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Sample records for scattering rs peak

  1. Influence of multiple small-angle neutron scattering on diffraction peak broadening in ferritic steel

    Czech Academy of Sciences Publication Activity Database

    Woo, W.; Em, V.; Shin, E.; Mikula, Pavol; Ryukhtin, Vasyl

    2015-01-01

    Roč. 48, APR (2015), s. 350-356 ISSN 0021-8898 R&D Projects: GA ČR GB14-36566G; GA MŠk(CZ) LM2011019 Institutional support: RVO:61389005 Keywords : peak broadening * small-angle neutron scattering * neutron diffraction * magnetic domain Subject RIV: BM - Solid Matter Physics ; Magnetism Impact factor: 3.720, year: 2014

  2. Discrete ordinates transport methods for problems with highly forward-peaked scattering

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Pautz, S.D.

    1998-04-01

    The author examines the solutions of the discrete ordinates (S N ) method for problems with highly forward-peaked scattering kernels. He derives conditions necessary to obtain reasonable solutions in a certain forward-peaked limit, the Fokker-Planck (FP) limit. He also analyzes the acceleration of the iterative solution of such problems and offer improvements to it. He extends the analytic Fokker-Planck limit analysis to the S N equations. This analysis shows that in this asymptotic limit the S N solution satisfies a pseudospectral discretization of the FP equation, provided that the scattering term is handled in a certain way (which he describes) and that the analytic transport solution satisfies an analytic FP equation. Similar analyses of various spatially discretized S N equations reveal that they too produce solutions that satisfy discrete FP equations, given the same provisions. Numerical results agree with these theoretical predictions. He defines a multidimensional angular multigrid (ANMG) method to accelerate the iterative solution of highly forward-peaked problems. The analyses show that a straightforward application of this scheme is subject to high-frequency instabilities. However, by applying a diffusive filter to the ANMG corrections he is able to stabilize this method. Fourier analyses of model problems show that the resulting method is effective at accelerating the convergence rate when the scattering is forward-peaked. The numerical results demonstrate that these analyses are good predictors of the actual performance of the ANMG method

  3. CRPA calculations for neutrino-nucleus scattering. From very low energies to the quasielastic peak

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Jachowicz, Natalie; Pandey, Vishvas; Martini, Marco; Gonzalez-Jimenez, Raul; Van Cuyck, Tom; Van Dessel, Nils

    2016-01-01

    We present continuum random phase approximation calculations (CRPA) for neutrino-induced quasielastic scattering off atomic nuclei. The validity of our formalism is checked by a careful confrontation of its results with semi-inclusive double-differential electron scattering data. We pay special attention to excitations in the giant resonance region. The CRPA is well-suited for the description of interactions in this energy range. We aim at providing a uniform description of one-nucleon knockout processes over the whole energy range from threshold to the quasielastic peak. Our calculations point to the fact that low-energy and giant-resonance excitations provide a non-negligible contribution to the interaction strength, especially at forward lepton-scattering angles. (author)

  4. Study of the Boson Peak and Fragility of Bioprotectant Glass-Forming Mixtures by Neutron Scattering

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    F. Migliardo

    2013-01-01

    Full Text Available The biological relevance of trehalose, glycerol, and their mixtures in several anhydrobiotic and cryobiotic organisms has recently promoted both experimental and simulation studies. In addition, these systems are employed in different industrial fields, such as pharmaceutical and cosmetic industries, as additives in mixtures for cryopreservation and in several formulations. This review article shows an overview of Inelastic Neutron Scattering (INS data, collected at different temperature values by the OSIRIS time-of-flight spectrometer at the ISIS Facility (Rutherford Appleton Laboratory, Oxford, UK and by the IN4 and IN6 spectrometers at the Institut Laue Langevin (ILL, Grenoble, France, on trehalose/glycerol mixtures as a function of the glycerol content. The data analysis allows determining the Boson peak behavior and discussing the findings in terms of fragility in relation to the bioprotective action of trehalose and glycerol.

  5. Depth determination of buried caesium-137 and cobalt-60 sources using scatter peak data

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Adams, J. C.; Joyce, M. J.; Mellor, M.

    2009-01-01

    An investigation into an alternative approach to 3D (3-dimensional) source mapping is proposed, by combining the insights of two existing techniques. The first of these is a 3D 'imaging' tool, N-Visage TM that has been developed by REACT Engineering Ltd. This technique is efficient and robust, but is not a true 3D technique as it relies on user-supplied 2D (2-dimensional) manifolds to constrain source locations. The second technique uses the γ-photopeak and an X-ray peak to determine radionuclide source depth using a relative attenuation method. We look at the possibility of combining both techniques to constrain both the location and depth of a radiological source buried under shielding. It is believed a combined method using spectra recorded above the shielding object will be of use in the nuclear decommissioning and land contamination industries. N-Visage TM has previously been used to map source distributions of mixed radionuclides with complex geometries through shielding media. The software works by producing a computer model which recreates the experimental setup. A survey is imported, comprising a set of γ-spectra recorded with an instrument of known efficiency and isotropy taken at a variety of locations around the area of interest. A survey plan recording the location and orientation of the instrument for each reading is also reconstructed. N-Visage TM is then able to determine the locations of the source(s) without prior knowledge of exactly where they are located, by building and inverting a simple physical model relating potential source locations to the recorded spectra. This research sets out to investigate the possibility of combining the geometric insights of N-Visage TM with a method of extracting depth information from scatter data, rather than the X-ray peak. By combining the γ-photopeak and scatter areas of a spectrum, the thickness of the shielding media between source and detector can potentially be inferred. Using scattered photons rather

  6. Morphology, surface roughness, electron inelastic and quasi-elastic scattering in elastic peak electron spectroscopy of polymers

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Lesiak, B.; Kosinski, A.; Nowakowski, R.; Koever, L.; Toth, J.; Varga, D.; Cserny, I.; Sulyok, A.; Gergely, G.

    2006-01-01

    Complete text of publication follows. Elastic peak electron spectroscopy (EPES) deals with the interaction of electrons with atoms of a solid surface, studying the distribution of electrons backscattered elastically. The nearest vicinity of the elastic peak, (low kinetic energy region) reflects both, electron inelastic and quasi-elastic processes. The incident electrons produce surface excitations, inducing surface plasmons with the corresponding loss peaks separated by 1 - 20 eV energy from the elastic peak. Quasi-elastic losses result from the recoil of scattering atoms of different atomic number, Z. The respective energy shift and Doppler broadening of the elastic peak depend on Z, the primary electron energy, E, and the measurement geometry. Quantitative surface analytical application of EPES, such as determination of parameters describing electron transport, requires a comparison of experimental data with corresponding data derived from Monte Carlo (MC) simulation. Several problems occur in EPES studies of polymers. The intensity of elastic peak, considered in quantitative surface analysis, is influenced by both, the inelastic and quasi-elastic scattering processes (especially for hydrogen scattering atoms and primary electron energy above 1000 eV). An additional factor affecting the elastic peak intensity is the surface morphology and roughness. The present work compares the effect of these factors on the elastic peak intensity for selected polymers (polyethylene, polyaniline and polythiophenes). X-ray photoelectron spectroscopy (XPS) and helium pycnometry are applied for deriving the surface atomic composition and the bulk density, while scanning electron microscopy (SEM) and atomic force microscopy (AFM) for determining surface morphology and roughness. According to presented results, the influence of surface morphology and roughness is larger than those of surface excitations or recoil of hydrogen atoms. The component due to recoil of hydrogen atoms can be

  7. Influence of the impurity-scattering on zero-bias conductance peak in ferromagnet/insulator/d-wave superconductor junctions

    CERN Document Server

    Yoshida, N; Itoh, H; Tanaka, Y; Inoue, J I; Kashiwaya, S

    2003-01-01

    Effects of impurity-scattering on a zero-bias conductance peak in ferromagnet/insulator/d-wave superconductor junctions are theoretically studied. The impurities are introduced through the random potential in ferromagnets near the junction interface. As in the case of normal-metal/insulator/d-wave superconductor junctions, the magnitude of zero-bias conductance peak decreases with increasing the degree of disorder. However, when the magnitude of the exchange potential in ferromagnet is sufficiently large, the random potential can enhance the zero-bias conductance peak in ferromagnetic junctions. (author)

  8. Comparison of Peak-area Ratios and Percentage Peak Area Derived from HPLC-evaporative Light Scattering and Refractive Index Detectors for Palm Oil and its Fractions.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ping, Bonnie Tay Yen; Aziz, Haliza Abdul; Idris, Zainab

    2018-01-01

    High-Performance Liquid Chromatography (HPLC) methods via evaporative light scattering (ELS) and refractive index (RI) detectors are used by the local palm oil industry to monitor the TAG profiles of palm oil and its fractions. The quantitation method used is based on area normalization of the TAG components and expressed as percentage area. Although not frequently used, peak-area ratios based on TAG profiles are a possible qualitative method for characterizing the TAG of palm oil and its fractions. This paper aims to compare these two detectors in terms of peak-area ratio, percentage peak area composition, and TAG elution profiles. The triacylglycerol (TAG) composition for palm oil and its fractions were analysed under similar HPLC conditions i.e. mobile phase and column. However, different sample concentrations were used for the detectors while remaining within the linearity limits of the detectors. These concentrations also gave a good baseline resolved separation for all the TAGs components. The results of the ELSD method's percentage area composition for the TAGs of palm oil and its fractions differed from those of RID. This indicates an unequal response of TAGs for palm oil and its fractions using the ELSD, also affecting the peak area ratios. They were found not to be equivalent to those obtained using the HPLC-RID. The ELSD method showed a better baseline separation for the TAGs components, with a more stable baseline as compared with the corresponding HPLC-RID. In conclusion, the percentage area compositions and peak-area ratios for palm oil and its fractions as derived from HPLC-ELSD and RID were not equivalent due to different responses of TAG components to the ELSD detector. The HPLC-RID has a better accuracy for percentage area composition and peak-area ratio because the TAG components response equally to the detector.

  9. Hydration-coupled protein boson peak measured by incoherent neutron scattering

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Nakagawa, Hiroshi; Kataoka, Mikio; Joti, Yasumasa; Kitao, Akio; Shibata, Kaoru; Tokuhisa, Atsushi; Tsukushi, Itaru; Go, Nobuhiro

    2006-01-01

    The boson peak of a protein was examined in relation to hydration using staphylococcal nuclease. Although the boson peak is commonly observed in synthetic polymers, glassy materials and amorphous materials, the origin of the boson peak is not fully understood. The motions that contribute to the peak are harmonic vibrations. Upon hydration the peak frequency shifts to a higher frequency and the effective force constant of the vibration increases at low temperatures, suggesting that the protein energy surface is modified. Hydration of the protein leads to a more rugged surface and the vibrational motions are trapped within the local minimum at cryogenic temperatures. The origin of the protein boson peak may be related to this rugged energy surface

  10. Small Angle X-ray Scattering: Going Beyond the Bragg Peaks -24 ...

    Indian Academy of Sciences (India)

    collected over a long time, typically many hours with a laboratory source. The simplest setup consists .... the scattered intensity depends on its electron density p(r), which gives the ... ters are adjusted to get the best fit with the observed intensity. If a good fit .... the probability of finding a particle at a distance f from another, by.

  11. Which potentials have to be surface peaked to reproduce large angle proton scattering at high energy?

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Raynal, J.

    1990-01-01

    Corrections to the usual form factors of the optical potential are studied with a view to getting a better fit for proton elastic scattering at large angles on 40 Ca at 497 and 800 MeV. When a real surface form factor is added to the central potential in the Schrodinger formalism, the experimental data are as well reproduced as in the standard Dirac formalism. Coupling to the strong 3 - collective state gives a better fit. The use of surface corrections to the imaginary Dirac potential also gives improved results. A slightly better fit is obtained by coupling to the 3 - state with, at the same time, a weakening of these corrections. Further corrections to the potential do not give significant improvements

  12. Fast neutron detection with germanium detectors: computation of response functions for the 692 keV inelastic scattering peak

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Fehrenbacher, G.; Meckbach, R.; Paretzke, H.G.

    1996-01-01

    The dependence of the shape of the right-sided broadening of the inelastic scattering peak at 692 keV in the pulse-height distribution measured with a Ge detector in fast neutron fields on the energy of the incident neutrons has been analyzed. A model incorporating the process contributing to the energy deposition that engender the peak, including the partitioning of the energy deposition by the Ge recoils, was developed. With a Monte Carlo code based on this model, the detector response associated with this peak was computed and compared with results of measurements with quasi-monoenergetic neutrons for energies between 0.88 and 2.1 MeV. A set of 80 response functions for neutron energies in the range from the reaction threshold at 0.7 to 6 MeV was computed, which will serve as a starting point for methods, which aim at obtaining information on the spectral distribution of fast neutron fields for this energy range from measurements with a Ge detector. (orig.)

  13. Angular Multigrid Preconditioner for Krylov-Based Solution Techniques Applied to the Sn Equations with Highly Forward-Peaked Scattering

    Science.gov (United States)

    Turcksin, Bruno; Ragusa, Jean C.; Morel, Jim E.

    2012-01-01

    It is well known that the diffusion synthetic acceleration (DSA) methods for the Sn equations become ineffective in the Fokker-Planck forward-peaked scattering limit. In response to this deficiency, Morel and Manteuffel (1991) developed an angular multigrid method for the 1-D Sn equations. This method is very effective, costing roughly twice as much as DSA per source iteration, and yielding a maximum spectral radius of approximately 0.6 in the Fokker-Planck limit. Pautz, Adams, and Morel (PAM) (1999) later generalized the angular multigrid to 2-D, but it was found that the method was unstable with sufficiently forward-peaked mappings between the angular grids. The method was stabilized via a filtering technique based on diffusion operators, but this filtering also degraded the effectiveness of the overall scheme. The spectral radius was not bounded away from unity in the Fokker-Planck limit, although the method remained more effective than DSA. The purpose of this article is to recast the multidimensional PAM angular multigrid method without the filtering as an Sn preconditioner and use it in conjunction with the Generalized Minimal RESidual (GMRES) Krylov method. The approach ensures stability and our computational results demonstrate that it is also significantly more efficient than an analogous DSA-preconditioned Krylov method.

  14. Airborne characterization of aerosols over the contiguous United States during the SEAC4RS and DC3 campaigns: an in situ light scattering perspective

    Science.gov (United States)

    Espinosa, R.; Remer, L.; Puthukkudy, A.; Orozco, D.; Dubovik, O.; Martins, J. V.

    2017-12-01

    Models used to estimate climate change and interpret remote sensing observations must make assumptions regarding aerosol radiation interactions. This presentation will summarize aerosol light scattering measurements made by the Polarized Imaging Nephelometer (PI-Neph) during the Studies of Emissions and Atmospheric Composition, Clouds and Climate Coupling by Regional Surveys (SEAC4RS) and Deep Convective Clouds and Chemistry (DC3) experiments. The data presented includes direct measurements of phase function (P11) and polarized phase function (-P12/P11) as well as retrievals of size distribution, sphericity and complex refractive index made using the Generalized Retrieval of Aerosol and Surface Properties (GRASP). An aerosol classification scheme is developed to identify different aerosol types measured during the deployments, making use of ancillary data that includes gas tracers, chemical composition, aerodynamic particle size and geographic location. Principal component analysis (PCA) is then used to reduce the dimensionality of the multi-angle PI-Neph scattering data and a strong link between the PCA scores and the ancillary classification results is observed. The scattering differences that reliable distinguish the different aerosol types are found to be quite subtle and often rely on the relationships between many scattering angles simultaneously. This fact emphasis the value of multi-angle scattering measurements, as well as principal component analysis's ability to reveal the underlying patterns in these datasets. The parameters retrieved from the DC3 scattering data suggest the presence of a significant amount of dust in aerosols influenced by convective systems, with the quantity of dust correlating strongly with sampling location and the underlying surface features. All fine mode dominated aerosol types from SEAC4RS had remarkably similar retrieved properties, except for the real refractive index of the biomass burning cases, which was consistently

  15. Raman scattering boson peak and differential scanning calorimetry studies of the glass transition in tellurium-zinc oxide glasses.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Stavrou, E; Tsiantos, C; Tsopouridou, R D; Kripotou, S; Kontos, A G; Raptis, C; Capoen, B; Bouazaoui, M; Turrell, S; Khatir, S

    2010-05-19

    Raman scattering and differential scanning calorimetry (DSC) measurements have been carried out on four mixed tellurium-zinc oxide (TeO(2))(1 - x)(ZnO)(x) (x = 0.1, 0.2, 0.3, 0.4) glasses under variable temperature, with particular attention being given to the respective glass transition region. From the DSC measurements, the glass transition temperature T(g) has been determined for each glass, showing a monotonous decrease of T(g) with increasing ZnO content. The Raman study is focused on the low-frequency band of the glasses, the so-called boson peak (BP), whose frequency undergoes an abrupt decrease at a temperature T(d) very close to the respective T(g) values obtained by DSC. These results show that the BP is highly sensitive to dynamical effects over the glass transition and provides a means for an equally reliable (to DSC) determination of T(g) in tellurite glasses and other network glasses. The discontinuous temperature dependence of the BP frequency at the glass transition, along with the absence of such a behaviour by the high-frequency Raman bands (due to local atomic vibrations), indicates that marked changes of the medium range order (MRO) occur at T(g) and confirms the correlation between the BP and the MRO of glasses.

  16. Raman scattering boson peak and differential scanning calorimetry studies of the glass transition in tellurium-zinc oxide glasses

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Stavrou, E; Tsiantos, C; Tsopouridou, R D; Kripotou, S; Kontos, A G; Raptis, C; Capoen, B; Bouazaoui, M; Turrell, S; Khatir, S

    2010-01-01

    Raman scattering and differential scanning calorimetry (DSC) measurements have been carried out on four mixed tellurium-zinc oxide (TeO 2 ) 1-x (ZnO) x (x = 0.1, 0.2, 0.3, 0.4) glasses under variable temperature, with particular attention being given to the respective glass transition region. From the DSC measurements, the glass transition temperature T g has been determined for each glass, showing a monotonous decrease of T g with increasing ZnO content. The Raman study is focused on the low-frequency band of the glasses, the so-called boson peak (BP), whose frequency undergoes an abrupt decrease at a temperature T d very close to the respective T g values obtained by DSC. These results show that the BP is highly sensitive to dynamical effects over the glass transition and provides a means for an equally reliable (to DSC) determination of T g in tellurite glasses and other network glasses. The discontinuous temperature dependence of the BP frequency at the glass transition, along with the absence of such a behaviour by the high-frequency Raman bands (due to local atomic vibrations), indicates that marked changes of the medium range order (MRO) occur at T g and confirms the correlation between the BP and the MRO of glasses.

  17. Experimental investigation of the multiple scatter peak of gamma rays in portland cement in the energy range 279-1332 keV

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Singh, Tejbir; Singh, Parjit S

    2011-01-01

    The pulse height spectra for different thicknesses of portland cement in the reflected geometry has been recorded with the help of a NaI(Tl) scintillator detector and 2 K MCA card using different gamma-ray sources such as Hg 203 (279 keV), Cs 137 (662 keV) and Co 60 (1173 and 1332 keV). It has been observed that the multiple scatter peak for portland cement appears at 110 (±7) keV in all the spectra irrespective of different incident photon energies in the range 279-1332 keV from different gamma-ray sources. Further, the variation in the intensity of the multiple scatter peak with the thickness of portland cement in the backward semi-cylinders has been investigated.

  18. Neutron Inelastic Scattering Study of Transverse Spin Fluctuations in CsNiF3: a Soliton-only Central Peak

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Steiner, M.; Kakurai, K.; Knop, W.

    1982-01-01

    We have observed a quasi-elastic contribution to the spectrum of the transverse spin fluctuations Sperp;(Q, ω), perpendicular to an applied magnetic field in the easy plane of the one-dimensional ferromagnet CsNiF3. According to the present theoretical understanding this contribution is due solel...... to soliton quasi-particles and it should not contain two-magnon scattering. The observed dependence on momentum transfer is as expected for soliton scattering with zero intensity at qc = 0 rising through a maximum with increasing qc....

  19. Comment on ‘Positron scattering in helium: Virtual-positronium resonances’ by G.P. Karwasz, D. Pliszka, A. Zecca, R.S. Brusa [Nucl. Instr. and Meth. B 240 (2005) 666

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zecca, Antonio

    2006-10-01

    A recent paper [G.P. Karwasz, D. Pliszka, A. Zecca, R.S. Brusa, Nucl. Instr. and Meth. B 240 (2005) 666] claims the observation of scattering resonances in the total cross section for positron scattering from helium. In this comment we question the reality of such resonances. Our discussion will be based on the detailed knowledge of the general capabilities of the Trento spectrometer and will be invigorated by new checks we have made on the measurement procedure employed in [G.P. Karwasz, D. Pliszka, A. Zecca, R.S. Brusa, Nucl. Instr. and Meth. B 240 (2005) 666]. We conclude that the observed structures are most likely an experimental artefact rather than being due to the positron-helium interaction.

  20. Sensitivity of peak positions to flight-path parameters in a deep-inelastic scattering neutron TOF spectrometer

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Gray, E.MacA.; Chatzidimitriou-Dreismann, C.A.; Blach, T.P.

    2012-01-01

    The effects of small changes in flight-path parameters (primary and secondary flight paths, detector angles), and of displacement of the sample along the beam axis away from its ideal position, are examined for an inelastic time-of-flight (TOF) neutron spectrometer, emphasising the deep-inelastic regime. The aim was to develop a rational basis for deciding what measured shifts in the positions of spectral peaks could be regarded as reliable in the light of the uncertainties in the calibrated flight-path parameters. Uncertainty in the length of the primary or secondary flight path has the least effect on the positions of the peaks of H, D and He, which are dominated by the accuracy of the calibration of the detector angles. This aspect of the calibration of a TOF spectrometer therefore demands close attention to achieve reliable outcomes where the position of the peaks is of significant scientific interest and is discussed in detail. The corresponding sensitivities of the position of peak of the Compton profile, J(y), to flight-path parameters and sample position are also examined, focusing on the comparability across experiments of results for H, D and He. We show that positioning the sample to within a few mm of the ideal position is required to ensure good comparability between experiments if data from detectors at high forward angles are to be reliably interpreted.

  1. Study of the relationship between peaks scattering Rayleigh to Compton ratio and effective atomic number in biological samples

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Pereira, Marcelo O.; Conti, Claudio de Carvalho; Anjos, Marcelino J.; Lopes, Ricardo T.

    2011-01-01

    The aim of this work was to develop a new method to correct the absorbed radiation (the mass attenuation coefficient curve) in low energy (E B O 3 , Na 2 CO 3 , CaCO 3 , Al 2 O 3 , K 2 SO 4 and MgO) of radiation produced by a gamma-ray source of Am-241(59.54 keV) also applied to certified biological samples of milk powder, hay powder and bovine liver (NIST 155 7B). In addition, six methods of effective atomic number determination were used as described in literature to determinate the Rayleigh to Compton scattering ratio (R/C) , in order to calculate the mass attenuation coefficient. The results obtained by the proposed method were compared with those obtained using the transmission method. The experimental results were in good agreement with transmission values suggesting that the method to correct radiation absorption presented in this paper is adequate for biological samples. (author)

  2. He atom scattering from ZnO surfaces: calculation of diffraction peak intensities using the close-coupling approach

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    MartInez-Casado, R [Department of Chemistry, Imperial College London, South Kensington, London SW7 2AZ (United Kingdom); Miret-Artes, S [Instituto de Fisica Fundamental, Consejo Superior de Investigaciones CientIficas, Serrano 123, 28006 Madrid (Spain); Meyer, B [Interdisziplinaeres Zentrum fuer Molekulare Materialien ICMM and Computer-Chemie-Centrum CCC, Friedrich-Alexander-Universitaet Erlangen-Nuernberg, Naegelsbachstrasse 25, 91052 Erlangen (Germany); Traeger, F [Lehrstuhl fuer Physikalische Chemie I, Ruhr-Universitaet Bochum, 44801 Bochum (Germany); Woell, Ch, E-mail: r.martinezcasado@imperial.ac.u [Institut fuer Funktionelle Grenzflaechen, Karlsruher Institut fuer Technologie KIT, Kaiserstrasse 12, 76131 Karlsruhe (Germany)

    2010-08-04

    Diffraction intensities of a molecular He beam scattered off the clean and water-covered ZnO(101-bar0) surface have been simulated using a new potential model in conjunction with the close-coupling formalism. The effective corrugation functions for the systems He-ZnO(101-bar0) and He-H{sub 2}O/ZnO(101-bar0) have been obtained from density functional theory calculations within the Esbjerg-Noerskov approximation. Using these data a potential model is constructed consisting of a corrugated Morse potential at small He-surface distances and a semiempiric attractive part at larger distances. The diffraction patterns obtained from close-coupling calculations agree with the experimental data within about 10%, which opens the possibility to simulate He diffraction from surfaces of any structural complexity and to verify surface and adsorbate structures proposed theoretically by employing this kind of analysis.

  3. SCATTER

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Broome, J.

    1965-11-01

    The programme SCATTER is a KDF9 programme in the Egtran dialect of Fortran to generate normalized angular distributions for elastically scattered neutrons from data input as the coefficients of a Legendre polynomial series, or from differential cross-section data. Also, differential cross-section data may be analysed to produce Legendre polynomial coefficients. Output on cards punched in the format of the U.K. A. E. A. Nuclear Data Library is optional. (author)

  4. New calculations of cross-sections and charge asymmetries for lepton pair production and wide angle Bhabha scattering in e+e- collisions near the Z-peak

    Science.gov (United States)

    Field, J. H.

    1994-03-01

    A new event generator for lepton pair production and wide angle Bhabha scattering, BHAGENE3, is presented. Both electroweak and higher order (beyond O(α) QED corrections are included. Comparisons are made with results from the programs, based on the structure function formalism, ALIBABA, TOPAZ0 and ZFITTER. For the case of the final states l+l-γγ ( l = e, μ, τ) BHAGENE3 results are compared with those of Monte Carlo generators that use the exact O( α2) amplitudes.

  5. RS CVn binary systems

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Linsky, J.L.

    1984-01-01

    The author attempts to place in context the vast amount of data obtained in the last few years as a result of X-ray, ultraviolet, optical, and microwave observations of RS CVn and similar spectroscopic binary systems. He concentrates on the RS CVn systems and their long-period analogs, and restricts the scope by attempting to answer on the basis of the recent data and theory following questions: (1) Are the original defining characteristics still valid and still adequate? (2) What is the evidence for discrete active regions? (3) Have we derived any meaningful physical properties for the atmospheres of RS CVn systems? (4) What are the flare observations telling us about magnetic fields in the RS CVn systems? (5) Is there evidence for systematic trends in RS CVn systems with spectral type?

  6. 'Peak oil' or 'peak demand'?

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Chevallier, Bruno; Moncomble, Jean-Eudes; Sigonney, Pierre; Vially, Rolland; Bosseboeuf, Didier; Chateau, Bertrand

    2012-01-01

    This article reports a workshop which addressed several energy issues like the objectives and constraints of energy mix scenarios, the differences between the approaches in different countries, the cost of new technologies implemented for this purposes, how these technologies will be developed and marketed, which will be the environmental and societal acceptability of these technical choices. Different aspects and issues have been more precisely presented and discussed: the peak oil, development of shale gases and their cost (will non conventional hydrocarbons modify the peak oil and be socially accepted?), energy efficiency (its benefits, its reality in France and other countries, its position in front of the challenge of energy transition), and strategies in the transport sector (challenges for mobility, evolution towards a model of sustainable mobility)

  7. RS-WebPredictor

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Zaretzki, J.; Bergeron, C.; Huang, T.-W.

    2013-01-01

    Regioselectivity-WebPredictor (RS-WebPredictor) is a server that predicts isozyme-specific cytochrome P450 (CYP)-mediated sites of metabolism (SOMs) on drug-like molecules. Predictions may be made for the promiscuous 2C9, 2D6 and 3A4 CYP isozymes, as well as CYPs 1A2, 2A6, 2B6, 2C8, 2C19 and 2E1....... RS-WebPredictor is the first freely accessible server that predicts the regioselectivity of the last six isozymes. Server execution time is fast, taking on average 2s to encode a submitted molecule and 1s to apply a given model, allowing for high-throughput use in lead optimization projects.......Availability: RS-WebPredictor is accessible for free use at http://reccr.chem.rpi.edu/ Software/RS-WebPredictor....

  8. Focused-ion-beam-fabricated Au nanorods coupled with Ag nanoparticles used as surface-enhanced Raman scattering-active substrate for analyzing trace melamine constituents in solution

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Sivashanmugan, Kundan; Liao, Jiunn-Der; Liu, Bernard Haochih; Yao, Chih-Kai

    2013-01-01

    Graphical abstract: -- Highlights: •Well-ordered Au-nanorod array with a controlled tip ring diameter (Au N Rs d ) is made by focused ion beam. •Au N Rs d coupled with Ag nanoparticles (Ag NPs/Au N Rs d ) is competent to sense target molecules in a solution. •Ag NPs/Au N Rs d SERS active substrate can detect a single molecule of crystal violet. •Ag NPs/Au N Rs d as a SERS-active substrate can distinguish melamine contaminants at low concentrations (e.g., 10 −12 M). -- Abstract: A well-ordered Au-nanorod array with a controlled tip ring diameter (Au N Rs d ) was fabricated using the focused ion beam method. Au N Rs d was then coupled with Ag nanoparticles (Ag NPs) to bridge the gaps among Au nanorods. The effect of surface-enhanced Raman scattering (SERS) on Au N Rs d and Ag NPs/Au N Rs d was particularly verified using crystal violet (CV) as the molecular probe. Raman intensity obtained from a characteristic peak of CV on Au N Rs d was estimated by an enhancement factor of ≈10 7 in magnitude, which increased ≈10 12 in magnitude for that on Ag NPs/Au N Rs d . A highly SERS-active Ag NPs/Au N Rs d was furthermore applied for the detection of melamine (MEL) at very low concentrations. Raman-active peaks of MEL (10 −3 to 10 −12 M) in water or milk solution upon Au N Rs d or Ag NPs/Au N Rs d were well distinguished. The peaks at 680 and 702 cm −1 for MEL molecules were found suitable to be used as the index for sensing low-concentration MEL in a varied solution, while that at 1051 cm −1 was practical to interpret MEL molecules in water or milk solution bonded with Au (i.e., Au N Rs d ) or Ag (i.e., Ag NPs/Au N Rs d ) surface. At the interface of Ag NPs/Au N Rs d and MEL molecules in milk solution, a laser-induced electromagnetic field or hotspot effect was produced and competent to sense low-concentration MEL molecules interacting with Ag and Au surfaces. Accordingly, Ag NPs/Au N Rs d is very promising to be used as a fast and sensitive tool for

  9. Enzyme catalytic resonance scattering spectral detection of trace hydrogen peroxide using guaiacol as substrate

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Shiwen Huang

    2011-08-01

    Full Text Available Hydrogen peroxide oxidized guaiacol to form tetramer particles that exhibited a strong resonance scattering (RS peak at 530 nm in the presence of horseradish peroxidase (HRP in citric acid-Na2HPO4 buffer solution of pH 4.4. The RS peak increased when the concentration of hydrogen peroxide increased. The increased RS intensity (ΔI530 nm was linear to the hydrogen peroxide concentration in the range of 0.55-27.6 μM, with a linear regression equation of ΔI530 nm = 17.1C + 1.6, a relative coefficient of 0.9996 and a detection limit of 0.03 μM H2O2. This proposed method was applied to detect hydrogen peroxide in rain water, with sensitivity, selectivity, rapidity, and recovery of 98.0-104 %.

  10. ROBATEL RS 24 packaging

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Robatel, M.; Bochard, C.

    1986-01-01

    The ROBATEL RS 24 packaging for light-water reactor fuel assemblies is discussed. The cask uses a strength frame of carbon steel sheets, lead gamma ray shielding, neutron shielding of aluminous concrete, a thermal protection system for the gamma shielding, and a natural convection thermal transfer system

  11. Enhancement of evaporative light scattering detection in high-performance liquid chromatographic determination of neomycin based on highly volatile mobile phase, high-molecular-mass ion-pairing reagents and controlled peak shape.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Megoulas, Nikolaos C; Koupparis, Michael A

    2004-11-19

    In the frame of the development of a novel HPLC-ELSD (evaporative light scattering detection) method for the determination of the aminoglycoside antibiotic neomycin sulfate, the influence of mobile phase composition and peak broadening on ELSD response was evaluated. ELSD response was enhanced by: (a) increase of mobile phase volatility (solvents examined: water, acetonitrile, methanol and acetone), (b) increase of molecular mass of ion-pairing species [acidic reagents tested: formic, acetic, trifluoroacetic, trichloroacetic and heptafluorobutyric acid (HFBA)], and (c) decrease of peak width and asymmetry obtained by controlling the concentration of the ion-pairing acidic reagent (HFBA). Utilizing a Waters ODS-2 C18 Spherisorb column, evaporation temperature of 45 degrees C and nitrogen pressure of 3.5 bar, the optimized mobile phase was water-acetone (50:50), containing 11.6 mM HFBA, in an isocratic mode at a rate of 1.0 ml/min. Neomycin was eluted at 4.9 min, with asymmetry factor 1.3. Logarithmic calibration curve was obtained from 2 to 50 microg/ml (r > 0.9997). Limit of detection (LOD) was 0.6 microg/ml and R.S.D. = 1.7% (n = 3, 3.3 microg/ml). In raw materials, the simultaneous determination of sulfate (LOD = 3 microg/ml, R.S.D. = 1.7%, r> 0.9998) and of minor impurities was feasible. The developed method was also applied for the determination of neomycin in pharmaceutical formulations (powder, aerosol and cream) without any interference from excipients (recovery from spiked samples ranged from 99 to 102%) and a %R.S.D. of <2.1 (n = 3). The HPLC-ELSD method was also found applicable in the determination of neomycin in animal feeds (LOQ=0.2%) without any interference from the feed matrices.

  12. SU-E-T-499: Comparison of Measured Tissue Phantom Ratios (TPR) Against Calculated From Percent Depth Doses (PDD) with and Without Peak Scatter Factor (PSF) in 6MV Open Beam

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Narayanasamy, G; Cruz, W; Gutierrez, Alonso; Mavroidis, Panayiotis; Papanikolaou, N; Stathakis, S; Breton, C

    2014-01-01

    Purpose: To examine the accuracy of measured tissue phantom ratios (TPR) values with TPR calculated from percentage depth dose (PDD) with and without peak scatter fraction (PSF) correction. Methods: For 6MV open beam, TPR and PDD values were measured using PTW Semiflex (31010) ionization field and reference chambers (0.125cc volume) in a PTW MP3-M water tank. PDD curves were measured at SSD of 100cm for 7 square fields from 3cm to 30cm. The TPR values were measured up to 22cm depth for the same fields by continuous water draining method with ionization chamber static at 100cm from source. A comparison study was performed between the (a) measured TPR, (b) TPR calculated from PDD without PSF, (c) TPR calculated from PDD with PSF and (d) clinical TPR from RadCalc (ver 6.2, Sun Nuclear Corp). Results: There is a field size, depth dependence on TPR values. For 10cmx10cm, the differences in surface dose (DDs), dose at 10cm depth (DD10) <0.5%; differences in dmax (Ddmax) <2mm for the 4 methods. The corresponding values for 30cmx30cm are DDs, DD10 <0.2% and Ddmax<3mm. Even though for 3cmx3cm field, DDs and DD10 <1% and Ddmax<1mm, the calculated TPR values with and without PSF correction differed by 2% at >20cm depth. In all field sizes at depths>28cm, (d) clinical TPR values are larger than that from (b) and (c) by >3%. Conclusion: Measured TPR in method (a) differ from calculated TPR in methods (b) and (c) to within 1% for depths < 28cm in all 7 fields in open 6MV beam. The dmax values are within 3mm of each other. The largest deviation of >3% was observed in clinical TPR values in method (d) for all fields at depths < 28cm

  13. Paula, RS, Brasil

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Solon Jonas Longhi

    2006-01-01

    Full Text Available The present work is part of studies and researches developed at Long Duration Ecological Project - PELD/CNPq, located in São Francisco de Paula’s National Forest (FLONA, RS. The objective of this paper was to identify and to characterize the different stages of succession in mixed rainy forest remains. The work had been accomplished in ten permanent conglomerates of 100m x 100m (10.000m2, which were divided into ten strips of 10m x 100m (1.000m2 and these ones subdivided into ten subunits of 10m x 10m (100m2. In this research, a strip of 10m x 100m was selected for each conglomerate, totaling 100 subunits (stands, where it had been installed, at DBH height, dendrometric bands in all trees with CBH ≥ 30cm, for annual diameters measurement. The cluster analysis was accomplished through the Twinspan program, using a data matrix with ninety-nine stands (one of those was unconsidered by the absence of individuals with CBH ≥ 30cm having as variable the annual increment in diameter (obtained in two years of observations of sixty nine species. Three floristic groups was obtained, indicating stages of succession in the forest: a group separated a less developed stage of succession denominated secondary forest, being Nectandra megapotamica and Cryptocaria aschersoniana the indicative species; a second group indicated an intermediate stage of succession in the forest, being Sebastiania commersoniana and Ocotea pulchella the indicative species; and a third group of primary forest, whose indicative species was Araucaria angustifolia.

  14. Interleukin-6-receptor polymorphisms rs12083537, rs2228145, and rs4329505 as predictors of response to tocilizumab in rheumatoid arthritis

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Enevold, Christian; Baslund, Bo; Linde, Louise

    2014-01-01

    Tocilizumab (TCZ), a monoclonal antibody targeting the human interleukin-6-receptor (IL-6R), is indicated for the treatment of rheumatoid arthritis (RA). We examined whether three IL6R single-nucleotide polymorphisms rs12083537, rs2228145 (formerly rs8192284), and rs4329505 with previously report...

  15. Eudragit RS PO nanoparticles for sustained release of pyridostigmine bromide

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Hoobakht, Fatemeh; Ganji, Fariba; Vasheghani-Farahani, Ebrahim; Mousavi, Seyyed Mohammad

    2013-01-01

    Pyridostigmine bromide (PB) is an inhibitor of cholinesterase, which is used in the treatment of myasthenia gravis and administered for protection against exposure to toxic nerve agents. Tests were done to investigate prolonging the half-life of PB and improving its release behavior. PB was loaded in nanoparticles (NPs) of Eudragit RS PO (Eu-RS) prepared using the technique of quasi emulsion solvent diffusion. Variables of output power of the sonicator, bath temperature and mixing time, were chosen as the optimization factors to obtain the minimum sized NPs. In addition, emulsions were tested at different ratios of drug-to-polymer by dynamic light scattering to determine size and zeta potential of NPs. UV-spectroscopy was used to determine PB content of the NPs. Drug-loaded NPs were characterized by scanning electron microscopy, X-ray diffraction, and Fourier transform infrared spectra. Results determined that mixing time had a significant impact on the size of Eu-RS NPs, but power output of sonicator and bath temperature had no significant effect. The particle size obtained at the optimum condition (power output of 70 W, bath temperature of 33 °C, and mixing time of 7 min) was less than 200 nm (optimum sizes were 138.9 and 179.5 nm for Eu-RS and PB-loaded Eu-RS NPs, respectively). The optimum PB-loaded Eu-RS NPs at the PB to Eu-RS weight ratio of 1–4 and 20 % of loaded PB released from the nanocarriers within 100 h

  16. Eudragit RS PO nanoparticles for sustained release of pyridostigmine bromide

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Hoobakht, Fatemeh; Ganji, Fariba, E-mail: fganji@modares.ac.ir; Vasheghani-Farahani, Ebrahim [Tarbiat Modares University, Biomedical Engineering Group, Chemical Engineering Department (Iran, Islamic Republic of); Mousavi, Seyyed Mohammad [Tarbiat Modares University, Biotechnology Group, Chemical Engineering Department (Iran, Islamic Republic of)

    2013-09-15

    Pyridostigmine bromide (PB) is an inhibitor of cholinesterase, which is used in the treatment of myasthenia gravis and administered for protection against exposure to toxic nerve agents. Tests were done to investigate prolonging the half-life of PB and improving its release behavior. PB was loaded in nanoparticles (NPs) of Eudragit RS PO (Eu-RS) prepared using the technique of quasi emulsion solvent diffusion. Variables of output power of the sonicator, bath temperature and mixing time, were chosen as the optimization factors to obtain the minimum sized NPs. In addition, emulsions were tested at different ratios of drug-to-polymer by dynamic light scattering to determine size and zeta potential of NPs. UV-spectroscopy was used to determine PB content of the NPs. Drug-loaded NPs were characterized by scanning electron microscopy, X-ray diffraction, and Fourier transform infrared spectra. Results determined that mixing time had a significant impact on the size of Eu-RS NPs, but power output of sonicator and bath temperature had no significant effect. The particle size obtained at the optimum condition (power output of 70 W, bath temperature of 33 Degree-Sign C, and mixing time of 7 min) was less than 200 nm (optimum sizes were 138.9 and 179.5 nm for Eu-RS and PB-loaded Eu-RS NPs, respectively). The optimum PB-loaded Eu-RS NPs at the PB to Eu-RS weight ratio of 1-4 and 20 % of loaded PB released from the nanocarriers within 100 h.

  17. Peak Experience Project

    Science.gov (United States)

    Scott, Daniel G.; Evans, Jessica

    2010-01-01

    This paper emerges from the continued analysis of data collected in a series of international studies concerning Childhood Peak Experiences (CPEs) based on developments in understanding peak experiences in Maslow's hierarchy of needs initiated by Dr Edward Hoffman. Bridging from the series of studies, Canadian researchers explore collected…

  18. Peak-interviewet

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Raalskov, Jesper; Warming-Rasmussen, Bent

    Peak-interviewet er en særlig effektiv metode til at gøre ubevidste menneskelige ressourcer bevidste. Fokuspersonen (den interviewede) interviewes om en selvvalgt, personlig succesoplevelse. Terapeuten/coachen (intervieweren) spørger ind til processen, som ledte hen til denne succes. Herved afdæk...... fokuspersonen ønsker at tage op (nye mål eller nye processer). Nærværende workingpaper beskriver, hvad der menes med et peak-interview, peakinterviwets teoretiske fundament samt metodikken til at foretage et tillidsfuldt og effektiv peak-interview....

  19. Focused-ion-beam-fabricated Au nanorods coupled with Ag nanoparticles used as surface-enhanced Raman scattering-active substrate for analyzing trace melamine constituents in solution

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Sivashanmugan, Kundan [Department of Materials Science and Engineering, National Cheng Kung University, 1 University Road, Tainan 70101, Taiwan (China); Liao, Jiunn-Der, E-mail: jdliao@mail.ncku.edu.tw [Department of Materials Science and Engineering, National Cheng Kung University, 1 University Road, Tainan 70101, Taiwan (China); Center for Micro/Nano Science and Technology, National Cheng Kung University, 1 University Road, Tainan 70101, Taiwan (China); Liu, Bernard Haochih; Yao, Chih-Kai [Department of Materials Science and Engineering, National Cheng Kung University, 1 University Road, Tainan 70101, Taiwan (China)

    2013-10-24

    Graphical abstract: -- Highlights: •Well-ordered Au-nanorod array with a controlled tip ring diameter (Au{sub N}Rs{sub d}) is made by focused ion beam. •Au{sub N}Rs{sub d} coupled with Ag nanoparticles (Ag NPs/Au{sub N}Rs{sub d}) is competent to sense target molecules in a solution. •Ag NPs/Au{sub N}Rs{sub d} SERS active substrate can detect a single molecule of crystal violet. •Ag NPs/Au{sub N}Rs{sub d} as a SERS-active substrate can distinguish melamine contaminants at low concentrations (e.g., 10{sup −12} M). -- Abstract: A well-ordered Au-nanorod array with a controlled tip ring diameter (Au{sub N}Rs{sub d}) was fabricated using the focused ion beam method. Au{sub N}Rs{sub d} was then coupled with Ag nanoparticles (Ag NPs) to bridge the gaps among Au nanorods. The effect of surface-enhanced Raman scattering (SERS) on Au{sub N}Rs{sub d} and Ag NPs/Au{sub N}Rs{sub d} was particularly verified using crystal violet (CV) as the molecular probe. Raman intensity obtained from a characteristic peak of CV on Au{sub N}Rs{sub d} was estimated by an enhancement factor of ≈10{sup 7} in magnitude, which increased ≈10{sup 12} in magnitude for that on Ag NPs/Au{sub N}Rs{sub d}. A highly SERS-active Ag NPs/Au{sub N}Rs{sub d} was furthermore applied for the detection of melamine (MEL) at very low concentrations. Raman-active peaks of MEL (10{sup −3} to 10{sup −12} M) in water or milk solution upon Au{sub N}Rs{sub d} or Ag NPs/Au{sub N}Rs{sub d} were well distinguished. The peaks at 680 and 702 cm{sup −1} for MEL molecules were found suitable to be used as the index for sensing low-concentration MEL in a varied solution, while that at 1051 cm{sup −1} was practical to interpret MEL molecules in water or milk solution bonded with Au (i.e., Au{sub N}Rs{sub d}) or Ag (i.e., Ag NPs/Au{sub N}Rs{sub d}) surface. At the interface of Ag NPs/Au{sub N}Rs{sub d} and MEL molecules in milk solution, a laser-induced electromagnetic field or hotspot effect was produced and

  20. Peak power ratio generator

    Science.gov (United States)

    Moyer, R.D.

    A peak power ratio generator is described for measuring, in combination with a conventional power meter, the peak power level of extremely narrow pulses in the gigahertz radio frequency bands. The present invention in a preferred embodiment utilizes a tunnel diode and a back diode combination in a detector circuit as the only high speed elements. The high speed tunnel diode provides a bistable signal and serves as a memory device of the input pulses for the remaining, slower components. A hybrid digital and analog loop maintains the peak power level of a reference channel at a known amount. Thus, by measuring the average power levels of the reference signal and the source signal, the peak power level of the source signal can be determined.

  1. Peak Oil, Peak Coal and Climate Change

    Science.gov (United States)

    Murray, J. W.

    2009-05-01

    Research on future climate change is driven by the family of scenarios developed for the IPCC assessment reports. These scenarios create projections of future energy demand using different story lines consisting of government policies, population projections, and economic models. None of these scenarios consider resources to be limiting. In many of these scenarios oil production is still increasing to 2100. Resource limitation (in a geological sense) is a real possibility that needs more serious consideration. The concept of 'Peak Oil' has been discussed since M. King Hubbert proposed in 1956 that US oil production would peak in 1970. His prediction was accurate. This concept is about production rate not reserves. For many oil producing countries (and all OPEC countries) reserves are closely guarded state secrets and appear to be overstated. Claims that the reserves are 'proven' cannot be independently verified. Hubbert's Linearization Model can be used to predict when half the ultimate oil will be produced and what the ultimate total cumulative production (Qt) will be. US oil production can be used as an example. This conceptual model shows that 90% of the ultimate US oil production (Qt = 225 billion barrels) will have occurred by 2011. This approach can then be used to suggest that total global production will be about 2200 billion barrels and that the half way point will be reached by about 2010. This amount is about 5 to 7 times less than assumed by the IPCC scenarios. The decline of Non-OPEC oil production appears to have started in 2004. Of the OPEC countries, only Saudi Arabia may have spare capacity, but even that is uncertain, because of lack of data transparency. The concept of 'Peak Coal' is more controversial, but even the US National Academy Report in 2007 concluded only a small fraction of previously estimated reserves in the US are actually minable reserves and that US reserves should be reassessed using modern methods. British coal production can be

  2. Diffuse scattering of neutrons

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Novion, C.H. de.

    1981-02-01

    The use of neutron scattering to study atomic disorder in metals and alloys is described. The diffuse elastic scattering of neutrons by a perfect crystal lattice leads to a diffraction spectrum with only Bragg spreads. the existence of disorder in the crystal results in intensity and position modifications to these spreads, and above all, to the appearance of a low intensity scatter between Bragg peaks. The elastic scattering of neutrons is treated in this text, i.e. by measuring the number of scattered neutrons having the same energy as the incident neutrons. Such measurements yield information on the static disorder in the crystal and time average fluctuations in composition and atomic displacements [fr

  3. Peak regulation right

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Gao, Z. |; Ren, Z.; Li, Z.; Zhu, R.

    2005-01-01

    A peak regulation right concept and corresponding transaction mechanism for an electricity market was presented. The market was based on a power pool and independent system operator (ISO) model. Peak regulation right (PRR) was defined as a downward regulation capacity purchase option which allowed PRR owners to buy certain quantities of peak regulation capacity (PRC) at a specific price during a specified period from suppliers. The PRR owner also had the right to decide whether or not they would buy PRC from suppliers. It was the power pool's responsibility to provide competitive and fair peak regulation trading markets to participants. The introduction of PRR allowed for unit capacity regulation. The PRR and PRC were rated by the supplier, and transactions proceeded through a bidding process. PRR suppliers obtained profits by selling PRR and PRC, and obtained downward regulation fees regardless of whether purchases are made. It was concluded that the peak regulation mechanism reduced the total cost of the generating system and increased the social surplus. 6 refs., 1 tab., 3 figs

  4. Make peak flow a habit

    Science.gov (United States)

    Asthma - make peak flow a habit; Reactive airway disease - peak flow; Bronchial asthma - peak flow ... 2014:chap 55. National Asthma Education and Prevention Program website. How to use a peak flow meter. ...

  5. Automated asteroseismic peak detections

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    de Montellano, Andres Garcia Saravia Ortiz; Hekker, S.; Themessl, N.

    2018-01-01

    Space observatories such as Kepler have provided data that can potentially revolutionize our understanding of stars. Through detailed asteroseismic analyses we are capable of determining fundamental stellar parameters and reveal the stellar internal structure with unprecedented accuracy. However......, such detailed analyses, known as peak bagging, have so far been obtained for only a small percentage of the observed stars while most of the scientific potential of the available data remains unexplored. One of the major challenges in peak bagging is identifying how many solar-like oscillation modes are visible...... of detected oscillation modes. The algorithm presented here opens the possibility for detailed and automated peak bagging of the thousands of solar-like oscillators observed by Kepler....

  6. Automated asteroseismic peak detections

    Science.gov (United States)

    García Saravia Ortiz de Montellano, Andrés; Hekker, S.; Themeßl, N.

    2018-05-01

    Space observatories such as Kepler have provided data that can potentially revolutionize our understanding of stars. Through detailed asteroseismic analyses we are capable of determining fundamental stellar parameters and reveal the stellar internal structure with unprecedented accuracy. However, such detailed analyses, known as peak bagging, have so far been obtained for only a small percentage of the observed stars while most of the scientific potential of the available data remains unexplored. One of the major challenges in peak bagging is identifying how many solar-like oscillation modes are visible in a power density spectrum. Identification of oscillation modes is usually done by visual inspection that is time-consuming and has a degree of subjectivity. Here, we present a peak-detection algorithm especially suited for the detection of solar-like oscillations. It reliably characterizes the solar-like oscillations in a power density spectrum and estimates their parameters without human intervention. Furthermore, we provide a metric to characterize the false positive and false negative rates to provide further information about the reliability of a detected oscillation mode or the significance of a lack of detected oscillation modes. The algorithm presented here opens the possibility for detailed and automated peak bagging of the thousands of solar-like oscillators observed by Kepler.

  7. Preparation and characterization of ketoprofen loaded eudragit RS polymeric nanoparticles for controlled release

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Tuan Anh, Nguyen; Tuyen Dao, T P; Nhan Le, N T; Mau Chien, Dang; To Hoai, Nguyen; T Chi, Nguyen; Tran, T Khai

    2012-01-01

    Nanospheres containing ketoprofen (Keto) and polymer eudragit RS were prepared using an emulsion solvent evaporation method. The ultrasonic probe (VCX500, vibracell) was used as a tool to disperse oil phase into aqueous phase leading to water/oil emulsion. Nanoparticles were successfully prepared and their morphologies and diameters were confirmed by transmission electron microscope (TEM) and dynamic light scattering (DLS), respectively. The result showed that particles were spherical with submicron size. The particle size was dependent on the RS concentration, emulsification tools and the types of organic solvents. For the encapsulation ability, Keto-loaded RS nanoparticle showed 9.8% of Keto in nanoparticle, which was evaluated by high-performance liquid chromatography (HPLC). Moreover, the drug release behavior of Keto-loaded eudragit RS nanoparticle was also investigated in vitro at pH 7.4 and compared to referential profenid. (paper)

  8. Peak reading detector circuit

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Courtin, E.; Grund, K.; Traub, S.; Zeeb, H.

    1975-01-01

    The peak reading detector circuit serves for picking up the instants during which peaks of a given polarity occur in sequences of signals in which the extreme values, their time intervals, and the curve shape of the signals vary. The signal sequences appear in measuring the foetal heart beat frequence from amplitude-modulated ultrasonic, electrocardiagram, and blood pressure signals. In order to prevent undesired emission of output signals from, e. g., disturbing intermediate extreme values, the circuit consists of the series connections of a circuit to simulate an ideal diode, a strong unit, a discriminator for the direction of charging current, a time-delay circuit, and an electronic switch lying in the decharging circuit of the storage unit. The time-delay circuit thereby causes storing of a preliminary maximum value being used only after a certain time delay for the emission of the output signal. If a larger extreme value occurs during the delay time the preliminary maximum value is cleared and the delay time starts running anew. (DG/PB) [de

  9. (RS-Efonidipine acetone hemisolvate

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Yu-Heng Liu

    2016-09-01

    Full Text Available The asymmetric unit of the title compound, C34H38N3O7P·0.5C3H6O {systematic name: (RS-2-[phenyl(phenylmethylamino]ethyl 5-(5,5-dimethyl-2-oxo-1,3-dioxa-2λ5-phosphacyclohex-2-yl-2,6-dimethyl-4-(3-nitrophenyl-1,4-dihydropyridine-3-carboxylate acetone hemisolvate}, contains one R-efonidipine molecule, one S-efonidipine molecule and half of a solvate acetone molecule. In both efonidipine molecules, the six-membered rings of the dioxaphosphinanyl moieties display a chair conformation and the dihydropyridine rings display a flattened boat conformation. In the crystal, N—H...O, C—H...O hydrogen bonds and weak C—H...π interactions link the molecules into a three-dimensional supramolecular structure. A solvent-accessible void of 199 Å3 is found in the structure; the contribution of the heavily disordered solvate molecule was suppressed by use of the SQUEEZE routine in PLATON [Spek (2015. Acta Cryst. C71, 9–18].

  10. RS CV sub n binary systems

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Linsky, J.L.

    1984-01-01

    An attempt is made to place in context the vast amount of data obtained as a result of X-ray, ultraviolet, optical, and microwave observations of RS CVn and similar spectroscopic binary systems. Emphasis is on the RS CVn systems and their long period analogs. The following questions are considered: (1) are the original defining characteristics still valid and still adequate; (2) what is the evidence for discrete active regions; (3) have any meaningful physical properties for the atmospheres of RS CVn systems been derived; (4) what do the flare observations tell about magnetic fields in RS CVn systems; (5) is there evidence for systematic trends in RS CVn systems with spectral type

  11. Association of ITPA polymorphisms rs6051702/rs1127354 instead of rs7270101/rs1127354 as predictor of ribavirin-associated anemia in chronic hepatitis C treated patients.

    Science.gov (United States)

    D'Avolio, Antonio; De Nicolò, Amedeo; Cusato, Jessica; Ciancio, Alessia; Boglione, Lucio; Strona, Silvia; Cariti, Giuseppe; Troshina, Giulia; Caviglia, Gian Paolo; Smedile, Antonina; Rizzetto, Mario; Di Perri, Giovanni

    2013-10-01

    Functional variants rs7270101 and rs1127354 of inosine triphosphatase (ITPA) were recently found to protect against ribavirin (RBV)-induced hemolytic anemia. However, no definitive data are yet available on the role of no functional rs6051702 polymorphism. Since a simultaneous evaluation of the three ITPA SNPs for hemolytic anemia has not yet been investigated, we aimed to understand the contribution of each SNPs and its potential clinical use to predict anemia in HCV treated patients. A retrospective analysis included 379 HCV treated patients. The ITPA variants rs6051702, rs7270101 and rs1127354 were genotyped and tested for association with achieving anemia at week 4. We also investigated, using multivariate logistic regression, the impact of each single and paired associated polymorphism on anemia onset. All SNPs were associated with Hb decrease. The carrier of at least one variant allele in the functional ITPA SNPs was associated with a lower decrement of Hb, as compared to patients without a variant allele. In multivariate logistic regression analyses the carrier of a variant allele in the rs6051702/rs1127354 association (OR=0.11, p=1.75×10(-5)) and Hb at baseline (OR=1.51, p=1.21×10(-4)) were independently associated with protection against clinically significant anemia at week 4. All ITPA polymorphisms considered were shown to be significantly associated with anemia onset. A multivariate regression model based on ITPA genetic polymorphisms was developed for predicting the risk of anemia. Considering the characterization of pre-therapy anemia predictors, rs6051702 SNP in association to rs1127354 is more informative in order to avoid this relevant adverse event. Copyright © 2013 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  12. Shape dependent resonance light scattering properties of gold nanorods

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Zhu Jian; Huang Liqing; Zhao Junwu; Wang Yongchang; Zhao Yanrui; Hao Limei; Lu Yimin

    2005-01-01

    Suspended gold nanorods with mean aspect ratio 2.5 have been synthesized via electrochemical method. Resonance scattering properties have been studied. Two scattering peaks fixed at 400 and 640 nm are due to the scattering of the gold nanorods via coupling to the transverse and longitudinal surface plasmon resonance. The quasi-static calculation results indicate that with the increasing aspect ratio of the nanorods, the longer wavelength scattering peak red shifts linearly and the shorter wavelength peak blue shifts non-linearly. When aspect ratio a/b = 1.0, ellipse degenerate to sphere and the two peaks unite into one peak at 450 nm

  13. Explanation of the surface peak in charge integrated LEIS spectra

    CERN Document Server

    Draxler, M; Taglauer, E; Schmid, K; Gruber, R; Ermolov, S N; Bauer, P

    2003-01-01

    Low energy ion scattering is very surface sensitive if scattered ions are analyzed. By time-of-flight (TOF) techniques, also neutral and charge integrated spectra (ions plus neutrals) can be obtained, which yield information about deeper layers. In the literature, the observation of a more or less pronounced surface peak was reported for charge integrated spectra, the intensity of the surface peak being higher at low energies and for heavy projectiles. Aiming at a more profound physical understanding of this surface peak, we performed TOF-experiments and computer simulations for He projectiles and a copper target. Experiments were done in the range 1-9 keV for a scattering angle of 129 deg. . The simulation was performed using the MARLOWE code for the given experimental parameters and a polycrystalline target. At low energies, a pronounced surface peak was observed, which fades away at higher energies. This peak is quantitatively reproduced by the simulation, and corresponds to scattering from approx 2 atomic...

