Elastic electron scattering at large momentum transfer
International Nuclear Information System (INIS)
Arnold, R.G.
1979-05-01
A review is given of elastic electron scattering at large momentum transfer (Q 2 > 20 fm -2 ) from nuclei with A less than or equal to 4. Recent experimental results are reviewed and the current problems in interpretation of these results are pointed out. Some questions for future experiments are posed, and a preview of possible future measurements is presented. 28 references
Momentum transfer in a Brillouin surface scattering
International Nuclear Information System (INIS)
Khater, A.F.
1980-01-01
The theory of acoustic excitation scattering in the surface of Brilloiun of opaque materials, is related to the question of momentum transfexed from radiation fields to the material when the incident eight is scattered in a measurable spectrum. (A.C.A.S.) [pt
Inelastic electron scattering at low momentum transfer
International Nuclear Information System (INIS)
Richter, A.
1979-01-01
Recent advances of high energy resolution (ΔE approx. 30 keV FWHM) inelastic electron scattering at low momentum transfer (q -1 ) using selected experimental data from the Darmstadt electron linear accelerator are discussed. Strong emphasis is given to a comparison of the data with theoretical nuclear model predictions. Of the low multipolarity electric transitions investigated, as examples only E1 transitions to unnatural parity states in 11 B and E2 transitions of the very fragmented isoscalar quadrupole giant resonance in 208 Pb are considered. In 11 B the role of the Os hole in the configuration of the 1/2 + , 3/2 + and 5/2 + states is quantitatively determined via an interference mechanism in the transition probability. By comparison of the high resolution data with RPA calculations the E2 EWSR in 208 Pb is found to be much less exhausted than anticipated from previous medium energy resolution (e,e) and hadron scattering experiments. In the case of M1 transitions it is shown that the simplest idealized independent particle shell-model prediction breaks down badly. In 28 Si, ground-state correlations influence largely the detected M1 strength and such ground-state correlations are also responsible for the occurence of a strong M1 transition to a state at Ex = 10.319 MeV in 40 Ca. In 90 Zr only about 10% of the theoretically expected M1 strength is seen in (e,e) and in 140 Ce and 208 Pb none (detection limit 1-2 μ 2 K). In the case of 208 Pb high resolution spectra exist now up to an excitation energy of Ex = approx. 12MeV. The continuous decrease of the M1 strength with mass number is corroborated by the behaviour of strong but very fragmented M2 transitions which are detected in 28 Si, 90 Zr, 140 Ce and 208 Pb concentrated at an excitation energy E x approx. 44A -1 / 3 MeV. In 90 Zr, the distribution of spacings and widths of the many Jπ = 2 states are consistent with a Wigner and Porter-Thomas distribution, respectively. (orig.) 891 KBE/orig. 892 ARA
Inelastic electron photon scattering at moderate four momentum transfers
International Nuclear Information System (INIS)
Berger, C.; Genzel, H.; Grigull, R.; Lackas, W.; Raupach, F.; Klovning, A.; Lillestoel, E.; Skard, J.A.; Ackermann, H.; Buerger, J.
1980-10-01
We present new high statistics data on hadron production in photon photon reactions. The data are analyzed in terms of an electron photon scattering formalism. The dependence of the total cross section on Q 2 , the four momentum transfer squared of the scattered electron, and on the mass W of the hadronic system is investigated. The data are compared to predictions from Vector Dominance and the quark model. (orig.)
Neutron scattering on liquid He4 at high momentum transfers
International Nuclear Information System (INIS)
Parlinski, K.
1975-01-01
Using the Sears method of expansion of the dynamic structure factor into a series over the inverse powers of the wave vector and five moments of the velocity correlation function, the distribution of neutrons scattered on liquid helium at T=0 K and at the momentum transfer k=14.33 A -1 is calculated. The calculated distribution takes into account the interaction among helium atoms. The distributions are compared with the experimental data. The results show that proper information of the occupation fraction of the zero-momentum state - the condensate - can be obtained by the neutron scatterng method at high-momentum transfers only when the interaction among helium atoms is taken into account. (author)
On expansion of scattering amplitude at large momentum transfers
International Nuclear Information System (INIS)
Edneral, V.F.; Troshin, S.M.; Tyurin, N.E.
1979-01-01
The aim of the paper is to construct an iterative approximation for hadronic scattering amplitude and to search for the related small parameters. The expansion of the amplitude is obtained. A series is derived where the role of the small parameter is played by the quantity dependent on the momentum transfer. The appearance of the small parameter is directly related to the growth of total cross section. For the case g 2 not equal to 0 in the framework of the strong interaction theory model, based on the solution of three-domensional dynamical equation an expression is obtained for scattering amplitude in the form of a series over the quantity decreasing with the growth of momentum transfer
Magnetic electron scattering from deuterium at low-momentum transfer
International Nuclear Information System (INIS)
Jones, E.C. Jr.; Bendel, W.L.; Fagg, L.W.; Lindgren, R.A.
1980-01-01
The elastic and inelastic cross sections of deuterium for 56.4 MeV electrons scattered at 180 0 , have been measured up to an excitation energy of 19 MeV. The experimental cross sections are compared with those calculated by Miller, by Durand, and by Arenhoevel and Fabian, and also with the sum rules of O'Connell. The results indicate that the contribution of meson exchange currents at this low-momentum transfer is significant
Large momentum transfer electron scattering from few-nucleon systems
International Nuclear Information System (INIS)
Arnold, R.G.
1979-08-01
A review is given of the experimental results from a series of measurements at SLAC of large momentum transfer (Q 2 > 20 fm -2 ) electron scattering at forward angles from nuclei with A less than or equal to 4. Theoretical interpretations of these data in terms of traditional nuclear physics models and in terms of quark constituent models are described. Some physics questions for future experiments are explored, and a preview of possible future measurements of magnetic structure functions of light nuclei at large Q 2 is given
Nuclear Transparency in Large Momentum Transfer Quasielastic Scattering
International Nuclear Information System (INIS)
Mardor, I.; Aclander, J.; Alster, J.; Kosonovsky, E.; Mardor, Y.; Navon, I.; Piasetzky, E.; Durrant, S.; Barton, D.; Bunce, G.; Carroll, A.; Gushue, S.; Makdisi, Y.; Roser, T.; Tanaka, M.; Christensen, N.; Courant, H.; Marshak, M.; White, C.; Heppelmann, S.; Minor, E.D.; Wu, J.; Nicholson, H.; Sutton, C.S.; Russell, J.
1998-01-01
We measured simultaneously pp elastic and quasielastic (p,2p) scattering in hydrogen, deuterium, and carbon for momentum transfers of 4.8 to 6.2 (GeV/c) 2 at incoming momenta of 5.9 and 7.5 GeV/c and center-of-mass scattering angles in the range θ c.m. =83.7 degree - 90 degree . The nuclear transparency is defined as the ratio of the quasielastic cross section to the free pp cross section. At incoming momentum of 5.9 GeV/c , the transparency of carbon decreases by a factor of 2 from θ c.m. ≅85 degree to θ c.m. ≅89 degree . At the largest angle the transparency of carbon increases from 5.9 to 7.5 GeV/c by more than 50%. The transparency in deuterium does not depend on incoming momentum nor on θ c.m. . copyright 1998 The American Physical Society
Virtual Compton scattering off protons at moderately large momentum transfer
International Nuclear Information System (INIS)
Kroll, P.
1996-01-01
The amplitudes for virtual Compton scattering off protons are calculated within the framework of the diquark model in which protons are viewed as being built up by quarks and diquarks. The latter objects are treated as quasi-elementary constituents of the proton. Virtual Compton scattering, electroproduction off protons and the Bethe-Heitler contamination are photon discussed for various kinematical situations. We particularly emphasize the role of the electron asymmetry for measuring the relative phases between the virtual Compton and the Bethe-Heitler amplitudes. It is also shown that the model is able to describe very well the experimental data for real Compton scattering off protons. (orig.)
Virtual compton scattering off protons at moderately large momentum transfer
Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)
Kroll, P; Schuermann, M [Wuppertal Univ. (Gesamthochschule) (Germany); Guichon, P A.M. [CEA Centre d` Etudes de Saclay, 91 - Gif-sur-Yvette (France). Dept. d` Astrophysique, de la Physique des Particules, de la Physique Nucleaire et de l` Instrumentation Associee
1995-06-28
The amplitudes for virtual Compton scattering off protons are calculated within the framework of the diquark model in which protons are viewed as being built up by quarks and diquarks. The latter objects are treated as quasi-elementary constituents of the proton. Virtual Compton scattering, electroproduction of photons and the Bethe-Heitler contamination are discussed for various kinematical situations. We particularly emphasize the role of the electron asymmetry for measuring the relative phases between the virtual Compton and the Bethe-Heitler amplitudes. It is also shown that the model is able to describe very well the experimental data for real Compton scattering off protons. (authors). 35 refs., 8 figs., 1 tab.
Virtual compton scattering off protons at moderately large momentum transfer
International Nuclear Information System (INIS)
Kroll, P.; Schuermann, M.; Guichon, P.A.M.
1995-01-01
The amplitudes for virtual Compton scattering off protons are calculated within the framework of the diquark model in which protons are viewed as being built up by quarks and diquarks. The latter objects are treated as quasi-elementary constituents of the proton. Virtual Compton scattering, electroproduction of photons and the Bethe-Heitler contamination are discussed for various kinematical situations. We particularly emphasize the role of the electron asymmetry for measuring the relative phases between the virtual Compton and the Bethe-Heitler amplitudes. It is also shown that the model is able to describe very well the experimental data for real Compton scattering off protons. (authors). 35 refs., 8 figs., 1 tab
Analysis of elastic scattering at low momentum transfer
International Nuclear Information System (INIS)
Pumplin, J.
1991-11-01
A method for analyzing high energy elastic scattering data is described, which improves on previous methods to extract σ tot , σ el , B, and ρ=ReM(0)/ImM(0) from experiment by properly allowing for the curvature of 1ndσ/dt with t. The method is used to make a critical analysis of data at √s=19.4, 546, and 1800 GeV. It is found that previous analyses systematically underestimate the forward slope B. The large value of ρ obtained by UA4 at √s=546 GeV is shown to be doubtful. The method described here should aid in the analysis of forthcoming data from UA4/2 and E710. (orig.)
Quasi-elastic scattering of electrons from 40Ca at high momentum transfer
International Nuclear Information System (INIS)
Yates, T.C.
1992-01-01
Previous quasi-elastic electron scattering experiments have yielded seemingly inconsistent results when the integrated longitudinal strength is compared to calculations using the relativistic fermi gas model. Measurements made at Saclay on 12 C, 40 Ca, 48 Ca, 56 Fe, and 208 Pb indicated a smaller integrated longitudinal strength than expected on the basis of the relativistic fermi gas model. However, 238 U data taken at Bates showed nearly the full expected longitudinal strength at a momentum transfer of 550 MeV/c. This is one of the outstanding discrepancies in nuclear physics. Earlier experiments were hampered in that high momentum transfer could not be obtained at forward angles where the longtudinal strength is a large fraction of the total strength. The present experiment was designed to take advantage of the higher energy capability (greater than 800 MeV) at Bates recirculated linac in order to obtain momentum transfers greater than 600 MeV/c at a scattering angle of 45.5 degrees. Under these conditions the longitudinal strength is 40-75% of the total quasi-elastic strength
Measurement of diffractive scattering of photons with large momentum transfer at HERA
International Nuclear Information System (INIS)
Aaron, F.D.; Andreev, V.
2008-09-01
The first measurement of diffractive scattering of quasi-real photons with large momentum transfer γp → γY, where Y is the proton dissociative system, is made using the H1 detector at HERA. The measurement is performed for initial photon virtualities Q 2 2 . Cross sections are measured as a function of W, the incident photonproton centre of mass energy, and t, the square of the four-momentum transferred at the proton vertex, in the range 175 2 . The W dependence is well described by a model based on perturbative QCD using a leading logarithmic approximation of the BFKL evolution. The measured vertical stroke t vertical stroke dependence is harder than that predicted by the model and those observed in exclusive vector meson production. (orig.)
Measurement of diffractive scattering of photons with large momentum transfer at HERA
Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)
Aaron, F.D. [National Institute for Physics and Nuclear Engineering (NIPNE), Bucharest (Romania)]|[Bucharest Univ. (Romania). Faculty of Physics; Alexa, C. [National Institute for Physics and Nuclear Engineering (NIPNE), Bucharest (Romania); Andreev, V. [Lebedev Physical Institute, Moscow (RU)] (and others)
2008-09-15
The first measurement of diffractive scattering of quasi-real photons with large momentum transfer {gamma}p {yields} {gamma}Y, where Y is the proton dissociative system, is made using the H1 detector at HERA. The measurement is performed for initial photon virtualities Q{sup 2} < 0.01 GeV{sup 2}. Cross sections are measured as a function of W, the incident photonproton centre of mass energy, and t, the square of the four-momentum transferred at the proton vertex, in the range 175 < W < 247 GeV and 4 < vertical stroke t vertical stroke < 36 GeV{sup 2}. The W dependence is well described by a model based on perturbative QCD using a leading logarithmic approximation of the BFKL evolution. The measured vertical stroke t vertical stroke dependence is harder than that predicted by the model and those observed in exclusive vector meson production. (orig.)
Measurement of Diffractive Scattering of Photons with Large Momentum Transfer at HERA
Aaron, F.D.; Andreev, V.; Antunovic, B.; Aplin, S.; Asmone, A.; Astvatsatourov, A.; Bacchetta, A.; Backovic, S.; Baghdasaryan, A.; Baranov, P.; Barrelet, E.; Bartel, W.; Beckingham, M.; Begzsuren, K.; Behnke, O.; Belousov, A.; Berger, N.; Bizot, J.C.; Boenig, M.-O.; Boudry, V.; Bozovic-Jelisavcic, I.; Bracinik, J.; Brandt, G.; Brinkmann, M.; Brisson, V.; Bruncko, D.; Bunyatyan, A.; Buschhorn, G.; Bystritskaya, L.; Campbell, A.J.; Cantun Avila, K.B.; Cassol-Brunner, F.; Cerny, K.; Cerny, V.; Chekelian, V.; Cholewa, A.; Contreras, J.G.; Coughlan, J.A.; Cozzika, G.; Cvach, J.; Dainton, J.B.; Daum, K.; Deak, M.; de Boer, Y.; Delcourt, B.; Del Degan, M.; Delvax, J.; De Roeck, A.; De Wolf, E.A.; Diaconu, C.; Dodonov, V.; Dossanov, A.; Dubak, A.; Eckerlin, G.; Efremenko, V.; Egli, S.; Eliseev, A.; Elsen, E.; Essenov, S.; Falkiewicz, A.; Faulkner, P.J.W.; Favart, L.; Fedotov, A.; Felst, R.; Feltesse, J.; Ferencei, J.; Finke, L.; Fleischer, M.; Fomenko, A.; Gabathuler, E.; Gayler, J.; Ghazaryan, Samvel; Glazov, A.; Glushkov, I.; Goerlich, L.; Goettlich, M.; Gogitidze, N.; Gouzevitch, M.; Grab, C.; Greenshaw, T.; Grell, B.R.; Grindhammer, G.; Habib, S.; Haidt, D.; Hansson, M.; Helebrant, C.; Henderson, R.C.W.; Henschel, H.; Herrera, G.; Hildebrandt, M.; Hiller, K.H.; Hoffmann, D.; Horisberger, R.; Hovhannisyan, A.; Hreus, T.; Jacquet, M.; Janssen, M.E.; Janssen, X.; Jemanov, V.; Jonsson, L.; Johnson, D.P.; Jung, Andreas Werner; Jung, H.; Kapichine, M.; Katzy, J.; Kenyon, I.R.; Kiesling, C.; Klein, M.; Kleinwort, C.; Klimkovich, T.; Kluge, T.; Knutsson, A.; Kogler, R.; Korbel, V.; Kostka, P.; Kraemer, M.; Krastev, K.; Kretzschmar, J.; Kropivnitskaya, A.; Kruger, K.; Kutak, K.; Landon, M.P.J.; Lange, W.; Lastovicka-Medin, G.; Laycock, P.; Lebedev, A.; Leibenguth, G.; Lendermann, V.; Levonian, S.; Li, G.; Lipka, K.; Liptaj, A.; List, B.; List, J.; Loktionova, N.; Lopez-Fernandez, R.; Lubimov, V.; Lucaci-Timoce, A.-I.; Lytkin, L.; Makankine, A.; Malinovski, E.; Marage, P.; Marti, Ll.; Martyn, H.-U.; Maxfield, S.J.; Mehta, A.; Meier, K.; Meyer, A.B.; Meyer, H.; Meyer, H.; Meyer, J.; Michels, V.; Mikocki, S.; Milcewicz-Mika, I.; Moreau, F.; Morozov, A.; Morris, J.V.; Mozer, Matthias Ulrich; Mudrinic, M.; Muller, K.; Murin, P.; Nankov, K.; Naroska, B.; Naumann, Th.; Newman, Paul R.; Niebuhr, C.; Nikiforov, A.; Nowak, G.; Nowak, K.; Nozicka, M.; Olivier, B.; Olsson, J.E.; Osman, S.; Ozerov, D.; Palichik, V.; Panagoulias, I.; Pandurovic, M.; Papadopoulou, Th.; Pascaud, C.; Patel, G.D.; Pejchal, O.; Peng, H.; Perez, E.; Petrukhin, A.; Picuric, I.; Piec, S.; Pitzl, D.; Placakyte, R.; Polifka, R.; Povh, B.; Preda, T.; Radescu, V.; Rahmat, A.J.; Raicevic, N.; Raspiareza, A.; Ravdandorj, T.; Reimer, P.; Rizvi, E.; Robmann, P.; Roland, B.; Roosen, R.; Rostovtsev, A.; Rotaru, M.; Ruiz Tabasco, J.E.; Rurikova, Z.; Rusakov, S.; Salek, D.; Salvaire, F.; Sankey, D.P.C.; Sauter, M.; Sauvan, E.; Schmidt, S.; Schmitt, S.; Schmitz, C.; Schoeffel, L.; Schoning, A.; Schultz-Coulon, H.-C.; Sefkow, F.; Shaw-West, R.N.; Sheviakov, I.; Shtarkov, L.N.; Shushkevich, S.; Sloan, T.; Smiljanic, Ivan; Smirnov, P.; Soloviev, Y.; Sopicki, P.; South, D.; Spaskov, V.; Specka, Arnd E.; Staykova, Z.; Steder, M.; Stella, B.; Straumann, U.; Sunar, D.; Sykora, T.; Tchoulakov, V.; Thompson, G.; Thompson, P.D.; Toll, T.; Tomasz, F.; Tran, T.H.; Traynor, D.; Trinh, T.N.; Truol, P.; Tsakov, I.; Tseepeldorj, B.; Tsurin, I.; Turnau, J.; Tzamariudaki, E.; Urban, K.; Valkarova, A.; Vallee, C.; Van Mechelen, P.; Vargas Trevino, A.; Vazdik, Y.; Vinokurova, S.; Volchinski, V.; Wegener, D.; Wessels, M.; Wissing, Ch.; Wunsch, E.; Yeganov, V.; Zacek, J.; Zalesak, J.; Zhang, Z.; Zhelezov, A.; Zhokin, A.; Zhu, Y.C.; Zimmermann, T.; Zohrabyan, H.; Zomer, F.
2009-01-01
The first measurement of diffractive scattering of quasi-real photons with large momentum transfer gamma p -> gamma Y, where Y is the proton dissociative system, is made using the H1 detector at HERA. The measurement is performed for initial photon virtualities Q^2 < 0.01 GeV^2. Cross sections are measured as a function of W, the incident photon-proton entre of mass energy, and t, the square of the four-momentum transferred at the proton vertex, in the range 175 < W < 247 GeV and 4<|t|<36 GeV^2. The W dependence is well described by a model based on perturbative QCD using a leading logarithmic approximation of the BFKL evolution. The measured |t| dependence is harder than that predicted by the model and those observed in exclusive vector meson production.
Measurement of diffractive scattering of photons with large momentum transfer at HERA
H1 Collaboration; Aaron, F. D.; Alexa, C.; Andreev, V.; Antunovic, B.; Aplin, S.; Asmone, A.; Astvatsatourov, A.; Bacchetta, A.; Backovic, S.; Baghdasaryan, A.; Baranov, P.; Barrelet, E.; Bartel, W.; Beckingham, M.; Begzsuren, K.; Behnke, O.; Belousov, A.; Berger, N.; Bizot, J. C.; Boenig, M.-O.; Boudry, V.; Bozovic-Jelisavcic, I.; Bracinik, J.; Brandt, G.; Brinkmann, M.; Brisson, V.; Bruncko, D.; Bunyatyan, A.; Buschhorn, G.; Bystritskaya, L.; Campbell, A. J.; Cantun Avila, K. B.; Cassol-Brunner, F.; Cerny, K.; Cerny, V.; Chekelian, V.; Cholewa, A.; Contreras, J. G.; Coughlan, J. A.; Cozzika, G.; Cvach, J.; Dainton, J. B.; Daum, K.; Deák, M.; de Boer, Y.; Delcourt, B.; Del Degan, M.; Delvax, J.; de Roeck, A.; de Wolf, E. A.; Diaconu, C.; Dodonov, V.; Dossanov, A.; Dubak, A.; Eckerlin, G.; Efremenko, V.; Egli, S.; Eliseev, A.; Elsen, E.; Essenov, S.; Falkiewicz, A.; Faulkner, P. J. W.; Favart, L.; Fedotov, A.; Felst, R.; Feltesse, J.; Ferencei, J.; Finke, L.; Fleischer, M.; Fomenko, A.; Gabathuler, E.; Gayler, J.; Ghazaryan, S.; Glazov, A.; Glushkov, I.; Goerlich, L.; Goettlich, M.; Gogitidze, N.; Gouzevitch, M.; Grab, C.; Greenshaw, T.; Grell, B. R.; Grindhammer, G.; Habib, S.; Haidt, D.; Hansson, M.; Helebrant, C.; Henderson, R. C. W.; Henschel, H.; Herrera, G.; Hildebrandt, M.; Hiller, K. H.; Hoffmann, D.; Horisberger, R.; Hovhannisyan, A.; Hreus, T.; Jacquet, M.; Janssen, M. E.; Janssen, X.; Jemanov, V.; Jönsson, L.; Johnson, D. P.; Jung, A. W.; Jung, H.; Kapichine, M.; Katzy, J.; Kenyon, I. R.; Kiesling, C.; Klein, M.; Kleinwort, C.; Klimkovich, T.; Kluge, T.; Knutsson, A.; Kogler, R.; Korbel, V.; Kostka, P.; Kraemer, M.; Krastev, K.; Kretzschmar, J.; Kropivnitskaya, A.; Krüger, K.; Kutak, K.; Landon, M. P. J.; Lange, W.; Laštovička-Medin, G.; Laycock, P.; Lebedev, A.; Leibenguth, G.; Lendermann, V.; Levonian, S.; Li, G.; Lipka, K.; Liptaj, A.; List, B.; List, J.; Loktionova, N.; Lopez-Fernandez, R.; Lubimov, V.; Lucaci-Timoce, A.-I.; Lytkin, L.; Makankine, A.; Malinovski, E.; Marage, P.; Marti, Ll.; Martyn, H.-U.; Maxfield, S. J.; Mehta, A.; Meier, K.; Meyer, A. B.; Meyer, H.; Meyer, H.; Meyer, J.; Michels, V.; Mikocki, S.; Milcewicz-Mika, I.; Moreau, F.; Morozov, A.; Morris, J. V.; Mozer, M. U.; Mudrinic, M.; Müller, K.; Murín, P.; Nankov, K.; Naroska, B.; Naumann, Th.; Newman, P. R.; Niebuhr, C.; Nikiforov, A.; Nowak, G.; Nowak, K.; Nozicka, M.; Olivier, B.; Olsson, J. E.; Osman, S.; Ozerov, D.; Palichik, V.; Panagoulias, I.; Pandurovic, M.; Papadopoulou, Th.; Pascaud, C.; Patel, G. D.; Pejchal, O.; Peng, H.; Perez, E.; Petrukhin, A.; Picuric, I.; Piec, S.; Pitzl, D.; Plačakytė, R.; Polifka, R.; Povh, B.; Preda, T.; Radescu, V.; Rahmat, A. J.; Raicevic, N.; Raspiareza, A.; Ravdandorj, T.; Reimer, P.; Rizvi, E.; Robmann, P.; Roland, B.; Roosen, R.; Rostovtsev, A.; Rotaru, M.; Ruiz Tabasco, J. E.; Rurikova, Z.; Rusakov, S.; Salek, D.; Salvaire, F.; Sankey, D. P. C.; Sauter, M.; Sauvan, E.; Schmidt, S.; Schmitt, S.; Schmitz, C.; Schoeffel, L.; Schöning, A.; Schultz-Coulon, H.-C.; Sefkow, F.; Shaw-West, R. N.; Sheviakov, I.; Shtarkov, L. N.; Shushkevich, S.; Sloan, T.; Smiljanic, I.; Smirnov, P.; Soloviev, Y.; Sopicki, P.; South, D.; Spaskov, V.; Specka, A.; Staykova, Z.; Steder, M.; Stella, B.; Straumann, U.; Sunar, D.; Sykora, T.; Tchoulakov, V.; Thompson, G.; Thompson, P. D.; Toll, T.; Tomasz, F.; Tran, T. H.; Traynor, D.; Trinh, T. N.; Truöl, P.; Tsakov, I.; Tseepeldorj, B.; Tsurin, I.; Turnau, J.; Tzamariudaki, E.; Urban, K.; Valkárová, A.; Vallée, C.; van Mechelen, P.; Vargas Trevino, A.; Vazdik, Y.; Vinokurova, S.; Volchinski, V.; Wegener, D.; Wessels, M.; Wissing, Ch.; Wünsch, E.; Yeganov, V.; Žáček, J.; Zálešák, J.; Zhang, Z.; Zhelezov, A.; Zhokin, A.; Zhu, Y. C.; Zimmermann, T.; Zohrabyan, H.; Zomer, F.
2009-02-01
The first measurement of diffractive scattering of quasi-real photons with large momentum transfer γp→γY, where Y is the proton dissociative system, is made using the H1 detector at HERA. The measurement is performed for initial photon virtualities Q<0.01 GeV. Single differential cross sections are measured as a function of W, the incident photon-proton centre of mass energy, and t, the square of the four-momentum transferred at the proton vertex, in the range 175
International Nuclear Information System (INIS)
David Abbott; Abdellah Ahmidouch; Heinz Anklin; Francois Arvieux; Jacques Ball; Beedoe, S.; Elizabeth Beise; Louis Bimbot; Werner Boeglin; Herbert Breuer; Roger Carlini; Nicholas Chant; Samuel Danagoulian; Dow, K.; Jean-Eric Ducret; James Dunne; Lars Ewell; Laurent Eyraud; Christophe Furget; Michel Garcon; Ronald Gilman; Charles Glashausser; Paul Gueye; Kenneth Gustafsson; Kawtar Hafidi; Adrian Honegger; Juerg Jourdan; Serge Kox; Gerfried Kumbartzki; Lu, L.; Allison Lung; David Mack; Pete Markowitz; Justin McIntyre; David Meekins; Fernand Merchez; Joseph Mitchell; Mohring, R.; Sekazi Mtingwa; Hamlet Mkrtchyan; David Pitz; Liming Qin; Ronald Ransome; Jean-Sebastien Real; Philip Roos; Paul Rutt; Reyad Sawafta; Samuel Stepanyan; Raphael Tieulent; Egle Tomasi-Gustafsson; William Turchinetz; Kelley Vansyoc; Jochen Volmer; Eric Voutier; William Vulcan; Claude Williamson; Stephen Wood; Chen Yan; Jie Zhao; Wenxia Zhao
2000-01-01
Tensor polarization observables (t20, t21 and t22) have been measured in elastic electron-deuteron scattering for six values of momentum transfer between 0.66 and 1.7 (GeV/c) 2 . The experiment was performed at the Jefferson Laboratory in Hall C using the electron HMS Spectrometer, a specially designed deuteron magnetic channel and the recoil deuteron polarimeter POLDER. The new data determine to much larger Q 2 the deuteron charge form factors G C and G Q . They are in good agreement with relativistic calculations and disagree with pQCD predictions
Low momentum transfer theorem for two photon exchange in lepton hardron scattering
International Nuclear Information System (INIS)
Penarrocha, J.A.; Bernabeu, J.
1981-01-01
The two photon contribution to lepton-hardon scattering is considered. Under the assumptions of Lorentz covarience, gauge invarience, unitarity, and analyticity, we prove a low momentum transfer theorem for the relevant amplitudes. Fixed energy dispersion relations tell us that their nonanalytic part, in the neighbourhood of t = 0, is given by the contribution of the two photon cut in the t-channel. The t-channel absorptive parts are obtained from unitarity. Their calculation has as input the two amplitudes corresponding to Compton scattering on the hadron with a pole contribution, and the continuum controlled at low t by the electromagnetic polarizabilities. By means of the dispersion integral, one proves the expansion k 1 (s)+k 2 (s)√-t+k 3 (s)tlog(-t)+O(t) for the continuum contribution, where k 1 (s) is the only unknown. Explicit expressions are obtained for the pole contribution as M→infinity, where M is the hadron mass, and for the continuum when (-t) 2 , where m is the muon mass and Λ is a characteristic parameter of the hadron structure
International Nuclear Information System (INIS)
Hummel, E.; Tjon, J.A.
1989-01-01
Using the one-boson-exchange model a relativistic covariant analysis is carried out of the elastic electromagnetic form factors of the deuteron including the ρπγ and ωεγ mesonic-exchange-current contributions. The theoretical predictions are compared with the recent experimental data at high momentum transfer
New results on kaon-proton elastic scattering at large momentum transfers
International Nuclear Information System (INIS)
Asa'd, Z.; Coupland, M.; Davis, D.G.; Duff, B.G.; Fearnley, T.; Heymann, F.F.; Imrie, D.C.; Lowndes, R.; Lush, G.J.; Phillips, M.; Baglin, C.; Guillaud, J.P.; Poulet, M.; Yvert, M.; Hansen, J.D.; Myrheim, J.; Brobakken, K.; Buran, T.; Buzzo, A.; Ferroni, S.; Gracco, V.; Helgaker, P.; Kirsebom, K.; Santroni, A.; Skjevling, G.; Soerensen, S.O.
1983-01-01
Measurements of the K - p and K 8 p elastic differential cross sections at 20 and 50 GeV/c, respectively, have been made in the momentum transfer range 0.7< vertical stroketvertical stroke<8.0 GeV/c. (orig.)
Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)
Blomberg, Adam [Temple Univ., Philadelphia, PA (United States)
2016-12-01
Non-spherical components of the nucleon wave function are measured through p(e,e'p)π^{0} experiment at the Δ^{+}(1232) resonance for Q^{2} = 0.04, 0.09, and 0.13 (GeV=c)^{2} utilizing the Jefferson National Accelerator Facility (JLab) pulsed beam and Hall A spectrometers. The new data extend the measurements of the Coulomb quadrupole amplitude to the lowest momentum transfer ever reached. The results disagree with predictions of constituent quark models and are in reasonable agreement with dynamical calculations that include pion cloud effects, chiral effective field theory and lattice calculations. The reported measurements indicate that improvement is required to the theoretical calculations and provide valuable input that will allow their refinements. The Coulomb to magnetic multipole ratio (CMR) and generalized polarizability (GP) of the nucleon are also measured through virtual Compton scattering (VCS) for Q^{2} = 0.2(GeV=c)^{2} utilizing the Mainz Microtron (MAMI) continuous beam and A1 spectrometers. This data represents the first low Q^{2} GP measurement at the Δ^{+}(1232) resonance. The GP measurement explores a region where previous data and theoretical calculations disagree. The CMR measurement will be the first VCS extraction to compare with world data generated through pion electroproduction. The Dispersion Relation (DR) model used for the VCS extraction provides a new theoretical framework for the data signal and backgrounds that is largely independent from the pion electroproduction models. The independence of the DR from the traditional models provides a strong crosscheck on the ability of the models to isolate the data signal.
Large momentum transfer phenomena
International Nuclear Information System (INIS)
Imachi, Masahiro; Otsuki, Shoichiro; Matsuoka, Takeo; Sawada, Shoji.
1978-01-01
The large momentum transfer phenomena in hadron reaction drastically differ from small momentum transfer phenomena, and are described in this paper. Brief review on the features of the large transverse momentum transfer reactions is described in relation with two-body reactions, single particle productions, particle ratios, two jet structure, two particle correlations, jet production cross section, and the component of momentum perpendicular to the plane defined by the incident protons and the triggered pions and transverse momentum relative to jet axis. In case of two-body process, the exponent N of the power law of the differential cross section is a value between 10 to 11.5 in the large momentum transfer region. The breaks of the exponential behaviors into the power ones are observed at the large momentum transfer region. The break would enable to estimate the order of a critical length. The large momentum transfer phenomena strongly suggest an important role of constituents of hadrons in the hard region. Hard rearrangement of constituents from different initial hadrons induces large momentum transfer reactions. Several rules to count constituents in the hard region have been proposed so far to explain the power behavior. Scale invariant quark interaction and hard reactions are explained, and a summary of the possible types of hard subprocess is presented. (Kato, T.)
Elastic electron scattering at low momentum transfer and muonic X-rays
International Nuclear Information System (INIS)
Barrett, R.C.
Mean square charge radius obtained at low momentum transfer is discussed in model-independent way. Muonic X-ray energies and form factors being expressed in terms of generalized moments of the charge density, the linear constraint functions from Friar and Negele are used to obtain an idea of the model-dependent error, r 2 . 208 Pb, 4 Ca and 4 He are considered as examples
Inelastic electron scattering from 3He and 4He in the threshold region at high momentum transfer
International Nuclear Information System (INIS)
Rock, S.; Arnold, R.G.; Chertok, B.T.; Szalata, Z.M.; Day, D.; McCarthy, J.S.; Martin, F.; Mecking, B.A.; Sick, I.; Tamas, G.
1981-01-01
The cross section for inclusive inelastic electron scattering from the helium isotopes has been measured at momentum transfers squared of 0.8 less than or equal to Q 2 less than or equal to 5.0 (GeV/c) 2 for 3 He and 0.8 less than or equal to Q 2 less than or equal to 2.4 (GeV/c) 2 for 4 He. The data were taken at 10 0 and cover the range 1.0 2 /2M/sub He/ν, which includes the elastic peak, nuclear breakup threshold, the high momentum tail of the quasi elastic scattering, and pion production. The structure function, νW 2 , derived from the data is approaching a scaling limit at high Q 2 . It can be factored into a product of functions of Q 2 and of x as predicted by some models
Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)
Gauron, P.; Nicolescu, B. [Paris-11 Univ., 91 - Orsay (France). Inst. de Physique Nucleaire; Selyugin, O.V. [Joint Inst. for Nuclear Research, Dubna (Russian Federation). Bogoliubov Lab. of Theoretical Physics
1996-10-01
It is shown that the high precision UA4/2 data for differential cross sections p-barp scattering are compatible with the presence of Auberson -Kinoshita - Martin (AKM) type of oscillations at very small momentum transfers. These oscillations seem to be periodic in {radical}|t|. The existence of such visible oscillations suggests a general mechanism of saturation of axiomatic bounds. As an illustration the consequences for extracting the parameter {rho} = ReF/ImF from dN/dt data are also discussed. (K.A.). 19 refs.
Antille, J; Dick, Louis; Gonidec, A; Kuroda, K; Kyberd, P; Michalowicz, A; Perret-Gallix, D; Salmon, G L; Werlen, M
1981-01-01
A measurement of the polarization parameter P/sub 0/ in pp elastic scattering has been made 24 GeV/c over the range of momentum transfer squared 0.7< mod t mod <5.0 (GeV/c)/sup 2/. The structure of P/sub 0/ has changed compared to typical lower energy data. The second peak is suppressed and a dip has appeared at mod t mod =3.6 (GeV/c)/sup 2/. (31 refs).
anti pp elastic scattering at 30 GeV/c incident momentum in the momentum transfer range 0.52
International Nuclear Information System (INIS)
Asa'd, Z.; Coupland, M.; Davis, D.G.; Duff, B.G.; Fearnley, T.; Heymann, F.F.; Imrie, D.C.; Lush, G.J.; Phillips, M.; Baglin, A.; Guillard, J.P.; Poulet, M.; Brom, J.M.; Myrheim, J.; Kenyon Gjerpe, I.; Buran, T.; Buzzo, A.; Ferroni, S.; Gracco, V.; Khan, E.; Kirsebom, K.; Macri, M.; Rossi, L.; Santroni, A.; Skjevling, G.; Sorensen, S.O.
1983-01-01
The anti pp elastic differential cross section at 30 GeV/c incident momentum has been measured in a two-arm spectrometer experiment (WA7) at the CERN SPS. The vertical stroketvertical stroke-range covered extends from 0.5 to 5.8 (GeV/c) 2 . A pronounced dip-bump structure is observed, with a sharp minimum around vertical stroketvertical strokeapprox.=1.7 (GeV/c) 2 . The results are compared with existing anti pp data at lower energies and with our earlier anti pp data at 50 GeV/c. A number of model predictions are discussed. We also compare the anti pp 30 GeV/c differential cross section with that of pp at the same momentum. Finally, the energy dependence of the anti pp fixed-vertical stroketvertical stroke differential cross section in the incident momentum range 3.6 to 50 GeV/c is presented. (orig.)
Oscillations in the hadron scattering amplitude at high energy and small momentum transfer
Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)
Nicolescu, B. [Institut de Physique Nucleaire, 91 - Orsay (France). Div. de Physique Theorique
1997-12-31
It is shown that the high precision dN/dt UA4/2 data at {radical}s = 541 GeV are compatible with the presence of Auberson - Kinoshita - Martin (AKM) type of oscillations at very small momentum transfers. These oscillations seem to be periodic in {radical}|t|, the corresponding period being {approx_equal} 2 x 10{sup -2} GeV. The existence of such visible oscillations suggests a general mechanism of saturation of axiomatic bounds. As an illustration the consequences for extracting the parameter {rho} = ReF/ImF from dN/dt data are also discussed. The necessity of specific future experiments in the crucially interesting TeV region of energy - at Tevatron, RHIC and LHC - is underlined. (author) 8 refs.
Inclusive electron scattering from nuclei in the quasielastic region at large momentum transfer
Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)
Fomin, Nadia [California Inst. of Technology (CalTech), Pasadena, CA (United States)
2008-12-01
Experiment E02-019, performed in Hall C at the Thomas Jefferson National Accelerator Facility (TJNAF), was a measurement of inclusive electron cross sections for several nuclei (^{2}H,^{3}He, ^{4}He, ^{9}Be,^{12}C, ^{63}Cu, and ^{197}Au) in the quasielastic region at high momentum transfer. In the region of low energy transfer, the cross sections were analyzed in terms of the reduced response, F(y), by examining its y-scaling behavior. The data were also examined in terms of the nuclear structure function νW^{A}_{ 2} and its behavior in x and the Nachtmann variable ξ. The data show approximate scaling of νW^{A}_{ 2} in ξ for all targets at all kinematics, unlike scaling in x, which is confined to the DIS regime. However, y-scaling observations are limited to the kinematic region dominated by the quasielastic response (y <0), where some scaling violations arising from FSIs are observed.
International Nuclear Information System (INIS)
Asa'd, Z.; Coupland, M.; Davis, D.G.; Duff, B.G.; Gjerpe, I.; Heymann, F.F.; Imrie, D.C.; Lowndes, R.; Lush, G.J.; Phillips, M.; Baglin, C.; Poulet, M.; Yvert, M.; Benso, S.; Buzzo, A.; Ferroni, S.; Gracco, V.; Macri, M.; Santroni, A.; Brobakken, K.; Bugge, L.; Buran, T.; Fearnley, T.; Helgaker, P.; Kirsebom, K.; Moe, A.; Soerensen, S.O.; Hansen, J.D.; Myrheim, J.; Skjevling, G.
1982-01-01
Measurements of the differential elastic cross sections for π - p scattering at incident momenta of 20 and 50 GeV/c and π + p at 50 GeV/c in the momentum transfer range 0.7 2 are presented. The data are compared with various models of elastic scattering. (orig.)
Towards a Precision Measurement of Parity-Violating e-p Elastic Scattering at Low Momentum Transfer
Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)
Pan, Jie [Univ. of Manitoba, Winnipeg (Canada)
2012-01-01
The goal of the Q-weak experiment is to make a measurement of the proton's weak charge Q_{W}^{p} = 1 - 4 sin^{2}(θ_{W2(θW2(θWWp by measuring the parity violating asymmetry in elastic electron-proton scattering at low momentum transfer Q2 = 0.026 (GeV/c)2 and forward angles (8 degrees). The anticipated size of the asymmetry, based on the SM, is about 230 parts per billion (ppb). With the proposed accuracy, the experiment may probe new physics beyond Standard Model at the TeV scale. This thesis focuses on my contributions to the experiment, including track reconstruction for momentum transfer determination of the scattering process, and the focal plane scanner, a detector I designed and built to measure the flux profile of scattered electrons on the focal plane of the Q-weak spectrometer to assist in the extrapolation of low beam current tracking results to high beam current. Preliminary results from the commissioning and the first run period of the Q-weak experiment are reported and discussed.}
Proton-proton elastic scattering at 50 GeV/c incident momentum in the momentum transfer range 0.82
International Nuclear Information System (INIS)
Baglin, C.; Guillaud, J.P.; Poulet, M.; Myrheim, J.; Asa'd, Z.; Coupland, M.; Davis, D.G.; Duff, B.G.; Fearnley, T.; Heymann, F.F.; Imrie, D.C.; Lush, G.J.; Phillips, M.; Brom, J.M.; Kenyon Gjerpe, I.; Buran, T.; Buzzo, A.; Ferroni, S.; Gracco, V.; Kirsebom, K.; Macri, M.; Santroni, A.; Skjevling, G.; Soerensen, S.O.
1983-01-01
A measurement of the proton-proton elastic differential cross section at 50 GeV/c incident momentum in the momentum transfer range 0.8 2 is presented. The data are compared to pp data at lower and higher energies, and to some model predictions. (orig.)
International Nuclear Information System (INIS)
Hreus, Tomas
2008-09-01
In this thesis, two studies of the diffractive phenomena in the electron proton collisions with the H1 detector at HERA are presented. The rst is the study of the inclusive elastic diffractive events ep → eXp in the regime of high photon virtuality (Q 2 >few GeV 2 ), with the scattered proton detected by the Very Forward Proton Spectrometer (VFPS). The VFPS detector, designed to measure diffractive scattered protons with high acceptance, has been installed in 2004 to benefit from the HERA II luminosity increase. The selected event sample of an integrated luminosity of 130.2 pb -1 was collected in years 2006-2007. Data sample distributions are compared to the prediction based on the diffractive parton distribution functions, as extracted from the H1 measurement of the diffractive structure function F D(3) 2 at HERA I. After the study of the VFPS efficiency, the VFPS acceptance as a function of x P is estimated and studied in relation to the forward proton beam optics. The second study leads to the cross section measurement of the diffractive scattering of quasi-real photons off protons, γp → γY, with the large momentum transfer, vertical stroke t vertical stroke. The final state photon is separated from the proton dissociation system, Y, by a large rapidity gap and has a large transverse momentum, p T > 2 GeV. Large p T imply the presence of the hard scale t (vertical stroke t vertical stroke ≅ p 2 T ) and allows predictions of the perturbative QCD to be applied. The measurement is based on an integrated luminosity 46.2 pb -1 of data collected in the 1999-2000 running period. Cross sections σ(W) as a function of the incident photon-proton centre of mass energy, W, and dσ/d vertical stroke t vertical stroke are measured in the range Q 2 2 , 175 2 and y P <0.05. The cross section measurements have been compared to predictions of LLA BFKL calculations. (orig.)
Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)
Hreus, Tomas
2008-11-15
In this thesis, two studies of the diffractive phenomena in the electron proton collisions with the H1 detector at HERA are presented. The rst is the study of the inclusive elastic diffractive events ep {yields} eXp in the regime of high photon virtuality (Q{sup 2}>few GeV{sup 2}), with the scattered proton detected by the Very Forward Proton Spectrometer (VFPS). The VFPS detector, designed to measure diffractive scattered protons with high acceptance, has been installed in 2004 to benefit from the HERA II luminosity increase. The selected event sample of an integrated luminosity of 130.2 pb{sup -1} was collected in years 2006-2007. Data sample distributions are compared to the prediction based on the diffractive parton distribution functions, as extracted from the H1 measurement of the diffractive structure function F{sup D(3)}{sub 2} at HERA I. After the study of the VFPS efficiency, the VFPS acceptance as a function of x{sub P} is estimated and studied in relation to the forward proton beam optics. The second study leads to the cross section measurement of the diffractive scattering of quasi-real photons off protons, {gamma}p {yields} {gamma}Y, with the large momentum transfer, vertical stroke t vertical stroke. The final state photon is separated from the proton dissociation system, Y, by a large rapidity gap and has a large transverse momentum, p{sub T} > 2 GeV. Large p{sub T} imply the presence of the hard scale t (vertical stroke t vertical stroke {approx_equal} p{sup 2}{sub T}) and allows predictions of the perturbative QCD to be applied. The measurement is based on an integrated luminosity 46.2 pb{sup -1} of data collected in the 1999-2000 running period. Cross sections {sigma}(W) as a function of the incident photon-proton centre of mass energy, W, and d{sigma}/d vertical stroke t vertical stroke are measured in the range Q{sup 2}<0.01 GeV{sup 2}, 175
Compton Scattering Cross Section on the Proton at High Momentum Transfer
International Nuclear Information System (INIS)
A. Danagoulian; V.H. Mamyan; M. Roedelbronn; K.A. Aniol; J.R.M. Annand; P.Y. Bertin; L. Bimbot; P. Bosted; J.R. Calarco; A. Camsonne; C.C. Chang; T.-H. Chang; J.-P. Chen; Seonho Choi; E. Chudakov; P. Degtyarenko; C.W. de Jager; A. Deur; D. Dutta; K. Egiyan; H. Gao; F. Garibaldi; O. Gayou; R. Gilman; A. Glamazdin; C. Glashausser; J. Gomez; D.J. Hamilton; J.-O. Hansen; D. Hayes; D.W. Higinbotham; W. Hinton; T. Horn; C. Howell; T. Hunyady; C.E. Hyde-Wright; X. Jiang; M.K. Jones; M. Khandaker; A. Ketikyan; V. Koubarovski; K. Kramer; G. Kumbartzki; G. Laveissiere; J. LeRose; R.A. Lindgren; D.J. Margaziotis; P. Markowitz; K. McCormick; Z.-E. Meziani; R. Michaels; P. Moussiegt; S. Nanda; A.M. Nathan; D.M. Nikolenko; V. Nelyubin; B.E. Norum; K. Paschke; L. Pentchev; C.F. Perdrisat; E. Piasetzky; R. Pomatsalyuk; V.A. Punjabi; I. Rachek; A. Radyushkin; B. Reitz; R. Roche; G. Ron; F. Sabatie; A. Saha; N. Savvinov; A. Shahinyan; Y. Shestakov; S. Sirca; K. Slifer; P. Solvignon; P. Stoler; S. Tajima; V. Sulkosky; L. Todor; B. Vlahovic; L.B. Weinstein; K. Wang; B. Wojtsekhowski; H. Voskanyan; H. Xiang; X. Zheng; L. Zhu
2007-01-01
Cross-section values for Compton scattering on the proton were measured at 25 kinematic settings over the range s = 5-11 and -t = 2-7 GeV2 with statistical accuracy of a few percent. The scaling power for the s-dependence of the cross section at fixed center of mass angle was found to be 8.0 +/- 0.2, strongly inconsistent with the prediction of perturbative QCD. The observed cross section values are in fair agreement with the calculations using the handbag mechanism, in which the external photons couple to a single quark
International Nuclear Information System (INIS)
Meuer, D.; Frey, R.; Hoffmann, D.H.H.; Richter, A.; Spamer, E.; Titze, O.; Knuepfer, W.
1980-01-01
High-resolution (FWHM approx. 30 keV) inelastic electron scattering on 90 Zr at low momentum transfer (0.20 -1 ) has been used to study magnetic transitions at excitation energies Esub(x) = 8-10 MeV. The experimental data were analyzed in the distorted-wave Born approximation (DWBA) with wave functions calculated in the random phase approximation (RPA). Three Jsup(π) = 1 + states have been identified Esub(x) = 8.233, 9.000 and 9.371 MeV. There is some indication of further very fragmented dipole strength and the upper limit for the total M1 strength in the investigated energy region is ΣB(M1)up 2 sub(K). It is much smaller than any theoretical prediction. Furthermore, a large number of 2 - states has been observed, with the center of gravity located at Esub(x) approx. 9 MeV. These states carry a total strength of ΣB(M2)up = 1000 μ 2 sub(K) x fm 2 . Their strong fragmentation is in qualitative agreement with theoretical calculations, but the deduced strength is much smaller than theoretically predicted. In addition the distributions of spacings and radiative widths of the 2 - states are consistent with a Wigner and a Porter-Thomas distribution, respectively. (orig.)
International Nuclear Information System (INIS)
Hartwig, S.; Heimlich, F.H.; Huber, G.; Roessle, E.; Koebberling, M.; Moritz, J.; Schmidt, K.H.; Wegener, D.; Zeller, D.; Karlsruhe Univ.; Bleckwenn, J.
1977-08-01
The cross section for inelastic electron scattering on 12 C and 27 Al nuclei has been measured for energy transfers of the virtual photon 2 . The influence of different sources of the radiative corrections is studied in detail. Shadowing effects, which increase with decreasing values of the scalling variable x, are observed for both nuclei. (orig.) [de
Electron--molecule scattering in momentum space
International Nuclear Information System (INIS)
Ritchie, B.
1979-01-01
We examine the Fourier transform of the Schroedinger equation for electron--molecule scattering, treated as potential scattering from a multicenter distribution of charged fixed in space. When the angle theta between R,the internuclear vector of a diatomic target, and q, the momentum transfer, is held fixed during the collision, then the directions of incidence and scattering are fixed relative to R. The process is then described as having a dynamical dependence on the magnitude of q, q, from which the scattering angle is determined, and a parametric dependence on q's direction relative to R. This approximation is used routinely at high energies in the calculation of the Born amplitude. Fixed--nuclei coordinate--space studies suggest that this approximation can be extended to low energies, provided the amplitude is taken from the solution of the integral equation of momentum space rather than from its inhomogeneity, proportional to the Born amplitude. We constrain R to be in the same direction relative to q', a virtual momentum transfer belonging to the kernel, as it is to q.Calculations are performed for the e, H 2 scattering in the static approximation, and cross sections averaged over theta/sub R/ are shown to be in good agreement with cross sections calculated by use of coupled spherical and coupled spheroidal partial wave theories. The angular distribution in the static approximation is also calculated at an incident energy close to 7 eV, where exchange is relatively unimportant. This result is in reasonably good agreement with that of R matrix theory in the static--exchange approximation. The extension of the theory to treat exchange is formulated and discussed. Also its extension to treat more complicated molecular targets is discussed
International Nuclear Information System (INIS)
LaJohn, L. A.
2010-01-01
The nonrelativistic (nr) impulse approximation (NRIA) expression for Compton-scattering doubly differential cross sections (DDCS) for inelastic photon scattering is recovered from the corresponding relativistic expression (RIA) of Ribberfors [Phys. Rev. B 12, 2067 (1975)] in the limit of low momentum transfer (q→0), valid even at relativistic incident photon energies ω 1 >m provided that the average initial momentum of the ejected electron i > is not too high, that is, i > b 1 >m using nr expressions when θ is small. For example, a 1% accuracy can be obtained when ω 1 =1 MeV if θ 1 increases into the MeV range, the maximum θ at which an accurate Compton peak can be obtained from nr expressions approaches closer to zero, because the θ at which the relativistic shift of CP to higher energy is greatest, which starts at 180 deg. when ω 1 min ,ρ rel ) (where p min is the relativistic version of the z component of the momentum of the initial electron and ρ rel is the relativistic charge density) and K(p min ) on p min . This characterization approach was used as a guide for making the nr QED S-matrix expression for the Compton peak kinematically relativistic. Such modified nr expressions can be more readily applied to large systems than the fully relativistic version.
High momentum transfer processes in QCD
International Nuclear Information System (INIS)
Efremov, A.V.; Radyushkin, A.V.
1978-01-01
A unified approach to the investigation of inclusive high momentum transfer processes in the QCD framework is proposed. A modified parton model (with parton distribution functions depending on an additional renormalization parameter) is shown to be valid in all orders of perturbation theory. The approach is also applicable for studying wide-angle elastic scattering processes of colourless bound states of quarks (the hadrons). The asymptotic behaviour of pion electromagnetic form factor is calculated as an example
Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)
Asa' d, Z.; Coupland, M.; Davis, D.G.; Duff, B.G.; Fearnley, T.; Heymann, F.F.; Imrie, D.C.; Lush, G.J.; Phillips, M. (University Coll., London (UK)); Baglin, A.
1983-10-27
The anti pp elastic differential cross section at 30 GeV/c incident momentum has been measured in a two-arm spectrometer experiment (WA7) at the CERN SPS. The vertical stroketvertical stroke-range covered extends from 0.5 to 5.8 (GeV/c)/sup 2/. A pronounced dip-bump structure is observed, with a sharp minimum around vertical stroketvertical strokeapprox.=1.7 (GeV/c)/sup 2/. The results are compared with existing anti pp data at lower energies and with our earlier anti pp data at 50 GeV/c. A number of model predictions are discussed. We also compare the anti pp 30 GeV/c differential cross section with that of pp at the same momentum. Finally, the energy dependence of the anti pp fixed-vertical stroketvertical stroke differential cross section in the incident momentum range 3.6 to 50 GeV/c is presented.
Dynamics of high momentum transfer processes
International Nuclear Information System (INIS)
Efremov, A.V.
1977-01-01
The high momentum transfer processes are considered in terms of field theory of quarks interacting through scalar or pseudoscalar gluons. This approach is based on an algorithm involving the consideration of the Feynman diagram asymptotical behaviour and its summation. The Parton model and quark counting power are an approximation of not too high momentum transfer when anti g 2 (q 2 )ln(-q 2 /Λ) 2 -invariant charge, Λ-boundary parameter. The violation of scaling beyond this region depends on the character of charge renormalization and is of the same kind as in the Wilson expansion approach. Scaling in this region is suppressed by anti g 4 factor for high psub(UPSILON) hadroproduction and wide angle elastic scattering, and by anti g 2 factor for inclusive lepton production and wide angle electro- and photoproduction. Parameter Λ is controlled by hadron masses and can be essential for not too high psub(UPSILON)
International Nuclear Information System (INIS)
Adams, D.L.
1986-10-01
Analyzing powers and spin transfer coefficients which describe the elastic scattering of polarized protons from a polarized deuteron target have been measured. The energy of the proton beam was 800 MeV and data were taken at laboratory scattering angles of 7, 11, 14, and 16.5 degrees. One analyzing power was also measured at 180 degrees. Three linearly independent orientations of the beam polarization were used and the target was polarized parallel and antiparallel to the direction of the beam momentum. The data were taken with the high resolution spectrometer at the Los Alamos Meson Physics Facility (experiment 685). The results are compared with multiple scattering predictions based on Dirac representations of the nucleon-nucleon scattering matrices. 27 refs., 28 figs., 4 tabs
Quantum scattering theory on the momentum lattice
International Nuclear Information System (INIS)
Rubtsova, O. A.; Pomerantsev, V. N.; Kukulin, V. I.
2009-01-01
A new approach based on the wave-packet continuum discretization method recently developed by the present authors for solving quantum-mechanical scattering problems for atomic and nuclear scattering processes and few-body physics is described. The formalism uses the complete continuum discretization scheme in terms of the momentum stationary wave-packet basis, which leads to formulation of the scattering problem on a lattice in the momentum space. The solution of the few-body scattering problem can be found in the approach from linear matrix equations with nonsingular matrix elements, averaged on energy over lattice cells. The developed approach is illustrated by the solution of numerous two- and three-body scattering problems with local and nonlocal potentials below and well above the three-body breakup threshold.
Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)
Kelleher, Aidan [College of William and Mary, Williamsburg, VA (United States)
2010-02-01
Knowledge of the electric and magnetic elastic form factors of the nucleon is essential for an understanding of nucleon structure. Of the form factors, the electric form factor of the neutron has been measured over the smallest range in Q^{2} and with the lowest precision. Jefferson Lab experiment 02-013 used a novel new polarized ^{3} He target to nearly double the range of momentum transfer in which the neutron form factor has been studied and to measure it with much higher precision. Polarized electrons were scattered off this target, and both the scattered electron and neutron were detected. G^{n} _{E} was measured to be 0.0242 ± 0.0020(stat) ± 0.0061(sys) and 0.0247 ± 0.0029(stat) ± 0.0031(sys) at Q^{2} = 1.7 and 2.5 GeV^{2} , respectively.
International Nuclear Information System (INIS)
Viano, G.A.
1980-01-01
The harmonic analysis of the elastic scattering amplitude F(s,t) of two spinless particles, at fixed t<0, is here revisited using the non-euclidean Fourier analysis in the sense of Helgason, and the approach of Ehrenpresis to the special functions. With these techniques it is possible to derive the Fourier and Laplace transforms for the scattering amplitude. Indeed these transforms are obtained by projecting the amplitude on functions which play a role similar to that played by the exponentials on the real line; here we show how to construct these functions, using essentially geometrical tools. Since the harmonic analysis is a decomposition which separates the dynamics from the symmetry of the problem, we obtain an explicit geometrical characterization of those terms which reflect the symmetry
Observation of structure in large-momentum-transfer π-p elastic scattering at 200 GeV/c
International Nuclear Information System (INIS)
Baker, W.F.; Eartly, D.P.; Klinger, J.S.; Lennox, A.J.; Rubinstein, R.; Kalbach, R.M.; Krueger, K.W.; Pifer, A.E.; McHugh, S.F.; Kaplan, D.H.; Karchin, P.; Orear, J.
1981-01-01
Results are presented on the measurement of 200-GeV/c π - p elastic scattering from -t of 0.8 to 11 (GeV/c) 2 . As -t is increased, dsigma/dt falls by approx.6 decades to a prominent dip at 4 (GeV/c) 2 , followed by a second maximum and then a slow decrease with increasing -t
Elastic electron scattering from 14N, 15N, 16O and 18O at small momentum transfer
International Nuclear Information System (INIS)
Schuetz, W.
1973-01-01
At the Darmstadt linear accelerator, cross-sections for the elastic scattering of electrons on 14 N and 16 O relative to the proton and on 15 N and 18 O relative to 14 N and 16 O were measured at energies 30 MeV 0 0 (q 2 -2 ). The experiments were done with gas targets, the target containers being thin-walled aluminium cylinders. The data were evaluated by means of the partial-wave method assuming a charge distribution according to the shell model. (orig./WL) [de
Angular momentum alignment in molecular beam scattering
International Nuclear Information System (INIS)
Treffers, M.A.
1985-01-01
It is shown how the angular momentum alignment in a molecular beam can be determined using laser-induced fluorescence in combination with precession of the angular momenta in a magnetic field. After a general analysis of the method, some results are presented to illustrate the possibilities of the method. Experimental data are presented on the alignment production for Na 2 molecules that made a collision induced angular momentum transition. Magnitude as well as direction of the alignment have been determined for scattering with several scattering partners and for a large number of scattering angles and transitions. The last chapter deals with the total alignment production in a final J-state, i.e. without state selection of the initial rotational state. (orig.)
Colmenero, J.; Alegría, A.; Arbe, A.; Frick, B.
1992-12-01
The dynamics of the α-relaxation in three glass-forming polymeric systems, poly(vinyl methyl ether) (PVME), poly(vinyl chloride) (PVC), and poly(bisphenol A, 2-hydroxypropylether) (PH) has been studied by means of quasielastic neutron scattering and compared with the results obtained from relaxation techniques. The results indicate that the dynamics of the α-relaxation in a wide timescale shows a clear non-Debye behaviour and can be well described by means of the same spectral shape, which is found to be independent of temperature and momentum transfer ( Q). Moreover, the Havriliak-Negami characteristic times deduced from the fitting of the experimental data can also be described using only one Vogel-Fulcher functional form. This implies a self-consistent description of the dynamics of the α-relaxation obtained by very different probes. Besides, we found that the Q-dependence of the characteristic times obtained by QENS is given by a power law, τ(Q) ∝ Q - n ( n > 2), n being dependent on the system, and that the Q-behaviour and the non-Debye behaviour are directly correlated. These results have main implications about the physical mechanisms behind the dynamics of the α-relaxation.
Photon-momentum transfer in molecular photoionization
Chelkowski, Szczepan; Bandrauk, André D.
2018-05-01
In most models and theoretical calculations describing multiphoton ionization by infrared light, the dipole approximation is used. This is equivalent to setting the very small photon momentum to zero. Using numerical solutions of the (nondipole) three-dimensional time-dependent Schrödinger equation for one electron in a H2+ molecular ion we investigate the effect the photon-momentum transfer to the photoelectron in an H2+ ion in various regimes. We find that the photon-momentum transfer in a molecule is very different from the transfer in atoms due to two-center interference effects. The photon-momentum transfer is very sensitive to the symmetry of the initial electronic state and is strongly dependent on the internuclear distance and on the ellipticity of the laser.
Exclusive processes at high momentum transfer
Radyushkin, Anatoly; Stoker, Paul
2002-01-01
This book focuses on the physics of exclusive processes at high momentum transfer and their description in terms of generalized parton distributions, perturbative QCD, and relativistic quark models. It covers recent developments in the field, both theoretical and experimental.
Electroproduction at large momentum transfers
International Nuclear Information System (INIS)
van Bibber, K.
1991-03-01
The possibilities of electroproduction experiments at a facility such as the proposed European electron accelerator are discussed. Examples given are from studies of hadronization, color transparency, backward production, virtual Compton scattering and target spectator decay. Some conclusions about machine parameters are drawn. 25 refs., 15 figs
International Nuclear Information System (INIS)
Aksouh, F.
2002-12-01
The elastic proton scattering from the halo nuclei 6 He and 8 He was investigated in inverse kinematics at energies around 700 MeV/u with the aim to deduce the differential cross sections for the region of high momentum transfer, covering the first diffraction minimum. For this purpose, a liquid-hydrogen target was specially developed and used for the first time allowing to obtain low-background data as compared to commonly used targets made from C-H compounds. Previous data taken in the region of small momentum transfer were sensitive to the size and the peripheral shape of the total nuclear matter density distribution but not to the inner part. The present data allow for a more detailed insight in the structure of the alike core in 6,8 He through a better determination of the matter density distributions. Several density distributions calculated from different microscopic models were used to derive elastic scattering cross sections which are compared with the obtained data. (author)
Electron scattering from high-momentum neutrons in deuterium
International Nuclear Information System (INIS)
Klimenko, A.V.; Kuhn, S.E.; Bueltmann, S.; Careccia, S.L.; Dharmawardane, K.V.; Dodge, G.E.; Guler, N.; Hyde-Wright, C.E.; Klein, A.; Tkachenko, S.; Weinstein, L.B.; Zhang, J.; Butuceanu, C.; Griffioen, K.A.; Baillie, N.; Fersch, R.G.; Funsten, H.; Egiyan, K.S.; Asryan, G.; Dashyan, N.B.
2006-01-01
We report results from an experiment measuring the semiinclusive reaction 2 H(e,e ' p s ) in which the proton p s is moving at a large angle relative to the momentum transfer. If we assume that the proton was a spectator to the reaction taking place on the neutron in deuterium, the initial state of that neutron can be inferred. This method, known as spectator tagging, can be used to study electron scattering from high-momentum (off-shell) neutrons in deuterium. The data were taken with a 5.765 GeV electron beam on a deuterium target in Jefferson Laboratory's Hall B, using the CEBAF large acceptance spectrometer. A reduced cross section was extracted for different values of final state missing mass W*, backward proton momentum p → s , and momentum transfer Q 2 . The data are compared to a simple plane wave impulse approximation (PWIA) spectator model. A strong enhancement in the data observed at transverse kinematics is not reproduced by the PWIA model. This enhancement can likely be associated with the contribution of final state interactions (FSI) that were not incorporated into the model. Within the framework of the simple spectator model, a 'bound neutron structure function' F 2n eff was extracted as a function of W* and the scaling variable x* at extreme backward kinematics, where the effects of FSI appear to be smaller. For p s >0.4 GeV/c, where the neutron is far off-shell, the model overestimates the value of F 2n eff in the region of x* between 0.25 and 0.6. A dependence of the bound neutron structure function on the neutron's 'off-shell-ness' is one possible effect that can cause the observed deviation
Spin-directed momentum transfers in SIDIS baryon production
International Nuclear Information System (INIS)
Sivers, D.
2016-01-01
The measurement of transverse single-spin asymmetries for baryon production in the target fragmentation region of semi-inclusive deep-inelastic scattering (SIDIS), can produce important insight into those nonperturbative aspects of QCD directly associated with confinement and with the dynamical breaking of chiral symmetry. We discuss here, in terms of spin-directed momentum transfers, the powerful quantum field- theoretical constraints on the spin-orbit dynamics underlying these transverse spin observables. The A τ -odd spin-directed momentum shifts, originating either in the target nucleon (δk TN ) or in the QCD jets (δp TN ) produced in the deep inelastic scattering process, represent significant quantum entanglement effects connecting information from current fragmentation with observables in target fragmentation. (author)
Across-horizon scattering and information transfer
Emelyanov, V. A.; Klinkhamer, F. R.
