WorldWideScience

Sample records for scattering saxs measurements

  1. SAXS measurements of crystallization in Me PEEK

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Barberato, C.; Kellerman, G.; Craievich, A.F.; Torriani, I.L.

    1997-01-01

    Full text. Preliminary small-angle x-ray scattering (SAXS) measurements on a variety of methyl-substituted poly(aryl ether ether ketone) (Me PEEK) samples have been performed at the D11AA-SAXS beam line of the Brazilian National Synchrotron Light Laboratory (LNLS).Me PEEK is an industrially important thermoplastic material exhibiting crystallization upon annealing at temperatures between 175 and 200 deg C. Differential Scanning Calorimetry (DSC) measurements (Handa Y.P., Roovers, J., Wang, F., Macromolecules 27(19), 551-5516 (1994)) indicate that the presence of supercritical fluids during thermal treatment can have dramatic effects on the melting behavior of Me PEEK when compared to similar data for materials annealed in air. These observations have been made for samples demonstrating no significant differences in the extent of crystallinity suggesting that it is the nature of the crystallites that is affected by the presence of additives during the thermal treatment. In this preliminary study, scattering profiles for three Me PEEK samples (as received, thermally treated in air and thermally treated with supercritical 0.85 CO 2 +C H 3 O H gas) are obtained. The data are analyzed to provide some measure of the variation in crystallite structure between the thermally treated samples. Scattering data obtained in the very small-angle region on the same samples at the High Brilliance Beamline (ID2/BM4) experiments performed by Olivier Diat and M.A. Singh, Dec. 11996) of the European Synchrotron Radiation Facility (ESRF) is combined with the Brazilian National Laboratory on Synchrotron Light (LNLS) data to provide information over 3 decades of scattering angle. This work is part of a larger study of the use of supercritical fluids to control the level and morphology of crystallization in these materials. (author)

  2. Traceable size determination of PMMA nanoparticles based on Small Angle X-ray Scattering (SAXS)

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Gleber, G; Cibik, L; Mueller, P; Krumrey, M [Physikalisch-Technische Bundesanstalt (PTB), Abbestrasse 2-12, 10587 Berlin (Germany); Haas, S; Hoell, A, E-mail: gudrun.gleber@ptb.d [Helmholtz-Zentrum-Berlin fuer Materialien und Energie (HZB), Albert-Einstein-Strasse 15, 12489 Berlin (Germany)

    2010-10-01

    The size and size distribution of PMMA nanoparticles has been investigated with SAXS (small angle X-ray scattering) using monochromatized synchrotron radiation. The uncertainty has contributions from the wavelength or photon energy of the radiation, the scattering angle and the fit procedure for the obtained scattering curves. The wavelength can be traced back to the lattice constant of silicon, and the scattering angle is traceable via geometric measurements of the detector pixel size and the distance between the sample and the detector. SAXS measurements and data evaluations have been performed at different distances and photon energies for two PMMA nanoparticle suspensions with low polydispersity and nominal diameters of 108 nm and 192 nm, respectively, as well as for a mixture of both. The relative variation of the diameters obtained for different experimental conditions was below {+-} 0.3 %. The determined number-weighted mean diameters of (109.0 {+-} 0.7) nm and (188.0 {+-} 1.3) nm, respectively, are close to the nominal values.

  3. Traceable size determination of PMMA nanoparticles based on Small Angle X-ray Scattering (SAXS)

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gleber, G.; Cibik, L.; Haas, S.; Hoell, A.; Müller, P.; Krumrey, M.

    2010-10-01

    The size and size distribution of PMMA nanoparticles has been investigated with SAXS (small angle X-ray scattering) using monochromatized synchrotron radiation. The uncertainty has contributions from the wavelength or photon energy of the radiation, the scattering angle and the fit procedure for the obtained scattering curves. The wavelength can be traced back to the lattice constant of silicon, and the scattering angle is traceable via geometric measurements of the detector pixel size and the distance between the sample and the detector. SAXS measurements and data evaluations have been performed at different distances and photon energies for two PMMA nanoparticle suspensions with low polydispersity and nominal diameters of 108 nm and 192 nm, respectively, as well as for a mixture of both. The relative variation of the diameters obtained for different experimental conditions was below ± 0.3 %. The determined number-weighted mean diameters of (109.0 ± 0.7) nm and (188.0 ± 1.3) nm, respectively, are close to the nominal values.

  4. Traceable size determination of PMMA nanoparticles based on Small Angle X-ray Scattering (SAXS)

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Gleber, G; Cibik, L; Mueller, P; Krumrey, M; Haas, S; Hoell, A

    2010-01-01

    The size and size distribution of PMMA nanoparticles has been investigated with SAXS (small angle X-ray scattering) using monochromatized synchrotron radiation. The uncertainty has contributions from the wavelength or photon energy of the radiation, the scattering angle and the fit procedure for the obtained scattering curves. The wavelength can be traced back to the lattice constant of silicon, and the scattering angle is traceable via geometric measurements of the detector pixel size and the distance between the sample and the detector. SAXS measurements and data evaluations have been performed at different distances and photon energies for two PMMA nanoparticle suspensions with low polydispersity and nominal diameters of 108 nm and 192 nm, respectively, as well as for a mixture of both. The relative variation of the diameters obtained for different experimental conditions was below ± 0.3 %. The determined number-weighted mean diameters of (109.0 ± 0.7) nm and (188.0 ± 1.3) nm, respectively, are close to the nominal values.

  5. Robust, high-throughput solution structural analyses by small angle X-ray scattering (SAXS)

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Hura, Greg L.; Menon, Angeli L.; Hammel, Michal; Rambo, Robert P.; Poole II, Farris L.; Tsutakawa, Susan E.; Jenney Jr, Francis E.; Classen, Scott; Frankel, Kenneth A.; Hopkins, Robert C.; Yang, Sungjae; Scott, Joseph W.; Dillard, Bret D.; Adams, Michael W. W.; Tainer, John A.

    2009-07-20

    We present an efficient pipeline enabling high-throughput analysis of protein structure in solution with small angle X-ray scattering (SAXS). Our SAXS pipeline combines automated sample handling of microliter volumes, temperature and anaerobic control, rapid data collection and data analysis, and couples structural analysis with automated archiving. We subjected 50 representative proteins, mostly from Pyrococcus furiosus, to this pipeline and found that 30 were multimeric structures in solution. SAXS analysis allowed us to distinguish aggregated and unfolded proteins, define global structural parameters and oligomeric states for most samples, identify shapes and similar structures for 25 unknown structures, and determine envelopes for 41 proteins. We believe that high-throughput SAXS is an enabling technology that may change the way that structural genomics research is done.

  6. Small-angle X-ray scattering (SAXS) for metrological size determination of nanoparticles

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Gleber, Gudrun; Krumrey, Michael; Cibik, Levent; Marggraf, Stefanie; Mueller, Peter [Physikalisch-Technische Bundesanstalt, Abbestr. 2-12, 10587 Berlin (Germany); Hoell, Armin [Helmholtz-Zentrum Berlin, Albert-Einstein-Str. 15, 12489 Berlin (Germany)

    2011-07-01

    To measure the size of nanoparticles, different measurement methods are available but their results are often not compatible. In the framework of an European metrology project we use Small-Angle X-ray Scattering (SAXS) to determine the size and size distribution of nanoparticles in aqueous solution, where the special challange is the traceability of the results. The experiments were performed at the Four-Crystal Monochromator (FCM) beamline in the laboratory of Physikalisch-Technische Bundesanstalt (PTB) at BESSY II using the SAXS setup of the Helmholtz-Zentrum Berlin (HZB). We measured different particles made of PMMA and gold in a diameter range of 200 nm down to about 10 nm. The aspects of traceability can be classified in two parts: the first is the experimental part with the uncertainties of distances, angles, and wavelength, the second is the part of analysis, with the uncertainty of the choice of the model used for fitting the data. In this talk we want to show the degree of uncertainty, which we reached in this work yet.

  7. ISPyB for BioSAXS, the gateway to user autonomy in solution scattering experiments.

    Science.gov (United States)

    De Maria Antolinos, Alejandro; Pernot, Petra; Brennich, Martha E; Kieffer, Jérôme; Bowler, Matthew W; Delageniere, Solange; Ohlsson, Staffan; Malbet Monaco, Stephanie; Ashton, Alun; Franke, Daniel; Svergun, Dmitri; McSweeney, Sean; Gordon, Elspeth; Round, Adam

    2015-01-01

    Logging experiments with the laboratory-information management system ISPyB (Information System for Protein crystallography Beamlines) enhances the automation of small-angle X-ray scattering of biological macromolecules in solution (BioSAXS) experiments. The ISPyB interface provides immediate user-oriented online feedback and enables data cross-checking and downstream analysis. To optimize data quality and completeness, ISPyBB (ISPyB for BioSAXS) makes it simple for users to compare the results from new measurements with previous acquisitions from the same day or earlier experiments in order to maximize the ability to collect all data required in a single synchrotron visit. The graphical user interface (GUI) of ISPyBB has been designed to guide users in the preparation of an experiment. The input of sample information and the ability to outline the experimental aims in advance provides feedback on the number of measurements required, calculation of expected sample volumes and time needed to collect the data: all of this information aids the users to better prepare for their trip to the synchrotron. A prototype version of the ISPyBB database is now available at the European Synchrotron Radiation Facility (ESRF) beamline BM29 and is already greatly appreciated by academic users and industrial clients. It will soon be available at the PETRA III beamline P12 and the Diamond Light Source beamlines I22 and B21.

  8. ISPyB for BioSAXS, the gateway to user autonomy in solution scattering experiments

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    De Maria Antolinos, Alejandro; Pernot, Petra; Brennich, Martha E.; Kieffer, Jérôme; Bowler, Matthew W.; Delageniere, Solange; Ohlsson, Staffan; Malbet Monaco, Stephanie; Ashton, Alun; Franke, Daniel; Svergun, Dmitri; McSweeney, Sean; Gordon, Elspeth; Round, Adam

    2015-01-01

    The ISPyB information-management system for crystallography has been adapted to include data from small-angle X-ray scattering of macromolecules in solution experiments. Logging experiments with the laboratory-information management system ISPyB (Information System for Protein crystallography Beamlines) enhances the automation of small-angle X-ray scattering of biological macromolecules in solution (BioSAXS) experiments. The ISPyB interface provides immediate user-oriented online feedback and enables data cross-checking and downstream analysis. To optimize data quality and completeness, ISPyBB (ISPyB for BioSAXS) makes it simple for users to compare the results from new measurements with previous acquisitions from the same day or earlier experiments in order to maximize the ability to collect all data required in a single synchrotron visit. The graphical user interface (GUI) of ISPyBB has been designed to guide users in the preparation of an experiment. The input of sample information and the ability to outline the experimental aims in advance provides feedback on the number of measurements required, calculation of expected sample volumes and time needed to collect the data: all of this information aids the users to better prepare for their trip to the synchrotron. A prototype version of the ISPyBB database is now available at the European Synchrotron Radiation Facility (ESRF) beamline BM29 and is already greatly appreciated by academic users and industrial clients. It will soon be available at the PETRA III beamline P12 and the Diamond Light Source beamlines I22 and B21

  9. ISPyB for BioSAXS, the gateway to user autonomy in solution scattering experiments

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    De Maria Antolinos, Alejandro; Pernot, Petra; Brennich, Martha E.; Kieffer, Jérôme [European Synchrotron Radiation Facility, 71 avenue des Martyrs, CS 40220, 38042 Grenoble (France); Bowler, Matthew W. [European Molecular Biology Laboratory, Grenoble Outstation, 71 avenue des Martyrs, CS 90181, 38042 Grenoble (France); Université Grenoble Alpes–EMBL–CNRS, 71 avenue des Martyrs, CS 90181, 38042 Grenoble (France); Delageniere, Solange; Ohlsson, Staffan; Malbet Monaco, Stephanie [European Synchrotron Radiation Facility, 71 avenue des Martyrs, CS 40220, 38042 Grenoble (France); Ashton, Alun [DLS, Diamond House, Harwell Science and Innovation Campus, Fermi Avenue, Didcot OX11 0QX (United Kingdom); Franke, Daniel; Svergun, Dmitri [European Molecular Biology Laboratory, Hamburg Outstation, c/o DESY, Building 25A, Notkestrasse 85, 22603 Hamburg (Germany); McSweeney, Sean; Gordon, Elspeth [European Synchrotron Radiation Facility, 71 avenue des Martyrs, CS 40220, 38042 Grenoble (France); Round, Adam, E-mail: around@embl.fr [European Molecular Biology Laboratory, Grenoble Outstation, 71 avenue des Martyrs, CS 90181, 38042 Grenoble (France); Université Grenoble Alpes–EMBL–CNRS, 71 avenue des Martyrs, CS 90181, 38042 Grenoble (France); European Synchrotron Radiation Facility, 71 avenue des Martyrs, CS 40220, 38042 Grenoble (France)

    2015-01-01

    The ISPyB information-management system for crystallography has been adapted to include data from small-angle X-ray scattering of macromolecules in solution experiments. Logging experiments with the laboratory-information management system ISPyB (Information System for Protein crystallography Beamlines) enhances the automation of small-angle X-ray scattering of biological macromolecules in solution (BioSAXS) experiments. The ISPyB interface provides immediate user-oriented online feedback and enables data cross-checking and downstream analysis. To optimize data quality and completeness, ISPyBB (ISPyB for BioSAXS) makes it simple for users to compare the results from new measurements with previous acquisitions from the same day or earlier experiments in order to maximize the ability to collect all data required in a single synchrotron visit. The graphical user interface (GUI) of ISPyBB has been designed to guide users in the preparation of an experiment. The input of sample information and the ability to outline the experimental aims in advance provides feedback on the number of measurements required, calculation of expected sample volumes and time needed to collect the data: all of this information aids the users to better prepare for their trip to the synchrotron. A prototype version of the ISPyBB database is now available at the European Synchrotron Radiation Facility (ESRF) beamline BM29 and is already greatly appreciated by academic users and industrial clients. It will soon be available at the PETRA III beamline P12 and the Diamond Light Source beamlines I22 and B21.

  10. Characterization of bentonite pore structure by combining chloride porosity and SAXS measurements

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Muurinen, A.

    2010-01-01

    Document available in extended abstract form only. The total water porosity, chloride porosity and the microstructure were studied in compacted samples prepared from MX-80 and Deponit bentonites equilibrated through filter plates with 0.1 M NaCl solution for 12.5 months. The dry densities of the samples varied approximately from 0.7 to 1.55 g/cm 3 . XRD and SAXS (Small Angle X-ray Scattering) were used to study the microstructure of the bentonites. It was obvious that the chloride porosity was lower than the water porosity in both clays, which indicates the exclusion caused by the negatively charged montmorillonite surfaces. In the XRD and SAXS measurements the measured basal spaces represented by the diffraction peaks were smaller than the theoretical ones assuming a homogenous microstructure. This indicates that there was a substantial amount of water also in the pores, which were not represented by the peaks. This could explain the difference between the measured chloride porosity and the modelling curve obtained with the Donnan model. By combining the information from the SAXS measurements and the chloride exclusion measurements, it was possible to evaluate the volumes of the soft and dense fractions and the pore sizes in each fraction for MX-80. The chloride porosity was mostly caused by the pores in the soft clay where the pore size is larger. The volume of the soft fraction decreased and its density increased with increasing density of the sample. (authors)

  11. Structure and optical function of amorphous photonic nanostructures from avian feather barbs: a comparative small angle X-ray scattering (SAXS) analysis of 230 bird species.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Saranathan, Vinodkumar; Forster, Jason D; Noh, Heeso; Liew, Seng-Fatt; Mochrie, Simon G J; Cao, Hui; Dufresne, Eric R; Prum, Richard O

    2012-10-07

    Non-iridescent structural colours of feathers are a diverse and an important part of the phenotype of many birds. These colours are generally produced by three-dimensional, amorphous (or quasi-ordered) spongy β-keratin and air nanostructures found in the medullary cells of feather barbs. Two main classes of three-dimensional barb nanostructures are known, characterized by a tortuous network of air channels or a close packing of spheroidal air cavities. Using synchrotron small angle X-ray scattering (SAXS) and optical spectrophotometry, we characterized the nanostructure and optical function of 297 distinctly coloured feathers from 230 species belonging to 163 genera in 51 avian families. The SAXS data provided quantitative diagnoses of the channel- and sphere-type nanostructures, and confirmed the presence of a predominant, isotropic length scale of variation in refractive index that produces strong reinforcement of a narrow band of scattered wavelengths. The SAXS structural data identified a new class of rudimentary or weakly nanostructured feathers responsible for slate-grey, and blue-grey structural colours. SAXS structural data provided good predictions of the single-scattering peak of the optical reflectance of the feathers. The SAXS structural measurements of channel- and sphere-type nanostructures are also similar to experimental scattering data from synthetic soft matter systems that self-assemble by phase separation. These results further support the hypothesis that colour-producing protein and air nanostructures in feather barbs are probably self-assembled by arrested phase separation of polymerizing β-keratin from the cytoplasm of medullary cells. Such avian amorphous photonic nanostructures with isotropic optical properties may provide biomimetic inspiration for photonic technology.

  12. Decoupling of size and shape fluctuations in heteropolymeric sequences reconciles discrepancies in SAXS vs. FRET measurements.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Fuertes, Gustavo; Banterle, Niccolò; Ruff, Kiersten M; Chowdhury, Aritra; Mercadante, Davide; Koehler, Christine; Kachala, Michael; Estrada Girona, Gemma; Milles, Sigrid; Mishra, Ankur; Onck, Patrick R; Gräter, Frauke; Esteban-Martín, Santiago; Pappu, Rohit V; Svergun, Dmitri I; Lemke, Edward A

    2017-08-01

    Unfolded states of proteins and native states of intrinsically disordered proteins (IDPs) populate heterogeneous conformational ensembles in solution. The average sizes of these heterogeneous systems, quantified by the radius of gyration ( R G ), can be measured by small-angle X-ray scattering (SAXS). Another parameter, the mean dye-to-dye distance ( R E ) for proteins with fluorescently labeled termini, can be estimated using single-molecule Förster resonance energy transfer (smFRET). A number of studies have reported inconsistencies in inferences drawn from the two sets of measurements for the dimensions of unfolded proteins and IDPs in the absence of chemical denaturants. These differences are typically attributed to the influence of fluorescent labels used in smFRET and to the impact of high concentrations and averaging features of SAXS. By measuring the dimensions of a collection of labeled and unlabeled polypeptides using smFRET and SAXS, we directly assessed the contributions of dyes to the experimental values R G and R E For chemically denatured proteins we obtain mutual consistency in our inferences based on R G and R E , whereas for IDPs under native conditions, we find substantial deviations. Using computations, we show that discrepant inferences are neither due to methodological shortcomings of specific measurements nor due to artifacts of dyes. Instead, our analysis suggests that chemical heterogeneity in heteropolymeric systems leads to a decoupling between R E and R G that is amplified in the absence of denaturants. Therefore, joint assessments of R G and R E combined with measurements of polymer shapes should provide a consistent and complete picture of the underlying ensembles.

  13. Pepsi-SAXS : an adaptive method for rapid and accurate computation of small-angle X-ray scattering profiles

    OpenAIRE

    Grudinin , Sergei; Garkavenko , Maria; Kazennov , Andrei

    2017-01-01

    International audience; A new method called Pepsi-SAXS is presented that calculates small-angle X-ray scattering profiles from atomistic models. The method is based on the multipole expansion scheme and is significantly faster compared with other tested methods. In particular, using the Nyquist–Shannon–Kotelnikov sampling theorem, the multipole expansion order is adapted to the size of the model and the resolution of the experimental data. It is argued that by using the adaptive expansion ord...

  14. Classification of breast tissue using a laboratory system for small-angle x-ray scattering (SAXS)

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Sidhu, S; Siu, K K W; Falzon, G; Hart, S A; Fox, J G; Lewis, R A

    2011-01-01

    Structural changes in breast tissue at the nanometre scale have been shown to differentiate between tissue types using synchrotron SAXS techniques. Classification of breast tissues using information acquired from a laboratory SAXS camera source could possibly provide a means of adopting SAXS as a viable diagnostic procedure. Tissue samples were obtained from surgical waste from 66 patients and structural components of the tissues were examined between q = 0.25 and 2.3 nm -1 . Principal component analysis showed that the amplitude of the fifth-order axial Bragg peak, the magnitude of the integrated intensity and the full-width at half-maximum of the fat peak were significantly different between tissue types. A discriminant analysis showed that excellent classification can be achieved; however, only 30% of the tissue samples provided the 16 variables required for classification. This suggests that the presence of disease is represented by a combination of factors, rather than one specific trait. A closer examination of the amorphous scattering intensity showed not only a trend of increased scattering intensity with disease severity, but also a corresponding decrease in the size of the scatterers contributing to this intensity.

  15. Pepsi-SAXS: an adaptive method for rapid and accurate computation of small-angle X-ray scattering profiles.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Grudinin, Sergei; Garkavenko, Maria; Kazennov, Andrei

    2017-05-01

    A new method called Pepsi-SAXS is presented that calculates small-angle X-ray scattering profiles from atomistic models. The method is based on the multipole expansion scheme and is significantly faster compared with other tested methods. In particular, using the Nyquist-Shannon-Kotelnikov sampling theorem, the multipole expansion order is adapted to the size of the model and the resolution of the experimental data. It is argued that by using the adaptive expansion order, this method has the same quadratic dependence on the number of atoms in the model as the Debye-based approach, but with a much smaller prefactor in the computational complexity. The method has been systematically validated on a large set of over 50 models collected from the BioIsis and SASBDB databases. Using a laptop, it was demonstrated that Pepsi-SAXS is about seven, 29 and 36 times faster compared with CRYSOL, FoXS and the three-dimensional Zernike method in SAStbx, respectively, when tested on data from the BioIsis database, and is about five, 21 and 25 times faster compared with CRYSOL, FoXS and SAStbx, respectively, when tested on data from SASBDB. On average, Pepsi-SAXS demonstrates comparable accuracy in terms of χ 2 to CRYSOL and FoXS when tested on BioIsis and SASBDB profiles. Together with a small allowed variation of adjustable parameters, this demonstrates the effectiveness of the method. Pepsi-SAXS is available at http://team.inria.fr/nano-d/software/pepsi-saxs.

  16. Conformational Flexibility of Proteins Involved in Ribosome Biogenesis: Investigations via Small Angle X-ray Scattering (SAXS

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Dritan Siliqi

    2018-02-01

    Full Text Available The dynamism of proteins is central to their function, and several proteins have been described as flexible, as consisting of multiple domains joined by flexible linkers, and even as intrinsically disordered. Several techniques exist to study protein structures, but small angle X-ray scattering (SAXS has proven to be particularly powerful for the quantitative analysis of such flexible systems. In the present report, we have used SAXS in combination with X-ray crystallography to highlight their usefulness at characterizing flexible proteins, using as examples two proteins involved in different steps of ribosome biogenesis. The yeast BRCA2 and CDKN1A-interactig protein, Bcp1, is a chaperone for Rpl23 of unknown structure. We showed that it consists of a rigid, slightly elongated protein, with a secondary structure comprising a mixture of alpha helices and beta sheets. As an example of a flexible molecule, we studied the SBDS (Shwachman-Bodian-Diamond Syndrome protein that is involved in the cytoplasmic maturation of the 60S subunit and constitutes the mutated target in the Shwachman-Diamond Syndrome. In solution, this protein coexists in an ensemble of three main conformations, with the N- and C-terminal ends adopting different orientations with respect to the central domain. The structure observed in the protein crystal corresponds to an average of those predicted by the SAXS flexibility analysis.

  17. BioSAXS Sample Changer: a robotic sample changer for rapid and reliable high-throughput X-ray solution scattering experiments.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Round, Adam; Felisaz, Franck; Fodinger, Lukas; Gobbo, Alexandre; Huet, Julien; Villard, Cyril; Blanchet, Clement E; Pernot, Petra; McSweeney, Sean; Roessle, Manfred; Svergun, Dmitri I; Cipriani, Florent

    2015-01-01

    Small-angle X-ray scattering (SAXS) of macromolecules in solution is in increasing demand by an ever more diverse research community, both academic and industrial. To better serve user needs, and to allow automated and high-throughput operation, a sample changer (BioSAXS Sample Changer) that is able to perform unattended measurements of up to several hundred samples per day has been developed. The Sample Changer is able to handle and expose sample volumes of down to 5 µl with a measurement/cleaning cycle of under 1 min. The samples are stored in standard 96-well plates and the data are collected in a vacuum-mounted capillary with automated positioning of the solution in the X-ray beam. Fast and efficient capillary cleaning avoids cross-contamination and ensures reproducibility of the measurements. Independent temperature control for the well storage and for the measurement capillary allows the samples to be kept cool while still collecting data at physiological temperatures. The Sample Changer has been installed at three major third-generation synchrotrons: on the BM29 beamline at the European Synchrotron Radiation Facility (ESRF), the P12 beamline at the PETRA-III synchrotron (EMBL@PETRA-III) and the I22/B21 beamlines at Diamond Light Source, with the latter being the first commercial unit supplied by Bruker ASC.

  18. BioSAXS Sample Changer: a robotic sample changer for rapid and reliable high-throughput X-ray solution scattering experiments

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Round, Adam, E-mail: around@embl.fr; Felisaz, Franck [European Molecular Biology Laboratory, Grenoble Outstation, 71 Avenue des Martyrs, CS 90181, 38042 Grenoble (France); Université Grenoble Alpes–EMBL–CNRS, 71 Avenue des Martyrs, CS 90181, 38042 Grenoble (France); Fodinger, Lukas; Gobbo, Alexandre [European Molecular Biology Laboratory, Grenoble Outstation, 71 Avenue des Martyrs, CS 90181, 38042 Grenoble (France); Huet, Julien [European Molecular Biology Laboratory, Grenoble Outstation, 71 Avenue des Martyrs, CS 90181, 38042 Grenoble (France); Université Grenoble Alpes–EMBL–CNRS, 71 Avenue des Martyrs, CS 90181, 38042 Grenoble (France); Villard, Cyril [European Molecular Biology Laboratory, Grenoble Outstation, 71 Avenue des Martyrs, CS 90181, 38042 Grenoble (France); Blanchet, Clement E., E-mail: around@embl.fr [EMBL c/o DESY, Notkestrasse 85, 22603 Hamburg (Germany); Pernot, Petra; McSweeney, Sean [ESRF, 6 Rue Jules Horowitz, 38000 Grenoble (France); Roessle, Manfred; Svergun, Dmitri I. [EMBL c/o DESY, Notkestrasse 85, 22603 Hamburg (Germany); Cipriani, Florent, E-mail: around@embl.fr [European Molecular Biology Laboratory, Grenoble Outstation, 71 Avenue des Martyrs, CS 90181, 38042 Grenoble (France); Université Grenoble Alpes–EMBL–CNRS, 71 Avenue des Martyrs, CS 90181, 38042 Grenoble (France)

    2015-01-01

    A robotic sample changer for solution X-ray scattering experiments optimized for speed and to use the minimum amount of material has been developed. This system is now in routine use at three high-brilliance European synchrotron sites, each capable of several hundred measurements per day. Small-angle X-ray scattering (SAXS) of macromolecules in solution is in increasing demand by an ever more diverse research community, both academic and industrial. To better serve user needs, and to allow automated and high-throughput operation, a sample changer (BioSAXS Sample Changer) that is able to perform unattended measurements of up to several hundred samples per day has been developed. The Sample Changer is able to handle and expose sample volumes of down to 5 µl with a measurement/cleaning cycle of under 1 min. The samples are stored in standard 96-well plates and the data are collected in a vacuum-mounted capillary with automated positioning of the solution in the X-ray beam. Fast and efficient capillary cleaning avoids cross-contamination and ensures reproducibility of the measurements. Independent temperature control for the well storage and for the measurement capillary allows the samples to be kept cool while still collecting data at physiological temperatures. The Sample Changer has been installed at three major third-generation synchrotrons: on the BM29 beamline at the European Synchrotron Radiation Facility (ESRF), the P12 beamline at the PETRA-III synchrotron (EMBL@PETRA-III) and the I22/B21 beamlines at Diamond Light Source, with the latter being the first commercial unit supplied by Bruker ASC.

  19. Structural evolution in the isothermal crystallization process of the molten nylon 10/10 traced by time-resolved infrared spectral measurements and synchrotron SAXS/WAXD measurements

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Tashiro, Kohji; Nishiyama, Asami; Tsuji, Sawako; Hashida, Tomoko; Hanesaka, Makoto; Takeda, Shinichi; Weiyu, Cao; Reddy, Kummetha Raghunatha; Masunaga, Hiroyasu; Sasaki, Sono; Takata, Masaki; Ito, Kazuki

    2009-01-01

    The structural evolution in the isothermal crystallization process of nylon 10/10 from the melt has been clarified concretely on the basis of the time-resolved infrared spectral measurement as well as the synchrotron wide-angle and small-angle X-ray scattering measurements. Immediately after the temperature jump from the melt to the crystallization point, the isolated domains consisting of the hydrogen-bonded random coils were formed in the melt, as revealed by Guinier plot of SAXS data and the infrared spectral data. With the passage of time these domains approached each other with stronger correlation as analyzed by Debye-Bueche equation. These domains transformed finally to the stacked crystalline lamellae, in which the conformationally-regularized methylene segments of the CO sides were connected each other by stronger intermolecular hydrogen bonds to form the crystal lattice.

  20. Direct investigations on strain-induced cold crystallization behavior and structure evolutions in amorphous poly(lactic acid) with SAXS and WAXS measurements

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Zhou, Chengbo; Li, Hongfei; Zhang, Wenyang

    2016-01-01

    scanning calorimetry (DSC) measurements. The data obtained from the stretched samples within 70-90 degrees C showed that all of the formed crystals are disordered alpha' form with more compact chain packing than that of the cold crystallization. Upon stretching at 70 degrees C, the mesocrystal appears......Strain-induced cold crystallization behavior and structure evolution of amorphous poly(lactic acid) (PLA) stretched within 70-90 degrees C were investigated via in situ synchrotron small-angle X-ray scattering (SAXS) and wide-angle X-ray scattering (WAXS) measurements as well as differential...... in strain-induced crystallization behavior of amorphous PLA within 70-90 degrees C can be attributed to the competition between chain orientation caused by stretching and chain relaxation. It was proposed that the strain-induced mesocrystal/crystal and the lamellae are formed from the mesophase originally...

  1. A saxs study of silica aerogels

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Craievich, A.F.

    1986-01-01

    Aerogels produced by hypercritical drying of gels from hydrolysis of TMOS (Tetramethoxysilane) in various pH conditions and subjected to a densification process were studied by SAXS using LURE synchrotron facility. The evaluation of scattering data combined with BET measurements leads to a model of aerogels consisting of a light density matrix in which meso-and macro-pores are embedded. (Author) [pt

  2. Time-resolved SAXS measurements facilitated by online HPLC buffer exchange

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Jensen, Malene Hillerup; Toft, Katrine Nørgaard; David, Gabriel

    2010-01-01

    continuous or stopped flow. In this paper a method for obtaining TR-SAXS data from systems where the reaction is triggered by removal of a species is presented. This method is based on fast buffer exchange over a short desalting column facilitated by an online HPLC (high-performance liquid chromatography...

  3. Location of cholesterol in liposomes by using small-angle X-ray scattering (SAXS) data and the generalized indirect Fourier transformation (GIFT) method.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Aburai, Kenichi; Ogura, Taku; Hyodo, Ryo; Sakai, Hideki; Abe, Masahiko; Glatter, Otto

    2013-01-01

    We investigated the location of cholesterol (Chol) in liposomes and its interaction with phospholipids using small-angle x-ray scattering (SAXS) data and applying the generalized indirect Fourier transformation (GIFT) method. The GIFT method has been applied to lamellar liquid crystal systems and it gives quantitative data on bilayer thickness, electron density profile, and membrane flexibility (Caillé parameter). When the GIFT method is applied to the SAXS data of dipalmitoylphosphatidylcholine (DPPC) alone (Chol [-]) or a DPPC/Chol = 7/3 mixed system (Chol [+], molar ratio), change in the bilayer thickness was insignificant in both systems. However, the electron density for the Chol (+) system was higher than that for the Chol (-) system at the location of hydrophilic groups of phospholipids, and whereas Caillé parameter value increased with temperature for the Chol (-) system, no significant change with temperature was observed in the Caillé parameter for the Chol (+) system. These results indicated that Chol is located in the vicinity of the hydrophilic group of the phospholipids and constricts the packing of the acyl chain of phospholipids in the bilayer.

  4. AquaSAXS: a web server for computation and fitting of SAXS profiles with non-uniformally hydrated atomic models

    Science.gov (United States)

    Poitevin, Frédéric; Orland, Henri; Doniach, Sebastian; Koehl, Patrice; Delarue, Marc

    2011-01-01

    Small Angle X-ray Scattering (SAXS) techniques are becoming more and more useful for structural biologists and biochemists, thanks to better access to dedicated synchrotron beamlines, better detectors and the relative easiness of sample preparation. The ability to compute the theoretical SAXS profile of a given structural model, and to compare this profile with the measured scattering intensity, yields crucial structural informations about the macromolecule under study and/or its complexes in solution. An important contribution to the profile, besides the macromolecule itself and its solvent-excluded volume, is the excess density due to the hydration layer. AquaSAXS takes advantage of recently developed methods, such as AquaSol, that give the equilibrium solvent density map around macromolecules, to compute an accurate SAXS/WAXS profile of a given structure and to compare it to the experimental one. Here, we describe the interface architecture and capabilities of the AquaSAXS web server (http://lorentz.dynstr.pasteur.fr/aquasaxs.php). PMID:21665925

  5. Dimensions and Global Twist of Single-Layer DNA Origami Measured by Small-Angle X-ray Scattering.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Baker, Matthew A B; Tuckwell, Andrew J; Berengut, Jonathan F; Bath, Jonathan; Benn, Florence; Duff, Anthony P; Whitten, Andrew E; Dunn, Katherine E; Hynson, Robert M; Turberfield, Andrew J; Lee, Lawrence K

    2018-06-04

    The rational design of complementary DNA sequences can be used to create nanostructures that self-assemble with nanometer precision. DNA nanostructures have been imaged by atomic force microscopy and electron microscopy. Small-angle X-ray scattering (SAXS) provides complementary structural information on the ensemble-averaged state of DNA nanostructures in solution. Here we demonstrate that SAXS can distinguish between different single-layer DNA origami tiles that look identical when immobilized on a mica surface and imaged with atomic force microscopy. We use SAXS to quantify the magnitude of global twist of DNA origami tiles with different crossover periodicities: these measurements highlight the extreme structural sensitivity of single-layer origami to the location of strand crossovers. We also use SAXS to quantify the distance between pairs of gold nanoparticles tethered to specific locations on a DNA origami tile and use this method to measure the overall dimensions and geometry of the DNA nanostructure in solution. Finally, we use indirect Fourier methods, which have long been used for the interpretation of SAXS data from biomolecules, to measure the distance between DNA helix pairs in a DNA origami nanotube. Together, these results provide important methodological advances in the use of SAXS to analyze DNA nanostructures in solution and insights into the structures of single-layer DNA origami.

  6. Particle size distribution of iron nanomaterials in biological medium by SR-SAXS method

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Jing Long; Feng Weiyue; Wang Bing; Wang Meng; Ouyang Hong; Zhao Yuliang; Chai Zhifang; Wang Yun; Wang Huajiang; Zhu Motao; Wu Zhonghua

    2009-01-01

    A better understanding of biological effects of nanomaterials in organisms requests knowledge of the physicochemical properties of nanomaterials in biological systems. Affected by high concentration salts and proteins in biological medium, nanoparticles are much easy to agglomerate,hence the difficulties in characterizing size distribution of the nanomaterials in biological medium.In this work, synchrotron radiation small angle X-ray scattering(SR-SAXS) was used to determine size distributions of Fe, Fe 2 O 3 and Fe 3 O 4 nanoparticles of various concentrations in PBS and DMEM culture medium. The results show that size distributions of the nanomaterials could perfectly analyzed by SR-SAXS. The SR-SAXS data were not affected by the particle content and types of the dispersion medium.It is concluded that SR-SAXS can be used for size measurement of nanomaterials in unstable dispersion systems. (authors)

  7. Dynamic measurement of forward scattering

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Appel-Hansen, Jørgen; Rusch, W.

    1975-01-01

    A dynamic method for the measurement of forward scattering in a radio anechoic chamber is described. The quantity determined is the induced-field-ratio (IFR) of conducting cylinders. The determination of the IFR is highly sensitive to 1) multiple scattering between the cylinder and the obpring...

  8. Additional information about the chemistry of precipitates by variation of the scattering contrast in SANS and SAXS experiments

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Grosse, M.

    1999-01-01

    Contrast variation experiments provide the possibility to get information about the chemical composition of heterogeneities seen in the small angle scattering experiment. Phases in complex materials can become visible or invisible by changing the contrast. A very important question in this field is the determination of the type of precipitates which are formed during neutron irradiation. These irradiation-induced precipitates are the cause for the neutron embrittlement, which is the life time limiting process for a nuclear power plant. An example is presented, which shows that with contrast variation experiments information about chemical composition of precipitates can be obtained. Several phases in complex materials can be separated. (K.A.)

  9. Effects of high pressure on internally self-assembled lipid nanoparticles: a synchrotron small-angle X-ray scattering (SAXS) study

    Czech Academy of Sciences Publication Activity Database

    Kulkarni, C. V.; Yaghmur, A.; Steinhart, Miloš; Kriechbaum, M.; Rappolt, M.

    2016-01-01

    Roč. 32, č. 45 (2016), s. 11907-11917 ISSN 0743-7463 Institutional support: RVO:61389013 Keywords : self-assebled lipid nanoparticles * synchrotron * SAXS Subject RIV: CD - Macromolecular Chemistry Impact factor: 3.833, year: 2016

  10. SAXS and TEM Investigation of Bentonite Structure

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Matusewicz, Michal; Liljestroem, Ville; Muurinen, Arto; Serimaa, Ritva

    2013-01-01

    A preliminary investigation of bentonite structure using Small-Angle X-ray Scattering (SAXS) and Transmission Electron Microscopy (TEM) is presented. Three types of clay were used: unchanged MX-80 bentonite and purified clays with sodium or calcium ions. Quantitative information in nano-scale - basal spacing, mean crystallite size - was obtained from SAXS, which was complemented by TEM to give qualitative information from micron to nanometre scale. SAXS seems to be a more reliable source of quantitative data than TEM. SAXS gives the averaged information about basal spacing. TEM in this study gives more qualitative information, but in a greater resolution range. The presented work is a starting point to combine more methods to obtain a better idea of bentonite structure. (authors)

  11. Characterization of structure and coagulation behaviour of refractory organic substances (ROS) using small-angle neutron scattering (SANS), small-angle x-ray scattering (SAXS) and x-ray microscopy; Charakterisierung von Struktur und Koagulationsverhalten von Refraktaeren Organischen Saeuren (ROS) mit Hilfe von Neutronenkleinwinkelstreuung (SANS), Roentgenkleinwinkelstreuung (SAXS) und Roentgenmikroskopie

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Pranzas, P.K. [GKSS-Forschungszentrum Geesthacht GmbH (Germany). Inst. fuer Werkstofforschung

    1999-07-01

    In this work structure, coagulation and complexation behaviour of aquatic refractory organic substances (ROS) (humic and fulvic acids) were characterized. For this purpose a structural analytical system with the methods small-angle neutron scattering (SANS), small-angle x-ray scattering (SAXS) and X-ray microscopy with synchrotron radiation was developed and established. Size distributions of ROS of different origin were calculated from the scattering curves. Spherical ROS units were obtained, which coagulated by forming chainlike structures or disordered ROS agglomerates at higher concentrations. Additionally the average molecular weights of several ROS were calculated. Studies of the coagulation behaviour of ROS towards copper ions resulted in larger ROS-agglomerates besides the spherical ROS units. A linear relation between the addition of Cu{sup 2+} and the formation of the ROS-Cu{sup 2+}-agglomerates was found. With X-ray microscopy an extensive ROS-Cu{sup 2}-network structure could be registrated. For mercury and cadmium ions such coagulation interactions were not found. Investigations with X-ray microscopy of the coagulation behaviour of ROS towards the cationic surfactant DTB resulted in micel-like structures of equal size, which were spread throughout the solution. With increasing concentrations of DTB larger agglomerates up to network structures were obtained. (orig.) [German] In dieser Arbeit wurden Struktur, Koagulations- und Komplexierungsverhalten von aquatischen refraktaeren organischen Saeuren (ROS) (Humin- und Fulvinsaeuren) charakterisiert. Zu diesem Zweck wurde ein strukturanalytisches Gesamtsystem mit den Methoden Neutronenkleinwinkelstreuung (SANS), Roentgenkleinwinkelstreuung (SAXS) und Roentgenmikroskopie mit Synchrotronstrahlung entwickelt und etabliert. Fuer ROS unterschiedlicher Herkunft in Loesung wurden Groessenverteilungen aus den Streukurven berechnet. Es wurden kugelfoermige ROS-Einheiten gefunden, die bei hoeheren ROS

  12. Optical scattering measurement and analysis

    CERN Document Server

    Stover, John C

    2012-01-01

    Newly included are scatter models for pits and particles as well as the use of wafer scanners to locate and size isolated surface features. New sections cover the multimillion-dollar wafer scanner business, establishing that microroughness is the noise, not the signal, in these systems. Scatter measurements, now routinely used to determine whether small-surface features are pits or particles and inspiring new technology that provides information on particle material, are also discussed. These new capabilities are now supported by a series of international standards, and a new chapter reviews t

  13. An apparatus for high speed measurements of small-angle x-ray scattering profiles with a linear position sensitive detector

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Hashimoto, Takeji; Suehiro, Shoji; Shibayama, Mitsuhiro; Saijo, Kenji; Kawai, Hiromichi

    1981-01-01

    An apparatus for high speed measurements of small-angle X-ray scattering (SAXS) is described. This apparatus utilizes a 12 kW rotating anode X-ray generator, a linear position sensitive proportional counter (multicathode delay line PSPC), and a two-parameter multichannel pulse height analyzer (MCA) with 12 kwords (16 bits/word) memory area available for SAXA intensity data as a function of position (scattering angles) and time slice. The two-parameter MCA is constructed within a microcomputer system, by utilizing its R/W memory for data storage, and the memory incrementing and real-time CRT display is implemented by using two direct memory access (DMA) controllers. The cycle time of the access is about 10 μs. The measuring time for SAXS profiles with this apparatus can be shortened approximately by three orders of magnitude in comparison with the measuring time with SAXS apparatuses utilizing a conventional step-scanning goniometer and a conventional X-ray tube, thus permitting time-resolved analyses of SAXS profiles. Some applications of the apparatus to dynamic SAXS measurements are presented for polymeric systems, the preliminary results of which seem to indicate the possibility of obtaining a new class of data on dynamics in structural transformation, deformation, formation and annihilation in the scale of a few tens to several hundred Angstroms. (author)

  14. Fluence determination by scattering measurements

    CERN Document Server

    Albergo, S; Potenza, R; Tricomi, A; Pillon, M; Angarano, M M; Creanza, D; De Palma, M

    2000-01-01

    An alternative method to determine particle fluence is proposed, which is particularly suitable for irradiations with low-energy charged-particle beams. The fluence is obtained by measuring the elastic scattering produced by a composite thin target placed upstream of the sample. The absolute calibration is performed by comparison with the measured radioactivation of vanadium and copper samples. The composite thin target, made of aluminium, carbon and gold, allows not only the fluence to be measured, but also a continuous monitoring of the beam space distribution. Experimental results with a 27 MeV proton beam are reported and compared with Monte Carlo simulations. (7 refs).

  15. Effect of multiple scattering on lidar measurements

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Cohen, A.

    1977-01-01

    The lidar equation in its standard form involves the assumption that the scattered irradiance reaching the lidar receiver has been only singly scattered. However, in the cases of scattering from clouds and thick aerosol layers, it is shown that multiple scattering cannot be neglected. An experimental method for the detection of multiple scattering by depolarization measurement techniques is discussed. One method of theoretical calculations of double-scattering is presented and discussed

  16. Seabed Scattering from Low Frequency Reverberation Measurements

    Science.gov (United States)

    2015-09-30

    attenuation are consistent with the SAX99 measurement at 25 Hz and 1000 Hz. The results are helpful for the analysis of shear wave effects on long-range...answers to the second question. Carey et al. hypothesized that “The discrepancy can be explained because the inverse analysis inferences were made with the...introduced by an imaginary ideal pressure- release boundary located a distance of P= 4p wavelength below the true seabed boundary, i.e., a “hidden depth” DH

  17. Scattering measurements in Tokamak type devices

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Matoba, Tohru

    1975-03-01

    Theories, experiments and proposals for light scattering in Tokamak type devices are reviewed. Thomson scattering, measuring method of the current density distribution by scattering and resonance fluorescence are summarily described. These methods may be useful for diagnosis of the fusion plasmas. The report may help planning of the measuring apparatus for the fusion plasmas in future. (auth.)

  18. STRUCTURAL PHASE TRANSITION OF ALIPHATIC NYLONS VIEWED FROM THE WAXD/SAXS AND VIBRATIONAL SPECTRAL MEASUREMENTS AND MOLECULAR DYNAMICS CALCULATION

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Kohji Tashiro

    2007-01-01

    The crystalline phase transition of aliphatic nylon 10/10 has been investigated on the basis of the simultaneous measurement of wide-angle and small-angle X-ray scatterings, the infrared spectral measurement and the molecular dynamics calculation. An interpretation of infrared spectra taken for a series of nylon samples and the corresponding model compounds was successfully made, allowing us to assign the infrared bands of the planar-zigzag methylene segments reasonably. As a result the methylene segmental parts of molecular chains were found to experience an order-to-disorder transition in the Brill transition region, where the intermolecular hydrogen bonds are kept alive although the bond strength becomes weaker at higher temperature. The small-angle X-ray scattering data revealed a slight change in lamellar stacking mode in the transition region. The crystal structure has been found to change more remarkably in the temperature region immediately below the melting point, where the conformationally disordered chains experienced drastic rotational and translational motions without any constraints by hydrogen bonds, and the lamellar thickness increased largely along the chain axis. These experimental results were reasonably reproduced by the molecular dynamics calculation performed at the various temperatures.

  19. Measuring the molecular dimensions of wine tannins: comparison of small-angle X-ray scattering, gel-permeation chromatography and mean degree of polymerization.

    Science.gov (United States)

    McRae, Jacqui M; Kirby, Nigel; Mertens, Haydyn D T; Kassara, Stella; Smith, Paul A

    2014-07-23

    The molecular size of wine tannins can influence astringency, and yet it has been unclear as to whether the standard methods for determining average tannin molecular weight (MW), including gel-permeation chromatography (GPC) and depolymerization reactions, are actually related to the size of the tannin in wine-like conditions. Small-angle X-ray scattering (SAXS) was therefore used to determine the molecular sizes and corresponding MWs of wine tannin samples from 3 and 7 year old Cabernet Sauvignon wine in a variety of wine-like matrixes: 5-15% and 100% ethanol; 0-200 mM NaCl and pH 3.0-4.0, and compared to those measured using the standard methods. The SAXS results indicated that the tannin samples from the older wine were larger than those of the younger wine and that wine composition did not greatly impact on tannin molecular size. The average tannin MWs as determined by GPC correlated strongly with the SAXS results, suggesting that this method does give a good indication of tannin molecular size in wine-like conditions. The MW as determined from the depolymerization reactions did not correlate as strongly with the SAXS results. To our knowledge, SAXS measurements have not previously been attempted for wine tannins.

  20. Progresses in the measurement and evaluation of small-angle x-ray scattering data

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Bergmann, A.

    2000-08-01

    Scattering methods are a widely used technique for determining size and shape of particles in the mesoscopic size range. This work deals on the one hand with the development of instruments in the field of Small Angle x-ray Scattering (SAXS) and on the other hand with methodical contributions concerning the interpretation of small angle scattering data. After a short introduction about Small Angle Scattering (SAS) and its application in chapter one, follows in chapter two a derivation of the theory of Small Angle x-ray scattering. Thereafter indirect transformations (Generalized Indirect Fourier Transformation [GIFT], Indirect Fourier Transformation [IFT]) are discussed and in this connection the optimization of multidimensional hyper surfaces is described. There are different possibilities for optimizing such multidimensional surfaces. The pros and contras of the different optimization methods with respect to the evaluation of small angle scattering data from interacting systems are discussed in detail. Global optimization methods are mainly used, if the hypersurface, which has to be optimized, shows many local minima. The goal of the optimization is it to find the global minimum. It is essential, that the parameters of the hyper surface are independent of each other, as it is the case in the GIFT. If someone deals with problems in only few dimensions or with many boundary conditions, mostly local optimization routines are sufficient. Therefore a number of starting parameters for the optimization is chosen, which can be obtained systematically or randomly. The best solution obtained represents the result of the optimization procedure. Chapter 3 deals with the description of instruments used in the field of Small Angle x-ray Scattering. After a description of the components (x-ray sources, monochromators, detectors) of these instruments, the different beam geometries are discussed. In chapter 4 improvements of SAXS measurements on Kratky slit systems by Goebel

  1. Characterization of size and morphology of ZnO and Fe2O3 nanoparticles in dispersive media by SAXS

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Wang Bing; Wang Meng; Zhu Motao; Zhao Yuliang; Wu Zhonghua

    2007-01-01

    The size and shape of ZnO and Fe 2 O 3 nano-particles in 1% sodium carboxy methyl cellulose were measured by small-angle X-ray scattering (SAXS) of synchrotron radiation. Compared with the TEM results, the SAXS results indicated that the ZnO and Fe 2 O 3 nano-particles in 1% sodium carboxy methyl cellulose were agglomerated. However, the size and shape of the agglomerated particles were almost unchanged along with the increase of particle concentration, indicating that the particles in 1% sodium carboxy methyl cellulose were stable. (authors)

  2. High-throughput and automated SAXS/USAXS experiment for industrial use at BL19B2 in SPring-8

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Osaka, Keiichi, E-mail: k-osaka@spring8.or.jp; Inoue, Daisuke; Sato, Masugu; Sano, Norimichi [Industrial Application Division, Japan Synchrotron Radiation Research Institute (JASRI/SPring-8), 1-1-1, Kouto, Sayo-cho, Sayo-gun, Hyogo 679-5198 (Japan); Matsumoto, Takuya; Taniguchi, Yosuke [SPring-8 Service Co., Ltd., 1-20-5, Kouto, Shingu, Tatsuno, Hyogo 679-5165 (Japan)

    2016-07-27

    A highly automated system combining a sample transfer robot with focused SR beam has been established for small-angle and ultra small-angle X-ray scattering (SAXS/USAXS) measurement at BL19B2 for industrial use of SPring-8. High-throughput data collection system can be realized by means of X-ray beam of high photon flux density concentrated by a cylindrical mirror, and a two-dimensional pixel detector PILATUS-2M. For SAXS measurement, we can obtain high-quality data within 1 minute for one exposure using this system. The sample transfer robot has a capacity of 90 samples with a large variety of shapes. The fusion of high-throughput and robotic system has enhanced the usability of SAXS/USAXS capability for industrial application.

  3. Effect of interparticle interactions on size determination of zirconia and silica based systems – A comparison of SAXS, DLS, BET, XRD and TEM

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pabisch, Silvia; Feichtenschlager, Bernhard; Kickelbick, Guido; Peterlik, Herwig

    2012-01-01

    The aim of this work is a systematic comparison of size characterisation methods for two completely different model systems of oxide nanoparticles, i.e. amorphous spherical silica and anisotropic facet-shaped crystalline zirconia. Size and/or size distribution were determined in a wide range from 5 to 70 nm using small-angle X-ray scattering (SAXS), dynamic light scattering (DLS), nitrogen sorption (BET), X-ray diffraction (XRD) and transmission electron microscopy (TEM). A nearly perfect coincidence was observed only for SAXS and TEM for both types of particles. For zirconia nanoparticles considerable differences between different measurement methods were observed. PMID:22347721

  4. Measurement of illite particle thickness using a direct Fourier transform of small-angle X-ray scattering data

    Science.gov (United States)

    Shang, Chao; Rice, James A.; Eberl, Dennis D.; Lin, Jar-Shyong

    2003-01-01

    It has been suggested that interstratified illite-smectite (I-S) minerals are composed of aggregates of fundamental particles. Many attempts have been made to measure the thickness of such fundamental particles, but each of the methods used suffers from its own limitations and uncertainties. Small-angle X-ray scattering (SAXS) can be used to measure the thickness of particles that scatter X-rays coherently. We used SAXS to study suspensions of Na-rectorite and other illites with varying proportions of smectite. The scattering intensity (I) was recorded as a function of the scattering vector, q = (4 /) sin(/2), where  is the X-ray wavelength and  is the scattering angle. The experimental data were treated with a direct Fourier transform to obtain the pair distance distribution function (PDDF) that was then used to determine the thickness of illite particles. The Guinier and Porod extrapolations were used to obtain the scattering intensity beyond the experimental q, and the effects of such extrapolations on the PDDF were examined. The thickness of independent rectorite particles (used as a reference mineral) is 18.3 Å. The SAXS results are compared with those obtained by X-ray diffraction peak broadening methods. It was found that the power-law exponent (α) obtained by fitting the data in the region of q = 0.1-0.6 nm-1 to the power law (I = I0q-α) is a linear function of illite particle thickness. Therefore, illite particle thickness could be predicted by the linear relationship as long as the thickness is within the limit where α <4.0.

  5. Development of a SAXS equipment for the nanomaterials characterization

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Costa, Rauni Coelho; Campos, Jose Brant de; Amaral, Jorge Luis Machado, E-mail: rauni.coelho@gmail.com [Universidade do Estado do Rio de Janeiro (UERJ), RJ (Brazil); Lima Junior, Herman Pessoa; Cardoso, Rodrigo Felix [Centro Brasileiro de Pesquisas Fisicas (CBPF), Rio de Janeiro, RJ (Brazil)

    2016-07-01

    Full text: The increase use of nanomaterials requires the creation of techniques and the associated equipment to allow the property evaluation at the nanometer scale. SAXS (Small Angle X-Ray Scattering), technique allows the analysis of nanomaterials and the determination of various parameters such as particle size, density and morphology of nanoparticles [1,2]. The SAXS equipment is a powerful tool in development and research at the nanoscale in order to improve understanding of the different properties of these materials and its comparison with the microscopic properties. But due to its costs, such equipment are extremely scarce in developing countries, because they are marketed with high values. This work aims at the development of collimating optics of a SAXS equipment, based on the geometry of a goniometer in a diffractometer Seifert HZG 4. The xray scattered signal reception is performed using bidimensional X-ray detector developed and manufactured at Laboratorio de Sistemas de Deteccao of Centro Brasileiro de Pesquisas Fisicas, RJ, Brazil (LSD/CBPF). In the present work, it will be presented the X-ray collimation system design and the first results of SAXS operation. Those results show the geometric characteristics of the X-ray beam in the SAXS equipment, received in the bidimensional detector, after traveling the entire optical path. [1] O. Glatter and O. Kratky (edts.), Small-Angle X-ray Scattering (Academic, London, 1982). [2] Heimo Schnablegger and Yashveer Singh. The SAXS Guide. Getting acquainted with the principles. 3.edition. (author)

  6. Computational Analysis of SAXS Data Acquisition.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Dong, Hui; Kim, Jin Seob; Chirikjian, Gregory S

    2015-09-01

    Small-angle x-ray scattering (SAXS) is an experimental biophysical method used for gaining insight into the structure of large biomolecular complexes. Under appropriate chemical conditions, the information obtained from a SAXS experiment can be equated to the pair distribution function, which is the distribution of distances between every pair of points in the complex. Here we develop a mathematical model to calculate the pair distribution function for a structure of known density, and analyze the computational complexity of these calculations. Efficient recursive computation of this forward model is an important step in solving the inverse problem of recovering the three-dimensional density of biomolecular structures from their pair distribution functions. In particular, we show that integrals of products of three spherical-Bessel functions arise naturally in this context. We then develop an algorithm for the efficient recursive computation of these integrals.

  7. Thomson scattering measurements in atmospheric plasma jets

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Gregori, G.; Schein, J.; Schwendinger, P.; Kortshagen, U.; Heberlein, J.; Pfender, E.

    1999-01-01

    Electron temperature and electron density in a dc plasma jet at atmospheric pressure have been obtained using Thomson laser scattering. Measurements performed at various scattering angles have revealed effects that are not accounted for by the standard scattering theory. Differences between the predicted and experimental results suggest that higher order corrections to the theory may be required, and that corrections to the form of the spectral density function may play an important role. copyright 1999 The American Physical Society

  8. Complementary SAXS and SANS for structural characteristics of a polyurethethane elastomer of low hard-segment content

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Sun, Y.-S.; Jeng, U-S.; Huang, Y.-S.; Liang, K.S.; Lin, T.-L.; Tsao, C.-S.

    2006-01-01

    A polyurethane (PU) elastomer film based on segmented poly(tetramethylene oxide) (PTMO) has been studied using wide-angle X-ray scattering (WAXS), and small-angle X-ray and neutron scattering (SAXS and SANS). The broad WAXS peaks measured for the PU elastomer reveal a low crystallinity of the soft segments PTMO and no crystalline domains for the hard segments, methylene bis(4-isocynatobenzene) (MDI), at 20 deg. C. Whereas small-angle scattering indicates the existence of hard-segment-rich aggregates. Using the contrast variation provided by the SANS and SAXS, we have extracted detailed structural information of the aggregates, including the shape, size, and the aggregation numbers

  9. SAXS and EXAFS studies of ion beam synthesized Au nanocrystals

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Kluth, P.; Johannessen, B.; Cookson, D.J.; Foran, G.J.; Ridgway, M.C.

    2006-01-01

    We have used small-angle X-ray scattering (SAXS) and extended X-ray absorption fine structure (EXAFS) spectroscopy to investigate Au nanocrystals (NCs) fabricated by high dose ion implantation into thin SiO 2 and subsequent annealing at different temperatures. Size distributions were determined from SAXS and structural parameters were extracted from EXAFS measurements, the latter analyzed as a function of NC size. Increasing implantation dose leads to an increasing average NC size and broadening of the size distribution. A significant size-dependent bond length contraction with respect to bulk material was observed. For samples annealed at 1100 deg. C our analysis suggests that an increased structural disorder is predominantly located at the NC surface. Post-implantation annealing at temperatures of 500 deg. C and 800 deg. C for 1 h in forming gas had no detectable influence on the NC size distribution, however, a significant influence on the structural parameters, in particular increased disorder was observed. This is potentially the result of stress induced disorder due to the different thermal expansion of the NC and matrix materials

  10. GISAXS and SAXS studies on the spatial structures of Co nanowire arrays

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Cheng Weidong; Xing Xueqing; Wang Dehong; Gong Yu; Mo Guang; Cai Quan; Chen Zhongjun; Wu Zhonghua

    2011-01-01

    The spatial structures of magnetic Co nanowire array embedded in anodic aluminium membranes were investigated by grazing incidence small angle X-ray scattering (GISAXS) and conventional small angle X-ray scattering (SAXS) techniques. Compared with SEM observation, the GISAXS and SAXS measurements can get more overall structural information in a large-area scale. In this study, the two-dimensional GISAXS pattern was well reconstructed by using the IsGISAXS program. The results demonstrate that the hexagonal lattice formed by the Co nanowires is distorted (a≈105 nm, b≈95 nm). These Co nanowires are isolated into many structure domains with different orientations with a size of about 2 μm. The SAXS results have also confirmed that the nanopore structures in the AAM can be retained after depositing Co nanowires although the Co nanowires can not completely but only just fill up the nanopores. These results are helpful for understanding the global structure of the Co nanowire array. (authors)

  11. measurements by Thomson scattering system

    Indian Academy of Sciences (India)

    oirity in measuring the electron temperature (Te) and density (ne) in fusion plasma devices like tokamaks. ... by the plasma electrons is used for the measurements. .... will be in the photon integration mode and will be acquired by a computer.

  12. Ultrasonic trap for light scattering measurement

    Science.gov (United States)

    Barton, Petr; Pavlu, Jiri

    2017-04-01

    Light scattering is complex phenomenon occurring widely in space environments, including the dense dusty clouds, nebulas or even the upper atmosphere of the Earth. However, when the size of the dust (or of other scattering center) is close to the incident light wavelength, theoretical determination is difficult. In such case, Mie theory is to be used but there is a lack of the material constants for most space-related materials. For experimental measurement of light scattering, we designed unique apparatus, based on ultrasonic trap. Using acoustic levitation we are able to capture the dust grain in midair, irradiate it with laser, and observe scattering directly with goniometer-mounted photodiode. Advantage of this approach is ability to measure directly in the air (thus, no need for the carrier medium) and possibility to study non-spherical particles. Since the trap development is nearly finished and initial experiments are carried out, the paper presents first tests on water droplets.

  13. Measurements of computed tomography radiation scatter

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Van Every, B.; Petty, R.J.

    1992-01-01

    This paper describes the measurement of scattered radiation from a computed tomography (CT) scanner in a clinical situation and compares the results with those obtained from a CT performance phantom and with data obtained from CT manufacturers. The results are presented as iso-dose contours. There are significant differences between the data obtained and that supplied by manufacturers, both in the shape of the iso-dose contours and in the nominal values. The observed scatter in a clinical situation (for an abdominal scan) varied between 3% and 430% of the manufacturers' stated values, with a marked reduction in scatter noted a the head and feet of the patient. These differences appear to be due to the fact that manufacturers use CT phantoms to obtain scatter data and these phantoms do not provide the same scatter absorption geometry as patients. CT scatter was observed to increase as scan field size and slice thickness increased, whilst there was little change in scatter with changes in gantry tilt and table slew. Using the iso-dose contours, the orientation of the CT scanner can be optimised with regard to the location and shielding requirements of doors and windows. Additionally, the positioning of staff who must remain in the room during scanning can be optimised to minimise their exposure. It is estimated that the data presented allows for realistic radiation protection assessments to be made. 13 refs., 5 tabs., 6 figs

  14. Investigation of the porous structure of glassy carbon by SAXS - an application of synchrotron radiation

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Braun, A; Baertsch, M; Schnyder, B; Koetz, R; Haas, O [Paul Scherrer Inst. (PSI), Villigen (Switzerland)

    1999-08-01

    The porous structure of Electrochemical Double Layer Capacitor (EDC) Electrodes was investigated using Small Angle X-ray Scattering (SAXS), assuming logarithmically normal distributed micropores. (author) 2 figs., 1 ref.

  15. Neutron spin echo scattering angle measurement (SESAME)

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Pynn, R.; Fitzsimmons, M.R.; Fritzsche, H.; Gierlings, M.; Major, J.; Jason, A.

    2005-01-01

    We describe experiments in which the neutron spin echo technique is used to measure neutron scattering angles. We have implemented the technique, dubbed spin echo scattering angle measurement (SESAME), using thin films of Permalloy electrodeposited on silicon wafers as sources of the magnetic fields within which neutron spins precess. With 30-μm-thick films we resolve neutron scattering angles to about 0.02 deg. with neutrons of 4.66 A wavelength. This allows us to probe correlation lengths up to 200 nm in an application to small angle neutron scattering. We also demonstrate that SESAME can be used to separate specular and diffuse neutron reflection from surfaces at grazing incidence. In both of these cases, SESAME can make measurements at higher neutron intensity than is available with conventional methods because the angular resolution achieved is independent of the divergence of the neutron beam. Finally, we discuss the conditions under which SESAME might be used to probe in-plane structure in thin films and show that the method has advantages for incident neutron angles close to the critical angle because multiple scattering is automatically accounted for

  16. SAXS investigation of latent track structure in HDPE irradiated with high energy Fe ions

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Hai, Yang; Huang, Can [Shanghai Institute of Applied Physics, Chinese Academy of Sciences, Shanghai 201800 (China); University of Chinese Academy of Sciences, Beijing 100049 (China); Ma, Mingwang [Shanghai Institute of Applied Physics, Chinese Academy of Sciences, Shanghai 201800 (China); Institute of Electronic Engineering, CAEP, Mianyang 621900 (China); Liu, Qi; Wang, Yuzhu; Liu, Yi; Tian, Feng; Lin, Jun [Shanghai Institute of Applied Physics, Chinese Academy of Sciences, Shanghai 201800 (China); Zhu, Zhiyong, E-mail: zhuzhiyong@sinap.ac.cn [Shanghai Institute of Applied Physics, Chinese Academy of Sciences, Shanghai 201800 (China)

    2015-08-01

    Semi-crystalline high density polyethylene (HDPE) samples were irradiated with 1.157 GeV {sup 56}Fe ion beams to fluences ranging from 1 × 10{sup 11} to 6 × 10{sup 12} ions/cm{sup 2}. The radiation induced changes in nano/microstructure were investigated with small angle X-ray scattering (SAXS) technique. The scattering contributions from HDPE matrix and ion tracks are successfully separated and analyzed through tilted SAXS measurements with respect to the X-ray beam direction. Lorentz correction, one-dimensional correlation function calculation, fractal nature analysis of the isotropic scattering pattern reveal that HDPE long period polymeric structures are damaged and new materials, possibly clusters of carbon-rich materials, are formed inside the ion tracks. Least square curve fitting of the scattering contribution from the ion track reveals that the track is composed of a core of about 5.3 nm in radius, characterized by a significant density deficit compared to the virgin HDPE, surrounded by a shell of about 4.3 nm in thickness with less density reduction.

  17. In situ study starch gelatinization under ultra-high hydrostatic pressure using synchrotron SAXS

    KAUST Repository

    Yang, Zhi

    2015-12-13

    The gelatinization of waxy (very low amylose) corn and potato starches by high hydrostatic pressure (HHP) (up to ∼1 GPa) was investigated in situ using synchrotron small-angle X-ray scattering (SAXS) on samples held in a diamond anvil cell (DAC). The starch pastes, made by mixing starch and water in a 1:1 ratio (by weight), were pressurized and measured at room temperature. During HHP, both SAXS peak areas (corresponding to the lamellar phase) of waxy corn and potato starches decreased suggesting the starch gelatinization increases with increasing pressure. As pressure increased, lamellar peak broadened and the power law exponent increased in low q region. 1D linear correlation function was further employed to analyse SAXS data. For both waxy potato and waxy corn starches, the long period length and the average thickness of amorphous layers decreased when the pressure increased. While for both of waxy starches, the thickness of the crystalline layer first increased, then decreased when the pressure increased. The former is probably due to the out-phasing of starch molecules, and the latter is due to the water penetrating into the crystalline region during gelatinization and to pressure induced compression.

  18. Future measurements of deeply virtual Compton scattering

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Korotkov, V.A.; Nowak, W.D.

    2001-09-01

    Prospects for future measurements of Deeply Virtual Compton Scattering are studied using different simple models for parameterizations of generalized parton distributions (GPDs). Measurements of the lepton charge and lepton beam helicity asymmetry will yield important input for theoretical models towards the future extraction of GPDs. The kinematics of the HERMES experiment, complemented with a recoil detector, was adopted to arrive at realistic projected statistical uncertainties. (orig.)

  19. A Mo-anode-based in-house source for small-angle X-ray scattering measurements of biological macromolecules

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Bruetzel, Linda K.; Fischer, Stefan; Salditt, Annalena; Sedlak, Steffen M.; Nickel, Bert; Lipfert, Jan, E-mail: Jan.Lipfert@lmu.de [Department of Physics, Nanosystems Initiative Munich, and Center for Nanoscience, Ludwig-Maximilians-University Munich, Amalienstr. 54, 80799 Munich, Germany and Geschwister-Scholl Platz 1, 80539 Munich (Germany)

    2016-02-15

    We demonstrate the use of a molybdenum-anode-based in-house small-angle X-ray scattering (SAXS) setup to study biological macromolecules in solution. Our system consists of a microfocus X-ray tube delivering a highly collimated flux of 2.5 × 10{sup 6} photons/s at a beam size of 1.2 × 1.2 mm{sup 2} at the collimation path exit and a maximum beam divergence of 0.16 mrad. The resulting observable scattering vectors q are in the range of 0.38 Å{sup −1} down to 0.009 Å{sup −1} in SAXS configuration and of 0.26 Å{sup −1} up to 5.7 Å{sup −1} in wide-angle X-ray scattering (WAXS) mode. To determine the capabilities of the instrument, we collected SAXS data on weakly scattering biological macromolecules including proteins and a nucleic acid sample with molecular weights varying from ∼12 to 69 kDa and concentrations of 1.5–24 mg/ml. The measured scattering data display a high signal-to-noise ratio up to q-values of ∼0.2 Å{sup −1} allowing for an accurate structural characterization of the samples. Moreover, the in-house source data are of sufficient quality to perform ab initio 3D structure reconstructions that are in excellent agreement with the available crystallographic structures. In addition, measurements for the detergent decyl-maltoside show that the setup can be used to determine the size, shape, and interactions (as characterized by the second virial coefficient) of detergent micelles. This demonstrates that the use of a Mo-anode based in-house source is sufficient to determine basic geometric parameters and 3D shapes of biomolecules and presents a viable alternative to valuable beam time at third generation synchrotron sources.

  20. Light scattering measurement of sodium polyacrylate products

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lama, Nisha; Norwood, David; Boone, Steven; Massie-Boyer, Valerie

    2015-03-01

    In the presentation, we will describe the use of a multi-detector HPLC incorporating the DAWN EOS multi-angle laser light scattering (MALLS) detector to measure the properties such as molecular weight, RMS radius, contour and persistence length and polydispersity of sodium polyacrylate products. The samples of sodium polyacrylate are used in various industries as thickening agents, coating dispersants, artificial snow, laundry detergent and disposable diapers. Data and results obtained from the experiment will be presented.

  1. Anomalous small-angle scattering as a way to solve the Babinet principle problem

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Boiko, M. E.; Sharkov, M. D.; Boiko, A. M.; Bobyl, A. V.

    2013-01-01

    X-ray absorption spectra (XAS) have been used to determine the absorption edges of atoms present in a sample under study. A series of small-angle X-ray scattering (SAXS) measurements using different monochromatic X-ray beams at different wavelengths near the absorption edges is performed to solve the Babinet principle problem. The sizes of clusters containing atoms determined by the method of XAS were defined in SAXS experiments. In contrast to differential X-ray porosimetry, anomalous SAXS makes it possible to determine sizes of clusters of different atomic compositions

  2. Anomalous small-angle scattering as a way to solve the Babinet principle problem

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Boiko, M. E., E-mail: m.e.boiko@mail.ioffe.ru; Sharkov, M. D.; Boiko, A. M.; Bobyl, A. V. [Russian Academy of Sciences, Ioffe Physicotechnical Institute (Russian Federation)

    2013-12-15

    X-ray absorption spectra (XAS) have been used to determine the absorption edges of atoms present in a sample under study. A series of small-angle X-ray scattering (SAXS) measurements using different monochromatic X-ray beams at different wavelengths near the absorption edges is performed to solve the Babinet principle problem. The sizes of clusters containing atoms determined by the method of XAS were defined in SAXS experiments. In contrast to differential X-ray porosimetry, anomalous SAXS makes it possible to determine sizes of clusters of different atomic compositions.

  3. Anomalous small-angle scattering as a way to solve the Babinet principle problem

    Science.gov (United States)

    Boiko, M. E.; Sharkov, M. D.; Boiko, A. M.; Bobyl, A. V.

    2013-12-01

    X-ray absorption spectra (XAS) have been used to determine the absorption edges of atoms present in a sample under study. A series of small-angle X-ray scattering (SAXS) measurements using different monochromatic X-ray beams at different wavelengths near the absorption edges is performed to solve the Babinet principle problem. The sizes of clusters containing atoms determined by the method of XAS were defined in SAXS experiments. In contrast to differential X-ray porosimetry, anomalous SAXS makes it possible to determine sizes of clusters of different atomic compositions.

  4. Bentonite pore structure based on SAXS, chloride exclusion and NMR studies

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Muurinen, A.; Carlsson, T.

    2013-11-01

    Water-saturated bentonite is planned to be used in many countries as an important barrier component in high-level nuclear waste (HLW) repositories. Knowledge about the microstructure of the bentonite and the distribution of water between interlayer and non-interlayer pores is important for modelling of long-term processes. In this work the microstructure of water-saturated samples prepared from Na montmorillonite, Ca-montmorillonite, sodium bentonite MX-80 and calcium bentonite Deponit CaN were studied with nuclear magnetic resonance (NMR) and small-angle xray scattering spectroscopy (SAXS). The sample dry densities ranged between 0.3 and 1.6 g/cm 3 . The NMR technique was used to get information about the volumes of different water types in the bentonite samples. The results were obtained using 1H NMR spin-lattice T 1ρ relaxation time measurements using the short inter-pulse method. The interpretation of the NMR results was made by fitting distributions of exponentials to observed decay curves. The SAXS measurements were used to get information about the size distribution of the interlayer distance of montmorillonite. The chloride porosity measurements and Donnan exclusion calculations were used together with the SAXS results for evaluation of the bentonite microstructure. The NMR studies and SAXS studies coupled with Cl porosity measurements provided very similar pictures of how the porewater is divided in interlayer and non-interlayer water in MX-80 bentonite. In the case where MX-80 of a dry density 1.6 g/cm 3 was equilibrated with 0.1 M NaCl solution, the results indicated an interlayer porosity of 30 % and non-interlayer porosity of 12 %. The interlayer space mainly contained two water layers but also spaces with more water layers were present. The average size of the non-interlayer pores was evaluated to be 120 - 150 A. From the montmorillonite surface area 98 % was interlayer and 2 % non-interlayer. Evaluation of the interlayer and non

  5. Formation process of hierarchical structures in crystalline polymers as analyzed by simultaneous measurements of small-angle X-ray scattering and other techniques

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Yamamoto, Katsuhiro; Sakurai, Shinichi

    2006-01-01

    Crystalline polymers spontaneously form hierarchical structures, which provide us a potential use as a specialty material. Recently, not only a crystalline homopolymer but also semi-crystalline block copolymers and crystalline polymer blends have been attracting interests for the study of a hierarchical structure. In order to analyze such hierarchical structures in a variety of length scales, a simultaneous measurement of small-(SAXS) and wide-angle (WAXS) X-ray scattering with differential scanning calorimetry (DSC), or with small-angle light scattering (Hv-SALS) are most suitable. In this review, we show some examples of the simultaneous measurements. With DSC, exothermic heat flow can be simultaneously measured with X-ray scattering. On the other hand, with Hv-SALS it is possible to analyze evolution of a spherulitic structure, which is the structure at the highest rank in the hierarchy. For both cases, one can realize that it is impossible to obtain good statistics for SAXS and WAXS measurements without synchrotron radiations. (author)

  6. A mechanical rotator for neutron scattering measurements

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Thaler, A.; Northen, E.; Aczel, A. A.; MacDougall, G. J.