  14. Role of redoximiRs in fibrogenesis.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Fierro-Fernández, Marta; Miguel, Verónica; Lamas, Santiago

    2016-04-01

    Fibrosis can be defined as an excessive accumulation of extracellular matrix (ECM) components, ultimately leading to stiffness, scarring and devitalized tissue. MicroRNAs (miRNAs) are short, 19-25 nucleotides (nt), non-coding RNAs involved in the post-transcriptional regulation of gene expression. Recently, miRNAs have also emerged as powerful regulators of fibrotic processes and have been termed "fibromiRs". Oxidative stress represents a self-perpetuating mechanism in fibrogenesis. MiRNAs can also influence the expression of genes responsible for the generation of reactive oxygen species (ROS) and antioxidant defence and are termed "redoximiRs". Here, we review the current knowledge of mechanisms by which "redoximiRs" regulate fibrogenesis. This new set of miRNAs may be called "redoxifibromiRs". Copyright © 2015 The Authors. Published by Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  15. Quasiresonant scattering

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Hategan, Cornel; Comisel, Horia; Ionescu, Remus A.

    2004-01-01

    The quasiresonant scattering consists from a single channel resonance coupled by direct interaction transitions to some competing reaction channels. A description of quasiresonant Scattering, in terms of generalized reduced K-, R- and S- Matrix, is developed in this work. The quasiresonance's decay width is, due to channels coupling, smaller than the width of the ancestral single channel resonance (resonance's direct compression). (author)

  16. Thomson Scattering

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Donne, A. J. H.

    1994-01-01

    Thomson scattering is a very powerful diagnostic which is applied at nearly every magnetic confinement device. Depending on the experimental conditions different plasma parameters can be diagnosed. When the wave vector is much larger than the plasma Debye length, the total scattered power is

  17. Evaluation of interatomic potentials for rainbow scattering under axial channeling at KCl(0 0 1) surface by three-dimensional computer simulations based on binary collision approximation

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Takeuchi, Wataru, E-mail: take@sp.ous.ac.jp

    2017-05-01

    The rainbow angles corresponding to prominent peaks in the angular distributions of scattered projectiles with small angle, attributed to rainbow scattering (RS), under axial surface channeling conditions are strongly influenced by the interatomic potentials between projectiles and target atoms. The dependence of rainbow angles on normal energy of projectile energy to the target surface, being experimentally obtained by Specht et al. for RS of He, N, Ne and Ar atoms under 〈1 0 0〉 and 〈1 1 0〉 axial channeling conditions at a KCl(0 0 1) surface with projectile energies of 1–60 keV, was evaluated by the three-dimensional computer simulations using the ACOCT code based on the binary collision approximation with interatomic pair potentials. Good agreement between the ACOCT results using the ZBL pair potential and the individual pair potentials calculated from Hartree-Fock (HF) wave functions and the experimental ones was found for RS of He, N and Ne atoms from the atomic rows along 〈1 0 0〉 direction. For 〈1 1 0〉 direction, the ACOCT results employing the Moliere pair potential with adjustable screening length of O’Connor-Biersack (OB) formula, the ZBL pair potential and the individual HF pair potentials except for Ar → KCl using the OB pair potential are nearly in agreement with the experimental ones.

  18. Evaluation of interatomic potentials for noble gas atoms from rainbow scattering under axial channeling at Ag(1 1 1) surface by computer simulations based on binary collision approximation

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Takeuchi, Wataru, E-mail: take@sp.ous.ac.jp

    2016-01-01

    The rainbow angles corresponding to pronounced peaks in the angular distributions of scattered projectiles with small angle, attributed to rainbow scattering (RS), under axial surface channeling conditions are strongly dependent on the interatomic potentials between projectiles and target atoms. The dependence of rainbow angles on normal energy of projectile energy to the target surface that has been experimentally obtained by Schüller and Winter (SW) (2007) for RS of He, Ne and Ar atoms from a Ag(1 1 1) surface with projectile energies of 3–60 keV was evaluated by the three-dimensional computer simulations using the ACOCT code based on the binary collision approximation with interatomic pair potentials. Consequently, the ACOCT results employing the Moliere pair potential with screening length correction close to adjustable one of O’Connor and Biersack (OB) formula are almost in agreement with the experimental ones, being self-consistent with the SW’s ones analyzed by computer simulations of classical trajectory calculations as RS from corrugated equipotential planes based on continuum potentials including the Moliere pair potential with screening length correction of the OB formula.

  19. Scattering theory

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Sitenko, A.

    1991-01-01

    This book emerged out of graduate lectures given by the author at the University of Kiev and is intended as a graduate text. The fundamentals of non-relativistic quantum scattering theory are covered, including some topics, such as the phase-function formalism, separable potentials, and inverse scattering, which are not always coverded in textbooks on scattering theory. Criticisms of the text are minor, but the reviewer feels an inadequate index is provided and the citing of references in the Russian language is a hindrance in a graduate text

  20. Compton scattering revisited

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Pratt, R.H., E-mail: rpratt@pitt.ed [Department of Physics and Astronomy, University of Pittsburgh, Pittsburgh, PA 15260 (United States); LaJohn, L.A., E-mail: lal18@pitt.ed [Department of Physics and Astronomy, University of Pittsburgh, Pittsburgh, PA 15260 (United States); Florescu, V., E-mail: flor@barutu.fizica.unibuc.r [Centre for Advanced Quantum Physics, University of Bucharest, MG-11 Bucharest-Magurele, 077125 Magurele (Romania); Suric, T., E-mail: suric@irb.h [R. Boskovic Institute, Bijenicka 54, 10000 Zagreb (Croatia); Chatterjee, B.K., E-mail: barun_k_chatterjee@yahoo.co [Department of Physics, Bose Institute, Kolkata 700009 (India); Roy, S.C., E-mail: suprakash.roy@gmail.co [Department of Physics, Bose Institute, Kolkata 700009 (India)

    2010-02-15

    We review the standard theory of Compton scattering from bound electrons, and we describe recent findings that require modification of the usual understanding, noting the nature of consequences for experiment. The subject began with Compton and scattering from free electrons. Experiment actually involved bound electrons, and this was accommodated with the use of impulse approximation (IA), which described inelastic scattering from bound electrons in terms of scattering from free electrons. This was good for the Compton peak but failed for soft final photons. The standard theory was formalized by Eisenberger and Platzman (EP) [1970. Phys. Rev. A 2, 415], whose work also suggested why impulse approximation was better than one would expect, for doubly differential cross sections (DDCS), but not for triply differential cross sections (TDCS). A relativistic version of IA (RIA) was worked out by Ribberfors [1975. Phys. Rev. B 12, 2067]. And Suric et al. [1991. Phys. Rev. Lett. 67, 189] and Bergstrom et al. [1993. Phys. Rev. A 48, 1134] developed a full relativistic second order S-matrix treatment, not making impulse approximation, but within independent particle approximation (IPA). Newer developments in the theory of Compton scattering include: (1) Demonstration that the EP estimates of the validity of IA are incorrect, although the qualitative conclusion remains unchanged; IA is not to be understood as the first term in a standard series expansion. (2) The greater validity of IA for DDCS than for the TDCS, which when integrated give DDCS, is related to the existence of a sum rule, only valid for DDCS. (3) The so-called 'asymmetry' of a Compton profile is primarily to be understood as simply the shift of the peak position in the profile; symmetric and anti-symmetric deviations from a shifted Compton profile are very small, except for high Z inner shells where further p{sup -}>.A{sup -}> effects come into play. (4) Most relativistic effects, except at low

  1. Compton scattering revisited

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Pratt, R.H.; LaJohn, L.A.; Florescu, V.; Suric, T.; Chatterjee, B.K.; Roy, S.C.

    2010-01-01

    We review the standard theory of Compton scattering from bound electrons, and we describe recent findings that require modification of the usual understanding, noting the nature of consequences for experiment. The subject began with Compton and scattering from free electrons. Experiment actually involved bound electrons, and this was accommodated with the use of impulse approximation (IA), which described inelastic scattering from bound electrons in terms of scattering from free electrons. This was good for the Compton peak but failed for soft final photons. The standard theory was formalized by Eisenberger and Platzman (EP) [1970. Phys. Rev. A 2, 415], whose work also suggested why impulse approximation was better than one would expect, for doubly differential cross sections (DDCS), but not for triply differential cross sections (TDCS). A relativistic version of IA (RIA) was worked out by Ribberfors [1975. Phys. Rev. B 12, 2067]. And Suric et al. [1991. Phys. Rev. Lett. 67, 189] and Bergstrom et al. [1993. Phys. Rev. A 48, 1134] developed a full relativistic second order S-matrix treatment, not making impulse approximation, but within independent particle approximation (IPA). Newer developments in the theory of Compton scattering include: (1) Demonstration that the EP estimates of the validity of IA are incorrect, although the qualitative conclusion remains unchanged; IA is not to be understood as the first term in a standard series expansion. (2) The greater validity of IA for DDCS than for the TDCS, which when integrated give DDCS, is related to the existence of a sum rule, only valid for DDCS. (3) The so-called 'asymmetry' of a Compton profile is primarily to be understood as simply the shift of the peak position in the profile; symmetric and anti-symmetric deviations from a shifted Compton profile are very small, except for high Z inner shells where further p → .A → effects come into play. (4) Most relativistic effects, except at low energies, are to be

  2. The NC3Rs gateway: Accelerating scientific discoveries with new 3Rs models and technologies.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Percie du Sert, Nathalie; Robinson, Vicky

    2018-01-01

    This editorial introduces the NC3Rs gateway, which publishes articles and reviews on new models and technologies emerging from NC3Rs-funded research. The aim is to raise awareness about these approaches, increase confidence in their capability, and provide sufficient information to facilitate their uptake by others.

  3. Critical scattering

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Stirling, W.G.; Perry, S.C.

    1996-01-01

    We outline the theoretical and experimental background to neutron scattering studies of critical phenomena at magnetic and structural phase transitions. The displacive phase transition of SrTiO 3 is discussed, along with examples from recent work on magnetic materials from the rare-earth (Ho, Dy) and actinide (NpAs, NpSb, USb) classes. The impact of synchrotron X-ray scattering is discussed in conclusion. (author) 13 figs., 18 refs

  4. Scattering of light by a periodic structure in the presence of ...

    Indian Academy of Sciences (India)

    In the method developed till now, the detection of periodic structures involves the detection of the central peak, first peak and second peak in the scattered intensity of light, located at scattering wave vectors = 0, , 2, respectively, where = 2/, their distinct identities being obfuscated by the fact that the peaks have ...

  5. LIGHT SCATTERING FROM EXOPLANET OCEANS AND ATMOSPHERES

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Zugger, M. E.; Kane, T. J.; Kasting, J. F.; Williams, D. M.; Philbrick, C. R.

    2010-01-01

    Orbital variation in reflected starlight from exoplanets could eventually be used to detect surface oceans. Exoplanets with rough surfaces, or dominated by atmospheric Rayleigh scattering, should reach peak brightness in full phase, orbital longitude (OL) = 180 0 , whereas ocean planets with transparent atmospheres should reach peak brightness in crescent phase near OL = 30 0 . Application of Fresnel theory to a planet with no atmosphere covered by a calm ocean predicts a peak polarization fraction of 1 at OL = 74 0 ; however, our model shows that clouds, wind-driven waves, aerosols, absorption, and Rayleigh scattering in the atmosphere and within the water column dilute the polarization fraction and shift the peak to other OLs. Observing at longer wavelengths reduces the obfuscation of the water polarization signature by Rayleigh scattering but does not mitigate the other effects. Planets with thick Rayleigh scattering atmospheres reach peak polarization near OL = 90 0 , but clouds and Lambertian surface scattering dilute and shift this peak to smaller OL. A shifted Rayleigh peak might be mistaken for a water signature unless data from multiple wavelength bands are available. Our calculations suggest that polarization alone may not positively identify the presence of an ocean under an Earth-like atmosphere; however, polarization adds another dimension which can be used, in combination with unpolarized orbital light curves and contrast ratios, to detect extrasolar oceans, atmospheric water aerosols, and water clouds. Additionally, the presence and direction of the polarization vector could be used to determine planet association with the star, and constrain orbit inclination.

  6. Soft-decision decoding of RS codes

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Justesen, Jørn

    2005-01-01

    By introducing a few simplifying assumptions we derive a simple condition for successful decoding using the Koetter-Vardy algorithm for soft-decision decoding of RS codes. We show that the algorithm has a significant advantage over hard decision decoding when the code rate is low, when two or more...

  7. Association between ACE (rs4646994), FABP2 (rs1799883), MTHFR (rs1801133), FTO (rs9939609) Genes Polymorphism and Type 2 Diabetes with Dyslipidemia.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Raza, Syed Tasleem; Abbas, Shania; Siddiqi, Zeba; Mahdi, Farzana

    2017-01-01

    Diabetic dyslipidemia is one of the leading causes of coronary artery disease (CAD) death. Genetic and environmental factors play an important role in the development of type 2 diabetes mellitus (T2DM) and dyslipidemia. The present study was aimed to investigate the association of ACE (rs4646994), FABP2 (rs1799883), MTHFR (rs1801133) and FTO (rs9939609) genes polymorphism in T2DM with dyslipidemia. Totally, 559 subjects including 221 T2DM cases with dyslipidemia, 158 T2DM without dyslipidemia and 180 controls were enrolled. ACE genes polymorphism was evaluated by polymerase chain reaction (PCR), while MTHFR , FABP2 , FTO genes polymorphisms were evaluated by PCR and restriction fragment length polymorphism (RFLP). Significant association of ACE and MTHFR genes polymorphisms were found in both group of cases [T2DM with dyslipidemia (Pgenes polymorphisms were significantly associated with T2DM without dyslipidemia (P=0.038, and P= 0.019, respectively). This study concludes that ACE , FABP2 , FTO and MTHFR genes are associated with T2DM. Additionally, it also seems that ACE and MTHFR genes might be further associated with the development of dyslipidemia in T2DM cases.

  8. Quantitative evaluation of pairs and RS steganalysis

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ker, Andrew D.

    2004-06-01

    We give initial results from a new project which performs statistically accurate evaluation of the reliability of image steganalysis algorithms. The focus here is on the Pairs and RS methods, for detection of simple LSB steganography in grayscale bitmaps, due to Fridrich et al. Using libraries totalling around 30,000 images we have measured the performance of these methods and suggest changes which lead to significant improvements. Particular results from the project presented here include notes on the distribution of the RS statistic, the relative merits of different "masks" used in the RS algorithm, the effect on reliability when previously compressed cover images are used, and the effect of repeating steganalysis on the transposed image. We also discuss improvements to the Pairs algorithm, restricting it to spatially close pairs of pixels, which leads to a substantial performance improvement, even to the extent of surpassing the RS statistic which was previously thought superior for grayscale images. We also describe some of the questions for a general methodology of evaluation of steganalysis, and potential pitfalls caused by the differences between uncompressed, compressed, and resampled cover images.

  9. The origin of the RS CVn binaries

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Biermann, P.

    1976-01-01

    Six possible origins for the RS CVn binaries are considered based on the following possibilities. RS CVn binaries might now be either pre-main-sequence or post-main-sequence. A pre-main-sequence binary might not always have been a binary but might have resulted from fission of a rapidly rotating single pre-main-sequence star. The main-sequence counterparts might be either single stars or binaries. To decide which of the six origins is possible, the following observed data for the RS CVn binaries are considered: total mass, total angular momentum, lack of observed connection with regions of star formation, large space density, kinematical age, and the visual companion of WW Dra. In addition lifetimes and space densities of single stars and other types of binaries are considered. The only origin possible is that the RS CVn binaries are in a thermal phase following fission of a main-sequence single star. In this explanation the single star had a rapidly rotating core which became unstable due to the core contraction which made it begin to evolve off the main sequence. The present Be stars might be examples of such parent single stars. (Auth.)

  10. Upper limit of peak area

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Helene, O.A.M.

    1982-08-01

    The determination of the upper limit of peak area in a multi-channel spectra, with a known significance level is discussed. This problem is specially important when the peak area is masked by the background statistical fluctuations. The problem is exactly solved and, thus, the results are valid in experiments with small number of events. The results are submitted to a Monte Carlo test and applied to the 92 Nb beta decay. (Author) [pt

  11. Resonance scattering spectra of micrococcus lysodeikticus and its application to assay of lysozyme activity.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jiang, Zhi-Liang; Huang, Guo-Xia

    2007-02-01

    Several methods, including turbidimetric and colorimetric methods, have been reported for the detection of lysozyme activity. However, there is no report about the resonance scattering spectral (RSS) assay, which is based on the catalytic effect of lysozyme on the hydrolysis of micrococcus lysodeikticus (ML) and its resonance scattering effect. ML has 5 resonance scattering peaks at 360 400, 420, 470, and 520 nm with the strongest one at 470 nm. The concentration of ML in the range of 2.0x10(6)-9.3x10(8) cells/ml is proportional to the RS intensity at 470 nm (I(470 nm)). A new catalytic RSS method has been proposed for 0.24-40.0 U/ml (or 0.012-2.0 mug/ml) lysozyme activity, with a detection limit (3sigma) of 0.014 U/ml (or 0.0007 microg/ml). Saliva samples were assayed by this method, and it is in agreement with the results of turbidimetric method. The slope, intercept and the correlation coefficient of the regression analysis of the 2 assays were 0.9665, -87.50, and 0.9973, respectively. The assay has high sensitivity and simplicity.

  12. Compton scattering

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Botto, D.J.; Pratt, R.H.

    1979-05-01

    The current status of Compton scattering, both experimental observations and the theoretical predictions, is examined. Classes of experiments are distinguished and the results obtained are summarized. The validity of the incoherent scattering function approximation and the impulse approximation is discussed. These simple theoretical approaches are compared with predictions of the nonrelativistic dipole formula of Gavrila and with the relativistic results of Whittingham. It is noted that the A -2 based approximations fail to predict resonances and an infrared divergence, both of which have been observed. It appears that at present the various available theoretical approaches differ significantly in their predictions and that further and more systematic work is required

  13. Compton scattering

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Botto, D.J.; Pratt, R.H.

    1979-05-01

    The current status of Compton scattering, both experimental observations and the theoretical predictions, is examined. Classes of experiments are distinguished and the results obtained are summarized. The validity of the incoherent scattering function approximation and the impulse approximation is discussed. These simple theoretical approaches are compared with predictions of the nonrelativistic dipole formula of Gavrila and with the relativistic results of Whittingham. It is noted that the A/sup -2/ based approximations fail to predict resonances and an infrared divergence, both of which have been observed. It appears that at present the various available theoretical approaches differ significantly in their predictions and that further and more systematic work is required.

  14. Peak Oil and other threatening peaks-Chimeras without substance

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Radetzki, Marian

    2010-01-01

    The Peak Oil movement has widely spread its message about an impending peak in global oil production, caused by an inadequate resource base. On closer scrutiny, the underlying analysis is inconsistent, void of a theoretical foundation and without support in empirical observations. Global oil resources are huge and expanding, and pose no threat to continuing output growth within an extended time horizon. In contrast, temporary or prolonged supply crunches are indeed plausible, even likely, on account of growing resource nationalism denying access to efficient exploitation of the existing resource wealth.

  15. Electricity Portfolio Management: Optimal Peak / Off-Peak Allocations

    OpenAIRE

    Huisman, Ronald; Mahieu, Ronald; Schlichter, Felix

    2007-01-01

    textabstractElectricity purchasers manage a portfolio of contracts in order to purchase the expected future electricity consumption profile of a company or a pool of clients. This paper proposes a mean-variance framework to address the concept of structuring the portfolio and focuses on how to allocate optimal positions in peak and off-peak forward contracts. It is shown that the optimal allocations are based on the difference in risk premiums per unit of day-ahead risk as a measure of relati...

  16. Ultrasonic Transducer Peak-to-Peak Optical Measurement

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Pavel Skarvada

    2012-01-01

    Full Text Available Possible optical setups for measurement of the peak-to-peak value of an ultrasonic transducer are described in this work. The Michelson interferometer with the calibrated nanopositioner in reference path and laser Doppler vibrometer were used for the basic measurement of vibration displacement. Langevin type of ultrasonic transducer is used for the purposes of Electro-Ultrasonic Nonlinear Spectroscopy (EUNS. Parameters of produced mechanical vibration have to been well known for EUNS. Moreover, a monitoring of mechanical vibration frequency shift with a mass load and sample-transducer coupling is important for EUNS measurement.

  17. Peaking-factor of PWR

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Morioka, Noboru; Kato, Yasuji; Yokoi, M.

    1975-01-01

    Output peaking factor often plays an important role in the safety and operation of nuclear reactors. The meaning of the peaking factor of PWRs is categorized into two features or the peaking factor in core (FQ-core) and the peaking factor on the basis of accident analysis (or FQ-limit). FQ-core is the actual peaking factor realized in nuclear core at the time of normal operation, and FQ-limit should be evaluated from loss of coolant accident and other abnormal conditions. If FQ-core is lower than FQ-limit, the reactor may be operated at full load, but if FQ-core is larger than FQ-limit, reactor output should be controlled lower than FQ-limit. FQ-core has two kinds of values, or the one on the basis of nuclear design, and the other actually measured in reactor operation. The first FQ-core should be named as FQ-core-design and the latter as FQ-core-measured. The numerical evaluation of FQ-core-design is as follows; FQ-core-design of three-dimensions is synthesized with FQ-core horizontal value (X-Y) and FQ-core vertical value, the former one is calculated with ASSY-CORE code, and the latter one with one dimensional diffusion code. For the evaluation of FQ-core-measured, on-site data observation from nuclear reactor instrumentation or off-site data observation is used. (Iwase, T.)

  18. Contribution of double scattering to structural coloration in quasiordered nanostructures of bird feathers

    Science.gov (United States)

    Noh, Heeso; Liew, Seng Fatt; Saranathan, Vinodkumar; Prum, Richard O.; Mochrie, Simon G. J.; Dufresne, Eric R.; Cao, Hui

    2010-05-01

    We measured the polarization- and angle-resolved optical scattering and reflection spectra of the quasiordered nanostructures in the bird feather barbs. In addition to the primary peak that originates from single scattering, we observed a secondary peak which exhibits depolarization and distinct angular dispersion. We explained the secondary peak in terms of double scattering, i.e., light is scattered successively twice by the structure. The two sequential single-scattering events are considered uncorrelated. Using the Fourier power spectra of the nanostructures obtained from the small-angle x-ray scattering experiment, we calculated the double scattering of light in various directions. The double-scattering spectrum is broader than the single-scattering spectrum, and it splits into two subpeaks at larger scattering angle. The good agreement between the simulation results and the experimental data confirms that double scattering of light makes a significant contribution to the structural color.

  19. Contribution of double scattering to structural coloration in quasiordered nanostructures of bird feathers

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Noh, Heeso; Liew, Seng Fatt; Saranathan, Vinodkumar; Prum, Richard O.; Mochrie, Simon G.J.; Dufresne, Eric R.; Cao, Hui (Yale)

    2010-07-28

    We measured the polarization- and angle-resolved optical scattering and reflection spectra of the quasiordered nanostructures in the bird feather barbs. In addition to the primary peak that originates from single scattering, we observed a secondary peak which exhibits depolarization and distinct angular dispersion. We explained the secondary peak in terms of double scattering, i.e., light is scattered successively twice by the structure. The two sequential single-scattering events are considered uncorrelated. Using the Fourier power spectra of the nanostructures obtained from the small-angle x-ray scattering experiment, we calculated the double scattering of light in various directions. The double-scattering spectrum is broader than the single-scattering spectrum, and it splits into two subpeaks at larger scattering angle. The good agreement between the simulation results and the experimental data confirms that double scattering of light makes a significant contribution to the structural color.

  20. How to use your peak flow meter

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... meter - how to use; Asthma - peak flow meter; Reactive airway disease - peak flow meter; Bronchial asthma - peak ... 2014:chap 55. National Asthma Education and Prevention Program website. How to use a peak flow meter. ...

  1. Infrared observations of RS CVn stars

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Berriman, G.; De Campli, W.M.; Werner, M.W.; Hatchett, S.P.

    1983-01-01

    Infrared photometry is presented of the RS CVn binary stars AR Lac (1.2-10 μm) and MM Her (1.2-3.5 μm) as they egressed from their primary and secondary eclipses; of the eclipsing systems RS CVn and Z Her at maximum light (1.2-10 μm) and of the non-eclipsing systems UX Ari and HR 1099 (1.2-10 μm). An analysis of these and published V data based on flux ratio diagrams (linear analogues of colour-colour diagrams) shows that G and K stars supply the infrared light of these systems. None of these systems shows infrared emission from circumstellar matter. (author)

  2. Peak effect in twinned superconductors

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Larkin, A.I.; Marchetti, M.C.; Vinokur, V.M.

    1995-01-01

    A sharp maximum in the critical current J c as a function of temperature just below the melting point of the Abrikosov flux lattice has recently been observed in both low- and high-temperature superconductors. This peak effect is strongest in twinned crystals for fields aligned with the twin planes. We propose that this peak signals the breakdown of the collective pinning regime and the crossover to strong pinning of single vortices on the twin boundaries. This crossover is very sharp and can account for the steep drop of the differential resistivity observed in experiments. copyright 1995 The American Physical Society

  3. Hydrocarbon isotope detection by elastic peak electron spectroscopy

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Kostanovskiy, I.A., E-mail: kostanovskiyia@gmail.com [National Research University MPEI, Krasnokazarmennaya 14, 111250 Moscow (Russian Federation); Afanas’ev, V.P. [National Research University MPEI, Krasnokazarmennaya 14, 111250 Moscow (Russian Federation); Naujoks, D. [Max-Planck-Institut für Plasmaphysik, Teilinstitut Greifswald, Wendelsteinstraße 1, D-17491 Greifswald (Germany); Mayer, M. [Max-Planck-Institut für Plasmaphysik, D-85748 Garching (Germany)

    2015-07-15

    Highlights: • PCVD hydrocarbon coatings containing protium or deuterium are analyzed via NRA, ERD, XPS and EPES. • EPES analysis with modern electron energy analyzer SPECS Phoibos 225 shows a clear signal from the hydrogen isotopes. • Different primary energies and scattering angles help to quantify isotope content from EPES spectra. - Abstract: Experimental results on the hydrocarbon isotope analysis by elastic peak electron spectroscopy are presented. Amorphous hydrocarbon samples (a-C:H, a-C:D) are prepared by PCVD and analyzed by nuclear reaction analysis (NRA), elastic recoil detection analysis (ERD), X-ray photoelectron spectroscopy (XPS) and elastic peak electron spectroscopy (EPES). Electron energy spectra show a clear signal from the hydrogen isotopes deuterium and protium. Different incident energies and scattering geometries help to resolve plasmon and elastic energy losses.

  4. Hydrocarbon isotope detection by elastic peak electron spectroscopy

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Kostanovskiy, I.A.; Afanas’ev, V.P.; Naujoks, D.; Mayer, M.

    2015-01-01

    Highlights: • PCVD hydrocarbon coatings containing protium or deuterium are analyzed via NRA, ERD, XPS and EPES. • EPES analysis with modern electron energy analyzer SPECS Phoibos 225 shows a clear signal from the hydrogen isotopes. • Different primary energies and scattering angles help to quantify isotope content from EPES spectra. - Abstract: Experimental results on the hydrocarbon isotope analysis by elastic peak electron spectroscopy are presented. Amorphous hydrocarbon samples (a-C:H, a-C:D) are prepared by PCVD and analyzed by nuclear reaction analysis (NRA), elastic recoil detection analysis (ERD), X-ray photoelectron spectroscopy (XPS) and elastic peak electron spectroscopy (EPES). Electron energy spectra show a clear signal from the hydrogen isotopes deuterium and protium. Different incident energies and scattering geometries help to resolve plasmon and elastic energy losses

  5. Hubbert's Peak -- A Physicist's View

    Science.gov (United States)

    McDonald, Richard

    2011-04-01

    Oil, as used in agriculture and transportation, is the lifeblood of modern society. It is finite in quantity and will someday be exhausted. In 1956, Hubbert proposed a theory of resource production and applied it successfully to predict peak U.S. oil production in 1970. Bartlett extended this work in publications and lectures on the finite nature of oil and its production peak and depletion. Both Hubbert and Bartlett place peak world oil production at a similar time, essentially now. Central to these analyses are estimates of total ``oil in place'' obtained from engineering studies of oil reservoirs as this quantity determines the area under the Hubbert's Peak. Knowing the production history and the total oil in place allows us to make estimates of reserves, and therefore future oil availability. We will then examine reserves data for various countries, in particular OPEC countries, and see if these data tell us anything about the future availability of oil. Finally, we will comment on synthetic oil and the possibility of carbon-neutral synthetic oil for a sustainable future.

  6. Elastic scattering

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Leader, Elliot

    1991-01-01

    With very few unexplained results to challenge conventional ideas, physicists have to look hard to search for gaps in understanding. An area of physics which offers a lot more than meets the eye is elastic and diffractive scattering where particles either 'bounce' off each other, emerging unscathed, or just graze past, emerging relatively unscathed. The 'Blois' workshops provide a regular focus for this unspectacular, but compelling physics, attracting highly motivated devotees

  7. Association between vitamin D concentration and levels of sex hormones in an elderly Polish population with different genotypes of VDR polymorphisms (rs10735810, rs1544410, rs7975232, rs731236).

    Science.gov (United States)

    Laczmanski, Lukasz; Lwow, Felicja; Mossakowska, Malgorzata; Puzianowska-Kuznicka, Monika; Szwed, Małgorzata; Kolackov, Katarzyna; Krzyzanowska-Swiniarska, Barbara; Bar-Andziak, Ewa; Chudek, Jerzy; Sloka, Natalia; Milewicz, Andrzej

    2015-03-15

    Vitamin D co-regulates the synthesis of sex hormones in part by interaction with its nuclear receptor. The aim of this study was to determine whether there is an association of vitamin D concentration vs the level of sex hormones in elderly Polish individuals with different genotypes of the vitamin D receptor (VDR) gene. Rs10735810, rs1544410, rs7975232, and rs731236 polymorphisms of VDR, the serum sex hormone level, free estrogen index (FEI) and free androgen index (FAI) as well as vitamin D, were evaluated in 766 persons (362 women and 404 men) selected from 5695 Polish population, aged 65-90years from the PolSenior survey. We observed that women with GG (rs731236), TT (rs7975232), BB (rs1544410) and FF (rs10735810) genotypes were characterized by a significant correlation between vitamin D vs testosterone concentration and FAI value. We found a significant correlation between testosterone level and FAI vs vitamin D concentration in men with heterozygote AG in the rs731236 polymorphism and in the GG (rs7975232), the BB (rs1544410), and the Ff (rs10735810) genotypes. In elderly selected Polish population with different genotypes of VDR polymorphisms, a statistically significant relationship between vitamin D concentration vs testosterone level was observed. Copyright © 2015 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  8. Neutron scattering

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    1991-02-01

    The annual report on hand gives an overview of the research work carried out in the Laboratory for Neutron Scattering (LNS) of the ETH Zuerich in 1990. Using the method of neutron scattering, it is possible to examine in detail the static and dynamic properties of the condensed material. In accordance with the multidisciplined character of the method, the LNS has for years maintained a system of intensive co-operation with numerous institutes in the areas of biology, chemistry, solid-state physics, crystallography and materials research. In 1990 over 100 scientists from more than 40 research groups both at home and abroad took part in the experiments. It was again a pleasure to see the number of graduate students present, who were studying for a doctorate and who could be introduced into the neutron scattering during their stay at the LNS and thus were in the position to touch on central ways of looking at a problem in their dissertation using this modern experimental method of solid-state research. In addition to the numerous and interesting ways of formulating the questions to explain the structure, nowadays the scientific programme increasingly includes particularly topical studies in connection with high temperature-supraconductors and materials research

  9. Scattering theory

    CERN Document Server

    Friedrich, Harald

    2016-01-01

    This corrected and updated second edition of "Scattering Theory" presents a concise and modern coverage of the subject. In the present treatment, special attention is given to the role played by the long-range behaviour of the projectile-target interaction, and a theory is developed, which is well suited to describe near-threshold bound and continuum states in realistic binary systems such as diatomic molecules or molecular ions. It is motivated by the fact that experimental advances have shifted and broadened the scope of applications where concepts from scattering theory are used, e.g. to the field of ultracold atoms and molecules, which has been experiencing enormous growth in recent years, largely triggered by the successful realization of Bose-Einstein condensates of dilute atomic gases in 1995. The book contains sections on special topics such as near-threshold quantization, quantum reflection, Feshbach resonances and the quantum description of scattering in two dimensions. The level of abstraction is k...

  10. 40 CFR 180.1114 - Pseudomonas fluorescens A506, Pseudomonas fluorescens 1629RS, and Pseudomonas syringae 742RS...

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-07-01

    ... 40 Protection of Environment 23 2010-07-01 2010-07-01 false Pseudomonas fluorescens A506, Pseudomonas fluorescens 1629RS, and Pseudomonas syringae 742RS; exemptions from the requirement of a tolerance... Tolerances § 180.1114 Pseudomonas fluorescens A506, Pseudomonas fluorescens 1629RS, and Pseudomonas syringae...

  11. COX-2 rs689466, rs5275, and rs20417 polymorphisms and risk of head and neck squamous cell carcinoma: a meta-analysis of adjusted and unadjusted data

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Leng, Wei-Dong; Wen, Xiu-Jie; Kwong, Joey S. W.; Huang, Wei; Chen, Jian-Gang; Zeng, Xian-Tao

    2016-01-01

    Numerous case–control studies have been performed to investigate the association between three cyclooxygenase-2 (COX-2) polymorphisms (rs20417 (−765G > C), rs689466 (−1195G > A), and rs5275 (8473 T > C)) and the risk of head and neck squamous cell carcinoma (HNSCC). However, the results were inconsistent. Therefore, we conducted this meta-analysis to investigate the association. We searched in PubMed, Embase, and Web of Science up to January 20, 2015 (last updated on May 12, 2016). Two independent reviewers extracted the data. Odds ratios (ORs) with their 95 % confidence intervals (CIs) were used to assess the association. All statistical analyses were performed using the Review Manager (RevMan) 5.2 software. Finally 8 case–control studies were included in this meta-analysis. For unadjusted data, an association with increased risk was observed in three genetic models in COX-2 rs689466 polymorphism; however, COX-2 rs5275 and rs20417 polymorphisms were not related to HNSCC risk in this study. The pooled results from adjusted data all revealed non-significant association between these three polymorphisms and risk of HNSCC. We also found a similar result in the subgroup analyses, based on both unadjusted data and adjusted data. Current results suggest that COX-2 rs689466, rs5275, and rs20417 polymorphisms are not associated with HNSCC. Further large and well-designed studies are necessary to validate this association

  12. SPANISH PEAKS PRIMITIVE AREA, MONTANA.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Calkins, James A.; Pattee, Eldon C.

    1984-01-01

    A mineral survey of the Spanish Peaks Primitive Area, Montana, disclosed a small low-grade deposit of demonstrated chromite and asbestos resources. The chances for discovery of additional chrome resources are uncertain and the area has little promise for the occurrence of other mineral or energy resources. A reevaluation, sampling at depth, and testing for possible extensions of the Table Mountain asbestos and chromium deposit should be undertaken in the light of recent interpretations regarding its geologic setting.

  13. Neurofeedback training for peak performance

    OpenAIRE

    Marek Graczyk; Maria Pąchalska; Artur Ziółkowski; Grzegorz Mańko; Beata Łukaszewska; Kazimierz Kochanowicz; Andrzej Mirski; Iurii D. Kropotov

    2014-01-01

    [b]aim[/b]. One of the applications of the Neurofeedback methodology is peak performance in sport. The protocols of the neurofeedback are usually based on an assessment of the spectral parameters of spontaneous EEG in resting state conditions. The aim of the paper was to study whether the intensive neurofeedback training of a well-functioning Olympic athlete who has lost his performance confidence after injury in sport, could change the brain functioning reflected in changes in spontaneou...

  14. Power peaking nuclear reliability factors

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Hassan, H.A.; Pegram, J.W.; Mays, C.W.; Romano, J.J.; Woods, J.J.; Warren, H.D.

    1977-11-01

    The Calculational Nuclear Reliability Factor (CNRF) assigned to the limiting power density calculated in reactor design has been determined. The CNRF is presented as a function of the relative power density of the fuel assembly and its radial local. In addition, the Measurement Nuclear Reliability Factor (MNRF) for the measured peak hot pellet power in the core has been evaluated. This MNRF is also presented as a function of the relative power density and radial local within the fuel assembly

  15. Evaluation of concurrent peak responses

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Wang, P.C.; Curreri, J.; Reich, M.

    1983-01-01

    This report deals with the problem of combining two or more concurrent responses which are induced by dynamic loads acting on nuclear power plant structures. Specifically, the acceptability of using the square root of the sum of the squares (SRSS) value of peak values as the combined response is investigated. Emphasis is placed on the establishment of a simplified criterion that is convenient and relatively easy to use by design engineers

  16. Finding two-dimensional peaks

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Silagadze, Z.K.

    2007-01-01

    Two-dimensional generalization of the original peak finding algorithm suggested earlier is given. The ideology of the algorithm emerged from the well-known quantum mechanical tunneling property which enables small bodies to penetrate through narrow potential barriers. We merge this 'quantum' ideology with the philosophy of Particle Swarm Optimization to get the global optimization algorithm which can be called Quantum Swarm Optimization. The functionality of the newborn algorithm is tested on some benchmark optimization problems

  17. Mass and Reliability System (MaRS)

    Science.gov (United States)

    Barnes, Sarah

    2016-01-01

    The Safety and Mission Assurance (S&MA) Directorate is responsible for mitigating risk, providing system safety, and lowering risk for space programs from ground to space. The S&MA is divided into 4 divisions: The Space Exploration Division (NC), the International Space Station Division (NE), the Safety & Test Operations Division (NS), and the Quality and Flight Equipment Division (NT). The interns, myself and Arun Aruljothi, will be working with the Risk & Reliability Analysis Branch under the NC Division's. The mission of this division is to identify, characterize, diminish, and communicate risk by implementing an efficient and effective assurance model. The team utilizes Reliability and Maintainability (R&M) and Probabilistic Risk Assessment (PRA) to ensure decisions concerning risks are informed, vehicles are safe and reliable, and program/project requirements are realistic and realized. This project pertains to the Orion mission, so it is geared toward a long duration Human Space Flight Program(s). For space missions, payload is a critical concept; balancing what hardware can be replaced by components verse by Orbital Replacement Units (ORU) or subassemblies is key. For this effort a database was created that combines mass and reliability data, called Mass and Reliability System or MaRS. The U.S. International Space Station (ISS) components are used as reference parts in the MaRS database. Using ISS components as a platform is beneficial because of the historical context and the environment similarities to a space flight mission. MaRS uses a combination of systems: International Space Station PART for failure data, Vehicle Master Database (VMDB) for ORU & components, Maintenance & Analysis Data Set (MADS) for operation hours and other pertinent data, & Hardware History Retrieval System (HHRS) for unit weights. MaRS is populated using a Visual Basic Application. Once populated, the excel spreadsheet is comprised of information on ISS components including

  18. Diffractive scattering

    CERN Document Server

    De Wolf, E.A.

    2002-01-01

    We discuss basic concepts and properties of diffractive phenomena in soft hadron collisions and in deep-inelastic scattering at low Bjorken-x. The paper is not a review of the rapidly developing field but presents an attempt to show in simple terms the close inter-relationship between the dynamics of high-energy hadronic and deep-inelastic diffraction. Using the saturation model of Golec-Biernat and Wusthoff as an example, a simple explanation of geometrical scaling is presented. The relation between the QCD anomalous multiplicity dimension and the Pomeron intercept is discussed.

  19. Diffractive Scattering

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Wolf, E.A. de

    2002-01-01

    We discuss basic concepts and properties of diffractive phenomena in soft hadron collisions and in deep-inelastic scattering at low Bjorken - x. The paper is not a review of the rapidly developing field but presents an attempt to show in simple terms the close inter-relationship between the dynamics of high-energy hadronic and deep-inelastic diffraction. Using the saturation model of Golec-Biernat and Wuesthoff as an example, a simple explanation of geometrical scaling is presented. The relation between the QCD anomalous multiplicity dimension and the Pomeron intercept is discussed. (author)

  20. Drivers of peak sales for pharmaceutical brands

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Fischer, Marc; Leeflang, Peter S. H.; Verhoef, Peter C.

    2010-01-01

    Peak sales are an important metric in the pharmaceutical industry. Specifically, managers are focused on the height-of-peak-sales and the time required achieving peak sales. We analyze how order of entry and quality affect the level of peak sales and the time-to-peak-sales of pharmaceutical brands.

  1. Electron-electron Thomas peak in fast transfer ionization

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Tolmanov, S. G.; McGuire, J. H.

    2000-01-01

    ''Thomas process'' is a name used for a family of singular two-step processes that can lead to electron transfer. The Thomas process of the ''second kind,'' occurring in reactions with both transfer and ionization, utilizes the e-e scattering in the second step, so this Thomas process requires the dynamics of the electron-electron interaction. We calculate numerically the second order element of an S matrix and corresponding cross sections for the transfer ionization process. We find that the position and shape of the Thomas peak depend on both electron-electron and the electron-nucleus interaction. Also the direct and exchange amplitudes are equal at the peak position. We test the peaking approximation used for transfer ionization. Our results can be compared to experimental results for p + +He→H+He 2+ +e - . (c) 2000 The American Physical Society

  2. Lack of association between rheumatoid arthritis and genetic variants rs10889677, rs11209026 and rs2201841 of IL-23R gene.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Paradowska-Gorycka, Agnieszka; Malinowski, Damian; Haladyj, Ewa; Olesinska, Marzena; Safranow, Krzysztof; Pawlik, Andrzej

    2018-01-19

    Rheumatoid arthritis (RA) is an autoimmune diseases, where different genetic variants in cytokine genes may play a pathogenic role. A GWAS in autoimmune diseases highlighted the IL-23R gene as a one of the susceptibility factors. We examined three candidate single nucleotide polymorphisms (SNPs) rs10889677, rs11209026 and rs2201841 of the IL-23R gene, as well as determined their possible association with RA in a Polish population. The IL-23R gene polymorphisms were genotyped for 422 RA patients and 348 healthy individuals using TaqMan SNP genotyping assay. The genotypes frequency did not deviate from HWE in each examined group. A comparison of the allele as well as genotype frequencies of the IL-23R polymorphisms under codominant, dominant and recessive genetic model revealed no significant differences between RA patients and healthy subjects. We also demonstrated that IL-23R rs2201841 and rs11209026 as well as rs11209026 and rs10889677 were in complete linkage disequilibrium (D'=1.0). Our genotype-phenotype analysis demonstrated that in carriers of rs10889677C and/or rs2201841A allele the RF, extra-articular manifestations and erosion were more frequent present than in patients with rs10889677A and/or rs2201841A allele, although this association was not significant. Present findings indicated that the autoimmune disease-associated genetic variants in IL-23R gene are not associated with RA in the Polish population. Copyright © 2017 Elsevier España, S.L.U. All rights reserved.

  3. Infrared observations of RS CVn stars

    Science.gov (United States)

    Berriman, G.; De Campli, W. M.; Werner, M. W.; Hatchett, S. P.

    1983-01-01

    The paper presents infrared photometry of the RS CVn binary stars AR Lac (1.2-10 microns) and MM Her (1.2-3.5 microns) as they egressed from their primary and secondary eclipses; of the eclipsing systems RS CVn and Z Her at maximum light (1.2-10 microns) and of the non-eclipsing systems UX Ari and HR 1099 (1.2-10 microns). An analysis of these and published V data based on flux ratio diagrams (linear analogues of color-color diagrams) shows that G and K stars supply the infrared light of these systems. In AR Lac, the combined light of a G5-K0 subgiant and either a late F dwarf or an early F subgiant can account for the observed visual and infrared light curves. None of these systems shows infrared emission from circumstellar matter. This result is simply understood: dust grains would not be expected to form in the physical conditions surrounding the subgiant, and the corona and chromosphere (whose properties have been deduced from spectroscopic X-ray observations) should not produce appreciable infrared emission.

  4. High-Speed RaPToRS

    Science.gov (United States)

    Henchen, Robert; Esham, Benjamin; Becker, William; Pogozelski, Edward; Padalino, Stephen; Sangster, Thomas; Glebov, Vladimir

    2008-11-01

    The High-Speed Rapid Pneumatic Transport of Radioactive Samples (HS-RaPToRS) system, designed to quickly and safely move radioactive materials, was assembled and tested at the Mercury facility of the Naval Research Laboratory (NRL) in Washington D.C. A sample, which is placed inside a four-inch-diameter carrier, is activated before being transported through a PVC tube via airflow. The carrier travels from the reaction chamber to the end station where it pneumatically brakes prior to the gate. A magnetic latch releases the gate when the carrier arrives and comes to rest. The airflow, optical carrier-monitoring devices, and end gate are controlled manually or automatically with LabView software. The installation and testing of the RaPToRS system at NRL was successfully completed with transport times of less than 3 seconds. The speed of the carrier averaged 16 m/s. Prospective facilities for similar systems include the Laboratory for Laser Energetics and the National Ignition Facility.

  5. Spatial peak-load pricing

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Arellano, M. Soledad; Serra, Pablo

    2007-01-01

    This article extends the traditional electricity peak-load pricing model to include transmission costs. In the context of a two-node, two-technology electric power system, where suppliers face inelastic demand, we show that when the marginal plant is located at the energy-importing center, generators located away from that center should pay the marginal capacity transmission cost; otherwise, consumers should bear this cost through capacity payments. Since electric power transmission is a natural monopoly, marginal-cost pricing does not fully cover costs. We propose distributing the revenue deficit among users in proportion to the surplus they derive from the service priced at marginal cost. (Author)

  6. ( pear cu (SSR) m ultivar marke rs and rs are select effect tions ive for r

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    SAM

    the most su ers selected tter matrices y. the most im s pyrifolia, Py he terms of the can Journ rs are select. Vilela Res esquita Filho”. PR, Brazil. FLA, Lavras M. 015 in the sout ... Nations Food and. Agricultire Organization (2014), approximately 210 000 ..... Lorenzo S (2011). Genetic variability and diversification process in.

  7. Economic effects of peak oil

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Lutz, Christian; Lehr, Ulrike; Wiebe, Kirsten S.

    2012-01-01

    Assuming that global oil production peaked, this paper uses scenario analysis to show the economic effects of a possible supply shortage and corresponding rise in oil prices in the next decade on different sectors in Germany and other major economies such as the US, Japan, China, the OPEC or Russia. Due to the price-inelasticity of oil demand the supply shortage leads to a sharp increase in oil prices in the second scenario, with high effects on GDP comparable to the magnitude of the global financial crises in 2008/09. Oil exporting countries benefit from high oil prices, whereas oil importing countries are negatively affected. Generally, the effects in the third scenario are significantly smaller than in the second, showing that energy efficiency measures and the switch to renewable energy sources decreases the countries' dependence on oil imports and hence reduces their vulnerability to oil price shocks on the world market. - Highlights: ► National and sectoral economic effects of peak oil until 2020 are modelled. ► The price elasticity of oil demand is low resulting in high price fluctuations. ► Oil shortage strongly affects transport and indirectly all other sectors. ► Global macroeconomic effects are comparable to the 2008/2009 crisis. ► Country effects depend on oil imports and productivity, and economic structures.

  8. Compton profiles by inelastic ion-electron scattering

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Boeckl, H.; Bell, F.

    1983-01-01

    It is shown that Compton profiles (CP) can be measured by inelastic ion-electron scattering. Within the impulse approximation the binary-encounter peak (BEP) reflects the CP of the target atom whereas the electron-loss peak (ELP) is given by projectile CP's. Evaluation of experimental data reveals that inelastic ion-electron scattering might be a promising method to supply inelastic electron or photon scattering for the determination of target CP's. The measurement of projectile CP's is unique to ion scattering since one gains knowledge about wave-function effects because of the high excitation degree of fast heavy-ion projectiles

  9. Compton scatter correction for planner scintigraphic imaging

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Vaan Steelandt, E; Dobbeleir, A; Vanregemorter, J [Algemeen Ziekenhuis Middelheim, Antwerp (Belgium). Dept. of Nuclear Medicine and Radiotherapy

    1995-12-01

    A major problem in nuclear medicine is the image degradation due to Compton scatter in the patient. Photons emitted by the radioactive tracer scatter in collision with electrons of the surrounding tissue. Due to the resulting loss of energy and change in direction, the scattered photons induce an object dependant background on the images. This results in a degradation of the contrast of warm and cold lesions. Although theoretically interesting, most of the techniques proposed in literature like the use of symmetrical photopeaks can not be implemented on the commonly used gamma camera due to the energy/linearity/sensitivity corrections applied in the detector. A method for a single energy isotope based on existing methods with adjustments towards daily practice and clinical situations is proposed. It is assumed that the scatter image, recorded from photons collected within a scatter window adjacent to the photo peak, is a reasonable close approximation of the true scatter component of the image reconstructed from the photo peak window. A fraction `k` of the image using the scatter window is subtracted from the image recorded in the photo peak window to produce the compensated image. The principal matter of the method is the right value for the factor `k`, which is determined in a mathematical way and confirmed by experiments. To determine `k`, different kinds of scatter media are used and are positioned in different ways in order to simulate a clinical situation. For a secondary energy window from 100 to 124 keV below a photo peak window from 126 to 154 keV, a value of 0.7 is found. This value has been verified using both an antropomorph thyroid phantom and the Rollo contrast phantom.

  10. Effect of rs1344706 in the ZNF804A gene on the brain network

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Xiongying Chen

    2018-01-01

    Full Text Available ZNF804A rs1344706 (A/C was the first SNP that reached genome-wide significance for schizophrenia. Recent studies have linked rs1344706 to functional connectivity among specific brain regions. However, no study thus far has examined the role of this SNP in the entire functional connectome. In this study, we used degree centrality to test the role of rs1344706 in the whole-brain voxel-wise functional connectome during the resting state. 52 schizophrenia patients and 128 healthy controls were included in the final analysis. In our whole-brain analysis, we found a significant interaction effect of genotype × diagnosis at the precuneus (PCU (cluster size = 52 voxels, peak voxel MNI coordinates: x = 9, y = −69, z = 63, F = 32.57, FWE corrected P < 0.001. When we subdivided the degree centrality network according to anatomical distance, the whole-brain analysis also found a significant interaction effect of genotype × diagnosis at the PCU with the same peak in the short-range degree centrality network (cluster size = 72 voxels, F = 37.29, FWE corrected P < 0.001. No significant result was found in the long-range degree centrality network. Our results elucidated the contribution of rs1344706 to functional connectivity within the brain network, and may have important implications for our understanding of this risk gene's role in functional dysconnectivity in schizophrenia.

  11. RaPToRS Sample Delivery System

    Science.gov (United States)

    Henchen, Robert; Shibata, Kye; Krieger, Michael; Pogozelski, Edward; Padalino, Stephen; Glebov, Vladimir; Sangster, Craig

    2010-11-01

    At various labs (NIF, LLE, NRL), activated material samples are used to measure reaction properties. The Rapid Pneumatic Transport of Radioactive Samples (RaPToRS) system quickly and safely moves these radioactive samples through a closed PVC tube via airflow. The carrier travels from the reaction chamber to the control and analysis station, pneumatically braking at the outlet. A reversible multiplexer routes samples from various locations near the shot chamber to the analysis station. Also, the multiplexer allows users to remotely load unactivated samples without manually approaching the reaction chamber. All elements of the system (pneumatic drivers, flow control valves, optical position sensors, multiplexers, Geiger counters, and release gates at the analysis station) can be controlled manually or automatically using a custom LabVIEW interface. A prototype is currently operating at NRL in Washington DC. Prospective facilities for Raptors systems include LLE and NIF.

  12. ARIES-RS safety design and analysis

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Steiner, D.; El-Guebaly, L.; Herring, S.; Khater, H.; Mogahed, E.; Thayer, R.; Tillack, M.S.

    1997-01-01

    The ARIES-RS safety design and analysis focused on achieving two objectives: (1) The avoidance of sheltering or evacuation in the event of an accident; and (2) the generation of only low-level waste, no greater than Class C. The ARIES-RS baseline design employs V-4Cr-4Ti as the blanket structural material and a low activation ferritic steel in the reflector and shield. In the event of a LOCA, the baseline design first wall maximum temperature falls in the range of 1100-1200 C. For this temperature range, the hazard assessment indicates that the dose at the site boundary will be less than 1 rem per year. Thus, no sheltering or evacuation would be required in the event of a LOCA. Although the baseline design satisfies the first safety objective noted above, a first wall maximum temperature of ∝1100-1200 C would likely compromise the integrity of the vanadium blanket structure and would require blanket replacement following such a temperature excursion. To avoid this situation, a modified blanket design incorporating supplemental heat removal is also proposed. Preliminary analysis of this modified design suggests that the first wall maximum temperature can be kept below the temperature range of concern, ∝1000-1100 C, in the event of a LOCA. When the ferritic steel used in the reflector and shield is one reduced in Ir and Ag impurities, all in-vessel components qualify for near-surface shallow land burial as Class C low-level waste. (orig.)

  13. Neutron scattering. Lectures

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Brueckel, Thomas; Heger, Gernot; Richter, Dieter; Roth, Georg; Zorn, Reiner

    2012-01-01

    The following topics are dealt with: Neutron scattering in contemporary research, neutron sources, symmetry of crystals, diffraction, nanostructures investigated by small-angle neutron scattering, the structure of macromolecules, spin dependent and magnetic scattering, structural analysis, neutron reflectometry, magnetic nanostructures, inelastic scattering, strongly correlated electrons, dynamics of macromolecules, applications of neutron scattering. (HSI)

  14. Design Report for Isolated RS-485 Bus Node

    Science.gov (United States)

    2016-07-01

    TERMS Android , RS-485, isolated, USB, smartphone 16. SECURITY CLASSIFICATION OF: 17. LIMITATION OF ABSTRACT UU 18. NUMBER...controlled wired RS-485 network. The Android -based smartphone or tablet is used in conjunction with a USB to serial bridge to operate as the bus master in...the system. The Android device operates in USB Host mode and communicates to the RS-485 bus as if a single peripheral on the USB bus. 15. SUBJECT

  15. Study on Karst Information Identification of Qiandongnan Prefecture Based on RS and GIS Technology

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yao, M.; Zhou, G.; Wang, W.; Wu, Z.; Huang, Y.; Huang, X.

    2018-04-01

    Karst area is a pure natural resource base, at the same time, due to the special geological environment; there are droughts and floods alternating with frequent karst collapse, rocky desertification and other resource and environment problems, which seriously restrict the sustainable economic and social development in karst areas. Therefore, this paper identifies and studies the karst, and clarifies the distribution of karst. Provide basic data for the rational development of resources in the karst region and the governance of desertification. Due to the uniqueness of the karst landscape, it can't be directly recognized and extracted by computer in remote sensing images. Therefore, this paper uses the idea of "RS + DEM" to solve the above problems. this article is based on Landsat-5 TM imagery in 2010 and DEM data, proposes the methods to identify karst information research what is use of slope vector diagram, vegetation distribution map, distribution map of karst rocky desertification and other auxiliary data in combination with the signs for human-computer interaction interpretation, identification and extraction of peak forest, peaks cluster and isolated peaks, and further extraction of karst depression. Experiments show that this method achieves the "RS + DEM" mode through the reasonable combination of remote sensing images and DEM data. It not only effectively extracts karst areas covered with vegetation, but also quickly and accurately locks down the karst area and greatly improves the efficiency and precision of visual interpretation. The accurate interpretation rate of karst information in study area in this paper is 86.73 %.

  16. Roles of scattered radiation in SRIXE

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Hanson, A.L.

    1988-01-01

    The scattering of x-rays is the major source of background and hence is a limiting factor in the minimum detectable limits available with SRIXE measurements. The scattering can be utilized for normalizing the net peak areas to fluctuations in sample thickness or mass on a relative basis or on a comparative basis. Even then measurement of the scattered x-rays should be made at backward angles. Measurement at forward angles should be avoided because of diffraction problems. The uncertainties in the measurement of an absolute intensity of the x-rays can be extremely large

  17. Angular distribution of 662keV multiply-Compton scattered gamma rays in copper

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Singh, Manpreet; Singh, Gurvinderjit; Sandhu, B.S.; Singh, Bhajan

    2007-01-01

    The angular distribution of multiple Compton scattering of 662keV gamma photons, obtained from six Curie 137 Cs source, incident on copper scatterer of varying thickness is studied experimentally in both the forward and backward hemispheres. The scattered photons are detected by a 51mmx51mm NaI(Tl) scintillation detector. The full-energy peak corresponding to singly scattered events is reconstructed analytically. We observe that the numbers of multiply scattered events, having same energy as in the singly scattered distribution, first increases with increase in target thickness and then saturate. The optimum thickness at which the multiply scattered events saturate is determined at different scattering angles

  18. Lack of association between PKLR rs3020781 and NOS1AP rs7538490 and type 2 diabetes, overweight, obesity and related metabolic phenotypes in a Danish large-scale study: case-control studies and analyses of quantitative traits

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Almind Katrine

    2008-12-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background Several studies in multiple ethnicities have reported linkage to type 2 diabetes on chromosome 1q21-25. Both PKLR encoding the liver pyruvate kinase and NOS1AP encoding the nitric oxide synthase 1 (neuronal adaptor protein (CAPON are positioned within this chromosomal region and are thus positional candidates for the observed linkage peak. The C-allele of PKLR rs3020781 and the T-allele of NOS1AP rs7538490 are reported to strongly associate with type 2 diabetes in various European-descent populations comprising a total of 2,198 individuals with a combined odds ratio (OR of 1.33 [1.16–1.54] and 1.53 [1.28–1.81], respectively. Our aim was to validate these findings by investigating the impact of the two variants on type 2 diabetes and related quantitative metabolic phenotypes in a large study sample of Danes. Further, we intended to expand the analyses by examining the effect of the variants in relation to overweight and obesity. Methods PKLR rs3020781 and NOS1AP rs7538490 were genotyped, using TaqMan allelic discrimination, in a combined study sample comprising a total of 16,801 and 16,913 individuals, respectively. The participants were ascertained from four different study groups; the population-based Inter99 cohort (nPKLR = 5,962, nNOS1AP = 6,008, a type 2 diabetic patient group (nPKLR = 1,873, nNOS1AP = 1,874 from Steno Diabetes Center, a population-based study sample (nPKLR = 599, nNOS1AP = 596 from Steno Diabetes Center and the ADDITION Denmark screening study cohort (nPKLR = 8,367, nNOS1AP = 8,435. Results In case-control studies we evaluated the potential association between rs3020781 and rs7538490 and type 2 diabetes and obesity. No significant associations were observed for type 2 diabetes (rs3020781: pAF = 0.49, OR = 1.02 [0.96–1.10]; rs7538490: pAF = 0.84, OR = 0.99 [0.93–1.06]. Neither did we show association with overweight or obesity. Additionally, the PKLR and the NOS1AP genotypes were demonstrated not

  19. Association of PTPN22 (rs2476601) and STAT4 (rs7574865) polymorphisms with Rheumatoid Arthritis in the Western Algerian population.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Fodil, M; Benzaoui, A; Zemani-Fodil, F; Aberkane, M; Boughrara, W; Saidi-Mehtar, N; Petit-Teixeira, E; Boudjema, A

    2015-01-01

    The aim of the present study was to replicate the association of five risk gene polymorphisms (PTPN22-rs2476601, STAT4-rs7574865, 6q23-rs6927172, IRF5-rs2004640 and TRAF1/C5-rs10818488) with RA in a specific population of the Western Algeria. The study group comprised 110 patients with RA and 197 ethnically matched healthy control subjects. All polymorphisms were genotyped using predesigned TaqMan® assays. Allele and genotype frequencies in patients and control subjects were compared by chi-square test and odds ratios with 95% confidence intervals. Correction for multiple testing was carried out using the Bonferroni adjustment. Statistically significant associations with RA were detected. The strongest signal was obtained for PTPN22-rs2476601 with an allelic Pvalue 3.32 x 10(-11) (OR = 9.83, 95% CI [4.28 - 22.56]). A second significant association was obtained with STAT4-rs7574865 (allelic Pvalue = 4 x 10(-3); OR = 1.75, 95% CI [1.16 - 2.63]). The third SNP, 6q23-rs6927172, showed a significant result of association with RA, but missed our criteria for significance at allelic level after Bonferroni's correction (allelic Pvalue = 0.027; OR = 0.64, 95% CI [0.42 - 0.97]). Finally, IRF5-rs2004640 and TRAF1/C5-rs10818488 showed a significant association only at genotypic level (Pvalues: 3 x 10(-4) and 2.9 x 10(-3) respectively) but did not reach statistical significance when comparing allele frequencies (Pvalues: 0.96 and 0.21 respectively). From this initial study, we can conclude that PTPN22-rs2476601 and STAT4-rs7574865 polymorphisms are clearly associated with the risk of RA in the Western Algerian population.