2018-06-01
We address the question whether or not two electrically charged elementary particles can Coulomb scatter if one of these particles is inside the Schwarzschild black-hole horizon and the other outside. It can be shown that the quantum process is consistent with the local energy–momentum conservation law. This result implies that across-horizon scattering is a physical effect, relevant to astrophysical black holes. We propose a Gedankenexperiment which uses the quantum scattering process to transfer information from inside the black-hole horizon to outside.
Transverse momentum in semi-inclusive deep inelastic scattering
International Nuclear Information System (INIS)
Ceccopieri, Federico Alberto; Trentadue, Luca
2006-01-01
Within the framework of perturbative quantum chromodynamics we derive the evolution equations for transverse momentum dependent distributions and apply them to the case of semi-inclusive deep inelastic scattering. The evolution equations encode the perturbative component of transverse momentum generated by collinear parton branchings. The current fragmentation is described via transverse momentum dependent parton densities and fragmentation functions. Target fragmentation instead is described via fracture functions. We present, to leading logarithmic accuracy, the corresponding semi-inclusive deep inelastic scattering cross-section, which applies to the entire phase space of the detected hadron. Some phenomenological implications and further developments are briefly outlined
International Nuclear Information System (INIS)
Laveissiere, G.
2001-11-01
In hadronic physics, the nucleon structure and the quarks confinement are still topical issues. The neutral pion electroproduction and virtual Compton scattering (VCS) reactions allow us to access new observables that describe this structure. This work is focussed on the VCS experiment performed at Jefferson Lab in 1998. The 4 GeV electron beam is scattered off a cryogenic hydrogen target, and the scattered electron and recoiled proton are detected in coincidence in the twin hall A spectrometers. The photon (pion) is reconstructed using a missing particle technique. The data analysis allowed to extract the cross sections relative to both process at four-momentum transfer squared Q 2 = 1 GeV 2 . The VCS cross section has been extracted for the first time in the proton resonance region (W between 1.O and 2.0 GeV) through the photon electroproduction reaction. Around the pion-production threshold up to the Delta(1232) resonance region, these results lead to the measurement of the generalized polarizabilities, that describe the proton structure in the same way as the elastic form factors. Moreover, the neutral pion electroproduction cross section measurement in the resonance region has brought new constraints on the existing phenomenological models. (author)
Momentum transfer dependence of generalized parton distributions
Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)
Sharma, Neetika [Indian Institute of Science Education and Research Mohali, S.A.S. Nagar, Punjab (India)
2016-11-15
We revisit the model for parametrization of the momentum dependence of nucleon generalized parton distributions in the light of recent MRST measurements of parton distribution functions (A.D. Martin et al., Eur. Phys. J. C 63, 189 (2009)). Our parametrization method with a minimum set of free parameters give a sufficiently good description of data for Dirac and Pauli electromagnetic form factors of proton and neutron at small and intermediate values of momentum transfer. We also calculate the GPDs for up- and down-quarks by decomposing the electromagnetic form factors for the nucleon using the charge and isospin symmetry and also study the evolution of GPDs to a higher scale. We further investigate the transverse charge densities for both the unpolarized and transversely polarized nucleon and compare our results with Kelly's distribution. (orig.)
Parity violation in pp collisions at high momentum transfer
Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)
Missimer, J; Wolfenstein, L [Carnegie-Mellon Univ., Pittsburgh, Pa. (USA); Gunion, J [California Univ., Davis (USA)
1976-08-23
Estimates are given for the parity-violating asymmetry A(..pi../sup + -/) for the inclusive reaction p+p..--> pi../sup + -/+X at high momentum transfer, psub(T), using longitudinally polarized protons. The most reliable estimate is derived from a weak amplitude calculated by inserting a weak interaction in place of a hard scattering in the constituent interchange model of high psub(T) events. For values of psub(T) as large as 8 GeV/c, asymmetries A(..pi..) are expected to be of the order 10/sup -4/ or less.
Deuteron form factor measurements at low momentum transfers
Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)
Schlimme B. S.
2016-01-01
Full Text Available A precise measurement of the elastic electron-deuteron scattering cross section at four-momentum transfers of 0.24 fm−1 ≤ Q ≤ 2.7 fm−1 has been performed at the Mainz Microtron. In this paper we describe the utilized experimental setup and the necessary analysis procedure to precisely determine the deuteron charge form factor from these data. Finally, the deuteron charge radius rd can be extracted from an extrapolation of that form factor to Q2 = 0.
Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)
Gauron, Pierre; Basarab Nicolescu [Theoretical Physics Division, Inst. de Physique Nucleaire, Paris-11 Univ., 91 - Orsay (France); Selyugin, O.V. [Lab. of Theoretical Physics, Joint Inst. for Nuclear Research, Dubna (Russian Federation)
1999-10-01
We show that the high precision dN/dt UA4/2 data at {radical} = 541 GeV are compatible with the presence of Auberson-Kinoshita-Martin (AKM) type of oscillations at very small momentum transfer. These oscillations seem to be periodic in {radical}|t|, the corresponding period being {approx_equal} 2 {center_dot}10{sup -2} GeV. The existence of such visible oscillations suggests a general mechanism of saturation of axiomatic bounds. As an illustration the consequences for extracting the parameter {rho} = ReF/ImF from dN/dt data are also discussed. (authors) 1 ref., 2 figs.
Transverse spin and transverse momentum in scattering of plane waves
Saha, Sudipta; Singh, Ankit K.; Ray, Subir K.; Banerjee, Ayan; Gupta, Subhasish Dutta; Ghosh, Nirmalya
2016-01-01
We study the near field to the far field evolution of spin angular momentum (SAM) density and the Poynting vector of the scattered waves from spherical scatterers. The results show that at the near field, the SAM density and the Poynting vector are dominated by their transverse components. While the former (transverse SAM) is independent of the helicity of the incident circular polarization state, the latter (transverse Poynting vector) depends upon the polarization state. It is further demon...
High energy approximations for nuclear knockout form factors at small momentum transfer
International Nuclear Information System (INIS)
Amado, R.D.; Cannata, F.; Dedonder, J.P.
1985-01-01
We obtain an explicit approximate expression for the nucleon knockout form factor at small momentum transfer induced by a scalar probe in a single particle model in terms of the momentum space bound state wave function. Our form preserves the orthogonality constraint without using explicitly the final state scattering wave function. We examine the leading large momentum behavior of the momentum space wave function and of correction terms to our expression for the form factor in the case where the bound state is an s state
Khandelwal, Govind S.; Khan, Ferdous
1989-01-01
An optical model description of energy and momentum transfer in relativistic heavy-ion collisions, based upon composite particle multiple scattering theory, is presented. Transverse and longitudinal momentum transfers to the projectile are shown to arise from the real and absorptive part of the optical potential, respectively. Comparisons of fragment momentum distribution observables with experiments are made and trends outlined based on our knowledge of the underlying nucleon-nucleon interaction. Corrections to the above calculations are discussed. Finally, use of the model as a tool for estimating collision impact parameters is indicated.
Energy dependence of the Coulomb-nuclear interference at small momentum transfers
International Nuclear Information System (INIS)
Selyugin, O.V.
1997-01-01
The analyzing power of the elastic proton-proton scattering at small momentum transfers and the effect of the Coulomb-nuclear interference are examined on the basis of the available experimental data at p L from 6 up to 200 GeV/c taking account of a phenomenological analysis at p L =6 GeV/c and of the dynamic high energy spin model. The structure of the spin-dependent elastic scattering amplitude at small momentum transfers is obtained. The predictions for the analyzing power at RHIC energies are made
On the complex angular momentum theory of scattering
International Nuclear Information System (INIS)
Thylwe, K.-E.
1983-01-01
A contribution to the theory of complex angular momentum techniques in the field of atomic and molecular collisions is given. A new, flexible representation of the scattering amplitude on the basis of realistic assumptions for the behaviour of the S matrix in the complex angular momentum plane is derived. The representation has the form of a sum of steepest-descent integrals, S-matrix residue terms and a symmetry-type background integral. The flexibility is due to the presence of two integer parameters which may be chosen conveniently so as to make the residue sums sufficiently convergent and to minimise the total number of important terms. (author)
Photoproduction of Phi-mesons at small momentum transfer
International Nuclear Information System (INIS)
Hirschmann, H.
1975-09-01
The differential cross section of the γp → PHI, p → K + K - p reaction is determined for four-momentum transfer (0 - 0.23) GeV 2 and for photon energies (4.6 - 6.62) GeV with very small error. The differential cross section is independent of energy, the dependence on four-momentum transfer is described by an exponential function with a slope parameter (5.2 +- 0.4) GeV -2 . The total cross section of the PHI-meson as well as its differential cross section for elastic scattering at the proton comes out too small by a factor of 0.6 - 0.7 and 0.5 relative to predictions of a combined vector-dominance-quark model. The trajectories of the forward-going K-mesons are recorded in proportional and spark chambers, a threshold Cherenkov counter discriminates against fast pions and electrons, the principle of track reconstruction out of spark coordinates are explained in detail. (BJ) [de
Momentum density of hcp and liquid helium-4 by inelastic neutron scattering
International Nuclear Information System (INIS)
Hilleke, R.O.
1983-01-01
A measurement of the momentum density in hcp and liquid 4 He by inelastic neutron scattering is reported. Using the Low Resolution Medium Energy Chopper Spectrometer at the Intense Pulsed Neutron Source at Argonne National Laboratory, momentum transfers in the range 12 to 22.5 A -1 were attained. At these momentum transfers, the momentum density of the sample is related to the dynamic structure factor by the impulse approximation. The measured momentum distribution is Gaussian and the kinetic energy is larger than proposed by existing theories. Data were taken on two solid samples, the first was a 19.45 cm 3 /mole hcp solid, the second was 18.20 cm 3 /mole; both solid samples were maintained at 1.70 K during data collection. Data were also taken on a liquid sample with a molar volume of 18.20 cm 3 /mole at 4.00 K. At 1.70 K the two solid samples are essentially in their ground states so that the measurement is of the ground state momentum density. The liquid sample was included to see if the difference between the liquid and solid momentum density at the same molar volume was observable
VLAD for epithermal neutron scattering experiments at large energy transfers
International Nuclear Information System (INIS)
Tardocchi, M; Gorini, G; Perelli-Cippo, E; Andreani, C; Imberti, S; Pietropaolo, A; Senesi, R; Rhodes, N R; Schooneveld, E M
2006-01-01
The Very Low Angle Detector (VLAD) bank will extend the kinematical region covered by today's epithermal neutron scattering experiments to low momentum transfer ( -1 ) together with large energy transfer 0 -4 0 . In this paper the design of VLAD is presented together with Montecarlo simulations of the detector performances. The results of tests made with prototype VLAD detectors are also presented, confirming the usefulness of the Resonance Detector for measurements at very low scattering angles
Baryon form factors at high momentum transfer and generalized parton distributions
International Nuclear Information System (INIS)
Stoler, Paul
2002-01-01
Nucleon form factors at high momentum transfer t are treated in the framework of generalized parton distributions (GPD's). The possibility of obtaining information about parton high transverse momentum components by application of GPD's to form factors is discussed. This is illustrated by applying an ad hoc 2-body parton wave function to elastic nucleon form factors F 1 and F 2 , the N→Δ transition magnetic form factor G M * , and the wide angle Compton scattering form factor R 1
Transverse momentum in double parton scattering. Factorisation, evolution and matching
International Nuclear Information System (INIS)
Buffing, Maarten G.A.; Diehl, Markus; Kasemets, Tomas
2017-08-01
We give a description of double parton scattering with measured transverse momenta in the final state, extending the formalism for factorisation and resummation developed by Collins, Soper and Sterman for the production of colourless particles. After a detailed analysis of their colour structure, we derive and solve evolution equations in rapidity and renormalisation scale for the relevant soft factors and double parton distributions. We show how in the perturbative regime, transverse momentum dependent double parton distributions can be expressed in terms of simpler nonperturbative quantities and compute several of the corresponding perturbative kernels at one-loop accuracy. We then show how the coherent sum of single and double parton scattering can be simplified for perturbatively large transverse momenta, and we discuss to which order resummation can be performed with presently available results. As an auxiliary result, we derive a simple form for the square root factor in the Collins construction of transverse momentum dependent parton distributions.
Transverse momentum in double parton scattering. Factorisation, evolution and matching
Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)
Buffing, Maarten G.A.; Diehl, Markus [Deutsches Elektronen-Synchrotron (DESY), Hamburg (Germany); Kasemets, Tomas [Nikhef, Amsterdam (Netherlands). Theory Group; VU Univ. Amsterdam (Netherlands)
2017-08-15
We give a description of double parton scattering with measured transverse momenta in the final state, extending the formalism for factorisation and resummation developed by Collins, Soper and Sterman for the production of colourless particles. After a detailed analysis of their colour structure, we derive and solve evolution equations in rapidity and renormalisation scale for the relevant soft factors and double parton distributions. We show how in the perturbative regime, transverse momentum dependent double parton distributions can be expressed in terms of simpler nonperturbative quantities and compute several of the corresponding perturbative kernels at one-loop accuracy. We then show how the coherent sum of single and double parton scattering can be simplified for perturbatively large transverse momenta, and we discuss to which order resummation can be performed with presently available results. As an auxiliary result, we derive a simple form for the square root factor in the Collins construction of transverse momentum dependent parton distributions.
Light scattering reviews 8 radiative transfer and light scattering
Kokhanovsky, Alexander A
2013-01-01
Light scattering review (vol 8) is aimed at the presentation of recent advances in radiative transfer and light scattering optics. The topics to be covered include: scattering of light by irregularly shaped particles suspended in atmosphere (dust, ice crystals), light scattering by particles much larger as compared the wavelength of incident radiation, atmospheric radiative forcing, astrophysical radiative transfer, radiative transfer and optical imaging in biological media, radiative transfer of polarized light, numerical aspects of radiative transfer.
International Nuclear Information System (INIS)
Schultz, David Robert; Krstic, Predrag S.; Lee, Teck G.; Raymond, J.C.
2008-01-01
The momentum transfer and viscosity cross sections for proton-hydrogen collisions are computed in the velocity range of ∼200-20,000 km s -1 relevant to a wide range of astrophysical environments such as SNR shocks, the solar wind, winds within young stellar objects or accretion disks, and the interstellar protons interacting with the heliosphere. A variety of theoretical approaches are used to arrive at a best estimate of these cross sections in this velocity range that smoothly connect with very accurate results previously computed for lower velocities. Contributions to the momentum transfer and viscosity cross sections from both elastic scattering and charge transfer are included
Angular momentum effects in electron scattering from atoms
International Nuclear Information System (INIS)
Williams, J F; Cvejanovie, D; Samarin, S; Pravica, L; Napier, S; Sergeant, A
2007-01-01
This paper concerns angular momentum-dependent phenomena in excited gas-phase atoms using incident photons or electrons in scattering experiments. A brief overview indicates the main capabilities of experimental techniques and the information which can be deduced about atomic structure and dynamics from conservation of momenta with measurement of polarization and detection of the number of emerging electrons, photons and ions. Maximum information may be obtained when the incident particles and the targets are state-selected both before and after scattering. The fundamental scattering amplitudes and their relative phases, and consequently derived quantities such as the parameters describing the electron charge cloud of the atomic target, have enabled significant advances of understanding of collision mechanisms. The angular momentum-dependent scattering probabilities change when, for example, the spin-orbit interaction for the target electrons becomes large compared with the Coulomb electron-electron interactions and also when electron exchange and the relative orientation of the electron spins change. Several examples are discussed to indicate significant principles and recent advances. Major contributions to this field from the technology associated with electron spin production and detection time, as well as time-coincidence detection, are discussed. New results from the authors' laboratory are presented
Momentum transfer in relativistic heavy ion charge-exchange reactions
Townsend, L. W.; Wilson, J. W.; Khan, F.; Khandelwal, G. S.
1991-01-01
Relativistic heavy ion charge-exchange reactions yield fragments (Delta-Z = + 1) whose longitudinal momentum distributions are downshifted by larger values than those associated with the remaining fragments (Delta-Z = 1, -2,...). Kinematics alone cannot account for the observed downshifts; therefore, an additional contribution from collision dynamics must be included. In this work, an optical model description of collision momentum transfer is used to estimate the additional dynamical momentum downshift. Good agreement between theoretical estimates and experimental data is obtained.
Transverse momentum at work in high-energy scattering experiments
Signori, Andrea
2017-01-01
I will review some aspects of the definition and the phenomenology of Transverse-Momentum-Dependent distributions (TMDs) which are potentially interesting for the physics program at several current and future experimental facilities. First of all, I will review the definition of quark, gluon and Wilson loop TMDs based on gauge invariant hadronic matrix elements. Looking at the phenomenology of quarks, I will address the flavor dependence of the intrinsic transverse momentum in unpolarized TMDs, focusing on its extraction from Semi-Inclusive Deep-Inelastic Scattering. I will also present an estimate of its impact on the transverse momentum spectrum of W and Z bosons produced in unpolarized hadronic collisions and on the determination of the W boson mass. Moreover, the combined effect of the flavor dependence and the evolution of TMDs with the energy scale will be discussed for electron-positron annihilation. Concerning gluons, I will present from an effective theory point of view the TMD factorization theorem for the transverse momentum spectrum of pseudoscalar quarkonium produced in hadronic collisions. Relying on this, I will discuss the possibility of extracting precise information on (un)polarized gluon TMDs at a future Fixed Target Experiment at the LHC (AFTER@LHC).
Transverse momentum of gluons in ep-scattering at HERA
International Nuclear Information System (INIS)
Cholewa, A.
2005-11-01
A Monte Carlo analysis of the phase space of hard interacting gluons in ep-scattering is presented. The event generator CASCADE is used in combination with the program HZTOOL to identify the accessible regions of phase space of present HERA measurements. A map of the k t -x g -plane is presented to show that in the region -3≤log g ≤-1 transverse gluon momenta of up to k t >or sim 20 GeV are accessible to HERA measurements. Furthermore the observables x γ and the transverse jet energy E T are found to be highly sensitive to the transverse momentum and the longitudinal momentum fraction of gluons. (orig.) (orig.)
The effect of scattering on single photon transmission of optical angular momentum
International Nuclear Information System (INIS)
Andrews, D L
2011-01-01
Schemes for the communication and registration of optical angular momentum depend on the fidelity of transmission between optical system components. It is known that electron spin can be faithfully relayed between exciton states in quantum dots; it has also been shown by several theoretical and experimental studies that the use of beams conveying orbital angular momentum can significantly extend the density and efficiency of such information transfer. However, it remains unclear to what extent the operation of such a concept at the single photon level is practicable—especially where this involves optical propagation through a material system, in which forward scattering events can intervene. The possibility of transmitting and decoding angular momentum over nanoscale distances itself raises other important issues associated with near-field interrogation. This paper provides a framework to address these and related issues. A quantum electrodynamical representation is constructed and used to pursue the consequences of individual photons, from a Laguerre–Gaussian beam, undergoing single and multiple scattering events in the course of propagation. In this context, issues concerning orbital angular momentum conservation, and its possible compromise, are tackled by identifying the relevant components of the electromagnetic scattering and coupling tensors, using an irreducible Cartesian basis. The physical interpretation broadly supports the fidelity of quantum information transmission, but it also identifies potential limitations of principle
The effect of scattering on single photon transmission of optical angular momentum
Andrews, D. L.
2011-06-01
Schemes for the communication and registration of optical angular momentum depend on the fidelity of transmission between optical system components. It is known that electron spin can be faithfully relayed between exciton states in quantum dots; it has also been shown by several theoretical and experimental studies that the use of beams conveying orbital angular momentum can significantly extend the density and efficiency of such information transfer. However, it remains unclear to what extent the operation of such a concept at the single photon level is practicable—especially where this involves optical propagation through a material system, in which forward scattering events can intervene. The possibility of transmitting and decoding angular momentum over nanoscale distances itself raises other important issues associated with near-field interrogation. This paper provides a framework to address these and related issues. A quantum electrodynamical representation is constructed and used to pursue the consequences of individual photons, from a Laguerre-Gaussian beam, undergoing single and multiple scattering events in the course of propagation. In this context, issues concerning orbital angular momentum conservation, and its possible compromise, are tackled by identifying the relevant components of the electromagnetic scattering and coupling tensors, using an irreducible Cartesian basis. The physical interpretation broadly supports the fidelity of quantum information transmission, but it also identifies potential limitations of principle.
Diffraction and angular momentum effects in semiclassical atomic scattering theory
International Nuclear Information System (INIS)
Russek, A.
1979-01-01
The semiclassical scattering theory of Mott and Massey and Ford and Wheeler is here extended to multichannel scattering as occurs at a crossing or pseudocrossing of the transient molecule formed by the colliding atoms. The generalized theory incorporates both interference and diffraction phenomena, but the emphasis in this work is on diffraction. For small-angle scattering, diffraction effects become broader, not narrower, as the collision energy increases: ΔbΔtau > or = h[E/sub inc//(2m)]/sup 1/2/ relates the uncertainties in impact parameter b and reduced scattering angle tau = E/sub inc/theta, and determines the range in b required to resolve a structure in the deflection function of height Δtau. In the kilovolt range of collision energies, the effects of local maxima and minima in the deflection function are washed out, and the Airy-function approximation of Ford and Wheeler is inappropriate to describe the differential cross section. More generally, it is shown that at keV collision energies the stationary-phase approximation, heretofore essential in the reduction to the semiclassical limit, breaks down in the vicinity of a level crossing. An approximate theorem is proposed which remains valid in this region and elsewhere reduces to the standard stationary-phase approximation. Several illustrative examples are considered. A separate development treats the effect on the differential scattering cross section of a change in electronic angular momentum when electronic excitation occurs
Transfer of orbital angular momentum to an optically trapped low-index particle
International Nuclear Information System (INIS)
Garces-Chavez, V.; Sibbett, W.; Dholakia, K.; Volke-Sepulveda, K.; Chavez-Cerda, S.
2002-01-01
We demonstrate the transfer of orbital angular momentum from a light beam to a trapped low-index particle. The particle is trapped in a dark annular region of a high-order Bessel beam and rotates around the beam axis due to scattering from the helical wave fronts of the light beam. A general theoretical geometrical optics model is developed that, applied to our specific situation, corroborates tweezing and transfer of orbital angular momentum to the low-index particle. Good quantitative agreement between theory and experiment for particle rotation rates is observed
A complex angular momentum theory of modified Coulomb scattering
International Nuclear Information System (INIS)
Thylwe, K.E.; Connor, J.N.L.
1985-01-01
The paper develops an exact complex angular momentum (CAM) theory of elastic scattering for a complex optical potential with a Coulombic tail. The present CAM theory avoids complications due to the long range nature of the Coulombic potential in a straightforward way. The Sommerfeld-Watson transformation together with a travelling wave (near-side far-side) decomposition, is used to obtain an exact representation for the scattering amplitude f(theta) in terms of a background integral fsub(B)(theta) and a series of subamplitudes fsup((+-))sub(n)(theta). New exact representations are derived for fsub(B)(theta) when the scattering matrix element S(lambda) possesses local symmetries of the type S(-lambda)=S(lambda)exp(+-2iπlambda) and S(-lambda)=S(lambda). The exact results obtained in this paper unify the CAM theory of scattering for Coulombic and short range potentials and are especially suitable for the introduction of semiclassical approximations. (author)
Polarization transfer in inelastic scattering
International Nuclear Information System (INIS)
Moss, J.M.
1980-01-01
Polarization transfer experiments are now feasible for inelastic scattering experiments on complex nuclei. Experiments thus far have dealt with the spin-flip probability; this observable is sensitive to the action of spin-spin and tensor forces in inelastic scattering. Spin-flip probabilities at E approx. 40 MeV in isoscalar transitions in 12 C(12.71 MeV) and 15 O(8.89 MeV) show considerable deviation from DWBA-shell model predictions; this deviation indicates evidence for more complex reaction mechanisms. Experiments at intermediate energies will soon be possible and will yield data of much higher precision than is possible at lower (E < 100 MeV) energies. These experiments hold exciting promise in such areas as nuclear critical opalescence. 7 figures, 1 table
Nuclear response functions at large energy and momentum transfer
International Nuclear Information System (INIS)
Bertozzi, W.; Moniz, E.J.; Lourie, R.W.
1991-01-01
Quasifree nucleon processes are expected to dominate the nuclear electromagnetic response function for large energy and momentum transfers, i.e., for energy transfers large compared with nuclear single particle energies and momentum transfers large compared with typical nuclear momenta. Despite the evident success of the quasifree picture in providing the basic frame work for discussing and understanding the large energy, large momentum nuclear response, the limits of this picture have also become quite clear. In this article a selected set of inclusive and coincidence data are presented in order to define the limits of the quasifree picture more quantitatively. Specific dynamical mechanisms thought to be important in going beyond the quasifree picture are discussed as well. 75 refs, 37 figs
Superscaling analyses, lepton scattering and nucleon momentum distribution in nuclei
International Nuclear Information System (INIS)
Antonov, A.; Ivanov, M.; Gaidarov, M.; Caballero, J.A.; Barbaro, M.; Moya de Guerra, E.
2009-01-01
In this paper the following items have been presented: 1) Nucleon momentum distribution from the superscaling analyses of the QE scattering of electrons; 2) CDFM scaling functions in the QE- and _-regions; 3) Charge-changing neutrino scattering from nuclei in the QE- and –region and 4) Neutral current neutrino scattering from nuclei in the QE-region. At the end the following conclusions have been made: 1) 1 It is pointed out that f (ψ') for ψ' < -1 depends on the particular form of the power-law asymptotics of n(k) at large k and thus, is informative for the in-medium NN forces around the core. 2) The total f(ψ), the longitudinal f_L(ψ) and the transverse f_T(ψ) scaling functions are calculated within a new, more general approach within the Coherent Density Fluctuation Model (CDFM_I_I) by taking as starting point the hadronic tensor and the L- and T- response functions in the RFG model. 3) The approach leads to a slight violation of the zero-kind scaling [f_L(ψ)≠f_T(ψ)] in contrast with the situation in the RFG and CDFM_I models. It is found that the ratio f_L(ψ)/f_T(ψ) in the CDFM_I_I has similarities with that from the RPWIA approach (with Lorentz gauge) for positive ψ. 4) At q≳0:7 GeV/c the CDFM_I_I scaling function exhibits scaling of first kind and has a saturation of its asymptotic behavior. 5) The CDFM scaling functions are applied to calculate cross sections of inclusive electron scattering in the quasielastic and Δ-regions for nuclei with 12≤A≤208 at different energies and angles. The results are in agreement with available experimental data, especially in the QE region. 6) The CDFM scaling functions are applied to calculate charge-changing neutrino (antineutrino) scattering and also QE scattering via the weak neutral current on "1"2C at 1÷2 GeV incident energy.
The momentum transfer dependence of double excitations of helium
International Nuclear Information System (INIS)
Zhu Lin-Fan; Liu Xiao-Jing; Yuan Zhen-Sheng; Xu Ke-Zun
2005-01-01
The momentum transfer dependence of fundamental double excitation processes of helium is studied with high resolution and fast electron impact. It elucidates the dynamical correlations, in terms of internal correlation quantum numbers, K, T and A. The Fano profile parameters q, f a , ρ 2 , f and S of doubly excited states 2 (1,0) 2 +1se , 2 (0,1) 2 +1p0 and 2 (1,0) 2 +1De are determined as functions of momentum transfer K 2 . (author)
Deuteron threshold electrodisintegration at high momentum transfer
International Nuclear Information System (INIS)
Schmitt, W.M.; Turchinetz, W.; Williamson, C.F.; Yates, T.C.; Zumbro, J.D.; Lee, K.S.; Baghaei, H.; Churchwell, S.; Hicks, R.S.; Miskimen, R.; Peterson, G.A.; Wang, K.; Bosted, P.E.; Spengos, M.; Frois, B.; Martino, J.; Platchkov, S.; Hotta, A.
1997-01-01
Absolute differential cross sections for the threshold electrodisintegration of the deuteron with good resolution were measured at a laboratory scattering angle of 160 degree for five values of Q 2 ranging from 8.66 to 42.4fm -2 . Comparisons of the data averaged over E np from 0 to 3 MeV and from 0 to 10 MeV are made with nonrelativistic meson exchange calculations. These calculations are sensitive to the nucleon electromagnetic form factors, nucleon-nucleon potential, and relativistic effects. The data are also compared with a hybrid quark-hadron model calculation that describes the deuteron as a six-quark cluster for the short range part of the interaction. Some of these calculations can describe the data reasonably well over certain ranges of Q 2 ; however, none of these calculations can accurately describe the data over the entire measured Q 2 range. copyright 1997 The American Physical Society
Deuteron threshold electrodisintegration at high momentum transfer
International Nuclear Information System (INIS)
Schmitt, W.M.; Turchinetz, W.; Williamson, C.F.
1997-01-01
Absolute differential cross sections for the threshold electrodisintegration of the deuteron with good resolution were measured at a laboratory scattering angle of 160 degree for five values of Q 2 ranging from 8.66 to 42.4 fm -2 . Comparisons of the data averaged over E np from 0--3 MeV and 0--10 MeV are made with nonrelativistic meson-exchange calculations. These calculations are sensitive to the nucleon electromagnetic form factors, nucleon-nucleon potential, and relativistic effects. The data are also compared with a hybrid quark-hadron model calculation that describes the deuteron as a six-quark cluster for the short range part of the interaction. Some of these calculations can describe the data reasonably well over certain ranges of Q 2 ; however, none of these calculations can accurately describe the data over the entire measured Q 2 range
International Nuclear Information System (INIS)
Fielding, A.L.; Timms, D.; Mayers, J.
1999-01-01
A new neutron Compton scattering (NCS) measurement of the temperature dependence of the kinetic energy in polycrystalline beryllium at momentum transfers in the range 27.91 to 104.21 A -1 is presented. The measurements have been made with the Electron Volt Spectrometer (eVS) at the ISIS facility and the measured kinetic energies are shown to be in good agreement with calculations made in the harmonic approximation. Numerical simulations are also presented based on the Sears expansion which predict that final state effects in NCS experiments become less significant at elevated temperatures. (author)
Momentum transfer to rotating magnetized plasma from gun plasma injection
International Nuclear Information System (INIS)
Shamim, Imran; Hassam, A. B.; Ellis, R. F.; Witherspoon, F. D.; Phillips, M. W.
2006-01-01
Numerical simulations are carried out to investigate the penetration and momentum coupling of a gun-injected plasma slug into a rotating magnetized plasma. An experiment along these lines is envisioned for the Maryland Centrifugal Experiment (MCX) [R. F. Ellis et al., Phys. Plasmas 8, 2057 (2001)] using a coaxial plasma accelerator gun developed by HyperV Technologies Corp. [F. D. Witherspoon et al., Bull. Am. Phys. Soc. 50, LP1 87 (2005)]. The plasma gun would be located in the axial midplane and fired off-axis into the rotating MCX plasma annulus. The numerical simulation is set up so that the initial momentum in the injected plasma slug is of the order of the initial momentum of the target plasma. Several numerical firings are done into the cylindrical rotating plasma. Axial symmetry is assumed. The slug is seen to penetrate readily and deform into a mushroom, characteristic of interchange deformations. It is found that up to 25% of the momentum in the slug can be transferred to the background plasma in one pass across a cylindrical chord. For the same initial momentum, a high-speed low density slug gives more momentum transfer than a low-speed high density slug. Details of the numerical simulations and a scaling study are presented
Angular momentum transfer in steady disk accretion
International Nuclear Information System (INIS)
Gorbatskij, V.G.
1977-01-01
The conditions of steady disk accretion have been investigated. The disk axisymmetric model is considered. It is shown that the gas is let at the outer boundary of the disk with the azimuthal velocity which is slightly less than the Kepler circular one. Gas possesses the motion quality moment which is transferred from the outer layers of the disk to the surface of the star. The steady state of the disk preserved until the inflow of the moment to the star increases its rotation velocity up to magnitudes close to the critical one
Symmetric large momentum transfer for atom interferometry with BECs
Abend, Sven; Gebbe, Martina; Gersemann, Matthias; Rasel, Ernst M.; Quantus Collaboration
2017-04-01
We develop and demonstrate a novel scheme for a symmetric large momentum transfer beam splitter for interferometry with Bose-Einstein condensates. Large momentum transfer beam splitters are a key technique to enhance the scaling factor and sensitivity of an atom interferometer and to create largely delocalized superposition states. To realize the beam splitter, double Bragg diffraction is used to create a superposition of two symmetric momentum states. Afterwards both momentum states are loaded into a retro-reflected optical lattice and accelerated by Bloch oscillations on opposite directions, keeping the initial symmetry. The favorable scaling behavior of this symmetric acceleration, allows to transfer more than 1000 ℏk of total differential splitting in a single acceleration sequence of 6 ms duration while we still maintain a fraction of approx. 25% of the initial atom number. As a proof of the coherence of this beam splitter, contrast in a closed Mach-Zehnder atom interferometer has been observed with up to 208 ℏk of momentum separation, which equals a differential wave-packet velocity of approx. 1.1 m/s for 87Rb. The presented work is supported by the CRC 1128 geo-Q and the DLR with funds provided by the Federal Ministry of Economic Affairs and Energy (BMWi) due to an enactment of the German Bundestag under Grant No. DLR 50WM1552-1557 (QUANTUS-IV-Fallturm).
Scattering and transfer reactions with heavy ions
International Nuclear Information System (INIS)
Hussein, M.S.
From the elastic scattering analysis the input parameters are found for the inelastic scattering analysis and the transfer reactions of the heavy ion reactions. The main theme reported is the likeness and conection among these processes. (L.C.) [pt
Momentum and Angular Momentum Transfer in Oblique Impacts: Implications for Asteroid Rotations
Yanagisawa, Masahisa; Hasegawa, Sunao; Shirogane, Nobutoshi
1996-09-01
We conducted a series of high velocity oblique impact experiments (0.66-6.7 km/s) using polycarbonate (plastic) projectiles and targets made of mortar, aluminum alloy, and mild steel. We then calculated the efficiencies of momentum transfer for small cratering impacts. They are η = (M‧Vn‧)/(mvn) and ζ = (M‧Vt‧)/(mvt), wheremandvare the mass and velocity of a projectile, andM‧ andV‧ represent those of a postimpact target. Subscripts “n” and “t” denote the components normal and tangential to the target surface at the impact point, respectively. The main findings are: (1) η increases with increasing impact velocity; (2) η is larger for mortar than for ductile metallic targets; (3) ζ for mortar targets seems to increase with the impact velocity in the velocity range less than about 2 km/s and decrease with it in the higher velocity range; (4) ζ for the aluminum alloy targets correlates negatively with incident zenith angle of the projectile. In addition to these findings on the momentum transfer, we show theoretically that “ζL” can be expressed by η and ζ for small cratering impact. Here, ζLis the spin angular momentum that the target acquires at impact divided by the collisional angular momentum due to the projectile. This is an important parameter to study the collisional evolution of asteroid rotation. For a spherical target, ζLis shown to be well approximated by ζ.
Nuclear Effects in Neutrino Interactions at Low Momentum Transfer
Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)
Miltenberger, Ethan Ryan [Univ. of Minnesota, Minneapolis, MN (United States)
2015-05-01
This is a study to identify predicted effects of the carbon nucleus environment on neutrino - nucleus interactions with low momentum transfer. A large sample of neutrino interaction data collected by the MINERvA experiment is analyzed to show the distribution of charged hadron energy in a region with low momentum transfer. These distributions reveal a major discrepancy between the data and a popular interaction model with only the simplest Fermi gas nuclear effects. Detailed analysis of systematic uncertainties due to energy scale and resolution can account for only a little of the discrepancy. Two additional nuclear model effects, a suppression/screening effect (RPA), and the addition of a meson exchange current process (MEC), are shown to improve the description of the data.
Light scattering reviews 9 light scattering and radiative transfer
Kokhanovsky, Alexander A
2014-01-01
This book details modern methods of the radiative transfer theory. It presents recent advances in light scattering (measurements and theory) and highlights the newest developments in remote sensing of aerosol and cloud properties.
Interstellar propulsion using a pellet stream for momentum transfer
International Nuclear Information System (INIS)
Singer, C.E.
1979-10-01
A pellet-stream concept for interstellar propulsion is described. Small pellets are accelerated in the solar system and accurately guided to an interstellar probe where they are intercepted and transfer momentum. This propulsion system appears to offer orders-of-magnitude improvements in terms of engineering simplicity and power requirements over any other known feasible system for transport over interstellar distance in a time comparable to a human lifespan
High-energy, large-momentum-transfer processes: Ladder diagrams in var-phi 3 theory
International Nuclear Information System (INIS)
Newton, C.L.J.
1990-01-01
Relativistic quantum field theories may help one to understand high-energy, large-momentum-transfer processes, where the center-of-mass energy is much larger than the transverse momentum transfers, which are in turn much larger than the masses of the participating particles. With this possibility in mind, the author studies ladder diagrams in var-phi 3 theory. He shows that in the limit s much-gt |t| much-gt m 2 , the scattering amplitude for the N-rung ladder diagram takes the form s -1 |t| -N+1 times a homogeneous polynomial of degree 2N - 2 and ln s and ln |t|. This polynomial takes different forms depending on the relation of ln |t| to ln s. More precisely, the asymptotic formula for the N-rung ladder diagram has points of non-analytically when ln |t| = γ ln s for γ = 1/2, 1/3, hor-ellipsis, 1/N-2
Hadronic wave functions and high momentum transfer interactions in quantum chromodynamics
International Nuclear Information System (INIS)
Brodsky, S.J.; Huang, T.; Lepage, G.P.
1983-01-01
This chapter emphasizes the utility of a Fock state representation of the meson and baryon wave functions as a means not only to parametrize the effects of bound state dynamics in QCD phenomena, but also to interrelate exclusive, inclusive, and higher twist processes. Discusses hadronic wave functions in QCD, measures of hadronic wave functions (form factors of composite systems, form factors of mesons, the meson distribution amplitude); large momentum transfer exclusive processes (two-photon processes); deep inelastic lepton scattering; and the phenomenology of hadronic wave functions (measures of hadron wave functions, constraints on the pion and proton valence wave function, quark jet diffraction excitation, the ''unveiling'' of the hadronic wave function and intrinsic charm). Finds that the testing ground of perturbative QCD where rigorous, definitive tests of the theory can be made can now be extended throughout a large domain of large momentum transfer exclusive and inclusive lepton, photon, and hadron reactions
International Nuclear Information System (INIS)
Batiz, Zoltan; Gross, Franz
2000-01-01
The momentum conservation sum rule for deep inelastic scattering (DIS) from composite particles is investigated using the general theory of relativity. For two (1+1)-dimensional examples, it is shown that covariant theories automatically satisy the DIS momentum conservation sum rule provided the bound state is covariantly normalized. Therefore, in these cases the two DIS sum rules for baryon conservation and momentum conservation are equivalent. (c) 2000 The American Physical Society
Hadron-proton elastic scattering at 50, 100, and 200 GeV/c momentum
International Nuclear Information System (INIS)
Akerlof, C.W.; Kotthaus, R.; Loveless, R.L.; Meyer, D.I.; Ambats, I.; Meyer, W.T.; Ward, C.E.W.; Eartly, D.P.; Lundy, R.A.; Pruss, S.M.; Yovanovitch, D.D.; Rust, D.R.
1976-01-01
Elastic scattering of hadrons on protons has been measured at momenta of 50, 100, and 200 GeV/c. The meson-proton scattering is found to be independent of momentum and meson type for -t > 0.8 (GeV/c) 2 . The momentum dependence of the pp dip at -t = 1.4 (GeV/c) 2 was investigated. Slope parameters are given
High-energy, large-momentum-transfer processes: Ladder diagrams in φ3 theory. Pt. 2
International Nuclear Information System (INIS)
Osland, P.; Wu, T.T.; Harvard Univ., Cambridge, MA
1987-01-01
The scattering amplitude for the four-rung ladder diagram in φ 3 theory is evaluated at high energies and for large momentum transfers. The result takes the form of s -1 vertical stroketvertical stroke -3 multiplied by a homogeneous sixth-order polynomial in ln s and 1nvertical stroketvertical stroke. The novel and unexpected feature is that this polynomial is different depending on whether 1n vertical stroketvertical stroke is larger or less than 1/2 1n s. Thus the asymptotic formula is not analytic at 1n vertical stroketvertical stroke=1/2 1n s, although the first five derivatives are continuous. (orig.)
The momentum transfer cross section and transport coefficients for low energy electrons in mercury
International Nuclear Information System (INIS)
McEachran, R P; Elford, M T
2003-01-01
The momentum transfer cross section for electrons incident on mercury atoms has been determined from the solution of Dirac-Fock scattering equations which included both static and dynamic multipole polarization potentials as well as full anti-symmetrization to incorporate exchange effects. This cross section is in excellent agreement between 0.2 and 3.0 eV with the cross section derived from the most recent experimental measurements. The discrepancy below 0.2 eV has been investigated using two-term transport theory
Pion photoproduction cross section at large momentum transfer
Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)
Sjoegren, Johan [Univ. of Glasgow, Scotland, United Kingdom
2015-02-27
The Real Compton Scattering experiment was performed in Hall A at the Thomas Jefferson National Accelerator Facility. It was designed to measure, for Compton scattering and π^{0}-photoproduction, the differential cross section over a range of kinematic points and the polarisation transfer to the proton at a single kinematic point. The full range of the experiment in Mandelstam variables t and s was 1.6-6.46 GeV^{2} and 4.82-10.92 GeV^{2} respectively with beam energies of 2-6 GeV. The motivation for the experiment is to test the cross section and polarisation transfer predictions of perturbative QCD versus that of predictions from Generalised Parton Distribution models. This thesis will give an overview of the pertinent theory, experimental setup in Hall A and the extracting of the π^{0}-photoproduction cross section.
Transfer of momentum, mass and charge in heavy ion collisions
International Nuclear Information System (INIS)
Beck, F.; Feldmeier, H.; Dworzecka, M.
1979-01-01
A model for the first two phases of heavy ion collisions based on the transport of single nucleons through the window between the two scattering nuclei is described in some detail. It is pointed out that the model can account simultaneously for a large portion of the energy transfer from relative to intrinsic motion and for the observed variances in mass and charge numbers for reaction times up to the order of 10 -21 s. (P.L.)
Electroexcitation of the Δ+(1232 at low momentum transfer
Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)
A. Blomberg
2016-09-01
Full Text Available We report on new p(e,e′pπ∘ measurements at the Δ+(1232 resonance at the low momentum transfer region, where the mesonic cloud dynamics is predicted to be dominant and rapidly changing, offering a test bed for chiral effective field theory calculations. The new data explore the Q2 dependence of the resonant quadrupole amplitudes and for the first time indicate that the Electric and the Coulomb quadrupole amplitudes converge as Q2→0. The measurements of the Coulomb quadrupole amplitude have been extended to the lowest momentum transfer ever reached, and suggest that more than half of its magnitude is attributed to the mesonic cloud in this region. The new data disagree with predictions of constituent quark models and are in reasonable agreement with dynamical calculations that include pion cloud effects, chiral effective field theory and lattice calculations. The measurements indicate that improvement is required to the theoretical calculations and provide valuable input that will allow their refinements.
Neutron transfer with anisotropic scattering
International Nuclear Information System (INIS)
El Wakil, S.A.; Haggag, M.H.; Saad, E.A.
1979-01-01
The finite slab problem is reduced to a semi-infinite one by adding an infinitesimally thick layer such that both the added layer and the total layer are semi-infinite. The relation between the reflection and transmission functions for a finite slab and those for an infinite one are obtained in terms of an operator which satisfies a semigroup equation. The method is applied to anisotropic scattering with azimuthal dependence. Numerical calculations are made and the results compared with those of other workers. (author)
Elastic scattering and quasi-elastic transfers
International Nuclear Information System (INIS)
Mermaz, M.C.
1978-01-01
Experiments are presented which it will be possible to carry out at GANIL on the elastic scattering of heavy ions: diffraction phenomena if the absorption is great, refraction phenomena if absorption is low. The determination of the optical parameters can be performed. The study of the quasi-elastic transfer reactions will make it possible to know the dynamics of the nuclear reactions, form exotic nuclei and study their energy excitation spectrum, and analyse the scattering and reaction cross sections [fr
The laser elevator - Momentum transfer using an optical resonator
Meyer, Thomas R.; Mckay, Christopher P.; Mckenna, Paul M.
1987-01-01
In a conventional laser lightsail system the payload is propelled by the momentum imparted to it by the reflection of a laser beam without the use of any propellant. Because of the unfavorable relationship between energy and momentum in a light beam, these systems are very inefficient. The efficiency can be greatly improved, in principle, if the photons that impact the payload mirror are returned to the source and then redirected back toward the payload again. This system, which recirculates the laser beam, is defined as the 'laser elevator'. The gain of the laser elevator over conventional lightsails depends on the number of times the beam is recycled which is limited by the reflectance of the mirrors used, any losses in the transmission of the beam, and diffraction. Due to the increase pathlength of the folded beam, diffraction losses occur at smaller separations of the payload and the source mirror than for conventional lightsail system. The laser elevator has potential applications in launching to low earth orbit, orbital transfer, and rapid interplanetary delivery of small payloads.
Pion form factor in QCD at intermediate momentum transfers
Braun, V. M.; Khodjamirian, A.; Maul, M.
2000-04-01
We present a quantitative analysis of the electromagnetic pion form factor in the light-cone sum rule approach, including radiative corrections and higher-twist effects. The comparison to the existing data favors the asymptotic profile of the pion distribution amplitude and allows us to estimate the deviation: [∫du/uφπ(u)]/[∫du/uφasπ(u)]=1.1+/-0.1 at the scale of 1 GeV. Special attention is paid to the precise definition and interplay of soft and hard contributions at intermediate momentum transfer, and to the matching of the sum rule to the perturbative QCD prediction. We observe a strong numerical cancellation between the soft (end-point) contribution and power-suppressed hard contributions of higher twist, so that the total nonperturbative correction to the usual PQCD result turns out to be of the order of 30% for Q2~1 GeV2.
Scaled momentum spectra in deep inelastic scattering at HERA
Abramowicz, H.; Abt, I.; Adamczyk, L.; Adamus, M.; Antonelli, S.; Antonioli, P.; Antonov, A.; Arneodo, M.; Aushev, V.; Aushev, Y.; Bachynska, O.; Bamberger, A.; Barakbaev, A. N.; Barbagli, G.; Bari, G.; Barreiro, F.; Bartsch, D.; Basile, M.; Behnke, O.; Behr, J.; Behrens, U.; Bellagamba, L.; Bertolin, A.; Bhadra, S.; Bindi, M.; Blohm, C.; Bold, T.; Boos, E. G.; Borodin, M.; Borras, K.; Boscherini, D.; Boutle, S. K.; Brock, I.; Brownson, E.; Brugnera, R.; Bruemmer, N.; Bruni, A.; Bruni, G.; Brzozowska, B.; Bussey, P. J.; Butterworth, J. M.; Bylsma, B.; Caldwell, A.; Capua, M.; Carlin, R.; Catterall, C. D.; Chekanov, S.; Chwastowski, J.; Ciborowski, J.; Pellegrino, A.
Charged particle production has been studied in neutral current deep inelastic ep scattering with the ZEUS detector at HERA using an integrated luminosity of 0.44 fb(-1). Distributions of scaled momenta in the Breit frame are presented for particles in the current fragmentation region. The evolution
Antineutrino Charged-Current Reactions on Hydrocarbon with Low Momentum Transfer
Gran, R.; Betancourt, M.; Elkins, M.; Rodrigues, P. A.; Akbar, F.; Aliaga, L.; Andrade, D. A.; Bashyal, A.; Bellantoni, L.; Bercellie, A.; Bodek, A.; Bravar, A.; Budd, H.; Vera, G. F. R. Caceres; Cai, T.; Carneiro, M. F.; Coplowe, D.; da Motta, H.; Dytman, S. A.; Díaz, G. A.; Felix, J.; Fields, L.; Fine, R.; Gallagher, H.; Ghosh, A.; Haider, H.; Han, J. Y.; Harris, D. A.; Henry, S.; Jena, D.; Kleykamp, J.; Kordosky, M.; Le, T.; Leistico, J. R.; Lovlein, A.; Lu, X.-G.; Maher, E.; Manly, S.; Mann, W. A.; Marshall, C. M.; McFarland, K. S.; McGowan, A. M.; Messerly, B.; Miller, J.; Mislivec, A.; Morfín, J. G.; Mousseau, J.; Naples, D.; Nelson, J. K.; Nguyen, C.; Norrick, A.; Nuruzzaman, Olivier, A.; Paolone, V.; Patrick, C. E.; Perdue, G. N.; Ramírez, M. A.; Ransome, R. D.; Ray, H.; Ren, L.; Rimal, D.; Ruterbories, D.; Schellman, H.; Salinas, C. J. Solano; Su, H.; Sultana, M.; Falero, S. Sánchez; Valencia, E.; Wolcott, J.; Wospakrik, M.; Yaeggy, B.; Minerva Collaboration
2018-06-01
We report on multinucleon effects in low momentum transfer (<0.8 GeV /c ) antineutrino interactions on plastic (CH) scintillator. These data are from the 2010-2011 antineutrino phase of the MINERvA experiment at Fermilab. The hadronic energy spectrum of this inclusive sample is well described when a screening effect at a low energy transfer and a two-nucleon knockout process are added to a relativistic Fermi gas model of quasielastic, Δ resonance, and higher resonance processes. In this analysis, model elements introduced to describe previously published neutrino results have quantitatively similar benefits for this antineutrino sample. We present the results as a double-differential cross section to accelerate the investigation of alternate models for antineutrino scattering off nuclei.
Anti-Neutrino Charged-Current Reactions on Scintillator with Low Momentum Transfer
Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)
Gran, R.; et al.
2018-03-25
We report on multi-nucleon effects in low momentum transfer ($< 0.8$ GeV/c) anti-neutrino interactions on scintillator. These data are from the 2010-11 anti-neutrino phase of the MINERvA experiment at Fermilab. The hadronic energy spectrum of this inclusive sample is well-described when a screening effect at low energy transfer and a two-nucleon knockout process are added to a relativistic Fermi gas model of quasi-elastic, $\\Delta$ resonance, and higher resonance processes. In this analysis, model elements introduced to describe previously published neutrino results have quantitatively similar benefits for this anti-neutrino sample. We present the results as a double-differential cross section to accelerate investigation of alternate models for anti-neutrino scattering off nuclei.
Energy transfer in scattering by rotating potentials
Indian Academy of Sciences (India)
R. Narasimhan (Krishtel eMaging) 1461 1996 Oct 15 13:05:22
Quantum mechanical scattering theory is studied for time-dependent. Schrödinger ... the energy transferred to a particle by collision with a rotating blade. Keywords. ..... terms of the unitary group for some time-independent generator. This will ...
The nuclear spin response to intermediate energy protons and deuterons at low momentum transfer
International Nuclear Information System (INIS)
Baker, F.T.; Djalali, C.; Glashausser, C.; Lenske, H.; Love, W.G.; Tomasi-Gustafsson, E.; Wambach, J.
1997-01-01
Measurements of polarization transfer in the inelastic scattering of intermediate energy protons and deuterons have yielded a wealth of data on the spin response of nuclei. This work complements the well-known studies of Gamow-Teller strength in charge-exchange reactions. The emphasis here is on a consistent determination of the S=1, T=0 response, practical only with deuterons, and on the proper separation of S=0 and S=1 strength in proton spectra for appropriate comparison with sum rules. We concentrate on two nuclei, 40 Ca and 12 C, at momentum transfers below about 1 fm -1 and on excitations up to about 50 MeV. The continuum second random phase approximation provides the primary theoretical tool for calculating and interpreting the response in terms of properties of the nucleon-nucleon force inside the nuclear medium. The reaction mechanism is described by the DWIA, applied here to continuum proton scattering almost as rigorously as it is usually applied to low energy excitations. A new DWIA formalism for the description of spin observables in deuteron scattering is used. Comparison of the proton and deuteron data with each other and with RPA/DWIA calculations yields interesting insights into the current state of understanding of collectivity and the nuclear spin response. (orig.)
Quasielastic 3Hp scattering at 2.5 GeV/c triton momentum
International Nuclear Information System (INIS)
Blinov, A.V.; Chuvilo, I.V.; Ergakov, V.A.
1982-01-01
The differential cross sections of the quasielastic 3 Hp-scattering at a 2.5 GeV/c tritium momentum (Tsub(p)=318 MeV) have been measured using the ITEP 80 cm hydrogen buble chamber. The experimental results are compared with the predictions of the Glauber-Sitenke multiple scattering theory combined with the the completeness condition for the excited nucleus wave functions. The validity of the Glauber sum rule for the differential cross sections is investigated
Scaled momentum spectra in deep inelastic scattering at HERA
International Nuclear Information System (INIS)
Abramowicz, H.; Abt, I.; Adamczyk, L.
2009-12-01
Charged particle production has been studied in neutral current deep inelastic ep scattering with the ZEUS detector at HERA using an integrated luminosity of 0.44 fb -1 . Distributions of scaled momenta in the Breit frame are presented for particles in the current fragmentation region. The evolution of these spectra with the photon virtuality, Q 2 , is described in the kinematic region 10 2 2 . Next-to-leading-order and modified leading-log-approximation QCD calculations as well as predictions from Monte Carlo models are compared to the data. The results are also compared to e + e - annihilation data. The dependences of the pseudorapidity distribution of the particles on Q 2 and on the energy in the γp system, W, are presented and interpreted in the context of the hypothesis of limiting fragmentation. (orig.)
Scaled momentum spectra in deep inelastic scattering at HERA
Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)
Abramowicz, H. [Tel Aviv Univ. (Israel). Raymond and Beverly Sackler Faculty of Exact Sciences; University College London (United Kingdom); Max Planck Inst., Munich (Germany); Abt, I. [Max-Planck-Inst. fuer Physik, Muenchen (Germany); Adamczyk, L. [AGH-Univ. of Science and Technology, Cracow (PL). Faculty of Physics and Applied Computer Science] (and others)
2009-12-15
Charged particle production has been studied in neutral current deep inelastic ep scattering with the ZEUS detector at HERA using an integrated luminosity of 0.44 fb{sup -1}. Distributions of scaled momenta in the Breit frame are presented for particles in the current fragmentation region. The evolution of these spectra with the photon virtuality, Q{sup 2}, is described in the kinematic region 10
Neutron scattering investigation of magnetic excitations at high energy transfers
International Nuclear Information System (INIS)
Loong, C.K.
1984-01-01
With the advance of pulsed spallation neutron sources, neutron scattering investigation of elementary excitations in magnetic materials can now be extended to energies up to several hundreds of MeV. We have measured, using chopper spectrometers and time-of-flight techniques, the magnetic response functions of a series of d and f transition metals and compounds over a wide range of energy and momentum transfer. In PrO 2 , UO 2 , BaPrO 3 and CeB 6 we observed crystal-field transitions between the magnetic ground state and the excited levels in the energy range from 40 to 260 MeV. In materials exhibiting spin-fluctuation or mixed-valent character such as Ce 74 Th 26 , on the other hand, no sharp crystal-field lines but a broadened quasielastic magnetic peak was observed. The line width of the quasielastic component is thought to be connected to the spin-fluctuation energy of the 4f electrons. The significance of the neutron scattering results in relation to the ground state level structure of the magnetic ions and the spin-dynamics of the f electrons is discussed. Recently, in a study of the spin-wave excitations in itinerant magnetic systems, we have extended the spin-wave measurements in ferromagnetic iron up to about 160 MeV. Neutron scattering data at high energy transfers are of particular interest because they provide direct comparison with recent theories of itinerant magnetism. 26 references, 7 figures
Elastic π-d scattering at momentum of 552 MeV/c
International Nuclear Information System (INIS)
Dakhno, L.G.; Kravtsov, A.V.; Makarov, M.M.; Medvedev, V.I.; Obrant, G.Z.; Poromov, V.I.; Sarantsev, V.V.; Sokolov, G.L.; Sherman, S.G.
1980-01-01
The differential cross-section of the elastic π - d-scattering at the momentum of 552 MeV/c has been measured in the range of angles 20-180 deg in the L.s. by a deuterium 35-cm bubble chamber placed in a 14.8 kgf magnetic field. The total cross section of the elastic scattering is 7.9+-0.7 mbn. The results of calculations of the pion elastic scattering by deuteron performed by the Glauber theory are discussed
Measurement of π-p→π0n at large momentum transfer
International Nuclear Information System (INIS)
Apel, W.D.; Augenstein, K.H.; Krueger, M.; Mueller, H.; Schneider, H.; Sigurdsson, G.; Bertolucci, E.; Mannelli, I.; Pierazzini, G.M.; Quaglia, M.; Scribano, A.; Sergiampetri, F.; Vincelli, M.L.; Donskov, S.V.; Inyakin, A.V.; Kachanov, V.A.; Krasnokutsky, R.N.; Mikhailov, Yu.V.; Prokoshkin, Yu.D.; Shuvalov, R.S.; Toropin, A.N.; Leder, G.
1977-01-01
New results on a high statistics measurement of pion-nucleon charge exchange scattering at 40 GeV/c, extending in momentum transfer up to -t = 1.8 (GeV/c) 2 , are reported and compared with an optical impact parameter model, together with previous data for the reaction π - p→etan at the same energy. The imaginary part of the pole trajectory b 0 (s) is determined from the slope of the tangent to the maxima of (-t)sup(1/2) dsigma/dt. The linear increase of Im b 0 (s) with log s, which has been observed at low energies, continues up to 40 GeV/c. (Auth.)
Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)
Aksouh, F
2002-12-01
The elastic proton scattering from the halo nuclei {sup 6}He and {sup 8}He was investigated in inverse kinematics at energies around 700 MeV/u with the aim to deduce the differential cross sections for the region of high momentum transfer, covering the first diffraction minimum. For this purpose, a liquid-hydrogen target was specially developed and used for the first time allowing to obtain low-background data as compared to commonly used targets made from C-H compounds. Previous data taken in the region of small momentum transfer were sensitive to the size and the peripheral shape of the total nuclear matter density distribution but not to the inner part. The present data allow for a more detailed insight in the structure of the alike core in {sup 6,8}He through a better determination of the matter density distributions. Several density distributions calculated from different microscopic models were used to derive elastic scattering cross sections which are compared with the obtained data. (author)
International Nuclear Information System (INIS)
Hasse, R.W.; Boine-Frankenheim, O.
2004-01-01
Based on the theories of Piwinski, Bjorken-Mtingawa and Martini of Coulomb scattering, expressions for the heating rates due to intrabeam scattering were known since a long time. Simplifications by Wei-Parzen and Rao and Piwinski led to analytic approximations which are easily applicable to existing lattices. We use these approximations and also the formulae from thermal equilibration of Struckmeier and equate them to either constant cooling rates from electron cooling or to the Novosibirsk cooling rates for electron cooling to calculate the equilibrium values of the horizontal and vertical emittances and the momentum spread (longitudinal emittance) for typical beams in the ESR or in the HESR. For constant cooling and all approximation formulae the ratio of current to the product of the three emittances remains almost constant. This yields a slope of the momentum spread with current between 0.2 and 0.3, in agreement with experimental data. Using the Novosibirsk cooling rates this slope is much larger
SU(6)-strong breaking: structure functions and small momentum transfer properties of the nucleon
International Nuclear Information System (INIS)
Le Yaouanc, A.; Oliver, L.; Pene, O.; Raynal, J.C.
1975-01-01
A new approach in the study of the SU(6) symmetry breaking (in particular in deep inelastic electron-nucleon scattering) is presented. It is shown that there is a connection between deep inelastic and low momentum transfer or static properties of the nucleon, which extends much beyond the common SU(6) 56-assignments of the nucleon in both cases. This connection is provided by the realistic quark model (in which quarks are considered as real entities moving inside the hadron). Using this connection it is shown that the breaking of the prediction Fsub(2)sup(en)/Fsub(2)sup(ep)=2/3 is not truly related to chiral configuration mixings. An alternative solution, based on a true modification of the 56-assignment of the nucleon to a (56,L=0)+(70,L=0) mixing (called SU(6) strong mixing) is proposed. It is shown that the 'good' predictions of SU(6) are not much changed by this mixing. A complete description of the deep inelastic scattering including gluons and pairs is presented
Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)
Randrup, J.
1979-07-01
This lecture discusses a theory for the transport of mass, charge, linear, and angular momentum and energy in damped nuclear collisions, as induced by multiple transfer of individual nucleons. 11 references.
Angular momentum transfer in deep inelastic heavy ion collisions. Part 2
International Nuclear Information System (INIS)
Barbosa, V.C.; Soares, P.C.; Oliveira, Edgar C. de; Gomes, Luiz Carlos
1985-01-01
The Fokker-Planck equation which describes the angular momentum transfer in deep inelastic heavy ion collisions is solved by a stochastic simulation procedure. The fusion cross section calculation is discussed. The calculations show that the critical orbital angular momentum does not play such a special role as in the deterministic case. The results of all the angular momentum transfer and their fluctuations are calculated and compared with experimental results for the reactions 86 Kr+ 154 Sm at 610 MeV, 165 Ho+ 148 Sm, and 165 Ho+ 176 Yb at 1400 MeV. (Author) [pt
International Nuclear Information System (INIS)
Catalan, G.; Roberts, M.J.
1979-01-01
A form of the off-shell Coulomb T matrix, which has a well defined on-shell limit, is used in the Faddeev-Watson multiple-scattering expansion for a direct three-body collision process. Using the excitation of atomic hydrogen by electron impact as an example, approximations to the second-order terms, which are valid for high momentum transfers of the incident electron, are derived. It is shown how the resulting asymptotic behaviour of the second-order Faddeev-Watson approximation is related to the high momentum transfer limit of the second Born approximation. The results are generalised to the excitation of more complex atoms. The asymptotic forms of the Faddeev-Watson and Born approximations are compared with other theories and with measurements of differential cross sections and angular correlation parameters for the excitation of H(2p) and He(2 1 P). The results indicate that the Faddeev-Watson approximation converges more rapidly at high momentum transfers than does the Born approximation. (author)
Ghorbani, Omid; Ghanbari-Adivi, Ebrahim
2017-12-01
A full quantum mechanical version of the three-body distorted wave-eikonal initial state (3DW-EIS) theory is developed to study of the single ionization of the atomic targets by ion impact at different momentum transfers. The calculations are performed both with and without including the internuclear interaction in the transition amplitude. For 16 \\text{Mev} \\text{O}7+ \\text{-He}~(1s2 ) and 24 \\text{Mev} \\text{O}8+\\text{-Li}~(2s ) collisions, the emission of the active electron into the scattering plane is considered and the fully differential cross-sections (FDCSs) are calculated for a fixed value of the ejected electron energy and a variety of momentum transfers. For both the specified collision systems, the obtained results are compared with the experimental data and with the cross-sections obtained using the semi-classical continuum distorted wave-eikonal initial state (CDW-EIS) approach. For 16 \\text{Mev} \\text{O}7+ \\text{-He}~(1s^2) , we also compared the results with those of a four-body three-Coulomb-wave (3CW) model. In general, we find some large discrepancies between the results obtained by different theories. These discrepancies are much more significant at larger momentum transfers. Also, for some ranges of the electron emission angles the results are much more sensitive to the internuclear interaction to be either turned on or off.
Measurement of the proton form factor ratio at low momentum transfer
Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)
Friedman, Moshe [Hebrew Univ. of Jerusalem (Israel)
2016-08-01
Experiment E08-007-II measured the proton elastic form factor ratio μG_{E}=G_{M} in the momentum transfer range of Q^{2} ~ 0.02 - 0.08 GeV^{2}, the lowest ever measured by polarization transfer techniques. The experiment was performed at the Thomas Jefferson National Accelerator Facility in Newport News, Virginia, USA during 2012. A polarized electron beam with energies of 1.1, 1.7, and 2.2 GeV was elastically scattered off a polarized solid NH_{3} target. The asymmetries between the cross section of positive and negative helicity states of the beam were determined. These asymmetries can be used to determine the form factor ratio. In this thesis, we present the asymmetry analysis of the experiment, discuss the main challenges and show preliminary results for part of the data. Preliminary asymmetries indicate an increase in the form factor ratio above unity. However, a complete analysis is required before any conclusion can be made. Further analysis is ongoing, and final asymmetry results and form factor extraction is expected during 2017. We also present first results for ^{14}N asymmetries for elastic and quasi-elastic scattering. The measured asymmetries are in agreement with the shell model approximation, within the low accuracy of the measurement. A change in the asymmetry sign between the elastic and the quasi-elastic processes is seen, and should motivate further theoretical studies. These experimental asymmetries will also be useful for systematic studies of other experiments using polarized NH_{3} targets.
