and summarize my work and involvement in experiments aimed at producing nuclear spin polarization of post-accelerated beams of ions with the tilted-foils technique at the REX-ISOLDE linear accelerator at CERN. Polarizing the nuclear spin of radioactive beams in particular may provide access to observables which may be difficult to obtain otherwise. Currently, the techniques commonly employed for nuclear spin polarization are restricted to specific nuclides and experimental measurement techniques. Tilted foils polarization may provide a new tool to extend the range of nuclides that can be polarized and the types of experiments that can be performed. The experiments rely not only on the production but also on the method to measure the degree of attained polarization. Two methods will be treated, based on particle scattering in Coulomb excitation that may be utilized for stable beams, and the $\\beta$-NMR that requires $\\beta$-decaying nuclei. The experimental setups and measurements will...

  8. Rayleigh's Scattering Revised (United States)

    Kolomiets, Sergey; Gorelik, Andrey

    This report is devoted to a discussion of applicability limits of Rayleigh’s scattering model. Implicitly, Rayleigh’s ideas are being used in a wide range of remote sensing applications. To begin with it must be noted that most techniques which have been developed to date for measurements by means of active instruments for remote sensing in case of the target is a set of distributed moving scatters are only hopes, to say so, on measurements per se. The problem is that almost all of such techniques use a priori information about the microstructure of the object of interest during whole measurement session. As one can find in the literature, this approach may happily be applied to systems with identical particles. However, it is not the case with respect to scattering targets that consist of particles of different kind or having a particle size distribution. It must be especially noted that the microstructure of most of such targets changes significantly with time and/or space. Therefore, the true measurement techniques designed to be applicable in such conditions must be not only adaptable in order to take into account a variety of models of an echo interpretation, but also have a well-developed set of clear-cut criteria of applicability and exact means of accuracy estimation. So such techniques will require much more parameters to be measured. In spite of the fact that there is still room for some improvements within classical models and approaches, it is multiwavelength approach that may be seen as the most promising way of development towards obtaining an adequate set of the measured parameters required for true measurement techniques. At the same time, Rayleigh’s scattering is an invariant in regard to a change of the wavelength as it follows from the point of view dominating nowadays. In the light of such an idea, the synergy between multivawelength measurements may be achieved - to a certain extent - by means of the synchronous usage of Rayleigh’s and

  9. Children's (Pediatric) Nuclear Medicine

    Medline Plus

    Full Text Available ... of page How does the nuclear medicine procedure work? With ordinary x-ray examinations, an image is ... with other imaging techniques, such as CT or MRI. However, nuclear medicine scans are more sensitive than ...

  10. Double parton scattering in CMS

    CERN Document Server

    Sunar Cerci, Deniz


    Recent results on the double parton scattering measurements performed using the proton-proton collision data collected with the CMS detector are presented. The observables, which are sensitive to double parton scattering, are investigated after being corrected for detector effects and selection efficiencies. Multivariate analysis techniques are used for increasing the sensitivity. The effective cross section, $\\sigma_{eff}$ is also extracted using different processes at various center-of-mass energies.

  11. Evaluation of the Cell Proliferation Process of Ovarian Follicles in Hypothyroid Rats by Proliferation Cell Nuclear Antigen Immunohistochemical Technique

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    M. Moghaddam Dorafshani


    Full Text Available Introduction & Objective: The normal females reproductive function , needs hypothalamus-hypophysis-ovarian extensive hormonal messages. Primary hypothyroidism is characterized by reduced production and secretion of thyroid hormones. During follicular growth PCNA (Proliferating Cell Nuclear Antigen and cycklin D complex play an important role in regulating cell proliferation .This study aimed to determine the cell proliferation index and how this process changes induced by thyroid hormone decreased in rat ovarian follicles.Materials & Methods: In this experimental study, 20 Wistar female rats were divided into experimental and control groups. Experimental group was chemically thyroidectomized by administering propylthiouracil (PTU (500 mg per liter of drinking water. The control group received normal drinking water. After three weeks rats were killed and their ovaries dissected and fixed for the histological preparation. Cell proliferation was determined by PCNA and stereological methods were used for counting cells.Results: Cell proliferation index showed a significant decrease in the frequency of follicular growth from prenatal to graafian follicles in hypothyroidism groups(P0.05 . PCNA expression determined that Primary follicle growth begins earlier. Positive PCNA cells were not observed in primordial follicles of the groups.Conclusion: According to the results of our study, this hypothesis is raised that granulosa cells in growing follicles may be increased by follicle adjacent cells in ovarian stroma . Hormonal changes following the reduction of thyroid hormones may greatly affect the cell proliferation index and lead to faster follicle degeneration.(Sci J Hamadan Univ Med Sci 2012; 19 (3:5-15

  12. Study on the interaction between hematoporphyrin monomethyl ether and DNA and the determination of hematoporphyrin monomethyl ether using the resonance light scattering technique (United States)

    Chen, Zhanguang; Song, Tianhe; Chen, Xi; Wang, Shaobin; Chen, Junhui


    The interaction between photosensitizer anticancer drug hematoporphyrin monomethyl ether (HMME) and ctDNA has been studied based on the decreased resonance light scattering (RLS) phenomenon. The RLS, UV-vis and fluorescence spectra characteristics of the HMME-ctDNA system were investigated. Besides, the phosphodiesters quaternary ammonium salt (PQAS), a kind of new gemini surfactant synthesized recently, was used to determine anticancer drug HMME based on the increasing RLS intensity. Under the optimum assay conditions, the enhanced RLS intensity was proportional to the concentration of HMME. The linear range was 0.8-8.4 μg mL -1, with correlation coefficient R2 = 0.9913. The detection limit was 0.014 μg mL -1. The human serum samples and urine samples were determined satisfactorily, which proved that this method was reliable and applicable in the determination of HMME in body fluid. The presented method was simple, sensitive and straightforward and could be a significant method in clinical analysis.

  13. Development of graded Ni-YSZ composite coating on Alloy 690 by Pulsed Laser Deposition technique to reduce hazardous metallic nuclear waste inventory. (United States)

    Sengupta, Pranesh; Rogalla, Detlef; Becker, Hans Werner; Dey, Gautam Kumar; Chakraborty, Sumit


    Alloy 690 based 'nuclear waste vitrification furnace' components degrade prematurely due to molten glass-alloy interactions at high temperatures and thereby increase the volume of metallic nuclear waste. In order to reduce the waste inventory, compositionally graded Ni-YSZ (Y(2)O(3) stabilized ZrO(2)) composite coating has been developed on Alloy 690 using Pulsed Laser Deposition technique. Five different thin-films starting with Ni80YSZ20 (Ni 80 wt%+YSZ 20 wt%), through Ni60YSZ40 (Ni 60 wt%+YSZ 40 wt%), Ni40YSZ60 (Ni 40 wt%+YSZ 60 wt%), Ni20YSZ80 (Ni 20 wt%+YSZ 80 wt%) and Ni0YSZ100 (Ni 0 wt%+YSZ 100 wt%), were deposited successively on Alloy 690 coupons. Detailed analyses of the thin-films identify them as homogeneous, uniform, pore free and crystalline in nature. A comparative study of coated and uncoated Alloy 690 coupons, exposed to sodium borosilicate melt at 1000°C for 1-6h suggests that the graded composite coating could substantially reduced the chemical interactions between Alloy 690 and borosilicate melt. Copyright © 2011 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  14. Validation and application of the methodology for analysis of radon concentration in the air through the technique of solid state nuclear track detectors (SSNTD)