  20. Association of PTPN22 (rs2476601 and STAT4 (rs7574865 polymorphisms with Rheumatoid Arthritis in the Western Algerian population

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Mostefa FODIL

    2015-01-01

    Full Text Available Aim: The aim of the present study was to replicate the association of five risk gene polymorphisms (PTPN22-rs2476601, STAT4-rs7574865, 6q23-rs6927172, IRF5-rs2004640 and TRAF1/C5-rs10818488 with RA in a specific population of the Western Algeria. Material and methods: The study group comprised 110 patients with RA and 197 ethnically matched healthy control subjects. All polymorphisms were genotyped using predesigned TaqMan® assays. Allele and genotype frequencies in patients and control subjects were compared by chi-square test and odds ratios with 95% confidence intervals. Correction for multiple testing was carried out using the Bonferroni adjustment. Results: Statistically significant associations with RA were detected. The strongest signal was obtained for PTPN22-rs2476601 with an allelic Pvalue 3.32 x 10-11 (OR = 9.83, 95% CI [4.28 – 22.56]. A second significant association was obtained with STAT4-rs7574865 (allelic Pvalue = 4 x 10-3; OR = 1.75, 95% CI [1.16 – 2.63]. The third SNP, 6q23-rs6927172, showed a significant result of association with RA, but missed our criteria for significance at allelic level after Bonferroni’s correction (allelic Pvalue = 0.027; OR = 0.64, 95% CI [0.42 – 0.97]. Finally, IRF5-rs2004640 and TRAF1/C5-rs10818488 showed a significant association only at genotypic level (Pvalues: 3 x 10-4 and 2.9 x 10-3 respectively but did not reach statistical significance when comparing allele frequencies (Pvalues: 0.96 and 0.21 respectively. Conclusions: From this initial study, we can conclude that PTPN22-rs2476601 and STAT4-rs7574865 polymorphisms are clearly associated with the risk of RA in the Western Algerian population.

  1. Resonant scattering of surface plasmon polaritons by dressed quantum dots

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Huang, Danhong; Cardimona, Dave [Air Force Research Laboratory, Space Vehicles Directorate, Kirtland Air Force Base, New Mexico 87117 (United States); Easter, Michelle [Department of Mechanical Engineering, Stevens Institute of Technology, 1 Castle Point Terrace, Hoboken, New Jersey 07030 (United States); Gumbs, Godfrey [Department of Physics and Astronomy, Hunter College of the City University of New York, 695 Park Avenue, New York, New York 10065 (United States); Maradudin, A. A. [Department of Physics and Astronomy, University of California, Irvine, California 92697 (United States); Lin, Shawn-Yu [Department of Electrical, Computer and Systems Engineering, Rensselaer Polytechnic Institute, 110 8th Street, Troy, New York 12180 (United States); Zhang, Xiang [Department of Mechanical Engineering, 3112 Etcheverry Hall, University of California at Berkeley, Berkeley, California 94720 (United States)

    2014-06-23

    The resonant scattering of surface plasmon-polariton waves (SPP) by embedded semiconductor quantum dots above the dielectric/metal interface is explored in the strong-coupling regime. In contrast to non-resonant scattering by a localized dielectric surface defect, a strong resonant peak in the spectrum of the scattered field is predicted that is accompanied by two side valleys. The peak height depends nonlinearly on the amplitude of SPP waves, reflecting the feedback dynamics from a photon-dressed electron-hole plasma inside the quantum dots. This unique behavior in the scattered field peak strength is correlated with the occurrence of a resonant dip in the absorption spectrum of SPP waves due to the interband photon-dressing effect. Our result on the scattering of SPP waves may be experimentally observable and applied to spatially selective illumination and imaging of individual molecules.

  2. Establishment of peak bone mass.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mora, Stefano; Gilsanz, Vicente

    2003-03-01

    Among the main areas of progress in osteoporosis research during the last decade or so are the general recognition that this condition, which is the cause of so much pain in the elderly population, has its antecedents in childhood and the identification of the structural basis accounting for much of the differences in bone strength among humans. Nevertheless, current understanding of the bone mineral accrual process is far from complete. The search for genes that regulate bone mass acquisition is ongoing, and current results are not sufficient to identify subjects at risk. However, there is solid evidence that BMD measurements can be helpful for the selection of subjects that presumably would benefit from preventive interventions. The questions regarding the type of preventive interventions, their magnitude, and duration remain unanswered. Carefully designed controlled trials are needed. Nevertheless, previous experience indicates that weight-bearing activity and possibly calcium supplements are beneficial if they are begun during childhood and preferably before the onset of puberty. Modification of unhealthy lifestyles and increments in exercise or calcium assumption are logical interventions that should be implemented to improve bone mass gains in all children and adolescents who are at risk of failing to achieve an optimal peak bone mass.

  3. Neurofeedback training for peak performance

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Marek Graczyk

    2014-11-01

    Full Text Available [b]aim[/b]. One of the applications of the Neurofeedback methodology is peak performance in sport. The protocols of the neurofeedback are usually based on an assessment of the spectral parameters of spontaneous EEG in resting state conditions. The aim of the paper was to study whether the intensive neurofeedback training of a well-functioning Olympic athlete who has lost his performance confidence after injury in sport, could change the brain functioning reflected in changes in spontaneous EEG and event related potentials (ERPs. [b]case study[/b]. The case is presented of an Olympic athlete who has lost his performance confidence after injury in sport. He wanted to resume his activities by means of neurofeedback training. His QEEG/ERP parameters were assessed before and after 4 intensive sessions of neurotherapy. Dramatic and statistically significant changes that could not be explained by error measurement were observed in the patient. [b]conclusion[/b]. Neurofeedback training in the subject under study increased the amplitude of the monitoring component of ERPs generated in the anterior cingulate cortex, accompanied by an increase in beta activity over the medial prefrontal cortex. Taking these changes together, it can be concluded that that even a few sessions of neurofeedback in a high performance brain can significantly activate the prefrontal cortical areas associated with increasing confidence in sport performance.

  4. Reactor power peaking information display

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Book, T.L.; Kochendarfer, R.A.

    1986-01-01

    This patent describes a system for monitoring operating conditions within a nuclear reactor. The system consists of a method for measuring the operating parameters within the nuclear reactor, including the position of axial power shaping rods and regulating control rod. It also includes a method for determining from the operating parameters the operating limits before a power peaking condition exists within the nuclear reactor, and a method for displaying the operating limits which consists of a visual display permitting the continuous monitoring of the operating conditions within the nuclear reactor as a graph of the shaping rod position vs the regulating rod position having a permissible area and a restricted area. The permissible area is further divided into a recommended operating area for steady state operation and a cursor located on the graph to indicate the present operating condition of the nuclear reactor to allow an operator to view any need for corrective action based on the movement of the cursor out of the recommended operating area and to take any corrective transient action within the permissible area

  5. Neurofeedback training for peak performance.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Graczyk, Marek; Pąchalska, Maria; Ziółkowski, Artur; Mańko, Grzegorz; Łukaszewska, Beata; Kochanowicz, Kazimierz; Mirski, Andrzej; Kropotov, Iurii D

    2014-01-01

    One of the applications of the Neurofeedback methodology is peak performance in sport. The protocols of the neurofeedback are usually based on an assessment of the spectral parameters of spontaneous EEG in resting state conditions. The aim of the paper was to study whether the intensive neurofeedback training of a well-functioning Olympic athlete who has lost his performance confidence after injury in sport, could change the brain functioning reflected in changes in spontaneous EEG and event related potentials (ERPs). The case is presented of an Olympic athlete who has lost his performance confidence after injury in sport. He wanted to resume his activities by means of neurofeedback training. His QEEG/ERP parameters were assessed before and after 4 intensive sessions of neurotherapy. Dramatic and statistically significant changes that could not be explained by error measurement were observed in the patient. Neurofeedback training in the subject under study increased the amplitude of the monitoring component of ERPs generated in the anterior cingulate cortex, accompanied by an increase in beta activity over the medial prefrontal cortex. Taking these changes together, it can be concluded that that even a few sessions of neurofeedback in a high performance brain can significantly activate the prefrontal cortical areas associated with increasing confidence in sport performance.

  6. Bidirectional optical scattering facility

    Data.gov (United States)

    Federal Laboratory Consortium — Goniometric optical scatter instrument (GOSI)The bidirectional reflectance distribution function (BRDF) quantifies the angular distribution of light scattered from a...

  7. Configuration control plan for the ports NCS IBM RS/6000

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Brown, A.S.

    1996-01-01

    This document describes the actions and responsibilities for maintaining the quality and integrity of the NS software resident on the IBM RS/6000 workstation managed by the Nuclear Criticality Safety group at the Portsmouth Gaseous Diffusion Plant. This document does not address the validation of NS software packages for the RS/6000

  8. USB and RS232 voltage datalogger

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Lorenzo Hernández Tabares

    2011-01-01

    Full Text Available Normal 0 21 false false false MicrosoftInternetExplorer4 st1:*{behavior:url(#ieooui } /* Style Definitions */ table.MsoNormalTable {mso-style-name:"Tabla normal"; mso-tstyle-rowband-size:0; mso-tstyle-colband-size:0; mso-style-noshow:yes; mso-style-parent:""; mso-padding-alt:0cm 5.4pt 0cm 5.4pt; mso-para-margin:0cm; mso-para-margin-bottom:.0001pt; mso-pagination:widow-orphan; font-size:10.0pt; font-family:"Times New Roman"; mso-ansi-language:#0400; mso-fareast-language:#0400; mso-bidi-language:#0400;} The design and construction of a PIC microcontroller based datalogger with USB 2.0 and RS232 interfaces is presented. The datalogger has one 0 to +10VDC analogue input, 10bits ADC, Real Time Clock, 4k sample room on the microcontroller’s program flash memory and an external DC power supply. This paper proposes a cheap variant to construct such device widely used in meteorological and environmental instrumentation among others. The prototype was attached to an Ultraviolet Photometric O3 Analyzer for recording the environmental (tropospheric ozone concentration in a control station at the Havana city. Key words: datalogger, USB, enviromental ozone

  9. X-ray scattering signatures of β-thalassemia

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Desouky, Omar S.; Elshemey, Wael M.; Selim, Nabila S.

    2009-01-01

    X-ray scattering from lyophilized proteins or protein-rich samples is characterized by the presence of two characteristic broad peaks at scattering angles equivalent to momentum transfer values of 0.27 and 0.6 nm -1 , respectively. These peaks arise from the interference of coherently scattered photons. Once the conformation of a protein is changed, these two peaks reflect such change with considerable sensitivity. The present work examines the possibility of characterizing the most common cause of hemolytic anaemia in Egypt and many Mediterranean countries; β-thalassemia, from its X-ray scattering profile. This disease emerges from a genetic defect causing reduced rate in the synthesis of one of the globin chains that make up hemoglobin. As a result, structurally abnormal hemoglobin molecules are formed. In order to detect such molecular disorder, hemoglobin samples of β-thalassemia patients are collected, lyophilized and measured using a conventional X-ray diffractometer. Results show significant differences in the X-ray scattering profiles of most of the diseased samples compared to control. The shape of the first scattering peak at 0.27 nm -1 , in addition to the relative intensity of the first to the second scattering peaks, provides the most reliable signs of abnormality in diseased samples. The results are interpreted and confirmed with the aid of Fourier Transform Infrared (FTIR) spectroscopy of normal and thalassemia samples.

  10. X-ray scattering signatures of β-thalassemia

    Science.gov (United States)

    Desouky, Omar S.; Elshemey, Wael M.; Selim, Nabila S.

    2009-08-01

    X-ray scattering from lyophilized proteins or protein-rich samples is characterized by the presence of two characteristic broad peaks at scattering angles equivalent to momentum transfer values of 0.27 and 0.6 nm -1, respectively. These peaks arise from the interference of coherently scattered photons. Once the conformation of a protein is changed, these two peaks reflect such change with considerable sensitivity. The present work examines the possibility of characterizing the most common cause of hemolytic anaemia in Egypt and many Mediterranean countries; β-thalassemia, from its X-ray scattering profile. This disease emerges from a genetic defect causing reduced rate in the synthesis of one of the globin chains that make up hemoglobin. As a result, structurally abnormal hemoglobin molecules are formed. In order to detect such molecular disorder, hemoglobin samples of β-thalassemia patients are collected, lyophilized and measured using a conventional X-ray diffractometer. Results show significant differences in the X-ray scattering profiles of most of the diseased samples compared to control. The shape of the first scattering peak at 0.27 nm -1, in addition to the relative intensity of the first to the second scattering peaks, provides the most reliable signs of abnormality in diseased samples. The results are interpreted and confirmed with the aid of Fourier Transform Infrared (FTIR) spectroscopy of normal and thalassemia samples.

  11. X-ray scattering signatures of {beta}-thalassemia

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Desouky, Omar S. [Radiation Physics Department, National Center for Radiation Research and Technology (NCRRT) (Egypt); Elshemey, Wael M. [Biophysics Department, Faculty of Science, Cairo University (Egypt)], E-mail: waelelshemey@yahoo.com; Selim, Nabila S. [Radiation Physics Department, National Center for Radiation Research and Technology (NCRRT) (Egypt)

    2009-08-11

    X-ray scattering from lyophilized proteins or protein-rich samples is characterized by the presence of two characteristic broad peaks at scattering angles equivalent to momentum transfer values of 0.27 and 0.6 nm{sup -1}, respectively. These peaks arise from the interference of coherently scattered photons. Once the conformation of a protein is changed, these two peaks reflect such change with considerable sensitivity. The present work examines the possibility of characterizing the most common cause of hemolytic anaemia in Egypt and many Mediterranean countries; {beta}-thalassemia, from its X-ray scattering profile. This disease emerges from a genetic defect causing reduced rate in the synthesis of one of the globin chains that make up hemoglobin. As a result, structurally abnormal hemoglobin molecules are formed. In order to detect such molecular disorder, hemoglobin samples of {beta}-thalassemia patients are collected, lyophilized and measured using a conventional X-ray diffractometer. Results show significant differences in the X-ray scattering profiles of most of the diseased samples compared to control. The shape of the first scattering peak at 0.27 nm{sup -1}, in addition to the relative intensity of the first to the second scattering peaks, provides the most reliable signs of abnormality in diseased samples. The results are interpreted and confirmed with the aid of Fourier Transform Infrared (FTIR) spectroscopy of normal and thalassemia samples.

  12. Ship Analysis and Detection in High-resolution Pol-SAR Imagery Based on Peak Zone

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Xu Cheng-bin

    2015-06-01

    Full Text Available To deal with the problem of false alarm in the ship detection, a method base on proportion of spiral scattering in the peak zone is proposed. By comparing the proportion of spiral scattering in the peak zone, which is available from Krogager decomposition, the ships and interfering targets are identified and analyzed. The effectiveness of this method is justified with C-band full-polarization data from RADARSAT-2. The result show that this method can discriminate ships from interfering targets such as island, water-break, nautical platforms and bridges, thus reducing the false alarm rate of ship targets detection in SAR images.

  13. Spectral and photometric study of the symbiotic nova RS ophiuchus in quiet phase

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kondratyeva, L.; Rspaev, F.; Krugov, M.; Serebryanskiy, A.

    2017-07-01

    The results of spectral and photometric study of the recurrent Nova RS Ophiuchus are presented and discussed. Observations were carried out in 2009-2016. During these eight years the fluxes of HI and FeII emission lines have slightly decreased by a factor of 3 - 4. Hα and Hβ exhibit double-peaked profiles with a central absorption. The ratio of the blue and red peaks intensities(V/R) varies from 0.3 to 1.0 for Hβ and from 0.4 to 0.7 for Hα. Possible correlations between changes of the ratio and other spectral parameters were investigated. Dependence of V/R on the radial velocity of absorbtion component is found out.

  14. Neutron scattering. Lectures

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Brueckel, Thomas; Heger, Gernot; Richter, Dieter; Roth, Georg; Zorn, Reiner [eds.

    2010-07-01

    The following topics are dealt with: Neutron sources, symmetry of crystals, diffraction, nanostructures investigated by small-angle neutron scattering, the structure of macromolecules, spin dependent and magnetic scattering, structural analysis, neutron reflectometry, magnetic nanostructures, inelastic scattering, strongly correlated electrons, dynamics of macromolecules, applications of neutron scattering. (HSI)

  15. Neutron scattering. Lectures

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Brueckel, Thomas; Heger, Gernot; Richter, Dieter; Roth, Georg; Zorn, Reiner

    2013-01-01

    The following topics are dealt with: Neutron sources, symmetry of crystals, nanostructures investigated by small-angle neutron scattering, structure of macromolecules, spin dependent and magnetic scattering, structural analysis, neutron reflectometry, magnetic nanostructures, inelastic neutron scattering, strongly correlated electrons, polymer dynamics, applications of neutron scattering. (HSI)

  16. Neutron scattering. Lectures

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Brueckel, Thomas; Heger, Gernot; Richter, Dieter; Roth, Georg; Zorn, Reiner

    2010-01-01

    The following topics are dealt with: Neutron sources, symmetry of crystals, diffraction, nanostructures investigated by small-angle neutron scattering, the structure of macromolecules, spin dependent and magnetic scattering, structural analysis, neutron reflectometry, magnetic nanostructures, inelastic scattering, strongly correlated electrons, dynamics of macromolecules, applications of neutron scattering. (HSI)

  17. Phase transitions and neutron scattering

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Shirane, G.

    1993-01-01

    A review is given of recent advances in neutron scattering studies of solid state physics. I have selected the study of a structural phase transition as the best example to demonstrate the power of neutron scattering techniques. Since energy analysis is relatively easy, the dynamical aspects of a transition can be elucidated by the neutron probe. I shall discuss in some detail current experiments on the 100 K transition in SrTiO 3 , the crystal which has been the paradigm of neutron studies of phase transitions for many years. This new experiment attempts to clarify the relation between the neutron central peak, observed in energy scans, and the two length scales observed in recent x-ray diffraction studies where only scans in momentum space are possible. (author)

  18. Scattering of ultrarelativistic electrons in ultrathin crystals

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    N.F. Shul'ga

    2017-06-01

    Full Text Available Quantum theory is proposed of high energy electrons scattering in ultrathin crystals. This theory is based upon a special representation of the scattering amplitude in the form of an integral over the surface surrounding the crystal, and on the spectral method of determination of the wave function. The comparison is performed of quantum and classical differential scattering cross-sections in the transitional range of crystal thicknesses, from those at which the channeling phenomenon is not developed up to those at which it is established. It is shown that in this thickness range the quantum scattering cross-section, unlike the classical one, contains sharp peaks corresponding to some specific scattering angles, that is connected with the diffraction of the incident plane wave onto the periodically distributed crystal atomic strings. It is shown that the value of the scattering cross-section in the peaks varies periodically with the change of the target thickness. We note that this must lead to a new interference effect in radiation that is connected with the rearrangement of incident wave packet in transitional area of crystal thicknesses.

  19. Scattering of ultrarelativistic electrons in ultrathin crystals

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Shul' ga, N.F., E-mail: shulga@kipt.kharkov.ua [National Science Center “Kharkov Institute of Physics and Technology”, 1, Akademichna str., Kharkiv, 61108 (Ukraine); Karazin Kharkiv National University, 4, Svobody sq., Kharkiv, 61000 (Ukraine); Shulga, S.N. [National Science Center “Kharkov Institute of Physics and Technology”, 1, Akademichna str., Kharkiv, 61108 (Ukraine); Karazin Kharkiv National University, 4, Svobody sq., Kharkiv, 61000 (Ukraine)

    2017-06-10

    Quantum theory is proposed of high energy electrons scattering in ultrathin crystals. This theory is based upon a special representation of the scattering amplitude in the form of an integral over the surface surrounding the crystal, and on the spectral method of determination of the wave function. The comparison is performed of quantum and classical differential scattering cross-sections in the transitional range of crystal thicknesses, from those at which the channeling phenomenon is not developed up to those at which it is established. It is shown that in this thickness range the quantum scattering cross-section, unlike the classical one, contains sharp peaks corresponding to some specific scattering angles, that is connected with the diffraction of the incident plane wave onto the periodically distributed crystal atomic strings. It is shown that the value of the scattering cross-section in the peaks varies periodically with the change of the target thickness. We note that this must lead to a new interference effect in radiation that is connected with the rearrangement of incident wave packet in transitional area of crystal thicknesses.

  20. Overview of the ARIES-RS reversed-shear tokamak power plant study

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Najmabadi, F.; Billone, M.C.

    1997-01-01

    The ARIES-RS tokamak is a conceptual, D-T-burning 1000 MWe power plant. As with earlier ARIES design studies, the final design of ARIES-RS was obtained in a self-consistent manner using the best available physics and engineering models. Detailed analyses of individual systems together with system interfaces and interactions were incorporated into the ARIES systems code in order to assure self-consistency and to optimize towards the lowest cost system. The ARIES-RS design operates with a reversed-shear plasma and employs a moderate aspect ratio (A=4.0). The plasma current is relatively low (I p =11.32 MA) and bootstrap current fraction is high (f BC =0.88). Consequently, the auxiliary power required for RF current drive is relatively low (∝80 MW). At the same time, the average toroidal beta is high (β=5%), providing power densities near practical engineering limits (the peak neutron wall loading is 5.7 MW m -2 ). The toroidal-field (TF) coil system is designed with relatively 'conventional' materials (Nb 3 Sn and NbTi conductor with 316SS structures), and is operated at a design limit of ∝16 T at the coil in order to optimize the design point. The ARIES-RS design uses a self-cooled lithium blanket with vanadium alloy as the structural material. The V-alloy has low activation, low afterheat, high temperature capability and can handle high heat flux. A self-cooled liquid lithium blanket is simple, and with the development of an insulating coating, has low operating pressure. Also, this blanket gives excellent neutronics performance. Detailed analysis has been performed to minimize the cost and maximize the performance of the blanket and shield. (orig.)

  1. Simulation of the peak efficiency for a stacked NaI(Tl) spectrometer

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Yoshida, H; Murohka, H; Anami, K; Nohtomi, A; Uozumi, Y; Sakae, T; Matoba, M [Kyushu Univ., Fukuoka (Japan). Faculty of Engineering; Koori, N; Maki, T

    1996-07-01

    A stacked NaI(Tl) spectrometer has been developed to measure proton spectra in wide energy range. In the measurement of charged particles with intermediate energy, the detecting efficiency of the spectrometer decreases considerably due to nuclear reactions or out-scattering in the detector material. A Monte Carlo simulation code has been developed to estimate the peak efficiency (peak-to-total ratio) of the spectrometer. The calculated efficiency for intermediate energy is in good agreement with the experimental one. (author)

  2. Preliminary Examination of X-ray Scattering from Human Tissues

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Desouky, O.S.; Wilkinson, S.; Hall, C.; Rogers, K.; Round, A.

    2008-01-01

    Small Angle x-ray scattering (SAXS) and wide angle x-ray scattering (WAXS) patterns have been recorded from different human soft tissues using x-ray synchrotron radiation.Pathological breast, normal kidney and lung tissues show SAXS peaks at q-values equal to 0.291 nm -1 and 0.481 nm -1 (d 21.6 nm and d =13. nm) which are the 3 r d and 5 t h order of the well known axial D-spacing of collagen fibrils. The diffraction is particularly intense in the meridional direction indicating some febrile alignment. In contrast, the normal tissue of brain, liver and heart shows diffuse scatter.The wide-angle coherent scattering from normal human tissues of brain, liver, heart, lung, and kidney is typical of that for amorphous materials. The scatter of the healthy adipose breast tissue shows a sharp peak at momentum transfer 1.24 nm -1 (d= 0.417 nm). The data of the other tissues appears to consist of a broad scattering peak. The two scattering regimes succeed in differentiating between the two major components of breast tissue, collagen and adipose tissue. The results of this study suggest that the soft tissues may have scattering patterns that are characteristics for the particular tissue types and tissue disease state. These results indicate that it may be possible use the coherent scattering as a diagnostic tool

  3. Neutron scattering. Lectures

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Brueckel, Thomas; Heger, Gernot; Richter, Dieter; Roth, Georg; Zorn, Reiner (eds.)

    2010-07-01

    The following topics are dealt with: Neutron sources, neutron properties and elastic scattering, correlation functions measured by scattering experiments, symmetry of crystals, applications of neutron scattering, polarized-neutron scattering and polarization analysis, structural analysis, magnetic and lattice excitation studied by inelastic neutron scattering, macromolecules and self-assembly, dynamics of macromolecules, correlated electrons in complex transition-metal oxides, surfaces, interfaces, and thin films investigated by neutron reflectometry, nanomagnetism. (HSI)

  4. Neutron scattering. Lectures

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Brueckel, Thomas; Heger, Gernot; Richter, Dieter; Roth, Georg; Zorn, Reiner

    2010-01-01

    The following topics are dealt with: Neutron sources, neutron properties and elastic scattering, correlation functions measured by scattering experiments, symmetry of crystals, applications of neutron scattering, polarized-neutron scattering and polarization analysis, structural analysis, magnetic and lattice excitation studied by inelastic neutron scattering, macromolecules and self-assembly, dynamics of macromolecules, correlated electrons in complex transition-metal oxides, surfaces, interfaces, and thin films investigated by neutron reflectometry, nanomagnetism. (HSI)

  5. Peaked signals from dark matter velocity structures in direct detection experiments

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Lang, Rafael F.; Weiner, Neal

    2010-01-01

    In direct dark matter detection experiments, conventional elastic scattering of WIMPs results in exponentially falling recoil spectra. In contrast, theories of WIMPs with excited states can lead to nuclear recoil spectra that peak at finite recoil energies E R . The peaks of such signals are typically fairly broad, with ΔE R /E peak ∼ 1. We show that in the presence of dark matter structures with low velocity dispersion, such as streams or clumps, peaks from up-scattering can become extremely narrow with FWHM of a few keV only. This differs dramatically from the conventionally expected WIMP spectrum and would, once detected, open the possibility to measure the dark matter velocity structure with high accuracy. As an intriguing example, we confront the observed cluster of 3 events near 42 keV from the CRESST commissioning run with this scenario. Inelastic dark matter particles with a wide range of parameters are capable of producing such a narrow peak. We calculate the possible signals at other experiments, and find that such particles could also give rise to the signal at DAMA, although not from the same stream. Over some range of parameters, a signal would be visible at xenon experiments. We show that such dark matter peaks are a very clear signal and can be easily disentangled from potential backgrounds, both terrestrial or due to WIMP down-scattering, by an enhanced annual modulation in both the amplitude of the signal and its spectral shape

  6. Direct observation of the hydrogen peak in the energy distribution of electrons backscattered elastically from polyethylene

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Varga, D.; Toekesi, K.; Berenyi, Z.; Toth, J.; Koever, L.

    2004-01-01

    Complete text of publication follows. Observation of the hydrogen peak is either challenging or impossible task for the conventional electron spectroscopy. Hydrogen was observed earlier in electron scattering experiments using transmission geometry and formvar film. In this work we show an alternative way for the detection of hydrogen peak analyzing the spectra of elastically backscattered electrons from polyethylene ((CH 2 ) n ). We take advantage of the fact that the elastic peak from polyethylene split into carbon and hydrogen components. The energy of the elastically scattered electrons is shifted from the nominal values due to the energy transfer between the primary electron and the target atoms (recoil effect). Due to the motion of the scattering atoms, a broadering of the energy width of the spectra takes place. We performed Monte Carlo simulation for 2 keV electrons penetrated and elastically backscattered from polyethylene sample. In our calculations both the elastic and inelastic scattering events were taken into account. We further assume that the thermal motion of the target atoms follows the Maxwell-Boltzmann energy distribution. After each elastic scattering the recoil energy was calculated according to ref Fig. 1 shows the geometric configuration used in the calculation. The initial angle of incident beam (θ) was 50 deg. Fig. 2 shows the gray scale plot of the intensity of electrons backscattered elastically from polyethylene. The separation between the carbon and hydrogen peaks is clearly seen. Our results show that the multiple electron scattering causes only minor changes in the energy shifts and broadenings of elastic peaks. Moreover, our simulations are in good agreement with our experimental observations. (author)

  7. Association of 5-HT2C (rs3813929) and UCP3 (rs1800849) gene polymorphisms with type 2 diabetes in obese women candidates for bariatric surgery.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Schnor, Noa Pereira Prada; Verlengia, Rozangela; Novais, Patrícia Fátima Sousa; Crisp, Alex Harley; Leite, Celso Vieira de Souza; Rasera-Junior, Irineu; Oliveira, Maria Rita Marques de

    2017-01-01

    Obesity can cause systemic arterial hypertension (SAH) and type 2 diabetes mellitus (DM2) factor that is also influenced by genetic variability. The present study aims to investigate the association between gene polymorphisms related with obesity on the prevalence of SAH and DM2 in the preoperative period and 1 year after Roux-en-Y gastric bypass surgery. In total, 351 obese women in a Brazilian cohort completed the study. The clinical diagnosis of SAH and DM2 was monitored from medical records. Twelve gene polymorphisms (rs26802; rs572169; rs7799039; rs1137101; rs3813929; rs659366; rs660339; rs1800849; rs7498665; rs35874116; rs9701796; and rs9939609) were determined using real-time polymerase chain reaction and TaqMan assay. In the preoperative period, prevalence of SAH and DM2 was 57% and 22%, respectively. One year postoperatively, 86.8% subjects had remission of DM2 and 99.5% had control of SAH. Subjects with T allele from the serotonin receptor gene (5-HT2C, rs3813929) had five times greater chance of DM2, and the CC genotype from uncoupling protein 3 gene (UCP3, rs1800849) had three times greater chance in the preoperative period. These findings indicate that polymorphisms rs3813929 and rs1800849 from 5-HT2C and UCP3 genes were related to DM2 prevalence among the Brazilian obese women candidates for bariatric surgery.

  8. Association analysis of APOA5 rs662799 and rs3135506 polymorphisms with obesity in Moroccan patients.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lakbakbi El Yaagoubi, F; Charoute, H; Bakhchane, A; Ajjemami, M; Benrahma, H; Errouagui, A; Kandil, M; Rouba, H; Barakat, A

    2015-12-01

    The aim of the present study is to explore the association between the APOA5 polymorphisms and haplotypes with obesity in Moroccan patients. The study was performed in 459 subjects, Obese (n=164) and non-obese (n=295). All subjects were genotyped for the APOA5 -1131T>C (rs662799) and c.56C>G (rs3135506) polymorphisms. The contribution of APOA5 polymorphisms and haplotypes in the increased risk of obesity were explored using logistic regression analyses. The -1131T>C and c.56C>G polymorphisms were significantly associated with obesity. Both polymorphisms were strongly associated with increased BMI. Analysis of constructed haplotypes showed a significant association between CG haplotype and susceptibility to obesity (OR [95%CI]=3.09 [1.93-4.97]; P<0.001). These results support a potential role for APOA5 common variants and related haplotypes as risk factors for obesity. Copyright © 2015 Elsevier Masson SAS. All rights reserved.

  9. Scattered P'P' waves observed at short distances

    Science.gov (United States)

    Earle, Paul S.; Rost, Sebastian; Shearer, Peter M.; Thomas, Christine

    2011-01-01

    We detect previously unreported 1 Hz scattered waves at epicentral distances between 30° and 50° and at times between 2300 and 2450 s after the earthquake origin. These waves likely result from off-azimuth scattering of PKPbc to PKPbc in the upper mantle and crust and provide a new tool for mapping variations in fine-scale (10 km) mantle heterogeneity. Array beams from the Large Aperture Seismic Array (LASA) clearly image the scattered energy gradually emerging from the noise and reaching its peak amplitude about 80 s later, and returning to the noise level after 150 s. Stacks of transverse versus radial slowness (ρt, ρr) show two peaks at about (2, -2) and (-2,-2) s/°, indicating the waves arrive along the major arc path (180° to 360°) and significantly off azimuth. We propose a mantle and surface PKPbc to PKPbc scattering mechanism for these observations because (1) it agrees with the initiation time and distinctive slowness signature of the scattered waves and (2) it follows a scattering path analogous to previously observed deep-mantle PK•KP scattering (Chang and Cleary, 1981). The observed upper-mantle scattered waves and PK•KP waves fit into a broader set of scattered waves that we call P′•d•P′, which can scatter from any depth, d, in the mantle.

  10. Correlation of Fetuin-A gene rs1071592 and rs2593813 single nucleotide polymorphisms with polycystic ovary syndrome

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Juan YI

    2016-10-01

    Full Text Available Objective  To investigate the relations of Fetuin-A gene rs1071592 and rs2593813 single nucleotide polymorphisms (SNPs with the affect ability to polycystic ovary syndrome (PCOS and its endocrine and metabolic characteristics in Chongqing Han population. Methods  A case-control study was performed in Chinese Han subjects. The clinical data of 156 cases of normal control and 147 cases of PCOS patients were collected, and their blood glucose, lipids, sex hormone and other biochemical indexes were determined, the SNPs of rs1071592 and rs2593813 were genotyped by TaqMan SNP Genotyping Assay. Hyperinsulinemic-euglycemic clamp was performed in 147 PCOS women and 20 controls. The relative risk of developing PCOS in women with rs1071592 genotype was assessed using a binary logistic regression analysis. Results  The distribution frequency of Fetuin-A gene homozygous rs1071592 AA genotype and A allele was significantly increased in PCOS patients than in controls (Pc0.05. Binary logistic regression analysis showed that the risk of developing PCOS was 4.93 times high in women with AA genotype of rs1071592 (OR=4.933, 95%CI 1.593-15.278, P0.05. Conclusion  People with SNPs variants of rs1071592 in Fetuin-A gene may have an increased genetic susceptibility to PCOS. However, there won't be significant relationship between SNP of rs2593813 at Fetuin-A gene and PCOS. DOI: 10.11855/j.issn.0577-7402.2016.09.07

  11. Neutron scattering and physisorption

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Marlow, I.; Thomas, R.K.; Trewern, T.D.

    1977-01-01

    Neutron scattering experiments on methane and ammonia adsorbed on a graphitized carbon black are described. Diffraction from adsorbed deuterated methane shows that, at a coverage of 0.7, it forms an epitaxial layer with a √3x√3 structure. Between 50 and 60 K it undergoes a phase transition from two-dimensional solid to liquid (bulk melting point=89.7 K). Similar results are obtained for deuterated methane on a sample of graphon intercalated with potassium. From the effect of adsorbed methane on the intensities of 001 peaks of both substrates the carbon atom of the methane is estimated to be 3.3+-0.2 A from the surface. Ammonia-d 3 on graphon behaves quite differently from methane. It follows a type III isotherm and at low temperatures desorbs from the surface to form bulk ammonia. This has anomalous melting properties which are shown to be related to adsorption isobars for the system. The detailed interpretation of the results emphasizes the close link between adsorption and heterogeneous nucleation. Quasielastic experiments on the ammonia-graphon system show that the adsorbed ammonia is undergoing translational diffusion on the surface which is much faster than in the bulk. This is attributed to the breaking up of the hydrogen bonded network normally present in t

  12. Insect nicotinic acetylcholine receptors (nAChRs): Important amino ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    STORAGESEVER

    2008-12-29

    Dec 29, 2008 ... nAChRs within the insect central nervous system has led to the development of insecticides targeting .... binding protein (AChBP), a homopentameric structural and functional homolog of ..... of the honey bee, Apis mellifera.

  13. Assessment of river plan changes in Terengganu River using RS ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Journal of Fundamental and Applied Sciences ... The database can help in the appropriate understanding of river plan change and know ... The data collected from Geographic Information System (GIS) and Remote Sensing (RS) database.

  14. SparkRS - Spark for Remote Sensing, Phase I

    Data.gov (United States)

    National Aeronautics and Space Administration — The proposed innovation is Spark-RS, an open source software project that enables GPU-accelerated remote sensing workflows in an Apache Spark distributed computing...

  15. RS-485 Bus Design of a Missile Simulation Training System

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Liu Fang

    2013-07-01

    Full Text Available In a missile simulation training system with one-master and multi-slaves distributed system structure, a universal controller is necessary due to the system composed with several controllers. In this research, the designed controllers communicate with each other and upper control computer through RS-485 field bus. RS-485 bus including interface circuits, transmission protocol, Cyclic Redundancy Check (CRC method and upper control test software is designed and proposed. The universal controller adopting the designed RS-485 interface circuits is connected through twisted-pair and makes the simulation system, then the controller is tested in line. The results show that the RS-485 bus communicates effectively using the protocol and CRC method, data transmission rates reaches 115.2 kbps, and has a good stability.

  16. Four therapeutic cases of RS3PE syndrome

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Nakajima, Naoya; Fukuda, Yukiko; Yang, Kwang-Seok; Aiba, Miyoji; Tsuda, Hiroshi

    2007-01-01

    RS3PE syndrome (Remitting Seronegative Symmetrical Synovitis with Pitting Edema Syndrome) is one of the disorders which present as polyarthritis. It is important to be aware of RS3PE syndrome when encountering elderly patients with polyarthritis who are negative for rheumatoid factor. We report 4 cases of RS3PE syndrome. All cases shared common clinical findings, such as acute onset, symmetrical polyarthritis, pitting edema of the hands and feet, and being negative for rheumatoid factor in serum. Treatment with corticosteroid was very effective in all cases. However, two patients showed a deteriorated clinical condition during the tapering of corticosteroid. Corticosteroid should be tapered off cautiously in patients with RS3PE syndrome. (author)

  17. Blending the most fundamental Remote-Sensing principles (RS ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Blending the most fundamental Remote-Sensing principles (RS) with the most functional spatial knowledge (GIS) with the objective of the determination of the accident-prone palms and points (case study: Tehran-Hamadan Highway on Saveh Superhighway)

  18. Equivalence of the Boson Peak in Glasses to the Transverse Acoustic van Hove Singularity in Crystals

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Chumakov, A. I.; Monaco, G.; Monaco, A.; Crichton, W. A.; Bosak, A.; Rueffer, R.; Meyer, A.; Kargl, F.; Comez, L.; Fioretto, D.; Giefers, H.; Roitsch, S.; Wortmann, G.; Manghnani, M. H.; Hushur, A.; Balogh, J.; Williams, Q.; Parlinski, K.; Jochym, P.; Piekarz, P.

    2011-01-01

    We compare the atomic dynamics of the glass to that of the relevant crystal. In the spectra of inelastic scattering, the boson peak of the glass appears higher than the transverse acoustic (TA) singularity of the crystal. However, the density of states shows that they have the same number of states. Increasing pressure causes the transformation of the boson peak of the glass towards the TA singularity of the crystal. Once corrected for the difference in the elastic medium, the boson peak matches the TA singularity in energy and height. This suggests the identical nature of the two features.

  19. Scattering and multiple scattering in disordered materials

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Weaver, R.L.; Butler, W.H.

    1992-01-01

    The papers in this section were presented at a joint session of symposium V on Applications of Multiple Scattering Theory and of Symposium P on Disordered Systems. They show that the ideas of scattering theory can help us to understand a very broad class of phenomena

  20. Parallel data grabbing card based on PCI bus RS422

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Zhang Zhenghui; Shen Ji; Wei Dongshan; Chen Ziyu

    2005-01-01

    This article briefly introduces the developments of the parallel data grabbing card based on RS422 and PCI bus. It could be applied for grabbing the 14 bits parallel data in high speed, coming from the devices with RS422 interface. The methods of data acquisition which bases on the PCI protocol, the functions and their usages of the chips employed, the ideas and principles of the hardware and software designing are presented. (authors)

  1. The 3Rs principle – mind the ethical gap!

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Olsson, I. Anna S.; Franco, Nuno H.; Weary, Daniel M.

    2012-01-01

    to believe that full implementation is merely a matter of time, and once the 3Rs are widely implemented, the public will fully support any continued laboratory animal use that is deemed necessary. In this paper, we argue that these conclusions are unlikely to be correct, in part because the 3Rs are rich...... effects of repeated exposure to harmful procedures). We conclude that there is now a need for a more thorough ethical discussion on how to resolve these issues....

  2. No association of the polymorphisms of the frizzled-related protein gene with peak bone mineral density in Chinese nuclear families

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Yue Hua

    2010-01-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background The Wnt/beta-catenin signaling pathway plays an important role in skeletal development. Polymorphisms of frizzled-related protein (FRZB, an antagonist of this pathway, may generate variations in bone mineral density (BMD. In this study, we analyzed the association between FRZB genotypes and peak BMD variation in the spines and hips of two relatively large samples of Chinese female-offspring and male-offspring nuclear families. Methods We recruited 1,260 subjects from 401 female-offspring nuclear families and 1,296 subjects from 427 male-offspring nuclear families and genotyped four tagging single nucleotide polymorphisms (tagSNPs (rs6433993, rs409238, rs288324, and rs4666865 spanning the entire FRZB gene. The SNPs rs288326 and rs7775, which are associated with hip osteoarthritis, were not selected in this study because of their low minor allele frequencies (MAFs in Chinese people. The quantitative transmission disequilibrium test (QTDT was used to analyze the association between each SNP and haplotype with peak BMD in female- and male-offspring nuclear families. Results In the female-offspring nuclear families, we found no evidence of an association between either single SNPs or haplotypes and peak BMD in the spine or hip. In the male-offspring nuclear families, no within-family association was observed for either SNPs or haplotypes, although a significant total association was found between rs4666865 and spine BMD (P = 0.0299. Conclusion Our results suggest that natural variation in FRZB is not a major contributor to the observed variability in peak BMD in either Chinese females or males. Because ethnic differences in the FRZB genotypes may exist, other studies in different population are required to confirm such results.

  3. Passive radio frequency peak power multiplier

    Science.gov (United States)

    Farkas, Zoltan D.; Wilson, Perry B.

    1977-01-01

    Peak power multiplication of a radio frequency source by simultaneous charging of two high-Q resonant microwave cavities by applying the source output through a directional coupler to the cavities and then reversing the phase of the source power to the coupler, thereby permitting the power in the cavities to simultaneously discharge through the coupler to the load in combination with power from the source to apply a peak power to the load that is a multiplication of the source peak power.

  4. Multirate Filter Bank Representations of RS and BCH Codes

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Van Meerbergen Geert

    2008-01-01

    Full Text Available Abstract This paper addresses the use of multirate filter banks in the context of error-correction coding. An in-depth study of these filter banks is presented, motivated by earlier results and applications based on the filter bank representation of Reed-Solomon (RS codes, such as Soft-In Soft-Out RS-decoding or RS-OFDM. The specific structure of the filter banks (critical subsampling is an important aspect in these applications. The goal of the paper is twofold. First, the filter bank representation of RS codes is now explained based on polynomial descriptions. This approach allows us to gain new insight in the correspondence between RS codes and filter banks. More specifically, it allows us to show that the inherent periodically time-varying character of a critically subsampled filter bank matches remarkably well with the cyclic properties of RS codes. Secondly, an extension of these techniques toward the more general class of BCH codes is presented. It is demonstrated that a BCH code can be decomposed into a sum of critically subsampled filter banks.

  5. Multirate Filter Bank Representations of RS and BCH Codes

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Marc Moonen

    2009-01-01

    Full Text Available This paper addresses the use of multirate filter banks in the context of error-correction coding. An in-depth study of these filter banks is presented, motivated by earlier results and applications based on the filter bank representation of Reed-Solomon (RS codes, such as Soft-In Soft-Out RS-decoding or RS-OFDM. The specific structure of the filter banks (critical subsampling is an important aspect in these applications. The goal of the paper is twofold. First, the filter bank representation of RS codes is now explained based on polynomial descriptions. This approach allows us to gain new insight in the correspondence between RS codes and filter banks. More specifically, it allows us to show that the inherent periodically time-varying character of a critically subsampled filter bank matches remarkably well with the cyclic properties of RS codes. Secondly, an extension of these techniques toward the more general class of BCH codes is presented. It is demonstrated that a BCH code can be decomposed into a sum of critically subsampled filter banks.

  6. The optimal algorithm for Multi-source RS image fusion.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Fu, Wei; Huang, Shui-Guang; Li, Zeng-Shun; Shen, Hao; Li, Jun-Shuai; Wang, Peng-Yuan

    2016-01-01

    In order to solve the issue which the fusion rules cannot be self-adaptively adjusted by using available fusion methods according to the subsequent processing requirements of Remote Sensing (RS) image, this paper puts forward GSDA (genetic-iterative self-organizing data analysis algorithm) by integrating the merit of genetic arithmetic together with the advantage of iterative self-organizing data analysis algorithm for multi-source RS image fusion. The proposed algorithm considers the wavelet transform of the translation invariance as the model operator, also regards the contrast pyramid conversion as the observed operator. The algorithm then designs the objective function by taking use of the weighted sum of evaluation indices, and optimizes the objective function by employing GSDA so as to get a higher resolution of RS image. As discussed above, the bullet points of the text are summarized as follows.•The contribution proposes the iterative self-organizing data analysis algorithm for multi-source RS image fusion.•This article presents GSDA algorithm for the self-adaptively adjustment of the fusion rules.•This text comes up with the model operator and the observed operator as the fusion scheme of RS image based on GSDA. The proposed algorithm opens up a novel algorithmic pathway for multi-source RS image fusion by means of GSDA.

  7. Practical load management - Peak shaving using photovoltaics

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Berger, W.

    2009-01-01

    This article takes a look at how photovoltaic (PV) power generation can be used in a practical way to meet peak demands for electricity. Advice is provided on how photovoltaics can provide peak load 'shaving' through the correlation between its production and the peak loads encountered during the day. The situation regarding feed-in tariffs in Italy is discussed, as are further examples of installations in Germany and Austria. Further, an initiative of the American Southern California Edison utility is discussed which foresees the installation of large PV plant on the roofs of commercial premises to provide local generation of peak energy and thus relieve demands on their power transportation network.

  8. The geomorphic structure of the runoff peak

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    R. Rigon

    2011-06-01

    Full Text Available This paper develops a theoretical framework to investigate the core dependence of peak flows on the geomorphic properties of river basins. Based on the theory of transport by travel times, and simple hydrodynamic characterization of floods, this new framework invokes the linearity and invariance of the hydrologic response to provide analytical and semi-analytical expressions for peak flow, time to peak, and area contributing to the peak runoff. These results are obtained for the case of constant-intensity hyetograph using the Intensity-Duration-Frequency (IDF curves to estimate extreme flow values as a function of the rainfall return period. Results show that, with constant-intensity hyetographs, the time-to-peak is greater than rainfall duration and usually shorter than the basin concentration time. Moreover, the critical storm duration is shown to be independent of rainfall return period as well as the area contributing to the flow peak. The same results are found when the effects of hydrodynamic dispersion are accounted for. Further, it is shown that, when the effects of hydrodynamic dispersion are negligible, the basin area contributing to the peak discharge does not depend on the channel velocity, but is a geomorphic propriety of the basin. As an example this framework is applied to three watersheds. In particular, the runoff peak, the critical rainfall durations and the time to peak are calculated for all links within a network to assess how they increase with basin area.

  9. [A peak recognition algorithm designed for chromatographic peaks of transformer oil].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ou, Linjun; Cao, Jian

    2014-09-01

    In the field of the chromatographic peak identification of the transformer oil, the traditional first-order derivative requires slope threshold to achieve peak identification. In terms of its shortcomings of low automation and easy distortion, the first-order derivative method was improved by applying the moving average iterative method and the normalized analysis techniques to identify the peaks. Accurate identification of the chromatographic peaks was realized through using multiple iterations of the moving average of signal curves and square wave curves to determine the optimal value of the normalized peak identification parameters, combined with the absolute peak retention times and peak window. The experimental results show that this algorithm can accurately identify the peaks and is not sensitive to the noise, the chromatographic peak width or the peak shape changes. It has strong adaptability to meet the on-site requirements of online monitoring devices of dissolved gases in transformer oil.

  10. Neutron scattering from fractals

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Kjems, Jørgen; Freltoft, T.; Richter, D.

    1986-01-01

    The scattering formalism for fractal structures is presented. Volume fractals are exemplified by silica particle clusters formed either from colloidal suspensions or by flame hydrolysis. The determination of the fractional dimensionality through scattering experiments is reviewed, and recent small...

  11. Scatter from optical components

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Stover, J.C.

    1989-01-01

    This book is covered under the following topics: measurement and analysis techniques; BRDF standards, comparisons, and anomalies; scatter measurement of several materials; scatter from contaminations; and optical system contamination: effects, measurement, and control

  12. Peaked signals from dark matter velocity structures in direct detection experiments

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lang, Rafael F.; Weiner, Neal

    2010-06-01

    In direct dark matter detection experiments, conventional elastic scattering of WIMPs results in exponentially falling recoil spectra. In contrast, theories of WIMPs with excited states can lead to nuclear recoil spectra that peak at finite recoil energies ER. The peaks of such signals are typically fairly broad, with ΔER/Epeak ~ 1. We show that in the presence of dark matter structures with low velocity dispersion, such as streams or clumps, peaks from up-scattering can become extremely narrow with FWHM of a few keV only. This differs dramatically from the conventionally expected WIMP spectrum and would, once detected, open the possibility to measure the dark matter velocity structure with high accuracy. As an intriguing example, we confront the observed cluster of 3 events near 42 keV from the CRESST commissioning run with this scenario. Inelastic dark matter particles with a wide range of parameters are capable of producing such a narrow peak. We calculate the possible signals at other experiments, and find that such particles could also give rise to the signal at DAMA, although not from the same stream. Over some range of parameters, a signal would be visible at xenon experiments. We show that such dark matter peaks are a very clear signal and can be easily disentangled from potential backgrounds, both terrestrial or due to WIMP down-scattering, by an enhanced annual modulation in both the amplitude of the signal and its spectral shape.

  13. Fine mapping of a linkage peak with integration of lipid traits identifies novel coronary artery disease genes on chromosome 5

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Nolan Daniel K

    2012-02-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background Coronary artery disease (CAD, and one of its intermediate risk factors, dyslipidemia, possess a demonstrable genetic component, although the genetic architecture is incompletely defined. We previously reported a linkage peak on chromosome 5q31-33 for early-onset CAD where the strength of evidence for linkage was increased in families with higher mean low density lipoprotein-cholesterol (LDL-C. Therefore, we sought to fine-map the peak using association mapping of LDL-C as an intermediate disease-related trait to further define the etiology of this linkage peak. The study populations consisted of 1908 individuals from the CATHGEN biorepository of patients undergoing cardiac catheterization; 254 families (N = 827 individuals from the GENECARD familial study of early-onset CAD; and 162 aorta samples harvested from deceased donors. Linkage disequilibrium-tagged SNPs were selected with an average of one SNP per 20 kb for 126.6-160.2 MB (region of highest linkage and less dense spacing (one SNP per 50 kb for the flanking regions (117.7-126.6 and 160.2-167.5 MB and genotyped on all samples using a custom Illumina array. Association analysis of each SNP with LDL-C was performed using multivariable linear regression (CATHGEN and the quantitative trait transmission disequilibrium test (QTDT; GENECARD. SNPs associated with the intermediate quantitative trait, LDL-C, were then assessed for association with CAD (i.e., a qualitative phenotype using linkage and association in the presence of linkage (APL; GENECARD and logistic regression (CATHGEN and aortas. Results We identified four genes with SNPs that showed the strongest and most consistent associations with LDL-C and CAD: EBF1, PPP2R2B, SPOCK1, and PRELID2. The most significant results for association of SNPs with LDL-C were: EBF1, rs6865969, p = 0.01; PPP2R2B, rs2125443, p = 0.005; SPOCK1, rs17600115, p = 0.003; and PRELID2, rs10074645, p = 0.0002. The most significant results for

  14. Separate observation of ballistic and scattered photons in the propagation of short laser pulses through a strongly scattering medium

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Tereshchenko, Sergei A; Podgaetskii, Vitalii M; Vorob'ev, Nikolai S; Smirnov, A V

    1998-01-01

    The conditions are identified for simultaneous observation of the peaks of scattered and unscattered (ballistic) photons in a narrow pulsed laser beam crossing a strongly scattering medium. The experimental results are explained on the basis of a nonstationary two-flux model of radiation transport. An analytic expression is given for the contribution of ballistic photons to the transmitted radiation, as a function of the characteristics of the scattering medium. It is shown that the ballistic photon contribution can be increased by the use of high-contrast substances which alter selectively the absorption and scattering coefficients of the medium. (laser applications and other topics in quantum electronics)

  15. Electron scattering from tetrahydrofuran

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Fuss, M C; Sanz, A G; García, G; Muñoz, A; Oller, J C; Blanco, F; Do, T P T; Brunger, M J; Almeida, D; Limão-Vieira, P

    2012-01-01

    Electron scattering from Tetrahydrofuran (C 4 H 8 O) was investigated over a wide range of energies. Following a mixed experimental and theoretical approach, total scattering, elastic scattering and ionization cross sections as well as electron energy loss distributions were obtained.

  16. Neutron-proton scattering

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Doll, P.

    1990-02-01

    Neutron-proton scattering as fundamental interaction process below and above hundred MeV is discussed. Quark model inspired interactions and phenomenological potential models are described. The seminar also indicates the experimental improvements for achieving new precise scattering data. Concluding remarks indicate the relevance of nucleon-nucleon scattering results to finite nuclei. (orig.) [de

  17. Neutron Scattering Software

    Science.gov (United States)

    Home Page | Facilities | Reference | Software | Conferences | Announcements | Mailing Lists Neutron Scattering Banner Neutron Scattering Software A new portal for neutron scattering has just been established sets KUPLOT: data plotting and fitting software ILL/TAS: Matlab probrams for analyzing triple axis data

  18. Magnetic photon scattering

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Lovesey, S.W.

    1987-05-01

    The report reviews, at an introductory level, the theory of photon scattering from condensed matter. Magnetic scattering, which arises from first-order relativistic corrections to the Thomson scattering amplitude, is treated in detail and related to the corresponding interaction in the magnetic neutron diffraction amplitude. (author)

  19. Polarized Neutron Scattering

    OpenAIRE

    Roessli, B.; Böni, P.

    2000-01-01

    The technique of polarized neutron scattering is reviewed with emphasis on applications. Many examples of the usefulness of the method in various fields of physics are given like the determination of spin density maps, measurement of complex magnetic structures with spherical neutron polarimetry, inelastic neutron scattering and separation of coherent and incoherent scattering with help of the generalized XYZ method.

  20. Inelastic neutron scattering from glass formers

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Buchenau, U.

    1997-01-01

    Neutron spectra below and above the glass transition temperature show a pronounced difference between strong and fragile glass formers in Angell's fragility scheme. The strong anharmonic increase of the inelastic scattering with increasing temperature in fragile substances is absent in the strongest glass former SiO 2 . That difference is reflected in the temperature dependence of Brillouin sound velocities above the glass transition. Coherent inelastic neutron scattering data indicate a mixture of sound waves and local modes at the low frequency boson peak. A relation between the fragility and the temperature dependence of the transverse hypersound velocity at the glass temperature is derived. (author)

  1. Employer Attitudes towards Peak Hour Avoidance

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Vonk Noordegraaf, D.M.; Annema, J.A.

    2012-01-01

    Peak Hour Avoidance is a relatively new Dutch mobility management measure. To reduce congestion frequent car drivers are given a financial reward for reducing the proportion of trips that they make during peak hours on a specific motorway section. Although previous studies show that employers are

  2. Employer attitudes towards peak hour avoidance

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Noordegraaf, D.M.V.; Annema, J.A.

    2012-01-01

    Peak Hour Avoidance is a relatively new Dutch mobility management measure. To reduce congestion frequent car drivers are given a financial reward for reducing the proportion of trips that they make during peak hours on a specific motorway section. Although previous studies show that employers are

  3. Peak load pricing lowers generation costs

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Lande, R.H.

    1980-01-01

    Before a utility implements peak load pricing for different classes of consumers, the costs and the benefits should be compared. The methodology described enables a utility to determine whether peak load pricing should be introduced for specific users. Cost-benefit analyses for domestic consumers and commercial/industrial consumers, showing break-even points are presented. (author)

  4. Peak Shaving Considering Streamflow Uncertainties | Iwuagwu ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    The main thrust of this paper is peak shaving with a Stochastic hydro model. In peak sharing, the amount of hydro energy scheduled may be a minimum but it serves to replace less efficient thermal units. The sample system is die Kainji hydro plant and the thermal units of the National Electric Power Authority. The random ...

  5. The peak in neutron powder diffraction

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Laar, B. van; Yelon, W.B.