    2016-01-01

    We have designed and built a mechanical rotation system for use in single crystal neutron scattering experiments at low temperatures. The main motivation for this device is to facilitate the application of magnetic fields transverse to a primary training axis, using only a vertical cryomagnet. Development was done in the context of a triple-axis neutron spectrometer, but the design is such that it can be generalized to a number of different instruments or measurement techniques. Here, we discuss some of the experimental constraints motivating the design, followed by design specifics, preliminary experimental results, and a discussion of potential uses and future extension possibilities.

  7. SAXS study on activated carbons

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Bota, A.; Heringer, D.; Mihalffy, T.

    1999-01-01

    SAXS fractal analysis of activated carbons is presented. It gives very useful information about the structural changes of the carbon skeleton. From the fact, that the sequence of the activation and the heat treatment affect the fractal behaviours more drastically than the particle size distribution of the structural units, it follows that all changes in the pore and matrix structure may reduce principally to the bonding of the crystallite units. (K.A.)

  8. Solution structure of tRNA{sup Val} from refinement of homology model against residual dipolar coupling and SAXS data

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Grishaev, Alexander, E-mail: AlexanderG@intra.niddk.nih.gov; Ying, Jinfa [National Institutes of Health, Laboratory of Chemical Physics, National Institute of Diabetes and Digestive and Kidney Diseases (United States); Canny, Marella D.; Pardi, Arthur [University of Colorado, Boulder, Department of Chemistry and Biochemistry, 215 UCB (United States)], E-mail: Arthur.Pardi@Colorado.edu; Bax, Ad [National Institutes of Health, Laboratory of Chemical Physics, National Institute of Diabetes and Digestive and Kidney Diseases (United States)], E-mail: bax@nih.gov

    2008-10-15

    A procedure is presented for refinement of a homology model of E. coli tRNA{sup Val}, originally based on the X-ray structure of yeast tRNA{sup Phe}, using experimental residual dipolar coupling (RDC) and small angle X-ray scattering (SAXS) data. A spherical sampling algorithm is described for refinement against SAXS data that does not require a globbic approximation, which is particularly important for nucleic acids where such approximations are less appropriate. Substantially higher speed of the algorithm also makes its application favorable for proteins. In addition to the SAXS data, the structure refinement employed a sparse set of NMR data consisting of 24 imino N-H{sup N} RDCs measured with Pf1 phage alignment, and 20 imino N-H{sup N} RDCs obtained from magnetic field dependent alignment of tRNA{sup Val}. The refinement strategy aims to largely retain the local geometry of the 58% identical tRNA{sup Phe} by ensuring that the atomic coordinates for short, overlapping segments of the ribose-phosphate backbone and the conserved base pairs remain close to those of the starting model. Local coordinate restraints are enforced using the non-crystallographic symmetry (NCS) term in the XPLOR-NIH or CNS software package, while still permitting modest movements of adjacent segments. The RDCs mainly drive the relative orientation of the helical arms, whereas the SAXS restraints ensure an overall molecular shape compatible with experimental scattering data. The resulting structure exhibits good cross-validation statistics (jack-knifed Q{sub free} = 14% for the Pf1 RDCs, compared to 25% for the starting model) and exhibits a larger angle between the two helical arms than observed in the X-ray structure of tRNA{sup Phe}, in agreement with previous NMR-based tRNA{sup Val} models.

  9. Development of synchrotron DSC/WAXD/SAXS simultaneous measurement system for polymeric materials at the BL40B2 in SPring-8 and its application to the study of crystal phase transitions of fluorine polymers

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Masunaga, Hiroyasu; Sasaki, Sono; Takata, Masaki; Inoue, Katsuaki; Ohta, Noboru; Yagi, Naoto; Tashiro, Kohji; Hanesaka, Makoto

    2007-01-01

    A new system of rapidly-scanning DSC/WAXD/SAXS simultaneous measurements has been successfully developed at the BL40B2 in SPring-8, Japan. The combination of the ultra-bright and highly-directional X-ray beams with the highly-sensitive two-dimensional (2D) detectors such as an imaging plate (IP), a CCD detector and a flat panel (FP) detector has made it possible to perform the rapidly-scanning time-resolved measurements of WAXD and SAXS for the polymeric materials subjected to the various kinds of external field like temperature, tensile force, magnetic field, hydrostatic pressure, and so on. The experimental data about the phase transitions of vinylidene fluoride-trifluoroethylene copolymer with VDF 82 mol% content and poly(vinylidene fluoride) form I have been presented as actual examples, where the phase transitions of the polar crystal consisting of planar-zigzag chains to the gauche-type high-temperature phase have been confirmed definitely and the remarkable change in lamellar stacking structure could be detected in the temperature region immediately below the melting point. (author)

  10. Quantification of RNA in bacteriophage MS2-like viruses in solution by small-angle X-ray scattering

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Kuzmanovic, Deborah A.; Elashvili, Ilya; Wick, Charles; O'Connell, Catherine; Krueger, Susan

    2006-01-01

    Recombinant forms of bacteriophage MS2 virus particles, wild-type MS2 and MS2 capsids have been examined in solution using small-angle X-ray scattering (SAXS). SAXS was used to determine the overall size of the virus particles and to quantify the amount of encapsulated viral RNA. These studies show that analysis of natural and recombinant forms of MS2 virus by SAXS can be used as both a quantitative measure of nucleic acid content in situ and diagnostic indicator of sample integrity

  11. Real-time scatter measurement and correction in film radiography

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Shaw, C.G.

    1987-01-01

    A technique for real-time scatter measurement and correction in scanning film radiography is described. With this technique, collimated x-ray fan beams are used to partially reject scattered radiation. Photodiodes are attached to the aft-collimator for sampled scatter measurement. Such measurement allows the scatter distribution to be reconstructed and subtracted from digitized film image data for accurate transmission measurement. In this presentation the authors discuss the physical and technical considerations of this scatter correction technique. Examples are shown that demonstrate the feasibility of the technique. Improved x-ray transmission measurement and dual-energy subtraction imaging are demonstrated with phantoms

  12. Alzheimer's disease imaging biomarkers using small-angle x-ray scattering

    Science.gov (United States)

    Choi, Mina; Alam, Nadia; Dahal, Eshan; Ghammraoui, Bahaa; Badano, Aldo

    2016-03-01

    There is a need for novel imaging techniques for the earlier detection of Alzheimer's disease (AD). Two hallmarks of AD are amyloid beta (Aβ) plaques and tau tangles that are formed in the brain. Well-characterized x-ray cross sections of Aβ and tau proteins in a variety of structural states could potentially be used as AD biomarkers for small-angle x-ray scattering (SAXS) imaging without the need for injectable probes or contrast agents. First, however, the protein structures must be controlled and measured to determine accurate biomarkers for SAXS imaging. Here we report SAXS measurements of Aβ42 and tau352 in a 50% dimethyl sulfoxide (DMSO) solution in which these proteins are believed to remain monomeric because of the stabilizing interaction of DMSO solution. Our SAXS analysis showed the aggregation of both proteins. In particular, we found that the aggregation of Aβ42 slowly progresses with time in comparison to tau352 that aggregates at a faster rate and reaches a steady-state. Furthermore, the measured signals were compared to the theoretical SAXS profiles of Aβ42 monomer, Aβ42 fibril, and tau352 that were computed from their respective protein data bank structures. We have begun the work to systematically control the structural states of these proteins in vitro using various solvent conditions. Our future work is to utilize the distinct SAXS profiles of various structural states of Aβ and tau to build a library of signals of interest for SAXS imaging in brain tissue.

  13. FIR interferometer and scattering measurements of ATF

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Ma, C.H.; Hutchinson, D.P.; Fockedey, Y.; Vander Sluis, K.L.; Bennett, C.A.

    1989-01-01

    A 15-channel far-infrared (FIR) interferometer system has been constructed to measure the electron densities on the ATF plasmas. The system consists of a pair of cw 214-μm difluoromethane (CH 2 F 2 ) lasers, optically pumped by separate CO 2 lasers. The large number of channels is achieved by the use of reflective beam expansion optics to create a beam of 2 cm /times/ 45 cm. After passing through the plasma discharge, the elongated beam produced by the cylindrical mirrors is dissected by an array of 15 off-axis paraboloid reflectors, each of which illuminates a single Schottky-diode detector. The use of the beam expanding optics system reduces the number of optical elements required for the interferometer to approximately 2-3 per channel. The FIR laser beams are transported from the laser room to the experimental area by 25 mm i.d. dielectric waveguides purged with dry nitrogen. The system can also be operated at a wavelength of 119-μm by changing the gas in FIR laser cavities to methanol for high density experiments. Details of the system are described. A study is underway to determine the optimum design of a FIR scattering system for the ATF. This scattering system will be used to investigate density fluctuations with scale lengths from 0.1 cm to the plasma radius. The laser for this scattering system may be operated at wavelengths of 447, 307, 214, 184, and 119 μm with power levels of 100 to 500 mW. A summary of the study is presented. 6 refs., 1 fig

  14. SAXS and SANS studies of surfactants and reverse micelles in supercritical CO2

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Londono, J.D.; Dharmapurikar, R.S.; Wignall, G.D.; Cochran, H.D.

    1997-01-01

    Surfactants promise to extend the applicability of supercritical CO 2 (SC-CO 2 ) to processing of insoluble materials such as polymers and aqueous systems. In this short paper the authors summarize the techniques for studying surfactants and reverse micelles in SC-CO 2 using SAXS and SANS; they will describe the scattering instruments and the pressure cells for conducting these studies; they will describe the types of measurement that yield the desired characterizations; they will describe the methods of data analysis and interpretation; and they will provide illustrative results from this laboratory. Industry seeks to replace common organic solvents now used in many reaction and separation processes; SC-CO 2 is a potential solvent substitute widely favored by both government and industry. The currently available surfactants are limited in number and performance. In ongoing work the authors are coupling their SAXS and SANS scattering studies with complementary molecular simulations in efforts to understand, at a molecular level, what surfactant characteristics lead to improved performance. They hope that superior surfactants for use in SC-CO 2 can be designed and synthesized based on this new level of understanding

  15. Additivity, redundancy, and complementarity between structural information from NMR and SAXS data

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Kojima, Masaki; Nonaka, Takamasa; Morimoto, Yasumasa; Nakagawa, Takashi; Yanagi, Shigeru; Kihara, Hiroshi

    2009-01-01

    At present protein structure in solution is determined by restrained molecular dynamics with distance restraints mainly derived from NMR. Although the small-angle X-ray scattering (SAXS) method also confers the structural information, its content is too small to determine the structure by itself. We previously developed a new algorithm that refines the protein structure by restrained molecular dynamics with SAXS constrains. In the present study we performed the protein structure calculation by restrained molecular dynamics with both NMR and SAXS constraints, in order to elucidate the essential structural information that defines the protein architecture. We used RNase T1 as a model protein, which has already been determined by NMR alone. At first we added SAXS constraints (h -1 ) into the original NMR-derived restraints for the calculation. The quality of the structure ensemble was significantly increased. Next we removed the original NMR restraints randomly in order to estimate the redundancy among the NMR-derived information. The essential topology of the resultant structures was hardly changed until the restraints were reduced below the half. Then we added the SAXS constraints into the remaining NMR restraints to expect they could complement the lost structural information. However, the structure was not recovered properly. By removing various types of structural information exclusively from the original NMR data set, we investigated whether the SAXS constraints could complement some kinds of structural information. The results showed that the SAXS could complement the tertiary structure to some extent while it could not secondary structure. (author)

  16. Poisson's ratio of collagen fibrils measured by small angle X-ray scattering of strained bovine pericardium

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Wells, Hannah C.; Sizeland, Katie H.; Kayed, Hanan R.; Haverkamp, Richard G., E-mail: r.haverkamp@massey.ac.nz [School of Engineering and Advanced Technology, Massey University, Private Bag 11222, Palmerston North 4442 (New Zealand); Kirby, Nigel; Hawley, Adrian; Mudie, Stephen T. [Australian Synchrotron, 800 Blackburn Road, Clayton, Victoria 3168 (Australia)

    2015-01-28

    Type I collagen is the main structural component of skin, tendons, and skin products, such as leather. Understanding the mechanical performance of collagen fibrils is important for understanding the mechanical performance of the tissues that they make up, while the mechanical properties of bulk tissue are well characterized, less is known about the mechanical behavior of individual collagen fibrils. In this study, bovine pericardium is subjected to strain while small angle X-ray scattering (SAXS) patterns are recorded using synchrotron radiation. The change in d-spacing, which is a measure of fibril extension, and the change in fibril diameter are determined from SAXS. The tissue is strained 0.25 (25%) with a corresponding strain in the collagen fibrils of 0.045 observed. The ratio of collagen fibril width contraction to length extension, or the Poisson's ratio, is 2.1 ± 0.7 for a tissue strain from 0 to 0.25. This Poisson's ratio indicates that the volume of individual collagen fibrils decreases with increasing strain, which is quite unlike most engineering materials. This high Poisson's ratio of individual fibrils may contribute to high Poisson's ratio observed for tissues, contributing to some of the remarkable properties of collagen-based materials.

  17. Rheo-SAXS investigation of shear-thinning behaviour of very anisometric repulsive disc-like clay suspensions.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Philippe, A M; Baravian, C; Imperor-Clerc, M; De Silva, J; Paineau, E; Bihannic, I; Davidson, P; Meneau, F; Levitz, P; Michot, L J

    2011-05-18

    Aqueous suspensions of swelling clay minerals exhibit a rich and complex rheological behaviour. In particular, these repulsive systems display strong shear-thinning at very low volume fractions in both the isotropic and gel states. In this paper, we investigate the evolution with shear of the orientational distribution of aqueous clay suspensions by synchrotron-based rheo-SAXS experiments using a Couette device. Measurements in radial and tangential configurations were carried out for two swelling clay minerals of similar morphology and size, Wyoming montmorillonite and Idaho beidellite. The shear evolution of the small angle x-ray scattering (SAXS) patterns displays significantly different features for these two minerals. The detailed analysis of the angular dependence of the SAXS patterns in both directions provides the average Euler angles of the statistical effective particle in the shear plane. We show that for both samples, the average orientation is fully controlled by the local shear stress around the particle. We then apply an effective approach to take into account multiple hydrodynamic interactions in the system. Using such an approach, it is possible to calculate the evolution of viscosity as a function of shear rate from the knowledge of the average orientation of the particles. The viscosity thus recalculated almost perfectly matches the measured values as long as collective effects are not too important in the system.

  18. Rheo-SAXS investigation of shear-thinning behaviour of very anisometric repulsive disc-like clay suspensions

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Philippe, A M; Baravian, C; Imperor-Clerc, M; De Silva, J; Davidson, P; Paineau, E; Bihannic, I; Michot, L J; Meneau, F; Levitz, P

    2011-01-01

    Aqueous suspensions of swelling clay minerals exhibit a rich and complex rheological behaviour. In particular, these repulsive systems display strong shear-thinning at very low volume fractions in both the isotropic and gel states. In this paper, we investigate the evolution with shear of the orientational distribution of aqueous clay suspensions by synchrotron-based rheo-SAXS experiments using a Couette device. Measurements in radial and tangential configurations were carried out for two swelling clay minerals of similar morphology and size, Wyoming montmorillonite and Idaho beidellite. The shear evolution of the small angle x-ray scattering (SAXS) patterns displays significantly different features for these two minerals. The detailed analysis of the angular dependence of the SAXS patterns in both directions provides the average Euler angles of the statistical effective particle in the shear plane. We show that for both samples, the average orientation is fully controlled by the local shear stress around the particle. We then apply an effective approach to take into account multiple hydrodynamic interactions in the system. Using such an approach, it is possible to calculate the evolution of viscosity as a function of shear rate from the knowledge of the average orientation of the particles. The viscosity thus recalculated almost perfectly matches the measured values as long as collective effects are not too important in the system.

  19. Small-angle X-ray scattering of solutions

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Koch, M.H.J.; Stuhrmann, H.B.; Vachette, P.; Tardieu, A.

    1982-01-01

    The use of synchrotron radiation in small-angle X-ray scattering (SAXS) techniques in biological structural studies is described. The main features of the monochromatic radiation systems and the white radiation systems are considered. The detectors, data acquisition and experimental procedures are briefly described. Experimental results are presented for 1) measurements on dilute solutions and weak scatterers, 2) measurement of conformational transitions, 3) contrast variation experiments, 4) time-resolved measurements and 5) complex contrast variation. (U.K.)

  20. Innovative High-Throughput SAXS Methodologies Based on Photonic Lab-on-a-Chip Sensors: Application to Macromolecular Studies.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rodríguez-Ruiz, Isaac; Radajewski, Dimitri; Charton, Sophie; Phamvan, Nhat; Brennich, Martha; Pernot, Petra; Bonneté, Françoise; Teychené, Sébastien

    2017-06-02

    The relevance of coupling droplet-based Photonic Lab-on-a-Chip (PhLoC) platforms and Small-Angle X-Ray Scattering (SAXS) technique is here highlighted for the performance of high throughput investigations, related to the study of protein macromolecular interactions. With this configuration, minute amounts of sample are required to obtain reliable statistical data. The PhLoC platforms presented in this work are designed to allow and control an effective mixing of precise amounts of proteins, crystallization reagents and buffer in nanoliter volumes, and the subsequent generation of nanodroplets by means of a two-phase flow. Spectrophotometric sensing permits a fine control on droplet generation frequency and stability as well as on concentration conditions, and finally the droplet flow is synchronized to perform synchrotron radiation SAXS measurements in individual droplets (each one acting as an isolated microreactor) to probe protein interactions. With this configuration, droplet physic-chemical conditions can be reproducibly and finely tuned, and monitored without cross-contamination, allowing for the screening of a substantial number of saturation conditions with a small amount of biological material. The setup was tested and validated using lysozyme as a model of study. By means of SAXS experiments, the proteins gyration radius and structure envelope were calculated as a function of protein concentration. The obtained values were found to be in good agreement with previously reported data, but with a dramatic reduction of sample volume requirements compared to studies reported in the literature.

  1. The current status of small-angle x-ray scattering beamline at Diamond Light Source

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Inoue, Katsuaki; Doutch, James; Terrill, Nick

    2013-01-01

    The small-angle X-ray scattering (SAXS) covers the major disciplines of biology, chemistry and physics delivering structural and dynamic information in nanoscience, mesoscopic architectures, supramolecular structures, and nucleation/growth of crystals. SAXS is also proving to be important in archaeological, environmental, and conservation sciences, and has further indicated its ability to span wide-ranging scientific disciplines. Thus, strong needs for SAXS studies are increasing significantly in a broad range of scientific fields year by year. Based on such a background, the demand for high throughput SAXS experiments is increasing. At the synchrotron facility, Diamond Light Source, one SAXS beamline, Non-crystalline diffraction I22 is now operational and highly automated throughput small-angle X-ray scattering (HATSAXS) beamline B21 is now under construction. I22 is the Undulator beamline and wide varieties of experiments, including time-resolved experiments are attempted. Based on the concept of HATSAXS, the key feature of B21 will focuses on the automation of end-station equipment. A automated sample changer has been purchased for solution SAXS measurements on biomolecules. A robotic-arm-type automated sample changer that is capable of handling several kinds of samples in material science is also being constructed. B21 is expected to successfully provide all users highly automated throughput measurements with the highest possible reliability and accuracy. Construction of this beamline will end in the second half of 2012, and will be open for users in the early summer of 2013 after commissioning. (author)

  2. A novel application of small-angle scattering techniques: Quality assurance testing of virus quantification technology

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Kuzmanovic, Deborah A.; Elashvili, Ilya; O'Connell, Catherine; Krueger, Susan

    2008-01-01

    Small-angle scattering (SAS) techniques, like small-angle X-ray scattering (SAXS) and small-angle neutron scattering (SANS), were used to measure and thus to validate the accuracy of a novel technology for virus sizing and concentration determination. These studies demonstrate the utility of SAS techniques for use in quality assurance measurements and as novel technology for the physical characterization of viruses

  3. Multi-Scale Scattering Transform in Music Similarity Measuring

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wang, Ruobai

    Scattering transform is a Mel-frequency spectrum based, time-deformation stable method, which can be used in evaluating music similarity. Compared with Dynamic time warping, it has better performance in detecting similar audio signals under local time-frequency deformation. Multi-scale scattering means to combine scattering transforms of different window lengths. This paper argues that, multi-scale scattering transform is a good alternative of dynamic time warping in music similarity measuring. We tested the performance of multi-scale scattering transform against other popular methods, with data designed to represent different conditions.

  4. X-Ray-Scattering Measurements Of Strain In PEEK

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cebe, Peggy; Lowry, Lynn E.; Chung, Shirley Y.; Yavrouian, Andre H.; Gupta, Amitava

    1988-01-01

    Internal stress relieved by heating above glass-transition temperature. Report describes wide-angle x-ray scattering and differential scanning calorimetry of specimens of poly(etheretherketone) having undergone various thermal treatments. Wide-angle x-ray scattering particularly useful in determining distances between atoms, crystallinity, and related microstructurally generated phenomena, as thermal expansion and strain. Calorimetric measurements aid interpretation of scattering measurements by enabling correlation with thermal effects.

  5. A structural model of PpoA derived from SAXS-analysis-implications for substrate conversion.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Koch, Christian; Tria, Giancarlo; Fielding, Alistair J; Brodhun, Florian; Valerius, Oliver; Feussner, Kirstin; Braus, Gerhard H; Svergun, Dmitri I; Bennati, Marina; Feussner, Ivo

    2013-09-01

    In plants and mammals, oxylipins may be synthesized via multi step processes that consist of dioxygenation and isomerization of the intermediately formed hydroperoxy fatty acid. These processes are typically catalyzed by two distinct enzyme classes: dioxygenases and cytochrome P450 enzymes. In ascomycetes biosynthesis of oxylipins may proceed by a similar two-step pathway. An important difference, however, is that both enzymatic activities may be combined in a single bifunctional enzyme. These types of enzymes are named Psi-factor producing oxygenases (Ppo). Here, the spatial organization of the two domains of PpoA from Aspergillus nidulans was analyzed by small-angle X-ray scattering and the obtained data show that the enzyme exhibits a relatively flat trimeric shape. Atomic structures of the single domains were obtained by template-based structure prediction and docked into the enzyme envelope of the low resolution structure obtained by SAXS. EPR-based distance measurements between the tyrosyl radicals formed in the activated dioxygenase domain of the enzyme supported the trimeric structure obtained from SAXS and the previous assignment of Tyr374 as radical-site in PpoA. Furthermore, two phenylalanine residues in the cytochrome P450 domain were shown to modulate the specificity of hydroperoxy fatty acid rearrangement. Copyright © 2013 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  6. Investigation of the structure of human dental tissue at multiple length scales using high energy synchrotron X-ray SAXS/WAXS

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sui, Tan; Landini, Gabriel; Korsunsky, Alexander M.

    2011-10-01

    High energy (>50keV) synchrotron X-ray scattering experiments were carried out on beamline I12 JEEP at the Diamond Light Source (DLS, Oxford, UK). Although a complete human tooth could be studied, in the present study attention was focused on coupons from the region of the Dentin-Enamel Junction (DEJ). Simultaneous high energy SAXS/WAXS measurements were carried out. Quantitative analysis of the results allows multiple length scale characterization of the nano-crystalline structure of dental tissues. SAXS patterns analysis provide insight into the mean thickness and orientation of hydroxyapatite particles, while WAXS (XRD) patterns allow the determination of the crystallographic unit cell parameters of the hydroxyapatite phase. It was found that the average particle thickness determined from SAXS interpretation varies as a function of position in the vicinity of the DEJ. Most mineral particles are randomly orientated within dentin, although preferred orientation emerges and becomes stronger on approach to the enamel. Within the enamel, texture is stronger than anywhere in the dentin, and the determination of lattice parameters can be accomplished by Pawley refinement of the multiple peak diffraction pattern. The results demonstrate the feasibility of using high energy synchrotron X-ray beams for the characterization of human dental tissues. This opens up the opportunity of studying thick samples (e.g., complete teeth) in complex sample environments (e.g., under saline solution). This opens new avenues for the application of high energy synchrotron X-ray scattering to dental research.

  7. Gamma-ray scatter methods applied to industrial measurement systems

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Holstad, Marie Bueie

    2004-09-01

    Throughout the work presented in this dissertation it has been confirmed that the use of scattered gamma-radiation is a complex but useful tool in industrial measurement science. Scattered radiation has shown to be useful both when traditional measurement principles cannot be used (Chapter 4) and when more information about a system is needed than what is obtained with transmission measurements (Chapter 6). All three main projects (Chapters 4, 5 and 6) confirm that the sensitivity and accuracy of systems based on scattered gamma-radiation depends strongly on the geometry of the setup and that that presence of multiple scattered radiation makes the problems complex. Chapter 4 shows that multiple scattered gamma-radiation can be used for detection of changes in density where the dimensions are too large to use transmitted radiation. There is, however, an upper limit on the thickness of the absorbing medium also when scattered radiation is utilized. As seen in Chapter 5, multiple scattered gamma-radiation can in principle also be used in level gauges with very compact measurement geometries. The main challenges are the sensitivity to interfaces between materials with similar densities and low count rate. These challenges could not be overcome for level measurements in gravitational separator tanks. The results presented in Chapter 6 show that it is feasible to combine transmission and scatter measurements to characterize produced water in the oil and gas industry. (Author)

  8. Equipment of Thomson scattering measurement on DIVA plasma

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Yamauchi, Toshihiko; Kumagai, Katsuaki; Funahashi, Akimasa; Matoba, Thoru; Sengoku, Seio

    1980-02-01

    Equipment of Thomson scattering measurement using ruby-laser light is explained. DIVA device was shut down in September 1979; it gave numerous fruitful experimental results during its five years operation. We measured the profiles of electron temperature and density with the Thomson scattering equipment, which played an important role in research of the energy confinement and heating characteristics. In Thomson scattering measurements on DIVA, studies and improvements were made for reduction of stray light, increase of measuring points and data processing. The profile of electron temperature and density were thus measured successful. In this report is given an over-all view of the Thomson scattering equipment together with the above improvements. As two representative examples, the measured results of electron temperature profiles on DIVA plasma under divertor operation and low-q discharge respectively are described. (author)

  9. In situ study starch gelatinization under ultra-high hydrostatic pressure using synchrotron SAXS

    KAUST Repository

    Yang, Zhi; Gu, Qinfen; Lam, Elisa; Tian, Feng; Chaieb, Saharoui; Hemar, Yacine

    2015-01-01

    The gelatinization of waxy (very low amylose) corn and potato starches by high hydrostatic pressure (HHP) (up to ∼1 GPa) was investigated in situ using synchrotron small-angle X-ray scattering (SAXS) on samples held in a diamond anvil cell (DAC

  10. Time-Resolved WAXD and SAXS Investigations on Butyl Branched Alkane at Elevated Pressures

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Rastogi, A.; Hobbs, J.K.; Rastogi, S.

    2002-01-01

    The crystallization behavior and the morphological aspect of the butyl branched alkane C96H193CH(C4H9)C94H189 have been investigated using time-resolved wide-angle X-ray diffraction (WAXD) and small-angle X-ray scattering (SAXS) at atmospheric and elevated pressures. The solution crystallized sample

  11. First detection of lamella-gyroid-cylinder phase transition of neat polyethylene-poly(ethylene oxide) diblock copolymers on the basis of synchrotron WAXD/SAXS and infrared/Raman spectral measurements

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Weiyu, Cao; Tashiro, Kohji; Hanesaka, Makoto; Takeda, Shinichi; Masunaga, Hiroyasu; Sasaki, Sono; Takata, Masaki

    2009-01-01

    The phase transition behaviour of polyethylene-b-poly(ethylene oxide) (PE-b-PEO) diblock copolymer with relatively short chain lengths has been studied on the basis of temperature dependent infrared and Raman spectral measurements and synchrotron WAXD/SAXS simultaneous measurements, from which the concrete structural changes were deduced successfully from the various levels of molecular chain conformation, chain packing mode and higher-order structure. The higher-order structure has been found to transform between lamella, perforated lamella, gyroid, cylinder and sphere structures. The inner structural changes occurring in the polyethylene and poly(ethylene oxide) parts have been related with these morphological changes. The morphological transition from lamella to gyroid occurs with keeping the crystalline state of polyethylene parts. This apparently curious transition can be interpreted reasonably by assuming the thermally-activated chain motion in the crystal lattice, which may play an important role as a trigger to induce the morphological change from lamella to gyroid. This idea was supported by the measurement of half-width of Raman anti-symmetric CH 2 stretching band sensitive to the thermal mobility of alkyl chains.

  12. Preparing Monodisperse Macromolecular Samples for Successful Biological Small-Angle X-ray and Neutron Scattering Experiments

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jeffries, Cy M.; Graewert, Melissa A.; Blanchet, Clément E.; Langley, David B.; Whitten, Andrew E.; Svergun, Dmitri I

    2017-01-01

    Small-angle X-ray and neutron scattering (SAXS and SANS) are techniques used to extract structural parameters and determine the overall structures and shapes of biological macromolecules, complexes and assemblies in solution. The scattering intensities measured from a sample contain contributions from all atoms within the illuminated sample volume including the solvent and buffer components as well as the macromolecules of interest. In order to obtain structural information, it is essential to prepare an exactly matched solvent blank so that background scattering contributions can be accurately subtracted from the sample scattering to obtain the net scattering from the macromolecules in the sample. In addition, sample heterogeneity caused by contaminants, aggregates, mismatched solvents, radiation damage or other factors can severely influence and complicate data analysis so it is essential that the samples are pure and monodisperse for the duration of the experiment. This Protocol outlines the basic physics of SAXS and SANS and reveals how the underlying conceptual principles of the techniques ultimately ‘translate’ into practical laboratory guidance for the production of samples of sufficiently high quality for scattering experiments. The procedure describes how to prepare and characterize protein and nucleic acid samples for both SAXS and SANS using gel electrophoresis, size exclusion chromatography and light scattering. Also included are procedures specific to X-rays (in-line size exclusion chromatography SAXS) and neutrons, specifically preparing samples for contrast matching/variation experiments and deuterium labeling of proteins. PMID:27711050

  13. Transic time measures in scattering theory

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    MacMillan, L.W.; Osborn, T.A.

    1980-01-01

    This paper studies the time evolution of state vectors that are the solutions of the time-dependent Schroedinger equation, characterized by a Hamiltonian h. We employ trace-theorem methods to prove that the transit time of state vectors through a finite space region, Σ, may be used to construct a family in the energy variable, epsilon, of unique, positive, trace-class operators. The matrix elements of these operators, give the transit time of any vector through Σ, It is proved that the trace of these operators, for a fixed energy epsilon, provide a function which simultaneously gives the sum of all orbital transit times through region Σ and represents the state density of all vectors that have support on Σ and energy epsilon. We use the transit-time operators to recover the usual theory of time delay for single-channel scattering systems. In the process we extend the known results on time delay to include scattering by fixed impurities in a periodic medium

  14. Structural Analysis of Multi-component Amyloid Systems by Chemometric SAXS Data Decomposition

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Trillo, Isabel Fatima Herranz; Jensen, Minna Grønning; van Maarschalkerweerd, Andreas

    2017-01-01

    Formation of amyloids is the hallmark of several neurodegenerative pathologies. Structural investigation of these complex transformation processes poses significant experimental challenges due to the co-existence of multiple species. The additive nature of small-angle X-ray scattering (SAXS) data...... least squares (MCR-ALS) chemometric method. The approach enables rigorous and robust decomposition of synchrotron SAXS data by simultaneously introducing these data in different representations that emphasize molecular changes at different time and structural resolution ranges. The approach has allowed...

  15. Synchrotron SAXS/WAXD and rheological studies of clay suspensions in silicone fluid.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zhang, Li-Ming; Jahns, Christopher; Hsiao, Benjamin S; Chu, Benjamin

    2003-10-15

    Suspensions of two commercial smectite clays, montmorillonite KSF and montmorillonite K10, in a low-viscosity silicone oil (Dow Corning 245 Fluid) were studied by simultaneous synchrotron small-angle X-ray scattering (SAXS)/wide-angle X-ray diffraction (WAXD) techniques and rheological measurements. In the 0.5% (w/v) KSF clay suspension and two K10 clay suspensions (0.5% and 1.0%), WAXD profiles below 2theta=10.0 degrees did not display any characteristic reflection peaks associated with the chosen montmorillonite clays, while corresponding SAXS profiles exhibited distinct scattering maxima, indicating that both clays were delaminated by the silicone oil. In spite of the large increase in viscosity, the clay suspensions exhibited no gel characteristics. Dynamic rheological experiments indicated that the clay/silicone oil suspensions exhibited the behavior of viscoelasticity, which could be influenced by the type and the concentration of the clay. For the K10 clay suspensions, the frequency-dependent loss modulus (G") was greater in magnitude than the storage modulus (G') in the concentration range from 0.5 to 12.0%. The increase in the clay concentration shifted the crossover point between G' and G" into the accessible frequency range, indicating that the system became more elastic. In contrast, the KSF clay suspension exhibited lower G' and G" values, indicating a weaker viscoelastic response. The larger viscoelasticity response in the K10 clay suspension may be due to the acid treatment generating a higher concentration of silanol groups on the clay surface.

  16. Constrained Maximum Likelihood Estimation of Relative Abundances of Protein Conformation in a Heterogeneous Mixture from Small Angle X-Ray Scattering Intensity Measurements

    Science.gov (United States)

    Onuk, A. Emre; Akcakaya, Murat; Bardhan, Jaydeep P.; Erdogmus, Deniz; Brooks, Dana H.; Makowski, Lee

    2015-01-01

    In this paper, we describe a model for maximum likelihood estimation (MLE) of the relative abundances of different conformations of a protein in a heterogeneous mixture from small angle X-ray scattering (SAXS) intensities. To consider cases where the solution includes intermediate or unknown conformations, we develop a subset selection method based on k-means clustering and the Cramér-Rao bound on the mixture coefficient estimation error to find a sparse basis set that represents the space spanned by the measured SAXS intensities of the known conformations of a protein. Then, using the selected basis set and the assumptions on the model for the intensity measurements, we show that the MLE model can be expressed as a constrained convex optimization problem. Employing the adenylate kinase (ADK) protein and its known conformations as an example, and using Monte Carlo simulations, we demonstrate the performance of the proposed estimation scheme. Here, although we use 45 crystallographically determined experimental structures and we could generate many more using, for instance, molecular dynamics calculations, the clustering technique indicates that the data cannot support the determination of relative abundances for more than 5 conformations. The estimation of this maximum number of conformations is intrinsic to the methodology we have used here. PMID:26924916

  17. Method for measuring multiple scattering corrections between liquid scintillators

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Verbeke, J.M., E-mail: verbeke2@llnl.gov; Glenn, A.M., E-mail: glenn22@llnl.gov; Keefer, G.J., E-mail: keefer1@llnl.gov; Wurtz, R.E., E-mail: wurtz1@llnl.gov

    2016-07-21

    A time-of-flight method is proposed to experimentally quantify the fractions of neutrons scattering between scintillators. An array of scintillators is characterized in terms of crosstalk with this method by measuring a californium source, for different neutron energy thresholds. The spectral information recorded by the scintillators can be used to estimate the fractions of neutrons multiple scattering. With the help of a correction to Feynman's point model theory to account for multiple scattering, these fractions can in turn improve the mass reconstruction of fissile materials under investigation.

  18. SAXS determination of the structural periodicity of thermoplastic polyurethane reinforced with cellulose nanocrystals; Determinacao da perodicidade estrutural de poliuretano termoplastico reforcado com nanocristais de celulose por SAXS

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Prataviera, Rogerio; Bretas, Rosario E.S.; Lucas, Alessandra de A., E-mail: lucas@ufscar.br [Universidade Federal de Sao Carlos, (UFSCar), Sao Carlos, SP (Brazil); Poullet, Eric; Averous, Luc [Universidade de Strasbourg, Strasbourg (France)

    2015-07-01

    In this work, casting films were obtained from TPU reinforced with cellulose nanocrystals. The structural nano periodicity of these system was evaluated by Small Angle X-Ray Scattering, SAXS. The results indicated that the used TPU has a atypical phase separated morphology of rigid and soft segments, being observed 3 different distances them, probably due to the large polyol polyester molecule derived from colza oil used in the TPU synthesis. (author)

  19. In situ surface roughness measurement using a laser scattering method

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tay, C. J.; Wang, S. H.; Quan, C.; Shang, H. M.

    2003-03-01

    In this paper, the design and development of an optical probe for in situ measurement of surface roughness are discussed. Based on this light scattering principle, the probe which consists of a laser diode, measuring lens and a linear photodiode array, is designed to capture the scattered light from a test surface with a relatively large scattering angle ϕ (=28°). This capability increases the measuring range and enhances repeatability of the results. The coaxial arrangement that incorporates a dual-laser beam and a constant compressed air stream renders the proposed system insensitive to movement or vibration of the test surface as well as surface conditions. Tests were conducted on workpieces which were mounted on a turning machine that operates with different cutting speeds. Test specimens which underwent different machining processes and of different surface finish were also studied. The results obtained demonstrate the feasibility of surface roughness measurement using the proposed method.

  20. Measurement of molecular polarizability on Rayleigh light scattering

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Nerushev, O.A.; Novopashin, S.A.

    1994-01-01

    The installation for measuring the polarizability of atoms and molecules on Rayleigh light scattering is described. The measurements in gases with the known polarizability are used for a calibration. Test measurements are carried out on nitrogen, argon, carbon dioxide, vapours of water and acetone. The results of measurements are compared with the table data. The technique is used for measuring the polarizability of fullerene molecules. 6 refs., 2 figs

  1. Monte Carlo simulations of multiple scattering effects in ERD measurements

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Doyle, Barney Lee; Arstila, Kai.; Nordlumd, K.; Knapp, James Arthur

    2003-01-01

    Multiple scattering effects in ERD measurements are studied by comparing two Monte Carlo simulation codes, representing different approaches to obtain acceptable statistics, to experimental spectra measured from a HfO 2 sample with a time-of-flight-ERD setup. The results show that both codes can reproduce the absolute detection yields and the energy distributions in an adequate way. The effect of the choice of the interatomic potential in multiple scattering effects is also studied. Finally the capabilities of the MC simulations in the design of new measurement setups are demonstrated by simulating the recoil energy spectra from a WC x N y sample with a low energy heavy ion beam.

  2. Absolute measurement of the critical scattering cross section in cobalt

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Glinka, C.J.; Minkiewicz, V.J.; Passell, L.

    1975-01-01

    Small-angle neutron scattering techniques have been used to study the angular distribution of the critical scattering from cobalt above T/sub c/. These measurements have been put on an absolute scale by calibrating the critical scattering directly against the nuclear incoherent scattering from cobalt. In this way the interaction range r 1 , which appears in the classical and modified Ornstein--Zernike expressions for the asymptotic form of the spin pair correlation function and is related to the strength of the spin correlations, has been determined. We obtain r 1 /a = 0.46 +- 0.03 for the ratio of the interaction range to the nearest-neighbor distance in cobalt. This result is in good agreement with theoretical predictions. Lack of agreement among previous determinations of the ratio r 1 /a made in iron failed to provide a definitive comparison with theory

  3. Optimising polarised neutron scattering measurements--XYZ and polarimetry analysis

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Cussen, L.D.; Goossens, D.J.

    2002-01-01

    The analytic optimisation of neutron scattering measurements made using XYZ polarisation analysis and neutron polarimetry techniques is discussed. Expressions for the 'quality factor' and the optimum division of counting time for the XYZ technique are presented. For neutron polarimetry the optimisation is identified as analogous to that for measuring the flipping ratio and reference is made to the results already in the literature

  4. Optimising polarised neutron scattering measurements--XYZ and polarimetry analysis

    CERN Document Server

    Cussen, L D

    2002-01-01

    The analytic optimisation of neutron scattering measurements made using XYZ polarisation analysis and neutron polarimetry techniques is discussed. Expressions for the 'quality factor' and the optimum division of counting time for the XYZ technique are presented. For neutron polarimetry the optimisation is identified as analogous to that for measuring the flipping ratio and reference is made to the results already in the literature.

  5. Measurements of scattering processes in negative ion-atom collisions

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Kvale, T.J.

    1991-01-01

    This research project is designed to provide measurements of various scattering processes which occur in H - collisions with atomic targets at intermediate energies. The immediate goal is to study elastic scattering, single electron detachment, and target excitation/ionization in H - scattering from noble gas targets. For the target inelastic processes, these cross sections are unknown both experimentally and theoretically. The present measurements will provide either experimentally-determined cross sections or set upper limits to those cross sections. In either case, these measurements will be stringent tests of our understanding in energetic negative ion collisions. This series of experiments required the construction of a new facility, and significant progress toward its operation has been realized during this period. The proposed research is described in this report. The progress on and the status of the apparatus is also detailed in this report

  6. Scattering analysis of point processes and random measures

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Hanisch, K.H.

    1984-01-01

    In the present paper scattering analysis of point processes and random measures is studied. Known formulae which connect the scattering intensity with the pair distribution function of the studied structures are proved in a rigorous manner with tools of the theory of point processes and random measures. For some special fibre processes the scattering intensity is computed. For a class of random measures, namely for 'grain-germ-models', a new formula is proved which yields the pair distribution function of the 'grain-germ-model' in terms of the pair distribution function of the underlying point process (the 'germs') and of the mean structure factor and the mean squared structure factor of the particles (the 'grains'). (author)

  7. MUSIC-characterization of small scatterers for normal measurement data

    Science.gov (United States)

    Griesmaier, Roland; Hanke, Martin

    2009-07-01

    We investigate the reconstruction of the positions of a collection of small metallic objects buried beneath the ground from measurements of the vertical component of scattered fields corresponding to vertically polarized dipole excitations on a horizontal two-dimensional measurement device above the surface of the ground. A MUSIC reconstruction method for this problem has recently been proposed by Iakovleva et al (2007 IEEE Trans. Antennas Propag. 55 2598). In this paper, we give a rigorous theoretical justification of this method. To that end we prove a characterization of the positions of the scatterers in terms of the measurement data, applying an asymptotic analysis of the scattered fields. We present numerical results to illustrate our theoretical findings.

  8. MUSIC-characterization of small scatterers for normal measurement data

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Griesmaier, Roland; Hanke, Martin

    2009-01-01

    We investigate the reconstruction of the positions of a collection of small metallic objects buried beneath the ground from measurements of the vertical component of scattered fields corresponding to vertically polarized dipole excitations on a horizontal two-dimensional measurement device above the surface of the ground. A MUSIC reconstruction method for this problem has recently been proposed by Iakovleva et al (2007 IEEE Trans. Antennas Propag. 55 2598). In this paper, we give a rigorous theoretical justification of this method. To that end we prove a characterization of the positions of the scatterers in terms of the measurement data, applying an asymptotic analysis of the scattered fields. We present numerical results to illustrate our theoretical findings

  9. FIR laser scattering and heterodyne receiver measurements on Alcator C

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Woskoboinikow, P.; Praddaude, H.C.; Mulligan, W.J.; Cohn, D.R.; Lax, B.

    1982-01-01

    The MIT program to develop high power collective Thomson scattering diagnostics is presented. The D 2 O laser Thomson scattering system is operational on Alcator C tokamak. The major components include a 0.5 MW, 150 ns D 2 O laser, a heterodyne receiver mixer, a 25 MW, 381 μ DCOOD laser local oscillator and X-band I.F. electronics including a 32 channel multiplexer filter centered at 9.4 GHz with 80 MHz wide channels. Initial scattering measurement showed high level of stray D 2 O laser power. The spectrum was obtained by operating the Thomson scattering diagnostics with no plasma in the tokamak. An X-band notch filter was placed after the Schottky diode mixer to reject a 240 MHz band centered at 9.4 GHz. The stray light level was reduced by 16 to 20 db. Other sources of background noise such as strong non-thermal scattering and ECE did not appear to be a problem. A gas filled cell was placed on the Alcator C scattering system to reduce the level of stray light. Work is underway to improve the transverse mode quality of the laser and receiver to improve matching to the beam and viewing dumps. (Kato, T.)

  10. Determination of scattering structures from spatial coherence measurements.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zarubin, A M

    1996-03-01

    A new method of structure determination and microscopic imaging with short-wavelength radiations (charged particles, X-rays, neutrons), based on measurements of the modulus and the phase of the degree of spatial coherence of the scattered radiation, is developed. The underlying principle of the method--transfer of structural information about the scattering potential via spatial coherence of the secondary (scattering) source of radiation formed by this potential--is expressed by the generalization of the van Cittert-Zernike theorem to wave and particle scattering [A.M. Zarubin, Opt. Commun. 100 (1993) 491; Opt. Commun. 102 (1993) 543]. Shearing interferometric techniques are proposed for implementing the above measurements; the limits of spatial resolution attainable by reconstruction of the absolute square of a 3D scattering potential and its 2D projections from the measurements are analyzed. It is shown theoretically that 3D imaging with atomic resolution can be realized in a "synthetic aperture" electron or ion microscope and that a 3D resolution of about 6 nm can be obtained with a "synthetic aperture" X-ray microscope. A proof-of-principle optical experiment is presented.

  11. MUSE: Measuring the proton radius with muon-proton scattering

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Bernauer, Jan Christopher [Massachusetts Institute of Technology, Cambridge (United States)

    2014-07-01

    The proton radius has been measured so far using electron-proton scattering, electronic Hydrogen spectroscopy and muonic Hydrogen spectroscopy, the latter producing a much more accurate, but seven sigma different, result, leading to the now famous proton radius puzzle. The MUSE collaboration aims to complete the set of measurements by using muon scattering to determine the proton radius and to shed light on possible explanations of the discrepancy. The talk gives an overview of the experiment motivation and design and a status report on the progress.

  12. Internal magnetic turbulence measurement in plasma by cross polarization scattering

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Zou, X L; Colas, L; Paume, M; Chareau, J M; Laurent, L; Devynck, P; Gresillon, D

    1994-09-01

    For the first time, the internal magnetic turbulence is measured by a new cross polarization scattering diagnostic in Tore Supra tokamak. The principle of this experiment is presented. It is based on the polarization change or mode conversion of the e.m. wave scattering by magnetic fluctuations. The role of different physical processes on the signal formation are investigated. From the Observation, a rough estimate for the relative magnetic fluctuations of about 10{sup -4} is obtained. A strong correlation of the measured signal with additional heating is observed. (author). 14 refs., 4 figs.

  13. The application of coronal scattering measurements to solar radio bursts

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Bradford, H.M.

    1980-01-01

    The interpretation of ground based observations of solar 'plasma frequency' radio bursts has been hampered in the past by an insufficient knowledge of coronal scattering by density inhomogeneities close to the Sun. Calculations based on measuurements of the angular broadening of natural radio sources, and Woo's 1975 measurement of the angular broadening of the telemetry carrier by Helios I near occultation (Woo, 1978), indicate that plasma frequency solar bursts should undergo considerable scattering, at least near the maximum of the sunspot cycle. The calculated displacements of the apparent positions of the bursts are about equal to the observed displacements which have been attributed to the bursts occurring in dense streamers. In order to obtain more scattering data close to the Sun, interferometer measurements of the angular broadening of spacecraft signals are planned, and the important contribution which could be made with large dishes is discussed. (Auth.)

  14. Ambiguities and completeness of SAS data analysis: investigations of apoferritin by SAXS/SANS EID and SEC-SAXS methods

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zabelskii, D. V.; Vlasov, A. V.; Ryzhykau, Yu L.; Murugova, T. N.; Brennich, M.; Soloviov, D. V.; Ivankov, O. I.; Borshchevskiy, V. I.; Mishin, A. V.; Rogachev, A. V.; Round, A.; Dencher, N. A.; Büldt, G.; Gordeliy, V. I.; Kuklin, A. I.

    2018-03-01

    The method of small angle scattering (SAS) is widely used in the field of biophysical research of proteins in aqueous solutions. Obtaining low-resolution structure of proteins is still a highly valuable method despite the advances in high-resolution methods such as X-ray diffraction, cryo-EM etc. SAS offers the unique possibility to obtain structural information under conditions close to those of functional assays, i.e. in solution, without different additives, in the mg/mL concentration range. SAS method has a long history, but there are still many uncertainties related to data treatment. We compared 1D SAS profiles of apoferritin obtained by X-ray diffraction (XRD) and SAS methods. It is shown that SAS curves for X-ray diffraction crystallographic structure of apoferritin differ more significantly than it might be expected due to the resolution of the SAS instrument. Extrapolation to infinite dilution (EID) method does not sufficiently exclude dimerization and oligomerization effects and therefore could not guarantee total absence of dimers account in the final SAS curve. In this study, we show that EID SAXS, EID SANS and SEC-SAXS methods give complementary results and when they are used all together, it allows obtaining the most accurate results and high confidence from SAS data analysis of proteins.

  15. Detailed modeling of the statistical uncertainty of Thomson scattering measurements

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Morton, L A; Parke, E; Hartog, D J Den

    2013-01-01

    The uncertainty of electron density and temperature fluctuation measurements is determined by statistical uncertainty introduced by multiple noise sources. In order to quantify these uncertainties precisely, a simple but comprehensive model was made of the noise sources in the MST Thomson scattering system and of the resulting variance in the integrated scattered signals. The model agrees well with experimental and simulated results. The signal uncertainties are then used by our existing Bayesian analysis routine to find the most likely electron temperature and density, with confidence intervals. In the model, photonic noise from scattered light and plasma background light is multiplied by the noise enhancement factor (F) of the avalanche photodiode (APD). Electronic noise from the amplifier and digitizer is added. The amplifier response function shapes the signal and induces correlation in the noise. The data analysis routine fits a characteristic pulse to the digitized signals from the amplifier, giving the integrated scattered signals. A finite digitization rate loses information and can cause numerical integration error. We find a formula for the variance of the scattered signals in terms of the background and pulse amplitudes, and three calibration constants. The constants are measured easily under operating conditions, resulting in accurate estimation of the scattered signals' uncertainty. We measure F ≈ 3 for our APDs, in agreement with other measurements for similar APDs. This value is wavelength-independent, simplifying analysis. The correlated noise we observe is reproduced well using a Gaussian response function. Numerical integration error can be made negligible by using an interpolated characteristic pulse, allowing digitization rates as low as the detector bandwidth. The effect of background noise is also determined

  16. Small-angle scattering in materials science

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Paris, O.; Fratzl, P.

    1999-01-01

    Small-angle scattering (SAS) of X-rays (SAXS) or neutrons (SANS) are a powerful tools to investigate inhomogeneities in the size range from ∼ 1 nm to ∼ 100 nm. Typical examples in materials science are pores, precipitates in metal alloys or nano-particles in composites. Frequently, these inhomogeneities are not spherical and their alignment is not random, quite in contrast to many other applications of SAS. This requires the use of pinhole geometry and area detectors for the experimental set-up. The present paper focuses on evaluation techniques of two-dimensional (2D) SAS-patterns from some materials investigated by the authors, i.e. metal alloys, carbon composites, wood and bone. Although the examples shown are derived exclusively from SAXS measurements, most of them could stem from SANS measurements as well. (author)

  17. Laser scattering methodology for measuring particulates in the air

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Carlo Giglioni

    2009-03-01

    Full Text Available A description is given of the laser scattering method to measure PM10, PM2.5 and PM1 dusts in confirmed environments (museums, libraries, archives, art galleries, etc.. Such equipment presents many advantages, in comparison with those which are actually in use, not only from an analytic but also from a functional point of view.

  18. Measurement of proton inelastic scattering cross sections on fluorine

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Chiari, M., E-mail: chiari@fi.infn.it [Department of Physics and Astronomy, University of Florence and INFN Florence, Sesto Fiorentino (Italy); Caciolli, A. [Department of Physics and Astronomy, University of Padua and INFN Padua, Padova (Italy); Calzolai, G. [Department of Physics and Astronomy, University of Florence and INFN Florence, Sesto Fiorentino (Italy); Climent-Font, A. [CMAM, Universidad Autonoma de Madrid, Madrid (Spain); Lucarelli, F.; Nava, S. [Department of Physics and Astronomy, University of Florence and INFN Florence, Sesto Fiorentino (Italy)

    2016-10-01

    Differential cross-sections for proton inelastic scattering on fluorine, {sup 19}F(p,p’){sup 19}F, from the first five excited levels of {sup 19}F at 110, 197, 1346, 1459 and 1554 keV were measured for beam energies from 3 to 7 MeV at a scattering angle of 150° using a LiF thin target (50 μg/cm{sup 2}) evaporated on a self-supporting C thin film (30 μg/cm{sup 2}). Absolute differential cross-sections were calculated with a method not dependent on the absolute values of collected beam charge and detector solid angle. The validity of the measured inelastic scattering cross sections was then tested by successfully reproducing EBS spectra collected from a thick Teflon (CF{sub 2}) target. As a practical application of these measured inelastic scattering cross sections in elastic backscattering spectroscopy (EBS), the feasibility of quantitative light element (C, N and O) analysis in aerosol particulate matter samples collected on Teflon by EBS measurements and spectra simulation is demonstrated.

  19. High energy spin waves in iron measured by neutron scattering

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Boothroyd, A.T.; Paul, D.M.; Mook, H.A.

    1991-01-01

    We present new results for the spin were dispersion relation measured along the [ζζ0] direction in bcc iron (12% silicon) by time-of-flight, neutron inelastic scattering. The excitations were followed to the zone boundary, where they are spread over a range of energies around 300meV. 6 refs., 2 figs

  20. Gain reduction measurements in transient stimulated Raman scattering

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Heeman, R.J.; Godfried, H.P

    1995-01-01

    Threshold energy measurements of transient rotational stimulated Raman scattering are compared to Raman conversion calculations from semiclassical theories using a simple concept of a gain reduction factor which expresses the reduction of the gain from its steady-state value due to transient

  1. Modelling SANS and SAXS data

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Reynolds, P.

    1999-01-01

    Full text: Small angle scattering data while on an absolute scale and relatively accurate over large ranges of observables (0.003 -1 ; 0.1 -1 ) is often relatively featureless. I will address some of the problems this causes, and some of the ways of minimising these, by reference to our recent SANS results. For the benefit of newer chums this will involve discussion of the strengths and weaknesses of data from ISIS (LOQ), Argonne (SAND) and the I.L.L. (D22), and the consequences these have for modelling. The use of simple portable or remote access systems for modelling will be discussed - in particular the IGOR based NIST system of Dr. S. Kline and the VAX based FISH system of Dr. R. Heenan, ISIS. I will illustrate that a wide variety of physically appealing and complete models are now available. If you have reason to believe in a particular microstructure, this belief can now be either falsified, or the microstructure quantified, by fitting to the entire set of scattering patterns over the entire Q-range. For example, only in cases of drastic ignorance need we use only Guinier and Porod analyses, although these may provide useful initial guidance in the modelling. We now rarely need to use oversimplified logically incomplete models - such as spherical micelles with neglect of intermicellar correlation- now that we possess fast desktop/experimental computers

  2. The measurement of plasma temperature by height scattering

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Katzenstein, J.

    1976-04-01

    One of the most accurate methods for the determination of the electron and ion temperature of a plasma is the measurement of the spectrum of the light scattered from a monoshromatic laser beam by the plasma electrons. The simple case of uncorrelated electrons is treated in detail showing the scattered spectrum to be a simple Gaussian whose half-breadth is proportional to the mean electron thermal velocity hence the square root of electron temperature. The results of a more general treatment are also reviewed which takes into account electron-ion correlations. Experimental requirements on the laser, the spetral instrumentation, and the data analysis are discussed. (author)

  3. SAXS Study of Sterically Stabilized Lipid Nanocarriers Functionalized by DNA

    Science.gov (United States)

    Angelov, Borislav; Angelova, Angelina; Filippov, Sergey; Karlsson, Göran; Terrill, Nick; Lesieur, Sylviane; Štěpánek, Petr

    2012-03-01

    The structure of novel spontaneously self-assembled plasmid DNA/lipid complexes is investigated by means of synchrotron radiation small-angle X-ray scattering (SAXS) and Cryo-TEM imaging. Liquid crystalline (LC) hydrated lipid systems are prepared using the non-ionic lipids monoolein and DOPE-PEG2000 and the cationic amphiphile CTAB. The employed plasmid DNA (pDNA) is encoding for the human protein brain-derived neurotrophic factor (BDNF). A coexistence of nanoparticulate objects with different LC inner organizations is established. A transition from bicontinuous membrane sponges, cubosome intermediates and unilamelar liposomes to multilamellar vesicles, functionalized by pDNA, is favoured upon binding and compaction of pBDNF onto the cationic PEGylated lipid nanocarriers. The obtained sterically stabilized multicompartment nanoobjects, with confined supercoiled plasmid DNA (pBDNF), are important in the context of multicompartment lipid nanocarriers of interest for gene therapy of neurodegenerative diseases.

  4. SAXS Study of Sterically Stabilized Lipid Nanocarriers Functionalized by DNA

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Angelov, Borislav; Filippov, Sergey; Štepánek, Petr; Angelova, Angelina; Lesieur, Sylviane; Karlsson, Göran; Terrill, Nick

    2012-01-01

    The structure of novel spontaneously self-assembled plasmid DNA/lipid complexes is investigated by means of synchrotron radiation small-angle X-ray scattering (SAXS) and Cryo-TEM imaging. Liquid crystalline (LC) hydrated lipid systems are prepared using the non-ionic lipids monoolein and DOPE-PEG 2000 and the cationic amphiphile CTAB. The employed plasmid DNA (pDNA) is encoding for the human protein brain-derived neurotrophic factor (BDNF). A coexistence of nanoparticulate objects with different LC inner organizations is established. A transition from bicontinuous membrane sponges, cubosome intermediates and unilamelar liposomes to multilamellar vesicles, functionalized by pDNA, is favoured upon binding and compaction of pBDNF onto the cationic PEGylated lipid nanocarriers. The obtained sterically stabilized multicompartment nanoobjects, with confined supercoiled plasmid DNA (pBDNF), are important in the context of multicompartment lipid nanocarriers of interest for gene therapy of neurodegenerative diseases.

  5. New features at the LURE-D22 SAXS beamline

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Lesieur, P.; Lombardo, D.; Beauchet, L; Creof, C.; Decamps, T.; Dubuisson, J.M.; Perilhous, G.

    1999-01-01

    The D22 beamline of the DCI storage ring at LURE is dedicated to the study of structural properties in the field of material science by way of the small-angle X ray scattering (SAXS) technique. The D2 bending magnet of the DCI ring offers a stable source of limited brilliance but long decay time (200 hours) so that the beam can be used up to 110 hours after an injection of the positrons in the ring. Two different settings respectively dedicated to metallurgy and soft matter share the beam time. The latter which is considered here mainly deals with ill condensed matter: non ideal solutions of amphiphiles or polymers, liquid crystals, colloids, gels, xerogels, aerogels. (author)

  6. Fluid temperature measurement technique by using Raman scattering

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    An, Jeong Soo; Yang, Sun Kyu; Min, Kyung Ho; Chung, Moon Ki; Choi, Young Don

    1999-06-01

    Temperature measurement technique by using Raman scattering was developed for the liquid water at temperature of 20 - 90 degree C and atmospheric pressure. Strong relationship between Raman scattering characteristics and liquid temperature change was observed. Various kinds of measurement techniques, such as Peak Intensity, Peak Wavelength, FWHM (Full Width at Half Maximum), PMCR ( Polymer Monomer Concentration RAte), TSIR (Temperature Sensitive Intensity Ratio), IDIA (Integral Difference Intensity Area) were tested. TSIR has the highest accuracy in mean error or 0.1 deg C and standard deviation of 0.1248 deg C. This report is one of the results in developing process of Raman temperature measurement technique. Next research step is to develop Raman temperature measurement technique at the high temperature and high pressure conditions in single or two phase flows. (author). 13 refs., 3 tabs., 38 figs

  7. SAXS Studies of TiO2 Nanoparticles in Polymer Electrolytes and in Nanostructured Films

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Sigrid Bernstorff

    2010-11-01

    Full Text Available Polymer electrolytes as nanostructured materials are very attractive components for batteries and opto-electronic devices. (PEO8ZnCl2 polymer electrolytes were prepared from PEO and ZnCl2. The nanocomposites (PEO8ZnCl2/TiO2 themselves contained TiO2 nanograins. In this work, the influence of the TiO2 nanograins on the morphology and ionic conductivity of the nanocomposite was systematically studied by transmission small-angle X-ray scattering (SAXS simultaneously recorded with wide-angle X-ray diffraction (WAXD and differential scanning calorimetry (DSC at the synchrotron ELETTRA. Films containing nanosized grains of titanium dioxide (TiO2 are widely used in the research of optical and photovoltaic devices. The TiO2 films, prepared by chemical vapor deposition and e-beam epitaxy, were annealed in hydrogen atmospheres in the temperature range between 20 °C and 900 °C in order to study anatase-rutile phase transition at 740 °C. Also, grazing-incidence small angle X-ray scattering (GISAXS spectra for each TiO2 film were measured in reflection geometry at different grazing incident angles. Environmentally friendly galvanic cells, as well as solar cells of the second generation, are to be constructed with TiO2 film as working electrode, and nanocomposite polymer as electrolyte.

  8. Sub-millisecond time-resolved SAXS using a continuous-flow mixer and X-ray microbeam

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Graceffa, Rita; Nobrega, R. Paul; Barrea, Raul A.; Kathuria, Sagar V.; Chakravarthy, Srinivas; Bilsel, Osman; Irving, Thomas C.

    2013-01-01

    The development of a high-duty-cycle microsecond time-resolution SAXS capability at the Biophysics Collaborative Access Team beamline (BioCAT) 18ID at the Advanced Photon Source, Argonne National Laboratory, USA, is reported. Small-angle X-ray scattering (SAXS) is a well established technique to probe the nanoscale structure and interactions in soft matter. It allows one to study the structure of native particles in near physiological environments and to analyze structural changes in response to variations in external conditions. The combination of microfluidics and SAXS provides a powerful tool to investigate dynamic processes on a molecular level with sub-millisecond time resolution. Reaction kinetics in the sub-millisecond time range has been achieved using continuous-flow mixers manufactured using micromachining techniques. The time resolution of these devices has previously been limited, in part, by the X-ray beam sizes delivered by typical SAXS beamlines. These limitations can be overcome using optics to focus X-rays to the micrometer size range providing that beam divergence and photon flux suitable for performing SAXS experiments can be maintained. Such micro-SAXS in combination with microfluidic devices would be an attractive probe for time-resolved studies. Here, the development of a high-duty-cycle scanning microsecond-time-resolution SAXS capability, built around the Kirkpatrick–Baez mirror-based microbeam system at the Biophysics Collaborative Access Team (BioCAT) beamline 18ID at the Advanced Photon Source, Argonne National Laboratory, is reported. A detailed description of the microbeam small-angle-scattering instrument, the turbulent flow mixer, as well as the data acquisition and control and analysis software is provided. Results are presented where this apparatus was used to study the folding of cytochrome c. Future prospects for this technique are discussed

  9. Sub-millisecond time-resolved SAXS using a continuous-flow mixer and X-ray microbeam

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Graceffa, Rita, E-mail: rita.graceffa@gmail.com [Illinois Institute of Technology, 3101 South Dearborn, Chicago, IL 60616 (United States); Nobrega, R. Paul [University of Massachusetts Medical School, 364 Plantation Street, LRB 919, Worcester, MA 01605 (United States); Barrea, Raul A. [Illinois Institute of Technology, 3101 South Dearborn, Chicago, IL 60616 (United States); Kathuria, Sagar V. [University of Massachusetts Medical School, 364 Plantation Street, LRB 919, Worcester, MA 01605 (United States); Chakravarthy, Srinivas [Illinois Institute of Technology, 3101 South Dearborn, Chicago, IL 60616 (United States); Bilsel, Osman [University of Massachusetts Medical School, 364 Plantation Street, LRB 919, Worcester, MA 01605 (United States); Irving, Thomas C. [Illinois Institute of Technology, 3101 South Dearborn, Chicago, IL 60616 (United States)

    2013-11-01

    The development of a high-duty-cycle microsecond time-resolution SAXS capability at the Biophysics Collaborative Access Team beamline (BioCAT) 18ID at the Advanced Photon Source, Argonne National Laboratory, USA, is reported. Small-angle X-ray scattering (SAXS) is a well established technique to probe the nanoscale structure and interactions in soft matter. It allows one to study the structure of native particles in near physiological environments and to analyze structural changes in response to variations in external conditions. The combination of microfluidics and SAXS provides a powerful tool to investigate dynamic processes on a molecular level with sub-millisecond time resolution. Reaction kinetics in the sub-millisecond time range has been achieved using continuous-flow mixers manufactured using micromachining techniques. The time resolution of these devices has previously been limited, in part, by the X-ray beam sizes delivered by typical SAXS beamlines. These limitations can be overcome using optics to focus X-rays to the micrometer size range providing that beam divergence and photon flux suitable for performing SAXS experiments can be maintained. Such micro-SAXS in combination with microfluidic devices would be an attractive probe for time-resolved studies. Here, the development of a high-duty-cycle scanning microsecond-time-resolution SAXS capability, built around the Kirkpatrick–Baez mirror-based microbeam system at the Biophysics Collaborative Access Team (BioCAT) beamline 18ID at the Advanced Photon Source, Argonne National Laboratory, is reported. A detailed description of the microbeam small-angle-scattering instrument, the turbulent flow mixer, as well as the data acquisition and control and analysis software is provided. Results are presented where this apparatus was used to study the folding of cytochrome c. Future prospects for this technique are discussed.

  10. SAXS determination of the structural periodicity of thermoplastic polyurethane reinforced with cellulose nanocrystals

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Prataviera, Rogerio; Bretas, Rosario E.S.; Lucas, Alessandra de A.; Poullet, Eric; Averous, Luc

    2015-01-01

    In this work, casting films were obtained from TPU reinforced with cellulose nanocrystals. The structural nano periodicity of these system was evaluated by Small Angle X-Ray Scattering, SAXS. The results indicated that the used TPU has a atypical phase separated morphology of rigid and soft segments, being observed 3 different distances them, probably due to the large polyol polyester molecule derived from colza oil used in the TPU synthesis. (author)

  11. Surface Fitting for Quasi Scattered Data from Coordinate Measuring Systems.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mao, Qing; Liu, Shugui; Wang, Sen; Ma, Xinhui

    2018-01-13

    Non-uniform rational B-spline (NURBS) surface fitting from data points is wildly used in the fields of computer aided design (CAD), medical imaging, cultural relic representation and object-shape detection. Usually, the measured data acquired from coordinate measuring systems is neither gridded nor completely scattered. The distribution of this kind of data is scattered in physical space, but the data points are stored in a way consistent with the order of measurement, so it is named quasi scattered data in this paper. Therefore they can be organized into rows easily but the number of points in each row is random. In order to overcome the difficulty of surface fitting from this kind of data, a new method based on resampling is proposed. It consists of three major steps: (1) NURBS curve fitting for each row, (2) resampling on the fitted curve and (3) surface fitting from the resampled data. Iterative projection optimization scheme is applied in the first and third step to yield advisable parameterization and reduce the time cost of projection. A resampling approach based on parameters, local peaks and contour curvature is proposed to overcome the problems of nodes redundancy and high time consumption in the fitting of this kind of scattered data. Numerical experiments are conducted with both simulation and practical data, and the results show that the proposed method is fast, effective and robust. What's more, by analyzing the fitting results acquired form data with different degrees of scatterness it can be demonstrated that the error introduced by resampling is negligible and therefore it is feasible.

  12. Direct investigations of deformation and yield induced structure transitions in polyamide 6 below glass transition temperature with WAXS and SAXS

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Guo, Huilong; Wang, Jiayi; Zhou, Chengbo

    2015-01-01

    Deformation and yield induced structure transitions of polyamide 6 (PA6) were detected with the combination of the wide- and small-angle X-ray scattering (WAXS and SAXS) at 30 degrees C below glass transition temperature (T-g) of PA6. During deformation, gamma-alpha phase transition was found...... at elastic stage. The concentrated stress in crystals at elastic stage provided adequate energy for the direct gamma-alpha phase transition under T-g. The force to promote the gamma-phase into a phase directly is insufficient at the yield stage and a transient phase as a compromise was formed. The transient...... phase was confirmed by DSC measurements and assisted the gamma-alpha phase transition indirectly. The gamma-phase slips into incomplete fragments at yield point, and the parts along tensile direction are responsible for the formation of transient phase. The gamma-fragments after yield is oriented...

  13. Automated microfluidic sample-preparation platform for high-throughput structural investigation of proteins by small-angle X-ray scattering

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Lafleur, Josiane P.; Snakenborg, Detlef; Nielsen, Søren Skou

    2011-01-01

    A new microfluidic sample-preparation system is presented for the structural investigation of proteins using small-angle X-ray scattering (SAXS) at synchrotrons. The system includes hardware and software features for precise fluidic control, sample mixing by diffusion, automated X-ray exposure...... control, UV absorbance measurements and automated data analysis. As little as 15 l of sample is required to perform a complete analysis cycle, including sample mixing, SAXS measurement, continuous UV absorbance measurements, and cleaning of the channels and X-ray cell with buffer. The complete analysis...

  14. Complex fluids under microflow probed by SAXS: rapid microfabrication and analysis

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Martin, Hazel P; Luckham, Paul F; Cabral, Joao T; Brooks, Nicholas J; Seddon, John M; Terrill, Nick J; Kowalski, Adam J

    2010-01-01

    We report a combined microfluidic and online synchrotron small-angle X-ray scattering (SAXS) study of complex surfactant mixtures under flow. We investigate the influence of a series of flow constrictions, generating well-defined, periodic extensional flow fields, on the microstructure of two model surfactant mixtures containing SDS and CTAC. Specifically, the lamella spacing, orientation and structural order are reported and correlated with the imposed flow field: geometry, flow velocity and residence time. The design, fabrication and operation of a microfluidic system using rapid prototyping is described in detail. We show that polydimethyl siloxane (PDMS), ubiquitous in microfabrication, provides a suitable matrix for SAXS microdevices provided that: (i) PDMS thickness are kept to a minimum while retaining structural integrity (∼1000μm) and (ii) scattering from the structure of interest is sufficiently decoupled from the amorphous background scattering. The combination SAXS-microfluidics provides unprecedented opportunities to elucidate the non-equilibrium structure formation and relaxation of complex fluids, demonstrated here for concentrated surfactant mixtures.

  15. Complex fluids under microflow probed by SAXS: rapid microfabrication and analysis

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Martin, Hazel P; Luckham, Paul F; Cabral, Joao T [Department of Chemical Engineering, Imperial College London, Exhibition Road, London SW7 2AZ (United Kingdom); Brooks, Nicholas J; Seddon, John M [Department of Chemistry, Imperial College London, Exhibition Road, London SW7 2AZ (United Kingdom); Terrill, Nick J [Diamond Light Source Ltd., Diamond House, Harwell Science and Innovation Campus, Chilton, Didcot, Oxfordshire, OX11 0DE (United Kingdom); Kowalski, Adam J, E-mail: j.cabral@imperial.ac.u [Unilever Research and Development, Port Sunlight Laboratory, Bebington, Wirral, CH63 3JW (United Kingdom)

    2010-10-01

    We report a combined microfluidic and online synchrotron small-angle X-ray scattering (SAXS) study of complex surfactant mixtures under flow. We investigate the influence of a series of flow constrictions, generating well-defined, periodic extensional flow fields, on the microstructure of two model surfactant mixtures containing SDS and CTAC. Specifically, the lamella spacing, orientation and structural order are reported and correlated with the imposed flow field: geometry, flow velocity and residence time. The design, fabrication and operation of a microfluidic system using rapid prototyping is described in detail. We show that polydimethyl siloxane (PDMS), ubiquitous in microfabrication, provides a suitable matrix for SAXS microdevices provided that: (i) PDMS thickness are kept to a minimum while retaining structural integrity ({approx}1000{mu}m) and (ii) scattering from the structure of interest is sufficiently decoupled from the amorphous background scattering. The combination SAXS-microfluidics provides unprecedented opportunities to elucidate the non-equilibrium structure formation and relaxation of complex fluids, demonstrated here for concentrated surfactant mixtures.

  16. Scanning small angle X-ray scattering investigations of bone

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Rinnerthaler, S.

    1998-06-01

    An important characteristic of bone is its strength, which is determined by bone mass, architecture and material quality. From a physical point of view bone is a composite material consisting of an organic matrix (collagen) and of inlets of mineral crystals (hydroxyapatite). These components build up a hierarchical, heterogeneous structure. The size of the mineral crystals lies in the nano-meter range and can be investigated by positionsensitive Small-Angle X-ray Scattering (Scanning-SAXS) in a non-destructive way. The average thickness, the degree and direction of the predominant orientation, as well as some information about shape and arrangement of the mineral crystals were determined in bones of humans, mice, and baboons by Scanning-SAXS with respect to age, bone diseases (osteogenesis imperfecta, pycnodysostosis) or medical treatments (fluoride or alendronate) of osteoporosis. The crystal thickness and the degree of orientation is much smaller in young individuals than in adults and the predominant orientation of the mineral crystals is different in a mixture of bone and mineralized cartilage compared to bone. Further, because position-resolved measurements are now possible, results from Scanning-SAXS measurements could be compared with the results of other position resolved methods. Due to this new feature it was possible, for the first time, to correlate directly 'mottled' bone visible in back-scattered electron imaging with small η-parameters evaluated from SAXS-patterns and the course of the collagen fibers with the predominant orientation of the mineral crystals. Scanning-SAXS proved to be a powerful tool to characterize bone nano-structure. (author)

  17. USAXS and SAXS from cancer-bearing breast tissue samples

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Fernandez, M.; Suhonen, H.; Keyrilaeinen, J.; Bravin, A.; Fiedler, S.; Karjalainen-Lindsberg, M.-L.; Leidenius, M.; Smitten, K. von; Suortti, P.