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Carvalho, Caroline de [Pontificia Universidade Catolica de Minas Gerais (PUC-Pocos), Pocos de Caldas, MG (Brazil); Comissao Nacional de Energia Nuclear (LAPOC/CNEN), Pocos de Caldas, MG (Brazil). Lab. de Pocos de Caldas; Silva, Nivaldo Carlos da, E-mail: [Comissao Nacional de Energia Nuclear (LAPOC/CNEN), Pocos de Caldas, MG (Brazil). Lab. de Pocos de Caldas


    Radon is a radioactive noble gas that occurs naturally in soil and could enter into residential. The decay products of radon are radioactive metals which, when inhaled, can be retained in the respiratory system, leading to an internal dose of radiation. The monitoring of radon levels in residences and workplaces is extremely important, since high concentrations of this gas can cause serious public health problems. This study analyzed the concentration of radon in the air in 94 work environments at the Laboratory of Pocos de Caldas - LAPOC/CNEN, including laboratories, administrative rooms, workshop, warehouse and guardhouse. The method employed in the monitoring was the technique of solid state nuclear track detectors, known as SSNTD. For calibration and validation of this method, controlled experiments were conducted in laboratory with specific instrumentation. The monitoring results indicated that most environments present radon concentrations above 100 Bq m{sup -3}, which is the reference level recommended by the World Health Organization. (author)

  15. Nuclear structure theory

    CERN Document Server

    Irvine, J M


    Nuclear Structure Theory provides a guide to nuclear structure theory. The book is comprised of 23 chapters that are organized into four parts; each part covers an aspect of nuclear structure theory. In the first part, the text discusses the experimentally observed phenomena, which nuclear structure theories need to look into and detail the information that supports those theories. The second part of the book deals with the phenomenological nucleon-nucleon potentials derived from phase shift analysis of nucleon-nucleon scattering. Part III talks about the phenomenological parameters used to de

  16. Following the Transient Reactions in Lithium-Sulfur Batteries Using In an In Situ Nuclear Magnetic Resonance Technique

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Xiao, Jie; Hu, Jian Z.; Chen, Honghao; Vijayakumar, M.; Zheng, Jianming; Pan, Huilin; Walter, Eric D.; Hu, Mary Y.; Deng, Xuchu; Feng, Ju; Liaw, Bor Yann; Gu, Meng; Deng, Zhiqun; Lu, Dongping; Xu, Suochang; Wang, Chong M.; Liu, Jun


    Li-S batteries hold great potential for next-generation, large-format power source applications; yet, the fundamental understanding of the electrochemical reaction pathways remains lacking to enable their functionality as promised. Here, in situ NMR technique employing a specially designed cylindrical micro battery was used to monitor the chemical environments around Li+ ions during repetitive charge-discharge process and track the transient electrochemical and chemical reactions occurring in the whole Li-S system. The in situ NMR provides real time, quantitative information related to the temporal concentration variations of the polysulfides with various chain lengths, providing important clues for the reaction pathways during both discharge and charge processes. The in-situ technique also reveals that redox reactions may involve transient species that are difficult to detect in ex-situ NMR study. Intermediate species such as charged free radicals may play an important role in the formation of the polysulfide products. Additionally, in situ NMR measurement simultaneously reveals vital information on the 7Li chemical environments in the electrochemical and parasitic reactions on the lithium anode that promotes the understanding of the failure mechanism in the Li-S system. These new insights could help design effective strategies to accelerate the development of Li-S battery technology.

  17. Imaging of Gamma-ray Scatter from a Polymethyl-methacrylate Phantom Using a Compton Imaging Spectrometer. (United States)

    Frank, Samuel J; Kearfott, Kimberlee J


    Commercially available gamma-ray imaging spectrometers have been introduced recently and are currently undergoing investigations for various applications in nuclear power plants, environmental management, and medical environments. A Compton imaging gamma-ray spectrometer uses an array of detectors or a single position-sensitive crystal to create planar images of radionuclide distributions. The typical software included with these devices creates images of specific radionuclides using only the counts under their known gamma emission photopeaks. This approach prevents the direct imaging of scattered radiation, which is of interest for many radiation protection applications. In this paper, a technique for imaging radiation scatter or portions of the scatter spectrum is implemented. This involves the creation of a virtual radionuclide in software with peaks placed throughout the backscatter continuum of interest and then imaging that virtual radionuclide in the post-processing software. This technique is used to image the Compton scatter successfully from a polymethyl-methacrylate (PMMA) phantom placed in a Cs irradiator beam. Measured scatter energies were found to be within 15% of the expected values, sufficient to predict scatter behavior and individually measure separate sources of scatter at different angles.

  18. Quantitative determination of proteins at nanogram levels by the resonance light-scattering technique with macromolecules nanoparticles of PS?AA (United States)

    Wang, Leyu; Chen, Hongqi; Li, Ling; Xia, Tingting; Dong, Ling; Wang, Lun


    The polystyrene-acrylic acid (PS-AA) nanoparticles have been prepared by ultrasonic polymerization, characterized by FT-IR and TEM. It is the first report on the determination of proteins with macromolecules nanoparticles of PS-AA by resonance light-scattering (RLS). At pH 6.9, the RLS of macromolecules nanoparticles of PS-AA can be enhanced by proteins. Based on this, a novel quantitative assay of proteins at the nanogram levels has been proposed. At pH 6.9, the RLS signals of PS-AA were greatly enhanced by proteins in the region of 250-700 nm characterized by the peak at 342 nm. Under optimal conditions, the linear ranges of the calibration curves were 0.02-11.0 μg ml -1, 0.04-10.0 μg ml -1 and 0.03-10.0 μg ml -1 for γ-globulin (γ-IgG), bovine serum albumin (BSA) and human serum albumin (HSA), respectively. The detection limits were 16.0 ng ml -1, 19.0 ng ml -1, and 15.0 ng ml -1 for γ-IgG, BSA and HSA, respectively. The method has been applied to the analysis of total proteins in human serum samples collected from the hospital and the results were in good agreement with those reported by the hospital, which indicates that the method presented here is not only sensitive, simple, but also reliable and suitable for practical application.

  19. Nuclear Energy and the Environment. (United States)

    International Atomic Energy Agency, Vienna (Austria).

    "Nuclear Energy and the Environment" is a pocket folder of removable leaflets concerned with two major topics: Nuclear energy and Nuclear Techniques. Under Nuclear Energy, leaflets concerning the topics of "Radiation--A Fact of Life,""The Impact of a Fact: 1963 Test Ban Treaty,""Energy Needs and Nuclear Power,""Power Reactor Safety,""Transport,"…

  20. Electron Scattering From Atoms, Molecules, Nuclei, and Bulk Matter

    CERN Document Server

    Whelan, Colm T


    Topics that are covered include electron scattering in the scanning TEM; basic theory of inelastic electron imaging; study of confined atoms by electron excitation; helium bubbles created in extreme pressure with application to nuclear safety; lithium ion implantation; electron and positron scattering from clusters; electron scattering from physi- and chemi-absorbed molecules on surfaces; coincidence studies; electron scattering from biological molecules; electron spectroscopy as a tool for environmental science; electron scattering in the presence of intense fields; electron scattering from astrophysical molecules; electon interatctions an detection of x-ray radiation.