Resummation for polarized semi-inclusive deep-inelastic scattering at small transverse momentum
International Nuclear Information System (INIS)
Koike, Yuji . E-mail koike@nt.sc.niigata-u.ac.jp; Nagashima, Junji; Vogelsang, Werner
2006-01-01
We study the transverse-momentum distribution of hadrons produced in semi-inclusive deep-inelastic scattering (SIDIS). We consider cross sections for various combinations of polarizations of the initial lepton and nucleon or the produced hadron, for which we perform the resummation of large double-logarithmic perturbative corrections arising at small transverse momentum. We present phenomenological results for the processes lp->lπX with longitudinally polarized leptons and protons. We discuss the impact of the perturbative resummation and of estimated non-perturbative contributions on the corresponding cross sections and their spin asymmetry. Our results should be relevant for ongoing studies in the COMPASS experiment at CERN, and for future experiments at the proposed eRHIC collider at BNL
Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)
Laveissiere, G
2001-11-01
In hadronic physics, the nucleon structure and the quarks confinement are still topical issues. The neutral pion electroproduction and virtual Compton scattering (VCS) reactions allow us to access new observables that describe this structure. This work is focussed on the VCS experiment performed at Jefferson Lab in 1998. The 4 GeV electron beam is scattered off a cryogenic hydrogen target, and the scattered electron and recoiled proton are detected in coincidence in the twin hall A spectrometers. The photon (pion) is reconstructed using a missing particle technique. The data analysis allowed to extract the cross sections relative to both process at four-momentum transfer squared Q{sup 2} = 1 GeV{sup 2}. The VCS cross section has been extracted for the first time in the proton resonance region (W between 1.O and 2.0 GeV) through the photon electroproduction reaction. Around the pion-production threshold up to the Delta(1232) resonance region, these results lead to the measurement of the generalized polarizabilities, that describe the proton structure in the same way as the elastic form factors. Moreover, the neutral pion electroproduction cross section measurement in the resonance region has brought new constraints on the existing phenomenological models. (author)
Charge and transverse momentum correlations in deep inelastic muon-proton scattering
International Nuclear Information System (INIS)
Arneodo, M.; Ferrero, M.I.; Maselli, S.; Peroni, C.; Bee, C.; Chima, J.S.; Clifft, R.; Edwards, M.; Norton, P.R.; Oakham, F.G.; Thompson, J.C.; Braun, H.; Brueck, H.; Drees, J.; Edwards, A.; Krueger, J.; Poetsch, M.; Dreyer, T.; Ernst, T.; Haas, J.; Kabuss, E.M.; Landgraf, U.; Mohr, W.; Rith, K.; Schlagboehmer, A.; Schroeder, T.; Stier, H.E.; Wallucks, W.; Geddes, N.; Johnson, A.S.; Loken, J.; Long, K.; Renton, P.; Taylor, G.N.; Williams, W.S.C.; Grard, F.; Windmolders, R.
1986-01-01
Correlations between charged hadrons are investigated in a 280 GeV muon-proton scattering experiment. Although most of the observed particles are decay products it is shown that the correlations found originate in the fragmentation process and are not due simply to resonance production. Correlations are demonstrated between hadrons close in rapidity with respect to their charges and to the directions of their momentum components perpendicular to the virtual photon axis. Such short range correlations are predicted by the standard hadronization models. (orig.)
Grinter, Roger; Jones, Garth A
2018-02-01
The transfer of angular momentum between a quadrupole emitter and a dipole acceptor is investigated theoretically. Vector spherical harmonics are used to describe the angular part of the field of the mediating photon. Analytical results are presented for predicting angular momentum transfer between the emitter and absorber within a quantum electrodynamical framework. We interpret the allowability of such a process, which appears to violate conservation of angular momentum, in terms of the breakdown of the isotropy of space at the point of photon absorption (detection). That is, collapse of the wavefunction results in loss of all angular momentum information. This is consistent with Noether's Theorem and demystifies some common misconceptions about the nature of the photon. The results have implications for interpreting the detection of photons from multipole sources and offers insight into limits on information that can be extracted from quantum measurements in photonic systems.
Parekh, Anant; Gnanaseelan, C.; Jayakumar, A.
2011-01-01
Long time series of in situ observations from the north Indian Ocean are used to compute the momentum transfer coefficients over the north Indian Ocean. The transfer coefficients behave nonlinearly for low winds (<4 m/s), when most of the known empirical relations assume linear relations. Impact of momentum transfer coefficients on the upper ocean parameters is studied using an ocean general circulation model. The model experiments revealed that the Arabian Sea and Equatorial Indian Ocean are more sensitive to the momentum transfer coefficients than the Bay of Bengal and south Indian Ocean. The impact of momentum transfer coefficients on sea surface temperature is up to 0.3°C-0.4°C, on mixed layer depth is up to 10 m, and on thermocline depth is up to 15 m. Furthermore, the impact on the zonal current is maximum over the equatorial Indian Ocean (i.e., about 0.12 m/s in May and 0.15 m/s in October; both May and October are the period of Wyrtki jets and the difference in current has potential impact on the seasonal mass transport). The Sverdrup transport has maximum impact in the Bay of Bengal (3 to 4 Sv in August), whereas the Ekman transport has maximum impact in the Arabian Sea (4 Sv during May to July). These highlight the potential impact of accurate momentum forcing on the results from current ocean models.
Constructing Nucleon Operators on a Lattice for Form Factors with High Momentum Transfer
Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)
Syritsyn, Sergey [Stony Brook Univ., NY (United States); Gambhir, Arjun S. [College of William and Mary, Williamsburg, VA (United States); Musch, Bernhard U. [Univ. of Regensburg (Germany); Orginos, Konstantinos [College of William and Mary, Williamsburg, VA (United States); Thomas Jefferson National Accelerator Facility (TJNAF), Newport News, VA (United States)
2017-05-01
We present preliminary results of computing nucleon form factor at high momentum transfer using the 'boosted' or 'momentum' smearing. We use gauge configurations generated with N f = 2 + 1dynamical Wilson-clover fermions and study the connected as well as disconnected contributions to the nucleon form factors. Our initial results indicate that boosted smearing helps to improve the signal for nucleon correlators at high momentum. However, we also find evidence for large excited state contributions, which will likely require variational analysis to isolate the boosted nucleon ground state.
Solution of the scattering T matrix equation in discrete complex momentum space
International Nuclear Information System (INIS)
Rawitscher, G.H.; Delic, G.
1984-01-01
The scattering solution to the Lippmann-Schwinger equation is expanded into a set of spherical Bessel functions of complex wave numbers, K/sub j/, with j = 1,2 , . . . , M. The value of each K/sub j/ is determined from the condition that the spherical Bessel function smoothly matches onto an asymptotically outgoing spherical Hankel (or Coulomb) function of the correct physical wave number at a matching point R. The spherical Bessel functions thus determined are Sturmian functions, and they form a complete set in the interval 0 to R. The coefficients of the expansion of the scattering function are determined by matrix inversion of a linear set of algebraic equations, which are equivalent to the solution of the T-matrix equation in complex momentum space. In view of the presence of a matching radius, no singularities are encountered for the Green's functions, and the inclusion of Coulomb potentials offers no computational difficulties. Three numerical examples are performed in order to illustrate the convergence of the elastic scattering matrix S with M. One of these consists of a set of coupled equations which describe the breakup of a deuteron as it scatters from the nucleus on 58 Ni. A value of M of 15 or less is found sufficient to reproduce the exact S matrix element to an accuracy of four figures after the decimal point
Stimulated scattering of electromagnetic waves carrying orbital angular momentum in quantum plasmas.
Shukla, P K; Eliasson, B; Stenflo, L
2012-07-01
We investigate stimulated scattering instabilities of coherent circularly polarized electromagnetic (CPEM) waves carrying orbital angular momentum (OAM) in dense quantum plasmas with degenerate electrons and nondegenerate ions. For this purpose, we employ the coupled equations for the CPEM wave vector potential and the driven (by the ponderomotive force of the CPEM waves) equations for the electron and ion plasma oscillations. The electrons are significantly affected by the quantum forces (viz., the quantum statistical pressure, the quantum Bohm potential, as well as the electron exchange and electron correlations due to electron spin), which are included in the framework of the quantum hydrodynamical description of the electrons. Furthermore, our investigation of the stimulated Brillouin instability of coherent CPEM waves uses the generalized ion momentum equation that includes strong ion coupling effects. The nonlinear equations for the coupled CPEM and quantum plasma waves are then analyzed to obtain nonlinear dispersion relations which exhibit stimulated Raman, stimulated Brillouin, and modulational instabilities of CPEM waves carrying OAM. The present results are useful for understanding the origin of scattered light off low-frequency density fluctuations in high-energy density plasmas where quantum effects are eminent.
Ice and ocean velocity in the Arctic marginal ice zone: Ice roughness and momentum transfer
Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)
Sylvia T. Cole
2017-09-01
Full Text Available The interplay between sea ice concentration, sea ice roughness, ocean stratification, and momentum transfer to the ice and ocean is subject to seasonal and decadal variations that are crucial to understanding the present and future air-ice-ocean system in the Arctic. In this study, continuous observations in the Canada Basin from March through December 2014 were used to investigate spatial differences and temporal changes in under-ice roughness and momentum transfer as the ice cover evolved seasonally. Observations of wind, ice, and ocean properties from four clusters of drifting instrument systems were complemented by direct drill-hole measurements and instrumented overhead flights by NASA operation IceBridge in March, as well as satellite remote sensing imagery about the instrument clusters. Spatially, directly estimated ice-ocean drag coefficients varied by a factor of three with rougher ice associated with smaller multi-year ice floe sizes embedded within the first-year-ice/multi-year-ice conglomerate. Temporal differences in the ice-ocean drag coefficient of 20–30% were observed prior to the mixed layer shoaling in summer and were associated with ice concentrations falling below 100%. The ice-ocean drag coefficient parameterization was found to be invalid in September with low ice concentrations and small ice floe sizes. Maximum momentum transfer to the ice occurred for moderate ice concentrations, and transfer to the ocean for the lowest ice concentrations and shallowest stratification. Wind work and ocean work on the ice were the dominant terms in the kinetic energy budget of the ice throughout the melt season, consistent with free drift conditions. Overall, ice topography, ice concentration, and the shallow summer mixed layer all influenced mixed layer currents and the transfer of momentum within the air-ice-ocean system. The observed changes in momentum transfer show that care must be taken to determine appropriate parameterizations
A numerical study of momentum and forced convection heat transfer ...
African Journals Online (AJOL)
shaped baffles, vertical or inclined baffles, solid .... heat transfer characteristics for various baffle ... inlet; (iv) a constant temperature of 102°C ... j j x. T x x. T uρ. (3). Where ρ is the fluid density (constant); P is the pressure; μ is the dynamic ...
Phenomenology of high-momentum-transfer elastic processes
International Nuclear Information System (INIS)
Coon, D.D.; Gunion, J.F.; Tran Thanh Van, J.; Blankenbecler, R.
1978-01-01
An analysis is carried out to extract the leading effective trajectories and residues in pp and π - p elastic scattering. The results are compared with the predictions of the constituent-interchange model and the logarithmic dual model, which are shown to be the only two types of theory capable of providing a uniform link between backward and forward Regge regions and the fixed-angle region. The hypothesis of a smooth connection between forward and backward Regge regions puts strong contraints on a priori unrelated trajectories and residues. The possibility of a connection between the two models is discussed. As expected from interchange theory the extracted π - p trajectory and residue behave quite differently than those for pp. The dual model seems to give the best overall description of the pp trajectory and residue functions while the πp results agree completely with the interchange predictions. The two model fits to pp elastic scattering at moderate energies (12--24 GeV) are used to extract an expected Pomeron term. The shape of the extracted diffractive contribution is strikingly similar to the recent CERN ISR differential cross sections which exhibit a dip at t = - 1.4 GeV 2 and a slow falloff in the large-t region
High-energy, large-momentum-transfer processes: Ladder diagrams in φ3 theory. Pt. 1
International Nuclear Information System (INIS)
Osland, P.; Wu, T.T.; Harvard Univ., Cambridge, MA
1987-01-01
Relativistic quantum field theories may give us useful guidance to understanding high-energy, large-momentum-transfer processes, where the center-of-mass energy is much larger than the transverse momentum transfers, which are in turn much larger than the masses of the participating particles. With this possibility in mind, we study the ladder diagrams in φ 3 theory. In this paper, some of the necessary techniques are developed and applied to the simplest cases of the fourth- and sixth-order ladder diagrams. (orig.)
The angle-angular momentum and entropic uncertainty relations for quantum scattering
International Nuclear Information System (INIS)
Ion, D.B.; Ion, M.L.
1999-01-01
Recently the entropic uncertainty relations are obtained in a more general form by using Tsallis-like entropies for the quantum scattering. Hence, using Riesz theorem, the state-independent entropic angle-angular momentum uncertainty relations are proved for the Tsallis-like scattering entropies of spinless particles. The generalized entropic inequalities for the Tsallis-like entropies are presented. The two upper bounds are optimal bounds and can be obtained via Lagrange multipliers by extremizing the Tsallis-like entropies subject to the normalization constraints, respectively. The proof of the lower bound is provided by considering the condition that the angular distribution of probability, P(x) has, everywhere, a finite magnitude. Next, by using the Riesz Theorem a general result was obtained, appearing as inequalities valid for the case of hadron-hadron scattering. An important entropic uncertainty relation for the scattering of spinless particle was thus obtained. For σ el and dσ/dΩ, fixed from experiment, we proved that the optimal scattering entropies are the maximum possible entropies in the scattering process. In as previous paper it was shown that the experimental values of the entropies for the pion--nucleus scatterings are systematically described by the optimal entropies, at all available pion kinetic energies. In this sense the obtained results can also be considered as new experimental signatures for the validity of the principle of minimum distance in space of scattering states. The extension of the optimal state analysis to the generalized non-extensive statistics case, as well as, a test of the entropic inequalities, can be obtained in similar way by using non-extensive optimal entropies. Since this kind of analysis is more involved the numerical examples will be given in a following more extended paper. Finally, we believe that the results obtained here are encouraging for further investigations of the entropic uncertainty relations as well
Contribution of limb momentum to power transfer in athletic wheelchair pushing.
Masson, G; Bégin, M-A; Lopez Poncelas, M; Pelletier, S-K; Lessard, J-L; Laroche, J; Berrigan, F; Langelier, E; Smeesters, C; Rancourt, D
2016-09-06
Pushing capacity is a key parameter in athletic racing wheelchair performance. This study estimated the potential contribution of upper limb momentum to pushing. The question is relevant since it may affect the training strategy adopted by an athlete. A muscle-free Lagrangian dynamic model of the upper limb segments was developed and theoretical predictions of power transfer to the wheelchair were computed during the push phase. Results show that limb momentum capacity for pushing can be in the order of 40J per push cycle at 10m/s, but it varies with the specific pushing range chosen by the athlete. Although use of momentum could certainly help an athlete improve performance, quantifying the actual contribution of limb momentum to pushing is not trivial. A preliminary experimental investigation on an ergometer, along with a simplified model of the upper limb, suggests that momentum is not the sole contributor to power transfer to a wheelchair. Muscles substantially contribute to pushing, even at high speeds. Moreover, an optimal pushing range is challenging to find since it most likely differs if an athlete chooses a limb momentum pushing strategy versus a muscular exertion pushing strategy, or both at the same time. The study emphasizes the importance of controlling pushing range, although one should optimize it while also taking the dynamics of the recovery period into account. Copyright © 2016 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.
Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)
Pisano, Cristian [Dipartimento di Fisica, Universita di Pavia; INFN, Sezione di Pavia Via Bassi 6, I-27100 Pavia, Italy; Bacchetta, Alessandro [Dipartimento di Fisica, Universita di Pavia; INFN, Sezione di Pavia Via Bassi 6, I-27100 Pavia, Italy; Delcarro, Filippo [Dipartimento di Fisica, Universita di Pavia; INFN, Sezione di Pavia Via Bassi 6, I-27100 Pavia, Italy; Radici, Marco [INFN, Sezione di Pavia Via Bassi 6, I-27100 Pavia, Italy; Signori, Andrea [Thomas Jefferson National Accelerator Facility (TJNAF), Newport News, VA (United States)
2018-04-01
We present a first attempt at a global fit of unpolarized quark transverse momentum dependent distribution and fragmentation functions from available data on semi-inclusive deep-inelastic scattering, Drell-Yan and $Z$ boson production processes. This analysis is performed in the low transverse momentum region, at leading order in perturbative QCD and with the inclusion of energy scale evolution effects at the next-to-leading logarithmic accuracy.
Investigation of the conjectured nucleon deformation at low momentum transfer
International Nuclear Information System (INIS)
Sparveris, N.F.; Georgakopoulos, S.; Karabarbounis, A.; Papanicolas, C.N.; Stiliaris, E.; Alarcon, R.; Six, E.; Bernstein, A.M.; Bertozzi, W.; Casagrande, F.; Dow, K.; Farkondeh, M.; Gilad, S.; Kowalski, S.; Milner, R.; Nakagawa, I.; Sirca, S.; Stave, S.; Tsentalovich, G.; Tschalaer, C.
2005-01-01
We report new precise H(e,e ' p)π 0 measurements at the Δ(1232) resonance at Q 2 =0.127 (GeV/c) 2 obtained at the MIT-Bates out-of-plane scattering facility which are particularly sensitive to the transverse electric amplitude (E2) of the γ * N→Δ transition. The new data have been analyzed together with those of earlier measurements to yield precise quadrupole to dipole amplitude ratios: Re(E 1+ 3/2 /M 1+ 3/2 )=(-2.3±0.3 stat+syst ±0.6 model )% and Re(S 1+ 3/2 /M 1+ 3/2 )=(-6.1±0.2 stat+syst ±0.5 model )% for M 1+ 3/2 =(41.4±0.3 stat+syst ±0.4 model )(10 -3 /m π + ). The derived amplitudes give credence to the conjecture of deformation in hadrons favoring, at low Q 2 , the dominance of mesonic effects.
International Nuclear Information System (INIS)
Doessing, T.; Randrup, J.
1984-01-01
An important goal in the theory of nuclear dynamics is to understand the observed transport phenomena in terms of the basic microscopic processes in the system. For this purpose a model was developed in which the dissipative mechanism responsible for the transport process is the transfer of nucleons between the two reacting nuclides. Until now, most efforts to confront that theory with data have concentrated on the evolution of the charge and mass distribution with energy loss, and overall good agreement has been obtained for a variety of features. While this success lends strong support to the theory, it is important to broaden the contact with experiment by considering also other aspects of the data. Therefore the authors have undertaken a comprehensive study of the angular momentum variables which represent six additional observables (three for each fragment spin) and thus provide a rich testing ground for the theory
International Nuclear Information System (INIS)
Bantes, B.
2003-10-01
A complete Monte Carlo simulation for the neutral pion electroproduction experiment in the kinematics of the Δ(1232) that was carried out at the accelerator facility ELSA has been developed to correct the data concerning effects like detector resolution efficiencies, acceptances and radiation corrections. Results for the leading amplitudes are extracted at the four momentum transfer of 0.630 GeV 2 . Absolute cross sections are extracted using the well known elastic ep scattering to determine the luminosity. (orig.)
Penta Rao, Tamarba; Rajendra Prasad, P.
2018-04-01
Entry region swirl promoters gain importance in industry because of its effectiveness in augmentation of mass and heat transfer augmentation. Design of equipment needs momentum transfer data along with mass or heat transfer data. Hence an experimental investigation was carried out with coaxially placed entry region spiral coil as turbulence promoters on momentum transfer in forced convection flow of electrolyte in circular conduits. Aqueous solution of sodium hydroxide and 0.01 M equimolal Ferri-ferro cyanide system was chosen for the study. The study covered parameters like effect of pitch of the coil, effect of length of the coil, diameter of the coil, diameter of the coil wire, diameter of the annular rod. The promoter is measured by limiting current technique using diffusion controlled electrochemical reactions. The study comprises of evaluation of momentum transfer rates at the outer wall of the electrochemical cell. Pressure drop measurements were also made to obtain the energy consumption pattern. Within the range of variables covered. The results are correlated by the momentum transfer similarity function. Momentum transfer coefficients were evaluated from measured limiting currents. Effect of each parameter was studied in terms of friction factor. A model was developed for momentum transfer. The experimental data on momentum transfer was modeled in terms of momentum transfer function and Reynolds number, geometric parameters.
Hadron Transverse Momentum Distributions in Muon Deep Inelastic Scattering at 160 GeV/$c$
Adolph, C; Alexakhin, V Yu; Alexandrov, Yu; Alexeev, G D; Amoroso, A; Andrieux, V; Austregesilo, A; Badelek, B; Balestra, F; Barth, J; Baum, G; Bedfer, Y; Berlin, A; Bernhard, J; Bertini, R; Bicker, K; Bieling, J; Birsa, R; Bisplinghoff, J; Boer, M; Bordalo, P; Bradamante, F; Braun, C; Bravar, A; Bressan, A; Buchele, M; Burtin, E; Capozza, L; Chiosso, M; Chung, S U; Cicuttin, A; Crespo, M L; Dalla Torre, S; Dasgupta, S S; Dasgupta, S; Denisov, O Yu; Donskov, S V; Doshita, N; Duic, V; Dunnweber, W; Dziewiecki, M; Efremov, A; Elia, C; Eversheim, P D; Eyrich, W; Faessler, M; Ferrero, A; Filin, A; Finger, M; Finger, M jr; Fischer, H; Franco, C; du Fresne von Hohenesche, N; Friedrich, J M; Frolov, V; Garfagnini, R; Gautheron, F; Gavrichtchouk, O P; Gerassimov, S; Geyer, R; Giorgi, M; Gnesi, I; Gobbo, B; Goertz, S; Grabmuller, S; Grasso, A; Grube, B; Gushterski, R; Guskov, A; Guthorl, T; Haas, F; von Harrach, D; Heinsius, F H; Herrmann, F; Hess, C; Hinterberger, F; Hoppner, Ch; Horikawa, N; d'Hose, N; Huber, S; Ishimoto, S; Ivanshin, Yu; Iwata, T; Jahn, R; Jary, V; Jasinski, P; Joosten, R; Kabuss, E; Kang, D; Ketzer, B; Khaustov, G V; Khokhlov, Yu A; Kisselev, Yu; Klein, F; Klimaszewski, K; Koivuniemi, J H; Kolosov, V N; Kondo, K; Konigsmann, K; Konorov, I; Konstantinov, V F; Kotzinian, A M; Kouznetsov, O; Kramer, M; Kroumchtein, Z V; Kuchinski, N; Kunne, F; Kurek, K; Kurjata, R P; Lednev, A A; Lehmann, A; Levorato, S; Lichtenstadt, J; Maggiora, A; Magnon, A; Makke, N; Mallot, G K; Mann, A; Marchand, C; Martin, A; Marzec, J; Matsuda, H; Matsuda, T; Meshcheryakov, G; Meyer, W; Michigami, T; Mikhailov, Yu V; Morreale, A; Nagaytsev, A; Nagel, T; Nerling, F; Neubert, S; Neyret, D; Nikolaenko, V I; Novy, J; Nowak, W D; Nunes, A.S; Olshevsky, A G; Ostrick, M; Panknin, R; Panzieri, D; Parsamyan, B; Paul, S; Piragino, G; Platchkov, S; Pochodzalla, J; Polak, J; Polyakov, V A; Pretz, J; Quaresma, M; Quintans, C; Rajotte, J F; Ramos, S; Reicherz, G; Rocco, E; Rodionov, V; Rondio, E; Rossiyskaya, N S; Ryabchikov, D I; Samoylenko, V D; Sandacz, A; Sapozhnikov, M G; Sarkar, S; Savin, I A; Sbrizzai, G; Schiavon, P; Schill, C; Schluter, T; Schmidt, A; Schmidt, K; Schmitt, L; Schmiden, H; Schonning, K; Schopferer, S; Schott, M; Shevchenko, O Yu; Silva, L; Sinha, L; Sirtl, S; Slunecka, M; Sosio, S; Sozzi, F; Srnka, A; Steiger, L; Stolarski, M; Sulc, M; Sulej, R; Suzuki, H; Sznajder, P; Takekawa, S; Ter Wolbeek, J; Tessaro, S; Tessarotto, F; Thibaud, F; Uhl, S; Uman, I; Vandenbroucke, M; Virius, M; Wang, L; Weisrock, T; Wilfert, M; Windmolders, R; Wislicki, W; Wollny, H; Zaremba, K; Zavertyaev, M; Zemlyanichkina, E; Zhuravlev, N; Ziembicki, M
2013-01-01
Multiplicities of charged hadrons produced in deep inelastic muon scattering off a $^6$LiD target have been measured as a function of the DIS variables $x_{Bj}$, $Q^2$, $W^2$ and the final state hadron variables $p_T$ and $z$. The $p_T^2$ distributions are fitted with a single exponential function at low values of $p_T^2$ to determine the dependence of $\\langle p_T^2 \\rangle$ on $x_{Bj}$, $Q^2$, $W^2$ and $z$. The $z$-dependence of $\\langle p_T^2 \\rangle$ is shown to be a potential tool to extract the average intrinsic transverse momentum squared of partons, $\\langle k_{\\perp}^2 \\rangle$, as a function of $x_{Bj}$ and $Q^2$ in a leading order QCD parton model.
Hadron transverse momentum distributions in muon deep inelastic scattering at 160 GeV/c
International Nuclear Information System (INIS)
Adolph, C.; Braun, C.; Eyrich, W.; Lehmann, A.; Schmidt, A.; Alekseev, M.G.; Birsa, R.; Bravar, A.; Dalla Torre, S.; Dasgupta, S.S.; Gobbo, B.; Sozzi, F.; Steiger, L.; Tessaro, S.; Tessarotto, F.; Alexakhin, V.Yu.; Alexeev, G.D.; Efremov, A.; Gavrichtchouk, O.P.; Gushterski, R.; Guskov, A.; Ivanshin, Yu.; Kroumchtein, Z.V.; Kuchinski, N.; Meshcheryakov, G.; Nagaytsev, A.; Olshevsky, A.G.; Rodionov, V.; Rossiyskaya, N.S.; Sapozhnikov, M.G.; Savin, I.A.; Shevchenko, O.Yu.; Zemlyanichkina, E.; Zhuravlev, N.; Alexandrov, Yu.; Zavertyaev, M.; Amoroso, A.; Balestra, F.; Bertini, R.; Chiosso, M.; Garfagnini, R.; Gnesi, I.; Grasso, A.; Kotzinian, A.M.; Parsamyan, B.; Piragino, G.; Sosio, S.; Andrieux, V.; Bedfer, Y.; Boer, M.; Burtin, E.; Capozza, L.; Ferrero, A.; Hose, N. d'; Kunne, F.; Magnon, A.; Marchand, C.; Morreale, A.; Neyret, D.; Platchkov, S.; Thibaud, F.; Vandenbroucke, M.; Wollny, H.; Austregesilo, A.; Bicker, K.; Badelek, B.; Barth, J.; Bieling, J.; Goertz, S.; Klein, F.; Panknin, R.; Pretz, J.; Windmolders, R.; Baum, G.; Berlin, A.; Gautheron, F.; Hess, C.; Kisselev, Yu.; Koivuniemi, J.H.; Meyer, W.; Reicherz, G.; Wang, L.; Bernhard, J.; Harrach, D. von; Jasinski, P.; Kabuss, E.; Kang, D.; Ostrick, M.; Pochodzalla, J.; Weisrock, T.; Wilfert, M.; Bisplinghoff, J.; Eversheim, P.D.; Hinterberger, F.; Jahn, R.; Joosten, R.; Schmiden, H.; Bordalo, P.; Franco, C.; Nunes, A.S.; Quaresma, M.; Quintans, C.; Ramos, S.; Silva, L.; Stolarski, M.; Bradamante, F.; Bressan, A.; Duic, V.; Elia, C.; Giorgi, M.; Levorato, S.; Martin, A.; Sbrizzai, G.; Schiavon, P.; Buechele, M.; Fischer, H.; Guthoerl, T.; Heinsius, F.H.; Herrmann, F.; Koenigsmann, K.; Nerling, F.; Nowak, W.D.; Schill, C.; Schmidt, K.; Schopferer, S.; Sirtl, S.; Ter Wolbeek, J.; Chung, S.U.; Friedrich, J.M.; Grabmueller, S.; Grube, B.; Haas, F.; Hoeppner, C.; Huber, S.; Ketzer, B.; Kraemer, M.; Mann, A.; Nagel, T.; Neubert, S.; Paul, S.; Schmitt, L.; Uhl, S.; Cicuttin, A.; Crespo, M.L.; Dasgupta, S.; Sarkar, S.; Sinha, L.; Denisov, O.Yu.; Maggiora, A.; Takekawa, S.; Donskov, S.V.; Filin, A.; Khaustov, G.V.; Khokhlov, Yu.A.; Kolosov, V.N.; Konstantinov, V.F.; Lednev, A.A.; Mikhailov, Yu.V.; Nikolaenko, V.I.; Polyakov, V.A.; Ryabchikov, D.I.; Samoylenko, V.D.; Doshita, N.; Ishimoto, S.; Iwata, T.; Kondo, K.; Matsuda, H.; Michigami, T.; Suzuki, H.; Duennweber, W.; Faessler, M.; Geyer, R.; Rajotte, J.F.; Schlueter, T.; Uman, I.; Dziewiecki, M.; Kurjata, R.P.; Marzec, J.; Zaremba, K.; Ziembicki, M.; Finger, M.; Finger, M.; Slunecka, M.; Du Fresne von Hohenesche, N.; Frolov, V.; Mallot, G.K.; Rocco, E.; Schoenning, K.; Schott, M.; Gerassimov, S.; Konorov, I.; Horikawa, N.; Jary, V.; Novy, J.; Virius, M.; Klimaszewski, K.; Kurek, K.; Rondio, E.; Sandacz, A.; Sulej, R.; Sznajder, P.; Wislicki, W.; Kouznetsov, O.; Lichtenstadt, J.; Makke, N.; Matsuda, T.; Panzieri, D.; Polak, J.; Srnka, A.; Sulc, M.
2013-01-01
Multiplicities of charged hadrons produced in deep inelastic muon scattering off a 6 LiD target have been measured as a function of the DIS variables x Bj , Q 2 , W 2 and the final state hadron variables p T and z. The p T 2 distributions are fitted with a single exponential function at low values of p T 2 to determine the dependence of left angle p T 2 right angle on x Bj , Q 2 , W 2 and z. The z-dependence of left angle p T 2 right angle is shown to be a potential tool to extract the average intrinsic transverse momentum squared of partons, left angle k perpendicular to 2 right angle, as a function of x Bj and Q 2 in a leading order QCD parton model. (orig.)
Pipa, Viktor; Vasko, Fedor; Mitin, Vladimir
1997-03-01
The low temperature energy and momentum relaxation rates of 2D electron gas placed near the free or clamped surface of a semi-infinit sample are calculated. To describe the electron-acoustic phonon interaction with allowance of the surface effect the method of elasticity theory Green functions was used. This method allows to take into account the reflection of acoustic waves from the surface and related mutual conversion of LA and TA waves. It is shown that the strength of the deformation potential scattering at low temperatures substantially depends on the mechanical conditions at the surface: relaxation rates are suppressed for the free surface while for the rigid one the rates are enhanced. The dependence of the conductivity on the distance between the 2D layer and the surface is discussed. The effect is most pronounced in the range of temperatures 2 sl pF < T < (2 hbar s_l)/d, where pF is the Fermi momentum, sl is the velocity of LA waves, d is the width of the quantum well.
On conservation of the baryon chirality in the processes with large momentum transfer
International Nuclear Information System (INIS)
Ioffe, B.L.
1976-01-01
The hypothesis of the baryon chirality conservation in the processes with large momentum transfer is suggested and some arguments in its favour are made. Experimental implicatiosns of this assumption for weak and electromagnetic form factors of transitions in the baryon octet and of transitions N → Δ, N → Σsup(*) are considered
Energy Transfer in Scattering by Rotating Potentials
Indian Academy of Sciences (India)
Quantum mechanical scattering theory is studied for time-dependent Schrödinger operators, in particular for particles in a rotating potential. Under various assumptions about the decay rate at infinity we show uniform boundedness in time for the kinetic energy of scattering states, existence and completeness of wave ...
International Nuclear Information System (INIS)
Sun, Wenbo; Hu, Yongxiang; Weimer, Carl; Ayers, Kirk; Baize, Rosemary R.; Lee, Tsengdar
2017-01-01
Electromagnetic (EM) beams with orbital angular momentum (OAM) may have great potential applications in communication technology and in remote sensing of the Earth-atmosphere system and outer planets. Study of their interaction with optical lenses and dielectric or metallic objects, or scattering of them by particles in the Earth-atmosphere system, is a necessary step to explore the advantage of the OAM EM beams. In this study, the 3-dimensional (3D) scattered-field (SF) finite-difference time domain (FDTD) technique with the convolutional perfectly matched layer (CPML) absorbing boundary conditions (ABC) is applied to calculate the scattering of the purely azimuthal (the radial mode number is assumed to be zero) Laguerre–Gaussian (LG) beams with the OAM by dielectric particles. We found that for OAM beam's interaction with dielectric particles, the forward-scattering peak in the conventional phase function (P11) disappears, and light scattering peak occurs at a scattering angle of ~15° to 45°. The disappearance of forward-scattering peak means that, in laser communications most of the particle-scattered noise cannot enter the receiver, thus the received light is optimally the original OAM-encoded signal. This feature of the OAM beam also implies that in lidar remote sensing of the atmospheric particulates, most of the multiple-scattering energy will be off lidar sensors, and this may result in an accurate profiling of particle layers in the atmosphere or in the oceans by lidar, or even in the ground when a ground penetration radar (GPR) with the OAM is applied. This far-field characteristics of the scattered OAM light also imply that the optical theorem, which is derived from plane-parallel wave scattering case and relates the forward scattering amplitude to the total cross section of the scatterer, is invalid for the scattering of OAM beams by dielectric particles. - Highlights: • Scattering of orbital angular momentum (OAM) laser beam by dielectric
Asymmetry in π-p↑ elastic scattering in momentum range 1.4-2.1 GeV/c
International Nuclear Information System (INIS)
Alekseev, I.G.; Budkovskij, P.E.; Kanavets, V.P.
1989-01-01
Results of systematic measurements of the asymmetry parameter in the elastic scattering of pions on polarized protons at 1.4-2.1 GeV/c in the back hemisphere are presented together with a test of the isospin invariance of the data set available on pion-proton scattering in the investigated momentum range. The obtained data and amplitude reconstruction results are compared with the current phase shift analysis predictions. 22 refs.; 10 figs
Scattering in quantum field theory: the M.P.S.A. approach in complex momentum space
International Nuclear Information System (INIS)
Bros, J.
1981-02-01
In this course, we intend to show how 'Many-Particle Structure Analysis' (M.P.S.A.) can be worked out in the standard field-theoretical framework, by using integral relations in complex momentum space involving 'l-particle irreducible kernels'. The ultimate purpose of this approach is to obtain the best possible knowledge of the singularities (location, nature, type of ramification) and of the ambient holomorphy (or meromorphy) domains of the n-point Green functions and scattering amplitudes, and at the same time to derive analytic structural equations for them which display the global organization of these singularities. The generation of Landau singularities for integrals and Fredholm resolvents, taken on cycles in complex space, will be explained on the basis of the Picard-Lefschetz formula (presented and used in simple situations). Among various results described, we present and analyse a structural equation for the six-point function (and for the 3 → 3 particle scattering function), valid in a domain containing the three-particle normal threshold
Application of the Radiative Transfer Equation (RTE) to Scattering by ...
African Journals Online (AJOL)
Application of the Radiative Transfer Equation (RTE) to Scattering by a Dust Aerosol Layer. ... Incident radiation in its journey through the atmosphere before reaching the earth surface encounters particles of different sizes and composition such as dust aerosols resulting in interactions that lead to absorption and scattering.
Reduction of momentum transfer rates by parallel electric fields: A two-fluid demonstration
International Nuclear Information System (INIS)
Delamere, P.A.; Stenbaek-Nielsen, H.C.; Otto, A.
2002-01-01
Momentum transfer between an ionized gas cloud moving relative to an ambient magnetized plasma is a general problem in space plasma physics. Obvious examples include the Io-Jupiter interaction, comets, and coronal mass ejections. Active plasma experiments have demonstrated that momentum transfer rates associated with Alfven wave propagation are poorly understood. Barium injection experiments from the Combined Release and Radiation Effects Satellite (CRRES) have shown that dense ionized clouds are capable of ExB drifting over large distances perpendicular to the magnetic field. The CRRES 'skidding' distances were much larger than predicted by magnetohydrodynamic theory and it has been proposed that parallel electric fields were a key component in the skidding phenomenon. A two-fluid code was used to demonstrate the role of parallel electric fields in reducing momentum transfer between two distinct plasma populations. In this study, a dense plasma was initialized moving relative to an ambient plasma and perpendicular to B. Parallel electric fields were introduced via a friction term in the electron momentum equation and the collision frequency was scaled in proportion to the field-aligned current density. The simulation results showed that parallel electric fields decreased the decelerating magnetic tension force on the plasma cloud through a magnetic diffusion/reconnection process
Momentum, heat, and mass transfer analogy for vertical hydraulic transport of inert particles
Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)
Jaćimovski Darko R.
2014-01-01
Full Text Available Wall-to-bed momentum, heat and mass transfer in vertical liquid-solids flow, as well as in single phase flow, were studied. The aim of this investigation was to establish the analogy among those phenomena. Also, effect of particles concentration on momentum, heat and mass transfer was studied. The experiments in hydraulic transport were performed in a 25.4 mm I.D. cooper tube equipped with a steam jacket, using spherical glass particles of 1.94 mm in diameter and water as a transport fluid. The segment of the transport tube used for mass transfer measurements was inside coated with benzoic acid. In the hydraulic transport two characteristic flow regimes were observed: turbulent and parallel particle flow regime. The transition between two characteristic regimes (γ*=0, occurs at a critical voidage ε≈0.85. The vertical two-phase flow was considered as the pseudofluid, and modified mixture-wall friction coefficient (fw and modified mixture Reynolds number (Rem were introduced for explanation of this system. Experimental data show that the wall-to-bed momentum, heat and mass transfer coefficients, in vertical flow of pseudofluid, for the turbulent regime are significantly higher than in parallel regime. Wall-to-bed, mass and heat transfer coefficients in hydraulic transport of particles were much higher then in single-phase flow for lower Reynolds numbers (Re15000, there was not significant difference. The experimental data for wall-to-bed momentum, heat and mass transfer in vertical flow of pseudofluid in parallel particle flow regime, show existing analogy among these three phenomena. [Projekat Ministarstva nauke Republike Srbije, br. 172022
The (3He,α) reaction mechanism. A study of the angular momentum transfer
International Nuclear Information System (INIS)
Guttormsen, M.; Bergholt, L.; Ingebretsen, F.; Loevhoeiden, G.; Messelt, S.; Rekstad, J.; Tveter, T.S.; Helstrup, H.; Thorsteinsen, T.F.
1994-01-01
The γ-rays emitted after the 163 Dy( 3 He,αxn) reactions at E( 3 He) = 45 MeV have been measured. The transferred angular momentum in the reaction is deduced from the side-feeding γ-intensities of the ground bands in the residual 162-x Dy isotopes. With decreasing α-energy the average spin transfer increases from similar 5h to similar 11h. The ( 3 He,α) reaction at these energies is dominated by direct processes. Even at the highest spin transfer the contribution from the compound reaction channel is negligible. ((orig.))
Energy transfer, orbital angular momentum, and discrete current in a double-ring fiber array
International Nuclear Information System (INIS)
Alexeyev, C. N.; Volyar, A. V.; Yavorsky, M. A.
2011-01-01
We study energy transfer and orbital angular momentum of supermodes in a double-ring array of evanescently coupled monomode optical fibers. The structure of supermodes and the spectra of their propagation constants are obtained. The geometrical parameters of the array, at which the energy is mostly confined within the layers, are determined. The developed method for finding the supermodes of concentric arrays is generalized for the case of multiring arrays. The orbital angular momentum carried by a supermode of a double-ring array is calculated. The discrete lattice current is introduced. It is shown that the sum of discrete currents over the array is a conserved quantity. The connection of the total discrete current with orbital angular momentum of discrete optical vortices is made.
Energy transfer, orbital angular momentum, and discrete current in a double-ring fiber array
Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)
Alexeyev, C. N.; Volyar, A. V. [Taurida National V.I. Vernadsky University, Vernadsky Prospekt, 4, Simferopol, 95007, Crimea (Ukraine); Yavorsky, M. A. [Taurida National V.I. Vernadsky University, Vernadsky Prospekt, 4, Simferopol, 95007, Crimea (Ukraine); Universite Bordeaux and CNRS, LOMA, UMR 5798, FR-33400 Talence (France)
2011-12-15
We study energy transfer and orbital angular momentum of supermodes in a double-ring array of evanescently coupled monomode optical fibers. The structure of supermodes and the spectra of their propagation constants are obtained. The geometrical parameters of the array, at which the energy is mostly confined within the layers, are determined. The developed method for finding the supermodes of concentric arrays is generalized for the case of multiring arrays. The orbital angular momentum carried by a supermode of a double-ring array is calculated. The discrete lattice current is introduced. It is shown that the sum of discrete currents over the array is a conserved quantity. The connection of the total discrete current with orbital angular momentum of discrete optical vortices is made.
Backward elastic p3He-scattering and high momentum components of 3He wave function
International Nuclear Information System (INIS)
Uzikov, Yu.N.
1998-01-01
It is shown that owing to a dominance of np-pair transfer mechanism of backward elastic p 3 He-scattering for incident proton kinetic energies T p > 1 GeV the cross section of this process is defined mainly by the values of the Faddeev component of the wave function of 3 He nucleus, φ 23 (q 23 , p 1 ), at high relative momenta q 23 > 0.6 GeV/c of the NN-pair in the 1 S 0 -state and at low spectator momenta p 1 ∼ 0 - 0.2 GeV/c
Experimental Study on Momentum Transfer of Surface Texture in Taylor-Couette Flow
Xue, Yabo; Yao, Zhenqiang; Cheng, De
2017-05-01
The behavior of Taylor-Couette (TC) flow has been extensively studied. However, no suitable torque prediction models exist for high-capacity fluid machinery. The Eckhardt-Grossmann-Lohse (EGL) theory, derived based on the Navier-Stokes equations, is proposed to model torque behavior. This theory suggests that surfaces are the significant energy transfer interfaces between cylinders and annular flow. This study mainly focuses on the effects of surface texture on momentum transfer behavior through global torque measurement. First, a power-law torque behavior model is built to reveal the relationship between dimensionless torque and the Taylor number based on the EGL theory. Second, TC flow apparatus is designed and built based on the CNC machine tool to verify the torque behavior model. Third, four surface texture films are tested to check the effects of surface texture on momentum transfer. A stereo microscope and three-dimensional topography instrument are employed to analyze surface morphology. Global torque behavior is measured by rotating a multi component dynamometer, and the effects of surface texture on the annular flow behavior are observed via images obtained using a high-speed camera. Finally, torque behaviors under four different surface conditions are fitted and compared. The experimental results indicate that surface textures have a remarkable influence on torque behavior, and that the peak roughness of surface texture enhances the momentum transfer by strengthening the fluctuation in the TC flow.
Heat and momentum transfer from an atmospheric argon hydrogen plasma jet to spherical particles
International Nuclear Information System (INIS)
Vaessen, P.H.M.
1984-01-01
In this thesis the author describes the energy and momentum transfer from the plasma jet to the spray particles. This is done both experimentally and theoretically. Also the internal energy process of the recombining plasma is discussed. All elastic and inelastic collisional and radiative processes, as well as transport effects within the plasma are considered. In the next section, the so called passive spectroscopy is treated. It describes the diagnostics of electron density and temperature measurement, as well as the investigation on heat content of the particles. Spatially resolved electron density and temperature profiles are presented. Next, the active spectroscopy, i.e. the laser Doppler anemometer is dealt with. With this diagnostic, axial spray-particle velocities inside the plasma jet were determined. The author also presents heat and momentum transfer modelling of the plasma, related to the plasma particle interaction. Finally, a one dimensional model verification is made, using the experimentally determined particle velocity and plasma temperature profiles. (Auth.)
Double ionisation of helium in fast ion collisions: the role of momentum transfer
International Nuclear Information System (INIS)
Bapat, B.; Moshammer, R.; Schmitt, W.; Kollmus, H.; Ullrich, J.; Doerner, R.; Weber, T.; Khayyat, K.
1999-01-01
Double ionisation of helium in the perturbative regime has been explored in a kinematically complete collision experiment using 100 MeV/u C 6+ ions. Different ionisation mechanisms are identified by inspecting the angular distribution of the electrons as a function of the momentum transfer q to the target by the projectile. For q 1.2 a.u., the faster electron resulting from a binary encounter with the projectile is emitted along the direction of momentum transfer, while the other electron is distributed uniformly. Experimental data are compared with various model calculations based on the Bethe-Born approximation with shake-off. Surprisingly, the effect of the final state interaction is found to depend decisively on the choice of the initial state wave function. (orig.)
Transient radiative transfer in a scattering slab considering polarization.
Yi, Hongliang; Ben, Xun; Tan, Heping
2013-11-04
The characteristics of the transient and polarization must be considered for a complete and correct description of short-pulse laser transfer in a scattering medium. A Monte Carlo (MC) method combined with a time shift and superposition principle is developed to simulate transient vector (polarized) radiative transfer in a scattering medium. The transient vector radiative transfer matrix (TVRTM) is defined to describe the transient polarization behavior of short-pulse laser propagating in the scattering medium. According to the definition of reflectivity, a new criterion of reflection at Fresnel surface is presented. In order to improve the computational efficiency and accuracy, a time shift and superposition principle is applied to the MC model for transient vector radiative transfer. The results for transient scalar radiative transfer and steady-state vector radiative transfer are compared with those in published literatures, respectively, and an excellent agreement between them is observed, which validates the correctness of the present model. Finally, transient radiative transfer is simulated considering the polarization effect of short-pulse laser in a scattering medium, and the distributions of Stokes vector in angular and temporal space are presented.
Sun, Wenbo; Hu, Yongxiang; Weimer, Carl; Ayers, Kirk; Baize, Rosemary R.; Lee, Tsengdar
2017-02-01
Electromagnetic (EM) beams with orbital angular momentum (OAM) may have great potential applications in communication technology and in remote sensing of the Earth-atmosphere system and outer planets. Study of their interaction with optical lenses and dielectric or metallic objects, or scattering of them by particles in the Earth-atmosphere system, is a necessary step to explore the advantage of the OAM EM beams. In this study, the 3-dimensional (3D) scattered-field (SF) finite-difference time domain (FDTD) technique with the convolutional perfectly matched layer (CPML) absorbing boundary conditions (ABC) is applied to calculate the scattering of the purely azimuthal (the radial mode number is assumed to be zero) Laguerre-Gaussian (LG) beams with the OAM by dielectric particles. We found that for OAM beam's interaction with dielectric particles, the forward-scattering peak in the conventional phase function (P11) disappears, and light scattering peak occurs at a scattering angle of 15° to 45°. The disappearance of forward-scattering peak means that, in laser communications most of the particle-scattered noise cannot enter the receiver, thus the received light is optimally the original OAM-encoded signal. This feature of the OAM beam also implies that in lidar remote sensing of the atmospheric particulates, most of the multiple-scattering energy will be off lidar sensors, and this may result in an accurate profiling of particle layers in the atmosphere or in the oceans by lidar, or even in the ground when a ground penetration radar (GPR) with the OAM is applied. This far-field characteristics of the scattered OAM light also imply that the optical theorem, which is derived from plane-parallel wave scattering case and relates the forward scattering amplitude to the total cross section of the scatterer, is invalid for the scattering of OAM beams by dielectric particles.
Fluctuation theorem for entropy production during effusion of an ideal gas with momentum transfer.
Wood, Kevin; Van den Broeck, C; Kawai, R; Lindenberg, Katja
2007-06-01
We derive an exact expression for entropy production during effusion of an ideal gas driven by momentum transfer in addition to energy and particle flux. Following the treatment in Cleuren [Phys. Rev. E 74, 021117 (2006)], we construct a master equation formulation of the process and explicitly verify the thermodynamic fluctuation theorem, thereby directly exhibiting its extended applicability to particle flows and hence to hydrodynamic systems.
Measurement of J/{psi} photoproduction at large momentum transfer at HERA
Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)
Chekanov, S.; Derrick, M.; Magill, S. [Argonne National Lab., Argonne, IL (US)] (and others)
2009-09-15
The proton-dissociative diffractive photoproduction of J/{psi} mesons has been studied in ep collisions with the ZEUS detector at HERA using an integrated luminosity of 112 pb{sup -1}. The cross section is presented as a function of the photon- proton centre-of-mass energy and of the squared four-momentum transfer at the proton vertex. The results are compared to perturbative QCD calculations. (orig.)
Measurement of J/ψ photoproduction at large momentum transfer at HERA
International Nuclear Information System (INIS)
Chekanov, S.; Derrick, M.; Magill, S.
2009-09-01
The proton-dissociative diffractive photoproduction of J/ψ mesons has been studied in ep collisions with the ZEUS detector at HERA using an integrated luminosity of 112 pb -1 . The cross section is presented as a function of the photon- proton centre-of-mass energy and of the squared four-momentum transfer at the proton vertex. The results are compared to perturbative QCD calculations. (orig.)
Hadron transverse momentum distributions in muon deep inelastic scattering at 160 GeV/c
Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)
Adolph, C.; Braun, C.; Eyrich, W.; Lehmann, A.; Schmidt, A. [Universitaet Erlangen-Nuernberg, Physikalisches Institut, Erlangen (Germany); Alekseev, M.G.; Birsa, R.; Bravar, A.; Dalla Torre, S.; Dasgupta, S.S.; Gobbo, B.; Sozzi, F.; Steiger, L.; Tessaro, S.; Tessarotto, F. [Trieste Section of INFN, Trieste (Italy); Alexakhin, V.Yu.; Alexeev, G.D.; Efremov, A.; Gavrichtchouk, O.P.; Gushterski, R.; Guskov, A.; Ivanshin, Yu.; Kroumchtein, Z.V.; Kuchinski, N.; Meshcheryakov, G.; Nagaytsev, A.; Olshevsky, A.G.; Rodionov, V.; Rossiyskaya, N.S.; Sapozhnikov, M.G.; Savin, I.A.; Shevchenko, O.Yu.; Zemlyanichkina, E.; Zhuravlev, N. [Joint Institute for Nuclear Research, Dubna, Moscow region (Russian Federation); Alexandrov, Yu.; Zavertyaev, M. [Lebedev Physical Institute, Moscow (Russian Federation); Amoroso, A.; Balestra, F.; Bertini, R.; Chiosso, M.; Garfagnini, R.; Gnesi, I.; Grasso, A.; Kotzinian, A.M.; Parsamyan, B.; Piragino, G.; Sosio, S. [University of Turin, Department of Physics (Italy); Torino Section of INFN, Turin (Italy); Andrieux, V.; Bedfer, Y.; Boer, M.; Burtin, E.; Capozza, L.; Ferrero, A.; Hose, N. d'
2013-08-15
Multiplicities of charged hadrons produced in deep inelastic muon scattering off a {sup 6}LiD target have been measured as a function of the DIS variables x{sub Bj}, Q{sup 2}, W{sup 2} and the final state hadron variables p{sub T} and z. The p{sub T}{sup 2} distributions are fitted with a single exponential function at low values of p{sub T}{sup 2} to determine the dependence of left angle p{sub T}{sup 2} right angle on x{sub Bj}, Q{sup 2}, W{sup 2} and z. The z-dependence of left angle p{sub T}{sup 2} right angle is shown to be a potential tool to extract the average intrinsic transverse momentum squared of partons, left angle k {sub perpendicular} {sub to} {sup 2} right angle, as a function of x{sub Bj} and Q{sup 2} in a leading order QCD parton model. (orig.)
International Nuclear Information System (INIS)
Keski-Vakkuri, E.; Kraus, P.
1998-01-01
Polchinski and Pouliot have shown that M-momentum transfer between membranes in supergravity can be understood as a non-perturbative instanton effect in gauge theory. Here we consider a dual process: electric flux transmission between D-branes. We show that this process can be described in perturbation theory as virtual string pair creation, and is closely related to Schwinger's treatment of the pair creation of charged particles in a uniform electric field. Through the application of dualities, our perturbative calculation gives results for various non-perturbative amplitudes, including M-momentum transfer between gravitons, membranes and longitudinal fivebranes. Thus perturbation theory plus dualities are sufficient to demonstrate agreement between supergravity and gauge theory for a number of M-momentum transferring processes. A variety of other processes where branes are transmitted between branes, e.g. (p,q)-string transmission in IIB theory, can also be studied. We discuss the implications of our results for proving the eleven-dimensional Lorentz invariance of matrix theory. (orig.)
Role of the momentum transfer in the quenching of the Gamow-Teller strength
Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)
Marketin, Tomislav [Institut fuer Kernphysik, Technische Universitaet Darmstadt (Germany); Physics Department, Faculty of Science, University of Zagreb (Croatia); Martinez-Pinedo, Gabriel [Institut fuer Kernphysik, Technische Universitaet Darmstadt (Germany); Paar, Nils; Vretenar, Dario [Physics Department, Faculty of Science, University of Zagreb (Croatia)
2012-07-01
A fully consistent calculation of the Gamow-Teller strength is presented, based on a microscopic theoretical framework. Nuclear ground state is determined using the relativistic Hartree-Bogolyubov (RHB) model with density dependent meson-nucleon coupling constants, and transition rates are calculated via proton-neutron relativistic quasiparticle RPA using the same interaction as in the RHB equations. The (p,n) probe has a similar spin-isospin operator structure to the Gamow-Teller (GT) operator. However, they become comparable only if the GT cross section is measured at a very small momentum transfer q. At higher momentum transfer the isovector spin monopole (IVSM) mode occurs, with the r{sup 2}{sigma}{tau} transition operator. Unlike the Gamow-Teller operator which excites only the 0{Dirac_h}{omega} transitions, the isovector spin monopole operator can also excite 2{Dirac_h}{omega} transitions and can change the strength distribution at high excitation energies. We explore the strength beyond the resonance, examine the effect of momentum transfer on the total strength and compare the results with recent measurements.
Multiple scattering theory of radiative transfer in inhomogeneous atmospheres.
Kanal, M.
1973-01-01
In this paper we treat the multiple scattering theory of radiative transfer in plane-parallel inhomogeneous atmospheres. The treatment presented here may be adopted to model atmospheres characterized by an optical depth dependent coherent scattering phase function. For the purpose of illustration we consider the semi-infinite medium in which the absorption property of the atmosphere is characterized by an exponential function. The methodology employed here is the extension of the case treated previously by the author for homogeneous atmospheres.
Investigation of incomplete linear momentum transfer in heavy ion reactions at intermediate energies
International Nuclear Information System (INIS)
Leray, S.
1986-07-01
At intermediate energies, heavy ion central collisions lead to the incomplete fusion of the incident nuclei while part of the initial linear momentum is carried away by fast light particles. Experiments were performed with 30 MeV per nucleon neon and 20, 35 and 44 MeV per nucleon argon projectiles bombarding heavy targets. Results obtained with 30 MeV per nucleon neon and 20 MeV per nucleon argon beams are in good agreement with an empirical law established with lighter projectiles. On the contrary, 35 and 44 MeV per nucleon argon projectiles do not follow the same law and fission fragments progressively disappear. A simple model explains the evolution of the amount of transferred linear momentum versus incident energy. The disappearance of the fusion products of the composite system observed with argon projectiles beyond 35 MeV per nucleon is explained by a limitation of the excitation energy per nucleon which can be deposited in a nucleus. The limit is evaluated from nucleon binding energy in nuclei and probability to emit clusters and is in good agreement with experimental data. Because of the coupling between intrinsic motion of nucleons and relative motion of nuclei, some nucleons have a kinetic energy high enough to be emitted: a theoretical model is proposed which rather well fits the data concerning fast nucleons but cannot explain the measured amounts of transferred linear momentum. This is attributed to the existence of other mechanisms [fr
International Nuclear Information System (INIS)
Vrhovac, S.B.; Petrovic, Z.Lj.
1995-01-01
Momentum - transfer approximation is applied to momentum and energy balance equations describing reacting particle swarms in gases in crossed electric and magnetic fields. Transport coefficients of charged particles undergoing both inelastic and reactive, non-particle-conserving collisions with a gas of neutral molecules are calculated. Momentum - transfer theory (MTT) has been developed mainly by Robson and collaborators. It has been applied to a single reactive gas and mixtures of reactive gases in electric field only. MTT has also been applied in crossed electric and magnetic fields recently and independently of our work but the reactive collisions were not considered. Consider a swarm of electrons of charge e and mass m moving with velocity rvec v through a neutral gas under the influence of an applied electric rvec E and magnetic rvec B field. The collision processes which we shall investigate are limited to elastic, inelastic and reactive collisions of electrons with gas molecules. Here we interpret reactive collisions as collisions which produce change in number of the swarm particles. Reactive collisions involve creation (ionization by electron impact) or loss (electron attachment) of swarm particles. We consider only single ionization in approximation of the mass ratio m/m 0 0 are masses of electrons and neutral particles, respectively. We assume that the stage of evolution of the swarm is the hydrodynamic limit (HDL). In HDL, the space - time dependence of all properties is carried by the number density n of swarm particles
Angular Momentum Transfer and Fractional Moment of Inertia in Pulsar Glitches
International Nuclear Information System (INIS)
Eya, I. O.; Urama, J. O.; Chukwude, A. E.
2017-01-01
We use the Jodrell Bank Observatory glitch database containing 472 glitches from 165 pulsars to investigate the angular momentum transfer during rotational glitches in pulsars. Our emphasis is on pulsars with at least five glitches, of which there are 26 that exhibit 261 glitches in total. This paper identifies four pulsars in which the angular momentum transfer, after many glitches, is almost linear with time. The Lilliefore test on the cumulative distribution of glitch spin-up sizes in these glitching pulsars shows that glitch sizes in 12 pulsars are normally distributed, suggesting that their glitches originate from the same momentum reservoir. In addition, the distribution of the fractional moment of inertia (i.e., the ratio of the moment of inertia of neutron star components that are involved in the glitch process) have a single mode, unlike the distribution of fractional glitch size (Δ ν / ν ), which is usually bimodal. The mean fractional moment of inertia in the glitching pulsars we sampled has a very weak correlation with the pulsar spin properties, thereby supporting a neutron star interior mechanism for the glitch phenomenon.
Angular Momentum Transfer and Fractional Moment of Inertia in Pulsar Glitches
Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)
Eya, I. O.; Urama, J. O.; Chukwude, A. E., E-mail: innocent.eya@unn.edu.ng, E-mail: innocent.eya@gmail.com [Department of Physics and Astronomy, University of Nigeria, Nsukka, Enugu State (Nigeria)
2017-05-01
We use the Jodrell Bank Observatory glitch database containing 472 glitches from 165 pulsars to investigate the angular momentum transfer during rotational glitches in pulsars. Our emphasis is on pulsars with at least five glitches, of which there are 26 that exhibit 261 glitches in total. This paper identifies four pulsars in which the angular momentum transfer, after many glitches, is almost linear with time. The Lilliefore test on the cumulative distribution of glitch spin-up sizes in these glitching pulsars shows that glitch sizes in 12 pulsars are normally distributed, suggesting that their glitches originate from the same momentum reservoir. In addition, the distribution of the fractional moment of inertia (i.e., the ratio of the moment of inertia of neutron star components that are involved in the glitch process) have a single mode, unlike the distribution of fractional glitch size (Δ ν / ν ), which is usually bimodal. The mean fractional moment of inertia in the glitching pulsars we sampled has a very weak correlation with the pulsar spin properties, thereby supporting a neutron star interior mechanism for the glitch phenomenon.
Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)
Fachruddin, Imam, E-mail: imam.fachruddin@sci.ui.ac.id; Salam, Agus [Departemen Fisika, Universitas Indonesia, Depok 16424 (Indonesia)
2016-03-11
A new momentum-space formulation for scattering of two spin-half particles, both either identical or unidentical, is formulated. As basis states the free linear-momentum states are not expanded into the angular-momentum states, the system’s spin states are described by the product of the spin states of the two particles, and the system’s isospin states by the total isospin states of the two particles. We evaluate the Lippmann-Schwinger equations for the T-matrix elements in these basis states. The azimuthal behavior of the potential and of the T-matrix elements leads to a set of coupled integral equations for the T-matrix elements in two variables only, which are the magnitude of the relative momentum and the scattering angle. Some symmetry relations for the potential and the T-matrix elements reduce the number of the integral equations to be solved. A set of six spin operators to express any interaction of two spin-half particles is introduced. We show the spin-averaged differential cross section as being calculated in terms of the solution of the set of the integral equations.
Meson widths and form factor at intermediate momentum transfer in nonperturbative QCD
International Nuclear Information System (INIS)
Ioffe, B.L.; Smilga, A.V.