    2008-01-01

    USAXS and SAXS patterns from cancer-bearing human breast tissue samples were recorded at beamline ID02 of the ESRF using a Bonse-Hart camera and a pinhole camera. The samples were classified as being ductal carcinoma, grade II, and ductal carcinoma in situ, partly invasive. The samples included areas of healthy collagen, invaded collagen, necrotic ducts with calcifications, and adipose tissue. The scattering patterns were analyzed in different ways to separate the scattering contribution and the direct beam from the observed rocking curve (RC) of the analyzer. It was found that USAXS from all tissues was weak, and the effects on the analyzer RC were observed only in the low-intensity tails of the patterns. The intrinsic RC was convolved with different model functions for the impulse response of the sample, and the best fit with experiment was obtained by the Pearson VII function. Significantly different distributions for the Pearson exponent m were obtained in benign and malignant regions of the samples. For a comparison with analyzer-based imaging (ABI) or diffraction enhanced imaging (DEI) a 'long-slit' integration of the patterns was performed, and this emphasized the scattering contribution in the tails of the rocking curve

  18. Measurement of neutrino flux from neutrino-electron elastic scattering

    Science.gov (United States)

    Park, J.; Aliaga, L.; Altinok, O.; Bellantoni, L.; Bercellie, A.; Betancourt, M.; Bodek, A.; Bravar, A.; Budd, H.; Cai, T.; Carneiro, M. F.; Christy, M. E.; Chvojka, J.; da Motta, H.; Dytman, S. A.; Díaz, G. A.; Eberly, B.; Felix, J.; Fields, L.; Fine, R.; Gago, A. M.; Galindo, R.; Ghosh, A.; Golan, T.; Gran, R.; Harris, D. A.; Higuera, A.; Kleykamp, J.; Kordosky, M.; Le, T.; Maher, E.; Manly, S.; Mann, W. A.; Marshall, C. M.; Martinez Caicedo, D. A.; McFarland, K. S.; McGivern, C. L.; McGowan, A. M.; Messerly, B.; Miller, J.; Mislivec, A.; Morfín, J. G.; Mousseau, J.; Naples, D.; Nelson, J. K.; Norrick, A.; Nuruzzaman; Osta, J.; Paolone, V.; Patrick, C. E.; Perdue, G. N.; Rakotondravohitra, L.; Ramirez, M. A.; Ray, H.; Ren, L.; Rimal, D.; Rodrigues, P. A.; Ruterbories, D.; Schellman, H.; Solano Salinas, C. J.; Tagg, N.; Tice, B. G.; Valencia, E.; Walton, T.; Wolcott, J.; Wospakrik, M.; Zavala, G.; Zhang, D.; Miner ν A Collaboration

    2016-06-01

    Muon-neutrino elastic scattering on electrons is an observable neutrino process whose cross section is precisely known. Consequently a measurement of this process in an accelerator-based νμ beam can improve the knowledge of the absolute neutrino flux impinging upon the detector; typically this knowledge is limited to ˜10 % due to uncertainties in hadron production and focusing. We have isolated a sample of 135 ±17 neutrino-electron elastic scattering candidates in the segmented scintillator detector of MINERvA, after subtracting backgrounds and correcting for efficiency. We show how this sample can be used to reduce the total uncertainty on the NuMI νμ flux from 9% to 6%. Our measurement provides a flux constraint that is useful to other experiments using the NuMI beam, and this technique is applicable to future neutrino beams operating at multi-GeV energies.

  19. Fitting phase shifts to electron-ion elastic scattering measurements

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Per, M.C.; Dickinson, A.S.

    2000-01-01

    We have derived non-Coulomb phase shifts from measured differential cross sections for electron scattering by the ions Na + , Cs + , N 3+ , Ar 8+ and Xe 6+ at energies below the inelastic threshold. Values of the scaled squared deviation between the observed and fitted differential cross sections, χ 2 , for the best-fit phase shifts were typically in the range 3-6 per degree of freedom. Generally good agreement with experiment is obtained, except for wide-angle scattering by Ar 8+ and Xe 6+ . Current measurements do not define phase shifts to better than approx. 0.1 rad even in the most favourable circumstances and uncertainties can be much larger. (author)

  20. Proton-proton elastic scattering measurements at COSY

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Bagdasarian, Zara [Forschungszentrum Juelich, Juelich (Germany); Tbilisi State University, Tbilisi (Georgia); Collaboration: ANKE-Collaboration

    2014-07-01

    To construct the reliable phase shift analysis (PSA) that can successfully describe the nucleon-nucleon (NN) interaction it is necessary to measure variety of experimental observables for both proton-proton (pp) and neutron-proton (np) elastic scattering. The polarized beams and targets at COSY-ANKE facility allow a substantial contribution to the existing database. The experiment was carried out in April 2013 at ANKE using a transversely polarized proton beam incident on an unpolarized hydrogen cluster target. Six beam energies of T{sub p}=0.8,1.6,1.8,2.0,2.2,2.4 GeV were used. The aim of this talk is to present the preliminary results for the analyzing power (A{sub y}) for the pp elastic scattering in the so-far unexplored 5 <θ{sub cm}<30 angular range. Our measurements are also compared to the world data and current partial wave solutions.

  1. Light scattering measurements supporting helical structures for chromatin in solution.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Campbell, A M; Cotter, R I; Pardon, J F

    1978-05-01

    Laser light scattering measurements have been made on a series of polynucleosomes containing from 50 to 150 nucleosomes. Radii of gyration have been determined as a function of polynucleosome length for different ionic strength solutions. The results suggest that at low ionic strength the chromatin adopts a loosely helical structure rather than a random coil. The helix becomes more regular on increasing the ionic strength, the dimension resembling those proposed by Finch and Klug for their solenoid model.

  2. Polarization Measurements in elastic electron-deuteron scattering

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Garcon, M.

    1989-01-01

    The deuteron electromagnetic form factors, are recalled. The experiment, recently performed in the Bates accelerator (M.I.T.), is described. The aim of the experiment is the measurement of the tensor polarization of the backscattered deuteron, in the elastic electron-deuteron scattering, up to q = 4.6 f/m. Different experimental methods, concerning the determination of this observable, are compared. Several improvement possibilities in this field are suggested

  3. Measurement of Deeply Virtual Compton Scattering at HERA

    CERN Document Server

    Adloff, C.; Andrieu, B.; Anthonis, T.; Arkadov, V.; Astvatsatourov, A.; Babaev, A.; Bahr, J.; Baranov, P.; Barrelet, E.; Bartel, W.; Bate, P.; Beglarian, A.; Behnke, O.; Beier, C.; Belousov, A.; Benisch, T.; Berger, Christoph; Berndt, T.; Bizot, J.C.; Boudry, V.; Braunschweig, W.; Brisson, V.; Broker, H.B.; Brown, D.P.; Bruckner, W.; Bruncko, D.; Burger, J.; Busser, F.W.; Bunyatyan, A.; Burrage, A.; Buschhorn, G.; Bystritskaya, L.; Campbell, A.J.; Cao, Jun; Caron, S.; Clarke, D.; Clerbaux, B.; Collard, C.; Contreras, J.G.; Coppens, Y.R.; Coughlan, J.A.; Cousinou, M.C.; Cox, B.E.; Cozzika, G.; Cvach, J.; Dainton, J.B.; Dau, W.D.; Daum, K.; Davidsson, M.; Delcourt, B.; Delerue, N.; Demirchyan, R.; De Roeck, A.; De Wolf, E.A.; Diaconu, C.; Dingfelder, J.; Dixon, P.; Dodonov, V.; Dowell, J.D.; Droutskoi, A.; Dubak, A.; Duprel, C.; Eckerlin, Guenter; Eckstein, D.; Efremenko, V.; Egli, S.; Eichler, R.; Eisele, F.; Eisenhandler, E.; Ellerbrock, M.; Elsen, E.; Erdmann, M.; Erdmann, W.; Faulkner, P.J.W.; Favart, L.; Fedotov, A.; Felst, R.; Ferencei, J.; Ferron, S.; Fleischer, M.; Fleming, Y.H.; Flugge, G.; Fomenko, A.; Foresti, I.; Formanek, J.; Foster, J.M.; Franke, G.; Gabathuler, E.; Gabathuler, K.; Garvey, J.; Gassner, J.; Gayler, Joerg; Gerhards, R.; Gerlich, C.; Ghazaryan, Samvel; Goerlich, L.; Gogitidze, N.; Goldberg, M.; Goodwin, C.; Grab, C.; Grassler, H.; Greenshaw, T.; Grindhammer, Guenter; Hadig, T.; Haidt, D.; Hajduk, L.; Haynes, W.J.; Heinemann, B.; Heinzelmann, G.; Henderson, R.C.W.; Hengstmann, S.; Henschel, H.; Heremans, R.; Herrera, G.; Herynek, I.; Hildebrandt, M.; Hilgers, M.; Hiller, K.H.; Hladky, J.; Hoting, P.; Hoffmann, D.; Horisberger, R.; Hurling, S.; Ibbotson, M.; Issever, C .; Jacquet, M.; Jaffre, M.; Janauschek, L.; Janssen, X.; Jemanov, V.; Jonsson, L.; Johnson, D.P.; Jones, M.A.S.; Jung, H.; Kastli, H.K.; Kant, D.; Kapichine, M.; Karlsson, M.; Karschnick, O.; Keil, F.; Keller, N.; Kennedy, J.; Kenyon, I.R.; Kermiche, S.; Kiesling, Christian M.; Kjellberg, P.; Klein, M.; Kleinwort, C.; Kluge, T.; Knies, G.; Koblitz, B.; Kolya, S.D.; Korbel, V.; Kostka, P.; Kotelnikov, S.K.; Koutouev, R.; Koutov, A.; Krehbiel, H.; Kroseberg, J.; Kruger, K.; Kupper, A.; Kuhr, T.; Kurca, T.; Lahmann, R.; Lamb, D.; Landon, M.P.J.; Lange, W.; Lastovicka, T.; Laycock, P.; Lebailly, E.; Lebedev, A.; Leissner, B.; Lemrani, R.; Lendermann, V.; Levonian, S.; Lindstroem, M.; List, B.; Lobodzinska, E.; Lobodzinski, B.; Loginov, A.; Loktionova, N.; Lubimov, V.; Luders, S.; Luke, D.; Lytkin, L.; Mahlke-Kruger, H.; Malden, N.; Malinovski, E.; Malinovski, I.; Maracek, R.; Marage, P.; Marks, J.; Marshall, R.; Martyn, H.U.; Martyniak, J.; Maxfield, S.J.; Meer, D.; Mehta, A.; Meier, K.; Meyer, A.B.; Meyer, H.; Meyer, J.; Meyer, P.O.; Mikocki, S.; Milstead, D.; Mkrtchyan, T.; Mohr, R.; Mohrdieck, S.; Mondragon, M.N.; Moreau, F.; Morozov, A.; Morris, J.V.; Muller, K.; Murin, P.; Nagovizin, V.; Naroska, B.; Naumann, J.; Naumann, T.; Nellen, G.; Newman, Paul R.; Nicholls, T.C.; Niebergall, F.; Niebuhr, C.; Nix, O.; Nowak, G.; Olsson, J.E.; Ozerov, D.; Panassik, V.; Pascaud, C.; Patel, G.D.; Peez, M.; Perez, E.; Phillips, J.P.; Pitzl, D.; Poschl, R.; Potachnikova, I.; Povh, B.; Rabbertz, K.; Radel, G.; Rauschenberger, J.; Reimer, P.; Reisert, B.; Reyna, D.; Risler, C.; Rizvi, E.; Robmann, P.; Roosen, R.; Rostovtsev, A.; Rusakov, S.; Rybicki, K.; Sankey, D.P.C.; Scheins, J.; Schilling, F.P.; Schleper, P.; Schmidt, D.; Schmidt, S.; Schmitt, S.; Schneider, M.; Schoeffel, L.; Schoning, A.; Schorner, T.; Schroder, V.; Schultz-Coulon, H.C.; Schwanenberger, C.; Sedlak, K.; Sefkow, F.; Chekelian, V.; Sheviakov, I.; Shtarkov, L.N.; Sirois, Y.; Sloan, T.; Smirnov, P.; Solovev, Y.; South, D.; Spaskov, V.; Specka, Arnd E.; Spitzer, H.; Stamen, R.; Stella, B.; Stiewe, J.; Straumann, U.; Swart, M.; Tasevsky, M.; Chernyshov, V.; Chetchelnitski, S.; Thompson, Graham; Thompson, P.D.; Tobien, N.; Traynor, D.; Truoel, Peter; Tsipolitis, G.; Tsurin, I.; Turnau, J.; Turney, J.E.; Tzamariudaki, E.; Udluft, S.; Urban, Marcel; Usik, A.; Valkar, S.; Valkarova, A.; Vallee, C.; Van Mechelen, P.; Vassilev, S.; Vazdik, Y.; Vichnevski, A.; Wacker, K.; Wallny, R.; Waugh, B.; Weber, G.; Weber, M.; Wegener, D.; Werner, C.; Werner, M.; Werner, N.; White, G.; Wiesand, S.; Wilksen, T.; Winde, M.; Winter, G.G.; Wissing, C.; Wobisch, M.; Wunsch, E.; Wyatt, A.C.; Zacek, J.; Zalesak, J.; Zhang, Z.; Zhokin, A.; Zomer, F.; Zsembery, J.; zur Nedden, M.

    2001-01-01

    A measurement is presented of elastic Deeply Virtual Compton Scattering e^+ + p -> e^+ + photon + p at HERA using data taken with the H1 detector. The cross section is measured as a function of the photon virtuality, Q^2, and the invariant mass, W, of the gamma p system, in the kinematic range 2 < Q^2 < 20 GeV^2, 30 < W < 120 GeV and |t| < 1 GeV^2, where t is the squared momentum transfer to the proton. The measurement is compared to QCD based calculations.

  4. Collective Thomson scattering measurements with high frequency resolution at TEXTOR

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Stejner Pedersen, Morten; Nielsen, Stefan Kragh; Korsholm, Søren Bang

    2010-01-01

    We discuss the development and first results of a receiver system for the collective Thomson scattering (CTS) diagnostic at TEXTOR with frequency resolution in the megahertz range or better. The improved frequency resolution expands the diagnostic range and utility of CTS measurements in general ...... and is a prerequisite for measurements of ion Bernstein wave signatures in CTS spectra. The first results from the new acquisition system are shown to be consistent with theory and with simultaneous measurements by the standard receiver system. © 2010 EURATOM...

  5. Dust grain characterization — Direct measurement of light scattering

    Science.gov (United States)

    BartoÅ, P.; Pavlů, J.

    2018-01-01

    Dust grains play a key role in dusty plasma since they interact with the plasma we can use them to study plasma itself. The grains are illuminated by visible light (e.g., a laser sheet) and the situation is captured with camera. Despite of simplicity, light scattering on similar-to-wavelength sized grains is complex phenomenon. Interaction of the electromagnetic wave with material has to be computed with respect to Maxwell equations — analytic solution is nowadays available only for several selected shapes like sphere, coated sphere, or infinite cylinder. Moreover, material constants needed for computations are usually unknown. For computation result verification and material constant determination, we designed and developed a device directly measur­ing light scattering profiles. Single dust grains are trapped in the ultrasonic field (so called "acoustic levitation") and illuminated by the laser beam. Scattered light is then measured by a photodiode mounted on rotating platform. Synchronous detection is employed for a noise reduction. This setup brings several benefits against conventional methods: (1) it works in the free air, (2) the measured grain is captured for a long time, and (3) the grain could be of arbitrary shape.

  6. Molecular bonding in SF6 measured by elastic electron scattering

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Miller, J.D.; Fink, M.

    1992-01-01

    Elastic differential cross-section measurements of gaseous SF 6 were made with 30 keV electrons in the range of 0.25 bohrs -1 ≤s≤10 bohrs -1 . Structural parameters derived in this study closely matched those found in an earlier total (elastic plus inelastic) scattering investigation. Multiple-scattering effects were incorporated in the structural refinement. The discrepancies between the independent atom model and the measured differential cross section reproduce earlier total scattering results for momentum transfers of greater than 5 bohrs -1 . By extending the measurements to smaller s values, a closer examination of a Hartree--Fock calculation for SF 6 was possible. It was found that the difference curve obtained from the Hartree--Fock calculation matched the experimental data in this region. A more quantitative analysis was performed using the analytic expressions of Bonham and Fink to compute moments of the molecular charge distribution from the differential cross-section data. Comparison of these results with similar fits to the Hartree--Fock calculation confirmed the good agreement between the Hartree--Fock calculation and the current elastic data

  7. Measurements of scattering processes in negative ion-atom collisions

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Kvale, T.J.

    1992-01-01

    This Technical Progress Report describes the progress made on the research objectives during the past twelve months. This research project is designed to provide measurements of various scattering processes which occur in H - collisions with atomic (specifically, noble gas and atomic hydrogen) targets at intermediate energies. These processes include: elastic scattering,single- and double-electron detachment, and target excitation/ionization. For the elastic and target inelastic processes where H - is scattered intact, the experimental technique of Ion Energy-Loss Spectroscopy (IELS) will be employed to identify the final target state(s). In most of the above processes, cross sections are unknown both experimentally and theoretically. The measurements in progress will provide either experimentally-determined cross sections or set upper limits to those cross sections. In either case, these measurements will be stringent tests of our understanding in energetic negative ion-atom collisions. This series of experiments required the construction of a new facility and the initial ion beam was accelerated through the apparatus in April 1991

  8. On-Going Bentonite Pore Water Studies by NMR and SAXS

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Carlsson, Torbjoern; Muurinen, Arto; Root, Andrew

    2013-01-01

    Compacted water-saturated MX-80 bentonite is presently being studied by SAXS and NMR in order to quantify the major pore water phases in the bentonite. The SAXS and NMR measurements gave very similar results indicating that the pore water is mainly distributed between two major phases (interlayer and non-interlayer water) and also indicate how these phases depend on the bentonite dry density. The results from the SAXS and NMR studies at VTT indicate the same thing: - The pore water in water-saturated compacted (?dry = 0.7-1.6 g/cm 3 ) bentonite is divided into two main phases: interlayer water and non-interlayer water. - The amounts of these pore water phases can be determined quantitatively with the above methods. (authors)

  9. In situ measurement of inelastic light scattering in natural waters

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hu, Chuanmin

    Variation in the shape of solar absorption (Fraunhofer) lines are used to study the inelastic scattering in natural waters. In addition, oxygen absorption lines near 689nm are used to study the solar stimulated chlorophyll fluorescence. The prototype Oceanic Fraunhofer Line Discriminator (OFLD) has been further developed and improved by using a well protected fiber optic - wire conductor cable and underwater electronic housing. A Monte-Carlo code and a simple code have been modified to simulate the Raman scattering, DOM fluorescence and chlorophyll fluorescence. A series of in situ measurements have been conducted in clear ocean waters in the Florida Straits, in the turbid waters of Florida Bay, and in the vicinity of a coral reef in the Dry Tortugas. By comparing the reduced data with the model simulation results, the Raman scattering coefficient, b r with an excitation wavelength at 488nm, has been verified to be 2.6 × 10-4m-1 (Marshall and Smith, 1990), as opposed to 14.4 × 10- 4m-1 (Slusher and Derr, 1975). The wavelength dependence of b r cannot be accurately determined from the data set as the reported values (λ m-4 to λ m- 5) have an insignificant effect in the natural underwater light field. Generally, in clear water, the percentage of inelastic scattered light in the total light field at /lambda 510nm. At low concentrations (a y(/lambda = 380nm) less than 0.1m-1), DOM fluorescence plays a small role in the inelastic light field. However, chlorophyll fluorescence is much stronger than Raman scattering at 685nm. In shallow waters where a sea bottom affects the ambient light field, inelastic light is negligible for the whole visible band. Since Raman scattering is now well characterized, the new OFLD can be used to measure the solar stimulated in situ fluorescence. As a result, the fluorescence signals of various bottom surfaces, from coral to macrophytes, have been measured and have been found to vary with time possibly due to nonphotochemical quenching

  10. SAXS-WAXS studies of the low-resolution structure in solution of xylose/glucose isomerase from Streptomyces rubiginosus

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kozak, Maciej; Taube, Michał

    2009-10-01

    The structure and conformation of molecule of xylose/glucose isomerase from Streptomyces rubiginosus in solution (at pH 6 and 7.6; with and without the substrate) has been studied by small- and wide-angle scattering of synchrotron radiation (SAXS-WAXS). On the basis of the SAXS-WAXS data, the low-resolution structure in solution has been reconstructed using ab inito methods. A comparison of the models of glucose isomerase shows only small differences between the model in solution and the crystal structure.

  11. Direct nn-Scattering Measurement With the Pulsed Reactor YAGUAR.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mitchell, G E; Furman, W I; Lychagin, E V; Muzichka, A Yu; Nekhaev, G V; Strelkov, A V; Sharapov, E I; Shvetsov, V N; Chernuhin, Yu I; Levakov, B G; Litvin, V I; Lyzhin, A E; Magda, E P; Crawford, B E; Stephenson, S L; Howell, C R; Tornow, W

    2005-01-01

    Although crucial for resolving the issue of charge symmetry in the nuclear force, direct measurement of nn-scattering by colliding free neutrons has never been performed. At present the Russian pulsed reactor YAGUAR is the best neutron source for performing such a measurement. It has a through channel where the neutron moderator is installed. The neutrons are counted by a neutron detector located 12 m from the reactor. In preliminary experiments an instantaneous value of 1.1 × 10(18)/cm(2)s was obtained for the thermal neutron flux density. The experiment will be performed by the DIANNA Collaboration as International Science & Technology Center (ISTC) project No. 2286.

  12. Precision measurements of linear scattering density using muon tomography

    Science.gov (United States)

    Åström, E.; Bonomi, G.; Calliari, I.; Calvini, P.; Checchia, P.; Donzella, A.; Faraci, E.; Forsberg, F.; Gonella, F.; Hu, X.; Klinger, J.; Sundqvist Ökvist, L.; Pagano, D.; Rigoni, A.; Ramous, E.; Urbani, M.; Vanini, S.; Zenoni, A.; Zumerle, G.

    2016-07-01

    We demonstrate that muon tomography can be used to precisely measure the properties of various materials. The materials which have been considered have been extracted from an experimental blast furnace, including carbon (coke) and iron oxides, for which measurements of the linear scattering density relative to the mass density have been performed with an absolute precision of 10%. We report the procedures that are used in order to obtain such precision, and a discussion is presented to address the expected performance of the technique when applied to heavier materials. The results we obtain do not depend on the specific type of material considered and therefore they can be extended to any application.

  13. X-ray coherent scattering tomography of textured material (Conference Presentation)

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zhu, Zheyuan; Pang, Shuo

    2017-05-01

    Small-angle X-ray scattering (SAXS) measures the signature of angular-dependent coherently scattered X-rays, which contains richer information in material composition and structure compared to conventional absorption-based computed tomography. SAXS image reconstruction method of a 2 or 3 dimensional object based on computed tomography, termed as coherent scattering computed tomography (CSCT), enables the detection of spatially-resolved, material-specific isotropic scattering signature inside an extended object, and provides improved contrast for medical diagnosis, security screening, and material characterization applications. However, traditional CSCT methods assumes materials are fine powders or amorphous, and possess isotropic scattering profiles, which is not generally true for all materials. Anisotropic scatters cannot be captured using conventional CSCT method and result in reconstruction errors. To obtain correct information from the sample, we designed new imaging strategy which incorporates extra degree of detector motion into X-ray scattering tomography for the detection of anisotropic scattered photons from a series of two-dimensional intensity measurements. Using a table-top, narrow-band X-ray source and a panel detector, we demonstrate the anisotropic scattering profile captured from an extended object and the reconstruction of a three-dimensional object. For materials possessing a well-organized crystalline structure with certain symmetry, the scatter texture is more predictable. We will also discuss the compressive schemes and implementation of data acquisition to improve the collection efficiency and accelerate the imaging process.

  14. Flow speed measurement using two-point collective light scattering

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Heinemeier, N.P.

    1998-09-01

    Measurements of turbulence in plasmas and fluids using the technique of collective light scattering have always been plagued by very poor spatial resolution. In 1994, a novel two-point collective light scattering system for the measurement of transport in a fusion plasma was proposed. This diagnostic method was design for a great improvement of the spatial resolution, without sacrificing accuracy in the velocity measurement. The system was installed at the W7-AS steallartor in Garching, Germany, in 1996, and has been operating since. This master thesis is an investigation of the possible application of this new method to the measurement of flow speeds in normal fluids, in particular air, although the results presented in this work have significance for the plasma measurements as well. The main goal of the project was the experimental verification of previous theoretical predictions. However, the theoretical considerations presented in the thesis show that the method can only be hoped to work for flows that are almost laminar and shearless, which makes it of very small practical interest. Furthermore, this result also implies that the diagnostic at W7-AS cannot be expected to give the results originally hoped for. (au)

  15. Flow speed measurement using two-point collective light scattering

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Heinemeier, N.P

    1998-09-01

    Measurements of turbulence in plasmas and fluids using the technique of collective light scattering have always been plagued by very poor spatial resolution. In 1994, a novel two-point collective light scattering system for the measurement of transport in a fusion plasma was proposed. This diagnostic method was design for a great improvement of the spatial resolution, without sacrificing accuracy in the velocity measurement. The system was installed at the W7-AS steallartor in Garching, Germany, in 1996, and has been operating since. This master thesis is an investigation of the possible application of this new method to the measurement of flow speeds in normal fluids, in particular air, although the results presented in this work have significance for the plasma measurements as well. The main goal of the project was the experimental verification of previous theoretical predictions. However, the theoretical considerations presented in the thesis show that the method can only be hoped to work for flows that are almost laminar and shearless, which makes it of very small practical interest. Furthermore, this result also implies that the diagnostic at W7-AS cannot be expected to give the results originally hoped for. (au) 1 tab., 51 ills., 29 refs.

  16. Calculation and Measurement of Low-Energy Radiative Moller Scattering

    Science.gov (United States)

    Epstein, Charles; DarkLight Collaboration

    2017-09-01

    A number of current nuclear physics experiments have come to rely on precise knowledge of electron-electron (Moller) and positron-electron (Bhabha) scattering. Some of these experiments, having lepton beams on targets containing atomic electrons, use these purely-QED processes as normalization. In other scenarios, with electron beams at low energy and very high intensity, Moller scattering and radiative Moller scattering have such enormous cross-sections that the backgrounds they produce must be understood. In this low-energy regime, the electron mass is also not negligible in the calculation of the cross section. This is important, for example, in the DarkLight experiment (100 MeV). As a result, we have developed a new event generator for the radiative Moller and Bhabha processes, with new calculations that keep all terms of the electron mass. The MIT High Voltage Research Laboratory provides us a unique opportunity to study this process experimentally and compare it with our work, at a low beam energy of 2.5 MeV where the effects of the electron mass are significant. We are preparing a dedicated apparatus consisting of a magnetic spectrometer in order to directly measure this process. An overview of the calculation and the status of the experiment will be presented.

  17. Assessing the measurement of aerosol single scattering albedo by Cavity Attenuated Phase-Shift Single Scattering Monitor (CAPS PMssa)

    Science.gov (United States)

    Perim de Faria, Julia; Bundke, Ulrich; Onasch, Timothy B.; Freedman, Andrew; Petzold, Andreas

    2016-04-01

    The necessity to quantify the direct impact of aerosol particles on climate forcing is already well known; assessing this impact requires continuous and systematic measurements of the aerosol optical properties. Two of the main parameters that need to be accurately measured are the aerosol optical depth and single scattering albedo (SSA, defined as the ratio of particulate scattering to extinction). The measurement of single scattering albedo commonly involves the measurement of two optical parameters, the scattering and the absorption coefficients. Although there are well established technologies to measure both of these parameters, the use of two separate instruments with different principles and uncertainties represents potential sources of significant errors and biases. Based on the recently developed cavity attenuated phase shift particle extinction monitor (CAPS PM_{ex) instrument, the CAPS PM_{ssa instrument combines the CAPS technology to measure particle extinction with an integrating sphere capable of simultaneously measuring the scattering coefficient of the same sample. The scattering channel is calibrated to the extinction channel, such that the accuracy of the single scattering albedo measurement is only a function of the accuracy of the extinction measurement and the nephelometer truncation losses. This gives the instrument an accurate and direct measurement of the single scattering albedo. In this study, we assess the measurements of both the extinction and scattering channels of the CAPS PM_{ssa through intercomparisons with Mie theory, as a fundamental comparison, and with proven technologies, such as integrating nephelometers and filter-based absorption monitors. For comparison, we use two nephelometers, a TSI 3563 and an Aurora 4000, and two measurements of the absorption coefficient, using a Particulate Soot Absorption Photometer (PSAP) and a Multi Angle Absorption Photometer (MAAP). We also assess the indirect absorption coefficient

  18. Preliminary study of human breast tissue using synchrotron radiation combining WAXS and SAXS techniques

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Conceicao, A.L.C.; Antoniassi, M.; Poletti, M.E.; Caldas, L.V.E.

    2010-01-01

    Using synchrotron radiation, we combined simultaneously wide angle X-ray scattering (WAXS) and small angle X-ray scattering (SAXS) techniques to obtain the scattering profiles of normal and neoplastic breast tissues samples at the momentum transfer range 6.28 nm -1 ≤Q(=4π.sin(θ/2)/λ)≤50.26 nm -1 and 0.15 nm -1 ≤Q≤1.90 nm -1 , respectively. The results obtained show considerable differences between the scattering profiles of these tissues. We verified that the combination of some parameters (ratio between glandular and adipose peak intensity and third-order axial peak intensity) extracted from scattering profiles can be used for identifying breast cancer.

  19. SANS and SAXS study of block copolymer/homopolymer mixtures

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Hasegawa, Hirokazu; Tanaka, Hideaki; Hashimoto, Takeji; Han, C.C.

    1991-01-01

    The lateral and vertical components of the radius of gyration for a single block copolymer chain and those of a single homopolymer chain in the lamellar microdomain space formed by a mixture of diblock copolymers and homopolymers were investigated by means of small-angle neutron scattering (SANS) and the microdomain structures by small-angle X-ray scattering (SAXS). The homopolymers whose molecular weights are much smaller than that of the corresponding chains of the block copolymers were used so that the homopolymers were uniformly solubilized in the corresponding microdomains. The SANS result suggests that the homopolymer chains in the microdomain space as well as the block copolymer chains are more compressed in the direction parallel to the interface and more stretched in the direction perpendicular to the interface than the corresponding unperturbed polymer chains with the same molecular weight. On increasing the volume fraction of the homopolymers the thickness of the lamellar microdomains increases. The block copolymer chains were found to undergo an isochoric affine deformation on addition of the homopolymers or with the change of the thickness of the lamellar microdomains. (orig.)

  20. Measuring aniseikonia using scattering filters to simulate cataract

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wilson, Jason

    2011-12-01

    The relationship between anisometropia and aniseikonia (ANK) is not well understood. Ametropic cataract patients provide a unique opportunity to study this relationship after undergoing emmetropizing lens extraction. Because light scatter may affect ANK measurement in cataract patients, its effect should also be evaluated. The Basic Aniseikonia Test (BAT) was evaluated using afocal size lenses to produce specific changes in retinal height. Several light scattering devices were then evaluated to determine which produced effects most similar to cataract. Contrast sensitivity and visual acuity (VA) losses were measured with each device and compared to those reported in cataract. After determining the most appropriate light scattering device, twenty healthy patients with normal visual function were recruited to perform the BAT using the filters to simulate cataract. Cataract patients were recruited from Vision America and the University of Alabama at Birmingham School of Optometry. Patients between 20 and 75 years of age with at least 20/80 VA in each eye, ≥ 2D ametropia, and normal binocular function were recruited. Stereopsis and ANK were tested and each patient completed a symptom questionnaire. ANK measurements using afocal size lenses indicated that the BAT underestimates ANK, although the effect was minimal for vertical targets and darkened surroundings, as previously reported. Based on VA and contrast sensitivity loss, Vistech scattering filters produced changes most similar to cataract. Results of the BAT using Vistech filters demonstrated that a moderate cataract but not a mild cataract may affect the ANK measurement. ANK measurements on cataract patients indicated that those with ≥ 2 D ametropia in each eye may suffer from induced ANK after the first cataract extraction. With upcoming healthcare reform, unilateral cataract extraction may be covered, but not necessarily bilateral, depending on patient VA in each eye. However, a questionnaire about symptoms

  1. Sub-millisecond time-resolved SAXS using a continuous-flow mixer and X-ray microbeam.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Graceffa, Rita; Nobrega, R Paul; Barrea, Raul A; Kathuria, Sagar V; Chakravarthy, Srinivas; Bilsel, Osman; Irving, Thomas C

    2013-11-01

    Small-angle X-ray scattering (SAXS) is a well established technique to probe the nanoscale structure and interactions in soft matter. It allows one to study the structure of native particles in near physiological environments and to analyze structural changes in response to variations in external conditions. The combination of microfluidics and SAXS provides a powerful tool to investigate dynamic processes on a molecular level with sub-millisecond time resolution. Reaction kinetics in the sub-millisecond time range has been achieved using continuous-flow mixers manufactured using micromachining techniques. The time resolution of these devices has previously been limited, in part, by the X-ray beam sizes delivered by typical SAXS beamlines. These limitations can be overcome using optics to focus X-rays to the micrometer size range providing that beam divergence and photon flux suitable for performing SAXS experiments can be maintained. Such micro-SAXS in combination with microfluidic devices would be an attractive probe for time-resolved studies. Here, the development of a high-duty-cycle scanning microsecond-time-resolution SAXS capability, built around the Kirkpatrick-Baez mirror-based microbeam system at the Biophysics Collaborative Access Team (BioCAT) beamline 18ID at the Advanced Photon Source, Argonne National Laboratory, is reported. A detailed description of the microbeam small-angle-scattering instrument, the turbulent flow mixer, as well as the data acquisition and control and analysis software is provided. Results are presented where this apparatus was used to study the folding of cytochrome c. Future prospects for this technique are discussed.

  2. Probabilistic Equilibrium Sampling of Protein Structures from SAXS Data and a Coarse Grained Debye Formula

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Andreetta, Christian

    -likelihood estimators for the form factors employed in the Debye formula, a theoretical forward model for SAXS profiles. The resulting computation compares favorably with the state of the art tool in the field, the program CRYSOL in the suite ATSAS. A faster, parallel implementation on Graphical Processor Units (GPUs......The present work describes the design and the implementation of a protocol for arbitrary precision computation of Small Angle X-ray Scattering (SAXS) profiles, and its inclusion in a probabilistic framework for protein structure determination. This protocol identifies a set of maximum...... of protein structures all fitting the experimental data. For the first time, we describe in full atomic detail a set of different conformations attainable by flexible polypeptides in solution. This method is not limited by assumptions in shape or size of the samples. It allows therefore to investigate...

  3. Collagen imaged by Coherent X-ray Diffraction: towards a complementary tool to conventional scanning SAXS

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Berenguer de la Cuesta, Felisa; Bean, Richard J; Bozec, Laurent; Robinson, Ian K; McCallion, Catriona; Wallace, Kris; Hiller, Jen C; Terrill, Nicholas J

    2010-01-01

    Third generation x-ray sources offer unique possibilities for exploiting coherence in the study of materials. New insights in the structure and dynamics of soft condensed matter and biological samples can be obtained by coherent x-ray diffraction (CXD). However, the experimental procedures for applying these methods to collagen tissues are still under development. We present here an investigation for the optimal procedure in order to obtain high quality CXD data from collagen tissues. Sample handling and preparation and adequate coherence defining apertures are among the more relevant factors to take into account. The impact of the results is also discussed, in particular in comparison with the information that can be extracted from conventional scanning small angle x-ray scattering (SAXS). Images of collagen tissues obtained by CXD reconstructions will give additional information about the local structure with higher resolution and will complement scanning SAXS images.

  4. Collagen imaged by Coherent X-ray Diffraction: towards a complementary tool to conventional scanning SAXS

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Berenguer de la Cuesta, Felisa; Bean, Richard J; Bozec, Laurent; Robinson, Ian K [London Centre for Nanotechnology (LCN), University College London (UCL), London WC1H 0AH (United Kingdom); McCallion, Catriona; Wallace, Kris [Department of Physics and Astronomy, University College London (UCL), London WC1E 6BT (United Kingdom); Hiller, Jen C; Terrill, Nicholas J, E-mail: f.berenguer@ucl.ac.u [Diamond Light Source, Harwell Science and Innovation Campus, Didcot, Oxfordshire OX11 0DE (United Kingdom)

    2010-10-01

    Third generation x-ray sources offer unique possibilities for exploiting coherence in the study of materials. New insights in the structure and dynamics of soft condensed matter and biological samples can be obtained by coherent x-ray diffraction (CXD). However, the experimental procedures for applying these methods to collagen tissues are still under development. We present here an investigation for the optimal procedure in order to obtain high quality CXD data from collagen tissues. Sample handling and preparation and adequate coherence defining apertures are among the more relevant factors to take into account. The impact of the results is also discussed, in particular in comparison with the information that can be extracted from conventional scanning small angle x-ray scattering (SAXS). Images of collagen tissues obtained by CXD reconstructions will give additional information about the local structure with higher resolution and will complement scanning SAXS images.

  5. A Precision Measurement of Parity Violation in Moller Scattering

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Relyea, D

    2004-05-13

    This thesis reports on E158, an experiment located in End Station A at the Stanford Linear Accelerator Center (SLAC). E158 has made the first observation of the parity violating right-left asymmetry (A{sub PV}) in fixed-target low-Q{sup 2} Moeller scattering. At tree level, A{sub PV} (expected to be around -150 ppb) is directly proportional to 1/4 - sin{sup 2} {theta}{sub W}. A precision measurement of A{sub PV} at low Q{sup 2} allows the running of sin{sup 2} {theta}{sub W} to be compared to the Standard Model prediction. Disagreements between the two might provide evidence for new physics at the TeV scale. This thesis presents the first physics data from E158, taken in the spring of 2002. The data were taken by scattering longitudinally polarized electrons at 45.0 and 48.3 GeV off a liquid hydrogen target at a Q{sup 2} of 0.027 GeV{sup 2}. A 60 meter long spectrometer/collimator system and a cooper-quartz calorimeter were used to detect the Moeller signal electrons. Both devices will be described in detail. The right-left parity violating asymmetry in Moeller scattering has been measured to be -152.3 {+-} 29.0(stat) {+-} 30.9(syst) ppb. The value of sin{sup 2} {theta}{sub W} derived from this measurement is 0.2370 {+-} 0.0025(stat) {+-} 0.0026(syst), in comparison with the Standard Model prediction of 0.2387 {+-} 0.0007.

  6. Two-phase flow measurement based on oblique laser scattering

    Science.gov (United States)

    Vendruscolo, Tiago P.; Fischer, Robert; Martelli, Cícero; Rodrigues, Rômulo L. P.; Morales, Rigoberto E. M.; da Silva, Marco J.

    2015-07-01

    Multiphase flow measurements play a crucial role in monitoring productions processes in many industries. To guarantee the safety of processes involving multiphase flows, it is important to detect changes in the flow conditions before they can cause damage, often in fractions of seconds. Here we demonstrate how the scattering pattern of a laser beam passing a two-phase flow under an oblique angle to the flow direction can be used to detect derivations from the desired flow conditions in microseconds. Applying machine-learning techniques to signals obtained from three photo-detectors we achieve a compact, versatile, low-cost sensor design for safety applications.

  7. Measuring the complex field scattered by single submicron particles

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Potenza, Marco A. C., E-mail: marco.potenza@unimi.it; Sanvito, Tiziano [Department of Physics, University of Milan, via Celoria, 16 – I-20133 Milan (Italy); CIMAINA, University of Milan, via Celoria, 16 – I-20133 Milan (Italy); EOS s.r.l., viale Ortles 22/4, I-20139 Milan (Italy); Pullia, Alberto [Department of Physics, University of Milan, via Celoria, 16 – I-20133 Milan (Italy)

    2015-11-15

    We describe a method for simultaneous measurements of the real and imaginary parts of the field scattered by single nanoparticles illuminated by a laser beam, exploiting a self-reference interferometric scheme relying on the fundamentals of the Optical Theorem. Results obtained with calibrated spheres of different materials are compared to the expected values obtained through a simplified analytical model without any free parameters, and the method is applied to a highly polydisperse water suspension of Poly(D,L-lactide-co-glycolide) nanoparticles. Advantages with respect to existing methods and possible applications are discussed.

  8. Measuring the Contribution of Atmospheric Scatter to Laser Eye Dazzle

    Science.gov (United States)

    2015-09-01

    lasers; (140.3360) Laser safety and eye protection; (290.5820) Scattering measurements; (330.4060) Vision modeling; (330.4595) Optical effects on... vision . http://dx.doi.org/10.1364/A0.54.007567 1. INTRODUCTION Laser eye dazzle is the temporary visual obscurat ion caused by visible wavelength laser...2003). 6. P. Padmos, “Glare and tunnel entrance lighting: effects of stray light from eye, atmosphere and windscreen,” CIE J. 3, 1–24 (1984). 7. W. C

  9. Listening to light scattering in turbid media: quantitative optical scattering imaging using photoacoustic measurements with one-wavelength illumination

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Yuan, Zhen; Li, Xiaoqi; Xi, Lei

    2014-01-01

    Biomedical photoacoustic tomography (PAT), as a potential imaging modality, can visualize tissue structure and function with high spatial resolution and excellent optical contrast. It is widely recognized that the ability of quantitatively imaging optical absorption and scattering coefficients from photoacoustic measurements is essential before PAT can become a powerful imaging modality. Existing quantitative PAT (qPAT), while successful, has been focused on recovering absorption coefficient only by assuming scattering coefficient a constant. An effective method for photoacoustically recovering optical scattering coefficient is presently not available. Here we propose and experimentally validate such a method for quantitative scattering coefficient imaging using photoacoustic data from one-wavelength illumination. The reconstruction method developed combines conventional PAT with the photon diffusion equation in a novel way to realize the recovery of scattering coefficient. We demonstrate the method using various objects having scattering contrast only or both absorption and scattering contrasts embedded in turbid media. The listening-to-light-scattering method described will be able to provide high resolution scattering imaging for various biomedical applications ranging from breast to brain imaging. (papers)

  10. SCATTER

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Broome, J.

    1965-11-01

    The programme SCATTER is a KDF9 programme in the Egtran dialect of Fortran to generate normalized angular distributions for elastically scattered neutrons from data input as the coefficients of a Legendre polynomial series, or from differential cross-section data. Also, differential cross-section data may be analysed to produce Legendre polynomial coefficients. Output on cards punched in the format of the U.K. A. E. A. Nuclear Data Library is optional. (author)

  11. Thomson scattering measurements from asymmetric interpenetrating plasma flows

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Ross, J. S., E-mail: ross36@llnl.gov; Moody, J. D.; Fiuza, F.; Ryutov, D.; Divol, L.; Huntington, C. M.; Park, H.-S. [Lawrence Livermore National Laboratory, P.O. Box 808, Livermore, California 94551 (United States)

    2014-11-15

    Imaging Thomson scattering measurements of collective ion-acoustic fluctuations have been utilized to determine ion temperature and density from laser produced counter-streaming asymmetric flows. Two foils are heated with 8 laser beams each, 500 J per beam, at the Omega Laser facility. Measurements are made 4 mm from the foil surface using a 60 J 2ω probe laser with a 200 ps pulse length. Measuring the electron density and temperature from the electron-plasma fluctuations constrains the fit of the multi-ion species, asymmetric flows theoretical form factor for the ion feature such that the ion temperatures, ion densities, and flow velocities for each plasma flow are determined.

  12. Bone composition measured by x-ray scattering

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Newton, M.; Hukins, D.W.L.

    1992-01-01

    Ten composite samples consisting of cortical bone and adipose tissue, in known proportions, were made. The intensity of monochromatic x-rays (energy 8 keV) scattered by these samples was determined as a function of the modulus of the scattering vector, K. The ratio of the heights of peaks at K values of around 134 and 22 nm -1 provided a measure of the ratio of adipose tissue to bone mineral in these samples. This method was then used to determine the ratio of adipose tissue to mineral in samples of trabecular bone from 16 vertebral bodies. The results were correlated with measurements of the bone composition determined by ashing (r = 0.66) and histomorphometry (r = 0.66). Furthermore, the ashing and histomorphometry results were correlated with each other (r = 0.68). The feasibility of using higher energy x-rays (35-80 keV) for obtaining the same information from bone within the body is briefly discussed. (author)

  13. BeppoSAX Observations of MKN 110

    Science.gov (United States)

    Nicastro, Fabrizio; Oliversen, Ronald J. (Technical Monitor)

    2002-01-01

    Mkn 110 is a bright, nearby Seyfert 1 galaxy, which underwent a long optical monitoring campaign, during the past 12 years. Optical observations show that Mkn 110 vary, both in flux and spectral shape. The intensity and width of its Broad Emission Lines (BELs) also vary, from typical Seyfert 1, to typical Narrow Line Seyfert 1 (NLSyl) values, so suggesting that this could be the first supermassive black holes where accretion state related transitions, as frequently observed in stellar-size black holes, have finally been observed. To verify these suggestions we asked to monitor Mkn 110 with BeppoSAX with three 50 ksec observations six months apart. The goal of the proposal was to observe spectral variations in X-ray, already suggested by previous, existing ROSAT (Roentgen Satellite) and ASCA (Advanced Satellite for Cosmology and Astrophysics) observations of the same source. The first of these three SAX (Satellite per Astronomia X) observations was taken on May 2000, and lacks the Low-Energy instrument (0.1-2 keV is the band in which NLSy1 and Sy1 X-ray spectra differ most).

  14. In situ SAXS experiment during DNA and liposome complexation

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Gasperini, A.A.; Cavalcanti, L.P. [Laboratorio Nacional de Luz Sincrotron (LNLS), Campinas, SP (Brazil); Balbino, T.A.; Torre, L.G. de la [Universidade Estadual de Campinas (UNICAMP), SP (Brazil); Oliveira, C.L.P. [Universidade de Sao Paulo (USP), Sao Paulo, SP (Brazil)

    2012-07-01

    Full text: Gene therapy is an exciting research area that allows the treatment of different diseases. Basically, an engineered DNA that codes a protein is the therapeutic drug that has to be delivered to the cell nucleus. After that, the DNA transfection process allows the protein production using the cell machinery. However, the efficient delivery needs DNA protection against nucleases and interstitial fluids. In this context, the use of cationic liposome/DNA complexes is a promising strategy for non-viral gene therapy. Liposomes are lipid systems that self-aggregate in bilayers and the use of cationic lipids allows the electrostatic complexation with DNA. In this work, we used SAXS technique to study the complexation kinetics between cationic liposomes and plasmid DNA and evaluate the liposome structural modifications in the presence of DNA. Liposomes were prepared according to [1] using as plasmid DNA vector model a modified version of pVAX1-GFP with luciferase as reporter gene [2]. The complexation was promoted in a SAXS sample holder containing a microchannel to get access to the compartment between two mica windows where the X-ray beam could cross through [3]. We obtained in situ complexation using such sample holder coupled to a fed-batch reactor through a peristaltic pump. The scattering curves were recorded each 30 seconds during the cycles. The DNA was added until a certain final ratio between surface charges previously determined. We studied the form and structure factor model for the liposome bilayer to fit the scattering curves [4]. Structural information such as the bilayer electronic density profiles, number of bilayers and fluidity were determined as a function of the complexation with DNA. These differences can reflect in singular in vitro and in vivo effects. [1] L. G. de la Torre et al. Colloids and Surfaces B: Biointerfaces, 73, 175 (2009) [2] A. R. Azzoni et al. The Journal of Gene Medicine, 9, 392 (2007) [3] L. P. Cavalcanti et al. Review of

  15. Measurement of the Weak Mixing Angle in Moller Scattering

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Klejda, B.

    2005-01-28

    The weak mixing parameter, sin{sup 2} {theta}{sub w}, is one of the fundamental parameters of the Standard Model. Its tree-level value has been measured with high precision at energies near the Z{sup 0} pole; however, due to radiative corrections at the one-loop level, the value of sin{sup 2} {theta}{sub w} is expected to change with the interaction energy. As a result, a measurement of sin{sup 2} {theta}{sub w} at low energy (Q{sup 2} << m{sub Z}, where Q{sup 2} is the momentum transfer and m{sub Z} is the Z boson mass), provides a test of the Standard Model at the one-loop level, and a probe for new physics beyond the Standard Model. One way of obtaining sin{sup 2} {theta}{sub w} at low energy is from measuring the left-right, parity-violating asymmetry in electron-electron (Moeller) scattering: A{sub PV} = {sigma}{sub R}-{sigma}{sub L}/{sigma}{sub R}+{sigma}{sub L}, where {sigma}{sub R} and {sigma}{sub L} are the cross sections for right- and left-handed incident electrons, respectively. The parity violating asymmetry is proportional to the pseudo-scalar weak neutral current coupling in Moeller scattering, g{sub ee}. At tree level g{sub ee} = (1/4 -sin{sup 2} {theta}{sub w}). A precision measurement of the parity-violating asymmetry in Moeller scattering was performed by Experiment E158 at the Stanford Linear Accelerator Center (SLAC). During the experiment, {approx}50 GeV longitudinally polarized electrons scattered off unpolarized atomic electrons in a liquid hydrogen target, corresponding to an average momentum transfer Q{sup 2} {approx} 0.03 (GeV/c){sup 2}. The tree-level prediction for A{sub PV} at such energy is {approx}300 ppb. However one-loop radiative corrections reduce its value by {approx}40%. This document reports the E158 results from the 2002 data collection period. The parity-violating asymmetry was found to be A{sub PV} = -160 {+-} 21 (stat.) {+-} 17 (syst.) ppb, which represents the first observation of a parity-violating asymmetry in Moeller

  16. Integrative structural modeling with small angle X-ray scattering profiles

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Schneidman-Duhovny Dina

    2012-07-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Recent technological advances enabled high-throughput collection of Small Angle X-ray Scattering (SAXS profiles of biological macromolecules. Thus, computational methods for integrating SAXS profiles into structural modeling are needed more than ever. Here, we review specifically the use of SAXS profiles for the structural modeling of proteins, nucleic acids, and their complexes. First, the approaches for computing theoretical SAXS profiles from structures are presented. Second, computational methods for predicting protein structures, dynamics of proteins in solution, and assembly structures are covered. Third, we discuss the use of SAXS profiles in integrative structure modeling approaches that depend simultaneously on several data types.

  17. Application of nuclear resonance scattering for in vivo measurements

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Wielopolski, L.; Vartsky, D.; Cohn, S.H.

    1983-01-01

    Nuclear resonance scattering is applied in our laboratory to measure hepatic and cardiac iron overload. For iron analysis, a gaseous source of 4 mg MnCl 2 is introduced into an evacuated quartz vial. Following irradiation in a nuclear reactor, 56 Mn decays by beta emission to the 847-keV level of 56 Fe, which subsequently decays to the ground state of 56 Fe with a 7 ps half-life. The principal aim of this work is to evaluate the efficacy of the iron chelation therapy. Serial measurements over a time period of 6 to 12 months of a given patient will enable us to see how the iron is removed from the critical organs

  18. Measurement of isolated photon production in deep inelastic ep scattering

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Chekanov, S.; Derrick, M.; Magill, S. [Argonne National Lab., Argonne, IL (US)] (and others)

    2009-09-15

    Isolated photon production in deep inelastic ep scattering has been measured with the ZEUS detector at HERA using an integrated luminosity of 320 pb{sup -1}. Measurements were made in the isolated-photon transverse-energy and pseudo- rapidity ranges 45 GeV. Differential cross sections are presented for inclusive isolated photon production as functions of Q{sup 2}, x, E{sub T}{sup {gamma}} and {eta}{sup {gamma}}. Leading-logarithm parton-shower Monte Carlo simulations and perturbative QCD predictions give a reasonable description of the data over most of the kinematic range. (orig.)

  19. Measurement of isolated photon production in deep inelastic ep scattering

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Chekanov, S.; Derrick, M.; Magill, S.

    2009-09-01

    Isolated photon production in deep inelastic ep scattering has been measured with the ZEUS detector at HERA using an integrated luminosity of 320 pb -1 . Measurements were made in the isolated-photon transverse-energy and pseudo- rapidity ranges 4 T γ γ 2 , in the range 10 2 2 and for invariant masses of the hadronic system W X >5 GeV. Differential cross sections are presented for inclusive isolated photon production as functions of Q 2 , x, E T γ and η γ . Leading-logarithm parton-shower Monte Carlo simulations and perturbative QCD predictions give a reasonable description of the data over most of the kinematic range. (orig.)

  20. Measurement of Deeply Virtual Compton Scattering at HERA

    CERN Document Server

    Aktas, A.; Anthonis, T.; Aplin, S.; Asmone, A.; Astvatsatourov, A.; Babaev, A.; Backovic, S.; Bahr, J.; Baghdasaryan, A.; Baranov, P.; Barrelet, E.; Bartel, W.; Baudrand, S.; Baumgartner, S.; Becker, J.; Beckingham, M.; Behnke, O.; Behrendt, O.; Belousov, A.; Berger, Ch.; Berger, N.; Bizot, J.C.; Boenig, M.-O.; Boudry, V.; Bracinik, J.; Brandt, G.; Brisson, V.; Brown, D.P.; Bruncko, D.; Busser, F.W.; Bunyatyan, A.; Buschhorn, G.; Bystritskaya, L.; Campbell, A.J.; Caron, S.; Cassol-Brunner, F.; Cerny, K.; Cerny, V.; Chekelian, V.; Contreras, J.G.; Coughlan, J.A.; Cox, B.E.; Cozzika, G.; Cvach, J.; Dainton, J.B.; Dau, W.D.; Daum, K.; de Boer, Y.; Delcourt, B.; Demirchyan, R.; De Roeck, A.; Desch, K.; De Wolf, E.A.; Diaconu, C.; Dodonov, V.; Dubak, A.; Eckerlin, Guenter; Efremenko, V.; Egli, S.; Eichler, R.; Eisele, F.; Ellerbrock, M.; Elsen, E.; Erdmann, W.; Essenov, S.; Falkewicz, A.; Faulkner, P.J.W.; Favart, L.; Fedotov, A.; Felst, R.; Ferencei, J.; Finke, L.; Fleischer, M.; Fleischmann, P.; Fleming, Y.H.; Flucke, G.; Fomenko, A.; Foresti, I.; Franke, G.; Frisson, T.; Gabathuler, E.; Garutti, E.; Gayler, J.; Gerlich, C.; Ghazaryan, Samvel; Ginzburgskaya, S.; Glazov, A.; Glushkov, I.; Goerlich, L.; Goettlich, M.; Gogitidze, N.; Gorbounov, S.; Goyon, C.; Grab, C.; Greenshaw, T.; Gregori, M.; Grell, B.R.; Grindhammer, Guenter; Gwilliam, C.; Haidt, D.; Hajduk, L.; Haller, J.; Hansson, M.; Heinzelmann, G.; Henderson, R.C.W.; Henschel, H.; Henshaw, O.; Herrera, G.; Hildebrandt, M.; Hiller, K.H.; Hoffmann, D.; Horisberger, R.; Hovhannisyan, A.; Ibbotson, M.; Ismail, M.; Jacquet, M.; Janauschek, L.; Janssen, X.; Jemanov, V.; Jonsson, L.; Johnson, D.P.; Jung, H.; Kapichine, M.; Katzy, J.; Keller, N.; Kenyon, I.R.; Kiesling, Christian M.; Klein, M.; Kleinwort, C.; Klimkovich, T.; Kluge, T.; Knies, G.; Knutsson, A.; Korbel, V.; Kostka, P.; Koutouev, R.; Krastev, K.; Kretzschmar, J.; Kropivnitskaya, A.; Kruger, K.; Kuckens, J.; Landon, M.P.J.; Lange, W.; Lastovicka, T.; Lastovicka-Medin, G.; Laycock, P.; Lebedev, A.; Leiner, B.; Lendermann, V.; Levonian, S.; Lindfeld, L.; Lipka, K.; List, B.; Lobodzinska, E.; Loktionova, N.; Lopez-Fernandez, R.; Lubimov, V.; Lucaci-Timoce, A.-I.; Lueders, H.; Luke, D.; Lux, T.; Lytkin, L.; Makankine, A.; Malden, N.; Malinovski, E.; Mangano, S.; Marage, P.; Marshall, R.; Martisikova, M.; Martyn, H.-U.; Maxeld, S.J.; Meer, D.; Mehta, A.; Meier, K.; Meyer, A.B.; Meyer, H.; Meyer, J.; Mikocki, S.; Milcewicz-Mika, I.; Milstead, D.; Mladenov, D.; Mohamed, A.; Moreau, F.; Morozov, A.; Morris, J.V.; Mozer, Matthias Ulrich; Muller, K.; Murin, P.; Nankov, K.; Naroska, B.; Naumann, Th.; Newman, Paul R.; Niebuhr, C.; Nikiforov, A.; Nikitin, D.; Nowak, G.; Nozicka, M.; Oganezov, R.; Olivier, B.; Olsson, J.E.; Osman, S.; Ozerov, D.; Palichik, V.; Panagoulias, I.; Papadopoulou, T.; Pascaud, C.; Patel, G.D.; Peez, M.; Perez, E.; Perez-Astudillo, D.; Perieanu, A.; Petrukhin, A.; Pitzl, D.; Placakyte, R.; Portheault, B.; Povh, B.; Prideaux, P.; Raicevic, N.; Reimer, P.; Rimmer, A.; Risler, C.; Rizvi, E.; Robmann, P.; Roland, B.; Roosen, R.; Rostovtsev, A.; Rurikova, Z.; Rusakov, S.; Salvaire, F.; Sankey, D.P.C.; Sauvan, E.; Schatzel, S.; Schilling, F.-P.; Schmidt, S.; Schmitt, S.; Schmitz, C.; Schoeffel, L.; Schoning, A.; Schroder, V.; Schultz-Coulon, H.-C.; Sedlak, K.; Sefkow, F.; Sheviakov, I.; Shtarkov, L.N.; Sirois, Y.; Sloan, T.; Smirnov, P.; Soloviev, Y.; South, D.; Spaskov, V.; Specka, Arnd E.; Stella, B.; Stiewe, J.; Strauch, I.; Straumann, U.; Tchoulakov, V.; Thompson, Graham; Thompson, P.D.; Tomasz, F.; Traynor, D.; Truoel, Peter; Tsakov, I.; Tsipolitis, G.; Tsurin, I.; Turnau, J.; Tzamariudaki, E.; Urban, Marcel; Usik, A.; Utkin, D.; Valkar, S.; Valkarova, A.; Vallee, C.; Van Mechelen, P.; Van Remortel, N.; Vargas Trevino, A.; Vazdik, Y.; Veelken, C.; Vest, A.; Vinokurova, S.; Volchinski, V.; Vujicic, B.; Wacker, K.; Wagner, J.; Weber, G.; Weber, R.; Wegener, D.; Werner, C.; Werner, N.; Wessels, M.; Wessling, B.; Wigmore, C.; Wissing, Ch.; Wolf, R.; Wunsch, E.; Xella, S.; Yan, W.; Yeganov, V.; Zacek, J.; Zalesak, J.; Zhang, Z.; Zhelezov, A.; Zhokin, A.; Zimmermann, J.; Zimmermann, T.; Zohrabyan, H.; Zomer, F.

    2005-01-01

    A measurement is presented of elastic deeply virtual Compton scattering \\gamma* p \\to \\gamma p made using e^+ p collision data corresponding to a luminosity of 46.5 pb^{-1}, taken with the H1 detector at HERA. The cross section is measured as a function of the photon virtuality, Q^2, the invariant mass of the \\gamma* p system, W, and for the first time, differentially in the squared momentum transfer at the proton vertex, t, in the kinematic range 2 < Q^2 < 80 GeV^2, 30 < W < 140 GeV and |t| < 1 GeV^2. QCD based calculations at next-to-leading order using generalized parton distributions can describe the data, as can colour dipole model predictions.

  1. Coherent scattering and matrix correction in bone-lead measurements

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Todd, A.C.

    2000-01-01

    The technique of K-shell x-ray fluorescence of lead in bone has been used in many studies of the health effects of lead. This paper addresses one aspect of the technique, namely the coherent conversion factor (CCF) which converts between the matrix of the calibration standards and those of human bone. The CCF is conventionally considered a constant but is a function of scattering angle, energy and the elemental composition of the matrices. The aims of this study were to quantify the effect on the CCF of several assumptions which may not have been tested adequately and to compare the CCFs for plaster of Paris (the present matrix of calibration standards) and a synthetic apatite matrix. The CCF was calculated, using relativistic form factors, for published compositions of bone, both assumed and assessed compositions of plaster, and the synthetic apatite. The main findings of the study were, first, that impurities in plaster, lead in the plaster or bone matrices, coherent scatter from non-bone tissues and the individual subject's measurement geometry are all minor or negligible effects; and, second, that the synthetic apatite matrix is more representative of bone mineral than is plaster of Paris. (author)

  2. BeppoSAX Observations of 3C 279

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Maraschi, L.; Celotti, A.; Fossati, G.; Ghisellini, G.; Tagliaferri, G.; Pian, E.; Treves, A.; Raiteri, C.; Villata, M.; Bassani, L.; Cappi, M.; Chiappetti, L.; Comastri, A.; Frontera, F.; Giarrusso, S.; Grandi, P.; Molendi, S.; Palumbo, G.; Perola, C.; Salvati, M.; Tanzi, E.G.; Urry, C.M.

    1999-01-01

    We report on BeppoSAX AO1 Core Program observations of 3C 279, performed in January 1997. 3C 279 was found in a low state, with constant X-ray flux in the 5 observations. The spectra obtained with the LECS and MECS instruments combining the 5 observations are well fitted by a single power law with energy spectral index α = 0.64 ± 0.03 and Galactic absorption. The source is weakly detected by the PDS instrument. Comparison with simultaneous γ-ray data obtained by EGRET and with previous multifrequency measurements shows that the X-ray emission is well correlated with the γ-ray emission over long timescales

  3. BeppoSAX Observations of 3C 279

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Maraschi, L.; Celotti, A.; Fossati, G.; Ghisellini, G.; Tagliaferri, G.; Pian, E.; Treves, A.; Raiteri, C.; Villata, M.; Bassani, L.; Cappi, M.; Chiappetti, L.; Comastri, A.; Frontera, F.; Giarrusso, S.; Grandi, P.; Molendi, S.; Palumbo, G.; Perola, C.; Salvati, M.; Tanzi, E.G.; Urry, C.M

    1999-01-01

    We report on BeppoSAX AO1 Core Program observations of 3C 279, performed in January 1997. 3C 279 was found in a low state, with constant X-ray flux in the 5 observations. The spectra obtained with the LECS and MECS instruments combining the 5 observations are well fitted by a single power law with energy spectral index {alpha} = 0.64 {+-} 0.03 and Galactic absorption. The source is weakly detected by the PDS instrument. Comparison with simultaneous {gamma}-ray data obtained by EGRET and with previous multifrequency measurements shows that the X-ray emission is well correlated with the {gamma}-ray emission over long timescales.

  4. Soil-Carbon Measurement System Based on Inelastic Neutron Scattering

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Orion, I.; Wielopolski, L.

    2002-01-01

    Increase in the atmospheric CO 2 is associated with concurrent increase in the amount of carbon sequestered in the soil. For better understanding of the carbon cycle it is imperative to establish a better and extensive database of the carbon concentrations in various soil types, in order to develop improved models for changes in the global climate. Non-invasive soil carbon measurement is based on Inelastic Neutron Scattering (INS). This method has been used successfully to measure total body carbon in human beings. The system consists of a pulsed neutron generator that is based on D-T reaction, which produces 14 MeV neutrons, a neutron flux monitoring detector and a couple of large NaI(Tl), 6'' diameter by 6'' high, spectrometers [4]. The threshold energy for INS reaction in carbon is 4.8 MeV. Following INS of 14 MeV neutrons in carbon 4.44 MeV photons are emitted and counted during a gate pulse period of 10 μsec. The repetition rate of the neutron generator is 104 pulses per sec. The gamma spectra are acquired only during the neutron generator gate pulses. The INS method for soil carbon content measurements provides a non-destructive, non-invasive tool, which can be optimized in order to develop a system for in field measurements

  5. BeppoSAX and Chandra Observations of SAX J0103.2-7209 = 2E 0101.5-7225: A New Persistent 345 Second X-Ray Pulsar in the Small Magellanic Cloud.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Israel; Campana; Covino; Dal Fiume D; Gaetz; Mereghetti; Oosterbroek; Orlandini; Parmar; Ricci; Stella

    2000-03-10

    We report the results of a 1998 July BeppoSAX observation of a field in the Small Magellanic Cloud which led to the discovery of approximately 345 s pulsations in the X-ray flux of SAX J0103.2-7209. The BeppoSAX X-ray spectrum is well fitted by an absorbed power law with a photon index of approximately 1.0 plus a blackbody component with kT=0.11 keV. The unabsorbed luminosity in the 2-10 keV energy range is approximately 1.2x1036 ergs s-1. In a very recent Chandra observation, the 345 s pulsations are also detected. The available period measurements provide a constant period derivative of -1.7 s yr-1 over the last 3 years, making SAX J0103.2-7209 one of the most rapidly spinning up X-ray pulsars known. The BeppoSAX position (30&arcsec; uncertainty radius) is consistent with that of the Einstein source 2E 0101.5-7225 and the ROSAT source RX J0103.2-7209. This source was detected at a luminosity level of a few times 1035-1036 ergs s-1 in all data sets of past X-ray missions since 1979. The ROSAT HRI and Chandra positions are consistent with that of a mV=14.8 Be spectral-type star already proposed as the likely optical counterpart of 2E 0101.5-7225. We briefly report and discuss photometric and spectroscopic data carried out at the ESO telescopes 2 days before the BeppoSAX observation. We conclude that SAX J0103.2-7209 and 2E 0101.5-7225 are the same source: a relatively young and persistent X-ray pulsar in the SMC.

  6. Measurements and applications of neutron multiple scattering in resonance region

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Ohkubo, Makio

    1977-02-01

    Capture yield of neutrons impinging on a thick material is complicated due to self-shielding and multiple scattering, especially in the resonance region. When the incident neutron energy is equal to a resonance energy of the material, capture probability of the neutron increases with sample thickness and reaches a saturation value P sub(CO). There is a simple relation between P sub(CO) and GAMMA sub(n)/GAMMA and the recoil energy by the Monte-Carlo calculation. To examine validity of the relation, P sub(CO) was measured for 19 resonances in 12 nuclides with thick samples, using a JAERI linac time-of-flight spectrometer with Moxon-Rae type gamma ray detector and transmission type neutron flux monitor. Results of the measurements confirmed the validity. With this relation, the GAMMA sub(n)/GAMMA or GAMMA sub(γ)/GAMMA value can be obtained from the measured P sub(CO), and also the level spins be determined by combining the transmission data. Because of the definition of P sub(CO), determination of the resonance parameters is not sensitive to the sample thickness as far as it is sufficiently thick. (auth.)

  7. SAXS investigations on lipid membranes under osmotic stress

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Rubim, R.L.; Vieira, V.; Gerbelli, B.B.; Teixeira da Silva, E.R.; Oliveira, C.L.P.; Oliveira, E.A. [Universidade de Sao Paulo (USP), Sao Paulo, SP (Brazil)

    2012-07-01

    Full text: In this work we, experimentally, investigate the interactions between lipid bilayers. A structural characterization is performed by small angle x-ray scattering (SAXS) on multilamellar systems under known osmotic pressure. Changes in the composition of membranes can modify their mechanical properties and structural parameters, like the flexibility of these membranes, which plays a key role on the determination of the tridimensional organization of bilayers. The membranes are composed of soya lecithin, where the major component is DPPC (Dipalmitoylphosphatidylcholine), and fatty acids are incorporated to the membrane in different concentrations, in order to turn the membrane more fluid. The membranes are inserted in a solution of PVP [poly(vinyl-pyrrolidone) - 40000] and the polymer will apply an osmotic pressure on them. The osmotic pressure is controlled by preparing PVP solutions of desired composition and, as we know the concentration of polymer in solution, we can obtain the intensity of the osmotic pressure. SAXS experiments were done in order to determine the distance between the bilayer. From the position of the Bragg peaks, the lamellar periodicity (the thickness of the membranes plus their distance of separation) was determined. Using theoretical model for the form and structure factors we fitted those experimental data and determined the thickness of the membranes. The distance between the membranes was controlled by the osmotic pressure (P) applied to the membranes and, for a given pressure, we determine the distance between the bilayers (a) on equilibrium. The experimental curve P(a) is theoretically described by the different contributions from van der Waals, hydration and fluctuation forces. From the fitting of experimental curves, relevant parameters characterizing the strength of the different interactions are obtained, such as Hamaker and rigidity constant [2, 3]. We observe that the separation between the bilayers on equilibrium is

  8. Light scattering by nonspherical particles theory, measurements, and applications

    CERN Document Server

    Mishchenko, Michael I; Travis, Larry D

    1999-01-01

    There is hardly a field of science or engineering that does not have some interest in light scattering by small particles. For example, this subject is important to climatology because the energy budget for the Earth's atmosphere is strongly affected by scattering of solar radiation by cloud and aerosol particles, and the whole discipline of remote sensing relies largely on analyzing the parameters of radiation scattered by aerosols, clouds, and precipitation. The scattering of light by spherical particles can be easily computed using the conventional Mie theory. However, most small solid part

  9. Scattering cross-sections of common calibration gases measured by IBBCEAS technique

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    S.I. Issac

    Full Text Available In this study, incoherent broadband cavity-enhanced absorption spectroscopy (IBBCEAS was used to measure scattering cross-sections of a few common gases in the 650–670 nm spectral range relative to that of dry air. Precise measurements of scattering cross-sections of these calibration gases in the visible spectral range are important. The IBBCEAS system developed in the laboratory was calibrated with a low-loss optical window. The measurements made at 660 nm were compared with previously measured cross-section values and found to be in good agreement with the existing measurements. Keywords: IBBCEAS, Rayleigh scattering, Scattering cross section

  10. In situ measurements of soot formation in simple flames using small angle X-ray scattering

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Gardner, C. [Institute of Mathematical and Physical Sciences, University of Wales, Aberystwyth SY23 3BZ (United Kingdom); Greaves, G.N. [Institute of Mathematical and Physical Sciences, University of Wales, Aberystwyth SY23 3BZ (United Kingdom)]. E-mail: gng@aber.ac.uk; Hargrave, G.K. [Wolfson School of Mechanical and Manufacturing Engineering, Loughborough University, Loughborough LE11 3TU (United Kingdom); Jarvis, S. [Wolfson School of Mechanical and Manufacturing Engineering, Loughborough University, Loughborough LE11 3TU (United Kingdom); Wildman, P. [Wolfson School of Mechanical and Manufacturing Engineering, Loughborough University, Loughborough LE11 3TU (United Kingdom); Meneau, F. [Institute of Mathematical and Physical Sciences, University of Wales, Aberystwyth SY23 3BZ (United Kingdom); Netherlands Organisation for Scientific Research (NWO), DUBBLE CRG/ESRF, P.O. Box 220, F38043 Grenoble Cedex (France); Bras, W. [Netherlands Organisation for Scientific Research (NWO), DUBBLE CRG/ESRF, P.O. Box 220, F38043 Grenoble Cedex (France); Thomas, G. [Institute of Mathematical and Physical Sciences, University of Wales, Aberystwyth SY23 3BZ (United Kingdom)

    2005-08-15

    Direct SAXS measurements of soot formation from ethylene have been made using laminar pre-mixed flames for the first time. The slot burner was configured to maximise the signal from particulates. The geometry also enabled the thermal background from the surrounding hot gasses to be accurately removed. With cold flame speeds of 40 cm s{sup -1} we have been able to identify particle sizes and densities from moderately sooty to rich flame conditions. By adjusting the height of the burner in the beam, the development of particles as a function of position above the flame tip and therefore as a function of time from ignition have been obtained. These reveal evidence for bimodal particle nucleation and growth at different stages in the continuous combustion of ethylene.

  11. In situ measurements of soot formation in simple flames using small angle X-ray scattering

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Gardner, C.; Greaves, G.N.; Hargrave, G.K.; Jarvis, S.; Wildman, P.; Meneau, F.; Bras, W.; Thomas, G.

    2005-01-01

    Direct SAXS measurements of soot formation from ethylene have been made using laminar pre-mixed flames for the first time. The slot burner was configured to maximise the signal from particulates. The geometry also enabled the thermal background from the surrounding hot gasses to be accurately removed. With cold flame speeds of 40 cm s -1 we have been able to identify particle sizes and densities from moderately sooty to rich flame conditions. By adjusting the height of the burner in the beam, the development of particles as a function of position above the flame tip and therefore as a function of time from ignition have been obtained. These reveal evidence for bimodal particle nucleation and growth at different stages in the continuous combustion of ethylene

  12. In situ measurements of soot formation in simple flames using small angle X-ray scattering

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gardner, C.; Greaves, G. N.; Hargrave, G. K.; Jarvis, S.; Wildman, P.; Meneau, F.; Bras, W.; Thomas, G.

    2005-08-01

    Direct SAXS measurements of soot formation from ethylene have been made using laminar pre-mixed flames for the first time. The slot burner was configured to maximise the signal from particulates. The geometry also enabled the thermal background from the surrounding hot gasses to be accurately removed. With cold flame speeds of 40 cm s-1 we have been able to identify particle sizes and densities from moderately sooty to rich flame conditions. By adjusting the height of the burner in the beam, the development of particles as a function of position above the flame tip and therefore as a function of time from ignition have been obtained. These reveal evidence for bimodal particle nucleation and growth at different stages in the continuous combustion of ethylene.

  13. Thomson scattering measurements on an atmospheric Ar dc discharge lamp

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Zhu, Xiao-Yan; Redwitz, M.; Kieft, E.R.; Sande, van de M.J.; Mullen, van der J.J.A.M.