  1. Innovative 3D and 4D geological interpretation, modelling and visualisation techniques for subsurface characterisation of complex industrial sites - examples in the UK nuclear industry (United States)

    Smith, Nicholas; Shevelan, John; Hodgetts, David; Head, William


    Industrial sites are typically complex, with numerous plants within their (often) relatively small footprint. The 'cramped' nature of these sites means that the geological characterisation that is essential to the development of environmental safety cases may be hampered by a lack of access to exposures, if they exist at all. Due to access limitations and potential for ground vibration affecting key plants, geophysical data are typically limited to those gathered from lower resolution surveys (e.g. electrical resistivity tomography) rather than those gathered from more informative vibroseis seismic reflection surveys. Thus, whilst many industrial sites may possess numerous intrusive boreholes (Sellafield, perhaps the UK's most complex industrial site, has over 3000), there is a lack of ties to either high resolution geophysical data, or important regional lithostratigraphic data provided by exposure of key sequences. This poses a conundrum: the hydrogeological 3D and 4D numerical models required to show the predicted migration paths of potential contamination within the subsurface require the best geological understanding possible, yet without high resolution geophysical data or geological exposure within the sites themselves geological interpretation is often restricted to attempting to correlate between boreholes that may be tens to hundreds of metres apart and only a few metres deep, which one could assume may not provide a good geological understanding. In this paper, using examples from the nuclear industry, we describe how the use of outcrop analogues and innovative GIS-based, 3D/4D geological interpretation, characterisation, modelling and visualisation techniques goes some way to addressing these issues. Regional outcrops of Triassic sandstone and unconsolidated Quaternary sequences are ideal analogues for unexposed sequences underlying key nuclear sites in West Cumbria (UK), providing important sedimentological (and depositional), lithostratigraphic and

  2. Luminosity calibration from elastic scattering

    CERN Document Server

    Stenzel, H


    The absolute luminosity of the LHC at the ATLAS interaction point will be calibrated by the measurement of the t-distribution of elastic pp-scattering in the Coulomb-Nuclear interference region. The ALFA detector housed in Roman Pots located 240m away from IP1 is designed to approach the beam at mm distance and to measure elastic pp-scattering at micro-radian scattering angles. This measurement will be performed with dedicated runs using a special beam optics with high beta* and parallel-to-point focusing in order to access the Coulomb regime. In this note the expected performance of this method, evaluated with a simulation of the experimental set-up, is presented.

  3. Assembling of a low energy ion beam analysis facility and use of Nuclear Microprobe techniques in geological studies

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Utui, R.


    In this work, both PIXE and ion beam induced luminescence, or just Ionoluminescence (IL) were used for geochemical studies. The possibility of rapid absolute quantification of elements in the ppm level by PIXE combined with the yet higher sensitivity of IL to transition metals and Rare Earth Elements (REE) activators, in the absence of quenching phenomena, allow for a synergic use of the two methods in geological applications with enhanced sensitivity. IL and PIXE were combined for studying REE distribution in apatite minerals and ion beam induced damage in inorganic material in general with emphasis to synthetically grown zircon crystals doped with REE. Due to the sensitivity of IL to changes in chemical bonding in the material, beam damage effects can be studied even at low integrated doses, through wavelength shift or fading of the induced light. Micro PIXE technique was used for studying profile concentrations of trace elements in pyrite grains and of elements used as geothermometers. Geothermometry allowed to assess the cooling rates in iron meteorites and the mineralization conditions in metamorphic rocks, attempting to describe the tectonic history of the terranes, with application in petrologic studies and geological prospecting. 148 refs.

  4. Development of a non-destructive testing technique using ultrasonic wave for evaluation of irradiation embrittlement in nuclear materials (United States)

    Ishii, T.; Ooka, N.; Hoshiya, T.; Kobayashi, H.; Saito, J.; Niimi, M.; Tsuji, H.


    To develop a non-destructive testing technique for evaluating embrittlement of irradiated materials, the correlation between ultrasonic characteristics and embrittlement was investigated from the results of the ultrasonic wave measurement and the Charpy impact test of irradiated specimens of commercial A533B-1 steel and welded material at the hot laboratory of the Japan Materials Testing Reactor (JMTR) in the Japan Atomic Energy Research Institute (JAERI). After irradiation at 523 or 563 K up to a fast neutron fluence of 1×10 24 N/m 2 ( E>1 MeV), velocities of both shear and longitudinal waves in the irradiated specimen were lower than those in the unirradiated one. The decrease in the velocities may be caused by the reductions of the shear and Young's moduli in the irradiated specimen. The attenuation coefficient of the longitudinal wave in the irradiated specimens increased compared with unirradiated ones. With increasing the shift amount of the Charpy transition temperature at 41 J absorbed energy, the velocity and attenuation coefficient of the ultrasonic waves decreased and increased, respectively.

  5. A Prototype Large Area Detector Module for Muon Scattering Tomography

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Steer, C.A.; Boakes, J.; Burns, J.; Snow, S.; Stapleton, M.; Thompson, L.F.; Quillin, S. [AWE Aldermaston, Reading, Berkshire, RG7 4PR (United Kingdom)


    Abstract-Shielded special nuclear materials (SNM) are of concern as some fissile isotopes have low gamma and neutron emission rates. These materials are also easily shielded to the point where their passive emissions are comparable to background. Consequently, shielded SNM is very challenging for passive radiation detection portals which scan cargo containers. One potential solution for this is to utilise the natural cosmic ray muon background and examine how these muons scatter from materials inside the container volume, terms; the muon scattering tomography (MST) technique measures the three-dimensional localised scattering at all points within a cargo container, providing a degree of material discrimination. There is the additional benefit that the MST signal increases with the presence of more high density shielding materials, in contrast to passive radiation detection. Simulations and calculations suggest that the effectiveness of the technique is sensitive to the tracking accuracy amongst other parameters, motivating the need to develop practical detector systems that are capable of tracking cosmic ray muons. To this end, we have constructed and tested a 2 m by 2 m demonstration module based on gaseous drift chambers and triggered by a large area scintillator-based detector, which is readout by wavelength shifting fibres. We discuss its design, construction, characterisation and operational challenges. (authors)

  6. Characterization by FTIR and nuclear analytical techniques of CN{sub x} films elaborated by laser ablation; Caracterizacion por FTIR y tecnicas analiticas nucleares de peliculas de CN{sub x} elaboradas por ablacion laser

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Olea M, O.F


    At the present time the technique of deposit of laser ablation is used to produce different types of thin films. At the moment in the National Institute of Nuclear Research (ININ) it is carried out an investigation on the thermoluminescent response of thin films of CN{sub x} with possible application in dosimetry of electromagnetic radiation. Under this context, the present work is part of this investigation and has as objective to characterize thin films of CN{sub x} by means of Infrared spectrometry and nuclear analytical techniques. The deposits were elaborated by laser ablation under different such experimental conditions as: pressure of Nitrogen in the system (3 x 10{sup -3} and 7.5 X 10{sup -2} Torr), Distance target-substrate (3 and 5 cm) and density of incident energy in the target (from 17.5 up to 23.8 J/cm{sup 2}). Graphite of high purity was used like target and the deposits were made on their substrates of intrinsic silicon (100). By means of infrared spectrometry by Fourier Transform (Ftir) the type of bonds which are in the structure of the films of CN{sub x} were determined. The spectra of this type of samples present in general four characteristic bands related with different types of bonds among the elements C, O, H, N such as: C-C, C-N, C-H, N-H, O-H, C=N, C{identical_to}N, among others. It was carried out a semi quantitative study of the samples isolating each band of the total infrared spectra and making a comparison between their intensities and forms. This study allowed to observe that there is a dependence of the structure of the films with regard to the time, since mainly bonds of the type Sp{sup 3} between Hydrogen and Carbon (C-H) they presented a remarkable variation in intensity, increasing as it lapsed the time until reaching to a stabilization where the bonds already not varying. This increase probably is due to the absorption of water of the atmosphere, although one has seen in the literature that the incorporation of this compound in