1982-01-01
A general method is proposed for the QCD based calculations of form factors at intermediate momentum transfer Q 2 and of the partial widths of the low-lying meson resonances. The basic idea is to use the QCD sum rules for the vertex functions. With this method the pion electromagnetic form factor along with electromagnetic form factors of rho- and A 1 mesons and transition form factors γπ → A 1 at 0.5 2 2 are calculated. The widths rho+2π and A 1 → rhoπ are also determined. +.he results are in a good agreement with experiment
Studies of momentum transfer and X-ray spectra in a laser-produced plasma
International Nuclear Information System (INIS)
Leroy, Pierre
Studies of momentum transfer from a ballistic pendulum appear to give satisfactory results for absorbed laser energies in excess of 200 mJ i.e. for fluxes in the 3.10 10 to 3.10 12 W.cm -2 range. A hard X-ray component attributed to fast electrons was revealed by an X-ray spectrometer with a PM system of greater sensitivity than PIN diodes. The laser energy is however too weak to enable studies to be conducted as a function of laser flux or measurements to be performed on targets of low Z [fr
A phenomenological approach to angular momentum transfer in deep inelastic heavy ion collisions
International Nuclear Information System (INIS)
Barbosa, V.C.; Soares, P.C.; Oliveira, Edgar C. de; Gomes, Luiz Carlos
1985-01-01
The total angular momentum transfer measured in the reactions 165 Ho on 176 Yb, 154 Sm and sup(Nat)Ag at 1400 MeV and 86 Kr + 152 Sm 610 MeV were analised on the basis of a classical model with friction forces including, besides the relative motion of the ions, their rotations and quadrupole vibrations. The ratios of tangential or pivotal to radial friction were fixed by the analysis and found to be 1/20. No strong evidences of the sticking mechanisms were found. (Author) [pt
Aad, Georges; Abdallah, Jalal; Abdel Khalek, Samah; Abdelalim, Ahmed Ali; Abdinov, Ovsat; Abi, Babak; Abolins, Maris; AbouZeid, Ossama; Abramowicz, Halina; Abreu, Henso; Acerbi, Emilio; Acharya, Bobby Samir; Adamczyk, Leszek; Adams, David; Addy, Tetteh; Adelman, Jahred; Adomeit, Stefanie; Adragna, Paolo; Adye, Tim; Aefsky, Scott; Aguilar-Saavedra, Juan Antonio; Agustoni, Marco; Aharrouche, Mohamed; Ahlen, Steven; Ahles, Florian; Ahmad, Ashfaq; Ahsan, Mahsana; Aielli, Giulio; Akdogan, Taylan; Åkesson, Torsten Paul Ake; Akimoto, Ginga; Akimov, Andrei; Alam, Mohammad; Alam, Muhammad Aftab; Albert, Justin; Albrand, Solveig; Aleksa, Martin; Aleksandrov, Igor; Alessandria, Franco; Alexa, Calin; Alexander, Gideon; Alexandre, Gauthier; Alexopoulos, Theodoros; Alhroob, Muhammad; Aliev, Malik; Alimonti, Gianluca; Alison, John; Allbrooke, Benedict; Allport, Phillip; Allwood-Spiers, Sarah; Almond, John; Aloisio, Alberto; Alon, Raz; Alonso, Alejandro; Alvarez Gonzalez, Barbara; Alviggi, Mariagrazia; Amako, Katsuya; Amelung, Christoph; Ammosov, Vladimir; Amorim, Antonio; Amram, Nir; Anastopoulos, Christos; Ancu, Lucian Stefan; Andari, Nansi; Andeen, Timothy; Anders, Christoph Falk; Anders, Gabriel; Anderson, Kelby; Andreazza, Attilio; Andrei, George Victor; Anduaga, Xabier; Anger, Philipp; Angerami, Aaron; Anghinolfi, Francis; Anisenkov, Alexey; Anjos, Nuno; Annovi, Alberto; Antonaki, Ariadni; Antonelli, Mario; Antonov, Alexey; Antos, Jaroslav; Anulli, Fabio; Aoun, Sahar; Aperio Bella, Ludovica; Apolle, Rudi; Arabidze, Giorgi; Aracena, Ignacio; Arai, Yasuo; Arce, Ayana; Arfaoui, Samir; Arguin, Jean-Francois; Arik, Engin; Arik, Metin; Armbruster, Aaron James; Arnaez, Olivier; Arnal, Vanessa; Arnault, Christian; Artamonov, Andrei; Artoni, Giacomo; Arutinov, David; Asai, Shoji; Asfandiyarov, Ruslan; Ask, Stefan; Åsman, Barbro; Asquith, Lily; Assamagan, Ketevi; Astbury, Alan; Aubert, Bernard; Auge, Etienne; Augsten, Kamil; Aurousseau, Mathieu; Avolio, Giuseppe; Avramidou, Rachel Maria; Axen, David; Azuelos, Georges; Azuma, Yuya; Baak, Max; Baccaglioni, Giuseppe; Bacci, Cesare; Bach, Andre; Bachacou, Henri; Bachas, Konstantinos; Backes, Moritz; Backhaus, Malte; Badescu, Elisabeta; Bagnaia, Paolo; Bahinipati, Seema; Bai, Yu; Bailey, David; Bain, Travis; Baines, John; Baker, Oliver Keith; Baker, Mark; Baker, Sarah; Banas, Elzbieta; Banerjee, Piyali; Banerjee, Swagato; Banfi, Danilo; Bangert, Andrea Michelle; Bansal, Vikas; Bansil, Hardeep Singh; Barak, Liron; Baranov, Sergei; Barbaro Galtieri, Angela; Barber, Tom; Barberio, Elisabetta Luigia; Barberis, Dario; Barbero, Marlon; Bardin, Dmitri; Barillari, Teresa; Barisonzi, Marcello; Barklow, Timothy; Barlow, Nick; Barnett, Bruce; Barnett, Michael; Baroncelli, Antonio; Barone, Gaetano; Barr, Alan; Barreiro, Fernando; Barreiro Guimarães da Costa, João; Barrillon, Pierre; Bartoldus, Rainer; Barton, Adam Edward; Bartsch, Valeria; Bates, Richard; Batkova, Lucia; Batley, Richard; Battaglia, Andreas; Battistin, Michele; Bauer, Florian; 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Bertin, Antonio; Bertolucci, Federico; Besana, Maria Ilaria; Besjes, Geert-Jan; Besson, Nathalie; Bethke, Siegfried; Bhimji, Wahid; Bianchi, Riccardo-Maria; Bianco, Michele; Biebel, Otmar; Bieniek, Stephen Paul; Bierwagen, Katharina; Biesiada, Jed; Biglietti, Michela; Bilokon, Halina; Bindi, Marcello; Binet, Sebastien; Bingul, Ahmet; Bini, Cesare; Biscarat, Catherine; Bitenc, Urban; Black, Kevin; Blair, Robert; Blanchard, Jean-Baptiste; Blanchot, Georges; Blazek, Tomas; Blocker, Craig; Blocki, Jacek; Blondel, Alain; Blum, Walter; Blumenschein, Ulrike; Bobbink, Gerjan; Bobrovnikov, Victor; Bocchetta, Simona Serena; Bocci, Andrea; Boddy, Christopher Richard; Boehler, Michael; Boek, Jennifer; Boelaert, Nele; Bogaerts, Joannes Andreas; Bogdanchikov, Alexander; Bogouch, Andrei; Bohm, Christian; Bohm, Jan; Boisvert, Veronique; Bold, Tomasz; Boldea, Venera; Bolnet, Nayanka Myriam; Bomben, Marco; Bona, Marcella; Boonekamp, Maarten; Booth, Chris; Bordoni, Stefania; Borer, Claudia; Borisov, Anatoly; Borissov, Guennadi; Borjanovic, Iris; Borri, Marcello; Borroni, Sara; Bortolotto, Valerio; Bos, Kors; Boscherini, Davide; Bosman, Martine; Boterenbrood, Hendrik; Botterill, David; Bouchami, Jihene; Boudreau, Joseph; Bouhova-Thacker, Evelina Vassileva; Boumediene, Djamel Eddine; Bourdarios, Claire; Bousson, Nicolas; Boveia, Antonio; Boyd, James; Boyko, Igor; Bozovic-Jelisavcic, Ivanka; Bracinik, Juraj; Branchini, Paolo; Brandt, Andrew; Brandt, Gerhard; Brandt, Oleg; Bratzler, Uwe; Brau, Benjamin; Brau, James; Braun, Helmut; Brazzale, Simone Federico; Brelier, Bertrand; Bremer, Johan; Brendlinger, Kurt; Brenner, Richard; Bressler, Shikma; Britton, Dave; Brochu, Frederic; Brock, Ian; Brock, Raymond; Brodet, Eyal; Broggi, Francesco; Bromberg, Carl; Bronner, Johanna; Brooijmans, Gustaaf; Brooks, Timothy; Brooks, William; Brown, Gareth; Brown, Heather; Bruckman de Renstrom, Pawel; Bruncko, Dusan; Bruneliere, Renaud; Brunet, Sylvie; Bruni, Alessia; Bruni, Graziano; Bruschi, Marco; Buanes, Trygve; Buat, Quentin; Bucci, Francesca; Buchanan, James; Buchholz, Peter; Buckingham, Ryan; Buckley, Andrew; Buda, Stelian Ioan; Budagov, Ioulian; Budick, Burton; Büscher, Volker; Bugge, Lars; Bulekov, Oleg; Bundock, Aaron Colin; Bunse, Moritz; Buran, Torleiv; Burckhart, Helfried; Burdin, Sergey; Burgess, Thomas; Burke, Stephen; Busato, Emmanuel; Bussey, Peter; Buszello, Claus-Peter; Butler, Bart; Butler, John; Buttar, Craig; Butterworth, Jonathan; Buttinger, William; Cabrera Urbán, Susana; Caforio, Davide; Cakir, Orhan; Calafiura, Paolo; Calderini, Giovanni; Calfayan, Philippe; Calkins, Robert; Caloba, Luiz; Caloi, Rita; Calvet, David; Calvet, Samuel; Camacho Toro, Reina; Camarri, Paolo; Cameron, David; Caminada, Lea Michaela; Campana, Simone; Campanelli, Mario; Canale, Vincenzo; Canelli, Florencia; Canepa, Anadi; Cantero, Josu; Cantrill, Robert; Capasso, Luciano; Capeans Garrido, Maria Del Mar; Caprini, Irinel; Caprini, Mihai; Capriotti, Daniele; Capua, Marcella; Caputo, Regina; Cardarelli, Roberto; Carli, Tancredi; Carlino, Gianpaolo; Carminati, Leonardo; Caron, Bryan; Caron, Sascha; Carquin, Edson; Carrillo Montoya, German D; Carter, Antony; Carter, Janet; Carvalho, João; Casadei, Diego; Casado, Maria Pilar; Cascella, Michele; Caso, Carlo; Castaneda Hernandez, Alfredo Martin; Castaneda-Miranda, Elizabeth; Castillo Gimenez, Victoria; Castro, Nuno Filipe; Cataldi, Gabriella; Catastini, Pierluigi; Catinaccio, Andrea; Catmore, James; Cattai, Ariella; Cattani, Giordano; Caughron, Seth; Cavalleri, Pietro; Cavalli, Donatella; Cavalli-Sforza, Matteo; Cavasinni, Vincenzo; Ceradini, Filippo; Santiago Cerqueira, Augusto; Cerri, Alessandro; Cerrito, Lucio; Cerutti, Fabio; Cetin, Serkant Ali; Chafaq, Aziz; Chakraborty, Dhiman; Chalupkova, Ina; Chan, Kevin; Chapleau, Bertrand; Chapman, John Derek; Chapman, John Wehrley; Chareyre, Eve; Charlton, Dave; Chavda, Vikash; Chavez Barajas, Carlos Alberto; Cheatham, Susan; Chekanov, Sergei; Chekulaev, Sergey; Chelkov, Gueorgui; Chelstowska, Magda Anna; Chen, Chunhui; Chen, Hucheng; Chen, Shenjian; Chen, Xin; Chen, Yujiao; Cheplakov, Alexander; Cherkaoui El Moursli, Rajaa; Chernyatin, Valeriy; Cheu, Elliott; Cheung, Sing-Leung; Chevalier, Laurent; Chiefari, Giovanni; Chikovani, Leila; Childers, John Taylor; Chilingarov, Alexandre; Chiodini, Gabriele; Chisholm, Andrew; Chislett, Rebecca Thalatta; Chitan, Adrian; Chizhov, Mihail; Choudalakis, Georgios; Chouridou, Sofia; Christidi, Illectra-Athanasia; Christov, Asen; Chromek-Burckhart, Doris; Chu, Ming-Lee; Chudoba, Jiri; Ciapetti, Guido; Ciftci, Abbas Kenan; Ciftci, Rena; Cinca, Diane; Cindro, Vladimir; Ciocca, Claudia; Ciocio, Alessandra; Cirilli, Manuela; Cirkovic, Predrag; Citterio, Mauro; Ciubancan, Mihai; Clark, Allan G; Clark, Philip James; Clarke, Robert; Cleland, Bill; Clemens, Jean-Claude; Clement, Benoit; Clement, Christophe; Coadou, Yann; Cobal, Marina; Coccaro, Andrea; Cochran, James H; Cogan, Joshua Godfrey; Coggeshall, James; Cogneras, Eric; Colas, Jacques; Colijn, Auke-Pieter; 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Da Via, Cinzia; Dabrowski, Wladyslaw; Dafinca, Alexandru; Dai, Tiesheng; Dallapiccola, Carlo; Dam, Mogens; Dameri, Mauro; Damiani, Daniel; Danielsson, Hans Olof; Dao, Valerio; Darbo, Giovanni; Darlea, Georgiana Lavinia; Davey, Will; Davidek, Tomas; Davidson, Nadia; Davidson, Ruth; Davies, Eleanor; Davies, Merlin; Davison, Adam; Davygora, Yuriy; Dawe, Edmund; Dawson, Ian; Daya-Ishmukhametova, Rozmin; De, Kaushik; de Asmundis, Riccardo; De Castro, Stefano; De Cecco, Sandro; de Graat, Julien; De Groot, Nicolo; de Jong, Paul; De La Taille, Christophe; De la Torre, Hector; De Lorenzi, Francesco; de Mora, Lee; De Nooij, Lucie; De Pedis, Daniele; De Salvo, Alessandro; De Sanctis, Umberto; De Santo, Antonella; De Vivie De Regie, Jean-Baptiste; De Zorzi, Guido; Dearnaley, William James; Debbe, Ramiro; Debenedetti, Chiara; Dechenaux, Benjamin; Dedovich, Dmitri; Degenhardt, James; Del Papa, Carlo; Del Peso, Jose; Del Prete, Tarcisio; Delemontex, Thomas; Deliyergiyev, Maksym; Dell'Acqua, Andrea; Dell'Asta, Lidia; Della Pietra, Massimo; della Volpe, Domenico; Delmastro, Marco; Delsart, Pierre-Antoine; Deluca, Carolina; Demers, Sarah; Demichev, Mikhail; Demirkoz, Bilge; Deng, Jianrong; Denisov, Sergey; Derendarz, Dominik; Derkaoui, Jamal Eddine; Derue, Frederic; Dervan, Paul; Desch, Klaus Kurt; Devetak, Erik; Deviveiros, Pier-Olivier; Dewhurst, Alastair; DeWilde, Burton; Dhaliwal, Saminder; Dhullipudi, Ramasudhakar; Di Ciaccio, Anna; Di Ciaccio, Lucia; Di Girolamo, Alessandro; Di Girolamo, Beniamino; Di Luise, Silvestro; Di Mattia, Alessandro; Di Micco, Biagio; Di Nardo, Roberto; Di Simone, Andrea; Di Sipio, Riccardo; Diaz, Marco Aurelio; Diehl, Edward; Dietrich, Janet; Dietzsch, Thorsten; Diglio, Sara; Dindar Yagci, Kamile; Dingfelder, Jochen; Dinut, Florin; Dionisi, Carlo; Dita, Petre; Dita, Sanda; Dittus, Fridolin; Djama, Fares; Djobava, Tamar; Barros do Vale, Maria Aline; Do Valle Wemans, André; Doan, Thi Kieu Oanh; Dobbs, Matt; Dobinson, Robert; Dobos, Daniel; Dobson, Ellie; Dodd, Jeremy; Doglioni, Caterina; Doherty, Tom; Doi, Yoshikuni; Dolejsi, Jiri; Dolenc, Irena; Dolezal, Zdenek; Dolgoshein, Boris; Dohmae, Takeshi; Donadelli, Marisilvia; Donini, Julien; Dopke, Jens; Doria, Alessandra; Dos Anjos, Andre; Dotti, Andrea; Dova, Maria-Teresa; Doxiadis, Alexander; Doyle, Tony; Dris, Manolis; Dubbert, Jörg; Dube, Sourabh; Duchovni, Ehud; Duckeck, Guenter; Dudarev, Alexey; Dudziak, Fanny; Dührssen, Michael; Duerdoth, Ian; Duflot, Laurent; Dufour, Marc-Andre; Dunford, Monica; Duran Yildiz, Hatice; Duxfield, Robert; Dwuznik, Michal; Dydak, Friedrich; Düren, Michael; Ebke, Johannes; Eckweiler, Sebastian; Edmonds, Keith; Edwards, Clive; Edwards, Nicholas Charles; Ehrenfeld, Wolfgang; Eifert, Till; Eigen, Gerald; Einsweiler, Kevin; Eisenhandler, Eric; Ekelof, Tord; El Kacimi, Mohamed; Ellert, Mattias; Elles, Sabine; Ellinghaus, Frank; Ellis, Katherine; Ellis, Nicolas; Elmsheuser, Johannes; Elsing, Markus; Emeliyanov, Dmitry; Engelmann, Roderich; Engl, Albert; Epp, Brigitte; Eppig, Andrew; Erdmann, Johannes; Ereditato, Antonio; Eriksson, Daniel; Ernst, Jesse; Ernst, Michael; Ernwein, Jean; Errede, Deborah; Errede, Steven; Ertel, Eugen; Escalier, Marc; Esch, Hendrik; Escobar, Carlos; Espinal Curull, Xavier; Esposito, Bellisario; Etienne, Francois; Etienvre, Anne-Isabelle; Etzion, Erez; Evangelakou, Despoina; Evans, Hal; Fabbri, Laura; Fabre, Caroline; Fakhrutdinov, Rinat; Falciano, Speranza; Fang, Yaquan; Fanti, Marcello; Farbin, Amir; Farilla, Addolorata; Farley, Jason; Farooque, Trisha; Farrell, Steven; Farrington, Sinead; Farthouat, Philippe; Fassnacht, Patrick; Fassouliotis, Dimitrios; Fatholahzadeh, Baharak; Favareto, Andrea; Fayard, Louis; Fazio, Salvatore; Febbraro, Renato; Federic, Pavol; Fedin, Oleg; Fedorko, Woiciech; Fehling-Kaschek, Mirjam; Feligioni, Lorenzo; Fellmann, Denis; Feng, Cunfeng; Feng, Eric; Fenyuk, Alexander; Ferencei, Jozef; Fernando, Waruna; Ferrag, Samir; Ferrando, James; Ferrara, Valentina; Ferrari, Arnaud; Ferrari, Pamela; Ferrari, Roberto; Ferreira de Lima, Danilo Enoque; Ferrer, Antonio; Ferrere, Didier; Ferretti, Claudio; Ferretto Parodi, Andrea; Fiascaris, Maria; Fiedler, Frank; Filipčič, Andrej; Filthaut, Frank; Fincke-Keeler, Margret; Fiolhais, Miguel; Fiorini, Luca; Firan, Ana; Fischer, Gordon; Fisher, Matthew; Flechl, Martin; Fleck, Ivor; Fleckner, Johanna; Fleischmann, Philipp; Fleischmann, Sebastian; Flick, Tobias; Floderus, Anders; Flores Castillo, Luis; Flowerdew, Michael; Fonseca Martin, Teresa; Formica, Andrea; Forti, Alessandra; Fortin, Dominique; Fournier, Daniel; Fox, Harald; Francavilla, Paolo; Franchino, Silvia; Francis, David; Frank, Tal; Franz, Sebastien; Fraternali, Marco; Fratina, Sasa; French, Sky; Friedrich, Conrad; Friedrich, Felix; Froeschl, Robert; Froidevaux, Daniel; Frost, James; Fukunaga, Chikara; Fullana Torregrosa, Esteban; Fulsom, Bryan Gregory; Fuster, Juan; Gabaldon, Carolina; Gabizon, Ofir; Gadfort, Thomas; Gadomski, Szymon; Gagliardi, Guido; Gagnon, Pauline; Galea, Cristina; Gallas, Elizabeth; Gallo, Valentina Santina; Gallop, Bruce; Gallus, Petr; Gan, KK; Gao, Yongsheng; Gaponenko, Andrei; Garberson, Ford; Garcia-Sciveres, Maurice; García, Carmen; García Navarro, José Enrique; Gardner, Robert; Garelli, Nicoletta; Garitaonandia, Hegoi; Garonne, Vincent; Garvey, John; Gatti, Claudio; Gaudio, Gabriella; Gaur, Bakul; Gauthier, Lea; Gauzzi, Paolo; Gavrilenko, Igor; Gay, Colin; Gaycken, Goetz; Gazis, Evangelos; Ge, Peng; Gecse, Zoltan; Gee, Norman; Geerts, Daniël Alphonsus Adrianus; Geich-Gimbel, Christoph; Gellerstedt, Karl; Gemme, Claudia; Gemmell, Alistair; Genest, Marie-Hélène; Gentile, Simonetta; George, Matthias; George, Simon; Gerlach, Peter; Gershon, Avi; Geweniger, Christoph; Ghazlane, Hamid; Ghodbane, Nabil; Giacobbe, Benedetto; Giagu, Stefano; Giakoumopoulou, Victoria; Giangiobbe, Vincent; Gianotti, Fabiola; Gibbard, Bruce; Gibson, Adam; Gibson, Stephen; Gillberg, Dag; Gillman, Tony; Gingrich, Douglas; Ginzburg, Jonatan; Giokaris, Nikos; Giordani, MarioPaolo; Giordano, Raffaele; Giorgi, Francesco Michelangelo; Giovannini, Paola; Giraud, Pierre-Francois; Giugni, Danilo; Giunta, Michele; Giusti, Paolo; Gjelsten, Børge Kile; Gladilin, Leonid; Glasman, Claudia; Glatzer, Julian; Glazov, Alexandre; Glitza, Karl-Walter; Glonti, George; Goddard, Jack Robert; Godfrey, Jennifer; Godlewski, Jan; Goebel, Martin; Göpfert, Thomas; Goeringer, Christian; Gössling, Claus; Goldfarb, Steven; Golling, Tobias; Gomes, Agostinho; Gomez Fajardo, Luz Stella; Gonçalo, Ricardo; Goncalves Pinto Firmino Da Costa, Joao; Gonella, Laura; Gonzalez, Saul; González de la Hoz, Santiago; Gonzalez Parra, Garoe; Gonzalez Silva, Laura; Gonzalez-Sevilla, Sergio; Goodson, Jeremiah Jet; Goossens, Luc; Gorbounov, Petr Andreevich; Gordon, Howard; Gorelov, Igor; Gorfine, Grant; Gorini, Benedetto; Gorini, Edoardo; Gorišek, Andrej; Gornicki, Edward; Gosdzik, Bjoern; Goshaw, Alfred; Gosselink, Martijn; Gostkin, Mikhail Ivanovitch; Gough Eschrich, Ivo; Gouighri, Mohamed; Goujdami, Driss; Goulette, Marc Phillippe; Goussiou, Anna; Goy, Corinne; Gozpinar, Serdar; Grabowska-Bold, Iwona; Grafström, Per; Grahn, Karl-Johan; Grancagnolo, Francesco; Grancagnolo, Sergio; Grassi, Valerio; Gratchev, Vadim; Grau, Nathan; Gray, Heather; Gray, Julia Ann; Graziani, Enrico; Grebenyuk, Oleg; Greenshaw, Timothy; Greenwood, Zeno Dixon; Gregersen, Kristian; Gregor, Ingrid-Maria; Grenier, Philippe; Griffiths, Justin; Grigalashvili, Nugzar; Grillo, Alexander; Grinstein, Sebastian; Grishkevich, Yaroslav; Grivaz, Jean-Francois; Gross, Eilam; Grosse-Knetter, Joern; Groth-Jensen, Jacob; Grybel, Kai; Guest, Daniel; Guicheney, Christophe; Guida, Angelo; Guindon, Stefan; Gul, Umar; Guler, Hulya; Gunther, Jaroslav; Guo, Bin; Guo, Jun; Gutierrez, Phillip; Guttman, Nir; Gutzwiller, Olivier; Guyot, Claude; Gwenlan, Claire; Gwilliam, Carl; Haas, Andy; Haas, Stefan; Haber, Carl; Hadavand, Haleh Khani; Hadley, David; Haefner, Petra; Hahn, Ferdinand; Haider, Stefan; Hajduk, Zbigniew; Hakobyan, Hrachya; Hall, David; Haller, Johannes; Hamacher, Klaus; Hamal, Petr; Hamer, Matthias; Hamilton, Andrew; Hamilton, Samuel; Han, Liang; Hanagaki, Kazunori; Hanawa, Keita; Hance, Michael; Handel, Carsten; Hanke, Paul; Hansen, John Renner; Hansen, Jørgen Beck; Hansen, Jorn Dines; Hansen, Peter Henrik; Hansson, Per; Hara, Kazuhiko; Hare, Gabriel; Harenberg, Torsten; Harkusha, Siarhei; Harper, Devin; Harrington, Robert; Harris, Orin; Hartert, Jochen; Hartjes, Fred; Haruyama, Tomiyoshi; Harvey, Alex; Hasegawa, Satoshi; Hasegawa, Yoji; Hassani, Samira; Haug, Sigve; Hauschild, Michael; Hauser, Reiner; Havranek, Miroslav; Hawkes, Christopher; Hawkings, Richard John; Hawkins, Anthony David; Hawkins, Donovan; Hayakawa, Takashi; Hayashi, Takayasu; Hayden, Daniel; Hays, Chris; Hayward, Helen; Haywood, Stephen; He, Mao; Head, Simon; Hedberg, Vincent; Heelan, Louise; Heim, Sarah; Heinemann, Beate; Heisterkamp, Simon; Helary, Louis; Heller, Claudio; Heller, Matthieu; Hellman, Sten; Hellmich, Dennis; Helsens, Clement; Henderson, Robert; Henke, Michael; Henrichs, Anna; Henriques Correia, Ana Maria; Henrot-Versille, Sophie; Hensel, Carsten; Henß, Tobias; Medina Hernandez, Carlos; Hernández Jiménez, Yesenia; Herrberg, Ruth; Herten, Gregor; Hertenberger, Ralf; Hervas, Luis; Hesketh, Gavin Grant; Hessey, Nigel; Higón-Rodriguez, Emilio; Hill, John; Hiller, Karl Heinz; Hillert, Sonja; Hillier, Stephen; Hinchliffe, Ian; Hines, Elizabeth; Hirose, Minoru; Hirsch, Florian; Hirschbuehl, Dominic; Hobbs, John; Hod, Noam; Hodgkinson, Mark; Hodgson, Paul; Hoecker, Andreas; Hoeferkamp, Martin; Hoffman, Julia; Hoffmann, Dirk; Hohlfeld, Marc; Holder, Martin; Holmgren, Sven-Olof; Holy, Tomas; Holzbauer, Jenny; Hong, Tae Min; Hooft van Huysduynen, Loek; Horn, Claus; Horner, Stephan; Hostachy, Jean-Yves; Hou, Suen; Hoummada, Abdeslam; Howard, Jacob; Howarth, James; Hristova, Ivana; Hrivnac, Julius; Hryn'ova, Tetiana; Hsu, Pai-hsien Jennifer; Hsu, Shih-Chieh; Hubacek, Zdenek; Hubaut, Fabrice; Huegging, Fabian; Huettmann, Antje; Huffman, Todd Brian; Hughes, Emlyn; Hughes, Gareth; Huhtinen, Mika; Hurwitz, Martina; Husemann, Ulrich; Huseynov, Nazim; Huston, Joey; Huth, John; Iacobucci, Giuseppe; Iakovidis, Georgios; Ibbotson, Michael; Ibragimov, Iskander; Iconomidou-Fayard, Lydia; Idarraga, John; Iengo, Paolo; Igonkina, Olga; Ikegami, Yoichi; Ikeno, Masahiro; Iliadis, Dimitrios; Ilic, Nikolina; Ince, Tayfun; Inigo-Golfin, Joaquin; Ioannou, Pavlos; Iodice, Mauro; Iordanidou, Kalliopi; Ippolito, Valerio; Irles Quiles, Adrian; Isaksson, Charlie; Ishino, Masaya; Ishitsuka, Masaki; Ishmukhametov, Renat; Issever, Cigdem; Istin, Serhat; Ivashin, Anton; Iwanski, Wieslaw; Iwasaki, Hiroyuki; Izen, Joseph; Izzo, Vincenzo; Jackson, Brett; Jackson, John; Jackson, Paul; Jaekel, Martin; Jain, Vivek; Jakobs, Karl; Jakobsen, Sune; Jakoubek, Tomas; Jakubek, Jan; Jana, Dilip; Jansen, Eric; Jansen, Hendrik; Jantsch, Andreas; Janus, Michel; Jarlskog, Göran; Jeanty, Laura; Jen-La Plante, Imai; Jenni, Peter; Jeremie, Andrea; Jež, Pavel; Jézéquel, Stéphane; Jha, Manoj Kumar; Ji, Haoshuang; Ji, Weina; Jia, Jiangyong; Jiang, Yi; Jimenez Belenguer, Marcos; Jin, Shan; Jinnouchi, Osamu; Joergensen, Morten Dam; Joffe, David; Johansen, Marianne; Johansson, Erik; Johansson, Per; Johnert, Sebastian; Johns, Kenneth; Jon-And, Kerstin; Jones, Graham; Jones, Roger; Jones, Tim; Joram, Christian; Jorge, Pedro; Joshi, Kiran Daniel; Jovicevic, Jelena; Jovin, Tatjana; Ju, Xiangyang; Jung, Christian; Jungst, Ralph Markus; Juranek, Vojtech; Jussel, Patrick; Juste Rozas, Aurelio; Kabana, Sonja; Kaci, Mohammed; Kaczmarska, Anna; Kadlecik, Peter; Kado, Marumi; Kagan, Harris; Kagan, Michael; Kajomovitz, Enrique; Kalinin, Sergey; Kalinovskaya, Lidia; Kama, Sami; Kanaya, Naoko; Kaneda, Michiru; Kaneti, Steven; Kanno, Takayuki; Kantserov, Vadim; Kanzaki, Junichi; Kaplan, Benjamin; Kapliy, Anton; Kaplon, Jan; Kar, Deepak; Karagounis, Michael; Karakostas, Konstantinos; Karnevskiy, Mikhail; Kartvelishvili, Vakhtang; Karyukhin, Andrey; Kashif, Lashkar; Kasieczka, Gregor; Kass, Richard; Kastanas, Alex; Kataoka, Mayuko; Kataoka, Yousuke; Katsoufis, Elias; Katzy, Judith; Kaushik, Venkatesh; Kawagoe, Kiyotomo; Kawamoto, Tatsuo; Kawamura, Gen; Kayl, Manuel; Kazanin, Vassili; Kazarinov, Makhail; Keeler, Richard; Kehoe, Robert; Keil, Markus; Kekelidze, George; Keller, John; Kenyon, Mike; Kepka, Oldrich; Kerschen, Nicolas; Kerševan, Borut Paul; Kersten, Susanne; Kessoku, Kohei; Keung, Justin; Khalil-zada, Farkhad; Khandanyan, Hovhannes; Khanov, Alexander; Kharchenko, Dmitri; Khodinov, Alexander; Khomich, Andrei; Khoo, Teng Jian; Khoriauli, Gia; Khoroshilov, Andrey; Khovanskiy, Valery; Khramov, Evgeniy; Khubua, Jemal; Kim, Hyeon Jin; Kim, Shinhong; Kimura, Naoki; Kind, Oliver; King, Barry; King, Matthew; King, Robert Steven Beaufoy; Kirk, Julie; Kiryunin, Andrey; Kishimoto, Tomoe; Kisielewska, Danuta; Kittelmann, Thomas; Kladiva, Eduard; Klein, Max; Klein, Uta; Kleinknecht, Konrad; Klemetti, Miika; Klier, Amit; Klimek, Pawel; Klimentov, Alexei; Klingenberg, Reiner; Klinger, Joel Alexander; Klinkby, Esben; Klioutchnikova, Tatiana; Klok, Peter; Klous, Sander; Kluge, Eike-Erik; Kluge, Thomas; Kluit, Peter; Kluth, Stefan; Knecht, Neil; Kneringer, Emmerich; Knoops, Edith; Knue, Andrea; Ko, Byeong Rok; Kobayashi, Tomio; Kobel, Michael; Kocian, Martin; Kodys, Peter; Köneke, Karsten; König, Adriaan; Koenig, Sebastian; Köpke, Lutz; Koetsveld, Folkert; Koevesarki, Peter; Koffas, Thomas; Koffeman, Els; Kogan, Lucy Anne; Kohlmann, Simon; Kohn, Fabian; Kohout, Zdenek; Kohriki, Takashi; Koi, Tatsumi; Kolachev, Guennady; Kolanoski, Hermann; Kolesnikov, Vladimir; Koletsou, Iro; Koll, James; Kollefrath, Michael; Komar, Aston; Komori, Yuto; Kondo, Takahiko; Kono, Takanori; Kononov, Anatoly; Konoplich, Rostislav; Konstantinidis, Nikolaos; Koperny, Stefan; Korcyl, Krzysztof; Kordas, Kostantinos; Korn, Andreas; Korol, Aleksandr; Korolkov, Ilya; Korolkova, Elena; Korotkov, Vladislav; Kortner, Oliver; Kortner, Sandra; Kostyukhin, Vadim; Kotov, Sergey; Kotov, Vladislav; Kotwal, Ashutosh; Kourkoumelis, Christine; Kouskoura, Vasiliki; Koutsman, Alex; Kowalewski, Robert Victor; Kowalski, Tadeusz; Kozanecki, Witold; Kozhin, Anatoly; Kral, Vlastimil; Kramarenko, Viktor; Kramberger, Gregor; Krasny, Mieczyslaw Witold; Krasznahorkay, Attila; Kraus, James; Kraus, Jana; Kreiss, Sven; Krejci, Frantisek; Kretzschmar, Jan; Krieger, Nina; Krieger, Peter; Kroeninger, Kevin; Kroha, Hubert; Kroll, Joe; Kroseberg, Juergen; Krstic, Jelena; Kruchonak, Uladzimir; Krüger, Hans; Kruker, Tobias; Krumnack, Nils; Krumshteyn, Zinovii; Kruth, Andre; Kubota, Takashi; Kuday, Sinan; Kuehn, Susanne; Kugel, Andreas; Kuhl, Thorsten; Kuhn, Dietmar; Kukhtin, Victor; Kulchitsky, Yuri; Kuleshov, Sergey; Kummer, Christian; Kuna, Marine; Kunkle, Joshua; Kupco, Alexander; Kurashige, Hisaya; Kurata, Masakazu; Kurochkin, Yurii; Kus, Vlastimil; Kuwertz, Emma Sian; Kuze, Masahiro; Kvita, Jiri; Kwee, Regina; La Rosa, Alessandro; La Rotonda, Laura; Labarga, Luis; Labbe, Julien; Lablak, Said; Lacasta, Carlos; Lacava, Francesco; Lacker, Heiko; Lacour, Didier; Lacuesta, Vicente Ramón; Ladygin, Evgueni; Lafaye, Remi; Laforge, Bertrand; Lagouri, Theodota; Lai, Stanley; Laisne, Emmanuel; Lamanna, Massimo; Lambourne, Luke; Lampen, Caleb; Lampl, Walter; Lancon, Eric; Landgraf, Ulrich; Landon, Murrough; Lane, Jenna; Lang, Valerie Susanne; Lange, Clemens; Lankford, Andrew; Lanni, Francesco; Lantzsch, Kerstin; Laplace, Sandrine; Lapoire, Cecile; Laporte, Jean-Francois; Lari, Tommaso; Larner, Aimee; Lassnig, Mario; Laurelli, Paolo; Lavorini, Vincenzo; Lavrijsen, Wim; Laycock, Paul; Le Dortz, Olivier; Le Guirriec, Emmanuel; Le Maner, Christophe; Le Menedeu, Eve; LeCompte, Thomas; Ledroit-Guillon, Fabienne Agnes Marie; Lee, Hurng-Chun; Lee, Jason; Lee, Shih-Chang; Lee, Lawrence; Lefebvre, Michel; Legendre, Marie; Legger, Federica; Leggett, Charles; Lehmacher, Marc; Lehmann Miotto, Giovanna; Lei, Xiaowen; Leite, Marco Aurelio Lisboa; Leitner, Rupert; Lellouch, Daniel; Lemmer, Boris; Lendermann, Victor; Leney, Katharine; Lenz, Tatiana; Lenzen, Georg; Lenzi, Bruno; Leonhardt, Kathrin; Leontsinis, Stefanos; Lepold, Florian; Leroy, Claude; Lessard, Jean-Raphael; Lester, Christopher; Lester, Christopher Michael; Levêque, Jessica; Levin, Daniel; Levinson, Lorne; Lewis, Adrian; Lewis, George; Leyko, Agnieszka; Leyton, Michael; Li, Bo; Li, Haifeng; Li, Shu; Li, Xuefei; Liang, Zhijun; Liao, Hongbo; Liberti, Barbara; Lichard, Peter; Lichtnecker, Markus; Lie, Ki; Liebig, Wolfgang; Limbach, Christian; Limosani, Antonio; Limper, Maaike; Lin, Simon; Linde, Frank; Linnemann, James; Lipeles, Elliot; Lipniacka, Anna; Liss, Tony; Lissauer, David; Lister, Alison; Litke, Alan; Liu, Chuanlei; Liu, Dong; Liu, Hao; Liu, Jianbei; Liu, Lulu; Liu, Minghui; Liu, Yanwen; Livan, Michele; Livermore, Sarah; Lleres, Annick; Llorente Merino, Javier; Lloyd, Stephen; Lobodzinska, Ewelina; Loch, Peter; Lockman, William; Loddenkoetter, Thomas; Loebinger, Fred; Loginov, Andrey; Loh, Chang Wei; Lohse, Thomas; Lohwasser, Kristin; Lokajicek, Milos; Lombardo, Vincenzo Paolo; Long, Robin Eamonn; Lopes, Lourenco; Lopez Mateos, David; Lorenz, Jeanette; Lorenzo Martinez, Narei; Losada, Marta; Loscutoff, Peter; Lo Sterzo, Francesco; Losty, Michael; Lou, Xinchou; Lounis, Abdenour; Loureiro, Karina; Love, Jeremy; Love, Peter; Lowe, Andrew; Lu, Feng; Lubatti, Henry; Luci, Claudio; Lucotte, Arnaud; Ludwig, Andreas; Ludwig, Dörthe; Ludwig, Inga; Ludwig, Jens; Luehring, Frederick; Luijckx, Guy; Lukas, Wolfgang; Lumb, Debra; Luminari, Lamberto; Lund, Esben; Lund-Jensen, Bengt; Lundberg, Björn; Lundberg, Johan; Lundberg, Olof; Lundquist, Johan; Lungwitz, Matthias; Lynn, David; Lytken, Else; Ma, Hong; Ma, Lian Liang; Maccarrone, Giovanni; Macchiolo, Anna; Maček, Boštjan; Machado Miguens, Joana; Mackeprang, Rasmus; Madaras, Ronald; Mader, Wolfgang; Maenner, Reinhard; Maeno, Tadashi; Mättig, Peter; Mättig, Stefan; Magnoni, Luca; Magradze, Erekle; Mahboubi, Kambiz; Mahmoud, Sara; Mahout, Gilles; Maiani, Camilla; Maidantchik, Carmen; Maio, Amélia; Majewski, Stephanie; Makida, Yasuhiro; Makovec, Nikola; Mal, Prolay; Malaescu, Bogdan; Malecki, Pawel; Malecki, Piotr; Maleev, Victor; Malek, Fairouz; Mallik, Usha; Malon, David; Malone, Caitlin; Maltezos, Stavros; Malyshev, Vladimir; Malyukov, Sergei; Mameghani, Raphael; Mamuzic, Judita; Manabe, Atsushi; Mandelli, Luciano; Mandić, Igor; Mandrysch, Rocco; Maneira, José; Mangeard, Pierre-Simon; Manhaes de Andrade Filho, Luciano; Mann, Alexander; Manning, Peter; Manousakis-Katsikakis, Arkadios; Mansoulie, Bruno; Mapelli, Alessandro; Mapelli, Livio; March, Luis; Marchand, Jean-Francois; Marchese, Fabrizio; Marchiori, Giovanni; Marcisovsky, Michal; Marino, Christopher; Marroquim, Fernando; Marshall, Zach; Martens, Kalen; Marti, Lukas Fritz; Marti-Garcia, Salvador; Martin, Brian; Martin, Brian Thomas; Martin, Jean-Pierre; Martin, Tim; Martin, Victoria Jane; Martin dit Latour, Bertrand; Martin-Haugh, Stewart; Martinez, Mario; Martinez Outschoorn, Verena; Martyniuk, Alex; Marx, Marilyn; Marzano, Francesco; Marzin, Antoine; Masetti, Lucia; Mashimo, Tetsuro; Mashinistov, Ruslan; Masik, Jiri; Maslennikov, Alexey; Massa, Ignazio; Massaro, Graziano; Massol, Nicolas; Mastroberardino, Anna; Masubuchi, Tatsuya; Matricon, Pierre; Matsunaga, Hiroyuki; Matsushita, Takashi; Mattravers, Carly; Maurer, Julien; Maxfield, Stephen; Mayne, Anna; Mazini, Rachid; Mazur, Michael; Mazzaferro, Luca; Mazzanti, Marcello; Mc Kee, Shawn Patrick; McCarn, Allison; McCarthy, Robert; McCarthy, Tom; McCubbin, Norman; McFarlane, Kenneth; Mcfayden, Josh; McGlone, Helen; Mchedlidze, Gvantsa; Mclaughlan, Tom; McMahon, Steve; McPherson, Robert; Meade, Andrew; Mechnich, Joerg; Mechtel, Markus; Medinnis, Mike; Meera-Lebbai, Razzak; Meguro, Tatsuma; Mehdiyev, Rashid; Mehlhase, Sascha; Mehta, Andrew; Meier, Karlheinz; Meirose, Bernhard; Melachrinos, Constantinos; Mellado Garcia, Bruce Rafael; Meloni, Federico; Mendoza Navas, Luis; Meng, Zhaoxia; Mengarelli, Alberto; Menke, Sven; Meoni, Evelin; Mercurio, Kevin Michael; Mermod, Philippe; Merola, Leonardo; Meroni, Chiara; Merritt, Frank; Merritt, Hayes; Messina, Andrea; Metcalfe, Jessica; Mete, Alaettin Serhan; Meyer, Carsten; Meyer, Christopher; Meyer, Jean-Pierre; Meyer, Jochen; Meyer, Joerg; Meyer, Thomas Christian; Meyer, W Thomas; Miao, Jiayuan; Michal, Sebastien; Micu, Liliana; Middleton, Robin; Migas, Sylwia; Mijović, Liza; Mikenberg, Giora; Mikestikova, Marcela; Mikuž, Marko; Miller, David; Miller, Robert; Mills, Bill; Mills, Corrinne; Milov, Alexander; Milstead, David; Milstein, Dmitry; Minaenko, Andrey; Miñano Moya, Mercedes; Minashvili, Irakli; Mincer, Allen; Mindur, Bartosz; Mineev, Mikhail; Ming, Yao; Mir, Lluisa-Maria; Mirabelli, Giovanni; Mitrevski, Jovan; Mitsou, Vasiliki A; Mitsui, Shingo; Miyagawa, Paul; Mjörnmark, Jan-Ulf; Moa, Torbjoern; Moeller, Victoria; Mönig, Klaus; Möser, Nicolas; Mohapatra, Soumya; Mohr, Wolfgang; Moles-Valls, Regina; Monk, James; Monnier, Emmanuel; Montejo Berlingen, Javier; Montesano, Simone; Monticelli, Fernando; Monzani, Simone; Moore, Roger; Moorhead, Gareth; Mora Herrera, Clemencia; Moraes, Arthur; Morange, Nicolas; Morel, Julien; Morello, Gianfranco; Moreno, Deywis; Moreno Llácer, María; Morettini, Paolo; Morgenstern, Marcus; Morii, Masahiro; Morley, Anthony Keith; Mornacchi, Giuseppe; Morris, John; Morvaj, Ljiljana; Moser, Hans-Guenther; Mosidze, Maia; Moss, Josh; Mount, Richard; Mountricha, Eleni; Mouraviev, Sergei; Moyse, Edward; Mueller, Felix; Mueller, James; Mueller, Klemens; Müller, Thomas; Mueller, Timo; Muenstermann, Daniel; Munwes, Yonathan; Murray, Bill; Mussche, Ido; Musto, Elisa; Myagkov, Alexey; Myska, Miroslav; Nadal, Jordi; Nagai, Koichi; Nagano, Kunihiro; Nagarkar, Advait; Nagasaka, Yasushi; Nagel, Martin; Nairz, Armin Michael; Nakahama, Yu; Nakamura, Koji; Nakamura, Tomoaki; Nakano, Itsuo; Nanava, Gizo; Napier, Austin; Narayan, Rohin; Nash, Michael; Nattermann, Till; Naumann, Thomas; Navarro, Gabriela; Neal, Homer; Nechaeva, Polina; Neep, Thomas James; Negri, Andrea; Negri, Guido; Nektarijevic, Snezana; Nelson, Andrew; Nelson, Timothy Knight; Nemecek, Stanislav; Nemethy, Peter; Nepomuceno, Andre Asevedo; Nessi, Marzio; Neubauer, Mark; Neusiedl, Andrea; Neves, Ricardo; Nevski, Pavel; Newman, Paul; Nguyen Thi Hong, Van; Nickerson, Richard; Nicolaidou, Rosy; Nicquevert, Bertrand; Niedercorn, Francois; Nielsen, Jason; Nikiforou, Nikiforos; Nikiforov, Andriy; Nikolaenko, Vladimir; Nikolic-Audit, Irena; Nikolics, Katalin; Nikolopoulos, Konstantinos; Nilsen, Henrik; Nilsson, Paul; Ninomiya, Yoichi; Nisati, Aleandro; Nisius, Richard; Nobe, Takuya; Nodulman, Lawrence; Nomachi, Masaharu; Nomidis, Ioannis; Nordberg, Markus; Norton, Peter; Novakova, Jana; Nozaki, Mitsuaki; Nozka, Libor; Nugent, Ian Michael; Nuncio-Quiroz, Adriana-Elizabeth; Nunes Hanninger, Guilherme; Nunnemann, Thomas; Nurse, Emily; O'Brien, Brendan Joseph; O'Neale, Steve; O'Neil, Dugan; O'Shea, Val; Oakes, Louise Beth; Oakham, Gerald; Oberlack, Horst; Ocariz, Jose; Ochi, Atsuhiko; Oda, Susumu; Odaka, Shigeru; Odier, Jerome; Ogren, Harold; Oh, Alexander; Oh, Seog; Ohm, Christian; Ohshima, Takayoshi; Okawa, Hideki; Okumura, Yasuyuki; Okuyama, Toyonobu; Olariu, Albert; Olchevski, Alexander; Olivares Pino, Sebastian Andres; Oliveira, Miguel Alfonso; Oliveira Damazio, Denis; Oliver Garcia, Elena; Olivito, Dominick; Olszewski, Andrzej; Olszowska, Jolanta; Onofre, António; Onyisi, Peter; Oram, Christopher; Oreglia, Mark; Oren, Yona; Orestano, Domizia; Orlando, Nicola; Orlov, Iliya; Oropeza Barrera, Cristina; Orr, Robert; Osculati, Bianca; Ospanov, Rustem; Osuna, Carlos; Otero y Garzon, Gustavo; Ottersbach, John; Ouchrif, Mohamed; Ouellette, Eric; Ould-Saada, Farid; Ouraou, Ahmimed; Ouyang, Qun; Ovcharova, Ana; Owen, Mark; Owen, Simon; Ozcan, Veysi Erkcan; Ozturk, Nurcan; Pacheco Pages, Andres; Padilla Aranda, Cristobal; Pagan Griso, Simone; Paganis, Efstathios; Paige, Frank; Pais, Preema; Pajchel, Katarina; Palacino, Gabriel; Paleari, Chiara; Palestini, Sandro; Pallin, Dominique; Palma, Alberto; Palmer, Jody; Pan, Yibin; Panagiotopoulou, Evgenia; Pani, Priscilla; Panikashvili, Natalia; Panitkin, Sergey; Pantea, Dan; Papadelis, Aras; Papadopoulou, Theodora; Paramonov, Alexander; Paredes Hernandez, Daniela; Park, Woochun; Parker, Andy; Parodi, Fabrizio; Parsons, John; Parzefall, Ulrich; Pashapour, Shabnaz; Pasqualucci, Enrico; Passaggio, Stefano; Passeri, Antonio; Pastore, Fernanda; Pastore, Francesca; Pásztor, Gabriella; Pataraia, Sophio; Patel, Nikhul; Pater, Joleen; Patricelli, Sergio; Pauly, Thilo; Pecsy, Martin; Pedraza Morales, Maria Isabel; Peleganchuk, Sergey; Pelikan, Daniel; Peng, Haiping; Penning, Bjoern; Penson, Alexander; Penwell, John; Perantoni, Marcelo; Perez, Kerstin; Perez Cavalcanti, Tiago; Perez Codina, Estel; Pérez García-Estañ, María Teresa; Perez Reale, Valeria; Perini, Laura; Pernegger, Heinz; Perrino, Roberto; Perrodo, Pascal; Peshekhonov, Vladimir; Peters, Krisztian; Petersen, Brian; Petersen, Jorgen; Petersen, Troels; Petit, Elisabeth; Petridis, Andreas; Petridou, Chariclia; Petrolo, Emilio; Petrucci, Fabrizio; Petschull, Dennis; Petteni, Michele; Pezoa, Raquel; Phan, Anna; Phillips, Peter William; Piacquadio, Giacinto; Picazio, Attilio; Piccaro, Elisa; Piccinini, Maurizio; Piec, Sebastian Marcin; Piegaia, Ricardo; Pignotti, David; Pilcher, James; Pilkington, Andrew; Pina, João Antonio; Pinamonti, Michele; Pinder, Alex; Pinfold, James; Pinto, Belmiro; Pizio, Caterina; Plamondon, Mathieu; Pleier, Marc-Andre; Plotnikova, Elena; Poblaguev, Andrei; Poddar, Sahill; Podlyski, Fabrice; Poggioli, Luc; Poghosyan, Tatevik; Pohl, Martin; Polesello, Giacomo; Policicchio, Antonio; Polini, Alessandro; Poll, James; Polychronakos, Venetios; Pomeroy, Daniel; Pommès, Kathy; Pontecorvo, Ludovico; Pope, Bernard; Popeneciu, Gabriel Alexandru; Popovic, Dragan; Poppleton, Alan; Portell Bueso, Xavier; Pospelov, Guennady; Pospisil, Stanislav; Potrap, Igor; Potter, Christina; Potter, Christopher; Poulard, Gilbert; Poveda, Joaquin; Pozdnyakov, Valery; Prabhu, Robindra; Pralavorio, Pascal; Pranko, Aliaksandr; Prasad, Srivas; Pravahan, Rishiraj; Prell, Soeren; Pretzl, Klaus Peter; Price, Darren; Price, Joe; Price, Lawrence; Prieur, Damien; Primavera, Margherita; Prokofiev, Kirill; Prokoshin, Fedor; Protopopescu, Serban; Proudfoot, James; Prudent, Xavier; Przybycien, Mariusz; Przysiezniak, Helenka; Psoroulas, Serena; Ptacek, Elizabeth; Pueschel, Elisa; Purdham, John; Purohit, Milind; Puzo, Patrick; Pylypchenko, Yuriy; Qian, Jianming; Quadt, Arnulf; Quarrie, David; Quayle, William; Quinonez, Fernando; Raas, Marcel; Radescu, Voica; Radloff, Peter; Rador, Tonguc; Ragusa, Francesco; Rahal, Ghita; Rahimi, Amir; Rahm, David; Rajagopalan, Srinivasan; Rammensee, Michael; Rammes, Marcus; Randle-Conde, Aidan Sean; Randrianarivony, Koloina; Rauscher, Felix; Rave, Tobias Christian; Raymond, Michel; Read, Alexander Lincoln; Rebuzzi, Daniela; Redelbach, Andreas; Redlinger, George; Reece, Ryan; Reeves, Kendall; Reinherz-Aronis, Erez; Reinsch, Andreas; Reisinger, Ingo; Rembser, Christoph; Ren, Zhongliang; Renaud, Adrien; Rescigno, Marco; Resconi, Silvia; Resende, Bernardo; Reznicek, Pavel; Rezvani, Reyhaneh; Richter, Robert; Richter-Was, Elzbieta; Ridel, Melissa; Rijpstra, Manouk; Rijssenbeek, Michael; Rimoldi, Adele; Rinaldi, Lorenzo; Rios, Ryan Randy; Riu, Imma; Rivoltella, Giancesare; Rizatdinova, Flera; Rizvi, Eram; Robertson, Steven; Robichaud-Veronneau, Andree; Robinson, Dave; Robinson, James; Robson, Aidan; Rocha de Lima, Jose Guilherme; Roda, Chiara; Roda Dos Santos, Denis; Roe, Adam; Roe, Shaun; Røhne, Ole; Rolli, Simona; Romaniouk, Anatoli; Romano, Marino; Romeo, Gaston; Romero Adam, Elena; Roos, Lydia; Ros, Eduardo; Rosati, Stefano; Rosbach, Kilian; Rose, Anthony; Rose, Matthew; Rosenbaum, Gabriel; Rosenberg, Eli; Rosendahl, Peter Lundgaard; Rosenthal, Oliver; Rosselet, Laurent; Rossetti, Valerio; Rossi, Elvira; Rossi, Leonardo Paolo; Rotaru, Marina; Roth, Itamar; Rothberg, Joseph; Rousseau, David; Royon, Christophe; Rozanov, Alexander; Rozen, Yoram; Ruan, Xifeng; Rubbo, Francesco; Rubinskiy, Igor; Ruckert, Benjamin; Ruckstuhl, Nicole; Rud, Viacheslav; Rudolph, Christian; Rudolph, Gerald; Rühr, Frederik; Ruiz-Martinez, Aranzazu; Rumyantsev, Leonid; Rurikova, Zuzana; Rusakovich, Nikolai; Rutherfoord, John; Ruwiedel, Christoph; Ruzicka, Pavel; Ryabov, Yury; Ryan, Patrick; Rybar, Martin; Rybkin, Grigori; Ryder, Nick; Saavedra, Aldo; Sadeh, Iftach; Sadrozinski, Hartmut; Sadykov, Renat; Safai Tehrani, Francesco; Sakamoto, Hiroshi; Salamanna, Giuseppe; Salamon, Andrea; Saleem, Muhammad; Salek, David; Salihagic, Denis; Salnikov, Andrei; Salt, José; Salvachua Ferrando, Belén; Salvatore, Daniela; Salvatore, Pasquale Fabrizio; Salvucci, Antonio; Salzburger, Andreas; Sampsonidis, Dimitrios; Samset, Björn Hallvard; Sanchez, Arturo; Sanchez Martinez, Victoria; Sandaker, Heidi; Sander, Heinz Georg; Sanders, Michiel; Sandhoff, Marisa; Sandoval, Tanya; Sandoval, Carlos; Sandstroem, Rikard; Sankey, Dave; Sansoni, Andrea; Santamarina Rios, Cibran; Santoni, Claudio; Santonico, Rinaldo; Santos, Helena; Saraiva, João; Sarangi, Tapas; Sarkisyan-Grinbaum, Edward; Sarri, Francesca; Sartisohn, Georg; Sasaki, Osamu; Sasao, Noboru; Satsounkevitch, Igor; Sauvage, Gilles; Sauvan, Emmanuel; Sauvan, Jean-Baptiste; Savard, Pierre; Savinov, Vladimir; Savu, Dan Octavian; Sawyer, Lee; Saxon, David; Saxon, James; Sbarra, Carla; Sbrizzi, Antonio; Scallon, Olivia; Scannicchio, Diana; Scarcella, Mark; Schaarschmidt, Jana; Schacht, Peter; Schaefer, Douglas; Schäfer, Uli; Schaepe, Steffen; Schaetzel, Sebastian; Schaffer, Arthur; Schaile, Dorothee; Schamberger, R. Dean; Schamov, Andrey; Scharf, Veit; Schegelsky, Valery; Scheirich, Daniel; Schernau, Michael; Scherzer, Max; Schiavi, Carlo; Schieck, Jochen; Schioppa, Marco; Schlenker, Stefan; Schmidt, Evelyn; Schmieden, Kristof; Schmitt, Christian; Schmitt, Sebastian; Schmitz, Martin; Schneider, Basil; Schnoor, Ulrike; Schöning, André; Schorlemmer, Andre Lukas; Schott, Matthias; Schouten, Doug; Schovancova, Jaroslava; Schram, Malachi; Schroeder, Christian; Schroer, Nicolai; Schultens, Martin Johannes; Schultes, Joachim; Schultz-Coulon, Hans-Christian; Schulz, Holger; Schumacher, Markus; Schumm, Bruce; Schune, Philippe; Schwanenberger, Christian; Schwartzman, Ariel; Schwemling, Philippe; Schwienhorst, Reinhard; Schwierz, Rainer; Schwindling, Jerome; Schwindt, Thomas; Schwoerer, Maud; Sciolla, Gabriella; Scott, Bill; Searcy, Jacob; Sedov, George; Sedykh, Evgeny; Seidel, Sally; Seiden, Abraham; Seifert, Frank; Seixas, José; Sekhniaidze, Givi; Sekula, Stephen; Selbach, Karoline Elfriede; Seliverstov, Dmitry; Sellden, Bjoern; Sellers, Graham; Seman, Michal; Semprini-Cesari, Nicola; Serfon, Cedric; Serin, Laurent; Serkin, Leonid; Seuster, Rolf; Severini, Horst; Sfyrla, Anna; Shabalina, Elizaveta; Shamim, Mansoora; Shan, Lianyou; Shank, James; Shao, Qi Tao; Shapiro, Marjorie; Shatalov, Pavel; Shaw, Kate; Sherman, Daniel; Sherwood, Peter; Shibata, Akira; Shimizu, Shima; Shimojima, Makoto; Shin, Taeksu; Shiyakova, Maria; Shmeleva, Alevtina; Shochet, Mel; Short, Daniel; Shrestha, Suyog; Shulga, Evgeny; Shupe, Michael; Sicho, Petr; Sidoti, Antonio; Siegert, Frank; Sijacki, Djordje; Silbert, Ohad; Silva, José; Silver, Yiftah; Silverstein, Daniel; Silverstein, Samuel; Simak, Vladislav; Simard, Olivier; Simic, Ljiljana; Simion, Stefan; Simioni, Eduard; Simmons, Brinick; Simoniello, Rosa; Simonyan, Margar; Sinervo, Pekka; Sinev, Nikolai; Sipica, Valentin; Siragusa, Giovanni; Sircar, Anirvan; Sisakyan, Alexei; Sivoklokov, Serguei; Sjölin, Jörgen; Sjursen, Therese; Skinnari, Louise Anastasia; Skottowe, Hugh Philip; Skovpen, Kirill; Skubic, Patrick; Slater, Mark; Slavicek, Tomas; Sliwa, Krzysztof; Smakhtin, Vladimir; Smart, Ben; Smirnov, Sergei; Smirnov, Yury; Smirnova, Lidia; Smirnova, Oxana; Smith, Ben Campbell; Smith, Douglas; Smith, Kenway; Smizanska, Maria; Smolek, Karel; Snesarev, Andrei; Snow, Steve; Snow, Joel; Snyder, Scott; Sobie, Randall; Sodomka, Jaromir; Soffer, Abner; Solans, Carlos; Solar, Michael; Solc, Jaroslav; Soldatov, Evgeny; Soldevila, Urmila; Solfaroli Camillocci, Elena; Solodkov, Alexander; Solovyanov, Oleg; Soni, Nitesh; Sopko, Vit; Sopko, Bruno; Sosebee, Mark; Soualah, Rachik; Soukharev, Andrey; Spagnolo, Stefania; Spanò, Francesco; Spighi, Roberto; Spigo, Giancarlo; Spila, Federico; Spiwoks, Ralf; Spousta, Martin; Spreitzer, Teresa; Spurlock, Barry; St Denis, Richard Dante; Stahlman, Jonathan; Stamen, Rainer; Stanecka, Ewa; Stanek, Robert; Stanescu, Cristian; Stanescu-Bellu, Madalina; Stapnes, Steinar; Starchenko, Evgeny; Stark, Jan; Staroba, Pavel; Starovoitov, Pavel; Staszewski, Rafal; Staude, Arnold; Stavina, Pavel; Steele, Genevieve; Steinbach, Peter; Steinberg, Peter; Stekl, Ivan; Stelzer, Bernd; Stelzer, Harald Joerg; Stelzer-Chilton, Oliver; Stenzel, Hasko; Stern, Sebastian; Stewart, Graeme; Stillings, Jan Andre; Stockton, Mark; Stoerig, Kathrin; Stoicea, Gabriel; Stonjek, Stefan; Strachota, Pavel; Stradling, Alden; Straessner, Arno; Strandberg, Jonas; Strandberg, Sara; Strandlie, Are; Strang, Michael; Strauss, Emanuel; Strauss, Michael; Strizenec, Pavol; Ströhmer, Raimund; Strom, David; Strong, John; Stroynowski, Ryszard; Strube, Jan; Stugu, Bjarne; Stumer, Iuliu; Stupak, John; Sturm, Philipp; Styles, Nicholas Adam; Soh, Dart-yin; Su, Dong; Subramania, Halasya Siva; Succurro, Antonella; Sugaya, Yorihito; Suhr, Chad; Suk, Michal; Sulin, Vladimir; Sultansoy, Saleh; Sumida, Toshi; Sun, Xiaohu; Sundermann, Jan Erik; Suruliz, Kerim; Susinno, Giancarlo; Sutton, Mark; Suzuki, Yu; Suzuki, Yuta; Svatos, Michal; Swedish, Stephen; Sykora, Ivan; Sykora, Tomas; Sánchez, Javier; Ta, Duc; Tackmann, Kerstin; Taffard, Anyes; Tafirout, Reda; Taiblum, Nimrod; Takahashi, Yuta; Takai, Helio; Takashima, Ryuichi; Takeda, Hiroshi; Takeshita, Tohru; Takubo, Yosuke; Talby, Mossadek; Talyshev, Alexey; Tamsett, Matthew; Tanaka, Junichi; Tanaka, Reisaburo; Tanaka, Satoshi; Tanaka, Shuji; Tanasijczuk, Andres Jorge; Tani, Kazutoshi; Tannoury, Nancy; Tapprogge, Stefan; Tardif, Dominique; Tarem, Shlomit; Tarrade, Fabien; Tartarelli, Giuseppe Francesco; Tas, Petr; Tasevsky, Marek; Tassi, Enrico; Tatarkhanov, Mous; Tayalati, Yahya; Taylor, Christopher; Taylor, Frank; Taylor, Geoffrey; Taylor, Wendy; Teinturier, Marthe; Teixeira Dias Castanheira, Matilde; Teixeira-Dias, Pedro; Temming, Kim Katrin; Ten Kate, Herman; Teng, Ping-Kun; Terada, Susumu; Terashi, Koji; Terron, Juan; Testa, Marianna; Teuscher, Richard; Therhaag, Jan; Theveneaux-Pelzer, Timothée; Thoma, Sascha; Thomas, Juergen; Thompson, Emily; Thompson, Paul; Thompson, Peter; Thompson, Stan; Thomsen, Lotte Ansgaard; Thomson, Evelyn; Thomson, Mark; Thun, Rudolf; Tian, Feng; Tibbetts, Mark James; Tic, Tomáš; Tikhomirov, Vladimir; Tikhonov, Yury; Timoshenko, Sergey; Tipton, Paul; Tique Aires Viegas, Florbela De Jes; Tisserant, Sylvain; Todorov, Theodore; Todorova-Nova, Sharka; Toggerson, Brokk; Tojo, Junji; Tokár, Stanislav; Tokushuku, Katsuo; Tollefson, Kirsten; Tomoto, Makoto; Tompkins, Lauren; Toms, Konstantin; Tonoyan, Arshak; Topfel, Cyril; Topilin, Nikolai; Torchiani, Ingo; Torrence, Eric; Torres, Heberth; Torró Pastor, Emma; Toth, Jozsef; Touchard, Francois; Tovey, Daniel; Trefzger, Thomas; Tremblet, Louis; Tricoli, Alesandro; Trigger, Isabel Marian; Trincaz-Duvoid, Sophie; Tripiana, Martin; Trischuk, William; Trocmé, Benjamin; Troncon, Clara; Trottier-McDonald, Michel; Trzebinski, Maciej; Trzupek, Adam; Tsarouchas, Charilaos; Tseng, Jeffrey; Tsiakiris, Menelaos; Tsiareshka, Pavel; Tsionou, Dimitra; Tsipolitis, Georgios; Tsiskaridze, Vakhtang; Tskhadadze, Edisher; Tsukerman, Ilya; Tsulaia, Vakhtang; Tsung, Jieh-Wen; Tsuno, Soshi; Tsybychev, Dmitri; Tua, Alan; Tudorache, Alexandra; Tudorache, Valentina; Tuggle, Joseph; Turala, Michal; Turecek, Daniel; Turk Cakir, Ilkay; Turlay, Emmanuel; Turra, Ruggero; Tuts, Michael; Tykhonov, Andrii; Tylmad, Maja; Tyndel, Mike; Tzanakos, George; Uchida, Kirika; Ueda, Ikuo; Ueno, Ryuichi; Ugland, Maren; Uhlenbrock, Mathias; Uhrmacher, Michael; Ukegawa, Fumihiko; Unal, Guillaume; Undrus, Alexander; Unel, Gokhan; Unno, Yoshinobu; Urbaniec, Dustin; Usai, Giulio; Uslenghi, Massimiliano; Vacavant, Laurent; Vacek, Vaclav; Vachon, Brigitte; Vahsen, Sven; Valenta, Jan; Valente, Paolo; Valentinetti, Sara; Valero, Alberto; Valkar, Stefan; Valladolid Gallego, Eva; Vallecorsa, Sofia; Valls Ferrer, Juan Antonio; van der Graaf, Harry; van der Kraaij, Erik; Van Der Leeuw, Robin; van der Poel, Egge; van der Ster, Daniel; van Eldik, Niels; van Gemmeren, Peter; van Vulpen, Ivo; Vanadia, Marco; Vandelli, Wainer; Vaniachine, Alexandre; Vankov, Peter; Vannucci, Francois; Vari, Riccardo; Varol, Tulin; Varouchas, Dimitris; Vartapetian, Armen; Varvell, Kevin; Vassilakopoulos, Vassilios; Vazeille, Francois; Vazquez Schroeder, Tamara; Vegni, Guido; Veillet, Jean-Jacques; Veloso, Filipe; Veness, Raymond; Veneziano, Stefano; Ventura, Andrea; Ventura, Daniel; Venturi, Manuela; Venturi, Nicola; Vercesi, Valerio; Verducci, Monica; Verkerke, Wouter; Vermeulen, Jos; Vest, Anja; Vetterli, Michel; Vichou, Irene; Vickey, Trevor; Vickey Boeriu, Oana Elena; Viehhauser, Georg; Viel, Simon; Villa, Mauro; Villaplana Perez, Miguel; Vilucchi, Elisabetta; Vincter, Manuella; Vinek, Elisabeth; Vinogradov, Vladimir; Virchaux, Marc; Virzi, Joseph; Vitells, Ofer; Viti, Michele; Vivarelli, Iacopo; Vives Vaque, Francesc; Vlachos, Sotirios; Vladoiu, Dan; Vlasak, Michal; Vogel, Adrian; Vokac, Petr; Volpi, Guido; Volpi, Matteo; Volpini, Giovanni; von der Schmitt, Hans; von Loeben, Joerg; von Radziewski, Holger; von Toerne, Eckhard; Vorobel, Vit; Vorwerk, Volker; Vos, Marcel; Voss, Rudiger; Voss, Thorsten Tobias; Vossebeld, Joost; Vranjes, Nenad; Vranjes Milosavljevic, Marija; Vrba, Vaclav; Vreeswijk, Marcel; Vu Anh, Tuan; Vuillermet, Raphael; Vukotic, Ilija; Wagner, Wolfgang; Wagner, Peter; Wahlen, Helmut; Wahrmund, Sebastian; Wakabayashi, Jun; Walch, Shannon; Walder, James; Walker, Rodney; Walkowiak, Wolfgang; Wall, Richard; Waller, Peter; Wang, Chiho; Wang, Haichen; Wang, Hulin; Wang, Jike; Wang, Jin; Wang, Rui; Wang, Song-Ming; Wang, Tan; Warburton, Andreas; Ward, Patricia; Warsinsky, Markus; Washbrook, Andrew; Wasicki, Christoph; Watkins, Peter; Watson, Alan; Watson, Ian; Watson, Miriam; Watts, Gordon; Watts, Stephen; Waugh, Anthony; Waugh, Ben; Weber, Marc; Weber, Michele; Weber, Pavel; Weidberg, Anthony; Weigell, Philipp; Weingarten, Jens; Weiser, Christian; Wellenstein, Hermann; Wells, Phillippa; Wenaus, Torre; Wendland, Dennis; Weng, Zhili; Wengler, Thorsten; Wenig, Siegfried; Wermes, Norbert; Werner, Matthias; Werner, Per; Werth, Michael; Wessels, Martin; Wetter, Jeffrey; Weydert, Carole; Whalen, Kathleen; Wheeler-Ellis, Sarah Jane; White, Andrew; White, Martin; White, Sebastian; Whitehead, Samuel Robert; Whiteson, Daniel; Whittington, Denver; Wicek, Francois; Wicke, Daniel; Wickens, Fred; Wiedenmann, Werner; Wielers, Monika; Wienemann, Peter; Wiglesworth, Craig; Wiik-Fuchs, Liv Antje Mari; Wijeratne, Peter Alexander; Wildauer, Andreas; Wildt, Martin Andre; Wilhelm, Ivan; Wilkens, Henric George; Will, Jonas Zacharias; Williams, Eric; Williams, Hugh; Willis, William; Willocq, Stephane; Wilson, John; Wilson, Michael Galante; Wilson, Alan; Wingerter-Seez, Isabelle; Winkelmann, Stefan; Winklmeier, Frank; Wittgen, Matthias; Wollstadt, Simon Jakob; Wolter, Marcin Wladyslaw; Wolters, Helmut; Wong, Wei-Cheng; Wooden, Gemma; Wosiek, Barbara; Wotschack, Jorg; Woudstra, Martin; Wozniak, Krzysztof; Wraight, Kenneth; Wright, Catherine; Wright, Michael; Wrona, Bozydar; Wu, Sau Lan; Wu, Xin; Wu, Yusheng; Wulf, Evan; Wynne, Benjamin; Xella, Stefania; Xiao, Meng; Xie, Song; Xu, Chao; Xu, Da; Yabsley, Bruce; Yacoob, Sahal; Yamada, Miho; Yamaguchi, Hiroshi; Yamamoto, Akira; Yamamoto, Kyoko; Yamamoto, Shimpei; Yamamura, Taiki; Yamanaka, Takashi; Yamaoka, Jared; Yamazaki, Takayuki; Yamazaki, Yuji; Yan, Zhen; Yang, Haijun; Yang, Un-Ki; Yang, Yi; Yang, Zhaoyu; Yanush, Serguei; Yao, Liwen; Yao, Yushu; Yasu, Yoshiji; Ybeles Smit, Gabriel Valentijn; Ye, Jingbo; Ye, Shuwei; Yilmaz, Metin; Yoosoofmiya, Reza; Yorita, Kohei; Yoshida, Riktura; Young, Charles; Young, Christopher John; Youssef, Saul; Yu, Dantong; Yu, Jaehoon; Yu, Jie; Yuan, Li; Yurkewicz, Adam; Zabinski, Bartlomiej; Zaidan, Remi; Zaitsev, Alexander; Zajacova, Zuzana; Zanello, Lucia; Zaytsev, Alexander; Zeitnitz, Christian; Zeman, Martin; Zemla, Andrzej; Zendler, Carolin; Zenin, Oleg; Ženiš, Tibor; Zinonos, Zinonas; Zenz, Seth; Zerwas, Dirk; Zevi della Porta, Giovanni; Zhan, Zhichao; Zhang, Dongliang; Zhang, Huaqiao; Zhang, Jinlong; Zhang, Xueyao; Zhang, Zhiqing; Zhao, Long; Zhao, Tianchi; Zhao, Zhengguo; Zhemchugov, Alexey; Zhong, Jiahang; Zhou, Bing; Zhou, Ning; Zhou, Yue; Zhu, Cheng Guang; Zhu, Hongbo; Zhu, Junjie; Zhu, Yingchun; Zhuang, Xuai; Zhuravlov, Vadym; Zieminska, Daria; Zimin, Nikolai; Zimmermann, Robert; Zimmermann, Simone; Zimmermann, Stephanie; Ziolkowski, Michael; Zitoun, Robert; Živković, Lidija; Zmouchko, Viatcheslav; Zobernig, Georg; Zoccoli, Antonio; zur Nedden, Martin; Zutshi, Vishnu; Zwalinski, Lukasz
2012-11-20
A measurement of event shape variables is presented for large momentum transfer proton-proton collisions using the ATLAS detector at the Large Hadron Collider. Six event shape variables calculated using hadronic jets are studied in inclusive multi-jet events in 35 pb$^{-1}$ of integrated luminosity at a center-of-mass energy of $\\sqrt{s}$ = 7 TeV. These measurements are compared to predictions by three Monte Carlo event generators containing leading-logarithmic parton showers matched to leading order matrix elements for 2 $\\to$ 2 and 2 $\\to$ n (n=2,...6) scattering. Measurements of the third-jet resolution parameter, aplanarity, thrust, sphericity, and transverse sphericity are generally well described. The mean value of each event shape variable is evaluated as a function of the average momentum of the two leading jets pT1 and pT2, with a mean pT approaching 1 TeV.