    2004-01-01

    Thomson scattering (TS) experiments have been performed in the region near the electrodes of a dc powered model lamp filled with 1-2 bar argon gas. In order to suppress the false stray light and Rayleigh scattered photons, a triple grating spectrograph was used. In this way the electron density and

  14. Neutron scattering measurements from cryogenic ammonia: a progress report

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Carpenter, J.; Micklich, B.; Zanotti, J.M.

    2004-01-01

    We survey the results of an earlier study of the inelastic scattering from solid ammonia, and report the results of a preliminary experiment carried out at the ∝100 μeV-resolution quasielastic scattering spectrometer QENS at IPNS. (orig.)

  15. Simulations, measurements, and optimization of OLEDs with scattering layer

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Altazin, S.; Reynaud, C.; Mayer, U.M.; Lanz, T.; Lapagna, K.; Knaack, R.; Peninck, L.; Kirsch, C.; Pernstich, K.P.; Harkema, S.; Hermes, D.; Ruhstaller, B.

    2015-01-01

    A multi-scale optical model for organic light-emitting devices containing scattering layers is presented. This model describes the radiation of embedded oscillating dipoles and scattering from spherical particles. After successful model validation with experiments on a top-emitting white OLED, we

  16. Prediction of protein structure with the coarse-grained UNRES force field assisted by small X-ray scattering data and knowledge-based information.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Karczyńska, Agnieszka S; Mozolewska, Magdalena A; Krupa, Paweł; Giełdoń, Artur; Liwo, Adam; Czaplewski, Cezary

    2018-03-01

    A new approach to assisted protein-structure prediction has been proposed, which is based on running multiplexed replica exchange molecular dynamics simulations with the coarse-grained UNRES force field with restraints derived from knowledge-based models and distance distribution from small angle X-ray scattering (SAXS) measurements. The latter restraints are incorporated into the target function as a maximum-likelihood term that guides the shape of the simulated structures towards that defined by SAXS. The approach was first verified with the 1KOY protein, for which the distance distribution was calculated from the experimental structure, and subsequently used to predict the structures of 11 data-assisted targets in the CASP12 experiment. Major improvement of the GDT_TS was obtained for 2 targets, minor improvement for other 2 while, for 6 target GDT_TS deteriorated compared with that calculated for predictions without the SAXS data, partly because of assuming a wrong multimeric state (for Ts866) or because the crystal conformation was more compact than the solution conformation (for Ts942). Particularly good results were obtained for Ts909, in which use of SAXS data resulted in the selection of a correctly packed trimer and, subsequently, increased the GDT_TS of monomer prediction. It was found that running simulations with correct oligomeric state is essential for the success in SAXS-data-assisted prediction. © 2017 Wiley Periodicals, Inc.

  17. Automated acquisition and analysis of small angle X-ray scattering data

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Franke, Daniel; Kikhney, Alexey G.; Svergun, Dmitri I.

    2012-01-01

    Small Angle X-ray Scattering (SAXS) is a powerful tool in the study of biological macromolecules providing information about the shape, conformation, assembly and folding states in solution. Recent advances in robotic fluid handling make it possible to perform automated high throughput experiments including fast screening of solution conditions, measurement of structural responses to ligand binding, changes in temperature or chemical modifications. Here, an approach to full automation of SAXS data acquisition and data analysis is presented, which advances automated experiments to the level of a routine tool suitable for large scale structural studies. The approach links automated sample loading, primary data reduction and further processing, facilitating queuing of multiple samples for subsequent measurement and analysis and providing means of remote experiment control. The system was implemented and comprehensively tested in user operation at the BioSAXS beamlines X33 and P12 of EMBL at the DORIS and PETRA storage rings of DESY, Hamburg, respectively, but is also easily applicable to other SAXS stations due to its modular design.

  18. Post-PRK corneal scatter measurements with a scanning confocal slit photon counter

    Science.gov (United States)

    Taboada, John; Gaines, David; Perez, Mary A.; Waller, Steve G.; Ivan, Douglas J.; Baldwin, J. Bruce; LoRusso, Frank; Tutt, Ronald C.; Perez, Jose; Tredici, Thomas; Johnson, Dan A.

    2000-06-01

    Increased corneal light scatter or 'haze' has been associated with excimer laser photorefractive surgery of the cornea. The increased scatter can affect visual performance; however, topical steroid treatment post surgery substantially reduces the post PRK scatter. For the treatment and monitoring of the scattering characteristics of the cornea, various methods have been developed to objectively measure the magnitude of the scatter. These methods generally can measure scatter associated with clinically observable levels of haze. For patients with moderate to low PRK corrections receiving steroid treatment, measurement becomes fairly difficult as the haze clinical rating is non observable. The goal of this development was to realize an objective, non-invasive physical measurement that could produce a significant reading for any level including the background present in a normal cornea. As back-scatter is the only readily accessible observable, the instrument is based on this measurement. To achieve this end required the use of a confocal method to bias out the background light that would normally confound conventional methods. A number of subjects with nominal refractive errors in an Air Force study have undergone PRK surgery. A measurable increase in corneal scatter has been observed in these subjects whereas clinical ratings of the haze were noted as level zero. Other favorable aspects of this back-scatter based instrument include an optical capability to perform what is equivalent to an optical A-scan of the anterior chamber. Lens scatter can also be measured.

  19. A new interpretation of SAXS peaks in sulfonated poly(ether ether ketone) (sPEEK) membranes for fuel cells.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mendil-Jakani, H; Zamanillo Lopez, I; Legrand, P M; Mareau, V H; Gonon, L

    2014-06-21

    The structure of a commercial sulfonated poly(ether ether ketone) (sPEEK) membrane was analyzed by Small-Angle X-Ray Scattering (SAXS) for different water uptakes obtained after immersion in liquid water at various temperatures. For low membrane swelling, the SAXS profile displays only a wide-angle peak in the 0.2-0.3 Å(-1) region. As the membrane swells, two supplementary correlation peaks arise and shift towards small angles, which are the signature of a structural evolution of the membrane, whereas the wide angle peak remains stable. The SAXS spectra of sPEEK membranes can thus display three correlation peaks simultaneously. Therefore we propose a new interpretation of these SAXS spectra which conclude that the two small angle peaks are attributed to the so-called matrix and ionomer peaks and the wide-angle peak is ascribed to the mean separation distance between sulfonic acid groups grafted onto the polymer backbone. This peak attribution implies that the sPEEK nano-phase separation is triggered by an immersion in hot water (ionomer peak apparition). Our new peak attribution was confirmed by studying the impact of temperature, electron density contrast and ionic exchange capacity.

  20. Final state effects in neutron Compton scattering measurements

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Fielding, A.L.

    1997-10-01

    The single atom momentum distributions of condensed matter systems can be derived using the technique of neutron Compton scattering (NCS). The electron Volt spectrometer (eVS) which is situated at the world's most intense pulsed neutron spallation source, ISIS, has been configured to perform NCS measurements. Interpretation of NCS data requires the use of the impulse approximation, however even at the high energy and momentum transfers obtainable on the eVS deviations from the impulse approximation occur. These deviations are generally known as final state effects (FSE) which manifest themselves as an asymmetry in the measured momentum distribution. The aim of the work reported in this thesis is to demonstrate how final state effects can be accounted for in a simple way using the expansion method described by Sears. An advantage of the Sears method is that the first asymmetric term in the expansion is proportional to the mean Laplacian of the potential, 2 V>, thus giving access to further information on the single atom potential. The Sears expansion has been incorporated into data analysis routines and applied to measured data on three systems that were chosen to represent the systems that are regularly investigated using the eVS. Measurements have been carried out on the deuteron in ZrD 2 , a light atom in a heavy lattice, beryllium, a polycrystalline solid and pyrolytic graphite, an aligned crystalline sample with an anisotropic momentum distribution. The study shows how the new analysis method gives more reliable values for the mean kinetic energy k >, which can be derived from the measured momentum distribution. A comparison of measured data with simulated data calculated within the harmonic approximation reveals how 2 V> can be a sensitive probe of anharmonicity of the interatomic potential. An anisotropy in the derived k > and 2 V> of pyrolytic graphite has been measured indicating the dependence of final state effects on bonding strength. The derived 2 V

  1. Measurement of the diffractive cross section in deep inelastic scattering

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Derrick, M.; Krakauer, D.; Magill, S.

    1996-02-01

    Diffractive scattering of γ*p→X+N, where N is either a proton or a nucleonic system with M N X of the system X up to 15 GeV at average Q 2 values of 14 and 31 GeV 2 . The diffractive cross section dσ diff /dM X is, within errors, found to rise linearly with W. Parameterizing the W dependence by the form dσ diff /dM X ∝(W 2 )sup((2 anti α IP -2)) the DIS data yield for the pomeron trajectory anti α IP =1.23±0.02(stat)±0.04(syst) averaged over t in the measured kinematic range assuming the longitudinal photon contribution to be zero. This value for the pomeron trajectory is substantially larger than anti α IP extracted from soft interactions. The value of anti α IP measured in this analysis suggests that a substantial part of the diffractive DIS cross section originates form processes which can be described by perturbative QCD. From the measured diffractive cross sections the diffractive structure function of the proton F 2 D(3) (β, Q 2 , x IP ) has been determined, where β is the momentum fraction of the struck quark in the pomeron. The form F 2 D(3) =constant. (1/x IP ) a gives a good fit to the data in all β and Q 2 intervals with a=1.46±0.04(stat)±0.08(syst). (orig.)

  2. Optical fibre probes in the measurement of scattered light ...

    Indian Academy of Sciences (India)

    2014-01-08

    Jan 8, 2014 ... light reflected/scattered/fluoresced from the sample containing the .... Turbidity of water, for example, is determined by the amount of particulate matter such as soil, sand, ... These packets take random steps whose step size.

  3. Filtered Rayleigh Scattering Measurements in a Buoyant Flow Field

    National Research Council Canada - National Science Library

    Meents, Steven M

    2008-01-01

    Filtered Rayleigh Scattering (FRS) is a non-intrusive, laser-based flow characterization technique that consists of a narrow linewidth laser, a molecular absorption filter, and a high resolution camera behind the filter to record images...

  4. Calculation of the Scattered Radiation Profile in 64 Slice CT Scanners Using Experimental Measurement

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Afshin Akbarzadeh

    2009-06-01

    Full Text Available Introduction: One of the most important parameters in x-ray CT imaging is the noise induced by detected scattered radiation. The detected scattered radiation is completely dependent on the scanner geometry as well as size, shape and material of the scanned object. The magnitude and spatial distribution of the scattered radiation in x-ray CT should be quantified for development of robust scatter correction techniques. Empirical methods based on blocking the primary photons in a small region are not able to extract scatter in all elements of the detector array while the scatter profile is required for a scatter correction procedure. In this study, we measured scatter profiles in 64 slice CT scanners using a new experimental measurement. Material and Methods: To measure the scatter profile, a lead block array was inserted under the collimator and the phantom was exposed at the isocenter. The raw data file, which contained detector array readouts, was transferred to a PC and was read using a dedicated GUI running under MatLab 7.5. The scatter profile was extracted by interpolating the shadowed area. Results: The scatter and SPR profiles were measured. Increasing the tube voltage from 80 to 140 kVp resulted in an 80% fall off in SPR for a water phantom (d=210 mm and 86% for a polypropylene phantom (d = 350 mm. Increasing the air gap to 20.9 cm caused a 30% decrease in SPR. Conclusion: In this study, we presented a novel approach for measurement of scattered radiation distribution and SPR in a CT scanner with 64-slice capability using a lead block array. The method can also be used on other multi-slice CT scanners. The proposed technique can accurately estimate scatter profiles. It is relatively straightforward, easy to use, and can be used for any related measurement.

  5. SAXS and other spectroscopic analysis of 12S cruciferin isolated from the seeds of Brassica nigra

    Science.gov (United States)

    Khaliq, Binish; Falke, Sven; Negm, Amr; Buck, Friedrich; Munawar, Aisha; Saqib, Maria; Mahmood, Seema; Ahmad, Malik Shoaib; Betzel, Christian; Akrem, Ahmed

    2017-06-01

    Oilseeds of the plant family Brassicaceae are important for providing both lipid and protein contents to human nutrition. Cruciferins (12S globulins) are seed storage proteins, which are getting attention due to their allergenic and pathogenicity related nature. This study describes the purification and characterization of a trimeric (∼190 kDa) cruciferin protein from the seeds of Brassica nigra (L.). Cruciferin was first partially purified by ammonium sulfate precipitation (30% saturation constant) and further purified by size exclusion chromatography. The N-terminal amino-acid sequence analysis showed 82% sequence homology with cruciferin from Arabidopsis thaliana. The 50-55 kDa monomeric cruciferin produced multiple bands of two major molecular weight ranges (α-polypeptides of 28-32 kDa and β-polypeptides of 17-20 kDa) under reduced conditions of SDS-PAGE. The 2D gel electrophoretic analysis showed the further separation of the bands into their isoforms with major pI ranges between 5.7 and 8.0 (α-polypeptides) and 5.5-8.5 (β-polypeptides). The Dynamic Light Scattering (DLS) showed the monodisperse nature of the cruciferin with hydrodynamic radius of 5.8 ± 0.1 nm confirming the trimeric nature of the protein. The Circular Dichroism (CD) spectra showed both α-helices and β-sheets in the native conformation of the trimeric protein. The pure cruciferin protein (40 mg/ml) was successfully crystallized; however, the crystals diffracted only to low resolution data (8 Å). Small-angle x-ray scattering (SAXS) was applied to gain insights into the three-dimensional structure in solution. SAXS showed that the radius of gyration is 4.24 ± 0.25 nm and confirmed the nearly globular shape. The SAXS based ab initio dummy model of B. nigra cruciferin was compared with 11S globulins.

  6. Proposal to Measure Hadron Scattering with a Gaseous High Pressure TPC for Neutrino Oscillation Measurements

    CERN Document Server

    Andreopoulos, C; Bordoni, S; Boyd, S; Brailsford, D; Brice, S; Catanesi, G; Chen-Wishart, Z; Denner, P; Dunne, P; Giganti, C; Gonzalez Diaz, D; Haigh, J; Hamacher-Baumann, P; Hallsjo, S; Hayato, Y; Irastorza, I; Jamieson, B; Kaboth, A; Korzenev, A; Kudenko, Y; Leyton, M; Luk, K-B; Ma, W; Mahn, K; Martini, M; McCauley, N; Mermod, P; Monroe, J; Mosel, U; Nichol, R; Nieves, J; Nonnenmacher, T; Nowak, J; Parker, W; Raaf, J; Rademacker, J; Radermacher, T; Radicioni, E; Roth, S; Saakyan, R; Sanchez, F; Sgalaberna, D; Shitov, Y; Sobczyk, J; Soler, F; Touramanis, C; Valder, S; Walding, J; Ward, M; Wascko, M; Weber, A; Yokoyama, M; Zalewska, A; Ziembicki, M

    2017-01-01

    We propose to perform new measurements of proton and pion scattering on argon using a prototype High Pressure gas Time Projection Chamber (HPTPC) detector, and by doing so to develop the physics case for, and the technological readiness of, an HPTPC as a neutrino detector for accelerator neutrino oscillation searches. The motivation for this work is to improve knowledge of final state interactions, in order to ultimately achieve 1-2% systematic error on neutrino-nucleus scattering for oscillation measurements at 0.6 GeV and 2.5 GeV neutrino energy, as required for the Charge-Parity (CP) violation sensitivity projections by the Hyper-Kamiokande experiment (Hyper-K) and the Deep Underground Neutrino Experiment (DUNE). The final state interaction uncertainties in neutrino-nucleus interactions dominate cross-section systematic errors, currently 5–10% at these energies, and therefore R&D is needed to explore new approaches to achieve this substantial improvement.

  7. Inclusive measurements of pion double charge exchange and inelastic scattering on 3He

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Yuly, M.E.

    1993-06-01

    A measurement was made at the Los Alamos Meson Physics Facility (LAMPF) of the doubly differential cross sections for three inclusive pion reactions on 3 He: π - double charge exchange (DCX), and π + and π - inelastic scattering. The cross sections for DCX were measured at incident energies of 120, 180, 210, and 240 MeV, and at angles of 25, 50, 80, 105, and 130 degrees, while inelastic scattering cross sections were measured at 120, 180, and 240 MeV and scattering angles of 50, 80, 105, and 130 degrees. The final pion energy spectrum was measured from 10 MeV up to the kinematic limit. In the Δ resonance region, where the isospin T = 3/2 channel dominates, the inelastic π - scattering should be almost entirely from the lone neutron in 3 He. The π + inelastic scattering was expected to have significant contributions from both single and double scattering, because the T = 3/2 channel favors π + -p scattering from the two protons in 3 He. The 3 He DCX spectra are similar to those observed for DCX in 4 He. The forward angle double peaks can be understood as a consequence of sequential single charge exchange (SSCX). Calculations using the SSCX model are in rough agreement with the measured shape of the 3 He DCX spectra. The doubly differential cross sections measured for the inelastic scattering reactions exhibit a strong enhancement near the kinematics for free π - -p scattering. The ratios of π + to π - scattering cross sections may indicate multiple scattering, as well as the agreement of the low outgoing energy part of the π + inelastic scattering spectra with the corresponding properly scaled DCX spectra. A distorted-wave impulse-approximation (DWIA) calculation of the quasielastic cross sections has been performed and a comparison made with the measured inelastic cross sections

  8. Diode Laser Velocity Measurements by Modulated Filtered Rayleigh Scattering

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mach, J. J.; Varghese, P. L.; Jagodzinski, J. J.

    1999-01-01

    The ability of solid-state lasers to be tuned in operating frequency at MHz rates by input current modulation, while maintaining a relatively narrow line-width, has made them useful for spectroscopic measurements. Their other advantages include low cost, reliability, durability, compact size, and modest power requirements, making them a good choice for a laser source in micro-gravity experiments in drop-towers and in flight. For their size, they are also very bright. In a filtered Rayleigh scattering (FRS) experiment, a diode laser can be used to scan across an atomic or molecular absorption line, generating large changes in transmission at the resonances for very small changes in frequency. The hyperfine structure components of atomic lines of alkali metal vapors are closely spaced and very strong, which makes such atomic filters excellent candidates for sensitive Doppler shift detection and therefore for high-resolution velocimetry. In the work we describe here we use a Rubidium vapor filter, and work with the strong D(sub 2) transitions at 780 nm that are conveniently accessed by near infrared diode lasers. The low power output of infrared laser diodes is their primary drawback relative to other laser systems commonly used for velocimetry. However, the capability to modulate the laser frequency rapidly and continuously helps mitigate this. Using modulation spectroscopy and a heterodyne detection scheme with a lock-in amplifier, one can extract sub-microvolt signals occurring at a specific frequency from a background that is orders of magnitude stronger. The diode laser modulation is simply achieved by adding a small current modulation to the laser bias current. It may also be swept repetitively in wavelength using an additional lower frequency current ramp.

  9. Measuring main-ion temperatures in ASDEX upgrade using scattering of ECRH radiation

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Pedersen, Morten Stejner; Nielsen, Stefan Kragh; Jacobsen, Asger Schou

    2016-01-01

    We demonstrate that collective Thomson scattering of millimeter wave electron cyclotron resonance heating radiation can be used for measurements of the main-ion temperature in the ASDEX Upgrade tokamak.......We demonstrate that collective Thomson scattering of millimeter wave electron cyclotron resonance heating radiation can be used for measurements of the main-ion temperature in the ASDEX Upgrade tokamak....

  10. Microfluidic processing of concentrated surfactant mixtures: online SAXS, microscopy and rheology.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Martin, Hazel P; Brooks, Nicholas J; Seddon, John M; Luckham, Paul F; Terrill, Nick J; Kowalski, Adam J; Cabral, João T

    2016-02-14

    We investigate the effect of microfluidic flow on the microstructure and dynamics of a model surfactant mixture, combining synchrotron Small Angle X-ray Scattering (SAXS), microscopy and rheology. A system comprising a single-chain cationic surfactant, hexadecyl trimethyl ammonium chloride (C16TAC), a short-chain alcohol (1-pentanol) and water was selected for the study due to its flow responsiveness and industrial relevance. Model flow fields, including sequential contraction-expansion (extensional) and rotational flows, were investigated and the fluid response in terms of the lamellar d-spacing, orientation and birefringence was monitored in situ, as well as the recovery processes after cessation of flow. Extensional flows are found to result in considerable d-spacing increase (from approx 59 Å to 65 Å). However, under continuous flow, swelling decreases with increasing flow velocity, eventually approaching the equilibrium values at velocities ≃2 cm s(-1). Through individual constrictions we observe the alignment of lamellae along the flow velocity, accompanied by increasing birefringence, followed by an orientation flip whereby lamellae exit perpendicularly to the flow direction. The resulting microstructures are mapped quantitatively onto the flow field in 2D with 200 μm spatial resolution. Rotational flows alone do not result in appreciable changes in lamellar spacing and flow type and magnitude evidently impact the fluid microstructure under flow, as well as upon relaxation. The findings are correlated with rheological properties measured ex situ to provide a mechanistic understanding of the effect of flow imposed by tubular processing units in the phase behavior and performance of a model surfactant system with ubiquitous applications in personal care and coating industries.

  11. Measurement of Nuclear Dependence in Inclusive Charged Current Neutrino Scattering

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Tice, Brian George [Rutgers Univ., New Brunswick, NJ (United States)

    2014-01-01

    Neutrino experiments use heavy nuclei (C, Fe, Pb) to achieve necessary statistics. However, the use of heavy nuclei exposes these experiments to the nuclear dependence of neutrino-nucleus cross sections, which are poorly known and difficult to model. This dissertation presents an analysis of the nuclear dependence of inclusive chargedcurrent neutrino scattering using events in carbon, iron, lead, and scintillator targets of the MINERvA detector. MINERvA (Main INjector ExpeRiment for -A) is a few-GeV neutrinonucleus scattering experiment at Fermilab.

  12. A study on the measurement of effective energy of scattering X-rays

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Oogama, Noboru; Fujimoto, Nobuhisa; Nishitani, Motohiro; Yamada, Katsuhiko

    1995-01-01

    Only a few studies have been reported on the measurement and evaluation of the effective energy of scattering X-rays using an ionization chamber. The reason for this is due to the difficulty in accurately measuring attenuation curve in scattering X-rays lacking any directional properties. We could come up with a new method for calculating the effective energy of scattering X-rays by utilizing their spectra data. First, for analysing the accuracy of our calculation method with using primary X-rays, a comparison was made of calculated values of the effective energy obtained by our calculation method with the measurement values obtained using an ionization chamber. The results gave the calculated values agreeing with the measurement values within a maximum error of 2%, and this method was very helpful in measuring the effective energy of the scattering X-rays. Consequently, this method was capable of measuring the effective energy of scattering X-rays in the following parameters: X-ray tube voltage, scattering angle and size of scatterer. In conclusion, it is considered that our method could solve the present difficulty regarding the measurement of effective energy of the scattering X-rays, and provided a useful procedure concerning the study of radiation protection. (author)

  13. Measuring isospin mixing in nuclei using π+- inelastic scattering

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Cottingame, W.B.; Braithwaite, W.J.; Morris, C.L.

    1979-01-01

    A new strongly isospin-mixed doublet has been found in 12 C near 19.5 MeV. in a comparison of π - and π + inelastic scattering at 180 MeV, The present techniques may be universally employable, at least in self-conjugate nuclei, in extracting isospin-mixing matrix elements

  14. High repetition Thomson scattering profile measurements using a nonimaging technique

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Zigler, A.

    1983-01-01

    The Thomson scattering technique is one of the most useful diagnostics for the study of magnetically confined plasmas. In this work, a simple multi-space and time Thomson scattering technique has been proposed. The spatial resolution is obtained by conversion of the scattered laser light collected from different plasma points into a time sequence. This can be done by focusing the image of the laser beam through a wideangle lens onto an array of fiber optic light pipes. Since the laser emits relatively short pulses (1020 nsec), scattered light pulses from each of the light pipes can be delayed relative to one another without overlapping. Such delays can be achieved by using an array of fiber optics of differing lengths (2-4 meters). The light is transmitted then into a spectrometer and detected by fast detectros (few nsec rise and fall time). Reconstruction from the time sequence to the spatial structure is obtained by using existing fast gate circuits. The data then is A/D converted and handled by using a data acquisition system

  15. Measurement of the stimulated thermal Rayleigh scattering instability

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Karr, T.J.; Rushford, M.C.; Murray, J.R.; Morris, J.R.

    1989-04-01

    Growth of perturbations due to stimulated thermal Rayleigh scattering was observed on a laser beam propagating in a 1 meter cell of CC14. Initial sinusoidal irradiance perturbations were seeded onto the laser leam, and their amplification in the cell was recorded by a near field camera. The perturbation growth rate is in agreement with analytical predictions of linearized propagation theory

  16. Measuring method to impulse neutron scattering background in complicated ambient condition

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Tang Zhangkui; Peng Taiping; Tang Zhengyuan; Liu Hangang; Hu Mengchun; Fan Juan

    2004-01-01

    This paper introduced a measuring method and calculative formula about impulse neutron scattering background in complicated ambient condition. The experiment had been done in the lab, and the factors to affect measurement conclusion were analysised. (authors)

  17. An Assessment of Critical Dimension Small Angle X-ray Scattering Metrology for Advanced Semiconductor Manufacturing

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Settens, Charles M. [State Univ. of New York (SUNY), Albany, NY (United States)

    2015-01-01

    Simultaneous migration of planar transistors to FinFET architectures, the introduction of a plurality of materials to ensure suitable electrical characteristics, and the establishment of reliable multiple patterning lithography schemes to pattern sub-10 nm feature sizes imposes formidable challenges to current in-line dimensional metrologies. Because the shape of a FinFET channel cross-section immediately influences the electrical characteristics, the evaluation of 3D device structures requires measurement of parameters beyond traditional critical dimension (CD), including their sidewall angles, top corner rounding and footing, roughness, recesses and undercuts at single nanometer dimensions; thus, metrologies require sub-nm and approaching atomic level measurement uncertainty. Synchrotron critical dimension small angle X-ray scattering (CD-SAXS) has unique capabilities to non-destructively monitor the cross-section shape of surface structures with single nanometer uncertainty and can perform overlay metrology to sub-nm uncertainty. In this dissertation, we perform a systematic experimental investigation using CD-SAXS metrology on a hierarchy of semiconductor 3D device architectures including, high-aspect-ratio contact holes, H2 annealed Si fins, and a series of grating type samples at multiple points along a FinFET fabrication process increasing in structural intricacy and ending with fully fabricated FinFET. Comparative studies between CD-SAXS metrology and other relevant semiconductor dimensional metrologies, particularly CDSEM, CD-AFM and TEM are used to determine physical limits of CD-SAXS approach for advanced semiconductor samples. CD-SAXS experimental tradeoffs, advice for model-dependent analysis and thoughts on the compatibility with a semiconductor manufacturing environment are discussed.

  18. Comparative SAXS and DSC study on stratum corneum structural organization in an epidermal cell culture model (ROC)

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Kuntsche, Judith; Herre, Angela; Fahr, Alfred

    2013-01-01

    barrier similar to that of human stratum corneum is, however, a prerequisite. In this study, the stratum corneum lipid organization in an epidermal cell culture model based on rat epidermal keratinocytes (REK organotypic culture, ROC) was investigated by small-angle X-ray scattering (SAXS) in dependence......Cell cultured skin equivalents present an alternative for dermatological in vitro evaluations of drugs and excipients as they provide the advantage of availability, lower variability and higher assay robustness compared to native skin. For penetration/permeation studies, an adequate stratum corneum...... and SC lipid organization. Cultivation for 21days resulted in further minor changes in the structural organization of ROC SC. The SAXS patterns of ROC SC had overall large similarities with that of human SC and point to the presence of a long periodicity phase with a repeat distance of about 122Å, e...

  19. Quantum-dot size and thin-film dielectric constant: precision measurement and disparity with simple models.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Grinolds, Darcy D W; Brown, Patrick R; Harris, Daniel K; Bulovic, Vladimir; Bawendi, Moungi G

    2015-01-14

    We study the dielectric constant of lead sulfide quantum dot (QD) films as a function of the volume fraction of QDs by varying the QD size and keeping the ligand constant. We create a reliable QD sizing curve using small-angle X-ray scattering (SAXS), thin-film SAXS to extract a pair-distribution function for QD spacing, and a stacked-capacitor geometry to measure the capacitance of the thin film. Our data support a reduced dielectric constant in nanoparticles.

  20. Moeller scattering and the measurement of beta-ray longitudinal polarization

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Kliwer, J.

    1989-01-01

    Two problems that are inherent in the measurement of longitudinal polarization of beta rays via Moeller scattering (Bhabha scattering for positrons) are the low signal-to-noise ratio due to the electron-nucleon-scattered background and the small fraction of electrons that are polarized in the target. The present article shows how to optimize the signal-to-noise ratio by the collection of Moeller-scattered events using a thick-lens beta-ray spectrometer where the entrance baffle is set very narow to accommodate the relativistically contracted cone of Moeller events; this in turn minimizes the electron-nucleon-scattered background and maximizes the signal-to-noise ratio. In the case of positrons, recent studies of electron channeling in crystals suggest a target that will reduce Bhabha scattering from the large fraction of unpolarized inner-shell electrons and predominantly pick off the polarized fraction of target electrons. (orig.)

  1. Focusing polycapillary to reduce parasitic scattering for inelastic x-ray measurements at high pressure

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Chow, P.; Xiao, Y. M.; Rod, E.; Bai, L. G.; Shen, G. Y.; Sinogeikin, S.; Gao, N.; Ding, Y.; Mao, H.-K.

    2015-01-01

    The double-differential scattering cross-section for the inelastic scattering of x-ray photons from electrons is typically orders of magnitude smaller than that of elastic scattering. With samples 10-100 μm size in a diamond anvil cell at high pressure, the inelastic x-ray scattering signals from samples are obscured by scattering from the cell gasket and diamonds. One major experimental challenge is to measure a clean inelastic signal from the sample in a diamond anvil cell. Among the many strategies for doing this, we have used a focusing polycapillary as a post-sample optic, which allows essentially only scattered photons within its input field of view to be refocused and transmitted to the backscattering energy analyzer of the spectrometer. We describe the modified inelastic x-ray spectrometer and its alignment. With a focused incident beam which matches the sample size and the field of view of polycapillary, at relatively large scattering angles, the polycapillary effectively reduces parasitic scattering from the diamond anvil cell gasket and diamonds. Raw data collected from the helium exciton measured by x-ray inelastic scattering at high pressure using the polycapillary method are compared with those using conventional post-sample slit collimation

  2. Raman scattering method and apparatus for measuring isotope ratios and isotopic abundances

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Harney, R.C.; Bloom, S.D.

    1978-01-01

    Raman scattering is used to measure isotope ratios and/or isotopic abundances. A beam of quasi-monochromatic photons is directed onto the sample to be analyzed, and the resulting Raman-scattered photons are detected and counted for each isotopic species of interest. These photon counts are treated mathematically to yield the desired isotope ratios or isotopic abundances

  3. SAXS and stability studies of iron-induced oligomers of bacterial frataxin CyaY.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Mostafa Fekry

    Full Text Available Frataxin is a highly conserved protein found in both prokaryotes and eukaryotes. It is involved in several central functions in cells, which include iron delivery to biochemical processes, such as heme synthesis, assembly of iron-sulfur clusters (ISC, storage of surplus iron in conditions of iron overload, and repair of ISC in aconitase. Frataxin from different organisms has been shown to undergo iron-dependent oligomerization. At least two different classes of oligomers, with different modes of oligomer packing and stabilization, have been identified. Here, we continue our efforts to explore the factors that control the oligomerization of frataxin from different organisms, and focus on E. coli frataxin CyaY. Using small-angle X-ray scattering (SAXS, we show that higher iron-to-protein ratios lead to larger oligomeric species, and that oligomerization proceeds in a linear fashion as a results of iron oxidation. Native mass spectrometry and online size-exclusion chromatography combined with SAXS show that a dimer is the most common form of CyaY in the presence of iron at atmospheric conditions. Modeling of the dimer using the SAXS data confirms the earlier proposed head-to-tail packing arrangement of monomers. This packing mode brings several conserved acidic residues into close proximity to each other, creating an environment for metal ion binding and possibly even mineralization. Together with negative-stain electron microscopy, the experiments also show that trimers, tetramers, pentamers, and presumably higher-order oligomers may exist in solution. Nano-differential scanning fluorimetry shows that the oligomers have limited stability and may easily dissociate at elevated temperatures. The factors affecting the possible oligomerization mode are discussed.

  4. Design of an arrangement for the production of a scattered photon field and the flux measurement

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Legarda, F.; Herranz, M.

    1992-01-01

    The design of an arrangement to create and measure a scattered radiation field is described. The expected flux distribution has been calculated using Monte Carlo techniques (EGS4 system). The proposed measurement system includes a collimator with an opening of 0.2deg and a detector with a ∝2% energy resolution. This system should have a positional uncertainty of millimetre, and a small amount (0.6%) of radiation scattered back from the measurement system to the source. (orig.)

  5. 7Li neutron-induced elastic scattering cross section measurement using a slowing-down spectrometer

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Heusch M.

    2010-10-01

    Full Text Available A new integral measurement of the 7Li neutron induced elastic scattering cross section was determined in a wide neutron energy range. The measurement was performed on the LPSC-PEREN experimental facility using a heterogeneous graphite-LiF slowing-down time spectrometer coupled with an intense pulsed neutron generator (GENEPI-2. This method allows the measurement of the integral elastic scattering cross section in a slowing-down neutron spectrum. A Bayesian approach coupled to Monte Carlo calculations was applied to extract naturalC, 19F and 7Li elastic scattering cross sections.

  6. Measurements of ionic structure in shock compressed lithium hydride from ultrafast x-ray Thomson scattering.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kritcher, A L; Neumayer, P; Brown, C R D; Davis, P; Döppner, T; Falcone, R W; Gericke, D O; Gregori, G; Holst, B; Landen, O L; Lee, H J; Morse, E C; Pelka, A; Redmer, R; Roth, M; Vorberger, J; Wünsch, K; Glenzer, S H

    2009-12-11

    We present the first ultrafast temporally, spectrally, and angularly resolved x-ray scattering measurements from shock-compressed matter. The experimental spectra yield the absolute elastic and inelastic scattering intensities from the measured density of free electrons. Laser-compressed lithium-hydride samples are well characterized by inelastic Compton and plasmon scattering of a K-alpha x-ray probe providing independent measurements of temperature and density. The data show excellent agreement with the total intensity and structure when using the two-species form factor and accounting for the screening of ion-ion interactions.

  7. Small-angle scattering study of mesoscopic structures in charged gel and their evolution on dehydration

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Sugiyama, Masaaki; Annaka, Masahiko; Hara, Kazuhiro

    2003-01-01

    Mesoscopic structures, with length scales similar to10(2) Angstrom, were investigated by small-angle X-ray and neutron scattering (SAXS and SANS) in several N-isopropylacrylamide-sodium acrylate (NIPA-SA) copolymeric hydrogels with varying [NIPA]/[SA] ratios and water contents. The SAXS experimen...

  8. Small-angle X-ray scattering documents the growth of metal-organic frameworks

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Goesten, M.G.; Stavitski, I.; Juan-Alcañiz, J.; Martinez-Joaristi, A.; Petukhov, A.V.; Kapteijn, F.; Gascon, J.

    2013-01-01

    We present a combined in situ small- and wide-angle scattering (SAXS/WAXS) study on the crystallization of two topical metal-organic frameworks synthesized from similar metal and organic precursors: NH2-MIL-53(Al) and NH2-MIL-101(Al). A thorough analysis of SAXS data reveals the most important

  9. Measurement of Z dependence of elastic scattering cross-sections of 0. 145 MeV gamma rays

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Ghumman, B S [Punjabi Univ., Patiala (India). Dept. of Physics

    1981-11-01

    The Z dependence of elastic scattering cross-sections of 0.145 MeV gamma rays is investigated at large scattering angles. Measurements are made with scatterers of Pb, W, Sn, Ag, Mo, Zn, Cu, Fe and Al at scattering angles from 75 deg to 150 deg. The experimental results are compared with the available theoretical and experimental data.

  10. Investment Strategies Optimization based on a SAX-GA Methodology

    CERN Document Server

    Canelas, António M L; Horta, Nuno C G

    2013-01-01

    This book presents a new computational finance approach combining a Symbolic Aggregate approXimation (SAX) technique with an optimization kernel based on genetic algorithms (GA). While the SAX representation is used to describe the financial time series, the evolutionary optimization kernel is used in order to identify the most relevant patterns and generate investment rules. The proposed approach considers several different chromosomes structures in order to achieve better results on the trading platform The methodology presented in this book has great potential on investment markets.

  11. Raman scattering measurements on a floating water bridge

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ponterio, R. C.; Pochylski, M.; Aliotta, F.; Vasi, C.; Fontanella, M. E.; Saija, F.

    2010-05-01

    It was observed that when polarized by an intense electric field, water is able to self-arrange into macroscopic cylindrical wires that can hang up and remain floating against gravity. This phenomenon is now known as a 'water bridge'. Several attempts have been made to give an explanation of this apparently unusual behaviour of water. A number of experiments have been performed with the aim of probing any possible structural change of bulk water, after application of the electric field. None of the available findings appear conclusive at the moment. Here we report the results of the first Raman scattering experiment on floating water bridges. The inter-molecular OH-stretching band has been investigated and the results have been compared with those from bulk water. Some changes in the scattering profiles after application of the electric field are shown to have a structural origin. The bridges have been obtained, for the first time, in a vertical geometry and under application of an alternating field. The adopted geometry has allowed us to reveal a clear asymmetry between opposite direct current biasing, which can be related to the nature of the charge carriers.

  12. Raman scattering measurements on a floating water bridge

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Ponterio, R C; Aliotta, F; Vasi, C; Fontanella, M E; Saija, F [CNR-Istituto per i Processi Chimico-Fisici, V.le F. D' Alcontres 37, 98158, Messina (Italy); Pochylski, M [Faculty of Physics, Adam Mickiewicz University, ul. Umultowska 85, 61-614 Poznan (Poland)

    2010-05-05

    It was observed that when polarized by an intense electric field, water is able to self-arrange into macroscopic cylindrical wires that can hang up and remain floating against gravity. This phenomenon is now known as a 'water bridge'. Several attempts have been made to give an explanation of this apparently unusual behaviour of water. A number of experiments have been performed with the aim of probing any possible structural change of bulk water, after application of the electric field. None of the available findings appear conclusive at the moment. Here we report the results of the first Raman scattering experiment on floating water bridges. The inter-molecular OH-stretching band has been investigated and the results have been compared with those from bulk water. Some changes in the scattering profiles after application of the electric field are shown to have a structural origin. The bridges have been obtained, for the first time, in a vertical geometry and under application of an alternating field. The adopted geometry has allowed us to reveal a clear asymmetry between opposite direct current biasing, which can be related to the nature of the charge carriers.

  13. Raman scattering measurements on a floating water bridge

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Ponterio, R C; Aliotta, F; Vasi, C; Fontanella, M E; Saija, F; Pochylski, M

    2010-01-01

    It was observed that when polarized by an intense electric field, water is able to self-arrange into macroscopic cylindrical wires that can hang up and remain floating against gravity. This phenomenon is now known as a 'water bridge'. Several attempts have been made to give an explanation of this apparently unusual behaviour of water. A number of experiments have been performed with the aim of probing any possible structural change of bulk water, after application of the electric field. None of the available findings appear conclusive at the moment. Here we report the results of the first Raman scattering experiment on floating water bridges. The inter-molecular OH-stretching band has been investigated and the results have been compared with those from bulk water. Some changes in the scattering profiles after application of the electric field are shown to have a structural origin. The bridges have been obtained, for the first time, in a vertical geometry and under application of an alternating field. The adopted geometry has allowed us to reveal a clear asymmetry between opposite direct current biasing, which can be related to the nature of the charge carriers.

  14. Compositional studies at the Bone-Cartilage interface using PIXE, RBS and cSAXS techniques

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Kaabar, W.; Gundogdu, O.; Bradley, D.A.; Bunk, O.; Pfeiffer, F.; Pfeiffer, F.; Farquharson, M.J.; Webb, M.; Jeynes, C.

    2009-01-01

    Micro Proton Induced X-ray Emission (μ-PIXE) analysis has been employed herein in investigating and quantifying the distribution of a number of essential cations in two thin slices of normal and diseased human articular cartilage, the latter being affected by osteoarthritis (OA). The elemental distribution maps for Ca, P, K, S and Zn in the normal and diseased slices showed similar patterns with marked increases in elemental concentrations in the bone-cartilage interface. The S concentration was significantly lower in bone than in cartilage. Conversely, the Ca and P concentrations were higher in bone. The Ca/P ratio (2.22) of the diseased slice was determined by employing the Rutherford backscattering technique (RBS). The RBS figures of this investigation agree with values previously reported by others. Structural and organisational changes of collagen networks were investigated by coherent Small-Angle X-ray Scattering (SAXS) using beamline facilities at the Swiss Light Source (SLS) for a decalcified diseased human articular cartilage slice. The SAXS findings showed a gradual reorientation of collagen type II fibres of cartilage from parallel to the surface of the joint to normal to the bone-cartilage interface. Similar patterns of orientation were observed at the subchondral bone to bone-cartilage interface

  15. μ-PIXE and SAXS studies at the bone-cartilage interface

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Kaabar, W.; Gundogdu, O.; Laklouk, A.; Bunk, O.; Pfeiffer, F.; Farquharson, M.J.; Bradley, D.A.

    2010-01-01

    Micro Proton Induced X-ray Emission (μ-PIXE) analysis has been employed herein in investigating and quantifying the distribution of a number of essential elements in thin human diseased articular cartilage sections affected by osteoarthritis (OA). Various cations Ca, P and Zn have been reported to play an important role both in the normal growth and remodelling of articular cartilage and subchondral bone as well as in the degenerative and inflammatory processes associated with the disease; they act as co-factors of a class of enzymes known as metalloproteinases which are believed to be active during the initiation, progress and remodelling processes associated with osteoarthritis. Other important enzymes such as alkaline phosphatase are associated with cartilage mineralization. Synchrotron radiation X-ray fluorescence (SR-XRF) for mapping of elemental distributions in bone and cartilage has also been employed by the present group and others. In the current investigations using the cSAXS beamline at the Swiss light source, Small-Angle X-ray Scattering (SAXS) was carried out on decalcified human articular cartilage to explore the structural and organizational changes of collagen networks in diseased articular cartilage.

  16. {mu}-PIXE and SAXS studies at the bone-cartilage interface

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Kaabar, W. [Department of Physics, University of Surrey, Guildford GU2 7XH (United Kingdom)], E-mail: w.kaabar@surrey.ac.uk; Gundogdu, O. [Umuttepe Campus, University of Kocaeli, 41380, Kocaeli (Turkey); Laklouk, A. [Food Science Department, Al-Fateh Unversity, Tripoli (Libyan Arab Jamahiriya); Bunk, O. [Swiss Light Source, Paul Scherrer Institute, 5232 Villigen (Switzerland); Pfeiffer, F. [Swiss Light Source, Paul Scherrer Institute, 5232 Villigen (Switzerland); Ecole Polytechnique Federale de Lausanne, 1015 Lausanne (Switzerland); Farquharson, M.J. [Department of Radiography, City University, London EC1V OHB (United Kingdom); Bradley, D.A. [Department of Physics, University of Surrey, Guildford GU2 7XH (United Kingdom)

    2010-04-15

    Micro Proton Induced X-ray Emission ({mu}-PIXE) analysis has been employed herein in investigating and quantifying the distribution of a number of essential elements in thin human diseased articular cartilage sections affected by osteoarthritis (OA). Various cations Ca, P and Zn have been reported to play an important role both in the normal growth and remodelling of articular cartilage and subchondral bone as well as in the degenerative and inflammatory processes associated with the disease; they act as co-factors of a class of enzymes known as metalloproteinases which are believed to be active during the initiation, progress and remodelling processes associated with osteoarthritis. Other important enzymes such as alkaline phosphatase are associated with cartilage mineralization. Synchrotron radiation X-ray fluorescence (SR-XRF) for mapping of elemental distributions in bone and cartilage has also been employed by the present group and others. In the current investigations using the cSAXS beamline at the Swiss light source, Small-Angle X-ray Scattering (SAXS) was carried out on decalcified human articular cartilage to explore the structural and organizational changes of collagen networks in diseased articular cartilage.

  17. Measurement of sound velocity on metal surfaces by impulsive stimulated Brillouin scattering

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Shimada, Yukihiro; Murakami, Hiroshi; Nishimura, Akihiko

    2005-01-01

    Impulsive stimulated Brillouin Scattering (ISBS) experiment was performed in order to measure acoustic waves on metal surfaces. The ISBS technique offers robust method of obtaining acoustic velocities without physical contact. The generation and detection mechanism were discussed. (author)

  18. Feasibility study of direct spectra measurements for Thomson scattered signals for KSTAR fusion-grade plasmas

    Science.gov (United States)

    Park, K.-R.; Kim, K.-h.; Kwak, S.; Svensson, J.; Lee, J.; Ghim, Y.-c.

    2017-11-01

    Feasibility study of direct spectra measurements of Thomson scattered photons for fusion-grade plasmas is performed based on a forward model of the KSTAR Thomson scattering system. Expected spectra in the forward model are calculated based on Selden function including the relativistic polarization correction. Noise in the signal is modeled with photon noise and Gaussian electrical noise. Electron temperature and density are inferred using Bayesian probability theory. Based on bias error, full width at half maximum and entropy of posterior distributions, spectral measurements are found to be feasible. Comparisons between spectrometer-based and polychromator-based Thomson scattering systems are performed with varying quantum efficiency and electrical noise levels.

  19. Polarized Bhabha scattering and a precision measurement of the electron neutral current couplings

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Abe, K.; Abt, I.; Ahn, C.J.; Akagi, T.; Ash, W.W.; Aston, D.; Bacchetta, N.; Baird, K.G.; Baltay, C.; Band, H.R.; Barakat, M.B.; Baranko, G.; Bardon, O.; Barklow, T.; Bazarko, A.O.; Ben-David, R.; Benvenuti, A.C.; Bienz, T.; Bilei, G.M.; Bisello, D.; Blaylock, G.; Bogart, J.R.; Bolton, T.; Bower, G.R.; Brau, J.E.; Breidenbach, M.; Bugg, W.M.; Burke, D.; Burnett, T.H.; Burrows, P.N.; Busza, W.; Calcaterra, A.; Caldwell, D.O.; Calloway, D.; Camanzi, B.; Carpinelli, M.; Cassell, R.; Castaldi, R.; Castro, A.; Cavalli-Sforza, M.; Church, E.; Cohn, H.O.; Coller, J.A.; Cook, V.; Cotton, R.; Cowan, R.F.; Coyne, D.G.; D'Oliveira, A.; Damerell, C.J.S.; Dasu, S.; De Sangro, R.; De Simone, P.; Dell'Orso, R.; Dima, M.; Du, P.Y.C.; Dubois, R.; Eisenstein, B.I.; Elia, R.; Falciai, D.; Fan, C.; Fero, M.J.; Frey, R.; Furuno, K.; Gillman, T.; Gladding, G.; Gonzalez, S.; Hallewell, G.D.; Hart, E.L.; Hasegawa, Y.; Hedges, S.; Hertzbach, S.S.; Hildreth, M.D.; Huber, J.; Huffer, M.E.; Hughes, E.W.; Hwang, H.; Iwasaki, Y.; Jacques, P.; Jaros, J.; Johnson, A.S.; Johnson, J.R.; Johnson, R.A.; Junk, T.; Kajikawa, R.; Kalelkar, M.; Karliner, I.; Kawahara, H.; Kendall, H.W.; Kim, Y.; King, M.E.; King, R.; Kofler, R.R.; Krishna, N.M.; Kroeger, R.S.; Labs, J.F.; Langston, M.; Lath, A.; Lauber, J.A.; Leith, D.W.G.; Liu, X.; Loreti, M.; Lu, A.; Lynch, H.L.; Ma, J.; Mancinelli, G.; Manly, S.; Mantovani, G.; Markiewicz, T.W.; Maruyama, T.; Massetti, R.; Masuda, H.; Mazzucato, E.; McKemey, A.K.; Meadows, B.T.; Messner, R.; Mockett, P.M.; Moffeit, K.C.; Mours, B.; Mueller, G.; Muller, D.; Nagamine, T.; Nauenberg, U.; Neal, H.; Nussbaum, M.; Ohnishi, Y.; Osborne, L.S.; Panvini, R.S.; Park, H.; Pavel, T.J.; Peruzzi, I.; Pescara, L.; Piccolo, M.; Piemontese, L.; Pieroni, E.; Pitts, K.T.; Plano, R.J.; Prepost, R.; Prescott, C.Y.; Punkar, G.D.; Quigley, J.; Ratcliff, B.N.; Reeves, T.W.; Rensing, P.E.; Rochester, L.S.; Rothberg, J.E.; Rowson, P.C.; Russell, J.J.; Saxton, O.H.; Schalk, T.

    1995-01-01

    Bhabha scattering with polarized electrons at the Z 0 resonance has been measured with the SLD experiment at the SLAC Linear Collider. The first measurement of the left-right asymmetry in Bhabha scattering is presented, yielding the effective weak mixing angle of sinθ eff W =0.2245±0.0049±0.0010. The effective electron couplings to the Z 0 are extracted from a combined analysis of polarized Bhabha scattering and the left-right asymmetry previously published: υ e =-0.0414±0.0020 and a e =-0.4977±0.0045

  20. Microchip Flow Cytometer with Integrated Polymer Optical Elements for Measurement of Scattered Light

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Wang, Zhenyu; El-Ali, Jamil; Perch-Nielsen, Ivan Ryberg

    2004-01-01

    channels to form a complete microchip flow cytometer. All the optical elements, the microfluidic system, and the fiber-to-waveguide couplers were defined in one layer of polymer (SU-8, negative photoresist) by standard photolithography. With only one single mask procedure, all the fabrication and packaging...... processes can be finished in one day. Polystyrene beads were measured in the microchip flow cytometer, and three signals (forward scattering, large angle scattering and extinction) were measured simultaneously for each bead. The average intensities of the forward Scattered light and the incident light...

  1. Beyond simple small-angle X-ray scattering: developments in online complementary techniques and sample environments

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Wim Bras

    2014-11-01

    Full Text Available Small- and wide-angle X-ray scattering (SAXS, WAXS are standard tools in materials research. The simultaneous measurement of SAXS and WAXS data in time-resolved studies has gained popularity due to the complementary information obtained. Furthermore, the combination of these data with non X-ray based techniques, via either simultaneous or independent measurements, has advanced understanding of the driving forces that lead to the structures and morphologies of materials, which in turn give rise to their properties. The simultaneous measurement of different data regimes and types, using either X-rays or neutrons, and the desire to control parameters that initiate and control structural changes have led to greater demands on sample environments. Examples of developments in technique combinations and sample environment design are discussed, together with a brief speculation about promising future developments.

  2. Beyond simple small-angle X-ray scattering: developments in online complementary techniques and sample environments.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bras, Wim; Koizumi, Satoshi; Terrill, Nicholas J

    2014-11-01

    Small- and wide-angle X-ray scattering (SAXS, WAXS) are standard tools in materials research. The simultaneous measurement of SAXS and WAXS data in time-resolved studies has gained popularity due to the complementary information obtained. Furthermore, the combination of these data with non X-ray based techniques, via either simultaneous or independent measurements, has advanced understanding of the driving forces that lead to the structures and morphologies of materials, which in turn give rise to their properties. The simultaneous measurement of different data regimes and types, using either X-rays or neutrons, and the desire to control parameters that initiate and control structural changes have led to greater demands on sample environments. Examples of developments in technique combinations and sample environment design are discussed, together with a brief speculation about promising future developments.

  3. The simultaneous measurement of energy and linear polarization of the scattered radiation in resonant inelastic soft x-ray scattering

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Braicovich, L., E-mail: lucio.braicovich@polimi.it; Minola, M.; Dellea, G.; Ghiringhelli, G. [CNR-SPIN and Dipartimento di Fisica, Politecnico di Milano, piazza Leonardo Da Vinci 32, Milano I-20133 (Italy); Le Tacon, M. [Max-Planck-Institut für Festkörperforschung, Heisenbergstrasse 1, D-70569 Stuttgart (Germany); Moretti Sala, M.; Morawe, C.; Peffen, J.-Ch.; Yakhou, F.; Brookes, N. B. [European Synchrotron Radiation Facility, 71 Avenue des Martyrs, Grenoble F-38043 (France); Supruangnet, R. [Synchrotron Light Research Institute, Nakhon Ratchasima (Thailand)

    2014-11-15

    Resonant Inelastic X-ray Scattering (RIXS) in the soft x-ray range is an element-specific energy-loss spectroscopy used to probe the electronic and magnetic excitations in strongly correlated solids. In the recent years, RIXS has been progressing very quickly in terms of energy resolution and understanding of the experimental results, but the interpretation of spectra could further improve, sometimes decisively, from a full knowledge of the polarization of incident and scattered photons. Here we present the first implementation, in a high resolution soft-RIXS spectrometer used to analyze the scattered radiation, of a device allowing the measurement of the degree of linear polarization. The system, based on a graded W/B{sub 4}C multilayer mirror installed in proximity of the CCD detector, has been installed on the AXES spectrometer at the ESRF (European Synchrotron Radiation Facility); it has been fully characterized and it has been used for a demonstration experiment at the Cu L{sub 3} edge on a high-T{sub c} superconducting cuprate. The loss in efficiency suffered by the spectrometer equipped with this test facility was a factor 17.5. We propose also a more advanced version, suitable for a routine use on the next generation of RIXS spectrometers and with an overall efficiency up to 10%.

  4. Small angle neutron scattering and small angle X-ray scattering ...

    Indian Academy of Sciences (India)

    Abstract. The morphology of carbon nanofoam samples comprising platinum nanopar- ticles dispersed in the matrix was characterized by small angle neutron scattering (SANS) and small angle X-ray scattering (SAXS) techniques. Results show that the structure of pores of carbon matrix exhibits a mass (pore) fractal nature ...

  5. SAXS study of sterically stabilized lipid nanocarriers functionalized by DNA

    Czech Academy of Sciences Publication Activity Database

    Angelov, Borislav; Angelova, A.; Filippov, Sergey K.; Karlsson, G.; Terrill, N.; Lesieur, S.; Štěpánek, Petr

    2012-01-01

    Roč. 351, č. 1 (2012), s. 012004 ISSN 1742-6588. [SANS-YuMO User Meeting. Dubna, 27.05.2011-30.05.2011] Institutional research plan: CEZ:AV0Z40500505 Keywords : SAXS * vesicles * self-assembly Subject RIV: CD - Macromolecular Chemistry

  6. SAX J2103.5+4545 in outburst

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Galis, R.; Beckmann, V.; Bianchin, V.

    2008-01-01

    We report an intense hard X-ray outburst detected from the Be/ neutron star HMXB SAX J2103.5+4545 (Blay et al. 2004, A&A, 427, 293), which is known to be a pulsar. The source was detected during INTEGRAL observations of the Galactic Plane in the Cygnus region, starting at 2007-04-25T09:14 (UTC...

  7. Measurement of Scattering Cross Section with a Spectrophotometer with an Integrating Sphere Detector.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gaigalas, A K; Wang, Lili; Karpiak, V; Zhang, Yu-Zhong; Choquette, Steven

    2012-01-01

    A commercial spectrometer with an integrating sphere (IS) detector was used to measure the scattering cross section of microspheres. Analysis of the measurement process showed that two measurements of the absorbance, one with the cuvette placed in the normal spectrometer position, and the second with the cuvette placed inside the IS, provided enough information to separate the contributions from scattering and molecular absorption. Measurements were carried out with microspheres with different diameters. The data was fitted with a model consisting of the difference of two terms. The first term was the Lorenz-Mie (L-M) cross section which modeled the total absorbance due to scattering. The second term was the integral of the L-M differential cross section over the detector acceptance angle. The second term estimated the amount of forward scattered light that entered the detector. A wavelength dependent index of refraction was used in the model. The agreement between the model and the data was good between 300 nm and 800 nm. The fits provided values for the microsphere diameter, the concentration, and the wavelength dependent index of refraction. For wavelengths less than 300 nm, the scattering cross section had significant spectral structure which was inversely related to the molecular absorption. This work addresses the measurement and interpretation of the scattering cross section for wavelengths between 300 nm and 800 nm.

  8. Light scattering at small angles by atmospheric irregular particles: modelling and laboratory measurements

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lurton, T.; Renard, J.-B.; Vignelles, D.; Jeannot, M.; Akiki, R.; Mineau, J.-L.; Tonnelier, T.

    2014-04-01

    We have investigated the behaviour of light scattering by particulates of various sizes (0.1 μm to 100 μm) at a small scattering angle (below 20°). It has been previously shown that, for a small angle, the scattered intensities are weakly dependent upon the particulates' composition (Renard et al., 2010). Particles found in the atmosphere exhibit roughness that leads to large discrepancies with the classical Mie solution in terms of scattered intensities in the low angular set-up. This article focuses on building an effective theoretical tool to predict the behaviour of light scattering by real particulates at a small scattering angle. We present both the classical Mie theory and its adaptation to the case of rough particulates with a fairly simple roughness parameterisation. An experimental device was built, corresponding to the angular set-up of interest (low scattering angle and therefore low angular aperture). Measurements are presented that confirm the theoretical results with good agreement. It was found that differences between the classical Mie solution and actual measurements - especially for large particulates - can be attributed to the particulate roughness. It was also found that, in this low angular set-up, saturation of the scattered intensities occurs for relatively small values of the roughness parameter. This confirms the low variability in the scattered intensities observed for atmospheric particulates of different kinds. A direct interest of this study is a broadening of the dynamic range of optical counters: using a small angle of aperture for measurements allows greater dynamics in terms of particle size. Thus it allows a single device to observe a broad range of particle sizes whilst utilising the same electronics.

  9. Comparison in electron density distribution of tokamak plasma between ruby-laser scattering and milli-meter wave interferometric measurements

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Matoba, Tohru; Funahashi, Akimasa; Itagaki, Tokiyoshi; Takahashi, Koki; Kumagai, Katsuaki

    1976-08-01

    The electron density in JFT-2 tokamak has been measured by two methods, i.e. Thomson scattering of ruby-laser light and interferometry of millimeter wave. Two-dimensional distribution of the scattered light intensities were obtained by scattering measurement; absolute calibration was made by normalizing the scattered intensities with the averaged density determined from interferometric measurement. The horizontal density distributions in laser scattering were compared with those in from the averaged densities measured with a 4-mm interferometer through inverse-transformation. Agreement is good between the two measurements, except where they give erroneous data because of irreproducibility of the discharge. (auth.)

  10. Inter-atomic force constants of BaF{sub 2} by diffuse neutron scattering measurement

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Sakuma, Takashi, E-mail: sakuma@mx.ibaraki.ac.jp; Makhsun,; Sakai, Ryutaro [Institute of Applied Beam Science, Ibaraki University, Mito 310-8512 (Japan); Xianglian [College of Physics and Electronics Information, Inner Mongolia University for the Nationalities, Tongliao 028043 (China); Takahashi, Haruyuki [Institute of Applied Beam Science, Ibaraki University, Hitachi 316-8511 (Japan); Basar, Khairul [Faculty of Mathematics and Natural Sciences, Institut Teknologi Bandung, Bandung 40132 (Indonesia); Igawa, Naoki [Quantum Beam Science Directorate, Japan Atomic Energy Agency, Tokai 319-1195 (Japan); Danilkin, Sergey A. [Bragg Institute, Australian Nuclear Science and Technology Organisation, Kirrawee DC NSW 2232 (Australia)

    2015-04-16

    Diffuse neutron scattering measurement on BaF{sub 2} crystals was performed at 10 K and 295 K. Oscillatory form in the diffuse scattering intensity of BaF{sub 2} was observed at 295 K. The correlation effects among thermal displacements of F-F atoms were obtained from the analysis of oscillatory diffuse scattering intensity. The force constants among neighboring atoms in BaF{sub 2} were determined and compared to those in ionic crystals and semiconductors.

  11. Finite-measuring approximation of operators of scattering theory in representation of wave packets

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Kukulin, V.I.; Rubtsova, O.A.

    2004-01-01

    Several types of the packet quantization of the continuos spectrum in the scattering theory quantum problems are considered. Such a quantization leads to the convenient finite-measuring (i.e. matrix) approximation of the integral operators in the scattering theory and it makes it possible to reduce the solution of the singular integral equations, complying with the scattering theory, to the convenient purely algebraic equations on the analytical basis, whereby all the singularities are separated in the obvious form. The main attention is paid to the problems of the method practical realization [ru

  12. Measurement of recoil photon polarisation in the electron-proton elastic scattering

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Buon, Jean

    1965-02-01

    This research thesis reports and discusses an experiment which aimed at checking the validity of the Born approximation at the first order in the elastic scattering of high energy electrons on protons. In this experiment, the recoil proton polarisation is measured in an elastic scattering of electrons with energy of 950 MeV and scattering at about 90 degrees in the mass centre system. The author describes the experimental installation, its operation and data collection, reports the analysis of photos and polarisation calculations and errors [fr

  13. Derivation of Inter-Atomic Force Constants of Cu2O from Diffuse Neutron Scattering Measurement

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    T. Makhsun

    2013-04-01

    Full Text Available Neutron scattering intensity from Cu2O compound has been measured at 10 K and 295 K with High Resolution Powder Diffractometer at JRR-3 JAEA. The oscillatory diffuse scattering related to correlations among thermal displacements of atoms was observed at 295 K. The correlation parameters were determined from the observed diffuse scattering intensity at 10 and 295 K. The force constants between the neighboring atoms in Cu2O were estimated from the correlation parameters and compared to those of Ag2O

  14. Measuring scatter radiation in diagnostic x rays for radiation protection purposes

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Panayiotakis, George; Vlachos, Ioannis; Delis, Harry; Tsantilas, Xenophon; Kalyvas, Nektarios; Kandarakis, Ioannis

    2015-01-01

    During the last decades, radiation protection and dosimetry in medical X-ray imaging practice has been extensively studied. The purpose of this study was to measure secondary radiation in a conventional radiographic room, in terms of ambient dose rate equivalent H*(10) and its dependence on the radiographic exposure parameters such as X-ray tube voltage, tube current and distance. With some exceptions, the results indicated that the scattered radiation was uniform in the space around the water cylindrical phantom. The results also showed that the tube voltage and filtration affect the dose rate due to the scatter radiation. Finally, the scattered X-ray energy distribution was experimentally calculated. (authors)

  15. Fast-ion dynamics in the TEXTOR tokamak measured by collective Thomson scattering

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Bindslev, H.; Nielsen, S.K.; Porte, L.

    2006-01-01

    Here we present the first measurements by collective Thomson scattering of the evolution of fast-ion populations in a magnetically confined fusion plasma. 150 kW and 110 Ghz radiation from a gyrotron were scattered in the TEXTOR tokamak plasma with energetic ions generated by neutral beam injection...... and ion cyclotron resonance heating. The temporal behavior of the spatially resolved fast-ion velocity distribution is inferred from the received scattered radiation. The fast-ion dynamics at sawteeth and the slowdown after switch off of auxiliary heating is resolved in time. The latter is shown...

  16. Combination scattering of dissociating gas applied to measurements of temperature and concentration of components

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Pashkov, V.A.; Kurganova, F.I.; Grishchuk, M.Kh.

    1987-01-01

    The method to calculate the combination scattering power of the components of the dissociating N 2 O 4 ↔ 2NO 2 → 2NO+O 2 gas subjected to the laser radiation effect is given. The combination scattering power has been calculated for temperatures 400-600 K, pressures 1-3 MPa, with the neodymium laser (λ=1.06 μm) as a source and the possibility of measuring the local temperatures and concentration of the given gas components with the help of the combination scattering has been analysed. It follows from the calculated data that combination scattering power of N 2 O 4 ↔ 2NO 2 ↔ 2NO+O 2 gas in excitation with the neodymium laser as a source is sufficient for detection. Gas temperature is likely to be measured with the minimum error relative to stokes and anti-stokes bands of the combination scattering, produced by nitrogen tetroxide. From calculated data it also follows that measurement of NO 2 concentration in the range 400-600 K is possible. At the same time combination scattering power, produced by NO and O 2 components is sufficient for measurement merely with the concentration of the components of the order of 10 18 molecules/cm 3 guaranteed in static conditions only at N 2 O 4 ↔ 2NO 2 ↔ 2NO+O 2 gas temperature 500 K and higher

  17. Measurement of the primary and scatter dose in high energy photon beams

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Van der Linden, P M [Catharina Ziekenhuis, Eindhoven (Netherlands). Radiotherapy Dept.; Tiourina, T B; Dries, W

    1995-12-01

    A method is presented to measure the primary and scatter components separately in a water tank using a small cylindrical absorber. Results from this experiment are compared with Monte Carlo calculations. The measurement setup consists of a small cylindrical absorber placed on a central axis of the beam a few centimetres above the radiation detector. Both absorber and detector move along the central axis while absorbed dose is registered. As the primary radiation is fully blocked, only scatter component is measured when a cylindrical absorber is used. Measurements in open fields result in the total absorbed dose being the sum of primary and scatter components. The primary dose component can be derived by substraction. Absorbers with different diameters are used. With decreasing dimensions the relative contribution of the dose due to scatter radiation increases. A steep increase is observed when the range of laterally scattered electrons becomes comparable with the radius of the absorber. Two different Monte Carlo simulations have been performed: with and without secondary electron transport. The data obtained for the former case perfectly agrees with the experiment. The situation where the secondary electron is assumed zero (i.e. local energy deposition) simulates the Cunningham model. Our results show that the Cunningham model predicts lower scatter component under the block edge which can be important for these applications.

  18. SAXS studies of the injection molding effects on the nanostructure of polyesters. II: polytrimetylene terephthalate (PTT)

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Marinelli, Alessandra L.; Plivelic, Tomas; Torriani, Iris; Bretas, Rosario E.S.

    2005-01-01

    In this work, the nanoperiodicity of some PTT samples, injection molded at different conditions, was evaluated as a function of the thickness of the samples. From the small angle X-ray scattering (SAXS) results, it was possible to observe that, as expected, there is a gradient of the L and lc values found through the thickness of the PTT samples. It was also found that at the center of the PTT sample injection molded at low injection temperature, Ti, the crystallinity degree evaluated previously by wide angle X-ray diffraction (WAXD) is high and the orientation in this region must be also high, because smaller values of L and l C were found at this region of the sample. The opposite trend was found to PBT.(author)

  19. Microcrystallography, high-pressure cryocooling and BioSAXS at MacCHESS

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Englich, Ulrich, E-mail: ue22@cornell.edu; Kriksunov, Irina A. [MacCHESS (Macromolecular Diffraction Facility at CHESS), Cornell University, Ithaca, NY 14853 (United States); Cerione, Richard A. [MacCHESS (Macromolecular Diffraction Facility at CHESS), Cornell University, Ithaca, NY 14853 (United States); Department of Chemistry and Chemical Biology, Cornell University, Ithaca, NY 14853 (United States); Cornell High Energy Synchrotron Source (CHESS), Cornell University, Ithaca, NY 14853 (United States); Cook, Michael J.; Gillilan, Richard [MacCHESS (Macromolecular Diffraction Facility at CHESS), Cornell University, Ithaca, NY 14853 (United States); Gruner, Sol M. [Field of Biophysics, Cornell University, Ithaca, NY 14853 (United States); Physics Department, Cornell University, Ithaca, NY 14853 (United States); Huang, Qingqui; Kim, Chae Un; Miller, William; Nielsen, Soren; Schuller, David; Smith, Scott; Szebenyi, Doletha M. E. [MacCHESS (Macromolecular Diffraction Facility at CHESS), Cornell University, Ithaca, NY 14853 (United States)

    2011-01-01

    Three research initiatives pursued by the Macromolecular Diffraction Facility at the Cornell High Energy Synchrotron Source (MacCHESS) are presented. The Macromolecular Diffraction Facility at the Cornell High Energy Synchrotron Source (MacCHESS) is a national research resource supported by the National Center for Research Resources of the US National Institutes of Health. MacCHESS is pursuing several research initiatives designed to benefit both CHESS users and the wider structural biology community. Three initiatives are presented in further detail: microcrystallography, which aims to improve the collection of diffraction data from crystals a few micrometers across, or small well diffracting regions of inhomogeneous crystals, so as to obtain high-resolution structures; pressure cryocooling, which can stabilize transient structures and reduce lattice damage during the cooling process; and BioSAXS (small-angle X-ray scattering on biological solutions), which can extract molecular shape and other structural information from macromolecules in solution.

  20. Compositional and structural studies of the bone-cartilage interface using PIXE and SAXS techniques

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Kaabar, W., E-mail: W.kaabar@surrey.ac.u [Department of Physics, University of Surrey, Guildford, GU2 7XH (United Kingdom); Laklouk, A. [Al-Fateh University, Tripoli-Libya (Libyan Arab Jamahiriya); Bunk, O. [Swiss Light Source, Paul Scherrer Institute, 5232 Villigen (Switzerland); Baily, M. [Department of Medical Physics and Applied Radiation Sciences, McMaster University, 1280 Main Street West, Hamilton, Ontario, Canada, L8S 4K1 (Canada); Farquharson, M.J. [Surrey Ion Beam Centre, University of Surrey, Guildford, GU2 7XH (United Kingdom); Bradley, David [Department of Physics, University of Surrey, Guildford, GU2 7XH (United Kingdom)

    2010-07-21

    Micro-proton-induced X-ray emission ({mu}-PIXE) analysis has been employed in investigating the presence of number of essential anions and cations in thin sections of diseased human articular cartilage affected by osteoarthritis (OA). Distribution maps for Ca, P, K and S in diseased sections show marked alterations in the concentrations of these at the bone-cartilage interface compared to normal tissue. For a decalcified section of human articular cartilage, organisational changes of the collagen network were investigated by small-angle X-ray scattering (SAXS). The established gradual reorientation of collagen fibres from vertical to the surface of the joint to normal to the bone-cartilage interface is observed to be heavily disrupted in OA.

  1. Compositional and structural studies of the bone-cartilage interface using PIXE and SAXS techniques

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Kaabar, W.; Laklouk, A.; Bunk, O.; Baily, M.; Farquharson, M.J.; Bradley, David

    2010-01-01

    Micro-proton-induced X-ray emission (μ-PIXE) analysis has been employed in investigating the presence of number of essential anions and cations in thin sections of diseased human articular cartilage affected by osteoarthritis (OA). Distribution maps for Ca, P, K and S in diseased sections show marked alterations in the concentrations of these at the bone-cartilage interface compared to normal tissue. For a decalcified section of human articular cartilage, organisational changes of the collagen network were investigated by small-angle X-ray scattering (SAXS). The established gradual reorientation of collagen fibres from vertical to the surface of the joint to normal to the bone-cartilage interface is observed to be heavily disrupted in OA.

  2. Combination of Microfluidics with SAXS for the investigation of pharmaceutical formulations

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Ghazal, Aghiad

    Due to the latest advancements in microfluidics and synchrotron facilities, researchers started exploring the possibility of harnessing the benefits of combining both fields of science to address questions that were deemed unanswerable. Moreover, this combination made experiments that were believed......-ray inspired us to explore interesting nanoparticles that have been gaining interest in the recent years for drug delivery applications and bio-imaging. These drug nanocarriers are superior in terms of their efficiency in solubilizing various drugs and may help in controlling their release. They are lipid...... of efficient tools to investigate them thoroughly. Therefore, we became enthusiastic about performing mixing experiments on these nanoparticles using microfluidics while performing in situ characterization using synchrotron small angle X-ray scattering (SAXS). We were able to locate the time range at which...

  3. Organically Modified Saponites: SAXS Study of Swelling and Application in Caffeine Removal.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Marçal, Liziane; de Faria, Emerson H; Nassar, Eduardo J; Trujillano, Raquel; Martín, Nuria; Vicente, Miguel A; Rives, Vicente; Gil, Antonio; Korili, Sophia A; Ciuffi, Katia J

    2015-05-27

    This study aimed to assess the capacity of saponite modified with n-hexadecyltrimethylammonium bromide (CTAB) and/or 3-aminopropyltriethoxysilane (APTS) to adsorb and remove caffeine from aqueous solutions. Powder X-ray diffraction (PXRD) revealed increased basal spacing in the modified saponites. Small-angle X-ray scattering (SAXS) confirmed the PXRD results; it also showed how the different clay layers were stacked and provided information on the swelling of natural saponite and of the saponites functionalized with CTAB and/or APTS. Thermal analyses, infrared spectroscopy, scanning electron microscopy, element chemical analysis, and textural analyses confirmed functionalization of the natural saponite. The maximum adsorption capacity at equilibrium was 80.54 mg/g, indicating that the saponite modified with 3-aminopropyltriethoxysilane constitutes an efficient and suitable caffeine adsorbent.

  4. Poly(phenylsesquioxane) base silicon resins: synthesis, characterization and structural study by SAXS; Resinas de silicona a base de poli(fenilsilsesquioxano): sintese, caracterizacao e estudo estrutural por SAXS

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Prado, Luis Antonio Sanchez de Almeida; Yoshida, Inez Valeria Pagotto [Universidade Estadual de Campinas (UNICAMP), SP (Brazil). Inst. de Quimica], e-mail: valeria@iqm.unicamp.br

    2000-07-01

    T{sup Ph}, T{sup Ph}D{sup L} and T{sup Ph}D{sup C} silicone resins were prepared by sol-gel method, using phenyltriethoxysilane as a source of T{sup Ph} repeating units, and poly(dimethylsiloxane), D{sup L}, or tetramethyldiethoxydissiloxane, D{sup C}, as sources of D segments. The molecular structure of these resins were characterized by FT-IR and {sup 29}Si MAS NMR spectra. SAXS traces of T{sup Ph}D{sup L} resins presented a halo associated to a high concentration of scattering units with spatial correlation. The behavior of the SAXS traces for T{sup Ph}D{sup C} were an indication of a random distribution of scattering centers. The nano structure of these materials cannot be described as a system of isolated scattering centers. The electron density contrast was attributed to the presence of regions richer in T{sup Ph} repeating units. TGA curves evidenced good thermal stability for all resins obtained. (author)

  5. Comparison of models and measurements of angle-resolved scatter from irregular aerosols

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Milstein, Adam B.; Richardson, Jonathan M.