  7. Contribution of analytical nuclear techniques in the reconstruction of the Brazilian pre-history analysing archaeological ceramics of Tupiguarani tradition

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Faria, Gleikam Lopes de Oliveira; Menezes, Maria Angela de B.C.; Silva, Maria Aparecida, E-mail:, E-mail: [Centro de Desenvolvimento da Tecnologia Nuclear (CDTN/CNEN-MG), Belo Horizonte, MG (Brazil). Servico de Reator e Tecnicas Analiticas. Laboratorio de Ativacao Neutronica; Sabino, Claudia de V.S. [PUC-Minas, Belo Horizonte, MG (Brazil)


    Due to the high importance of the material vestiges for a culture of a nation, the Brazilian Council for Environment determined that the license to establish new enterprises are subjected to a technical report concerning environmental impact, including archaeological sites affected by that enterprise. Therefore, answering the report related to the Program for Prospection and Rescue of the Archaeological Patrimony of the Areas impacted by the installation of the Second Line of Samarco Mining Pipeline, the archaeological interventions were carried out along the coast of Espirito Santo. Tupi-Guarani Tradition vestiges were found there, where the main evidence was a interesting ceramics. Archaeology can fill the gap between ancient population and modern society elucidating the evidences found in archaeological sites. In this context, several ceramic fragments found in the archaeological sites - Hiuton and Bota-Fora - were analyzed by neutron activation technique, {sub k}0-standardization method, at CDTN using the TRIGA MARK I IPR-R1 reactor, in order to characterize their elemental composition. The elements As, Ba, Br, Ce, Co, Cr, Cs, Eu, Fe, Ga, Hf, K, La, Na, Nd, Rb, Sb, Sc, Sm, Ta, Tb, Th, U, Yb, Zn and Zr were determined. Applying R software, a robust multivariate statistical analysis, the results pointed out that the pottery from the sites was made with clay from different sources. The X-ray powder diffraction analyses were carried out to determine the mineral composition and Moessbauer spectroscopy was applied to provide information on both the degree of burning and atmosphere in order to reconstruct the Indian burning strategies temperature used on pottery production. (author)

  8. Feasibility study on phyto-remediation techniques for soil contaminated by the Fukushima Dai-Ichi nuclear power plant accident

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Yuu Ishimori; Akihiro Sakoda [Japan Atomic Energy Agency, Kagamino, Okayama (Japan); Mina Yamada; Yuko Makino; Satoshi Yamada; Hideyasu Fujiyama [Tottori University, Tottori, Tottori (Japan)


    Tottori University and the Japan Atomic Energy Agency carried out jointly the feasibility study on phyto-remediation techniques, which apply to soil contaminated by the TEPCO's Fukushima Dai-ichi NPP accident. This paper illustrates the results from experimental investigations. Experimental investigations include both water-culture tests and field tests. Several plants, mainly halophytes that can specifically absorb more Na than K, and others like sunflower demonstrated for other domestic large-scale tests, were water-cultured and examined for screening. Easily cultivated and harvested plants without harmful effects on subsequent cultivation were also considered. New Zealand spinach was selected as a candidate for demonstrations in fields. The field tests were carried out at two sites of different agricultural types in Minami-soma, Fukushima prefecture. Concentration of {sup 137}Cs in soil is about 4.5 Bq/g-dry as the average of 10 cm depth. The aims of the field tests are to confirm absorption ability and environmental adaptation of the test plants and to document the cost and performance of projects. In conclusion, the absorption of {sup 137}Cs activity per unit area (Bq/m{sup 2}) by New Zealand spinach could be approximately 0.5%. To achieve an effective result in removal of {sup 137}Cs from soil in around a decade, it is required to find the plant which has ten or more times higher absorption capacity than New Zealand spinach. From the consistency of both results in water-culture and field tests, the water-culture test can be valid for screening. In addition, applicable sites will be limited to fields which are too steep or too narrow to use mechanical diggers, and which are free from any restrictions to enter. (authors)

  9. Measuring fission lifetimes with the crystal-blocking technique in mono-crystal, access to nuclear dissipation; Mesures de temps de fission par la technique d'ombre dans les monocristaux: un acces a la dissipation nucleaire

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Basnary, St


    Energy dissipation in nuclear matter may play an important role in the determination of the way through which heavy nuclei des-excite: fission or particle evaporation. An important dissipation should imply longer interval of time during which the nucleus is deformed. In that way the measurement of fission lifetimes may shed light on energy dissipation, but these measurements are very delicate to perform. Most available data on deformation times come from indirect measurements combined with the use of more or less valid models. The crystal-blocking lifetime technique in mono-crystals allows the direct measurement of long fission lifetimes. This technique has been applied to different nuclei situated in the proximity of lead. We have obtained relatively high values: {tau} > 3.10{sup -19} s for both lead and uranium which implies a strong dissipation of energy. The computation of dissipation coefficients has led to the following values: {beta} {approx_equal} 2.10{sup 21} /s for lead and {beta} {>=} 6.10{sup 21} /s for uranium (E{sup *} > 120 MeV). These results show that dissipation effects have to be taken into account in the determination of the deexcitation way. (A.C.)

  10. Light Scattering in Solid IX

    CERN Document Server

    Cardona, Manuel


    This is the ninth volume of a well-established series in which expert practitioners discuss topical aspects of light scattering in solids. It reviews recent developments concerning mainly semiconductor nanostructures and inelastic x-ray scattering, including both coherent time-domain and spontaneous scattering studies. In the past few years, light scattering has become one of the most important research and characterization methods for studying carbon nanotubes and semiconducting quantum dots, and a crucial tool for exploring the coupled exciton--photon system in semiconductor cavities. Among the novel techniques discussed in this volume are pump--probe ultrafast measurements and those which use synchrotron radiation as light source. The book addresses improvements in the intensity, beam quality and time synchronization of modern synchrotron sources, which made it possible to measure the phonon dispersion in very small samples and to determine electronic energy bands as well as enabling real-time observations...

  11. Modeling fluctuations in scattered waves

    CERN Document Server

    Jakeman, E


    Fluctuations in scattered waves limit the performance of imaging and remote sensing systems that operate on all wavelengths of the electromagnetic spectrum. To better understand these fluctuations, Modeling Fluctuations in Scattered Waves provides a practical guide to the phenomenology, mathematics, and simulation of non-Gaussian noise models and discusses how they can be used to characterize the statistics of scattered waves.Through their discussion of mathematical models, the authors demonstrate the development of new sensing techniques as well as offer intelligent choices that can be made for system analysis. Using experimental results and numerical simulation, the book illustrates the properties and applications of these models. The first two chapters introduce statistical tools and the properties of Gaussian noise, including results on phase statistics. The following chapters describe Gaussian processes and the random walk model, address multiple scattering effects and propagation through an extended med...