    1984-01-01

    For the application of Rietveld profile analysis to neutron powder diffraction data a precise knowledge of the peak profile, in both shape and position, is required. The method now in use employs a Gaussian shaped profile with a semi-empirical asymmetry correction for low-angle peaks. The integrated intensity is taken to be proportional to the classical Lorentz factor calculated for the X-ray case. In this paper an exact expression is given for the peak profile based upon the geometrical dimensions of the diffractometer. It is shown that the asymmetry of observed peaks is well reproduced by this expression. The angular displacement of the experimental profile with respect to the nominal Bragg angle value is larger than expected. Values for the correction to the classical Lorentz factor for the integrated intensity are given. The exact peak profile expression has been incorporated into a Rietveld profile analysis refinement program. (Auth.)

  6. Peak tree: a new tool for multiscale hierarchical representation and peak detection of mass spectrometry data.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zhang, Peng; Li, Houqiang; Wang, Honghui; Wong, Stephen T C; Zhou, Xiaobo

    2011-01-01

    Peak detection is one of the most important steps in mass spectrometry (MS) analysis. However, the detection result is greatly affected by severe spectrum variations. Unfortunately, most current peak detection methods are neither flexible enough to revise false detection results nor robust enough to resist spectrum variations. To improve flexibility, we introduce peak tree to represent the peak information in MS spectra. Each tree node is a peak judgment on a range of scales, and each tree decomposition, as a set of nodes, is a candidate peak detection result. To improve robustness, we combine peak detection and common peak alignment into a closed-loop framework, which finds the optimal decomposition via both peak intensity and common peak information. The common peak information is derived and loopily refined from the density clustering of the latest peak detection result. Finally, we present an improved ant colony optimization biomarker selection method to build a whole MS analysis system. Experiment shows that our peak detection method can better resist spectrum variations and provide higher sensitivity and lower false detection rates than conventional methods. The benefits from our peak-tree-based system for MS disease analysis are also proved on real SELDI data.

  7. Multiscale peak detection in wavelet space.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zhang, Zhi-Min; Tong, Xia; Peng, Ying; Ma, Pan; Zhang, Ming-Jin; Lu, Hong-Mei; Chen, Xiao-Qing; Liang, Yi-Zeng

    2015-12-07

    Accurate peak detection is essential for analyzing high-throughput datasets generated by analytical instruments. Derivatives with noise reduction and matched filtration are frequently used, but they are sensitive to baseline variations, random noise and deviations in the peak shape. A continuous wavelet transform (CWT)-based method is more practical and popular in this situation, which can increase the accuracy and reliability by identifying peaks across scales in wavelet space and implicitly removing noise as well as the baseline. However, its computational load is relatively high and the estimated features of peaks may not be accurate in the case of peaks that are overlapping, dense or weak. In this study, we present multi-scale peak detection (MSPD) by taking full advantage of additional information in wavelet space including ridges, valleys, and zero-crossings. It can achieve a high accuracy by thresholding each detected peak with the maximum of its ridge. It has been comprehensively evaluated with MALDI-TOF spectra in proteomics, the CAMDA 2006 SELDI dataset as well as the Romanian database of Raman spectra, which is particularly suitable for detecting peaks in high-throughput analytical signals. Receiver operating characteristic (ROC) curves show that MSPD can detect more true peaks while keeping the false discovery rate lower than MassSpecWavelet and MALDIquant methods. Superior results in Raman spectra suggest that MSPD seems to be a more universal method for peak detection. MSPD has been designed and implemented efficiently in Python and Cython. It is available as an open source package at .

  8. Vibrations and reorientations of H2O molecules in [Sr(H2O)6]Cl2 studied by Raman light scattering, incoherent inelastic neutron scattering and proton magnetic resonance.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hetmańczyk, Joanna; Hetmańczyk, Lukasz; Migdał-Mikuli, Anna; Mikuli, Edward; Florek-Wojciechowska, Małgorzata; Harańczyk, Hubert

    2014-04-24

    Vibrational-reorientational dynamics of H2O ligands in the high- and low-temperature phases of [Sr(H2O)6]Cl2 was investigated by Raman Spectroscopy (RS), proton magnetic resonance ((1)H NMR), quasielastic and inelastic incoherent Neutron Scattering (QENS and IINS) methods. Neutron powder diffraction (NPD) measurements, performed simultaneously with QENS, did not indicated a change of the crystal structure at the phase transition (detected earlier by differential scanning calorimetry (DSC) at TC(h)=252.9 K (on heating) and at TC(c)=226.5K (on cooling)). Temperature dependence of the full-width at half-maximum (FWHM) of νs(OH) band at ca. 3248 cm(-1) in the RS spectra indicated small discontinuity in the vicinity of phase transition temperature, what suggests that the observed phase transition may be associated with a change of the H2O reorientational dynamics. However, an activation energy value (Ea) for the reorientational motions of H2O ligands in both phases is nearly the same and equals to ca. 8 kJ mol(-1). The QENS peaks, registered for low temperature phase do not show any broadening. However, in the high temperature phase a small QENS broadening is clearly visible, what implies that the reorientational dynamics of H2O ligands undergoes a change at the phase transition. (1)H NMR line is a superposition of two powder Pake doublets, differentiated by a dipolar broadening, suggesting that there are two types of the water molecules in the crystal lattice of [Sr(H2O)6]Cl2 which are structurally not equivalent average distances between the interacting protons are: 1.39 and 1.18 Å. However, their reorientational dynamics is very similar (τc=3.3⋅10(-10) s). Activation energies for the reorientational motion of these both kinds of H2O ligands have nearly the same values in an experimental error limit: and equal to ca. 40 kJ mole(-1). The phase transition is not seen in the (1)H NMR spectra temperature dependencies. Infrared (IR), Raman (RS) and inelastic

  9. Specific gas turbines for extreme peak-load

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Bellot, C.

    1992-12-01

    As with other European countries, in France peak consumption of electricity occurs during winter. Due to the increasing use of electricity for domestic heating, outside temperature greatly influences consumption (1 200 MW for a drop of 1 deg C). To meet requirements during cold spells, EDF has sought to determine which special facilities are best suited for extreme peak load conditions (i.e. offering short lifespan and minimum capital cost) and has studied the possibility of installing generation means in transformer substations (20 kV). This solution does not require extension of networks since these means are scattered near consumption areas. An experiment conducted on 3 Diesel generators of 800 kWe each at Senlis revealed some of the disadvantages of Diesel (maintenance requirements, polluting emissions and noise). EDF then examined, for this same application, the use of gas turbines, for which these drawbacks are significantly less. A study carried out under an EDF contract by the French manufacturer TURBOMECA showed that it is possible to design a small capacity gas turbine that can compete with Diesel generators, and that capital costs could be minimized by simplifying the machine, adapting its lifespan to extreme peak load needs, and taking advantage of lower cost provided by mass production. TURBOMECA defined the machine's characteristics (2 MW, 6 000 hours lifespan) and aerodynamic flow. It also estimated the cost of packaging. In terms of overall cost (including initial investment, maintenance and fuel) the gas turbine appears cheaper than Diesel generators for annual operation times of less than one hundred hours, which corresponds closely with extreme peak load use. The lower maintenance costs and the better availability counterbalance the higher capital cost (+6%) and the greater consumption (+50%). (author). 7 figs

  10. HLA variants rs9271366 and rs9275328 are associated with systemic lupus erythematosus susceptibility in Malays and Chinese.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chai, H C; Phipps, M E; Othman, I; Tan, L P; Chua, K H

    2013-02-01

    Human leukocyte antigen (HLA) antigens and genes have long been reported associated with systemic lupus erythematosus (SLE) susceptibility in many populations. With the advance in technologies such as genome-wide association studies, many newly discovered SLE-associated single-nucleotide polymorphisms (SNPs) have been reported in recent years. These include HLA-DRB1/HLA-DQA1 rs9271366 and HLA-DQB1/HLA-DQA2 rs9275328. Our aim was to investigate these SNPs in a Malaysian SLE cohort. SNPs rs9271366 and rs9275328 were screened across 790 Malaysian citizens from three ethnic groups (360 patients and 430 healthy volunteers) by Taqman SNP genotyping assays. Allele and genotyping frequencies, Hardy-Weinberg equilibrium, Fisher's exact test and odds ratio were calculated for each SNP and ethnic group. Linkage disequilibrium and interaction between the two SNPs were also evaluated. The minor allele G and its homozygous genotype GG of HLA-DRB1/HLA-DQA1 rs9271366 significantly increased the SLE susceptibility in Malaysian patients, including those of Malay and Chinese ethnicity (odds ratio (OR) > 1, p < 0.05). As for HLA-DQB1/HLA-DQA2 rs9275328, the minor allele T and the heterozygous genotype CT conferred protective effect to SLE in Malaysians, as well as in Malays and Chinese, by having OR < 1 and p value <0.05. Both SNPs did not show associations to SLE in Indians. D' and r (2) values for the two SNPs in LD analysis were 0.941 and 0.065, respectively, with haplotype GC and AT being significantly associated with SLE (p < 5.0 × 10(-4)) after 10,000 permutations were performed. The MDR test clustered the genotype combinations of GG and CC, and AG and CC of rs9271366 and rs9275328, accordingly, as high-risk group, and the two SNPs interacted redundantly by removing 1.96% of the entropy. Our findings suggest that in addition to some classical HLA variants, rs9271366 and rs9275328 are additional polymorphisms worth considering in the Malaysian and possibly in

  11. Evaluation of transcobalamin II rs1801198 and transcobalamin II receptor rs2336573 gene polymorphisms in recurrent spontaneous abortion.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hashemi, Mohammad; Mokhtari, Mojgan; Yazdani-Shahrbabaki, Vajiheh; Danesh, Hiva; Bizhani, Fatemeh; Taheri, Mohsen

    2018-03-14

    It has been proposed that transcobalamin 2 (TCN2) and the transcobalamin 2 receptor (TCN2R) are associated with idiopathic recurrent spontaneous abortion (RSA). The aim of the present study was to investigate the impact of TCN2 rs1801198 and TCN2R rs2336573 polymorphism on RSA in a sample of Iranian population. This case-control study was done on 92 RSA patients and 93 normal, fertile women. Genotyping of the TCN2 rs1801198 and TCN2R rs2336573 variants was done by polymerase chain reaction restriction fragment length polymorphism (PCR-RFLP). The findings showed no significant association between the TCN2 rs1801198 and TCN2R rs2336573 polymorphisms and the risk/protection of RSA. Our results did not support an association between the TCN2 polymorphism and the risk of RSA in a sample of southeast Iranian population. Larger studies with different ethnicities are needed to evaluate the possible impact of TCN2 and TCN2R polymorphisms on the pathogenesis of RSA. Impact statement What is already known on this subject? Recurrent spontaneous abortion (RSA), a multifactorial condition, is one of the most common complications of pregnancy. It has been proposed that genetic polymorphisms play a role in the pathogenesis of RSA. Few studies have examined the association between TNC2 and TCN2R polymorphisms and the RSA risk and the findings were inconsistent. The aim of the current study was to determine the possible association between the TCN2 rs1801198 and TCN2R rs2336573 polymorphisms and the RSA in a sample of the southeast Iranian population. What do the results of the study add? The findings of the present case-control study did not support an association between the TCN2 rs1801198 and TCN2R rs2336573 polymorphisms and the risk of RSA in a sample of the Iranian population. What are the implications of these findings for clinical practice and future research? The findings of this study may provide a basis for future studies with larger sample sizes and different ethnicities

  12. Association of PTPN22 rs2476601 and STAT4 rs7574865 polymorphisms with rheumatoid arthritis: A meta-analysis update.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Elshazli, Rami; Settin, Ahmad

    2015-08-01

    Rheumatoid arthritis (RA) is a common autoimmune disease with a complex genetic background. The genes encoding protein tyrosine phosphatase non-receptor type 22 (PTPN22) and signal transducer and activator of transcription 4 (STAT4) have been reported to be associated with RA in several ethnic populations. This work aims to assess the association between PTPN22 rs2476601 and STAT4 rs7574865 polymorphisms with RA susceptibility through an updated meta-analysis of available case-control studies. A literature search of all relevant studies published from January 2007 up to December 2014 was conducted using Pubmed and Science Direct databases. The observed studies that were related to an association between PTPN22 rs2476601 and STAT4 rs7574865 polymorphisms with RA susceptibility were identified. Meta-analysis of the pooled and stratified data was done and assessed using varied genetic models. Thirty-seven case-control studies with a total of 47 comparisons (29 for PTPN22 rs2476601 polymorphism and 18 for STAT4 rs7574865 polymorphism) met our inclusion criteria. The meta-analysis showed an association between PTPN22 T allele, CT+TT and TT genotypes with RA susceptibility. Furthermore, The meta-analysis showed an association between STAT4 T allele, GT+TT and TT genotypes with RA susceptibility. Stratification of RA patients according to ethnic groups showed that PTPN22 T allele, CT+TT genotypes, STAT4 T allele and STAT4 GT+TT were significantly associated with RA in European, Asian, African subjects, while PTPN22 TT genotype was significantly associated with RA in European but not in Asian and African subjects and STAT4 TT genotype was significantly associated with RA in European and Asian but not in African subject. A subgroup analysis according to the presence or absence of rheumatoid factor (RF) and anti-cyclic citrullinated peptide (anti-CCP) antibodies revealed that the association between PTPN22 rs2476601 and STAT4 rs7574865 polymorphisms with RA susceptibility

  13. Association between rs6812193 polymorphism and sporadic Parkinson's disease susceptibility.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Huo, Qiang; Li, Tao; Zhao, Peiqing; Wang, Lianqing

    2015-08-01

    Recently, the association of a single nucleotide polymorphism rs6812193 C/T with sporadic Parkinson's disease (PD) susceptibility has been widely evaluated, but the results remained inconsistent. This association should be clarified because of the importance of it on human health and quality of life. We performed a comprehensive meta-analysis to evaluate the association between the rs6812193 polymorphism and sporadic PD. PubMed was used to retrieve articles published up to June 2014 for all studies evaluating the rs6812193 polymorphism and PD in humans. Ethnicity-specific subgroup analysis was also performed based on ethnicity susceptibility. A total of 17 independent study samples (15 Caucasians and 2 Asians) including 17,956 cases and 52,751 controls were used in the presented study. The MAFT (minor allele T frequency) in PD patients of European descent is obviously higher than Asian cases (p susceptibility among overall samples (OR 0.882, 95 % CI 0.856-0.908) and Caucasian population (OR 0.881, 95 % CI 0.856-0.907), but not in Asian samples (OR 0.918, 95 % CI 0.721-1.168). No evidence of publication bias was observed. Throughout our analysis, the rs6812193 polymorphism is significantly associated with sporadic PD susceptibility in Caucasian samples, and ethnicity might be the key point of inconsistency in rs6812193 studies. Further studies are warranted to re-examine the observed associations, especially in different ethnicities.

  14. Associations of Power at V̇O2peak and Anaerobic Threshold with Rank in British High Performance Junior Surfers

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Barlow Matthew John

    2015-03-01

    Full Text Available Purpose. The objective of this study was to determine the relationships of peak oxygen uptake ( V̇O2peak, power at V̇O2peak and power at the anaerobic threshold (AT with national ranking in a sample of British high performance junior surfers. Methods. Eighteen male surfers (aged 15.4 ± 1.4 years from the British Junior Surfing team were tested for V̇O2peak and AT using an adapted kayak ergometer; national ranking was used to indicate performance level. The AT was identified as the point at which V̇E/V̇O2 started to rise without a concomitant increase in V̇E/V̇CO2. Spearman’s rank (rs and partial correlations (rp controlling for age were used to identify the relationships between the physiological variables and national ranking. Results. Mean V̇O2peak was 3.1 ± 0.5 l · min-1 (47.7 ± 7.2 ml · kg-1 · min-1 and mean AT occurred at 48.1 ± 12.2 W. There were significant correlations between national ranking and power at V̇O2peak (rs = -0.549, p = 0.028, power at AT (rs = -0.646, p = 0.009, and age (rs = -0.579, p = 0.012. Significant partial correlations were established controlling for age between national ranking and power at V̇O2peak (rp = -0.839, p = 0.000 and power at AT (rp = -0.541, p < 0.046. Conclusions. The power outputs associated with V̇O2peak and AT were significantly related to surfer ranking in this sample. However, due to the low coefficient of determination associated with the AT/ranking relationship, AT does not discriminate well between the ranking of surfers. These findings support the inclusion of power at V̇O2peak in assessment batteries for junior competitive surfers.

  15. Isotope resolution of the iron peak

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Henke, R.P.; Benton, E.V.

    1977-01-01

    A stack of Lexan detectors from the Apollo 17 mission has been analyzed to obtain Z measurements of sufficient accuracy to resolve the iron peak into its isotopic components. Within this distribution several peaks are present. With the centrally located, most populated peak assumed to be 56 Fe, the measurements imply that the abundances of 54 Fe and 58 Fe are appreciable fractions of the 56 Fe abundance. This result is in agreement with those of Webber et al. and Siegman et al. but in disagreement with the predictions of Tsao et al. (Auth.)

  16. Peak load arrangements : Assessment of Nordel guidelines

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    2009-07-01

    Two Nordic countries, Sweden and Finland, have legislation that empowers the TSO to acquire designated peak load resources to mitigate the risk for shortage situations during the winter. In Denmark, the system operator procures resources to maintain a satisfactory level of security of supply. In Norway the TSO has set up a Regulation Power Option Market (RKOM) to secure a satisfactory level of operational reserves at all times, also in winter with high load demand. Only the arrangements in Finland and Sweden fall under the heading of Peak Load Arrangements defined in Nordel Guidelines. NordREG has been invited by the Electricity Market Group (EMG) to evaluate Nordel's proposal for 'Guidelines for transitional Peak Load Arrangements'. The EMG has also financed a study made by EC Group to support NordREG in the evaluation of the proposal. The study has been taken into account in NordREG's evaluation. In parallel to the EMG task, the Swedish regulator, the Energy Markets Inspectorate, has been given the task by the Swedish government to investigate a long term solution of the peak load issue. The Swedish and Finnish TSOs have together with Nord Pool Spot worked on finding a harmonized solution for activation of the peak load reserves in the market. An agreement accepted by the relevant authorities was reached in early January 2009, and the arrangement has been implemented since 19th January 2009. NordREG views that the proposed Nordel guidelines have served as a starting point for the presently agreed procedure. However, NordREG does not see any need to further develop the Nordel guidelines for peak load arrangements. NordREG agrees with Nordel that the market should be designed to solve peak load problems through proper incentives to market players. NordREG presumes that the relevant authorities in each country will take decisions on the need for any peak load arrangement to ensure security of supply. NordREG proposes that such decisions should be

  17. Codificador RS(n,k basado en LFCS: caso de estudio RS(7,3

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Cecilia Sandoval-Ruiz

    2012-01-01

    Full Text Available El presente artículo presenta el diseño de un codi® cador Reed Solomon basado en un circuito concurrente, LFCS - Linear Feedback Concurrent Structure- que permite la generación de los símbolos de redundancia del código de forma paralela, siempre que se le suministren los k símbolos de información a codificar de forma simultánea, el codifi cador ofrece a su salida los símbolos de redundancia correspondientes. Para lograr este desarrollo se generalizó el modelo matemáticos para la descripción del comportamiento del codificador, se realizó la configuración en lenguaje descriptor de hardware VHDL de un codificador Reed Solomon, tomando como caso de estudio el RS(7,3, se simuló el diseño propuesto validando así su funcionamiento, para finalmente realizar la comparación de la implementación del codifi cador entre la versión secuencial y la versión basada en LFCS, obteniendo una reducción de componentes hardware y optimizando la velocidad de respuesta y consumo de potencia. Concluyendo, que el diseño del codi® cador propuesto valida el modelo concurrente generalizado a partir de la correspondencia con la arquitectura del LFCS.

  18. Automated Peak Picking and Peak Integration in Macromolecular NMR Spectra Using AUTOPSY

    Science.gov (United States)

    Koradi, Reto; Billeter, Martin; Engeli, Max; Güntert, Peter; Wüthrich, Kurt

    1998-12-01

    A new approach for automated peak picking of multidimensional protein NMR spectra with strong overlap is introduced, which makes use of the program AUTOPSY (automatedpeak picking for NMRspectroscopy). The main elements of this program are a novel function for local noise level calculation, the use of symmetry considerations, and the use of lineshapes extracted from well-separated peaks for resolving groups of strongly overlapping peaks. The algorithm generates peak lists with precise chemical shift and integral intensities, and a reliability measure for the recognition of each peak. The results of automated peak picking of NOESY spectra with AUTOPSY were tested in combination with the combined automated NOESY cross peak assignment and structure calculation routine NOAH implemented in the program DYANA. The quality of the resulting structures was found to be comparable with those from corresponding data obtained with manual peak picking.

  19. Enhancement and feature extraction of RS images from seismic area and seismic disaster recognition technologies

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zhang, Jingfa; Qin, Qiming

    2003-09-01

    Many types of feature extracting of RS image are analyzed, and the work procedure of pattern recognizing in RS images of seismic disaster is proposed. The aerial RS image of Tangshan Great Earthquake is processed, and the digital features of various typical seismic disaster on the RS image is calculated.

  20. Quasi-free scattering in the 2H(α,αn)1H reaction

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Kornilov, V.A.; Sokolov, M.V.; Terenetskij, K.O.

    1977-01-01

    The applicability of the Roggers-Sailor (RS) attenuation model to a description of a quasi-free αn scattering in the 2 H (α, αn) 1 H reaction is discussed. The two-dimensional α n coincidence energy spectra were measured in complanar geometry at incident alpha-particle energy of 27.2 MeV. Measured absolute cross sections of deuteron disitegration by alpha-particles in the kinematic region of quasi-free αn scattering are presented. The calculations according to the RS model and those according to the plane-wave momentum approximation (PWMA) are compared with the experimental results. The PWMA calculations are not consistent with the experiment. The RS model calculations are in a satisfactory agreement with the experimental data. It is concluded that the multiple scattering effects in the quasi-free scattering accompanying the deuteron disintegration by alpha particles at 27.2 MeV are important and can be qualitatively reproduced by the RS model. The disintegration of deuteron by a proton is better described by this model than disintegration by an alpha particle

  1. RS-Predictor models augmented with SMARTCyp reactivities

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Zaretzki, Jed; Rydberg, Patrik; Bergeron, Charles

    2012-01-01

    (82.3%) and merged(86.0%). Comprehensive datamining of each substrate set and careful statistical analyses of the predictions made by the different models revealed new insights into molecular features that control metabolic regioselectivity and enable accurate prospective prediction of likely SOMs.......RS-Predictor is a tool for creating pathway-independent, isozyme-specific site of metabolism (SOM) prediction models using any set of known cytochrome P450 substrates and metabolites. Until now, the RS-Predictor method was only trained and validated on CYP 3A4 data, but in the present study we...... report on the versatility the RS-Predictor modeling paradigm by creating and testing regioselectivity models for substrates of the nine most important CYP isozymes. Through curation of source literature, we have assembled 680 substrates distributed among CYPs 1A2, 2A6, 2B6, 2C19, 2C8, 2C9, 2D6, 2E1 and 3...

  2. Renormalization scheme invariant predictions for deep-inelastic scattering and determination of ΛQCD

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Vovk, V.I.

    1989-01-01

    Theoretical aspects of the renormalization scheme (RS) ambiguity problem and the approaches to its solution are discussed from the point of view of QCD phenomenology and the scale Λ determination. The method of RS-invariant perturbation theory (RSIPT) as a sound basis for describing experiment in QCD is advocated. To this end the method is developed for the non-singlet structure functions (SF) of deep-inelastic scattering and recent high precision data on SF's are analyzed in a RS-invariant way. It is shown that RSIPT leads to a more accurate and reliable determination of the QCD scale Λ, which is consistent with the theoretical assumption of a better convergence of RS-invariant perturbative series. 24 refs.; 1 tab

  3. Bayesian Peak Picking for NMR Spectra

    KAUST Repository

    Cheng, Yichen

    2014-02-01

    Protein structure determination is a very important topic in structural genomics, which helps people to understand varieties of biological functions such as protein-protein interactions, protein–DNA interactions and so on. Nowadays, nuclear magnetic resonance (NMR) has often been used to determine the three-dimensional structures of protein in vivo. This study aims to automate the peak picking step, the most important and tricky step in NMR structure determination. We propose to model the NMR spectrum by a mixture of bivariate Gaussian densities and use the stochastic approximation Monte Carlo algorithm as the computational tool to solve the problem. Under the Bayesian framework, the peak picking problem is casted as a variable selection problem. The proposed method can automatically distinguish true peaks from false ones without preprocessing the data. To the best of our knowledge, this is the first effort in the literature that tackles the peak picking problem for NMR spectrum data using Bayesian method.

  4. Peak-Seeking Control for Trim Optimization

    Data.gov (United States)

    National Aeronautics and Space Administration — Innovators have developed a peak-seeking algorithm that can reduce drag and improve performance and fuel efficiency by optimizing aircraft trim in real time. The...

  5. High-Energy Compton Scattering Light Sources

    CERN Document Server

    Hartemann, Fred V; Barty, C; Crane, John; Gibson, David J; Hartouni, E P; Tremaine, Aaron M

    2005-01-01

    No monochromatic, high-brightness, tunable light sources currently exist above 100 keV. Important applications that would benefit from such new hard x-ray sources include: nuclear resonance fluorescence spectroscopy, time-resolved positron annihilation spectroscopy, and MeV flash radiography. The peak brightness of Compton scattering light sources is derived for head-on collisions and found to scale with the electron beam brightness and the drive laser pulse energy. This gamma 2

  6. Neutron scattering from a substitutional mass defect

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Williams, R.D.; Lovesey, S.W.

    1985-06-01

    The dynamic structure factor is calculated for a low concentration of light mass scatterers substituted in a cubic crystal matrix. A new numerical method for the exact calculation is demonstrated. A local density of states for the low momentum transfer limit, and the shifts and widths of the oscillator peaks in the high momentum transfer limit are derived. The limitations of an approximation which decouples the defect from the lattice is discussed. (author)

  7. Polymorphisms rs12998 and rs5780218 in KiSS1 Suppressor Metastasis Gene in Mexican Patients with Breast Cancer

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Edhit Guadalupe Cruz Quevedo

    2015-01-01

    Full Text Available Aims. KiSS1 is a metastasis suppressor gene associated with inhibition of cellular chemotaxis and invasion attenuating the metastasis in melanoma and breast cancer cell lines. Along the KiSS-1 gene at least 294 SNPs have been described; however the association of these polymorphisms as genetic markers for metastasis in breast cancer studies has not been investigated. Here we describe two simple PCR-RFLPs protocols to identify the rs5780218 (9DelT and the rs12998 (E20K KiSS1 polymorphisms and the allelic, genotypic, and haplotypic frequencies in Mexican general population (GP and patients with benign breast disease (BBD or breast cancer (BC. Results. The rs5780218 polymorphism was individually associated with breast cancer (P=0.0332 and the rs12998 polymorphism shows statistically significant differences when GP versus case (BC and BBD groups were compared (P<0.0001. The H1 Haplotype (G/- occurred more frequently in BC group (0.4256 whereas H2 haplotype (G/T was the most prevalent in BBD group (0.4674. Conclusions. Our data indicated that the rs5780218 polymorphism individually confers susceptibility for development of breast cancer in Mexican population and a possible role as a genetic marker in breast cancer metastasis for H1 haplotype (Wt/variant in KiSS1 gene must be analyzed in other populations.

  8. RS-20 type repetitive generator with planar configuration of plasma opening switch

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Agalakov, V P; Barinov, N U; Belenki, G S [Kurchatov Inst., Moscow (Russian Federation); and others

    1997-12-31

    The existing experience with the production of repetitive rate accelerators with a high peak power (in excess of 10{sup 10} W) and an average power above 50 kW makes it possible to resolve a number of physics and technology tasks which are connected with the reliability and life of the accelerator. The design and results on optimization of a simple plasma opening switch (POS) are discussed. The final design of the POS provided voltages of up to 2 MV and had a life of more than 105 pulses including 4 hours of continuous operation under 4 Hz repetition rate and wall plug power 65 kW. This unit was tested at the RS-20 type accelerator both at the Kurchatov Institute and at the Northwest Institute of Nuclear Technology in China. (author). 5 figs., 1 ref.

  9. Sum rules for quasifree scattering of hadrons

    Science.gov (United States)

    Peterson, R. J.

    2018-02-01

    The areas d σ /d Ω of fitted quasifree scattering peaks from bound nucleons for continuum hadron-nucleus spectra measuring d2σ /d Ω d ω are converted to sum rules akin to the Coulomb sums familiar from continuum electron scattering spectra from nuclear charge. Hadronic spectra with or without charge exchange of the beam are considered. These sums are compared to the simple expectations of a nonrelativistic Fermi gas, including a Pauli blocking factor. For scattering without charge exchange, the hadronic sums are below this expectation, as also observed with Coulomb sums. For charge exchange spectra, the sums are near or above the simple expectation, with larger uncertainties. The strong role of hadron-nucleon in-medium total cross sections is noted from use of the Glauber model.

  10. Instream flow needs below peaking hydroelectric projects

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Milhous, R.T.

    1991-01-01

    This paper reports on a method developed to assist in the determination of instream flow needs below hydroelectric projects operated in a peaking mode. Peaking hydroelectric projects significantly change streamflow over a short period of time; consequently, any instream flow methodology must consider the dual flows associated with peaking projects. The dual flows are the lowest flow and the maximum generation flow of a peaking cycle. The methodology is based on elements of the Physical Habitat Simulation System of the U.S. Fish and Wildlife Service and uses habitat, rather than fish numbers or biomas, as at basic response variable. All aquatic animals are subject to the rapid changes in streamflow which cause rapid swings in habitat quality. Some aquatic organisms are relatively fixed in location in the stream while others can move when flows change. The habitat available from a project operated in peaking mode is considered to be the minimum habitat occurring during a cycle of habitat change. The methodology takes in to consideration that some aquatic animals can move and others cannot move during a peaking cycle

  11. Resiliency Scale (RS): Scale Development, Reliability and Validity Study

    OpenAIRE

    GÜRGAN, Uğur

    2003-01-01

    The purpose of this study was to develop a new Resiliency Scale (RS) for Turkish samples. Various items from some major resiliency scales, most of them with some partial change, were collected and a pool of 228 items containing almost all possible resilience areas were obtained. This item-pool was administered to a college sample of 419. Resulting of analysis 50 item RS were obtained and administered to a new college sample of 112 participants. This second sample has also received the Rosenba...

  12. Crosstalk XVI, basic data communication and RS-232C

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Hwang, Hui Yung

    1988-10-01

    This book is divided into three parts, which deals with compatible software of data communication with IBM PC XT/AT. The first part consists of an introduction to crosstalk XVI, getting start for user, crosstalk practice, call with crosstalk, terminal feature, switch of communication parameter, terminal emulation, capturing data, transmission of text file answer mode, file transfer, command file and script file, command summary and examples. The second part deals with basic personal computer communication, RS-232C and explanation of communication control : RS-232C interface, transmission device and interrupt controller 8259.

  13. THE HISTORY OF LABORATORY ANIMALS AND THE 3RS

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Alstrup, Aage Kristian Olsen

    This talk will give an introduction to the history of the use of laboratory animals with focus on the history of the three Rs (3Rs). We will see how animal experimentation has been performed early in our civilization, and how the suffering of animals has been justified. This will include Rene...... Descartes´s mechanical view of animals in the seventeenth century, and Charles Darwin's ambivalent relationship to animal experimentation, which he views as cruel but necessary. In the 1870s the Danish Foundation for Protection of Animals (“Dyrenes Beskyttelse”) and Professor Peter Panum discussed the use...

  14. Scattering with polarized neutrons

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Schweizer, J.

    2007-01-01

    In the history of neutron scattering, it was shown very soon that the use of polarized neutron beams brings much more information than usual scattering with unpolarized neutrons. We shall develop here the different scattering methods that imply polarized neutrons: 1) polarized beams without polarization analysis, the flipping ratio method; 2) polarized beams with a uniaxial polarization analysis; 3) polarized beams with a spherical polarization analysis. For all these scattering methods, we shall give examples of the physical problems which can been solved by these methods, particularly in the field of magnetism: investigation of complex magnetic structures, investigation of spin or magnetization densities in metals, insulators and molecular compounds, separation of magnetic and nuclear scattering, investigation of magnetic properties of liquids and amorphous materials and even, for non magnetic material, separation between coherent and incoherent scattering. (author)

  15. Validation of Omron RS8, RS6, and RS3 home blood pressure monitoring devices, in accordance with the European Society of Hypertension International Protocol revision 2010.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Takahashi, Hakuo; Yoshika, Masamichi; Yokoi, Toyohiko

    2013-01-01

    Allowing patients to measure their blood pressure at home is recognized as being of clinical value. However, it is not known how often these measurements are taken correctly. Blood pressure monitors for home use fall into two types based on the position of the cuff, ie, at the upper arm or the wrist. The latter is particularly convenient, as measurements can be taken fully clothed. This study aimed to evaluate the performance of the wrist-type blood pressure monitors Omron RS8 (HEM-6310F-E), Omron RS6 (HEM-6221-E), and Omron RS3 (HEM-6130-E). A team of three trained doctors validated the performance of these devices by comparing the measurements obtained from these devices with those taken using a standard mercury sphygmomanometer. All the devices met the validation requirements of the European Society of Hypertension International Protocol revision 2010. The difference in blood pressure readings between the tested device and the standard mercury sphygmomanometer was within 3 mmHg, which is acceptable according to the European Society of Hypertension guidelines. All the home devices tested were found to be suitable for measuring blood pressure at home because their performance fulfilled the requirement of the guidelines.

  16. The Two-Component System CprRS Senses Cationic Peptides and Triggers Adaptive Resistance in Pseudomonas aeruginosa Independently of ParRS

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Fernandez, Luca; Jenssen, Håvard; Bains, Manjeet

    2012-01-01

    dependency on the CprRS and ParRS systems in a concentration-dependent manner. It was further demonstrated that, following exposure to inducing antimicrobial peptides, cprRS mutants did not become adaptively resistant to polymyxins as was observed for wild-type cells. Our microarray studies demonstrated...

  17. Neutron scattering and magnetism

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Mackintosh, A.R.

    1983-01-01

    Those properties of the neutron which make it a unique tool for the study of magnetism are described. The scattering of neutrons by magnetic solids is briefly reviewed, with emphasis on the information on the magnetic structure and dynamics which is inherent in the scattering cross-section. The contribution of neutron scattering to our understanding of magnetic ordering, excitations and phase transitions is illustrated by experimental results on a variety of magnetic crystals. (author)

  18. Stationary theory of scattering

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Kato, T.

    1977-01-01

    A variant of the stationary methods is described, and it is shown that it is useful in a wide range of problems, including scattering, by long-range potentials, two-space scattering, and multichannel scattering. The method is based on the notion of spectral forms. The paper is restricted to the simplest case of continuous spectral forms defined on a Banach space embedded in the basic Hilbert space. (P.D.)

  19. Introduction to neutron scattering

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Fischer, W E [Paul Scherrer Inst. (PSI), Villigen (Switzerland)

    1996-11-01

    We give here an introduction to the theoretical principles of neutron scattering. The relationship between scattering- and correlation-functions is particularly emphasized. Within the framework of linear response theory (justified by the weakness of the basic interaction) the relation between fluctuation and dissipation is discussed. This general framework explains the particular power of neutron scattering as an experimental method. (author) 4 figs., 4 refs.

  20. Central Peaks and Soft Modes in Praseodymium

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Houmann, Jens Christian Gylden; Lebech, Bente; Mackintosh, A. R.

    1977-01-01

    The dhcp allotrope of Pr is a singlet ground-state system which is very close to magnetic ordering at low temperatures. We have observed quasi-elastic magnetic scattering around the q-value in the directions at which the disperion relations for the magnetic excitations have a minimum energy...

  1. Limitation of peak fitting and peak shape methods for determination of activation energy of thermoluminescence glow peaks

    CERN Document Server

    Sunta, C M; Piters, T M; Watanabe, S

    1999-01-01

    This paper shows the limitation of general order peak fitting and peak shape methods for determining the activation energy of the thermoluminescence glow peaks in the cases in which retrapping probability is much higher than the recombination probability and the traps are filled up to near saturation level. Right values can be obtained when the trap occupancy is reduced by using small doses or by post-irradiation partial bleaching. This limitation in the application of these methods has not been indicated earlier. In view of the unknown nature of kinetics in the experimental samples, it is recommended that these methods of activation energy determination should be applied only at doses well below the saturation dose.

  2. Studies of Water by Scattering of Slow Neutrons

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Skoeld, K.; Pilcher, E.; Larsson, K.E.

    1964-01-01

    The quasielastic scattering peak in light water at room temperature has been studied with neutrons of energy ∼ 5x10 -3 eV. The width and shape of the peak has been determined by the time-of-flight technique at two scattering angles. If it is assumed that the broad inelastic spectrum is due to scattering by a monoatomic gas of mass 18, it is found that the quasielastic scattering is in good agreement with the predictions by the continuous diffusion model. Inelastic spectra were recorded up to 13x10 -3 eV. Indications of two discrete energy transfers (8 and 14x10 -4 eV) are observed in the 90 deg run. The results are discussed and compared with earlier observations

  3. Studies of Water by Scattering of Slow Neutrons

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Skoeld, K; Pilcher, E; Larsson, K E

    1964-01-15

    The quasielastic scattering peak in light water at room temperature has been studied with neutrons of energy {approx} 5x10{sup -3} eV. The width and shape of the peak has been determined by the time-of-flight technique at two scattering angles. If it is assumed that the broad inelastic spectrum is due to scattering by a monoatomic gas of mass 18, it is found that the quasielastic scattering is in good agreement with the predictions by the continuous diffusion model. Inelastic spectra were recorded up to 13x10{sup -3} eV. Indications of two discrete energy transfers (8 and 14x10{sup -4} eV) are observed in the 90 deg run. The results are discussed and compared with earlier observations.

  4. Scattering from black holes

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Futterman, J.A.H.; Handler, F.A.; Matzner, R.A.

    1987-01-01

    This book provides a comprehensive treatment of the propagation of waves in the presence of black holes. While emphasizing intuitive physical thinking in their treatment of the techniques of analysis of scattering, the authors also include chapters on the rigorous mathematical development of the subject. Introducing the concepts of scattering by considering the simplest, scalar wave case of scattering by a spherical (Schwarzschild) black hole, the book then develops the formalism of spin weighted spheroidal harmonics and of plane wave representations for neutrino, electromagnetic, and gravitational scattering. Details and results of numerical computations are given. The techniques involved have important applications (references are given) in acoustical and radar imaging

  5. Quantum theory of scattering

    CERN Document Server

    Wu Ta You

    1962-01-01

    This volume addresses the broad formal aspects and applications of the quantum theory of scattering in atomic and nuclear collisions. An encyclopedic source of pioneering work, it serves as a text for students and a reference for professionals in the fields of chemistry, physics, and astrophysics. The self-contained treatment begins with the general theory of scattering of a particle by a central field. Subsequent chapters explore particle scattering by a non-central field, collisions between composite particles, the time-dependent theory of scattering, and nuclear reactions. An examinati

  6. Cross plane scattering correction

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Shao, L.; Karp, J.S.

    1990-01-01

    Most previous scattering correction techniques for PET are based on assumptions made for a single transaxial plane and are independent of axial variations. These techniques will incorrectly estimate the scattering fraction for volumetric PET imaging systems since they do not take the cross-plane scattering into account. In this paper, the authors propose a new point source scattering deconvolution method (2-D). The cross-plane scattering is incorporated into the algorithm by modeling a scattering point source function. In the model, the scattering dependence both on axial and transaxial directions is reflected in the exponential fitting parameters and these parameters are directly estimated from a limited number of measured point response functions. The authors' results comparing the standard in-plane point source deconvolution to the authors' cross-plane source deconvolution show that for a small source, the former technique overestimates the scatter fraction in the plane of the source and underestimate the scatter fraction in adjacent planes. In addition, the authors also propose a simple approximation technique for deconvolution

  7. Measurement of disintegration rates of 60Co volume sources by the sum-peak method

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Kawano, Takao; Ebihara, Hiroshi

    1991-01-01

    The sum-peak method has been applied to the determination of the disintegration rates of 60 Co volume sources (1.05 x 10 4 Bq, 1.05 x 10 3 Bq and 1.05 x 10 2 Bq, in 100-ml polyethylene bottles) by using a NaI(Tl) detector of a diameter of 50 mm and a height of 50 mm. The experimental results showed that decreasing the disintegration rates resulted in enlarged underestimation in comparison with the true disintegration rates. It was presumed that the underestimations of the disintegration rates determined by the sum-peak method resulted from the overestimations of the areas under the sum peaks caused by the overlap of the area under the Compton scattering of the γ-ray (2614 keV) emitted from a naturally occurring radionuclide 208 Tl under the sum peaks. (author)

  8. Association of the matrix metalloproteinase-3 polymorphisms rs679620 and rs3025058 with ischemic stroke risk: a meta-analysis

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Zhang Q

    2018-01-01

    Full Text Available Qi-Wei Zhang Department of Neurosurgery, The Affiliated Hospital of Jilin Medical University, Jilin, People’s Republic of China Purpose: The relationship of the matrix metalloproteinase-3 (MMP-3 polymorphisms rs679620 and rs3025058 with ischemic stroke has received much attention. The aim of the present study was to perform a meta-analysis of published case–control studies to evaluate the cumulative evidence.Methods: We performed a search of ISI Web of Science, Embase, PubMed, and China National Knowledge Infrastructure databases. Pooled odds ratios (ORs were appropriately derived from fixed-effects or random-effects models.Results: We identified seven eligible studies including 5,204 subjects. The pooled analysis showed that the MMP-3 rs679620 A allele carriers had increased risk of ischemic stroke compared with homozygotes for the G allele in Asians (AA + GA vs GG: OR =1.42, 95% CI: 1.05–1.91, P=0.022. Concerning the rs3025058 polymorphism, the results did not suggest an association between rs3025058 genotypes and ischemic stroke risk (5A5A + 6A5A vs 6A6A: OR =1.04, 95% CI: 0.73–1.47, P=0.844; 5A5A vs 6A5A + 6A6A: OR =1.14, 95% CI: 0.74–1.77, P=0.556; and 5A5A vs 6A6A: OR =1.11, 95% CI: 0.68–1.80, P=0.677. In subgroup analysis by ethnicity, no statistically significant associations were demonstrated for rs3025058 in Asians and Caucasians, respectively. There was no evidence for publication bias.Conclusion: Our findings indicate that the rs679620 A allele carriers have increased risk of ischemic stroke in Asians, but there is no association between rs3025058 and ischemic stroke risk. Keywords: ischemic stroke, meta-analysis, MMP-3, polymorphism

  9. Double scattering of light from Biophotonic Nanostructures with short-range order

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Noh, Heeso; Liew, Seng Fatt; Saranathan, Vinodkumar; Prum, Richard O.; Mochrie, Simon G.J.; Dufresne, Eric R.; Cao, Hui (Yale)

    2010-07-28

    We investigate the physical mechanism for color production by isotropic nanostructures with short-range order in bird feather barbs. While the primary peak in optical scattering spectra results from constructive interference of singly-scattered light, many species exhibit secondary peaks with distinct characteristic. Our experimental and numerical studies show that these secondary peaks result from double scattering of light by the correlated structures. Without an analog in periodic or random structures, such a phenomenon is unique for short-range ordered structures, and has been widely used by nature for non-iridescent structural coloration.

  10. Study on the Light Scattering from Random Rough Surfaces by Kirrhoff Approximation

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Keding Yan

    2014-07-01

    Full Text Available In order to study the space distribution characteristics of light scattering from random rough surfaces, the linear filtering method is used to generate a series of Gaussian randomly rough surfaces, and the Kirchhoff Approximation is used to calculate the scattered light intensity distribution from random metal and dielectric rough surfaces. The three characteristics of the scattered light intensity distribution peak, the intensity distribution width and the position of peak are reviewed. Numerical calculation results show that significant differences between scattering characteristics of metal surfaces and the dielectric surfaces exist. The light scattering characteristics are jointly influenced by the slope distribution and reflectance of surface element. The scattered light intensity distribution is affected by common influence of surface local slope distribution and surface local reflectivity. The results can provide a basis theory for the research to lidar target surface scattering characteristics.

  11. RS485 optical router for HIRFL-CSR

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Zhang Shuocheng; Wang Dan; Jing Lan; Qiao Weimin

    2007-01-01

    A communication equipment-RS485 optical router has been developed to satisfy requirements of control system communication network of HIRFL-CSR (Heavy Ion Research Facility at Lanzhou-Cooling Storage Ring). The equipment is compatible with multiple communication protocols, such as Ethernet, RS232 and RS485 standard. It can be used to setup the RS485 communication network quickly and connected to the Ethernet easily. The fiber optical interface is introduced to facilitate the connection with the network of industrial Fiber Optics Communication (FOC), which expands the application field of the equipment in a large extent. This paper introduces the details of the equipment, including the design of the circuit and software, features of the equipment and how it works in the whole control system network. Its application in the HIRFL-CSR control system shows that the equipment is in accordance with the general requirement of automatic control communication system. It could also be used in other industrial automatic control fields. (authors)

  12. CAT bags orders worth Rs 90 Crore from EU

    CERN Multimedia

    2002-01-01

    "Orders to the tune of Rs 90 crore have been received by Indore-based Centre for Advanced Technology (CAT) from laboratories in the European Union (EU) and more orders are likely to follow in the near future, according to Pune-based Patel Analog and Digital Measurement Company (PADMCO) director Madhu Patel" (1/2 page).

  13. Genetic association of polymorphism rs1333049 with gout.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wang, Binbin; Meng, Dongmei; Wang, Jing; Liu, Shiguo; Zhou, Sirui; Miao, Zhimin; Han, Lin; Chu, Nan; Zhang, Kun; Ma, Xu; Li, Changgui

    2011-09-01

    We suspect that genes or loci that contribute to coronary artery disease (CAD) may also play a role in the pathogenesis of gout, since hyperuricaemia leads to gout, and serum uric acid (SUA) levels are potential risk factors for CAD. The single nucleotide polymorphism (SNP) rs1333049 (C/G) on chromosome 9p21 has been implicated in previous studies to be associated with CAD. The aim of this study was to evaluate the relationship between this SNP and gout pathogenesis. Nine hundred Chinese Han were recruited for this study (461 gout patients and 439 gout-free individuals). The rs1333049 SNP and surrounding sequences were PCR sequenced. There was a clear link between the rs1333049 genotypic and allelic frequencies between gout cases and controls (χ(2) = 6.81, df = 2, P = 0.033 by genotype; χ(2) = 6.63, df = 1, P = 0.01 by allele). There was a significantly increased risk of gout in carriers of the CC genotype (odds ratio = 1.43, 95% CI 1.07, 1.91). To the best of our knowledge, our findings are the first to establish an association of rs1333049 with gout in a Chinese Han population. Meanwhile, this SNP is homologous to miR-519 and miR-520.

  14. 7q21-rs6964587 and breast cancer risk

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Milne, Roger L; Lorenzo-Bermejo, Justo; Burwinkel, Barbara

    2011-01-01

    Using the Breast Cancer Association Consortium, the authors previously reported that the single nucleotide polymorphism 7q21-rs6964587 (AKAP9-M463I) is associated with breast cancer risk. The authors have now assessed this association more comprehensively using 16 independent case-control studies....

  15. Work in Progress: The Seven Rs of Team Building

    Science.gov (United States)

    Brunelli, Jean; Schneider, Elaine Fogel

    2004-01-01

    This article argues that supportive teams--including professionals, paraprofessionals, and parents--can teach staff members how to identify and implement best practices in early intervention settings. The authors describe "the seven Rs of team building" distilled from their many years of team building and maintenance: 1) Reading cues; 2) Regular…

  16. Statistics of peaks of Gaussian random fields

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Bardeen, J.M.; Bond, J.R.; Kaiser, N.; Szalay, A.S.; Stanford Univ., CA; California Univ., Berkeley; Cambridge Univ., England; Fermi National Accelerator Lab., Batavia, IL)

    1986-01-01

    A set of new mathematical results on the theory of Gaussian random fields is presented, and the application of such calculations in cosmology to treat questions of structure formation from small-amplitude initial density fluctuations is addressed. The point process equation is discussed, giving the general formula for the average number density of peaks. The problem of the proper conditional probability constraints appropriate to maxima are examined using a one-dimensional illustration. The average density of maxima of a general three-dimensional Gaussian field is calculated as a function of heights of the maxima, and the average density of upcrossing points on density contour surfaces is computed. The number density of peaks subject to the constraint that the large-scale density field be fixed is determined and used to discuss the segregation of high peaks from the underlying mass distribution. The machinery to calculate n-point peak-peak correlation functions is determined, as are the shapes of the profiles about maxima. 67 references

  17. Peak Oil, threat or energy worlds' phantasm?

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Favennec, Jean-Pierre

    2011-01-01

    The concept of Peak Oil is based on the work of King Hubbert, a petroleum geologist who worked for Shell in the USA in the 1960's. Based on the fact that discoveries in America reached a maximum in the 1930's, he announced that American production would reach a maximum in 1969, which did actually occur. Geologists members of the Association for the Study of Peak Oil have extrapolated this result to a worldwide scale and, since oil discoveries reached a peak in the 1960's, argued that production will peak in the very near future. It is clear that hydrocarbon reserves are finite and therefore exhaustible. But little is known regarding the level of ultimate (i.e. total existing) reserves. There are probably very large reserves of non conventional oil in addition to the reserves of conventional oil. An increasing number of specialists put maximum production at less than 100 Mb/d more for geopolitical than physical reasons. Attainable peak production will probably vary from year to year and will depend on how crude oil prices develop

  18. Electric peak power forecasting by year 2025

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Alsayegh, O.A.; Al-Matar, O.A.; Fairouz, F.A.; Al-Mulla Ali, A.

    2005-01-01

    Peak power demand in Kuwait up to the year 2025 was predicted using an artificial neural network (ANN) model. The aim of the study was to investigate the effect of air conditioning (A/C) units on long-term power demand. Five socio-economic factors were selected as inputs for the simulation: (1) gross national product, (2) population, (3) number of buildings, (4) imports of A/C units, and (5) index of industrial production. The study used socio-economic data from 1978 to 2000. Historical data of the first 10 years of the studied time period were used to train the ANN. The electrical network was then simulated to forecast peak power for the following 11 years. The calculated error was then used for years in which power consumption data were not available. The study demonstrated that average peak power rates increased by 4100 MW every 5 years. Various scenarios related to changes in population, the number of buildings, and the quantity of A/C units were then modelled to estimate long-term peak power demand. Results of the study demonstrated that population had the strongest impact on future power demand, while the number of buildings had the smallest impact. It was concluded that peak power growth can be controlled through the use of different immigration policies, increased A/C efficiency, and the use of vertical housing. 7 refs., 2 tabs., 6 figs

  19. Electric peak power forecasting by year 2025

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Alsayegh, O.A.; Al-Matar, O.A.; Fairouz, F.A.; Al-Mulla Ali, A. [Kuwait Inst. for Scientific Research, Kuwait City (Kuwait). Div. of Environment and Urban Development

    2005-07-01

    Peak power demand in Kuwait up to the year 2025 was predicted using an artificial neural network (ANN) model. The aim of the study was to investigate the effect of air conditioning (A/C) units on long-term power demand. Five socio-economic factors were selected as inputs for the simulation: (1) gross national product, (2) population, (3) number of buildings, (4) imports of A/C units, and (5) index of industrial production. The study used socio-economic data from 1978 to 2000. Historical data of the first 10 years of the studied time period were used to train the ANN. The electrical network was then simulated to forecast peak power for the following 11 years. The calculated error was then used for years in which power consumption data were not available. The study demonstrated that average peak power rates increased by 4100 MW every 5 years. Various scenarios related to changes in population, the number of buildings, and the quantity of A/C units were then modelled to estimate long-term peak power demand. Results of the study demonstrated that population had the strongest impact on future power demand, while the number of buildings had the smallest impact. It was concluded that peak power growth can be controlled through the use of different immigration policies, increased A/C efficiency, and the use of vertical housing. 7 refs., 2 tabs., 6 figs.

  20. About statistical process contribution to elastic diffraction scattering

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Ismanov, E.I.; Dzhuraev, Sh. Kh.; Paluanov, B.K.

    1999-01-01

    The experimental data on angular distribution show two basic properties. The first one is the presence of back and front peaks. The second one is the angular isotropic distribution near 90 degree, and has a big energy dependence. Different models for partial amplitudes a dl of the diffraction statistical scattering, particularly the model with Gaussian and exponential density distribution, were considered. The experimental data on pp-scattering were analyzed using the examined models

  1. Collision, scattering and absorption differential cross-sections in double-photon Compton scattering

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Dewan, R.; Saddi, M.B.; Sandhu, B.S.; Singh, B.; Ghumman, B.S.

    2005-01-01

    The collision, scattering and absorption differential cross-sections of double-photon Compton scattering are measured experimentally for 0.662 MeV incident gamma photons. Two simultaneously emitted gamma quanta are investigated using a slow-fast coincidence technique having 25 ns resolving time. The coincidence spectra for different energy windows of one of the two final photons are recorded using HPGe detector. The experimental data do not suffer from inherent energy resolution of gamma detector and provide more faithful reproduction of the distribution under the full energy peak of recorded coincidence spectra. The present results are in agreement with the currently acceptable theory of this higher order process

  2. SPANISH PEAKS WILDERNESS STUDY AREA, COLORADO.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Budding, Karin E.; Kluender, Steven E.

    1984-01-01

    A geologic and geochemical investigation and a survey of mines and prospects were conducted to evaluate the mineral-resource potential of the Spanish Peaks Wilderness Study Area, Huerfano and Las Animas Counties, in south-central Colorado. Anomalous gold, silver, copper, lead, and zinc concentrations in rocks and in stream sediments from drainage basins in the vicinity of the old mines and prospects on West Spanish Peak indicate a substantiated mineral-resource potential for base and precious metals in the area surrounding this peak; however, the mineralized veins are sparse, small in size, and generally low in grade. There is a possibility that coal may underlie the study area, but it would be at great depth and it is unlikely that it would have survived the intense igneous activity in the area. There is little likelihood for the occurrence of oil and gas because of the lack of structural traps and the igneous activity.

  3. Analysis of fuel end-temperature peaking

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Xu, Z.; Jiang, Q.; Lai, L.; Shams, M. [CANDU Energy Inc., Fuel Engineering Dept., Mississauga, Ontario (Canada)

    2013-07-01

    During normal operation and refuelling of CANDU® fuel, fuel temperatures near bundle ends will increase due to a phenomenon called end flux peaking. Similar phenomenon would also be expected to occur during a postulated large break LOCA event. The end flux peaking in a CANDU fuel element is due to the fact that neutron flux is higher near a bundle end, in contact with a neighbouring bundle or close to heavy water coolant, than in the bundle mid-plane, because of less absorption of thermal neutrons by Zircaloy or heavy water than by the UO{sub 2} material. This paper describes Candu Energy experience in analysing behaviour of bundle due to end flux peaking using fuel codes FEAT, ELESTRES and ELOCA. (author)

  4. Associations of polymorphisms in the cytokine genes IL1β (rs16944), IL6 (rs1800795), IL12b (rs3212227) and growth factor VEGFA (rs2010963) with anthracosilicosis in coal miners in Russia and related genotoxic effects.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Volobaev, Valentin P; Larionov, Aleksey V; Kalyuzhnaya, Ekaterina E; Serdyukova, Ekaterina S; Yakovleva, Svetlana; Druzhinin, Vladimir G; Babich, Olga O; Hill, Elena G; Semenihin, Victor A; Panev, Nikolay I; Minina, Varvara I; Sivanesan, Saravana Devi; Naoghare, Pravin; da Silva, Juliana; Barcelos, Gustavo R M; Prosekov, Alexander Y

    2018-04-13

    Anthracosilicosis (AS), a prevalent form of pneumoconiosis among coal miners, results from the accumulation of carbon and silica in the lungs from inhaled coal dust. This study investigated genotoxic effects and certain cytokine genes polymorphic variants in Russian coal miners with АS. Peripheral leukocytes were sampled from 129 patients with AS confirmed by X-ray and tissue biopsy and from 164 asymptomatic coal miners. Four single-nucleotide polymorphisms were genotyped in the extracted DNA samples: IL1β T-511C (rs16944), IL6 C-174G (rs1800795), IL12b A1188C (rs3212227) and VEGFA C634G (rs2010963). Genotoxic effects were assessed by the analysis of chromosome aberrations in cultured peripheral lymphocytes. The mean frequency of chromatid-type aberrations and chromosome-type aberrations, namely, chromatid-type breaks and dicentric chromosomes, was found to be higher in AS patients [3.70 (95% confidence interval {CI}, 3.29-4.10) and 0.28 (95% CI, 0.17-0.38)] compared to the control group [2.41 (95% CI, 2.00-2.82) and 0.09 (95% CI, 0.03-0.15)], respectively. IL1β gene T/T genotype (rs16944) was associated with AS [17.83% in AS patients against 4.35% in healthy donors, odds ratio = 4.77 (1.88-12.15), P < 0.01]. A significant increase in the level of certain chromosome interchanges among AS donors is of interest because such effects are typical for radiation damage and caused by acute oxidative stress. IL1β T allele probably may be considered as an AS susceptibility factor among coal miners.

  5. Sharp or broad pulse peak for high resolution instruments? Choice of moderator performance

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Arai, M.; Watanabe, N.; Teshigawara, M.

    2001-01-01

    We demonstrate a concept how we should choose moderator performance to realize required performance for instruments. Neutron burst pulse can be characterized with peak intensity, peak width and tail. Those can be controllable by designing moderator, i.e. material, temperature, shape, decoupling, poisoning and having premoderator. Hence there are large number of variable parameters to be determined. Here we discuss the required moderator performance for some typical examples, i.e. high resolution powder instrument, chopper instrument, high resolution back scattering machine. (author)

  6. APOC3 rs2070666 Is Associated with the Hepatic Steatosis Independently of PNPLA3 rs738409 in Chinese Han Patients with Nonalcoholic Fatty Liver Diseases.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zhang, Rui-Nan; Zheng, Rui-Dan; Mi, Yu-Qiang; Zhou, Da; Shen, Feng; Chen, Guang-Yu; Zhu, Chan-Yan; Pan, Qin; Fan, Jian-Gao

    2016-08-01

    The association between nonalcoholic fatty liver disease (NAFLD) and apolipoprotein C3 gene (APOC3) promoter region single-nucleotide polymorphisms (SNPs) rs2854117 and rs2854116 is controversial. The aim of this study was to investigate the relationship between other polymorphisms of APOC3 and NAFLD in Chinese. Fifty-nine liver biopsy-proven NAFLD patients and 72 healthy control subjects were recruited to a cohort representing Chinese Han population. The polymorphisms in the exons and flanking regions of APOC3 and patatin-like phospholipase domain-containing protein 3 (PNPLA3) rs738409 polymorphisms were genotyped. Among the five SNPs (rs4225, rs4520, rs5128, rs2070666, and rs2070667) in APOC3, only rs2070666 (c.179 + 62 T/A) was significantly different in genotype and allele frequency (both p steatosis (OR 4.986, 95 % CI 1.020-24.371), but neither to liver stiffness measurement values nor to hepatic histological activity and fibrosis in NAFLD patients. The APOC3 rs2070666 A allele is a risk factor for NAFLD independent of obesity, dyslipidemia, and PNPLA3 rs738409, and it might contribute to increased liver fat content in Chinese Han population.