    2015-01-01

    We have developed and validated a method for modeling the elastic scattering properties of biological and inert aerosols of irregular shape at near- and mid-wave infrared wavelengths. The method, based on Gaussian random particles, calculates the ensemble-average optical cross section and Mueller scattering matrix, using the measured aerodynamic size distribution and previously-reported refractive index as inputs. The utility of the Gaussian particle model is that it is controlled by only two parameters (σ and Γ) which we have optimized such that the model best reproduces the full angle-resolved Mueller scattering matrices measured at λ=1.55 µm in the Standoff Aerosol Active Signature Testbed (SAAST). The method has been applied to wet-generated singlet biological spore samples, dry-generated biological spore clusters, and kaolin. The scattering computation is performed using the Discrete Dipole Approximation (DDA), which requires significant computational resources, and is thus implemented on LLGrid, a large parallel grid computer. For the cases presented, the best fit Gaussian particle model is in good qualitative correspondence with microscopy images of the corresponding class of particles. The measured and computed cross sections agree well within a factor of two overall, with certain cases bearing closer correspondence. In particular, the DDA reproduces the shape of the measured scatter function more accurately than Mie predictions. The DDA-computed depolarization factors are also in good agreement with measurement. - Highlights: • We model elastic scattering of biological and inert aerosols of irregular shape. • We calculate cross sections and Mueller matrix using random particle shape model. • Scatter models employ refractive index and measured size distribution as inputs. • Discrete dipole approximation (DDA) with parallelization enables model calculations. • DDA-modeled cross section and Mueller matrix agree well with measurements at 1.55 μm

  6. Simulating measures of wood density through the surface by Compton scattering

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Penna, Rodrigo; Oliveira, Arno H.; Braga, Mario R.M.S.S.; Vasconcelos, Danilo C.; Carneiro, Clemente J.G.; Penna, Ariane G.C.

    2009-01-01

    Monte Carlo code (MCNP-4C) was used to simulate a nuclear densimeter for measuring wood densities nondestructively. An Americium source (E = 60 keV) and a NaI (Tl) detector were placed on a wood block surface. Results from MCNP shown that scattered photon fluxes may be used to determining wood densities. Linear regressions between scattered photons fluxes and wood density were calculated and shown correlation coefficients near unity. (author)

  7. Predicted precision of ion temperature and impurity fractional density measurements using the JET collective scattering diagnostic

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Orsitto, F.

    1992-11-01

    In a previous investigation the possibility of measuring the bulk ion temperature was considered in detail, in the context of the proposed Thomson scattering diagnostic for fast ions and alpha particles in the Joint European Torus project. In this report we give an affirmative answer to the question of whether good precision can be obtained in the simultaneous determination of the temperatures and densities of plasma ions from a collective scattering experiment provided some conditions are satisfied. (Author)

  8. Polarization measurements in p-p elastic scattering between 398 and 572 MeV

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Aebischer, D.; Favier, B.; Greeniaus, L.G.; Hess, R.; Junod, A.; Lechanoine, C.; Nikles, J.C.; Rapin, D.; Werren, D.W.

    1977-01-01

    Measurements of the analyzing power for p-p elastic scattering at 398, 455, 497, 530, and 572 MeV are reported. A system of multiwire proportional chambers placed directly in a polarized beam was used to observe the angular region 1.5 0 0 . An increase in P(theta) is observed as a function of both scattering angle and incident kinetic energy. Electromagnetic-nuclear interference is used to obtain direct information in the nuclear interaction. (Auth.)

  9. Accurate Compton scattering measurements for N{sub 2} molecules

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Kobayashi, Kohjiro [Advanced Technology Research Center, Gunma University, 1-5-1 Tenjin-cho, Kiryu, Gunma 376-8515 (Japan); Itou, Masayoshi; Tsuji, Naruki; Sakurai, Yoshiharu [Japan Synchrotron Radiation Research Institute (JASRI), 1-1-1 Kouto, Sayo-cho, Sayo-gun, Hyogo 679-5198 (Japan); Hosoya, Tetsuo; Sakurai, Hiroshi, E-mail: sakuraih@gunma-u.ac.jp [Department of Production Science and Technology, Gunma University, 29-1 Hon-cho, Ota, Gunma 373-0057 (Japan)

    2011-06-14

    The accurate Compton profiles of N{sub 2} gas were measured using 121.7 keV synchrotron x-rays. The present accurate measurement proves the better agreement of the CI (configuration interaction) calculation than the Hartree-Fock calculation and suggests the importance of multi-excitation in the CI calculations for the accuracy of wavefunctions in ground states.

  10. Scatter measurement and correction method for cone-beam CT based on single grating scan

    Science.gov (United States)

    Huang, Kuidong; Shi, Wenlong; Wang, Xinyu; Dong, Yin; Chang, Taoqi; Zhang, Hua; Zhang, Dinghua

    2017-06-01

    In cone-beam computed tomography (CBCT) systems based on flat-panel detector imaging, the presence of scatter significantly reduces the quality of slices. Based on the concept of collimation, this paper presents a scatter measurement and correction method based on single grating scan. First, according to the characteristics of CBCT imaging, the scan method using single grating and the design requirements of the grating are analyzed and figured out. Second, by analyzing the composition of object projection images and object-and-grating projection images, the processing method for the scatter image at single projection angle is proposed. In addition, to avoid additional scan, this paper proposes an angle interpolation method of scatter images to reduce scan cost. Finally, the experimental results show that the scatter images obtained by this method are accurate and reliable, and the effect of scatter correction is obvious. When the additional object-and-grating projection images are collected and interpolated at intervals of 30 deg, the scatter correction error of slices can still be controlled within 3%.

  11. Studies of protein structure in solution and protein folding using synchrotron small-angle x-ray scattering

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Chen, Lingling [Stanford Univ., CA (United States)

    1996-04-01

    Synchrotron small angle x-ray scattering (SAXS) has been applied to the structural study of several biological systems, including the nitrogenase complex, the heat shock cognate protein (hsc70), and lysozyme folding. The structural information revealed from the SAXS experiments is complementary to information obtained by other physical and biochemical methods, and adds to our knowledge and understanding of these systems.

  12. Methods for reduction of scattered x-ray in measuring MTF with the square chart

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Hatagawa, Masakatsu; Yoshida, Rie

    1982-01-01

    A square wave chart has been used to measure the MTF of a screen-film system. The problem is that the scattered X-ray from the chart may give rise to measurement errors. In this paper, the authors proposed two methods to reduce the scattered X-ray: the first method is the use of a Pb mask and second is to provide for an air gap between the chart and the screen-film system. In these methods, the scattered X-ray from the chart was reduced. MTFs were measured by both of the new methods and the conventional method, and MTF values of the new methods were in good agreement while that of the conventional method was not. It was concluded that these new methods are able to reduce errors in the measurement of MTF. (author)

  13. Principles of fuel ion ratio measurements in fusion plasmas by collective Thomson scattering

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Stejner Pedersen, Morten; Nielsen, Stefan Kragh; Bindslev, Henrik

    2011-01-01

    ratio. Measurements of the fuel ion ratio will be important for plasma control and machine protection in future experiments with burning fusion plasmas. Here we examine the theoretical basis for fuel ion ratio measurements by CTS. We show that the sensitivity to plasma composition is enhanced......For certain scattering geometries collective Thomson scattering (CTS) measurements are sensitive to the composition of magnetically confined fusion plasmas. CTS therefore holds the potential to become a new diagnostic for measurements of the fuel ion ratio—i.e. the tritium to deuterium density...... by the signatures of ion cyclotron motion and ion Bernstein waves which appear for scattering geometries with resolved wave vectors near perpendicular to the magnetic field. We investigate the origin and properties of these features in CTS spectra and give estimates of their relative importance for fuel ion ratio...

  14. Air-mass flux measurement system using Doppler-shifted filtered Rayleigh scattering

    Science.gov (United States)

    Shirley, John A.; Winter, Michael

    1993-01-01

    An optical system has been investigated to measure mass flux distributions in the inlet of a high speed air-breathing propulsion system. Rayleigh scattered light from air is proportional to the number density of molecules and hence can be used to ascertain the gas density in a calibrated system. Velocity field measurements are achieved by spectrally filtering the elastically-scattered Doppler-shifted light with an absorbing molecular filter. A novel anamorphic optical collection system is used which allows optical rays from different scattering angles, that have different Doppler shifts, to be recorded separately. This is shown to obviate the need to tune the laser through the absorption to determine velocities, while retaining the ability to make spatially-resolved measurements along a line. By properly selecting the laser tuning and filter parameters, simultaneous density measurements can be made. These properties are discussed in the paper and experiments demonstrating the velocimetry capability are described.

  15. Studies of coherent/Compton scattering method for bone mineral content measurement

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Sakurai, Kiyoko; Iwanami, Shigeru; Nakazawa, Keiji; Matsubayashi, Takashi; Imamura, Keiko.

    1980-01-01

    A measurement of bone mineral content by a coherent/Compton scattering method was described. A bone sample was irradiated by a collimated narrow beam of 59.6 keV gamma-rays emitted from a 300 mCi 241 Am source, and the scattered radiations were detected using a collimated pure germanium detector placed at 90 0 to the incident beam. The ratio of coherent to Compton peaks in a spectrum of the scattered radiations depends on the bone mineral content of the bone sample. The advantage of this method is that bone mineral content of a small region in a bone can be accurately measured. Assuming that bone consists of two components, protein and bone mineral, and that the mass absorption coefficient for Compton scattering is independent of material, the coherent to Compton scattering ratio is linearly related to the percentage in weight of bone mineral. A calibration curve was obtained by measuring standard samples which were mixed with Ca 3 (PO 4 ) 2 and H 2 O. The error due to the assumption about the mass absorption coefficient for Compton scattering and to the difference between true bone and standard samples was estimated to be less than 3% within the range from 10 to 60% in weight of bone mineral. The fat in bone affects an estimated value by only 1.5% when it is 20% in weight. For the clinical application of this method, the location to be analyzed should be selected before the measurement with two X-ray images viewed from the source and the detector. These views would be also used to correct the difference in absorption between coherent and Compton scattered radiations whose energies are slightly different from each other. The absorbed dose to the analyzed region was approximately 150 mrad. The time required for one measurement in this study was about 10 minutes. (author)

  16. Scattering effects of small-scale density fluctuations on reflectometric measurements in a tokamak plasma

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Garcia, J.P.; Manso, M.E.; Serra, F.M.; Mendonca, J.T.

    1989-01-01

    When a wave propagates in a non homogeneous fluctuating plasma part of the incident energy is scattered out to the nonlinear interaction between the wave and the oscillating modes perturbing the plasma. The possibility of enhanced scattering at the cutoff layer, where reflection of the incident wave occurs, has been recently suggested as the basis of a reflectometric experiment to determine the spatial location of small scale fluctuations in a fusion plasma. Here we report on the development of a theoretical model to evaluate the flux of energy scattered by fluctuations, in order to give insight about the interpretation of measurements using a microwave reflectometry diagnostic in a tokamak. The scattered field is obtained through the resolution of a (non-homogeneous) wave propagation equation where the source term is related with the nonlinear current due to the interaction between the incident wave and local fluctuations. We use a slab model for the plasma, and an ordinary (0) wave propagation along the density gradient is considered. The amplitude of the scattered wave at the border of the plasma is estimated. In order to know the contributions to the energy scattered both from the propagation region and the reflecting layer, an approach was used where perturbations are modelled by spatial step functions at several layers. The main contribution to the scattered power comes from the cutoff region, where the electric field amplitude swells as compared with the incident value. Considering the reflectometric system recently installed on the ASDEX tokamak, and using typical density profiles, expected values of the 'swelling factor' have been numerically evaluated. The role of incoherent scattering due to drift wave activity is discussed as well as the coherent scattering due to fluctuations induced by lower hybrid (LH) waves. (author) 2 refs., 4 figs

  17. Thomson scattering measurements on the high beta pinch Extrap-T1

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Karlsson, P.

    1989-11-01

    Electron temperature and density measurement on a high beta discharge in the Extrap-T1 device have been performed with Thomson scattering. It was found that the signal levels were low and the plasma background radiation high. The spread of the measured temperatures and densities was large. A computer code was developed to investigate whether this spread in measured temperatures was due to shot to shot variations or to photon statistics. The code showed that the scattered data could be explained by photon statistics

  18. Measurement of angular differential cross sections at the SSL Atomic Scattering Facility

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Kvale, T.J.

    1988-01-01

    The design of the SSL Atomic Scattering Facility (ASF) located at the NASA/Marshall Space Flight Center as well as some of the initial experiments to be performed with it, are covered. The goal is to develop an apparatus capable of measuring angular differential cross sections (ADCS) for the scattering of 2 to 14 eV atomic oxygen from various gaseous targets. At present little is known about atomic oxygen scattering with kinetic energies of a few eV. This apparatus is designed to increase the understanding of collisions in this energy region. Atomic oxygen scattering processes are of vital interest to NASA because the space shuttle as well as other low earth orbit satellites will be subjected to a flux of 5 eV atomic oxygen on the ram surfaces while in orbit. The primary experiments will involve the measurements of ADCS for atomic oxygen scattering from gaseous targets (in particular, molecular nitrogen). These, as well as the related initial experiments involving thermal He scattering from N2 and O2 targets will be described

  19. Scattering and absorption measurements of cervical tissues measures using low cost multi-spectral imaging

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bernat, Amir S.; Bar-Am, Kfir; Cataldo, Leigh; Bolton, Frank J.; Kahn, Bruce S.; Levitz, David

    2018-02-01

    Cervical cancer is a leading cause of death for women in low resource settings. In order to better detect cervical dysplasia, a low cost multi-spectral colposcope was developed utilizing low costs LEDs and an area scan camera. The device is capable of both traditional colposcopic imaging and multi-spectral image capture. Following initial bench testing, the device was deployed to a gynecology clinic where it was used to image patients in a colposcopy setting. Both traditional colposcopic images and spectral data from patients were uploaded to a cloud server for remote analysis. Multi-spectral imaging ( 30 second capture) took place before any clinical procedure; the standard of care was followed thereafter. If acetic acid was used in the standard of care, a post-acetowhitening colposcopic image was also captured. In analyzing the data, normal and abnormal regions were identified in the colposcopic images by an expert clinician. Spectral data were fit to a theoretical model based on diffusion theory, yielding information on scattering and absorption parameters. Data were grouped according to clinician labeling of the tissue, as well as any additional clinical test results available (Pap, HPV, biopsy). Altogether, N=20 patients were imaged in this study, with 9 of them abnormal. In comparing normal and abnormal regions of interest from patients, substantial differences were measured in blood content, while differences in oxygen saturation parameters were more subtle. These results suggest that optical measurements made using low cost spectral imaging systems can distinguish between normal and pathological tissues.

  20. Inclusive measurement of diffractive deep-inelastic scattering at HERA

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Aaron, F.D.; Alexa, C.; Rotaru, M.; Stoicea, G.; Andreev, V.; Belousov, A.; Eliseev, A.; Fomenko, A.; Gogitidze, N.; Lebedev, A.; Malinovski, E.; Rusakov, S.; Shtarkov, L.N.; Soloviev, Y.; Vazdik, Y.; Backovic, S.; Dubak, A.; Lastovicka-Medin, G.; Picuric, I.; Raicevic, N.; Baghdasaryan, A.; Baghdasaryan, S.; Zohrabyan, H.; Barrelet, E.; Bartel, W.; Belov, P.; Brandt, G.; Brinkmann, M.; Britzger, D.; Campbell, A.J.; Eckerlin, G.; Elsen, E.; Felst, R.; Fischer, D.J.; Fleischer, M.; Gayler, J.; Ghazaryan, S.; Glazov, A.; Gouzevitch, M.; Grebenyuk, A.; Habib, S.; Haidt, D.; Kleinwort, C.; Kraemer, M.; Levonian, S.; Lipka, K.; List, B.; List, J.; Lobodzinski, B.; Meyer, A.B.; Meyer, J.; Niebuhr, C.; Nowak, K.; Olsson, J.E.; Pahl, P.; Panagoulias, I.; Papadopoulou, T.; Petrukhin, A.; Pitzl, D.; Placakyte, R.; Radescu, V.; Schmitt, S.; Sefkow, F.; Shushkevich, S.; South, D.; Steder, M.; Wuensch, E.; Begzsuren, K.; Ravdandorj, T.; Tseepeldorj, B.; Bizot, J.C.; Brisson, V.; Delcourt, B.; Jacquet, M.; Pascaud, C.; Tran, T.H.; Zhang, Z.; Zomer, F.; Boudry, V.; Moreau, F.; Specka, A.; Bozovic-Jelisavcic, I.; Pandurovic, M.; Bracinik, J.; Kenyon, I.R.; Newman, P.R.; Thompson, P.D.; Bruncko, D.; Cerny, V.; Ferencei, J.; Bunyatyan, A.; Bylinkin, A.; Bystritskaya, L.; Fedotov, A.; Lubimov, V.; Ozerov, D.; Rostovtsev, A.; Zhokin, A.; Cantun Avila, K.B.; Contreras, J.G.; Ruiz Tabasco, J.E.; Ceccopieri, F.; Delvax, J.; Wolf, E.A. de; Favart, L.; Hreus, T.; Janssen, X.; Roosen, R.; Staykova, Z.; Mechelen, P. van; Cerny, K.; Pokorny, B.; Polifka, R.; Salek, D.; Valkarova, A.; Zacek, J.; Zlebcik, R.; Chekelian, V.; Dossanov, A.; Grindhammer, G.; Kiesling, C.; Coughlan, J.A.; Morris, J.V.; Sankey, D.P.C.; Cvach, J.; Hladky, J.; Reimer, P.; Zalesak, J.; Dainton, J.B.; Gabathuler, E.; Greenshaw, T.; Klein, M.; Kluge, T.; Kretzschmar, J.; Laycock, P.; Maxfield, S.J.; Mehta, A.; Patel, G.D.; Daum, K.; Meyer, H.; Diaconu, C.; Hoffmann, D.; Sauvan, E.; Vallee, C.; Dobre, M.; Kogler, R.; Dodonov, V.; Povh, B.; Egli, S.; Hildebrandt, M.; Horisberger, R.; Feltesse, J.; Perez, E.; Schoeffel, L.; Goerlich, L.; Mikocki, S.; Milcewicz-Mika, I.; Nowak, G.; Sopicki, P.; Turnau, J.; Grab, C.; Henderson, R.C.W.; Sloan, T.; Hennekemper, E.; Herbst, M.; Krueger, K.; Lendermann, V.; Schultz-Coulon, H.C.; Henschel, H.; Hiller, K.H.; Kostka, P.; Lange, W.; Naumann, T.; Herrera, G.; Lopez-Fernandez, R.; Huber, F.; Pirumov, H.; Sauter, M.; Schoening, A.; Joensson, L.; Jung, H.; Kapichine, M.; Morozov, A.; Nikitin, D.; Palichik, V.; Spaskov, V.; Landon, M.P.J.; Rizvi, E.; Traynor, D.; Martyn, H.U.; Mueller, K.; Robmann, P.; Straumann, U.; Truoel, P.; Stella, B.; Sykora, T.; Tsakov, I.; Wegener, D.; Collaboration: H1 Collaboration

    2012-07-15

    The diffractive process ep{yields}eXY, where Y denotes a proton or its low mass excitation with M{sub Y}<1.6 GeV, is studied with the H1 experiment at HERA. The analysis is restricted to the phase space region of the photon virtuality 3{<=}Q{sup 2}{<=} 1600 GeV {sup 2}, the square of the four-momentum transfer at the proton vertex vertical stroke t vertical stroke < 1.0 GeV {sup 2} and the longitudinal momentum fraction of the incident proton carried by the colourless exchange x{sub P}<0.05. Triple differential cross sections are measured as a function of x{sub P}, Q {sup 2} and {beta}=x/x{sub P} where x is the Bjorken scaling variable. These measurements are made after selecting diffractive events by demanding a large empty rapidity interval separating the final state hadronic systems X and Y. High statistics measurements covering the data taking periods 1999-2000 and 2004-2007 are combined with previously published results in order to provide a single set of diffractive cross sections from the H1 experiment using the large rapidity gap selection method. The combined data represent a factor between three and thirty increase in statistics with respect to the previously published results. The measurements are compared with predictions from NLO QCD calculations based on diffractive parton densities and from a dipole model. The proton vertex factorisation hypothesis is tested. (orig.)

  1. Inclusive measurement of diffractive deep-inelastic scattering at HERA

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Aaron, F.D. [National Institute for Physics and Nuclear Engineering (NIPNE), Bucharest (Romania); Bucharest Univ. (Romania). Faculty of Physics; Alexa, C. [National Institute for Physics and Nuclear Engineering (NIPNE), Bucharest (Romania); Andreev, V. [Lebedev Physical Institute, Moscow (RU)] (and others)

    2012-03-15

    The diffractive process ep {yields} eXY, where Y denotes a proton or its low mass excitation with M{sub Y}<1.6 GeV, is studied with the H1 experiment at HERA. The analysis is restricted to the phase space region of the photon virtuality 3{<=} Q{sup 2} {<=}1600 GeV{sup 2}, the square of the four-momentum transfer at the proton vertex vertical stroke t vertical stroke <1.0 GeV{sup 2} and the longitudinal momentum fraction of the incident proton carried by the colourless exchange x{sub P}<0.05. Triple differential cross sections are measured as a function of x{sub P}, Q{sup 2} and {beta}=x/x{sub P} where x is the Bjorken scaling variable. These measurements are made after selecting diffractive events by demanding a large empty rapidity interval separating the final state hadronic systems X and Y. High statistics measurements covering the data taking periods 1999-2000 and 2004-2007 are combined with previously published results in order to provide a single set of diffractive cross sections from the H1 experiment using the large rapidity gap selection method. The combined data represent a factor between three and thirty increase in statistics with respect to the previously published results. The measurements are compared with predictions from NLO QCD calculations based on diffractive parton densities and from a dipole model. The proton vertex factorisation hypothesis is tested. (orig.)

  2. Nano-crystal growth in cordierite glass ceramics studied with X-ray scattering

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Bras, Wim; Clark, Simon M.; Greaves, G. N.; Kunz, Martin; van Beek, W.; Radmilovic, V.

    2009-01-16

    The development of monodisperse crystalline particles in cordierite glass doped with Cr3+ after a two-step heat treatment is elucidated by a combination of time-resolved small and wide angle x-ray scattering (SAXS/WAXS) experiments with electron microscopy. The effects of bulk and surface crystallization can clearly be distinguished, and the crystallization kinetics of the bulk phase is characterized. The internal pressure due to structural differences between the crystalline and amorphous phase is measured but the physical cause of this pressure can not unambiguously be attributed. The combined measurements comprise a nearly full characterization of the crystallization processes and the resulting sample morphology.

  3. Time resolved Thomson scattering measurements on a high pressure mercury lamp

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Vries, de N.; Zhu, Xiao-Yan; Kieft, E.R.; Mullen, van der J.J.A.M.

    2005-01-01

    Time resolved Thomson scattering (TS) measurements have been performed on an ac driven high pressure mercury lamp. For this high intensity discharge (HID) lamp, TS is coherent and a coherent fitting routine, including rotational Raman calibration, was used to determine ne and Te from the measured

  4. Determination of the thermospheric neutral wind from incoherent scatter radar measurements

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Haeggstroem, I.; Murdin, J.; Rees, D.

    1984-11-01

    Measurements made by the EISCAT UHF incoherent scatter radar are used to derive thermospheric winds. The derived wind is compared to Fabry-Perot interferometer measurements of the neutral wind made simultaneously. The uncertainties in the radar derived wind are discussed. (author)

  5. Comparison of fast ion collective Thomson scattering measurements at ASDEX Upgrade with numerical simulations

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Salewski, Mirko; Meo, Fernando; Stejner Pedersen, Morten

    2010-01-01

    Collective Thomson scattering (CTS) experiments were carried out at ASDEX Upgrade to measure the one-dimensional velocity distribution functions of fast ion populations. These measurements are compared with simulations using the codes TRANSP/NUBEAM and ASCOT for two different neutral beam injecti...

  6. Dynamics of fast ions during sawtooth oscillations in the TEXTOR tokamak measured by collective Thomson scattering

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Nielsen, Stefan Kragh; Salewski, Mirko; Bindslev, Henrik

    2011-01-01

    Experimental investigations of sawteeth interaction with fast ions measured by collective Thomson scattering on TEXTOR are presented. Time-resolved measurements of localized 1D fast-ion distribution functions allow us to study fast-ion dynamics during several sawtooth cycles. Sawtooth oscillation...

  7. Quantitative and Isolated Measurement of Far-Field Light Scattering by a Single Nanostructure

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kim, Donghyeong; Jeong, Kwang-Yong; Kim, Jinhyung; Ee, Ho-Seok; Kang, Ju-Hyung; Park, Hong-Gyu; Seo, Min-Kyo

    2017-11-01

    Light scattering by nanostructures has facilitated research on various optical phenomena and applications by interfacing the near fields and free-propagating radiation. However, direct quantitative measurement of far-field scattering by a single nanostructure on the wavelength scale or less is highly challenging. Conventional back-focal-plane imaging covers only a limited solid angle determined by the numerical aperture of the objectives and suffers from optical aberration and distortion. Here, we present a quantitative measurement of the differential far-field scattering cross section of a single nanostructure over the full hemisphere. In goniometer-based far-field scanning with a high signal-to-noise ratio of approximately 27.4 dB, weak scattering signals are efficiently isolated and detected under total-internal-reflection illumination. Systematic measurements reveal that the total and differential scattering cross sections of a Au nanorod are determined by the plasmonic Fabry-Perot resonances and the phase-matching conditions to the free-propagating radiation, respectively. We believe that our angle-resolved far-field measurement scheme provides a way to investigate and evaluate the physical properties and performance of nano-optical materials and phenomena.

  8. Inclusive Measurement of Diffractive Deep-Inelastic Scattering at HERA

    CERN Document Server

    Aaron, F.D.

    2012-07-18

    The diffractive process ep \\rightarrow eXY, where Y denotes a proton or its low mass excitation with MY < 1.6 GeV, is studied with the H1 experiment at HERA. The analysis is restricted to the phase space region of the photon virtuality 3 \\leq Q2 \\leq 1600 GeV2, the square of the four-momentum transfer at the proton vertex |t| < 1.0 GeV2 and the longitudinal momentum fraction of the incident proton carried by the colourless exchange xIP < 0.05. Triple differential cross sections are measured as a function of xIP, Q2 and beta = x/xIP where x is the Bjorken scaling variable. These measurements are made after selecting diffractive events by demanding a large empty rapidity interval separating the final state hadronic systems X and Y . High statistics measurements covering the data taking periods 1999-2000 and 2004-2007 are combined with previously published results in order to provide a single set of diffractive cross sections from the H1 experiment using the large rapidity gap selection method. The comb...

  9. Inclusive measurement of diffractive deep-inelastic scattering at HERA

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Aaron, F.D.; Alexa, C.; Rotaru, M.; Stoicea, G.; Andreev, V.; Belousov, A.; Eliseev, A.; Fomenko, A.; Gogitidze, N.; Lebedev, A.; Malinovski, E.; Rusakov, S.; Shtarkov, L.N.; Soloviev, Y.; Vazdik, Y.; Backovic, S.; Dubak, A.; Lastovicka-Medin, G.; Picuric, I.; Raicevic, N.; Baghdasaryan, A.; Baghdasaryan, S.; Zohrabyan, H.; Barrelet, E.; Bartel, W.; Belov, P.; Brandt, G.; Brinkmann, M.; Britzger, D.; Campbell, A.J.; Eckerlin, G.; Elsen, E.; Felst, R.; Fischer, D.J.; Fleischer, M.; Gayler, J.; Ghazaryan, S.; Glazov, A.; Gouzevitch, M.; Grebenyuk, A.; Habib, S.; Haidt, D.; Kleinwort, C.; Kraemer, M.; Levonian, S.; Lipka, K.; List, B.; List, J.; Lobodzinski, B.; Meyer, A.B.; Meyer, J.; Niebuhr, C.; Nowak, K.; Olsson, J.E.; Pahl, P.; Panagoulias, I.; Papadopoulou, T.; Petrukhin, A.; Pitzl, D.; Placakyte, R.; Radescu, V.; Schmitt, S.; Sefkow, F.; Shushkevich, S.; South, D.; Steder, M.; Wuensch, E.; Begzsuren, K.; Ravdandorj, T.; Tseepeldorj, B.; Bizot, J.C.; Brisson, V.; Delcourt, B.; Jacquet, M.; Pascaud, C.; Tran, T.H.; Zhang, Z.; Zomer, F.; Boudry, V.; Moreau, F.; Specka, A.; Bozovic-Jelisavcic, I.; Pandurovic, M.; Bracinik, J.; Kenyon, I.R.; Newman, P.R.; Thompson, P.D.; Bruncko, D.; Cerny, V.; Ferencei, J.; Bunyatyan, A.; Bylinkin, A.; Bystritskaya, L.; Fedotov, A.; Lubimov, V.; Ozerov, D.; Rostovtsev, A.; Zhokin, A.; Cantun Avila, K.B.; Contreras, J.G.; Ruiz Tabasco, J.E.; Ceccopieri, F.; Delvax, J.; Wolf, E.A. de; Favart, L.; Hreus, T.; Janssen, X.; Roosen, R.; Staykova, Z.; Mechelen, P. van; Cerny, K.; Pokorny, B.; Polifka, R.; Salek, D.; Valkarova, A.; Zacek, J.; Zlebcik, R.; Chekelian, V.; Dossanov, A.; Grindhammer, G.; Kiesling, C.; Coughlan, J.A.; Morris, J.V.; Sankey, D.P.C.; Cvach, J.; Hladky, J.; Reimer, P.; Zalesak, J.; Dainton, J.B.; Gabathuler, E.; Greenshaw, T.; Klein, M.; Kluge, T.; Kretzschmar, J.; Laycock, P.; Maxfield, S.J.; Mehta, A.; Patel, G.D.; Daum, K.; Meyer, H.; Diaconu, C.; Hoffmann, D.; Sauvan, E.; Vallee, C.; Dobre, M.; Kogler, R.; Dodonov, V.; Povh, B.; Egli, S.; Hildebrandt, M.; Horisberger, R.; Feltesse, J.; Perez, E.; Schoeffel, L.; Goerlich, L.; Mikocki, S.; Milcewicz-Mika, I.; Nowak, G.; Sopicki, P.; Turnau, J.; Grab, C.; Henderson, R.C.W.; Sloan, T.; Hennekemper, E.; Herbst, M.; Krueger, K.; Lendermann, V.; Schultz-Coulon, H.C.; Henschel, H.; Hiller, K.H.; Kostka, P.; Lange, W.; Naumann, T.; Herrera, G.; Lopez-Fernandez, R.; Huber, F.; Pirumov, H.; Sauter, M.; Schoening, A.; Joensson, L.; Jung, H.; Kapichine, M.; Morozov, A.; Nikitin, D.; Palichik, V.; Spaskov, V.; Landon, M.P.J.; Rizvi, E.; Traynor, D.; Martyn, H.U.; Mueller, K.; Robmann, P.; Straumann, U.; Truoel, P.; Stella, B.; Sykora, T.; Tsakov, I.; Wegener, D.

    2012-01-01

    The diffractive process ep→eXY, where Y denotes a proton or its low mass excitation with M Y 2 ≤ 1600 GeV 2 , the square of the four-momentum transfer at the proton vertex vertical stroke t vertical stroke 2 and the longitudinal momentum fraction of the incident proton carried by the colourless exchange x P P , Q 2 and β=x/x P where x is the Bjorken scaling variable. These measurements are made after selecting diffractive events by demanding a large empty rapidity interval separating the final state hadronic systems X and Y. High statistics measurements covering the data taking periods 1999-2000 and 2004-2007 are combined with previously published results in order to provide a single set of diffractive cross sections from the H1 experiment using the large rapidity gap selection method. The combined data represent a factor between three and thirty increase in statistics with respect to the previously published results. The measurements are compared with predictions from NLO QCD calculations based on diffractive parton densities and from a dipole model. The proton vertex factorisation hypothesis is tested. (orig.)

  10. A4F-SAXS online-coupling for the investigation of nanoparticles and polymers; Die A4F-SAXS Online-Kopplung zur Untersuchung von Nanopartikeln und Polymeren

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Knappe, Patrick

    2012-07-13

    In the present thesis the online-coupling of asymmetric flow field-flow fractionation (A4F) with small-angle X-ray scattering (SAXS) as a versatile analytical tool is introduced and applied to current challenges in nanoparticle analysis as well as to model systems of technically relevant polymers. The A4F provides size separation of sample solutions and suspensions. Due to the separation principle only low shear forces are applied which appear in competing methods. Therefore, this method allows processing of very sensitive sample materials. SAXS allows non-destructive probing of nanoscale structures in the range of about one to one hundred nanometers. By coupling with A4F, the complexity of sample systems with broad size distributions, which are therefore frequently hard to characterize, is reduced significantly prior to further analysis. Applying this approach, detailed information about sample properties can be gained accurately with respect to the shape, size and size distribution of particles or conformation of macromolecules in short time. Addition of a dynamic light scattering detector to the setup allows a further conclusion. With the latter, a nanoparticles suspension was characterized rapidly and with good precision with respect to the core properties of the particles as well as the thickness of the stabilizer's shell in a single online run. These parameters are important when dealing not only with functionality but also with the bioavailability or toxicity of nanoparticles. This methodology was also successfully applied to polymer systems for the first time, namely poly(vinyl pyrrolidone)s as well as strong and weak polyelectrolytes. Additionally, due to the applied separation method samples with broad molar mass distributions were processable which otherwise tend to interfere with stationary phase-based chromatography. Furthermore, using SAXS, structural properties can be resolved from smaller polymer size-fractions which are hardly accessible with

  11. A4F-SAXS online-coupling for the investigation of nanoparticles and polymers; Die A4F-SAXS Online-Kopplung zur Untersuchung von Nanopartikeln und Polymeren

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Knappe, Patrick

    2012-07-13

    In the present thesis the online-coupling of asymmetric flow field-flow fractionation (A4F) with small-angle X-ray scattering (SAXS) as a versatile analytical tool is introduced and applied to current challenges in nanoparticle analysis as well as to model systems of technically relevant polymers. The A4F provides size separation of sample solutions and suspensions. Due to the separation principle only low shear forces are applied which appear in competing methods. Therefore, this method allows processing of very sensitive sample materials. SAXS allows non-destructive probing of nanoscale structures in the range of about one to one hundred nanometers. By coupling with A4F, the complexity of sample systems with broad size distributions, which are therefore frequently hard to characterize, is reduced significantly prior to further analysis. Applying this approach, detailed information about sample properties can be gained accurately with respect to the shape, size and size distribution of particles or conformation of macromolecules in short time. Addition of a dynamic light scattering detector to the setup allows a further conclusion. With the latter, a nanoparticles suspension was characterized rapidly and with good precision with respect to the core properties of the particles as well as the thickness of the stabilizer's shell in a single online run. These parameters are important when dealing not only with functionality but also with the bioavailability or toxicity of nanoparticles. This methodology was also successfully applied to polymer systems for the first time, namely poly(vinyl pyrrolidone)s as well as strong and weak polyelectrolytes. Additionally, due to the applied separation method samples with broad molar mass distributions were processable which otherwise tend to interfere with stationary phase-based chromatography. Furthermore, using SAXS, structural properties can be resolved from smaller polymer size-fractions which are hardly accessible with other

  12. Windows pollution problems of the dust concentration measurement based on scattering method

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Zhao Yanjun; Zhang Yongtao; Shi Xinyue; Xu Chuanlong; Wang Shimin

    2009-01-01

    The windows are separated the measurement system from the dust space in the light Scattering dust concentration measurement system. The windows are polluted unavoidably by the dust and the measurement error is produced. Based on the Mie Scattering theory, the measurement error is researched in this paper. The numerical simulation results show that the measurement error is related to the particles diameter distribution and the refractive index, but is independent of the particles average diameter. A novel photoelectricity sensor is developed in this paper in order to solve the measurement error by the windows pollution. The calculated method is brought out which can amend the measurement errors by the windows pollution and improve the measurement accuracy.

  13. Effect of iron oxide loading on magnetoferritin structure in solution as revealed by SAXS and SANS.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Melníková, L; Petrenko, V I; Avdeev, M V; Garamus, V M; Almásy, L; Ivankov, O I; Bulavin, L A; Mitróová, Z; Kopčanský, P

    2014-11-01

    Synthetic biological macromolecule of magnetoferritin containing an iron oxide core inside a protein shell (apoferritin) is prepared with different content of iron. Its structure in aqueous solution is analysed by small-angle synchrotron X-ray (SAXS) and neutron (SANS) scattering. The loading factor (LF) defined as the average number of iron atoms per protein is varied up to LF=800. With an increase of the LF, the scattering curves exhibit a relative increase in the total scattered intensity, a partial smearing and a shift of the match point in the SANS contrast variation data. The analysis shows an increase in the polydispersity of the proteins and a corresponding effective increase in the relative content of magnetic material against the protein moiety of the shell with the LF growth. At LFs above ∼150, the apoferritin shell undergoes structural changes, which is strongly indicative of the fact that the shell stability is affected by iron oxide presence. Copyright © 2014 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  14. Microstructure of magnetite doped elastomers investigated by SAXS and SANS

    Czech Academy of Sciences Publication Activity Database

    Balasoiu, M.; Craus, M. L.; Kuklin, A. I.; Pleštil, Josef; Haramus, V.; Islamov, A. H.; Erhan, R.; Anitas, E. M.; Lozovan, M.; Tripadus, V.; Petrescu, C.; Savu, D.; Savu, S.; Bica, I.

    2008-01-01

    Roč. 10, č. 11 (2008), s. 2932-2935 ISSN 1454-4164. [International Balkan Workshop on Applied Physics /9./. Constanta, 07.07.2008-09.07.2008] Institutional research plan: CEZ:AV0Z40500505 Keywords : SANS * SAXS * magnetic elastomers * ferrofluids Subject RIV: CD - Macromolecular Chemistry Impact factor: 0.577, year: 2008 http://inoe.inoe.ro/joam/index.php?option=magazine&op=list&revid=32

  15. The accuracy of liquid-liquid phase transition temperatures determined from semiautomated light scattering measurements

    Science.gov (United States)

    Dean, Kevin M.; Babayco, Christopher B.; Sluss, Daniel R. B.; Williamson, J. Charles

    2010-08-01

    The synthetic-method determination of liquid-liquid coexistence curves using semiautomated light scattering instrumentation and stirred samples is based on identifying the coexistence curve transition temperatures (Tcx) from sudden changes in turbidity associated with droplet formation. Here we use a thorough set of such measurements to evaluate the accuracy of several different analysis methods reported in the literature for assigning Tcx. More than 20 samples each of weakly opalescent isobutyric acid+water and strongly opalescent aniline+hexane were tested with our instrumentation. Transmitted light and scattering intensities at 2°, 24°, and 90° were collected simultaneously as a function of temperature for each stirred sample, and the data were compared with visual observations and light scattering theory. We find that assigning Tcx to the onset of decreased transmitted light or increased 2° scattering has a potential accuracy of 0.01 K or better for many samples. However, the turbidity due to critical opalescence obscures the identification of Tcx from the light scattering data of near-critical stirred samples, and no simple rule of interpretation can be applied regardless of collection geometry. At best, when 90° scattering is collected along with transmitted or 2° data, the accuracy of Tcx is limited to 0.05 K for near-critical samples. Visual determination of Tcx remains the more accurate approach in this case.

  16. Breast tissue classification using x-ray scattering measurements and multivariate data analysis

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ryan, Elaine A.; Farquharson, Michael J.

    2007-11-01

    This study utilized two radiation scatter interactions in order to differentiate malignant from non-malignant breast tissue. These two interactions were Compton scatter, used to measure the electron density of the tissues, and coherent scatter to obtain a measure of structure. Measurements of these parameters were made using a laboratory experimental set-up comprising an x-ray tube and HPGe detector. The breast tissue samples investigated comprise five different tissue classifications: adipose, malignancy, fibroadenoma, normal fibrous tissue and tissue that had undergone fibrocystic change. The coherent scatter spectra were analysed using a peak fitting routine, and a technique involving multivariate analysis was used to combine the peak fitted scatter profile spectra and the electron density values into a tissue classification model. The number of variables used in the model was refined by finding the sensitivity and specificity of each model and concentrating on differentiating between two tissues at a time. The best model that was formulated had a sensitivity of 54% and a specificity of 100%.

  17. Breast tissue classification using x-ray scattering measurements and multivariate data analysis

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Ryan, Elaine A; Farquharson, Michael J [School of Allied Health Sciences, City University, Charterhouse Square, London EC1M 6PA (United Kingdom)

    2007-11-21

    This study utilized two radiation scatter interactions in order to differentiate malignant from non-malignant breast tissue. These two interactions were Compton scatter, used to measure the electron density of the tissues, and coherent scatter to obtain a measure of structure. Measurements of these parameters were made using a laboratory experimental set-up comprising an x-ray tube and HPGe detector. The breast tissue samples investigated comprise five different tissue classifications: adipose, malignancy, fibroadenoma, normal fibrous tissue and tissue that had undergone fibrocystic change. The coherent scatter spectra were analysed using a peak fitting routine, and a technique involving multivariate analysis was used to combine the peak fitted scatter profile spectra and the electron density values into a tissue classification model. The number of variables used in the model was refined by finding the sensitivity and specificity of each model and concentrating on differentiating between two tissues at a time. The best model that was formulated had a sensitivity of 54% and a specificity of 100%.

  18. Research building gamma Compton scattering measurement system and related exercises for training nuclear human resources

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Mai Xuan Phong; Nguyen Van Hung; Pham Xuan Hai; Le Van Ngoc; Nguyen Xuan Hai; Dang Lanh; Tran Quoc Duong

    2013-01-01

    In this subject we have designed and manufactured Compton scattering gamma measurement system based on the calculated optimal configuration as well as the conditions of protect radiation by using Monte-Carlo simulation program and fabrication with the optimal conditions were selected. Monte-Carlo simulation calculation of Compton scattering gamma follow different angles on copper, surveying gamma radiation attenuation characteristics of materials: lead, iron, aluminum, and compared with the experimental results performed on the same measurement system has been built and given for evaluation, comments. (author)

  19. Ion conducting behavior in secondary battery materials detected by quasi-elastic neutron scattering measurements

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Nozaki, Hiroshi

    2014-01-01

    Ionic conducting behaviors in secondary battery materials, i.e. cathode and solid electrolyte, were studied with quasi-elastic neutron scattering (QENS) measurements. Although the incoherent scattering length for Li and Na is lower by two orders of magnitude than that for H, the QENS spectra were clearly detected using the combination of an intense neutron source and a low background spectrometer. The fundamental parameters, such as, the activation energy, the jump distance, and the diffusion coefficient were obtained by analyzing QENS spectra. These parameters are consistent with the previous results estimated by muon-spin relaxation (μSR) measurements and first principles calculations. (author)

  20. Multiple scattering wavelength dependent backscattering of kaolin dust in the IR: Measurements and theory

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ben-David, Avishai

    1992-01-01

    Knowing the optical properties of aerosol dust is important for designing electro-optical systems and for modeling the effect on propagation of light in the atmosphere. As CO2 lidar technology becomes more advanced and is used for multiwavelength measurements, information on the wavelength dependent backscattering of aerosol dust particles is required. The volume backscattering coefficient of aerosols in the IR is relatively small. Thus, only a few field measurements of backscattering, usually at only a few wavelengths, are reported in the literature. We present spectral field measurements of backscattering of kaolin dust in the 9-11 micron wavelength range. As the quantity of dust increases, multiple scattering contributes more to the measured backscattered signal. The measurements show the effect of the dust quantity of the spectral backscatter measurements. A simple analytical two stream radiative transfer model is applied to confirm the measurements and to give insight to the multiple scattering spectra of backscattering.

  1. Measurement of Deuteron Tensor Polarization in Elastic Electron Scattering

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Gustafsson, Kenneth K. [Univ. of Maryland, College Park, MD (United States)

    2000-01-01

    Nuclear physics traces it roots back to the very beginning of the last century. The concept of the nuclear atom was introduced by Rutherford around 1910. The discovery of the neutron Chadwick in 1932 gave us the concept of two nucleons: the proton and the neutron. The Jlab electron accelerator with its intermediate energy high current continuous wave beam combined with the Hall C high resolution electron spectrometer and a deutron recoil polarimeter provided experiment E94018 with the opportunity to study the deuteron electomagnetic structure, in particular to measure the tensor polarization observable t20, at high four momentum transfers than ever before. This dissertation presents results of JLab experiment E94018.

  2. Experimental measurements of lower-hybrid wave propagation in the Versator II tokamak using microwave scattering

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Rohatgi, R.; Chen, K.; Bekefi, G.; Bonoli, P.; Luckhardt, S.C.; Mayberry, M.; Porkolab, M.; Villasenor, J.

    1991-01-01

    A series of 139 GHz microwave scattering experiments has been performed on the Versator II tokamak (B. Richards, Ph.D. thesis, Massachusetts Institute of Technology, 1981) to study the propagation of externally launched 0.8 GHz lower-hybrid waves. During lower-hybrid current drive, the launched waves are found to follow a highly directional resonance cone in the outer portion of the plasma. Wave power is also detected near the center of the plasma, and evidence of wave absorption is seen. Scattering of lower-hybrid waves in k space by density fluctuations appears to be a weak effect, although measurable frequency broadening by density fluctuations is found, Δω/ω=3x10 -4 . In the detectable range (2.5 parallel parallel spectra inferred from the scattering measurements are quite similar above and below the current drive density limit. Numerical modeling of these experiments using ray tracing is also presented

  3. Microwave Scattering System Design for ρe-Scale Turbulence Measurements on NSTX

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Smith, D.R.; Mazzucato, E.; Munsat, T.; Park, H.; Johnson, D.; Lin, L.; Domier, C.W.; Johnson, M.; Luhmann, N.C. Jr.

    2004-01-01

    Despite suppression of ρ i -scale turbulent fluctuations, electron thermal transport remains anomalous in NSTX. For this reason, a microwave scattering system will be deployed to directly observe the w and k spectra of ρ e -scale turbulent fluctuations and characterize the effect on electron thermal transport. The scattering system will employ a Gaussian probe beam produced by a high power 280 GHz microwave source. A five-channel heterodyne detection system will measure radial turbulent spectra in the range |k r | = 0-20 cm -1 . Inboard and outboard launch configurations cover most of the normalized minor radius. Improved spatial localization of measurements is achieved with low aspect ratio and high magnetic shear configurations. This paper will address the global design of the scattering system, such as choice of frequency, size, launching system, and detection system

  4. Direct measurement of the Rayleigh scattering cross section in various gases

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Sneep, Maarten; Ubachs, Wim

    2005-01-01

    Using the laser-based technique of cavity ring-down spectroscopy extinction measurements have been performed in various gases straightforwardly resulting in cross sections for Rayleigh scattering. For Ar and N 2 measurements are performed in the range 470-490nm, while for CO 2 cross sections are determined in the wider range 470-570nm. In addition to these gases also for N 2 O, CH 4 , CO, and SF 6 the scattering cross section is determined at 532nm, a wavelength of importance for lidar applications and combustion laser diagnostics. In O 2 the cross section at 532nm is found to depend on pressure due to collision-induced light absorption. The obtained cross sections validate the cross sections for Rayleigh scattering as derived from refractive indices and depolarization ratios through Rayleigh's theory at the few %-level, although somewhat larger discrepancies are found for CO, N 2 O and CH 4

  5. Prospects for ion temperature measurements in JET by Thomson scattering of submillimetre waves

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Whitbourn, L.B.

    1975-03-01

    The Thomson scattering of submillimeter waves is envisaged as a possible means for measuring the ion temperature of the JET plasma. The present discussion is principally concerned with the practical limitations imposed to the method by the availability of high power pulsed sources and sensitive detectors and noise due to plasma emission at submillimeter wavelengths (bremsstrahlung and electron cyclotron emission). Coherent scattering from plasma wave (e.g. ion acoustic waves and electron drift waves) with millimeter and submillimeter waves are considered briefly. Further suitable development of lasers and heterodyne detectors would make such measurements possible. A pulsed HCN laser associated with a detectors with a lower heterodyne noise equivalent power could then be used to advantage. For scattering with CH 3 F laser the NEP of a Josephson junction would be adequate because a relatively high level of plasma emission is expected at 496 μm [fr

  6. Soft excess and orbital evolution studies of X-ray pulsars with BeppoSAX

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Paul, B.; Naik, S.; Bhatt, N.

    2004-01-01

    We present here a spectral study of two accreting binary X-ray pulsars LMC X-4 and SMC X-1 made with the BeppoSAX observatory. The energy spectrum of both the pulsars in 0.1-10.0 keV band can be described by a model consisting of a hard power-law component, a soft excess and an iron emission line at 6.4 keV. In addition, the power-law component of SMC X-1 also has an exponential cutoff at ∼ 6 keV. Pulse-phase resolved spectroscopy confirms a pulsating nature of the soft spectral component in both the pulsars, with a certain phase offset compared to the hard power-law component. A dissimilar pulse profile of the two spectral components and a phase difference between the pulsating soft and hard spectral components are evidence for their different origins. In another study of an accreting binary X-ray pulsar Her X-1, we have made accurate measurements of new mid-eclipse times from pulse arrival time delays using observations made with the BeppoSAX and RXTE observatories. The new measurements, combined with the earlier reported mid-eclipse times are used to investigate orbital evolution of the binary. The most recent observation indicates deviation from a quadratic trend coincident with an anomalous low X-ray state, observed for the second time in this pulsar

  7. Morphology of blends of linear and long-chain-branched polyethylenes in the solid state: A study by SANS, SAXS, and DSC

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Wignall, G.D.; Londono, J.D.; Lin, J.S.; Alamo, R.G.; Galante, M.J.; Mandelkern, L.

    1995-01-01

    Differential scanning calorimetry (DSC), small-angle neutron scattering (SANS), and X-ray scattering (SAXS) have been used to investigate the solid-state morphology of blends of linear (high density) and long-chain-branched (low-density) polyethylenes (HDPE/LDPE). The blends are homogeneous in the melt, as previously demonstrated by SANS using the contrast obtained by deuterating the linear polymer. However, due to the structural and melting point differences (∼ 20 C) between HDPE and LDPE, the components may phase segregate on slow cooling (0.75 C/min). For high concentrations (φ ≥ 0.5) of HDPE, relatively high rates of crystallization of the linear component lead to the formation of separate stacks of HDPE and LDPE lamellae, as indicated by two-peak SAXS curves. For predominantly branched blends, the difference in crystallization rate of the components becomes smaller and only one SAXS peak is observed, indicating that the two species are in the same lamellar stack. Moreover, the phases no longer consist of the pure component and the HDPE lamellae contain up to 15--20% LDPE (and vice versa). Rapid quenching into dry ice/2-propanol (-78 C) produces only one SAXS peak (and hence one lamellar stack) over the whole concentration range. The blends show extensive cocrystallization, along with a tendency for the branched material to be preferentially located in the amorphous interlamellar regions. For high concentrations (φ > 0.5) of HDPE-D, the overall scattering length density (SLD) is high and the excess concentration of LDPE between the lamellae enhances the SLD contrast between the crystalline and amorphous phases. Thus, the interlamellar spacing (long period) is clearly visible in the SANS pattern. The blend morphology is a strong function of the quenching rate, and samples quenched less rapidly (e.g., into water at 23 C) are similar to slowly cooled blends

  8. Setup for precise measurement of neutro lifetime by UCN storage method with inelastically scattered neutron detection

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Arzumanov, S.S; Bondarenko, L.N.; Gel'tenbort, P.; Morozov, V.I.; Nesvizhevskij, V.V.; Panin, Yu.N.; Strepetov, A.N.

    2007-01-01

    The experimental setup and the method of measuring the neutron lifetime with a precision less then 1 s is described. The measurements will be carried out by storage of ultracold neutrons (UCN) into vessels with inner walls coated with fluorine polymer oil with simultaneous registration of inelastically scattered UCN leaving storage vessels. The analysis of statistical and methodical errors is carried out. The calculated estimation of the measurement accuracy is presented [ru

  9. New developments in the simultaneous measurement system of wide-angle and small-angle x-ray scatterings and vibrational spectra for the static and dynamic analyses of the hierarchical structures of polymer solids

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Tashiro, Kohji; Yamamoto, Hiroko; Yoshioka, Taiyo; Ninh, Tran Hai; Shimada, Shigeru; Nakatani, Takeshi; Iwamoto, Hiroyuki; Ohta, Noboru; Masunaga, Hiroyasu

    2012-01-01

    A simultaneous measurement system of wide-angle X-ray diffraction (WAXD), small-angle X-ray scattering (SAXS) and Raman or transmission-type infrared spectroscopy was developed by us. Its purposes is to clarify the static and dynamic structural changes of polymer materials subjected to the various external condition changes. Some examples described here include the study of the stretch-induced reorientation phenomenon of a-axially-oriented polyethylene, the study of structural change in photo-induced solid-state polymerization reaction of muconic acid ester monomer crystal, the study of the two-stage high-temperature phase transitions of aliphatic nylons, the study of stress-induced crystalline phase transition of an oriented poly(tetramethylene terephthalate) sample and its relation to the higher-order structural change, and the study of structural regularization process of poly(L-lactic acid) in the isothermal crystallization of the meso phase. These case studies in the clarification of hierarchical structural changes of polymer materials have proven that the simultaneous measurement systems can be useful to examine the structural changes in polymer systems. (author)

  10. An in situ USAXS-SAXS-WAXS study of precipitate size distribution evolution in a model Ni-based alloy.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Andrews, Ross N; Serio, Joseph; Muralidharan, Govindarajan; Ilavsky, Jan

    2017-06-01

    Intermetallic γ' precipitates typically strengthen nickel-based superalloys. The shape, size and spatial distribution of strengthening precipitates critically influence alloy strength, while their temporal evolution characteristics determine the high-temperature alloy stability. Combined ultra-small-, small- and wide-angle X-ray scattering (USAXS-SAXS-WAXS) analysis can be used to evaluate the temporal evolution of an alloy's precipitate size distribution (PSD) and phase structure during in situ heat treatment. Analysis of PSDs from USAXS-SAXS data employs either least-squares fitting of a preordained PSD model or a maximum entropy (MaxEnt) approach, the latter avoiding a priori definition of a functional form of the PSD. However, strong low- q scattering from grain boundaries and/or structure factor effects inhibit MaxEnt analysis of typical alloys. This work describes the extension of Bayesian-MaxEnt analysis methods to data exhibiting structure factor effects and low- q power law slopes and demonstrates their use in an in situ study of precipitate size evolution during heat treatment of a model Ni-Al-Si alloy.

  11. A General Approach to Access Morphologies of Polyoxometalates in Solution by Using SAXS: An Ab Initio Modeling Protocol.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Li, Mu; Wang, Weiyu; Yin, Panchao

    2018-05-02

    Herein, we reported a general protocol for an ab initio modeling approach to deduce structure information of polyoxometalates (POMs) in solutions from scattering data collected by the small-angle X-ray scattering (SAXS) technique. To validate the protocol, the morphologies of a serious of known POMs in either aqueous or organic solvents were analyzed. The obtained particle morphologies were compared and confirmed with previous reported crystal structures. To extend the feasibility of the protocol to an unknown system of aqueous solutions of Na 2 MoO 4 with the pH ranging from -1 to 8.35, the formation of {Mo 36 } clusters was probed, identified, and confirmed by SAXS. The approach was further optimized with a multi-processing capability to achieve fast analysis of experimental data, thereby, facilitating in situ studies of formations of POMs in solutions. The advantage of this approach is to generate intuitive 3D models of POMs in solutions without confining information such as symmetries and possible sizes. © 2018 Wiley-VCH Verlag GmbH & Co. KGaA, Weinheim.

  12. Measurements of np scattering at 96 and 162 MeV

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Olsson, N.; Rahm, J.; Blomgren, J.; Conde, H.; Dangtip, S.; Elmgren, K.; Roennqvist, T.; Zorro, R.; Ringbom, A.; Tibell, G.

    1998-01-01

    This paper presents new, precise measurements of differential cross sections for np scattering at 96 and 162 MeV. The data are steeper at backward angles than most previous data, and point to the classical value for the charged πNN coupling constant. (orig.)

  13. Stress and neutron scattering measurements on linear polymer melts undergoing steady elongational flow

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Hassager, Ole; Mortensen, Kell; Bach, Anders

    2012-01-01

    We use small-angle neutron scattering to measure the molecular stretching in polystyrene melts undergoing steady elongational flow at large stretch rates. The radius of gyration of the central segment of a partly deuterated polystyrene molecule is, in the stretching direction, increasing...... exhibited by the linear polystyrene melt....

  14. Four-Parameter white blood cell differential counting based on light scattering measurements

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Terstappen, Leonardus Wendelinus Mathias Marie; de Grooth, B.G.; Visscher, K.; Kouterik, F.A.; Greve, Jan

    1988-01-01

    Measurement of the depolarized orthogonal light scattering in flow cytometry enables one to discriminate human eosinephilic granulocytes from neutrophilic granulocytes. We use this method to perform a four-parameter differential white blood cell analysis. A simple flow cytometer was built equipped

  15. What do we learn from polarization measurements in deep-inelastic electron-nucleon scattering

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Anselmino, M.

    1979-01-01

    We examine what can be learned from deep-inelastic electron-nucleon scattering with polarized initial electrons and measurement of the polarization of the final electrons. A direct evaluation of the separate structure functions W 1 and W 2 is shown to be possible

  16. Measurement of azimuthal hadron asymmetries in semi-inclusive deep inelastic scattering off unpolarised nucleons

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Adolph, C.; Akhunzyanov, R.; Alexeev, M. G.; Alexandrov, Yu; Alexeev, G. D.; Amoroso, A.; Andrieux, V.; Anosov, V.; Austregesilo, A.; Badełek, B.; Balestra, F.; Barth, J.; Baum, G.; Beck, R.; Bedfer, Y.; Berlin, A.; Bernhard, J.; Bertini, R.; Bicker, K.; Bieling, J.; Birsa, R.; Bisplinghoff, J.; Bodlak, M.; Boer, M.; Bordalo, P.; Bradamante, F.; Braun, C.; Bravar, A.; Bressan, A.; Büchele, M.; Burtin, E.; Capozza, L.; Chiosso, M.; Chung, S. U.; Cicuttin, A.; Crespo, M. L.; Curiel, Q.; Dalla Torre, S.; Dasgupta, S. S.; Dasgupta, S.; Denisov, O. Yu; Donskov, S. V.; Doshita, N.; Duic, V.; Dünnweber, W.; Dziewiecki, M.; Efremov, A.; Elia, C.; Eversheim, P. D.; Eyrich, W.; Faessler, M.; Ferrero, A.; Filin, A.; Finger, M.; Finger, Jr; Fischer, H.; Franco, C.; du Fresne von Hohenesche, N.; Friedrich, J. M.; Frolov, V.; Garfagnini, R.; Gautheron, F.; Gavrichtchouk, O. P.; Gerassimov, S.; Geyer, R.; Giorgi, M.; Gnesi, I.; Gobbo, B.; Goertz, S.; Gorzellik, M.; Grabmüller, S.; Grasso, A.; Grube, B.; Guskov, A.; Guthörl, T.; Haas, F.; von Harrach, D.; Hahne, D.; Hashimoto, R.; Heinsius, F. H.; Herrmann, F.; Hinterberger, F.; Höppner, Ch; Horikawa, N.; d'Hose, N.; Huber, S.; Ishimoto, S.; Ivanov, A.; Ivanshin, Yu; Iwata, T.; Jahn, R.; Jary, V.; Jasinski, P.; Joerg, P.; Joosten, R.; Kabuß, E.; Kang, D.; Ketzer, B.; Khaustov, G. V.; Khokhlov, Yu A.; Kisselev, Yu; Klein, F.; Klimaszewski, K.; Koivuniemi, J. H.; Kolosov, V. N.; Kondo, K.; Königsmann, K.; Konorov, I.; Konstantinov, V. F.; Kotzinian, A. M.; Kouznetsov, O.; Kral, Z.; Krämer, M.; Kroumchtein, Z. V.; Kuchinski, N.; Kunne, F.; Kurek, K.; Kurjata, R. P.; Lednev, A. A.; Lehmann, A.; Levorato, S.; Lichtenstadt, J.; Maggiora, A.; Magnon, A.; Makke, N.; Mallot, G. K.; Marchand, C.; Martin, A.; Marzec, J.; Matousek, J.; Matsuda, H.; Matsuda, T.; Meshcheryakov, G.; Meyer, W.; Michigami, T.; Mikhailov, Yu V.; Miyachi, Y.; Nagaytsev, A.; Nagel, T.; Nerling, F.; Neubert, S.; Neyret, D.; Nikolaenko, V. I.; Novy, J.; Nowak, W. D.; Nunes, A. S.; Orlov, I.; Olshevsky, A. G.; Ostrick, M.; Panknin, R.; Panzieri, D.; Parsamyan, B.; Paul, S.; Pesek, M.; Peshekhonov, D.; Piragino, G.; Platchkov, S.; Pochodzalla, J.; Polak, J.; Polyakov, V. A.; Pretz, J.; Quaresma, M.; Quintans, C.; Ramos, S.; Reicherz, G.; Rocco, E.; Rodionov, V.; Rondio, E.; Rychter, A.; Rossiyskaya, N. S.; Ryabchikov, D. I.; Samoylenko, V. D.; Sandacz, A.; Sarkar, S.; Savin, I. A.; Sbrizzai, G.; Schiavon, P.; Schill, C.; Schlüter, T.; Schmidt, A.; Schmidt, K.; Schmieden, H.; Schönning, K.; Schopferer, S.; Schott, M.; Shevchenko, O. Yu; Silva, L.; Sinha, L.; Sirtl, S.; Slunecka, M.; Sosio, S.; Sozzi, F.; Srnka, A.; Steiger, L.; Stolarski, M.; Sulc, M.; Sulej, R.; Suzuki, H.; Szableski, A.; Szameitat, T.; Sznajder, P.; Takekawa, S.; ter Wolbeek, J.; Tessaro, S.; Tessarotto, F.; Thibaud, F.; Uhl, S.; Uman, I.; Vandenbroucke, M.; Virius, M.; Vondra, J.; Wang, L.; Weisrock, T.; Wilfert, M.; Windmolders, R.; Wiślicki, W.; Wollny, H.; Zaremba, K.; Zavertyaev, M.; Zemlyanichkina, E.; Ziembicki, M.

    2014-01-01

    Spin-averaged asymmetries in the azimuthal distributions of positive and negative hadrons produced in deep inelastic scattering were measured using the CERN SPS longitudinally polarised muon beam at 160GeV/c and a 6LiD target. The amplitudes of the three azimuthal modulations cos φh, cos 2φh and sin

  17. Pushing nanoparticles with light — A femtonewton resolved measurement of optical scattering forces

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    C. Zensen

    2016-05-01

    Full Text Available Optomechanical manipulation of plasmonic nanoparticles is an area of current interest, both fundamental and applied. However, no experimental method is available to determine the forward-directed scattering force that dominates for incident light of a wavelength close to the plasmon resonance. Here, we demonstrate how the scattering force acting on a single gold nanoparticle in solution can be measured. An optically trapped 80 nm particle was repetitively pushed from the side with laser light resonant to the particle plasmon frequency. A lock-in analysis of the particle movement provides a measured value for the scattering force. We obtain a resolution of less than 3 femtonewtons which is an order of magnitude smaller than any measurement of switchable forces performed on nanoparticles in solution with single beam optical tweezers to date. We compared the results of the force measurement with Mie simulations of the optical scattering force on a gold nanoparticle and found good agreement between experiment and theory within a few fN.

  18. Ag coated microneedle based surface enhanced Raman scattering probe for intradermal measurements

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yuen, Clement; Liu, Quan

    2013-06-01

    We propose a silver coated microneedle to detect test molecules, including R6G and glucose, positioned at a depth of more than 700 μm below a skin phantom surface for mimicking intradermal surface-enhanced Raman scattering measurements.

  19. Effects of recent measurements on phase shift analysis of nucleon--nucleon scattering

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Arndt, R.

    1977-01-01

    Four recent measurements in pp and np scattering below 250 MeV are used to indicate the substantial influence that new experiments can have upon phase parameters derived from the expanded data base. The cases are described separately, and the collective effect upon energy dependent analyses is discussed. It is indicated that the types of change are far from negligible. 7 refs

  20. Limit on flavor-changing neutral currents from a measurement of neutrino-electron elastic scattering

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Krakauer, D.A.; Talaga, R.L.; Allen, R.C.; Chen, H.H.; Hausammann, R.; Lee, W.P.; Lu, X.; Mahler, H.J.; Wang, K.C.; Bowles, T.J.; Burman, R.L.; Carlini, R.D.; Cochran, D.R.F.; Doe, P.J.; Frank, J.S.; Potter, M.E.; Sandberg, V.D.; Piasetzky, E.

    1992-01-01

    From a measurement of the absolute cross section in ν ee - elastic scattering we have set a limit on flavor-changing neutral currents in the neutrino sector. We find that an off-diagonal, flavor-changing coupling is limited to 1-f ee <0.35 (90% C.L.)

  1. Stable isotope ratio measurements in hydrogen, nitrogen, and oxygen using Raman scattering

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Harney, R.C.; Bloom, S.D.; Milanovich, F.P.

    1975-01-01

    A method for measuring stable isotope ratios using laser Raman scattering was developed which may prove of significant utility and benefit in stable isotope tracer studies. Crude isotope ratio measurements obtained with a low-power laser indicate that with current technology it should be possible to construct an isotope ratio measurement system using laser Raman scattering that is capable of performing 0.1 percent accuracy isotope ratio measurements of 16 O/ 18 O in natural abundance oxygen gas or 14 N/ 15 N in natural abundance nitrogen gas in times less than two minutes per sample. Theory pertinent to the technique, designs of specific isotope ratio spectrometer systems, and data relating to isotope ratio measurements in hydrogen, nitrogen, and oxygen are presented. In addition, the current status of several studies utilizing this technique is discussed. (auth)

  2. Plasma rotation and ion temperature measurements by collective Thomson scattering at ASDEX Upgrade

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Stejner Pedersen, Morten; Nielsen, Stefan Kragh; Jacobsen, Asger Schou

    2015-01-01

    We present the first deuterium ion temperature and rotation measurements by collective Thomson scattering at ASDEX Upgrade. The results are in general agreement with boron-based charge exchange recombination spectroscopy measurements and consistent with neoclassical simulations for the plasma sce...... scenario studied here. This demonstration opens the prospect for direct non-perturbative measurements of the properties of the main ion species in the plasma core with applications in plasma transport and confinement studies.......We present the first deuterium ion temperature and rotation measurements by collective Thomson scattering at ASDEX Upgrade. The results are in general agreement with boron-based charge exchange recombination spectroscopy measurements and consistent with neoclassical simulations for the plasma...

  3. A Thomson scattering diagnostic to measure fast ion and α-particle distributions in JET

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Costley, A.E.; Hoekzema, J.A.; Stott, P.E.; Watkins, M.L.

    1988-01-01

    The paper presents the findings of a feasibility investigation into the proposed Thomson scattering diagnostic to measure fast ion and α-particle distributions in JET. A description is given of the motivation for alpha particle diagnostics on JET, followed by a brief survey of possible α-particle diagnostics for JET. The basic principles of the collective Thomson scattering technique are presented, along with its implementation on JET. The expected performance of the system, and other applications of the diagnostic system are also discussed. (U.K.)

  4. Measurement of the angular distribution of neutron-proton scattering at 10 MeV

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Haight, R.C.; Bateman, F.B.; Grimes, S.M.; Brient, C.E.; Massey, T.N.; Wasson, O.A.; Carlson, A.D.; Zhou, H.

    1995-01-01

    The relative angular distribution of neutrons scattered from protons was measured at an incident neutron energy of 10 MeV at the Ohio University Accelerator Laboratory. An array of 11 detector telescopes at laboratory angles of 0 to 60 degrees was used to detect recoil protons from neutron interactions with a CH 2 (polypropylene) target. Data for 7 of these telescopes were obtained with one set of electronics and are presented here. These data, from 108 to 180 degrees for the center-of-mass scattering angles, have a small slope which agrees better with angular distributions predicted by the Arndt phase shifts than with the ENDF/B-VI angular distribution

  5. Measurements of spin parameters in p-p elastic scattering at 6 GeV/c

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Linn, S.L.; Perlmutter, A.; Crosbie, E.A.; Ratner, L.G.; Schultz, P.F.; O'Fallon, J.R.; Cameron, P.R.; Crabb, D.G.; Fernow, R.C.; Hansen, P.H.; Krisch, A.D.; Salthouse, A.J.; Sandler, B.; Shima, T.; Terwilliger, K.M.

    1982-01-01

    We measured the differential cross section for proton-proton elastic scattering in 6 GeV/c, with both initial spins oriented normal to the scattering plane. The analyzing power A shows significant structure with a large broad peak reaching about 24% near P/sub perpendicular/ 2 = 1.6 (GeV/c) 2 . The spin-spin correlation parameter A/sub n/n exhibits more dramatic structure, with a small but very sharp peak rising rapidly to about 13% at 90 0 /sub tsc.m./. This sharp peak may be caused by particle-identity effects

  6. Measuring the light scattering and orientation of a spheroidal particle using in-line holography.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Seo, Kyung Won; Byeon, Hyeok Jun; Lee, Sang Joon

    2014-07-01

    The light scattering properties of a horizontally and vertically oriented spheroidal particle under laser illumination are experimentally investigated using digital in-line holography. The reconstructed wave field shows the bright singular points as a result of the condensed beam formed by a transparent spheroidal particle acting as a lens. The in-plane (θ) and out-of-plane (ϕ) rotating angles of an arbitrarily oriented spheroidal particle are measured by using these scattering properties. As a feasibility test, the 3D orientation of a transparent spheroidal particle suspended in a microscale pipe flow is successfully reconstructed by adapting the proposed method.

  7. Proposed measurement of tagged deep inelastic scattering in Hall A of Jefferson lab

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Montgomery, Rachel [Univ. of Glasgow, Scotland (United Kingdom); Annand, John [Univ. of Glasgow, Scotland (United Kingdom); Dutta, Dipangkar [Mississippi State Univ., Mississippi State, MS (United States); Keppel, Cynthia E. [Thomas Jefferson National Accelerator Facility (TJNAF), Newport News, VA (United States); King, Paul [The Ohio State Univ., Columbus, OH (United States). Dept of Physics; Wojtsekhowski, Bogdan [Thomas Jefferson National Accelerator Facility (TJNAF), Newport News, VA (United States); Zhang, Jixie [Univ. of Virginia, Charlottesville, VA (United States)

    2017-03-01

    A tagged deep inelastic scattering (TDIS) experiment is planned for Hall A of Jefferson Lab, which will probe the mesonic content of the nucleon directly. Low momentum recoiling (and spectator) protons will be measured in coincidence with electrons scattered in a deep inelastic regime from hydrogen (and deuterium) targets, covering kinematics of 8 < W2 < 18 GeV2, 1 < Q2 < 3 (GeV/c)2 and 0:05 < x < 0:2. The tagging technique will help identify scattering from partons in the meson cloud and provide access to the pion structure function via the Sullivan process. The experiment will yield the first TDIS results in the valence regime, for both proton and neutron targets. We present here an overview of the experiment.

  8. Light scattering microscopy measurements of single nuclei compared with GPU-accelerated FDTD simulations

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Stark, Julian; Rothe, Thomas; Kienle, Alwin; Kieß, Steffen; Simon, Sven

    2016-01-01

    Single cell nuclei were investigated using two-dimensional angularly and spectrally resolved scattering microscopy. We show that even for a qualitative comparison of experimental and theoretical data, the standard Mie model of a homogeneous sphere proves to be insufficient. Hence, an accelerated finite-difference time-domain method using a graphics processor unit and domain decomposition was implemented to analyze the experimental scattering patterns. The measured cell nuclei were modeled as single spheres with randomly distributed spherical inclusions of different size and refractive index representing the nucleoli and clumps of chromatin. Taking into account the nuclear heterogeneity of a large number of inclusions yields a qualitative agreement between experimental and theoretical spectra and illustrates the impact of the nuclear micro- and nanostructure on the scattering patterns. (paper)

  9. Light scattering microscopy measurements of single nuclei compared with GPU-accelerated FDTD simulations.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Stark, Julian; Rothe, Thomas; Kieß, Steffen; Simon, Sven; Kienle, Alwin

    2016-04-07

    Single cell nuclei were investigated using two-dimensional angularly and spectrally resolved scattering microscopy. We show that even for a qualitative comparison of experimental and theoretical data, the standard Mie model of a homogeneous sphere proves to be insufficient. Hence, an accelerated finite-difference time-domain method using a graphics processor unit and domain decomposition was implemented to analyze the experimental scattering patterns. The measured cell nuclei were modeled as single spheres with randomly distributed spherical inclusions of different size and refractive index representing the nucleoli and clumps of chromatin. Taking into account the nuclear heterogeneity of a large number of inclusions yields a qualitative agreement between experimental and theoretical spectra and illustrates the impact of the nuclear micro- and nanostructure on the scattering patterns.

  10. Measurement of pressure ridges in SAR images of sea ice - Preliminary results on scattering theory

    Science.gov (United States)

    Vesecky, J. F.; Smith, M. P.; Daida, J. M.; Samadani, R.; Camiso, J. C.

    1992-01-01

    Sea ice ridges and keels (hummocks and bummocks) are important in sea ice research for both scientific and practical reasons. A long-term objective is to make quantitative measurements of sea ice ridges using synthetic aperture radar (SAR) images. The preliminary results of a scattering model for sea ice ridge are reported. The approach is through the ridge height variance spectrum Psi(K), where K is the spatial wavenumber, and the two-scale scattering model. The height spectrum model is constructed to mimic height statistics observed with an airborne optical laser. The spectrum model is used to drive a two-scale scattering model. Model results for ridges observed at C- and X-band yield normalized radar cross sections that are 10 to 15 dB larger than the observed cross sections of multiyear ice over the range of angles of incidence from 10 to 70 deg.