  12. SPring-8 and application of nuclear scattering

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Harami, Taikan [Japan Atomic Energy Research Inst., Kamigori, Hyogo (Japan). Kansai Research Establishment


    The SPring-8 has Linac synchrotron, incidence type facility and an accumulation ring. By preparing a beam line to take out light at the accumulation ring, the SPring-8 is supplied for common applications. Development of science adopting new method to study of properties and organisms by using high brightness source is expected. Construction of the SPring-8 accelerator was finished and adjusting test and commissioning of apparatuses are now in proceeding. At pre-use inspection of the accumulation ring on March, 1997, beam lines for R and D and crystalline structure analysis are applied to the Science and Technology Agency to inspect them simultaneously. And, by activating character of the SPring-8 radiation facility of high brightness and high energy X-ray generator, property study using Moessbauer nuclide to a probe can be conducted. (G.K.)

  13. Angle Statistics Reconstruction: a robust reconstruction algorithm for Muon Scattering Tomography (United States)

    Stapleton, M.; Burns, J.; Quillin, S.; Steer, C.


    Muon Scattering Tomography (MST) is a technique for using the scattering of cosmic ray muons to probe the contents of enclosed volumes. As a muon passes through material it undergoes multiple Coulomb scattering, where the amount of scattering is dependent on the density and atomic number of the material as well as the path length. Hence, MST has been proposed as a means of imaging dense materials, for instance to detect special nuclear material in cargo containers. Algorithms are required to generate an accurate reconstruction of the material density inside the volume from the muon scattering information and some have already been proposed, most notably the Point of Closest Approach (PoCA) and Maximum Likelihood/Expectation Maximisation (MLEM) algorithms. However, whilst PoCA-based algorithms are easy to implement, they perform rather poorly in practice. Conversely, MLEM is a complicated algorithm to implement and computationally intensive and there is currently no published, fast and easily-implementable algorithm that performs well in practice. In this paper, we first provide a detailed analysis of the source of inaccuracy in PoCA-based algorithms. We then motivate an alternative method, based on ideas first laid out by Morris et al, presenting and fully specifying an algorithm that performs well against simulations of realistic scenarios. We argue this new algorithm should be adopted by developers of Muon Scattering Tomography as an alternative to PoCA.

  14. Introduction to neutron scattering. Lecture notes of the introductory course

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Furrer, A. [ed.


    These proceedings enclose ten papers presented at the 1. European Conference on Neutron scattering (ECNS `96). The aim of the Introductory Course was fourfold: - to learn the basic principles of neutron scattering, - to get introduced into the most important classes of neutron scattering instruments, -to learn concepts and their transformation into neutron scattering experiments in various fields of condensed matter research, - to recognize the limitations of the neutron scattering technique as well as to the complementarity of other methods. figs., tabs., refs.

  15. Neutron scattering in Australia

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Knott, R.B. [Australian Nuclear Science and Technology Organisation, Menai (Australia)


    Neutron scattering techniques have been part of the Australian scientific research community for the past three decades. The High Flux Australian Reactor (HIFAR) is a multi-use facility of modest performance that provides the only neutron source in the country suitable for neutron scattering. The limitations of HIFAR have been recognized and recently a Government initiated inquiry sought to evaluate the future needs of a neutron source. In essence, the inquiry suggested that a delay of several years would enable a number of key issues to be resolved, and therefore a more appropriate decision made. In the meantime, use of the present source is being optimized, and where necessary research is being undertaken at major overseas neutron facilities either on a formal or informal basis. Australia has, at present, a formal agreement with the Rutherford Appleton Laboratory (UK) for access to the spallation source ISIS. Various aspects of neutron scattering have been implemented on HIFAR, including investigations of the structure of biological relevant molecules. One aspect of these investigations will be presented. Preliminary results from a study of the interaction of the immunosuppressant drug, cyclosporin-A, with reconstituted membranes suggest that the hydrophobic drug interdigitated with lipid chains.

  16. Image computing techniques to extrapolate data for dust tracking in case of an experimental accident simulation in a nuclear fusion plant. (United States)

    Camplani, M; Malizia, A; Gelfusa, M; Barbato, F; Antonelli, L; Poggi, L A; Ciparisse, J F; Salgado, L; Richetta, M; Gaudio, P


    In this paper, a preliminary shadowgraph-based analysis of dust particles re-suspension due to loss of vacuum accident (LOVA) in ITER-like nuclear fusion reactors has been presented. Dust particles are produced through different mechanisms in nuclear fusion devices, one of the main issues is that dust particles are capable of being re-suspended in case of events such as LOVA. Shadowgraph is based on an expanded collimated beam of light emitted by a laser or a lamp that emits light transversely compared to the flow field direction. In the STARDUST facility, the dust moves in the flow, and it causes variations of refractive index that can be detected by using a CCD camera. The STARDUST fast camera setup allows to detect and to track dust particles moving in the vessel and then to obtain information about the velocity field of dust mobilized. In particular, the acquired images are processed such that per each frame the moving dust particles are detected by applying a background subtraction technique based on the mixture of Gaussian algorithm. The obtained foreground masks are eventually filtered with morphological operations. Finally, a multi-object tracking algorithm is used to track the detected particles along the experiment. For each particle, a Kalman filter-based tracker is applied; the particles dynamic is described by taking into account position, velocity, and acceleration as state variable. The results demonstrate that it is possible to obtain dust particles' velocity field during LOVA by automatically processing the data obtained with the shadowgraph approach.

  17. Image computing techniques to extrapolate data for dust tracking in case of an experimental accident simulation in a nuclear fusion plant

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Camplani, M. [Visual Information Laboratory, University of Bristol, Bristol (United Kingdom); Grupo de Tratamiento de Imágenes, E.T.S.I de Telecomunicación, Universidad Politécnica de Madrid, Madrid (Spain); Malizia, A.; Gelfusa, M.; Poggi, L. A.; Ciparisse, J. F.; Richetta, M.; Gaudio, P. [Associazione EUROFUSION-ENEA, Department of Industrial Engineering, University of Rome “Tor Vergata,” Via del Politecnico 1, 00133 Rome (Italy); Barbato, F. [Associazione EUROFUSION-ENEA, Department of Industrial Engineering, University of Rome “Tor Vergata,” Via del Politecnico 1, 00133 Rome (Italy); EPMA, Materials Science and Technology, Uberlandstrasse 129, Dubendorf CH-8600 (Switzerland); Antonelli, L. [Associazione EUROFUSION-ENEA, Department of Industrial Engineering, University of Rome “Tor Vergata,” Via del Politecnico 1, 00133 Rome (Italy); Dipartimento di Scienze di base e applicate per l’Ingegneria, Universita degli Studi di Roma La Sapienza, Roma (Italy); Salgado, L. [Grupo de Tratamiento de Imágenes, E.T.S.I de Telecomunicación, Universidad Politécnica de Madrid, Madrid (Spain); Video Processing and Understanding Laboratory, Universidad Autónoma de Madrid, Madrid (Spain)


    In this paper, a preliminary shadowgraph-based analysis of dust particles re-suspension due to loss of vacuum accident (LOVA) in ITER-like nuclear fusion reactors has been presented. Dust particles are produced through different mechanisms in nuclear fusion devices, one of the main issues is that dust particles are capable of being re-suspended in case of events such as LOVA. Shadowgraph is based on an expanded collimated beam of light emitted by a laser or a lamp that emits light transversely compared to the flow field direction. In the STARDUST facility, the dust moves in the flow, and it causes variations of refractive index that can be detected by using a CCD camera. The STARDUST fast camera setup allows to detect and to track dust particles moving in the vessel and then to obtain information about the velocity field of dust mobilized. In particular, the acquired images are processed such that per each frame the moving dust particles are detected by applying a background subtraction technique based on the mixture of Gaussian algorithm. The obtained foreground masks are eventually filtered with morphological operations. Finally, a multi-object tracking algorithm is used to track the detected particles along the experiment. For each particle, a Kalman filter-based tracker is applied; the particles dynamic is described by taking into account position, velocity, and acceleration as state variable. The results demonstrate that it is possible to obtain dust particles’ velocity field during LOVA by automatically processing the data obtained with the shadowgraph approach.