  7. Pion-pion scattering

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Kuehnelt, H.

    1975-01-01

    We discuss a few properties of scattering amplitudes proved within the framework of the field theory and their significance in the derivation of quantitative statements. The state of the boundaries for the scattering lengths is to be especially discussed as well as the question as to how far it is possible to exclude various solutions from phase displacement analyses. (orig./LH) [de

  8. Modelling Hyperboloid Sound Scattering

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Burry, Jane; Davis, Daniel; Peters, Brady

    2011-01-01

    The Responsive Acoustic Surfaces workshop project described here sought new understandings about the interaction between geometry and sound in the arena of sound scattering. This paper reports on the challenges associated with modelling, simulating, fabricating and measuring this phenomenon using...... both physical and digital models at three distinct scales. The results suggest hyperboloid geometry, while difficult to fabricate, facilitates sound scattering....

  9. Incoherent Thomson scattering

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Donne, A. J. H.

    1996-01-01

    Thomson scattering is a very powerful diagnostic which is applied at nearly every magnetic confinement device. Depending on the experimental conditions different plasma parameters can be diagnosed. When the wave vector is much larger than the plasma Debye length, the total scattered power is

  10. Concentric layered Hermite scatterers

    Science.gov (United States)

    Astheimer, Jeffrey P.; Parker, Kevin J.

    2018-05-01

    The long wavelength limit of scattering from spheres has a rich history in optics, electromagnetics, and acoustics. Recently it was shown that a common integral kernel pertains to formulations of weak spherical scatterers in both acoustics and electromagnetic regimes. Furthermore, the relationship between backscattered amplitude and wavenumber k was shown to follow power laws higher than the Rayleigh scattering k2 power law, when the inhomogeneity had a material composition that conformed to a Gaussian weighted Hermite polynomial. Although this class of scatterers, called Hermite scatterers, are plausible, it may be simpler to manufacture scatterers with a core surrounded by one or more layers. In this case the inhomogeneous material property conforms to a piecewise continuous constant function. We demonstrate that the necessary and sufficient conditions for supra-Rayleigh scattering power laws in this case can be stated simply by considering moments of the inhomogeneous function and its spatial transform. This development opens an additional path for construction of, and use of scatterers with unique power law behavior.

  11. Introductory theory of neutron scattering

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Gunn, J.M.F.

    1986-12-01

    The paper comprises a set of six lecture notes which were delivered to the summer school on 'Neutron Scattering at a pulsed source', Rutherford Laboratory, United Kingdom, 1986. The lectures concern the physical principles of neutron scattering. The topics of the lectures include: diffraction, incoherent inelastic scattering, connection with the Schroedinger equation, magnetic scattering, coherent inelastic scattering, and surfaces and neutron optics. (UK)

  12. Inelastic Light Scattering Processes

    Science.gov (United States)

    Fouche, Daniel G.; Chang, Richard K.

    1973-01-01

    Five different inelastic light scattering processes will be denoted by, ordinary Raman scattering (ORS), resonance Raman scattering (RRS), off-resonance fluorescence (ORF), resonance fluorescence (RF), and broad fluorescence (BF). A distinction between fluorescence (including ORF and RF) and Raman scattering (including ORS and RRS) will be made in terms of the number of intermediate molecular states which contribute significantly to the scattered amplitude, and not in terms of excited state lifetimes or virtual versus real processes. The theory of these processes will be reviewed, including the effects of pressure, laser wavelength, and laser spectral distribution on the scattered intensity. The application of these processes to the remote sensing of atmospheric pollutants will be discussed briefly. It will be pointed out that the poor sensitivity of the ORS technique cannot be increased by going toward resonance without also compromising the advantages it has over the RF technique. Experimental results on inelastic light scattering from I(sub 2) vapor will be presented. As a single longitudinal mode 5145 A argon-ion laser line was tuned away from an I(sub 2) absorption line, the scattering was observed to change from RF to ORF. The basis, of the distinction is the different pressure dependence of the scattered intensity. Nearly three orders of magnitude enhancement of the scattered intensity was measured in going from ORF to RF. Forty-seven overtones were observed and their relative intensities measured. The ORF cross section of I(sub 2) compared to the ORS cross section of N2 was found to be 3 x 10(exp 6), with I(sub 2) at its room temperature vapor pressure.

  13. Significance of multiple scattering in imaging through turbid media

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Zardecki, A.; Gerstl, S.A.W.

    1986-01-01

    The degradation of image quality in a turbid medium is analyzed within the framework of the small-angle approximation, the diffusion approximation, and a rigorous two-dimensional radiative transfer equation. These three approaches allow us to emphasize different aspects of the imaging problem when multiple scattering effects are important. For a medium with a forward-peaked phase function, the separation of multiple scattering into a series of scatterings of various order provides a fruitful technique. The use of the diffusion approximation and transport theory extends the determination of the modulation transfer function to a turbid medium with an arbitrary degree of anisotropy

  14. Osteoporosis: Peak Bone Mass in Women

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... bone density are seen even during childhood and adolescence. Hormonal factors. The hormone estrogen has an effect on peak bone mass. For example, women who had their first menstrual cycle at an early age and those who use oral contraceptives, which contain estrogen, often have high bone mineral ...

  15. Facility Location with Double-peaked Preferences

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Filos-Ratsikas, Aris; Li, Minming; Zhang, Jie

    2015-01-01

    ; this makes the problem essentially more challenging. As our main contribution, we present a simple truthful-in-expectation mechanism that achieves an approximation ratio of 1+b=c for both the social and the maximum, cost, where b is the distance of the agent from the peak and c is the minimum cost...

  16. Robust Peak Recognition in Intracranial Pressure Signals

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Bergsneider Marvin

    2010-10-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background The waveform morphology of intracranial pressure pulses (ICP is an essential indicator for monitoring, and forecasting critical intracranial and cerebrovascular pathophysiological variations. While current ICP pulse analysis frameworks offer satisfying results on most of the pulses, we observed that the performance of several of them deteriorates significantly on abnormal, or simply more challenging pulses. Methods This paper provides two contributions to this problem. First, it introduces MOCAIP++, a generic ICP pulse processing framework that generalizes MOCAIP (Morphological Clustering and Analysis of ICP Pulse. Its strength is to integrate several peak recognition methods to describe ICP morphology, and to exploit different ICP features to improve peak recognition. Second, it investigates the effect of incorporating, automatically identified, challenging pulses into the training set of peak recognition models. Results Experiments on a large dataset of ICP signals, as well as on a representative collection of sampled challenging ICP pulses, demonstrate that both contributions are complementary and significantly improve peak recognition performance in clinical conditions. Conclusion The proposed framework allows to extract more reliable statistics about the ICP waveform morphology on challenging pulses to investigate the predictive power of these pulses on the condition of the patient.

  17. Liquid waste processing at Comanche Peak

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Hughes-Edwards, L.M.; Edwards, J.M.

    1996-01-01

    This article describes the radioactive waste processing at Comanche Peak Steam Electric Station. Topics covered are the following: Reduction of liquid radioactive discharges (system leakage, outage planning); reduction of waste resin generation (waste stream segregation, processing methodology); reduction of activity released and off-site dose. 8 figs., 2 tabs

  18. Avoiding the False Peaks in Correlation Discrimination

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Awwal, A.S.

    2009-01-01

    Fiducials imprinted on laser beams are used to perform video image based alignment of the 192 laser beams in the National Ignition Facility (NIF) of Lawrence Livermore National Laboratory. In many video images, matched filtering is used to detect the location of these fiducials. Generally, the highest correlation peak is used to determine the position of the fiducials. However, when the signal to-be-detected is very weak compared to the noise, this approach totally breaks down. The highest peaks act as traps for false detection. The active target images used for automatic alignment in the National Ignition Facility are examples of such images. In these images, the fiducials of interest exhibit extremely low intensity and contrast, surrounded by high intensity reflection from metallic objects. Consequently, the highest correlation peaks are caused by these bright objects. In this work, we show how the shape of the correlation is exploited to isolate the valid matches from hundreds of invalid correlation peaks, and therefore identify extremely faint fiducials under very challenging imaging conditions

  19. Hubbert's Peak: the Impending World oil Shortage

    Science.gov (United States)

    Deffeyes, K. S.

    2004-12-01

    Global oil production will probably reach a peak sometime during this decade. After the peak, the world's production of crude oil will fall, never to rise again. The world will not run out of energy, but developing alternative energy sources on a large scale will take at least 10 years. The slowdown in oil production may already be beginning; the current price fluctuations for crude oil and natural gas may be the preamble to a major crisis. In 1956, the geologist M. King Hubbert predicted that U.S. oil production would peak in the early 1970s.1 Almost everyone, inside and outside the oil industry, rejected Hubbert's analysis. The controversy raged until 1970, when the U.S. production of crude oil started to fall. Hubbert was right. Around 1995, several analysts began applying Hubbert's method to world oil production, and most of them estimate that the peak year for world oil will be between 2004 and 2008. These analyses were reported in some of the most widely circulated sources: Nature, Science, and Scientific American.2 None of our political leaders seem to be paying attention. If the predictions are correct, there will be enormous effects on the world economy. Even the poorest nations need fuel to run irrigation pumps. The industrialized nations will be bidding against one another for the dwindling oil supply. The good news is that we will put less carbon dioxide into the atmosphere. The bad news is that my pickup truck has a 25-gallon tank.

  20. Prediction of peak overlap in NMR spectra

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Hefke, Frederik; Schmucki, Roland; Güntert, Peter

    2013-01-01

    Peak overlap is one of the major factors complicating the analysis of biomolecular NMR spectra. We present a general method for predicting the extent of peak overlap in multidimensional NMR spectra and its validation using both, experimental data sets and Monte Carlo simulation. The method is based on knowledge of the magnetization transfer pathways of the NMR experiments and chemical shift statistics from the Biological Magnetic Resonance Data Bank. Assuming a normal distribution with characteristic mean value and standard deviation for the chemical shift of each observable atom, an analytic expression was derived for the expected overlap probability of the cross peaks. The analytical approach was verified to agree with the average peak overlap in a large number of individual peak lists simulated using the same chemical shift statistics. The method was applied to eight proteins, including an intrinsically disordered one, for which the prediction results could be compared with the actual overlap based on the experimentally measured chemical shifts. The extent of overlap predicted using only statistical chemical shift information was in good agreement with the overlap that was observed when the measured shifts were used in the virtual spectrum, except for the intrinsically disordered protein. Since the spectral complexity of a protein NMR spectrum is a crucial factor for protein structure determination, analytical overlap prediction can be used to identify potentially difficult proteins before conducting NMR experiments. Overlap predictions can be tailored to particular classes of proteins by preparing statistics from corresponding protein databases. The method is also suitable for optimizing recording parameters and labeling schemes for NMR experiments and improving the reliability of automated spectra analysis and protein structure determination.

  1. The peak in anomalous magnetic viscosity

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Collocott, S.J.; Watterson, P.A.; Tan, X.H.; Xu, H.

    2014-01-01

    Anomalous magnetic viscosity, where the magnetization as a function of time exhibits non-monotonic behaviour, being seen to increase, reach a peak, and then decrease, is observed on recoil lines in bulk amorphous ferromagnets, for certain magnetic prehistories. A simple geometrical approach based on the motion of the state line on the Preisach plane gives a theoretical framework for interpreting non-monotonic behaviour and explains the origin of the peak. This approach gives an expression for the time taken to reach the peak as a function of the applied (or holding) field. The theory is applied to experimental data for bulk amorphous ferromagnet alloys of composition Nd 60−x Fe 30 Al 10 Dy x , x = 0, 1, 2, 3 and 4, and it gives a reasonable description of the observed behaviour. The role played by other key magnetic parameters, such as the intrinsic coercivity and fluctuation field, is also discussed. When the non-monotonic behaviour of the magnetization of a number of alloys is viewed in the context of the model, features of universal behaviour emerge, that are independent of alloy composition. - Highlights: • Development of a simple geometrical model based on the Preisach model which gives a complete explanation of the peak in the magnetic viscosity. • Geometrical approach is extended by considering equations that govern the motion of the state line. • The model is used to deduce the relationship between the holding field and the time it takes to reach the peak. • The model is tested with experimental results for a range of Nd–Fe–Al–Dy bulk amorphous ferromagnets. • There is good agreement between the model and the experimental data

  2. The spatial resolution of epidemic peaks.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Harriet L Mills

    2014-04-01

    Full Text Available The emergence of novel respiratory pathogens can challenge the capacity of key health care resources, such as intensive care units, that are constrained to serve only specific geographical populations. An ability to predict the magnitude and timing of peak incidence at the scale of a single large population would help to accurately assess the value of interventions designed to reduce that peak. However, current disease-dynamic theory does not provide a clear understanding of the relationship between: epidemic trajectories at the scale of interest (e.g. city; population mobility; and higher resolution spatial effects (e.g. transmission within small neighbourhoods. Here, we used a spatially-explicit stochastic meta-population model of arbitrary spatial resolution to determine the effect of resolution on model-derived epidemic trajectories. We simulated an influenza-like pathogen spreading across theoretical and actual population densities and varied our assumptions about mobility using Latin-Hypercube sampling. Even though, by design, cumulative attack rates were the same for all resolutions and mobilities, peak incidences were different. Clear thresholds existed for all tested populations, such that models with resolutions lower than the threshold substantially overestimated population-wide peak incidence. The effect of resolution was most important in populations which were of lower density and lower mobility. With the expectation of accurate spatial incidence datasets in the near future, our objective was to provide a framework for how to use these data correctly in a spatial meta-population model. Our results suggest that there is a fundamental spatial resolution for any pathogen-population pair. If underlying interactions between pathogens and spatially heterogeneous populations are represented at this resolution or higher, accurate predictions of peak incidence for city-scale epidemics are feasible.

  3. Light scattering studies at UNICAMP

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Luzzi, R.; Cerdeira, H.A.; Salzberg, J.; Vasconcellos, A.R.; Frota Pessoa, S.; Reis, F.G. dos; Ferrari, C.A.; Algarte, C.A.S.; Tenan, M.A.

    1975-01-01

    Current theoretical studies on light scattering spectroscopy at UNICAMP is presented briefly, such as: inelastic scattering of radiation from a solid state plasma; resonant Ramman scattering; high excitation effects; saturated semiconductors and glasses

  4. Genetic polymorphisms of IL-18 rs1946518 and IL-1β rs16944 are associated with prognosis and survival of acute myeloid leukemia.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wang, Hong; Hua, Mingqiang; Wang, Shukang; Yu, Jie; Chen, Chen; Zhao, Xueyun; Zhang, Chen; Zhong, Chaoqin; Wang, Ruiqing; He, Na; Hou, Ming; Ma, Daoxin

    2017-03-01

    Though the pathogenesis of AML is still unknown, accumulating evidence revealed that immune response plays a vital part in it. NLRP3 inflammasome as a component of immune system has been found related to several cancers. The single nucleotide polymorphisms (SNPs) of NLRP3 inflammasome genes may be related to pathogenesis and prognosis of AML. We determined polymorphisms of NLRP3 (rs35829419), CARD8 (rs2043211), IL-1β (rs16944), IL-18 (rs1946518) and NF-κB -94 ins/del ATTG in de novo AML patients to find out whether they play roles in the susceptibility and severity of AML. In our study, 383 AML cases and 300 randomly selected healthy individuals were examined for the polymorphisms and expression of NLRP3 genes. IL-1β (rs16944) polymorphism in different risk AML subgroups was found statistically different, with more GA genotype in favorable-risk cytogenetics group. We also demonstrated that the bone marrow blasts of patients carrying IL-18 (rs1946518) GG or GT genotype were higher than patients of TT genotype. IL-18 plasma level of patients with IL-18 (rs1946518) GT or TT genotype was higher than GG genotype. Moreover, the GT genotype of IL-18 (rs1946518) led to statistically poorer AML-specific survival. IL-1β (rs16944) and IL-18 (rs1946518) may be served as potential predictors for AML.

  5. Virtual neutron scattering experiments

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Overgaard, Julie Hougaard; Bruun, Jesper; May, Michael

    2017-01-01

    . In the last week of the course, students travel to a large-scale neutron scattering facility to perform real neutron scattering experiments. Through student interviews and survey answers, we argue, that the virtual training prepares the students to engage more fruitfully with experiments by letting them focus......We describe how virtual experiments can be utilized in a learning design that prepares students for hands-on experiments at large-scale facilities. We illustrate the design by showing how virtual experiments are used at the Niels Bohr Institute in a master level course on neutron scattering...

  6. Scattering on magnetic monopoles

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Petry, H.R.

    1980-01-01

    The time-dependent scattering theory of charged particles on magnetic monopoles is investigated within a mathematical frame-work, which duely pays attention to the fact that the wavefunctions of the scattered particles are sections in a non-trivial complex line-bundle. It is found that Moeller operators have to be defined in a way which takes into account the peculiar long-range behaviour of the monopole field. Formulas for the scattering matrix and the differential cross-section are derived, and, as a by-product, a momentum space picture for particles, which are described by sections in the underlying complex line-bundle, is presented. (orig.)

  7. Deep inelastic neutron scattering

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Mayers, J.

    1989-03-01

    The report is based on an invited talk given at a conference on ''Neutron Scattering at ISIS: Recent Highlights in Condensed Matter Research'', which was held in Rome, 1988, and is intended as an introduction to the techniques of Deep Inelastic Neutron Scattering. The subject is discussed under the following topic headings:- the impulse approximation I.A., scaling behaviour, kinematical consequences of energy and momentum conservation, examples of measurements, derivation of the I.A., the I.A. in a harmonic system, and validity of the I.A. in neutron scattering. (U.K.)

  8. Predicting pKa for proteins using COSMO-RS

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Andersson, Martin Peter; Jensen, Jan Halborg; Stipp, Susan Louise Svane

    2013-01-01

    We have used the COSMO-RS implicit solvation method to calculate the equilibrium constants, pKa, for deprotonation of the acidic residues of the ovomucoid inhibitor protein, OMTKY3. The root mean square error for comparison with experimental data is only 0.5 pH units and the maximum error 0.8 p......H units. The results show that the accuracy of pKa prediction using COSMO-RS is as good for large biomolecules as it is for smaller inorganic and organic acids and that the method compares very well to previous pKa predictions of the OMTKY3 protein using Quantum Mechanics/Molecular Mechanics. Our approach...

  9. RS Ophiuchi: The Gift that Keeps on Giving

    Science.gov (United States)

    Starrfield, S.

    2008-12-01

    RS Oph experienced its sixth recorded outburst in 2006 and was observed in virtually every wavelength region from hard X-rays to the radio. Each observation, especially those with instruments that have come online since its last outburst in 1985, provided new and exciting information about the explosion. As a result, some of us organized a second workshop on the RS Oph outburst and it was held in June 2007 at Keele University. I gave the lead off talk in which I presented a number of questions to be discussed during the workshop, a brief summary of what had been discovered in previous outbursts concentrating on the ultraviolet studies with IUE, and a few observations of the 2006 outburst concentrating on the results from Swift and HST.

  10. Solvation quantities from a COSMO-RS equation of state

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Panayiotou, C.; Tsivintzelis, I.; Aslanidou, D.; Hatzimanikatis, V.

    2015-01-01

    Highlights: • Extension of the successful COSMO-RS model to an equation-of-state model. • Two scaling constants, obtained from atom-specific contributions. • Overall estimation of the solvation quantities and contributions. - Abstract: This work focuses on the extension of the successful COSMO-RS model of mixtures into an equation-of-state model of fluids and its application for the estimation of solvation/hydration quantities of a variety of chemical substances. These quantities include free-energies, enthalpies and entropies of hydration as well as the separate contributions to each of them. Emphasis is given on the estimation of contributions from the conformational changes of solutes upon solvation and the associated restructuring of solvent in its immediate neighborhood. COSMO-RS is a quantum-mechanics based group/segment contribution model in which the Quasi-Chemical (QC) approach is used for the description of the non-random distribution of interacting segments in the system. Thus, the equation-of-state development is done through such a QC framework. The new model will not need any adjustable parameters for the strong specific interactions, such as hydrogen bonds, since they will be provided by the quantum-mechanics based cosmo-files – a key feature of COSMO-RS model. It will need, however, one volumetric and one energy parameter per fluid, which are scaling constants or molecular descriptors of the fluid and are obtained from rather easily available data such as densities, boiling points, vapor pressures, heats of vaporization or second virial coefficients. The performance and the potential of the new equation-of-state model to become a fully predictive model are critically discussed

  11. Spectrophotometry of RS Oph during the nebular phase

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Bohigas, J.; Echevarria, J.; Diego, F.; Sarmiento, J.A.

    1989-01-01

    Blue-wavelength spectroscopic observations of RS Oph, 201 day after the 1985 outburst are presented. An analysis of the TiO bands indicates a spectral type M4III for the secondary and a distance of 2 kpc to the system. The system of forbidden lines is excited by a shock wave, whereas Balmer emission is mainly produced by photoionization. The source of photons is probably residual thermonuclear burning occurring at the surface of the white dwarf. (author)

  12. Převodník Ethernet na RS-232

    OpenAIRE

    Dreiseitel, Jiří

    2012-01-01

    Práce je věnována problematice konstrukce převodníku Ethernet na RS-232 za pomocí jednočipového mikrokontroléru. Cílem je seznámit čtenáře se síťovou technologií Ethernet a technologií pro sériový přenos založený na protokolu RS-232 a zároveň s technologií vestavěných systémů pro konstrukci zařízení. Součástí práce je kompletní návrh převodníku Ethernet na RS-232 včetně návrhu a implementace firmware v jazyce C za využití LwIP TCP/IP stacku. Převodník je postaven na základě vývojového kitu ST...

  13. Stereotactic Bragg peak proton radiosurgery method

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Kjellberg, R.N.

    1979-01-01

    A brief description of the technical aspects of a stereotactic Bragg peak proton radiosurgical method for the head is presented. The preparatory radiographic studies are outlined and the stereotactic instrument and positioning of the patient are described. The instrument is so calibrated that after corrections for soft tissue and bone thickness, the Bragg peak superimposes upon the intracranial target. The head is rotated at specific intervals to allow predetermined portals of access for the beam path, all of which converge on the intracranial target. Normally, portals are arranged to oppose and overlap from both sides of the head. Using a number of beams (in sequence) on both sides of the head, the target dose is far greater than the path dose. The procedure normally takes 3/2-2 hours, following which the patient can walk away. (Auth./C.F.)

  14. Central peaking of magnetized gas discharges

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Chen, Francis F.; Curreli, Davide

    2013-01-01

    Partially ionized gas discharges used in industry are often driven by radiofrequency (rf) power applied at the periphery of a cylinder. It is found that the plasma density n is usually flat or peaked on axis even if the skin depth of the rf field is thin compared with the chamber radius a. Previous attempts at explaining this did not account for the finite length of the discharge and the boundary conditions at the endplates. A simple 1D model is used to focus on the basic mechanism: the short-circuit effect. It is found that a strong electric field (E-field) scaled to electron temperature T e , drives the ions inward. The resulting density profile is peaked on axis and has a shape independent of pressure or discharge radius. This “universal” profile is not affected by a dc magnetic field (B-field) as long as the ion Larmor radius is larger than a

  15. Peak Oil, Food Systems, and Public Health

    Science.gov (United States)

    Parker, Cindy L.; Kirschenmann, Frederick L.; Tinch, Jennifer; Lawrence, Robert S.

    2011-01-01

    Peak oil is the phenomenon whereby global oil supplies will peak, then decline, with extraction growing increasingly costly. Today's globalized industrial food system depends on oil for fueling farm machinery, producing pesticides, and transporting goods. Biofuels production links oil prices to food prices. We examined food system vulnerability to rising oil prices and the public health consequences. In the short term, high food prices harm food security and equity. Over time, high prices will force the entire food system to adapt. Strong preparation and advance investment may mitigate the extent of dislocation and hunger. Certain social and policy changes could smooth adaptation; public health has an essential role in promoting a proactive, smart, and equitable transition that increases resilience and enables adequate food for all. PMID:21778492

  16. Hanford Site peak gust wind speeds

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Ramsdell, J.V.

    1998-01-01

    Peak gust wind data collected at the Hanford Site since 1945 are analyzed to estimate maximum wind speeds for use in structural design. The results are compared with design wind speeds proposed for the Hanford Site. These comparisons indicate that design wind speeds contained in a January 1998 advisory changing DOE-STD-1020-94 are excessive for the Hanford Site and that the design wind speeds in effect prior to the changes are still appropriate for the Hanford Site

  17. Commodity hydrogen from off-peak electricity

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Darrow, K.; Biederman, N.; Konopka, A.

    1977-01-01

    This paper considers the use of off-peak electrical power as an energy source for the electrolytic production of hydrogen. The present industrial uses for hydrogen are examined to determine if hydrogen produced in this fashion would be competitive with the industry's onsite production or existing hydrogen prices. The paper presents a technical and economic feasibility analysis of the various components required and of the operation of the system as a whole including production, transmission, storage, and markets.

  18. Some practical aspects of peak kilovoltage measurements

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Irfan, A.Y.; Pugh, V.I.; Jeffery, C.D.

    1985-01-01

    The peak kilovoltage (kVsub(p)) across the X-ray tube electrodes in diagnostic X-ray machines is a most important parameter, affecting both radiation output and beam quality. Four commercially available non-invasive devices used for kVsub(p) measurement were tested using a selection of generator waveforms. The majority of the devices provided satisfactory measurements of the kVsub(p) to within approximately +- kV provided certain operating conditions are observed. (U.K.)

  19. Electron scattering from pyrimidine

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Colmenares, Rafael; Fuss, Martina C; García, Gustavo; Oller, Juan C; Muñoz, Antonio; Blanco, Francisco; Almeida, Diogo; Limão-Vieira, Paulo

    2014-01-01

    Electron scattering from pyrimidine (C 4 H 4 N 2 ) was investigated over a wide range of energies. Following different experimental and theoretical approaches, total, elastic and ionization cross sections as well as electron energy loss distributions were obtained.

  20. Gravitational Bhabha scattering

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Santos, A F; Khanna, Faqir C

    2017-01-01

    Gravitoelectromagnetism (GEM) as a theory for gravity has been developed similar to the electromagnetic field theory. A weak field approximation of Einstein theory of relativity is similar to GEM. This theory has been quantized. Traditional Bhabha scattering, electron–positron scattering, is based on quantized electrodynamics theory. Usually the amplitude is written in terms of one photon exchange process. With the development of quantized GEM theory, the scattering amplitude will have an additional component based on an exchange of one graviton at the lowest order of perturbation theory. An analysis will provide the relative importance of the two amplitudes for Bhabha scattering. This will allow an analysis of the relative importance of the two amplitudes as the energy of the exchanged particles increases. (paper)

  1. Applied electromagnetic scattering theory

    CERN Document Server

    Osipov, Andrey A

    2017-01-01

    Besides classical applications (radar and stealth, antennas, microwave engineering), scattering and diffraction are enabling phenomena for some emerging research fields (artificial electromagnetic materials or metamaterials, terahertz technologies, electromagnetic aspects of nano-science). This book is a tutorial for advanced students who need to study diffraction theory. The textbook gives fundamental knowledge about scattering and diffraction of electromagnetic waves and provides some working examples of solutions for practical high-frequency scattering and diffraction problems. The book focuses on the most important diffraction effects and mechanisms influencing the scattering process and describes efficient and physically justified simulation methods - physical optics (PO) and the physical theory of diffraction (PTD) - applicable in typical remote sensing scenarios. The material is presented in a comprehensible and logical form, which relates the presented results to the basic principles of electromag...

  2. Scattering by bound nucleons

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Tezuka, Hirokazu.

    1984-10-01

    Scattering of a particle by bound nucleons is discussed. Effects of nucleons that are bound in a nucleus are taken as a structure function. The way how to calculate the structure function is given. (author)

  3. LIDAR Thomson scattering

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    1991-07-01

    This collection contains 21 papers on the application and development of LIDAR (Light Detection and Ranging) Thomson scattering techniques for the determination of spatially resolved electron temperature and density in magnetic confinement experiments, particularly tokamaks. Refs, figs and tabs

  4. Magnetic electron scattering

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Peterson, G.A.

    1989-01-01

    We briefly review some of the motivations, early results, and techniques of magnetic elastic and inelastic electron-nucleus scattering. We then discuss recent results, especially those acquired at high momentum transfers. 50 refs., 19 figs

  5. Deep inelastic lepton scattering

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Nachtmann, O.

    1977-01-01

    Deep inelastic electron (muon) nucleon and neutrino nucleon scattering as well as electron positron annihilation into hadrons are reviewed from a theoretical point of view. The emphasis is placed on comparisons of quantum chromodynamics with the data. (orig.) [de

  6. Scattering Properties of Ground-State 23Na Vapor Using Generalized Scattering Theory

    Science.gov (United States)

    Al-Harazneh, A. A.; Sandouqa, A. S.; Joudeh, B. R.; Ghassib, H. B.

    2018-04-01

    The scattering properties of ground-state 23Na vapor are investigated within the framework of the Galitskii-Migdal-Feynman formalism. Viewed as a generalized scattering theory, this formalism is used to calculate the medium phase shifts. The scattering properties of the system—the total, viscosity, spin-exchange, and average cross sections—are then computed using these phase shifts according to standard recipes. The total cross section is found to exhibit the Ramsauer-Townsend effect as well as resonance peaks. These peaks are caused by the large difference between the potentials for electronic spin-singlet and spin-triplet states. They represent quasi-bound states in the system. The results obtained for the complex spin-exchange cross sections are particularly highlighted because of their importance in the spectroscopy of the Na2 dimer. So are the results for the scattering lengths pertaining to both singlet and triplet states. Wherever possible, comparison is made with other published results.

  7. METing SUSY on the Z peak

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Barenboim, G.; Bernabeu, J.; Vives, O. [Universitat de Valencia, Departament de Fisica Teorica, Burjassot (Spain); Universitat de Valencia-CSIC, Parc Cientific U.V., IFIC, Paterna (Spain); Mitsou, V.A.; Romero, E. [Universitat de Valencia-CSIC, Parc Cientific U.V., IFIC, Paterna (Spain)

    2016-02-15

    Recently the ATLAS experiment announced a 3 σ excess at the Z-peak consisting of 29 pairs of leptons together with two or more jets, E{sub T}{sup miss} > 225 GeV and HT > 600 GeV, to be compared with 10.6 ± 3.2 expected lepton pairs in the Standard Model. No excess outside the Z-peak was observed. By trying to explain this signal with SUSY we find that only relatively light gluinos, m{sub g} or similar 400 GeV decaying predominantly to Z-boson plus a light gravitino, such that nearly every gluino produces at least one Z-boson in its decay chain, could reproduce the excess. We construct an explicit general gauge mediation model able to reproduce the observed signal overcoming all the experimental limits. Needless to say, more sophisticated models could also reproduce the signal, however, any model would have to exhibit the following features: light gluinos, or heavy particles with a strong production cross section, producing at least one Z-boson in its decay chain. The implications of our findings for the Run II at LHC with the scaling on the Z peak, as well as for the direct search of gluinos and other SUSY particles, are pointed out. (orig.)

  8. Acquisition of peak responding: what is learned?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Balci, Fuat; Gallistel, Charles R; Allen, Brian D; Frank, Krystal M; Gibson, Jacqueline M; Brunner, Daniela

    2009-01-01

    We investigated how the common measures of timing performance behaved in the course of training on the peak procedure in C3H mice. Following fixed interval (FI) pre-training, mice received 16 days of training in the peak procedure. The peak time and spread were derived from the average response rates while the start and stop times and their relative variability were derived from a single-trial analysis. Temporal precision (response spread) appeared to improve in the course of training. This apparent improvement in precision was, however, an averaging artifact; it was mediated by the staggered appearance of timed stops, rather than by the delayed occurrence of start times. Trial-by-trial analysis of the stop times for individual subjects revealed that stops appeared abruptly after three to five sessions and their timing did not change as training was prolonged. Start times and the precision of start and stop times were generally stable throughout training. Our results show that subjects do not gradually learn to time their start or stop of responding. Instead, they learn the duration of the FI, with robust temporal control over the start of the response; the control over the stop of response appears abruptly later.

  9. METing SUSY on the Z peak

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Barenboim, G.; Bernabeu, J.; Vives, O.; Mitsou, V.A.; Romero, E.

    2016-01-01

    Recently the ATLAS experiment announced a 3 σ excess at the Z-peak consisting of 29 pairs of leptons together with two or more jets, E T miss > 225 GeV and HT > 600 GeV, to be compared with 10.6 ± 3.2 expected lepton pairs in the Standard Model. No excess outside the Z-peak was observed. By trying to explain this signal with SUSY we find that only relatively light gluinos, m g or similar 400 GeV decaying predominantly to Z-boson plus a light gravitino, such that nearly every gluino produces at least one Z-boson in its decay chain, could reproduce the excess. We construct an explicit general gauge mediation model able to reproduce the observed signal overcoming all the experimental limits. Needless to say, more sophisticated models could also reproduce the signal, however, any model would have to exhibit the following features: light gluinos, or heavy particles with a strong production cross section, producing at least one Z-boson in its decay chain. The implications of our findings for the Run II at LHC with the scaling on the Z peak, as well as for the direct search of gluinos and other SUSY particles, are pointed out. (orig.)

  10. Monitoring device for local power peaking coefficients

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Mihashi, Ishi

    1987-01-01

    Purpose: To determine and monitor the local power peaking coefficients by a method not depending on the combination of fuel types. Constitution: Representative values for the local power distribution can be obtained by determining corresponding burn-up degrees based on the burn-up degree of each of fuel assembly segments obtained in a power distribution monitor and by the interpolation and extrapolation of void coefficients. The typical values are multiplied with compensation coefficients for the control rod effect and coefficients for compensating the effect of adjacent fuel assemblies in a calculation device to obtain typical values for the present local power distribution compensated with all of the effects. Further, the calculation device compares them with typical values of the present local power distribution to obtain an aimed local power peaking coefficient as the maximum value thereof. According to the present invention, since the local power peaking coefficients can be determined not depending on the combination of the kind of fuels, if the combination of fuel assemblies is increased upon fuel change, the amount of operation therefor is not increased. (Kamimura, M.)

  11. Measurement and Interpretation of Diffuse Scattering in X-Ray Diffraction for Macromolecular Crystallography

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Wall, Michael E. [Los Alamos National Lab. (LANL), Los Alamos, NM (United States)

    2017-10-16

    X-ray diffraction from macromolecular crystals includes both sharply peaked Bragg reflections and diffuse intensity between the peaks. The information in Bragg scattering reflects the mean electron density in the unit cells of the crystal. The diffuse scattering arises from correlations in the variations of electron density that may occur from one unit cell to another, and therefore contains information about collective motions in proteins.

  12. Small angle neutron scattering

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Bernardini, G.; Cherubini, G.; Fioravanti, A.; Olivi, A.

    1976-09-01

    A method for the analysis of the data derived from neutron small angle scattering measurements has been accomplished in the case of homogeneous particles, starting from the basic theory without making any assumption on the form of particle size distribution function. The experimental scattering curves are interpreted with the aid the computer by means of a proper routine. The parameters obtained are compared with the corresponding ones derived from observations at the transmission electron microscope

  13. Pp scattering at SIN

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Aprile-Giboni, E.; Cantale, G.; Hausammann, R.

    1983-01-01

    Using the PM1 polarized proton beam at SIN and a polarized target, the elastic pp scattering as well as the inelastic channel pp → π + d have been studied between 400 and 600 MeV. For the elastic reaction, a sufficient number of spin dependent parameters has been measured in order to do a direct reconstruction of the scattering matrix between 38 0 /sub cm/ and 90 0 /sub cm/. 10 references, 6 figures

  14. Calculated energy distributions for light 0.25--18-keV ions scattered from solid surfaces

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Robinson, J.E.; Harms, A.A.; Karapetsas, S.K.

    1975-01-01

    Scattered energy distributions are calculated for light ions incident on Nb and Mo surfaces of interest for controlled nulcear fusion reactors. The scattered energy is found to vary as a function of the reflection coefficient between a multiple-collision limit at low energies and a single-collision Rutherford scattering limit at high energies. High-energy peaking of the scattered particle distributions is also found for low incident energies

  15. Contribution of Myostatin gene polymorphisms to normal variation in lean mass, fat mass and peak BMD in Chinese male offspring

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Hua YUE; Miao LI; Yu-juan LIU; Song-hua WU; Zhen-lin ZHANG; Jin-wei HE; Hao ZHANG; Chun WANG; Wei-wei HU; Jie-mei GU; Yao-hua KE; Wen-zhen FU; Yun-qiu HU

    2012-01-01

    Myostatin gene is a member of the transforming growth factor-β (TGF-β) family that negatively regulates skeletal muscle growth.Genetic polymorphisms in Myostatin were found to be associated with the peak bone mineral density (BMD) in Chinese women.The purpose of this study was to investigate whether Myostatin played a role in the normal variation in peak BMD,lean mass (LM),and fat mass (FM) of Chinese men.Methods:Four hundred male-offspring nuclear families of Chinese Han ethnic group were recruited.Anthropometric measurements,includingthe peak BMD,body LM and FM were measured using dual-energy X-ray absorptiometry (DXA).The single nucleotide polymorphisms (SNPs) studied were tag-SNPs selected by sequencing.Both rs2293284 and +2278G>A were genotyped using TaqMan assay,and rs3791783 was genotyped with PCR-restriction fragment length polymorphism (RFLP) analysis.The associations of the SNPs with anthropometfic variations were analyzed using the quantitative transmission disequilibrium test (QTDT).Results:Using QTDT to detect within-family associations,neither single SNP nor haplotype was found to be associated with peak BMD at any bone site.However,rs3791783 was found to be significantly associated with fat mass of the trunk (P<0.001).Moreover,for within-family associations,haplotypes AGG,AAA,and TGG were found to be significantly associated with the trunk fat mass (all P<0.001).Conclusion:Our results suggest that genetic variation within Myostatin may play a role in regulating the variation in fat mass in Chinese males.Additionally,the Myostatin gene may be a candidate that determines body fat mass in Chinese men.

  16. Indirect transformation in reciprocal space: desmearing of small-angle scattering data from partially ordered systems

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Glatter, O.; Gruber, K.

    1993-01-01

    Indirect Fourier transformation is a widely used technique for the desmearing of instrumental broadening effects, for data smoothing and for Fourier transformation of small-angle scattering data. This technique, however, can only be applied to scattering curves with a band-limited Fourier transform, i.e. separated and noninteracting scattering centers. It can therefore not be used for scattering data from partially ordered systems. In this paper, a modified technique for partially ordered systems working in reciprocal space is presented. A peak-recognition technique allows its application to scattering functions with narrow peaks, such as the scattering functions of layered systems like lamellar stacks or strongly interacting particles. Arbitrary geometry effects and wavelength effects can be corrected. Examples of simulations show the merits and limits of this new method. One example shows its applicability to real data. (orig.)

  17. FTO gene polymorphisms (rs9939609 and rs17817449) as predictors of Type 2 Diabetes Mellitus in obese Iraqi population.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Younus, Laith A; Algenabi, Abdul Hussein A; Abdul-Zhara, Mohammed S; Hussein, Majid K

    2017-09-05

    The variation of the SNPs in FTO (fat mass and obesity associated) gene are improved to be associated with obesity and type 2 diabetes (T2DM) in some ethnic groups for example in European while, this consistency is controversial in Asians and there were few studies in Iraqi population about the effect of this gene on the development of T2DM in obese patients. Therefore, the objective of this study is to investigate the impact of the two common FTO gene variants in the development of T2DM in obese Iraqi patients. A case-control study in which the FTO gene variants rs9939609 and rs17817449 were genotyping in a total of 800 individuals, 400 T2DM obese patients (patients group) and 400 healthy control obese volunteers (control group) to explore the relation of these SNPs with T2DM in obese Iraqi population. The patients group was enrolled from diabetic clinic in Al Najaf al Ashraf based on WHO guidelines of T2DM. From whole blood the DNA was extraction and genotyped by using ScaI and AlwNI enzymes respectively in the PCR-RFLP technique. Multinomial logistic regression was applied to compare the proportions of genotypes and alleles. The odd's ratio, t-test P value at 95% confidence interval were measured before and after adjustment of BMI, age and sex adjustment. The genetic power, Hardy Weinberg equilibrium and haplotype analysis were tested in the present study. It was observed that the presence of T allele in the two SNPs rs9939609 and rs17817449 in the FTO gene polymorphisms was associated with increased risk for the development of T2DM in Iraqi obese individuals. The minor allele (T) in rs9939609 was significantly higher (P=0.0001) in T2DM (31.25%) when compared with that of the control obese group (20%). The Homozygous genotype (TT) significantly (OR=3.25, CI 95% 1.87-5.64, P=0.000) increased the risk of T2DM by three folds with respect to those of wild type (AA) after adjustment for age, sex and BMI, furthermore, it was significantly increased the risk in the

  18. Chinese emissions peak: Not when, but how

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Spencer, Thomas; Colombier, Michel; Wang, Xin; Sartor, Oliver; Waisman, Henri

    2016-07-01

    It seems highly likely that China will overachieve its 2020 and 2030 targets, and peak its emissions before 2030 and possibly at a lower level than often assumed. This paper argues that the debate on the timing of the peak is misplaced: what matters is not when by why. For the peak to be seen as a harbinger of deep transformation, it needs to be based on significant macro-economic reform and restructuring, with attendant improvement in energy intensity. The Chinese economic model has been extraordinarily investment and resource intensive, and has driven the growth in GHG emissions. That model is no longer economically or environmentally sustainable. Therefore Chinese policy-makers are faced with a trade-off between slower short-term growth and economic reform, versus supporting short-term growth but slowing economic reform. The outcome will be crucial for the transition to a low-carbon economy. Overall, the 13. FYP (2016-2020) gives the impression of a cautious reflection of the new normal paradigm on the economic front, and a somewhat conservative translation of this shift into the energy and climate targets. Nonetheless, the 13. FYP targets set China well on the way to overachieving its 2020 pledge undertaken at COP15 in Copenhagen, and to potentially overachieving its INDC. It thus seems likely that China will achieve its emissions peak before 2030. However, the crucial question is not when China peaks, but whether the underlying transformation of the Chinese economy and energy system lays the basis for deep decarbonization thereafter. Thorough assessments of the implications of the 'new normal' for Chinese emissions and energy system trajectories, taking into account the link with the Chinese macro-economy, are needed. Scenarios provide a useful framework and should focus on a number of short-term uncertainties. Most energy system and emissions scenarios published today assume a continuity of trends between 2010-2015 and 2015-2020, which is at odds with clear

  19. A new interpretation of SAXS peaks in sulfonated poly(ether ether ketone) (sPEEK) membranes for fuel cells.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mendil-Jakani, H; Zamanillo Lopez, I; Legrand, P M; Mareau, V H; Gonon, L

    2014-06-21

    The structure of a commercial sulfonated poly(ether ether ketone) (sPEEK) membrane was analyzed by Small-Angle X-Ray Scattering (SAXS) for different water uptakes obtained after immersion in liquid water at various temperatures. For low membrane swelling, the SAXS profile displays only a wide-angle peak in the 0.2-0.3 Å(-1) region. As the membrane swells, two supplementary correlation peaks arise and shift towards small angles, which are the signature of a structural evolution of the membrane, whereas the wide angle peak remains stable. The SAXS spectra of sPEEK membranes can thus display three correlation peaks simultaneously. Therefore we propose a new interpretation of these SAXS spectra which conclude that the two small angle peaks are attributed to the so-called matrix and ionomer peaks and the wide-angle peak is ascribed to the mean separation distance between sulfonic acid groups grafted onto the polymer backbone. This peak attribution implies that the sPEEK nano-phase separation is triggered by an immersion in hot water (ionomer peak apparition). Our new peak attribution was confirmed by studying the impact of temperature, electron density contrast and ionic exchange capacity.

  20. Neuroscience imaging enabled by new highly tunable and high peak power femtosecond lasers

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hakulinen, T.; Klein, J.

    2017-02-01

    Neuroscience applications benefit from recent developments in industrial femtosecond laser technology. New laser sources provide several megawatts of peak power at wavelength of 1040 nm, which enables simultaneous optogenetics photoactivation of tens or even hundreds of neurons using red shifted opsins. Another recent imaging trend is to move towards longer wavelengths, which would enable access to deeper layers of tissue due to lower scattering and lower absorption in the tissue. Femtosecond lasers pumping a non-collinear optical parametric amplifier (NOPA) enable the access to longer wavelengths with high peak powers. High peak powers of >10 MW at 1300 nm and 1700 nm allow effective 3-photon excitation of green and red shifted calcium indicators respectively and access to deeper, sub-cortex layers of the brain. Early results include in vivo detection of spontaneous activity in hippocampus within an intact mouse brain, where neurons express GCaMP6 activated in a 3-photon process at 1320 nm.

  1. Genetic Association for P2X7R rs3751142 and CARD8 rs2043211 Polymorphisms for Susceptibility of Gout in Korean Men: Multi-Center Study.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lee, Sung Won; Lee, Shin Seok; Oh, Dong Ho; Park, Dong Jin; Kim, Hyun Sook; Choi, Jung Ran; Chae, Soo Cheon; Yun, Ki Jung; Chung, Won Tae; Choe, Jung Yoon; Kim, Seong Kyu

    2016-10-01

    The aim of this study was to determine the association between P2X7R rs3751142 and CARD8 rs2043211 polymorphisms and gout susceptibility in male Korean subjects. This study enrolled a total of 242 male patients with gout and 280 healthy controls. The polymorphisms of two individual genes including rs3751142(C>A) in the P2X7R gene and rs2043211(A>T) in the CARD8 gene were assessed using Taq-Man analysis. Statistical analyses were performed using the Chi-square test, Kruskal-Wallis test, and logistic regression analyses. A difference in genotypic frequency of the P2X7R rs3751142 and CARD8 rs2043211 genes was not detected between gout and control patients. Clinical parameters including age, onset age, disease duration, body mass index, and serum uric acid levels were not different among the three genotypes for either P2X7R or CARD8 (P > 0.05 for all). A pair-wise comparison of P2X7R rs3751142 and CARD8 rs2043211 genotype combinations revealed that subjects with the CA P2X7R rs3751142 genotype and the TT CARD8 rs2043211 genotype had a trend toward a higher risk of gout compared to the CC/AA combination (P = 0.056, OR = 2.618, 95% CI 0.975 - 7.031). In conclusion, this study revealed that genetic variability of the P2X7R rs3751142 and CARD8 rs2043211 genes might, in part, be associated with susceptibility for gout.

  2. Repair for scattering expansion truncation errors in transport calculations

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Emmett, M.B.; Childs, R.L.; Rhoades, W.A.

    1980-01-01

    Legendre expansion of angular scattering distributions is usually limited to P 3 in practical transport calculations. This truncation often results in non-trivial errors, especially alternating negative and positive lateral scattering peaks. The effect is especially prominent in forward-peaked situations such as the within-group component of the Compton Scattering of gammas. Increasing the expansion to P 7 often makes the peaks larger and narrower. Ward demonstrated an accurate repair, but his method requires special cross section sets and codes. The DOT IV code provides fully-compatible, but heuristic, repair of the erroneous scattering. An analytical Klein-Nishina estimator, newly available in the MORSE code, allows a test of this method. In the MORSE calculation, particle scattering histories are calculated in the usual way, with scoring by an estimator routine at each collision site. Results for both the conventional P 3 estimator and the analytical estimator were obtained. In the DOT calculation, the source moments are expanded into the directional representation at each iteration. Optionally a sorting procedure removes all negatives, and removes enough small positive values to restore particle conservation. The effect of this is to replace the alternating positive and negative values with positive values of plausible magnitude. The accuracy of those values is examined herein

  3. Association of the ENPP1 rs997509 polymorphism with obesity in ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    ) polymorphisms have been associated with metabolic traits. There is no data on the effect of ENPP1 in South African children or adults. Objective: To investigate the role of K121Q (rs1044498), rs997509 and rs9402349 in obesity and other ...

  4. Spin-wave and critical neutron scattering from chromium

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Als-Nielsen, Jens Aage; Axe, J.D.; Shirane, G.

    1971-01-01

    Chromium and its dilute alloys are unique examples of magnetism caused by itinerant electrons. The magnetic excitations have been studied by inelastic neutron scattering using a high-resolution triple-axis spectrometer. Spin-wave peaks in q scans at constant energy transfer ℏω could, in general...

  5. Raman scattering in three-cation diluted magnetic semiconductor Cd1-x-yMnxMgyTe

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Agekyan, V.F.; Gridneva, L.K.; Karpov, S.V.; Serov, A.Yu.

    1995-01-01

    Investigations of Raman scattering (RS) in quaternary compounds were conducted to determine and interpret LO and TO frequencies, characterizing CdTe, MnTe, MgTe components in mixed crystal. Raman spectrum in the range of low frequencies is interpreted as interaction of quasi local vibrations with acoustic continuum

  6. The hydrogen anomaly problem in neutron Compton scattering

    Science.gov (United States)

    Karlsson, Erik B.

    2018-03-01

    Neutron Compton scattering (also called ‘deep inelastic scattering of neutrons’, DINS) is a method used to study momentum distributions of light atoms in solids and liquids. It has been employed extensively since the start-up of intense pulsed neutron sources about 25 years ago. The information lies primarily in the width and shape of the Compton profile and not in the absolute intensity of the Compton peaks. It was therefore not immediately recognized that the relative intensities of Compton peaks arising from scattering on different isotopes did not always agree with values expected from standard neutron cross-section tables. The discrepancies were particularly large for scattering on protons, a phenomenon that became known as ‘the hydrogen anomaly problem’. The present paper is a review of the discovery, experimental tests to prove or disprove the existence of the hydrogen anomaly and discussions concerning its origin. It covers a twenty-year-long history of experimentation, theoretical treatments and discussions. The problem is of fundamental interest, since it involves quantum phenomena on the subfemtosecond time scale, which are not visible in conventional thermal neutron scattering but are important in Compton scattering where neutrons have two orders of magnitude times higher energy. Different H-containing systems show different cross-section deficiencies and when the scattering processes are followed on the femtosecond time scale the cross-section losses disappear on different characteristic time scales for each H-environment. The last section of this review reproduces results from published papers based on quantum interference in scattering on identical particles (proton or deuteron pairs or clusters), which have given a quantitative theoretical explanation both regarding the H-cross-section reduction and its time dependence. Some new explanations are added and the concluding chapter summarizes the conditions for observing the specific quantum

  7. Peak bone mass density among residents of Metro Manila

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Lim-Abrahan, M.A.B.; Guanzon, M.L.V.V.; Balderas, J.A.J.; Villaruel, C.M.; Santos, F.

    1996-01-01

    To determine the peak bone mass density among residents of Metro Manila using dual x-ray absorptiometry (DEXA).The design used is cross-sectional study. The study include 23 females and 22 males, with 3 to 4 subjects for each age range of 5. The methods used was bone mass density measurements on the lumbar spine and the femur using dual x-ray absorptiometry (DPXI lunar) were taken. The values were also age-matched and matched with that of a young adult based on programmed Caucasian norm provided by Lunar Co. The values were then scattered against age for each sex. Ten (10) cc of blood was also extracted from the patients, with 5 cc of blood separated for future studies. Patients were also interviewed as to their lifestyle, diet, use of contraceptive pill or hormonal replacement treatment, using a Filipino version of the revised questionnaire on the WHO Study on osteoporosis. The mean bone mass density at the L21.4 level for females was 1.12±0.11 g/cm 2 and 0,91±0.11 g/cm 2 at the femur. The highest BMD in both the lumbar spine femoral neck measurements among females was achieved between the ages 30-35 years of age with the lowest BMD occurring between 15-20 yrs. old and incidentally in 2 subjects with ages between 40-44. There seems to be little bone loss among beyond the age 35, unlike in the females. Bone mass density among a sample Metro Manila residents was determined using DEXA and the measurements on the lumbar spine and femoral neck. These were age-matched with that of young adult based on Caucasian norm provided by the Lunar Co. Peak bone mass density in the L2L4 level among the females is reached between the ages 30-35 years old, after which there is progressive bone loss with values in the 45-50 years old approximating the values in the 15-19 years old age range. A similar pattern is seen in the measurements taken at the femoral neck. Among males, the peak BMD is reached during the 30-35 years old, but there seems to be no rapid decline or rapid bone

  8. Refractive index sensor based on total scattering of plasmonic nanotube

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yao, Kaiqiang; Zeng, Qingbing; Hu, Zengrong; Zhan, Yaohui

    2018-03-01

    Plasmonic nanostructures can couple free space light into anultrafine space; therefore,they are employed extensively in the refractive index sensors to minimize the device size or further improve the detection sensitivity. In this work, the optical response of the plasmonic nanotube are investigated comprehensively by using full wave finite element method. With a subwavelength scale, the silver nanotube have prominent scattering peaks in the visible range, which is very suitable for observing through the dark field microscope. The geometric dependence of the scattering spectra and the sensing performance are evaluated carefully. Results show that the scattering peaks are in linear relationship to the circumstance refractive index and a sensitivity of 337 nm/RIUcan be achieved easily by such a plasmonicnanotube with an optimized size.

  9. Neutron scattering on partially deuterated polybutadiene

    CERN Document Server

    Kahle, S; Monkenbusch, M; Richter, D; Arbe, A; Colmenero, J; Frick, B

    2002-01-01

    The molecular nature of the secondary relaxation (Johari-Goldstein relaxation) and its relationship with the alpha relaxation is in most cases still unknown. In order to access these processes on a molecular level, it is necessary to obtain spatial information of the relaxation. Through the momentum-transfer dependence of the dynamic structure factor S(Q,t), this information can be provided by quasielastic neutron scattering techniques. The large difference in scattering lengths between hydrogen and deuterium allows us to accentuate specific correlations between atoms in a polymer melt. Here, we report on recent results on a polybutadiene melt, where the double bond was hydrogeneous, while the methylene groups carried deuterons (d4h2-PB). In this way the correlations between the double bonds are emphasised. We will show that the double bond/double bond correlation function, generated in this way, shows the same temperature dependence as the viscosity at higher temperatures at the structure factor peak maximum...

  10. Raman scattering of rare earth hexaborides

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Ogita, Norio; Hasegawa, Takumi; Udagawa, Masayuki; Iga, Fumitoshi; Kunii, Satoru

    2009-01-01

    Raman scattering spectra were measured for the rare-earth hexaborides RB 6 (R = Ce, Gd, or Dy). All Raman-active phonons due to B 6 vibrations were observed in the range 600 - 1400 cm -1 . Anomalous peaks were detected below 200 cm -1 , which correspond to vibrations of rare-earth ion excited by second-order Raman scattering process. The intensity and energy of the rare-earth mode decrease with decreasing temperature. This suggests that the rare-earth ion vibrates in a shallow and anharmonic potential due to the boron cage. Using the reported values of mean square displacement of rare-earth ion, we estimated the anharmonic contribution for the rare-earth vibrations.

  11. Gigahertz-peaked spectra pulsars in Pulsar Wind Nebulae

    Science.gov (United States)

    Basu, R.; RoŻko, K.; Kijak, J.; Lewandowski, W.

    2018-04-01

    We have carried out a detailed study of the spectral nature of six pulsars surrounded by pulsar wind nebulae (PWNe). The pulsar flux density was estimated using the interferometric imaging technique of the Giant Metrewave Radio Telescope at three frequencies 325, 610, and 1280 MHz. The spectra showed a turnover around gigahertz frequency in four out of six pulsars. It has been suggested that the gigahertz-peaked spectrum (GPS) in pulsars arises due to thermal absorption of the pulsar emission in surrounding medium like PWNe, H II regions, supernova remnants, etc. The relatively high incidence of GPS behaviour in pulsars surrounded by PWNe imparts further credence to this view. The pulsar J1747-2958 associated with the well-known Mouse nebula was also observed in our sample and exhibited GPS behaviour. The pulsar was detected as a point source in the high-resolution images. However, the pulsed emission was not seen in the phased-array mode. It is possible that the pulsed emission was affected by extreme scattering causing considerable smearing of the emission at low radio frequencies. The GPS spectra were modelled using the thermal free-free absorption and the estimated absorber properties were largely consistent with PWNe. The spatial resolution of the images made it unlikely that the point source associated with J1747-2958 was the compact head of the PWNe, but the synchrotron self-absorption seen in such sources was a better fit to the estimated spectral shape.

  12. Deuteron-deuteron elastic scattering at high energies

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Fazal-e-Aleem; Ali, S.

    1991-01-01

    The eikonal picture which has theoretical foundations in some areas of physics has been successful in explaining various aspects of elastic scattering at high energies. Chou and Yang first proposed a preliminary version of the eikonal model for hadron-hadron elastic scattering. The model is based on geometrical considerations in which hadrons are treated as extended objects. Elastic scattering then results from the propagation of attenuated wave function. By assuming that at high energies the scattering amplitude is purely imaginary and that the hadronic matter distribution is proportional to the charge distribution on protons, Durand and Lipes studied high energy pp scattering on the basis of this prestine model. Later on, the model was extended to other elastic reactions. However, a survey of literature shows that it has been successful only in the diffraction peak region. It has been shown that the pristine Chou-Yange model can explain the differential cross section for deuteron-deuteron elastic scattering at √s = 53 GeV in the diffraction peak region. In order to fit the large momentum transfer data, the generalized Chou-Yang model is used

  13. Particle creation by peak electric field

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Adorno, T.C. [Tomsk State University, Department of Physics, Tomsk (Russian Federation); Gavrilov, S.P. [Tomsk State University, Department of Physics, Tomsk (Russian Federation); Herzen State Pedagogical University of Russia, Department of General and Experimental Physics, St. Petersburg (Russian Federation); Gitman, D.M. [Tomsk State University, Department of Physics, Tomsk (Russian Federation); P. N. Lebedev Physical Institute, Moscow (Russian Federation); University of Sao Paulo, Institute of Physics, CP 66318, Sao Paulo, SP (Brazil)

    2016-08-15

    The particle creation by the so-called peak electric field is considered. The latter field is a combination of two exponential parts, one exponentially increasing and another exponentially decreasing. We find exact solutions of the Dirac equation with the field under consideration with appropriate asymptotic conditions and calculate all the characteristics of particle creation effect, in particular, differential mean numbers of created particle, total number of created particles, and the probability for a vacuum to remain a vacuum. Characteristic asymptotic regimes are discussed in detail and a comparison with the pure asymptotically decaying field is considered. (orig.)