  11. Measurements of the initial density distribution of gas puff liners by using Rayleigh scattering

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Kalinin, Yu G; Shashkov, A Yu [Kurchatov Institute, Moscow (Russian Federation)

    1997-12-31

    Rayleigh scattering of a laser beam in a gas jet is proposed for the measurements of initial density distribution of gas-puff liners. The scattering method has several advantages when compared with interferometry. In particular, it provides information on the local gas density, it is more sensitive, and the output data can be absolutely calibrated. Theoretical background of the method is briefly discussed in the paper and the optical setup used in real experiments is described. Imaging of the scattering object make it possible to detect detailed profiles of the investigated gas jet, as illustrated by several examples taken from the experiment. In some cases even the gas jet stratification has been observed. (J.U.). 1 tab., 3 figs., 1 ref.

  12. High-sensitivity measurements of the excitation function for Bhabha scattering at MeV energies

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Tsertos, H.; Kozhuharov, C.; Armbruster, P.; Kienle, P.; Krusche, B.; Schreckenbach, K.

    1989-02-01

    Using a monochromatic e + beam scattered on a Be foil and a high-resolution detector device, the excitation function for elastic e + e - scattering was measured with a statistical accuracy of 0.25% in 1.4 keV steps in the c.m.-energy range between 770 keV and 840 keV (1.79 - 1.86 MeV/c 2 ) at c.m. scattering angles between 80 0 and 100 0 (FWHM). Within the experimental sensitivity of 0.5 b.eV/sr (c.m.) for the energy-integrated differential cross section no resonances were observed (97% CL). From this limit we infer that a hypothetical spinless resonant state should have a width of less than 1.9 meV corresponding to a lifetime limit of 3.5x10 -13 s. This limit establishes the most stringent bound for new particles in this mass range derived from Bhabha scattering and is independent of assumptions about the internal structure of the hypothetical particles. Less sensitivite limits were, in addition, derived around 520 keV c.m. energy (≅ 1.54 MeV/c 2 ) from an investigation with a thorium and a mylar foil as scatterers. (orig.)

  13. Decomposition of Atmospheric Aerosol Phase Function by Particle Size and Morphology via Single Particle Scattering Measurements

    Science.gov (United States)

    Aptowicz, K. B.; Pan, Y.; Martin, S.; Fernandez, E.; Chang, R.; Pinnick, R. G.

    2013-12-01

    We report upon an experimental approach that provides insight into how particle size and shape affect the scattering phase function of atmospheric aerosol particles. Central to our approach is the design of an apparatus that measures the forward and backward scattering hemispheres (scattering patterns) of individual atmospheric aerosol particles in the coarse mode range. The size and shape of each particle is discerned from the corresponding scattering pattern. In particular, autocorrelation analysis is used to differentiate between spherical and non-spherical particles, the calculated asphericity factor is used to characterize the morphology of non-spherical particles, and the integrated irradiance is used for particle sizing. We found the fraction of spherical particles decays exponentially with particle size, decreasing from 11% for particles on the order of 1 micrometer to less than 1% for particles over 5 micrometer. The average phase functions of subpopulations of particles, grouped by size and morphology, are determined by averaging their corresponding scattering patterns. The phase functions of spherical and non-spherical atmospheric particles are shown to diverge with increasing size. In addition, the phase function of non-spherical particles is found to vary little as a function of the asphericity factor.

  14. Measured and predicted aerosol light scattering enhancement factors at the high alpine site Jungfraujoch

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    R. Fierz-Schmidhauser

    2010-03-01

    Full Text Available Ambient relative humidity (RH determines the water content of atmospheric aerosol particles and thus has an important influence on the amount of visible light scattered by particles. The RH dependence of the particle light scattering coefficient (σsp is therefore an important variable for climate forcing calculations. We used a humidification system for a nephelometer which allows for the measurement of σsp at a defined RH in the range of 20–95%. In this paper we present measurements of light scattering enhancement factors f(RH=σsp(RH/σsp(dry from a 1-month campaign (May 2008 at the high alpine site Jungfraujoch (3580 m a.s.l., Switzerland. Measurements at the Jungfraujoch are representative for the lower free troposphere above Central Europe. For this aerosol type hardly any information about the f(RH is available so far. At this site, f(RH=85% varied between 1.2 and 3.3. Measured f(RH agreed well with f(RH calculated with Mie theory using measurements of the size distribution, chemical composition and hygroscopic diameter growth factors as input. Good f(RH predictions at RH<85% were also obtained with a simplified model, which uses the Ångström exponent of σsp(dry as input. RH influences further intensive optical aerosol properties. The backscatter fraction decreased by about 30% from 0.128 to 0.089, and the single scattering albedo increased on average by 0.05 at 85% RH compared to dry conditions. These changes in σsp, backscatter fraction and single scattering albedo have a distinct impact on the radiative forcing of the Jungfraujoch aerosol.

  15. Measurement of x-ray scattering cross sections of hydrogen and helium with synchrotron radiation

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Ice, G.E.

    1977-01-01

    Total x-ray scattering is a two-electron expectation value. The prominence of the electron correlation effect was demonstrated in recent theoretical work. Only one measurement of x-ray scattering from H 2 has been reported heretofore, nearly fifty years ago. New measurements were carried out using the virtually monochromatic, intense flux of synchrotron radiation in the SSRP EXAFS line. The targets, at 1 atm pressure, were UHP He and ultrapure H 2 that had been passed through a hot Pd--Ag alloy diffusion purifier. The scattered-photon spectra were measured with a Xe-filled proportional counter and fast multichannel analyzer. The incident flux was monitored with a parallel-plate ion chamber, calibrated by direct counting of the absorber-attenuated beam. Measurements were performed at 5, 6, and 7 keV photon energy, as a function of scattering angle (60, 90, and 135 deg) and azimuthal angle (i.e., polarization). The relative total differential photon scattering cross sections for H 2 over the range 3.0 less than or equal to x = 4πsin (theta/2)lambda less than or equal to 5.6 A -1 agree to within approx. 1% with the correlated calculations of Bentley and Stewart. The ratios of measured cross sections for H 2 to those for He at x = 3.0 and 5.6 A -1 agree to within 1% with the ratios of the Bentley--Stewart H 2 cross sections to the correlated wave-function calculations of Brown for He

  16. SAXS study of growth of AgCl crystallites in photo chromic glass

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Takatohi, Urias E.; Bittencourt, Diomar; Watanabe, Shigueo

    1996-01-01

    A class of photo chromic glasses presents a reversible change in their optical absorption when exposed to light due to small silver halide crystals inside the glassy matrix. The silver halides crystals grow during the annealing of the glass. A base glass of 40 Si O 2 . 10 Al 2 O 3 .(16,1) K 2 O. (33,9) B 2 O 3 doped Ag CL and Cu O was produced and submited to different annealing programs, SAXS measurements were performed with samples annealed for 0.5h at temperatures from 480 O C to 620 O C and samples annealed at 600 0 C for times from 0.25h to 1.25h. Guinier radius (R g ) for samples annealed between 570 and 620 0 C show crescent growth rate in the interval. For samples annealed at 600 0 C for different times t a R 3 g = Kt law can be observed. Variation on optical absorption spectra for samples exposed to light show a correlation with the SAXS results. (author)

  17. SAXS study of growth of AgCl crystallites in photo chromic glass

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Takatohi, Urias E. [Instituto Adventista de Ensino, Sao Paulo, SP (Brazil); Bittencourt, Diomar; Watanabe, Shigueo [Sao Paulo Univ., SP (Brazil). Inst. de Fisica

    1996-12-31

    A class of photo chromic glasses presents a reversible change in their optical absorption when exposed to light due to small silver halide crystals inside the glassy matrix. The silver halides crystals grow during the annealing of the glass. A base glass of 40 Si O{sub 2}. 10 Al{sub 2} O{sub 3}.(16,1) K{sub 2} O. (33,9) B{sub 2} O{sub 3} doped Ag CL and Cu O was produced and submited to different annealing programs, SAXS measurements were performed with samples annealed for 0.5h at temperatures from 480{sup O}C to 620{sup O}C and samples annealed at 600{sup 0}C for times from 0.25h to 1.25h. Guinier radius (R{sub g}) for samples annealed between 570 and 620{sup 0}C show crescent growth rate in the interval. For samples annealed at 600{sup 0}C for different times t a R{sup 3}{sub g} = Kt law can be observed. Variation on optical absorption spectra for samples exposed to light show a correlation with the SAXS results. (author) 4 refs., 2 figs.

  18. First correlated measurements of the shape and light scattering properties of cloud particles using the new Particle Habit Imaging and Polar Scattering (PHIPS probe

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    A. Abdelmonem

    2011-10-01

    Full Text Available Studying the radiative impact of cirrus clouds requires knowledge of the relationship between their microphysics and the single scattering properties of cloud particles. Usually, this relationship is obtained by modeling the optical scattering properties from in situ measurements of ice crystal size distributions. The measured size distribution and the assumed particle shape might be erroneous in case of non-spherical ice particles. We present here a novel optical sensor (the Particle Habit Imaging and Polar Scattering probe, PHIPS designed to measure simultaneously the 3-D morphology and the corresponding optical and microphysical parameters of individual cloud particles. Clouds containing particles ranging from a few micrometers to about 800 μm diameter in size can be characterized systematically with an optical resolution power of 2 μm and polar scattering resolution of 1° for forward scattering directions (from 1° to 10° and 8° for side and backscattering directions (from 18° to 170°. The maximum acquisition rates for scattering phase functions and images are 262 KHz and 10 Hz, respectively. Some preliminary results collected in two ice cloud campaigns conducted in the AIDA cloud simulation chamber are presented. PHIPS showed reliability in operation and produced size distributions and images comparable to those given by other certified cloud particles instruments. A 3-D model of a hexagonal ice plate is constructed and the corresponding scattering phase function is compared to that modeled using the Ray Tracing with Diffraction on Facets (RTDF program. PHIPS is a highly promising novel airborne optical sensor for studying the radiative impact of cirrus clouds and correlating the particle habit-scattering properties which will serve as a reference for other single, or multi-independent, measurement instruments.

  19. First correlated measurements of the shape and scattering properties of cloud particles using the new Particle Habit Imaging and Polar Scattering (PHIPS) probe

    Science.gov (United States)

    Abdelmonem, A.; Schnaiter, M.; Amsler, P.; Hesse, E.; Meyer, J.; Leisner, T.

    2011-05-01

    Studying the radiative impact of cirrus clouds requires the knowledge of the link between their microphysics and the single scattering properties of the cloud particles. Usually, this link is created by modeling the optical scattering properties from in situ measurements of ice crystal size distributions. The measured size distribution and the assumed particle shape might be erroneous in case of non-spherical ice particles. We present here a novel optical sensor (the Particle Habit Imaging and Polar Scattering probe, PHIPS) designed to measure the 3-D morphology and the corresponding optical and microphysical parameters of individual cloud particles, simultaneously. Clouds containing particles ranging in size from a few micrometers to about 800 μm diameter can be systematically characterized with an optical resolution power of 2 μm and polar scattering resolution of 1° for forward scattering directions (from 1° to 10°) and 8° for side and backscattering directions (from 18° to 170°). The maximum acquisition rates for scattering phase functions and images are 262 KHz and 10 Hz, respectively. Some preliminary results collected in two ice cloud campaigns which were conducted in the AIDA cloud simulation chamber are presented. PHIPS showed reliability in operation and produced comparable size distributions and images to those given by other certified cloud particles instruments. A 3-D model of a hexagonal ice plate is constructed and the corresponding scattering phase function is compared to that modeled using the Ray Tracing with Diffraction on Facets (RTDF) program. PHIPS is candidate to be a novel air borne optical sensor for studying the radiative impact of cirrus clouds and correlating the particle habit-scattering properties which will serve as a reference for other single, or multi-independent, measurements instruments.

  20. First correlated measurements of the shape and light scattering properties of cloud particles using the new Particle Habit Imaging and Polar Scattering (PHIPS) probe

    Science.gov (United States)

    Abdelmonem, A.; Schnaiter, M.; Amsler, P.; Hesse, E.; Meyer, J.; Leisner, T.

    2011-10-01

    Studying the radiative impact of cirrus clouds requires knowledge of the relationship between their microphysics and the single scattering properties of cloud particles. Usually, this relationship is obtained by modeling the optical scattering properties from in situ measurements of ice crystal size distributions. The measured size distribution and the assumed particle shape might be erroneous in case of non-spherical ice particles. We present here a novel optical sensor (the Particle Habit Imaging and Polar Scattering probe, PHIPS) designed to measure simultaneously the 3-D morphology and the corresponding optical and microphysical parameters of individual cloud particles. Clouds containing particles ranging from a few micrometers to about 800 μm diameter in size can be characterized systematically with an optical resolution power of 2 μm and polar scattering resolution of 1° for forward scattering directions (from 1° to 10°) and 8° for side and backscattering directions (from 18° to 170°). The maximum acquisition rates for scattering phase functions and images are 262 KHz and 10 Hz, respectively. Some preliminary results collected in two ice cloud campaigns conducted in the AIDA cloud simulation chamber are presented. PHIPS showed reliability in operation and produced size distributions and images comparable to those given by other certified cloud particles instruments. A 3-D model of a hexagonal ice plate is constructed and the corresponding scattering phase function is compared to that modeled using the Ray Tracing with Diffraction on Facets (RTDF) program. PHIPS is a highly promising novel airborne optical sensor for studying the radiative impact of cirrus clouds and correlating the particle habit-scattering properties which will serve as a reference for other single, or multi-independent, measurement instruments.

  1. Precision Beam Parameter Monitoring in a Measurement of the Weak Mixing Angle in Moeller Scattering

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Cooke, M.S.

    2005-04-11

    A precision measurement of the parity nonconserving left-right asymmetry, A{sub LR}, in Moeller scattering (e{sup -}e{sup -} {yields} e{sup -}e{sup -}) is currently in progress at the Stanford Linear Accelerator Center (SLAC). This experiment, labeled SLAC-E158, scatters longitudinally polarized electrons off atomic electrons in an unpolarized hydrogen target at a Q{sup 2} of 0.03 (GeV/c){sup 2}. The asymmetry, which is the fractional difference in the scattering cross-sections, measures the effective pseudo-scalar weak neutral current coupling, g{sub ee}, governing Moeller scattering. This quantity is in turn proportional to (1/4 - sin{sup 2} {theta}{sub w}), where {theta}{sub w} is the electroweak mixing angle. The goal is to measure the asymmetry to a precision of 1 x 10{sup -8} which corresponds to {delta}(sin{sup 2} {theta}{sub w}) {approx} 0.0007. Since A{sub LR} is a function of the cross-sections, and the cross-sections depend on the beam parameters, the desired precision of A{sub LR} places stringent requirements on the beam parameters. This paper investigates the requirements on the beam parameters and discusses the means by which they are monitored and accounted for.

  2. Inelastic neutron scattering cross-section measurements on 7Li and 63,65Cu

    Science.gov (United States)

    Nyman, Markus; Belloni, Francesca; Ichinkhorloo, Dagvadorj; Pirovano, Elisa; Plompen, Arjan; Rouki, Chariklia

    2017-09-01

    The γ-ray production cross section for the 477.6-keV transition in 7Li following inelastic neutron scattering has been measured from the reaction threshold up to 18 MeV. This cross section is interesting as a possible standard for other inelastic scattering measurements. The experiment was conducted at the Geel Electron LINear Accelerator (GELINA) pulsed white neutron source with the Gamma Array for Inelastic Neutron Scattering (GAINS) spectrometer. Previous measurements of this cross section are reviewed and compared with our results. Recently, this cross section has also been calculated using the continuum discretized coupled-channels (CDCC) method. Experiments for studying neutrinoless double-β decay (2β0ν) or other very rare processes require greatly reducing the background radiation level (both intrinsic and external). Copper is a common shielding and structural material, used extensively in experiments such as COBRA, CUORE, EXO, GERDA, and MAJORANA. Understanding the background contribution arising from neutron interactions in Cu is important when searching for very weak experimental signals. Neutron inelastic scattering on natCu was investigated with GAINS. The results are compared with previous experimental data and evaluated nuclear data libraries.

  3. Inelastic neutron scattering cross-section measurements on 7Li and 63,65Cu

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Nyman Markus

    2017-01-01

    Full Text Available The γ-ray production cross section for the 477.6-keV transition in 7Li following inelastic neutron scattering has been measured from the reaction threshold up to 18 MeV. This cross section is interesting as a possible standard for other inelastic scattering measurements. The experiment was conducted at the Geel Electron LINear Accelerator (GELINA pulsed white neutron source with the Gamma Array for Inelastic Neutron Scattering (GAINS spectrometer. Previous measurements of this cross section are reviewed and compared with our results. Recently, this cross section has also been calculated using the continuum discretized coupled-channels (CDCC method. Experiments for studying neutrinoless double-β decay (2β0ν or other very rare processes require greatly reducing the background radiation level (both intrinsic and external. Copper is a common shielding and structural material, used extensively in experiments such as COBRA, CUORE, EXO, GERDA, and MAJORANA. Understanding the background contribution arising from neutron interactions in Cu is important when searching for very weak experimental signals. Neutron inelastic scattering on natCu was investigated with GAINS. The results are compared with previous experimental data and evaluated nuclear data libraries.

  4. Retrieval of subvisual cirrus cloud optical thickness from limb-scatter measurements

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    J. T. Wiensz

    2013-01-01

    Full Text Available We present a technique for estimating the optical thickness of subvisual cirrus clouds detected by OSIRIS (Optical Spectrograph and Infrared Imaging System, a limb-viewing satellite instrument that measures scattered radiances from the UV to the near-IR. The measurement set is composed of a ratio of limb radiance profiles at two wavelengths that indicates the presence of cloud-scattering regions. Cross-sections and phase functions from an in situ database are used to simulate scattering by cloud-particles. With appropriate configurations discussed in this paper, the SASKTRAN successive-orders of scatter radiative transfer model is able to simulate accurately the in-cloud radiances from OSIRIS. Configured in this way, the model is used with a multiplicative algebraic reconstruction technique (MART to retrieve the cloud extinction profile for an assumed effective cloud particle size. The sensitivity of these retrievals to key auxiliary model parameters is shown, and it is shown that the retrieved extinction profile, for an assumed effective cloud particle size, models well the measured in-cloud radiances from OSIRIS. The greatest sensitivity of the retrieved optical thickness is to the effective cloud particle size. Since OSIRIS has an 11-yr record of subvisual cirrus cloud detections, the work described in this manuscript provides a very useful method for providing a long-term global record of the properties of these clouds.

  5. Measuring spatially- and directionally-varying light scattering from biological material.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Harvey, Todd Alan; Bostwick, Kimberly S; Marschner, Steve

    2013-05-20

    Light interacts with an organism's integument on a variety of spatial scales. For example in an iridescent bird: nano-scale structures produce color; the milli-scale structure of barbs and barbules largely determines the directional pattern of reflected light; and through the macro-scale spatial structure of overlapping, curved feathers, these directional effects create the visual texture. Milli-scale and macro-scale effects determine where on the organism's body, and from what viewpoints and under what illumination, the iridescent colors are seen. Thus, the highly directional flash of brilliant color from the iridescent throat of a hummingbird is inadequately explained by its nano-scale structure alone and questions remain. From a given observation point, which milli-scale elements of the feather are oriented to reflect strongly? Do some species produce broader "windows" for observation of iridescence than others? These and similar questions may be asked about any organisms that have evolved a particular surface appearance for signaling, camouflage, or other reasons. In order to study the directional patterns of light scattering from feathers, and their relationship to the bird's milli-scale morphology, we developed a protocol for measuring light scattered from biological materials using many high-resolution photographs taken with varying illumination and viewing directions. Since we measure scattered light as a function of direction, we can observe the characteristic features in the directional distribution of light scattered from that particular feather, and because barbs and barbules are resolved in our images, we can clearly attribute the directional features to these different milli-scale structures. Keeping the specimen intact preserves the gross-scale scattering behavior seen in nature. The method described here presents a generalized protocol for analyzing spatially- and directionally-varying light scattering from complex biological materials at multiple

  6. Molecular Rayleigh Scattering Diagnostic for Dynamic Temperature, Velocity, and Density Measurements

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mielke, Amy R.; Elam, Kristie A.; Sung, Chi-Jen

    2006-01-01

    A molecular Rayleigh scattering technique is developed to measure dynamic gas temperature, velocity, and density in unseeded turbulent flows at sampling rates up to 16 kHz. A high power CW laser beam is focused at a point in an air jet plume and Rayleigh scattered light is collected and spectrally resolved. The spectrum of the light, which contains information about the temperature and velocity of the flow, is analyzed using a Fabry-Perot interferometer. The circular interference fringe pattern is divided into four concentric regions and sampled at 1 and 16 kHz using photon counting electronics. Monitoring the relative change in intensity within each region allows for measurement of gas temperature and velocity. Independently monitoring the total scattered light intensity provides a measure of gas density. A low speed heated jet is used to validate the measurement of temperature fluctuations and an acoustically excited nozzle flow is studied to validate velocity fluctuation measurements. Power spectral density calculations of the property fluctuations, as well as mean and fluctuating quantities are presented. Temperature fluctuation results are compared with constant current anemometry measurements and velocity fluctuation results are compared with constant temperature anemometry measurements at the same locations.

  7. Light scattering by ultrasonically-controlled small particles: system design, calibration, and measurement results

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kassamakov, Ivan; Maconi, Göran; Penttilä, Antti; Helander, Petteri; Gritsevich, Maria; Puranen, Tuomas; Salmi, Ari; Hæggström, Edward; Muinonen, Karri

    2018-02-01

    We present the design of a novel scatterometer for precise measurement of the angular Mueller matrix profile of a mm- to µm-sized sample held in place by sound. The scatterometer comprises a tunable multimode Argon-krypton laser (with possibility to set 1 of the 12 wavelengths in visible range), linear polarizers, a reference photomultiplier tube (PMT) for monitoring the beam intensity, and a micro-PMT module mounted radially towards the sample at an adjustable radius. The measurement angle is controlled by a motor-driven rotation stage with an accuracy of 15'. The system is fully automated using LabVIEW, including the FPGA-based data acquisition and the instrument's user interface. The calibration protocol ensures accurate measurements by using a control sphere sample (diameter 3 mm, refractive index of 1.5) fixed first on a static holder followed by accurate multi-wavelength measurements of the same sample levitated ultrasonically. To demonstrate performance of the scatterometer, we conducted detailed measurements of light scattered by a particle derived from the Chelyabinsk meteorite, as well as planetary analogue materials. The measurements are the first of this kind, since they are obtained using controlled spectral angular scattering including linear polarization effects, for arbitrary shaped objects. Thus, our novel approach permits a non-destructive, disturbance-free measurement with control of the orientation and location of the scattering object.

  8. Ion mobilities in diatomic gases: measurement versus prediction with non-specular scattering models.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Larriba, Carlos; Hogan, Christopher J

    2013-05-16

    Ion/electrical mobility measurements of nanoparticles and polyatomic ions are typically linked to particle/ion physical properties through either application of the Stokes-Millikan relationship or comparison to mobilities predicted from polyatomic models, which assume that gas molecules scatter specularly and elastically from rigid structural models. However, there is a discrepancy between these approaches; when specular, elastic scattering models (i.e., elastic-hard-sphere scattering, EHSS) are applied to polyatomic models of nanometer-scale ions with finite-sized impinging gas molecules, predictions are in substantial disagreement with the Stokes-Millikan equation. To rectify this discrepancy, we developed and tested a new approach for mobility calculations using polyatomic models in which non-specular (diffuse) and inelastic gas-molecule scattering is considered. Two distinct semiempirical models of gas-molecule scattering from particle surfaces were considered. In the first, which has been traditionally invoked in the study of aerosol nanoparticles, 91% of collisions are diffuse and thermally accommodating, and 9% are specular and elastic. In the second, all collisions are considered to be diffuse and accommodating, but the average speed of the gas molecules reemitted from a particle surface is 8% lower than the mean thermal speed at the particle temperature. Both scattering models attempt to mimic exchange between translational, vibrational, and rotational modes of energy during collision, as would be expected during collision between a nonmonoatomic gas molecule and a nonfrozen particle surface. The mobility calculation procedure was applied considering both hard-sphere potentials between gas molecules and the atoms within a particle and the long-range ion-induced dipole (polarization) potential. Predictions were compared to previous measurements in air near room temperature of multiply charged poly(ethylene glycol) (PEG) ions, which range in morphology from

  9. Scattering Studies of Hydrophobic Monomers in Liposomal Bilayers: An Expanding Shell Model of Monomer Distribution

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Richter, Andrew; Dergunov, Sergey; Ganus, Bill; Thomas, Zachary; Pingali, Sai Venkatesh; Urban, Volker S.; Liu, Yun; Porcar, Lionel; Pinkhassik, Eugene

    2011-01-01

    Hydrophobic monomers partially phase separate from saturated lipids when loaded into lipid bilayers in amounts exceeding a 1:1 monomer/lipid molar ratio. This conclusion is based on the agreement between two independent methods of examining the structure of monomer-loaded bilayers. Complete phase separation of monomers from lipids would result in an increase in bilayer thickness and a slight increase in the diameter of liposomes. A homogeneous distribution of monomers within the bilayer would not change the bilayer thickness and would lead to an increase in the liposome diameter. The increase in bilayer thickness, measured by the combination of small-angle neutron scattering (SANS) and small-angle X-ray scattering (SAXS), was approximately half of what was predicted for complete phase separation. The increase in liposome diameter, measured by dynamic light scattering (DLS), was intermediate between values predicted for a homogeneous distribution and complete phase separation. Combined SANS, SAXS, and DLS data suggest that at a 1.2 monomer/lipid ratio approximately half of the monomers are located in an interstitial layer sandwiched between lipid sheets. These results expand our understanding of using self-assembled bilayers as scaffolds for the directed covalent assembly of organic nanomaterials. In particular, the partial phase separation of monomers from lipids corroborates the successful creation of nanothin polymer materials with uniform imprinted nanopores. Pore-forming templates do not need to span the lipid bilayer to create a pore in the bilayer-templated films.

  10. Near-field Light Scattering Techniques for Measuring Nanoparticle-Surface Interaction Energies and Forces.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Schein, Perry; Ashcroft, Colby K; O'Dell, Dakota; Adam, Ian S; DiPaolo, Brian; Sabharwal, Manit; Shi, Ce; Hart, Robert; Earhart, Christopher; Erickson, David

    2015-08-15

    Nanoparticles are quickly becoming commonplace in many commercial and industrial products, ranging from cosmetics to pharmaceuticals to medical diagnostics. Predicting the stability of the engineered nanoparticles within these products a priori remains an important and difficult challenge. Here we describe our techniques for measuring the mechanical interactions between nanoparticles and surfaces using near-field light scattering. Particle-surface interfacial forces are measured by optically "pushing" a particle against a reference surface and observing its motion using scattered near-field light. Unlike atomic force microscopy, this technique is not limited by thermal noise, but instead takes advantage of it. The integrated waveguide and microfluidic architecture allow for high-throughput measurements of about 1000 particles per hour. We characterize the reproducibility of and experimental uncertainty in the measurements made using the NanoTweezer surface instrument. We report surface interaction studies on gold nanoparticles with 50 nm diameters, smaller than previously reported in the literature using similar techniques.

  11. SAXS Combined with UV-vis Spectroscopy and QELS: Accurate Characterization of Silver Sols Synthesized in Polymer Matrices.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bulavin, Leonid; Kutsevol, Nataliya; Chumachenko, Vasyl; Soloviov, Dmytro; Kuklin, Alexander; Marynin, Andrii

    2016-12-01

    The present work demonstrates a validation of small-angle X-ray scattering (SAXS) combining with ultra violet and visible (UV-vis) spectroscopy and quasi-elastic light scattering (QELS) analysis for characterization of silver sols synthesized in polymer matrices. Polymer matrix internal structure and polymer chemical nature actually controlled the sol size characteristics. It was shown that for precise analysis of nanoparticle size distribution these techniques should be used simultaneously. All applied methods were in good agreement for the characterization of size distribution of small particles (less than 60 nm) in the sols. Some deviations of the theoretical curves from the experimental ones were observed. The most probable cause is that nanoparticles were not entirely spherical in form.

  12. Time-Resolved SAXS/WAXS Study of the Phase Behavior and Microstructural Evolution of Drug/PEG Solid Dispersions

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Zhu, Qing; Harris, Michael T.; Taylor, Lynne S.

    2011-01-01

    Simultaneous small-angle X-ray scattering/wide-angle X-ray scattering (SAXS/WAXS) was employed to elucidate the physical state and location of various small molecule drugs blended with polyethylene glycol (PEG), as well as the time dependent microstructural evolution of the systems. Samples were prepared by comelting physical mixtures of the drug and PEG, followed by solidification at 25 C. The model drugs selected encompassed a wide variety of physicochemical properties in terms of crystallization tendency and potential for interaction with PEG. It was observed that compounds which crystallized rapidly and had weak interactions with PEG tended to be excluded from the interlamellar region of the PEG matrix. In contrast, drugs which had favorable interactions with PEG were incorporated into the interlamellar regions of the polymer up until the point at which the drug crystallized whereby phase separation occurred. These factors are likely to impact the effectiveness of drug/PEG systems as drug delivery systems.

  13. A new small-angle X-ray scattering set-up on the crystallography beamline I711 at MAX-lab

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Knaapila, M.; Svensson, C.; Barauskas, J.

    2009-01-01

    A small-angle X-ray scattering (SAXS) set-up has recently been developed at beamline I711 at the MAX II storage ring in Lund (Sweden). An overview of the required modifications is presented here together with a number of application examples. The accessible q range in a SAXS experiment is 0.009-0...

  14. Measurement of elastic light scattering from two optically trapped microspheres and red blood cells in a transparent medium.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kinnunen, Matti; Kauppila, Antti; Karmenyan, Artashes; Myllylä, Risto

    2011-09-15

    Optical tweezers can be used to manipulate small objects and cells. A trap can be used to fix the position of a particle during light scattering measurements. The places of two separately trapped particles can also be changed. In this Letter we present elastic light scattering measurements as a function of scattering angle when two trapped spheres are illuminated with a He-Ne laser. This setup is suitable for trapping noncharged homogeneous spheres. We also demonstrate measurement of light scattering patterns from two separately trapped red blood cells. Two different illumination schemes are used for both samples.

  15. The impact of vibrational Raman scattering of air on DOAS measurements of atmospheric trace gases

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lampel, J.; Frieß, U.; Platt, U.

    2015-09-01

    In remote sensing applications, such as differential optical absorption spectroscopy (DOAS), atmospheric scattering processes need to be considered. After inelastic scattering on N2 and O2 molecules, the scattered photons occur as additional intensity at a different wavelength, effectively leading to "filling-in" of both solar Fraunhofer lines and absorptions of atmospheric constituents, if the inelastic scattering happens after the absorption. Measured spectra in passive DOAS applications are typically corrected for rotational Raman scattering (RRS), also called Ring effect, which represents the main contribution to inelastic scattering. Inelastic scattering can also occur in liquid water, and its influence on DOAS measurements has been observed over clear ocean water. In contrast to that, vibrational Raman scattering (VRS) of N2 and O2 has often been thought to be negligible, but it also contributes. Consequences of VRS are red-shifted Fraunhofer structures in scattered light spectra and filling-in of Fraunhofer lines, additional to RRS. At 393 nm, the spectral shift is 25 and 40 nm for VRS of O2 and N2, respectively. We describe how to calculate VRS correction spectra according to the Ring spectrum. We use the VRS correction spectra in the spectral range of 420-440 nm to determine the relative magnitude of the cross-sections of VRS of O2 and N2 and RRS of air. The effect of VRS is shown for the first time in spectral evaluations of Multi-Axis DOAS data from the SOPRAN M91 campaign and the MAD-CAT MAX-DOAS intercomparison campaign. The measurements yield in agreement with calculated scattering cross-sections that the observed VRS(N2) cross-section at 393 nm amounts to 2.3 ± 0.4 % of the cross-section of RRS at 433 nm under tropospheric conditions. The contribution of VRS(O2) is also found to be in agreement with calculated scattering cross-sections. It is concluded, that this phenomenon has to be included in the spectral evaluation of weak absorbers as it

  16. Fast-ion dynamics in the TEXTOR tokamak measured by collective Thomson scattering

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Bindslev, H; Nielsen, S K; Porte, L; Hoekzema, J A; Korsholm, S B; Meo, F; Michelsen, P K; Michelsen, S; Oosterbeek, J W; Tsakadze, E L; Westerhof, E; Woskov, P

    2007-01-01

    The dynamics of fast ion populations in the TEXTOR tokamak are measured by collective Thomson scattering of millimetre wave radiation generated by a gyrotron operated at 110 GHz and 100-150 kW. Temporal evolution of the energetic ion velocity distribution at switch on of neutral beam injection (NBI) and the slowdown after switch off of NBI are measured. The turn on phase of the NBI has, furthermore, been measured in plasmas with a range of electron densities and temperatures. All of these measurements are shown to be in good agreement with simple Fokker-Planck modelling. Bulk ion rotation velocity is also measured

  17. Comparison of particle size measurements of some aqueous suspensions by laser polarimetry and dynamic light scattering

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Chirikov, S N

    2016-01-01

    The results of the size distributions measurements of the particles of aqueous suspensions of ZnO, CuO, TiO 2 , and BaTiO 3 by methods of laser polarimetry and dynamic light scattering are considered. These measurements are compared with the results obtained by electron microscopy. It is shown that a laser polarimetry method gives more accurate results for size parameter values more than 1-2. (paper)

  18. Electric field measurements at near-atmospheric pressure by coherent Raman scattering of laser beams

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Ito, Tsuyohito; Kobayashi, Kazunobu; Hamaguchi, Satoshi; Mueller, Sarah; Czarnetzki, Uwe

    2010-01-01

    Electric field measurements at near-atmospheric pressure environments based on electric-field induced Raman scattering are applied to repetitively pulsed nanosecond discharges. The results have revealed that the peak electric field near the centre of the gap is almost independent of the applied voltage. Minimum sustainable voltage measurements suggests that, at each discharge pulse, charged particles that remain from the previous pulse serve as discharge seeds and play an important role for generation of uniform glow-like discharges.

  19. Simultaneous determination of size and refractive index of red blood cells by light scattering measurements

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Ghosh, N.; Buddhiwant, P.; Uppal, A.; Majumder, S.K.; Patel, H.S.; Gupta, P.K.

    2006-01-01

    We present a fast and accurate approach for simultaneous determination of both the mean diameter and refractive index of a collection of red blood cells (RBCs). The approach uses the peak frequency of the power spectrum and the corresponding phase angle obtained by performing Fourier transform on the measured angular distribution of scattered light to determine these parameters. Results on the measurement of two important clinical parameters, the mean cell volume and mean cell hemoglobin concentration of a collection of RBCs, are presented

  20. A general method for measuring the scattering matrices of N-port systems

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Bizarro, J.P.; Pain, M.

    1989-01-01

    Arising from the need to test the multijunctions that will build up the JET (Joint European Torus) lower hybrid antenna, a general model to measure scattering matrices of microwave devices was developed. The model allows for devices with any number of ports and for the use of adaptors between the measuring system and the device under test. Its accuracy can be as good as 1% for waveguide components. (author)

  1. The complex ion structure of warm dense carbon measured by spectrally resolved x-ray scattering

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Kraus, D.; Barbrel, B.; Falcone, R. W. [Department of Physics, University of California, Berkeley, California 94720 (United States); Vorberger, J. [Max-Planck-Institut für Physik komplexer Systeme, Nöthnitzer Straße 38, 01187 Dresden (Germany); Helfrich, J.; Frydrych, S.; Ortner, A.; Otten, A.; Roth, F.; Schaumann, G.; Schumacher, D.; Siegenthaler, K.; Wagner, F.; Roth, M. [Institut für Kernphysik, Technische Universität Darmstadt, Schlossgartenstraße 9, 64289 Darmstadt (Germany); Gericke, D. O.; Wünsch, K. [Centre for Fusion, Space and Astrophysics, Department of Physics, University of Warwick, Coventry CV4 7AL (United Kingdom); Bachmann, B.; Döppner, T. [Lawrence Livermore National Laboratory, Livermore, California 94550 (United States); Bagnoud, V.; Blažević, A. [GSI Helmholtzzentrum für Schwerionenforschung GmbH, Planckstraße 1, 64291 Darmstadt (Germany); and others

    2015-05-15

    We present measurements of the complex ion structure of warm dense carbon close to the melting line at pressures around 100 GPa. High-pressure samples were created by laser-driven shock compression of graphite and probed by intense laser-generated x-ray sources with photon energies of 4.75 keV and 4.95 keV. High-efficiency crystal spectrometers allow for spectrally resolving the scattered radiation. Comparing the ratio of elastically and inelastically scattered radiation, we find evidence for a complex bonded liquid that is predicted by ab-initio quantum simulations showing the influence of chemical bonds under these conditions. Using graphite samples of different initial densities we demonstrate the capability of spectrally resolved x-ray scattering to monitor the carbon solid-liquid transition at relatively constant pressure of 150 GPa. Showing first single-pulse scattering spectra from cold graphite of unprecedented quality recorded at the Linac Coherent Light Source, we demonstrate the outstanding possibilities for future high-precision measurements at 4th Generation Light Sources.

  2. Measuring the Weak Charge of the Proton via Elastic Electron-Proton Scattering

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Jones, Donald C. [Univ. of Virginia, Charlottesville, VA (United States)

    2015-10-01

    The Qweak experiment which ran in Hall C at Jefferson Lab in Newport News, VA, and completed data taking in May 2012, measured the weak charge of the proton QpW via elastic electron-proton scattering. Longitudinally polarized electrons were scattered from an unpolarized liquid hydrogen target. The helicity of the electron beam was flipped at approximately 1 kHz between left and right spin states. The Standard Model predicts a small parity-violating asymmetry of scattering rates between right and left helicity states due to the weak interaction. An initial result using 4% of the data was published in October 2013 [1] with a measured parity-violating asymmetry of -279 ± 35(stat) ± 31 (syst) ppb. This asymmetry, along with other data from parity-violating electron scattering experiments, provided the world's first determination of the weak charge of the proton. The weak charge of the proton was found to be pW = 0.064 ± 0.012, in good agreement with the Standard Model prediction of pW(SM) = 0.0708 ± 0.0003[2].

  3. Applications of micro-SAXS/WAXS to study polymer fibers

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Riekel, C.

    2003-01-01

    Instrumentation and selected applications for X-ray microdiffraction experiments on polymer and biopolymer fibers at the European Synchrotron Radiation Facility (ESRF) microfocus beamline are reviewed. Combined SAXS/WAXS experiments can be performed on single fibers with a beam size down to about 5 μm. WAXS experiments can be performed down to about 2 μm and in exceptional cases down to 0.1 μm beam size. The instrumental possibilities are demonstrated for the production line of spider silk

  4. Applications of micro-SAXS/WAXS to study polymer fibers

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Riekel, C. E-mail: riekel@esrf.fr

    2003-01-01

    Instrumentation and selected applications for X-ray microdiffraction experiments on polymer and biopolymer fibers at the European Synchrotron Radiation Facility (ESRF) microfocus beamline are reviewed. Combined SAXS/WAXS experiments can be performed on single fibers with a beam size down to about 5 {mu}m. WAXS experiments can be performed down to about 2 {mu}m and in exceptional cases down to 0.1 {mu}m beam size. The instrumental possibilities are demonstrated for the production line of spider silk.

  5. Applications of micro-SAXS/WAXS to study polymer fibers

    Science.gov (United States)

    Riekel, C.

    2003-01-01

    Instrumentation and selected applications for X-ray microdiffraction experiments on polymer and biopolymer fibers at the European Synchrotron Radiation Facility (ESRF) microfocus beamline are reviewed. Combined SAXS/WAXS experiments can be performed on single fibers with a beam size down to about 5 μm. WAXS experiments can be performed down to about 2 μm and in exceptional cases down to 0.1 μm beam size. The instrumental possibilities are demonstrated for the production line of spider silk.

  6. SAXS observation of structural evolution of heated olefin

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Sun Minhua; Mou Hongchen; Wang Yuxi; Li Demin; Wang Aiping; Ma Congxiao; Cheng Weidong; Wang Dan; Liu Jia

    2007-01-01

    Structural evolution of olefin during its heating process was observed with SAXS method at Beijing Synchrotron Radiation Facility. The mean square fluctuation of electron density increased from 468.5 nm -2 at 22 degree C to 2416 nm -2 at 100 degree C, while the electronic gyration radius decreased from 11.61 nm at 22 degree C to 11.16 nm at 100 degree C. Therefore, the olefin softens as a result of the increased thermal motion of the molecules, rather than the shrinking size of fundamental structural units of olefin. (authors)

  7. Polarization measurements for P-12C elastic scattering between 40-75 MeV

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Kato, S.; Okada, K.; Kondo, M.; Shimizu, A.; Hosono, K.; Saito, T.; Matsuoka, N.; Nagamachi, S.; Nisimura, K.; Tamura, N.

    1980-01-01

    Absolute values of the polarization in p- 12 C elastic scattering have been measured at 60.0 and 64.5 MeV at 47.5 0 in the laboratory system using a double scattering method and a method to measure an asymmetry with a polarized beam. The results are P(60.0 MeV, 47.5 0 ) = 0.965 +- 0.011 and P(64.5 MeV, 47.5 0 ) = 0.975 +- 0.011. Based on these values, the polarization measurements have been extended to the energy range from 40-75 MeV at several angles around 47.5 0 using the polarized proton beam and the energy degrader. Differential cross sections and polarizations from 15-115 0 are also presented at 65 MeV. These data will be valuable for the monitoring of beam polarization in this energy region. (orig.)

  8. Measurement of the Raman scattering cross section of the breathing mode in KDP and DKDP crystals.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Demos, Stavros G; Raman, Rajesh N; Yang, Steven T; Negres, Raluca A; Schaffers, Kathleen I; Henesian, Mark A

    2011-10-10

    The spontaneous Raman scattering cross sections of the main peaks (related to the A1 vibrational mode) in rapid and conventional grown potassium dihydrogen phosphate and deuterated crystals are measured at 532 nm, 355 nm, and 266 nm. The measurement involves the use of the Raman line of water centered at 3400 cm-1 as a reference to obtain relative values of the cross sections which are subsequently normalized against the known absolute value for water as a function of excitation wavelength. This measurement enables the estimation of the transverse stimulated Raman scattering gain of these nonlinear optical materials in various configurations suitable for frequency conversion and beam control in high-power, large-aperture laser systems.

  9. Measurement of Dijet Production in Diffractive Deep-Inelastic Scattering with a Leading Proton at HERA

    CERN Document Server

    Aaron, F.D.

    2012-04-18

    The cross section of diffractive deep-inelastic scattering ep \\rightarrow eXp is measured, where the system X contains at least two jets and the leading final state proton is detected in the H1 Forward Proton Spectrometer. The measurement is performed for fractional proton longitudinal momentum loss xIP < 0.1 and covers the range 0.1 < |t| < 0.7 GeV2 in squared four-momentum transfer at the proton vertex and 4 < Q2 < 110 GeV2 in photon virtuality. The differential cross sections extrapolated to |t| < 1 GeV2 are in agreement with next-toleading order QCD predictions based on diffractive parton distribution functions extracted from measurements of inclusive and dijet cross sections in diffractive deep-inelastic scattering. The data are also compared with leading order Monte Carlo models.

  10. Development of nonintrusive, scatter-independent techniques for measurement of liquid density inside dense sprays

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hartfield, Roy

    1994-01-01

    A nonintrusive optical technique for measuring the liquid density in sprays used to simulate LOX injector flows is under development. This manuscript is a report on work toward that development which is currently in progress. The technique is a scatter-independent, absorption-based approach which depends on the numerical inversion of a collection of absorption profiles. For the case in which visible radiation passes through liquid-gas interfaces so numerous in sprays, substantial reductions and alterations in the signal result from scattering even in the absence of absorption. To avoid these problems, X-Rays will be used as the absorbed radiation. The experimental process is simulated by integrating the absorption spectrum for a known distribution, adding instrument noise to this 'measurement', creating a projection from the 'measurement', filtering the projection, inverting the projection, and comparing the results with the original prescribed distribution.

  11. Measurement of dijet production in diffractive deep-inelastic scattering with a leading proton at HERA

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Aaron, F.D.; Alexa, C.; Rotaru, M.; Stoicea, G.; Andreev, V.; Belousov, A.; Eliseev, A.; Fomenko, A.; Gogitidze, N.; Lebedev, A.; Malinovski, E.; Rusakov, S.; Shtarkov, L.N.; Soloviev, Y.; Vazdik, Y.; Backovic, S.; Dubak, A.; Lastovicka-Medin, G.; Picuric, I.; Raicevic, N.; Baghdasaryan, A.; Baghdasaryan, S.; Zohrabyan, H.; Barrelet, E.; Bartel, W.; Belov, P.; Brandt, G.; Brinkmann, M.; Britzger, D.; Campbell, A.J.; Eckerlin, G.; Elsen, E.; Felst, R.; Fischer, D.J.; Fleischer, M.; Gayler, J.; Ghazaryan, S.; Glazov, A.; Gouzevitch, M.; Grebenyuk, A.; Grell, B.R.; Habib, S.; Haidt, D.; Helebrant, C.; Kleinwort, C.; Kogler, R.; Kraemer, M.; Levonian, S.; Lipka, K.; List, B.; List, J.; Meyer, A.B.; Meyer, J.; Niebuhr, C.; Nowak, K.; Olsson, J.E.; Pahl, P.; Panagoulias, I.; Papadopoulou, T.; Petrukhin, A.; Piec, S.; Pitzl, D.; Schmitt, S.; Sefkow, F.; Shushkevich, S.; South, D.; Steder, M.; Wuensch, E.; Begzsuren, K.; Ravdandorj, T.; Tseepeldorj, B.; Bizot, J.C.; Brisson, V.; Delcourt, B.; Jacquet, M.; Pascaud, C.; Tran, T.H.; Zhang, Z.; Zomer, F.; Boudry, V.; Moreau, F.; Specka, A.; Bozovic-Jelisavcic, I.; Mudrinic, M.; Pandurovic, M.; Smiljanic, I.; Bracinik, J.; Kenyon, I.R.; Newman, P.R.; Thompson, P.D.; Bruncko, D.; Cerny, V.; Ferencei, J.; Bunyatyan, A.; Buschhorn, G.; Chekelian, V.; Dossanov, A.; Grindhammer, G.; Kiesling, C.; Bystritskaya, L.; Fedotov, A.; Lubimov, V.; Ozerov, D.; Rostovtsev, A.; Zhokin, A.; Cantun Avila, K.B.; Contreras, J.G.; Ruiz Tabasco, J.E.; Ceccopieri, F.; Delvax, J.; Wolf, E.A. de; Favart, L.; Hreus, T.; Janssen, X.; Marage, P.; Roosen, R.; Staykova, Z.; Mechelen, P. van; Cerny, K.; Pokorny, B.; Polifka, R.; Salek, D.; Valkarova, A.; Zacek, J.; Coughlan, J.A.; Morris, J.V.; Sankey, D.P.C.; Cvach, J.; Reimer, P.; Zalesak, J.; Dainton, J.B.; Gabathuler, E.; Greenshaw, T.; Klein, M.; Kluge, T.; Kretzschmar, J.; Laycock, P.; Maxfield, S.J.; Mehta, A.; Patel, G.D.; Daum, K.; Meyer, H.; Diaconu, C.; Hoffmann, D.; Sauvan, E.; Vallee, C.; Dobre, M.; Placakyte, R.; Dodonov, V.; Povh, B.; Egli, S.; Hildebrandt, M.; Horisberger, R.; Feltesse, J.; Perez, E.; Schoeffel, L.; Goerlich, L.; Mikocki, S.; Milcewicz-Mika, I.; Nowak, G.; Sopicki, P.; Turnau, J.; Grab, C.; Henderson, R.C.W.; Sloan, T.; Hennekemper, E.; Herbst, M.; Krueger, K.; Lendermann, V.; Schultz-Coulon, H.C.; Henschel, H.; Hiller, K.H.; Kostka, P.; Lange, W.; Naumann, T.; Herrera, G.; Lopez-Fernandez, R.; Huber, F.; Pirumov, H.; Radescu, V.; Sauter, M.; Schoening, A.; Joensson, L.; Jung, H.; Kapichine, M.; Makankine, A.; Morozov, A.; Nikitin, D.; Palichik, V.; Spaskov, V.; Landon, M.P.J.; Rizvi, E.; Traynor, D.; Martyn, H.U.; Mueller, K.; Robmann, P.; Straumann, U.; Truoel, P.; Stella, B.; Sykora, T.; Tsakov, I.; Wegener, D.

    2012-01-01

    The cross section of diffractive deep-inelastic scattering ep→eXp is measured, where the system X contains at least two jets and the leading final state proton is detected in the H1 Forward Proton Spectrometer. The measurement is performed for fractional proton longitudinal momentum loss x P 2 in squared four-momentum transfer at the proton vertex and 4 2 2 in photon virtuality. The differential cross sections extrapolated to vertical stroke t vertical stroke 2 are in agreement with next-to-leading order QCD predictions based on diffractive parton distribution functions extracted from measurements of inclusive and dijet cross sections in diffractive deep-inelastic scattering. The data are also compared with leading order Monte Carlo models. (orig.)

  12. Measurement of the inclusive ep scattering cross section at low Q2 and x at HERA

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Aaron, F.D.; Alexa, C.; Preda, T.; Rotaru, M.; Stoicea, G.; Andreev, V.; Belousov, A.; Eliseev, A.; Fomenko, A.; Gogitidze, N.; Lebedev, A.; Loktionova, N.; Malinovski, E.; Rusakov, S.; Sheviakov, I.; Shtarkov, L.N.; Soloviev, Y.; Vazdik, Y.; Antunovic, B.; Aplin, S.; Bartel, W.; Brandt, G.; Brinkmann, M.; Campbell, A.J.; Cholewa, A.; Deak, M.; Boer, Y. de; Roeck, A. de; Eckerlin, G.; Elsen, E.; Felst, R.; Fischer, D.J.; Fleischer, M.; Gayler, J.; Glazov, A.; Grell, B.R.; Haidt, D.; Helebrant, C.; Janssen, M.E.; Jung, H.; Katzy, J.; Kleinwort, C.; Knutsson, A.; Korbel, V.; Kraemer, M.; Krastev, K.; Kutak, K.; Levonian, S.; List, J.; Marti, L.; Meyer, A.B.; Meyer, H.; Meyer, J.; Michels, V.; Niebuhr, C.; Nikiforov, A.; Nozicka, M.; Olsson, J.E.; Panagoulias, I.; Papadopoulou, T.; Pitzl, D.; Placakyte, R.; Radescu, V.; Rurikova, Z.; Schmitt, S.; Sefkow, F.; Staykova, Z.; Steder, M.; Toll, T.; Vargas Trevino, A.; Vinokurova, S.; Driesch, M. von den; Wissing, C.; Wuensch, E.; Asmone, A.; Stella, B.; Astvatsatourov, A.; Delvax, J.; Wolf, E.A. de; Favart, L.; Hreus, T.; Janssen, X.; Marage, P.; Mozer, M.U.; Roland, B.; Roosen, R.; Sunar, D.; Sykora, T.; Mechelen, P. van; Backovic, S.; Dubak, A.; Lastovicka-Medin, G.; Picuric, I.; Raicevic, N.; Baghdasaryan, A.; Ghazaryan, S.; Volchinski, V.; Zohrabyan, H.; Barrelet, E.; Begzsuren, K.; Ravdandorj, T.; Tseepeldorj, B.; Behnke, O.; Behrendt, O.; South, D.; Wegener, D.; Bizot, J.C.; Brisson, V.; Delcourt, B.; Jacquet, M.; Li, G.; Pascaud, C.; Tran, T.H.; Zhang, Z.; Zomer, F.; Boudry, V.; Gouzevitch, M.; Moreau, F.; Specka, A.; Bozovic-Jelisavcic, I.; Mudrinic, M.; Pandurovic, M.; Smiljanic, I.; Bracinik, J.; Faulkner, P.J.W.; Kenyon, I.R.; Newman, P.R.; Shaw-West, R.N.; Thompson, P.D.; Bruncko, D.; Cerny, V.; Ferencei, J.; Murin, P.; Tomasz, F.; Bunyatyan, A.; Buschhorn, G.; Chekelian, V.; Dossanov, A.; Grindhammer, G.; Kiesling, C.; Kogler, R.; Liptaj, A.; Olivier, B.; Raspiareza, A.; Shushkevich, S.; Bystritskaya, L.; Efremenko, V.; Fedotov, A.; Kropivnitskaya, A.; Lubimov, V.; Ozerov, D.; Petrukhin, A.; Rostovtsev, A.; Zhokin, A.; Cantun Avila, K.B.; Contreras, J.G.; Ruiz Tabasco, J.E.; Cassol-Brunner, F.; Diaconu, C.; Hoffmann, D.; Sauvan, E.; Trinh, T.N.; Vallee, C.; Cerny, K.; Pejchal, O.; Polifka, R.; Salek, D.; Valkarova, A.; Zacek, J.; Coughlan, J.A.; Morris, J.V.; Sankey, D.P.C.; Cozzika, G.; Feltesse, J.; Perez, E.; Schoeffel, L.; Cvach, J.; Reimer, P.; Zalesak, J.; Dainton, J.B.; Gabathuler, E.; Greenshaw, T.; Klein, M.; Kluge, T.; Kretzschmar, J.; Laycock, P.; Maxfield, S.J.; Mehta, A.; Patel, G.D.; Rahmat, A.J.; Daum, K.; Meyer, H.; Del Degan, M.; Grab, C.; Leibenguth, G.; Sauter, M.; Zimmermann, T.; Dodonov, V.; Lytkin, L.; Povh, B.; Eckstein, D.; Glushkov, I.; Henschel, H.; Hiller, K.H.; Kostka, P.; Lange, W.; Lastovicka, T.; Lobodzinska, E.; Naumann, T.; Piec, S.; Egli, S.; Hildebrandt, M.; Horisberger, R.; Falkiewicz, A.; Goerlich, L.; Mikocki, S.; Milcewicz-Mika, I.; Nowak, G.; Sopicki, P.; Turnau, J.; Habib, S.; Jemanov, V.; Lipka, K.; List, B.; Naroska, B.; Hansson, M.; Joensson, L.; Osman, S.; Henderson, R.C.W.; Sloan, T.; Hennekemper, E.; Herbst, M.; Jung, A.W.; Krueger, K.; Lendermann, V.; Meier, K.; Schultz-Coulon, H.C.; Urban, K.; Herrera, G.; Lopez-Fernandez, R.; Kapichine, M.; Makankine, A.; Morozov, A.; Palichik, V.; Spaskov, V.; Tchoulakov, V.; Landon, M.P.J.; Rizvi, E.; Thompson, G.; Traynor, D.; Martyn, H.U.; Mueller, K.; Nowak, K.; Robmann, P.; Schmitz, C.; Straumann, U.; Truoel, P.; Schoening, A.; Tsakov, I.

    2009-01-01

    A measurement of the inclusive ep scattering cross section is presented in the region of low momentum transfers, 0.2 GeV 2 ≤Q 2 ≤12 GeV 2 , and low Bjorken x, 5.10 -6 ≤x≤0.02. The result is based on two data sets collected in dedicated runs by the H1 Collaboration at HERA at beam energies of 27.6 GeV and 920 GeV for positrons and protons, respectively. A combination with data previously published by H1 leads to a cross section measurement of a few percent accuracy. A kinematic reconstruction method exploiting radiative ep events extends the measurement to lower Q 2 and larger x. The data are compared with theoretical models which apply to the transition region from photoproduction to deep inelastic scattering. (orig.)

  13. Measurement of the Inclusive ep Scattering Cross Section at Low Q^2 and x at HERA

    CERN Document Server

    Aaron, F.D.; Andreev, V.; Antunovic, B.; Aplin, S.; Asmone, A.; Astvatsatourov, A.; Backovic, S.; Baghdasaryan, A.; Barrelet, E.; Bartel, W.; Begzsuren, K.; Behnke, O.; Behrendt, O.; Belousov, A.; Bizot, J.C.; Boudry, V.; Bozovic-Jelisavcic, I.; Bracinik, J.; Brandt, G.; Brinkmann, M.; Brisson, V.; Bruncko, D.; Bunyatyan, A.; Buschhorn, G.; Bystritskaya, L.; Campbell, A.J.; Cantun Avila, K.B.; Cassol-Brunner, F.; Cerny, K.; Cerny, V.; Chekelian, V.; Cholewa, A.; Contreras, J.G.; Coughlan, J.A.; Cozzika, G.; Cvach, J.; Dainton, J.B.; Daum, K.; Deak, M.; de Boer, Y.; Delcourt, B.; Del Degan, M.; Delvax, J.; De Roeck, A.; De Wolf, E.A.; Diaconu, C.; Dodonov, V.; Dossanov, A.; Dubak, A.; Eckerlin, G.; Eckstein, D.; Efremenko, V.; Egli, S.; Eliseev, A.; Elsen, E.; Falkiewicz, A.; Faulkner, P.J.W.; Favart, L.; Fedotov, A.; Felst, R.; Feltesse, J.; Ferencei, J.; Fischer, D.J.; Fleischer, M.; Fomenko, A.; Gabathuler, E.; Gayler, J.; Ghazaryan, S.; Glazov, A.; Glushkov, I.; Goerlich, L.; Gogitidze, N.; Gouzevitch, M.; Grab, C.; Greenshaw, T.; Grell, B.R.; Grindhammer, G.; Habib, S.; Haidt, D.; Hansson, M.; Helebrant, C.; Henderson, R.C.W.; Hennekemper, E.; Henschel, H.; Herbst, M.; Herrera, G.; Hildebrandt, M.; Hiller, K.H.; Hoffmann, D.; Horisberger, R.; Hreus, T.; Jacquet, M.; Janssen, M.E.; Janssen, X.; Jemanov, V.; Jonsson, L.; Jung, A.W.; Jung, H.; Kapichine, M.; Katzy, J.; Kenyon, I.R.; Kiesling, C.; Klein, M.; Kleinwort, C.; Kluge, T.; Knutsson, A.; Kogler, R.; Korbel, V.; Kostka, P.; Kraemer, M.; Krastev, K.; Kretzschmar, J.; Kropivnitskaya, A.; Kruger, K.; Kutak, K.; Landon, M.P.J.; Lange, W.; Lastovicka-Medin, G.; Laycock, P.; Lastovicka, T.; Lebedev, A.; Leibenguth, G.; Lendermann, V.; Levonian, S.; Li, G.; Lipka, K.; Liptaj, A.; List, B.; List, J.; Lobodzinska, E.; Loktionova, N.; Lopez-Fernandez, R.; Lubimov, V.; Lytkin, L.; Makankine, A.; Malinovski, E.; Marage, P.; Marti, Ll.; Martyn, H.U.; Maxfield, S.J.; Mehta, A.; Meier, K.; Meyer, A.B.; Meyer, H.; Meyer, H.; Meyer, J.; Michels, V.; Mikocki, S.; Milcewicz-Mika, I.; Moreau, F.; Morozov, A.; Morris, J.V.; Mozer, M.U.; Mudrinic, M.; Muller, K.; Murin, P.; Naroska, B.; Naumann, Th.; Newman, P.R.; Niebuhr, C.; Nikiforov, A.; Nowak, G.; Nowak, K.; Nozicka, M.; Olivier, B.; Olsson, J.E.; Osman, S.; Ozerov, D.; Palichik, V.; Panagoulias, I.; Pandurovic, M.; Papadopoulou, Th.; Pascaud, C.; Patel, G.D.; Pejchal, O.; Perez, E.; Petrukhin, A.; Picuric, I.; Piec, S.; Pitzl, D.; Placakyte, R.; Polifka, R.; Povh, B.; Preda, T.; Radescu, V.; Rahmat, A.J.; Raicevic, N.; Raspiareza, A.; Ravdandorj, T.; Reimer, P.; Rizvi, E.; Robmann, P.; Roland, B.; Roosen, R.; Rostovtsev, A.; Rotaru, M.; Ruiz Tabasco, J.E.; Rurikova, Z.; Rusakov, S.; Salek, D.; Sankey, D.P.C.; Sauter, M.; Sauvan, E.; Schmitt, S.; Schmitz, C.; Schoeffel, L.; Schoning, A.; Schultz-Coulon, H.C.; Sefkow, F.; Shaw-West, R.N.; Sheviakov, I.; Shtarkov, L.N.; Shushkevich, S.; Sloan, T.; Smiljanic, I.; Soloviev, Y.; Sopicki, P.; South, D.; Spaskov, V.; Specka, A.; Staykova, Z.; Steder, M.; Stella, B.; Stoicea, G.; Straumann, U.; Sunar, D.; Sykora, T.; Tchoulakov, V.; Thompson, G.; Thompson, P.D.; Toll, T.; Tomasz, F.; Tran, T.H.; Traynor, D.; Trinh, T.N.; Truol, P.; Tsakov, I.; Tseepeldorj, B.; Turnau, J.; Urban, K.; Valkarova, A.; Vallee, C.; Van Mechelen, P.; Vargas Trevino, A.; Vazdik, Y.; Vinokurova, S.; Volchinski, V.; von den Driesch, M.; Wegener, D.; Wissing, Ch.; Wunsch, E.; Zacek, J.; Zalesak, J.; Zhang, Z.; Zhokin, A.; Zimmermann, T.; Zohrabyan, H.; Zomer, F.

    2009-01-01

    A measurement of the inclusive ep scattering cross section is presented in the region of low momentum transfers, 0.2 GeV^2 < Q^2 < 12 GeV^2, and low Bjorken x, 5x10^-6 < x < 0.02. The result is based on two data sets collected in dedicated runs by the H1 Collaboration at HERA at beam energies of 27.6 GeV and 920 GeV for positrons and protons, respectively. A combination with data previously published by H1 leads to a cross section measurement of a few percent accuracy. A kinematic reconstruction method exploiting radiative ep events extends the measurement to lower Q^2 and larger x. The data are compared with theoretical models which apply to the transition region from photoproduction to deep inelastic scattering.

  14. Measurements of plasma composition in the TEXTOR tokamak by collective Thomson scattering

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Stejner Pedersen, Morten; Korsholm, Søren Bang; Nielsen, Stefan Kragh

    2012-01-01

    We demonstrate the use of collective Thomson scattering (CTS) for spatially localized measurements of the isotopic composition of magnetically confined fusion plasmas. The experiments were conducted in the TEXTOR tokamak by scattering millimeter-wave probe radiation off plasma fluctuations...... with wave vector components nearly perpendicular to the magnetic field. Under such conditions the sensitivity of the CTS spectrum to plasma composition is enhanced by the spectral signatures of the ion cyclotron motion and of weakly damped ion Bernstein waves. Recent experiments on TEXTOR demonstrated...... the ability to resolve these signatures in the CTS spectrum as well as their sensitivity to the ion species mix in the plasma. This paper shows that the plasma composition can be inferred from the measurements through forward modeling of the CTS spectrum. We demonstrate that spectra measured in plasmas...

  15. Measurement of the parity violation in quasi-elastic electroweak electron-scattering from 9Be

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Achenbach, W.; Andresen, H.G.

    1987-01-01

    Measurement of the Parity Violation in Quasi-Elastic Electroweak Electron-Scattering from 9 Be in the energy range of about 300 MeV is fulfilled. The measurement of the parity violating asymmetry is obtained by a comparison of scattering for a + helicity beam to that for a - helicity beams. To permit a meaningful comparison required that the + helicity and the - helicity beams being identical in all other respects. Measurements at different energies and targets (hydrogen, deuterium) in the medium energy region will allow to determine α, β, γ, δ in a model-independent way. Regarding future experiments at the Mainz microtron cw accelerator, coincidence experiments will open new experimental possibilities for large solid angle detector systems

  16. Measurement of dijet production in diffractive deep-inelastic scattering with a leading proton at HERA

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Aaron, F.D.; Alexa, C.; Rotaru, M.; Stoicea, G. [National Inst. for Physics and Nuclear Engineering, Bucharest (Romania); Andreev, V.; Belousov, A.; Eliseev, A.; Fomenko, A.; Gogitidze, N.; Lebedev, A.; Malinovski, E.; Rusakov, S.; Shtarkov, L.N.; Soloviev, Y.; Vazdik, Y. [Lebedev Physical Inst., Moscow (Russian Federation); Backovic, S.; Dubak, A.; Lastovicka-Medin, G.; Picuric, I.; Raicevic, N. [Univ. of Montenegro, Faculty of Science, Podgorica (ME); Baghdasaryan, A.; Baghdasaryan, S.; Zohrabyan, H. [Yerevan Physics Inst., Yerevan (Armenia); Barrelet, E. [CNRS/IN2P3, LPNHE, Univ. Pierre et Marie Curie Paris 6, Univ. Denis Diderot Paris 7, Paris (France); Bartel, W.; Belov, P.; Brandt, G.; Brinkmann, M.; Britzger, D.; Campbell, A.J.; Eckerlin, G.; Elsen, E.; Felst, R.; Fischer, D.J.; Fleischer, M.; Gayler, J.; Ghazaryan, S.; Glazov, A.; Gouzevitch, M.; Grebenyuk, A.; Grell, B.R.; Habib, S.; Haidt, D.; Helebrant, C.; Kleinwort, C.; Kogler, R.; Kraemer, M.; Levonian, S.; Lipka, K.; List, B.; List, J.; Meyer, A.B.; Meyer, J.; Niebuhr, C.; Nowak, K.; Olsson, J.E.; Pahl, P.; Panagoulias, I.; Papadopoulou, T.; Petrukhin, A.; Piec, S.; Pitzl, D.; Schmitt, S.; Sefkow, F.; Shushkevich, S.; South, D.; Steder, M.; Wuensch, E. [DESY, Hamburg (Germany); Begzsuren, K.; Ravdandorj, T.; Tseepeldorj, B. [Inst. of Physics and Technology of the Mongolian Academy of Sciences, Ulaanbaatar (Mongolia); Bizot, J.C.; Brisson, V.; Delcourt, B.; Jacquet, M.; Pascaud, C.; Tran, T.H.; Zhang, Z.; Zomer, F. [CNRS/IN2P3, LAL, Univ. Paris-Sud, Orsay (France); Boudry, V.; Moreau, F.; Specka, A. [CNRS/IN2P3, LLR, Ecole Polytechnique, Palaiseau (France); Bozovic-Jelisavcic, I.; Mudrinic, M.; Pandurovic, M.; Smiljanic, I. [Univ. of Belgrade, Vinca Inst. of Nuclear Sciences, Belgrade (RS); Bracinik, J.; Kenyon, I.R.; Newman, P.R.; Thompson, P.D. [Univ. of Birmingham (United Kingdom); Bruncko, D.; Cerny, V.; Ferencei, J. [Slovak Academy of Sciences, Kosice (Slovakia)] [and others

    2012-04-15

    The cross section of diffractive deep-inelastic scattering ep{yields}eXp is measured, where the system X contains at least two jets and the leading final state proton is detected in the H1 Forward Proton Spectrometer. The measurement is performed for fractional proton longitudinal momentum loss x{sub P}<0.1 and covers the range 0.1< vertical stroke t vertical stroke <0.7 GeV{sup 2} in squared four-momentum transfer at the proton vertex and 4measurements of inclusive and dijet cross sections in diffractive deep-inelastic scattering. The data are also compared with leading order Monte Carlo models. (orig.)

  17. BioXTAS RAW, a software program for high-throughput automated small-angle X-ray scattering data reduction and preliminary analysis

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Nielsen, S.S.; Toft, K.N.; Snakenborg, Detlef

    2009-01-01

    A fully open source software program for automated two-dimensional and one-dimensional data reduction and preliminary analysis of isotropic small-angle X-ray scattering (SAXS) data is presented. The program is freely distributed, following the open-source philosophy, and does not rely on any...... commercial software packages. BioXTAS RAW is a fully automated program that, via an online feature, reads raw two-dimensional SAXS detector output files and processes and plots data as the data files are created during measurement sessions. The software handles all steps in the data reduction. This includes...... mask creation, radial averaging, error bar calculation, artifact removal, normalization and q calibration. Further data reduction such as background subtraction and absolute intensity scaling is fast and easy via the graphical user interface. BioXTAS RAW also provides preliminary analysis of one...

  18. Measurement of Rank and Other Properties of Direct and Scattered Signals

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Svante Björklund

    2016-01-01

    Full Text Available We have designed an experiment for low-cost indoor measurements of rank and other properties of direct and scattered signals with radar interference suppression in mind. The signal rank is important also in many other applications, for example, DOA (Direction of Arrival estimation, estimation of the number of and location of transmitters in electronic warfare, and increasing the capacity in wireless communications. In real radar applications, such measurements can be very expensive, for example, involving airborne radars with array antennas. We have performed the measurements in an anechoic chamber with several transmitters, a receiving array antenna, and a moving reflector. Our experiment takes several aspects into account: transmitted signals with different correlation, decorrelation of the signals during the acquisition interval, covariance matrix estimation, noise eigenvalue spread, calibration, near-field compensation, scattering in a rough surface, and good control of the influencing factors. With our measurements we have observed rank, DOA spectrum, and eigenpatterns of direct and scattered signals. The agreement of our measured properties with theoretic and simulated results in the literature shows that our experiment is realistic and sound. The detailed description of our experiment could serve as help for conducting other well-controlled experiments.

  19. Measurement of small-angle antiproton-proton and proton-proton elastic scattering at the CERN intersecting storage rings

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Amos, N.; Block, M.M.; Bobbink, G.J.; Botje, M.A.J.; Favart, D.; Leroy, C.; Linde, F.; Lipnik, P.; Matheys, J-P.; Miller, D.

    1985-01-01

    Antiproton-proton and proton-proton small-angle elastic scattering was measured for centre-of-mass energies at the CERN Intersectung Storage Rings. In addition, proton-proton elastic scattering was measured at . Using the optical theorem, total cross sections are obtained with an accuracy of about

  20. Measurements of ion temperature and plasma hydrogenic composition by collective Thomson scattering in neutral beam heated discharges at TEXTOR

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Stejner Pedersen, Morten; Salewski, Mirko; Korsholm, Søren Bang

    2013-01-01

    A method is developed to perform plasma composition and ion temperature measurements across the plasma minor radius in TEXTOR based on ion cyclotron structures in collective Thomson scattering spectra. By gradually moving the scattering volume, we obtain measurements across the outer midplane of ...

  1. Comparison of neutron scattering, gravimetric and tensiometric methods for measuring soil water content in the field

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Jat, R.L.; Das, D.K.; Naskar, G.C.

    1975-01-01

    Water content of a sandy clay loam soil was measured by neutron scattering, gravimetric and tensiometric methods. Tensiometric measurement based on laboratory moisture retention curve gave comparatively higher moisture content than those obtained by other methods. No significant differences were observed among neutron meter, gravimetric and tensiometric measurement based on field calibration curve. Though for irrigation purposes all the methods can be used equally, use of tensiometric method with field calibration curve is suggested for easy and more accurate soil water content measurement where neutron meter is not available. (author)

  2. Feasability study of using the TFTR Thomson scattering system for q profile measurements

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Brizard, A.; Grewk, B.; Johnson, D.; LeBlanc, B.

    1986-01-01

    The results of a study made to determine the possibility of using the TFTR 76 channels Thomson scattering system to measure the direction of local magnetic fields in a tokamak plasma are presented. As this is a local measurement, this technique can in principle yield q profiles without the need of any de-convolution. The effect of the TFTR geometrical configuration and its various components on the expected measurement accuracy is discussed. The authors find that the measurement of q values within the inner half of the plasma should be possible, with only minor modification to the present TVTS system

  3. Intra- and Intersession Repeatability of an Optical Quality and Intraocular Scattering Measurement System in Children.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Mi Tian

    Full Text Available To evaluate intra- and intersession repeatability of objective optical quality and intraocular scattering measurements with a double-pass system in children.Forty-two eyes of 42 children were included in the study. An optical quality analysis system (OQAS was used to measure optical quality parameters, including modulation transfer function cutoff frequency (MTFcutoff, Strehl ratio (SR, OQAS values (OV at 3 different contrasts and objective scatter index (OSI. Three measurement sessions with 10-min intervals were operated by the same technician, and in each session four consecutive measurements were obtained.Mean values for MTFcutoff, SR and OSI were 46.85 ± 7.45cpd, 0.27 ± 0.06 and 0.34 ± 0.22 respectively. 1 The intraclass correlation coefficients were ranged from 0.89 to 0.97 and coefficients of variation from 0.06 to 0.16 for all the parameters in the first session; the relative repeatability were 11.1% (MTFcutoff, 22.5% (SR, 10.9% (OV100%, 16.6% (OV2%, 22.4% (OV9% and 56.3% (OSI. Similar results were found in the second and third sessions. 2 Bland-Altman analysis showed that narrow 95% confidence intervals (compared between the first and second sessions ranged from -5.42 to 5.28 (MTFcutoff, -0.05 to 0.07 (SR, -0.18 to 0.18 (OV100%, -0.26 to 0.29 (OV20%, -0.33 to 0.39 (OV9% and -0.11 to 0.09 (OSI; the comparison between any two of the three sessions showed similar results.Measurements of optical quality and intraocular scattering in children by the double-pass system showed good intra- and intersession repeatability. Retinal image quality is high and intraocular scattering is low in children.

  4. Electron-phonon scattering in indium from r.f. size effect measurements

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Hoff, A.B.M.