Comparison of hard scattering models for particle production at large transverse momentum. 2
International Nuclear Information System (INIS)
Schiller, A.; Ilgenfritz, E.M.; Kripfganz, J.; Moehring, H.J.; Ranft, G.; Ranft, J.
1977-01-01
Single particle distributions of π + and π - at large transverse momentum are analysed using various hard collision models: qq → qq, qantiq → MantiM, qM → qM. The transverse momentum dependence at thetasub(cm) = 90 0 is well described in all models except qantiq → MantiM. This model has problems with the ratios (pp → π + +X)/(π +- p → π 0 +X). Presently available data on rapidity distributions of pions in π - p and pantip collisions are at rather low transverse momentum (however large xsub(perpendicular) = 2psub(perpendicular)/√s) where it is not obvious that hard collision models should dominate. The data, in particular the π - /π + asymmetry are well described by all models except qM → Mq (CIM). At large values of transverse momentum significant differences between the models are predicted. (author)
International Nuclear Information System (INIS)
Peterson, G.A.
1989-01-01
We briefly review some of the motivations, early results, and techniques of magnetic elastic and inelastic electron-nucleus scattering. We then discuss recent results, especially those acquired at high momentum transfers. 50 refs., 19 figs
Chaotic scattering in heavy-ion reactions with mass transfer
International Nuclear Information System (INIS)
Rodriguez Padron, Emilio; Guzman Martinez, Fernando
1998-01-01
The role of the mass transfer in heavy ion collisions is analyzed in the framework of a simple semi phenomenological model searching for chaotic scattering effects. The model couples the relative motion of the ions to a collective degree of freedom. The collective degree of freedom is identified by the mass asymmetry of the system. A Saxon-Woods potential is used for nucleus-nucleus interaction whiles a harmonic potential rules the temporal behaviour of the collective degree of freedom. This model shows chaotic scattering which could be an explanation for certain types of cross-section fluctuations observed in this kind of reactions
International Nuclear Information System (INIS)
Linssen, L.H.A.J.
1986-01-01
In this thesis two low-momentum antiproton-proton (anti pp) experiments are described. The first one is a set of 24 high statistics anti pp total cross section measurements as a function of the incoming antiproton momentum between p=388 MeV/c and p=599 MeV/c. These measurements simultaneously yield the charge exchange cross section (anti pp → anti nn). The second one comprises two high statistics anti pp small-angle elastic scattering measurements at p=233 MeV/c and p=272 MeV/c. The measurements were carried out using the high quality antiproton beam extracted from the Low Energy Antiproton Ring (LEAR) at CERN. The physics motivation for these experiments is a search for anti pp resonances or bound states on one hand, and a detailed study of the anti pp interaction on the other hand. (orig.)
Evolution of the transfer function characterization of surface scatter phenomena
Harvey, James E.; Pfisterer, Richard N.
2016-09-01
Based upon the empirical observation that BRDF measurements of smooth optical surfaces exhibited shift-invariant behavior when plotted versus o , the original Harvey-Shack (OHS) surface scatter theory was developed as a scalar linear systems formulation in which scattered light behavior was characterized by a surface transfer function (STF) reminiscent of the optical transfer function (OTF) of modern image formation theory (1976). This shift-invariant behavior combined with the inverse power law behavior when plotting log BRDF versus log o was quickly incorporated into several optical analysis software packages. Although there was no explicit smooth-surface approximation in the OHS theory, there was a limitation on both the incident and scattering angles. In 1988 the modified Harvey-Shack (MHS) theory removed the limitation on the angle of incidence; however, a moderate-angle scattering limitation remained. Clearly for large incident angles the BRDF was no longer shift-invariant as a different STF was now required for each incident angle. In 2011 the generalized Harvey-Shack (GHS) surface scatter theory, characterized by a two-parameter family of STFs, evolved into a practical modeling tool to calculate BRDFs from optical surface metrology data for situations that violate the smooth surface approximation inherent in the Rayleigh-Rice theory and/or the moderate-angle limitation of the Beckmann-Kirchhoff theory. And finally, the STF can be multiplied by the classical OTF to provide a complete linear systems formulation of image quality as degraded by diffraction, geometrical aberrations and surface scatter effects from residual optical fabrication errors.
International Nuclear Information System (INIS)
Deleuze, Michael S; Hajgato, Balazs; Morini, Filippo
2009-01-01
Calculations of electron momentum distributions employing advanced Dyson orbital theories and statistical thermodynamics beyond the RRHO approximation fail to quantitatively reproduce the outermost momentum profile inferred from experiments on ethanol employing high resolution Electron Momentum Spectroscopy [1]. Study of the influence of nuclear dynamics in the initial ground state and final ionized state indicates that this discrepancy between theory and experiment reflects a charge transfer occurring during an ultra-fast dissociation of the ethanol radical cation into a methyl radical and H 2 C=O-H + .
Analysis of transverse momentum and event shape in νN scattering
International Nuclear Information System (INIS)
Bosetti, P.C.; Graessler, H.; Lanske, D.; Schulte, R.; Schultze, K.; Simopoulou, E.; Vayaki, A.; Barnham, K.W.J.; Hamisi, F.; Miller, D.B.; Mobayyen, M.M.; Wainstein, S.; Aderholz, M.; Hantke, D.; Hoffmann, E.; Katz, U.F.; Kern, J.; Schmitz, N.; Wittek, W.; Albajar, C.; Batley, J.R.; Myatt, G.; Perkins, D.H.; Radojicic, D.; Renton, P.; Saitta, S.; Bullock, F.W.; Burke, S.
1990-01-01
The transverse momentum distributions of hadrons produced in neutrino-nucleon charged current interactions and their dependence on W are analysed in detail. It is found that the components of the transverse momentum in the event plane and normal to it increase with W at about the same rate throughout the available W range. A comparison with e + e - data is made. Studies of the energy flow and angular distributions in the events classified as planar do not show clear evidence for high energy, wide angle gluon radiation, in contrast to the conclusion of a previous analysis of similar neutrino data. (orig.)
Effects of an anode sheath on energy and momentum transfer in vacuum arcs
International Nuclear Information System (INIS)
Wang, Zhenxing; Zhou, Zhipeng; Tian, Yunbo; Wang, Haoran; Wang, Jianhua; Geng, Yingsan; Liu, Zhiyuan
2017-01-01
Anode phenomena under high-current vacuum arcs have a significant impact on the interrupting capacity of vacuum interrupters. However, the vacuum arc energy flux and momentum flux on the anode—which are necessary boundary conditions for simulations—are either set to an imaginary distribution or calculated using simple formulas without considering anode sheath regulatory effects. The objective of this paper is to reveal the anode sheath effects on regulating the energy and momentum transfer from the arc column to the anode surface in vacuum arcs. A particle-in-cell model for the anode sheath is developed. The required input parameters are obtained from a magnetohydrodynamic model for the arc column. From the results, there exists a sheath near the anode with a negative voltage drop. Both the electron density and the ion density significantly decline in the anode sheath region. The kinetic energy of the ions absorbed by the anode consists of directed kinetic energy, random kinetic energy, and sheath acceleration energy. The sheath acceleration energy contribution is the largest, and the random kinetic energy also accounts for a large part that cannot be ignored. The arc pressure on the anode surface is mainly caused by ion impact, and the accelerating effect of the anode sheath on the ions cannot be neglected in pressure calculations. In addition, in the case of an arc current at 15 kA, the input energy and momentum upon the anode surface is not obviously affected by the evaporated atoms at surface temperatures of 1600 K and 2000 K. (paper)
Angular momentum transfer in primordial discs and the rotation of the first stars
Hirano, Shingo; Bromm, Volker
2018-05-01
We investigate the rotation velocity of the first stars by modelling the angular momentum transfer in the primordial accretion disc. Assessing the impact of magnetic braking, we consider the transition in angular momentum transport mode at the Alfvén radius, from the dynamically dominated free-fall accretion to the magnetically dominated solid-body one. The accreting protostar at the centre of the primordial star-forming cloud rotates with close to breakup speed in the case without magnetic fields. Considering a physically motivated model for small-scale turbulent dynamo amplification, we find that stellar rotation speed quickly declines if a large fraction of the initial turbulent energy is converted to magnetic energy (≳ 0.14). Alternatively, if the dynamo process were inefficient, for amplification due to flux freezing, stars would become slow rotators if the pre-galactic magnetic field strength is above a critical value, ≃10-8.2 G, evaluated at a scale of nH = 1 cm-3, which is significantly higher than plausible cosmological seed values (˜10-15 G). Because of the rapid decline of the stellar rotational speed over a narrow range in model parameters, the first stars encounter a bimodal fate: rapid rotation at almost the breakup level, or the near absence of any rotation.
Gamma-ray multiplicity measurements and angular momentum transfer in deeply inelastic collisions
International Nuclear Information System (INIS)
Perrin, N.; Peter, J.
1977-01-01
In DIC, the part of the initial orbital angular momentum l which is transferred into internal angular momenta Δl of the fragments depends on the degree of cohesion of the composite system. The (few) measured gamma-rays multiplicities are compared to those observed for similar compound nuclei and for fission fragments. Δl increases with the kinetic energy relaxation. For medium-mass systems, the cohesion varies continuously from the rolling to the sticking situation when the decay time of the composite system increases. The rigid body situation is obtained for a small part of the relaxed events. For heavy systems, rigid rotation seems to be much more common, which will allow to extract information on the deflection function. The time needed to reach the rigid situation is intermediate between those of kinetic energy relaxation and mass asymmetry relaxation. An additional angular momentum can be added in the fragments, due to a bending mode at the scission-point, like in fission. That can explain the observed low anisotropy of the gamma-rays angular distribution
Heat and momentum transfer for magnetoconvection in a vertical external magnetic field
Zürner, Till; Liu, Wenjun; Krasnov, Dmitry; Schumacher, Jörg
2016-11-01
The scaling theory of Grossmann and Lohse for the turbulent heat and momentum transfer is extended to the magnetoconvection case in the presence of a (strong) vertical magnetic field. The comparison with existing laboratory experiments and direct numerical simulations in the quasistatic limit allows to restrict the parameter space to very low Prandtl and magnetic Prandtl numbers and thus to reduce the number of unknown parameters in the model. Also included is the Chandrasekhar limit for which the outer magnetic induction field B is large enough such that convective motion is suppressed and heat is transported by diffusion. Our theory identifies four distinct regimes of magnetoconvection which are distinguished by the strength of the outer magnetic field and the level of turbulence in the flow, respectively. LIMTECH Research Alliance and Research Training Group GK 1567 on Lorentz Force Velocimetry, funded by the Deutsche Forschungsgemeinschaft.
An experimental approach to angular momentum transfer in heavy ion reactions
International Nuclear Information System (INIS)
Babinet, R.
1980-01-01
The current experimental status on angular momentum transfer status in heavy ion reactions is reviewed. After a short presentation of the basic theoretical concepts that are underlying all the research works in this field, the experimental techniques that have been commonly used are presented. Results obtained by the γ-multiplicity method are discussed first. Then come, for the very heavy systems, the sequential fission data, followed by the results of a recent experiment on light charged particles. The simple theoretical concepts that are introduced first are continuously used as guidelines to discuss the following results. The respective advantages but also the basic limitations of the above three experimental techniques are exposed. Although they are expected to work best in different regions of the mass table, it is shown, that they give complementary informations which have been most useful in improving our understanding of the tangential friction mechanism
Hadron transverse momentum distributions in muon deep inelastic scattering at 160 GeV/c
Czech Academy of Sciences Publication Activity Database
Adolph, C.; Alekseev, M.; Alexakhin, V. Yu.; Alexandrov, Yu.; Alexeev, G. D.; Amoroso, A.; Andrieux, V.; Austregisilio, A.; Badelek, B.; Balestra, F.; Barth, J.; Baum, G.; Bedfer, Y.; Berlin, A.; Bernhard, J.; Bertini, R.; Bicker, K.; Bieling, J.; Birsa, R.; Bisplinghoff, J.; Boer, M.; Bordalo, P.; Bradamante, F.; Braun, C.; Bravar, A.; Bressan, A.; Büchele, M.; Burtin, E.; Capozza, L.; Chiosso, M.; Chung, S.U.; Cicuttin, A.; Crespo, M.; Dalla Torre, S.; Dasgupta, S. S.; Dasgupta, S.; Denisov, O.; Donskov, S.; Doshita, N.; Duic, V.; Dünnweber, W.; Dziewiecki, M.; Efremov, A.V.; Elia, C.; Eversheim, P.; Eyrich, W.; Faessler, M.; Ferrero, A.; Filin, A.; Finger, M.; Finger jr., M.; Fischer, H.; Franco, C.; Fresne von Hohenesche, N.; Friedrich, J.; Frolov, V.; Garfagnini, R.; Gautheron, F.; Gavrichtchouk, O.; Gerassimov, S.; Geyer, R.; Giorgi, M.; Gnesi, I.; Gobbo, B.; Goertz, S.; Grabmüller, S.; Grasso, A.; Grube, B.; Gushterski, R.; Guskov, A.; Guthörl, T.; Haas, F.; von Harrach, D.; Heinsius, F.; Herrmann, F.; Hess, C.; Hinterberger, F.; Horikawa, N.; Höppner, Ch.; d'Hose, N.; Huber, S.; Ishimoto, S.; Ivanshin, Yu.; Iwata, T.; Jahn, R.; Jary, V.; Jasinski, P.; Joosten, R.; Kabuss, E.; Kang, D.; Ketzer, B.; Khaustov, G.; Khokhlov, Y.; Kisselev, Y.; Klein, F.; Klimaszewski, K.; Koivuniemi, J.; Kolosov, V.; Kondo, K.; Königsmann, K.; Konorov, I.; Konstantinov, V.; Kotzinian, A.; Kouznetsov, O.; Krämer, M.; Kroumchtein, Z.; Kuchinski, N.; Kunne, F.; Kurek, K.; Kurjata, R. P.; Lednev, A.; Lehmann, A.; Levorato, S.; Lichtenstadt, J.; Maggiora, A.; Magnon, A.; Makke, N.; Mallot, G.; Mann, A.; Marchand, C.; Martin, A.; Marzec, J.; Matsuda, H.; Matsuda, T.; Meshcheryakov, G.; Meyer, W.; Michigami, T.; Mikhailov, Y.; Morreale, A.; Nagaytsev, A.; Nagel, T.; Nerling, F.; Neubert, S.; Neyret, D.; Nikolaenko, V.; Nový, J.; Nowak, W. D.; Nunes, A.S.; Olshevsky, A.; Ostrick, M.; Panknin, R.; Panzieri, D.; Parsamyan, B.; Paul, S.; Piragino, G.; Platchkov, S.; Pochodzalla, J.; Polak, J.; Polyakov, V.; Pretz, J.; Quaresma, M.; Quintans, C.; Rajotte, J.; Ramos, S.; Reicherz, G.; Rocco, E.; Rodionov, V. K.; Rondio, E.; Rossiyskaya, N. S.; Ryabchikov, D.; Samoylenko, V.; Sandacz, A.; Sapozhnikov, M.; Sarkar, S.; Savin, I.; Sbrizzai, G.; Schiavon, P.; Schill, C.; Schlütter, T.; Schmidt, A.; Schmidt, K.; Schmiden, H.; Schmitt, L.; Schönning, K.; Schopferer, S.; Schott, M.; Shevchenko, O.; Silva, L.; Sinha, L.; Sirtl, S.; Slunecka, M.; Sosio, S.; Sozzi, F.; Srnka, Aleš; Steiger, L.; Stolarski, M.; Sulc, M.; Sulej, R.; Suzuki, H.; Sznajder, P.; Takekawa, S.; Ter Wolbeek, J.; Tessaro, S.; Tessarotto, F.; Thibaud, F.; Uhl, S.; Uman, I.; Vandenbroucke, M.; Virius, M.; Wang, L.; Weisrock, T.; Wilfert, M.; Windmolders, R.; Wislicki, W.; Wollny, H.; Zaremba, K.; Zavertyaev, M.; Zemlyanichkina, E.; Zhuravlev, N.; Ziembicki, M.
2013-01-01
Roč. 73, č. 8 (2013), 2531:1-15 ISSN 1434-6044 Institutional support: RVO:68081731 Keywords : hadron * inelastic scattering Subject RIV: BG - Nuclear, Atomic and Molecular Physics, Colliders Impact factor: 5.436, year: 2013
Low momentum scattering of the Dirac particle with an asymmetric cusp potential
International Nuclear Information System (INIS)
Jiang, Yu.; Dong, Shi-Hai; Lozada-Cassou, M.; Antillon, A.
2006-01-01
We study the exact solutions of the bound and scattering states of the one-dimensional Dirac equation with an asymmetric cusp potential and derive the condition of the supercriticality for this quantum system. We find that the scattering properties are invariant under reflection of the potential's shape, and the supercritical value for the potential amplitude V 0 varies with the degree of the potential asymmetry. (orig.)
Measurement of color transparency by C(p,2p) reactions at large momentum transfer
International Nuclear Information System (INIS)
Carroll, A.S.
1997-12-01
The subject of color transparency, the enhancement of the ability of hadrons to penetrate nuclear matter by kinematic selection, is both interesting and controversial. The description of the collision of hadrons with nucleons inside nuclei, and the connection with initial and final state interactions involve fundamental questions of quantum mechanics, and nuclear and particle physics. Interest in color transparency was greatly increased by AGS Experiment 834 which observed dramatic changes with incident momentum for a variety of nuclei. A new experiment, E850, has studied the (p,2p) quasi-elastic reaction near 90 degree cm for momenta between 5.9 and 9 GeV/c. The quasi-elastic reaction was compared to the elastic reaction on free protons to determine the transparency. With limited statistics, but with better kinematic definition in a new detector, the authors have confirmed the rise in Carbon transparency ratio seen in Expt 834. The Tr(D/H) for deuterium is consistent with no energy dependence. Unlike the free dσ/dt for hydrogen, the dσ/dt from protons in a nucleus is consistent with the exact s -10 scaling. This suggests two components to the pp scattering amplitude; one small and perturbative, the other spatially large and varying, but filtered away by the nuclear matter in the Carbon nucleus. The plan is to complete the repairs of the superconducting solenoid early this fall, reassemble the detector, and collect data starting next spring
Xia, Guangqing; Han, Yajie; Chen, Liuwei; Wei, Yanming; Yu, Yang; Chen, Maolin
2018-06-01
The interaction between the solar wind plasma and the bias voltage of long tethers is the basic mechanism of the electric sail thruster. The momentum transfer process between the solar wind plasma and electric tethers was investigated using a 2D full particle PIC method. The coupled electric field distribution and deflected ion trajectory under different bias voltages were compared, and the influence of bias voltage on momentum transfer process was analyzed. The results show that the high potential of the bias voltage of long tethers will slow down, stagnate, reflect and deflect a large number of ions, so that ion cavities are formed in the vicinity of the tether, and the ions will transmit the axial momentum to the sail tethers to produce the thrust. Compared to the singe tether, double tethers show a better thrust performance.
International Nuclear Information System (INIS)
Braun, V.; Gornicki, P.; Mankiewicz, L.
1994-10-01
We argue that parton distributions in coordinate space provide a more natural object for nonperturbative methods compared to the usual momentum distributions in which the physics of different longitudinal distances is being mixed. To illustrate the advantages of the coordinate space formulation, we calculate the coordinate space distributions for valence quarks in the proton using the QCD sum rule approach. A remarkable agreement is found between the calcuulated and the experimentally measured u-quark distribution up to distances of order ∝2 fm in the proton rest frame. The standard calculation completely fails, however, for valence d quarks; the reasons for this discrepancy are discussed. (orig.)
Antipp elastic scattering at 30 GeV/c incident momentum
International Nuclear Information System (INIS)
Fearnley, T.
1983-01-01
The antipp elastic differential cross-section at 30 GeV/c incident momentum has been measured in a two-arm spectrometer experiment (WA7) at the CERN SPS. The /t/-range covered extends from 0.5 to 5.0 (GeV/c) 2 . A pronounced dip-bump structure is observed, with a sharp minimum around /t/=1.7 (GeV/c) 2 . The results are compared to existing antipp data and to some model predictions
Incomplete momentum transfer components in /sup 16/O + /sup 12/C Fusion at 20 MeV/A
Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)
Menchaca-Rocha, A.; Brandan, M.E. (Grenoble-1 Univ., 38 (France). Inst. des Sciences Nucleaires); Dacal, A.; Galindo, A.; Mahoney, J.; Murphy, M.; Rae, W.D.M. (California Univ., Berkeley (USA). Lawrence Berkeley Lab.)
1983-01-27
The energy spectra of Z = 3-9 particles from reactions induced by 20 MeV/A /sup 16/O on /sup 12/C have been measured. The systematics found from the fusion-like residues clearly deviate from those expected for complete fusion, giving evidence for important incomplete momentum transfer components.
The electrodisintegration of the deuteron reaction at high four-momentum transfer
Ibrahim, Hassan F.
This dissertation presents the highest four-momentum transfer, Q2, quasielastic (xBj = 1) results from Experiment E01-020 which systematically explored the 2H(e, e'p)n reaction ("Electro-disintegration" of the deuteron) at three different four-momentum transfers, Q 2 = 0.8, 2.1, and 3.5 GeV2 and missing momenta, pmiss = 0, 100, 200, 300, 400, and 500 GeV including separations of the longitudinal-transverse interference response function, RLT, and extraction of the longitudinal-transverse asymmetry, ALT. This systematic approach will help to understand the reaction mechanism and the deuteron structure down to the short range part of the nucleon-nucleon interaction which is one of the fundamental missions of nuclear physics. By studying the very short distance structure of the deuteron, one may also determine whether or to what extent the description of nuclei in terms of nucleon/meson degrees of freedom must be supplemented by inclusion of explicit quark effects. The unique combination of energy, current, duty factor, and control of systematics for Hall A at Jefferson Lab made Jefferson Lab the only facility in the world where these systematic studies of the deuteron can be undertaken. This is especially true when we want to understand the short range structure of the deuteron where high energies and high luminosity/duty factor are needed. All these features of Jefferson Lab allow us to examine large missing momenta (short range scales) at kinematics where the effects of final state interactions (FSI), meson exchange currents (MEC), and isobar currents (IC) are minimal, making the extraction of the deuteron structure less model-dependent. Jefferson Lab also provides the kinematical flexibility to perform the separation of RLT over a broad range of missing momenta and momentum transfers. Experiment E01-020 used the standard Hall A equipment in coincidence configuration in addition to the cryogenic target system. The low and middle Q2 kinematics were completed in June
Evaporation and scattering of momentum- and velocity-dependent dark matter in the Sun
Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)
Busoni, Giorgio [ARC Centre of Excellence for Particle Physics at the Terascale, School of Physics, The University of Melbourne, Swanston St and Tin Alley, Victoria 3010 (Australia); Simone, Andrea De [SISSA and INFN, Sezione di Trieste, Via Bonomea 265, 34136 Trieste (Italy); Scott, Pat; Vincent, Aaron C., E-mail: giorgio.busoni@unimelb.edu.au, E-mail: andrea.desimone@sissa.it, E-mail: p.scott@imperial.ac.uk, E-mail: aaron.vincent@imperial.ac.uk [Department of Physics, Imperial College London, Blackett Laboratory, Prince Consort Road, London SW7 2AZ (United Kingdom)
2017-10-01
Dark matter with momentum- or velocity-dependent interactions with nuclei has shown significant promise for explaining the so-called Solar Abundance Problem, a longstanding discrepancy between solar spectroscopy and helioseismology. The best-fit models are all rather light, typically with masses in the range of 3–5 GeV. This is exactly the mass range where dark matter evaporation from the Sun can be important, but to date no detailed calculation of the evaporation of such models has been performed. Here we carry out this calculation, for the first time including arbitrary velocity- and momentum-dependent interactions, thermal effects, and a completely general treatment valid from the optically thin limit all the way through to the optically thick regime. We find that depending on the dark matter mass, interaction strength and type, the mass below which evaporation is relevant can vary from 1 to 4 GeV. This has the effect of weakening some of the better-fitting solutions to the Solar Abundance Problem, but also improving a number of others. As a by-product, we also provide an improved derivation of the capture rate that takes into account thermal and optical depth effects, allowing the standard result to be smoothly matched to the well-known saturation limit.
International Nuclear Information System (INIS)
Tomkinson, J.; Bowden, Z.A.; Mayers, J.; Norris, J.; Rhodes, N.J.; Colognesi, D.; Fielding, A.L.; Praitano, M.
1999-01-01
Complete text of publication follows. The VESUVIO project is financed within the TMR-Access to Large Scale Facility (RTD project) of the European Community. It will provide unique prototype instrumentation at the ISIS neutron source which will build on the success and experience of the eVS spectrometer in measuring single particle dynamics of a wide range of condensed matter systems. The instrumentation is designed for high momentum (20A -1 -1 ) and energy (ℎω>1eV) transfer inelastic neutron scattering studies of microscopic dynamical properties such as, single particle kinetic energies and momentum distributions. Specific objectives are: a) to optimize and construct a high efficiency, high area detector, 6 Li doped scintillator glasses are being tested; b) to construct a sample tank capable of operating with either a cold, or room temperature, filter analyzers; c) to develop new electronics and data acquisition to handle the high count-rates which will be generated in the azimuthal detectors. Some examples of applications performed during the first year of the project will be presented. (author)
The role transverse momentum and spin in unpolarised semi inclusive deep inelastic scattering
Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)
Giordano, Francesca
2008-10-15
The azimuthal modulations of hadron production has been measured in Semi Inclusive Deep Inelastic Scattering processes at HERMES, and the results, compatible between different data taking periods, have been presented. Several systematic checks were performed in order to estimate possible biases, and finally the results are corrected for acceptance and QED higher order contributions. The corrected cosine moments are provided in 500 independent kinematical bins providing for the first time a full differential description of the cross-section azimuthal dependent terms. Their projections in the relevant kinematical variables have been presented for comparison with expectations. The results extracted for hydrogen and deuterium data do not show significative discrepancies, and this can be explained taking into account the u-dominance hypothesis in deep inelastic scattering. (orig.)
The role transverse momentum and spin in unpolarised semi inclusive deep inelastic scattering
International Nuclear Information System (INIS)
Giordano, Francesca
2008-10-01
The azimuthal modulations of hadron production has been measured in Semi Inclusive Deep Inelastic Scattering processes at HERMES, and the results, compatible between different data taking periods, have been presented. Several systematic checks were performed in order to estimate possible biases, and finally the results are corrected for acceptance and QED higher order contributions. The corrected cosine moments are provided in 500 independent kinematical bins providing for the first time a full differential description of the cross-section azimuthal dependent terms. Their projections in the relevant kinematical variables have been presented for comparison with expectations. The results extracted for hydrogen and deuterium data do not show significative discrepancies, and this can be explained taking into account the u-dominance hypothesis in deep inelastic scattering. (orig.)
International Nuclear Information System (INIS)
Ankowski, A.; Graczyk, K.; Nowak, J.; Sobczyk, J.; Antonello, M.; Cavanna, F.; Piano Mortari, G.; Segreto, E.; Aprili, P.; Arneodo, F.; Palamara, O.; Badertscher, A.; Ge, Y.; Laffranchi, M.; Messina, M.; Rubbia, A.; Baiboussinov, B.; Baldo Ceolin, M.; Centro, S.; Gibin, D.; Guglielmi, A.; Meng, G.; Pietropaolo, F.; Varanini, F.; Ventura, S.; Battistoni, G.; Muraro, S.; Sala, P.R.; Benetti, P.; Borio di Tigliole, A.; Brunetti, R.; Calligarich, E.; De Vecchi, C.; Dolfini, R.; Gigli Berzolari, A.; Grandi, L.; Mauri, F.; Menegolli, A.; Montanari, C.; Piazzoli, A.; Prata, M.; Prata, M.C.; Przewlocki, P.; Rappoldi, A.; Raselli, G.L.; Rossella, M.; Rubbia, C.; Scannicchio, D.; Vignoli, C.; Bueno, A.; Carmona, M.C.; Garcia-Gamez, D.; Lozano, J.; Martinez de la Ossa, A.; Melgarejo, A.J.; Navas, S.; Carbonara, F.; Cocco, A.G.; Di Cicco, A.; Ereditato, A.; Fiorillo, G.; Rossi, B.; Cennini, P.; Ferrari, A.; Cesana, A.; Terrani, M.; Cline, D.B.; Lisowski, B.; Matthey, C.; Otwinowski, S.; Seo, Y.; Wang, H.; Yang, X.; Cieslik, K.; Dabrowska, A.; Markiewicz, M.; Stefan, D.; Szarska, M.; Wachala, T.; Zalewska, A.; Gil-Botella, I.; Holeczek, J.; Kisiel, J.; Kielczewska, D.; Lagoda, J.; Posiadala, M.; Kozlowski, T.; Mijakowski, P.; Rondio, E.; Stepaniak, J.; Szeptycka, M.; Periale, L.; Picchi, P.; Polchlopek, W.; Sergiampietri, F.; Sulej, R.
2006-01-01
The ICARUS collaboration has demonstrated, following the operation of a 600 ton (T600) detector at shallow depth, that the technique based on liquid argon time projection chambers is now mature. The study of rare events, not contemplated in the standard model, can greatly benefit from the use of this kind of detectors. In particular, a deeper understanding of atmospheric neutrino properties will be obtained thanks to the unprecedented quality of the data ICARUS provides. However if we concentrate on the T600 performance, most of the ν μ charged current sample will be partially contained, due to the reduced dimensions of the detector. In this article, we address the problem of how well we can determine the kinematics of events having partially contained tracks. The analysis of a large sample of atmospheric muons collected during the T600 test run demonstrates that, in case the recorded track is at least one meter long, the muon momentum can be reconstructed by an algorithm that measures the multiple Coulomb scattering along the particle's path. Moreover, we show that momentum resolution can be improved by almost a factor two using an algorithm based on the Kalman filtering technique. (orig.)
Compton scattering studies of the electron momentum distribution in indium phosphide
Deb, A; Guin, R; Chatterjee, A K
1999-01-01
The electron momentum anisotropy of indium phosphide has been studied by measuring the directional Compton profiles of indium phosphide single crystals with the use of radiation from an sup 2 sup 4 sup 1 Am gamma source. Three different samples, cut along the [100], [110] and [111] planes, were used. The experimental anisotropy has been compared with the results based on the linear combination of Gaussian orbitals (LCGO) method. The agreement is very good with our theoretical results. It is found that the extrema appearing in the dependences on q of the anisotropies have an intimate connection with the bonding properties of the semiconductor. A self-consistent, all-electron, local density calculation for the partial density of states, total density of states and the charge analysis is also presented here.
Xia, Jinjiao; Liang, Wenping; Miao, Qiang; Depla, Diederik
2018-05-01
The influence of the ratio between the energy and the deposition flux, or the energy per arriving atom, on the growth of Y2O3 sputter deposited thin films has been studied. The energy per arriving atom has been varied by the adjustment of the discharge power, and/or the target-to-substrate distance. The relationship between the energy per arriving atom and the phase evolution, grain size, microstructure, packing density and residual stress was investigated in detail. At low energy per arriving atom, the films consist of the monoclinic B phase with a preferential (1 1 1) orientation. A minority cubic C phase appears at higher energy per arriving atom. A study of the thin film cross sections showed for all films straight columns throughout the thickness, typically for a zone II microstructure. The intrinsic stress is compressive, and increases with increasing energy per atom. The same trend is observed for the film density. Simulations show that the momentum transfer per arriving atom also scales with the energy per arriving atom. Hence, the interpretation of the observed trends as a function of the energy per arriving atom must be treated with care.
Measurements of the deuteron and proton magnetic form factors at large momentum transfers
International Nuclear Information System (INIS)
Bosted, P.E.; Katramatou, A.T.; Arnold, R.G.; Benton, D.; Clogher, L.; DeChambrier, G.; Lambert, J.; Lung, A.; Petratos, G.G.; Rahbar, A.; Rock, S.E.; Szalata, Z.M.; Debebe, B.; Frodyma, M.; Hicks, R.S.; Hotta, A.; Peterson, G.A.; Gearhart, R.A.; Alster, J.; Lichtenstadt, J.; Dietrich, F.; van Bibber, K.
1990-01-01
Measurements of the deuteron elastic magnetic structure function B(Q 2 ) are reported at squared four-momentum transfer values 1.20≤Q 2 ≤2.77 (GeV/c) 2 . Also reported are values for the proton magnetic form factor G Mp (Q 2 ) at 11 Q 2 values between 0.49 and 1.75 (GeV/c) 2 . The data were obtained using an electron beam of 0.5 to 1.3 GeV. Electrons backscattered near 180 degree were detected in coincidence with deuterons or protons recoiling near 0 degree in a large solid-angle double-arm spectrometer system. The data for B(Q 2 ) are found to decrease rapidly from Q 2 =1.2 to 2 (GeV/c) 2 , and then rise to a secondary maximum around Q 2 =2.5 (GeV/c) 2 . Reasonable agreement is found with several different models, including those in the relativistic impulse approximation, nonrelativistic calculations that include meson-exchange currents, isobar configurations, and six-quark configurations, and one calculation based on the Skyrme model. All calculations are very sensitive to the choice of deuteron wave function and nucleon form factor parametrization. The data for G Mp (Q 2 ) are in good agreement with the empirical dipole fit
The NEOTωIST mission (Near-Earth Object Transfer of angular momentum spin test)
Drube, Line; Harris, Alan W.; Engel, Kilian; Falke, Albert; Johann, Ulrich; Eggl, Siegfried; Cano, Juan L.; Ávila, Javier Martín; Schwartz, Stephen R.; Michel, Patrick
2016-10-01
We present a concept for a kinetic impactor demonstration mission, which intends to change the spin rate of a previously-visited asteroid, in this case 25143 Itokawa. The mission would determine the efficiency of momentum transfer during an impact, and help mature the technology required for a kinetic impactor mission, both of which are important precursors for a future space mission to deflect an asteroid by collisional means in an emergency situation. Most demonstration mission concepts to date are based on changing an asteroid's heliocentric orbit and require a reconnaissance spacecraft to measure the very small orbital perturbation due to the impact. Our concept is a low-cost alternative, requiring only a single launch. Taking Itokawa as an example, an estimate of the order of magnitude of the change in the spin period, δP, with such a mission results in δP of 4 min (0.5%), which could be detectable by Earth-based observatories. Our preliminary study found that a mission concept in which an impactor produces a change in an asteroid's spin rate could provide valuable information for the assessment of the viability of the kinetic-impactor asteroid deflection concept. Furthermore, the data gained from the mission would be of great benefit for our understanding of the collisional evolution of asteroids and the physics behind crater and ejecta-cloud development.
Diffractive Photoproduction of J/psi Mesons with Large Momentum Transfer at HERA
Aktas, A.; Anthonis, T.; Astvatsatourov, A.; Babaev, A.; Backovic, S.; Bahr, J.; Baranov, P.; Barrelet, E.; Bartel, W.; Baumgartner, S.; Becker, J.; Beckingham, M.; Beglarian, A.; Behnke, O.; Behrendt, O.; Belousov, A.; Berger, C.; Berndt, T.; Bizot, J.C.; Bohme, J.; Boenig, M.O.; Boudry, V.; Bracinik, J.; Braunschweig, W.; Brisson, V.; Broker, H.B.; Brown, D.P.; Bruncko, D.; Busser, F.W.; Bunyatyan, A.; Burrage, A.; Buschhorn, G.; Bystritskaya, L.; Campbell, A.J.; Caron, S.; Cassol-Brunner, F.; Chekelian, V.; Clarke, D.; Collard, C.; Contreras, J.G.; Coppens, Y.R.; Coughlan, J.A.; Cousinou, M.C.; Cox, B.E.; Cozzika, G.; Cvach, J.; Dainton, J.B.; Dau, W.D.; Daum, K.; Davidsson, M.; Delcourt, B.; Delerue, N.; Demirchyan, R.; De Roeck, A.; De Wolf, E.A.; Diaconu, C.; Dingfelder, J.; Dixon, P.; Dodonov, V.; Dowell, J.D.; Dubak, A.; Duprel, C.; Eckerlin, Guenter; Efremenko, V.; Egli, S.; Eichler, R.; Eisele, F.; Ellerbrock, M.; Elsen, E.; Erdmann, M.; Erdmann, W.; Faulkner, P.J.W.; Favart, L.; Fedotov, A.; Felst, R.; Ferencei, J.; Ferron, S.; Fleischer, M.; Fleischmann, P.; Fleming, Y.H.; Flucke, G.; Flugge, G.; Fomenko, A.; Foresti, I.; Formanek, J.; Franke, G.; Frising, G.; Gabathuler, E.; Gabathuler, K.; Garvey, J.; Gassner, J.; Gayler, Joerg; Gerhards, R.; Gerlich, C.; Ghazaryan, Samvel; Goerlich, L.; Gogitidze, N.; Gorbounov, S.; Grab, C.; Grabski, V.; Grassler, H.; Greenshaw, T.; Grindhammer, Guenter; Haidt, D.; Hajduk, L.; Haller, J.; Heinemann, B.; Heinzelmann, G.; Henderson, R.C.W.; Henschel, H.; Henshaw, O.; Heremans, R.; Herrera, G.; Herynek, I.; Hildebrandt, M.; Hilgers, M.; Hiller, K.H.; Hladky, J.; Hoting, P.; Hoffmann, D.; Horisberger, R.; Hovhannisyan, A.; Ibbotson, M.; Jacquet, M.; Janauschek, L.; Janssen, X.; Jemanov, V.; Jonsson, L.; Johnson, C.; Johnson, D.P.; Jones, M.A.S.; Jung, H.; Kant, D.; Kapichine, M.; Karlsson, M.; Katzy, J.; Keil, F.; Keller, N.; Kennedy, J.; Kenyon, I.R.; Kiesling, Christian M.; Klein, M.; Kleinwort, C.; Kluge, T.; Knies, G.; Koblitz, B.; Kolya, S.D.; Korbel, V.; Kostka, P.; Koutouev, R.; Koutov, A.; Kroseberg, J.; Kruger, K.; Kueckens, J.; Kuhr, T.; Landon, M.P.J.; Lange, W.; Lastovicka, T.; Laycock, P.; Lebedev, A.; Leissner, B.; Lemrani, R.; Lendermann, V.; Levonian, S.; List, B.; Lobodzinska, E.; Loktionova, N.; Lopez-Fernandez, R.; Lubimov, V.; Lueders, H.; Luders, S.; Luke, D.; Lytkin, L.; Makankine, A.; Malden, N.; Malinovski, E.; Mangano, S.; Marage, P.; Marks, J.; Marshall, R.; Martyn, H.U.; Martyniak, J.; Maxfield, S.J.; Meer, D.; Mehta, A.; Meier, K.; Meyer, A.B.; Meyer, H.; Meyer, J.; Michine, S.; Mikocki, S.; Milstead, D.; Mohrdieck, S.; Moreau, F.; Morozov, A.; Morris, J.V.; Muller, K.; Murin, P.; Nagovizin, V.; Naroska, B.; Naumann, J.; Naumann, T.; Newman, Paul R.; Niebergall, F.; Niebuhr, C.; Nikitin, D.; Nowak, G.; Nozicka, M.; Olivier, B.; Olsson, J.E.; Ozerov, D.; Panassik, V.; Pascaud, C.; Patel, G.D.; Peez, M.; Perez, E.; Petrukhin, A.; Phillips, J.P.; Pitzl, D.; Poschl, R.; Povh, B.; Raicevic, N.; Rauschenberger, J.; Reimer, P.; Reisert, B.; Risler, C.; Rizvi, E.; Robmann, P.; Roosen, R.; Rostovtsev, A.; Rusakov, S.; Rybicki, K.; Sankey, D.P.C.; Sauvan, E.; Schatzel, S.; Scheins, J.; Schilling, F.P.; Schleper, P.; Schmidt, D.; Schmidt, S.; Schmitt, S.; Schneider, M.; Schoeffel, L.; Schoning, A.; Schroder, V.; Schultz-Coulon, H.C.; Schwanenberger, C.; Sedlak, K.; Sefkow, F.; Sheviakov, I.; Shtarkov, L.N.; Sirois, Y.; Sloan, T.; Smirnov, P.; Soloviev, Y.; South, D.; Spaskov, V.; Specka, Arnd E.; Spitzer, H.; Stamen, R.; Stella, B.; Stiewe, J.; Strauch, I.; Straumann, U.; Thompson, Graham; Thompson, P.D.; Tomasz, F.; Traynor, D.; Truoel, Peter; Tsipolitis, G.; Tsurin, I.; Turnau, J.; Turney, J.E.; Tzamariudaki, E.; Uraev, A.; Urban, Marcel; Usik, A.; Valkar, S.; Valkarova, A.; Vallee, C.; Van Mechelen, P.; Vargas Trevino, A.; Vassiliev, S.; Vazdik, Y.; Veelken, C.; Vest, A.; Vichnevski, A.; Volchinski, V.; Wacker, K.; Wagner, J.; Wallny, R.; Waugh, B.; Weber, G.; Weber, R.; Wegener, D.; Werner, C.; Werner, N.; Wessels, M.; Wessling, B.; Winde, M.; Winter, G.G.; Wissing, C.; Woehrling, E.E.; Wunsch, E.; Wyatt, A.C.; Zacek, J.; Zalesak, J.; Zhang, Z.; Zhokin, A.; Zomer, F.; zur Nedden, M.
2003-01-01
The diffractive photoproduction of J/psi mesons is measured with the H1 detector at the ep collider HERA using an integrated luminosity of 78 pb^-1. The differential cross section d sigma(gamma p -> J/psi Y) / d t is studied in the range 2 < |t| < 30 GeV^2, where t is the square of the four-momentum transferred at the proton vertex. The cross section is also presented as a function of the photon-proton centre-of-mass energy W in three t intervals, spanning the range 50 < W < 200 GeV. A fast rise of the cross section with W is observed for each t range and the slope for the effective linear Pomeron trajectory is measured to be alpha^\\prime= -0.0135 \\pm 0.0074 (stat.) \\pm 0.0051 (syst.) GeV^-2. The measurements are compared with perturbative QCD models based on BFKL and DGLAP evolution. The data are found to be compatible with s-channel helicity conservation.
Diffractive photoproduction of ρ mesons with large momentum transfer at HERA
H1 Collaboration; Aktas, A.; Andreev, V.; Anthonis, T.; Antunovic, B.; Aplin, S.; Asmone, A.; Astvatsatourov, A.; Babaev, A.; Backovic, S.; Baghdasaryan, A.; Baranov, P.; Barrelet, E.; Bartel, W.; Baudrand, S.; Baumgartner, S.; Becker, J.; Beckingham, M.; Behnke, O.; Behrendt, O.; Belousov, A.; Berger, N.; Bizot, J. C.; Boenig, M.-O.; Boudry, V.; Bracinik, J.; Brandt, G.; Brisson, V.; Bruncko, D.; Büsser, F. W.; Bunyatyan, A.; Buschhorn, G.; Bystritskaya, L.; Campbell, A. J.; Cassol-Brunner, F.; Cerny, K.; Cerny, V.; Chekelian, V.; Contreras, J. G.; Coughlan, J. A.; Cox, B. E.; Cozzika, G.; Cvach, J.; Dainton, J. B.; Dau, W. D.; Daum, K.; de Boer, Y.; Delcourt, B.; Del Degan, M.; de Roeck, A.; de Wolf, E. A.; Diaconu, C.; Dodonov, V.; Dubak, A.; Eckerlin, G.; Efremenko, V.; Egli, S.; Eichler, R.; Eisele, F.; Eliseev, A.; Elsen, E.; Essenov, S.; Falkewicz, A.; Faulkner, P. J. W.; Favart, L.; Fedotov, A.; Felst, R.; Feltesse, J.; Ferencei, J.; Finke, L.; Fleischer, M.; Fleischmann, P.; Flucke, G.; Fomenko, A.; Franke, G.; Frisson, T.; Gabathuler, E.; Garutti, E.; Gayler, J.; Gerlich, C.; Ghazaryan, S.; Ginzburgskaya, S.; Glazov, A.; Glushkov, I.; Goerlich, L.; Goettlich, M.; Gogitidze, N.; Gorbounov, S.; Grab, C.; Greenshaw, T.; Gregori, M.; Grell, B. R.; Grindhammer, G.; Gwilliam, C.; Haidt, D.; Hajduk, L.; Hansson, M.; Heinzelmann, G.; Henderson, R. C. W.; Henschel, H.; Herrera, G.; Hildebrandt, M.; Hiller, K. H.; Hoffmann, D.; Horisberger, R.; Hovhannisyan, A.; Hreus, T.; Hussain, S.; Ibbotson, M.; Ismail, M.; Jacquet, M.; Janauschek, L.; Janssen, X.; Jemanov, V.; Jönsson, L.; Johnson, D. P.; Jung, A. W.; Jung, H.; Kapichine, M.; Katzy, J.; Kenyon, I. R.; Kiesling, C.; Klein, M.; Kleinwort, C.; Klimkovich, T.; Kluge, T.; Knies, G.; Knutsson, A.; Korbel, V.; Kostka, P.; Krastev, K.; Kretzschmar, J.; Kropivnitskaya, A.; Krüger, K.; Landon, M. P. J.; Lange, W.; Laštovička, T.; Laštovička-Medin, G.; Laycock, P.; Lebedev, A.; Leibenguth, G.; Lendermann, V.; Levonian, S.; Lindfeld, L.; Lipka, K.; Liptaj, A.; List, B.; List, J.; Lobodzinska, E.; Loktionova, N.; Lopez-Fernandez, R.; Lubimov, V.; Lucaci-Timoce, A.-I.; Lueders, H.; Lüke, D.; Lux, T.; Lytkin, L.; Makankine, A.; Malden, N.; Malinovski, E.; Mangano, S.; Marage, P.; Marshall, R.; Martisikova, M.; Martyn, H.-U.; Maxfield, S. J.; Mehta, A.; Meier, K.; Meyer, A. B.; Meyer, H.; Meyer, J.; Michels, V.; Mikocki, S.; Milcewicz-Mika, I.; Milstead, D.; Mladenov, D.; Mohamed, A.; Moreau, F.; Morozov, A.; Morris, J. V.; Mozer, M. U.; Müller, K.; Murín, P.; Nankov, K.; Naroska, B.; Naumann, Th.; Newman, P. R.; Niebuhr, C.; Nikiforov, A.; Nowak, G.; Nowak, K.; Nozicka, M.; Oganezov, R.; Olivier, B.; Olsson, J. E.; Osman, S.; Ozerov, D.; Palichik, V.; Panagoulias, I.; Papadopoulou, T.; Pascaud, C.; Patel, G. D.; Peng, H.; Perez, E.; Perez-Astudillo, D.; Perieanu, A.; Petrukhin, A.; Pitzl, D.; Plačakytė, R. R.; Portheault, B.; Povh, B.; Prideaux, P.; Rahmat, A. J.; Raicevic, N.; Reimer, P.; Rimmer, A.; Risler, C.; Rizvi, E.; Robmann, P.; Roland, B.; Roosen, R.; Rostovtsev, A.; Rurikova, Z.; Rusakov, S.; Salvaire, F.; Sankey, D. P. C.; Sauvan, E.; Schätzel, S.; Schmidt, S.; Schmitt, S.; Schmitz, C.; Schoeffel, L.; Schöning, A.; Schultz-Coulon, H.-C.; Sefkow, F.; Shaw-West, R. N.; Sheviakov, I.; Shtarkov, L. N.; Sloan, T.; Smirnov, P.; Soloviev, Y.; South, D.; Spaskov, V.; Specka, A.; Steder, M.; Stella, B.; Stiewe, J.; Straumann, U.; Sunar, D.; Tchoulakov, V.; Thompson, G.; Thompson, P. D.; Toll, T.; Tomasz, F.; Traynor, D.; Truöl, P.; Tsakov, I.; Tsipolitis, G.; Tsurin, I.; Turnau, J.; Tzamariudaki, E.; Urban, K.; Urban, M.; Usik, A.; Utkin, D.; Valkárová, A.; Vallée, C.; van Mechelen, P.; Vargas Trevino, A.; Vazdik, Y.; Veelken, C.; Vinokurova, S.; Volchinski, V.; Wacker, K.; Weber, G.; Weber, R.; Wegener, D.; Werner, C.; Wessels, M.; Wessling, B.; Wissing, Ch.; Wolf, R.; Wünsch, E.; Xella, S.; Yan, W.; Yeganov, V.; Žáček, J.; Zálešák, J.; Zhang, Z.; Zhelezov, A.; Zhokin, A.; Zhu, Y. C.; Zimmermann, J.; Zimmermann, T.; Zohrabyan, H.; Zomer, F.
2006-07-01
The diffractive photoproduction of ρ mesons, ep→eρY, with large momentum transfer squared at the proton vertex, |t|, is studied with the H1 detector at HERA using an integrated luminosity of 20.1 pb. The photon proton centre of mass energy spans the range 75
Diffractive Photoproduction of Rho Mesons with Large Momentum Transfer at HERA
Aktas, A.; Anthonis, T.; Antunovic, B.; Aplin, S.; Asmone, A.; Astvatsatourov, A.; Babaev, A.; Backovic, S.; Baghdasaryan, A.; Baranov, P.; Barrelet, E.; Bartel, W.; Baudrand, S.; Baumgartner, S.; Becker, J.; Beckingham, M.; Behnke, O.; Behrendt, O.; Belousov, A.; Berger, N.; Bizot, J.C.; Boenig, M.-O.; Boudry, V.; Bracinik, J.; Brandt, G.; Brisson, V.; Bruncko, D.; Busser, F.W.; Bunyatyan, A.; Buschhorn, G.; Bystritskaya, L.; Campbell, A.J.; Cassol-Brunner, F.; Cerny, K.; Cerny, V.; Chekelian, V.; Contreras, J.G.; Coughlan, J.A.; Cox, B.E.; Cozzika, G.; Cvach, J.; Dainton, J.B.; Dau, W.D.; Daum, K.; de Boer, Y.; Delcourt, B.; Del Degan, M.; De Roeck, A.; De Wolf, E.A.; Diaconu, C.; Dodonov, V.; Dubak, A.; Eckerlin, Guenter; Efremenko, V.; Egli, S.; Eichler, R.; Eisele, F.; Eliseev, A.; Elsen, E.; Essenov, S.; Falkewicz, A.; Faulkner, P.J.W.; Favart, L.; Fedotov, A.; Felst, R.; Feltesse, J.; Ferencei, J.; Finke, L.; Fleischer, M.; Fleischmann, P.; Flucke, G.; Fomenko, A.; Franke, G.; Frisson, T.; Gabathuler, E.; Garutti, E.; Gayler, J.; Gerlich, C.; Ghazaryan, Samvel; Ginzburgskaya, S.; Glazov, A.; Glushkov, I.; Goerlich, L.; Goettlich, M.; Gogitidze, N.; Gorbounov, S.; Grab, C.; Greenshaw, T.; Gregori, M.; Grell, B.R.; Grindhammer, G.; Gwilliam, C.; Haidt, D.; Hajduk, L.; Hansson, M.; Heinzelmann, G.; Henderson, R.C.W.; Henschel, H.; Herrera, G.; Hildebrandt, M.; Hiller, K.H.; Hoffmann, D.; Horisberger, R.; Hovhannisyan, A.; Hreus, T.; Hussain, S.; Ibbotson, M.; Ismail, M.; Jacquet, M.; Janauschek, L.; Janssen, X.; Jemanov, V.; Jonsson, L.; Johnson, D.P.; Jung, Andreas Werner; Jung, H.; Kapichine, M.; Katzy, J.; Kenyon, I.R.; Kiesling, Christian M.; Klein, M.; Kleinwort, C.; Klimkovich, T.; Kluge, T.; Knies, G.; Knutsson, A.; Korbel, V.; Kostka, P.; Krastev, K.; Kretzschmar, J.; Kropivnitskaya, A.; Kruger, K.; Landon, M.P.J.; Lange, W.; Lastovicka, T.; Lastovicka-Medin, G.; Laycock, P.; Lebedev, A.; Leibenguth, G.; Lendermann, V.; Levonian, S.; Lindfeld, L.; Lipka, K.; Liptaj, A.; List, B.; List, J.; Lobodzinska, E.; Loktionova, N.; Lopez-Fernandez, R.; Lubimov, V.; Lucaci-Timoce, A.-I.; Lueders, H.; Luke, D.; Lux, T.; Lytkin, L.; Makankine, A.; Malden, N.; Malinovski, E.; Mangano, S.; Marage, P.; Marshall, R.; Martisikova, M.; Martyn, H.-U.; Maxfield, S.J.; Mehta, A.; Meier, K.; Meyer, A.B.; Meyer, H.; Meyer, J.; Michels, V.; Mikocki, S.; Milcewicz-Mika, I.; Milstead, D.; Mladenov, D.; Mohamed, A.; Moreau, F.; Morozov, A.; Morris, J.V.; Mozer, Matthias Ulrich; Muller, K.; Murin, P.; Nankov, K.; Naroska, B.; Naumann, Th.; Newman, Paul R.; Niebuhr, C.; Nikiforov, A.; Nowak, G.; Nowak, K.; Nozicka, M.; Oganezov, R.; Olivier, B.; Olsson, J.E.; Osman, S.; Ozerov, D.; Palichik, V.; Panagoulias, I.; Papadopoulou, T.; Pascaud, C.; Patel, G.D.; Peng, H.; Perez, E.; Perez-Astudillo, D.; Perieanu, A.; Petrukhin, A.; Pitzl, D.; Placakyte, R.; Portheault, B.; Povh, B.; Prideaux, P.; Rahmat, A.J.; Raicevic, N.; Reimer, P.; Rimmer, A.; Risler, C.; Rizvi, E.; Robmann, P.; Roland, B.; Roosen, R.; Rostovtsev, A.; Rurikova, Z.; Rusakov, S.; Salvaire, F.; Sankey, D.P.C.; Sauvan, E.; Schatzel, S.; Schmidt, S.; Schmitt, S.; Schmitz, C.; Schoeffel, L.; Schoning, A.; Schultz-Coulon, H.C.; Sefkow, F.; Shaw-West, R.N.; Sheviakov, I.; Shtarkov, L.N.; Sloan, T.; Smirnov, P.; Soloviev, Y.; South, D.; Spaskov, V.; Specka, Arnd E.; Steder, M.; Stella, B.; Stiewe, J.; Straumann, U.; Sunar, D.; Tchoulakov, V.; Thompson, Graham; Thompson, P.D.; Toll, T.; Tomasz, F.; Traynor, D.; Truol, P.; Tsakov, I.; Tsipolitis, G.; Tsurin, I.; Turnau, J.; Tzamariudaki, E.; Urban, K.; Urban, Marcel; Usik, A.; Utkin, D.; Valkarova, A.; Vallee, C.; Van Mechelen, P.; Vargas Trevino, A.; Vazdik, Ya.; Veelken, C.; Vinokurova, S.; Volchinski, V.; Wacker, K.; Weber, G.; Weber, R.; Wegener, D.; Werner, C.; Wessels, M.; Wessling, B.; Wissing, Ch.; Wolf, R.; Wunsch, E.; Xella, S.; Yan, W.; Yeganov, V.; Zacek, J.; Zalesak, J.; Zhang, Z.; Zhelezov, A.; Zhokin, A.; Zhu, Y.C.; Zimmermann, J.; Zimmermann, T.; Zohrabyan, H.; Zomer, F.
2006-01-01
The diffractive photoproduction of rho mesons, e p \\to e rho Y, with large momentum transfer squared at the proton vertex, |t|, is studied with the H1 detector at HERA using an integrated luminosity of 20.1 pb^{-1}. The photon-proton centre of mass energy spans the range 75 < W < 95 GeV, the photon virtuality is restricted to Q^2 < 0.01 GeV^2 and the mass M_Y of the proton remnant is below 5 GeV. The t dependence of the cross section is measured for the range 1.5 < |t| < 10.0 GeV^2 and is well described by a power law, dsigma/ d|t| \\propto |t|^{-n}. The spin density matrix elements, which provide information on the helicity structure of the interaction, are extracted using measurements of angular distributions of the rho decay products. The data indicate a violation of s-channel helicity conservation, with contributions from both single and double helicity-flip being observed. The results are compared to the predictions of perturbative QCD models.
Elastic scattering, inelastic scattering, and transfer reactions induced by 12C bombardment of 12C
International Nuclear Information System (INIS)
Stokstad, R.G.; Wieland, R.M.; Fulmer, C.B.; Hensley, D.C.; Raman, S.; Snell, A.H.; Stelson, P.H.
1977-06-01
Graphs and tables of differential cross sections are presented for the elastic scattering of 12 C by 12 C, the single excitation (Q = -4.43 MeV) and the mutual excitation (Q = -8.86 MeV) for 14 bombarding energies in the range 70.7 less than or equal to E/sub lab/ less than or equal to 126.7 MeV. Differential cross sections for one- and two-nucleon transfer are presented for E/sub lab/ = 93.8 MeV
Stern, Mark J.; René de Cotret, Laurent P.; Otto, Martin R.; Chatelain, Robert P.; Boisvert, Jean-Philippe; Sutton, Mark; Siwick, Bradley J.
2018-04-01
Despite their fundamental role in determining material properties, detailed momentum-dependent information on the strength of electron-phonon and phonon-phonon coupling (EPC and PPC, respectively) across the entire Brillouin zone has remained elusive. Here we demonstrate that ultrafast electron diffuse scattering (UEDS) directly provides such information. By exploiting symmetry-based selection rules and time resolution, scattering from different phonon branches can be distinguished even without energy resolution. Using graphite as a model system, we show that UEDS patterns map the relative EPC and PPC strength through their profound sensitivity to photoinduced changes in phonon populations. We measure strong EPC to the K -point TO phonon of A1' symmetry (K -A1' ) and along the entire TO branch between Γ -K , not only to the Γ -E2 g phonon. We also determine that the subsequent phonon relaxation of these strongly coupled optical phonons involve three stages: decay via several identifiable channels to TA and LA phonons (1 -2 ps), intraband thermalization of the non-equilibrium TA/LA phonon populations (30 -40 ps) and interband relaxation of the TA/LA modes (115 ps). Combining UEDS with ultrafast angle-resolved photoelectron spectroscopy will yield a complete picture of the dynamics within and between electron and phonon subsystems, helping to unravel complex phases in which the intertwined nature of these systems has a strong influence on emergent properties.
Kim, Kyoungyoun; Sureshkumar, Radhakrishna
2018-03-01
The effects of polymer stresses on the analogy between momentum and heat transfer are examined by using a direct numerical simulation (DNS) of viscoelastic turbulent channel flows using a constant heat flux boundary condition. The Reynolds number based on the friction velocity and channel half height is 125, and the Prandtl number is 5. The polymer stress is modeled using the finitely extensible nonlinear elastic-Peterlin constitutive model, and low (15%), intermediate (34%), and high drag reduction (DR) (52%) cases are examined. The Colburn analogy is found to be inapplicable for viscoelastic turbulent flows, suggesting dissimilarity between the momentum and heat transfer at the macroscopic coefficient level. The mean temperature profile also shows behaviour different from the mean velocity profile in drag-reduced flows. In contrast to the dissimilarity in the mean profiles, the turbulent Prandtl number Prt predicted by the DNS is near unity. This implies that turbulent heat transfer is still analogous to turbulent momentum transfer in drag-reduced flows, as in Newtonian flow. An increase in DR is accompanied by an increase in the correlation coefficient ρuθ between the instantaneous fluctuations in the streamwise velocity u and temperature θ. The correlation coefficient between u' and wall-normal velocity fluctuations v', ρ-u v, exhibits a profile similar to that of ρ-θ v in drag-reduced and Newtonian flows. Finally, the budget analysis of the transport equations of turbulent heat flux shows a strong similarity between the turbulent momentum and heat transfer, which is consistent with the predictions of Prt near unity.
Further application of angular momentum dependent potentials to proton elastic scattering
International Nuclear Information System (INIS)
Kobos, A.M.; Mackintosh, R.S.
1981-01-01
We extend our application of the iota-dependent model to a wider range of cases. We include more non-closed shell nuclei and some heavy nuclei as targets, getting better fits than previously found, with no substantial exceptions to the systematic properties of the iota-dependent potential. For one mass sequence we find shell effects, but note that the results would be more certain if more analysing powers data were available. A simple pattern of iota-dependence is a universal feature of proton scattering between 20 and 60 MeV. Since the effect on (p,p') is large the effect of iota-dependence on direct reactions should not be ignored. (author)
Stolker, T.; Min, M.; Stam, D. M.; Mollière, P.; Dominik, C.; Waters, L. B. F. M.