  14. Octant vectorcardiography - the evaluation by peaks.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Laufberger, V

    1982-01-01

    From the Frank lead potentials a computer prints out an elementary table. Therein, the electrical space of left ventricle depolarization is divided into eight spatial parts labelled by numbers 1-8 and called octants. Within these octants six peaks are determined labelled with letters ALPR-IS. Their localization is described by six-digit topograms characteristic for each patient. From 300 cases of patients after myocardial infarction, three data bases were compiled enabling every case to be classified into classes, subclasses and types. The follow up of patients according to these principles gives an objective and detailed image about the progress of coronary artery disease.

  15. Energy peaks: A high energy physics outlook

    Science.gov (United States)

    Franceschini, Roberto

    2017-12-01

    Energy distributions of decay products carry information on the kinematics of the decay in ways that are at the same time straightforward and quite hidden. I will review these properties and discuss their early historical applications, as well as more recent ones in the context of (i) methods for the measurement of masses of new physics particle with semi-invisible decays, (ii) the characterization of Dark Matter particles produced at colliders, (iii) precision mass measurements of Standard Model particles, in particular of the top quark. Finally, I will give an outlook of further developments and applications of energy peak method for high energy physics at colliders and beyond.

  16. Method and apparatus for current-output peak detection

    Science.gov (United States)

    De Geronimo, Gianluigi

    2017-01-24

    A method and apparatus for a current-output peak detector. A current-output peak detector circuit is disclosed and works in two phases. The peak detector circuit includes switches to switch the peak detector circuit from the first phase to the second phase upon detection of the peak voltage of an input voltage signal. The peak detector generates a current output with a high degree of accuracy in the second phase.

  17. Exceptional longevity and muscle and fitness related genotypes: a functional in vitro analysis and case-control association replication study with SNPs THRH rs7832552, IL6 rs1800795 and ACSL1 rs6552828

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Noriyuki eFuku

    2015-05-01

    Full Text Available There are several gene variants that are candidates to influence functional capacity in long-lived individuals. As such, their potential association with exceptional longevity (EL, i.e., reaching 100+ years deserves analysis. Among them are rs7832552 in the thyrotropin-releasing hormone receptor (TRHR gene, rs1800795 in the interleukin-6 (IL6 gene and rs6552828 in the coenzyme A synthetase long-chain 1 (ACSL1 gene. To gain insight into their functionality (which is yet unknown, here we determined for the first time luciferase gene reporter activity at the muscle tissue level in rs7832552 and rs6552828. We then compared allele/genotype frequencies of the 3 abovementioned variants among centenarians [n=138, age range 100-111 years (114 women] and healthy controls [n=334, 20-50 years (141 women] of the same ethnic and geographic origin (Spain. We also studied healthy centenarians [n=79, 100-104 years (40 women] and controls [n=316, 27-81 years (156 women] from Italy, and centenarians [n=742, 100-116 years (623 women] and healthy controls [n=499, 23-59 years (356 women] from Japan. The THRH rs7832552 T-allele and ACSL1 rs6552828 A-allele up-regulated luciferase activity compared to the C and G-allele, respectively (P≤0.001. Yet we found no significant association of EL with rs7832552, rs1800795 or rs6552828 in any of the 3 cohorts. Further research is needed with larger cohorts of centenarians of different origin as well as with younger old people.

  18. Low-angle X-ray scattering from spices

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Desouky, O.S.; Ashour, Ahmed H.; Abdullah, Mohamed I.; Elshemey, Wael M.

    2002-01-01

    Low-angle scattering of X-rays is characterized by the presence of one or more peaks in the forward direction of scattering. These peaks are due to the interference of photons coherently scattered from the molecules of the medium. Thus these patterns are closely linked to the molecular structure of the investigated medium. In this work, low-angle X-ray scattering (LAXS) profiles of five spices; pimpinella anisum (anise), coriandrum sativum (coriander), cuminum cyminum (cumin), foenculum vulgare (fennel) and nigella sativa (nigella or black cumin) are presented after extensive measurements. It is found that all spices exhibit one characteristic peak at a scattering angle around 10 deg. This is equivalent to a value x=0.0565 A -1 , where x=sin(θ/2)/λ. The full width at half maximum (FWHM) of this peak is found to be characteristic for each type of the investigated spices. The possibility to detect the irradiation of these spices from their LAXS profiles is also examined after 10, 20, 30 and 40 kGy doses of gamma radiation. Except for anise, coriander and cumin at 40 kGy, there are no detectable deviations from the control samples in the scattering profiles of irradiated samples. These results comply with the recommendations of the FDA (US Food and Drug Administration) which defines 30 kGy as the maximum dose for irradiation of spices. The present technique could be used to detect over-irradiation, which causes damage to the molecular structure of some spices

  19. Determination of IL-1B (rs16944) and IL-6 (rs1800796) genetic polymorphisms in IgA nephropathy in a northwest Chinese Han population.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zhang, Daofa; Xie, Maowei; Yang, Xiaohong; Zhang, Yin; Su, Yan; Wang, Yanni; Huang, Haiyang; Han, Hui; Li, Wenning; Fu, Keying; Su, Huiluan; Xu, Wentan; Han, Yeguang; Wang, Ru; Zhang, Pei; Wu, Wei; Huang, Yun; Chen, Daojun; Jin, Tianbo; Wei, Jiali

    2017-09-22

    IgA nephropathy (IgAN) is the most common form of primary glomerulonephritis worldwide, but etiology and pathogenesis continue to be poorly understood. Polymorphisms in the cytokine genes may play a role in the etiology and pathogenesis of IgAN. The incidence of different between diverse ethnic groups suggested important genetic influences on its pathogenesis. We genotype 10 single nucleotide polymorphisms (SNPs) in IL-1B and IL-6 gene using Sequenom Mass-ARRAY technology from 417 IgAN patients and 463 healthy controls of the Chinese Han population. We evaluated these SNPs associated with IgAN utilising the chi-square tests and genetic model analysis. We identified that the minor alleles of rs16944 ("A"), rs1800796 ("G") in IL-1B, IL-6 were involved in an increasingly risk of IgAN in allelic model analysis, respectively. The rs16944 in IL-1B and rs1800796 in IL-6 were associated with 1.23-fold (95% CI, 1.02-1.48, P = 0.031) and 1.33-fold (95% CI, 1.11-1.66, P = 0.003) increases in the risk of developing IgAN, respectively. There was only rs1800796 still correlated with IgAN in the allelic model after adjustment by age and gender and the Bonferroni correction. In addition, Haplotype G rs1800796 A rs2069837 G rs2069840 ( P = 0.037) and G rs1800796 A rs2069837 C rs2069840 ( P = 0.042) in IL-6 were considered to be associated with increased IgAN risk. This study verified the IL-6, IL-1B genetic variants polymorphisms contributed to IgAN susceptibility in a Chinese Han population. Although we identified SNPs susceptibility, however, replication studies and functional research are required to confirm the genetic contribution in IgAN.

  20. PREFACE: Atom-surface scattering Atom-surface scattering

    Science.gov (United States)

    Miret-Artés, Salvador

    2010-08-01

    resonances. This proposal was, in a certain sense, the result of many previous studies carried out by the authors studying the hard corrugated wall, the eikonal approximation and the quantum theory of surface scattering. His stays with J Lapujoulade's group in Saclay were very fruitful for understanding diffraction patterns, surface phonons and selective adsorption resonances in metal vicinal surfaces. Together with R H Ritchie, he proposed some corrections to Van der Waals forces in 1985 and 1986. Self-energies of a charge near a surface or image states or potentials for electrons were also studied in collaboration with R H Ritchie in Oak Ridge and P Echenique in San Sebastian. In particular, they proposed a theory for cluster impact fusion in 1990. With J P Toennies and his group and visitors in Göttingen, many experimental features or effects were interpreted with Dick's invaluable collaboration. Thus, for example, we have (i) the large-momentum transfer undulations observed in the angular distribution of He atoms scattered by a platinum surface in the presence of a single CO adsorbate (the so-called reflection symmetry interference); (ii) the inelastic interference structures of the frustrated translational mode of CO on a copper surface; (iii) defect mediated diffraction resonances; (iv) inelastic focusing; (v) diffraction from nanostructure transmission gratings, etc. With J G Skofronick and S A Safron and their group in Tallahassee, He atom inelastic scattering from insulator experiments were carried out to test his theory. With K-H Rieder and his group in Berlin, Dick mainly considered the scattering of atoms from clean surfaces and in the presence of defects at grazing angles. And, finally, with W Ernst and his group in Graz, glass surface dynamics was developed as well as observation of the so-called boson peak. Finally, I would like to express my sincere gratitude to all contributors and those who were contacted but could not participate in this festschrift. They

  1. Computation of peak discharge at culverts

    Science.gov (United States)

    Carter, Rolland William

    1957-01-01

    Methods for computing peak flood flow through culverts on the basis of a field survey of highwater marks and culvert geometry are presented. These methods are derived from investigations of culvert flow as reported in the literature and on extensive laboratory studies of culvert flow. For convenience in computation, culvert flow has been classified into six types, according to the location of the control section and the relative heights of the head-water and tail-water levels. The type of flow which occurred at any site can be determined from the field data and the criteria given in this report. A discharge equation has been developed for each flow type by combining the energy and continuity equations for the distance between an approach section upstream from the culvert and a terminal section within the culvert barrel. The discharge coefficient applicable to each flow type is listed for the more common entrance geometries. Procedures for computing peak discharge through culverts are outlined in detail for each of the six flow types.

  2. Comparison of five portable peak flow meters.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Takara, Glaucia Nency; Ruas, Gualberto; Pessoa, Bruna Varanda; Jamami, Luciana Kawakami; Di Lorenzo, Valéria Amorim Pires; Jamami, Mauricio

    2010-05-01

    To compare the measurements of spirometric peak expiratory flow (PEF) from five different PEF meters and to determine if their values are in agreement. Inaccurate equipment may result in incorrect diagnoses of asthma and inappropriate treatments. Sixty-eight healthy, sedentary and insufficiently active subjects, aged from 19 to 40 years, performed PEF measurements using Air Zone, Assess, Galemed, Personal Best and Vitalograph peak flow meters. The highest value recorded for each subject for each device was compared to the corresponding spirometric values using Friedman's test with Dunn's post-hoc (pmeters were 428 (263-688 L/min), 450 (350-800 L/min), 420 (310-720 L/min), 380 (300-735 L/min), 400 (310-685 L/min) and 415 (335-610 L/min), respectively. Significant differences were found when the spirometric values were compared to those recorded by the Air Zone(R) (pmeters. There was no agreement between the spirometric values and the five PEF meters. The results suggest that the values recorded from Galemed meters may underestimate the actual value, which could lead to unnecessary interventions, and that Air Zone meters overestimate spirometric values, which could obfuscate the need for intervention. These findings must be taken into account when interpreting both devices' results in younger people. These differences should also be considered when directly comparing values from different types of PEF meters.

  3. Monitoring device for local power peaking coefficient

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Mitsuhashi, Ishi

    1987-01-01

    Purpose: To monitor the local power peaking coefficients obtained by the method not depending on the combination of fuel types. Method: A plurality of representative values for the local power distribution determined by the nuclear constant calculation for one fuel assembly are memorized regarding each of the burn-up degree and the void coefficient on every positions and fuel types in fuel rod assemblies. While on the other hand, the representative values for the local power distribution as described above are compensated by a compensation coefficient considering the effect of adjacent segments and a control rod compensation coefficient considering the effect due to the control rod insertion relative to the just-mentioned compensation coefficient. Then, the maximum value among them is selected to determine the local power peaking coefficient at each of the times and each of the segments, which is monitored. According to this system, the calculation and the working required for the fitting work depending on the combination of fuel types are no more required at all to facilitate the maintenance as well. (Horiuchi, T.)

  4. On the analysis of Deep Inelastic Neutron Scattering Experiments

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Blostein, J.J.; Dawidowski, J.; Granada, J.R.

    2001-01-01

    We analyze the different steps that must be followed for data processing in Deep Inelastic Neutron Scattering Experiments. Firstly we discuss to what extent multiple scattering effects can affect the measured peak shape, concluding the an accurate calculation of these effects must be performed to extract the desired effective temperature from the experimental data. We present a Monte Carlo procedure to perform these corrections. Next, we focus our attention on experiments performed on light nuclei. We examine cases in which the desired information is obtained from the observed peak areas, and we analyze the procedure to obtain an effective temperature from the experimental peaks. As a consequence of the results emerging from those cases we trace the limits of validity of the convolution formalism usually employed, and propose a different treatment of the experimental data for this kind of measurements. (author)

  5. On the analysis of Deep Inelastic Neutron Scattering Experiments

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Blostein, J.J.; Dawidowski, J.; Granada, J.R. [Comision Nacional de Energia Atomica and CONICET, Centro Atomico Bariloche and Instituto Balseiro, Bariloche (Argentina)

    2001-03-01

    We analyze the different steps that must be followed for data processing in Deep Inelastic Neutron Scattering Experiments. Firstly we discuss to what extent multiple scattering effects can affect the measured peak shape, concluding the an accurate calculation of these effects must be performed to extract the desired effective temperature from the experimental data. We present a Monte Carlo procedure to perform these corrections. Next, we focus our attention on experiments performed on light nuclei. We examine cases in which the desired information is obtained from the observed peak areas, and we analyze the procedure to obtain an effective temperature from the experimental peaks. As a consequence of the results emerging from those cases we trace the limits of validity of the convolution formalism usually employed, and propose a different treatment of the experimental data for this kind of measurements. (author)

  6. Peak capacity and peak capacity per unit time in capillary and microchip zone electrophoresis.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Foley, Joe P; Blackney, Donna M; Ennis, Erin J

    2017-11-10

    The origins of the peak capacity concept are described and the important contributions to the development of that concept in chromatography and electrophoresis are reviewed. Whereas numerous quantitative expressions have been reported for one- and two-dimensional separations, most are focused on chromatographic separations and few, if any, quantitative unbiased expressions have been developed for capillary or microchip zone electrophoresis. Making the common assumption that longitudinal diffusion is the predominant source of zone broadening in capillary electrophoresis, analytical expressions for the peak capacity are derived, first in terms of migration time, diffusion coefficient, migration distance, and desired resolution, and then in terms of the remaining underlying fundamental parameters (electric field, electroosmotic and electrophoretic mobilities) that determine the migration time. The latter expressions clearly illustrate the direct square root dependence of peak capacity on electric field and migration distance and the inverse square root dependence on solute diffusion coefficient. Conditions that result in a high peak capacity will result in a low peak capacity per unit time and vice-versa. For a given symmetrical range of relative electrophoretic mobilities for co- and counter-electroosmotic species (cations and anions), the peak capacity increases with the square root of the electric field even as the temporal window narrows considerably, resulting in a significant reduction in analysis time. Over a broad relative electrophoretic mobility interval [-0.9, 0.9], an approximately two-fold greater amount of peak capacity can be generated for counter-electroosmotic species although it takes about five-fold longer to do so, consistent with the well-known bias in migration time and resolving power for co- and counter-electroosmotic species. The optimum lower bound of the relative electrophoretic mobility interval [μ r,Z , μ r,A ] that provides the maximum

  7. PC interfacing using Centronics, RS232 and game ports

    CERN Document Server

    An, Pei

    1998-01-01

    The main links with your PC and the outside world are the centronic port, used for connecting the printer, the RS232 port, used for the mouse, and the games port for a joystick. This book explores how these input/output (I/O) ports can be put to use through a range of other interfacing applications. This is especially useful for laptop and palmtop PCs which cannot be fitted with internal I/O cards. A novel approach is taken by this book, combining the hardware through which the ports can be explored, and the software programming needed to carry out a range of experiments.Circuits are p

  8. Stimulated Brillouin scattering threshold in fiber amplifiers

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Liang Liping; Chang Liping

    2011-01-01

    Based on the wave coupling theory and the evolution model of the critical pump power (or Brillouin threshold) for stimulated Brillouin scattering (SBS) in double-clad fiber amplifiers, the influence of signal bandwidth, fiber-core diameter and amplifier gain on SBS threshold is simulated theoretically. And experimental measurements of SBS are presented in ytterbium-doped double-clad fiber amplifiers with single-frequency hundred nanosecond pulse amplification. Under different input signal pulses, the forward amplified pulse distortion is observed when the pulse energy is up to 660 nJ and the peak power is up to 3.3 W in the pulse amplification with pulse duration of 200 ns and repetition rate of 1 Hz. And the backward SBS narrow pulse appears. The pulse peak power equals to SBS threshold. Good agreement is shown between the modeled and experimental data. (authors)

  9. Virtual neutron scattering experiments

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Overgaard, Julie Hougaard; Bruun, Jesper; May, Michael

    2016-01-01

    We describe how virtual experiments can be utilized in a learning design that prepares students for hands-on experiments at large-scale facilities. We illustrate the design by showing how virtual experiments are used at the Niels Bohr Institute in a master level course on neutron scattering....... In the last week of the course, students travel to a large-scale neutron scattering facility to perform real neutron scattering experiments. Through student interviews and survey answers, we argue, that the virtual training prepares the students to engage more fruitfully with experiments by letting them focus...... on physics and data rather than the overwhelming instrumentation. We argue that this is because they can transfer their virtual experimental experience to the real-life situation. However, we also find that learning is still situated in the sense that only knowledge of particular experiments is transferred...

  10. Electron scattering off nuclei

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Gattone, A.O.

    1989-01-01

    Two recently developed aspects related to the scattering of electrons off nuclei are presented. On the one hand, a model is introduced which emphasizes the relativistic aspects of the problem in the impulse approximation, by demanding strict maintenance of the algebra of the Poincare group. On the other hand, the second model aims at a more sophisticated description of the nuclear response in the case of collective excitations. Basically, it utilizes the RPA formalism with a new development which enables a more careful treatment of the states in the continuum as is the case for the giant resonances. Applications of both models to the description of elastic scattering, inelastic scattering to discrete levels, giant resonances and the quasi-elastic region are discussed. (Author) [es

  11. Cold moderator scattering kernels

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    MacFarlane, R.E.

    1989-01-01

    New thermal-scattering-law files in ENDF format have been developed for solid methane, liquid methane liquid ortho- and para-hydrogen, and liquid ortho- and para-deuterium using up-to-date models that include such effects as incoherent elastic scattering in the solid, diffusion and hindered vibration and rotations in the liquids, and spin correlations for the hydrogen and deuterium. These files were generated with the new LEAPR module of the NJOY Nuclear Data Processing System. Other modules of this system were used to produce cross sections for these moderators in the correct format for the continuous-energy Monte Carlo code (MCNP) being used for cold-moderator-design calculations at the Los Alamos Neutron Scattering Center (LANSCE). 20 refs., 14 figs

  12. Quantum Optical Multiple Scattering

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Ott, Johan Raunkjær

    . In the first part we use a scattering-matrix formalism combined with results from random-matrix theory to investigate the interference of quantum optical states on a multiple scattering medium. We investigate a single realization of a scattering medium thereby showing that it is possible to create entangled...... states by interference of squeezed beams. Mixing photon states on the single realization also shows that quantum interference naturally arises by interfering quantum states. We further investigate the ensemble averaged transmission properties of the quantized light and see that the induced quantum...... interference survives even after disorder averaging. The quantum interference manifests itself through increased photon correlations. Furthermore, the theoretical description of a measurement procedure is presented. In this work we relate the noise power spectrum of the total transmitted or reflected light...

  13. MAGNETIC NEUTRON SCATTERING

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    ZALIZNYAK,I.A.; LEE,S.H.

    2004-07-30

    Much of our understanding of the atomic-scale magnetic structure and the dynamical properties of solids and liquids was gained from neutron-scattering studies. Elastic and inelastic neutron spectroscopy provided physicists with an unprecedented, detailed access to spin structures, magnetic-excitation spectra, soft-modes and critical dynamics at magnetic-phase transitions, which is unrivaled by other experimental techniques. Because the neutron has no electric charge, it is an ideal weakly interacting and highly penetrating probe of matter's inner structure and dynamics. Unlike techniques using photon electric fields or charged particles (e.g., electrons, muons) that significantly modify the local electronic environment, neutron spectroscopy allows determination of a material's intrinsic, unperturbed physical properties. The method is not sensitive to extraneous charges, electric fields, and the imperfection of surface layers. Because the neutron is a highly penetrating and non-destructive probe, neutron spectroscopy can probe the microscopic properties of bulk materials (not just their surface layers) and study samples embedded in complex environments, such as cryostats, magnets, and pressure cells, which are essential for understanding the physical origins of magnetic phenomena. Neutron scattering is arguably the most powerful and versatile experimental tool for studying the microscopic properties of the magnetic materials. The magnitude of the cross-section of the neutron magnetic scattering is similar to the cross-section of nuclear scattering by short-range nuclear forces, and is large enough to provide measurable scattering by the ordered magnetic structures and electron spin fluctuations. In the half-a-century or so that has passed since neutron beams with sufficient intensity for scattering applications became available with the advent of the nuclear reactors, they have became indispensable tools for studying a variety of important areas of modern

  14. Λ scattering equations

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gomez, Humberto

    2016-06-01

    The CHY representation of scattering amplitudes is based on integrals over the moduli space of a punctured sphere. We replace the punctured sphere by a double-cover version. The resulting scattering equations depend on a parameter Λ controlling the opening of a branch cut. The new representation of scattering amplitudes possesses an enhanced redundancy which can be used to fix, modulo branches, the location of four punctures while promoting Λ to a variable. Via residue theorems we show how CHY formulas break up into sums of products of smaller (off-shell) ones times a propagator. This leads to a powerful way of evaluating CHY integrals of generic rational functions, which we call the Λ algorithm.

  15. Electromagnetic scattering theory

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bird, J. F.; Farrell, R. A.

    1986-01-01

    Electromagnetic scattering theory is discussed with emphasis on the general stochastic variational principle (SVP) and its applications. The stochastic version of the Schwinger-type variational principle is presented, and explicit expressions for its integrals are considered. Results are summarized for scalar wave scattering from a classic rough-surface model and for vector wave scattering from a random dielectric-body model. Also considered are the selection of trial functions and the variational improvement of the Kirchhoff short-wave approximation appropriate to large size-parameters. Other applications of vector field theory discussed include a general vision theory and the analysis of hydromagnetism induced by ocean motion across the geomagnetic field. Levitational force-torque in the magnetic suspension of the disturbance compensation system (DISCOS), now deployed in NOVA satellites, is also analyzed using the developed theory.

  16. Peak Wind Tool for General Forecasting

    Science.gov (United States)

    Barrett, Joe H., III

    2010-01-01

    The expected peak wind speed of the day is an important forecast element in the 45th Weather Squadron's (45 WS) daily 24-Hour and Weekly Planning Forecasts. The forecasts are used for ground and space launch operations at the Kennedy Space Center (KSC) and Cape Canaveral Air Force Station (CCAFS). The 45 WS also issues wind advisories for KSC/CCAFS when they expect wind gusts to meet or exceed 25 kt, 35 kt and 50 kt thresholds at any level from the surface to 300 ft. The 45 WS forecasters have indicated peak wind speeds are challenging to forecast, particularly in the cool season months of October - April. In Phase I of this task, the Applied Meteorology Unit (AMU) developed a tool to help the 45 WS forecast non-convective winds at KSC/CCAFS for the 24-hour period of 0800 to 0800 local time. The tool was delivered as a Microsoft Excel graphical user interface (GUI). The GUI displayed the forecast of peak wind speed, 5-minute average wind speed at the time of the peak wind, timing of the peak wind and probability the peak speed would meet or exceed 25 kt, 35 kt and 50 kt. For the current task (Phase II ), the 45 WS requested additional observations be used for the creation of the forecast equations by expanding the period of record (POR). Additional parameters were evaluated as predictors, including wind speeds between 500 ft and 3000 ft, static stability classification, Bulk Richardson Number, mixing depth, vertical wind shear, temperature inversion strength and depth and wind direction. Using a verification data set, the AMU compared the performance of the Phase I and II prediction methods. Just as in Phase I, the tool was delivered as a Microsoft Excel GUI. The 45 WS requested the tool also be available in the Meteorological Interactive Data Display System (MIDDS). The AMU first expanded the POR by two years by adding tower observations, surface observations and CCAFS (XMR) soundings for the cool season months of March 2007 to April 2009. The POR was expanded

  17. Emissions Scenarios and Fossil-fuel Peaking

    Science.gov (United States)

    Brecha, R.

    2008-12-01

    Intergovernmental Panel on Climate Change (IPCC) emissions scenarios are based on detailed energy system models in which demographics, technology and economics are used to generate projections of future world energy consumption, and therefore, of greenhouse gas emissions. Built into the assumptions for these scenarios are estimates for ultimately recoverable resources of various fossil fuels. There is a growing chorus of critics who believe that the true extent of recoverable fossil resources is much smaller than the amounts taken as a baseline for the IPCC scenarios. In a climate optimist camp are those who contend that "peak oil" will lead to a switch to renewable energy sources, while others point out that high prices for oil caused by supply limitations could very well lead to a transition to liquid fuels that actually increase total carbon emissions. We examine a third scenario in which high energy prices, which are correlated with increasing infrastructure, exploration and development costs, conspire to limit the potential for making a switch to coal or natural gas for liquid fuels. In addition, the same increasing costs limit the potential for expansion of tar sand and shale oil recovery. In our qualitative model of the energy system, backed by data from short- and medium-term trends, we have a useful way to gain a sense of potential carbon emission bounds. A bound for 21st century emissions is investigated based on two assumptions: first, that extractable fossil-fuel resources follow the trends assumed by "peak oil" adherents, and second, that little is done in the way of climate mitigation policies. If resources, and perhaps more importantly, extraction rates, of fossil fuels are limited compared to assumptions in the emissions scenarios, a situation can arise in which emissions are supply-driven. However, we show that even in this "peak fossil-fuel" limit, carbon emissions are high enough to surpass 550 ppm or 2°C climate protection guardrails. Some

  18. Neutron scattering. Experiment manuals

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Brueckel, Thomas; Heger, Gernot; Richter, Dieter; Roth, Georg; Zorn, Reiner (eds.)

    2010-07-01

    The following topics are dealt with: The thermal triple axis spectrometer PUMA, the high-resolution powder diffractometer SPODI, the hot single-crystal diffractometer HEiDi for structure analysis with neutrons, the backscattering spectrometer SPHERES, neutron polarization analysis with tht time-of-flight spectrometer DNS, the neutron spin-echo spectrometer J-NSE, small-angle neutron scattering with the KWS-1 and KWS-2 diffractometers, the very-small-angle neutron scattering diffractrometer with focusing mirror KWS-3, the resonance spin-echo spectrometer RESEDA, the reflectometer TREFF, the time-of-flight spectrometer TOFTOF. (HSI)

  19. Nuclear Compton scattering

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Christillin, P.

    1986-01-01

    The theory of nuclear Compton scattering is reformulated with explicit consideration of both virtual and real pionic degrees of freedom. The effects due to low-lying nuclear states, to seagull terms, to pion condensation and to the Δ dynamics in the nucleus and their interplay in the different energy regions are examined. It is shown that all corrections to the one-body terms, of diffractive behaviour determined by the nuclear form factor, have an effective two-body character. The possibility of using Compton scattering as a complementary source of information about nuclear dynamics is restressed. (author)

  20. Diffraction in nuclear scattering

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Wojciechowski, H.

    1986-01-01

    The elastic scattering amplitudes for charged and neutral particles have been decomposed into diffractive and refractive parts by splitting the nuclear elastic scattering matrix elements into components responsible for these effects. It has been shown that the pure geometrical diffractive effect which carries no information about the nuclear interaction is always predominant at forward angle of elastic angular distributions. This fact suggests that for strongly absorbed particles only elastic cross section at backward angles, i.e. the refractive cross section, can give us basic information about the central nuclear potential. 12 refs., 4 figs., 1 tab. (author)

  1. Proton nuclear scattering radiography

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Saudinos, J.

    1982-04-01

    Nuclear scattering of protons allows to radiograph objects with specific properties: 3-dimensional radiography, different information as compared to X-ray technique, hydrogen radiography. Furthermore the nuclear scattering radiography (NSR) is a well adapted method to gating techniques allowing the radiography of fast periodic moving objects. Results obtained on phantoms, formalin fixed head and moving object are shown and discussed. The dose delivery is compatible with clinical use, but at the moment, the irradiation time is too long between 1 and 4 hours. Perspectives to make the radiograph faster and to get a practical method are discussed

  2. Slow neutron scattering experiments

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Moon, R.M.

    1985-01-01

    Neutron scattering is a versatile technique that has been successfully applied to condensed-matter physics, biology, polymer science, chemistry, and materials science. The United States lost its leadership role in this field to Western Europe about 10 years ago. Recently, a modest investment in the United States in new facilities and a positive attitude on the part of the national laboratories toward outside users have resulted in a dramatic increase in the number of US scientists involved in neutron scattering research. Plans are being made for investments in new and improved facilities that could return the leadership role to the United States. 23 references, 4 figures, 3 tables

  3. Neutron scattering. Experiment manuals

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Brueckel, Thomas; Heger, Gernot; Richter, Dieter; Roth, Georg; Zorn, Reiner

    2014-01-01

    The following topics are dealt with: The thermal triple-axis spectrometer PUMA, the high-resolution powder diffractometer SPODI, the hot-single-crystal diffractometer HEiDi, the three-axis spectrometer PANDA, the backscattering spectrometer SPHERES, the DNS neutron-polarization analysis, the neutron spin-echo spectrometer J-NSE, small-angle neutron scattering at KWS-1 and KWS-2, a very-small-angle neutron scattering diffractometer with focusing mirror, the reflectometer TREFF, the time-of-flight spectrometer TOFTOF. (HSI)

  4. Electron-atom scattering

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    McCarthy, I.E.

    1991-07-01

    The coupled-channels-optical method has been implemented using two different approximations to the optical potential. The half-on-shell optical potential involves drastic approximations for numerical feasibility but still gives a good semiquantitative description of the effect of uncoupled channels on electron scattering from hydrogen, helium and sodium. The distorted-wave optical potential makes no approximations other than the weak coupling approximation for uncoupled channels. In applications to hydrogen and sodium it shows promise of describing scattering phenomena excellently at all energies. 27 refs., 5 figs

  5. Neutron scattering. Experiment manuals

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Brueckel, Thomas; Heger, Gernot; Richter, Dieter; Roth, Georg; Zorn, Reiner

    2010-01-01

    The following topics are dealt with: The thermal triple axis spectrometer PUMA, the high-resolution powder diffractometer SPODI, the hot single-crystal diffractometer HEiDi for structure analysis with neutrons, the backscattering spectrometer SPHERES, neutron polarization analysis with tht time-of-flight spectrometer DNS, the neutron spin-echo spectrometer J-NSE, small-angle neutron scattering with the KWS-1 and KWS-2 diffractometers, the very-small-angle neutron scattering diffractrometer with focusing mirror KWS-3, the resonance spin-echo spectrometer RESEDA, the reflectometer TREFF, the time-of-flight spectrometer TOFTOF. (HSI)

  6. Inelastic electron scattering influence on the strong coupling oxide superconductors

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Gabovich, A.M.; Voitenko, A.I.

    1995-01-01

    The superconducting order parameters Δ and energy gap Δ g are calculated taking into account the pair-breaking inelastic quasiparticle scattering by thermal Bose-excitations, e.g., phonons. The treatment is self-consistent because the scattering amplitude depends on Δ. The superconducting transition for any strength of the inelastic scattering is the phase transition of the first kind and the dependences Δ (T) and Δ g (T) tend to rectangular curve that agrees well with the experiment for high-Tc oxides. On the basis of the developed theory the nuclear spin-lattice relaxation rate R s in the superconducting state is calculated. The Hebel-Slichter peak in R s (T) is shown to disappear for strong enough inelastic scattering

  7. Peak Electric Load Relief in Northern Manhattan

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Hildegaard D. Link

    2014-08-01

    Full Text Available The aphorism “Think globally, act locally,” attributed to René Dubos, reflects the vision that the solution to global environmental problems must begin with efforts within our communities. PlaNYC 2030, the New York City sustainability plan, is the starting point for this study. Results include (a a case study based on the City College of New York (CCNY energy audit, in which we model the impacts of green roofs on campus energy demand and (b a case study of energy use at the neighborhood scale. We find that reducing the urban heat island effect can reduce building cooling requirements, peak electricity loads stress on the local electricity grid and improve urban livability.

  8. Tim Peake and Britain's road to space

    CERN Document Server

    Seedhouse, Erik

    2017-01-01

    This book puts the reader in the flight suit of Britain’s first male astronaut, Tim Peake. It chronicles his life, along with the Principia mission and the down-to-the-last-bolt descriptions of life aboard the ISS, by way of the hurdles placed by the British government and the rigors of training at Russia’s Star City military base. In addition, this book discusses the learning curves required in astronaut and mission training and the complexity of the technologies required to launch an astronaut and keep them alive for months on end. This book underscores the fact that technology and training, unlike space, do not exist in a vacuum; complex technical systems, like the ISS, interact with the variables of human personality, and the cultural background of the astronauts. .

  9. Complex behavior of elevators in peak traffic

    Science.gov (United States)

    Nagatani, Takashi

    2003-08-01

    We study the dynamical behavior of elevators in the morning peak traffic. We present a stochastic model of the elevators to take into account the interactions between elevators through passengers. The dynamics of the elevators is expressed in terms of a coupled nonlinear map with noises. The number of passengers carried by an elevator and the time-headway between elevators exhibit the complex behavior with varying elevator trips. It is found that the behavior of elevators exhibits a deterministic chaos even if there are no noises. The chaotic motion depends on the loading parameter, the maximum capacity of an elevator, and the number of elevators. When the loading parameter is superior to the threshold, each elevator carries a full load of passengers throughout its trip. The dependence of the threshold (transition point) on the elevator capacity is clarified.

  10. Equivalence principle and the baryon acoustic peak

    Science.gov (United States)

    Baldauf, Tobias; Mirbabayi, Mehrdad; Simonović, Marko; Zaldarriaga, Matias

    2015-08-01

    We study the dominant effect of a long wavelength density perturbation δ (λL) on short distance physics. In the nonrelativistic limit, the result is a uniform acceleration, fixed by the equivalence principle, and typically has no effect on statistical averages due to translational invariance. This same reasoning has been formalized to obtain a "consistency condition" on the cosmological correlation functions. In the presence of a feature, such as the acoustic peak at ℓBAO, this naive expectation breaks down for λLexplicitly applied to the one-loop calculation of the power spectrum. Finally, the success of baryon acoustic oscillation reconstruction schemes is argued to be another empirical evidence for the validity of the results.

  11. Comparison of five portable peak flow meters

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Glaucia Nency Takara

    2010-01-01

    Full Text Available OBJECTIVE: To compare the measurements of spirometric peak expiratory flow (PEF from five different PEF meters and to determine if their values are in agreement. Inaccurate equipment may result in incorrect diagnoses of asthma and inappropriate treatments. METHODS: Sixty-eight healthy, sedentary and insufficiently active subjects, aged from 19 to 40 years, performed PEF measurements using Air Zone®, Assess®, Galemed®, Personal Best® and Vitalograph® peak flow meters. The highest value recorded for each subject for each device was compared to the corresponding spirometric values using Friedman's test with Dunn's post-hoc (p<0.05, Spearman's correlation test and Bland-Altman's agreement test. RESULTS: The median and interquartile ranges for the spirometric values and the Air Zone®, Assess®, Galemed®, Personal Best® and Vitalograph® meters were 428 (263-688 L/min, 450 (350-800 L/min, 420 (310-720 L/min, 380 (300-735 L/min, 400 (310-685 L/min and 415 (335-610 L/min, respectively. Significant differences were found when the spirometric values were compared to those recorded by the Air Zone® (p<0.001 and Galemed ® (p<0.01 meters. There was no agreement between the spirometric values and the five PEF meters. CONCLUSIONS: The results suggest that the values recorded from Galemed® meters may underestimate the actual value, which could lead to unnecessary interventions, and that Air Zone® meters overestimate spirometric values, which could obfuscate the need for intervention. These findings must be taken into account when interpreting both devices' results in younger people. These differences should also be considered when directly comparing values from different types of PEF meters.

  12. RAMAN SCATTERING BY MOLECULAR HYDROGEN AND NITROGEN IN EXOPLANETARY ATMOSPHERES

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Oklopčić, Antonija [California Institute of Technology, MC 249-17, 1200 East California Boulevard, Pasadena, California 91125 (United States); Hirata, Christopher M. [Center for Cosmology and Astroparticle Physics, Ohio State University, 191 West Woodruff Avenue, Columbus, Ohio 43210 (United States); Heng, Kevin, E-mail: oklopcic@astro.caltech.edu [Center for Space and Habitability, University of Bern, Sidlerstrasse 5, CH-3012, Bern (Switzerland)

    2016-11-20

    An important source of opacity in exoplanet atmospheres at short visible and near-UV wavelengths is Rayleigh scattering of light on molecules. It is accompanied by a related, albeit weaker process—Raman scattering. We analyze the signatures of Raman scattering imprinted in the reflected light and the geometric albedo of exoplanets, which could provide information about atmospheric properties. Raman scattering affects the geometric albedo spectra of planets in the following ways. First, it causes filling-in of strong absorption lines in the incident radiation, thus producing sharp peaks in the albedo. Second, it shifts the wavelengths of spectral features in the reflected light causing the so-called Raman ghost lines. Raman scattering can also cause a broadband reduction of the albedo due to wavelength shifting of a stellar spectrum with red spectral index. Observing the Raman peaks in the albedo could be used to measure the column density of gas, thus providing constraints on the presence of clouds in the atmosphere. Observing the Raman ghost lines could be used to spectroscopically identify the main scatterer in the atmosphere, even molecules like H{sub 2} or N{sub 2}, which do not have prominent spectral signatures in the optical wavelength range. If detected, ghost lines could also provide information about the temperature of the atmosphere. In this paper, we investigate the effects of Raman scattering in hydrogen- and nitrogen-dominated atmospheres. We analyze the feasibility of detecting the signatures of Raman scattering with the existing and future observational facilities, and of using these signatures as probes of exoplanetary atmospheres.

  13. Polymorphism of rs7688672 and rs10033237 in cGKII/PRKG2 and gout susceptibility of Han population in northern China.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Guo, Min; Cheng, Zhifeng; Li, Changgui; Li, Shanshan; Li, Ming; Wang, Mingli; Xu, Jinmei; Tang, Yingying; Wang, Yujing; Qiu, Wenli; Liu, Xiaomin

    2015-05-10

    Gout is a genetic or acquired metabolic disease caused by increase of uric acid synthesis resulted from purine metabolic abnormalities. Whether cGMP-dependent protein kinase 2 (cGKII/PRKG2) is correlated with gout remains controversial. The objective of the present study was to investigate whether there is a correlation between polymorphism of cGKII/PRKG2 and gout susceptibility of Han population in northern China. Four hundred and five male patients with gout in the case group and 429 controls in the control group were collected from the Department of Endocrinology and Metabolic Disease, the Fourth Affiliated Hospital of Harbin Medical University. A case-control study method was used to study the correlation between cGKII/PRKG2 polymorphism rs7688672 and rs10033237 and gout susceptibility. The genotype frequencies of rs7688672 and rs10033237 polymorphisms of cGKII/PRKG2 in the case group and the control group both were in accordance with Hardy-Weinberg equilibrium. There were significant differences of rs10033237 in the allele frequencies and genotype distributions (Pgout. Combined mutation sites AA(*) from rs7688672 and rs10033237 were negatively correlated with gout susceptibility, whereas haplotype GG(*) was positively correlated with gout susceptibility. In conclusion, patients with rs10033237 polymorphism of cGKII/PRKG2 gene are more likely to suffer from gout. With regard to haplotypes of rs10033237 and rs7688672, both AA(*) and GG(*) are related to gout. AA(*) is a gout susceptible gene, whereas GG(*) is a protective gene. Copyright © 2015 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  14. STAT4 rs7574865 G/T and PTPN22 rs2488457 G/C polymorphisms influence the risk of developing juvenile idiopathic arthritis in Han Chinese patients.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Fan, Zhi-Dan; Wang, Fei-Fei; Huang, Hui; Huang, Na; Ma, Hui-Hui; Guo, Yi-Hong; Zhang, Ya-Yuan; Qian, Xiao-Qing; Yu, Hai-Guo

    2015-01-01

    Juvenile idiopathic arthritis (JIA) is a common autoimmune disease characterized by environmental influences along with several predisposing genes in the pathogenesis. The protein tyrosine phosphatase nonreceptor 22 (PTPN22) and signal transducer and activator of transcription factor 4 (STAT4) have been recognized as susceptibility genes for numerous autoimmune diseases. Associations of STAT4 rs7574865 G/T and PTPN22 (rs2488457 G/C and rs2476601 C/T) polymorphisms with JIA have repeatedly been replicated in several Caucasian populations. The aim of this study was to investigate the influence of three polymorphisms mentioned above on the risk of developing JIA in Han Chinese patients. Genotyping was performed on a total of 137 Chinese patients with JIA (JIA group) and 150 sex and age frequency-matched healthy volunteers (Control group). The single-nucleotide polymorphisms (SNP) were determined by using direct sequencing of PCR-amplified products. There were significant differences of PTPN22 rs2488457 G/C and STAT4 rs7574865 G/T polymorphisms between both groups. However, no significant difference was observed in distribution frequencies of PTPN22 rs2476601 polymorphism. The association with the PTPN22 rs2488457 G/C polymorphism remained significant in the stratifications by age at onset, ANA status, splenomegaly, lymphadenectasis and involvement joints. As with the STAT4 rs7574865 G/T polymorphisms, the enthesitis-related arthritis and presence of hepatomegaly had strong effect on the association. Our data strengthen STAT4 rs7574865 G/T and PTPN22 rs2488457 G/C polymorphisms as susceptibility factors for JIA.

  15. STAT4 rs7574865 G/T and PTPN22 rs2488457 G/C polymorphisms influence the risk of developing juvenile idiopathic arthritis in Han Chinese patients.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Zhi-Dan Fan

    Full Text Available Juvenile idiopathic arthritis (JIA is a common autoimmune disease characterized by environmental influences along with several predisposing genes in the pathogenesis. The protein tyrosine phosphatase nonreceptor 22 (PTPN22 and signal transducer and activator of transcription factor 4 (STAT4 have been recognized as susceptibility genes for numerous autoimmune diseases. Associations of STAT4 rs7574865 G/T and PTPN22 (rs2488457 G/C and rs2476601 C/T polymorphisms with JIA have repeatedly been replicated in several Caucasian populations. The aim of this study was to investigate the influence of three polymorphisms mentioned above on the risk of developing JIA in Han Chinese patients. Genotyping was performed on a total of 137 Chinese patients with JIA (JIA group and 150 sex and age frequency-matched healthy volunteers (Control group. The single-nucleotide polymorphisms (SNP were determined by using direct sequencing of PCR-amplified products. There were significant differences of PTPN22 rs2488457 G/C and STAT4 rs7574865 G/T polymorphisms between both groups. However, no significant difference was observed in distribution frequencies of PTPN22 rs2476601 polymorphism. The association with the PTPN22 rs2488457 G/C polymorphism remained significant in the stratifications by age at onset, ANA status, splenomegaly, lymphadenectasis and involvement joints. As with the STAT4 rs7574865 G/T polymorphisms, the enthesitis-related arthritis and presence of hepatomegaly had strong effect on the association. Our data strengthen STAT4 rs7574865 G/T and PTPN22 rs2488457 G/C polymorphisms as susceptibility factors for JIA.

  16. Phonon scattering in graphite

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Wagner, P.

    1976-04-01

    Effects on graphite thermal conductivities due to controlled alterations of the graphite structure by impurity addition, porosity, and neutron irradiation are shown to be consistent with the phonon-scattering formulation 1/l = Σ/sub i equals 1/sup/n/ 1/l/sub i/. Observed temperature effects on these doped and irradiated graphites are also explained by this mechanism

  17. High energy hadron scattering

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Johnson, R.C.

    1980-01-01

    High energy and small momentum transfer 2 'yields' 2 hadronic scattering processes are described in the physical framework of particle exchange. Particle production in high energy collisions is considered with emphasis on the features of inclusive reactions though with some remarks on exclusive processes. (U.K.)

  18. Critical scattering by bubbles

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Fiedler-Ferrari, N.; Nussenzveig, H.M.

    1986-11-01

    We apply the complex angular momentum theory to the problem of the critical scattering of light by spherical cavities in the high frequency limit (permittivity greater than the external media) (e.g, air bubble in water) (M.W.O.) [pt

  19. Radiation scattering techniques

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Edmonds, E.A.

    1986-01-01

    Radiation backscattering techniques are useful when access to an item to be inspected is restricted to one side. These techniques are very sensitive to geometrical effects. Scattering processes and their application to the determination of voids, thickness measuring, well-logging and the use of x-ray fluorescence techniques are discussed. (U.K.)

  20. Scattering theory. 2. ed.

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Friedrich, Harald [Technische Univ. Muenchen, Garching (Germany). Physik-Department

    2016-07-01

    This corrected and updated second edition of ''Scattering Theory'' presents a concise and modern coverage of the subject. In the present treatment, special attention is given to the role played by the long-range behaviour of the projectile-target interaction, and a theory is developed, which is well suited to describe near-threshold bound and continuum states in realistic binary systems such as diatomic molecules or molecular ions. It is motivated by the fact that experimental advances have shifted and broadened the scope of applications where concepts from scattering theory are used, e.g. to the field of ultracold atoms and molecules, which has been experiencing enormous growth in recent years, largely triggered by the successful realization of Bose-Einstein condensates of dilute atomic gases in 1995. The book contains sections on special topics such as near-threshold quantization, quantum reflection, Feshbach resonances and the quantum description of scattering in two dimensions. The level of abstraction is kept as low as at all possible and deeper questions related to the mathematical foundations of scattering theory are passed by. It should be understandable for anyone with a basic knowledge of nonrelativistic quantum mechanics. The book is intended for advanced students and researchers, and it is hoped that it will be useful for theorists and experimentalists alike.

  1. Lepton-nucleon scattering

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Windmolders, R.

    1989-01-01

    In this paper the following topics are reviewed: 1. the structure functions measured in deep inelastic e-N, μ-N and ν-N scattering; 2. nuclear effects on the structure functions; 3. nuclear effects on the fragmentation functions; 4. the spin dependent structure functions and their interpretation in terms of nucleon constituents. (orig./HSI)

  2. Deeply Virtual Neutrino Scattering

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Ales Psaker

    2007-01-01

    We investigate the extension of the deeply virtual Compton scattering process into the weak interaction sector. Standard electromagnetic Compton scattering provides a unique tool for studying hadrons, which is one of the most fascinating frontiers of modern science. In this process the relevant Compton scattering amplitude probes the hadron structure by means of two quark electromagnetic currents. We argue that replacing one of the currents with the weak interaction current can promise a new insight. The paper is organized as follows. In Sec. II we briefly discuss the features of the handbag factorization scheme. We introduce a new set of phenomenological functions, known as generalized parton distributions (GPDs) [1-6], and discuss some of their basic properties in Sec. III. An application of the GPD formalism to the neutrino-induced deeply virtual Compton scattering in the kinematics relevant to future high-intensity neutrino experiments is given in Sec. IV. The cross section results are presented in Sec. V. Finally, in Sec. VI we draw some conclusions and discuss future prospects. Some of the formal results in this paper have appeared in preliminary reports in Refs. [7] and [8], whereas a comprehensive analysis of the weak neutral and weak charged current DVCS reactions in collaboration with W. Melnitchouk and A. Radyushkin has been presented in Ref. [9

  3. Symposium on neutron scattering

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Lehmann, M.S.; Saenger, W.; Hildebrandt, G.; Dachs, H.

    1984-01-01

    Extended abstracts of the named symposium are presented. The first part of this report contains the abstracts of the lectures, the second those of the posters. Topics discussed on the symposium include neutron diffraction and neutron scattering studies in magnetism, solid state chemistry and physics, materials research. Some papers discussing instruments and methods are included too. (GSCH)

  4. Inversion assuming weak scattering

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Xenaki, Angeliki; Gerstoft, Peter; Mosegaard, Klaus

    2013-01-01

    due to the complex nature of the field. A method based on linear inversion is employed to infer information about the statistical properties of the scattering field from the obtained cross-spectral matrix. A synthetic example based on an active high-frequency sonar demonstrates that the proposed...

  5. Atom electron scattering

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Santoso, B.

    1976-01-01

    Green Lippmann-Schwinger functions operator representations, derivation of perturbation method using Green function and atom electron scattering, are discussed. It is concluded that by using complex coordinate places where resonances occur, can be accurately identified. The resonance can be processed further for practical purposes, for example for the separation of atom. (RUW)

  6. Electron Scattering on deuterium

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Platchkov, S.

    1987-01-01

    Selected electron scattering experiments on the deuteron system are discussed. The main advantages of the electromagnetic probe are recalled. The deuteron A(q 2 ) structure function is analyzed and found to be very sensitive to the neutron electric form factor. Electrodisintegration of the deuteron near threshold is presented as evidence for the importance of meson exchange currents in nuclei [fr

  7. Parity violating electron scattering

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    McKeown, R.D.

    1990-01-01

    Previous measurements of parity violation in electron scattering are reviewed with particular emphasis on experimental techniques. Significant progress in the attainment of higher precision is evident in these efforts. These pioneering experiments provide a basis for consideration of a future program of such measurements. In this paper some future plans and possibilities in this field are discussed

  8. Heavy ion elastic scatterings

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Mermaz, M.C.

    1984-01-01

    Diffraction and refraction play an important role in particle elastic scattering. The optical model treats correctly and simultaneously both phenomena but without disentangling them. Semi-classical discussions in terms of trajectories emphasize the refractive aspect due to the real part of the optical potential. The separation due to to R.C. Fuller of the quantal cross section into two components coming from opposite side of the target nucleus allows to understand better the refractive phenomenon and the origin of the observed oscillations in the elastic scattering angular distributions. We shall see that the real part of the potential is responsible of a Coulomb and a nuclear rainbow which allows to determine better the nuclear potential in the interior region near the nuclear surface since the volume absorption eliminates any effect of the real part of the potential for the internal partial scattering waves. Resonance phenomena seen in heavy ion scattering will be discussed in terms of optical model potential and Regge pole analysis. Compound nucleus resonances or quasi-molecular states can be indeed the more correct and fundamental alternative

  9. Multienergy anomalous diffuse scattering

    Czech Academy of Sciences Publication Activity Database

    Kopecký, Miloš; Fábry, Jan; Kub, Jiří; Lausi, A.; Busetto, E.

    2008-01-01

    Roč. 100, č. 19 (2008), 195504/1-195504/4 ISSN 0031-9007 R&D Projects: GA AV ČR IAA100100529 Institutional research plan: CEZ:AV0Z10100523 Keywords : diffuse scattering * x-rays * structure determination Subject RIV: BM - Solid Matter Physics ; Magnetism Impact factor: 7.180, year: 2008

  10. Correlation in atomic scattering

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    McGuire, J.H.

    1987-01-01

    Correlation due to the Coulomb interactions between electrons in many-electron targets colliding with charged particles is formulated, and various approximate probability amplitudes are evaluated. In the limit that the electron-electron, 1/r/sub i//sub j/, correlation interactions are ignored or approximated by central potentials, the independent-electron approximation is obtained. Two types of correlations, or corrections to the independent-electron approximation due to 1/r/sub i//sub j/ terms, are identified: namely, static and scattering correlation. Static correlation is that contained in the asymptotic, e.g., bound-state, wave functions. Scattering correlation, arising from correlation in the scattering operator, is new and is considered in some detail. Expressions for a scattering correlation amplitude, static correlation or rearrangement amplitude, and independent-electron or direct amplitude are derived at high collision velocity and compared. At high velocities the direct and rearrangement amplitudes dominate. At very high velocities, ν, the rearrangement amplitude falls off less rapidly with ν than the direct amplitude which, however, is dominant as electron-electron correlation tends to zero. Comparisons with experimental observations are discussed

  11. Superradiative scattering magnons

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Shrivastava, K.N.

    1980-01-01

    A magnon-photon interaction for the magnetic vector of the electromagnetic wave perpendicular to the direction of magnetization in a ferromagnet is constructed. The magnon part of the interaction is reduced with the use of Bogoliubov transformation. The resulting magnon-photon interaction is found to contain several interesting new radiation effects. The self energy of the magnon is calculated and life times arising from the radiation scattering are predicted. The magnon frequency shift due to the radiation field is found. One of the terms arising from the one-magnon one-photon scattering gives a line width in reasonable agreement with the experimentally measured value of ferromagnetic resonance line width in yttrium iron garnet. Surface magnon scattering is indicated and the contribution of this type of scattering to the radiative line width is discussed. The problem of magnetic superradiance is indicated and it is shown that in anisotropic ferromagnets the emission is proportional to the sqare of the number of magnons and the divergence is considerably minimized. Accordingly the magnetic superradiance emerges as a hyperradiance with much more radiation intensity than in the case of disordered atomic superradiance. (author)

  12. Inelastic magnon scattering

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Robert de Mello Koch

    2017-05-01

    Full Text Available We study the worldsheet S-matrix of a string attached to a D-brane in AdS5×S5. The D-brane is either a giant graviton or a dual giant graviton. In the gauge theory, the operators we consider belong to the su(2|3 sector of the theory. Magnon excitations of open strings can exhibit both elastic (when magnons in the bulk of the string scatter and inelastic (when magnons at the endpoint of an open string participate scattering. Both of these S-matrices are determined (up to an overall phase by the su(2|22 global symmetry of the theory. In this note we study the S-matrix for inelastic scattering. We show that it exhibits poles corresponding to boundstates of bulk and boundary magnons. A crossing equation is derived for the overall phase. It reproduces the crossing equation for maximal giant gravitons, in the appropriate limit. Finally, scattering in the su(2 sector is computed to two loops. This two loop result, which determines the overall phase to two loops, will be useful when a unique solution to the crossing equation is to be selected.

  13. Measurements of spin parameters in p-p elastic scattering at 6 GeV/c

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Linn, S.L.; Perlmutter, A.; Crosbie, E.A.; Ratner, L.G.; Schultz, P.F.; O'Fallon, J.R.; Cameron, P.R.; Crabb, D.G.; Fernow, R.C.; Hansen, P.H.; Krisch, A.D.; Salthouse, A.J.; Sandler, B.; Shima, T.; Terwilliger, K.M.

    1982-01-01

    We measured the differential cross section for proton-proton elastic scattering in 6 GeV/c, with both initial spins oriented normal to the scattering plane. The analyzing power A shows significant structure with a large broad peak reaching about 24% near P/sub perpendicular/ 2 = 1.6 (GeV/c) 2 . The spin-spin correlation parameter A/sub n/n exhibits more dramatic structure, with a small but very sharp peak rising rapidly to about 13% at 90 0 /sub tsc.m./. This sharp peak may be caused by particle-identity effects

  14. Small angle neutron scattering

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Cousin Fabrice

    2015-01-01

    Full Text Available Small Angle Neutron Scattering (SANS is a technique that enables to probe the 3-D structure of materials on a typical size range lying from ∼ 1 nm up to ∼ a few 100 nm, the obtained information being statistically averaged on a sample whose volume is ∼ 1 cm3. This very rich technique enables to make a full structural characterization of a given object of nanometric dimensions (radius of gyration, shape, volume or mass, fractal dimension, specific area… through the determination of the form factor as well as the determination of the way objects are organized within in a continuous media, and therefore to describe interactions between them, through the determination of the structure factor. The specific properties of neutrons (possibility of tuning the scattering intensity by using the isotopic substitution, sensitivity to magnetism, negligible absorption, low energy of the incident neutrons make it particularly interesting in the fields of soft matter, biophysics, magnetic materials and metallurgy. In particular, the contrast variation methods allow to extract some informations that cannot be obtained by any other experimental techniques. This course is divided in two parts. The first one is devoted to the description of the principle of SANS: basics (formalism, coherent scattering/incoherent scattering, notion of elementary scatterer, form factor analysis (I(q→0, Guinier regime, intermediate regime, Porod regime, polydisperse system, structure factor analysis (2nd Virial coefficient, integral equations, characterization of aggregates, and contrast variation methods (how to create contrast in an homogeneous system, matching in ternary systems, extrapolation to zero concentration, Zero Averaged Contrast. It is illustrated by some representative examples. The second one describes the experimental aspects of SANS to guide user in its future experiments: description of SANS spectrometer, resolution of the spectrometer, optimization of

  15. Light scattering reviews 8 radiative transfer and light scattering

    CERN Document Server

    Kokhanovsky, Alexander A

    2013-01-01

    Light scattering review (vol 8) is aimed at the presentation of recent advances in radiative transfer and light scattering optics. The topics to be covered include: scattering of light by irregularly shaped particles suspended in atmosphere (dust, ice crystals), light scattering by particles much larger as compared the wavelength of incident radiation, atmospheric radiative forcing, astrophysical radiative transfer, radiative transfer and optical imaging in biological media, radiative transfer of polarized light, numerical aspects of radiative transfer.

  16. Interatomic potentials from rainbow scattering of keV noble gas atoms under axial surface channeling

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Schueller, A.; Wethekam, S.; Mertens, A.; Maass, K.; Winter, H.; Gaertner, K.

    2005-01-01

    For grazing scattering of keV Ne and Ar atoms from a Ag(1 1 1) and a Cu(1 1 1) surface under axial surface channeling conditions we observe well defined peaks in the angular distributions for scattered projectiles. These peaks can be attributed to 'rainbow-scattering' and are closely related to the geometry of potential energy surfaces which can be approximated by the superposition of continuum potentials along strings of atoms in the surface plane. The dependence of rainbow angles on the scattering geometry provides stringent tests on the scattering potentials. From classical trajectory calculations based on universal (ZBL), adjusted Moliere (O'Connor and Biersack), and individual interatomic potentials we obtain corresponding rainbow angles for comparison with the experimental data. We find good overall agreement with the experiments for a description of trajectories based on adjusted Moliere and individual potentials, whereas the agreement is poorer for potentials with ZBL screening

  17. Norwegian hydropower a valuable peak power source

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Brekke, Hermod

    2010-07-01

    given on a possible increase of the Norwegian hydropower peak power production to meet the growing the European demand for peak power caused by the growing non stationary production from wind mills and ocean energy from waves and sea current. Also building of reversible pump turbine power plants will be discussed even if approximately 10% power will be consumed by loss in the pumping phase compared to direct use of the water from reservoirs. (Author)

  18. Hyperthermal and low-energy Ne{sup +} scattering from Au and Pt surfaces

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Tolstogouzov, A. E-mail: alexander@ipelp.pd.cnr.it; Daolio, S.; Pagura, C

    2001-07-01

    Energy spectra of Ne{sup +} ions scattered off Au and Pt polycrystalline targets at low (200-1400 eV) and hyperthermal (down to 40 eV) energies were studied by mass-resolved ion-scattering spectrometry. Two scattering peaks with presumably different nature were revealed and their characteristics, namely, the relative energy position, the full-width at half-maximum (FWHM) and the normalized intensity, as a function of the primary energy were investigated. One of these peaks, named as the binary collision approximation (BCA)-peak, was interpreted using the BCA model. Another one, the so-called high-energy (HE)-peak, was situated at an energy position near to the primary energy, and we explain its origins in terms of non-binary (collective) interactions.