    1977-01-01

    The anisotropy of the electron-phonon collison frequency on the second and third zone Fermi surfaces of indium has been determined from the temperature dependence of radiofrequency size effect (R.F.S.E.) line amplitudes. The orbitally-averaged scattering rates turn out to vary with temperature T according to a T 3 -dependence over the entire Fermi surface, except for orbits on the hole surface close to the (100) and (001) symmetry planes. The anomalous temperatue dependences found in the experiments could be attributed to the special circumstances under which the R.F.S.E. was observed. The influences of both the scattering effectiveness and the multiple turns of the electrons on the observed temperature dependence are discussed extensively. For a large number of extreme orbits on the second and third zone Fermi surfaces, the average scattering rates were measured. In order to obtain a functional expression for the local collision frequency over the entire Fermi surface, an inversion technique was used. As a result, it was found that the anisotropy of the collision frequency over the second zone surface is quite high (1:20) whereas the anisotropy over the third zone surface is rather small (<20%). Further, the variation of the scattering rate round the [111]-point on the hole surface could be confirmed by the results of limiting point measurements. The experimental scattering rates at several points on the Fermi surface were compared with theoretical values obtained from a simple two-OPW model calculation. The calculated anisotropy agrees roughly with the experimental one, although locally the actual values can differ by a factor of 2 or more

  5. Measurements of accurate x-ray scattering data of protein solutions using small stationary sample cells

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hong, Xinguo; Hao, Quan

    2009-01-01

    In this paper, we report a method of precise in situ x-ray scattering measurements on protein solutions using small stationary sample cells. Although reduction in the radiation damage induced by intense synchrotron radiation sources is indispensable for the correct interpretation of scattering data, there is still a lack of effective methods to overcome radiation-induced aggregation and extract scattering profiles free from chemical or structural damage. It is found that radiation-induced aggregation mainly begins on the surface of the sample cell and grows along the beam path; the diameter of the damaged region is comparable to the x-ray beam size. Radiation-induced aggregation can be effectively avoided by using a two-dimensional scan (2D mode), with an interval as small as 1.5 times the beam size, at low temperature (e.g., 4 °C). A radiation sensitive protein, bovine hemoglobin, was used to test the method. A standard deviation of less than 5% in the small angle region was observed from a series of nine spectra recorded in 2D mode, in contrast to the intensity variation seen using the conventional stationary technique, which can exceed 100%. Wide-angle x-ray scattering data were collected at a standard macromolecular diffraction station using the same data collection protocol and showed a good signal/noise ratio (better than the reported data on the same protein using a flow cell). The results indicate that this method is an effective approach for obtaining precise measurements of protein solution scattering.

  6. Measurements of accurate x-ray scattering data of protein solutions using small stationary sample cells

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Hong Xinguo; Hao Quan

    2009-01-01

    In this paper, we report a method of precise in situ x-ray scattering measurements on protein solutions using small stationary sample cells. Although reduction in the radiation damage induced by intense synchrotron radiation sources is indispensable for the correct interpretation of scattering data, there is still a lack of effective methods to overcome radiation-induced aggregation and extract scattering profiles free from chemical or structural damage. It is found that radiation-induced aggregation mainly begins on the surface of the sample cell and grows along the beam path; the diameter of the damaged region is comparable to the x-ray beam size. Radiation-induced aggregation can be effectively avoided by using a two-dimensional scan (2D mode), with an interval as small as 1.5 times the beam size, at low temperature (e.g., 4 deg. C). A radiation sensitive protein, bovine hemoglobin, was used to test the method. A standard deviation of less than 5% in the small angle region was observed from a series of nine spectra recorded in 2D mode, in contrast to the intensity variation seen using the conventional stationary technique, which can exceed 100%. Wide-angle x-ray scattering data were collected at a standard macromolecular diffraction station using the same data collection protocol and showed a good signal/noise ratio (better than the reported data on the same protein using a flow cell). The results indicate that this method is an effective approach for obtaining precise measurements of protein solution scattering.

  7. Robust organelle size extractions from elastic scattering measurements of single cells (Conference Presentation)

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cannaday, Ashley E.; Draham, Robert; Berger, Andrew J.

    2016-04-01

    The goal of this project is to estimate non-nuclear organelle size distributions in single cells by measuring angular scattering patterns and fitting them with Mie theory. Simulations have indicated that the large relative size distribution of organelles (mean:width≈2) leads to unstable Mie fits unless scattering is collected at polar angles less than 20 degrees. Our optical system has therefore been modified to collect angles down to 10 degrees. Initial validations will be performed on polystyrene bead populations whose size distributions resemble those of cell organelles. Unlike with the narrow bead distributions that are often used for calibration, we expect to see an order-of-magnitude improvement in the stability of the size estimates as the minimum angle decreases from 20 to 10 degrees. Scattering patterns will then be acquired and analyzed from single cells (EMT6 mouse cancer cells), both fixed and live, at multiple time points. Fixed cells, with no changes in organelle sizes over time, will be measured to determine the fluctuation level in estimated size distribution due to measurement imperfections alone. Subsequent measurements on live cells will determine whether there is a higher level of fluctuation that could be attributed to dynamic changes in organelle size. Studies on unperturbed cells are precursors to ones in which the effects of exogenous agents are monitored over time.

  8. Precise measurement in elastic electron scattering: HAPPEX and E-158 experiments

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Vacheret, A.

    2004-12-01

    Parity Violation asymmetry measurements in elastic electron scattering are in one hand an interesting way of retrieving new informations about the sea quarks of the nucleon and in the other hand a powerful test of the Standard Model electroweak sector at low energy. This thesis describes the HAPPEX experiment at JLab and the E-158 experiment at SLAC (USA) which measure de parity violation asymmetries in elastic scattering of polarized electron on nuclei like Hydrogen or Helium and on atomic electrons. With the measurements on hadronic targets one can extract the strange quarks contribution to the charge and current density of the nucleon. With the electron-electron scattering one can test the standard model at the loop level and far from the Z pole by extracting sin 2 θ W . In this thesis we describe the formalism associated with the electroweak probe. We present in detail the experimental methods used to make such precise measurements of parity violation asymmetry. Then, we describe the experimental set-up of each experiment and in particular the electron detector and the feedback loop on the beam current for the HAPPEX experiment and the analysis of E-158 run III with a dedicated systematic study on the beam sub-pulse fluctuations. We present the preliminary results for each experiment with a comparison with the other existing results and the future experiments. (author)

  9. Enhancing the performances of a resonance detector spectrometer for deep inelastic neutron scattering measurements

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Filabozzi, A.; Pace, E.; Pietropaolo, A.

    2012-01-01

    The possibility is explored to sum up neutron Compton profiles at different scattering angles in deep inelastic neutron scattering measurements within the Resonance Detector (RD) configuration to enhance the statistics for a more reliable extraction of the momentum distribution of the constituents in the target. The RD configuration allows to select the energy of the scattered neutrons up to several tens of electron Volt, thus accessing energy and wave vector transfers well above 1 eV and 30 Å −1 , respectively. In the high-q/ω regime, the final state effects could be considered as negligible, as shown in a series of simulations using a Monte Carlo method with different inverse geometry instrument setups. The simulations show that it could be possible to conceive an instrument set up where the RD configuration allows the proper summation of several spectra at different scattering angles, providing a good separation of the proton recoil signal from that of the heavier atoms, thus avoiding the cell subtraction by fitting procedure.

  10. 3.5. Apparatus for plasma electron temperature measurement by Thomson scattering

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Kolacek, K.; Babicky, V.

    1981-01-01

    Equipment was developed and tested for measuring time-resolved local electron plasma temperature and density by the Thomson scattering of ruby laser light. The laser consists of a Q-switched generator (ruby 12 mm in diameter by 150 mm long) followed by one amplifier (ruby 16 mm indi long) followed by one amplifier (ruby 16 mm in diameter by 250 mm long). For Q-switching a Pockels cell with a z-cut ADP crystal was used. The laser is capable of delivering 4 J of energy in a pulse of 50 ns in duration. The spectrum of the laser light scattered at an angle of 9a degrees is analyzed by a six-channel polychromator. Fibre optics and photomultipliers with gated amplifiers are used. Output signals are transmitted via a parallel-to-series converter to a single-trace oscilloscope. The whole Thomson scattering apparatus was successfully tested by the Rayleigh scattering in the air at atmospheric pressure. (J.U.)

  11. Quantification of sauter mean diameter in diesel sprays using scattering-absorption extinction measurements

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Martinez, Gabrielle L; Magnotti, Gina M; Knox, Benjamin W; Genzale, Caroline L; Matusik, Katarzyna E; Duke, Daniel J; Powell, Christopher F; Kastengren, Alan L

    2017-05-18

    Quantitative measurements of the primary breakup process in diesel sprays are lacking due to a range of experimental and diagnostic challenges, including: high droplet number density environments, very small characteristic drop size scales (~1-10 μm), and high characteristic velocities in the primary breakup region (~600 m/s). Due to these challenges, existing measurement techniques have failed to resolve a sufficient range of the temporal and spatial scales involved and much remains unknown about the primary atomization process in practical diesel sprays. To gain a better insight into this process, we have developed a joint visible and x-ray extinction measurement technique to quantify axial and radial distributions of the path-integrated Sauter Mean Diameter (SMD) and Liquid Volume Fraction (LVF) for diesel-like sprays. This technique enables measurement of the SMD in regions of moderate droplet number density, enabling construction of the temporal history of drop size development within practical diesel sprays. The experimental campaign was conducted jointly at the Georgia Institute of Technology and Argonne National Laboratory using the Engine Combustion Network “Spray D” injector. X-ray radiography liquid absorption measurements, conducted at the Advanced Photon Source at Argonne, quantify the liquid-fuel mass and volume distribution in the spray. Diffused back-illumination liquid scattering measurements were conducted at Georgia Tech to quantify the optical thickness throughout the spray. By application of Mie-scatter equations, the ratio of the absorption and scattering extinction measurements is demonstrated to yield solutions for the SMD. This work introduces the newly developed scattering-absorption measurement technique and highlights the important considerations that must be taken into account when jointly processing these measurements to extract the SMD. These considerations include co-alignment of measurements taken at different institutions

  12. A high precision n-p scattering measurement at 14.9 MeV

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Kornilov N.V.

    2017-01-01

    Full Text Available The n-p scattering angular distribution was measured with 14.9 MeV incident neutrons using the traditional time-of-flight technique with neutron-gamma discrimination. The scattering angle varied from 20o to 65o (laboratory system in 5o incremental steps. The efficiency of the neutron detectors was measured in the energy range 2–9 MeV relative to the 252Cf-standard, and was calculated using Monte Carlo methods in the 2–14 MeV energy range. Two methods of analysis were applied for experimental and simulated data: a traditional approach with a fixed threshold, and a dynamic threshold approach. The present data agree with the ENDF/B-VII evaluation for the shape of n-p angular distribution within about 1.5%.

  13. Localized Measurement of Turbulent Fluctuations in Tokamaks with Coherent Scattering of Electromagnetic Waves

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Mazzucato, E.

    2002-01-01

    Localized measurements of short-scale turbulent fluctuations in tokamaks are still an outstanding problem. In this paper, the method of coherent scattering of electromagnetic waves for the detection of density fluctuations is revisited. Results indicate that the proper choice of frequency, size and launching of the probing wave can transform this method into an excellent technique for high-resolution measurements of those fluctuations that plasma theory indicates as the potential cause of anomalous transport in tokamaks. The best spatial resolution can be achieved when the range of scattering angles corresponding to the spectrum of fluctuations under investigation is small. This favors the use of high frequency probing waves, such as those of far infrared lasers. The application to existing large tokamaks is discussed

  14. Robust depth selectivity in mesoscopic scattering regimes using angle-resolved measurements.

    Science.gov (United States)

    González-Rodríguez, P; Kim, A D; Moscoso, M

    2013-03-01

    We study optical imaging of tissues in the mesoscopic scattering regime in which light multiply scatters in tissues but is not fully diffusive. We use the radiative transport equation to model light propagation and an ℓ1-optimization method to solve the inverse source problem. We show that recovering the location and strength of several point-like sources that are close to each other is not possible when using angle-averaged measurements. The image reliability is limited by a spatial scale that is on the order of the transport mean-free path, even under the most ideal conditions. However, by using just a few angle-resolved measurements, the proposed method is able to overcome this limitation.

  15. Measurement of the polarization correlation coefficient in elastic pp scattering at 610 MeV

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Borisov, N.S.; Glonti, L.N.; Kazarinov, M.Yu.

    1977-01-01

    The polarization correlation coefficient Csub(nn) for elastic pp scattering at 610+-10 MeV was measured for four scattering angles: 40, 67, 78 and 90 deg (c.m.s.). A polarized proton beam with a maximum polarization of 0.39+-0.02 and a polarized proton target of the frozen type were used. The maximum polarization of the target was 0.97+-0.04. The experimental procedure is described in detail. The Csub(nn) measured are compared with the results of a phase analysis and the findings at 575 MeV obtained elsewhere. The Csub(nn) coefficients are shown to be valuable to discriminate alternative solutions of the phase analysis. The polarized proton targets of the frozen type, no accounting the complexity of their design, are emphasized to be rather reliable and convenient devices for conducting experiments at accelerators

  16. Electron scattering effects on absorbed dose measurements with LiF-dosemeters

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Bertilsson, G.

    1975-10-01

    The investigation deals with absorbed dose measurements with solid wall-less dosemeters. Electron scattering complicates both measurement of absorbed dose and its theoretical interpretation. The introduction of the dosemeter in a medium causes perturbations of the radiation field. This perturbation and its effect on the distribution of the absorbed dose inside the dosemeter is studied. Plane-parallel LiF-teflon dosemeters (0.005 - 0.1 g.cm -2 ) are irradiated by a photon beam ( 137 Cs) in different media. The investigation shows that corrections must be made for perturbations caused by electron scattering phenomena. Correction factors are given for use in accurate absorbed dose determinations with thermoluminescent dosemeters. (Auth.)

  17. Robust sensor for turbidity measurement from light scattering and absorbing liquids.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kontturi, Ville; Turunen, Petri; Uozumi, Jun; Peiponen, Kai-Erik

    2009-12-01

    Internationally standardized turbidity measurements for probing solid particles in liquid are problematic in the case of simultaneous light scattering and absorption. A method and a sensor to determine the turbidity in the presence of light absorption are presented. The developed sensor makes use of the total internal reflection of a laser beam at the liquid-prism interface, and the turbidity is assessed using the concept of laser speckle pattern. Using average filtering in speckle data analyzing the observed dynamic speckle pattern, which is due to light scattering from particles and the static speckle due to stray light of the sensor, can be separated from each other. Good correlation between the standard deviation of dynamic speckle and turbidity value for nonabsorbing and for absorbing liquids was observed. The sensor is suggested, for instance, for the measurement of ill-behaved as well as small-volume turbid liquids in both medicine and process industry.

  18. Confocal detection of Rayleigh scattering for residual stress measurement in chemically tempered glass

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Hödemann, S., E-mail: siim.hodemann@ut.ee; Möls, P.; Kiisk, V.; Saar, R.; Kikas, J. [Institute of Physics, University of Tartu, Wilhelm Ostwald st., Tartu 50411 (Estonia); Murata, T. [Nippon Electric Glass Co., 7-1 Seiran 2-chome, Otsu-shi, Shiga 520-8639 (Japan)

    2015-12-28

    A new optical method is presented for evaluation of the stress profile in chemically tempered (chemically strengthened) glass based on confocal detection of scattered laser beam. Theoretically, a lateral resolution of 0.2 μm and a depth resolution of 0.6 μm could be achieved by using a confocal microscope with high-NA immersion objective. The stress profile in the 250 μm thick surface layer of chemically tempered lithium aluminosilicate glass was measured with a high spatial resolution to illustrate the capability of the method. The confocal method is validated using transmission photoelastic and Na{sup +} ion concentration profile measurement. Compositional influence on the stress-optic coefficient is calculated and discussed. Our method opens up new possibilities for three-dimensional scattered light tomography of mechanical imaging in birefringent materials.

  19. Molecular Rayleigh Scattering Diagnostic for Measurement of High Frequency Temperature Fluctuations

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mielke, Amy F.; Elam, Kristie A.

    2005-01-01

    A novel technique for measurement of high frequency temperature fluctuations in unseeded gas flows using molecular Rayleigh scattering is investigated. The spectrum of laser light scattered from molecules in a gas flow is resolved using a Fabry-Perot interferometer. The width of the spectral peak is broadened by thermal motion of the molecules and hence is related to gas temperature. The interference fringe pattern containing spectral information is divided into four concentric regions using a series of mirrors angled with respect to one another. Light from each of these regions is directed towards photomultiplier tubes and sampled at 10 kHz using photon counting electronics. Monitoring the relative change in intensity within each region allows measurement of gas temperature. Independently monitoring the total scattered intensity provides a measure of gas density. This technique also has the potential to simultaneously measure a single component of flow velocity by monitoring the spectral peak location. Measurements of gas temperature and density are demonstrated using a low speed heated air jet surrounded by an unheated air co-flow. Mean values of temperature and density are shown for radial scans across the jet flow at a fixed axial distance from the jet exit plane. Power spectra of temperature and density fluctuations at several locations in the jet are also shown. The instantaneous measurements have fairly high uncertainty; however, long data records provide highly accurate statistically quantities, which include power spectra. Mean temperatures are compared with thermocouple measurements as well as the temperatures derived from independent density measurements. The accuracy for mean temperature measurements was +/- 7 K.

  20. Measurement of the analysing power of elastic proton-proton scattering at 582 MeV

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Berdoz, A.; Favier, B.; Foroughi, F.; Weddigen, C.

    1984-01-01

    The authors have measured the analysing power of elastic proton-proton scattering at 582 MeV for 14 angles from 20 to 80 0 CM. The angular range was limited to >20 0 by the energy loss of the recoil protons. The experiment was performed at the PM1 beam line at SIN. A beam intensity of about 10 8 particles s -1 was used. (Auth.)

  1. Use of the n,p scattering reaction for neutron flux measurements

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Czirr, J.B.

    1977-01-01

    Several contemporary proton-recoil detectors are described and compared. These detectors have been used for neutron-spectrum measurements over various portions of the 10-keV-to-20-MeV energy range. Several factors which limit the accuracy of the results are compared quantitatively. General suggestions are given for setting and using standard cross sections and for future developments using the n,p scattering reaction

  2. Determination of ππ scattering lengths from measurement of π+π- atom lifetime

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Adeva, B.; Afanasyev, L.; Benayoun, M.; Benelli, A.; Berka, Z.; Brekhovskikh, V.; Caragheorgheopol, G.; Cechak, T.; Chiba, M.; Chliapnikov, P.V.; Ciocarlan, C.; Constantinescu, S.; Costantini, S.; Curceanu, C.; Doskarova, P.; Dreossi, D.; Drijard, D.; Dudarev, A.; Ferro-Luzzi, M.; Fungueirino Pazos, J.L.

    2011-01-01

    The DIRAC experiment at CERN has achieved a sizeable production of π + π - atoms and has significantly improved the precision on its lifetime determination. From a sample of 21 227 atomic pairs, a 4% measurement of the S-wave ππ scattering length difference |a 0 -a 2 |=(0.2533 -0.0078 +0.0080 | stat +0.0078 -0.0073 | syst )M π + -1 has been attained, providing an important test of Chiral Perturbation Theory.

  3. A critical comparison of electron scattering cross sections measured by single collision and swarm techniques

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Buckman, S.J.; Brunger, M.J.

    1996-07-01

    Electron scattering cross sections (elastic, rotational and vibrational excitation) for a number of atomic and (relatively) single molecular systems are examined. Particular reference is made to the level of agreement which is obtained from the application of the completely different measurement philosophies embodied in 'beam' and 'swarm' techniques. The range of energies considered is generally restricted to the region below 5 eV. 142 refs., 1 tab., 12 figs

  4. Thomson scattering measuring device using high sensitivity photomultipliers: 16% up to 860nm

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Hesse, M.

    1976-03-01

    Photomultipliers with high quantum efficiency were used to observe the entire rubis laser light spectrum scattered by a plasma. The optical and electronic acquisition device used to study this spectrum is described. The spectra obtained revealed a dissymmetry larger than that expected from relativistic theory. These results could not be interpreted. The diagnostic sensitivity allows the measurement of low electron densities (2.10 12 ecm -3 ) [fr

  5. Measurement of neutron inelastic scattering cross section of {sup 238}U

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Miura, Takako; Baba, Mamoru; Ibaraki, Masanobu; Sanami, Toshiya; Win, Than; Hirasawa, Yoshitaka; Matsuyama, Shigeo; Hirakawa, Naohiro [Tohoku Univ., Sendai (Japan)

    1998-03-01

    Neutron scattering from the 0{sup +}, 2{sup +} (1-st) and 4{sup +} (2nd) levels of {sup 238}U was measured for incident energies between 0.4 and 0.85 MeV at the Tohoku University 4.5 MV Dynamitron facility, using the time-of-flight (TOF) method with monoenergetic pulsed neutrons by the {sup 7}Li(p,n) reaction. The results are presented in comparison with other experimental data and evaluated data. (author)

  6. The temperature dependence of the momentum distribution of beryllium measured by neutron Compton scattering

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Fielding, A.L.; Timms, D.; Mayers, J.

    1999-01-01

    A new neutron Compton scattering (NCS) measurement of the temperature dependence of the kinetic energy in polycrystalline beryllium at momentum transfers in the range 27.91 to 104.21 A -1 is presented. The measurements have been made with the Electron Volt Spectrometer (eVS) at the ISIS facility and the measured kinetic energies are shown to be in good agreement with calculations made in the harmonic approximation. Numerical simulations are also presented based on the Sears expansion which predict that final state effects in NCS experiments become less significant at elevated temperatures. (author)

  7. 14N + 10B fusion and elastic scattering cross section measurements near the interaction barrier

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Wu, S.C.; Overley, J.C.; Barnes, C.A.; Switkowski, Z.E.

    1979-01-01

    The 14 N + 10 B fusion reactions were studied at c.m. energies between 2.9 and 7.5 MeV by measuring the yields of γ-rays from the residual nuclei formed by particle evaporation from the compound system. Cross sections for formation of the evaporation residues 16 O, 19 F, 19 Ne, 20 Ne, 21 Ne, 22 Ne, 22 Na, 23 Na and 23 Mg, as well as the total cross section, were deduced from these yields with the aid of statistical model calculations. 14 N + 10 B elastic scattering differential cross sections were measured from 4.3 to 9.1 MeV at THETA 74.4 degrees, and from 3.3 to 8.3 MeV at THETA = 90.0 degrees. The elastic scattering cross sections were analyzed within the framework of the incoming-wave boundary condition (IWBC) model. The fusion cross sections calculated for the real ion-ion potential deduced from the IWBC model fit to the elastic scattering are in good agreement with the measured values

  8. Noncontact measurement of guided ultrasonic wave scattering for fatigue crack characterization

    Science.gov (United States)

    Fromme, P.

    2013-04-01

    Fatigue cracks can develop in aerospace structures at locations of stress concentration such as fasteners. For the safe operation of the aircraft fatigue cracks need to be detected before reaching a critical length. Guided ultrasonic waves offer an efficient method for the detection and characterization of fatigue cracks in large aerospace structures. Noncontact excitation of guided waves was achieved using electromagnetic acoustic transducers (EMAT). The transducers were developed for the specific excitation of the A0 Lamb mode. Based on the induced eddy currents in the plate a simple theoretical model was developed and reasonably good agreement with the measurements was achieved. However, the detection sensitivity for fatigue cracks depends on the location and orientation of the crack relative to the measurement locations. Crack-like defects have a directionality pattern of the scattered field depending on the angle of the incident wave relative to the defect orientation and on the ratio of the characteristic defect size to wavelength. The detailed angular dependency of the guided wave field scattered at crack-like defects in plate structures has been measured using a noncontact laser interferometer. Good agreement with 3D Finite Element simulation predictions was achieved for machined part-through and through-thickness notches. The amplitude of the scattered wave was quantified for a variation of angle of the incident wave relative to the defect orientation and the defect depth. These results provide the basis for the defect characterization in aerospace structures using guided wave sensors.

  9. Six Years of Gamma Ray Burst Observations with BeppoSAX

    OpenAIRE

    Frontera, Filippo

    2004-01-01

    I give a summary of the prompt X-/gamma-ray detections of Gamma Ray Bursts (GRBs) with the BeppoSAX satellite and discuss some significant results obtained from the study of the prompt emission of these GRBs obtained with the BeppoSAX Gamma Ray Burst Monitor and Wide Field Cameras.

  10. A new outburst of the recurrent neutron star transient SAX J1747.0-2853

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Brandt, S.; Chenevez, J.; Kuulkers, E.; Natalucci, L.; Fiocchi, M.T.; Tarana, A.; Shaw, S.; Beckmann, V.; Courvoisier, T.J.L.; Domingo, A.; Ebisawa, K.; Kretschmar, P.J.P.; Markwardt, C.; Oosterbroek, T.; Paizis, A.; Risquez, D.; Sanchez-Fernandez, C.; Wijnands, R.

    2007-01-01

    The recurrent transient neutron star system SAX J1747.0-2853 has in the past shown various outbursts with about 60 days duration. Recent observations with INTEGRAL reveal that SAX J1747.0-2853 shows increased activity which may mark the beginning of a new outburst. During the INTEGRAL Galactic Bulge

  11. Pseudomonas sax genes overcome aliphatic isothiocyanate-mediated non-host resistance in Arabidopsis

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jun Fan; Casey Crooks; Gary Creissen; Lionel Hill; Shirley Fairhurst; Peter Doerner; Chris Lamb

    2011-01-01

    Most plant-microbe interactions do not result in disease; natural products restrict non-host pathogens. We found that sulforaphane (4-methylsulfinylbutyl isothiocyanate), a natural product derived from aliphatic glucosinolates, inhibits growth in Arabidopsis of non-host Pseudomonas bacteria in planta. Multiple sax genes (saxCAB/F/D/G) were identified in Pseudomonas...

  12. Light scattering and transmission measurement using digital imaging for online analysis of constituents in milk

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jain, Pranay; Sarma, Sanjay E.

    2015-05-01

    Milk is an emulsion of fat globules and casein micelles dispersed in an aqueous medium with dissolved lactose, whey proteins and minerals. Quantification of constituents in milk is important in various stages of the dairy supply chain for proper process control and quality assurance. In field-level applications, spectrophotometric analysis is an economical option due to the low-cost of silicon photodetectors, sensitive to UV/Vis radiation with wavelengths between 300 - 1100 nm. Both absorption and scattering are witnessed as incident UV/Vis radiation interacts with dissolved and dispersed constituents in milk. These effects can in turn be used to characterize the chemical and physical composition of a milk sample. However, in order to simplify analysis, most existing instrument require dilution of samples to avoid effects of multiple scattering. The sample preparation steps are usually expensive, prone to human errors and unsuitable for field-level and online analysis. This paper introduces a novel digital imaging based method of online spectrophotometric measurements on raw milk without any sample preparation. Multiple LEDs of different emission spectra are used as discrete light sources and a digital CMOS camera is used as an image sensor. The extinction characteristic of samples is derived from captured images. The dependence of multiple scattering on power of incident radiation is exploited to quantify scattering. The method has been validated with experiments for response with varying fat concentrations and fat globule sizes. Despite of the presence of multiple scattering, the method is able to unequivocally quantify extinction of incident radiation and relate it to the fat concentrations and globule sizes of samples.

  13. Measurement with total scatter calibrate factor at different depths in the calculation of prescription dose

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Li Lijun; Zhu Haijun; Zhang Xinzhong; Li Feizhou; Song Hongyu

    2004-01-01

    Objective: To evaluate the method of measurement of total scatter calibrate factor (Sc, p). Methods: To measure the Sc, p at different depths on central axis of 6MV, 15MV photon beams through different ways. Results: It was found that the measured data of Sc, p changed with the different depths to a range of 1% - 7%. Using the direct method, the Sc, p measured depth should be the same as the depth in dose normalization point of the prescription dose. If the Sc, p (fsz, d) was measured at the other depths, it could be obtained indirectly by the calculation formula. Conclusions: The Sc, p in the prescription dose can be obtained either by the direct measure method or the indirect calculation formula. But emphasis should be laid on the proper measure depth. (authors)

  14. Healing X-ray scattering images

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Jiliang Liu

    2017-07-01

    Full Text Available X-ray scattering images contain numerous gaps and defects arising from detector limitations and experimental configuration. We present a method to heal X-ray scattering images, filling gaps in the data and removing defects in a physically meaningful manner. Unlike generic inpainting methods, this method is closely tuned to the expected structure of reciprocal-space data. In particular, we exploit statistical tests and symmetry analysis to identify the structure of an image; we then copy, average and interpolate measured data into gaps in a way that respects the identified structure and symmetry. Importantly, the underlying analysis methods provide useful characterization of structures present in the image, including the identification of diffuse versus sharp features, anisotropy and symmetry. The presented method leverages known characteristics of reciprocal space, enabling physically reasonable reconstruction even with large image gaps. The method will correspondingly fail for images that violate these underlying assumptions. The method assumes point symmetry and is thus applicable to small-angle X-ray scattering (SAXS data, but only to a subset of wide-angle data. Our method succeeds in filling gaps and healing defects in experimental images, including extending data beyond the original detector borders.

  15. Electroweak coupling measurements from polarized Bhabha scattering at the Z0 resonance

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Pitts, K.T.

    1994-03-01

    The cross section for Bhabha scattering (e + e - → e + e - ) with polarized electrons at the center of mass energy of the Z 0 resonance has been measured with the SLD experiment at the Stanford Linear Accelerator Center during the 1992 and 1993 runs. The electroweak couplings of the electron are extracted. At small angles the measurement is done in the SLD Silicon/Tungsten Luminosity Monitor (LMSAT). A detailed description of the design, construction, commissioning and operation of the LMSAT is provided. The integrated luminosity for 1992 is measured to be L = 420.86±2.56 (stat)±4.23 (sys) nb -1 . The luminosity asymmetry for polarized beams is measured to be A LR (LUM) = (1.7 ± 6.4) x 10 -3 . The large angle polarized Bhabha scattering reveals the effective electron vector and axial vector couplings to the Z 0 through the measurement of the Z 0 → e + e - partial width, Γ ee , and the parity violation parameter, A e . From the combined 1992 and 1993 data the effective electron vector and axial vector couplings are measured to be bar g v e = -0.0495±0.0096±0.0030, and bar g α e = -0.4977±0.0035±0.0064 respectively. The effective weak mixing angle is measured to be sin 2 θ W eff = 0.2251±0.0049±0.0015. These results are compared with other experiments

  16. Repeated sorption of water in SBA-15 investigated by means of in situ small-angle x-ray scattering

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Erko, M; Paris, O; Wallacher, D; Findenegg, G H

    2012-01-01

    The effect of repeated cycles of water adsorption/desorption on the structural stability of ordered mesoporous silica SBA-15 is studied by small-angle x-ray scattering (SAXS). In situ sorption measurements are conducted using a custom-built sorption apparatus in connection with a laboratory SAXS setup. Two striking irreversible changes are observed in the sorption isotherms as derived from the integrated SAXS intensity. First, the capillary condensation pressure shifts progressively to lower relative pressure values with increasing number of sorption cycles. This effect is attributed to chemisorption of water at the silica walls, resulting in a change of the fluid-wall interaction. Second, the sorption cycles do not close completely at vanishing vapour pressure, suggesting that progressively more water remains trapped within the porous material after each cycle. This effect is interpreted to be the result of an irreversible collapse of parts of mesopores, originating from pore wall deformation due to the large Laplace pressure of water acting on the pore walls at capillary condensation and capillary evaporation. (paper)

  17. Measurement of charge symmetry breaking in np elastic scattering at 350 MeV

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Abegg, R.; Berdoz, A.R.; Birchall, J.

    1994-10-01

    TRIUMF experiment 369, a measurement of charge symmetry breaking in np elastic scattering at 350 MeV, has completed data taking. Scattering asymmetries were measured with a polarized (unpolarized) neutron beam incident on an unpolarized (polarized) frozen spin target. Coincident scattered neutrons and recoil protons were detected by a mirror symmetric detection system in the center-of-mass angle range from 50 deg - 90 deg. A preliminary result for the difference of the zero-crossing angles, where analyzing powers cross zero, is Δθ cm = 0.445 deg ± 0.054 deg (stat.) ± 0.051 deg (syst.) based on fits over the angle range 53.4 deg ≤ θ cm ≤ 86.9 deg. The difference of the analyzing powers ΔA ≡ A n - A p , where the subscripts denote polarized nucleons, was deduced with dA/dθ cm = (-1.35 ± 0.05) x 10 -2 deg -1 to be [60 ± 7(stat.) ± 7(syst.) ± 2(syst.)] x 10 -4 . (author). 11 refs., 6 figs

  18. Development of single shot 1D-Raman scattering measurements for flames

    Science.gov (United States)

    Biase, Amelia; Uddi, Mruthunjaya

    2017-11-01

    The majority of energy consumption in the US comes from burning fossil fuels which increases the concentration of carbon dioxide in the atmosphere. The increasing concentration of carbon dioxide in the atmosphere has negative impacts on the environment. One solution to this problem is to study the oxy-combustion process. A pure oxygen stream is used instead of air for combustion. Products contain only carbon dioxide and water. It is easy to separate water from carbon dioxide by condensation and the carbon dioxide can be captured easily. Lower gas volume allows for easier removal of pollutants from the flue gas. The design of a system that studies the oxy-combustion process using advanced laser diagnostic techniques and Raman scattering measurements is presented. The experiments focus on spontaneous Raman scattering. This is one of the few techniques that can provide quantitative measurements of the concentration and temperature of different chemical species in a turbulent flow. The experimental design and process of validating the design to ensure the data is accurate is described. The Raman data collected form an experimental data base that is used for the validation of spontaneous Raman scattering in high pressure environments for the oxy-combustion process. NSF EEC 1659710.

  19. Accurate measurement of volume and shape of resting and activated blood platelets from light scattering.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Moskalensky, Alexander E; Yurkin, Maxim A; Konokhova, Anastasiya I; Strokotov, Dmitry I; Nekrasov, Vyacheslav M; Chernyshev, Andrei V; Tsvetovskaya, Galina A; Chikova, Elena D; Maltsev, Valeri P

    2013-01-01

    We introduce a novel approach for determination of volume and shape of individual blood platelets modeled as an oblate spheroid from angle-resolved light scattering with flow-cytometric technique. The light-scattering profiles (LSPs) of individual platelets were measured with the scanning flow cytometer and the platelet characteristics were determined from the solution of the inverse light-scattering problem using the precomputed database of theoretical LSPs. We revealed a phenomenon of parameter compensation, which is partly explained in the framework of anomalous diffraction approximation. To overcome this problem, additional a priori information on the platelet refractive index was used. It allowed us to determine the size of each platelet with subdiffraction precision and independent of the particular value of the platelet aspect ratio. The shape (spheroidal aspect ratio) distributions of platelets showed substantial differences between native and activated by 10 μM adenosine diphosphate samples. We expect that the new approach may find use in hematological analyzers for accurate measurement of platelet volume distribution and for determination of the platelet activation efficiency.

  20. Measurements of Positronium Formation Cross Sections for Positron-Kr, Xe Scattering

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kauppila, W. E.; Kwan, C. K.; Li, H.; Stein, T. S.; Zhou, S.

    1997-04-01

    Our experimental approach(S. Zhou et al., Phys. Rev. Lett. 73, 236 (1994).) for measuring Ps formation cross sections (Q_Ps) involves passing a variable energy positron beam through a gas scattering cell and detecting the 511 keV annihilation gamma rays resulting from the decay of para-Ps and from the interaction of ortho-Ps with the walls of the scattering cell. It is found that the Q_Ps curves for both Kr and Xe rise rapidly from their formation threshold energies of 7.2 and 5.3 eV, reach maxima within about 10 eV of their thresholds and then decrease to become rather small (less than 10% of the peak heights) above 100 eV. At the maxima Q_Ps accounts for more than 50% of the total scattering cross sections. There is some evidence of possible small scale structure in the Q_Ps curves between 10 and 100 eV. The present results are consistent with the prior measurements of Diana et al.( L.M. Diana et al., in "Atomic Physics with Positrons", edited by J.W. Humberston and E.A.G. Armour (Plenum, New York and London, 1987), p. 55; and in "Positron Annihilation", edited by L. Dorikens-Vanpraet et al. (World Scientific, Singapore, 1989), p. 311.) from near threshold to 70 eV for Kr and from 15 to 100 eV for Xe.

  1. Characterization of highly scattering media by measurement of diffusely backscattered polarized light

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hielscher, Andreas H.; Mourant, Judith R.; Bigio, Irving J.

    2000-01-01

    An apparatus and method for recording spatially dependent intensity patterns of polarized light that is diffusely backscattered from highly scattering media are described. These intensity patterns can be used to differentiate different turbid media, such as polystyrene-sphere and biological-cell suspensions. Polarized light from a He-Ne laser (.lambda.=543 nm) is focused onto the surface of the scattering medium, and a surface area of approximately 4.times.4 cm centered on the light input point is imaged through polarization analysis optics onto a CCD camera. A variety of intensity patterns may be observed by varying the polarization state of the incident laser light and changing the analyzer configuration to detect different polarization components of the backscattered light. Experimental results for polystyrene-sphere and Intralipid suspensions demonstrate that the radial and azimuthal variations of the observed pattern depend on the concentration, size, and anisotropy factor, g, of the particles constituting the scattering medium. Measurements performed on biological cell suspensions show that intensity patterns can be used to differentiate between suspensions of cancerous and non-cancerous cells. Introduction of the Mueller-matrix for diffusely backscattered light, permits the selection of a subset of measurements which comprehensively describes the optical properties of backscattering media.

  2. A Precision Low-Energy Measurement of the Weak Mixing Angle in Moller Scattering

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Mastromarino, P.

    2005-01-26

    The E-158 experiment at the Stanford Linear Accelerator Center (SLAC) measures the parity-violating cross-section asymmetry in electron-electron (Moeller) scattering at low Q{sup 2}. This asymmetry, whose Standard Model prediction is roughly -150 parts per billion (ppb), is directly proportional to (1-4 sin{sup 2} {theta}{sub W}), where {theta}{sub W} is the weak mixing angle. Measuring this asymmetry to within 10% provides an important test of the Standard Model at the quantum loop level and probes for new physics at the TeV scale. The experiment employs the SLAC 50 GeV electron beam, scattering it off a liquid hydrogen target. A system of magnets and collimators is used to isolate and focus the Moeller scattering events into an integrating calorimeter. The electron beam is generated at the source using a strained, gradient-doped GaAs photocathode, which produces roughly 5 x 10{sup 11} electrons/pulse (at a beam rate of 120 Hz) with {approx} 80% longitudinal polarization. The helicity of the beam can be rapidly switched, eliminating problems associated with slow drifts. Helicity-correlations in the beam parameters (charge, position, angle and energy) are minimized at the source and corrected for using precision beam monitoring devices.

  3. The prospect for fuel ion ratio measurements in ITER by collective Thomson scattering

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Stejner Pedersen, Morten; Korsholm, Søren Bang; Nielsen, Stefan Kragh

    2012-01-01

    We show that collective Thomson scattering (CTS) holds the potential to become a new diagnostic principle for measurements of the fuel ion ratio, nT/nD, in ITER. Fuel ion ratio measurements will be important for plasma control and machine protection in ITER. Measurements of ion cyclotron structures...... in CTS spectra have been suggested as the basis for a new fuel ion ratio diagnostic which would be well suited for reactor environments and capable of providing spatially resolved measurements in the plasma core. Such measurements were demonstrated in recent experiments in the TEXTOR tokamak. Here we...... conduct a sensitivity study to investigate the potential measurement accuracy of a CTS fuel ion ratio diagnostic on ITER. The study identifies regions of parameter space in which CTS can be expected to provide useful information on plasma composition, and we find that a CTS fuel ion ratio diagnostic could...

  4. Extreme UV and X-ray scattering measurements from a rough LiF crystal surface characterized by electron micrography

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Alehyane; Arbaoui; Barchewitz

    1989-01-01

    XUV and X-ray scattering by a LiF crystal is measured. The angular distribution of the scattered radiation (ADSR) reveals characteristic features, side peaks or asymmetry. The surface of the sample is statistically characterized by a microdensitometer analysis of electron micrographs resolving th...

  5. Beam-helicity asymmetry arising from deeply virtual Compton scattering measured with kinematically complete event reconstruction

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Airapetian, A. [Giessen Univ. (Germany). Physikalisches Inst.; Michigan Univ., Ann Arbor, MI (United States). Randall Lab. of Physics; Akopov, N. [Yerevan Physics Inst. (Armenia); Akopov, Z. [DESY, Hamburg (DE)] (and others)

    2012-06-15

    The beam-helicity asymmetry in exclusive electroproduction of real photons by the longitudinally polarized HERA positron beam scattering off an unpolarized hydrogen target is measured at HERMES. The asymmetry arises from deeply virtual Compton scattering and its interference with the Bethe-Heitler process. Azimuthal amplitudes of the beam-helicity asymmetry are extracted from a data sample consisting of ep{yields}ep{gamma} events with detection of all particles in the final state including the recoiling proton. The installation of a recoil detector, while reducing the acceptance of the experiment, allows the elimination of resonant background that was estimated to contribute an average of about 12% to the signal in previous HERMES publications. The removal of the resonant background from the present data sample is shown to increase the magnitude of the leading asymmetry amplitude by 0.054{+-}0.016 to -0.328{+-}0.027(stat.){+-}0.045(syst.).

  6. Beam-helicity asymmetry arising from deeply virtual Compton scattering measured with kinematically complete event reconstruction

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Airapetian, A.; Akopov, Z.

    2012-06-01

    The beam-helicity asymmetry in exclusive electroproduction of real photons by the longitudinally polarized HERA positron beam scattering off an unpolarized hydrogen target is measured at HERMES. The asymmetry arises from deeply virtual Compton scattering and its interference with the Bethe-Heitler process. Azimuthal amplitudes of the beam-helicity asymmetry are extracted from a data sample consisting of ep→epγ events with detection of all particles in the final state including the recoiling proton. The installation of a recoil detector, while reducing the acceptance of the experiment, allows the elimination of resonant background that was estimated to contribute an average of about 12% to the signal in previous HERMES publications. The removal of the resonant background from the present data sample is shown to increase the magnitude of the leading asymmetry amplitude by 0.054±0.016 to -0.328±0.027(stat.)±0.045(syst.).

  7. Impact of beam ions on α-particle measurements by collective Thomson scattering in ITER

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Egedal, J.; Bindslev, H.; Budny, R.V.

    2005-01-01

    Collective Thomson scattering (CTS) has been proposed as a viable diagnostic for characterizing fusion born a-distributions in ITER. However, the velocities of the planned 1 MeV deuterium heating beam ions in 1TER are similar to that of fusion born a-particles and may therefore mask the measureme......Collective Thomson scattering (CTS) has been proposed as a viable diagnostic for characterizing fusion born a-distributions in ITER. However, the velocities of the planned 1 MeV deuterium heating beam ions in 1TER are similar to that of fusion born a-particles and may therefore mask...... and the alpha-particles are calculated. Our investigations show that the CTS measurements of alpha-particles will not be masked by the presence of the beam ions in H-mode plasmas. In lower density reversed shear plasmas, only a part of the CTS alpha-particle spectrum will be perturbed....

  8. Simultaneous measurement of amyloid fibril formation by dynamic light scattering and fluorescence reveals complex aggregation kinetics.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Aaron M Streets

    Full Text Available An apparatus that combines dynamic light scattering and Thioflavin T fluorescence detection is used to simultaneously probe fibril formation in polyglutamine peptides, the aggregating subunit associated with Huntington's disease, in vitro. Huntington's disease is a neurodegenerative disorder in a class of human pathologies that includes Alzheimer's and Parkinson's disease. These pathologies are all related by the propensity of their associated protein or polypeptide to form insoluble, β-sheet rich, amyloid fibrils. Despite the wide range of amino acid sequence in the aggregation prone polypeptides associated with these diseases, the resulting amyloids display strikingly similar physical structure, an observation which suggests a physical basis for amyloid fibril formation. Thioflavin T fluorescence reports β-sheet fibril content while dynamic light scattering measures particle size distributions. The combined techniques allow elucidation of complex aggregation kinetics and are used to reveal multiple stages of amyloid fibril formation.

  9. Comparisons of some scattering theories with recent scatterometer measurements. [sea roughness radar model

    Science.gov (United States)

    Fung, A. K.; Dome, G.; Moore, R. K.

    1977-01-01

    The paper compares the predictions of two different types of sea scatter theories with recent scatterometer measurements which indicate the variations of the backscattering coefficient with polarization, incident angle, wind speed, and azimuth angle. Wright's theory (1968) differs from that of Chan and Fung (1977) in two major aspects: (1) Wright uses Phillips' sea spectrum (1966) while Chan and Fung use that of Mitsuyasu and Honda, and (2) Wright uses a modified slick sea slope distribution by Cox and Munk (1954) while Chan and Fung use the slick sea slope distribution of Cox and Munk defined with respect to the plane perpendicular to the look direction. Satisfactory agreements between theory and experimental data are obtained when Chan and Fung's model is used to explain the wind and azimuthal dependence of the scattering coefficient.

  10. Measurement of effective atomic number of composite materials using scattering of γ-rays

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Singh, M.P.; Sandhu, B.S.; Singh, Bhajan

    2007-01-01

    In the present experiment, to determine the effective atomic number of composite materials, the scattering of 145 keV γ-rays is studied using a high-resolution HPGe semiconductor detector placed at 70 deg. to the incident beam. The experiment is performed on various elements of different atomic number, 6≤Z≤64, for 145 keV incident photons. The intensity ratio of Rayleigh to Compton scattered peaks, corrected for photo-peak efficiency of the γ-detector and absorption of photons in the target and air, is plotted as a function of atomic number and constituted a fit curve. From this fit curve, the respective effective atomic numbers of the composite materials are determined. The agreement of measured values of effective atomic number with the theory is found to be quite satisfactory

  11. Impact of ICRH on the measurement of fusion alphas by collective Thomson scattering in ITER

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Salewski, Mirko; Eriksson, L.-G.; Bindslev, Henrik

    2009-01-01

    Collective Thomson scattering (CTS) has been proposed for measuring the phase space distributions of confined fast ion populations in ITER plasmas. This study determines the impact of fast ions accelerated by ion cyclotron resonance heating (ICRH) on the ability of CTS to diagnose fusion alphas......, corresponding to an off-axis resonance. The sensitivities of the results to the He-3 concentration (0.1-4%) and the heating power (20-40 MW) are considered. Fusion born alphas dominate the total CTS signal for large Doppler shifts of the scattered radiation. The tritons generate a negligible fraction...... perpendicular velocities, it may be difficult to draw conclusions about the physics of alpha particles alone by CTS. With this exception, the CTS diagnostic can reveal the physics of the fusion alphas in ITER even under the presence of fast ions due to ICRH....

  12. Measurement of leading neutron production in deep-inelastic scattering at HERA

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Aaron, F.D.; Alexa, C.; Rotaru, M.; Stoicea, G.; Andreev, V.; Belousov, A.; Eliseev, A.; Fomenko, A.; Gogitidze, N.; Lebedev, A.; Loktionova, N.; Malinovski, E.; Rusakov, S.; Shtarkov, L.N.; Soloviev, Y.; Vazdik, Y.; Antunovic, B.; Bartel, W.; Brandt, G.; Campbell, A.J.; Cholewa, A.; Deak, M.; Eckerlin, G.; Elsen, E.; Felst, R.; Fischer, D.J.; Fleischer, M.; Gayler, J.; Ghazaryan, S.; Glazov, A.; Gouzevitch, M.; Grell, B.R.; Haidt, D.; Helebrant, C.; Jung, H.; Katzy, J.; Kleinwort, C.; Knutsson, A.; Kraemer, M.; Krastev, K.; Kutak, K.; Levonian, S.; Lipka, K.; List, J.; Marti, L.; Meyer, A.B.; Meyer, H.; Meyer, J.; Niebuhr, C.; Nikiforov, A.; Olsson, J.E.; Pahl, P.; Panagoulias, I.; Papadopoulou, T.; Pitzl, D.; Placakyte, R.; Schmitt, S.; Sefkow, F.; Staykova, Z.; Steder, M.; Sunar, D.; Vargas Trevino, A.; Vinokurova, S.; Driesch, M. von den; Wissing, C.; Wuensch, E.; Backovic, S.; Dubak, A.; Lastovicka-Medin, G.; Picuric, I.; Raicevic, N.; Baghdasaryan, A.; Volchinski, V.; Zohrabyan, H.; Barrelet, E.; Begzsuren, K.; Ravdandorj, T.; Tseepeldorj, B.; Bizot, J.C.; Brisson, V.; Delcourt, B.; Jacquet, M.; Li, G.; Pascaud, C.; Tran, T.H.; Zhang, Z.; Zomer, F.; Boudry, V.; Moreau, F.; Specka, A.; Bozovic-Jelisavcic, I.; Mudrinic, M.; Pandurovic, M.; Smiljanic, I.; Bracinik, J.; Kenyon, I.R.; Newman, P.R.; Shaw-West, R.N.; Thompson, P.D.; Brinkmann, M.; Habib, S.; List, B.; Toll, T.; Bruncko, D.; Cerny, V.; Ferencei, J.; Murin, P.; Tomasz, F.; Bunyatyan, A.; Buschhorn, G.; Chekelian, V.; Dossanov, A.; Grindhammer, G.; Kiesling, C.; Kogler, R.; Liptaj, A.; Raspiareza, A.; Shushkevich, S.; Bystritskaya, L.; Efremenko, V.; Fedotov, A.; Kropivnitskaya, A.; Lubimov, V.; Ozerov, D.; Petrukhin, A.; Rostovtsev, A.; Zhokin, A.; Cantun Avila, K.B.; Contreras, J.G.; Ruiz Tabasco, J.E.; Cerny, K.; Pejchal, O.; Pokorny, B.; Polifka, R.; Salek, D.; Valkarova, A.; Zacek, J.; Coughlan, J.A.; Morris, J.V.; Sankey, D.P.C.; Cozzika, G.; Feltesse, J.; Perez, E.; Schoeffel, L.; Cvach, J.; Reimer, P.; Zalesak, J.; Dainton, J.B.; Gabathuler, E.; Greenshaw, T.; Klein, M.; Kluge, T.; Kretzschmar, J.; Laycock, P.; Maxfield, S.J.; Mehta, A.; Patel, G.D.; Rahmat, A.J.; Daum, K.; Meyer, H.; Delvax, J.; Wolf, E.A. de; Favart, L.; Hreus, T.; Janssen, X.; Marage, P.; Mozer, M.U.; Roland, B.; Roosen, R.; Sykora, T.; Mechelen, P. van; Diaconu, C.; Hoffmann, D.; Sauvan, E.; Trinh, T.N.; Vallee, C.; Dodonov, V.; Povh, B.; Egli, S.; Hildebrandt, M.; Horisberger, R.; Falkiewicz, A.; Goerlich, L.; Mikocki, S.; Milcewicz-Mika, I.; Nowak, G.; Sopicki, P.; Turnau, J.; Glushkov, I.; Henschel, H.; Hiller, K.H.; Kostka, P.; Lange, W.; Naumann, T.; Piec, S.; Grab, C.; Zimmermann, T.; Henderson, R.C.W.; Sloan, T.; Hennekemper, E.; Herbst, M.; Jung, A.W.; Krueger, K.; Lendermann, V.; Schultz-Coulon, H.C.; Urban, K.; Herrera, G.; Lopez-Fernandez, R.; Joensson, L.; Osman, S.; Kapichine, M.; Lytkin, L.; Makankine, A.; Morozov, A.; Nikitin, D.; Palichik, V.; Spaskov, V.; Tchoulakov, V.; Landon, M.P.J.; Rizvi, E.; Thompson, G.; Traynor, D.; Martyn, H.U.; Mueller, K.; Nowak, K.; Robmann, P.; Straumann, U.; Truoel, P.; Radescu, V.; Sauter, M.; Schoening, A.; South, D.; Wegener, D.; Stella, B.; Tsakov, I.

    2010-01-01

    The production of leading neutrons, where the neutron carries a large fraction x L of the incoming proton's longitudinal momentum, is studied in deep-inelastic positron-proton scattering at HERA. The data were taken with the H1 detector in the years 2006 and 2007 and correspond to an integrated luminosity of 122 pb -1 . The semi-inclusive cross section is measured in the phase space defined by the photon virtuality 6 2 2 , Bjorken scaling variable 1.5 .10 -4 -2 , longitudinal momentum fraction 0.32 L T 2 LN(3) (Q 2 ,x,x L ), and the fraction of deep-inelastic scattering events containing a leading neutron are studied as a function of Q 2 , x and x L . Assuming that the pion exchange mechanism dominates leading neutron production, the data provide constraints on the shape of the pion structure function. (orig.)

  13. Scattered and (n,2n) neutrons as a measure of areal density in ICF capsules

    CERN Document Server

    Wilson, D C; Disdier, L; Houry, M; Bourgade, J L; Murphy, T J

    2002-01-01

    The fraction of low-energy neutrons created from 14 MeV neutrons by elastic scattering and (n,2n) reactions on D and T has been proposed as a measure of the areal density (radial integral of density) of ICF targets. In simple situations the fraction of neutrons between 9.4 (the upper energy of T+T neutrons) and 13 MeV (below the Doppler broadened 14.1 MeV peak) is proportional to the at the time of neutron production. This ratio does not depend upon the temperature of the fuel, as does the number of reaction-in-flight neutrons. The ratio of neutrons elastically scattered at a specific energy (e.g. 13 MeV) to the total number of neutrons can be measured along different lines of sight. The ratio of two perpendicular measurements provides a quantitative measure of asymmetry. A detector can be placed inside the target chamber to measure these low-energy neutrons. If it is close enough to the target that measurements are made before the 14 MeV neutrons reach the chamber wall, gamma rays can be a negligible back...

  14. Blown films of PA6/MMT nanocomposites: structural characterization by SAXs

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Marini, J.; Beatrice, C.A.G.; Lucas, A.A.; Bretas, R.E.S.

    2016-01-01

    In this work the influence of the processing conditions (take up and blow up ratios, TUR and BUR, respectively) in the nano-periodicity and lamellae orientation of PA6 nanocomposites blown films with natural (MMT) and organically modified montmorillonite (oMMT) was studied by SAXS. Unexpectedly, a preferred orientation of the crystalline lamellae along the normal direction (ND) was observed for all analyzed films. Such behavior can be explained by the preservation of the initial lamellae orientation of the PA6 chains imposed by the spiral flow in the die, almost null elastic recovery and fast crystallization kinetics of PA6 at the processing conditions applied. The orientation of the nanoparticles (measured by TEM) showed to be directly dependent on the TUR and BUR. The presence of the reinforcing fillers and the different processing conditions showed no significant influence on the nanoperiodicity. (author)

  15. Electron temperature and density profiles measurement in the TJ-1 tokamak by Thomson scattering

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Pardo, C.; Zurro, B.

    1986-01-01

    Electron temperature and density profiles of ohmically heated hydrogen plasmas in the TJ-1 tokamak have been measured by Thomson scattering. The temperature profile peaks sharply in the central region while the density profile is very flat. Temperature values between 100 and 390 eV have been measured for densities in the range of 5.10 12 to 2.6.10 13 cm -3 . Parameters characterizing TJ-1 plasma, such as confinement times Z eff , have been deduced from experimental data. Energy confinement times are compared with experimental scaling laws. (author)

  16. Scattering length measurements from radiative pion capture and neutron-deuteron breakup

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Gibson, B.F.; Tornow, W.; Carman, T.S.

    1997-07-01

    The neutron-neutron and neutron-proton 1 S 0 scattering lengths a nn and a np , respectively, were determined simultaneously from the neutron-deuteron breakup reaction. Their comparison with the recommended values obtained from two body reactions gives a measure of the importance of three-nucleon force effects in the three-nucleon continuum. In order to check on the result obtained for a nn from the two-body π - -d capture reaction, a new measurement was performed at LANL. Preliminary results of the three experiments are given

  17. Measurement of $ D^{*\\pm}$ production in deep inelastic scattering at HERA

    CERN Document Server

    Abramowicz, H.; Adamczyk, L.; Adamus, M.; Aggarwal, R.; Antonelli, S.; Antonioli, P.; Antonov, A.; Arneodo, M.; Arslan, O.; Aushev, V.; Bachynska, O.; Bamberger, A.; Barakbaev, A.N.; Barbagli, G.; Bari, G.; Barreiro, F.; Bartosik, N.; Bartsch, D.; Basile, M.; Behnke, O.; Behr, J.; Behrens, U.; Bellagamba, L.; Bertolin, A.; Bhadra, S.; Bindi, M.; Blohm, C.; Bokhonov, V.; Bold, T.; Boos, E.G.; Borras, K.; Boscherini, D.; Bot, D.; Brock, I.; Brownson, E.; Brugnera, R.; Brummer, N.; Bruni, A.; Bruni, G.; Brzozowska, B.; Bussey, P.J.; Bylsma, B.; Caldwell, A.; Capua, M.; Carlin, R.; Catterall, C.D.; Chekanov, S.; Chwastowski, J.; Ciborowski, J.; Ciesielski, R.; Cifarelli, L.; Cindolo, F.; Contin, A.; Cooper-Sarkar, A.M.; Coppola, N.; Corradi, M.; Corriveau, F.; Costa, M.; D'Agostini, G.; Dal Corso, F.; del Peso, J.; Dementiev, R.K.; De Pasquale, S.; Derrick, M.; Devenish, R.C.E.; Dobur, D.; Dolinska, G.; Doyle, A.T.; Drugakov, V.; Durkin, L.S.; Dusini, S.; Eisenberg, Y.; Fang, S.; Fazio, S.; Ferrando, J.; Ferrero, M.I.; Figiel, J.; Foster, B.; Gach, G.; Galas, A.; Gallo, E.; Garfagnini, A.; Geiser, A.; Gialas, I.; Gizhko, A.; Gladilin, L.K.; Gladkov, D.; Glasman, C.; Gogota, O.; Golubkov, Yu. A.; Gottlicher, P.; Grabowska-Bold, I.; Grebenyuk, J.; Gregor, I.; Grigorescu, G.; Grzelak, G.; Gueta, O.; Guzik, M.; Gwenlan, C.; Haas, T.; Hain, W.; Hamatsu, R.; Hart, J.C.; Hartmann, H.; Hartner, G.; Hilger, E.; Hochman, D.; Hori, R.; Huttmann, A.; Ibrahim, Z.A.; Iga, Y.; Ingbir, R.; Ishitsuka, M.; Iudin, A.; Jakob, H.P.; Januschek, F.; Jones, T.W.; Jungst, M.; Kadenko, I.; Kahle, B.; Kananov, S.; Kanno, T.; Karshon, U.; Karstens, F.; Katkov, I.I.; Kaur, M.; Kaur, P.; Keramidas, A.; Khein, L.A.; Kim, J.Y.; Kisielewska, D.; Kitamura, S.; Klanner, R.; Klein, U.; Koffeman, E.; Kondrashova, N.; Kononenko, O.; Kooijman, P.; Korol, Ie.; Korzhavina, I.A.; Kotanski, A.; Kotz, U.; Kovalchuk, N.; Kowalski, H.; Kuprash, O.; Kuze, M.; Lee, A.; Levchenko, B.B.; Levy, A.; Libov, V.; Limentani, S.; Ling, T.Y.; Lisovyi, M.; Lobodzinska, E.; Lohmann, W.; Lohr, B.; Lohrmann, E.; Long, K.R.; Longhin, A.; Lontkovskyi, D.; Lukina, O.Yu.; Maeda, J.; Magill, S.; Makarenko, I.; Malka, J.; Mankel, R.; Margotti, A.; Marini, G.; Martin, J.F.; Mastroberardino, A.; Mattingly, M.C.K.; Melzer-Pellmann, I.A.; Mergelmeyer, S.; Miglioranzi, S.; Idris, F.Mohamad; Monaco, V.; Montanari, A.; Morris, J.D.; Mujkic, K.; Musgrave, B.; Nagano, K.; Namsoo, T.; Nania, R.; Nigro, A.; Ning, Y.; Nobe, T.; Notz, D.; Nowak, R.J.; Nuncio-Quiroz, A.E.; Oh, B.Y.; Okazaki, N.; Olkiewicz, K.; Onishchuk, Yu.; Papageorgiu, K.; Parenti, A.; Paul, E.; Pawlak, J.M.; Pawlik, B.; Pelfer, P.G.; Pellegrino, A.; Perlanski, W.; Perrey, H.; Piotrzkowski, K.; Plucinski, P.; Pokrovskiy, N.S.; Polini, A.; Proskuryakov, A.S.; Przybycien, M.; Raval, A.; Reeder, D.D.; Reisert, B.; Ren, Z.; Repond, J.; Ri, Y.D.; Robertson, A.; Roloff, P.; Rubinsky, I.; Ruspa, M.; Sacchi, R.; Samson, U.; Sartorelli, G.; Savin, A.A.; Saxon, D.H.; Schioppa, M.; Schlenstedt, S.; Schleper, P.; Schmidke, W.B.; Schneekloth, U.; Schonberg, V.; Schorner-Sadenius, T.; Schwartz, J.; Sciulli, F.; Shcheglova, L.M.; Shehzadi, R.; Shimizu, S.; Singh, I.; Skillicorn, I.O.; Slominski, W.; Smith, W.H.; Sola, V.; Solano, A.; Son, D.; Sosnovtsev, V.; Spiridonov, A.; Stadie, H.; Stanco, L.; Stefaniuk, N.; Stern, A.; Stewart, T.P.; Stifutkin, A.; Stopa, P.; Suchkov, S.; Susinno, G.; Suszycki, L.; Sztuk-Dambietz, J.; Szuba, D.; Szuba, J.; Tapper, A.D.; Tassi, E.; Terron, J.; Theedt, T.; Tiecke, H.; Tokushuku, K.; Tomaszewska, J.; Trofymov, A.; Trusov, V.; Tsurugai, T.; Turcato, M.; Tymieniecka, T.; Vazquez, M.; Verbytskyi, A.; Viazlo, O.; Vlasov, N.N.; Walczak, R.; Wan Abdullah, W.A.T.; Whitmore, J.J.; Wichmann, K.; Wiggers, L.; Wing, M.; Wlasenko, M.; Wolf, G.; Wolfe, H.; Wrona, K.; Yagues-Molina, A.G.; Yamada, S.; Yamazaki, Y.; Yoshida, R.; Youngman, C.; Zakharchuk, N.; Zarnecki, A.F.; Zawiejski, L.; Zenaiev, O.; Zeuner, W.; Zhautykov, B.O.; Zhmak, N.; Zichichi, A.; Zolkapli, Z.; Zotkin, D.S.

    2013-01-01

    The production of $D^{*\\pm}$ mesons in deep inelastic $ep$ scattering has been measured for exchanged photon virtualities $ 5measured and compared to next-to-leading-order QCD calculations. The cross-sections are used to extract the charm contribution to the proton structure functions, expressed in terms of the reduced charm cross section, $\\sigma_{\\rm red}^{c\\bar{c}}$. Theoretical calculations based on fits to inclusive HERA data are compared to the results.

  18. Distributed Strain Measurement along a Concrete Beam via Stimulated Brillouin Scattering in Optical Fibers

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Romeo Bernini

    2011-01-01

    Full Text Available The structural strain measurement of tension and compression in a 4 m long concrete beam was demonstrated with a distributed fiber-optic sensor portable system based on Brillouin scattering. Strain measurements provided by the fiber-optic sensor permitted to detect the formation of a crack in the beam resulting from the external applied load. The sensor system is valuable for structural monitoring applications, enabling the long-term performance and health of structures to be efficiently monitored.

  19. Characterization of the γ background in epithermal neutron scattering measurements at pulsed neutron sources

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Pietropaolo, A.; Tardocchi, M.; Schooneveld, E.M.; Senesi, R.

    2006-01-01

    This paper reports the characterization of the different components of the γ background in epithermal neutron scattering experiments at pulsed neutron sources. The measurements were performed on the VESUVIO spectrometer at ISIS spallation neutron source. These measurements, carried out with a high purity germanium detector, aim to provide detailed information for the investigation of the effect of the γ energy discrimination on the signal-to-background ratio. It is shown that the γ background is produced by different sources that can be identified with their relative time structure and relative weight

  20. High resolution measurements and study of the neutron inelastic scattering reaction on 56Fe

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Dupont, E.

    1998-01-01

    High resolution measures of neutrons inelastic scattering cross section, have been performed on 56 Fe from 862 KeV to 3 MeV. The time of flight method has been used on the GELINA source of the IRMM in Geel (Belgium). Four barium fluoride scintillators, placed around the samples, recorded the gamma rays emissions coming from the iron and the boron. A study of the correlations between the partial elastic and inelastic lengths has been performed taking into account first transmission measures realized at Geel. (A.L.B.)

  1. Density measurement by means of once scattered gamma radiation the ETG probe, principles and equipment

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Joergensen, J.L.; Oelgaard, P.L.; Berg, F.

    1987-01-01

    The Department of Electrophysics, the Technical University of Denmark, and the Danish National Road Laboratory have together developed a new patent claimed device for measurements of the in situ density of materials. This report describes the principles of the system and some experimental results. The system is based on the once scattered gamma radiation. In a totally non-destructive and fast way it is possible to measure the density of up to 25 cm thick layers. Furthermore, an estimate of the density variation through the layer may be obtained. Thus the gauge represents a new generation of equipment for e.g. compaction control of road constructions. (author)

  2. Scattering length measurements from radiative pion capture and neutron-deuteron breakup

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Tornow, W.; Chen, Q. [Duke Univ., Durham, NC (United States). Dept. of Physics; Carman, T.S. [Lawrence Livermore National Lab., CA (United States). Program for Climate Model Diagnosis and Intercomparison] [and others

    1998-03-02

    The neutron-neutron and neutron-proton {sup 1}S{sub 0} scattering lengths a{sub nn} and a{sub np}, respectively, were determined simultaneously from the neutron-deuteron breakup reaction. Their comparison with the recommended values obtained from ``two-body`` reactions gives a measure of the importance of three-nucleon force effects in the three-nucleon continuum. In order to check on the result obtained for a{sub nn} from the ``two-body`` {pi}{sup -}-d capture reaction, a new measurement was performed at LANL. Preliminary results of the three experiments are given. (orig.). 5 refs.

  3. Measurement of D{sup *{+-}} production in deep inelastic scattering at HERA

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Abramowicz, H. [Tel Aviv Univ. (Israel). School of Physics; Max Planck Institute for Physics, Munich (Germany); Abt, I. [Max Planck Institute for Physics, Munich (Germany); Adamczyk, L. [AGH-Univ. of Science and Technology, Krakow (Poland). Faculty of Physics and Applied Computer Science] [and others; Collaboration: ZEUS Collaboration

    2013-03-15

    The production of D{sup *{+-}} mesons in deep inelastic ep scattering has been measured for exchanged photon virtualities 5measured and compared to next-to-leading-order QCD calculations. The cross-sections are used to extract the charm contribution to the proton structure functions, expressed in terms of the reduced charm cross section, {sigma}{sub red}{sup c} {sup anti} {sup c}. Theoretical calculations based on fits to inclusive HERA data are compared to the results.

  4. Application of small-angle X-ray scattering for differentiation among breast tumors

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Changizi, V.; Kheradmand, A. Arab; Oghabian, M.A.

    2008-01-01

    Small-angle X-ray scattering (SAXS) is an X-ray diffraction-based technique where a narrow collimated beam of X-rays is focused onto a sample and the scattered X-rays recorded by a detector. The pattern of the scattered X-rays carries information on the molecular structure of the material. As breast cancer is the most widespread cancer in women and differentiation among its tumors is important, this project compared the results of coherent X-ray scattering measurements obtained from benign and malignant breast tissues. The energy-dispersive method with a setup including X-ray tube, primary collimator, sample holder, secondary collimator and high-purity germanium (HpGe) detector was used. One hundred thirty-one breast-tissue samples, including normal, fibrocystic changes and carcinoma, were studied at the 6 deg scattering angle. Diffraction profiles (corrected scattered intensity versus momentum transfer) of normal, fibrocystic changes and carcinoma were obtained. These profiles showed a few peak positions for adipose (1.15 ± 0.06 nm -1 ), mixed normal (1.15 ± 0.06 nm -1 and 1.4 ± 0.04 nm -1 ), fibrocystic changes (1.46 ± 0.05 nm -1 and 1.74 ± 0.04 nm -1 ) and carcinoma (1.55 ± 0.04 nm -1 , 1.73 ± 0.06 nm -1 , 1.85 ± 0.05 nm -1 ). We were able to differentiate between normal, fibrocystic changes (benign) and carcinoma (malignant) breast tissues by SAXS. However, we were unable to differentiate between different types of carcinoma. (author)

  5. Application of small-angle X-ray scattering for differentiation among breast tumors

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Changizi V

    2008-01-01

    Full Text Available Small-angle X-ray scattering (SAXS is an X-ray diffraction-based technique where a narrow collimated beam of X-rays is focused onto a sample and the scattered X-rays recorded by a detector. The pattern of the scattered X-rays carries information on the molecular structure of the material. As breast cancer is the most widespread cancer in women and differentiation among its tumors is important, this project compared the results of coherent X-ray scattering measurements obtained from benign and malignant breast tissues. The energy-dispersive method with a setup including X-ray tube, primary collimator, sample holder, secondary collimator and high-purity germanium (HpGe detector was used. One hundred thirty-one breast-tissue samples, including normal, fibrocystic changes and carcinoma, were studied at the 6° scattering angle. Diffraction profiles (corrected scattered intensity versus momentum transfer of normal, fibrocystic changes and carcinoma were obtained. These profiles showed a few peak positions for adipose (1.15 ± 0.06 nm -1 , mixed normal (1.15 ± 0.06 nm -1 and 1.4 ± 0.04 nm -1 , fibrocystic changes (1.46 ± 0.05 nm -1 and 1.74 ± 0.04 nm -1 and carcinoma (1.55 ± 0.04 nm -1 , 1.73 ± 0.06 nm -1 , 1.85 ± 0.05 nm -1 . We were able to differentiate between normal, fibrocystic changes (benign and carcinoma (malignant breast tissues by SAXS. However, we were unable to differentiate between different types of carcinoma.

  6. Coherent Anti-Stokes and Coherent Stokes in Raman Scattering by Superconducting Nanowire Single-Photon Detector for Temperature Measurement

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Annepu Venkata Naga Vamsi

    2016-01-01

    Full Text Available We have reported the measurement of temperature by using coherent anti-Stroke and coherent Stroke Raman scattering using superconducting nano wire single-photon detector. The measured temperatures by both methods (Coherent Anti-Raman scattering & Coherent Stroke Raman scattering and TC 340 are in good accuracy of ± 5 K temperature range. The length of the pipe line under test can be increased by increasing the power of the pump laser. This methodology can be widely used to measure temperatures at instantaneous positions in test pipe line or the entire temperature of the pipe line under test.

  7. New Insights into Lamellar Structure Development and SAXS/WAXD Sequence Appearance During Uniaxial Stretching of Amorphous Poly(ethylene terephthalate) Above Glass Transition Temperature

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Kawakami,D.; Burger, C.; Ran, S.; Avila-Orta, C.; Sics, I.; Chu, B.; Chiao, S.; Hsiao, B.; Kikutani, T.

    2008-01-01

    An in situ study of structure formation in amorphous poly(ethylene terephthalate) (PET) during uniaxial stretching at a temperature 30 C above glass transition temperature was carried out using synchrotron small-angle X-ray scattering (SAXS) and wide-angle X-ray diffraction (WAXD) techniques. Three major deformation-induced structure transitions were confirmed. (1) At small strains, the applied load increased initially but leveled off afterward. Sporadic isotropic crystallization without preferred orientation was observed by WAXD, where no hierarchical structure was seen by SAXS. (2) At intermediate strains, strain hardening took place. Although WAXD showed persistent progression of isotropic crystallization, SAXS indicated formation of a layered structure as well as a fibrillar domain in large scale. This behavior is not consistent with the mechanisms for shish-kebab or spinodal-assisted structure formation. Instead, it can be explained by flow-induced demixing of crystal and amorphous phases through layerlike flocking motion perpendicular to the stretching direction. (3) At high strains, the ratio between the applied load and strain was about constant. In this stage, crystal reorientation and lateral crystal growth took place. The corresponding structure changes could be categorized into three subregions. In the first region, the (010) crystalline plane began to orient. In the second region, the (100) crystalline plane began to orient. In the last region, the structure change became stable and the sample eventually broke apart.

  8. Measurement of beauty-production in deep inelastic scattering at HERA II

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Kahle, B.

    2006-04-01

    This thesis presents a measurement of beauty quark production in deep inelastic scattering at the ep-collider HERA at √(s)=318 GeV. The measurement is based on data collected at the ZEUS detector in the years 2003/2004, using an integrated luminosity of 39 pb -1 . In the analysis presented in this thesis, events were selected that contain a scattered electron, a jet and a muon inside the jet. The fraction of events from beauty quark production was extracted using the characteristic distribution of the transverse momenta of muons relative to the associated jets. The total visible cross section was measured to be: σ b anti b (ep→eb anti b X→e jetμX')=57.9±5.8(stat.) +3.5 -8.1 (syst.) pb in the kinematic region defined by: Q 2 >4 GeV 2 , y>0.05 und y jet t,lab >5 GeV und -2 jet μ t >1.5 GeV and η μ >-1.6. Differential cross sections were measured in p μ t and η μ , in p jet t and η jet and in Q 2 .Furthermore double differential cross sections d 2 σ/dQ 2 dx were measured. (Orig.)

  9. Turbulence in Wendelstein 7-AS plasmas measured by collective light scattering

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Basse, Nils Plesner

    2002-08-01

    This Ph.D. thesis contains theoretical and experimental work on plasma turbulence measurements using collective light scattering. The motivation for measuring turbulence in hot fusion plasmas is, along with the method used and results obtained, the subject of chapter 1. The theoretical part is divided into three chapters. Chapter 2 contains a full analytical derivation of the expected dependency of the detected signal on plasma parameters. Thereafter, spatial resolution of the measurements using different methods is treated in chapter 3. Finally, the spectral analysis tools used later in the thesis are described and illustrated in chapter 4. The experimental part is divided into four chapters. In chapter 5 transport concepts relevant to the thesis are outlined. Main parameters of the Wendelstein 7-AS (W7-AS) stellarator in which measurements were made are collected in chapter 6. The setup used to study fluctuations in the electron density of W7-AS plasmas is covered in chapter 7. This localised turbulence scattering (LOTUS) diagnostic is based on a CO 2 laser radiating at a wavelength of 10.59 μm. Fast, heterodyne, dual volume detection at variable wavenumbers between 14 and 62 cm -1 is performed. The central chapter of the thesis, chapter 8, contains an analysis of the measured density fluctuations before, during and after several confinement transition types. The aim was to achieve a better understanding of the connection between turbulence and the confinement quality of the plasma. Conclusions and suggestions for further work are summarised in chapter 9. (au)

  10. Upgrade of goniospectrophtometer GEFE for near-field scattering and fluorescence radiance measurements

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bernad, Berta; Ferrero, Alejandro; Pons, Alicia; Hernanz, M. L.; Campos, Joaquín.