2017-11-01
Context. Direct imaging has paved the way for atmospheric characterization of young and self-luminous gas giants. Scattering in a horizontally-inhomogeneous atmosphere causes the disk-integrated polarization of the thermal radiation to be linearly polarized, possibly detectable with the newest generation of high-contrast imaging instruments. Aims: We aim to investigate the effect of latitudinal and longitudinal cloud variations, circumplanetary disks, atmospheric oblateness, and cloud particle properties on the integrated degree and direction of polarization in the near-infrared. We want to understand how 3D atmospheric asymmetries affect the polarization signal in order to assess the potential of infrared polarimetry for direct imaging observations of planetary-mass companions. Methods: We have developed a three-dimensional Monte Carlo radiative transfer code (ARTES) for scattered light simulations in (exo)planetary atmospheres. The code is applicable to calculations of reflected light and thermal radiation in a spherical grid with a parameterized distribution of gas, clouds, hazes, and circumplanetary material. A gray atmosphere approximation is used for the thermal structure. Results: The disk-integrated degree of polarization of a horizontally-inhomogeneous atmosphere is maximal when the planet is flattened, the optical thickness of the equatorial clouds is large compared to the polar clouds, and the clouds are located at high altitude. For a flattened planet, the integrated polarization can both increase or decrease with respect to a spherical planet which depends on the horizontal distribution and optical thickness of the clouds. The direction of polarization can be either parallel or perpendicular to the projected direction of the rotation axis when clouds are zonally distributed. Rayleigh scattering by submicron-sized cloud particles will maximize the polarimetric signal whereas the integrated degree of polarization is significantly reduced with micron
A simple model of heavy ion-induced linear momentum transfer
International Nuclear Information System (INIS)
Skulski, W.; Blocki, J.
1990-01-01
This paper reports on linear momentum transfer (LMT) from the projectile to the heavy reaction residue which is among the observables, fair account of which is expected from any model of nuclear collisions. Almost thirty years ago it was shown that heavy ions bombarding highly fissionable targets like uranium give rise to double-peaked LMT distributions. (For such targets almost every projectile-target interaction leads to fission, enabling one to use the binary fission fragment correlation technique to obtain LMT distribution for the whole reaction cross section). Since the pioneering work comprehensive systematics of the LMT spectra were published for many HI projectiles, A p = 12-86, almost invariably double-peaked in the bombarding energy range E/A p = 10-40 MeV/nucleon. It was shown in the 16 O+ 238 U experiment at E/A p =20 MeV/nucleon, that the lower LMT peak is in the prompt coincidence with the projectile-like fragment detected at 15 degrees (LAB), an evidence of the peripheral collisions. LMT - neutron multiplicity coincidence study has shown, that the lower LMT peak has also low associated neutron multiplicity n > (and hence low excitation energy E * ), whereas the higher LMT peak has high coincident n > - an evidence of high E * . Low and high E * are plausible signatures of the peripheral and central collisions, respectively. The original interpretation of the double-peaked LMT distributions associates the low LMT peak with the incomplete fusion reaction, in which part of the projectile is emitted forward with the beam velocity. The double-peaked structure would thus reflect the probability of the different projectile divisions into the emitted and captured parts
ANGULAR MOMENTUM TRANSFER AND LACK OF FRAGMENTATION IN SELF-GRAVITATING ACCRETION FLOWS
International Nuclear Information System (INIS)
Begelman, Mitchell C.; Shlosman, Isaac
2009-01-01
Rapid inflows associated with early galaxy formation lead to the accumulation of self-gravitating gas in the centers of proto-galaxies. Such gas accumulations are prone to nonaxisymmetric instabilities, as in the well known Maclaurin sequence of rotating ellipsoids, which are accompanied by a catastrophic loss of angular momentum (J). Self-gravitating gas is also intuitively associated with star formation. However, recent simulations of the infall process display highly turbulent continuous flows. We propose that J-transfer, which enables the inflow, also suppresses fragmentation. Inefficient J loss by the gas leads to decay of turbulence, triggering global instabilities and renewed turbulence driving. Flow regulated in this way is stable against fragmentation, while staying close to the instability threshold for bar formation-thick self-gravitating disks are prone to global instabilities before they become unstable locally. On smaller scales, the fraction of gravitationally unstable matter swept up by shocks in such a flow is a small and decreasing function of the Mach number. We conclude counterintuitively that gas able to cool down to a small fraction of its virial temperature will not fragment as it collapses. This provides a venue for supermassive black holes to form via direct infall, without the intermediary stage of forming a star cluster. Some black holes could have formed or grown in massive halos at low redshifts. Thus the fragmentation is intimately related to J redistribution within the system: it is less dependent on the molecular/metal cooling but is conditioned by the ability of the flow to develop virial, supersonic turbulence.
Kokhanovsky, Alexander A
2014-01-01
This book describes modern advances in radiative transfer and light scattering. Coverage includes fast radiative transfer techniques, use of polarization in remote sensing and recent developments in remote sensing of snow properties from space observations.
Atomic scattering in the diffraction limit: electron transfer in keV Li+-Na(3s, 3p) collisions
International Nuclear Information System (INIS)
Poel, M van der; Nielsen, C V; Rybaltover, M; Nielsen, S E; Machholm, M; Andersen, N
2002-01-01
We measure angle differential cross sections (DCS) in Li + + Na → Li + Na + electron transfer collisions in the 2.7-24 keV energy range. We do this with a newly constructed apparatus which combines the experimental technique of cold target recoil ion momentum spectroscopy with a laser-cooled target. This setup yields a momentum resolution of 0.12 au, an order of magnitude better angular resolution than previous measurements on this system. This enables us to clearly resolve Fraunhofer-type diffraction patterns in the angle DCS. In particular, the angular width of the ring structure is given by the ratio of the de Broglie wavelength λ dB = 150 fm at a velocity v = 0.20 au and the effective atomic diameter for electron capture 2R = 20 au. Parallel AO and MO semiclassical coupled-channel calculations of the Na(3s, 3p) → Li(2s, 2p) state-to-state collision amplitudes have been performed, and quantum scattering amplitudes are derived by the eikonal method. The resulting angle-differential electron transfer cross sections and their diffraction patterns agree with the experimental level-to-level results over most scattering angles in the energy range
Study of mass and momentum transfer and their effect on the direct fluorination of uranium oxide
International Nuclear Information System (INIS)
Cross, P.E.
1983-01-01
The mechanism for the fluorination of solid U 3 O 8 to gaseous UF 6 was found to be a two-step process with solid UO 2 F 2 as an intermediate. The highest particle temperatures were found to be associated with the initial reaction step to UO 2 F 2 ; it was recommended that these temperatures be maintained below 1700 0 F. The chemical equilibrium constant for the fluorination of PuF 4 to PuF 6 was found to be unexpectedly low at typical flame tower temperatures. Although not confirmed, there is an indication in the literature that a similar equilibrium constant is associated with the fluorination of NpF 4 and other transuranic molecules. It was recommended that uranium oxides which are significantly contaminated with transuranics should not be processed through a direct fluorination reactor such as the UF 6 flame tower. Reaction rate equations were developed for the fluorination of U 3 O 8 , UF 4 , PuF 4 and NpF 4 . During the course of the development, a significant discrepancy was found in the literature for the activation energy of the fluorination of U 3 O 8 . Equations were developed for both a high and low limit rate constant for the fluorination of U 3 O 8 . A variey of momentum, heat and mass transfer equations were developed for both oxide particles and the gas phase within the flame tower. Equations were developed to estimate the physical and transport properties of each gaseous component and the gas mixture as a whole. These properties and the transport equations were used to estimate the reaction time and distance for oxide particles with both the low and high limit reaction rate constant. The procedures used to perform these calculations is limited to constant temperature and an oxide feed comprised of a single particle size. The results indicate that above 1000 0 F the mass transfer of reactants and products becomes increasingly important to the overall rate of the reaction
Azimuthal asymmetry and transverse momentum of hadrons in deep inelastic muon scattering at 490 GeV
International Nuclear Information System (INIS)
Baker, M.D.
1993-01-01
The forward charged hadrons produced in deep inelastic scattering of 490 GeV muons from deuterium were studied. The data were taken by the E665 collaboration during the 1987-1988 Fermilab fixed target run. 3 x 10 4 Events (6 x 10 4 hadrons) were collected over a large range of kinematic variables: 100 GeV 2 2 2 , 0.003 Bj Bj s ) QCD effects are expected to contribute to an azimuthal asymmetry and to an increase in the average transverse momentum. Some theoretical work in the literature concerning these effects is described and some original results are derived concerning the effects of primordial k perpendicular on the azimuthal distribution. A Monte Carlo program is described which includes these theoretical effects and models fragmentation, the detector response, and the event reconstruction. The data exhibit several surprising effects. First, the phi asymmetry in the data is independent of Q 2 , while theoretically it should be more pronounced at low Q 2 and vanish at high Q 2 . Second, the phi asymmetry is carried by the most energetic particle in each event, which the author calls the Rank 1 particle, and there is very little phi asymmetry of the other charged hadrons. Third, the phi asymmetry in the Rank 1 particle is independent of the hadron energy fraction z h . The Monte Carlo predicts a strong z h dependence and little rank dependence. Finally, the seagull plot shows an unexpected increase in transverse momentum p T for high energy hadrons (z h > 0.4) as a function of Q 2
International Nuclear Information System (INIS)
Bagdasaryan, A.S.; Esaybegyan, S.V.; Ter-Isaakyan, N.L.
1982-01-01
In a model of hadrons composed of relativistic quarks a description of meson static characteristics and pion electromagnetic form factor in the range of small and intermediate values of momentum transfer 0 2 2 have obtained. It is shown that in such a model the data available on the pion electromagnetic form factor may be described basing on a simplest quark without gluon exchange. The contribution of a one-gluon exchange diagram in such a model cannot exceed 30%
Coulomb sums for 7Li nucleus at 3-momentum transfers q=1,250...1,625 fm-1
International Nuclear Information System (INIS)
Buki, A.Yu.; Shevchenko, N.G.; Timchenko, I.S.
2009-01-01
The experimental response functions of 7 Li nucleus at effective 3-momentum transfers q = 1.250; 1.375; 1.500 and 1.625 fm -1 are presented. The longitudinal response functions were used to evaluate the Coulomb sum values. The Coulomb sums for 6 Li obtained by us earlier were applied to analyze these data. The Coulomb sums of lithium isotopes were compared with the well-known Coulomb sums values of the other nuclei
International Nuclear Information System (INIS)
Matsuda, Y.; Smith, G.R.; Cohen, R.H.
1989-01-01
Efficiency of current drive by electron cyclotron waves is investigated numerically by a bounce-averaged Fokker-Planck code to ellucidate the effects of momentum transfer from resonant to bulk-electrons, finite bulk temperature relative to the energy of resonant electrons, and trapped electrons. Comparisons are made with existing theories to assess their validity and quantitative difference between theory and code results. Difference of nearly a factor of 2 was found in efficiency between some theory and code results. (author)
Deuteron breakup in the 2H(e,e'p) reaction at low momentum transfer and close to threshold
International Nuclear Information System (INIS)
Neumann-Cosel, P. von; Richter, A.; Schrieder, G.; Shevchenko, A.; Stiller, A.; Arenhoevel, H.
2002-04-01
Deuteron breakup has been studied in a 2 H(e, e'p) coincidence experiment at low momentum transfer and for energies close to threshold. The longitudinal-plus-transverse (L + T) and longitudinal-transverse interference (LT) cross sections are deduced. Nonrelativistic calculations based on the Bonn potential and including leading order relativistic contributions, meson exchange currents and isobar configurations describe the (L + T) data well. Surprisingly large deviations of 30 to 45% are observed for the LT contribution. (orig.)
International Nuclear Information System (INIS)
De Cecco, M; Bortoluzzi, D; Da Lio, M; Baglivo, L; Benedetti, M
2009-01-01
The requirements for the Laser Interferometer Space Antenna (LISA) test-mass (TM) release phase are analysed in view of the building up of a testing facility aimed at on-Earth qualification of the release mechanism. Accordingly, the release of the TM to free-fall must provide a linear momentum transferred to the TM not exceeding 10 −5 kg m s −1 . In order to test this requirement, a double pendulum system has been developed. The mock-ups of the TM and the release-dedicated plunger are brought into contact and then the latter is quickly retracted. During and after release, the TM motion is measured by a laser interferometer. The transferred momentum is estimated from the free oscillations following the plunger retraction by means of a Wiener–Kolmogorov optimal filter. This work is aimed at modelling the measurement chain, taking into account procedure, instruments, mechanisms and data elaboration in order to estimate the uncertainty associated with the transferred momentum measurement by means of Monte Carlo simulation
Multiple scattering of polarized light: comparison of Maxwell theory and radiative transfer theory.
Voit, Florian; Hohmann, Ansgar; Schäfer, Jan; Kienle, Alwin
2012-04-01
For many research areas in biomedical optics, information about scattering of polarized light in turbid media is of increasing importance. Scattering simulations within this field are mainly performed on the basis of radiative transfer theory. In this study a polarization sensitive Monte Carlo solution of radiative transfer theory is compared to exact Maxwell solutions for all elements of the scattering Müller matrix. Different scatterer volume concentrations are modeled as a multitude of monodisperse nonabsorbing spheres randomly positioned in a cubic simulation volume which is irradiated with monochromatic incident light. For all Müller matrix elements effects due to dependent scattering and multiple scattering are analysed. The results are in overall good agreement between the two methods with deviations related to dependent scattering being prominent for high volume concentrations and high scattering angles.
Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)
Costa, Romarly F. da [Instituto de Física “Gleb Wataghin,” Universidade Estadual de Campinas, 13083-859 Campinas, São Paulo (Brazil); Centro de Ciências Naturais e Humanas, Universidade Federal do ABC, 09210-580 Santo André, São Paulo (Brazil); Oliveira, Eliane M. de; Lima, Marco A. P. [Instituto de Física “Gleb Wataghin,” Universidade Estadual de Campinas, 13083-859 Campinas, São Paulo (Brazil); Bettega, Márcio H. F. [Departamento de Física, Universidade Federal do Paraná, CP 19044, 81531-990 Curitiba, Paraná (Brazil); Varella, Márcio T. do N. [Instituto de Física, Universidade de São Paulo, CP 66318, 05315-970 São Paulo, São Paulo (Brazil); Jones, Darryl B. [School of Chemical and Physical Sciences, Flinders University, GPO Box 2100, Adelaide SA 5001 (Australia); Brunger, Michael J. [School of Chemical and Physical Sciences, Flinders University, GPO Box 2100, Adelaide SA 5001 (Australia); Institute of Mathematical Sciences, University of Malaya, 50603 Kuala Lumpur (Malaysia); Blanco, Francisco [Departamento de Fisica Atomica, Molecular y Nuclear, Universidad Complutense de Madrid, Ciudad Universitaria, 2840 Madrid (Spain); Colmenares, Rafael [Hospital Ramón y Cajal, 28034 Madrid (Spain); and others
2015-03-14
We report theoretical and experimental total cross sections for electron scattering by phenol (C{sub 6}H{sub 5}OH). The experimental data were obtained with an apparatus based in Madrid and the calculated cross sections with two different methodologies, the independent atom method with screening corrected additivity rule (IAM-SCAR), and the Schwinger multichannel method with pseudopotentials (SMCPP). The SMCPP method in the N{sub open}-channel coupling scheme, at the static-exchange-plus-polarization approximation, is employed to calculate the scattering amplitudes at impact energies ranging from 5.0 eV to 50 eV. We discuss the multichannel coupling effects in the calculated cross sections, in particular how the number of excited states included in the open-channel space impacts upon the convergence of the elastic cross sections at higher collision energies. The IAM-SCAR approach was also used to obtain the elastic differential cross sections (DCSs) and for correcting the experimental total cross sections for the so-called forward angle scattering effect. We found a very good agreement between our SMCPP theoretical differential, integral, and momentum transfer cross sections and experimental data for benzene (a molecule differing from phenol by replacing a hydrogen atom in benzene with a hydroxyl group). Although some discrepancies were found for lower energies, the agreement between the SMCPP data and the DCSs obtained with the IAM-SCAR method improves, as expected, as the impact energy increases. We also have a good agreement among the present SMCPP calculated total cross section (which includes elastic, 32 inelastic electronic excitation processes and ionization contributions, the latter estimated with the binary-encounter-Bethe model), the IAM-SCAR total cross section, and the experimental data when the latter is corrected for the forward angle scattering effect [Fuss et al., Phys. Rev. A 88, 042702 (2013)].
Momentum transfer with light ions at energies from 70 MeV to 1000 MeV
International Nuclear Information System (INIS)
Saint Laurent, F.; Conjeaud, M.; Dayras, R.; Harar, S.; Oeschler, H.; Volant, C.
1982-01-01
Angular correlations of fission fragments induced by bombarding a 232 Th target with protons, deuterons and alpha particles of energies from 70 MeV to 1000 MeV have been measured. They give information about the forward momentum imparted to the fissioning nuclei. We present the average values of the transferred linear momentum ([p vertical stroke vertical stroke ]) as a function of the incident energy and propose a classification into three regimes of dominating processes leading to fission: (I) low-energy behaviour, for E/A less than 10 MeV/u [p vertical stroke vertical stroke ]/psub(i) approx. equal to 1. (II) Between 10 MeV/u and about 70 MeV/u, [p vertical stroke vertical stroke ]/psub(i) decreases progressively down to 0.5 but remains proportional to the projectile mass. (III) The region between 70 MeV/u and about 1000 MeV/u corresponds to a transition region where the projectiles, whatever their masses, tend to transfer the same momentum. (orig.)
International Nuclear Information System (INIS)
Rivet, M.F.; Bimbot, R.; Gardes, D.; Fleury, A.; Hubert, F.; Llabador, Y.
1978-01-01
The excitation functions for deep inelastic reactions in which two to six charges are transferred from 40 Ar and 63 Cu ions to rare earth targets have been measured using activation techniques, the observed radionuclides being 150 Dy, 151 Dy and 149 gTb. From the comparison of the curves relative to 149 gTb and those relative to 150 Dy, 151 Dy, it was deduced that the low spin isomer 149 gTb was produced with significant probability for low incident energies. Using data from (heavy ions, xn) reactions, it was possible to attribute this production to the deexcitation of Tb fragments formed in deep inelastic transfers with angular momenta lower than 9n. This result is in good agreement with the angular momentum calculations performed under the hypothesis that the initial angular momentum window leading to deep inelastic reactions is situated between the critical angular momentum for fusion and that corresponding to grazing collisions. As far as Cu induced reactions are concerned, both hypothesis of rolling and sticking are consistent with the experimental data. For Ar induced reactions, the results indicate that the stage of sticking is not reached when the incident energy is lower than 200 MeV
Probing Proton Spin Structure: A Measurement of g_{2} at Four-momentum Transfer of 2 to 6 GeV^{2}
Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)
Maxwell, James [Univ. of Virginia, Charlottesville, VA (United States); Thomas Jefferson National Accelerator Facility (TJNAF), Newport News, VA (United States)
2011-12-01
The Spin Asymmetries of the Nucleon Experiment investigated the spin structure of the proton via inclusive electron scattering at the Continuous Electron Beam Accelerator Facility at Jefferson Laboratory in Newport News, VA. A double-polarization measurement of polarized asymmetries was performed using the University of Virginia solid polarized ammonia target with target polarization aligned longitudinal and near transverse to the electron beam, allowing the extraction of the spin asymmetries A_{1} and A_{2}, and spin structure functions g_{1} and g_{2}. Polarized electrons of energies of 4.7 and 5.9 GeV were scattered to be viewed by a novel, non-magnetic array of detectors observing a four-momentum transfer range of 2 to 6 GeV^{2}. This document addresses the extraction of the spin asymmetries and spin structure functions, with a focus on spin structure function g_{2}, which we have measured as a function of x and W in four Q^{2} bins.
International Nuclear Information System (INIS)
Moufekkir, F.; Moussaoui, M.A.; Mezrhab, A.; Naji, H.; Lemonnier, D.
2012-01-01
This paper deals with the numerical solution for natural convection and volumetric radiation in an isotropic scattering medium within a heated square cavity using a hybrid thermal lattice Boltzmann method (HTLBM). The multiple relaxation time lattice Boltzmann method (MRT-LBM) has been coupled to the finite difference method (FDM) to solve momentum and energy equations, while the discrete ordinates method (DOM) has been adopted to solve the radiative transfer equation (RTE) using the S8 quadrature. Based on these approaches, the effects of various influencing parameters such as the Rayleigh number (Ra), the wall emissivity (ε ι ), the Planck number (Pl), and the scattering albedo (ω), have been considered. The results presented in terms of isotherms, streamlines and averaged Nusselt number, show that in absence of radiation, the temperature and the flow fields are centro-symmetrics and the cavity core is thermally stratified. However, radiation causes an overall increase in the temperature and velocity gradients along both thermally active walls. The maximum heat transfer rate is obtained when the surfaces of the enclosure walls are regarded as blackbodies. It is also seen that the scattering medium can generate a multicellular flow.
Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)
Conrad, Janet Marie [Harvard U.
1993-01-01
Experiment 665 at Fermilab is the first deep inelastic scattering experiment to obtain data in a kinematic range where jets can be identified on an event-by-event basis. In this thesis, using the average squared transverse momentum of the jets produced in deep inelastic muon scattering, a quantity is calculated which Perturbative QCD predicts to be equal to $\\alpha_3$ the strong coupling constant. The quantity is studied as a function of $Q^2$, the negative 4-momentum squared of the virtual photon, for 3 < $Q^2$ < 25 $GeV^2$. The data a.re shown to be consistent with the predictions of PQCD with $\\Lambda ^{\\eta_f = 4}_{DIS}$ = 359 ± 31 (stat) ± 149 (sys) MeV. However this may have a significant theoretical error due to uncalculated higher order corrections. This thesis provides a detailed description of the characteristics of the identified jets. The transverse momentum due to fragmentation is measured to be ($P^2_{\\tau}frag$) = 0.0820 ±0.002(stat) ±0.005(sys). Using naive assumptions about the jets, the intrinsic transverse momentum is measured to be ($k^2_{\\tau}$) = 0.27 ±0.01 (stat) ±0.03 (sys) Gev·2
International Nuclear Information System (INIS)
Arneodo, M.; Giubellino, P.; Peroni, C.; Dosseli, U.; Haas, J.; Kellner, G.; Montgomery, H.E.; Osborne, A.M.; Brasse, F.W.; Flauger, W.; Goessling, C.; Korbel, V.; Nassalski, J.; Fiegiel, J.; Hoppe, C.; Janata, F.; Rondio, E.; Studt, M.; Torre, A. de la; Blum, D.; Heusse, P.; Jaffre, M.; Jacholkowska, A.; Pascaud, C.; Carr, J.; Chima, J.S.; Clifft, R.; Edwards, M.; Norton, P.R.; Oakham, F.G.; Thompson, J.C.; Arvidson, A.; Aubert, J.J.; Beaufays, J.; Becks, K.H.; Bee, C.; Benchouk, C.; Bird, I.; Boehm, E.; Braun, H.; Brown, S.; Brueck, H.; Calen, H.; Callebaut, D.; Cobb, J.H.; Combley, F.; Coughlan, J.; Court, G.R.; D'Agostini, G.; Dahlgren, S.; Davies, J.K.; Drees, J.; Dumont, J.J.; Dueren, M.; Edwards, A.; Ferrerro, M.I.; Foster, J.; Gabathuler, E.; Gamet, R.; Geddes, N.; Grafstroem, P.; Grard, F.; Gustafsson, L.; Hagberg, E.; Hasert, F.J.; Hayman, P.; Johnson, A.S.; Krueger, J.; Kullander, S.; Lanske, D.; Loken, J.; Long, K.; Montanet, F.; Mount, R.P.; Paul, L.; Payre, P.; Pettingale, J.; Pietrzyk, B.; Poetsch, M.; Preissner, H.; Renton, P.; Schultze, K.; Sloan, T.; Stockhausen, W.; Taylor, G.N.; Wahlen, H.; Whalley, M.; Wheeler, S.; Williams, W.S.C.; Wimpenny, S.; Windmolders, R.
1984-01-01
Results are presented on the transverse momentum distributions of charged hadrons in 280 GeV muon-proton deep inelastic interactions. The transverse momenta are defined relative to the accurately measured virtual photon direction and the experiment has almost complete angular acceptance for the final state hadrons. Significantly larger values of the average transverse momentum squared are found for the forward going hadrons than for the target remnants. This result, combined with a study of the rapidity region over which the transverse momentum is compensated, can be explained by a significant contribution from soft gluon radiation, but not by a large value of the primordial transverse momentum of the struck quark. (orig.)
Measurements of the Proton Elastic-Form-Factor Ratio μpGEp/GMp at Low Momentum Transfer
International Nuclear Information System (INIS)
Ron, G.; Piasetzky, E.; Pomerantz, I.; Shneor, R.; Glister, J.; Lee, B.; Choi, Seonho; Kang, H.; Oh, Y.; Song, J.; Yan, X.; Allada, K.; Dutta, C.; Armstrong, W.; Meziani, Z.-E.; Yao, H.; Arrington, J.; Solvignon, P.; Beck, A.; May-Tal Beck, S.
2007-01-01
High-precision measurements of the proton elastic form-factor ratio, μ p G E p /G M p , have been made at four-momentum transfer, Q 2 , values between 0.2 and 0.5 GeV 2 . The new data, while consistent with previous results, clearly show a ratio less than unity and significant differences from the central values of several recent phenomenological fits. By combining the new form-factor ratio data with an existing cross-section measurement, one finds that in this Q 2 range the deviation from unity is primarily due to G E p being smaller than expected
International Nuclear Information System (INIS)
Matsuda, Y.; Smith, G.R.; Cohen, R.H.
1988-01-01
Efficiency of current drive by electron-cyclotron waves is investigated numerically by a bounce-average Fokker-Planck code to elucidate the effects of momentum transfer from resonant to bulk electrons, finite bulk temperature relative to the energy of resonant electrons, and trapped electrons. Comparisons are made with existing theories to assess their validity and quantitative difference between theory and code results. Difference of nearly a factor of 2 was found in efficiency between some theory and code results. 4 refs., 4 figs
Analysis of turbulent heat and momentum transfer in a transitionally rough turbulent boundary layer
Doosttalab, Ali; Dharmarathne, Suranga; Tutkun, Murat; Adrian, Ronald; Castillo, Luciano
2016-11-01
A zero-pressure-gradient (ZPG) turbulent boundary layer over a transitionally rough surface is studied using direct numerical simulation (DNS). The rough surface is modeled as 24-grit sandpaper which corresponds to k+ 11 , where k+ is roughness height. Reynolds number based on momentum thickness is approximately 2400. The walls are isothermal and turbulent flow Prandtl number is 0.71. We simulate temperature as passive scalar. We compute the inner product of net turbulent force (d (u1ui) / dxi) and net turbulent heat flux (d (ui θ / dxi)) in order to investigate (i) the correlation between these vectorial quantities, (II) size of the projection of these fields on each other and (IIi) alignment of momentum and hear flux. The inner product in rough case results in larger projection and better alignment. In addition, our study on the vortices shows that surface roughness promotes production of vortical structures which affects the thermal transport near the wall.
Momentum, heat and vapour transfer on the surface of an open duct under the influence of wind
International Nuclear Information System (INIS)
Wengefeld, P.
1978-01-01
The increasing power demand and the resulting increase in the number of thermal power plants have incurred increasing environmental pollution. For this reason, the paper presents an experimental and theoretical investigation of the processes of heat transfer on a water surface due to convection and evaporation under the influence of a current of air. It is found that the analogy between heat and water vapour transfer is fulfilled in good approximation and that the results are thus valid for evaporation as well as for sensible heat transfer. A generally valid formula for the mean evaporation rate cannot be derived from the experiments as the parameter of surface roughness is changing with the length of the water surface which is exposed to the air current. The calculation formula for the ratio between sensible and latent heat transfer (Bowen ratio), which is required, according to this paper has a scattering range of only +-20% as against the +-40% commonly assumed. (GL) [de
CSIR Research Space (South Africa)
Roos, TH
2014-06-01
Full Text Available large sphere scattering phase function distributions of interest for packed bed radiative heat transfer: the analytic distribution for a diffusely reflecting sphere (a backscattering test case) and the distribution for a transparent sphere (n = 1...
Momentum transfer resolved memory in a magnetic system with perpendicular anisotropy
Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)
Seu, Keoki; Roy, Sujoy; Su, Run; Parks, Daniel; Shipton, Erik; Fullerton, Eric; Kevan, Stephen
2011-01-28
We have used resonant, coherent soft x-ray scattering to measure wave vector re- solved magnetic domain memory in Co/Pd multilayers. The technique uses angular cross correlation functions and can be applied to any system with circular annuli of constant values of scattering wave vector q. In our Co/Pd film, the memory exhibits a maximum at q = 0.0384 nm-1 near initial reversal that decreases in magnitude as the magnetization is further reversed. The peak is attributed to bubble domains that nucleate reproducibly near initial reversal and which grow into a labyrinth domain structure that is not reproduced from one magnetization cycle to the next.
Comparison of the 12C(e,e'p) cross section at low momentum transfer with a relativistic calculation
International Nuclear Information System (INIS)
Tamae, T.; Sato, Y.; Yokokawa, T.; Asano, Y.; Kawabata, M.; Konno, O.; Nakagawa, I.; Nishikawa, I.; Hirota, K.; Yamazaki, H.; Kimura, R.; Miyase, H.; Tsubota, H.; Giusti, C.; Meucci, A.
2009-01-01
The (e,e ' p 0 ) cross section of 12 C has been measured at an energy transfer of 60 MeV and a momentum transfer of 104.4 MeV/c using a 197.5 MeV continuous electron beam. The cross section at missing momenta between 181.5 and 304.8 MeV/c obtained from the experiment is compared with theoretical calculations based on the relativistic distorted-wave impulse approximation with and without meson-exchange currents (MEC). The contribution of MEC due to the seagull current is large in the high-missing-momentum region, in particular for the longitudinal component. The cross sections calculated using three different current-conserving operators (cc1, cc2, and cc3) are similar, in contrast to the (γ,p) reaction, where the operators give very different results. The shape of the measured cross section is well described by the calculations, whereas its magnitude is slightly smaller than that described by the calculations.
Anisotropic scattering in three dimensional differential approximation of radiation heat transfer
International Nuclear Information System (INIS)
Condiff, D.W.
1987-01-01
The differential approximation is extended to account for anisotropic scattering in invariant three dimensional form. A moment method using polyadic Legendre functions establishes that pressure cross sections should take precedence over extinction cross sections for treating radiation heat transfer in an absorbing, emitting, and scattering medium, and that use of these cross sections accounts for the extent of preferred forward or backwards scattering. The procedure and principle is extended to polyadic P-N approximations
International Nuclear Information System (INIS)
Rollason, A.J.; Bell, F.; Schneider, J.R.
1989-09-01
Measurements have been made of the recoiling electron in 320 keV gamma ray inelastic scattering collisions in thin aluminium targets. The angular correlation of these electrons detected in coincidence with the scattered photon is in agreement with the kinematic requirements of the Compton effect and is correctly predicted by Monte Carlo simulations based on the impulse approximation. Further simulations of ideal-geometry experiments indicate that information about the initial electron momenta is available from an examination of those electron-photon events originating in a surface layer of one electronic mean free path depth and that elastic scattering of the recoil electrons from greater depths produces a nearly flat background to this signal. The results clearly demonstrate the feasibility of the (γ,eγ) experiment for studying electron momentum densities with synchrotron radiation. (orig.) With 23 refs., 17 figs
Roux, L; Mareschal, P; Vukadinovic, N; Thibaud, J B; Greffet, J J
2001-02-01
This study is devoted to the examination of scattering of waves by a slab containing randomly located cylinders. For the first time to our knowledge, the complete transmission problem has been solved numerically. We have compared the radiative transfer theory with a numerical solution of the wave equation. We discuss the coherent effects, such as forward-scattering dip and backscattering enhancement. It is seen that the radiative transfer equation can be used with great accuracy even for optically thin systems whose geometric thickness is comparable with the wavelength. We have also shown the presence of dependent scattering.
International Nuclear Information System (INIS)
Tardocchi, M.; Andreani, C.; Cremonesi, O.; Gorini, G.; Perelli-Cippo, E.; Pietropaolo, A.; Rhodes, N.; Schooneveld, E.; Senesi, R.
2006-01-01
New perspectives for epithermal neutron spectroscopy are opened up by the recent development of new instrumentation for inverse geometry time of flight spectrometers at pulsed neutron sources. One example is the Very Low Angle Detector (VLAD) bank which will be installed as an upgrade of the VESUVIO neutron spectrometer, at the ISIS pulsed neutron source. VLAD is developed for detecting epithermal neutrons in the 1-100 eV energy range at very low scattering angles (l deg. - 5 deg.). VLAD will extend the kinematical region covered by today's neutron scattering experiments to the region of low wave vector transfers ( -1 ) and high energy transfers (>1 eV). Accessing such kinematical region will allow new experimental studies in condensed matter systems. The neutron detection is based on Resonance Detectors (RD), which consist of the combination of a resonance foil used as neutron-to-gamma converter and a photon detector. The results obtained with a prototype VLAD detector confirm the potential of this kind of experiments at scattering angles as low as 2 deg. - 5 deg. GEANT4 simulations are used to address issues, such as detector cross talk, which arise with the construction of compact RD arrays
Electromagnetic interactions of nucleons and nuclei at low energy and momentum transfer
International Nuclear Information System (INIS)
Arenhoevel, H.
1994-01-01
In these lectures I concentrate on the manifestation of subnuclear degrees of freedom in terms of meson and isobar degrees of freedom in electromagnetic processes where their presence usually is described in terms of so-called exchange or interaction currents. In Section 2 I first discuss the general properties of the electromagnetic interaction, the gauge conditions and low-energy theorems which follow from gauge invariance, the charge and current density operators for a non-relativistic system of nucleons and the Siegert theorem. In Section 3 I sketch the basic ideas and construction methods for the exchange current operators as effective operators and in Section 4 the model of nuclear isobar configurations introducing explicitly isobar degrees of freedom into the nuclear wave function. The general features of one- and two-photon processes are discussed in Section 5. First the expressions for the cross sections of photoabsorption and electron scattering are reviewed. As a specific but important example, I then discuss the two-body break-up of the deuteron since it permits the cleanest analysis and provides one of the best evidences for the presence of subnuclear degrees of freedom due to its simple two-body structure within the classical nuclear physics framework. This is a unique situation because in more complex nuclei the analysis is often hampered by presently still unavoidable approximations of the many-body problem. I furthermore discuss the role of meson exchange currents in the photonuclear TRK sum rule, in particular, I carefully analyse what determines the enhancement. This section ends with a brief discussion of elastic photon scattering with special emphasis on the low-energy theorem for the scattering amplitude and the sum rule relations for the low-energy parameters. (orig.)
Tse, I.; Poindexter, C.; Variano, E. A.
2013-12-01
Among the numerous ecological benefits of restoring wetlands is carbon sequestration. As emergent vegetation thrive, atmospheric CO2 is removed and converted into biomass that gradually become additional soil. Forecasts and management for these systems rely on accurate knowledge of gas exchange between the atmosphere and the wetland surface waters. Our previous work showed that the rate of gas transfer across the air-water interface is affected by the amount of water column mixing caused by winds penetrating through the plant canopy. Here, we present the first direct measurements of wind-water momentum coupling made within a tule marsh. This work in Twitchell Island in the California Delta shows how momentum is imparted into the water from wind stress and that this wind stress interacts with the surface waters in an interesting way. By correlating three-component velocity signals from a sonic anemometer placed within the plant canopy with data from a novel Volumetric Particle Imager (VoPI) placed in the water, we measure the flux of kinetic energy through the plant canopy and the time-scale of the response. We also use this unique dataset to estimate the air-water drag coefficient using an adjoint method.
Voit, Florian; Schäfer, Jan; Kienle, Alwin
2009-09-01
We present a methodology to compare results of classical radiative transfer theory against exact solutions of Maxwell theory for a high number of spheres. We calculated light propagation in a cubic scattering region (20 x 20 x 20 microm(3)) consisting of different concentrations of polystyrene spheres in water (diameter 2 microm) by an analytical solution of Maxwell theory and by a numerical solution of radiative transfer theory. The relative deviation of differential as well as total scattering cross sections obtained by both approaches was evaluated for each sphere concentration. For the considered case, we found that deviations due to radiative transfer theory remain small, even for concentrations up to ca. 20 vol. %.
International Nuclear Information System (INIS)
Ma, L.X.; Tan, J.Y.; Zhao, J.M.; Wang, F.Q.; Wang, C.A.
2017-01-01
The radiative transfer equation (RTE) has been widely used to deal with multiple scattering of light by sparsely and randomly distributed discrete particles. However, for densely packed particles, the RTE becomes questionable due to strong dependent scattering effects. This paper examines the accuracy of RTE by comparing with the exact electromagnetic theory. For an imaginary spherical volume filled with randomly distributed, densely packed spheres, the RTE is solved by the Monte Carlo method combined with the Percus–Yevick hard model to consider the dependent scattering effect, while the electromagnetic calculation is based on the multi-sphere superposition T-matrix method. The Mueller matrix elements of the system with different size parameters and volume fractions of spheres are obtained using both methods. The results verify that the RTE fails to deal with the systems with a high-volume fraction due to the dependent scattering effects. Apart from the effects of forward interference scattering and coherent backscattering, the Percus–Yevick hard sphere model shows good accuracy in accounting for the far-field interference effects for medium or smaller size parameters (up to 6.964 in this study). For densely packed discrete spheres with large size parameters (equals 13.928 in this study), the improvement of dependent scattering correction tends to deteriorate. The observations indicate that caution must be taken when using RTE in dealing with the radiative transfer in dense discrete random media even though the dependent scattering correction is applied. - Highlights: • The Muller matrix of randomly distributed, densely packed spheres are investigated. • The effects of multiple scattering and dependent scattering are analyzed. • The accuracy of radiative transfer theory for densely packed spheres is discussed. • Dependent scattering correction takes effect at medium size parameter or smaller. • Performance of dependent scattering correction
A Measurement of GE^n at High Momentum Transfer in Hall A
Feuerbach, Robert J.; Wojtsekhowski, Bogdan
2006-10-01
A precision measurement of the electric form-factor of the neutron, GE^n, at Q^2 up to 3.5 GeV^2 was recently completed in Hall A at the Thomas Jefferson National Accelerator Facility(Jefferson Lab). The ratio GE^n/GM^n was measured through the beam-target asymmetry A of electrons quasi-elastically scattered off neutrons in the reaction ^3He(e,e' n). The experiment took advantage of recent developments of the electron beam and target, as well as two detectors new to Jefferson Lab. The measurement used the accelerator's 100% duty-cycle high-polarization (typically 84%) electron beam and a new, hybrid optically-pumped polarized ^3He target which achieved polarizations above 50%. A medium acceptance (80msr) open-geometry magnetic spectrometer (BigBite) detected the scattered electron, while a new neutron detector was constructed to observe the released neutron. An overview of the experiment and the experimental motivation will be discussed, in particular the large range of predictions from modern calculations for GE^n at this relatively high Q^2. Finally, the analysis progress and preliminary results will be presented.
International Nuclear Information System (INIS)
Johnson, R.C.
1980-01-01
High energy and small momentum transfer 2 'yields' 2 hadronic scattering processes are described in the physical framework of particle exchange. Particle production in high energy collisions is considered with emphasis on the features of inclusive reactions though with some remarks on exclusive processes. (U.K.)
Modeling of high‐frequency seismic‐wave scattering and propagation using radiative transfer theory
Zeng, Yuehua
2017-01-01
This is a study of the nonisotropic scattering process based on radiative transfer theory and its application to the observation of the M 4.3 aftershock recording of the 2008 Wells earthquake sequence in Nevada. Given a wide range of recording distances from 29 to 320 km, the data provide a unique opportunity to discriminate scattering models based on their distance‐dependent behaviors. First, we develop a stable numerical procedure to simulate nonisotropic scattering waves based on the 3D nonisotropic scattering theory proposed by Sato (1995). By applying the simulation method to the inversion of M 4.3 Wells aftershock recordings, we find that a nonisotropic scattering model, dominated by forward scattering, provides the best fit to the observed high‐frequency direct S waves and S‐wave coda velocity envelopes. The scattering process is governed by a Gaussian autocorrelation function, suggesting a Gaussian random heterogeneous structure for the Nevada crust. The model successfully explains the common decay of seismic coda independent of source–station locations as a result of energy leaking from multiple strong forward scattering, instead of backscattering governed by the diffusion solution at large lapse times. The model also explains the pulse‐broadening effect in the high‐frequency direct and early arriving S waves, as other studies have found, and could be very important to applications of high‐frequency wave simulation in which scattering has a strong effect. We also find that regardless of its physical implications, the isotropic scattering model provides the same effective scattering coefficient and intrinsic attenuation estimates as the forward scattering model, suggesting that the isotropic scattering model is still a viable tool for the study of seismic scattering and intrinsic attenuation coefficients in the Earth.
Measurement of the deuteron elastic structure functions up to large momentum transfers
International Nuclear Information System (INIS)
Jager, K. De
1999-01-01
The cross section for elastic electron-deuteron scattering was measured in JLab experiment 91-026. The deuteron elastic structure functions A(Q 2 ) and B(Q 2 ) have been extracted from this data. The final results for the ''electric'' structure function A(Q 2 ), in the range of 0.7 less than or equal to Q 2 less than or equal to 6.0 (GeV/c) 2 are presented. Preliminary results for the ''magnetic'' structure function B(Q 2 ) are presented in the range of 0.7 less than or equal to Q 2 less than or equal to 1.35 (GeV/c) 2 . These data are compared with theoretical predictions of both meson-nucleon and quark-gluon based models
McLaskey, Gregory C.; Lockner, David A.; Kilgore, Brian D.; Beeler, Nicholas M.
2015-01-01
We describe a technique to estimate the seismic moment of acoustic emissions and other extremely small seismic events. Unlike previous calibration techniques, it does not require modeling of the wave propagation, sensor response, or signal conditioning. Rather, this technique calibrates the recording system as a whole and uses a ball impact as a reference source or empirical Green’s function. To correctly apply this technique, we develop mathematical expressions that link the seismic moment $M_{0}$ of internal seismic sources (i.e., earthquakes and acoustic emissions) to the impulse, or change in momentum $\\Delta p $, of externally applied seismic sources (i.e., meteor impacts or, in this case, ball impact). We find that, at low frequencies, moment and impulse are linked by a constant, which we call the force‐moment‐rate scale factor $C_{F\\dot{M}} = M_{0}/\\Delta p$. This constant is equal to twice the speed of sound in the material from which the seismic sources were generated. Next, we demonstrate the calibration technique on two different experimental rock mechanics facilities. The first example is a saw‐cut cylindrical granite sample that is loaded in a triaxial apparatus at 40 MPa confining pressure. The second example is a 2 m long fault cut in a granite sample and deformed in a large biaxial apparatus at lower stress levels. Using the empirical calibration technique, we are able to determine absolute source parameters including the seismic moment, corner frequency, stress drop, and radiated energy of these magnitude −2.5 to −7 seismic events.
High-energy proton scattering on nuclei
Klovning, A; Schlüpmann, K
1973-01-01
High-energy proton scattering on Be, C, Cu and Pb targets is studied using a single-arm spectrometer. The projectile momenta were 19 and 24 GeV/c, the square of the four-momentum transfer varied from t=0.1 to t =4.4 GeV/sup 2/. Momentum distributions of scattered protons are recorded in the high-momentum range. An application of multiple- scattering theory yielded agreement of calculation and experimental results to within a +or-30% uncertainty of the former. (15 refs).
From neutron Compton profiles to momentum distribution: Assessment of direct numerical determination
International Nuclear Information System (INIS)
Senesi, R.; Flammini, D.; Romanelli, G.; Andreani, C.
2013-01-01
Inelastic neutron scattering at high momentum transfers, in the neutron Compton scattering regime, provides an access to the neutron Compton profiles, the analogous of Compton profiles in X-ray scattering. The line shape analysis of the neutron Compton profiles is usually carried out making use of multiparametric nonlinear fitting, garnering detailed information about the momentum distribution of the target atoms. This paper presents the proposal to directly determine numerically the momentum distribution from the profiles, thus eliminating the possible instabilities present in multiparametric fitting. A comparison with Monte Carlo simulations and with previous measurements on polycrystalline ice provides quantitative assessments of the proposed method
International Nuclear Information System (INIS)
Fanelli, C.; Salme, G.; Cisbani, E.; Hamilton, D.; Wojtsekhowski, B.
2014-01-01
A preliminary analysis of polarization-transfer data at large scattering angle (70 degrees), obtained in an experiment of real Compton scattering on proton, performed in Hall-C of Jefferson Lab, is presented. It is also discussed the relevance of this kind of experiments for shedding light on the non-perturbative structure of the proton, at low energy, and on the transition from the non-perturbative regime to the perturbative one, that occurs at high energy. Moreover, the possibility to extract Compton form factors and the Generalized Parton Distributions (GPD), one of the most promising theoretical tool to determine the total angular momentum contribution of quarks and gluons to nucleon spin, is emphasized. The preliminary results appear consistent with GPD's based and Regge predictions. This is not sufficient yet to exclude pQCD COZ (Chernyak-Oglobin-Zhitnistsky) model, but it is another preliminary indication that the handbag approach seems to be the dominant mechanism at the energy of the experiment
International Nuclear Information System (INIS)
Breivik, F.O.; Haatuft, A.; Halsteinslid, A.
1990-02-01
Based on previous observations of anti p Ne - reactions the author discuss, in terms of four-momentum transfers, why only leading pions are seen in events detected by their Λ-decays, and only leading kaons in the events detected by their neutral K-decays. The experimental results are consistent with a two-vertex model with strange or non-strange baryon exchange. 3 refs.; 4 figs.; 1 tab
International Nuclear Information System (INIS)
Lychagin, E.V.; Muzychka, A.Yu.; Nekhaev, G.V.; Strelkov, A.V.; Shvetsov, V.N.; Nesvizhevskij, V.V.; Tal'daev, R.R.
2001-01-01
Inelastic scattering of neutrons with small energy transfer of ∼10 -7 eV was investigated using gravitational UCN spectrometer. The probability of such a process at stainless steel and beryllium surfaces was measured. It was also estimated at copper surface. The measurement showed that the detected flux of neutrons scattered at beryllium and copper surfaces is ∼ 2 times higher at room temperature compared to that at the liquid nitrogen temperature. (author)
Radiative heat transfer in strongly forward scattering media using the discrete ordinates method
Granate, Pedro; Coelho, Pedro J.; Roger, Maxime
2016-03-01
The discrete ordinates method (DOM) is widely used to solve the radiative transfer equation, often yielding satisfactory results. However, in the presence of strongly forward scattering media, this method does not generally conserve the scattering energy and the phase function asymmetry factor. Because of this, the normalization of the phase function has been proposed to guarantee that the scattering energy and the asymmetry factor are conserved. Various authors have used different normalization techniques. Three of these are compared in the present work, along with two other methods, one based on the finite volume method (FVM) and another one based on the spherical harmonics discrete ordinates method (SHDOM). In addition, the approximation of the Henyey-Greenstein phase function by a different one is investigated as an alternative to the phase function normalization. The approximate phase function is given by the sum of a Dirac delta function, which accounts for the forward scattering peak, and a smoother scaled phase function. In this study, these techniques are applied to three scalar radiative transfer test cases, namely a three-dimensional cubic domain with a purely scattering medium, an axisymmetric cylindrical enclosure containing an emitting-absorbing-scattering medium, and a three-dimensional transient problem with collimated irradiation. The present results show that accurate predictions are achieved for strongly forward scattering media when the phase function is normalized in such a way that both the scattered energy and the phase function asymmetry factor are conserved. The normalization of the phase function may be avoided using the FVM or the SHDOM to evaluate the in-scattering term of the radiative transfer equation. Both methods yield results whose accuracy is similar to that obtained using the DOM along with normalization of the phase function. Very satisfactory predictions were also achieved using the delta-M phase function, while the delta
Large transverse momentum behavior of gauge theories
International Nuclear Information System (INIS)
Coquereaux, Robert; De Rafael, Eduardo.
1977-05-01
The large transverse momentum behavior of Compton scattering and Moeller scattering in Quantum Electrodynamics; and of elastic quark-quark scattering in Quantum Chromodynamics are examined in perturbation theory. The results strongly suggest that the large transverse momentum regime in gauge theories is governed by a differential equation of the Callan-Symanzik type with a suitable momentum dependent anomalous dimension term. An explicit solution for the quark-quark elastic scattering amplitude at large transverse momentum is given
International Nuclear Information System (INIS)
Trombetti, T.
1990-01-01
The exact kernel method is presented for linear transport problems with azimuth-dependent angular fluxes. It is based on the evaluation of average scattering densities (ASD's) that fully describe the neutron (or particle) transfer between subsets of the unit sphere of directions by anisotropic scattering. Reciprocity and other ASD functional properties are proved and combined with the symmetry properties of suitable SN quadrature sets. This greatly reduces the number of independent ASD's to be computed and stored. An approach for performing ASD computations with reciprocity checks is presented. ASD expressions of the scattering source for typical 2D geometries are explicitly given. (author)
Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)
Michael, Douglas Grant [Harvard U.
1990-01-01
The transverse momentum and energy-flow properties of forward ($x_F$ > 0) charged . hadrons and photons in deep inelastic muon scattering at 490GeV/c have been studied. Single particle transverse momentum and average transverse momentum as a function of $x_{Feynmen}$ are presented.Events are found to have a planar structure and transverse momentum spectra in and out of the event plane are presented. Data in the kinematic range $Q^2 > 3$ $GeV^2/c^2$ and 20 < W < 30 GeV/$c^2$ are used to search for two jets of particles in the forward direction. Energy and particle flow with.in the hadronic event plane are presented with several different cuts made on the data. A jet reconstruction algorithm is applied and properties of the forward jets are studied. For all plots, comparison is made with predictions from the Lund Monte Carlo tuned in different fashions. It is found that it is necessary to include hard QCD processes (gluon bremsstrahlung and photon-gluon fusion) in order to achieve good agreen1eut between the data and the Monte Carlo. In addition, it is shown that the data have more multi-jet events than predicted by the default version of the Lund ( 4.3) Monte Carlo.. It is suggested that it is necessary to increase the overall 'jettiness' by either increasing the primordial gluon distribution of the nucleon or adjusting the production cross section in the Monte Carlo. The possibility of an increased gluon distribution is presented and compared to data.
Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)
Asa' d, Z.; Coupland, M.; Davis, D.G.; Duff, B.G.; Fearnley, T.; Heymann, F.F.; Imrie, D.C.; Lush, G.J.; Phillips, M. (University Coll., London (UK)); Baglin, C.
1985-06-24
Results are presented from experiment WA7 at the CERN SPS, which has measured the elastic differential cross sections of ..pi..sup(+-)p, Ksup(+-)p, anti pp and pp at incident momenta of 20, 30 and 50 GeV/c. The measurements cover the momentum transfer range 0.5 < vertical stroketvertical stroke < 8 (GeV/c)/sup 2/, corresponding to c.m. scattering angles between 10/sup 0/ and 50/sup 0/. The experimental set-up, trigger logic and data analysis are described. The experimental results are compared with existing meson-proton and nucleon-proton data at lower and higher energies covering the medium- and large-vertical stroketvertical stroke region. Some prominent models and their predictions for elastic scattering at WA7 energies and beyond are reviewed, with emphasis on geometrical scaling, factorizing eikonal models, lowest-order QCD and other dynamical exchange-type models. Results for anti pp two-body annihilation into ..pi../sup -/..pi../sup +/ and K/sup -/K/sup +/ at 30 and 50 GeV/c, obtained in parallel with the elastic anti pp data, are also presented.
International Nuclear Information System (INIS)
Asa'd, Z.; Coupland, M.; Davis, D.G.; Duff, B.G.; Fearnley, T.; Heymann, F.F.; Imrie, D.C.; Lush, G.J.; Phillips, M.; Baglin, C.; Guillaud, J.P.; Poulet, M.; Myrheim, J.; Gjerpe, I.K.; Buran, T.; Buzzo, A.; Ferroni, S.; Gracco, V.; Kirsebom, K.; Macri, M.; Santroni, A.; Soersdal, T.
1985-01-01
Results are presented from experiment WA7 at the CERN SPS, which has measured the elastic differential cross sections of πsup(+-)p, Ksup(+-)p, anti pp and pp at incident momenta of 20, 30 and 50 GeV/c. The measurements cover the momentum transfer range 0.5 2 , corresponding to c.m. scattering angles between 10 0 and 50 0 . The experimental set-up, trigger logic and data analysis are described. The experimental results are compared with existing meson-proton and nucleon-proton data at lower and higher energies covering the medium- and large-vertical stroketvertical stroke region. Some prominent models and their predictions for elastic scattering at WA7 energies and beyond are reviewed, with emphasis on geometrical scaling, factorizing eikonal models, lowest-order QCD and other dynamical exchange-type models. Results for anti pp two-body annihilation into π - π + and K - K + at 30 and 50 GeV/c, obtained in parallel with the elastic anti pp data, are also presented. (orig.)
International Nuclear Information System (INIS)
Moss, J.M.
1985-01-01
An overview of intermediate energy (80 to 1000 MeV) study contributions to the International Polarization Symposium in Osaka, Japan, August 1985 is presented in this report. Contributions fall into three categories: polarization transfer, polarized deuteron scattering and polarized (p,π +- ) reactions
Biçer, M.; Kaşkaş, A.
2018-03-01
The infinite medium Green's function is used to solve the half-space albedo, slab albedo and Milne problems for the unpolarized Rayleigh scattering case; these problems are the most classical problems of radiative transfer theory. The numerical results are obtained and are compared with previous ones.
Flavor decomposition of transverse momentum dependent parton distributions
Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)
Dotto Alessio Del
2014-06-01
Full Text Available We present an improved description of the semi-inclusive deep inelastic electron scattering off polarized 3He, providing information on the neutron single spin asymmetries. The analysis at finite momentum transfers in a Poincaré covariant framework is outlined and a quantitative estimate of the nuclear effects is presented.
Two-center interference effects in (e, 2e) ionization of H2 and CO2 at large momentum transfer
Yamazaki, Masakazu; Nakajima, Isao; Satoh, Hironori; Watanabe, Noboru; Jones, Darryl; Takahashi, Masahiko
2015-09-01
In recent years, there has been considerable interest in understanding quantum mechanical interference effects in molecular ionization. Since this interference appears as a consequence of coherent electron emission from the different molecular centers, it should depend strongly on the nature of the ionized molecular orbital. Such molecular orbital patterns can be investigated by means of binary (e, 2e) spectroscopy, which is a kinematically-complete electron-impact ionization experiment performed under the high-energy Bethe ridge conditions. In this study, two-center interference effects in the (e, 2e) cross sections of H2 and CO2 at large momentum transfer are demonstrated with a high-statistics experiment, in order to elucidate the relationship between molecular orbital patterns and the interference structure. It is shown that the two-center interference is highly sensitive to the phase, spatial pattern, symmetry of constituent atomic orbital, and chemical bonding nature of the molecular orbital. This work was partially supported by Grant-in-Aids for Scientific Research (S) (No. 20225001) and for Young Scientists (B) (No. 21750005) from the Ministry of Education, Culture, Sports, Science and Technology.
Regan, Caitlin; Hayakawa, Carole; Choi, Bernard
2017-12-01
Due to its simplicity and low cost, laser speckle imaging (LSI) has achieved widespread use in biomedical applications. However, interpretation of the blood-flow maps remains ambiguous, as LSI enables only limited visualization of vasculature below scattering layers such as the epidermis and skull. Here, we describe a computational model that enables flexible in-silico study of the impact of these factors on LSI measurements. The model uses Monte Carlo methods to simulate light and momentum transport in a heterogeneous tissue geometry. The virtual detectors of the model track several important characteristics of light. This model enables study of LSI aspects that may be difficult or unwieldy to address in an experimental setting, and enables detailed study of the fundamental origins of speckle contrast modulation in tissue-specific geometries. We applied the model to an in-depth exploration of the spectral dependence of speckle contrast signal in the skin, the effects of epidermal melanin content on LSI, and the depth-dependent origins of our signal. We found that LSI of transmitted light allows for a more homogeneous integration of the signal from the entire bulk of the tissue, whereas epi-illumination measurements of contrast are limited to a fraction of the light penetration depth. We quantified the spectral depth dependence of our contrast signal in the skin, and did not observe a statistically significant effect of epidermal melanin on speckle contrast. Finally, we corroborated these simulated results with experimental LSI measurements of flow beneath a thin absorbing layer. The results of this study suggest the use of LSI in the clinic to monitor perfusion in patients with different skin types, or inhomogeneous epidermal melanin distributions.
Neutron scattering from a substitutional mass defect
International Nuclear Information System (INIS)
Williams, R.D.; Lovesey, S.W.
1985-06-01
The dynamic structure factor is calculated for a low concentration of light mass scatterers substituted in a cubic crystal matrix. A new numerical method for the exact calculation is demonstrated. A local density of states for the low momentum transfer limit, and the shifts and widths of the oscillator peaks in the high momentum transfer limit are derived. The limitations of an approximation which decouples the defect from the lattice is discussed. (author)
About the damping of quark-hadron form factors in relative quark momentum
International Nuclear Information System (INIS)
Lewin, K.; Kallies, W.
1979-01-01
A problem of sufficient damping of hadron bound states at nonasymptotic relative quark momenta is discussed. This phenomenon is considered in the connection with the power scaling beginning at momentum transfer | t | >= 2-3 GeV 2 . Damping of hadron bound states is obtained on the basis of a behaviour of four-quark Green's functions in the momentum transfer which is required by diffraction scattering
Kallinger, T.; Weiss, W. W.; Beck, P. G.; Pigulski, A.; Kuschnig, R.; Tkachenko, A.; Pakhomov, Y.; Ryabchikova, T.; Lüftinger, T.; Palle, , P. L.; Semenko, E.; Handler, G.; Koudelka, O.; Matthews, J. M.; Moffat, A. F. J.; Pablo, H.; Popowicz, A.; Rucinski, S.; Wade, G. A.; Zwintz, K.
2017-07-01
Context. Stellar rotation affects the transport of chemical elements and angular momentum and is therefore a key process during stellar evolution, which is still not fully understood. This is especially true for massive OB-type stars, which are important for the chemical enrichment of the Universe. It is therefore important to constrain the physical parameters and internal angular momentum distribution of massive OB-type stars to calibrate stellar structure and evolution models. Stellar internal rotation can be probed through asteroseismic studies of rotationally split non radial oscillations but such results are still quite rare, especially for stars more massive than the Sun. The slowly pulsating B9V star HD 201433 is known to be part of a single-lined spectroscopic triple system, with two low-mass companions orbiting with periods of about 3.3 and 154 days. Aims: Our goal is to measure the internal rotation profile of HD 201433 and investigate the tidal interaction with the close companion. Methods: We used probabilistic methods to analyse the BRITE - Constellation photometry and radial velocity measurements, to identify a representative stellar model, and to determine the internal rotation profile of the star. Results: Our results are based on photometric observations made by BRITE - Constellation and the Solar Mass Ejection Imager on board the Coriolis satellite, high-resolution spectroscopy, and more than 96 yr of radial velocity measurements. We identify a sequence of nine frequency doublets in the photometric time series, consistent with rotationally split dipole modes with a period spacing of about 5030 s. We establish that HD 201433 is in principle a solid-body rotator with a very slow rotation period of 297 ± 76 days. Tidal interaction with the inner companion has, however, significantly accelerated the spin of the surface layers by a factor of approximately one hundred. The angular momentum transfer onto the surface of HD 201433 is also reflected by the
Anomalous resonance-radiation energy-transfer rate in a scattering dispersive medium
International Nuclear Information System (INIS)
Shekhtman, V.L.
1992-01-01
This paper describes a generalization of the concept of group velocity as an energy-transfer rate in a dispersive medium with complex refractive index when the polaritons, which are energy carriers, undergo scattering, in contrast to the classical concept of the group velocity of free polaritons (i.e., without scattering in the medium). The concept of delay time from quantum multichannel-scattering, theory is used as the fundamental concept. Based on Maxwell's equations and the new mathematical Φ-function method, a consistent conceptual definition of group velocity in terms of the ratio of the coherent-energy flux density to the coherent-energy density is obtained for the first time, and a critical analysis of the earlier (Brillouin) understanding of energy-transfer rate is given in the light of radiation-trapping theory and the quantum theory of resonance scattering. The role of generalized group velocity is examined for the interpretation of the phenomenon of multiple resonance scattering, or radiation diffusion. The question of causality for the given problem is touched upon; a new relationship is obtained, called the microcausality condition, which limits the anomalous values of group velocity by way of the indeterminacy principle and the relativistic causality principle for macroscopic time intervals directly measurable in experiment, whereby attention is focused on the connection of the given microcausality condition and the well-known Wigner inequality for the time delay of spherical waves. 22 refs
International Nuclear Information System (INIS)
Bell, H.G.
1976-07-01
The energy spectra of Ne studied under different temperatures and pressures with the aid of inelastic, coherent neutron scattering can be described by a scattering law derived from the basic hydrodynamic equations. The Brillouin lines found with very small momentum transfer 0.06 A -1 -1 are interpreted as collective, adiabatic pressure fluctuations. (orig./WL) [de
Alpha Momentum and Price Momentum
Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)
Hannah Lea Hühn
2018-05-01
Full Text Available We analyze a novel alpha momentum strategy that invests in stocks based on three-factor alphas which we estimate using daily returns. The empirical analysis for the U.S. and for Europe shows that (i past alpha has power in predicting the cross-section of stock returns; (ii alpha momentum exhibits less dynamic factor exposures than price momentum and (iii alpha momentum dominates price momentum only in the U.S. Connecting both strategies to behavioral explanations, alpha momentum is more related to an underreaction to firm-specific news while price momentum is primarily driven by price overshooting due to momentum trading.
International Nuclear Information System (INIS)
Galin, J.; Ingold, G.; Jahnke, U.; Hilscher, D.; Lehmann, M.; Rossner, H.; Schwinn, E.
1988-01-01
The 20 Ne+U reactions are investigated at 290 MeV bombarding energy. The linear momentum transfer and excitation energy are deduced eventwise from the respective measurements of the folding angle between correlated fission fragments and the neutron multiplicity. A simple incomplete fusion picture is shown to essentially account for the data. The sensitivity of the two measurements in order to infer the violence of a collision is discussed in details. (orig.)
Vijayakumar, R.; Shivaramu; Ramamurthy, N.; Ford, M. J.
2008-12-01
Here we report the first ever 137Cs Compton spectroscopy study of lithium fluoride. The spherical average Compton profiles of lithium fluoride are deduced from Compton scattering measurements on poly crystalline sample at gamma ray energy of 662 keV. To compare the experimental data, we have computed the spherical average Compton profiles using self-consistent Hartree-Fock wave functions employed on linear combination of atomic orbital (HF-LCAO) approximation. The directional Compton profiles and their anisotropic effects are also calculated using the same HF-LCAO approximation. The experimental spherical average profiles are found to be in good agreement with the corresponding HF-LCAO calculations and in qualitative agreement with Hartree-Fock free atom values. The present experimental isotropic and calculated directional profiles are also compared with the available experimental isotropic and directional Compton profiles using 59.54 and 159 keV γ-rays.
Transverse momentum distributions and nuclear effects
Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)
Pace Emanuele
2015-01-01
Full Text Available A distorted spin-dependent spectral function for 3He is considered to take care of the final state interaction in the extraction of the quark transverse-momentum distributions in the neutron from semi-inclusive deep inelastic electron scattering off polarized 3He at finite momentum transfers. The generalization of the analysis in a Poincaré covariant framework within the light-front dynamics is outlined. The definition of the light-front spin-dependent spectral function for a J=1/2 system, as the nucleon, allows us to show that within the light-front dynamics and in the valence approximation only three of the six leading twist T-even transverse-momentum distributions are independent.
Nuclear matter and electron scattering
Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)
Sick, I [Dept. fuer Physik und Astronomie, Univ. Basel (Switzerland)
1998-06-01
We show that inclusive electron scattering at large momentum transfer allows a measurement of short-range properties of nuclear matter. This provides a very valuable constraint in selecting the calculations appropriate for predicting nuclear matter properties at the densities of astrophysical interest. (orig.)
A successive order of scattering model for solving vector radiative transfer in the atmosphere
International Nuclear Information System (INIS)
Min Qilong; Duan Minzheng
2004-01-01
A full vector radiative transfer model for vertically inhomogeneous plane-parallel media has been developed by using the successive order of scattering approach. In this model, a fast analytical expansion of Fourier decomposition is implemented and an exponent-linear assumption is used for vertical integration. An analytic angular interpolation method of post-processing source function is also implemented to accurately interpolate the Stokes vector at arbitrary angles for a given solution. It has been tested against the benchmarks for the case of randomly orientated oblate spheroids, illustrating a good agreement for each stokes vector (within 0.01%). Sensitivity tests have been conducted to illustrate the accuracy of vertical integration and angle interpolation approaches. The contribution of each scattering order for different optical depths and single scattering albedos are also analyzed
Nuclear rotational population patterns in heavy-ion scattering and transfer reactions
Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)
Rasmussen, J O; Stoyer, M A [Lawrence Berkeley Lab., CA (USA); Canto, L F; Donangelo, R [Universidade Federal do Rio de Janeiro, RJ (Brazil); Ring, P [Technische Univ. Muenchen, Garching (Germany, F.R.). Fakultaet fuer Physik
1991-05-01
A model of {sup 239}Pu with decoupled neutron is used for theoretical calculations of rotational population patterns in heavy ion inelastic scattering and one-neutron transfer reactions. The system treated in {sup 90}Zr on {sup 239}Pu at the near-barrier energy of 500 MeV and backscattering angles of 180deg and 140deg. The influence of the complex nuclear optical potential is seen to be very strong, and the Nilsson wave function of the odd neutron produces a distinctive pattern in the transfer reaction. (orig.).