  18. The influence of the PDMS technique in the study of the induced modifications of polymers used in nuclear environment; Apport de la technique PDMS a l`etude des modifications induites dans des polymeres utilises en ambiance nucleaire

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Nsouli, B. [Lyon-1 Univ., 69 - Villeurbanne (France). Inst. de Physique Nucleaire


    The PDMS technique (Particle Induced Desorption Mass Spectrometry) combined with a TOF detection (Time of Flight) is the main tool used in this study of polymer degradation in nuclear environment. Ar{sup 3+} ions with a 9 MeV energy have been used to induce the secondary ion emission, and the study was devoted to two stresses typical of this type of environment. The first part of the work concerned with the structural modifications induced by gamma irradiation on ion exchange resin, used for nuclear effluents reprocessing, namely the poly(4-vinylpyridine), or P-4PV. For such a material, the negative fragment emission is particularly sensitive to structural modifications. Difficult physical measurements in such an insoluble and infusible material (IR, UV - Vis, EPR, TGA, dielectric measurements) became consistent after the degradation mechanisms were elucidated. These effects, interpreted in terms of scissions and recombinations, enabled us to explicit different modes of energy deposition, and shed light on some discrepancies between SIMS and PDMS. The second part of the study is devoted to the thermal ageing of an elastomer, used in fabrication of valve gaskets submitted to high temperatures. First of all, we studied the constituents of the polymeric material, i. e. copolymer, homo polymers, and also additives. This last component proved useful to analyze, as a superficial lubricant layer can mask the conformational rearrangements which seem to occur after few hours of thermal treatment (PE blocks are prevailing at the surface). Here too, the PDMS information is important to account for static SIMS and ESCA results, as its probed layer thickness lies in-between. (author) 187 refs.

  19. Resonating-group method for nuclear many-body problems

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Tang, Y.C.; LeMere, M.; Thompson, D.R.


    The resonating-group method is a microscopic method which uses fully antisymmetric wave functions, treats correctly the motion of the total center of mass, and takes cluster correlation into consideration. In this review, the formulation of this method is discussed for various nuclear many-body problems, and a complex-generator-coordinate technique which has been employed to evaluate matrix elements required in resonating-group calculations is described. Several illustrative examples of bound-state, scattering, and reaction calculations, which serve to demonstrate the usefulness of this method, are presented. Finally, by utilization of the results of these calculations, the role played by the Pauli principle in nuclear scattering and reaction processes is discussed. 21 figures, 2 tables, 185 references.

  20. Children's (Pediatric) Nuclear Medicine

    Medline Plus

    Full Text Available ... organs and tissues in your body. Hybrid imaging techniques (PET/CT, SPECT/CT and PET/MR) are ... equipment look like? The special camera and imaging techniques used in nuclear medicine include the gamma camera ...

  1. Molecular-beam scattering

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Vernon, M.F.


    The molecular-beam technique has been used in three different experimental arrangements to study a wide range of inter-atomic and molecular forces. Chapter 1 reports results of a low-energy (0.2 kcal/mole) elastic-scattering study of the He-Ar pair potential. The purpose of the study was to accurately characterize the shape of the potential in the well region, by scattering slow He atoms produced by expanding a mixture of He in N/sub 2/ from a cooled nozzle. Chapter 2 contains measurements of the vibrational predissociation spectra and product translational energy for clusters of water, benzene, and ammonia. The experiments show that most of the product energy remains in the internal molecular motions. Chapter 3 presents measurements of the reaction Na + HCl ..-->.. NaCl + H at collision energies of 5.38 and 19.4 kcal/mole. This is the first study to resolve both scattering angle and velocity for the reaction of a short lived (16 nsec) electronic excited state. Descriptions are given of computer programs written to analyze molecular-beam expansions to extract information characterizing their velocity distributions, and to calculate accurate laboratory elastic-scattering differential cross sections accounting for the finite apparatus resolution. Experimental results which attempted to determine the efficiency of optically pumping the Li(2/sup 2/P/sub 3/2/) and Na(3/sup 2/P/sub 3/2/) excited states are given. A simple three-level model for predicting the steady-state fraction of atoms in the excited state is included.

  2. On scattered subword complexity

    CERN Document Server

    Kása, Zoltán


    Special scattered subwords, in which the gaps are of length from a given set, are defined. The scattered subword complexity, which is the number of such scattered subwords, is computed for rainbow words.

  3. JPRS Report, Nuclear Developments (United States)


    Nuclear Power Station Projected for Jorf Lasfar [Casablanca LA VIE ECONOMIQUE , 18 Mar 88] 26 WEST EUROPE IRELAND Energy Minister Fights UK...factors mili- tate against further expansion. MOROCCO Nuclear Power Station Projected for Jorf Lasfar 51004603 Casablanca LA VIE ECONOMIQUE in...body to oversee nuclear activities at the national level and to hire and train personnel in nuclear sciences and techniques. A bill relating to the

  4. Bidirectional optical scattering facility (United States)

    Federal Laboratory Consortium — Goniometric optical scatter instrument (GOSI)The bidirectional reflectance distribution function (BRDF) quantifies the angular distribution of light scattered from a...

  5. The nuclear data program at rensselaer (United States)

    Danon, Y.; Blain, Z.; Bahran, R.; Rapp, M.; Thompson, J.; Williams, D.; Leinweber, G.; Barry, D.; Block, R.; Hoole, J.


    The nuclear data program at the Rensselaer Polytechnic Institute (RPI) is centered around a 60 MeV pulsed electron Linear Accelerator (LINAC) configured to deliver pulsed neutron beams. The LINAC electron pulse width can vary between 5 ns and 5 us, a repetition rate of 1-500 pulses per second and neutron yield of up to 1013 n/s. Over the years several experimental setups and techniques were developed to enable a variety of measurement capabilities. The experiments cover the energy range from 0.001 eV to 20 MeV and included neutron transmission, capture, scattering and fission measurements. The facility is also equipped with a Lead Slowing-Down Spectrometer (LSDS) producing a high neutron flux that is used for simultaneous measurements of the fission cross section and fission fragment mass and energy distributions. Detectors for (n, alpha) and (n, p) cross section measurements using the LSDS were also developed and measurements of (n, alpha) cross section were completed. The high neutron flux inside the LSDS enables measurements on small samples (sub micrograms) or samples with small cross section (sub millibarns). In order to fully utilize the capabilities of the facility, several measurement techniques were developed; high accuracy (modular detectors for both fast and resonance region neutron detection were developed and deployed. These developments result in numerous measurements on different materials and provide input to improved evaluated nuclear data libraries and thus help improve the accuracy of calculations of nuclear reactors and other nuclear systems.