  19. Thermal-neutron multiple scattering: critical double scattering

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Holm, W.A.

    1976-01-01

    A quantum mechanical formulation for multiple scattering of thermal-neutrons from macroscopic targets is presented and applied to single and double scattering. Critical nuclear scattering from liquids and critical magnetic scattering from ferromagnets are treated in detail in the quasielastic approximation for target systems slightly above their critical points. Numerical estimates are made of the double scattering contribution to the critical magnetic cross section using relevant parameters from actual experiments performed on various ferromagnets. The effect is to alter the usual Lorentzian line shape dependence on neutron wave vector transfer. Comparison with corresponding deviations in line shape resulting from the use of Fisher's modified form of the Ornstein-Zernike spin correlations within the framework of single scattering theory leads to values for the critical exponent eta of the modified correlations which reproduce the effect of double scattering. In addition, it is shown that by restricting the range of applicability of the multiple scattering theory from the outset to critical scattering, Glauber's high energy approximation can be used to provide a much simpler and more powerful description of multiple scattering effects. When sufficiently close to the critical point, it provides a closed form expression for the differential cross section which includes all orders of scattering and has the same form as the single scattering cross section with a modified exponent for the wave vector transfer

  20. FDTD scattered field formulation for scatterers in stratified dispersive media.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Olkkonen, Juuso

    2010-03-01

    We introduce a simple scattered field (SF) technique that enables finite difference time domain (FDTD) modeling of light scattering from dispersive objects residing in stratified dispersive media. The introduced SF technique is verified against the total field scattered field (TFSF) technique. As an application example, we study surface plasmon polariton enhanced light transmission through a 100 nm wide slit in a silver film.

  1. Can You Hear That Peak? Utilization of Auditory and Visual Feedback at Peak Limb Velocity

    Science.gov (United States)

    Loria, Tristan; de Grosbois, John; Tremblay, Luc

    2016-01-01

    Purpose: At rest, the central nervous system combines and integrates multisensory cues to yield an optimal percept. When engaging in action, the relative weighing of sensory modalities has been shown to be altered. Because the timing of peak velocity is the critical moment in some goal-directed movements (e.g., overarm throwing), the current study…

  2. OccuPeak: ChIP-Seq peak calling based on internal background modelling

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    de Boer, Bouke A.; van Duijvenboden, Karel; van den Boogaard, Malou; Christoffels, Vincent M.; Barnett, Phil; Ruijter, Jan M.

    2014-01-01

    ChIP-seq has become a major tool for the genome-wide identification of transcription factor binding or histone modification sites. Most peak-calling algorithms require input control datasets to model the occurrence of background reads to account for local sequencing and GC bias. However, the

  3. The Manuel Lujan Jr. Neutron Scattering Center

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Goldstone, J.A.

    1994-01-01

    High in the northcentral mountains of Los Alamos, New Mexico, is the Manuel Lujan Jr. Neutron Scattering Center (LANSCE), a pulsed-spallation neutron source located at Los Alamos National Laboratory. At LANSCE, neutrons are produced by spallation when a pulsed 800-MeV proton beam impinges on a tungsten target. The proton pulses are provided by a linear accelerator and an associated Proton Storage Ring (PSR), which alters the intensity, time structure, and repetition rate of the pulses. In October 1986, LANSCE was designated a national user facility, with a formal user program initiated in 1988. In July 1989, the LANSCE facility was dedicated as the Manuel Lujan Jr. Neutron Scattering Center in honor of the long-term Congressman from New Mexico. At present, the PSR operates with a proton pulse width of 0.27 μs at 20 Hz and 80 μA, attaining the highest peak neutron flux in the world and close to its goal of 100 μA, which would yield a peak thermal neutron flux of 10 16 n/cm -2 s -1 . This paper discusses the target/moderator/reflector shield system, the LANSCE instruments, the facility improvement projects, and user programs

  4. Ideal Gas Resonance Scattering Kernel Routine for the NJOY Code

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Rothenstein, W.

    1999-01-01

    In a recent publication an expression for the temperature-dependent double-differential ideal gas scattering kernel is derived for the case of scattering cross sections that are energy dependent. Some tabulations and graphical representations of the characteristics of these kernels are presented in Ref. 2. They demonstrate the increased probability that neutron scattering by a heavy nuclide near one of its pronounced resonances will bring the neutron energy nearer to the resonance peak. This enhances upscattering, when a neutron with energy just below that of the resonance peak collides with such a nuclide. A routine for using the new kernel has now been introduced into the NJOY code. Here, its principal features are described, followed by comparisons between scattering data obtained by the new kernel, and the standard ideal gas kernel, when such comparisons are meaningful (i.e., for constant values of the scattering cross section a 0 K). The new ideal gas kernel for variable σ s 0 (E) at 0 K leads to the correct Doppler-broadened σ s T (E) at temperature T

  5. Inelastic scattering of quasifree electrons on O7+ projectiles

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Toth, G.; Grabbe, S.; Richard, P.; Bhalla, C.P.

    1996-01-01

    Absolute doubly differential cross sections (DDCS close-quote s) for the resonant inelastic scattering of quasifree target electrons on H-like projectiles have been measured. Electron spectra for 20.25-MeV O 7+ projectiles on an H 2 target were measured. The spectra contain a resonant contribution from the 3l3l ' doubly excited states of O 6+ , which decay predominantly to the 2l states of the O 7+ via autoionization, and a nonresonant contribution from the direct excitation of the projectiles to the O 7+ (2l) state by the quasifree target electrons. Close-coupling R-matrix calculations for the inelastic scattering of free electrons on O 7+ ions were performed. The relation between the electron-ion inelastic scattering calculation and the electron DDCS close-quote s for the ion-atom collision was established by using the inelastic scattering model (ISM). We found excellent agreement between the theoretical and measured resonant peak positions and relative peak heights. The calculated absolute double differential cross sections for the resonance processes are also in good agreement with the measured data. The implication is that collisions of highly charged ions on hydrogen can be used to obtain high-resolution, angle- resolved differential inelastic electron-scattering cross section. copyright 1996 The American Physical Society

  6. Calculations of the Thermal Scattering Law for Solids and Liquids

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Jarvis, R.G.

    1968-01-01

    a method has been developed, based on the incoherent approximation, to describe scattering in solids and liquids. It deals with molecules which are made up of one or more types of scatterer, such as UO 2 and D 2 O. For each scatterer there is a scattering law S(α, β) = 1/2π ∫ ∞ -∞ exp(-αw(t))exp(iβ)dt in Egelstaff's notation. The width function w(t) corresponds to a 'generalized frequency distribution' p(β) which, in its most complicated form, has five components. The first and second describe sharp peaks (such as the two main vibration levels in D 2 O ), the third and fourth represent broader peaks (such as the combined effects of minor vibration levels and the rotations and translations), the fifth is for diffusion and is omitted for solids. The integral for S is expanded over the vibration terms and then evaluated by a combination of numerical methods and saddle-point integrations. Finally, the S 1 s for the scatterers are combined to give an S for the molecule. (author)

  7. NOISY WEAK-LENSING CONVERGENCE PEAK STATISTICS NEAR CLUSTERS OF GALAXIES AND BEYOND

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Fan Zuhui; Shan Huanyuan; Liu Jiayi

    2010-01-01

    Taking into account noise from intrinsic ellipticities of source galaxies, in this paper, we study the peak statistics in weak-lensing convergence maps around clusters of galaxies and beyond. We emphasize how the noise peak statistics is affected by the density distribution of nearby clusters, and also how cluster-peak signals are changed by the existence of noise. These are the important aspects to be thoroughly understood in weak-lensing analyses for individual clusters as well as in cosmological applications of weak-lensing cluster statistics. We adopt Gaussian smoothing with the smoothing scale θ G = 0.5arcmin in our analyses. It is found that the noise peak distribution near a cluster of galaxies sensitively depends on the density profile of the cluster. For a cored isothermal cluster with the core radius R c , the inner region with R ≤ R c appears noisy containing on average ∼2.4 peaks with ν ≥ 5 for R c = 1.7arcmin and the true peak height of the cluster ν = 5.6, where ν denotes the convergence signal-to-noise ratio. For a Navarro-Frenk-White (NFW) cluster of the same mass and the same central ν, the average number of peaks with ν ≥ 5 within R ≤ R c is ∼1.6. Thus a high peak corresponding to the main cluster can be identified more cleanly in the NFW case. In the outer region with R c c , the number of high noise peaks is considerably enhanced in comparison with that of the pure noise case without the nearby cluster. For ν ≥ 4, depending on the treatment of the mass-sheet degeneracy in weak-lensing analyses, the enhancement factor f is in the range of ∼5 to ∼55 for both clusters as their outer density profiles are similar. The properties of the main-cluster-peak identified in convergence maps are also significantly affected by the presence of noise. Scatters as well as a systematic shift for the peak height are present. The height distribution is peaked at ν ∼ 6.6, rather than at ν = 5.6, corresponding to a shift of Δν ∼ 1

  8. Prediction of iodine activity peak during refuelling

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Hozer, Z.; Vajda, N.

    2001-01-01

    The increase of fission product activities in the primary circuit of a nuclear power plant indicates the existence of defects in some fuel rods. The power change leads to the cooling down of the fuel and results in the fragmentation of the UO 2 pellets, which facilitates the release of fission products from the intergranular regions. Furthermore the injection of boric acid after shutdown will increase the primary activity, due to the solution of deposited fission products from the surface of the core components. The calculation of these phenomena usually is based on the evaluation of activity measurements and power plant data. The estimation of iodine spiking peak during reactor transients is based on correlation with operating parameters, such as reactor power and primary pressure. The approach used in the present method was applied for CANDU reactors. The VVER-440 specific correlations were determined using the activity measurements of the Paks NPP and the data provided by the Russian fuel supplier. The present method is used for the evaluation of the iodine isotopes, as well as the noble gases. A numerical model has been developed for iodine spiking simulation and has been validated against several shutdown transients, measured at Paks NPP. (R.P.)

  9. Fast clustering using adaptive density peak detection.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wang, Xiao-Feng; Xu, Yifan

    2017-12-01

    Common limitations of clustering methods include the slow algorithm convergence, the instability of the pre-specification on a number of intrinsic parameters, and the lack of robustness to outliers. A recent clustering approach proposed a fast search algorithm of cluster centers based on their local densities. However, the selection of the key intrinsic parameters in the algorithm was not systematically investigated. It is relatively difficult to estimate the "optimal" parameters since the original definition of the local density in the algorithm is based on a truncated counting measure. In this paper, we propose a clustering procedure with adaptive density peak detection, where the local density is estimated through the nonparametric multivariate kernel estimation. The model parameter is then able to be calculated from the equations with statistical theoretical justification. We also develop an automatic cluster centroid selection method through maximizing an average silhouette index. The advantage and flexibility of the proposed method are demonstrated through simulation studies and the analysis of a few benchmark gene expression data sets. The method only needs to perform in one single step without any iteration and thus is fast and has a great potential to apply on big data analysis. A user-friendly R package ADPclust is developed for public use.

  10. Electroweak physics and electron scattering

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Henley, E.M.; Hwang, W.Y.P.

    1988-01-01

    The electroweak theory is developed and applied to electron scattering from nucleons and light nuclei. It is shown that these scatterings can be used to test the standard theory and probe structure effects. 33 refs., 5 figs

  11. Regge poles and alpha scattering

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Ceuleneer, R.

    1974-01-01

    The direct Regge pole model as a means of describing resonances in elastic particle scattering has been used for the analysis of the so-called ''anormalous large angle scattering'' of alpha particles by spinless nuclei. (Z.M.)

  12. Electromagnetic scattering from random media

    CERN Document Server

    Field, Timothy R

    2009-01-01

    - ;The book develops the dynamical theory of scattering from random media from first principles. Its key findings are to characterize the time evolution of the scattered field in terms of stochastic differential equations, and to illustrate this framework

  13. Peak center and area estimation in gamma-ray energy spectra using a Mexican-hat wavelet

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Qin, Zhang-jian; Chen, Chuan; Luo, Jun-song; Xie, Xing-hong; Ge, Liang-quan [School of Information Science & Technology, Chengdu University of Technology, Chengdu (China); Wu, Qi-fan [Department of Engineering Physics, Tsinghua University, Beijing (China)

    2017-06-21

    Wavelet analysis is commonly used to detect and localize peaks within a signal, such as in Gamma-ray energy spectra. This paper presents a peak area estimation method based on a new wavelet analysis. Another Mexican Hat Wavelet Signal (MHWS) named after the new MHWS is obtained with the convolution of a Gaussian signal and a MHWS. During the transform, the overlapping background on the Gaussian signal caused by Compton scattering can be subtracted because the impulse response function MHWS is a second-order smooth function, and the amplitude of the maximum within the new MHWS is the net height corresponding to the Gaussian signal height, which can be used to estimate the Gaussian peak area. Moreover, the zero-crossing points within the new MHWS contain the information of the Gaussian variance whose valve should be obtained when the Gaussian peak area is estimated. Further, the new MHWS center is also the Gaussian peak center. With that distinguishing feature, the channel address of a characteristic peak center can be accurately obtained which is very useful in the stabilization of airborne Gamma energy spectra. In particular, a method for determining the correction coefficient k is given, where the peak area is calculated inaccurately because the value of the scale factor in wavelet transform is too small. The simulation and practical applications show the feasibility of the proposed peak center and area estimation method.

  14. Tänavu hüppab börs nagu jänes. Aasta teine pool peaks investoreile rõõmsam olema / Romet Kreek

    Index Scriptorium Estoniae

    Kreek, Romet, 1972-

    2011-01-01

    Aasia maaklerfirma CLSA teeb alates 1992. aastast Hongkongis feng shui rikkuseindeksit, kus püütakse prognoosida, mida on saabunud aastal kuude lõikes Hongkongi börsil oodata ning milliste sektorite käsi võiks teistest paremini käia. Graafik

  15. CONFERENCE: Elastic and diffractive scattering

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    White, Alan

    1989-09-15

    Elastic scattering, when particles appear to 'bounce' off each other, and the related phenomena of diffractive scattering are currently less fashionable than the study of hard scattering processes. However this could change rapidly if unexpected results from the UA4 experiment at the CERN Collider are confirmed and their implications tested. These questions were highlighted at the third 'Blois Workshop' on Elastic and Diffractive Scattering, held early in May on the Evanston campus of Northwestern University, near Chicago.

  16. Association of TNF-α rs1799964 and IL-1β rs16944 polymorphisms with multiple system atrophy in Chinese Han population.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zhou, Xin; Wang, Chunrong; Chen, Zhao; Peng, Yun; Peng, Huirong; Hou, Xuan; Ye, Wei; Qiu, Rong; Xia, Kun; Tang, Beisha; Jiang, Hong

    2018-01-07

    Recent evidence suggested that several single nucleotide polymorphisms (SNPs) of inflammation-related genes (TNF-α rs1799964, IL-1α rs1800587, IL-1β rs16944, IL-8 rs4073, ICAM-1 rs5498) were associated with multiple system atrophy (MSA). Herein, we conducted this case-control study to evaluate the possible correlation between the five SNPs related to inflammation and MSA in Chinese Han population. We recruited 154 sporadic patients with MSA and 223 health controls in this study. All subjects were genotyped for the five SNPs using polymerase chain reaction amplification and Sanger sequencing. TNF-α rs1799964, genotype distribution and minor allele frequency (MAF) showed significant differences between patients and controls, which might illustrate the minor allele C may increase the risk for MSA (genotype, P = 0.006, OR = 1.245, 95% CI = [1.066-1.455]; allele, P = 0.001, OR = 1.887, 95% CI = [1.303-2.733]). For rs16944, patients carrying AA genotype showed a nearly 5-year early age at onset (AAO) than GG genotype (50.52 ± 7.45 years vs. 54.90 ± 7.21 years, P = 0.037). No differences were found in genotype distribution and MAF of the five SNPs between patients with MSA with predominant cerebellar ataxia (MSA-C) and with predominant Parkinsonism (MSA-P). Our study suggests that rs1799964 of TNF-α may act as a risk factor for MSA and the IL-1β rs16944 might be a genetic factor that modifies the AAO in MSA. Moreover, the exact mechanism of neuroinflammatory response in MSA deserves further exploration.

  17. Vad ersätter företagets avbrottsförsäkring?

    OpenAIRE

    Rosenqvist, Felix

    2010-01-01

    I arbetet redogörs för hur en avbrottsförsäkring är uppbyggd och hur ersättningen räknas ut i praktiken. I teoridelen behandlas försäkringshistoria, de frivilliga skadeförsäkringarna och mera djupgående avbrottsförsäkringen. Skadehanteringsprocessen beskrivs också i teoridelen. För att åskådliggöra ämnet har själva resultatredovisnigen förverkligats genom en fiktiv fallstudie. Detta för att göra det enklare för läsaren att förstå hur avbrottsförsäkringen fungerar i praktiken...

  18. ESCADT: a FORTRAN code for computing the positions and areas of x-ray photoelectron spectral peaks

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Cox, L.E.

    1979-09-01

    Program ESCADT uses least-squares-derived convoluting numbers to smooth and differentiate x-ray photoelectron spectra. Peak maxima are located by finding zero crossings of the first derivative and refined using a cubic polynomial fitting procedure. Background points are located using the product of the absolute value of the first derivative and the smoothed ordinate value. Peak areas, using both linear and scattered electron backgrounds, are computed. Spectra are corrected for changes in instrument sensitivity and energy calibration with gold-standard data retrieved from a disk file. Five determinations of the gold 4f peak positions yielded standard deviations of 0.011 and 0.031 eV for the 4f/sub 7/2/ and 4f/sub 5/2/ peaks, respectively. The relative standard deviation for the computed areas was 0.85%

  19. Electron scattering on molecular hydrogen

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Wingerden, B. van.

    1980-01-01

    The author considers scattering phenomena which occur when a beam of electrons interacts with a molecular hydrogen gas of low density. Depending on the energy loss of the scattered electrons one can distinguish elastic scattering, excitation and (auto)ionization of the H 2 -molecule. The latter processes may also lead to dissociation. These processes are investigated in four experiments in increasing detail. (Auth.)

  20. Scattering Of Nonplanar Acoustic Waves

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gillman, Judith M.; Farassat, F.; Myers, M. K.

    1995-01-01

    Report presents theoretical study of scattering of nonplanar acoustic waves by rigid bodies. Study performed as part of effort to develop means of predicting scattering, from aircraft fuselages, of noise made by rotating blades. Basic approach was to model acoustic scattering by use of boundary integral equation to solve equation by the Galerkin method.

  1. Electron scattering for exotic nuclei

    Indian Academy of Sciences (India)

    2014-11-04

    Nov 4, 2014 ... A brand-new electron scattering facility, the SCRIT Electron Scattering Facility, will soon start its operation at RIKEN RI Beam Factory, Japan. This is the world's first electron scattering facility dedicated to the structure studies of short-lived nuclei. The goal of this facility is to determine the charge density ...

  2. Scattering theory and chemical reactions

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Kuppermann, A.

    1988-01-01

    In this course, scattering theory and chemical reactions are presented including scattering of one particle by a potential, n-particle systems, colinear triatomic molecules and the study of reactive scattering for 3-dimensional triatomic systems. (A.C.A.S.) [pt

  3. LANSCE '90: the Manuel Lujan Jr. Neutron Scattering Center

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Pynn, Roger

    1991-01-01

    This paper describes progress that has been made at the Manuel Lujan Jr. Neutron Scattering Center (LANSCE) during the past two years. Presently, LANSCE provides a higher peak neutron flux than any other pulsed spallation neutron source. There are seven spectrometers for neutron scattering experiments that are operated for a national user program sponsored by the U.S. Department of Energy. Two more spectrometers are under construction. Plans have been made to raise the number of beam holes available for instrumentation and to improve the efficiency of the target/moderator system. (author)

  4. Contribution of ultrasound forward scattering to tissue structure study

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Edee, M.K.

    1987-12-01

    In this paper, we show how to get useful information of tissue structure by merely interpreting some experimental graphs such as energy spectral density and autocorrelation function of an ultrasonic beam travelling through tissues. To support these interpretations, we needed just some well-known theorems rather than heavy and complicated mathematical equations, so we measured the dimensions of scatterers within specimens by using the graphical representation of autocorrelation function. We related these measurements to the scattered peaks which appear in energy density spectrum. The values we found were equal to those obtained from biologists within ∼ 15%. (author) 26 refs, 6 figs, tabs

  5. LANSCE '90: The Manuel Lujan Jr. Neutron Scattering Center

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Pynn, R.

    1990-01-01

    This paper describes progress that has been made at the Manuel Lujan Jr. Neutron Scattering Center (LANSCE) during the past two years. Presently, LANSCE provides a higher peak neutron flux than any other pulsed spallation neutron source. There are seven spectrometers for neutron scattering experiments that are operated for a national user program sponsored by the US Department of Energy. Two more spectrometers are under construction. Plans have been made to raise the number of beam holes available for instrumentation and to improve the efficiency of the target/moderator system. 9 refs., 4 figs

  6. The obesity-associated polymorphisms FTO rs9939609 and MC4R rs17782313 and endometrial cancer risk in non-Hispanic white women.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Galina Lurie

    2011-02-01

    Full Text Available Overweight and obesity are strongly associated with endometrial cancer. Several independent genome-wide association studies recently identified two common polymorphisms, FTO rs9939609 and MC4R rs17782313, that are linked to increased body weight and obesity. We examined the association of FTO rs9939609 and MC4R rs17782313 with endometrial cancer risk in a pooled analysis of nine case-control studies within the Epidemiology of Endometrial Cancer Consortium (E2C2. This analysis included 3601 non-Hispanic white women with histologically-confirmed endometrial carcinoma and 5275 frequency-matched controls. Unconditional logistic regression models were used to assess the relation of FTO rs9939609 and MC4R rs17782313 genotypes to the risk of endometrial cancer. Among control women, both the FTO rs9939609 A and MC4R rs17782313 C alleles were associated with a 16% increased risk of being overweight (p = 0.001 and p = 0.004, respectively. In case-control analyses, carriers of the FTO rs9939609 AA genotype were at increased risk of endometrial carcinoma compared to women with the TT genotype [odds ratio (OR  = 1.17; 95% confidence interval (CI: 1.03-1.32, p = 0.01]. However, this association was no longer apparent after adjusting for body mass index (BMI, suggesting mediation of the gene-disease effect through body weight. The MC4R rs17782313 polymorphism was not related to endometrial cancer risk (per allele OR = 0.98; 95% CI: 0.91-1.06; p = 0.68. FTO rs9939609 is a susceptibility marker for white non-Hispanic women at higher risk of endometrial cancer. Although FTO rs9939609 alone might have limited clinical or public health significance for identifying women at high risk for endometrial cancer beyond that of excess body weight, further investigation of obesity-related genetic markers might help to identify the pathways that influence endometrial carcinogenesis.

  7. Deep inelastic scattering

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Zakharov, V.I.

    1977-01-01

    The present status of the quark-parton-gluon picture of deep inelastic scattering is reviewed. The general framework is mostly theoretical and covers investigations since 1970. Predictions of the parton model and of the asymptotically free field theories are compared with experimental data available. The valence quark approximation is concluded to be valid in most cases, but fails to account for the data on the total momentum transfer. On the basis of gluon corrections introduced to the parton model certain predictions concerning both the deep inelastic structure functions and form factors are made. The contributions of gluon exchanges and gluon bremsstrahlung are highlighted. Asymptotic freedom is concluded to be very attractive and provide qualitative explanation to some experimental observations (scaling violations, breaking of the Drell-Yan-West type relations). Lepton-nuclear scattering is pointed out to be helpful in probing the nature of nuclear forces and studying the space-time picture of the parton model

  8. Semiclassical scattering theory

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Di Salvo, A.

    1985-01-01

    It is intended to write the semiclassical scattering amplitude as a sum of terms, each of them being associated to trajectory. First of all the classical equations of motion are studied, considering both the analytical (real and complex) solutions and a certain type of singular solutions, which behave similary to the difracted rays in optics; in particular, in the case of a central nuclear potential, classical effects like rainbow and orbiting and also wave effects like diffraction and direct reflection are singled out. Successively, considering the Debye expansion of the scattering amplitude relative to a central nuclear potential, and evaluating asymptotically each term by means of the saddle point technique, the decay exponents and difraction coefficients relative to such a potential are determined

  9. Stationary scattering theory

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Combes, J.M.

    1980-10-01

    A complementary approach to the time dependent scattering theory for one-body Schroedinger operators is presented. The stationary theory is concerned with objects of quantum theory like scattering waves and amplitudes. In the more recent abstract stationary theory some generalized form of the Lippman-Schwinger equation plays the basic role. Solving this equation leads to a linear map between generalized eigenfunctions of the perturbed and unperturbed operators. This map is the section at fixed energy of the wave-operator from the time dependent theory. Although the radiation condition does not appears explicitely in this formulation it can be shown to hold a posteriori in a variety of situations thus restoring the link with physical theories

  10. Pion nucleus scattering lengths

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Huang, W.T.; Levinson, C.A.; Banerjee, M.K.

    1971-09-01

    Soft pion theory and the Fubini-Furlan mass dispersion relations have been used to analyze the pion nucleon scattering lengths and obtain a value for the sigma commutator term. With this value and using the same principles, scattering lengths have been predicted for nuclei with mass number ranging from 6 to 23. Agreement with experiment is very good. For those who believe in the Gell-Mann-Levy sigma model, the evaluation of the commutator yields the value 0.26(m/sub σ//m/sub π/) 2 for the sigma nucleon coupling constant. The large dispersive corrections for the isosymmetric case implies that the basic idea behind many of the soft pion calculations, namely, slow variation of matrix elements from the soft pion limit to the physical pion mass, is not correct. 11 refs., 1 fig., 3 tabs

  11. Magnetic diffuse scattering

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Cable, J.W.

    1987-01-01

    The diffuse scattering of neutrons from magnetic materials provides unique and important information regarding the spatial correlations of the atoms and the spins. Such measurements have been extensively applied to magnetically ordered systems, such as the ferromagnetic binary alloys, for which the observed correlations describe the magnetic moment fluctuations associated with local environment effects. With the advent of polarization analysis, these techniques are increasingly being applied to study disordered paramagnetic systems such as the spin-glasses and the diluted magnetic semiconductors. The spin-pair correlations obtained are essential in understanding the exchange interactions of such systems. In this paper, we describe recent neutron diffuse scattering results on the atom-pair and spin-pair correlations in some of these disordered magnetic systems. 56 refs

  12. Research Opportunities at Storm Peak Laboratory

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hallar, A. G.; McCubbin, I. B.

    2006-12-01

    The Desert Research Institute (DRI) operates a high elevation facility, Storm Peak Laboratory (SPL), located on the west summit of Mt. Werner in the Park Range near Steamboat Springs, Colorado at an elevation of 3210 m MSL (Borys and Wetzel, 1997). SPL provides an ideal location for long-term research on the interactions of atmospheric aerosol and gas- phase chemistry with cloud and natural radiation environments. The ridge-top location produces almost daily transition from free tropospheric to boundary layer air which occurs near midday in both summer and winter seasons. Long-term observations at SPL document the role of orographically induced mixing and convection on vertical pollutant transport and dispersion. During winter, SPL is above cloud base 25% of the time, providing a unique capability for studying aerosol-cloud interactions (Borys and Wetzel, 1997). A comprehensive set of continuous aerosol measurements was initiated at SPL in 2002. SPL includes an office-type laboratory room for computer and instrumentation setup with outside air ports and cable access to the roof deck, a cold room for precipitation and cloud rime ice sample handling and ice crystal microphotography, a 150 m2 roof deck area for outside sampling equipment, a full kitchen and two bunk rooms with sleeping space for nine persons. The laboratory is currently well equipped for aerosol and cloud measurements. Particles are sampled from an insulated, 15 cm diameter manifold within approximately 1 m of its horizontal entry point through an outside wall. The 4 m high vertical section outside the building is capped with an inverted can to exclude large particles.

  13. Peak MSC—Are We There Yet?

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Timothy R. Olsen

    2018-06-01

    Full Text Available Human mesenchymal stem cells (hMSCs are a critical raw material for many regenerative medicine products, including cell-based therapies, engineered tissues, or combination products, and are on the brink of radically changing how the world of medicine operates. Their unique characteristics, potential to treat many indications, and established safety profile in more than 800 clinical trials have contributed to their current consumption and will only fuel future demand. Given the large target patient populations with typical dose sizes of 10's to 100's of millions of cells per patient, and engineered tissues being constructed with 100's of millions to billions of cells, an unprecedented demand has been created for hMSCs. The fulfillment of this demand faces an uphill challenge in the limited availability of large quantities of pharmaceutical grade hMSCs for the industry—fueling the need for parallel rapid advancements in the biomanufacturing of this living critical raw material. Simply put, hMSCs are no different than technologies like transistors, as they are a highly technical and modular product that requires stringent control over manufacturing that can allow for high quality and consistent performance. As hMSC manufacturing processes are optimized, it predicts a future time of abundance for hMSCs, where scientists and researchers around the world will have access to a consistent and readily available supply of high quality, standardized, and economical pharmaceutical grade product to buy off the shelf for their applications and drive product development—this is “Peak MSC.”

  14. Scattering of charged particles

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Barrachina, R.O.; Macek, J.H.

    1989-01-01

    Different methods of avoiding the known difficulties of the Coulomb potential scattering theory are reviewed. Mulherin and Zinnes' [J. Math. Phys. 11, 1402 (1976)] ''distorted'' free waves and van Haeringen's [J. Math. Phys. 17, 995 (1976)] Coulomb asymptotic states are considered. The equivalence of both approaches on the energy shell is shown. Actually the possibility of deriving the first method within van Haeringen's formalism by means of a distorted wave procedure is demonstrated

  15. Molecular-beam scattering

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Vernon, M.F.

    1983-07-01

    The molecular-beam technique has been used in three different experimental arrangements to study a wide range of inter-atomic and molecular forces. Chapter 1 reports results of a low-energy (0.2 kcal/mole) elastic-scattering study of the He-Ar pair potential. The purpose of the study was to accurately characterize the shape of the potential in the well region, by scattering slow He atoms produced by expanding a mixture of He in N 2 from a cooled nozzle. Chapter 2 contains measurements of the vibrational predissociation spectra and product translational energy for clusters of water, benzene, and ammonia. The experiments show that most of the product energy remains in the internal molecular motions. Chapter 3 presents measurements of the reaction Na + HCl → NaCl + H at collision energies of 5.38 and 19.4 kcal/mole. This is the first study to resolve both scattering angle and velocity for the reaction of a short lived (16 nsec) electronic excited state. Descriptions are given of computer programs written to analyze molecular-beam expansions to extract information characterizing their velocity distributions, and to calculate accurate laboratory elastic-scattering differential cross sections accounting for the finite apparatus resolution. Experimental results which attempted to determine the efficiency of optically pumping the Li(2 2 P/sub 3/2/) and Na(3 2 P/sub 3/2/) excited states are given. A simple three-level model for predicting the steady-state fraction of atoms in the excited state is included

  16. Analytic nuclear scattering theories

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Di Marzio, F.; University of Melbourne, Parkville, VIC

    1999-01-01

    A wide range of nuclear reactions are examined in an analytical version of the usual distorted wave Born approximation. This new approach provides either semi analytic or fully analytic descriptions of the nuclear scattering processes. The resulting computational simplifications, when used within the limits of validity, allow very detailed tests of both nuclear interaction models as well as large basis models of nuclear structure to be performed

  17. Polarimetric neutron scattering

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Tasset, F.

    2001-01-01

    Polarimetric Neutron Scattering in introduced, both by, explaining methodological issues and the corresponding instrumental developments. After a short overview of neutron spin polarization and the neutron polarization 3d-vector a pictorial approach of the microscopic theory is used to show how a polarized beam interacts with lattice and magnetic Fourier components in a crystal. Examples are given of using Spherical Neutron Polarimetry (SNP) and the corresponding Cryopad polarimeter for the investigation of non-collinear magnetic structures. (R.P.)

  18. Means on scattered compacta

    Czech Academy of Sciences Publication Activity Database

    Banakh, T.; Bonnet, R.; Kubiś, Wieslaw

    2014-01-01

    Roč. 2, č. 1 (2014), s. 5-10 ISSN 2299-3231 R&D Projects: GA ČR(CZ) GAP201/12/0290 Institutional support: RVO:67985840 Keywords : scattered compact space * mean operation Subject RIV: BA - General Mathematics http://www.degruyter.com/view/j/taa.2014.2.issue-1/taa-2014-0002/taa-2014-0002.xml

  19. Neutron scattering in Australia

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Knott, R.B.

    1994-01-01

    Neutron scattering techniques have been part of the Australian scientific research community for the past three decades. The High Flux Australian Reactor (HIFAR) is a multi-use facility of modest performance that provides the only neutron source in the country suitable for neutron scattering. The limitations of HIFAR have been recognized and recently a Government initiated inquiry sought to evaluate the future needs of a neutron source. In essence, the inquiry suggested that a delay of several years would enable a number of key issues to be resolved, and therefore a more appropriate decision made. In the meantime, use of the present source is being optimized, and where necessary research is being undertaken at major overseas neutron facilities either on a formal or informal basis. Australia has, at present, a formal agreement with the Rutherford Appleton Laboratory (UK) for access to the spallation source ISIS. Various aspects of neutron scattering have been implemented on HIFAR, including investigations of the structure of biological relevant molecules. One aspect of these investigations will be presented. Preliminary results from a study of the interaction of the immunosuppressant drug, cyclosporin-A, with reconstituted membranes suggest that the hydrophobic drug interdigitated with lipid chains

  20. Neutron scattering in Australia

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Knott, R.B. [Australian Nuclear Science and Technology Organisation, Menai (Australia)

    1994-12-31

    Neutron scattering techniques have been part of the Australian scientific research community for the past three decades. The High Flux Australian Reactor (HIFAR) is a multi-use facility of modest performance that provides the only neutron source in the country suitable for neutron scattering. The limitations of HIFAR have been recognized and recently a Government initiated inquiry sought to evaluate the future needs of a neutron source. In essence, the inquiry suggested that a delay of several years would enable a number of key issues to be resolved, and therefore a more appropriate decision made. In the meantime, use of the present source is being optimized, and where necessary research is being undertaken at major overseas neutron facilities either on a formal or informal basis. Australia has, at present, a formal agreement with the Rutherford Appleton Laboratory (UK) for access to the spallation source ISIS. Various aspects of neutron scattering have been implemented on HIFAR, including investigations of the structure of biological relevant molecules. One aspect of these investigations will be presented. Preliminary results from a study of the interaction of the immunosuppressant drug, cyclosporin-A, with reconstituted membranes suggest that the hydrophobic drug interdigitated with lipid chains.

  1. Basic scattering theory

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Queen, N.M.

    1978-01-01

    This series of lectures on basic scattering theory were given as part of a course for postgraduate high energy physicists and were designed to acquaint the student with some of the basic language and formalism used for the phenomenological description of nuclear reactions and decay processes used for the study of elementary particle interactions. Well established and model independent aspects of scattering theory, which are the basis of S-matrix theory, are considered. The subject is considered under the following headings; the S-matrix, cross sections and decay rates, phase space, relativistic kinematics, the Mandelstam variables, the flux factor, two-body phase space, Dalitz plots, other kinematic plots, two-particle reactions, unitarity, the partial-wave expansion, resonances (single-channel case), multi-channel resonances, analyticity and crossing, dispersion relations, the one-particle exchange model, the density matrix, mathematical properties of the density matrix, the density matrix in scattering processes, the density matrix in decay processes, and the helicity formalism. Some exercises for the students are included. (U.K.)

  2. pp-elastic scattering

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Aprile, E; Cantale, G; Degli-Agosti, S; Hausammann, R; Heer, E; Hess, R; Lechanoine-LeLuc, C; Leo, W; Morenzoni, S; Onel, Y [Geneva Univ. (Switzerland). Dept. de Physique Nucleaire et Corpusculaire

    1983-01-01

    The aim of the elastic pp experimental program at SIN was to measure enough spin dependent parameters in order to do a direct experimental reconstruction of the elastic scattering amplitudes at a few energies between 400 and 600 MeV and at several angles between 38/sup 0/ cm and 90/sup 0/ cm. This reconstruction was not possible until recently due to lack of experimental data. Information instead has come mainly from phase shift analysis (PSA). The only way to extract the elastic scattering amplitudes without any hypotheses except those of basic symmetries, is to measure a sufficient set of spin dependent parameters at a given angle and energy. With this in view, the authors have measured at 448, 494, 515, 536 and 579 MeV, the polarization, the spin correlation parameters Asub(00nn), Asub(00ss), Asub(00kk), Asub(00ks), the 2-spin parameters Dsub(n0n0), Ksub(n00n), Dsub(s'0s0), Dsub(s'0k0) and the 3-spin parameters Msub(s'0sn), Msub(s'0kn) between 34/sup 0/ cm and 118/sup 0/ cm. A few of these parameters have also been measured at 560 and 470 MeV and at a few energies below 448 MeV. The indices refer to the polarization orientation of the scattered, recoil, beam and target particle respectively.

  3. Associations of Bcl-2 rs956572 genotype groups in the structural covariance network in early-stage Alzheimer's disease.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chang, Chiung-Chih; Chang, Ya-Ting; Huang, Chi-Wei; Tsai, Shih-Jen; Hsu, Shih-Wei; Huang, Shu-Hua; Lee, Chen-Chang; Chang, Wen-Neng; Lui, Chun-Chung; Lien, Chia-Yi

    2018-02-08

    Alzheimer's disease (AD) is a complex neurodegenerative disease, and genetic differences may mediate neuronal degeneration. In humans, a single-nucleotide polymorphism in the B-cell chronic lymphocytic leukemia/lymphoma-2 (Bcl-2) gene, rs956572, has been found to significantly modulate Bcl-2 protein expression in the brain. The Bcl-2 AA genotype has been associated with reduced Bcl-2 levels and lower gray matter volume in healthy populations. We hypothesized that different Bcl-2 genotype groups may modulate large-scale brain networks that determine neurobehavioral test scores. Gray matter structural covariance networks (SCNs) were constructed in 104 patients with AD using T1-weighted magnetic resonance imaging with seed-based correlation analysis. The patients were stratified into two genotype groups on the basis of Bcl-2 expression (G carriers, n = 76; A homozygotes, n = 28). Four SCNs characteristic of AD were constructed from seeds in the default mode network, salience network, and executive control network, and cognitive test scores served as the major outcome factor. For the G carriers, influences of the SCNs were observed mostly in the default mode network, of which the peak clusters anchored by the posterior cingulate cortex seed determined the cognitive test scores. In contrast, genetic influences in the A homozygotes were found mainly in the executive control network, and both the dorsolateral prefrontal cortex seed and the interconnected peak clusters were correlated with the clinical scores. Despite a small number of cases, the A homozygotes showed greater covariance strength than the G carriers among all four SCNs. Our results suggest that the Bcl-2 rs956572 polymorphism is associated with different strengths of structural covariance in AD that determine clinical outcomes. The greater covariance strength in the four SCNs shown in the A homozygotes suggests that different Bcl-2 polymorphisms play different modulatory roles.

  4. Neutron scattering by normal liquids

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Gennes, P.G. de [Commissariat a l' Energie Atomique, Saclay (France). Centre d' Etudes Nucleaires

    1961-07-01

    Neutron data on motions in normal liquids well below critical point are reviewed and classified according to the order of magnitude of momentum transfers {Dirac_h}q and energy transfers {Dirac_h}w. For large momentum transfers a perfect gas model is valid. For smaller q and incoherent scattering, the major effects are related to the existence of two characteristic times: the period of oscillation of an atom in its cell, and the average lifetime of the atom in a definite cell. Various interpolation schemes covering both time scales are discussed. For coherent scattering and intermediate q, the energy spread is expected to show a minimum whenever q corresponds to a diffraction peak. For very small q the standard macroscopic description of density fluctuations is applicable. The limits of the various (q) and (w) domains and the validity of various approximations are discussed by a method of moments. The possibility of observing discrete transitions due to internal degrees of freedom in polyatomic molecules, in spite of the 'Doppler width' caused by translational motions, is also examined. (author) [French] L'auteur examine les donnees neutroniques sur les mouvements dans les liquides normaux, bien au-dessous du point critique, et les classe d'apres l'ordre de grandeur des transferts de quantite de mouvement {Dirac_h}q et des transferts d'energie {Dirac_h}w. Pour les grands transferts de, quantite de mouvement, un modele de gaz parfait est valable. En ce qui concerne les faibles valeurs de q et la diffussion incoherente, les principaux effets sont lies a l'existence de deux temps caracteristiques: la periode d'oscillation d'un atome dans sa cellule et la duree moyenne de vie de l'atome dans une cellule determinee. L'auteur etudie divers systemes d'interpolation se rapportant aux deux echelles de temps. Pour la diffusion coherente et les valeurs intermediaires de q, on presume que le spectre d'energie accuse un minimum chaque fois que q correspond a un pic de

  5. Peak-valley-peak pattern of histone modifications delineates active regulatory elements and their directionality

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Pundhir, Sachin; Bagger, Frederik Otzen; Lauridsen, Felicia Kathrine Bratt

    2016-01-01

    Formation of nucleosome free region (NFR) accompanied by specific histone modifications at flanking nucleosomes is an important prerequisite for enhancer and promoter activity. Due to this process, active regulatory elements often exhibit a distinct shape of histone signal in the form of a peak......-valley-peak (PVP) pattern. However, different features of PVP patterns and their robustness in predicting active regulatory elements have never been systematically analyzed. Here, we present PARE, a novel computational method that systematically analyzes the H3K4me1 or H3K4me3 PVP patterns to predict NFRs. We show...... four ENCODE cell lines and four hematopoietic differentiation stages, we identified several enhancers whose regulatory activity is stage specific and correlates positively with the expression of proximal genes in a particular stage. In conclusion, our results demonstrate that PVP patterns delineate...

  6. Diffuse scattering in Ih ice

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Wehinger, Björn; Krisch, Michael; Bosak, Alexeï; Chernyshov, Dmitry; Bulat, Sergey; Ezhov, Victor

    2014-01-01

    Single crystals of ice Ih, extracted from the subglacial Lake Vostok accretion ice layer (3621 m depth) were investigated by means of diffuse x-ray scattering and inelastic x-ray scattering. The diffuse scattering was identified as mainly inelastic and rationalized in the frame of ab initio calculations for the ordered ice XI approximant. Together with Monte-Carlo modelling, our data allowed reconsidering previously available neutron diffuse scattering data of heavy ice as the sum of thermal diffuse scattering and static disorder contribution. (paper)

  7. Scattering of intermediate energy protons

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Chaumeaux, Alain.

    1980-06-01

    The scattering of 1 GeV protons appears to be a powerful means of investigating nuclear matter. We worked with SPESI and the formalism of Kerman-Mc Manus and Thaler. The amplitude of nucleon-nucleon scattering was studied as were the aspects of 1 GeV proton scattering (multiple scattering, absorption, spin-orbit coupling, N-N amplitude, KMT-Glauber comparison, second order effects). The results of proton scattering on 16 O, the isotopes of calcium, 58 Ni, 90 Zr and 208 Pb are given [fr

  8. Gamma radiation of quartz from Entre Rios (SC) and QuaraÍ (RS)

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Enokihara, Cyro T.; Rela, Paulo R.; Schultz-Güttler, Rainer A.

    2017-01-01

    The availability of gamma ray irradiators in Brazil increased the possibilities of treatments of gemstones for color enhancements. One of the minerals with a very high potential of these treatments is quartz, a very widespread mineral with many colored commercial varieties. A specific variety of quartz showing a green color in nature or induced artificially by radiation gamma ( 60 Co) is quite rare. In Brazil the widely scattered geode occurrences along a 600 km stretch from Quaraí at Brazil southernmost tip to Uberlandia in Minas Gerais is one of these. Quartz from these occurrences have been formed by strong hydrothermal activities. That way much quartz crystals showed a very fast growth history facilitating the formation of growth defects and the uptake of water in form of micro inclusions, molecular water, silanol (Si-OH) and OH. In the present work the material analyzed is from hydrothermal regimes located near the towns Entre Rios (SC) and Quaraí (RS). To characterize these materials analyses have been made by ICP, NAA, electron microscopy, water loss techniques and UV-VIS and NIR-FTIR spectroscopic measurements. Silanol complexes are found, which by radiation due to gamma rays form the color center NBOHC (Non-Bonding Oxygen Hole Center), showing absorption between 590 to 620 nm and leaving a transmission window at about 550nm, responsible for the green color. The spectroscopic water determination showed less molecular water (up to 2300 ppm by weight), probably due to remaining silanol complexes.The water content with up to 3200 ppm by weight exceeds the amount of charge balancing cations (Fe, Al, Li). (author)

  9. Gamma radiation of quartz from Entre Rios (SC) and QuaraÍ (RS)

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Enokihara, Cyro T.; Rela, Paulo R., E-mail: cteiti@ipen.br, E-mail: prela06@yahoo.com.br [Instituto de Pesquisas Energéticas e Nucleares (IPEN/CNEN-SP), São Paulo, SP (Brazil); Schultz-Güttler, Rainer A., E-mail: rainersgut@gmail.com [Universidade de Sao Paulo (USP), Sao Paulo, SP (Brazil). Instituto de Geociências

    2017-07-01

    The availability of gamma ray irradiators in Brazil increased the possibilities of treatments of gemstones for color enhancements. One of the minerals with a very high potential of these treatments is quartz, a very widespread mineral with many colored commercial varieties. A specific variety of quartz showing a green color in nature or induced artificially by radiation gamma ({sup 60}Co) is quite rare. In Brazil the widely scattered geode occurrences along a 600 km stretch from Quaraí at Brazil southernmost tip to Uberlandia in Minas Gerais is one of these. Quartz from these occurrences have been formed by strong hydrothermal activities. That way much quartz crystals showed a very fast growth history facilitating the formation of growth defects and the uptake of water in form of micro inclusions, molecular water, silanol (Si-OH) and OH. In the present work the material analyzed is from hydrothermal regimes located near the towns Entre Rios (SC) and Quaraí (RS). To characterize these materials analyses have been made by ICP, NAA, electron microscopy, water loss techniques and UV-VIS and NIR-FTIR spectroscopic measurements. Silanol complexes are found, which by radiation due to gamma rays form the color center NBOHC (Non-Bonding Oxygen Hole Center), showing absorption between 590 to 620 nm and leaving a transmission window at about 550nm, responsible for the green color. The spectroscopic water determination showed less molecular water (up to 2300 ppm by weight), probably due to remaining silanol complexes.The water content with up to 3200 ppm by weight exceeds the amount of charge balancing cations (Fe, Al, Li). (author)

  10. Gravitational scattering of electromagnetic radiation

    Science.gov (United States)

    Brooker, J. T.; Janis, A. I.

    1980-01-01

    The scattering of electromagnetic radiation by linearized gravitational fields is studied to second order in a perturbation expansion. The incoming electromagnetic radiation can be of arbitrary multipole structure, and the gravitational fields are also taken to be advanced fields of arbitrary multipole structure. All electromagnetic multipole radiation is found to be scattered by gravitational monopole and time-varying dipole fields. No case has been found, however, in which any electromagnetic multipole radiation is scattered by gravitational fields of quadrupole or higher-order multipole structure. This lack of scattering is established for infinite classes of special cases, and is conjectured to hold in general. The results of the scattering analysis are applied to the case of electromagnetic radiation scattered by a moving mass. It is shown how the mass and velocity may be determined by a knowledge of the incident and scattered radiation.

  11. Some results on inverse scattering

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Ramm, A.G.

    2008-01-01

    A review of some of the author's results in the area of inverse scattering is given. The following topics are discussed: (1) Property C and applications, (2) Stable inversion of fixed-energy 3D scattering data and its error estimate, (3) Inverse scattering with 'incomplete' data, (4) Inverse scattering for inhomogeneous Schroedinger equation, (5) Krein's inverse scattering method, (6) Invertibility of the steps in Gel'fand-Levitan, Marchenko, and Krein inversion methods, (7) The Newton-Sabatier and Cox-Thompson procedures are not inversion methods, (8) Resonances: existence, location, perturbation theory, (9) Born inversion as an ill-posed problem, (10) Inverse obstacle scattering with fixed-frequency data, (11) Inverse scattering with data at a fixed energy and a fixed incident direction, (12) Creating materials with a desired refraction coefficient and wave-focusing properties. (author)

  12. A Combination of CD28 (rs1980422 and IRF5 (rs10488631 Polymorphisms Is Associated with Seropositivity in Rheumatoid Arthritis: A Case Control Study.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Lucia Vernerova

    Full Text Available The aim of the study was to analyse genetic architecture of RA by utilizing multiparametric statistical methods such as linear discriminant analysis (LDA and redundancy analysis (RDA.A total of 1393 volunteers, 499 patients with RA and 894 healthy controls were included in the study. The presence of shared epitope (SE in HLA-DRB1 and 11 SNPs (PTPN22 C/T (rs2476601, STAT4 G/T (rs7574865, CTLA4 A/G (rs3087243, TRAF1/C5 A/G (rs3761847, IRF5 T/C (rs10488631, TNFAIP3 C/T (rs5029937, AFF3 A/T (rs11676922, PADI4 C/T (rs2240340, CD28 T/C (rs1980422, CSK G/A (rs34933034 and FCGR3A A/C (rs396991, rheumatoid factor (RF, anti-citrullinated protein antibodies (ACPA and clinical status was analysed using the LDA and RDA.HLA-DRB1, PTPN22, STAT4, IRF5 and PADI4 significantly discriminated between RA patients and healthy controls in LDA. The correlation between RA diagnosis and the explanatory variables in the model was 0.328 (Trace = 0.107; F = 13.715; P = 0.0002. The risk variants of IRF5 and CD28 genes were found to be common determinants for seropositivity in RDA, while positivity of RF alone was associated with the CTLA4 risk variant in heterozygous form. The correlation between serologic status and genetic determinants on the 1st ordinal axis was 0.468, and 0.145 on the 2nd one (Trace = 0.179; F = 6.135; P = 0.001. The risk alleles in AFF3 gene together with the presence of ACPA were associated with higher clinical severity of RA.The association among multiple risk variants related to T cell receptor signalling with seropositivity may play an important role in distinct clinical phenotypes of RA. Our study demonstrates that multiparametric analyses represent a powerful tool for investigation of mutual relationships of potential risk factors in complex diseases such as RA.

  13. A Combination of CD28 (rs1980422) and IRF5 (rs10488631) Polymorphisms Is Associated with Seropositivity in Rheumatoid Arthritis: A Case Control Study.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Vernerova, Lucia; Spoutil, Frantisek; Vlcek, Miroslav; Krskova, Katarina; Penesova, Adela; Meskova, Milada; Marko, Andrea; Raslova, Katarina; Vohnout, Branislav; Rovensky, Jozef; Killinger, Zdenko; Jochmanova, Ivana; Lazurova, Ivica; Steiner, Guenter; Smolen, Josef; Imrich, Richard

    2016-01-01

    The aim of the study was to analyse genetic architecture of RA by utilizing multiparametric statistical methods such as linear discriminant analysis (LDA) and redundancy analysis (RDA). A total of 1393 volunteers, 499 patients with RA and 894 healthy controls were included in the study. The presence of shared epitope (SE) in HLA-DRB1 and 11 SNPs (PTPN22 C/T (rs2476601), STAT4 G/T (rs7574865), CTLA4 A/G (rs3087243), TRAF1/C5 A/G (rs3761847), IRF5 T/C (rs10488631), TNFAIP3 C/T (rs5029937), AFF3 A/T (rs11676922), PADI4 C/T (rs2240340), CD28 T/C (rs1980422), CSK G/A (rs34933034) and FCGR3A A/C (rs396991), rheumatoid factor (RF), anti-citrullinated protein antibodies (ACPA) and clinical status was analysed using the LDA and RDA. HLA-DRB1, PTPN22, STAT4, IRF5 and PADI4 significantly discriminated between RA patients and healthy controls in LDA. The correlation between RA diagnosis and the explanatory variables in the model was 0.328 (Trace = 0.107; F = 13.715; P = 0.0002). The risk variants of IRF5 and CD28 genes were found to be common determinants for seropositivity in RDA, while positivity of RF alone was associated with the CTLA4 risk variant in heterozygous form. The correlation between serologic status and genetic determinants on the 1st ordinal axis was 0.468, and 0.145 on the 2nd one (Trace = 0.179; F = 6.135; P = 0.001). The risk alleles in AFF3 gene together with the presence of ACPA were associated with higher clinical severity of RA. The association among multiple risk variants related to T cell receptor signalling with seropositivity may play an important role in distinct clinical phenotypes of RA. Our study demonstrates that multiparametric analyses represent a powerful tool for investigation of mutual relationships of potential risk factors in complex diseases such as RA.

  14. A FDTD solution of scattering of laser beam with orbital angular momentum by dielectric particles: Far-field characteristics

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sun, Wenbo; Hu, Yongxiang; Weimer, Carl; Ayers, Kirk; Baize, Rosemary R.; Lee, Tsengdar

    2017-02-01

    Electromagnetic (EM) beams with orbital angular momentum (OAM) may have great potential applications in communication technology and in remote sensing of the Earth-atmosphere system and outer planets. Study of their interaction with optical lenses and dielectric or metallic objects, or scattering of them by particles in the Earth-atmosphere system, is a necessary step to explore the advantage of the OAM EM beams. In this study, the 3-dimensional (3D) scattered-field (SF) finite-difference time domain (FDTD) technique with the convolutional perfectly matched layer (CPML) absorbing boundary conditions (ABC) is applied to calculate the scattering of the purely azimuthal (the radial mode number is assumed to be zero) Laguerre-Gaussian (LG) beams with the OAM by dielectric particles. We found that for OAM beam's interaction with dielectric particles, the forward-scattering peak in the conventional phase function (P11) disappears, and light scattering peak occurs at a scattering angle of 15° to 45°. The disappearance of forward-scattering peak means that, in laser communications most of the particle-scattered noise cannot enter the receiver, thus the received light is optimally the original OAM-encoded signal. This feature of the OAM beam also implies that in lidar remote sensing of the atmospheric particulates, most of the multiple-scattering energy will be off lidar sensors, and this may result in an accurate profiling of particle layers in the atmosphere or in the oceans by lidar, or even in the ground when a ground penetration radar (GPR) with the OAM is applied. This far-field characteristics of the scattered OAM light also imply that the optical theorem, which is derived from plane-parallel wave scattering case and relates the forward scattering amplitude to the total cross section of the scatterer, is invalid for the scattering of OAM beams by dielectric particles.

  15. Spectral analysis of scattered light from flowers' petals

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ozawa, Atsumi; Uehara, Tomomi; Sekiguchi, Fumihiko; Imai, Hajime

    2009-07-01

    A new method was developed for studying absorption characteristics of opaque samples based on the light scattering spectroscopy. Measurements were made in white, red and violet petals of Petunia hybrida, and gave the absorption spectra in a non-destructive manner without damaging the cell structures of the petal. The red petal has absorption peak at 550 nm and the violet has three absorption peaks: at 450, 670, and 550 nm. The results were discussed in correlation with the microscopic cell structures of the petal observed with optical microscope and transmission electron microscopy (TEM). Only the cells placed in the surface have the pigments giving the color of the petal.

  16. Characteristic of 120 degree C thermoluminescence peak of iceland spar

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Lu Xinwei; Han Jia

    2006-01-01

    The basic characteristic of 120 degree C thermoluminescence peak of iceland spar was studied. The experimental result indicates the longevity of 120 degree C thermoluminescence peak of iceland spar is about 2 h under 30 degree C. The thermoluminescence peak moves to the high temperature when the heating speed increasing. The intensity of 120 degree C thermoluminescence peak of iceland spar is directly proportional to radiation dose under 15 Gy. (authors)

  17. RsComm User Manual. Data system for the control of continuous recording measuring instruments (monitors); RsComm brukermanual. Datasystem for kontroll av kontinuerlig registrerende maaleinstrumenter (monitorer)

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Marsteen, L.

    1996-02-01

    Norwegian Institute for Air Research (NILU) has, as a part of the quality control systems, developed an automatic system of data recording. This report describes the installation and use of the RsComm software. Using RsComm and a NILU data recorder it is possible to run system tests on air quality analyzers via a telephone line. Test reports are generated. 17 figs.

  18. Polymorphisms of transforming growth factor beta 1 (RS#1800468 and RS#1800471) and esophageal squamous cell carcinoma among Zhuangese population, China.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tang, Ren-Guang; Huang, Yong-Zhi; Yao, Li-Min; Xiao, Jian; Lu, Chuan; Yu, Qian

    2013-01-01

    Epidemiological evidence has shown two polymorphisms (namely RS#1800468G>A and RS#1800471G>C) of transforming growth factor-beta 1 (TGF-β1) gene may be involved in the cancer development. However, their role in the carcinogenic process of esophageal squamous cell carcinoma (ESCC) has been less well elaborated. We conducted a hospital-based case-control study including 391 ESCC cases and 508 controls without any evidence of tumors to evaluate the association between these two polymorphisms and ESCC risk and prognosis for Zhuangese population by means of polymerase chain reaction-restriction fragment length polymorphism (PCR-RFLP) and amplification refractory mutation system (ARMS)-PCR techniques. We found that individuals with the genotypes with RS#1800471 C allele (namely RS#1800471-GC or -CC) had an increased risk of ESCC than those without above genotypes (namely RS#1800471-GG, adjusted odds ratio 3.26 and 5.65, respectively). Further stratification analysis showed that this polymorphism was correlated with tumor histological grades and TNM (tumor, node, and metastasis) stage, and modified the serum levels of TGF-β1. Additionally, RS#1800471 polymorphism affected ESCC prognosis (hazard ratio, 3.40), especially under high serum levels of TGF-β1 conditions. However, RS#1800468 polymorphism was not significantly related to ESCC risk. These findings indicated that TGF-β1 RS#1800471G>C polymorphism may be a genetic modifier for developing ESCC in Zhuangese population. Copyright © 2012 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  19. Assessing peak aerobic capacity in Dutch law enforcement officers

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Wittink, Harriet; Takken, Tim; de Groot, Janke; Reneman, Michiel; Peters, Roelof; Vanhees, Luc

    2015-01-01

    Objectives: To cross-validate the existing peak rate of oxygen consumption (VO2peak) prediction equations in Dutch law enforcement officers and to determine whether these prediction equations can be used to predict VO2peak for groups and in a single individual. A further objective was to report

  20. Determination of the upper limit of a peak area

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Helene, O.