A method for accurate computation of elastic and discrete inelastic scattering transfer matrix
International Nuclear Information System (INIS)
Garcia, R.D.M.; Santina, M.D.
1986-05-01
A method for accurate computation of elastic and discrete inelastic scattering transfer matrices is discussed. In particular, a partition scheme for the source energy range that avoids integration over intervals containing points where the integrand has discontinuous derivative is developed. Five-figure accurate numerical results are obtained for several test problems with the TRAMA program which incorporates the porposed method. A comparison with numerical results from existing processing codes is also presented. (author) [pt
International Nuclear Information System (INIS)
Behring, A.; Bluemlein, J.; Freitas, A. de; Johannes Kepler Univ., Linz; Hasselhuhn, A.; Manteuffel, A. von; Schneider, C.
2015-08-01
We calculate the massive Wilson coefficients for the heavy flavor contributions to the non-singlet charged current deep-inelastic scattering structure function xF W+ 3 (x,Q 2 )+xF W- 3 (x,Q 2 ) in the asymptotic region Q 2 >>m 2 to 3-loop order in Quantum Chromodynamics (QCD) at general values of the Mellin variable N and the momentum fraction x. Besides the heavy quark pair production also the single heavy flavor excitation s→c contributes. Numerical results are presented for the charm quark contributions and consequences on the Gross-Llewellyn Smith sum rule are discussed.
Measurements of recoil and projectile momentum distributions for 19-MeV F9+ + Ne collisions
International Nuclear Information System (INIS)
Frohne, V.; Cheng, S.; Ali, R.M.; Raphaelian, M.L.; Cocke, C.L.; Olson, R.
1996-01-01
The collision system of 19-MeV F 9+ on Ne has been studied using recoil and projectile momentum spectroscopy. For each event, identified by final recoil and projectile charge state, the three-dimensional momentum vector of the recoil ion and the transverse momentum vector of the projectile ion were measured. The transverse momenta of the recoil and projectile ions were found to be equal in magnitude and opposite in direction, indicating that the transverse momentum exchange is dominated by interactions between the two ion cores. The transverse momentum distributions are well described by nCTMC calculations. The longitudinal momentum distributions of the recoil ions show that a large fraction of the momentum transferred to the projectile is carried off by continuum electrons. The recoil ions are scattered slightly backward, in partial agreement with predictions of nCTMC calculations. copyright 1996 The American Physical Society
International Nuclear Information System (INIS)
Kim, J.; Shvydko, Y.
2011-01-01
Momentum-resolved resonant inelastic x-ray scattering (RIXS) spectroscopy has been carried out successfully at the Fe K-edge for the first time. The RIXS spectra of a FeBO 3 single crystal reveal a wealth of information on ∼ 1-10 eV electronic excitations. The IXS signal resonates when the incident photon energy approaches the pre-edge (1s - -3d) and the main-edge (1s - -4p) of the Fe K-edge absorption spectrum. The RIXS spectra measured at the pre-edge and the main-edge show quantitatively different dependences on the incident photon energy, momentum transfer, photon polarization, and temperature. We present a multielectron analysis of the Mott-Hubbard (MH) and charge transfer (CT) excitations, and calculate their energies. Electronic excitations observed in the pre-edge and main-edge RIXS spectra are interpreted as MH and CT excitations, respectively. We propose the electronic structure around the chemical potential in FeBO 3 based on the experimental data.
Quark Orbital Angular Momentum
Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)
Burkardt Matthias
2015-01-01
Full Text Available Definitions of orbital angular momentum based on Wigner distributions are used as a framework to discuss the connection between the Ji definition of the quark orbital angular momentum and that of Jaffe and Manohar. We find that the difference between these two definitions can be interpreted as the change in the quark orbital angular momentum as it leaves the target in a DIS experiment. The mechanism responsible for that change is similar to the mechanism that causes transverse single-spin asymmetries in semi-inclusive deep-inelastic scattering.
International Nuclear Information System (INIS)
Chen Lixiang; Zheng Guoliang; She Weilong
2007-01-01
An optical spanner is a light beam that can exert a torque on an object. It is demonstrated in this Rapid Communication that, with the aid of applied electric and magnetic fields, a light beam with initially linear polarization and initially zero total spin angular momentum can interact with an optically active medium, resulting in a change of the ratio of left-handed circularly polarized photons to right-handed ones. Thus the total spin angular momentum of the light is changed, which leads to a torque, creating an electrically and magnetically controlled optical spanner on the medium. For a linearly polarized 632.8 nm laser beam incident on a 100-μm-long Ce:Bi 12 TiO 20 whisker crystal with 5 μm radius, if the magnetic field is fixed at -1.8 T, both the left- (right-)handed circularly polarized photon number and the total spin angular momentum vary with the applied electric field in a sinusoidal way, which means the torque exerted by the optical spanner on the crystal also varies sinusoidally with the electric field. It is found that at 50 (or-50) kV/cm, 56% right- (left-)handed circularly polarized photons are translated into left- (right-)handed ones, which corresponds to a transfer of 0.56(ℎ/2π) spin angular momentum contributed by each photon
Effect of reflecting modes on combined heat transfer within an anisotropic scattering slab
International Nuclear Information System (INIS)
Yi Hongliang; Tan Heping; Lu Yiping
2005-01-01
Under various interface reflecting modes, different transient thermal responses will occur in the media. Combined radiative-conductive heat transfer is investigated within a participating, anisotropic scattering gray planar slab. The two interfaces of the slab are considered to be diffuse and semitransparent. Using the ray tracing method, an anisotropic scattering radiative transfer model for diffuse reflection at boundaries is set up, and with the help of direct radiative transfer coefficients, corresponding radiative transfer coefficients (RTCs) are deduced. RTCs are used to calculate the radiative source term in energy equation. Transient energy equation is solved by the full implicit control-volume method under the external radiative-convective boundary conditions. The influences of two reflecting modes including both specular reflection and diffuse reflection on transient temperature fields and steady heat flux are examined. According to numerical results obtained in this paper, it is found that there exits great difference in thermal behavior between slabs with diffuse interfaces and that with specular interfaces for slabs with big refractive index
The energy transport in a vegetated (corn) surface layer is examined by solving the vector radiative transfer equation using a numerical iterative approach. This approach allows a higher order that includes the multiple scattering effects. Multiple scattering effects are important when the optical t...
Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)
Desantes, J.M.; Salvador, F.J.; Lopez, J.J.; Morena, J. de la [Universidad Politecnica de Valencia, CMT-Motores Termicos, Valencia (Spain)
2011-02-15
In this paper, a research aimed at quantifying mass and momentum transfer in the near-nozzle field of diesel sprays injected into stagnant ambient air is reported. The study combines X-ray measurements for two different nozzles and axial positions, which provide mass distributions in the spray, with a theoretical model based on momentum flux conservation, which was previously validated. This investigation has allowed the validation of Gaussian profiles for local fuel concentration and velocity near the nozzle exit, as well as the determination of Schmidt number at realistic diesel spray conditions. This information could be very useful for those who are interested in spray modeling, especially at high-pressure injection conditions. (orig.)
Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)
Hussein, M S; Aleixo, A N; Canto, L F; Carrilho, P; Donangelo, R; Paula, L.S. de
1987-07-01
A closed expression is derived for the dynamic ..cap alpha..-transfer polarisation potential for heavy-ion elastic scattering. The back-angle angular distributions for the elastic scattering of /sup 16/O + /sup 28/Si obtained by adding this polarisation potential to the E-18 interaction are shown to be in good agreement with the data if an ..cap alpha..-transfer spectroscopic factor of 0.4 is used.
Transverse spin and momentum correlations in quantum ...
Indian Academy of Sciences (India)
asymmetry for a longitudinally polarized target in semi-inclusive deep inelastic scattering. Keywords. .... integrate out ξ and perform the momentum integration over the diquark momentum ...... [53] European Muon: M Arneodo et al, Z. Phys. C34 ...
International Nuclear Information System (INIS)
Bourassa, A.E.; Degenstein, D.A.; Llewellyn, E.J.
2008-01-01
The inversion of satellite-based observations of limb scattered sunlight for the retrieval of constituent species requires an efficient and accurate modelling of the measurement. We present the development of the SASKTRAN radiative transfer model for the prediction of limb scatter measurements at optical wavelengths by method of successive orders along rays traced in a spherical atmosphere. The component of the signal due to the first two scattering events of the solar beam is accounted for directly along rays traced in the three-dimensional geometry. Simplifying assumptions in successive scattering orders provide computational optimizations without severely compromising the accuracy of the solution. SASKTRAN is designed for the analysis of measurements from the OSIRIS instrument and the implementation of the algorithm is efficient such that the code is suitable for the inversion of OSIRIS profiles on desktop computers. SASKTRAN total limb radiance profiles generally compare better with Monte-Carlo reference models over a large range of solar conditions than the approximate spherical and plane-parallel models typically used for inversions
Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)
Jonsson, Jacob C.; Branden, Henrik
2006-10-19
This paper demonstrates a method to determine thebidirectional transfer distribution function (BTDF) using an integratingsphere. Information about the sample's angle dependent scattering isobtained by making transmittance measurements with the sample atdifferent distances from the integrating sphere. Knowledge about theilluminated area of the sample and the geometry of the sphere port incombination with the measured data combines to an system of equationsthat includes the angle dependent transmittance. The resulting system ofequations is an ill-posed problem which rarely gives a physical solution.A solvable system is obtained by using Tikhonov regularization on theill-posed problem. The solution to this system can then be used to obtainthe BTDF. Four bulk-scattering samples were characterised using both twogoniophotometers and the described method to verify the validity of thenew method. The agreement shown is great for the more diffuse samples.The solution to the low-scattering samples contains unphysicaloscillations, butstill gives the correct shape of the solution. Theorigin of the oscillations and why they are more prominent inlow-scattering samples are discussed.
Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)
Frins, E [Universidad de la Republica, Montevideo (Uruguay); Dultz, W [J.W.v.Goethe Universitaet Frankfurt/Main (Germany); Schmitzer, H, E-mail: requalivahanus@t-online.de [Xavier University, Cincinnati (United States)
2011-01-01
Rotating small birefringent particles with the spin angular momentum of light is a key experiment of quantum optics. We derive the equation of motion of small retarders in viscose liquids, demonstrate their some times irregular rotation in polarized light, and discuss possible technical applications.
Liu, L. H.; Tan, J. Y.
2007-02-01
A least-squares collocation meshless method is employed for solving the radiative heat transfer in absorbing, emitting and scattering media. The least-squares collocation meshless method for radiative transfer is based on the discrete ordinates equation. A moving least-squares approximation is applied to construct the trial functions. Except for the collocation points which are used to construct the trial functions, a number of auxiliary points are also adopted to form the total residuals of the problem. The least-squares technique is used to obtain the solution of the problem by minimizing the summation of residuals of all collocation and auxiliary points. Three numerical examples are studied to illustrate the performance of this new solution method. The numerical results are compared with the other benchmark approximate solutions. By comparison, the results show that the least-squares collocation meshless method is efficient, accurate and stable, and can be used for solving the radiative heat transfer in absorbing, emitting and scattering media.
International Nuclear Information System (INIS)
Liu, L.H.; Tan, J.Y.
2007-01-01
A least-squares collocation meshless method is employed for solving the radiative heat transfer in absorbing, emitting and scattering media. The least-squares collocation meshless method for radiative transfer is based on the discrete ordinates equation. A moving least-squares approximation is applied to construct the trial functions. Except for the collocation points which are used to construct the trial functions, a number of auxiliary points are also adopted to form the total residuals of the problem. The least-squares technique is used to obtain the solution of the problem by minimizing the summation of residuals of all collocation and auxiliary points. Three numerical examples are studied to illustrate the performance of this new solution method. The numerical results are compared with the other benchmark approximate solutions. By comparison, the results show that the least-squares collocation meshless method is efficient, accurate and stable, and can be used for solving the radiative heat transfer in absorbing, emitting and scattering media
International Nuclear Information System (INIS)
Crowe, K.M.
1982-01-01
By studying radiative capture in flight, information can be obtained on the energy and momentum transfer dependence of nuclear transition densities containing the spin. These are of interest from a nuclear structure point of view, as well as in connection with discussions of exotic phenomena such as pion condensation and opalescence. This report presents preliminary results of measurements of 1 H(π - ,γ)n at T = 113 MeV and 13 C(π + ,γ) 13 N g.s. at T = 115 MeV. (Auth.)
International Nuclear Information System (INIS)
Drozdowicz, K.
1995-01-01
A comprehensive unified description of the application of Granada's Synthetic Model to the slow-neutron scattering by the molecular systems is continued. Detailed formulae for the zero-order energy transfer kernel are presented basing on the general formalism of the model. An explicit analytical formula for the total scattering cross section as a function of the incident neutron energy is also obtained. Expressions of the free gas model for the zero-order scattering kernel and for total scattering kernel are considered as a sub-case of the Synthetic Model. (author). 10 refs
International Nuclear Information System (INIS)
Rozanov, Vladimir V.; Vountas, Marco
2014-01-01
Rotational Raman scattering of solar light in Earth's atmosphere leads to the filling-in of Fraunhofer and telluric lines observed in the reflected spectrum. The phenomenological derivation of the inelastic radiative transfer equation including rotational Raman scattering is presented. The different forms of the approximate radiative transfer equation with first-order rotational Raman scattering terms are obtained employing the Cabannes, Rayleigh, and Cabannes–Rayleigh scattering models. The solution of these equations is considered in the framework of the discrete-ordinates method using rigorous and approximate approaches to derive particular integrals. An alternative forward-adjoint technique is suggested as well. A detailed description of the model including the exact spectral matching and a binning scheme that significantly speeds up the calculations is given. The considered solution techniques are implemented in the radiative transfer software package SCIATRAN and a specified benchmark setup is presented to enable readers to compare with own results transparently. -- Highlights: • We derived the radiative transfer equation accounting for rotational Raman scattering. • Different approximate radiative transfer approaches with first order scattering were used. • Rigorous and approximate approaches are shown to derive particular integrals. • An alternative forward-adjoint technique is suggested as well. • An additional spectral binning scheme which speeds up the calculations is presented
One-neutron and two-neutron transfer in the scattering
International Nuclear Information System (INIS)
Reisdorf, W.N.; Lau, P.H.; Vandenbosch, R.
1975-01-01
Angular distributions have been measured for one- and two-neutron transfer reactions induced by 18 O beams on 16 O targets at laboratory bombarding energies of 42 and 52 MeV. The reactions populating the ground and first excited states of 17 O and 18 O are analyzed in terms of single step finite range plus recoil DWBA theory taking into account antisymmetrization effects. Special attention is paid to an internally consistent description of the observed absolute magnitudes of all the reactions and to the theoretically expected interferences between various backward-forward scattering mechanisms. The importance of neutron transfer in accounting for different absorbing properties of the 16 O- 18 O systems as compared to the 16 O- 16 O system is shown. (13 figures, 2 tables)
High energy neutron recoil scattering from liquid 4He
International Nuclear Information System (INIS)
Holt, R.S.; Needham, L.M.; Paoli, M.P.
1987-10-01
The neutron recoil scattering from liquid 4 He at 4.2 K and 1.6 K has been observed for a momentum transfer of 150 A -1 using the Electron Volt Spectrometer on the pulsed neutron source, ISIS. The experiment yielded mean atomic kinetic energy values = 14.8 +- 3 K at 4.2 K and = 14.6 +- 3.2 K at 1.6 K in good agreement with values obtained at lower momentum transfers. (author)
Double scattering and final-state interaction in Xd ---> YNN
Alberi, G; Thomé, Z D
1974-01-01
A unified approach to double scattering, as well as the final-state interaction of the two nucleons at small and large momentum transfers are given. The closure sum rule for the final-state interaction at small momentum transfers is shown explicitly in a simple model for the deuteron wave function and nucleon interaction. An application for the process K/sup +/d to K/sup 0/pp is given, trying to explain discrepancies present in recent experiments. (35 refs).
International Nuclear Information System (INIS)
Broome, J.
1965-11-01
The programme SCATTER is a KDF9 programme in the Egtran dialect of Fortran to generate normalized angular distributions for elastically scattered neutrons from data input as the coefficients of a Legendre polynomial series, or from differential cross-section data. Also, differential cross-section data may be analysed to produce Legendre polynomial coefficients. Output on cards punched in the format of the U.K. A. E. A. Nuclear Data Library is optional. (author)
International Nuclear Information System (INIS)
Tarvainen, Tanja; Vauhkonen, Marko; Kolehmainen, Ville; Arridge, Simon R; Kaipio, Jari P
2005-01-01
In this paper, a coupled radiative transfer equation and diffusion approximation model is extended for light propagation in turbid medium with low-scattering and non-scattering regions. The light propagation is modelled with the radiative transfer equation in sub-domains in which the assumptions of the diffusion approximation are not valid. The diffusion approximation is used elsewhere in the domain. The two equations are coupled through their boundary conditions and they are solved simultaneously using the finite element method. The streamline diffusion modification is used to avoid the ray-effect problem in the finite element solution of the radiative transfer equation. The proposed method is tested with simulations. The results of the coupled model are compared with the finite element solutions of the radiative transfer equation and the diffusion approximation and with results of Monte Carlo simulation. The results show that the coupled model can be used to describe photon migration in turbid medium with low-scattering and non-scattering regions more accurately than the conventional diffusion model
Relationship between the Kubelka-Munk scattering and radiative transfer coefficients.
Thennadil, Suresh N
2008-07-01
The relationship between the Kubelka-Munk (K-M) and the transport scattering coefficient is obtained through a semi-empirical approach. This approach gives the same result as that given by Gate [Appl. Opt.13, 236 (1974)] when the incident beam is diffuse. This result and those given by Star et al. [Phys. Med. Biol.33, 437 (1988)] and Brinkworth [Appl. Opt.11, 1434 (1972)] are compared with the exact solution of the radiative transfer equation over a large range of optical properties. It is found that the latter expressions, which include an absorption component, do not give accurate results over the range considered. Using the semi-empirical approach, the relationship between the K-M and the transport scattering coefficient is derived for the case where the incident light is collimated. It is shown that although the K-M equation is derived based on diffuse incident light, it can also represent very well the reflectance from a slab of infinite thickness when the incident light is collimated. However, in this case the relationship between the coefficients has to include a function that is dependent on the anisotropy factor. Analysis indicates that the K-M transform achieves the objective of obtaining a measure that gives the ratio of absorption to scattering effects for both diffuse and collimated incident beams over a large range of optical properties.
Molecular beam studies of energy transfer in scattering from crystal surfaces
International Nuclear Information System (INIS)
Guthrie, W.L.
1983-01-01
The translational energy distributions and angular distributions of D 2 O produced from the reaction of incident D 2 and O 2 on a (111) platinum single crystal surface have been measured through the use of a molecular beam-surface scattering apparatus equipped with a time-of-flight spectrometer. The translation energies were measured over the surface temperature range T/sub s/ = 664 K - 913 K and at scattering angles of 7 0 and 40 0 from the surface normal. The D 2 O translational energy, , was found to be approximately half the equilibrium value over the temperature range examined, with /2k varying from 280 K to 480 K. These results are discussed in terms of a non-equilibrium desorption model. The two-photon ionization spectrometer was built to investigate the internal rotational and vibrational energy distributions of NO scattered from Pt(111) surfaces. The rotational energy distributions were measured over the crystal temperature range of T/sub s/ = 400 K - 1200 K. The translational energy distributions and angular distributions were measured using the time-of-flight spectrometer over the crystal temperature range of 400 K - 110 K and for beam translational energies of 0.046 eV, 0.11 eV and 0.24 eV, so that complete energy exchange information for translation, rotation and vibration is available for this gas-surface system. Significant energy transfer was observed in all three modes
A MULTIPLE SCATTERING POLARIZED RADIATIVE TRANSFER MODEL: APPLICATION TO HD 189733b
Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)
Kopparla, Pushkar; Yung, Yuk L. [Division of Geological and Planetary Sciences, California Institute of Technology, Pasadena, CA (United States); Natraj, Vijay; Swain, Mark R. [Jet Propulsion Laboratory (NASA-JPL), Pasadena, CA (United States); Zhang, Xi [Lunar and Planetary Laboratory, University of Arizona, Tucson, AZ (United States); Wiktorowicz, Sloane J., E-mail: pkk@gps.caltech.edu [Department of Astronomy and Astrophysics, University of California, Santa Cruz, CA (United States)
2016-01-20
We present a multiple scattering vector radiative transfer model that produces disk integrated, full phase polarized light curves for reflected light from an exoplanetary atmosphere. We validate our model against results from published analytical and computational models and discuss a small number of cases relevant to the existing and possible near-future observations of the exoplanet HD 189733b. HD 189733b is arguably the most well observed exoplanet to date and the only exoplanet to be observed in polarized light, yet it is debated if the planet’s atmosphere is cloudy or clear. We model reflected light from clear atmospheres with Rayleigh scattering, and cloudy or hazy atmospheres with Mie and fractal aggregate particles. We show that clear and cloudy atmospheres have large differences in polarized light as compared to simple flux measurements, though existing observations are insufficient to make this distinction. Futhermore, we show that atmospheres that are spatially inhomogeneous, such as being partially covered by clouds or hazes, exhibit larger contrasts in polarized light when compared to clear atmospheres. This effect can potentially be used to identify patchy clouds in exoplanets. Given a set of full phase polarimetric measurements, this model can constrain the geometric albedo, properties of scattering particles in the atmosphere, and the longitude of the ascending node of the orbit. The model is used to interpret new polarimetric observations of HD 189733b in a companion paper.
Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)
Chen, Lin; Qiu, Shunli; Liu, Pinyang; Xiong, Feifei; Lu, Jianjie; Liu, Yuefeng; Li, Guopeng; Liu, Yiran; Ren, Fei; Xiao, Yunqing; Gao, Lei; Zhao, Qiushuang; Ding, Bin; Li, Yuan [School of Nuclear Science and Technology, Lanzhou University, 730000 (China); Key Laboratory of Special Function Materials and Structure Design, Ministry of Education, Lanzhou University, 730000 (China); Guo, Yanling, E-mail: guoyanling@lzu.edu.cn [School of Nuclear Science and Technology, Lanzhou University, 730000 (China); Key Laboratory of Special Function Materials and Structure Design, Ministry of Education, Lanzhou University, 730000 (China); Chen, Ximeng, E-mail: chenxm@lzu.edu.cn [School of Nuclear Science and Technology, Lanzhou University, 730000 (China); Key Laboratory of Special Function Materials and Structure Design, Ministry of Education, Lanzhou University, 730000 (China)
2016-11-30
Highlights: • We first observe that negative-ion fractions present no variation with the doping concentration, which is very different from the results of low energy Li neutralization from doped Si samples. • Our work shows that the affinity levels and collision time significantly counteract the band gap effect on negative ion formation. The work will improve our understanding on electron transfer on semiconductor surfaces associated with doping. • In addition, we build a complete theoretical framework to quantitatively calculate the negative-ion fractions. • Our work is related to charge transfer on semiconductor surfaces, which will be of interest to a broad audience due to the wide necessity of the knowledge of charge exchange on semiconductor surfaces in different fields. - Abstract: Doping has significantly affected the characteristics and performance of semiconductor electronic devices. In this work, we study the charge transfer processes for 8.5–22.5 keV C{sup −} and F{sup −} ions scattering on H{sub 2}O-terminated p-type Si(100) surfaces with two different doping concentrations. We find that doping has no influence on negative-ion formation for fast collisions in this relatively high energy range. Moreover, we build a model to calculate negative ion fractions including the contribution from positive ions. The calculations support the nonadiabatic feature of charge transfer.
Inelastic scattering. Time of flight
International Nuclear Information System (INIS)
Eccleston, R.
1999-01-01
It is the scattering function, S(Q,ω), which provides the link between the scattering data and the physical system being studied and is thereby the parameter of interest. The nature of the experiment will dictate the portions of momentum transfer - energy transfer space that is to be probed. The portions of Q-ω space that are accessible and the way it is covered determine the appropriateness of an instrument or technique to a particular experiment. One should also remember that if studying a polycrystalline of disordered material, momentum transfer need only by characterized by modulus Q whereas in studies of single crystals one is operating in four-dimensional Q x -Q y -Q z -ω space. (author)
International Nuclear Information System (INIS)
Steckmeyer, J.C.
1984-10-01
Angular momentum transfer and spin dealignment mechanisms have been studied in the deep inelastic collisions Ar+Bi and Ni+Pb using the sequential fission method. This experimental technique consists to measure the angular distribution of the fission fragments of a heavy nucleus in coincidence with the reaction partner, and leads to a complete determination of the heavy nucleus spin distribution. High spin values are transferred to the heavy nucleus in the interaction and indicate that the dinuclear system has reached the rigid rotation limit. A theoretical model, taking into account the excitation of surface vibrations of the nuclei and the nucleon transfer between the two partners, is able to reproduce the high spin values measured in our experiments. The spin fluctuations are important, with values of the order of 15 to 20 h units. These fluctuations increase with the charge transfer from the projectile to the target and the total kinetic energy loss. The spin dealignment mechanisms act mainly in a plane approximately perpendicular to the heavy recoil direction in the laboratory system. These results are well described by a dynamical transport model based on the stochastic exchange of individual nucleons between the two nuclei during the interaction. The origin of the dealignment mechanisms in the spin transfer processes is then related to the statistical nature of the nucleon exchange. However other mechanisms can contribute to the spin dealignment as the surface vibrations, the nuclear deformations as well their relative orientations [fr
Hirsch, J. E.
2018-05-01
Since the discovery of the Meissner effect, the superconductor to normal (S-N) phase transition in the presence of a magnetic field is understood to be a first-order phase transformation that is reversible under ideal conditions and obeys the laws of thermodynamics. The reverse (N-S) transition is the Meissner effect. This implies in particular that the kinetic energy of the supercurrent is not dissipated as Joule heat in the process where the superconductor becomes normal and the supercurrent stops. In this paper, we analyze the entropy generation and the momentum transfer between the supercurrent and the body in the S-N transition and the N-S transition as described by the conventional theory of superconductivity. We find that it is not possible to explain the transition in a way that is consistent with the laws of thermodynamics unless the momentum transfer between the supercurrent and the body occurs with zero entropy generation, for which the conventional theory of superconductivity provides no mechanism. Instead, we point out that the alternative theory of hole superconductivity does not encounter such difficulties.
International Nuclear Information System (INIS)
Schubert, J.F.
1977-01-01
Acoustic sounder measurements of a vertical profile of the abrupt transition from a laminar to a turbulent atmospheric boundary layer were compared with meteorological measurements made at 10 and 137 m on an instrumented tower. Sounder data show that conditions necessary for the onset of the momentum burst phenomenon exist sometime during a clear afternoon when heat flux changes sign and the planetary surface cools. Under these conditions, the lowest part of the atmospheric boundary layer becomes stable. Prior to this situation, the entire boundary layer is in turbulent motion from surface heating. The boundary layer is then an effective barrier for all fluxes, and as the maximum flux Richardson number is reached at some height close to but above the surface, turbulence is dampened and a laminar layer forms. The profile of this layer is recorded by the sounder. Surface temperature drops, a strong wind shear develops, and the Richardson number decreases below its critical value (Ri/sub cr/<0.25). Subsequently, the laminar layer is eroded by turbulence from above, and with a burst of momentum and heat, it eventually reaches the ground
Constraints on low energy Compton scattering amplitudes
International Nuclear Information System (INIS)
Raszillier, I.
1979-04-01
We derive the constraints and correlations of fairly general type for Compton scattering amplitudes at energies below photoproduction threshold and fixed momentum transfer, following from (an upper bound on) the corresponding differential cross section above photoproduction threshold. The derivation involves the solution of an extremal problem in a certain space of vector - valued analytic functions. (author)
Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)
Xianglong Liu
2014-01-01
Full Text Available A numerical model is developed to simulate combined natural convection and radiation heat transfer of various anisotropic absorbing-emitting-scattering media in a 2D square cavity based on the discrete ordinate (DO method and Boussinesq assumption. The effects of Rayleigh number, optical thickness, scattering ratio, scattering phase function, and aspect ratio of square cavity on the behaviors of heat transfer are studied. The results show that the heat transfer of absorbing-emitting-scattering media is the combined results of radiation and natural convection, which depends on the physical properties and the aspect ratio of the cavity. When the natural convection becomes significant, the convection heat transfer is enhanced, and the distributions of NuR and Nuc along the walls are obviously distorted. As the optical thickness increases, NuR along the hot wall decreases. As the scattering ratio decreases, the NuR along the walls decreases. At the higher aspect ratio, the more intensive thermal radiation and natural convection are formed, which increase the radiation and convection heat fluxes. This paper provides the theoretical research for the optimal thermal design and practical operation of the high temperature industrial equipments.
Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)
Weidmann, R.; Albert, J.; Glombik, A.; Kretschmer, W.; Nebert, P.; Rauscher, A. (Physikalisches Inst., Univ. Erlangen-Nuernberg (Germany)); Clajus, M.; Egun, P.M.; Grueebler, W.; Hautle, P. (Inst. fuer Mittelenergiephysik, ETH, Zurich (Switzerland)); Schmelzbach, P.A. (Paul Scherrer Inst., F1, Accelerator Div., Villigen (Switzerland)); Slaus, I. (Inst. Ruder Boscovic, Zagreb (Croatia))
1993-03-01
The polarization-Transfer observables K[sub y][sup y']([theta]), K[sub x][sup x']([theta]) and K[sub z][sup x']([theta]) for proton-proton scattering have been measured at E[sub p]=25.68 MeV. A simultaneous phase-shift analysis of these new data with differential cross section and analyzing power data at the same energy resulted in a very accurate determination of the p-wave phase-shift combinations [Delta][sub C], [Delta][sub LS] and [Delta][sub T] and of the [sup 3]F[sub 2]-[sup 3]P[sub 2] mixing parameter [epsilon][sub 2]. With this complete set of high precision data a critical test of microscopic NN-potential models has been performed. (orig.).
International Nuclear Information System (INIS)
Maruyama, Shigenao; Mori, Yusuke; Sakai, Seigo
2004-01-01
Radiative heat transfer in the fog layer is analyzed. Direct and diffuse solar irradiation, and infrared sky flux are considered as incident radiation. Anisotropic scattering of radiation by water droplets is taken into account. Absorption and emission of radiation by water droplets and radiative gases are also considered. Furthermore, spectral dependences of radiative properties of irradiation, reflectivity, gas absorption and scattering and absorption of mist are considered. The radiation element method by ray emission model (REM 2 ) is used for the nongray radiation analysis. Net downward radiative heat flux at the sea surface and radiative equilibrium temperature distribution in the fog layer are calculated for several conditions. Transmitted solar flux decreases as liquid water content (LWC) in the fog increases. However, the value does not become zero but has the value about 60 W/m 2 . The effect of humidity and mist on radiative cooling at night is investigated. Due to high temperature and humidity condition, the radiation cooling at night is not so large even in the clear sky. Furthermore, the radiative equilibrium temperature distribution in the fog layer in the daytime is higher as LWC increases, and the inversion layer of temperature occurs
International Nuclear Information System (INIS)
Ogawa, Masuro
1989-07-01
In Japan Atomic Energy Research Institute (JAERI), a very high temperature gas cooled reactor (VHTR) has been researched and developed with a purpose of attaining a coolant temperature of around 1000degC at the reactor outlet. In order to design VHTR, comprehensive knowledge is required on thermo-hydraulic characteristics of laminar-turbulent transition, of coolant flow with large thermal property variation due to temperature difference, and of heat transfer deterioration. In the present investigation, experimental and analytical studies are made on a gas flow in a circular tube to elucidate the thermo-hydraulic characteristics. Friction factors and heat transfer coefficients in transitional flows are obtained. Influence of thermal property variation on the friction factor is qualitatively determined. Heat transfer deterioration in the turbulent flow subjected to intense heating is experimentally found to be caused by flow laminarization. The analysis based on a k-kL two-equation model of turbulence predicts well the experimental results on friction factors and heat transfer coefficients in flows with thermal property variation and in laminarizing flows. (author)
International Nuclear Information System (INIS)
Luknarova, M.; Veis, S.
1976-01-01
The DC conductivity of a thermally produced plasma in a plasma diode has been measured in pure potassium vapour. The plasma diode consists of two tungsten electrodes heated to a temperature of 2200 K. A simple theory for determining the influence of the plasma sheaths on the measured conductivity was developed and experimental conditions were established under which the potential drops across the sheaths could be neglected. By measuring the DC conductivity of the plasma at temperatures ranging from 1250 to 1600 K the potassium momentum-transfer cross section has been obtained. The measured cross section (2.37 +- 0.24) x 10 -14 cm 2 at 1500 K is in good agreement with results of other workers. Results for the work function of tungsten in potassium vapour were also obtained. (author)
Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)
Boer, Stefan de [TU Dortmund, Fakultaet fuer Physik, Dortmund (Germany)
2017-11-15
Non-factorizable two loop corrections to heavy to light flavor changing neutral current transitions due to matrix elements of current-current operators are calculated analytically for arbitrary momentum transfer. This extends previous work on b → (d, s)l{sup +}l{sup -} transitions. New results for c → ul{sup +}l{sup -} transitions are presented. Recent work on polylogarithms is used for the master integrals. For b → sl{sup +}l{sup -} transitions, the corrections are most significant for the imaginary parts of the effective Wilson coefficients in the large hadronic recoil range. Analytical results and ready-to-use fitted results for a specific set of parameters are provided. (orig.)
Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)
Klimek, K.H.
2001-11-01
Photoproduction of vector mesons, {gamma}p {yields} VY, where Y is the system into which the proton dissociates, has been measured in e{sup +}p interactions with the ZEUS detector at HERA using an integrated luminosity of 24 pb{sup -1}. The data were taken at a photon-proton center-of-mass energy W {approx_equal} 100 GeV and extend up to -t = 10 GeV{sup 2}, where t is the square of the four-momentum transferred to the vector meson. The differential cross section d{sigma}/dt for {rho}{sup 0}, {phi} and J/{psi} production are compared to the expectations of phenomenological models. (orig.)
Deuteron electrofission in forward direction at a four-momentum transfer of Q2=0.12 (GeV/c)2
International Nuclear Information System (INIS)
Boden, B.
1990-12-01
The deuteron electrodisintegration has been performed as the first experiment at the new Bonn 3.5 GeV high duty-cycle electron accelerator ELSA (Electron Stretcher and Accelerator). The cross section was measured in the region of the Δ(1232) resonance excitation at four-momentum-transfer of Q 2 = 0.12 (GeV/c) 2 . An enhancement of the cross section has been observed at the mass of the NΔ system(W = 2.19 GeV) at each of the three hadron spectrometer angles Θ p LAB = 44 0 , 56 0 , 68 0 ) which were set. The results are compared with theoretical calculations. (orig.) [de
Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)
V.P. Gonçalves
2017-05-01
Full Text Available The exclusive vector meson production cross section is one of the most promising observables to probe the high energy regime of the QCD dynamics. In particular, the squared momentum transfer (t distributions are an important source of information about the spatial distribution of the gluons in the hadron and about fluctuations of the color fields. In this paper we complement previous studies on exclusive vector meson photoproduction in hadronic collisions presenting a comprehensive analysis of the t-spectrum measured in exclusive ρ, ϕ and J/Ψ photoproduction in pp and PbPb collisions at the LHC. We compute the differential cross sections taking into account gluon saturation effects and compare the predictions with those obtained in the linear regime of the QCD dynamics. Our results show that gluon saturation suppresses the magnitude of the cross sections and shifts the position of the dips towards smaller values of t.
Quasiparticle scattering by quantum phase slips in one-dimensional superfluids
International Nuclear Information System (INIS)
Khlebnikov, S.
2004-01-01
Quantum phase slips (QPS) in narrow superfluid channels generate momentum by unwinding the supercurrent. In a uniform Bose gas, this momentum needs to be absorbed by quasiparticles (phonons). We show that this requirement results in an additional exponential suppression of the QPS rate (compared to the rate of QPS induced by a sharply localized perturbation). In BCS-paired fluids, momentum can be transferred to fermionic quasiparticles, and we find an interesting interplay between quasiparticle scattering on QPS and on disorder
Energy evolution of the large-t elastic scattering and its correlation with multiparticle production
International Nuclear Information System (INIS)
Troshin, S. M.
2013-01-01
It is emphasized that the collective dynamics associated with color confinement is dominating over a point-like mechanism related to a scattering of the proton constituents at the currently available values of the momentum transferred in proton elastic scattering at the LHC. Deep-elastic scattering and its role in the dissimilation of the absorptive and reflective asymptotic scattering mechanisms are discussed with emphasis on the experimental signatures associated with the multiparticle production processes.
Energy evolution of the large-t elastic scattering and its correlation with multiparticle production
Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)
Troshin, S. M. [Institute for High Energy Physics, Protvino, Moscow Region, 142281 (Russian Federation)
2013-04-15
It is emphasized that the collective dynamics associated with color confinement is dominating over a point-like mechanism related to a scattering of the proton constituents at the currently available values of the momentum transferred in proton elastic scattering at the LHC. Deep-elastic scattering and its role in the dissimilation of the absorptive and reflective asymptotic scattering mechanisms are discussed with emphasis on the experimental signatures associated with the multiparticle production processes.
Non-Gaussian Stochastic Radiation Transfer in Finite Planar Media with Quadratic Scattering
International Nuclear Information System (INIS)
Sallah, M.
2016-01-01
The stochastic radiation transfer is considered in a participating planar finite continuously fluctuating medium characterized by non-Gaussian variability. The problem is considered for diffuse-reflecting boundaries with quadratic Rayleigh scattering. Random variable transformation (RVT) technique is used to get the complete average for the solution functions that are represented by the probability-density function (PDF) of the solution process. RVT algorithm applies a simple integral transformation to the input stochastic process (the extinction function of the medium). This linear transformation enables us to rewrite the stochastic transport equations in terms of the optical random variable (x) and the optical random thickness (L). Then the radiation transfer equation is solved deterministically to get a closed form for the solution as a function of x and L. So, the solution is used to obtain the PDF of the solution functions applying the RVT technique among the input random variable (L) and the output process (the solution functions). The obtained averages of the solution functions are used to get the complete analytical averages for some interesting physical quantities, namely, reflectivity, transmissivity and partial heat fluxes at the medium boundaries. Numerical results are represented graphically for different non-Gaussian probability distribution functions that compared with the corresponding Gaussian PDF.
Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)
Ye, Zhenyu
2007-02-15
In this thesis we report on the rst results on the transverse target-spin asymmetry associated with deeply virtual Compton scattering on the proton. It is shown that this asymmetry can provide one of the rare possibilities to access the Generalized Parton Distribution (GPD) E of the nucleon, and thus, through models for E, also to the total angular momentum of u and d quarks in the nucleon. The measurement was performed using the 27.6 GeV positron beam of the HERA storage ring and the transversely polarized hydrogen target of the HERMES experiment at DESY. The two leading azimuthal amplitudes of the asymmetry are extracted from the HERMES 2002-2004 data, corresponding to an integrated luminosity of 65.3 pb.1. By comparing the results obtained at HERMES and theoretical predictions based on a phenomenological model of GPDs, we obtain a model-dependent constraint on the total angular momentum of quarks in the nucleon. (orig.)
International Nuclear Information System (INIS)
Ye, Zhenyu
2007-02-01
In this thesis we report on the rst results on the transverse target-spin asymmetry associated with deeply virtual Compton scattering on the proton. It is shown that this asymmetry can provide one of the rare possibilities to access the Generalized Parton Distribution (GPD) E of the nucleon, and thus, through models for E, also to the total angular momentum of u and d quarks in the nucleon. The measurement was performed using the 27.6 GeV positron beam of the HERA storage ring and the transversely polarized hydrogen target of the HERMES experiment at DESY. The two leading azimuthal amplitudes of the asymmetry are extracted from the HERMES 2002-2004 data, corresponding to an integrated luminosity of 65.3 pb.1. By comparing the results obtained at HERMES and theoretical predictions based on a phenomenological model of GPDs, we obtain a model-dependent constraint on the total angular momentum of quarks in the nucleon. (orig.)
A model of diffraction scattering with unitary corrections
International Nuclear Information System (INIS)
Etim, E.; Malecki, A.; Satta, L.
1989-01-01
The inability of the multiple scattering model of Glauber and similar geometrical picture models to fit data at Collider energies, to fit low energy data at large momentum transfers and to explain the absence of multiple diffraction dips in the data is noted. It is argued and shown that a unitary correction to the multiple scattering amplitude gives rise to a better model and allows to fit all available data on nucleon-nucleon and nucleus-nucleus collisions at all energies and all momentum transfers. There are no multiple diffraction dips
CHEMICAL APPLICATIONS OF INELASTIC X-RAY SCATTERING
Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)
HAYASHI,H.; UDAGAWA,Y.; GILLET,J.M.; CALIEBE,W.A.; KAO,C.C.
2001-08-01
Inelastic x-ray scattering (IXS), complementary to other more established inelastic scattering probes, such as light scattering, electron scattering, and neutron scattering, is becoming an important experimental technique in the study of elementary excitations in condensed matters. Over the past decade, IXS with total energy resolution of few meV has been achieved, and is being used routinely in the study of phonon dispersions in solids and liquids as well as dynamics in disordered and biological systems. In the study of electronic excitations, IXS with total energy resolution on the order of 100 meV to 1 eV is gaining wider applications also. For example, IXS has been used to study collective excitations of valence electrons, single electron excitations of valence electrons, as well as core electron excitations. In comparison with the alternative scattering techniques mentioned above, IXS has several advantages. First, IXS probes the full momentum transfer range of the dielectric response of the sample, whereas light scattering is limited to very small momentum transfers, and electron scattering suffers the effects of multiple scattering at large momentum transfers. Second, since IXS measures the bulk properties of the sample it is not surface sensitive, therefore it does not require special preparation of the sample. The greater flexibility in sample conditions and environments makes IXS an ideal probe in the study of liquids and samples under extreme temperature, pressure, and magnetic field. Third, the tunability of synchrotron radiation sources enables IXS to exploit element specificity and resonant enhancement of scattering cross sections. Fourth, IXS is unique in the study of dynamics of liquids and amorphous solids because it can probe the particular region of energy-momentum transfer phase space, which is inaccessible to inelastic neutron scattering. On the other hand, the main disadvantages of IXS are the small cross sections and the strong absorption of
High-energy hadron spin-flip amplitude at small momentum transfer and new AN data from RHIC
International Nuclear Information System (INIS)
Cudell, J.-R.; Selyugin, O.V.; Predazzi, E.
2004-01-01
In the case of elastic high-energy hadron-hadron scattering, the impact of the large-distance contributions on the behaviour of the slopes of the spin-non-flip and of the spin-flip amplitudes is analysed. It is shown that the long tail of the hadronic potential in impact parameter space leads to a value of the slope of the reduced spin-flip amplitude larger than that of the spin-non-flip amplitude. This effect is taken into account in the calculation of the analysing power in proton-nucleus reactions at high energies. It is shown that the preliminary measurement of A N for p 12 C obtained by the E950 Collaboration indeed favours a spin-flip amplitude with a large slope. Predictions for A N at p L =250/ GeV/c are given. (orig.)
Multiple Scattering Principal Component-based Radiative Transfer Model (PCRTM) from Far IR to UV-Vis
Liu, X.; Wu, W.; Yang, Q.
2017-12-01
Modern satellite hyperspectral satellite remote sensors such as AIRS, CrIS, IASI, CLARREO all require accurate and fast radiative transfer models that can deal with multiple scattering of clouds and aerosols to explore the information contents. However, performing full radiative transfer calculations using multiple stream methods such as discrete ordinate (DISORT), doubling and adding (AD), successive order of scattering order of scattering (SOS) are very time consuming. We have developed a principal component-based radiative transfer model (PCRTM) to reduce the computational burden by orders of magnitudes while maintain high accuracy. By exploring spectral correlations, the PCRTM reduce the number of radiative transfer calculations in frequency domain. It further uses a hybrid stream method to decrease the number of calls to the computational expensive multiple scattering calculations with high stream numbers. Other fast parameterizations have been used in the infrared spectral region reduce the computational time to milliseconds for an AIRS forward simulation (2378 spectral channels). The PCRTM has been development to cover spectral range from far IR to UV-Vis. The PCRTM model have been be used for satellite data inversions, proxy data generation, inter-satellite calibrations, spectral fingerprinting, and climate OSSE. We will show examples of applying the PCRTM to single field of view cloudy retrievals of atmospheric temperature, moisture, traces gases, clouds, and surface parameters. We will also show how the PCRTM are used for the NASA CLARREO project.
Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)
Fanelli, Cristiano V. [Sapienza Univ. of Rome (Italy)
2015-03-01
In this thesis work, results of the analysis of the polarization transfers measured in real Compton scattering (RCS) by the Collaboration E07-002 at the Je fferson Lab Hall-C are presented. The data were collected at large scattering angle (theta_cm = 70deg) and with a polarized incident photon beam at an average energy of 3.8 GeV. Such a kind of experiments allows one to understand more deeply the reaction mechanism, that involves a real photon, by extracting both Compton form factors and Generalized Parton Distributions (GPDs) (also relevant for possibly shedding light on the total angular momentum of the nucleon). The obtained results for the longitudinal and transverse polarization transfers K_LL and K_LT, are of crucial importance, since they confirm unambiguously the disagreement between experimental data and pQCD prediction, as it was found in E99-114 experiment, and favor the Handbag mechanism. The E99-114 and E07-002 results can contribute to attract new interest on the great yield of the Compton scattering by a nucleon target, as demonstrated by the recent approval of an experimental proposal submitted to the Jefferson Lab PAC 42 for a Wide-angle Compton Scattering experiment, at 8 and 10 GeV Photon Energies. The new experiments approved to run with the updated 12 GeV electron beam at JLab, are characterized by much higher luminosities, and a new GEM tracker is under development to tackle the challenging backgrounds. Within this context, we present a new multistep tracking algorithm, based on (i) a Neural Network (NN) designed for a fast and efficient association of the hits measured by the GEM detector which allows the track identification, and (ii) the application of both a Kalman filter and Rauch-Tung-Striebel smoother to further improve the track reconstruction. The full procedure, i.e. NN and filtering, appears very promising, with high performances in terms of both association effciency and reconstruction accuracy, and these preliminary results will
Mittermaier, M.; Ziegler, F.
2018-04-01
In this article we present a model describing a laminar film flow over a vertical isothermal plate whilst heat and mass transfer is occurring. We focus on a formulation where most common assumptions, such as constant property data and constant film thickness, have been cancelled. The hydrodynamic model results in longitudinal and transversal velocity components and their evolution in the entrance region. Heat and mass transfer occurs simultaneously and is modelled with respect to release of differential heat of solution as well as heat flow due to interdiffusion. The numerical solution is obtained by utilising a Newton-Raphson method to solve the finite difference formulation of the governing equations. Mass transfer across the film affects the development of both longitudinal and transversal velocity components. The hydrodynamics are modelled using a boundary layer approximation of the Navier-Stokes equations. The significance of simplifications on the hydrodynamic model are illustrated and discussed using a fully developed velocity profile (Nusselt flow) and a plug flow at the inlet for comparison. Even if a Nusselt profile is assumed, it develops further since mass is absorbed or desorbed. It is found that the onset of absorption occurs at shorter flow length when applying a plug flow at the inlet. If the film is initially in equilibrium, this results in a 9.3% increase in absorbed mass over a length of 0.03 m as compared with the Nusselt flow. A fluid with a viscosity five times the one of lithium bromide solution but sharing comparable properties apart from that, leads to lower overall heat and mass transfer rates. If the respective fluids are saturated at the inlet, the accumulated mass flux absorbed by lithium bromide solution is 2.2 times higher than the one absorbed by a high viscous fluid. However, when a plug flow is applied and the fluid is sub-cooled, ab initio the absorbed mass flux is slightly higher for a high viscous fluid. Assuming a sub
Lelli, Luca; Rozanov, Vladimir V.; Vountas, Marco; Burrows, John P.
2017-10-01
This paper is devoted to the phenomenological derivation of the vector radiative transfer equation (VRTE) accounting for first-order source terms of rotational Raman scattering (RRS), which is responsible for the in-filling of Fraunhofer and telluric lines by inelastic scattered photons. The implementation of the solution of the VRTE within the framework of the forward-adjoint method is given. For the Ca II and the oxygen A-band (O2 A) spectral windows, values of reflectance, degree of linear polarization (DOLP) and in-filling, in zenith and nadir geometry, are compared with results given in literature. Moreover, the dependence of these quantities on the columnar loading and vertical layering of non-spherical dust aerosols is investigated, together with their changes as function of two habits of ice crystals, modeled as regular icosahedra and severely rough aggregated columns. Bi-directional effects of an underlying polarizing surface are accounted for. The forward simulations are performed for one selected wavelength in the continuum and one in the strong absorption of the O2 A, as their combination can be exploited for the spaceborne retrieval of aerosol and cloud properties. For this reason, we also mimic seasonal maps of reflectance, DOLP and in-filling, that are prototypical measurements of the Ultraviolet-Visible-Near Infrared (UVN) sensor, at a nominal spectral resolution of 0.12 nm. UVN is the core payload of the upcoming European Sentinel-4 mission, that will observe Europe in geostationary orbit for air quality monitoring purposes. In general, in the core of O2 A, depending on the optical thickness and altitude of the scatterers, we find RRS-induced in-filling values ranging from 1.3% to 1.8%, while DOLP decreases by 1%. Conversely, while negligible differences of RRS in-filling are calculated with different ice crystal habits, the severely rough aggregated column model can reduce DOLP by a factor up to 10%. The UVN maps of in-filling show values varying
Nuclear and partonic dynamics in high energy elastic nucleus-nucleus scattering
International Nuclear Information System (INIS)
Malecki, A.
1991-01-01
A hybrid description of diffraction which combines a geometrical modelling of multiple scattering with many-channel effects resulting from intrinsic dynamics on nuclear and sub-nuclear level is presented. The application to the 4 He- 4 He elastic scattering is very satisfactory. Our analysis suggests that at large momentum transfers the parton constituents of nucleons immersed in nuclei are deconfined. (author)
Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)
S. Savin
2006-01-01
Full Text Available Proceeding with the analysis of Amata et al. (2005, we suggest that the general feature for the local transport at a thin magnetopause (MP consists of the penetration of ions from the magnetosheath with gyroradius larger than the MP width, and that, in crossing it, the transverse potential difference at the thin current sheet (TCS is acquired by these ions, providing a field-particle energy exchange without parallel electric fields. It is suggested that a part of the surface charge is self-consistently produced by deflection of ions in the course of inertial drift in the non-uniform electric field at MP. Consideration of the partial moments of ions with different energies demonstrates that the protons having gyroradii of roughly the same size or larger than the MP width carry fluxes normal to MP that are about 20% of the total flow in the plasma jet under MP. This is close to the excess of the ion transverse velocity over the cross-field drift speed in the plasma flow just inside MP (Amata et al., 2005, which conforms to the contribution of the finite-gyroradius inflow across MP. A linkage through the TCS between different plasmas results from the momentum conservation of the higher-energy ions. If the finite-gyroradius penetration occurs along the MP over ~1.5 RE from the observation site, then it can completely account for the formation of the jet under the MP. To provide the downstream acceleration of the flow near the MP via the cross-field drift, the weak magnetic field is suggested to rotate from its nearly parallel direction to the unperturbed flow toward being almost perpendicular to the accelerated flow near the MP. We discuss a deceleration of the higher-energy ions in the MP normal direction due to the interaction with finite-scale electric field bursts in the magnetosheath flow frame, equivalent to collisions, providing a charge separation. These effective collisions, with a nonlinear frequency proxy of the order of the proton
Zhao, Feng; Zou, Kai; Shang, Hong; Ji, Zheng; Zhao, Huijie; Huang, Wenjiang; Li, Cunjun
2010-10-01
In this paper we present an analytical model for the computation of radiation transfer of discontinuous vegetation canopies. Some initial results of gap probability and bidirectional gap probability of discontinuous vegetation canopies, which are important parameters determining the radiative environment of the canopies, are given and compared with a 3- D computer simulation model. In the model, negative exponential attenuation of light within individual plant canopies is assumed. Then the computation of gap probability is resolved by determining the entry points and exiting points of the ray with the individual plants via their equations in space. For the bidirectional gap probability, which determines the single-scattering contribution of the canopy, a gap statistical analysis based model was adopted to correct the dependence of gap probabilities for both solar and viewing directions. The model incorporates the structural characteristics, such as plant sizes, leaf size, row spacing, foliage density, planting density, leaf inclination distribution. Available experimental data are inadequate for a complete validation of the model. So it was evaluated with a three dimensional computer simulation model for 3D vegetative scenes, which shows good agreement between these two models' results. This model should be useful to the quantification of light interception and the modeling of bidirectional reflectance distributions of discontinuous canopies.
Shakur, Asif; Sinatra, Taylor
2013-01-01
The gyroscope in a smartphone was employed in a physics laboratory setting to verify the conservation of angular momentum and the nonconservation of rotational kinetic energy. As is well-known, smartphones are ubiquitous on college campuses. These devices have a panoply of built-in sensors. This creates a unique opportunity for a new paradigm in…
The momentum distribution inside nucleus
International Nuclear Information System (INIS)
Fujita, T.
1985-01-01
Discussions are made on several reactions which can determine the momentum distribution inside nucleus. The first reaction discussed is the high energy heavy ion collision. This reaction involves many nucleons which interact strongly. Therefore, one must be careful for any possible final state interactions. The expression for the single particle momentum distribution is given. And it can be said that the expression is consistent with the description of the energetic neutrons from muon capture by heavy nucleus. The best way to determine the momentum distribution would be the lepton-nucleus scattering since it does not involve the strong interaction in the initial channel. Another reaction discussed is the backward proton production, which is governed by quite complicated reaction processes. Therefore, the determination of the momentum distribution is only indirect. Noverthless, it is found that this reaction presents a very interesting and important information on the momentum distribution. (Aoki, K.)
Lee, Dongkyoung; Mazumder, Jyotirmoy
2018-02-01
One of the challenges of the lithium-ion battery manufacturing process is the sizing of electrodes with good cut surface quality. Poor cut surface quality results in internal short circuits in the cells and significant heat generation. One of the solutions that may improve the cut quality with a high cutting speed is laser cutting due to its high energy concentration, fast processing time, high precision, small heat affected zone, flexible range of laser power and contact free process. In order to utilize the advantages of laser electrode cutting, understanding the physical phenomena for each material is crucial. Thus, this study focuses on the laser cutting of current collectors, such as pure copper and aluminum. A 3D self-consistent mathematical model for the laser cutting, including fluid flow, heat transfer, recoil pressure, multiple reflections, capillary and thermo-capillary forces, and phase changes, is presented and solved numerically. Simulation results for the laser cutting are analyzed in terms of penetration time, depth, width, and absorptivity, based on these selected laser parameters. In addition, melt pool flow, melt pool geometry and temperature distribution are investigated.
Impact parameter dynamics in quantum theory in large angle scattering
International Nuclear Information System (INIS)
Andriyanov, A.A.
1975-01-01
High energy behaviour of a free particle Green's function is studied for construction of the scattering amplitude. The main part of the Green's function is determined by eikonal scattering along the mean moment and by the total scattering along the transfered momentum. This ''impact'' approximation may be included as a first approximation in the iteration scheme for the scattering amplitude along the mean momentum, i.e. the ''impact'' perturbation theory. With the help of the ''impact'' approximation an expansion of the scattering amplitude in the impact parameter depending on interaction is obtained. These expansions are more correct than the eikonal expansions at large angle scattering. The results are illustrated grafically foe the exponential and the Yukawa potentials
High energy elastic hadron scattering
International Nuclear Information System (INIS)
Fearnly, T.A.
1986-04-01
The paper deals with the WA7 experiment at the CERN super proton synchrotron (SPS). The elastic differential cross sections of pion-proton, kaon-proton, antiproton-proton, and proton-proton at lower SPS energies over a wide range of momentum transfer were measured. Some theoretical models in the light of the experimental results are reviewed, and a comprehensive impact parameter analysis of antiproton-proton elastic scattering over a wide energy range is presented. A nucleon valence core model for high energy proton-proton and antiproton-proton elastic scattering is described
Electron scattering off palladium isotopes
International Nuclear Information System (INIS)
Laan, J.B. van der.
1986-01-01
The low-lying states of the even Pd isotopes are characterized by vibrator-like properties. In this thesis the results of an electron scattering experiment on the Pd isotopes, designed to study the description of such nuclei in the Anharmonic Vibrator Model (AVM) and the Interacting Boson Approximation (IBA), are presented and discussed. Data have been taken at the high-resolution electron scattering facility of NIKHEF-K and covered a momentum-transfer range of 0.4 to 2.5 fm -1 . (Auth.)
International Nuclear Information System (INIS)
Michalon-Mentzer, Marie-Eve.
1979-01-01
From a study of the charged multiplicity distributions, antipd and antipn interactions in the range of incident momentum going from 3 to 15 GeV/c have been analysed. The antipd and antipn topological cross sections have been calculated. The behavior of the different statistical moments obtained from the charged multiplicities as function of the incident momentum have been studied. We have analysed rescattering phenomena inside the deuteron and the rescattering fraction per antipd collisions was found to be of the order of 20%. Data are in good agreement with the predictions of the energy flux cascade model and the coherent tube model. General features of the antipn annihilation processes have been also studied in particular by means of collective variables like sphericity and thrust which describe jets properties or alignment effects of interactions [fr
Electromagnetic and gravitational scattering at Planckian energies
International Nuclear Information System (INIS)
Das, S.; Majumdar, P.
1994-11-01
The scattering of pointlike particles at very large center of mass energies and fixed low momentum transfers, occurring due to both their electromagnetic and gravitational interactions is re-examined in the particular case when one of the particles carries magnetic charge. At Planckian center-of-mass energies, when gravitational dominance is normally expected, the presence of magnetic charge is shown to produce dramatic modifications to the scattering cross section as well as to the holomorphic structure of the scattering amplitude. (author). 20 refs
Large transverse momentum phenomena
International Nuclear Information System (INIS)
Brodsky, S.J.
1977-09-01
It is pointed out that it is particularly significant that the quantum numbers of the leading particles are strongly correlated with the quantum numbers of the incident hadrons indicating that the valence quarks themselves are transferred to large p/sub t/. The crucial question is how they get there. Various hadron reactions are discussed covering the structure of exclusive reactions, inclusive reactions, normalization of inclusive cross sections, charge correlations, and jet production at large transverse momentum. 46 references
International Nuclear Information System (INIS)
Andrews, P.L.; Perkins, F.W.
1983-01-01
The investigation of the scattering of lower-hybrid waves by density fluctuations arising from drift waves in tokamaks is distinguished by the presence in the wave equation of a large, random, derivative-coupling term. The propagation of the lower-hybrid waves is well represented by a radiative transfer equation when the scale size of the density fluctuations is small compared to the overall plasma size. The radiative transfer equation is solved in two limits: first, the forward scattering limit, where the scale size of density fluctuations is large compared to the lower-hybrid perpendicular wavelength, and second, the large-angle scattering limit, where this inequality is reversed. The most important features of these solutions are well represented by analytical formulas derived by simple arguments. Based on conventional estimates for density fluctuations arising from drift waves and a parabolic density profile, the optical depth tau for scattering through a significant angle, is given by tauroughly-equal(2/N 2 /sub parallel/) (#betta#/sub p/i0/#betta#) 2 (m/sub e/c 2 /2T/sub i/)/sup 1/2/ [c/α(Ω/sub i/Ω/sub e/)/sup 1/2/ ], where #betta#/sub p/i0 is the central ion plasma frequency and T/sub i/ denotes the ion temperature near the edge of the plasma. Most of the scattering occurs near the surface. The transmission through the scattering region scales as tau - 1 and the emerging intensity has an angular spectrum proportional to cos theta, where sin theta = k/sub perpendicular/xB/sub p//(k/sub perpendicular/B/sub p/), and B/sub p/ is the poloidal field
Measurement of the magnetic neutron form factor at a four-momentum transfer of Q2 = 0.255 (GeV/c)2
International Nuclear Information System (INIS)
Reike, H.
1993-12-01
The Electron Stretcher Accelerator ELSA of Bonn University delivers an external electron beam with a duty factor of up to 55%. Thus nonmagnetic detectors can be used to perform electron nucleon coincidence experiments with high precision. The magnetic form factor of the neutron G m n is determined by the so-called ratio method, i.e. G m n is extracted from the measured ratio of the cross sections of the d(e,e'n) and d(e,e'p) reactions in a region of quasi-free kinematics. Protons and neutrons are detected simultaneously in the same scintillation counter, so many systematic errors cancel out. The neutron detection efficiency is measured in situ by the associated particle method using the p(γ,π + n) reaction. For this reaction the high energy part of the photons produced by the electron beam in the target is used. The value of G m n found at a four momentum transfer of Q 2 = 0.255 (GeV/c) 2 is (10.1 ± 3.8)% higher than the dipole value. (orig.)
Stamnes, Knut; Tsay, S.-CHEE; Jayaweera, Kolf; Wiscombe, Warren
1988-01-01
The transfer of monochromatic radiation in a scattering, absorbing, and emitting plane-parallel medium with a specified bidirectional reflectivity at the lower boundary is considered. The equations and boundary conditions are summarized. The numerical implementation of the theory is discussed with attention given to the reliable and efficient computation of eigenvalues and eigenvectors. Ways of avoiding fatal overflows and ill-conditioning in the matrix inversion needed to determine the integration constants are also presented.
Steponavičius, Raimundas; Thennadil, Suresh N
2013-05-01
Sample-to-sample photon path length variations that arise due to multiple scattering can be removed by decoupling absorption and scattering effects by using the radiative transfer theory, with a suitable set of measurements. For samples where particles both scatter and absorb light, the extracted bulk absorption spectrum is not completely free from nonlinear particle effects, since it is related to the absorption cross-section of particles that changes nonlinearly with particle size and shape. For the quantitative analysis of absorbing-only (i.e., nonscattering) species present in a matrix that contains a particulate species that absorbs and scatters light, a method to eliminate particle effects completely is proposed here, which utilizes the particle size information contained in the bulk scattering coefficient extracted by using the Mie theory to carry out an additional correction step to remove particle effects from bulk absorption spectra. This should result in spectra that are equivalent to spectra collected with only the liquid species in the mixture. Such an approach has the potential to significantly reduce the number of calibration samples as well as improve calibration performance. The proposed method was tested with both simulated and experimental data from a four-component model system.
International Nuclear Information System (INIS)
Jin Yaqiu; Liang Zichang
2005-01-01
To solve the 3D-VRT equation for the model of spatially inhomogeneous scatter media, the finite enclosure of the scatter media is geometrically divided, in both vertical z and transversal (x,y) directions, to form very thin multi-boxes. The zeroth order emission, first-order Mueller matrix of each thin box and an iterative approach of high-order radiative transfer are applied to derive high-order scattering and emission of whole inhomogeneous scatter media. Numerical results of polarized brightness temperature at microwave frequency and under different radiometer resolutions from inhomogeneous scatter model such as vegetation canopy and alien target beneath canopy are simulated and discussed
Eigenvalue distributions of correlated multichannel transfer matrices in strongly scattering systems
Sprik, R.; Tourin, A.; de Rosny, J.; Fink, M.
2008-01-01
We experimentally study the effects of correlations in the propagation of ultrasonic waves in water from a multielement source to a multielement detector through a strongly scattering system of randomly placed vertical rods. Due to the strong scattering, the wave transport in the sample is in the
Large-t elastic scattering and diffraction dissocation
International Nuclear Information System (INIS)
Timmermans, J.
1985-01-01
Recent results, both from the ISR and the S anti p pS Collider, on proton-antiproton elastic scattering at large values of the four-momentum transfer squared, are presented. The results are compared with predictions of several theoretical models of high-energy collisions. Single diffraction dissociation at the Collider is also discussed. (author)
Large-t elastic scattering and diffraction dissocation
International Nuclear Information System (INIS)
Timmermans, J.
1985-05-01
Recent results, both from the ISR and the SantippS Collider, on proton-antiproton elastic scattering at large values of the four-momentum transfer squared, are presented. The results are compared with predictions of several theoretical models of high-energy collisions. Single diffraction dissociation at the Collider is also discussed. (orig.)
Proton-4He elastic scattering at intermediate energies
International Nuclear Information System (INIS)
Auger, J.P.; Gillespie, J.; Lombard, R.J.
1975-12-01
Differential elastic cross sections and polarizations are calculated in a multiple scattering formalism for proton- 4 He scattering for energies in the range 0.6-24GeV and for momentum transfers up to 4.0fmsup(-1). The calculations include Coulomb and spin effects. Corrections due to target-nucleon overlap and charge exchange are estimated. The results are compared with experimental data [fr
Inclusive quasielastic and deep inelastic electron scattering at high energies
International Nuclear Information System (INIS)
Day, D.B.
1990-01-01
With high electron energies a kinematic regime can be reached where it will be possible to separate quasielastic and deep inelastic scattering. We present a short description of these processes which dominate the inclusive spectrum. Using the highest momentum transfer data available to guide our estimates, we give the kinematic requirements and the cross sections expected. These results indicate that inclusive scattering at high q has a yet unfilled potential. 18 refs., 13 figs
Ustinov, E.