  6. Effects of ionizing radiations on reticulated polymers associated to nuclear wastes. The HSF-SIMS technique contribution; Effets des radiations ionisantes sur les polymeres reticules associes aux dechets nucleaires. Apport de la technique HSF-SIMS

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Debre, O. [Lyon-1 Univ., 69 - Villeurbanne (France). Inst. de Physique Nucleaire


    Among the materials used for confinement of nuclear wastes of low and medium level activity the epoxyde resins are known as matrices which preserve well their properties in an ionizing environment. This work is dedicated to the investigation of the modifications occurring in molecular structure of these materials as well as of the ion exchange resins they incorporate, irradiated in different conditions. The first part deals with the analysis of a commercial reticulated epoxyde resin submitted to a 2 MGy integral dose gamma irradiation under two different dose rate (51 and 900 Gy/h), and under two different environments (air and water). The results obtained with the techniques providing structure information (time-of-flight mass spectrometry (HSF-SIMS) and FT-IR spectrometry) confirm those obtained by techniques sensible to macroscopic properties of material (DMA, DSC), taking into account that no noticeable irradiation effect can be made evident inside the material. On the other hand, an irradiation carried out in air results in a superficial oxidation, due probably to the action of the air radiolysis products. The preliminary results of an ion irradiation followed by an in-situ HSF-SIMS analysis pointed out to a basic difference between the energy amount transferred by gamma photons and fast ions; the last ones being able to induce scissions of the nearby liaisons in the material. The second part of this work is concerned with the ion exchange resins of the type PS-DVB saturated in water and non-active ions, simulating real wastes, irradiated in the same conditions as the epoxyde resins. In contrast to the results on the last one, it appears that the irradiation of these materials results primarily in scissions of the functional groups on which the ions are attached. In addition to this finding it appears that the role of water as carrying outward the attached ions appears to be fundamental 175 refs.

  7. Interaction of low-intensity nuclear radiation dose with the human blood: Using the new technique of CR-39NTDs for an in vitro study

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Ismail, Asaad H., E-mail: [Research Group of Radiation and Medical Physics, School of Physics, Universiti Sains Malaysia, 11800 USM, Penang (Malaysia); Jaafar, Mohamad S. [Research Group of Radiation and Medical Physics, School of Physics, Universiti Sains Malaysia, 11800 USM, Penang (Malaysia)


    Complete blood counts were analyzed for 30 samples of human blood with radiation dose rate ranging between 10 and 41 {mu}Sv/h using a Radium-226 source with different time of exposure. A new technique involving a nuclear track detector type CR-39(CR-39 NTDs) was used to estimate the alpha particle density incident on the blood samples. The results show that the ranges of alpha particle in blood samples and on the surface of CR-39NTDs vary exponentially with energy of alpha particles. This depends on the restricted energy loss and target density. Changes in the blood components due to irradiation occurred for different durations of irradiation, and the duration of irradiation that influenced the blood samples in this study was 6 min. The change in red blood cell (RBC) was negligible, so it is less affected than other blood components. In addition, most changes in the blood contents began at a low radiation dose (10.38-13.41 {mu}Sv/h). For the doses 13.41-21.77 {mu}Sv/h, platelet (PLT) counts increased rapidly and adversely with the RBC and white blood cell (WBC) due to chromosomal aberration. Besides, rapid PLT count reduction rapidly at high dose (42.1 {mu}Sv h) causes thrombocytopenia; in contrast, WBC increased, which is an indication of cancer caused due to increase in alpha particle dose. Generally, our results are in agreement with the essentials of blood content and the principles of biological radiation interaction.

  8. GEANT simulation of the $\\gamma$ nuclear gauge

    CERN Document Server

    Ouardi, A; Benchekroun, D; Hoummada, A


    The gamma nuclear gauging technique used for monitoring the sediment load suspended in water, is based on the detection of gamma rays emitted by a radioactive source. The GEANT321 Monte Carlo simulation tool, originally developed at CERN for high energy physics experiments, is used for the evaluation and calibration of gamma nuclear gauges. A set of parameters, principally the source energy, the source-detector separation, the lead block thickness and the energy threshold below which the sediments elemental composition affects the measurement or the energy corresponding to the Compton and photoelectric windows separation, are discussed and evaluated in the case of the gamma scattering gauge. For the gamma transmission gauge, the GEANT321 code has been used to define the optimal source detector distance interval, particularly for the Moroccan sediment samplers, and to check the influence of the radionuclide existing in the suspension, on the gauge response accuracy. Experimental calibration was also carried ou...

  9. Nuclear sizes and the isotope shift


    Friar, J. L.; Martorell Domenech, Juan; Sprung, Donald W. L.


    Darwin-Foldy nuclear-size corrections in electronic atoms and nuclear radii are discussed from the nuclear-physics perspective. The interpretation of precise isotope-shift measurements is formalism dependent, and care must be exercised in interpreting these results and those obtained from relativistic electron scattering from nuclei. We strongly advocate that the entire nuclear-charge operator be used in calculating nuclear-size corrections in atoms rather than relegating portions of it to th...

  10. Nuclear politics (United States)

    Ranson, John


    The sentiments expressed by Sidney Drell in his forum article "The nuclear threat: a new start" (February pp16-17) are laudable, but it was disappointing to find this almost entirely political story in isolation. The article, which outlined the prospects for reducing weapons stockpiles under the new US administration, would have been more pertinent as an introduction to a series describing the technology used in detecting nuclear-testing activity. It would have been interesting to discuss the specific equipment and methods used, together with the analysis and correlation techniques - along with an indication of how sensitive and reliable they are (if the information is not classified). It is far easier to detect an explosive event than it is to detect and quantify weapons stores, which is a key factor for any negotiated solution. Apart from deductions based on actual inspection and satellite surveillance, are there other techniques that can be applied to this issue?

  11. Nuclear Medicine (United States)

    ... Parents/Teachers Resource Links for Students Glossary Nuclear Medicine What is nuclear medicine? What are radioactive tracers? ... funded researchers advancing nuclear medicine? What is nuclear medicine? Nuclear medicine is a medical specialty that uses ...

  12. Growth points in nuclear physics

    CERN Document Server

    Hodgson, Peter Edward


    Growth Points in Nuclear Physics, Volume 2 covers the progress in the fields of nuclear structure and nuclear reactions. This book is composed of three chapters. The first chapter is devoted to nuclear forces and potentials, in particular the optical model potential that enables the elastic scattering of many particles by nuclei to be calculated in a very simple manner. This chapter also deals with the three-body forces and the spin dependence of the nuclear potential. The second chapter describes higher order processes involving two or more stages, specifically their intrinsic interest and th

  13. The nuclear data program at rensselaer

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Barry D.


    Full Text Available The nuclear data program at the Rensselaer Polytechnic Institute (RPI is centered around a 60 MeV pulsed electron Linear Accelerator (LINAC configured to deliver pulsed neutron beams. The LINAC electron pulse width can vary between 5 ns and 5 us, a repetition rate of 1–500 pulses per second and neutron yield of up to 1013 n/s. Over the years several experimental setups and techniques were developed to enable a variety of measurement capabilities. The experiments cover the energy range from 0.001 eV to 20 MeV and included neutron transmission, capture, scattering and fission measurements. The facility is also equipped with a Lead Slowing-Down Spectrometer (LSDS producing a high neutron flux that is used for simultaneous measurements of the fission cross section and fission fragment mass and energy distributions. Detectors for (n, alpha and (n, p cross section measurements using the LSDS were also developed and measurements of (n, alpha cross section were completed. The high neutron flux inside the LSDS enables measurements on small samples (sub micrograms or samples with small cross section (sub millibarns. In order to fully utilize the capabilities of the facility, several measurement techniques were developed; high accuracy (<1% total cross sections were measured using iron and uranium filtered neutron beams. A system for fast neutron scattering measurements using an array of liquid scintillators and a digital data acquisition system was recently developed and used for several measurements and is now being adapted for fission neutron studies. Methods for simultaneous measurements of fission and capture cross sections using the RPI multiplicity detector are under development and new modular detectors for both fast and resonance region neutron detection were developed and deployed. These developments result in numerous measurements on different materials and provide input to improved evaluated nuclear data libraries and thus help

  14. Neutron scattering. Lectures

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Brueckel, Thomas; Heger, Gernot; Richter, Dieter; Roth, Georg; Zorn, Reiner (eds.)