    1990-03-01

    This paper reports the procedure to extract an upper limit of a peak area in a multichannel spectrum. This procedure takes into account the finite shape of the peak and the uncertanties in the background and in the expected position of the peak. (author) [pt

  1. PEAK TRACKING WITH A NEURAL NETWORK FOR SPECTRAL RECOGNITION

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    COENEGRACHT, PMJ; METTING, HJ; VANLOO, EM; SNOEIJER, GJ; DOORNBOS, DA

    1993-01-01

    A peak tracking method based on a simulated feed-forward neural network with back-propagation is presented. The network uses the normalized UV spectra and peak areas measured in one chromatogram for peak recognition. It suffices to train the network with only one set of spectra recorded in one

  2. Assessing peak aerobic capacity in Dutch law enforcement officers.

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Wittink, H.; Takken, T.; Groot, J.F. de; Reneman, M.; Peters, R.; Vanhees, L.

    2015-01-01

    Objectives: To cross-validate the existing peak rate of oxygen consumption (VO2peak) prediction equations in Dutch law enforcement officers and to determine whether these prediction equations can be used to predict VO2peak for groups and in a single individual. A further objective was to report

  3. 7 CFR 457.163 - Nursery peak inventory endorsement.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-01-01

    ... 7 Agriculture 6 2010-01-01 2010-01-01 false Nursery peak inventory endorsement. 457.163 Section... CORPORATION, DEPARTMENT OF AGRICULTURE COMMON CROP INSURANCE REGULATIONS § 457.163 Nursery peak inventory endorsement. Nursery Crop Insurance Peak Inventory Endorsement This endorsement is not continuous and must be...

  4. Bayesian approach for peak detection in two-dimensional chromatography

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Vivó-Truyols, G.

    2012-01-01

    A new method for peak detection in two-dimensional chromatography is presented. In a first step, the method starts with a conventional one-dimensional peak detection algorithm to detect modulated peaks. In a second step, a sophisticated algorithm is constructed to decide which of the individual

  5. Determination of the upper limit of a peak area

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Helene, O.

    1991-01-01

    This article reports the procedure to extract an upper limit of a peak area in a multichannel spectrum. This procedure takes into account the finite shape of the peak and the uncertainties both in the background and in the expected position of the peak. (orig.)

  6. Plasma characterization using ultraviolet Thomson scattering from ion-acoustic and electron plasma waves (invited)

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Follett, R. K., E-mail: rfollett@lle.rochester.edu; Delettrez, J. A.; Edgell, D. H.; Henchen, R. J.; Katz, J.; Myatt, J. F.; Froula, D. H. [Laboratory for Laser Energetics, University of Rochester, 250 East River Road, Rochester, New York 14623 (United States)

    2016-11-15

    Collective Thomson scattering is a technique for measuring the plasma conditions in laser-plasma experiments. Simultaneous measurements of ion-acoustic and electron plasma-wave spectra were obtained using a 263.25-nm Thomson-scattering probe beam. A fully reflective collection system was used to record light scattered from electron plasma waves at electron densities greater than 10{sup 21} cm{sup −3}, which produced scattering peaks near 200 nm. An accurate analysis of the experimental Thomson-scattering spectra required accounting for plasma gradients, instrument sensitivity, optical effects, and background radiation. Practical techniques for including these effects when fitting Thomson-scattering spectra are presented and applied to the measured spectra to show the improvements in plasma characterization.

  7. Highlights from 4STAR Sky-Scanning Retrievals of Aerosol Intensive Optical Properties from Multiple Field Campaigns with Detailed Comparisons of SSA Reported During SEAC4RS

    Science.gov (United States)

    Dunagan, Stephen E.

    2016-01-01

    The 4STAR (Spectrometer for Sky-Scanning, Sun-Tracking Atmospheric Research) instrument combines airborne sun tracking capabilities of the Ames Airborne Tracking Sun Photometer (AATS-14) with AERONET (Aerosol Robotic Network)-like sky-scanning capability and adds state-of-the-art fiber-coupled grating spectrometry to yield hyperspectral measurements of direct solar irradiance and angularly resolved sky radiance. The combination of sun-tracking and sky-scanning capability enables retrievals of wavelength-dependent aerosol optical depth (AOD), mode-resolved aerosol size distribution (SD), asphericity, and complex refractive index, and thus also the scattering phase function, asymmetry parameter, single-scattering albedo (SSA), and absorption aerosol optical thickness (AAOT). From 2012 to 2014 4STAR participated in four major field campaigns: the U.S. Dept. of Energy's TCAP (Two-Column Aerosol Project) I & II campaigns, and NASA's SEAC4RS (Studies of Emissions, Atmospheric Composition, Clouds and Climate Coupling by Regional Surveys) and ARISE (Arctic Radiation - IceBridge Sea & Ice Experiment) campaigns. Establishing a strong performance record, 4STAR operated successfully on all flights conducted during each of these campaigns. Sky radiance spectra from scans in either constant azimuth (principal plane) or constant zenith angle (almucantar) were interspersed with direct beam measurements during level legs. During SEAC4RS and ARISE, 4STAR airborne measurements were augmented with flight-level albedo from the collocated Shortwave Spectral Flux Radiometer (SSFR) providing improved specification of below-aircraft radiative conditions for the retrieval. Calibrated radiances and retrieved products will be presented with particular emphasis on detailed comparisons of ambient SSA retrievals and measurements during SEAC4RS from 4STAR, AERONET, HSRL2 (High Spectral Resolution Lidar), and from in situ measurements.

  8. 4STAR Sky-Scanning Retrievals of Aerosol Intensive Optical Properties from Multiple Field Campaigns with Detailed Comparisons of SSA Reported During SEAC4RS

    Science.gov (United States)

    Flynn, Connor; Dahlgren, R. P.; Dunagan, S.; Johnson, R.; Kacenelenbogen, M.; LeBlanc, S.; Livingston, J.; Redemann, J.; Schmid, B.; Segal Rozenhaimer, M.; hide

    2015-01-01

    The 4STAR (Spectrometer for Sky-Scanning, Sun-Tracking Atmospheric Research) instrument combines airborne sun tracking capabilities of the Ames Airborne Tracking Sun Photometer (AATS-14) with AERONET-like sky-scanning capability and adds state-of-the-art fiber-coupled grating spectrometry to yield hyper spectral measurements of direct solar irradiance and angularly resolved sky radiance. The combination of sun-tracking and sky-scanning capability enables retrievals of wavelength-dependent aerosol optical depth (AOD), mode-resolved aerosol size distribution (SD), asphericity, and complex refractive index, and thus also the scattering phase function, asymmetry parameter, single-scattering albedo (SSA), and absorption aerosol optical thickness (AAOT).From 2012 to 2014 4STAR participated in four major field campaigns: the U.S. Dept. of Energy TCAP I II campaigns, and NASAs SEAC4RS and ARISE campaigns. Establishing a strong performance record, 4STAR operated successfully on all flights conducted during each of these campaigns. Sky radiance spectra from scans in either constant azimuth (principal plane) or constant zenith angle (almucantar) were interspersed with direct beam measurements during level legs. During SEAC4RS and ARISE, 4STAR airborne measurements were augmented with flight-level albedo from the collocated Shortwave Spectral Flux Radiometer (SSFR) providing improved specification of below-aircraft radiative conditions for the retrieval. Calibrated radiances and retrieved products will be presented with particular emphasis on detailed comparisons of ambient SSA retrievals and measurements during SEAC4RS from 4STAR, AERONET, HSRL2, and from in situ measurements.

  9. Polymorphic Variants rs3088442 and rs2292334 in the Organic Cation Transporter 3 (OCT3) Gene and Susceptibility Against Type 2 Diabetes: Role of their Interaction.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mahrooz, Abdolkarim; Alizadeh, Ahad; Hashemi-Soteh, Mohammad Bagher; Ghaffari-Cherati, Maryam; Hosseyni-Talei, Seyyedeh Raheleh

    2017-02-01

    In this study, we investigated whether two common variants (rs3088442G>A and rs2292334G>A) in the organic cation transporter 3 (OCT3) gene, a high-capacity transporter widely expressed in various tissues, affect susceptibility to type 2 diabetes (T2D) in patients newly diagnosed with T2D. We performed a study with 150 newly diagnosed patients with T2D and 152 controls. The genetic analyses were performed using the restricted fragment length polymorphism (RFLP) after PCR amplification. For the rs3088442G>A variant, A allele carriers had a significantly lower odds ratio (OR) vs. GG homozygotes in the BMI A variant was associated with a decreased risk of T2D (OR = 0.016, p A in the 3'-untranslated region of the OCT3 gene in susceptibility to T2D, and that the protective role is maintained in the presence of risky alleles of the variant rs2292334G>A. The association of the A allele of rs3088442G>A with T2D become weaker in obese people than that of non-obese. If confirmed in other populations, the rs3088442G>A variant as a genetic marker may potentially assist in the identification of individuals at an increased risk of T2D. Copyright © 2017 IMSS. Published by Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  10. Extreme UV and X-ray scattering measurements from a rough LiF crystal surface characterized by electron micrography

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Alehyane; Arbaoui; Barchewitz

    1989-01-01

    XUV and X-ray scattering by a LiF crystal is measured. The angular distribution of the scattered radiation (ADSR) reveals characteristic features, side peaks or asymmetry. The surface of the sample is statistically characterized by a microdensitometer analysis of electron micrographs resolving th...

  11. Positronium-alkali atom scattering at medium energies

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Chakraborty, Ajoy; Basu, Arindam; Sarkar, Nirmal K; Sinha, Prabal K

    2004-01-01

    We investigate the scattering of orthopositronium (o-Ps) atom off different atomic alkali targets (Na to Cs) at low and medium energies (up to 120 eV). Projectile-elastic and target-elastic close-coupling models have been employed to investigate the systems in addition to the static-exchange model. Elastic, excitation and total cross sections have been reported for all four systems. The magnitude of the alkali excitation cross section increases with increasing atomic number of the target atom while the position of the peak value shifts towards lower incident energies. The magnitudes of the Ps excitation and ionization cross sections increase steadily with atomic number with no change in the peak position. The reported results show regular behaviour with increasing atomic number of the target atom. Scattering parameters for the Ps-Rb and Ps-Cs systems are being reported for the first time

  12. Fluid temperature measurement technique by using Raman scattering

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    An, Jeong Soo; Yang, Sun Kyu; Min, Kyung Ho; Chung, Moon Ki; Choi, Young Don

    1999-06-01

    Temperature measurement technique by using Raman scattering was developed for the liquid water at temperature of 20 - 90 degree C and atmospheric pressure. Strong relationship between Raman scattering characteristics and liquid temperature change was observed. Various kinds of measurement techniques, such as Peak Intensity, Peak Wavelength, FWHM (Full Width at Half Maximum), PMCR ( Polymer Monomer Concentration RAte), TSIR (Temperature Sensitive Intensity Ratio), IDIA (Integral Difference Intensity Area) were tested. TSIR has the highest accuracy in mean error or 0.1 deg C and standard deviation of 0.1248 deg C. This report is one of the results in developing process of Raman temperature measurement technique. Next research step is to develop Raman temperature measurement technique at the high temperature and high pressure conditions in single or two phase flows. (author). 13 refs., 3 tabs., 38 figs

  13. Scattering Solar Thermal Concentrators

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Giebink, Noel C. [Pennsylvania State Univ., State College, PA (United States)

    2015-01-31

    This program set out to explore a scattering-based approach to concentrate sunlight with the aim of improving collector field reliability and of eliminating wind loading and gross mechanical movement through the use of a stationary collection optic. The approach is based on scattering sunlight from the focal point of a fixed collection optic into the confined modes of a sliding planar waveguide, where it is transported to stationary tubular heat transfer elements located at the edges. Optical design for the first stage of solar concentration, which entails focusing sunlight within a plane over a wide range of incidence angles (>120 degree full field of view) at fixed tilt, led to the development of a new, folded-path collection optic that dramatically out-performs the current state-of-the-art in scattering concentration. Rigorous optical simulation and experimental testing of this collection optic have validated its performance. In the course of this work, we also identified an opportunity for concentrating photovoltaics involving the use of high efficiency microcells made in collaboration with partners at the University of Illinois. This opportunity exploited the same collection optic design as used for the scattering solar thermal concentrator and was therefore pursued in parallel. This system was experimentally demonstrated to achieve >200x optical concentration with >70% optical efficiency over a full day by tracking with <1 cm of lateral movement at fixed latitude tilt. The entire scattering concentrator waveguide optical system has been simulated, tested, and assembled at small scale to verify ray tracing models. These models were subsequently used to predict the full system optical performance at larger, deployment scale ranging up to >1 meter aperture width. Simulations at an aperture widths less than approximately 0.5 m with geometric gains ~100x predict an overall optical efficiency in the range 60-70% for angles up to 50 degrees from normal. However, the

  14. Peak-by-peak correction of Ge(Li) gamma-ray spectra for photopeaks from background

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Cutshall, N.H.; Larsen, I.L.

    1980-01-01

    Background photopeaks can interfere with accurate measurement of low levels of radionuclides by gamma-ray spectrometry. A flowchart for peak-by-peak correction of sample spectra to produce accurate results is presented. (orig.)

  15. Peak-by-peak correction of Ge(Li) gamma-ray spectra for photopeaks from background

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Cutshall, N H; Larsen, I L [Oak Ridge National Lab., TN (USA)

    1980-12-01

    Background photopeaks can interfere with accurate measurement of low levels of radionuclides by gamma-ray spectrometry. A flowchart for peak-by-peak correction of sample spectra to produce accurate results is presented.

  16. Inelastic scattering of neutrons

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Sal'nikov, O.A.

    1984-06-01

    The paper reviews the main problems concerning the mechanism of the inelastic scatterings of neutrons by nuclei, concentrating on the different models which calculate the angular distributions. In the region of overlapping levels, both the compound nucleus mechanism and the preequilibrium Griffin (exciton) model are discussed, and their contribution relative to that of a direct mechanism is considered. The parametrization of the level density and of the nuclear moment of inertia are also discussed. The excitation functions of discrete levels are also presented, and the importance of elucidating their five structure (for practical calculations, such as for shielding) is pointed out

  17. Proton nuclear scattering radiography

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Duchazeaubeneix, J.C.; Faivre, J.C.; Garreta, D.

    1982-10-01

    Nuclear scattering of protons allows to radiograph objects with specific properties: direct 3- dimensional radiography, different information as compared to X-ray technique, hydrogen radiography. Furthermore, it is a well adapted method to gating techniques allowing the radiography of fast periodic moving systems. Results obtained on different objects (light and heavy materials) are shown and discussed. The dose delivery is compatible with clinical use, but at the moment, the irradiation time is too long between 1 and 4 hours. Perspectives to make the radiography faster and to get a practical method are discussed

  18. Quasi-elastic scattering

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Pizzi, J.R.

    1975-01-01

    In a first part, the kinematical conditions which are chosen to study quasi free scattering reactions are presented, as well as the impulse approximation which is used to interpret the experimental data. Then, the evolution of the study of these reactions in the last few years is analyzed. Three recent experiments are presented and discussed. Two of them deal with α-clusters studied by (p,pα) reaction at 157 and 600MeV. The third is concerned with d, t and 3 He clusters studied by (p,px) reaction at 75MeV [fr

  19. Pion Virtual Compton Scattering

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Ocherashvili, Aharon [Tel Aviv U.

    2000-01-01

    Plasma production via field ionization occurs when an incoming electron beam is sufficiently dense that the electric field associated with the beam ionizes the neutral vapor. Experiments at the Stanford Linear Accelerator Center (SLAC) explore the threshold conditions necessary to induce field ionization in a neutral lithium (Li) vapor. By independently varying the bunch length, transverse spot size or number of electrons per bunch, the radial component of the electric field is controlled to be above or below the threshold for field ionization. A self-ionized plasma is an essential step for the viability of plasma-based accelerators for future high-energy experiments. Based on the experimental results, the incoming beam ionizes the neutral Li vapor when its peak electric field is approximately 5 G V / m and higher. This electric field translates into a peak charge density of approximately 3x 1016 cm-3 . The experimental conditions are approximated and simulated in a 2-D particle-in-cell code, OOPIC. The code and the data correspond well in terms of the correct threshold conditions and the dependence on the critical beam parameters. In addition to the ionization threshold, the field ionization effects are characterized by the beam's energy loss through the Li vapor column due to the plasma wake field production. The peak and average energy loss as a result of wake production and beam propagation through the plasma is compared with simulation results from OOPIC. The simulation code accurately predicts the peak energy loss of the beam, but approximations in the code produce differences between the average energy loss measured and the loss calculated by the simulation.

  20. Computer Program for Inelastic Neutron Scattering by an Anharmonic Crystal

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Bohlin, L.; Ebbsjoe, I.; Hoegberg, T.

    1969-02-01

    A description is given of the program SAW (Shift and Width), which calculates the energy-dependent shift and width of the intensity peaks obtained for thermal neutrons scattered inelastically by an anharmonic crystal. The program has been coded in FORTRAN IV and may be applied to every solid with a monatomic face-centered cubic lattice where the intermolecular interactions can be described by a centro-symmetrical potential. Interactions beyond third neighbours are neglected

  1. Computer Program for Inelastic Neutron Scattering by an Anharmonic Crystal

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Bohlin, L; Ebbsjoe, I; Hoegberg, T

    1969-02-15

    A description is given of the program SAW (Shift and Width), which calculates the energy-dependent shift and width of the intensity peaks obtained for thermal neutrons scattered inelastically by an anharmonic crystal. The program has been coded in FORTRAN IV and may be applied to every solid with a monatomic face-centered cubic lattice where the intermolecular interactions can be described by a centro-symmetrical potential. Interactions beyond third neighbours are neglected.

  2. Genetic Variant rs10757278 on Chromosome 9p21 Contributes to Myocardial Infarction Susceptibility

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Guangyuan Chen

    2015-05-01

    Full Text Available Large-scale genome-wide association studies (GWAS have revealed that rs10757278 polymorphism (or its proxy rs1333049 on chromosome 9p21 is associated with myocardial infarction (MI susceptibility in individuals of Caucasian ancestry. Following studies in other populations investigated this association. However, some of these studies reported weak or no significant association. Here, we reevaluated this association using large-scale samples by searching PubMed and Google Scholar databases. Our results showed significant association between rs10757278 polymorphism and MI with p = 6.09 × 10−22, odds ratio (OR = 1.29, 95% confidence interval (CI 1.22–1.36 in pooled population. We further performed a subgroup analysis, and found significant association between rs10757278 polymorphism and MI in Asian and Caucasian populations. We identified that the association between rs10757278 polymorphism and MI did not vary substantially by excluding any one study. However, the heterogeneity among the selected studies varies substantially by excluding the study from the Pakistan population. We found even more significant association between rs10757278 polymorphism and MI in pooled population, p = 3.55 × 10−53, after excluding the study from the Pakistan population. In summary, previous studies reported weak or no significant association between rs10757278 polymorphism and MI. Interestingly, our analysis suggests that rs10757278 polymorphism is significantly associated with MI susceptibility by analyzing large-scale samples.

  3. Association between BDNF-rs6265 and obesity in the Boston Puerto Rican Health Study

    Science.gov (United States)

    The objective of this study is to examine a functional variant (rs6265) in the BDNF gene interacting with dietary intake modulate obesity traits in the Boston Puerto Rican Health Study population. BDNF rs6265 was genotyped in 1147 Puerto Ricans (aged 45-75 years), and examined for association with o...

  4. rs3806268 of NLRP3 gene polymorphism is associated with the development of primary gout.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Deng, Jianping; Lin, Wen; Chen, Yunpeng; Wang, Xin; Yin, Zhong; Yao, Chunhong; Liu, Tangbing; Lv, Yonghong

    2015-01-01

    The aim of the present study was to investigate the association between seven functional SNPs in NALP3 gene and the susceptibility to primary gout. A total of 247 patients with primary gout and 247 controls were selected in this study. Genotyping of NALP3 rs4612666, rs3806268, rs12239046, rs10754558, rs7512998, rs12137901 and rs12565738 was performed using the Sequenom MassARRAY platform. Comparison analysis showed that primary gout patients were more likely to have a higher body mass index, DBP, SBP, TG, urea nitrogen and uric acid (P gout when compared with the AA genotype (OR=1.83, 95% CI=1.03-3.26). However, no significant associations were identified for the remaining SNPs. In conclusion, we found a significant association between rs3806268 in NLRP3 gene and the risk of primary gout in a Chinese population. Further clinical and genetic studies are required to investigate the mechanisms underlying the association between NALP3 polymorphisms and the development of primary gout.

  5. Identification of rs671, a common variant of ALDH2, as a gout susceptibility locus.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sakiyama, Masayuki; Matsuo, Hirotaka; Nakaoka, Hirofumi; Yamamoto, Ken; Nakayama, Akiyoshi; Nakamura, Takahiro; Kawai, Sayo; Okada, Rieko; Ooyama, Hiroshi; Shimizu, Toru; Shinomiya, Nariyoshi

    2016-05-16

    Gout is a common disease resulting from hyperuricemia. Recently, a genome-wide association study identified an association between gout and a single nucleotide polymorphism (SNP) rs2188380, located on an intergenic region between MYL2 and CUX2 on chromosome 12. However, other genes around rs2188380 could possibly be gout susceptibility genes. Therefore, we performed a fine-mapping study of the MYL2-CUX2 region. From 8,595 SNPs in the MYL2-CUX2 region, 9 tag SNPs were selected, and genotyping of 1,048 male gout patients and 1,334 male controls was performed by TaqMan method. Eight SNPs showed significant associations with gout after Bonferroni correction. rs671 (Glu504Lys) of ALDH2 had the most significant association with gout (P = 1.7 × 10(-18), odds ratio = 0.53). After adjustment for rs671, the other 8 SNPs no longer showed a significant association with gout, while the significant association of rs671 remained. rs671 has been reportedly associated with alcohol drinking behavior, and it is well-known that alcohol drinking elevates serum uric acid levels. These data suggest that rs671, a common functional SNP of ALDH2, is a genuine gout-associated SNP in the MYL2-CUX2 locus and that "A" allele (Lys) of rs671 plays a protective role in the development of gout.

  6. The role of KRAS rs61764370 in invasive epithelial ovarian cancer: implications for clinical testing

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Pharoah, Paul D P; Palmieri, Rachel T; Ramus, Susan J

    2011-01-01

    PURPOSE: An assay for the single nucleotide polymorphism (SNP) rs61764370 has recently been commercially marketed as a clinical test to aid ovarian cancer risk evaluation in women with family histories of the disease. rs67164370 is in a 3'UTR miRNA binding site of the KRAS oncogene, and is a cand...

  7. Polymorphism of glucagon-like peptide-1 receptor gene (rs1042044 ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    patience

    2015-02-16

    Feb 16, 2015 ... turnover via GLP-1 receptors (GLP1Rs) in postmenopausal state. Furthermore, polymorphisms in. GLP1R gene were suggested to affect the function of GLP1Rs and be associated with many diseases. However, the relationships between GLP1R polymorphisms and osteoporosis susceptibility and bone.

  8. Polymorphism of glucagon-like peptide-1 receptor gene (rs1042044 ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Previous investigations indicated that glucagon-like peptide-1 (GLP-1) played important roles in bone turnover via GLP-1 receptors (GLP1Rs) in postmenopausal state. Furthermore, polymorphisms in GLP1R gene were suggested to affect the function of GLP1Rs and be associated with many diseases. However, the ...

  9. Acoustic excitations in glassy sorbitol and their relation with the fragility and the boson peak

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ruta, B.; Baldi, G.; Scarponi, F.; Fioretto, D.; Giordano, V. M.; Monaco, G.

    2012-12-01

    We report a detailed analysis of the dynamic structure factor of glassy sorbitol by using inelastic X-ray scattering and previously measured light scattering data [B. Ruta, G. Monaco, F. Scarponi, and D. Fioretto, Philos. Mag. 88, 3939 (2008), 10.1080/14786430802317586]. The thus obtained knowledge on the density-density fluctuations at both the mesoscopic and macroscopic length scale has been used to address two debated topics concerning the vibrational properties of glasses. The relation between the acoustic modes and the universal boson peak (BP) appearing in the vibrational density of states of glasses has been investigated, also in relation with some recent theoretical models. Moreover, the connection between the elastic properties of glasses and the slowing down of the structural relaxation process in supercooled liquids has been scrutinized. For what concerns the first issue, it is here shown that the wave vector dependence of the acoustic excitations can be used, in sorbitol, to quantitatively reproduce the shape of the boson peak, supporting the relation between BP and acoustic modes. For what concerns the second issue, a proper study of elasticity over a wide spatial range is shown to be fundamental in order to investigate the relation between elastic properties and the slowing down of the dynamics in the corresponding supercooled liquid phase.

  10. Pentatomids associated with different forest species in Itaara, RS, Brazil

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ervandil Corrêa Costa

    2010-03-01

    Full Text Available The objective of this study was to determine qualitatively and quantitatively the pentatomid fauna associated with the canopy of different native species during the period from September 2005 to September 2006. Insects were collected from among nine botanical species: Gochnatia polymorpha (Less. (cambará, Eugenia uniflora Berg. (pitangueira, Acca selowiana (Berg Burret (goiaba-da-serra, Psidium cattleianum Sabine (araçá, Baccharis spp., Solanaum mauritianum Scop. (fumo-bravo, Micanea cinerascens Miq. (passiquinho, Calliandra brevipes Bhent. (caliandra, and Schinus molle L. (aroeira located at Rodolfo da Costa Dam in Itaara, RS, Brazil. Samples were taken every two weeks with a conical funnel made of tin plate (2mm, 70cm in diameter at the rim and 63cm in height. One sample per botanical species for each sampling date was taken, by shaking the branches, ten times over the funnel. Samples were sent to the Entomology Laboratory of the Crop Protection Department of the Federal University of Santa Maria, where the material was analyzed. A total of nine Pentatomidae species were identified. Edessa rufomarginata (De Geer, 1773 was the species of highest ocurrence followed by Thyanta humilis (Bergroth, 1891. The botanical species S. mauritianum presented the greatest number of Pentatomidae species, with an occurrence of 26.9%.

  11. RASSF1A and the rs2073498 Cancer Associated SNP

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Donninger, Howard; Barnoud, Thibaut; Nelson, Nick; Kassler, Suzanna; Clark, Jennifer; Cummins, Timothy D.; Powell, David W.; Nyante, Sarah; Millikan, Robert C.; Clark, Geoffrey J.

    2011-01-01

    RASSF1A is one of the most frequently inactivated tumor suppressors yet identified in human cancer. It is pro-apoptotic and appears to function as a scaffolding protein that interacts with a variety of other tumor suppressors to modulate their function. It can also complex with the Ras oncoprotein and may serve to integrate pro-growth and pro-death signaling pathways. A SNP has been identified that is present in approximately 29% of European populations [rs2073498, A(133)S]. Several studies have now presented evidence that this SNP is associated with an enhanced risk of developing breast cancer. We have used a proteomics based approach to identify multiple differences in the pattern of protein/protein interactions mediated by the wild type compared to the SNP variant protein. We have also identified a significant difference in biological activity between wild type and SNP variant protein. However, we have found only a very modest association of the SNP with breast cancer predisposition.

  12. Water quality assessment of the Sinos River – RS, Brazil

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    C. Steffens

    Full Text Available Worldwide environmental pollution is increasing at the same rate as social and economic development. This growth, however, is disorganized and leads to increased degradation of water resources. Water, which was once considered inexhaustible, has become the focus of environmental concerns because it is essential for life and for many production processes. This article describes monitoring of the water quality at three points along the Sinos River (RS, Brazil, one in each of the upper, middle and lower stretches. The points were sampled in 2013 and again in 2014. The water samples were analyzed to determine the following physical and chemical parameters plus genotoxicity to fish: metals (Cr, Fe, Al, chemical oxygen demand, biochemical oxygen demand, chlorides, conductivity, total suspended solids, total phosphorous, total and fecal coliforms, pH, dissolved oxygen, turbidity, total Kjeldahl nitrogen nitrate and ammoniacal nitrogen. Genotoxicity was tested by exposing individuals of the species Astyanax jacuhiensis to water samples and then comparing them with a control group exposed to water from the public water supply. The results confirmed the presence of substances with genotoxic potential at the sample points located in the middle and lower stretches of the river. The results for samples from the upper stretch, at P1, did not exhibit differences in relation to the control group. The physical and chemical analyses did not detect reductions in water quality in the lower stretch, as had been expected in view of the large volumes of domestic and industrial effluents discharged into this part of the river.

  13. Performance Characterization of RaPToRS Systems

    Science.gov (United States)

    Shibata, K.; Krieger, M.; Fallica, J.; Henchen, R.; Pogozelski, E.; Padalino, S.; SUNY Geneseo Collaboration; LaboratoryLaser Energetics at University of Rochester Collaboration

    2011-10-01

    The Rapid Pneumatic Transport of Radioactive Samples (RaPToRS) system can quickly and efficiently move radioactive materials from their activation site to a counting station. Facilities such as the NIF and LLE are considering these systems while NRL is currently using one. The system is essentially a 10 cm diameter pneumatic tube with a cylindrical sample carrier. The performance of the system depends on many factors, including the mass of the carrier, length of the tube, angle and difference in height of the tube's endpoints, the carrier's physical design, and the number, type, and distribution of blowers attached to the tube. These factors have been systematically examined to develop the fastest and most reliable system. The most significant factors are the mass and the vertical travel of the carrier. When the carrier mass is low, moving air supports the carrier in the tube, resulting in low friction. The terminal velocity ranges from 13.5 to 2.5 m/s for masses varying from 1 kg to 3 kg. Using a single 1100 W blower, the initial force exerted on the carrier was 11.3 N. This work was supported in part by the US Department of Energy through the LLE.

  14. Rapid Pneumatic Transport of Radioactive Samples - RaPToRS

    Science.gov (United States)

    Padalino, S.; Barrios, M.; Sangster, C.

    2005-10-01

    Some ICF neutron activation diagnostics require quick retrieval of the activated sample. Minimizing retrieval times is particularly important when the half-life of the activated material is on the order of the transport time or the degree of radioactivity is close to the background counting level. These restrictions exist in current experiments performed at the Laboratory for Laser Energetics, thus motivating the development of the RaPToRS system. The system has been designed to minimize transportation time while requiring no human intervention during transport or counting. These factors will be important if the system is to be used at the NIF where radiological hazards will be present during post activation. The sample carrier is pneumatically transported via a 4 inch ID PVC pipe to a remote location in excess of 100 meters from the activation site at a speed of approximately 7 m/s. It arrives at an end station where it is dismounted robotically from the carrier and removed from its hermetic package. The sample is then placed by the robot in a counting station. This system is currently being developed to measure back-to-back gamma rays produced by positron annihilation which were emitted by activated graphite. Funded in part by the U.S. DOE under sub contract with LLE at the University of Rochester.

  15. Diagnosis of the retail flower market of Santa Maria, RS

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Janine Farias Menegaes

    2015-12-01

    Full Text Available The present study aimed to diagnose the flowers retail market and ornamental plants in Santa Maria, RS, Brazil, by means of a research in loco, from January to June of 2013, based on questionnaires and interviews applied to the managers of the establishment, as well as of an application of a visual and phytosanitary scale to other establishments that sell flowers and ornamental plants, such as agricultural shops, fairs of horticultural products, supermarkets and providers of funeral services - cemeteries and funeral homes. The diagnosis aims to know the steps of the dynamics observed from the market of flowers until the final consumer, and to segment the types of floricultures, distinguishing them according to the commercial focus — floricultures of arrangements and bouquets, and producing flowers and landscape floricultures. Based on the diagnosis it can be concluded that the Santa Maria retail flowers and ornamental plants follows the national trend of floral arrangements and bouquets shops, with the increase of the companies focused on landscaping and gardening. Among the most marketed plants are the rose as the best-selling cut flower, the begonia as potted flower, the fern for foliage arrangements, the cactus as potted plant, the raffia as garden plant and the pansy as the best-selling plant in boxes.

  16. Studies of molecular dynamics with neutron scattering techniques. Part of a coordinated programme on neutron scattering techniques

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Vinhas, L.A.

    1980-05-01

    Molecular dynamics was studied in samples of tert-butanol, cyclohexanol and methanol, using neutron inelastic and quasi-elastic techniques. The frequency spectra of cyclohexanol in crystalline phase were interpreted by assigning individual energy peaks to hindered rotation of molecules, lattice vibration, hydrogen bond stretching and ring bending modes. Neutron quasi-elastic scattering measurements permitted the testing of models for molecular diffusion as a function of temperature. The interpretation of neutron incoherent inelastic scattering on methanol indicated the different modes of molecular dynamics in this material; individual inelastic peaks in the spectra could be assigned to vibrations of crystalline lattice, stretching of hydrogen bond and vibrational and torsional modes of CH 3 OH molecule. The results of the experimental work on tertbutanol indicate two distinct modes of motion in this material: individual molecular librations are superposed to a cooperative rotation diffusion which occurs both in solid and in liquid state

  17. Elastic positron-cadmium scattering at low energies

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Bromley, M. W. J.; Mitroy, J.

    2010-01-01

    The elastic and annihilation cross sections for positron-cadmium scattering are reported up to the positronium-formation threshold (at 2.2 eV). The low-energy phase shifts for the elastic scattering of positrons from cadmium were derived from the bound and pseudostate energies of a very large basis configuration-interaction calculation of the e + -Cd system. The s-wave binding energy is estimated to be 126±42 meV, with a scattering length of A scat =(14.2±2.1)a 0 , while the threshold annihilation parameter, Z eff , was 93.9±26.5. The p-wave phase shift exhibits a weak shape resonance that results in a peak Z eff of 91±17 at a collision energy of about 490±50 meV.

  18. Scattering of x-ray from crystal surfaces

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Andrews, S.R.; Cowley, R.A.

    1985-01-01

    X-ray measurements performed on a variety of materials demonstrate that it is possible to observe diffuse scattering that originates in the abrupt change of density at a crystal surface. Such a discontinuity gives rise, in general, to rods of scattering in reciprocal space which are most intense close to the Bragg peaks tau and are well defined for sufficiently smooth surfaces. For wave-vector transfer Q=tau+q the q-dependence of the intensity of scattering gives information on the topographic structure of the crystal surface. Experimental results on crystals of GaAs and KTaO 3 , with surfaces prepared in various ways, were obtained using conventional x-ray techniques with a rotating anode source and can be described by a continuum model of the surface. There are discrepancies between the predictions of the models and the experimental results and the suggest that further experiments are needed to achieve a more complete understanding. (author)

  19. Inelastic electron and light scattering from the elementary electronic excitations in quantum wells: Zero magnetic field

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Manvir S. Kushwaha

    2012-09-01

    Full Text Available The most fundamental approach to an understanding of electronic, optical, and transport phenomena which the condensed matter physics (of conventional as well as nonconventional systems offers is generally founded on two experiments: the inelastic electron scattering and the inelastic light scattering. This work embarks on providing a systematic framework for the theory of inelastic electron scattering and of inelastic light scattering from the electronic excitations in GaAs/Ga1−xAlxAs quantum wells. To this end, we start with the Kubo's correlation function to derive the generalized nonlocal, dynamic dielectric function, and the inverse dielectric function within the framework of Bohm-Pines’ random-phase approximation. This is followed by a thorough development of the theory of inelastic electron scattering and of inelastic light scattering. The methodological part is then subjected to the analytical diagnoses which allow us to sense the subtlety of the analytical results and the importance of their applications. The general analytical results, which know no bounds regarding, e.g., the subband occupancy, are then specified so as to make them applicable to practicality. After trying and testing the eigenfunctions, we compute the density of states, the Fermi energy, the full excitation spectrum made up of intrasubband and intersubband – single-particle and collective (plasmon – excitations, the loss functions for all the principal geometries envisioned for the inelastic electron scattering, and the Raman intensity, which provides a measure of the real transitions induced by the (laser probe, for the inelastic light scattering. It is found that the dominant contribution to both the loss peaks and the Raman peaks comes from the collective (plasmon excitations. As to the single-particle peaks, the analysis indicates a long-lasting lack of quantitative comparison between theory and experiments. It is inferred that the inelastic electron

  20. The ARIES-RS power core - recent development in Li/V designs

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Sze Dai-Kai; Billone, M.C.; Hua, T.Q.; Tillack, M.; Najmabadi, F.; Wang Xueren; Malang, S.; El-Guebaly, L.A.; Sviatoslavsky, I.N.; Blanchard, J.P.; Crowell, J.A.; Khater, H.Y.; Mogahed, E.A.; Waganer, L.M.; Lee, D.; Cole, D.

    1998-01-01

    The ARIES-RS fusion power plant design study is based on reversed-shear (RS) physics with a Li/V (lithium breeder and vanadium structure) blanket. The reversed-shear discharge has been documented in many large tokamak experiments. The plasma in the RS mode has a high beta, low current, and low current drive requirement. Therefore, it is an attractive physics regime for a fusion power plant. The blanket system based on Li/V has high temperature operating capability, good tritium breeding, excellent high heat flux removal capability, long structural life time, low activation, low after heat and good safety characteristics. For these reasons, the ARIES-RS reactor study selected Li/V as the reference blanket. The combination of attractive physics and attractive blanket engineering is expected to result in a superior power plant design. This paper summarizes the power core design of the ARIES-RS power plant study. (orig.)

  1. Association between the rs7574865 polymorphism of STAT4 and rheumatoid arthritis: a meta-analysis.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lee, Young Ho; Woo, Jin-Hyun; Choi, Seong Jae; Ji, Jong Dae; Song, Gwan Gyu

    2010-03-01

    The aim of this study was to determine whether the rs7574865 polymorphism of STAT4 (signal transducers and activators of transcription 4) confers susceptibility to rheumatoid arthritis (RA) in populations with different ethnicities. A meta-analysis was conducted on the T allele of the STAT4 rs7574865 polymorphism in 15 studies containing 16,088 RA patients and 16,509 normal control subjects. Meta-analysis revealed an association between RA and the STAT4 rs7574865 T allele in all subjects (OR = 1.271, 95% CI = 1.197-1.350, P rs7574865 T allele was found to be significantly associated with RA in Europeans and Asians (OR = 1.300, 95% CI = 1.195-1.414, P rs7574865 polymorphism is associated with RA susceptibility in different ethnic groups, and that its prevalence is ethnicity dependent.

  2. Automatic Peak Selection by a Benjamini-Hochberg-Based Algorithm

    KAUST Repository

    Abbas, Ahmed; Kong, Xin-Bing; Liu, Zhi; Jing, Bing-Yi; Gao, Xin

    2013-01-01

    A common issue in bioinformatics is that computational methods often generate a large number of predictions sorted according to certain confidence scores. A key problem is then determining how many predictions must be selected to include most of the true predictions while maintaining reasonably high precision. In nuclear magnetic resonance (NMR)-based protein structure determination, for instance, computational peak picking methods are becoming more and more common, although expert-knowledge remains the method of choice to determine how many peaks among thousands of candidate peaks should be taken into consideration to capture the true peaks. Here, we propose a Benjamini-Hochberg (B-H)-based approach that automatically selects the number of peaks. We formulate the peak selection problem as a multiple testing problem. Given a candidate peak list sorted by either volumes or intensities, we first convert the peaks into p-values and then apply the B-H-based algorithm to automatically select the number of peaks. The proposed approach is tested on the state-of-the-art peak picking methods, including WaVPeak [1] and PICKY [2]. Compared with the traditional fixed number-based approach, our approach returns significantly more true peaks. For instance, by combining WaVPeak or PICKY with the proposed method, the missing peak rates are on average reduced by 20% and 26%, respectively, in a benchmark set of 32 spectra extracted from eight proteins. The consensus of the B-H-selected peaks from both WaVPeak and PICKY achieves 88% recall and 83% precision, which significantly outperforms each individual method and the consensus method without using the B-H algorithm. The proposed method can be used as a standard procedure for any peak picking method and straightforwardly applied to some other prediction selection problems in bioinformatics. The source code, documentation and example data of the proposed method is available at http://sfb.kaust.edu.sa/pages/software.aspx. © 2013

  3. Automatic Peak Selection by a Benjamini-Hochberg-Based Algorithm

    KAUST Repository

    Abbas, Ahmed

    2013-01-07

    A common issue in bioinformatics is that computational methods often generate a large number of predictions sorted according to certain confidence scores. A key problem is then determining how many predictions must be selected to include most of the true predictions while maintaining reasonably high precision. In nuclear magnetic resonance (NMR)-based protein structure determination, for instance, computational peak picking methods are becoming more and more common, although expert-knowledge remains the method of choice to determine how many peaks among thousands of candidate peaks should be taken into consideration to capture the true peaks. Here, we propose a Benjamini-Hochberg (B-H)-based approach that automatically selects the number of peaks. We formulate the peak selection problem as a multiple testing problem. Given a candidate peak list sorted by either volumes or intensities, we first convert the peaks into p-values and then apply the B-H-based algorithm to automatically select the number of peaks. The proposed approach is tested on the state-of-the-art peak picking methods, including WaVPeak [1] and PICKY [2]. Compared with the traditional fixed number-based approach, our approach returns significantly more true peaks. For instance, by combining WaVPeak or PICKY with the proposed method, the missing peak rates are on average reduced by 20% and 26%, respectively, in a benchmark set of 32 spectra extracted from eight proteins. The consensus of the B-H-selected peaks from both WaVPeak and PICKY achieves 88% recall and 83% precision, which significantly outperforms each individual method and the consensus method without using the B-H algorithm. The proposed method can be used as a standard procedure for any peak picking method and straightforwardly applied to some other prediction selection problems in bioinformatics. The source code, documentation and example data of the proposed method is available at http://sfb.kaust.edu.sa/pages/software.aspx. © 2013

  4. A FDTD solution of scattering of laser beam with orbital angular momentum by dielectric particles: Far-field characteristics

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Sun, Wenbo; Hu, Yongxiang; Weimer, Carl; Ayers, Kirk; Baize, Rosemary R.; Lee, Tsengdar

    2017-01-01

    Electromagnetic (EM) beams with orbital angular momentum (OAM) may have great potential applications in communication technology and in remote sensing of the Earth-atmosphere system and outer planets. Study of their interaction with optical lenses and dielectric or metallic objects, or scattering of them by particles in the Earth-atmosphere system, is a necessary step to explore the advantage of the OAM EM beams. In this study, the 3-dimensional (3D) scattered-field (SF) finite-difference time domain (FDTD) technique with the convolutional perfectly matched layer (CPML) absorbing boundary conditions (ABC) is applied to calculate the scattering of the purely azimuthal (the radial mode number is assumed to be zero) Laguerre–Gaussian (LG) beams with the OAM by dielectric particles. We found that for OAM beam's interaction with dielectric particles, the forward-scattering peak in the conventional phase function (P11) disappears, and light scattering peak occurs at a scattering angle of ~15° to 45°. The disappearance of forward-scattering peak means that, in laser communications most of the particle-scattered noise cannot enter the receiver, thus the received light is optimally the original OAM-encoded signal. This feature of the OAM beam also implies that in lidar remote sensing of the atmospheric particulates, most of the multiple-scattering energy will be off lidar sensors, and this may result in an accurate profiling of particle layers in the atmosphere or in the oceans by lidar, or even in the ground when a ground penetration radar (GPR) with the OAM is applied. This far-field characteristics of the scattered OAM light also imply that the optical theorem, which is derived from plane-parallel wave scattering case and relates the forward scattering amplitude to the total cross section of the scatterer, is invalid for the scattering of OAM beams by dielectric particles. - Highlights: • Scattering of orbital angular momentum (OAM) laser beam by dielectric

  5. Single Crystal Diffuse Neutron Scattering

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Richard Welberry

    2018-01-01

    Full Text Available Diffuse neutron scattering has become a valuable tool for investigating local structure in materials ranging from organic molecular crystals containing only light atoms to piezo-ceramics that frequently contain heavy elements. Although neutron sources will never be able to compete with X-rays in terms of the available flux the special properties of neutrons, viz. the ability to explore inelastic scattering events, the fact that scattering lengths do not vary systematically with atomic number and their ability to scatter from magnetic moments, provides strong motivation for developing neutron diffuse scattering methods. In this paper, we compare three different instruments that have been used by us to collect neutron diffuse scattering data. Two of these are on a spallation source and one on a reactor source.

  6. Entrainment and scattering in microswimmer-colloid interactions

    Science.gov (United States)

    Shum, Henry; Yeomans, Julia M.

    2017-11-01

    We use boundary element simulations to study the interaction of model microswimmers with a neutrally buoyant spherical particle. The ratio of the size of the particle to that of the swimmer is varied from RP/RS≪1 , corresponding to swimmer-tracer scattering, to RP/RS≫1 , approximately equivalent to the swimmer interacting with a fixed, flat surface. We find that details of the swimmer and particle trajectories vary for different swimmers. However, the overall characteristics of the scattering event fall into two regimes, depending on the relative magnitudes of the impact parameter, ρ , and the collision radius, Rcoll=RP+RS . The range of particle motion, defined as the maximum distance between two points on the trajectory, has only a weak dependence on the impact parameter when ρ Rcoll the range decreases as a power law in ρ and is insensitive to the size of the particle. We also demonstrate that large particles can cause swimmers to be deflected through large angles. In some instances, this swimmer deflection can lead to larger net displacements of the particle. Based on these results, we estimate the effective diffusivity of a particle in a dilute bath of swimmers and show that there is a nonmonotonic dependence on particle radius. Similarly, we show that the effective diffusivity of a swimmer scattering in a suspension of particles varies nonmonotonically with particle radius.

  7. Study on parallel and distributed management of RS data based on spatial database

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chen, Yingbiao; Qian, Qinglan; Wu, Hongqiao; Liu, Shijin

    2009-10-01

    With the rapid development of current earth-observing technology, RS image data storage, management and information publication become a bottle-neck for its appliance and popularization. There are two prominent problems in RS image data storage and management system. First, background server hardly handle the heavy process of great capacity of RS data which stored at different nodes in a distributing environment. A tough burden has put on the background server. Second, there is no unique, standard and rational organization of Multi-sensor RS data for its storage and management. And lots of information is lost or not included at storage. Faced at the above two problems, the paper has put forward a framework for RS image data parallel and distributed management and storage system. This system aims at RS data information system based on parallel background server and a distributed data management system. Aiming at the above two goals, this paper has studied the following key techniques and elicited some revelatory conclusions. The paper has put forward a solid index of "Pyramid, Block, Layer, Epoch" according to the properties of RS image data. With the solid index mechanism, a rational organization for different resolution, different area, different band and different period of Multi-sensor RS image data is completed. In data storage, RS data is not divided into binary large objects to be stored at current relational database system, while it is reconstructed through the above solid index mechanism. A logical image database for the RS image data file is constructed. In system architecture, this paper has set up a framework based on a parallel server of several common computers. Under the framework, the background process is divided into two parts, the common WEB process and parallel process.

  8. The Drosha rs10719 T>C polymorphism is associated with preeclampsia susceptibility.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rezaei, Mahnaz; Eskandari, Fatemeh; Mohammadpour-Gharehbagh, Abbas; Teimoori, Batool; Yaghmaei, Minoo; Mokhtari, Mojgan; Salimi, Saeedeh

    2018-01-01

    Drosha is a member of the micro RNA (miRNA) processing machinery that affects miRNA processing. Single-nucleotide polymorphisms (SNPs) in the Drosha gene might affect microRNA processing and the expression of various genes. The aim of this study is to investigate the association between SNPs in the Drosha gene and preeclampsia (PE) in the southeast of Iran. Genotyping of Drosha rs10719 and rs6877842 was performed using blood samples from 219 PE women and 205 healthy control subjects by a polymerase chain reaction-restriction fragment length polymorphism method. The Drosha rs10719TC genotype was significantly associated with 1.6-fold higher risk of PE (odds ratio (OR, 1.6 [95% CI, 1.1-2.4], P = 0.026). In addition, the frequency of the Drosha rs10719CC genotype was significantly higher in PE women and was associated with threefold higher risk of PE (OR 3 [95% CI 1.4-6.3], P = 0.004). There was no association between the Drosha rs6877842 polymorphism and PE susceptibility. The CC-GG combined genotype was associated with 3.4-fold higher risk of PE (OR 3.4 [95% CI 1.4-8.1], P = 0.007). The haplotype-based association analysis showed higher frequency of C-G haplotype of Drosha rs10719 and rs6877842 polymorphisms with the increased risk of PE 1.5-fold (OR 1.5 [95% CI 1.1 - 2], P = 0.01). The Drosha rs10719TC and CC genotypes were associated with PE risk. The CC-GG combined genotype and C-G haplotype of Drosha rs10719 and rs6877842 polymorphisms may increase PE susceptibility.

  9. Ketamine increases the frequency of electroencephalographic bicoherence peak on the alpha spindle area induced with propofol.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hayashi, K; Tsuda, N; Sawa, T; Hagihira, S

    2007-09-01

    The reticular and thalamocortical system is known to play a prominent role in spindle wave activity, and the spindle wave is related to the sedative effects of anaesthetics. Recently, bispectral analysis of the EEG has been developed as a better method to indicate nonlinear regulation including the thalamocortical system linking to the cortical area. In the present study, in order to explore the interference of ketamine with the nonlinear regulation of the sub-cortical system, we examined the effect of ketamine on spindle alpha waves through the bispectral analysis. The study included 21 patients. Anaesthesia was induced and maintained using a propofol-TCI system (target-controlled infusion, with target concentration 3.5 microg ml(-1)). An A-2000 BIS monitor was used and the raw EEG signals were collected via an RS232 interface on a personal computer. Bicoherence, the normalized bispectrum, and power spectrum were analysed before and after i.v. administration of 1 mg kg(-1) racemic ketamine. Propofol caused alpha peaks in both power and bicoherence spectra, with average frequencies of 10.6 (SD 0.9) Hz and 10.7 (1.0) Hz, respectively. The addition of ketamine significantly shifted each peak to frequencies of 14.4 (1.4) Hz and 13.6 (1.5) Hz, respectively [P < 0.05, mean (SD)]. Ketamine shifted the alpha peaks of bicoherence induced by propofol to higher frequencies. This suggests that ketamine changes the alpha spindle rhythms through the modulation of the nonlinear sub-cortical reverberating network.

  10. mir-126 rs4636297 and TGFβRI rs334348 functional gene variants are associated with susceptibility to endometriosis and its severity.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sepahi, Neda; Kohan, Leila; Jahromi, Athar Rasekh; Daneshbod, Yahya; Hoveidi, Elahe Nimi

    2017-06-01

    microRNAs (miRNAs) are negative regulators in a variety of cellular processes that occur in endometriosis. Therefore, functional polymorphisms in miRNA and miRNA binding sites may affect gene expression and contribute to susceptibility of endometriosis. In this study, we evaluated the association of two miRNA related polymorphisms, mir-126 rs4636297 and TGFβRI rs334348, with endometriosis risk and its severity. This case-control study was done on 157 endometriosis patients and 252 healthy women as a control group. Tetra amplification refractory mutation system-polymerase chain reaction (tetra-ARMS PCR) was designed to determine the polymorphisms. Our finding showed significant differences in genotype frequency of mir-126 rs4636297 between the groups (χ 2  = 6.26, p = 0.044). A significant protection against endometriosis was found for mir-126 rs4636297 in allele (G versus A allele: OR = 0.695, 95% CI = 0.519-0.931, p = 0.015) and genotype (GG versus AA genotype: OR = 0.451, 95%CI = 0.233-0.873, p = 0.018). Significant association was also observed between the A allele and severity of endometriosis (OR = 0.478, 95%CI = 0.297-0.768, p = 0.002). Moreover, we found a significant association between AA genotype with the risk of endometriosis (OR = 0.493, 95%CI = 0.250-0.970, p = 0.041) and its severity (OR = 0.240, 95%CI = 0.065-0.883, p = 0.032) regarding TGFβRI rs334348 polymorphism. These finding suggest that, for the first time, mir-126 rs4636297 and TGFβRI rs334348 polymorphisms may influence individual's susceptibility to endometriosis and its severity.

  11. Association of IL28B SNPs rs12979860 and rs8099917 on Hepatitis C Virus-RNA Status in Donors/Recipients of Living Donor Liver Transplantation.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    King-Wah Chiu

    Full Text Available To investigate the effect of IL28B single nucleotide polymorphisms (SNPs (rs8099917 and rs12979860 in the donors and recipients on the outcome of Hepatitis C virus-RNA clearance after living donor liver transplantation (LDLT. The rs8099917 and rs12979860 genotypes in 50 donor and recipients pairs were explored on the pre-operative day (POD and post-operative day 30 (POD30. There was a significant difference in HCV-RNA clearance before (12%, 6/50 and after (48%, 24/50 liver transplantation (P < 0.001. The rs8099917 genotype TT was dominant in both the recipients (82%, 41/50 and donors (86%, 43/50, but had no significant effect on HCV-RNA clearance (87.5%, 21/24 and recurrence (76.9%, 20/26 after LDLT. One recipient was detected with genotype GG on POD, which changed to genotype GT on POD30. Prevalence of rs12979860 genotype CT was 98% (49/50 recipient and 92% (46/50 donor and prevalence of genotype CC was 2% (1/50 recipient and 8% (4/50 donor on POD and POD30, respectively. Of the 4 recipients with rs12979860 genotype CC on POD30, 3 recipients (12.5%, 3/24 exhibited HCV clearance and 1 experienced recurrence (3.9%, 1/26, however, this was not statistically significant. In conclusion, alterations in IL28B SNP genotype may occur after LDLT, leading to modifications in the host genome or donor proteome by HCV. This predicted mechanism will need to be investigated further.

  12. Brillouin scattering at high pressures

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Grimsditch, M.; Polian, A.

    1988-02-01

    Technical advances which have made Brillouin scattering a useful tool in high pressure diamond anvil cell (DAC) studies, viz. multipassing and tandem operation of Fabry-Perot interferometers, are reviewed. Experimental aspects, such as allowed scattering geometries, are outlined and the data analysis required to transform Brillouin spectra into sound velocities and elastic constants is presented. Experimental results on H 2 , N 2 , Ar, and He are presented, and the close relationship between the Brillouin scattering results and equations of state is highlighted

  13. Inelastic scattering and deformation parameters

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Ford, J.L.C. Jr.

    1978-01-01

    In recent years there has been extensive study of nuclear shape parameters by electron scattering, μ meson atomic transitions, Coulomb excitation and direct nuclear inelastic scattering. Inelastic scattering of strongly absorbed particles, e.g., alpha-particles and heavy ions, at energies below and above the Coulomb barrier probe the charge and mass distributions within the nucleus. This paper summarizes measurements in this field performed at Oak Ridge National Laboratory

  14. Weak Deeply Virtual Compton Scattering

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Ales Psaker; Wolodymyr Melnitchouk; Anatoly Radyushkin

    2006-01-01

    We extend the analysis of the deeply virtual Compton scattering process to the weak interaction sector in the generalized Bjorken limit. The virtual Compton scattering amplitudes for the weak neutral and charged currents are calculated at the leading twist within the framework of the nonlocal light-cone expansion via coordinate space QCD string operators. Using a simple model, we estimate cross sections for neutrino scattering off the nucleon, relevant for future high intensity neutrino beam facilities

  15. Scattering theory for Stark Hamiltonians

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Jensen, Arne

    1994-01-01

    An introduction to the spectral and scattering theory for Schroedinger operators is given. An abstract short range scattering theory is developed. It is applied to perturbations of the Laplacian. Particular attention is paid to the study of Stark Hamiltonians. The main result is an explanation of the discrepancy between the classical and the quantum scattering theory for one-dimensional Stark Hamiltonians. (author). 47 refs

  16. CONFERENCE: Elastic and diffractive scattering

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    White, Alan

    1989-01-01

    Elastic scattering, when particles appear to 'bounce' off each other, and the related phenomena of diffractive scattering are currently less fashionable than the study of hard scattering processes. However this could change rapidly if unexpected results from the UA4 experiment at the CERN Collider are confirmed and their implications tested. These questions were highlighted at the third 'Blois Workshop' on Elastic and Diffractive Scattering, held early in May on the Evanston campus of Northwestern University, near Chicago

  17. Light scattering by small particles

    CERN Document Server

    Hulst, H C van de

    1981-01-01

    ""A must for researchers using the techniques of light scattering."" ? S. C. Snowdon, Journal of the Franklin InstituteThe measurement of light scattering of independent, homogeneous particles has many useful applications in physical chemistry, meteorology and astronomy. There is, however, a sizeable gap between the abstract formulae related to electromagnetic-wave-scattering phenomena, and the computation of reliable figures and curves. Dr. van de Hulst's book enables researchers to bridge that gap. The product of twelve years of work, it is an exhaustive study of light-scattering properties

  18. Light Scattering at Various Angles

    Science.gov (United States)

    Latimer, Paul; Pyle, B. E.

    1972-01-01

    The Mie theory of scattering is used to provide new information on how changes in particle volume, with no change in dry weight, should influence light scattering for various scattering angles and particle sizes. Many biological cells (e.g., algal cells, erythrocytes) and large subcellular structures (e.g., chloroplasts, mitochondria) in suspension undergo this type of reversible volume change, a change which is related to changes in the rates of cellular processes. A previous study examined the effects of such volume changes on total scattering. In this paper scattering at 10° is found to follow total scattering closely, but scattering at 45°, 90°, 135°, and 170° behaves differently. Small volume changes can cause very large observable changes in large angle scattering if the sample particles are uniform in size; however, the natural particle size heterogeneity of most samples would mask this effect. For heterogeneous samples of most particle size ranges, particle shrink-age is found to increase large angle scattering. PMID:4556610

  19. Dispersion Decay and Scattering Theory

    CERN Document Server

    Komech, Alexander

    2012-01-01

    A simplified, yet rigorous treatment of scattering theory methods and their applications Dispersion Decay and Scattering Theory provides thorough, easy-to-understand guidance on the application of scattering theory methods to modern problems in mathematics, quantum physics, and mathematical physics. Introducing spectral methods with applications to dispersion time-decay and scattering theory, this book presents, for the first time, the Agmon-Jensen-Kato spectral theory for the Schr?dinger equation, extending the theory to the Klein-Gordon equation. The dispersion decay plays a crucial role i

  20. Introduction to Schroedinger inverse scattering

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Roberts, T.M.

    1991-01-01

    Schroedinger inverse scattering uses scattering coefficients and bound state data to compute underlying potentials. Inverse scattering has been studied extensively for isolated potentials q(x), which tend to zero as vertical strokexvertical stroke→∞. Inverse scattering for isolated impurities in backgrounds p(x) that are periodic, are Heaviside steps, are constant for x>0 and periodic for x<0, or that tend to zero as x→∞ and tend to ∞ as x→-∞, have also been studied. This paper identifies literature for the five inverse problems just mentioned, and for four other inverse problems. Heaviside-step backgrounds are discussed at length. (orig.)