    2015-03-01

    The goniospectrophotometer GEFE, designed and developed at IO-CSIC (Instituto de Optica, Agencia Estatal Consejo Superior de Investigaciones Cientificas), was conceived to measure the spectral Bidirectional Reflectance Distribution Function (BRDF) at any pair of irradiation and detection directions. Although the potential of this instrument has largely been proved, it still required to be upgraded to deal with some important scattering features for the assessment of the appearance. Since it was not provided with a detector with spatial resolution, it simply could not measure spectrophotometric quantities to characterize texture through the Bidirectional Texture Function (BTF) or translucency through the more complex Bidirectional Scattering-Surface Reflectance Distribution Function (BSSRDF). Another requirement in the GEFE upgrading was to provide it with the capability of measuring fluorescence at different geometries, since some of the new pigments used in industry are fluorescent, which can have a non-negligible impact in the color of the product. Then, spectral resolution at irradiation and detection had to be available in GEFE. This paper describes the upgrading of the goniospectrophotometer GEFE, and its new capabilities through the presentation of sparkle and goniofluorescence measurements. In addition, the potential of the instrument to evaluate translucency by the measurement of the BSSRDF is briefly discussed.

  11. A method of atmospheric density measurements during Shuttle entry using UV laser Rayleigh scattering

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mckenzie, Robert L.

    1987-01-01

    A detailed study is described of the performance capabilities and the hardware requirements for a method in which ambient density is measured along the Space Shuttle flight path using on-board optical instrumentation. The technique relies on Rayleigh scattering of light from a pulsed, ultraviolet, ArF excimer laser operating at a wavelength of 193 nm. The method is shown to be capable of providing direct measurements of ambient density with an uncertainty of less than 1 percent and with a spatial resolution of 1 km, over an altitude range from 50 to 90 km. In addition, extensions of this concept are discussed that allow measurements of the shock wave location and the density profile within the shock layer. Two approaches are identified that appear to be feasible, in which the same laser system is used for the extended measurements as that required for the ambient density measurements.

  12. Measurement of isolated photon production in deep-inelastic scattering at HERA

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Aaron, F.D.; Alexa, C.

    2007-10-01

    The production of isolated photons in deep-inelastic scattering ep → eγX is measured with the H1 detector at HERA. The measurement is performed in the kinematic range of negative four-momentum transfer squared 4 2 2 and a mass of the hadronic system W X >50 GeV. The analysis is based on a total integrated luminosity of 227 pb -1 . The production cross section of isolated photons with a transverse energy in the range 3 γ T γ γ T , η γ and Q 2 . Isolated photon cross sections are also measured for events with no jets or at least one hadronic jet. The measurements are compared with predictions from Monte Carlo generators modelling the photon radiation from the quark and the electron lines, as well as with calculations at leading and next to leading order in the strong coupling. The predictions significantly underestimate the measured cross sections. (orig.)

  13. Measurements of Compton Scattering on the Proton at 2 - 6 GeV

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Danagoulian, Areg [Univ. of Illinois, Urbana-Champaign, IL (United States)

    2006-01-01

    Similar to elastic electron scattering, Compton Scattering on the proton at high momentum transfers(and high p⊥) can be an effective method to study its short-distance structure. An experiment has been carried out to measure the cross sections for Real Compton Scattering (RCS) on the proton for 2.3-5.7 GeV electron beam energies and a wide distribution of large scattering angles. The 25 kinematic settings sampled a domain of s = 5-11(GeV/c)2,-t = -7(GeV/c)2 and -u = 0.5-6.5(GeV/c)2. In addition, a measurement of longitudinal and transverse polarization transfer asymmetries was made at a 3.48 GeV beam energy and a scattering angle of θcm = 120°. These measurements were performed to test the existing theoretical mechanisms for this process as well as to determine RCS form factors. At the heart of the scientific motivation is the desire to understand the manner in which a nucleon interacts with external excitations at the above listed energies, by comparing and contrasting the two existing models – Leading Twist Mechanism and Soft Overlap “Handbag” Mechanism – and identify the dominant mechanism. Furthermore, the Handbag Mechanism allows one to calculate reaction observables in the framework of Generalized Parton Distributions (GPD), which have the function of bridging the wide gap between the exclusive(form factors) and inclusive(parton distribution functions) description of the proton. The experiment was conducted in Hall A of Thomas Jefferson National Accelerator Facility(Jefferson Lab). It used a polarized and unpolarized electron beam, a 6% copper radiator with the thickness of 6.1% radiation lengths (to produce a bremsstrahlung photon beam), the Hall A liquid hydrogen target, a high resolution spectrometer with a focal plane polarimeter, and a photon hodoscope calorimeter. Results of the differential cross sections are presented, and discussed in the general context of the scientific motivation.

  14. Calculation of accurate small angle X-ray scattering curves from coarse-grained protein models

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Stovgaard, Kasper; Andreetta, Christian; Ferkinghoff-Borg, Jesper

    2010-01-01

    , which is paramount for structure determination based on statistical inference. Results: We present a method for the efficient calculation of accurate SAXS curves based on the Debye formula and a set of scattering form factors for dummy atom representations of amino acids. Such a method avoids......DBN. This resulted in a significant improvement in the decoy recognition performance. In conclusion, the presented method shows great promise for use in statistical inference of protein structures from SAXS data....

  15. Spectral properties of GRBs observed with BeppoSAX

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Costa, E.; Frontera, F.

    2003-01-01

    The BeppoSAX mission has not only significantly improved the Gamma-Ray Burst science through the discovery of the afterglows but is also providing important data on the prompt events. The Gamma-Ray Burst Monitor is building a catalogue of GRBs that, due to a recently achieved, coarse but suitable positioning capabilities, can usefully integrate and extend the BATSE catalogues. We show the good relative calibration of the two experiments. Wide Field Cameras are providing a sample of about 40 GRBs, in an important band so far relatively ill covered. Moreover the combined use of the two instruments is providing a unique information on the spectral evolution of the GRBs. We show some recent spectral results based on these data and discuss the impact on our knowledge of GRB physics

  16. Indirect and direct measurement of thermal neutron acceleration by inelastic scattering on the 177Lu isomer

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Belier, G.; Roig, O.; Meot, V.; Daugas, J.M.; Aupiais, J.; Jutier, Ch.; Le Petit, G.; Veyssiere, Ch.

    2008-01-01

    When neutrons interact with isomers, these isomers can de-excite and in such a reaction the outgoing neutron has an energy greater than the in-going one. This process is referred as Inelastic Neutron Acceleration or Super-elastic Scattering. Up to now this process was observed for only two nucleus, 152m Eu and 180m Hf by measuring the number of fast neutrons produced by isomeric targets irradiated with thermal neutrons. In these experiments the energies of the accelerated neutrons were not measured. This report presents an indirect measurement of inelastic neutron acceleration on 177m Lu, based on the burn-up and the radiative capture cross sections measurements. Since at thermal energies the inelastic scattering and the radiative capture are the only processes that contribute to the isomer burn-up, the inelastic cross section can be deduced from the difference between the two measured quantities. Applying this method for the 177 Lu isomer with different neutron fluxes we obtained a value of (257 ± 50) barns (for a temperature of 323 K) and determined that there is no integral resonance for this process. In addition the radiative capture cross section on 177g Lu was measured with a much better accuracy than the accepted value. Since the acceleration cross section is quite high, a direct measurement of this process was undertaken, sending thermal neutrons and measuring the fast neutrons. The main goal now is to measure the outgoing neutron energies in order to identify the neutron transitions in the exit channel. In particular the K conservation question can be addressed by such a measurement. (author)

  17. Total Reflection X-ray Fluorescence Analysis (TXRF) using the high flux SAXS camera

    CERN Document Server

    Wobrauschek, P; Pepponi, G; Bergmann, A; Glatter, O

    2002-01-01

    Combining the high photon flux from a rotating anode X-ray tube with an X-ray optical component to focus and monochromatize the X-ray beam is the most promising instrumentation for best detection limits in the modern XRF laboratory. This is realized by using the design of a high flux SAXS camera in combination with a 4 kW high brilliant rotating Cu anode X-ray tube with a graded elliptically bent multilayer and including a new designed module for excitation in total reflection geometry within the beam path. The system can be evacuated thus reducing absorption and scattering of air and removing the argon peak in the spectra. Another novelty is the use of a Peltier cooled drift detector with an energy resolution of 148 eV at 5.9 keV and 5 mm sup 2 area. For Co detection limits of about 300 fg determined by a single element standard have been achieved. Testing a real sample NIST 1643d led to detection limits in the range of 300 ng/l for the medium Z.

  18. Subsurface Scattered Photons: Friend or Foe? Improving visible light laser altimeter elevation estimates, and measuring surface properties using subsurface scattered photons

    Science.gov (United States)

    Greeley, A.; Kurtz, N. T.; Neumann, T.; Cook, W. B.; Markus, T.

    2016-12-01

    Photon counting laser altimeters such as MABEL (Multiple Altimeter Beam Experimental Lidar) - a single photon counting simulator for ATLAS (Advanced Topographical Laser Altimeter System) - use individual photons with visible wavelengths to measure their range to target surfaces. ATLAS, the sole instrument on NASA's upcoming ICESat-2 mission, will provide scientists a view of Earth's ice sheets, glaciers, and sea ice with unprecedented detail. Precise calibration of these instruments is needed to understand rapidly changing parameters such as sea ice freeboard, and to measure optical properties of surfaces like snow covered ice sheets using subsurface scattered photons. Photons that travel through snow, ice, or water before scattering back to an altimeter receiving system travel farther than photons taking the shortest path between the observatory and the target of interest. These delayed photons produce a negative elevation bias relative to photons scattered directly off these surfaces. We use laboratory measurements of snow surfaces using a flight-tested laser altimeter (MABEL), and Monte Carlo simulations of backscattered photons from snow to estimate elevation biases from subsurface scattered photons. We also use these techniques to demonstrate the ability to retrieve snow surface properties like snow grain size.

  19. Design of a facility for the in situ measurement of catalytic reaction by neutron scattering spectroscopy

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tan, Shuai; Cheng, Yongqiang; Daemen, Luke L.; Lutterman, Daniel A.

    2018-01-01

    Catalysis is a critical enabling science for future energy needs. The next frontier of catalysis is to evolve from catalyst discovery to catalyst design, and for this next step to be realized, we must develop new techniques to better understand reaction mechanisms. To do this, we must connect catalytic reaction rates and selectivities to the kinetics, energetics, and dynamics of individual elementary steps and relate these to the structure and dynamics of the catalytic sites involved. Neutron scattering spectroscopies offer unique capabilities that are difficult or impossible to match by other techniques. The current study presents the development of a compact and portable instrumental design that enables the in situ investigation of catalytic samples by neutron scattering techniques. The developed apparatus was tested at the Spallation Neutron Source (SNS) in Oak Ridge National Laboratory and includes a gas handling panel that allows for computer hookups to control the panel externally and online measurement equipment such as coupled GC-FID/TCD (Gas Chromatography-Flame Ionization Detector/Thermal Conductivity Detector) and MS (Mass Spectrometry) to characterize offgassing while the sample is in the neutron scattering spectrometer. This system is flexible, modular, compact, and portable enabling its use for many types of gas-solid and liquid-solid reactions at the various beamlines housed at the SNS.

  20. Light scattering and absorption properties of dust particles retrieved from satellite measurements

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Hu, R.-M.; Sokhi, R.S.

    2009-01-01

    We use the radiative transfer model and chemistry transport model to improve our retrievals of dust optical properties from satellite measurements. The optical depth and absorbing optical depth of mineral dust can be obtained from our improved retrieval algorithm. We find the nonsphericity and absorption of dust particles strongly affect the scattering signatures such as phase function and polarization at the ultraviolet wavelengths. From our retrieval results, we find the high levels of dust concentration occurred over most desert regions such as Saharan and Gobi deserts. The dust absorption is found to be sensitive to mineral chemical composition, particularly the fraction of strongly absorbing dust particles. The enhancement of polarization at the scattering angles exceeding 120 0 is found for the nonspherical dust particles. If the polarization is neglected in the radiative transfer calculation, a maximum 50 percent error is introduced for the case of forward scattering and 25 percent error for the case of backscattering. We suggest that the application of polarimeter at the ultraviolet wavelengths has the great potential to improve the satellite retrievals of dust properties. Using refined optical model and radiative transfer model to calculate the solar radiative forcing of dust aerosols can reduce the uncertainties in aerosol radiative forcing assessment.

  1. Measurement of electron density of the plasma in the Tokamak TCABR, through Thomson scattering diagnostic

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Jeronimo, Leonardo Cunha

    2013-01-01

    Over the last few years is remarkable, so increasingly evident the need for a new source of energy for mankind. One promising option is through nuclear fusion, where the plasma produced in the reactor can be converted into electrical energy. Therefore, knowing the characteristics of this plasma is very important to control it and understand it so desirable. One of the diagnostic options is called Thomson scattering . This is considered the most reliable method for the determination of important plasma parameters such as temperature and electron density, and may also help in the study and explanation of various internal mechanisms. The great advantage lies in the tact that they consist of a direct measurement and nonperturbative. But it is a diagnosis whose installation and execution is admittedly complex, limiting it only a few laboratories in the fíeld of fusion for the world. Among the main difficulties, wc can highlight the fact that the scattered signal is very small, thus requiring a large increase of the incident power. Moreover, the external physical conditions can cause mechanical vibrations that eliminate or minimize them as much as possible, is a great challenge, considering the optical micrometrically very sensitive and needs involved in the system. This work describes the entire process of installation and operation of Thomson scattering diagnostic in tokamak TCABR and through this diagnosis, we work on results of electron temperature, to finally be able to calculate the electron density of the plasma. (author)

  2. Measurement of photon production in the very forward direction in deep-inelastic scattering at HERA

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Aaron, F.D. [National Institute for Physics and Nuclear Engineering (NIPNE), Bucharest (Romania); Bucharest Univ. (Romania). Faculty of Physics; Alexa, C. [National Institute for Physics and Nuclear Engineering (NIPNE), Bucharest (Romania); Andreev, V. [Lebedev Physical Institute, Moscow (RU)] (and others)

    2011-06-15

    The production of photons at very small angles with respect to the proton beam direction is studied in deep-inelastic positron-proton scattering at HERA. The data are taken with the H1 detector in the years 2006 and 2007 and correspond to an integrated luminosity of 126 pb{sup -1}. The analysis covers the range of negative four momentum transfer squared at the positron vertex 6measured for the most energetic photon with pseudorapidity {eta}>7.9 as a function of its transverse momentum p{sub T}{sup lead} and longitudinal momentum fraction of the incoming proton x{sub L}{sup lead}. In addition, the cross sections are studied as a function of the sum of the longitudinal momentum fraction x{sub L}{sup sum} of all photons in the pseudorapidity range {eta}>7.9. The cross sections are normalised to the inclusive deep-inelastic scattering cross section and compared to the predictions of models of deep-inelastic scattering and models of the hadronic interactions of high energy cosmic rays. (orig.)

  3. Operation of ADITYA Thomson scattering system: measurement of temperature and density

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Thomas, Jinto; Pillai, Vishal; Singh, Neha; Patel, Kiran; Lingeshwari, G.; Hingrajiya, Zalak; Kumar, Ajai

    2015-01-01

    ADITYA Thomson scattering (TS) system is a single point measurement system operated using a 10 J ruby laser and a 1 meter grating spectrometer. Multi-slit optical fibers are arranged at the image plane of the spectrometer so that each fiber slit collects 2 nm band of scattered spectrum. Each slit of the fiber bundle is coupled to high gain Photomultiplier tubes (PMT). Standard white light source is used to calibrate the optical fiber transmission and the laser light itself is used to calibrate the relative gain of the PMT. Rayleigh scattering has been performed for the absolute calibration of the TS system. The temperature of ADITYA plasma has been calculated using the conventional method of estimation (calculated using the slope of logarithmic intensity vs the square of delta lambda). It has been observed that the core temperature of ADITYA Tokamak plasma is in the range of 300 to 600 eV for different plasma shots and the density 2-3 X 10 13 /cc. The time evolution of the plasma discharge has been studied by firing the laser at different times of the discharge assuming the shots are identical. In some of the discharges, the velocity distribution appears to be non Maxwellian. (author)

  4. Measurement of photon production in the very forward direction in deep-inelastic scattering at HERA

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Aaron, F.D.; Alexa, C.; Rotaru, M.; Stoicea, G. [National Inst. for Physics and Nuclear Engineering, Bucharest (Romania); Andreev, V.; Belousov, A.; Eliseev, A.; Fomenko, A.; Gogitidze, N.; Lebedev, A.; Malinovski, E.; Rusakov, S.; Shtarkov, L.N.; Soloviev, Y.; Vazdik, Y. [Lebedev Physical Inst., Moscow (Russian Federation); Backovic, S.; Dubak, A.; Lastovicka-Medin, G.; Picuric, I.; Raicevic, N. [Univ. of Montenegro, Podgorica (ME); Baghdasaryan, A.; Baghdasaryan, S.; Zohrabyan, H. [Yerevan Physics Inst. (Armenia); Barrelet, E. [Univ. Pierre et Marie Curie Paris 6, LPNHE, Paris (France); Univ. Denis Diderot Paris 7, CNRS/IN2P3, Paris (France); Bartel, W.; Belov, P.; Brandt, G.; Brinkmann, M.; Britzger, D.; Campbell, A.J.; Eckerlin, G.; Elsen, E.; Felst, R.; Fischer, D.J.; Fleischer, M.; Gayler, J.; Ghazaryan, S.; Glazov, A.; Gouzevitch, M.; Grebenyuk, A.; Grell, B.R.; Habib, S.; Haidt, D.; Helebrant, C.; Kleinwort, C.; Kogler, R.; Kraemer, M.; Levonian, S.; Lipka, K.; List, J.; Meyer, A.B.; Meyer, J.; Niebuhr, C.; Nowak, K.; Olsson, J.E.; Pahl, P.; Panagoulias, I.; Papadopoulou, T.; Petrukhin, A.; Piec, S.; Pitzl, D.; Schmitt, S.; Sefkow, F.; South, D.; Steder, M.; Wuensch, E. [DESY, Hamburg (Germany); Begzsuren, K.; Ravdandorj, T.; Tseepeldorj, B. [Inst. of Physics and Technology of the Mongolian Academy of Sciences, Ulaanbaatar (Mongolia); Bizot, J.C.; Brisson, V.; Delcourt, B.; Jacquet, M.; Pascaud, C.; Tran, T.H.; Zhang, Z.; Zomer, F. [Univ. Paris-Sud, CNRS/IN2P3, LAL, Orsay (France); Boudry, V.; Moreau, F.; Specka, A. [Ecole Polytechnique, CNRS/IN2P3, LLR, Palaiseau (France); Bozovic-Jelisavcic, I.; Mudrinic, M.; Pandurovic, M.; Smiljanic, I. [Univ. of Belgrade, Vinca Institute of Nuclear Sciences, Belgrade (RS); Bracinik, J.; Kenyon, I.R.; Newman, P.R.; Thompson, P.D. [Univ. of Birmingham (United Kingdom); Bruncko, D.; Cerny, V.; Ferencei, J. [Slovak Academy of Sciences, Inst. of Experimental Physics, Kosice (Slovakia)] [and others

    2011-10-15

    The production of photons at very small angles with respect to the proton beam direction is studied in deep-inelastic positron-proton scattering at HERA. The data are taken with the H1 detector in the years 2006 and 2007 and correspond to an integrated luminosity of 126 pb{sup -1}. The analysis covers the range of negative four momentum transfer squared at the positron vertex 6measured for the most energetic photon with pseudorapidity {eta}>7.9 as a function of its transverse momentum p{sub T}{sup lead} and longitudinal momentum fraction of the incoming proton x{sub L}{sup lead}. In addition, the cross sections are studied as a function of the sum of the longitudinal momentum fraction x{sub L}{sup sum} of all photons in the pseudorapidity range {eta}>7.9. The cross sections are normalised to the inclusive deep-inelastic scattering cross section and compared to the predictions of models of deep-inelastic scattering and models of the hadronic interactions of high energy cosmic rays. (orig.)

  5. A triple spectrograph system for low stray light Thomson scattering measurements

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Sande, van de M.J.; Mullen, van der J.J.A.M.

    2001-01-01

    Thomson scattering is scattering of photons by the electrons in a plasma. From the scattering spectrum, the electron temperature and density (Te, ne) of the plasma can be deduced. In the past decade, the development of high power lasers and sensitive detection devices has made Thomson scattering a

  6. Plasma scattering measurement using a submillimeter wave gyrotron as a radiation source

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Ogawa, I.; Idehara, T.; Itakura, Y.; Myodo, M.; Hori, T.; Hatae, T.

    2004-01-01

    Plasma scattering measurement is an effective technique to observe low frequency density fluctuations excited in plasma. The spatial and wave number resolutions and the S/N ratio of measurement depend on the wavelength range, the size and the intensity of a probe beam. A well-collimated, submillimeter wave beam is suitable for improving the spatial and wave number resolutions. Application of high frequency gyrotron is effective in improving the S/N ratio of the measurement because of its capacity to deliver high power. Unlike the molecular vapor lasers, the gyrotrons generate diverging beam of radiation with TE mn mode structure. It is therefore necessary to convert the output radiation into a Gaussian beam. A quasi-optical antenna is a suitable element for the conversion system under consideration since it is applicable to several TE 0n and TE 1n modes. In order to apply the gyrotron to plasma scattering measurement, we have stabilized the output (P = 110 W, f = 354 GHz) of gyrotron up to the level (ΔP/P < 1 %, Δf< 10 kHz). The gyrotron output can be stabilized by decreasing the fluctuation of the cathode potential. (authors)

  7. Evaluation of the spectral distribution of X-ray beams from measurements on the scattered radiation

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Casnati, E.; Baraldi, C.

    1980-01-01

    Most of the phenomena activated by photons with energies below 100 keV show an apparent or real dependence on the quantum energy. Therefore, knowledge of the beam energy characteristics is of primary importance for interpretation of the irradiation results. The greatest difficulty arises from the high flux density of the beams usually employed which does not allow direct measurements of the beam. A method was developed which permits evaluation of the spectral distribution of the X-ray beam from a spectrometric measurement of the radiation scattered by a thin foil of a suitable metal. This makes possible a new and more rational approach to the measurement of X-rays in the energy range where the interaction parameters show a large photon energy dependence. The corrections required by the presence of some collateral effects, among which the most important is the coexistence of the coherent and incoherent scattering, must be evaluated. The knowledge of the spectral distribution is of immediate usefulness for studies of radiation damage in biological and other materials, for the calibration of radiation measuring instruments and for the improvement of the radiological instrumentation response which contributes to reducing the patient's dose. (H.K.)

  8. The study of sheath flow dark zone phenomenon in dynamic individual cells scattering measurement

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zhang, Lu; Zhao, Hong; Wang, Xiaopin; Zhang, Weiguang

    2008-09-01

    Dynamic cells scattering is one of the most efficient approaches exploring in measurements of cells size, morphology and growth states. This technique can be widely applied in real-time detection for pharmaceutical industry, food industry, liquor industry and other biological fields. A novel method named dynamic individual cells scattering measurement is designed in this paper, which can make cells pass through quartz glass measurement zone one by one with sheath flow driving force. During the experiments, an obvious phenomenon has been found which is called sheath flow dark zone phenomenon (SFDZ). Under the influence of SFDZ, sheath flow forming detection becomes very difficult. In this paper, the causes giving rise to SFDZ have been analyzed. And an improved method is put forward, in which the orifice inside the measurement zone is set as an optical system. Then the illuminating system is redesigned. In this way, almost all the illuminating light can enter orifice so that the total reflection energy decreases substantially. A comparison experiments have been done, which proves the efficiency of this redesigned optical system and its sound effects on SFDZ avoiding.

  9. Measurement of isolated photons accompained by jets in deep inelastic ep scattering

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Abramowicz, H.; Abt, I.; Adamczyk, L.

    2012-06-01

    The production of isolated high-energy photons accompanied by jets has been measured in deep inelastic ep scattering with the ZEUS detector at HERA, using an integrated luminosity of 326 pb -1 . Measurements were made for exchanged photon virtualities, Q 2 , in the range 10 to 350 GeV 2 . The photons were measured in the transverse-energy and pseudorapidity ranges 4 γ T γ jet T jet <1.8. Differential cross sections are presented as functions of these quantities. Perturbative QCD predictions give a reasonable description of the shape of the measured cross sections over most of the kinematic range, but the absolute normalisation is typically in disagreement by 20-30%.

  10. Measurement of diffractive scattering of photons with large momentum transfer at HERA

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Aaron, F.D.; Andreev, V.

    2008-09-01

    The first measurement of diffractive scattering of quasi-real photons with large momentum transfer γp → γY, where Y is the proton dissociative system, is made using the H1 detector at HERA. The measurement is performed for initial photon virtualities Q 2 2 . Cross sections are measured as a function of W, the incident photonproton centre of mass energy, and t, the square of the four-momentum transferred at the proton vertex, in the range 175 2 . The W dependence is well described by a model based on perturbative QCD using a leading logarithmic approximation of the BFKL evolution. The measured vertical stroke t vertical stroke dependence is harder than that predicted by the model and those observed in exclusive vector meson production. (orig.)

  11. Measurement of diffractive scattering of photons with large momentum transfer at HERA

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Aaron, F.D. [National Institute for Physics and Nuclear Engineering (NIPNE), Bucharest (Romania)]|[Bucharest Univ. (Romania). Faculty of Physics; Alexa, C. [National Institute for Physics and Nuclear Engineering (NIPNE), Bucharest (Romania); Andreev, V. [Lebedev Physical Institute, Moscow (RU)] (and others)

    2008-09-15

    The first measurement of diffractive scattering of quasi-real photons with large momentum transfer {gamma}p {yields} {gamma}Y, where Y is the proton dissociative system, is made using the H1 detector at HERA. The measurement is performed for initial photon virtualities Q{sup 2} < 0.01 GeV{sup 2}. Cross sections are measured as a function of W, the incident photonproton centre of mass energy, and t, the square of the four-momentum transferred at the proton vertex, in the range 175 < W < 247 GeV and 4 < vertical stroke t vertical stroke < 36 GeV{sup 2}. The W dependence is well described by a model based on perturbative QCD using a leading logarithmic approximation of the BFKL evolution. The measured vertical stroke t vertical stroke dependence is harder than that predicted by the model and those observed in exclusive vector meson production. (orig.)

  12. Incoherent-scatter radar measurements of electric field and plasma in the auroral ionosphere

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Vondrak, R.

    1983-01-01

    This chapter summarizes Chatanika radar measurements of electric fields and currents, and their relation to E-region ionization and conductivity. Electric-field coupling between the ionosphere and magnetosphere and the relationship between field-aligned currents and meridional ionospheric currents are examined. Topics considered include the diurnal pattern of the ionization and electric field; electrical coupling between the ionosphere and magnetosphere; and the relationship between meridional currents and field-aligned currents. It is concluded that the incoherent-scatter radar technique has been developed into a powerful method for remotely measuring the electrical and thermal properties of the auroral ionospheric plasma, and that the usefulness of the radar measurements is greatly enhanced when combined with simultaneous satellite measurements

  13. Measurement of Diffractive Scattering of Photons with Large Momentum Transfer at HERA

    CERN Document Server

    Aaron, F.D.; Andreev, V.; Antunovic, B.; Aplin, S.; Asmone, A.; Astvatsatourov, A.; Bacchetta, A.; Backovic, S.; Baghdasaryan, A.; Baranov, P.; Barrelet, E.; Bartel, W.; Beckingham, M.; Begzsuren, K.; Behnke, O.; Belousov, A.; Berger, N.; Bizot, J.C.; Boenig, M.-O.; Boudry, V.; Bozovic-Jelisavcic, I.; Bracinik, J.; Brandt, G.; Brinkmann, M.; Brisson, V.; Bruncko, D.; Bunyatyan, A.; Buschhorn, G.; Bystritskaya, L.; Campbell, A.J.; Cantun Avila, K.B.; Cassol-Brunner, F.; Cerny, K.; Cerny, V.; Chekelian, V.; Cholewa, A.; Contreras, J.G.; Coughlan, J.A.; Cozzika, G.; Cvach, J.; Dainton, J.B.; Daum, K.; Deak, M.; de Boer, Y.; Delcourt, B.; Del Degan, M.; Delvax, J.; De Roeck, A.; De Wolf, E.A.; Diaconu, C.; Dodonov, V.; Dossanov, A.; Dubak, A.; Eckerlin, G.; Efremenko, V.; Egli, S.; Eliseev, A.; Elsen, E.; Essenov, S.; Falkiewicz, A.; Faulkner, P.J.W.; Favart, L.; Fedotov, A.; Felst, R.; Feltesse, J.; Ferencei, J.; Finke, L.; Fleischer, M.; Fomenko, A.; Gabathuler, E.; Gayler, J.; Ghazaryan, Samvel; Glazov, A.; Glushkov, I.; Goerlich, L.; Goettlich, M.; Gogitidze, N.; Gouzevitch, M.; Grab, C.; Greenshaw, T.; Grell, B.R.; Grindhammer, G.; Habib, S.; Haidt, D.; Hansson, M.; Helebrant, C.; Henderson, R.C.W.; Henschel, H.; Herrera, G.; Hildebrandt, M.; Hiller, K.H.; Hoffmann, D.; Horisberger, R.; Hovhannisyan, A.; Hreus, T.; Jacquet, M.; Janssen, M.E.; Janssen, X.; Jemanov, V.; Jonsson, L.; Johnson, D.P.; Jung, Andreas Werner; Jung, H.; Kapichine, M.; Katzy, J.; Kenyon, I.R.; Kiesling, C.; Klein, M.; Kleinwort, C.; Klimkovich, T.; Kluge, T.; Knutsson, A.; Kogler, R.; Korbel, V.; Kostka, P.; Kraemer, M.; Krastev, K.; Kretzschmar, J.; Kropivnitskaya, A.; Kruger, K.; Kutak, K.; Landon, M.P.J.; Lange, W.; Lastovicka-Medin, G.; Laycock, P.; Lebedev, A.; Leibenguth, G.; Lendermann, V.; Levonian, S.; Li, G.; Lipka, K.; Liptaj, A.; List, B.; List, J.; Loktionova, N.; Lopez-Fernandez, R.; Lubimov, V.; Lucaci-Timoce, A.-I.; Lytkin, L.; Makankine, A.; Malinovski, E.; Marage, P.; Marti, Ll.; Martyn, H.-U.; Maxfield, S.J.; Mehta, A.; Meier, K.; Meyer, A.B.; Meyer, H.; Meyer, H.; Meyer, J.; Michels, V.; Mikocki, S.; Milcewicz-Mika, I.; Moreau, F.; Morozov, A.; Morris, J.V.; Mozer, Matthias Ulrich; Mudrinic, M.; Muller, K.; Murin, P.; Nankov, K.; Naroska, B.; Naumann, Th.; Newman, Paul R.; Niebuhr, C.; Nikiforov, A.; Nowak, G.; Nowak, K.; Nozicka, M.; Olivier, B.; Olsson, J.E.; Osman, S.; Ozerov, D.; Palichik, V.; Panagoulias, I.; Pandurovic, M.; Papadopoulou, Th.; Pascaud, C.; Patel, G.D.; Pejchal, O.; Peng, H.; Perez, E.; Petrukhin, A.; Picuric, I.; Piec, S.; Pitzl, D.; Placakyte, R.; Polifka, R.; Povh, B.; Preda, T.; Radescu, V.; Rahmat, A.J.; Raicevic, N.; Raspiareza, A.; Ravdandorj, T.; Reimer, P.; Rizvi, E.; Robmann, P.; Roland, B.; Roosen, R.; Rostovtsev, A.; Rotaru, M.; Ruiz Tabasco, J.E.; Rurikova, Z.; Rusakov, S.; Salek, D.; Salvaire, F.; Sankey, D.P.C.; Sauter, M.; Sauvan, E.; Schmidt, S.; Schmitt, S.; Schmitz, C.; Schoeffel, L.; Schoning, A.; Schultz-Coulon, H.-C.; Sefkow, F.; Shaw-West, R.N.; Sheviakov, I.; Shtarkov, L.N.; Shushkevich, S.; Sloan, T.; Smiljanic, Ivan; Smirnov, P.; Soloviev, Y.; Sopicki, P.; South, D.; Spaskov, V.; Specka, Arnd E.; Staykova, Z.; Steder, M.; Stella, B.; Straumann, U.; Sunar, D.; Sykora, T.; Tchoulakov, V.; Thompson, G.; Thompson, P.D.; Toll, T.; Tomasz, F.; Tran, T.H.; Traynor, D.; Trinh, T.N.; Truol, P.; Tsakov, I.; Tseepeldorj, B.; Tsurin, I.; Turnau, J.; Tzamariudaki, E.; Urban, K.; Valkarova, A.; Vallee, C.; Van Mechelen, P.; Vargas Trevino, A.; Vazdik, Y.; Vinokurova, S.; Volchinski, V.; Wegener, D.; Wessels, M.; Wissing, Ch.; Wunsch, E.; Yeganov, V.; Zacek, J.; Zalesak, J.; Zhang, Z.; Zhelezov, A.; Zhokin, A.; Zhu, Y.C.; Zimmermann, T.; Zohrabyan, H.; Zomer, F.

    2009-01-01

    The first measurement of diffractive scattering of quasi-real photons with large momentum transfer gamma p -> gamma Y, where Y is the proton dissociative system, is made using the H1 detector at HERA. The measurement is performed for initial photon virtualities Q^2 < 0.01 GeV^2. Cross sections are measured as a function of W, the incident photon-proton entre of mass energy, and t, the square of the four-momentum transferred at the proton vertex, in the range 175 < W < 247 GeV and 4<|t|<36 GeV^2. The W dependence is well described by a model based on perturbative QCD using a leading logarithmic approximation of the BFKL evolution. The measured |t| dependence is harder than that predicted by the model and those observed in exclusive vector meson production.

  14. Compact and high-efficiency device for Raman scattering measurement using optical fibers.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mitsui, Tadashi

    2014-11-01

    We describe the design and development of a high-efficiency optical measurement device for operation within the small bore of a high-power magnet at low temperature. For the high-efficiency measurement of light emitted from this small region, we designed a compact confocal optics with lens focusing and tilting systems, and used a piezodriven translation stage that allows micron-scale focus control of the sample position. We designed a measurement device that uses 10 m-long optical fibers in order to avoid the influence of mechanical vibration and magnetic field leakage of high-power magnets, and we also describe a technique for minimizing the fluorescence signal of optical fibers. The operation of the device was confirmed by Raman scattering measurements of monolayer graphene on quartz glass with a high signal-to-noise ratio.

  15. Measurement of Charm and Beauty Jets in Deep Inelastic Scattering at HERA

    CERN Document Server

    Aaron, F.D.; Andreev, V.; Backovic, S.; Baghdasaryan, A.; Barrelet, E.; Bartel, W.; Begzsuren, K.; Belousov, A.; Bizot, J.C.; Boudry, V.; Bozovic-Jelisavcic, I.; Bracinik, J.; Brandt, G.; Brinkmann, M.; Brisson, V.; Britzger, D.; Bruncko, D.; Bunyatyan, A.; Buschhorn, G.; Bystritskaya, L.; Campbell, A.J.; Cantun Avila, K.B.; Ceccopieri, F.; Cerny, K.; Cerny, V.; Chekelian, V.; Cholewa, A.; Contreras, J.G.; Coughlan, J.A.; Cvach, J.; Dainton, J.B.; Daum, K.; Deak, M.; Delcourt, B.; Delvax, J.; De Wolf, E.A.; Diaconu, C.; Dobre, M.; Dodonov, V.; Dossanov, A.; Dubak, A.; Eckerlin, G.; Efremenko, V.; Egli, S.; Eliseev, A.; Elsen, E.; Favart, L.; Fedotov, A.; Felst, R.; Feltesse, J.; Ferencei, J.; Fischer, D.J.; Fleischer, M.; Fomenko, A.; Gabathuler, E.; Gayler, J.; Ghazaryan, Samvel; Glazov, A.; Goerlich, L.; Gogitidze, N.; Gouzevitch, M.; Grab, C.; Grebenyuk, A.; Greenshaw, T.; Grell, B.R.; Grindhammer, G.; Habib, S.; Haidt, D.; Helebrant, C.; Henderson, R.C.W.; Hennekemper, E.; Henschel, H.; Herbst, M.; Herrera, G.; Hildebrandt, M.; Hiller, K.H.; Hoffmann, D.; Horisberger, R.; Hreus, T.; Huber, F.; Jacquet, M.; Janssen, X.; Jonsson, L.; Jung, A.W.; Jung, H.; Kapichine, M.; Katzy, J.; Kenyon, I.R.; Kiesling, C.; Klein, M.; Kleinwort, C.; Kluge, T.; Knutsson, A.; Kogler, R.; Kostka, P.; Kraemer, M.; Kretzschmar, J.; Kropivnitskaya, A.; Kruger, K.; Kutak, K.; Landon, M.P.J.; Lange, W.; Lastovicka-Medin, G.; Laycock, P.; Lebedev, A.; Lendermann, V.; Levonian, S.; Lipka, K.; List, B.; List, J.; Loktionova, N.; Lopez-Fernandez, R.; Lubimov, V.; Makankine, A.; Malinovski, E.; Marage, P.; Martyn, H.U.; Maxfield, S.J.; Mehta, A.; Meyer, A.B.; Meyer, H.; Meyer, J.; Mikocki, S.; Milcewicz-Mika, I.; Moreau, F.; Morozov, A.; Morris, J.V.; Mozer, M.U.; Mudrinic, M.; Muller, K.; Naumann, Th.; Newman, P.R.; Niebuhr, C.; Nikiforov, A.; Nikitin, D.; Nowak, G.; Nowak, K.; Olsson, J.E.; Osman, S.; Ozerov, D.; Pahl, P.; Palichik, V.; Panagoulias, I.; Pandurovic, M.; Papadopoulou, Th.; Pascaud, C.; Patel, G.D.; Perez, E.; Petrukhin, A.; Picuric, I.; Piec, S.; Pirumov, H.; Pitzl, D.; Placakyte, R.; Pokorny, B.; Polifka, R.; Povh, B.; Radescu, V.; Rahmat, A.J.; Raicevic, N.; Ravdandorj, T.; Reimer, P.; Rizvi, E.; Robmann, P.; Roosen, R.; Rostovtsev, A.; Rotaru, M.; Tabasco, J.E.Ruiz; Rusakov, S.; Salek, D.; Sankey, D.P.C.; Sauter, M.; Sauvan, E.; Schmitt, S.; Schoeffel, L.; Schoning, A.; Schultz-Coulon, H.C.; Sefkow, F.; Shtarkov, L.N.; Shushkevich, S.; Sloan, T.; Smiljanic, I.; Soloviev, Y.; Sopicki, P.; South, D.; Spaskov, V.; Specka, A.; Staykova, Z.; Steder, M.; Stella, B.; Stoicea, G.; Straumann, U.; Sunar, D.; Sykora, T.; Thompson, G.; Thompson, P.D.; Toll, T.; Tran, T.H.; Traynor, D.; Truol, P.; Tsakov, I.; Tseepeldorj, B.; Turnau, J.; Urban, K.; Valkarova, A.; Vallee, C.; Van Mechelen, P.; Trevino, A.Vargas; Vazdik, Y.; von den Driesch, M.; Wegener, D.; Wunsch, E.; Zacek, J.; Zalesak, J.; Zhang, Z.; Zhokin, A.; Zohrabyan, H.; Zomer, F.

    2011-01-01

    Measurements of cross sections for events with charm and beauty jets in deep inelastic scattering at HERA are presented. Events with jets of transverse energy E_T^jet > 6 GeV and pseudorapidity -1.0 6 GeV^2 and inelasticity variable 0.07 6 GeV. The data were collected with the H1 detector in the years 2006 and 2007 corresponding to an integrated luminosity of 189 pb^-1. The numbers of charm and beauty jets are determined using variables reconstructed using the H1 vertex detector with which the impact parameters of the tracks to the primary vertex and the position of secondary vertices are measured. The measurements are compared with QCD predictions and with previous measurements where heavy flavours are identified using muons.

  16. Measurement of diffractive scattering of photons with large momentum transfer at HERA

    Science.gov (United States)

    H1 Collaboration; Aaron, F. D.; Alexa, C.; Andreev, V.; Antunovic, B.; Aplin, S.; Asmone, A.; Astvatsatourov, A.; Bacchetta, A.; Backovic, S.; Baghdasaryan, A.; Baranov, P.; Barrelet, E.; Bartel, W.; Beckingham, M.; Begzsuren, K.; Behnke, O.; Belousov, A.; Berger, N.; Bizot, J. C.; Boenig, M.-O.; Boudry, V.; Bozovic-Jelisavcic, I.; Bracinik, J.; Brandt, G.; Brinkmann, M.; Brisson, V.; Bruncko, D.; Bunyatyan, A.; Buschhorn, G.; Bystritskaya, L.; Campbell, A. J.; Cantun Avila, K. B.; Cassol-Brunner, F.; Cerny, K.; Cerny, V.; Chekelian, V.; Cholewa, A.; Contreras, J. G.; Coughlan, J. A.; Cozzika, G.; Cvach, J.; Dainton, J. B.; Daum, K.; Deák, M.; de Boer, Y.; Delcourt, B.; Del Degan, M.; Delvax, J.; de Roeck, A.; de Wolf, E. A.; Diaconu, C.; Dodonov, V.; Dossanov, A.; Dubak, A.; Eckerlin, G.; Efremenko, V.; Egli, S.; Eliseev, A.; Elsen, E.; Essenov, S.; Falkiewicz, A.; Faulkner, P. J. W.; Favart, L.; Fedotov, A.; Felst, R.; Feltesse, J.; Ferencei, J.; Finke, L.; Fleischer, M.; Fomenko, A.; Gabathuler, E.; Gayler, J.; Ghazaryan, S.; Glazov, A.; Glushkov, I.; Goerlich, L.; Goettlich, M.; Gogitidze, N.; Gouzevitch, M.; Grab, C.; Greenshaw, T.; Grell, B. R.; Grindhammer, G.; Habib, S.; Haidt, D.; Hansson, M.; Helebrant, C.; Henderson, R. C. W.; Henschel, H.; Herrera, G.; Hildebrandt, M.; Hiller, K. H.; Hoffmann, D.; Horisberger, R.; Hovhannisyan, A.; Hreus, T.; Jacquet, M.; Janssen, M. E.; Janssen, X.; Jemanov, V.; Jönsson, L.; Johnson, D. P.; Jung, A. W.; Jung, H.; Kapichine, M.; Katzy, J.; Kenyon, I. R.; Kiesling, C.; Klein, M.; Kleinwort, C.; Klimkovich, T.; Kluge, T.; Knutsson, A.; Kogler, R.; Korbel, V.; Kostka, P.; Kraemer, M.; Krastev, K.; Kretzschmar, J.; Kropivnitskaya, A.; Krüger, K.; Kutak, K.; Landon, M. P. J.; Lange, W.; Laštovička-Medin, G.; Laycock, P.; Lebedev, A.; Leibenguth, G.; Lendermann, V.; Levonian, S.; Li, G.; Lipka, K.; Liptaj, A.; List, B.; List, J.; Loktionova, N.; Lopez-Fernandez, R.; Lubimov, V.; Lucaci-Timoce, A.-I.; Lytkin, L.; Makankine, A.; Malinovski, E.; Marage, P.; Marti, Ll.; Martyn, H.-U.; Maxfield, S. J.; Mehta, A.; Meier, K.; Meyer, A. B.; Meyer, H.; Meyer, H.; Meyer, J.; Michels, V.; Mikocki, S.; Milcewicz-Mika, I.; Moreau, F.; Morozov, A.; Morris, J. V.; Mozer, M. U.; Mudrinic, M.; Müller, K.; Murín, P.; Nankov, K.; Naroska, B.; Naumann, Th.; Newman, P. R.; Niebuhr, C.; Nikiforov, A.; Nowak, G.; Nowak, K.; Nozicka, M.; Olivier, B.; Olsson, J. E.; Osman, S.; Ozerov, D.; Palichik, V.; Panagoulias, I.; Pandurovic, M.; Papadopoulou, Th.; Pascaud, C.; Patel, G. D.; Pejchal, O.; Peng, H.; Perez, E.; Petrukhin, A.; Picuric, I.; Piec, S.; Pitzl, D.; Plačakytė, R.; Polifka, R.; Povh, B.; Preda, T.; Radescu, V.; Rahmat, A. J.; Raicevic, N.; Raspiareza, A.; Ravdandorj, T.; Reimer, P.; Rizvi, E.; Robmann, P.; Roland, B.; Roosen, R.; Rostovtsev, A.; Rotaru, M.; Ruiz Tabasco, J. E.; Rurikova, Z.; Rusakov, S.; Salek, D.; Salvaire, F.; Sankey, D. P. C.; Sauter, M.; Sauvan, E.; Schmidt, S.; Schmitt, S.; Schmitz, C.; Schoeffel, L.; Schöning, A.; Schultz-Coulon, H.-C.; Sefkow, F.; Shaw-West, R. N.; Sheviakov, I.; Shtarkov, L. N.; Shushkevich, S.; Sloan, T.; Smiljanic, I.; Smirnov, P.; Soloviev, Y.; Sopicki, P.; South, D.; Spaskov, V.; Specka, A.; Staykova, Z.; Steder, M.; Stella, B.; Straumann, U.; Sunar, D.; Sykora, T.; Tchoulakov, V.; Thompson, G.; Thompson, P. D.; Toll, T.; Tomasz, F.; Tran, T. H.; Traynor, D.; Trinh, T. N.; Truöl, P.; Tsakov, I.; Tseepeldorj, B.; Tsurin, I.; Turnau, J.; Tzamariudaki, E.; Urban, K.; Valkárová, A.; Vallée, C.; van Mechelen, P.; Vargas Trevino, A.; Vazdik, Y.; Vinokurova, S.; Volchinski, V.; Wegener, D.; Wessels, M.; Wissing, Ch.; Wünsch, E.; Yeganov, V.; Žáček, J.; Zálešák, J.; Zhang, Z.; Zhelezov, A.; Zhokin, A.; Zhu, Y. C.; Zimmermann, T.; Zohrabyan, H.; Zomer, F.

    2009-02-01

    The first measurement of diffractive scattering of quasi-real photons with large momentum transfer γp→γY, where Y is the proton dissociative system, is made using the H1 detector at HERA. The measurement is performed for initial photon virtualities Q<0.01 GeV. Single differential cross sections are measured as a function of W, the incident photon-proton centre of mass energy, and t, the square of the four-momentum transferred at the proton vertex, in the range 175measured |t| dependence is harder than that predicted by the model and those observed in exclusive vector meson production.

  17. Six-dimensional real and reciprocal space small-angle X-ray scattering tomography.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Schaff, Florian; Bech, Martin; Zaslansky, Paul; Jud, Christoph; Liebi, Marianne; Guizar-Sicairos, Manuel; Pfeiffer, Franz

    2015-11-19

    When used in combination with raster scanning, small-angle X-ray scattering (SAXS) has proven to be a valuable imaging technique of the nanoscale, for example of bone, teeth and brain matter. Although two-dimensional projection imaging has been used to characterize various materials successfully, its three-dimensional extension, SAXS computed tomography, poses substantial challenges, which have yet to be overcome. Previous work using SAXS computed tomography was unable to preserve oriented SAXS signals during reconstruction. Here we present a solution to this problem and obtain a complete SAXS computed tomography, which preserves oriented scattering information. By introducing virtual tomography axes, we take advantage of the two-dimensional SAXS information recorded on an area detector and use it to reconstruct the full three-dimensional scattering distribution in reciprocal space for each voxel of the three-dimensional object in real space. The presented method could be of interest for a combined six-dimensional real and reciprocal space characterization of mesoscopic materials with hierarchically structured features with length scales ranging from a few nanometres to a few millimetres--for example, biomaterials such as bone or teeth, or functional materials such as fuel-cell or battery components.

  18. Size-dependent Measurements of the Scattering Properties of Planetary Regolith Analogs: A Challenge to Theory

    Science.gov (United States)

    Piatek, J. L.; Hapke, B. W.; Nelson, R. M.; Hale, A. S.; Smythe, W. D.

    2003-01-01

    The nature of the scattering of light is thought to be well understood when the medium is made up of independent scatterers that are much larger than the wavelength of that light. This is not the case when the size of the scattering objects is similar to or smaller than the wavelength or the scatterers are not independent. In an attempt to examine the applicability of independent particle scattering models, to planetary regoliths, a dataset of experimental results were compared with theoretical predictions.

  19. Measurement of the scattering cross section of slow neutrons on liquid parahydrogen from neutron transmission

    Science.gov (United States)

    Grammer, K. B.; Alarcon, R.; Barrón-Palos, L.; Blyth, D.; Bowman, J. D.; Calarco, J.; Crawford, C.; Craycraft, K.; Evans, D.; Fomin, N.; Fry, J.; Gericke, M.; Gillis, R. C.; Greene, G. L.; Hamblen, J.; Hayes, C.; Kucuker, S.; Mahurin, R.; Maldonado-Velázquez, M.; Martin, E.; McCrea, M.; Mueller, P. E.; Musgrave, M.; Nann, H.; Penttilä, S. I.; Snow, W. M.; Tang, Z.; Wilburn, W. S.

    2015-05-01

    Liquid hydrogen is a dense Bose fluid whose equilibrium properties are both calculable from first principles using various theoretical approaches and of interest for the understanding of a wide range of questions in many-body physics. Unfortunately, the pair correlation function g (r ) inferred from neutron scattering measurements of the differential cross section d/σ d Ω from different measurements reported in the literature are inconsistent. We have measured the energy dependence of the total cross section and the scattering cross section for slow neutrons with energies between 0.43 and 16.1 meV on liquid hydrogen at 15.6 K (which is dominated by the parahydrogen component) using neutron transmission measurements on the hydrogen target of the NPDGamma collaboration at the Spallation Neutron Source at Oak Ridge National Laboratory. The relationship between the neutron transmission measurement we perform and the total cross section is unambiguous, and the energy range accesses length scales where the pair correlation function is rapidly varying. At 1 meV our measurement is a factor of 3 below the data from previous work. We present evidence that these previous measurements of the hydrogen cross section, which assumed that the equilibrium value for the ratio of orthohydrogen and parahydrogen has been reached in the target liquid, were in fact contaminated with an extra nonequilibrium component of orthohydrogen. Liquid parahydrogen is also a widely used neutron moderator medium, and an accurate knowledge of its slow neutron cross section is essential for the design and optimization of intense slow neutron sources. We describe our measurements and compare them with previous work.

  20. X-Band high range resolution radar measurements of sea surface forward scatter at low grazing angles

    CSIR Research Space (South Africa)

    Smit, JC

    2008-05-01

    Full Text Available in the sea surface forward scatter component exists. Based on this measurement, we propose a temporal correlation extension to an existing low-angle propagation model, together with a correlation filter structure to realize the correlation extension...

  1. Measurements of iT11 in πd elastic scattering at 49 MeV

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Kohler, M.; Stevenson, N.R.

    1993-10-01

    Measurements of the vector analyzing power iT 11 in πd elastic scattering at 49 MeV have been performed using a dynamically polarized target and a magnetic spectrometer. Data at seven π + laboratory scattering angles between 50 deg. and 130 deg. were taken together with a complementary measurement at 60 deg. for π - d elastic scattering. In general, we find agreement with models that include the πN P 11 amplitude and disagreement with models that exclude or suppress it. (authors) 17 refs., 1 tab., 2 figs

  2. Quasi-elastic Scattering Measurements in the 6,7Li+144Sm Systems

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Capurro, O. A.; Arazi, A.; Fernandez Niello, J. O.; Figueira, J. M.; Marti, G. V.; Martinez Heimann, D.; Negri, A. E.; Pacheco, A. J.; Monteiro, D. S.; Otomar, D. R.; Gomes, P. R. S.; Guimaraes, V.

    2009-01-01

    In the present work, results of measurements of quasi-elastic scattering cross sections using a silicon-telescope detector at backward angles are reported. They allowed us to deduce fusion barrier distributions from the first derivative of the corresponding excitation function (-d(dσ qes /dσ Rut )/dE). We report data for the systems 6,7 Li on 144 Sm which are characterized by loosely bound projectiles onto a closed neutron shell target. The experimental excitation functions and the associated barrier distributions are compared for both systems.

  3. Measurement of deeply virtual Compton scattering using the ZEUS detector at HERA

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Grabowska-Bold, I.

    2004-08-01

    The cross sections for deeply virtual compton scattering in the reaction ep → e'γp' has been measured with the ZEUS detector at HERA using integrated luminosities of 95 pb -1 of e + p and 17 pb -1 of e - p collisions. Cross sections are presented as a function of the exchanged photon virtuality, Q 2 , and the centre-of-mass energy, W, of the γ * p system in the region 5 2 2 and 40 < W < 140 GeV. The obtained results are compared to QCD-based calculations. (orig.)

  4. A precision measurement of sin2θw in neutrino nucleon scattering

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    King, B.J.; Arroyo, C.G.; Bachmann, K.T.; Bazarko, A.O.; Bolton, T.; Foudas, C.; Lefmann, W.C.; Leung, W.C.; Mishra, S.R.; Oltman, E.; Quintas, P.Z.; Rabinowitz, S.A.; Sciulli, F.J.; Seligman, W.G.; Shaevitz, M.H.; Merritt, F.S.; Oreglia, M.J.; Schumm, B.A.; Bernstein, R.H.; Borcherding, F.; Fisk, H.E.; Lamm, M.J.; Marsh, W.; Merritt, K.W.B.; Schellman, H.M.; Yovanovitch, D.D.; Bodek, A.; Budd, H.S.; Barbaro, P. de; Sakumoto, W.K.; Kinnel, T.; Sandler, P.H.; Smith, W.H.

    1993-01-01

    A precise measurement of the weak mixing angle is reported from the ratio of the neutral current to charged current inclusive cross-sections in deep-inelastic neutrino-nucleon scattering. Using the on-shell definition, the value obtained is currently the most accurate determination of sin 2 θ w in a single experiment. The data were gathered at the CCFR neutrino detector in the Fermilab quadrupole-triplet wide-band neutrino beam, with neutrino energies up to 600 GeV. 2 figs., 1 tab., 14 refs

  5. Measurement of the proton structure function F2 in ep scattering at HERA

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Derrick, M.; Krakauer, D.; Magill, S.

    1993-08-01

    This paper presents our first measurement of the F 2 structure function in neutral-current, deep inelastic scattering using the ZEUS detector at HERA, the ep colliding beam facility at DESY. The data correspond to an integrated luminosity of 24.7 nb -1 . Results are presented for data in a range of Q 2 from 10 GeV 2 to 4700 GeV 2 and Bjorken x down to 3.0x10 -4 . The F 2 structure function increases rapidly as x decreases. (orig.)

  6. Determination of {pi}{pi} scattering lengths from measurement of {pi}{sup +{pi}-} atom lifetime

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Adeva, B. [Santiago de Compostela University (Spain); Afanasyev, L. [JINR Dubna (Russian Federation); Benayoun, M. [LPNHE des Universites Paris VI/VII, IN2P3-CNRS (France); Benelli, A. [Zurich University (Switzerland); Berka, Z. [Czech Technical University in Prague, Prague (Czech Republic); Brekhovskikh, V. [IHEP Protvino (Russian Federation); Caragheorgheopol, G. [IFIN-HH, National Institute for Physics and Nuclear Engineering, Bucharest (Romania); Cechak, T. [Czech Technical University in Prague, Prague (Czech Republic); Chiba, M. [Tokyo Metropolitan University (Japan); Chliapnikov, P.V. [IHEP Protvino (Russian Federation); Ciocarlan, C.; Constantinescu, S. [IFIN-HH, National Institute for Physics and Nuclear Engineering, Bucharest (Romania); Costantini, S. [Basel University (Switzerland); Curceanu, C. [IFIN-HH, National Institute for Physics and Nuclear Engineering, Bucharest (Romania); Doskarova, P. [Czech Technical University in Prague, Prague (Czech Republic); Dreossi, D. [INFN, Sezione di Trieste and Trieste University, Trieste (Italy); Drijard, D., E-mail: Daniel.Drijard@cern.ch [CERN, Geneva (Switzerland); Dudarev, A. [JINR Dubna (Russian Federation); Ferro-Luzzi, M. [CERN, Geneva (Switzerland); Fungueirino Pazos, J.L. [Santiago de Compostela University (Spain)

    2011-10-05

    The DIRAC experiment at CERN has achieved a sizeable production of {pi}{sup +{pi}-} atoms and has significantly improved the precision on its lifetime determination. From a sample of 21 227 atomic pairs, a 4% measurement of the S-wave {pi}{pi} scattering length difference |a{sub 0}-a{sub 2}|=(0.2533{sub -0.0078}{sup +0.0080}|{sub stat}{sup +0.0078}{sub -0.0073}|{sub syst})M{sub {pi}}{sup +-1} has been attained, providing an important test of Chiral Perturbation Theory.

  7. Measurement of nuclear transparencies from exclusive ρ0 meson production in muon-nucleus scattering

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Fang, G.Y.

    1995-01-01

    Preliminary results on the measurement of nuclear transparencies from exclusive incoherent ρ 0 meson production off deuterium, carbon, calcium, and lead, normalized to hydrogen, and coherent ρ 0 meson production off calcium and lead, normalized to carbon, in deep-inelastic muon-nucleus scattering are reported. The data were collected with the E665 spectrometer using the Fermilab Tevatron muon beam with a mean beam energy of 470 GeV. Increases in the transparencies are observed in both coherent and incoherent production as the virtuality of the photon increases, as expected of color transparency. copyright 1995 American Institute of Physics

  8. Electric field measurement in an atmospheric or higher pressure gas by coherent Raman scattering of nitrogen

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Ito, Tsuyohito; Kobayashi, Kazunobu; Hamaguchi, Satoshi; Mueller, Sarah; Luggenhoelscher, Dirk; Czarnetzki, Uwe

    2009-01-01

    The feasibility of electric field measurement based on field-induced coherent Raman scattering is demonstrated for the first time in a nitrogen containing gas at atmospheric or higher pressure, including open air. The technique is especially useful for the determination of temporal and spatial profiles of the electric field in air-based microdischarges, where nitrogen is abundant. In our current experimental setup, the minimum detectable field strength in open air is about 100 V mm -1 , which is sufficiently small compared with the average field present in typical microdischarges. No further knowledge of other gas/plasma parameters such as the nitrogen density is required. (fast track communication)

  9. Measurement of Dijet Production in Diffractive Deep-Inelastic ep Scattering at HERA

    CERN Document Server

    Andreev, V.; Begzsuren, K.; Belousov, A.; Boudry, V.; Brandt, G.; Brisson, V.; Britzger, D.; Buniatyan, A.; Bylinkin, A.; Bystritskaya, L.; Campbell, A.J.; Cantun Avila, K.B.; Ceccopieri, F.; Cerny, K.; Chekelian, V.; Contreras, J.G.; Cvach, J.; Dainton, J.B.; Daum, K.; Diaconu, C.; Dobre, M.; Dodonov, V.; Eckerlin, G.; Egli, S.; Elsen, E.; Favart, L.; Fedotov, A.; Feltesse, J.; Ferencei, J.; Fleischer, M.; Fomenko, A.; Gabathuler, E.; Gayler, J.; Ghazaryan, S.; Glazov, A.; Goerlich, L.; Gogitidze, N.; Gouzevitch, M.; Grab, C.; Grebenyuk, A.; Greenshaw, T.; Grindhammer, G.; Haidt, D.; Henderson, R.C.W.; Herbst, M.; Hladky, J.; Hoffmann, D.; Horisberger, R.; Hreus, T.; Huber, F.; Jacquet, M.; Janssen, X.; Jung, H.; Kapichine, M.; Kiesling, C.; Klein, M.; Kleinwort, C.; Kogler, R.; Kostka, P.; Kretzschmar, J.; Kruger, K.; Landon, M.P.J.; Lange, W.; Laycock, P.; Lebedev, A.; Levonian, S.; Lipka, K.; List, B.; List, J.; Lobodzinski, B.; Malinovski, E.; Martyn, H.U.; Maxfield, S.J.; Mehta, A.; Meyer, A.B.; Meyer, H.; Meyer, J.; Mikocki, S.; Morozov, A.; Muller, K.; Naumann, Th.; Newman, P.R.; Niebuhr, C.; Nowak, G.; Olsson, J.E.; Ozerov, D.; Pahl, P.; Pascaud, C.; Patel, G.D.; Perez, E.; Petrukhin, A.; Picuric, I.; Pirumov, H.; Pitzl, D.; Placakyte, R.; Pokorny, B.; Polifka, R.; Radescu, V.; Raicevic, N.; Ravdandorj, T.; Reimer, P.; Rizvi, E.; Robmann, P.; Roosen, R.; Rostovtsev, A.; Rotaru, M.; Rusakov, S.; Salek, D.; Sankey, D.P.C.; Sauter, M.; Sauvan, E.; Schmitt, S.; Schoeffel, L.; Schoning, A.; Schultz-Coulon, H.C.; Sefkow, F.; Shushkevich, S.; Soloviev, Y.; Sopicki, P.; South, D.; Spaskov, V.; Specka, A.; Steder, M.; Stella, B.; Straumann, U.; Sykora, T.; Thompson, P.D.; Traynor, D.; Truol, P.; Tsakov, I.; Tseepeldorj, B.; Turnau, J.; Valkarova, A.; Vallee, C.; Van Mechelen, P.; Vazdik, Y.; Wegener, D.; Wunsch, E.; Zacek, J.; Zhang, Z.; Zlebcik, R.; Zohrabyan, H.; Zomer, F.

    2015-03-18

    A measurement is presented of single- and double-differential dijet cross sections in diffractive deep-inelastic $ep$ scattering at HERA using data collected by the H1 experiment corresponding to an integrated luminosity of 290 pb^{-1}. The investigated phase space is spanned by the photon virtuality in the range of 4

  10. Small angle neutron scattering measurements of magnetic cluster sizes in magnetic recorging disks

    CERN Document Server

    Toney, M

    2003-01-01

    We describe Small Angle Neutron Scattering measurements of the magnetic cluster size distributions for several longitudinal magnetic recording media. We find that the average magnetic cluster size is slightly larger than the average physical grain size, that there is a broad distribution of cluster sizes, and that the cluster size is inversely correlated to the media signal-to-noise ratio. These results show that intergranular magnetic coupling in these media is small and they provide empirical data for the cluster-size distribution that can be incorporated into models of magnetic recording.

  11. Measurement of Tensor Polarization in Elastic Electron-Deuteron Scattering at Large Momentum Transfer

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    David Abbott; Abdellah Ahmidouch; Heinz Anklin; Francois Arvieux; Jacques Ball; Beedoe, S.; Elizabeth Beise; Louis Bimbot; Werner Boeglin; Herbert Breuer; Roger Carlini; Nicholas Chant; Samuel Danagoulian; Dow, K.; Jean-Eric Ducret; James Dunne; Lars Ewell; Laurent Eyraud; Christophe Furget; Michel Garcon; Ronald Gilman; Charles Glashausser; Paul Gueye; Kenneth Gustafsson; Kawtar Hafidi; Adrian Honegger; Juerg Jourdan; Serge Kox; Gerfried Kumbartzki; Lu, L.; Allison Lung; David Mack; Pete Markowitz; Justin McIntyre; David Meekins; Fernand Merchez; Joseph Mitchell; Mohring, R.; Sekazi Mtingwa; Hamlet Mkrtchyan; David Pitz; Liming Qin; Ronald Ransome; Jean-Sebastien Real; Philip Roos; Paul Rutt; Reyad Sawafta; Samuel Stepanyan; Raphael Tieulent; Egle Tomasi-Gustafsson; William Turchinetz; Kelley Vansyoc; Jochen Volmer; Eric Voutier; William Vulcan; Claude Williamson; Stephen Wood; Chen Yan; Jie Zhao; Wenxia Zhao

    2000-01-01

    Tensor polarization observables (t20, t21 and t22) have been measured in elastic electron-deuteron scattering for six values of momentum transfer between 0.66 and 1.7 (GeV/c) 2 . The experiment was performed at the Jefferson Laboratory in Hall C using the electron HMS Spectrometer, a specially designed deuteron magnetic channel and the recoil deuteron polarimeter POLDER. The new data determine to much larger Q 2 the deuteron charge form factors G C and G Q . They are in good agreement with relativistic calculations and disagree with pQCD predictions

  12. Multi-channel normal speed gated integrator in the measurement of the laser scattering light energy

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Yang Dong; Yu Xiaoqi; Hu Yuanfeng

    2005-01-01

    With the method of integration in a limited time, a Multi-channel normal speed gated integrator based on VXI system has been developed for measuring the signals with changeable pulse width in laser scattering light experiment. It has been tested with signal sources in ICF experiment. In tests, the integral nonlinearity between the integral results of the gated integrator and that of an oscilloscope is less than 1%. In the ICF experiments the maximum error between the integral results of the gated integrator and that of oscilloscope is less than 3% of the full scale range of the gated integrator. (authors)

  13. Raman scattering temperature measurements for water vapor in nonequilibrium dispersed two-phase flow

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Anastasia, C.M.; Neti, S.; Smith, W.R.; Chen, J.C.

    1982-09-01

    The objective of this investigation was to determine the feasibility of using Raman scattering as a nonintrusive technique to measure vapor temperatures in dispersed two-phase flow. The Raman system developed for this investigation is described, including alignment of optics and optimization of the photodetector for photon pulse counting. Experimentally obtained Raman spectra are presented for the following single- and two-phase samples: liquid water, atmospheric nitrogen, superheated steam, nitrogen and water droplets in a high void fraction air/water mist, and superheated water vapor in nonequilibrium dispersed flow

  14. The Effect of Atmospheric Scattering as Inferred from the Rocket-Borne UV Radiometer Measurements

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Jhoon Kim

    1997-06-01

    Full Text Available Radiometers in UV and visible wavelengths were onboard the Korean Sounding Rocket(KSR-1 and 2 which were launched on June 4th and September 1st, 1993. These radiometers were designed to capture the solar radiation during the ascending period of the rocket flight. The purpose of the instrument was to measure the vertical profiles of stratospheric ozone densities. Since the instrument measured the solar radiation from the ground to its apogee, it is possible to investigate the altitude variation of the measured intensity and to estimate the effect of atmospheric scattering by comparing the UV and visible intensity. The visible channel was a reference because the 450-nm wavelength is in the atmospheric window region, where the solar radiation is transmitted through the atmosphere without being absorbed by other atmospheric gases. The use of 450-nm channel intensity as a reference should be limited to the altitude ranges above the certain altitudes, say 20 to 25§° where the signals are not perturbed by atmospheric scattering effects.

  15. Measurement of dijet production in diffractive deep-inelastic scattering with a leading proton at HERA

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Aaron, F.D. [National Inst. for Physics and Nuclear Engineering, Bucharest (Romania); Bucharest Univ. (Romania). Faculty of Physics; Alexa, C. [National Inst. for Physics and Nuclear Engineering, Bucharest (Romania); Andreev, V. [Lebedev Physical Inst., Moscow (RU)] (and others)

    2011-09-15

    The cross section of diffractive deep-inelastic scattering ep{yields}eXp is measured, where the system X contains at least two jets and the leading final state proton is detected in the H1 Forward Proton Spectrometer. The measurement is performed for fractional proton longitudinal momentum loss x{sub P}<0.1 and covers the range 0.1< vertical stroke t vertical stroke <0.7 GeV{sup 2} in squared four-momentum transfer at the proton vertex and 4measurements of inclusive and dijet cross sections in diffractive deep-inelastic scattering. The data are also compared with leading order Monte Carlo models. (orig.)

  16. Measurement of the diffractive deep-inelastic scattering cross section with a leading proton at HERA

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Aaron, F.D. [National Institute for Physics and Nuclear Engineering (NIPNE), Bucharest (Romania); Bucharest Univ. (Romania). Faculty of Physics; Alexa, C. [National Institute for Physics and Nuclear Engineering (NIPNE), Bucharest (Romania); Andreev, V. [Lebedev Physical Institute, Moscow (RU)] (and others)

    2010-06-15

    The cross section for the diffractive deep-inelastic scattering process ep{yields}eXp is measured, with the leading final state proton detected in the H1 Forward Proton Spectrometer. The data sample covers the range x{sub P} < 0.1 in fractional proton longitudinal momentum loss, 0.1< vertical stroke t vertical stroke <0.7 GeV{sup 2} in squared four-momentum transfer at the proton vertex and 4measured four-fold differentially in t, x{sub P},Q{sup 2} and {beta}=x/x{sub P}, where x is the Bjorken scaling variable. The t and x{sub P} dependences are interpreted in terms of an effective pomeron trajectory and a sub-leading exchange. The data are compared to perturbative QCD predictions at next-to-leading order based on diffractive parton distribution functions previously extracted from complementary measurements of inclusive diffractive deep-inelastic scattering. The ratio of the diffractive to the inclusive ep cross section is studied as a function of Q{sup 2}, {beta} and x{sub P}. (orig.)

  17. The quantum mechanical measuring process as a scattering phenomenon inducing a collective coherent motion

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Requardt, M.

    1984-01-01

    In this paper we want to discuss the quantum mechanical measuring process within the realm of many body quantum theory. Our starting point is to consider this process as a special scattering phenomenon where within one of the partners, i.e. the many body measuring device, a collective coherent motion is induced by the interaction with the microobject. We start our investigation with the many body system having a large but finite number N of degrees of freedom which is the real situation. We then study in detail what will happen in the limit N->infinite, however emphasizing that this transition is actually only performed in the mind of the observer. This implies that certain tail events together with their phase correlations have to be truncated. We show that the dichotomy 'pure state' versus 'mixture' as outgoing scattering states will vanish in this limit in so far as it has no observable consequences provided one is only interested in the state of the microobject. Furthermore, we discuss the role of the observer, the notion of 'event', the relation between single preparation and ensemble picture, and the so-called 'reduction of the wave function' in the light of our approach, i.e. explaining the phenomena accompanying the measuring process in terms of many body quantum theory. (orig.)

  18. Cross section measurements of the elastic electron - deuteron scattering at MAMI

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Kohl, Yvonne [Universitaet Mainz, Institut fuer Kernphysik (Germany); Collaboration: A1-Collaboration

    2015-07-01

    The electromagnetic form factors of light nuclei provide a sensitive test of our understanding of nuclei. Because the deuteron has spin one, three form factors are needed to fully describe the electromagnetic structure of the deuteron. Especially the deuteron charge radius is a favourite observable to compare experiment and calculation. Recently, an extensive measurement campaign has been performed at MAMI (Mainzer Microtron) to determine the deuteron charge radius using elastic electron scattering - with the aim to halve the error compared to previous such experiments. The experiment took place at the 3-spectrometer facility of the A1-collaboration. Cross section measurements of the elastic electron-deuteron scattering have been performed for 180 different kinematic settings in the low momentum transfer region. From these, the charge form factor can precisely be determined. Fitting the form factor with an appropiate fit function, the radius can then be determined from the slope at zero momentum transfer. The determined radius could then be used as a counterweight to the value obtained from the advanced atomic Lamb shift measurements, thus providing additional insight to the proton radius puzzle.

  19. Portable dynamic light scattering instrument and method for the measurement of blood platelet suspensions

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Maurer-Spurej, Elisabeth; Brown, Keddie; Labrie, Audrey; Marziali, Andre; Glatter, Otto

    2006-01-01

    No routine test exists to determine the quality of blood platelet transfusions although every year millions of patients require platelet transfusions to survive cancer chemotherapy, surgery or trauma. A new, portable dynamic light scattering instrument is described that is suitable for the measurement of turbid solutions of large particles under temperature-controlled conditions. The challenges of small sample size, short light path through the sample and accurate temperature control have been solved with a specially designed temperature-controlled sample holder for small diameter, disposable capillaries. Efficient heating and cooling is achieved with Peltier elements in direct contact with the sample capillary. Focusing optical fibres are used for light delivery and collection of scattered light. The practical use of this new technique was shown by the reproducible measurement of latex microspheres and the temperature-induced morphological changes of human blood platelets. The measured parameters for platelet transfusions are platelet size, number of platelet-derived microparticles and the response of platelets to temperature changes. This three-dimensional analysis provides a high degree of confidence for the determination of platelet quality. The experimental data are compared to a matrix and facilitate automated, unbiased quality testing

  20. Dynamics of supercooled confined water measured by deep inelastic neutron scattering

    Science.gov (United States)

    De Michele, Vincenzo; Romanelli, Giovanni; Cupane, Antonio

    2018-02-01

    In this paper, we present the results of deep inelastic neutron scattering (DINS) measurements on supercooled water confined within the pores (average pore diameter 20 Å) of a disordered hydrophilic silica matrix obtained through hydrolysis and polycondensation of the alkoxide precursor Tetra-Methyl-Ortho-Silicate via the sol-gel method. Experiments were performed at two temperatures (250 K and 210 K, i.e., before and after the putative liquid-liquid transition of supercooled confined water) on a "wet" sample with hydration h 40% w/w, which is high enough to have water-filled pores but low enough to avoid water crystallization. A virtually "dry" sample at h 7% was also investigated to measure the contribution of the silica matrix to the neutron scattering signal. As is well known, DINS measurements allow the determination of the mean kinetic energy and the momentum distribution of the hydrogen atoms in the system and therefore, allow researchers to probe the local structure of supercooled confined water. The main result obtained is that at 210 K the hydrogen mean kinetic energy is equal or even slightly higher than at 250 K. This is at odds with the predictions of a semiempirical harmonic model recently proposed to describe the temperature dependence of the kinetic energy of hydrogen in water. This is a new and very interesting result, which suggests that at 210 K, the water hydrogens experience a stiffer intermolecular potential than at 250 K. This is in agreement with the liquid-liquid transition hypothesis.