    The following topics are dealt with: Neutron sources, symmetry of crystals, diffraction, nanostructures investigated by small-angle neutron scattering, the structure of macromolecules, spin dependent and magnetic scattering, structural analysis, neutron reflectometry, magnetic nanostructures, inelastic scattering, strongly correlated electrons, dynamics of macromolecules, applications of neutron scattering. (HSI)

  15. High Efficiency Low Scatter Echelle Grating Project (United States)

    National Aeronautics and Space Administration — A high efficiency low scatter echelle grating will be developed using a novel technique of multiple diamond shaving cuts. The grating will have mirror surfaces on...

  16. Electron scattering from the octupole band in /sup 238/U

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Hirsch, A.; Creswell, C.; Bertozzi, W.; Heisenberg, J.; Hynes, M.V.; Kowalski, S.; Miska, H.; Norum, B.; Rad, F.N.; Sargent, C.P.; Sasanuma, T.; Turchinetz, W.


    A simple model for nuclear surface vibrations in permanently deformed nuclei does well in reproducing electron scattering cross sections of rotational levels built on a K/sup ..pi../= 0/sup -/ intrinsic octupole vibration in /sup 238/U.

  17. Molecular weight and related properties of lily amylose determined by monitoring of elution from TSK-GEL PW high performance gel chromatography columns by the low-angle laser light scattering technique and precision differential refractometry. (United States)

    Takagi, T; Hizukuri, S


    Amylose was fractionated according to its molecular weight by high performance gel chromatography using columns of a TSK-GEL PW series. Elution from the columns was monitored with a low-angle laser light scattering photometer and a precision differential refractometer. The following results were obtained indicating that the procedure is highly efficient for characterizing an amylose preparation with respect to its molecular weight: 1) the weight-average molecular weight of lily amylose used as a test material was determined to be 786,000 +/- 26,000 (n = 7); 2) the molecular weight distribution curve of the amylose was worked out from the chromatographic data; and 3) based on the concept of the universal calibration curve, the Mark-Houwink-Sakurada equation of the amylose was presumed to be [eta] = 2.27 X 10(-4)M0.62 (dl/g). The technique saves time and sample significantly compared with the conventional ones, and consequently enables the characterization of amylose in aqueous solvents without either the degradation or association peculiar to the amylose molecule.

  18. Neutron scattering. Lectures

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Brueckel, Thomas; Heger, Gernot; Richter, Dieter; Roth, Georg; Zorn, Reiner (eds.)


    The following topics are dealt with: Neutron sources, neutron properties and elastic scattering, correlation functions measured by scattering experiments, symmetry of crystals, applications of neutron scattering, polarized-neutron scattering and polarization analysis, structural analysis, magnetic and lattice excitation studied by inelastic neutron scattering, macromolecules and self-assembly, dynamics of macromolecules, correlated electrons in complex transition-metal oxides, surfaces, interfaces, and thin films investigated by neutron reflectometry, nanomagnetism. (HSI)

  19. Pulsed Laser Ablation-Induced Green Synthesis of TiO2 Nanoparticles and Application of Novel Small Angle X-Ray Scattering Technique for Nanoparticle Size and Size Distribution Analysis. (United States)

    Singh, Amandeep; Vihinen, Jorma; Frankberg, Erkka; Hyvärinen, Leo; Honkanen, Mari; Levänen, Erkki


    This paper aims to introduce small angle X-ray scattering (SAXS) as a promising technique for measuring size and size distribution of TiO2 nanoparticles. In this manuscript, pulsed laser ablation in liquids (PLAL) has been demonstrated as a quick and simple technique for synthesizing TiO2 nanoparticles directly into deionized water as a suspension from titanium targets. Spherical TiO2 nanoparticles with diameters in the range 4-35 nm were observed with transmission electron microscopy (TEM). X-ray diffraction (XRD) showed highly crystalline nanoparticles that comprised of two main photoactive phases of TiO2: anatase and rutile. However, presence of minor amounts of brookite was also reported. The traditional methods for nanoparticle size and size distribution analysis such as electron microscopy-based methods are time-consuming. In this study, we have proposed and validated SAXS as a promising method for characterization of laser-ablated TiO2 nanoparticles for their size and size distribution by comparing SAXS- and TEM-measured nanoparticle size and size distribution. SAXS- and TEM-measured size distributions closely followed each other for each sample, and size distributions in both showed maxima at the same nanoparticle size. The SAXS-measured nanoparticle diameters were slightly larger than the respective diameters measured by TEM. This was because SAXS measures an agglomerate consisting of several particles as one big particle which slightly increased the mean diameter. TEM- and SAXS-measured mean diameters when plotted together showed similar trend in the variation in the size as the laser power was changed which along with extremely similar size distributions for TEM and SAXS validated the application of SAXS for size distribution measurement of the synthesized TiO2 nanoparticles.

  20. Scattering of muonic hydrogen atoms

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Mulhauser, F. [Universite de Fribourg (Switzerland); Adamczak, A. [Institute of Nuclear Physics (Poland); Beer, G.A. [University of Victoria (Canada); Bystritsky, V.M. [Joint Institute for Nuclear Research (Russian Federation); Filipowicz, M. [Institute of Physics and Nuclear Techniques (Poland); Fujiwara, M.C. [University of British Columbia (Canada); Huber, T.M. [Gustavus Adolphus College (United States); Jacot-Guillarmod, R. [Universite de Fribourg (Switzerland); Kammel, P. [University of California (United States); Kim, S.K. [Jeonbuk National University (Korea, Republic of); Knowles, P. [Universite de Fribourg (Switzerland); Kunselman, A.R. [University of Wyoming (United States); Maier, M. [University of Victoria (Canada); Markushin, V.E. [Paul Scherrer Institute (Switzerland); Marshall, G.M. [TRIUMF (Canada); Olin, A. [University of Victoria (Canada); Petitjean, C. [Paul Scherrer Institute (Switzerland); Porcelli, T.A. [University of Victoria (Canada); Stolupin, V.A. [Joint Institute for Nuclear Research (Russian Federation); Wozniak, J. [Institute of Physics and Nuclear Techniques (Poland)] (and others)


    Our measurement compares the energy dependence of the scattering cross-sections of muonic deuterium and tritium on hydrogen molecules for collisions in the energy range 0.1-45 eV. A time-of-flight method was used to measure the scattering cross-section as a function of the muonic atom beam energy and shows clearly the Ramsauer-Townsend effect. The results are compared with theoretical calculations by using Monte Carlo simulations. The molecular pd{mu} and pt{mu} formation creates background processes. We measure the formation rates in solid hydrogen by detecting the 5.5 MeV (pd{mu}) and 19.8 MeV (pt{mu}) {gamma}-rays emitted during the subsequent nuclear fusion processes.