1999-01-01
Sensitivity analysis based on using of the adjoint equation of radiative transfer is applied to the case of atmospheric remote sensing in the thermal spectral region with non-negligeable atmospheric scattering.
Investigation of mean energy losses in quasi-elastic 3Hp scattering at 2'5 GeV/c tritium momentum
International Nuclear Information System (INIS)
Blinov, A.V.; Chuvilo, I.V.; Ergakov, V.A.
1983-01-01
The mean energy losses of fast protons in reaction p+sup(3)H→Psub(F)+X were investigated using the 80 cm liquid hydrogen bubble chamber exposed to a 2.5 GeV/c tritium beam. The experimental results are compared with the predictions based on the sum rule for energy losses which are valid in the multiple scattering theory when the completeness condition for the excited nucleus wave functions is combined with the locality of the nuclear potential
International Nuclear Information System (INIS)
Zakharov, V.I.
1977-01-01
The present status of the quark-parton-gluon picture of deep inelastic scattering is reviewed. The general framework is mostly theoretical and covers investigations since 1970. Predictions of the parton model and of the asymptotically free field theories are compared with experimental data available. The valence quark approximation is concluded to be valid in most cases, but fails to account for the data on the total momentum transfer. On the basis of gluon corrections introduced to the parton model certain predictions concerning both the deep inelastic structure functions and form factors are made. The contributions of gluon exchanges and gluon bremsstrahlung are highlighted. Asymptotic freedom is concluded to be very attractive and provide qualitative explanation to some experimental observations (scaling violations, breaking of the Drell-Yan-West type relations). Lepton-nuclear scattering is pointed out to be helpful in probing the nature of nuclear forces and studying the space-time picture of the parton model
Momentum loss in proton-nucleus and nucleus-nucleus collisions
International Nuclear Information System (INIS)
Khan, F.; Townsend, L.W.
1993-12-01
An optical model description, based on multiple scattering theory, of longitudinal momentum loss in proton-nucleus and nucleus-nucleus collisions is presented. The crucial role of the imaginary component of the nucleon-nucleon transition matrix in accounting for longitudinal momentum transfer is demonstrated. Results obtained with this model are compared with Intranuclear Cascade (INC) calculations, as well as with predictions from Vlasov-Uehling-Uhlenbeck (VUU) and quantum molecular dynamics (QMD) simulations. Comparisons are also made with experimental data where available. These indicate that the present model is adequate to account for longitudinal momentum transfer in both proton-nucleus and nucleus-nucleus collisions over a wide range of energies
Momentum-dependent excitation processes in crystalline and amorphous films of conjugated oligomers
International Nuclear Information System (INIS)
Zojer, E.; Knupfer, M.; Shuai, Z.; Fink, J.; Bredas, J.L.; Hoerhold, H.-H.; Grimme, J.; Scherf, U.; Benincori, T.; Leising, G.
2000-01-01
The electronic structure of periodic materials is usually described on the basis of band-structure models, in which each state is not only characterized by its energy but also by the corresponding electron momentum. In this paper we present investigations of momentum-dependent excitation processes in a number of molecular crystals and amorphous thin films. For our studies we have chosen ladder-type quinquephenyl (5LP), distyrylbenzene (3PV), a substituted quinquephenylenevinylene (5PV), and a bridged quarterthienyl (4TB). These substances are representative for several classes of conjugated organic materials. Their physical properties are dominated by the molecular building blocks. The investigated films, however, also allow us to study differences in the characteristics of crystalline (3PV and 4TB), partly amorphous (5LP) and fully amorphous (5PV) systems. Momentum-dependent excitations are induced by inelastic electron scattering in electron-energy-loss spectroscopy (EELS) experiments. The experimental data are compared to molecule based post-Hartree-Fock quantum-chemical simulations performed with the intermediate neglect of differential overlap (INDO) approach coupled to a configuration interaction (CI) technique applying the proper momentum-dependent transition matrix elements. Our results show that even in relatively small systems the molecular electronic states can be characterized by an associated range in momentum space. In addition, differences between inelastic electron scattering spectra for low values of momentum transfer and the optical data obtained for the crystalline samples underline the strong impact of light propagation on the absorption characteristics of highly anisotropic crystalline materials
Atomic scattering in the diffraction limit: electron transfer in keV Li+-Na(3s, 3p) collisions
DEFF Research Database (Denmark)
Poel, Mike van der; Nielsen, C.V.; Rybaltover, M.
2002-01-01
We measure angle differential cross sections (DCS) in Li+ + Na --> Li + Na+ electron transfer collisions in the 2.7-24 keV energy range. We do this with a newly constructed apparatus which combines the experimental technique of cold target recoil ion momentum spectroscopy with a laser-cooled target...... of the de Broglie wavelength lambda(dB) = 150 fm at a velocity v = 0.20 au and the effective atomic diameter for electron capture 2R = 20 au. Parallel AO and MO semiclassical coupled-channel calculations of the Na(3s, 3p) --> Li(2s, 2p) state-to-state collision amplitudes have been performed, and quantum...
International Nuclear Information System (INIS)
El-Wakil, S.A.; Sallah, M.; Degheidy, A.R.
2005-01-01
The time-dependent radiation transfer equation in plane geometry with Rayleigh scattering is studied. The traveling wave transformation is used to obtain the corresponding stationary-like equation. Pomraning-Eddington approximation is then used to calculate the radiation intensity in finite plane-parallel media. Numerical results and shielding calculations are shown for reflectivity and transmissivity at different times. The medium is assumed to have specular-reflecting boundaries. For the sake of comparison, two different weight functions are introduced and to force the boundary conditions to be fulfilled
Discrete ordinate theory of radiative transfer. 2: Scattering from maritime haze
Kattawar, G. W.; Plass, G. N.; Catchings, F. E.
1971-01-01
Discrete ordinate theory was used to calculate the reflected and transmitted radiance of photons which have interacted with plane parallel maritime haze layers. The results are presented for three solar zenith angles, three values of the surface albedo, and a range of optical thicknesses from very thin to very thick. The diffuse flux at the lower boundary and the cloud albedo were tabulated. The forward peak and other features in the single scattered phase function caused the radiance in many cases to be very different from that for Rayleigh scattering. The variation of the radiance with both the zenith or nadir angle and the azimuthal angle is more marked, and the relative limb darkening under very thick layers is greater, for haze than for Rayleigh scattering. The downward diffuse flux at the lower boundary for A = O is always greater and the cloud albedo is always less for haze than for Rayleigh layers.
International Nuclear Information System (INIS)
Mihalas, D.; Kunasz, P.B.; Hummer, D.G.
1976-01-01
A numerical method is presented of solving the radiative transfer equation in the comoving frame of a spherically symmetric expanding atmosphere in which both the line and the electron-scattering source function can depend on frequency (i.e., when there is partial frequency redistribution in the scattering process). This method is used to assess the adequacy of various assumptions regarding frequency redistribution in the comoving frame and to discuss the effects of electron scattering more accurately than previously possible. The methods developed here can be used in realistic model atmospheres to account for the (major) effects of electron scattering upon emergent flux profiles
Diffraction scattering of strongly bound system
International Nuclear Information System (INIS)
Kuzmichev, V.E.
1982-04-01
The scattering of a hadron on a strongly bound system of two hadrons (dihadron) is considered in the high-energy limit for the relative hadron-dihadron motion. The dihadron scatterer motion and the internal interaction are included in our consideration. It is shown that only small values of the internal transfer momentum of dihadron particles bring the principal contribution to the three-particle propagator in eikonal approximation. On the basis of the exact analytical solution of the integral equation for the total Green function the scattering amplitude is derived. It is shown that the scattering amplitude contains only single, double, and triple scattering terms. The three new terms to the Glauber formula for the total cross section are obtained. These terms decrease both the true total hadron-hadron cross section and the screening correction. (orig.)
Raman scattering of light off a superconductor
International Nuclear Information System (INIS)
Cuden, C.B.
1976-01-01
Raman scattering off a superconducting surface is formulated using Kubo's nonlinear response theory in a form suitable for systematic diagrammatic expansion. The effects of the sample surface are correctly taken into account. It is shown that in the presence of vacuum polarization processes, the contribution to the scattering efficiency from the density-density correlation function considered in the literature, is reduced. The relevant four-vertex parts, describing inelastic scattering of light by electronic excitations via intermediate interband states in a superconductor, are calculated. Frequency and temperature dependence of the relative scattering efficiency for the large momentum transfer (Pippard limit), and constant transition matrix elements, are obtained. The estimated magnitude of the total scattering efficiency is of the order of 10 -11
Charge density of 58Ni, by scattering of electrons at high moment transfer
International Nuclear Information System (INIS)
Turck, Sylvaine
1976-01-01
Due to the unique electromagnetic interaction involved, electron elastic scattering allows a nuclear structure to be tested through nucleus magnetisation and charge distribution. In a first part, this research thesis reports experiments performed on the Saclay Linear Accelerator (ALS) with the 58 Ni nucleus, a well closed magic nucleus which allows a qualitative comparison between experiments and Hartree-Fock calculations to be performed. The author presents the experimental set-up, describes data acquisition, data reduction and corrections. The second part proposes a theoretical introduction to electron scattering, discusses the analysis without model, and theoretical predictions of charge density
Departures from the impulse approximation in deep inelastic neutron scattering
International Nuclear Information System (INIS)
Mayers, J.
1989-01-01
A new formulation of the impulse approximation (IA) in deep inelastic neutron scattering is developed. It is shown that observed departures from the IA at intermediate momentum transfers are caused by the quantum nature of the initial state rather than final state effects, as has previously been assumed and that these effects become small at high temperatures. It is also argued that final state broadening is significant for He liquids in all feasible experiments, but that in other systems the IA is approached at high momentum transfers. (author)
Automated Angular Momentum Recoupling Algebra
Williams, H. T.; Silbar, Richard R.
1992-04-01
We present a set of heuristic rules for algebraic solution of angular momentum recoupling problems. The general problem reduces to that of finding an optimal path from one binary tree (representing the angular momentum coupling scheme for the reduced matrix element) to another (representing the sub-integrals and spin sums to be done). The method lends itself to implementation on a microcomputer, and we have developed such an implementation using a dialect of LISP. We describe both how our code, called RACAH, works and how it appears to the user. We illustrate the use of RACAH for several transition and scattering amplitude matrix elements occurring in atomic, nuclear, and particle physics.
Polarization transfer in elastic p-d scattering at E sub. rho. = 22. 7 MeV
Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)
Gruebler, W.; Clajus, M.; Egun, P.M.; Hautle, P.; Weber, A. (Eidgenoessische Technische Hochschule, Zurich (CH). Inst. fuer Mittelenergiephysik); Schmelzbach, P.A. (Paul Scherrer Inst. (PSI), Villigen (CH)); Slaus, I. (Institut Ruder Boskovic, Zagreb. (YU)); Vuaridel, B. (Michigan Univ., Ann Arbor, MI (US)); Sperisen, F. (Indiana Univ. Cyclotron Facility, Bloomington, IN (US)); Kretschmer, W.; Karschnick, R.O.; Rauscher, A.; Weidmann, R.; Walter, T. (Erlangen-Nuernberg Univ., Erlangen (DE). Physikalisches Inst.); Bruno, M.; Cannata, F.; d' Agostino, M. (Istituto Nazionale di Fisica Nucleare, Bologna (IT))
1990-11-15
The proton-deuteron elastic scattering has been investigated at E{sub p}=22.7 MeV by comparison of rigorous Faddeev calculations with experimental results. From the calculations it was found that polarization transfer coefficients are more sensitive to details of the nucleon-nucleon potentials than the analyzing powers. Therefore we measured the proton to proton transfer coefficients K{sup y'}{sub y} and K{sup x'}{sub z}. The observable most sensitive to the tensor force is K{sup y'}{sub y}. The angular distributions of K{sup y'}{sub y} and, to a smaller extent, K{sup x'}{sub z} clearly favour the Bonn A potential.
Georgakopoulos, A.; Politopoulos, K.; Georgiou, E.
2018-03-01
A new dynamic-system approach to the problem of radiative transfer inside scattering and absorbing media is presented, directly based on first-hand physical principles. This method, the Dynamic Radiative Transfer System (DRTS), employs a dynamical system formality using a global sparse matrix, which characterizes the physical, optical and geometrical properties of the material-volume of interest. The new system state is generated by the above time-independent matrix, using simple matrix-vector multiplication for each subsequent time step. DRTS is capable of calculating accurately the time evolution of photon propagation in media of complex structure and shape. The flexibility of DRTS allows the integration of time-dependent sources, boundary conditions, different media and several optical phenomena like reflection and refraction in a unified and consistent way. Various examples of DRTS simulation results are presented for ultra-fast light pulse 3-D propagation, demonstrating greatly reduced computational cost and resource requirements compared to other methods.
International Nuclear Information System (INIS)
Sallah, M.; Degheidy, A.R.
2013-01-01
Radiative transfer problem for pure-triplet scattering, in participating half-space random medium is proposed. The medium is assumed to be random with binary Markovian mixtures (e.g. radiation transfer in astrophysical contexts where the clouds and clear sky play and two-phase medium) described by Markovian statistics. The specular reflectivity of the boundary is angular-dependent described by the Fresnel's reflection probability function. The problem is solved at first in the deterministic case, and then the solution is averaged using the formalism developed by Levermore and Pomraning, to treat particles transport problems in statistical mixtures. Some physical quantities of interest such as the reflectivity of the boundary, average radiant energy, and average net flux are computed for various values of refractive index of the boundary
International Nuclear Information System (INIS)
Goutte, Dominique.
1979-10-01
A determination was made of an angular distribution of the inelastic scattering cross-sections of electrons by the first excited state (Jsup(π)=3 - , E*=2.615 MeV) of 208 Pb. The statistical accuracy of previous data was improved between 2 and 2.7 fm -1 and the area of transfer of moment was extended up to qsub(max)=3.4 fm -1 . Cross-sections up to 10 -37 cm 2 /sr were determined whereas the limit reached before was 7x10 -35 cm 2 /sr. In order to determine the transition charge density, it was put into parametric form by a Fourier-Bessel development using 12 coefficients and an 11 fm cut-off radius. The model error inherent in this method is reduced to an insignificant contribution by the sufficiently high transfer of moment. The experimental transition charge density was compared with the theoretical predictions [fr
International Nuclear Information System (INIS)
Konovalov, N.V.
The accuracy of the calculation of the characteristics of a radiation field in a plane layer is investigated by solving the transfer equation in dependence on the error in the specification of the scattering indicatrix. It is shown that a small error in the specification of the indicatrix can lead to a large error in the solution at large optical depths. An estimate is given for the region of optical thicknesses for which the emission field can be determined with sufficient degree of accuracy from the transfer equation with a known error in the specification of the indicatrix. For an estimation of the error involved in various numerical methods, and also for a determination of the region of their applicability, the results of calculations of problems with strongly anisotropic indicatrix are given
Scattering of electrons by alkali-halide molecules: LiBr and CsCl
International Nuclear Information System (INIS)
Vukovic, L.; Zuo, M.; Shen, G.F.; Stumpf, B.; Bederson, B.
1989-01-01
We have investigated small-angle electron scattering by highly polar molecules. Recoil experiments are performed at 5 and 20 eV for electrons scattered by LiBr and CsCl, within the shadow of the unscattered molecular beam. Low-angular-range scattering described by the Born approximation for rotating dipoles, combined with different theories for intermediate- and high-angle scattering, are compared with our results. Evaluated total scattering cross sections as well as momentum-transfer and viscosity cross sections are given. A general two-dimensional analysis of the recoil experiment is presented
Two-photon exchange corrections in elastic lepton-proton scattering
Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)
Tomalak, Oleksandr; Vanderhaeghen, Marc [Johannes Gutenberg Universitaet Mainz (Germany)
2015-07-01
The measured value of the proton charge radius from the Lamb shift of energy levels in muonic hydrogen is in strong contradiction, by 7-8 standard deviations, with the value obtained from electronic hydrogen spectroscopy and the value extracted from unpolarized electron-proton scattering data. The dominant unaccounted higher order contribution in scattering experiments corresponds to the two photon exchange (TPE) diagram. The elastic contribution to the TPE correction was studied with the fixed momentum transfer dispersion relations and compared to the hadronic model with off-shell photon-nucleon vertices. A dispersion relation formalism with one subtraction was proposed. Theoretical predictions of the TPE elastic contribution to the unpolarized elastic electron-proton scattering and polarization transfer observables in the low momentum transfer region were made. The TPE formalism was generalized to the case of massive leptons and the elastic contribution was evaluated for the kinematics of upcoming muon-proton scattering experiment (MUSE).
On the study of the transfer ionization reactions at super small scattering angles
International Nuclear Information System (INIS)
Popov, Yu.V.; Chuluunbaatar, O.; Vinitskij, S.I.; Ancarani, L.U.; Dal Cappello, C.; Vinitskij, P.S.
2002-01-01
The hypothesis that the reaction p + He → H + He ++ + e at super small scattering angles of hydrogen can be used for purposes of the angular spectroscopy of electron-electron correlations in the target is considered. It is shown that this hypothesis is untenable
On the Study of the Transfer Ionization Reactions at Super Small Scattering Angles
Popov, Yu V; Vinitsky, S I; Ancarani, L U; Dal Cappello, C; Vinitsky, P S
2002-01-01
The hypothesis that the reaction p + He\\to H + He^{++} + e at super small scattering angles of hydrogen can be used for purposes of the angular spectroscopy of electron-electron correlations in the target is considered. It is shown that this hypothesis is insolvent.
Maximizing the information transfer in a quantum-limited light-scattering system
DEFF Research Database (Denmark)
Lading, Lars; Jørgensen, Thomas Martini
1990-01-01
A quantum-limited light-scattering system is considered. The spatial configuration that maximizes a given figure of merit is investigated, assuming that the emitted light has Poisson photon statistics. A specific system for measuring the velocity of a small particle is considered as an example. A...
Electron scattering studies by means of various nuclear models
International Nuclear Information System (INIS)
Essaniyazov, Sh.; Juraev, Sh.; Ismatov, E.I.
2006-01-01
Full text: Let us consider a general case of various interaction processes of electrons with nuclei. The study of the scattering o electrons of nuclei is the source of information on the structure of nuclei. At collision of fast electrons with nuclei, both elastic and inelastic scattering can be observed. Elastic scattering gives information on the sizes of nuclei, whereas the electrons inelastic scattering processes give important information on the dynamical properties of nuclei. In the first case, the characteristics of excited states, energy levels, their widths and others, and in the second case, momentum distribution of nucleons and other particles in nuclei are studied. Let us denote the momentum and the energy of the incident electron before and after the scattering as k and ε, and k' and ε', respectively. The angle between the vectors k and k' is denoted as θ. The scattering process is characterized by three parameters: k, k' and θ. However, it is convenient to introduce three other parameters instead of the indicated above. They are: energy ω ε - ε' and momentum q = k - k', transferred by electron at scattering, and the scattering angle θ. It is worth of mentioning the two reasons why the study of electron scattering is very effective tool to study the nuclear structure. First of all, the character of electron interaction with nucleus is a well-known electromagnetic interaction of electron with current and charge in nucleus. Secondly, this interaction is relatively weak (e 2 /ℎc) 2 = ω 2 is possible (since the photon mass is zero). In case of electrons, at fixed energy transfer ω various momentum transfer are possible. Therefore, at electron scattering study one can establish the dependence of the matrix elements of q, which are the Fourier-representations of the charge and current densities. Thus, it is possible to determine directly the spatial distribution of charge and current in nucleus. The inelastic scattering is accompanied by
RADIATIVE TRANSFER MODELING OF THE ENIGMATIC SCATTERING POLARIZATION IN THE SOLAR Na i D{sub 1} LINE
Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)
Belluzzi, Luca [Istituto Ricerche Solari Locarno, CH-6605 Locarno Monti (Switzerland); Bueno, Javier Trujillo [Instituto de Astrofísica de Canarias, E-38205 La Laguna, Tenerife (Spain); Degl’Innocenti, Egidio Landi [Dipartimento di Fisica e Astronomia, Università di Firenze, I-50125 Firenze (Italy)
2015-12-01
The modeling of the peculiar scattering polarization signals observed in some diagnostically important solar resonance lines requires the consideration of the detailed spectral structure of the incident radiation field as well as the possibility of ground level polarization, along with the atom's hyperfine structure and quantum interference between hyperfine F-levels pertaining either to the same fine structure J-level, or to different J-levels of the same term. Here we present a theoretical and numerical approach suitable for solving this complex non-LTE radiative transfer problem. This approach is based on the density-matrix metalevel theory (where each level is viewed as a continuous distribution of sublevels) and on accurate formal solvers of the transfer equations and efficient iterative methods. We show an application to the D-lines of Na i, with emphasis on the enigmatic D{sub 1} line, pointing out the observable signatures of the various physical mechanisms considered. We demonstrate that the linear polarization observed in the core of the D{sub 1} line may be explained by the effect that one gets when the detailed spectral structure of the anisotropic radiation responsible for the optical pumping is taken into account. This physical ingredient is capable of introducing significant scattering polarization in the core of the Na i D{sub 1} line without the need for ground-level polarization.
International Nuclear Information System (INIS)
Gazdallah, Moncef; Feldheim, Véronique; Claramunt, Kilian; Hirsch, Charles
2012-01-01
This paper presents the implementation of the finite volume method to solve the radiative transfer equation in a commercial code. The particularity of this work is that the method applied on unstructured hexahedral meshes does not need a pre-processing step establishing a particular marching order to visit all the control volumes. The solver simply visits the faces of the control volumes as numbered in the hexahedral unstructured mesh. A cell centred mesh and a spatial differencing step scheme to relate facial radiative intensities to nodal intensities is used. The developed computer code based on FVM has been integrated in the CFD solver FINE/Open from NUMECA Int. Radiative heat transfer can be evaluated within systems containing uniform, grey, emitting, absorbing and/or isotropically or linear anisotropically scattering medium bounded by diffuse grey walls. This code has been validated for three test cases. The first one is a three dimensional rectangular enclosure filled with emitting, absorbing and anisotropically scattering media. The second is the differentially heated cubic cavity. The third one is the L-shaped enclosure. For these three test cases a good agreement has been observed when temperature and heat fluxes predictions are compared with references taken, from literature.
International Nuclear Information System (INIS)
Huang Yong; Liang Xingang; Xia Xinlin
2005-01-01
The Monte Carlo method is used to simulate the thermal emission of absorbing-emitting-scattering slab with gradient index. Three Monte Carlo ray-tracing strategies are considered. The first strategy is keeping the real distribution of the refractive index and to trace bundles in a curve route. The second strategy is discretizing the slab into sub-layers, each having constant refractive index. The bundle is traced in a straight route in each sub-layer and the reflection at the inner interface is taken into account. The third strategy is similar to the second one but only the total reflection at the inner interface is computed. Little difference is observed among the results of apparent thermal emission by these three different Monte Carlo ray tracing strategies. The results also show that the apparent hemispherical emissivity non-monotonously varies with increasing optical thickness of the slab with strong scattering gradient index. Many parameters can influence the apparent thermal emission greatly
Phase variation of nucleon-nucleon amplitude for proton-12C elastic scattering
International Nuclear Information System (INIS)
Deng Yibing; Wang Shilai; Yin Gaofang
2006-01-01
Franco and Yin studied for α- 4 He, 3 He, 2 He, 1 He elastic-scattering by using the phase of the nucleon-nucleon elastic-scattering amplitude varies with momentum transfer in the framework of Glauber multiple scattering theory at intermediate energy. The phase variation leads to large changes in the differential cross sections, and brings the Glauber theory into agreement with experimental data. Later Lombard and Maillet is based on the suggestion by Franco and Yin studied for the p- 4 He elastic-scattering in the framework of Glauber theory, and found this phase to be actually important for the description of spin observables. Recently Wang Shilai and Deng Yibing et al studied for the p- 4 He elastic-scattering in the framework of KMT multiple scattering theory at intermediate energy, and found this phase lead to differential cross sections and polarization, which are in better agreement with experimental data. This paper is based on the suggestion by Franco and Yin that the phase of the nucleon-nucleon scattering amplitude should vary with momentum transfer. The proton elastic scattering on 12 C is studied in the KMT multiple scattering theory with microscopic momentum space first term optical potential. The Coulomb interactions are taken into account in our calculation. The theoretical calculation results show that the phase leads to differential cross section and polarization are in better agreement with experimental data. In conclusion this phase is actually important in the framework of KMT theory. (authors)
Electron-helium scattering in Debye plasmas
International Nuclear Information System (INIS)
Zammit, Mark C.; Fursa, Dmitry V.; Bray, Igor; Janev, R. K.
2011-01-01
Electron-helium scattering in weakly coupled hot-dense (Debye) plasma has been investigated using the convergent close-coupling method. The Yukawa-type Debye-Hueckel potential has been used to describe plasma Coulomb screening effects. Benchmark results are presented for momentum transfer cross sections, excitation, ionization, and total cross sections for scattering from the ground and metastable states of helium. Calculations cover the entire energy range up to 1000 eV for the no screening case and various Debye lengths (5-100 a 0 ). We find that as the screening interaction increases, the excitation and total cross sections decrease, while the total ionization cross sections increase.
Quasielastic electron scattering from 40Ca
International Nuclear Information System (INIS)
Williamson, C.F.; Yates, T.C.; Schmitt, W.M.; Osborn, M.; Deady, M.; Zimmerman, P.D.; Blatchley, C.C.; Seth, K.K.; Sarmiento, M.; Parker, B.; Jin, Y.; Wright, L.E.; Onley, D.S.
1997-01-01
Differential cross sections for quasielastic electron scattering on 40 Ca have been measured at laboratory scattering angles of 45.5 degree, 90 degree, and 140 degree with bombarding energies ranging from 130 to 840 MeV. Transverse and longitudinal response functions have been extracted for momentum transfers from 300 to 500 MeV/c. Contrary to some previously reported results, the total observed longitudinal strength agrees with the relativistic Fermi gas prediction to within ±18%. copyright 1997 The American Physical Society
Tsang, L.; Kubacsi, M. C.; Kong, J. A.
1981-01-01
The radiative transfer theory is applied within the Rayleigh approximation to calculate the backscattering cross section of a layer of randomly positioned and oriented small ellipsoids. The orientation of the ellipsoids is characterized by a probability density function of the Eulerian angles of rotation. The radiative transfer equations are solved by an iterative approach to first order in albedo. In the half space limit the results are identical to those obtained via the approach of Foldy's and distorted Born approximation. Numerical results of the theory are illustrated using parameters encountered in active remote sensing of vegetation layers. A distinctive characteristic is the strong depolarization shown by vertically aligned leaves.
Many-body theory of charge transfer in hyperthermal atomic scattering
International Nuclear Information System (INIS)
Marston, J.B.; Andersson, D.R.; Behringer, E.R.; Cooper, B.H.; DiRubio, C.A.; Kimmel, G.A.; Richardson, C.
1993-01-01
We use the Newns-Anderson Hamiltonian to describe many-body electronic processes that occur when hyperthermal alkali atoms scatter off metallic surfaces. Following Brako and Newns, we expand the electronic many-body wave function in the number of particle-hole pairs (we keep terms up to and including a single particle-hole pair). We extend their earlier work by including level crossings, excited neutrals, and negative ions. The full set of equations of motion is integrated numerically, without further approximations, to obtain the many-body amplitudes as a function of time. The velocity and work-function dependence of final-state quantities such as the distribution of ion charges and excited atomic occupancies are compared with experiment. In particular, experiments that scatter alkali ions off clean Cu(001) surfaces in the energy range 5--1600 eV constrain the theory quantitatively. The neutralization probability of Na + ions shows a minimum at intermediate velocity in agreement with the theory. This behavior contrasts with that of K + , which shows virtually no neutralization, and with Li + , which exhibits a monotonically increasing neutral fraction with decreasing velocity. Particle-hole excitations are left behind in the metal during a fraction of the collision events; this dissipated energy is predicted to be quite small (on the order of tenths of an electron volt). Indeed, classical trajectory simulations of the surface dynamics account well for the observed energy loss, and thus provide some justification for our truncation of the equations of motion at the single particle-hole pair level. Li + scattering experiments off low work-function surfaces provide qualitative information on the importance of many-body effects. At sufficiently low work function, the negative ions predicted to occur are in fact observed
The application of small-angle neutron scattering to the study of mass transfer in clays
International Nuclear Information System (INIS)
Allen, A.J.; Baston, A.H.; Bourke, P.J.; Jefferies, N.L.
1990-01-01
An extensive study using small angle neutron scattering (SANS) has been made of the pore structures in London Clay and in Ca-montmorillonite. Using SANS contrast variation techniques, the accessibilities of the pores to D 2 O by diffusion and permeation have been studied. Characterisation of the accessibility to different parts of the pore structure is intended to provide input data for models of radionuclide transport through clay geological barriers, and to improve interpretation of laboratory experiments that measure sorption of radionuclides on clays. (author)
A Neutron Scattering Study of Collective Excitations in Superfluid Helium
DEFF Research Database (Denmark)
Graf, E. H.; Minkiewicz, V. J.; Bjerrum Møller, Hans
1974-01-01
Extensive inelastic-neutron-scattering experiments have been performed on superfluid helium over a wide range of energy and momentum transfers. A high-resolution study has been made of the pressure dependence of the single-excitation scattering at the first maximum of the dispersion curve over...... of the multiexcitation scattering was also studied. It is shown that the multiphonon spectrum of a simple Debye solid with the phonon dispersion and single-excitation cross section of superfluid helium qualitatively reproduces these data....
International Nuclear Information System (INIS)
Riviere, Nicolas; Ceolato, Romain; Hespel, Laurent
2013-01-01
Our work presents computations via a vectorial radiative transfer model of the polarimetric and angular light scattered by a stratified dense medium with small and intermediate optical thickness. We report the validation of this model using analytical results and different computational methods like stochastic algorithms. Moreover, we check the model with experimental data from a specific scatterometer developed at the Onera. The advantages and disadvantages of a radiative approach are discussed. This paper represents a step toward the characterization of particles in dense media involving multiple scattering. -- Highlights: • A vectorial radiative transfer model to simulate the light scattered by stratified layers is developed. • The vectorial radiative transfer equation is solved using an adding–doubling technique. • The results are compared to analytical and stochastic data. • Validation with experimental data from a scatterometer developed at Onera is presented
Polarization transfer in inelastic scattering and pionic models of the EMC effect
International Nuclear Information System (INIS)
Moss, J.M.
1985-01-01
At the 1982 Telluride Conference Magda Ericson spoke about the interest in a measurement of the sigma vector . q vector or spin-longitudinal nuclear response function. It inspired our collaboration to propose a LAMPF experiment, which was subsequently approved, and run in September 1983. In the intervening time the interest has increased dramatically in connection with the European Muon Collaboration (EMC) effect, and the exciting possibility that this ultra high-energy physics result may have to do with nuclear pions - and, hence, the isovector sigma vector . q vector nuclear response function. In this talk I will give a brief introduction to the EMC effect and its interpretation in terms of excess nuclear pions. This model establishes a connection between the vastly different scales of the EMC experiment (approx. 200 GeV deep-inelastic muon scattering) and the Los Alamos experiment (500 MeV polarized-proton quasifree scattering). Following this I will describe the Los Alamos experiment and its interpretation in terms of excess nuclear pions. Finally I will indulge in some speculation about quark effects in nuclei based on the EMC and Los Alamos experimental results. 29 refs
Steponavičius, Raimundas; Thennadil, Suresh N
2011-03-15
The effectiveness of a scatter correction approach based on decoupling absorption and scattering effects through the use of the radiative transfer theory to invert a suitable set of measurements is studied by considering a model multicomponent suspension. The method was used in conjunction with partial least-squares regression to build calibration models for estimating the concentration of two types of analytes: an absorbing (nonscattering) species and a particulate (absorbing and scattering) species. The performances of the models built by this approach were compared with those obtained by applying empirical scatter correction approaches to diffuse reflectance, diffuse transmittance, and collimated transmittance measurements. It was found that the method provided appreciable improvement in model performance for the prediction of both types of analytes. The study indicates that, as long as the bulk absorption spectra are accurately extracted, no further empirical preprocessing to remove light scattering effects is required.
Stegmann, Patrick G.; Tang, Guanglin; Yang, Ping; Johnson, Benjamin T.
2018-05-01
A structural model is developed for the single-scattering properties of snow and graupel particles with a strongly heterogeneous morphology and an arbitrary variable mass density. This effort is aimed to provide a mechanism to consider particle mass density variation in the microwave scattering coefficients implemented in the Community Radiative Transfer Model (CRTM). The stochastic model applies a bicontinuous random medium algorithm to a simple base shape and uses the Finite-Difference-Time-Domain (FDTD) method to compute the single-scattering properties of the resulting complex morphology.
International Nuclear Information System (INIS)
Berlanger, M.; Grange, P.; Richert, J.; Hofmann, H.; Ngo, C.
1978-01-01
A dynamical model including both dissipation and statistical fluctuations is applied to the computation of triple differential cross sections for deep inelastic reactions. It is seen that for different Z values the overall pattern of the cross section (calculated, for the 280 MeV 40 Ar+ 58 Ni system) as a function of E and theta is fairly well reproduced - the mean angular momentum transfer for the 365MeV 63 Cu+ 197 Au system is calculated and compared with γ-multiplicity measurements. In both applications, possible implications of the remaining discrepancies are discussed
International Nuclear Information System (INIS)
Mueller, D.W.; Crosbie, A.L.
2005-01-01
The topic of this work is the generalized X- and Y-functions of multidimensional radiative transfer. The physical problem considered is spatially varying, collimated radiation incident on the upper boundary of an isotropically scattering, plane-parallel medium. An integral transform is used to reduce the three-dimensional transport equation to a one-dimensional form, and a modified Ambarzumian's method is used to derive coupled, integro-differential equations for the source functions at the boundaries of the medium. The resulting equations are said to be in double-integral form because the integration is over both angular variables. Numerical results are presented to illustrate the computational characteristics of the formulation
Ambiguities in the description of nucleon transfer in deep inelastic scattering
International Nuclear Information System (INIS)
Dworzecka, M.; Zielinska-Pfabe, M.; Griffin, J.J.
1986-01-01
Here the authors discuss certain ambiguities which are in the description of (N,Z) evolution in heavy ion collisions by means of nucleon exchange models. Such descriptions have been formulated either in terms of Markovian Master (MM) equations (or its approximate version in the form of Fokker-Planck equation) in terms of transition rates per unit time, or in terms of Random Walk (RW) on the energy surface in terms of transition probabilities per nucleon exchanged. In a series of papers they have shown that the RW is the useful tool in studying probability distributions of particle numbers (protons and neutrons) as a function of energy loss. The authors purpose was to compare the implications of different (often competing) physical mechanisms for specific features of the (N-Z) distribution. One result of that analysis was that not all of the kinetic energy loss could be attributed to the nucleon transfer process assumed; rather, an additional step had to be allowed in the random walk in which no nucleon is transferred, but kinetic energy is lost nonetheless. Only then could the total width, σ/sub A/ 2 , of the (N-Z) distribution (as a function of energy loss) be made to conform with the experimental data. Conversely requiring this conformance yielded a specific value of the average relative probability for this additional non-transfer step
Constituent models and large transverse momentum reactions
International Nuclear Information System (INIS)
Brodsky, S.J.
1975-01-01
The discussion of constituent models and large transverse momentum reactions includes the structure of hard scattering models, dimensional counting rules for large transverse momentum reactions, dimensional counting and exclusive processes, the deuteron form factor, applications to inclusive reactions, predictions for meson and photon beams, the charge-cubed test for the e/sup +-/p → e/sup +-/γX asymmetry, the quasi-elastic peak in inclusive hadronic reactions, correlations, and the multiplicity bump at large transverse momentum. Also covered are the partition method for bound state calculations, proofs of dimensional counting, minimal neutralization and quark--quark scattering, the development of the constituent interchange model, and the A dependence of high transverse momentum reactions
(p,4He) elastic scattering at 350, 650, 1050, and 1150 MeV
International Nuclear Information System (INIS)
Aslanides, E.; Brochard, F.; Gorodetzky, P.; Hibou, F.; Lambert, E.
1977-01-01
Angular distributions of p- 4 He elastic scattering differential cross sections have been measured at 350, 650, 1050 and 1150 MeV, in regions of four-momentum transfer squared t=0.02-0.71 (GeV/c) 2 . These new measurements confirm the absence of a pronounced first diffraction minimum. New theoretical analyses are also presented. (Auth.)
Analysis of pp and pp-bar in forward scattering using derivative dispersion relations
International Nuclear Information System (INIS)
Kohara, A. K.; Ferreira, E.; Kodama, T.
2010-01-01
We describe the amplitudes for pp and pp-bar scattering at small momentum transfers, where Coulomb and nuclear interference occurs, with special attention to the slopes of the real and imaginary parts. The forward amplitudes are assumed to have simple exponential forms, depending on four parameters σ, ρ, B I , B R , with B I ≠ B R .
Effects of hadronic colour structure in quasi-elastic and charge-exchange scattering on nuclei
International Nuclear Information System (INIS)
Kopeliovich, B.Z.; Zakharov, B.G.
1986-01-01
Effects of hadronic hidden colour screening are considered in hadron-nucleus interaction. It is shown that in the quasi-free charge exchange-reaction nuclear matter becomes transparent for the scattered hadron if the momentum transfer is large enough. The available experimental data confirm this prediction of QCD
Small-angle neutron scattering at pulsed sources compared to reactor sources
International Nuclear Information System (INIS)
Hjelm, R.P. Jr.; Seeger, P.A.; Thiyagarajan, P.
1990-01-01
Detailed comparisons of measurements made on small-angle neutron scattering instruments at pulsed spallation and reactor sources show that the results from the two types of instruments are comparable. It is further demonstrated that spallation instruments are preferable for measurements in the mid-momentum transfer domain or when a large domain is needed. 8 refs., 2 figs
Momentum distribution in the nucleus. II
International Nuclear Information System (INIS)
Amado, R.D.; Woloshyn, R.M.
1977-01-01
We calculate the single particle momentum distribution n(q) for a one-dimensional model with delta forces. There is a domain of q for which n(q) has an exponential falloff; but, after allowance is made for the nonsaturation in the model, that domain does not grow significantly with particle number. The relation of this result to large momentum scattering from the nucleus and to the Hartree approximation is briefly discussed
Advances on detectors for low-angle scattering of epithermal neutrons
International Nuclear Information System (INIS)
Perelli Cippo, E; Gorini, G; Tardocchi, M; Andreani, C; Pietropaolo, A; Senesi, R; Rhodes, N J; Schoonveld, E M
2008-01-01
The Very Low Angle Detector (VLAD) installed at the ISIS spallation neutron source is a novel instrument for epithermal neutron scattering with a range of applications in solid state physics. VLAD extends the kinematical space of the VESUVIO spectrometer to low momentum transfers at neutron energies above 1 eV. Measurements at scattering angles as low as 1° have been made with limitations due to the achievable signal/background ratio. (technical design note)
Corrections to the leading eikonal amplitude for high-energy scattering and quasipotential approach
International Nuclear Information System (INIS)
Nguyen Suan Hani; Nguyen Duy Hung
2003-12-01
Asymptotic behaviour of the scattering amplitude for two scalar particle at high energy and fixed momentum transfers is reconsidered in quantum field theory. In the framework of the quasipotential approach and the modified perturbation theory a systematic scheme of finding the leading eikonal scattering amplitudes and its corrections is developed and constructed. The connection between the solutions obtained by quasipotential and functional approaches is also discussed. (author)
Medium energy inelastic proton-nucleus scattering with spin dependent NN interaction
International Nuclear Information System (INIS)
Ahmad, I.; Auger, J.P.
1981-12-01
The previously proposed effective profile expansion method for the Glauber multiple scattering model calculation has been extended to the case of proton-nucleus inelastic scattering with spin dependent NN interaction. Using the method which turns out to be computationally simple and of relatively wider applicability, a study of sensitivity of proton-nucleus inelastic scattering calculation to the sometimes neglected momentum transfer dependence of the NN scattering amplitude has been made. We find that the calculated polarization is particularly sensitive in this respect. (author)
International Nuclear Information System (INIS)
Saha, H.P.
1993-01-01
The multiconfiguration Hartree-Fock method for continuum wave functions has been used to calculate the scattering length and phase shifts over extremely low energies ranging from 0 to 1 eV very accurately for electron-helium scattering. The scattering length is calculated very accurately with wave functions computed exactly at zero energy, resulting in an upper bound of 1.1784. The electron correlation and polarization of the target by the scattering electron, which are very important in these calculations, have been taken into account in an accurate ab initio manner through the configuration-interaction procedure by optimizing both bound and continuum orbitals simultaneously at each kinetic energy of the scattered electron. Detailed results for scattering length, differential, total, and momentum-transfer cross sections obtained from the phase shifts are presented. The present scattering length is found to be in excellent agreement with the experimental result of Andrick and Bitsch [J. Phys. B 8, 402 (1975)] and the theoretical result of O'Malley, Burke, and Berrington [J. Phys. B 12, 953 (1979)]. There is excellent agreement between the present total cross sections and the corresponding experimental measurements of Buckman and Lohmann [J. Phys. B 19, 2547 (1986)]. The present momentum-transfer cross sections also show remarkable agreement with the experimental results of Crompton, Elford, and Robertson [Aust. J. Phys. 23, 667 (1970)
Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)
A. Behring
2015-08-01
Full Text Available We calculate the massive flavor non-singlet Wilson coefficient for the heavy flavor contributions to the polarized structure function g1(x,Q2 in the asymptotic region Q2≫m2 to 3-loop order in Quantum Chromodynamics at general values of the Mellin variable N and the momentum fraction x, and derive heavy flavor corrections to the Bjorken sum-rule. Numerical results are presented for the charm quark contribution. Results on the structure function g2(x,Q2 in the twist-2 approximation are also given.
International Nuclear Information System (INIS)
Ballot, J.L.; L'Huillier, M.; Combes, M.P.; Tatischeff, B.
1984-01-01
An analysis of deuteron-deuteron scattering data at 3.0, 3.4 and 3.7 GeV/c is given in the framework of the Glauber NN multiple scattering model. The model accounts qualitatively well for the larger momentum transfer data. The model cannot reproduce the observed experimental bump at small transfer in the region of missing mass 2GeV/c, because pionic processes have been considered. Nevertheless it shows that the nucleon background is important
Czech Academy of Sciences Publication Activity Database
Štěpán, Jiří; Trujillo Bueno, J.; Leenaarts, J.; Carlsson, M.
2015-01-01
Roč. 803, č. 2 (2015), 65/1-65/15 ISSN 0004-637X R&D Projects: GA ČR GPP209/12/P741 Grant - others:EU(XE) COST action MP1104 Institutional support: RVO:67985815 Keywords : polarization * radiative transfer * scattering Subject RIV: BN - Astronomy, Celestial Mechanics, Astrophysics Impact factor: 5.909, year: 2015
da Silva, Anabela; Elias, Mady; Andraud, Christine; Lafait, Jacques
2003-12-01
Two methods for solving the radiative transfer equation are compared with the aim of computing the angular distribution of the light scattered by a heterogeneous scattering medium composed of a single flat layer or a multilayer. The first method [auxiliary function method (AFM)], recently developed, uses an auxiliary function and leads to an exact solution; the second [discrete-ordinate method (DOM)] is based on the channel concept and needs an angular discretization. The comparison is applied to two different media presenting two typical and extreme scattering behaviors: Rayleigh and Mie scattering with smooth or very anisotropic phase functions, respectively. A very good agreement between the predictions of the two methods is observed in both cases. The larger the number of channels used in the DOM, the better the agreement. The principal advantages and limitations of each method are also listed.
Pion scattering from very light nuclei
International Nuclear Information System (INIS)
Berman, B.
1993-01-01
Selected recent elastic and inelastic pion-scattering experiments on 3 H, 3 He, and 4 He will be reviewed. Particular attention will be given to multinucleon or cluster aspects of the data, and to possible comparisons with electron-scattering results. From elastic scattering from 3 H and 3 He at forward angles, one can extract the matter distribution of the paired neutrons in 3 H as well as that of the paired protons in 3 He. At backward angles, scattering from correlated nucleon pairs and/or two-step processes play an important role. For inelastic scattering, the momentum-transfer dependence of the cross section varies strongly with incident energy. Elastic scattering from a polarized 3 He target shows a strong asymmetry near 90 degrees. Elastic scattering from 4 He yields results which cannot be fitted with a simple optical model. An for inelastic scattering from 4 He, analysis of the data requires an important contribution from direct triton knockout
Continuum-mediated dark matter–baryon scattering
Katz, Andrey; Sajjad, Aqil
2016-01-01
Many models of dark matter scattering with baryons may be treated either as a simple contact interaction or as the exchange of a light mediator particle. We study an alternative, in which a continuum of light mediator states may be exchanged. This could arise, for instance, from coupling to a sector which is approximately conformal at the relevant momentum transfer scale. In the non-relativistic effective theory of dark matter-baryon scattering, which is useful for parametrizing direct detection signals, the effect of such continuum mediators is to multiply the amplitude by a function of the momentum transfer q, which in the simplest case is just a power law. We develop the basic framework and study two examples: the case where the mediator is a scalar operator coupling to the Higgs portal (which turns out to be highly constrained) and the case of an antisymmetric tensor operator ${\\cal O}_{\\mu \
International Nuclear Information System (INIS)
Ohno, Masahide
2006-01-01
The transition from the radiationless resonant Raman scattering to the normal Auger decay in resonant Auger-electron spectroscopy (RAES) spectra of charge transfer (CT) systems is discussed by treating the relaxation and the core-hole decay of the excited core-hole state on the same footing by a many-body theory. When the resonantly excited electron remains at the excited atomic site during the core-hole decay, the RAES spectrum shows the characteristic feature of the resonant Auger-Raman effect, whereas when the excited electron has been transferred from the atomic site before the core-hole decays, the RAES spectrum shows the normal Auger decay. The present theory supports the interpretation of the variation with photon energy of the intensity ratio of the latter spectrum to the former one in the RAES spectrum by the Ar 2p → 4s resonance of Ar atoms adsorbed on Ru(0 0 1) surface reported by Keller et al. [C. Keller, M. Stichler, G. Comelli, F. Esch, S. Lizzit, D. Menzel, W. Wurth, Phys. Rev. B 57 (1998) 11951]. The transition from the radiationless resonant Raman scattering to the normal Auger decay in the RAES spectrum of CuO reported by Finazzi et al. [M. Finazzi, G. Ghiringhell, O. Tjernberg, Ph. Ohresser, N.B. Brookes, Phys. Rev. B 61 (2000) 4629] is discussed in terms of the relaxation of the resonantly excited core-hole state to the core-electron ionized main-line state by the hole-particle excitations. The merging of the resonant Raman-Auger-electron kinetic energy into the normal one about 2 eV above the absorption maximum in Cu 2 O reported by Finazzi et al. [M. Finazzi, G. Ghiringhell, O. Tjernberg, Ph. Ohresser, N.B. Brookes, Phys. Rev. B 61 (2000) 4629] is explained in terms of the change in the characteristics of the screening electron in the two-hole final state. The Ti L 23 -M 23 V RAES spectra of TiO 2 and TiO 2-x are also analyzed
Measuring momentum for charged particle tomography
Morris, Christopher; Fraser, Andrew Mcleod; Schultz, Larry Joe; Borozdin, Konstantin N.; Klimenko, Alexei Vasilievich; Sossong, Michael James; Blanpied, Gary
2010-11-23
Methods, apparatus and systems for detecting charged particles and obtaining tomography of a volume by measuring charged particles including measuring the momentum of a charged particle passing through a charged particle detector. Sets of position sensitive detectors measure scattering of the charged particle. The position sensitive detectors having sufficient mass to cause the charged particle passing through the position sensitive detectors to scatter in the position sensitive detectors. A controller can be adapted and arranged to receive scattering measurements of the charged particle from the charged particle detector, determine at least one trajectory of the charged particle from the measured scattering; and determine at least one momentum measurement of the charged particle from the at least one trajectory. The charged particle can be a cosmic ray-produced charged particle, such as a cosmic ray-produced muon. The position sensitive detectors can be drift cells, such as gas-filled drift tubes.
Nucleon Compton Scattering with Two Space-Like Photons
International Nuclear Information System (INIS)
Andrei Afanasev; I. Akushevich; N.P. Merenkov
2002-01-01
We calculate two-photon exchange effects for elastic electron-proton scattering at high momentum transfers. The corresponding nucleon Compton amplitude is defined by two space-like virtual photons that appear to have significant virtualities. We make predictions for (a) a single-spin beam asymmetry, and (b) a single-spin target asymmetry or recoil proton polarization caused by an unpolarized electron beam
Elastic scattering crossovers from 50 to 175 GeV
International Nuclear Information System (INIS)
Anderson, R.L.; Ayres, D.S.; Barton, D.S.; Brenner, A.E.; Butler, J.; Cutts, D.; DeMarzo, C.; Diebold, R.; Elias, J.E.; Fines, J.; Friedman, J.I.; Gittelman, B.; Gottschalk, B.; Guerriero, L.; Gustavson, D.; Kendall, H.W.; Lanou, R.E.; Lavopa, P.; Levinson, L.J.; Litt, J.; Loh, E.; Maclay, G.J.; Maggi, G.; Massimo, J.T.; Meunier, R.; Mikenberg, G.; Nelson, B.; Posa, F.; Rich, K.; Ritson, D.M.; Rosenson, L.; Selvaggi, G.; Sogard, M.; Spinelli, P.; Verdier, R.; Waldner, F.; Weitsch, G.A.
1976-01-01
A comparison of K/sup plus-or-minus/p and p/sup plus-or-minus/p elastic scattering is made for incident energy 50 to 175 GeV. Average values of 0.19 +- 0.04 and 0.11 +- 0.02 GeV 2 were found for the invariant-momentum-transfer values of the Kp and pp crossover points, respectively
Coulomb interference and bending slope in hadron-hadron scattering
International Nuclear Information System (INIS)
Pereira, Flavio I.; Ferreira, Erasmo
1994-01-01
With the purpose of testing the results of QCD calculations on the structure of the forward elastic scattering cross-section, we analyse the coulombic-nuclear interference occurring at small values of the momentum transfer. We emphasize the influence of the hadronic structures on the determination of the Coulomb phase and consequently on the t-dependence of the strong interaction slope parameter. (author)
Carles, R.; Bayle, M.; Bonafos, C.
2018-04-01
Hybrid structures combing silver nanoparticles and few-layer graphene have been synthetized by combining low-energy ion beam synthesis and stencil techniques. A single plane of metallic nanoparticles plays the role of an embedded plasmonic enhancer located in dedicated areas at a controlled nanometer distance from deposited graphene layers. Optical imaging, reflectance and Raman scattering mapping are used to measure the enhancement of electronic and vibrational properties of these layers. In particular electronic Raman scattering is shown as notably efficient to analyze the optical transfer of charge carriers between the systems and the presence of intrinsic and extrinsic defects.
Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)
Hadjidakis, C
2002-12-01
This report presents the exclusive {rho}{sup 0} meson electroproduction on the nucleon at intermediate square momentum transfers Q{sup 2} (1.5 < Q{sup 2} < 3 GeV{sup 2}) and above the resonance region. The experiment has been taken place at the Jefferson laboratory with the CLAS detector, with a 4.2 GeV beam energy on an hydrogen target in the February-March 1999 period. We present the results and in particular the L/T separated cross sections. This experimentally unexplored domain experimentally is at the intersection between traditional 'soft' hadronic physics models (VDM and Regge inspired models) and 'hard' pQCD inspired approaches (recently introduced Generalized Parton Distribution). We discuss both approaches and their domain of validity. (author)
Elastic scattering of gamma radiation in solids
International Nuclear Information System (INIS)
Goncalves, O.D.
1987-01-01
The elastic scattering of gamma rays in solids is studied: Rayleigh scattering as well as Bragg scattering in Laue geometries. We measured Rayleigh cross sections for U, Pb, Pt, W, Sn, Ag, Mo, Cd, Zn, and Cu with gamma energies ranging from 60 to 660 KeV and angles between 5 0 and 140 0 . The experimental data are compared with form factor theories and second order perturbation theories and the limits of validity of both are established. In the 60 KeV experiment, a competition between Rayleigh and Bragg effects is found in the region of low momentum transfer. The Bragg experiments were performed using the gamma ray diffractometer from the Hahn-Meitner Institut (Berlin) with gammas of 317 KeV and angles up to 2 0 . In particular, we studied the effect of annealing in nearly perfect Czochralski Silicon crystals with high perfection in the crystallographic structure. The results are compared with Kinematical and Dynamical theories. (author)
Orbital angular momentum of photons, plasmons and neutrinos in a plasma
Mendonca, J. T.; Thidé, Bo; Then, H.; Ali, S.
2009-11-01
We study the exchange of angular momentum between electromagnetic and electrostatic waves in a plasma, due to the stimulated Raman and Brillouin backscatering processes [1]. Angular momentum states for plasmon and phonon fields are introduced for the first time. We demonstrate that these states can be excited by nonlinear wave mixing, associated with the scattering processes. This could be relevant for plasma diagnostics, both in laboratory and in space. Nonlinearly coupled paraxial equations and instability growth rates are derived. The characteristic features of the plasmon modes with finite angular momentum are also discussed. The potential problem is solved and the angular momentum is explicitly calculated [2]. Finally, it is shown that an electron-neutrino beam, propagating in a background plasma, can be decomposed into orbital momentum states, similar to that of photon states. Coupling between different neutrino states, in the presence of a plasma vortex, is considered. We show that plasma vorticity can be transfered to the neutrino beam, which is relevant to the understanding of the neutrino sources in astrophysics. [1] J.T. Mendonca et al., PRL 102, 185005 (2009). [2] S. Ali and J.T. Mendonca, PoP (2009) submitted. [3] J.T. Mendonca and B. Thide, Europhys. Lett. 84, 41001 (2008).
International Nuclear Information System (INIS)
Amado, R.D.; Sparrow, D.A.
1984-01-01
The importance of inelastic channels in proton-nucleus scattering grows with momentum transfer, q, so that for large q coupled channels are required. This happens when the elastic and inelastic cross sections become comparable. We incorporate these ideas in a simple analytic framework to explain the large angle p- 208 Pb elastic scattering data at 800 MeV for which standard optical model calculations have failed completely
Momentum sharing in imbalanced Fermi systems
Hen, O.; Sargsian, M.; Weinstein, L. B.; Piasetzky, E.; Hakobyan, H.; Higinbotham, D. W.; Braverman, M.; Brooks, W. K.; Gilad, S.; Adhikari, K. P.; Arrington, J.; Asryan, G.; Avakian, H.; Ball, J.; Baltzell, N. A.; Battaglieri, M.; Beck, A.; Beck, S. May-Tal; Bedlinskiy, I.; Bertozzi, W.; Biselli, A.; Burkert, V. D.; Cao, T.; Carman, D. S.; Celentano, A.; Chandavar, S.; Colaneri, L.; Cole, P. L.; Crede, V.; D'Angelo, A.; De Vita, R.; Deur, A.; Djalali, C.; Doughty, D.; Dugger, M.; Dupre, R.; Egiyan, H.; El Alaoui, A.; El Fassi, L.; Elouadrhiri, L.; Fedotov, G.; Fegan, S.; Forest, T.; Garillon, B.; Garcon, M.; Gevorgyan, N.; Ghandilyan, Y.; Gilfoyle, G. P.; Girod, F. X.; Goetz, J. T.; Gothe, R. W.; Griffioen, K. A.; Guidal, M.; Guo, L.; Hafidi, K.; Hanretty, C.; Hattawy, M.; Hicks, K.; Holtrop, M.; Hyde, C. E.; Ilieva, Y.; Ireland, D. G.; Ishkanov, B. I.; Isupov, E. L.; Jiang, H.; Jo, H. S.; Joo, K.; Keller, D.; Khandaker, M.; Kim, A.; Kim, W.; Klein, F. J.; Koirala, S.; Korover, I.; Kuhn, S. E.; Kubarovsky, V.; Lenisa, P.; Levine, W. I.; Livingston, K.; Lowry, M.; Lu, H. Y.; MacGregor, I. J. D.; Markov, N.; Mayer, M.; McKinnon, B.; Mineeva, T.; Mokeev, V.; Movsisyan, A.; Camacho, C. Munoz; Mustapha, B.; Nadel-Turonski, P.; Niccolai, S.; Niculescu, G.; Niculescu, I.; Osipenko, M.; Pappalardo, L. L.; Paremuzyan, R.; Park, K.; Pasyuk, E.; Phelps, W.; Pisano, S.; Pogorelko, O.; Price, J. W.; Procureur, S.; Prok, Y.; Protopopescu, D.; Puckett, A. J. R.; Rimal, D.; Ripani, M.; Ritchie, B. G.; Rizzo, A.; Rosner, G.; Roy, P.; Rossi, P.; Sabatié, F.; Schott, D.; Schumacher, R. A.; Sharabian, Y. G.; Smith, G. D.; Shneor, R.; Sokhan, D.; Stepanyan, S. S.; Stepanyan, S.; Stoler, P.; Strauch, S.; Sytnik, V.; Taiuti, M.; Tkachenko, S.; Ungaro, M.; Vlassov, A. V.; Voutier, E.; Walford, N. K.; Wei, X.; Wood, M. H.; Wood, S. A.; Zachariou, N.; Zana, L.; Zhao, Z. W.; Zheng, X.; Zonta, I.; aff16
2014-10-01
The atomic nucleus is composed of two different kinds of fermions: protons and neutrons. If the protons and neutrons did not interact, the Pauli exclusion principle would force the majority of fermions (usually neutrons) to have a higher average momentum. Our high-energy electron-scattering measurements using 12C, 27Al, 56Fe, and 208Pb targets show that even in heavy, neutron-rich nuclei, short-range interactions between the fermions form correlated high-momentum neutron-proton pairs. Thus, in neutron-rich nuclei, protons have a greater probability than neutrons to have momentum greater than the Fermi momentum. This finding has implications ranging from nuclear few-body systems to neutron stars and may also be observable experimentally in two-spin-state, ultracold atomic gas systems.
Momentum sharing in imbalanced Fermi systems
Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)
Hen, O.; Sargsian, M.; Weinstein, L. B.; Piasetzky, E.; Hakobyan, H.; Higinbotham, D. W.; Braverman, M.; Brooks, W. K.; Gilad, S.; Adhikari, K. P.; Arrington, J.; Asryan, G.; Avakian, H.; Ball, J.; Baltzell, N. A.; Battaglieri, M.; Beck, A.; Beck, S. M. -T.; Bedlinskiy, I.; Bertozzi, W.; Biselli, A.; Burkert, V. D.; Cao, T.; Carman, D. S.; Celentano, A.; Chandavar, S.; Colaneri, L.; Cole, P. L.; Crede, V.; D' Angelo, A.; De Vita, R.; Deur, A.; Djalali, C.; Doughty, D.; Dugger, M.; Dupre, R.; Egiyan, H.; El Alaoui, A.; El Fassi, L.; Elouadrhiri, L.; Fedotov, G.; Fegan, S.; Forest, T.; Garillon, B.; Garcon, M.; Gevorgyan, N.; Ghandilyan, Y.; Gilfoyle, G. P.; Girod, F. X.; Goetz, J. T.; Gothe, R. W.; Griffioen, K. A.; Guidal, M.; Guo, L.; Hafidi, K.; Hanretty, C.; Hattawy, M.; Hicks, K.; Holtrop, M.; Hyde, C. E.; Ilieva, Y.; Ireland, D. G.; Ishkanov, B. I.; Isupov, E. L.; Jiang, H.; Jo, H. S.; Joo, K.; Keller, D.; Khandaker, M.; Kim, A.; Kim, W.; Klein, F. J.; Koirala, S.; Korover, I.; Kuhn, S. E.; Kubarovsky, V.; Lenisa, P.; Levine, W. I.; Livingston, K.; Lowry, M.; Lu, H. Y.; MacGregor, I. J. D.; Markov, N.; Mayer, M.; McKinnon, B.; Mineeva, T.; Mokeev, V.; Movsisyan, A.; Camacho, C. M.; Mustapha, B.; Nadel-Turonski, P.; Niccolai, S.; Niculescu, G.; Niculescu, I.; Osipenko, M.; Pappalardo, L. L.; Paremuzyan, R.; Park, K.; Pasyuk, E.; Phelps, W.; Pisano, S.; Pogorelko, O.; Price, J. W.; Procureur, S.; Prok, Y.; Protopopescu, D.; Puckett, A. J. R.; Rimal, D.; Ripani, M.; Ritchie, B. G.; Rizzo, A.; Rosner, G.; Roy, P.; Rossi, P.; Sabatie, F.; Schott, D.; Schumacher, R. A.; Sharabian, Y. G.; Smith, G. D.; Shneor, R.; Sokhan, D.; Stepanyan, S. S.; Stepanyan, S.; Stoler, P.; Strauch, S.; Sytnik, V.; Taiuti, M.; Tkachenko, S.; Ungaro, M.; Vlassov, A. V.; Voutier, E.; Walford, N. K.; Wei, X.; Wood, M. H.; Wood, S. A.; Zachariou, N.; Zana, L.; Zhao, Z. W.; Zheng, X.; Zonta, I.
2014-10-16
The atomic nucleus is composed of two different kinds of fermions: protons and neutrons. If the protons and neutrons did not interact, the Pauli exclusion principle would force the majority of fermions (usually neutrons) to have a higher average momentum. Our high-energy electron-scattering measurements using C-12, Al-27, Fe-56, and Pb-208 targets show that even in heavy, neutron-rich nuclei, short-range interactions between the fermions form correlated high-momentum neutron-proton pairs. Thus, in neutron-rich nuclei, protons have a greater probability than neutrons to have momentum greater than the Fermi momentum. This finding has implications ranging from nuclear few-body systems to neutron stars and may also be observable experimentally in two-spin-state, ultracold atomic gas systems.
Three-dimensional reciprocal space x-ray coherent scattering tomography of two-dimensional object.
Zhu, Zheyuan; Pang, Shuo
2018-04-01
X-ray coherent scattering tomography is a powerful tool in discriminating biological tissues and bio-compatible materials. Conventional x-ray scattering tomography framework can only resolve isotropic scattering profile under the assumption that the material is amorphous or in powder form, which is not true especially for biological samples with orientation-dependent structure. Previous tomography schemes based on x-ray coherent scattering failed to preserve the scattering pattern from samples with preferred orientations, or required elaborated data acquisition scheme, which could limit its application in practical settings. Here, we demonstrate a simple imaging modality to preserve the anisotropic scattering signal in three-dimensional reciprocal (momentum transfer) space of a two-dimensional sample layer. By incorporating detector movement along the direction of x-ray beam, combined with a tomographic data acquisition scheme, we match the five dimensions of the measurements with the five dimensions (three in momentum transfer domain, and two in spatial domain) of the object. We employed a collimated pencil beam of a table-top copper-anode x-ray tube, along with a panel detector to investigate the feasibility of our method. We have demonstrated x-ray coherent scattering tomographic imaging at a spatial resolution ~2 mm and momentum transfer resolution 0.01 Å -1 for the rotation-invariant scattering direction. For any arbitrary, non-rotation-invariant direction, the same spatial and momentum transfer resolution can be achieved based on the spatial information from the rotation-invariant direction. The reconstructed scattering profile of each pixel from the experiment is consistent with the x-ray diffraction profile of each material. The three-dimensional scattering pattern recovered from the measurement reveals the partially ordered molecular structure of Teflon wrap in our sample. We extend the applicability of conventional x-ray coherent scattering tomography to
Deuterium electrodisintegration at high recoil momentum
International Nuclear Information System (INIS)
Steenholen, G.
1996-01-01
The availability of continuous electron beams made it possible to carry out various deuterium electro-disintegration experiments in kinematical domains corresponding to a high recoil momentum. Three such experiments are discussed: 1) the left-right asymmetry with respect to the direction of the momentum transfer has been measured with good precision; 2) cross sections have been obtained in a kinematical region well above the quasi-elastic peak; 3) data have been taken in quasi-elastic kinematics that can be used to study high-momentum components in the deuterium wave function [ru
International Nuclear Information System (INIS)
Gomes, P. R. S.; Lubian, J.; Mendes-Junior, D. R.; Faria, P. N. de; Linares, R.; Sigaud, L.; Rangel, J.; Ferreira, J. L.; Paes, B.; Cardozo, E. N.; Cortes, M. R.; Canto, L. F.; Ermamatov, M. J.; Otomar, D. R.; Ferioli, E.; Lotti, P.; Hussein, M. S.
2016-01-01
We present a brief review of the reaction mechanisms involved in collisions of weakly bound projectiles with tightly bound targets, at near-barrier energies. We discuss systematic behaviors of the data, with emphasis in fusion, breakup, nucleon transfer and elastic scattering. The dependence of the breakup cross section on the charge and mass of the target is discussed, and the influence of the breakup channel on complete fusion is investigated. For this purpose, we compare reduced fusion cross sections with a benchmark universal curve. The behaviors observed in the comparisons are explained in terms of polarization potentials and of nucleon transfer followed by breakup. The influence of the breakup process on elastic scattering is also discussed. Some apparent contradictions between results of different authors are explained and some perspectives of the field are presented. (author)
Weng, Fuzhong
1992-01-01
A theory is developed for discretizing the vector integro-differential radiative transfer equation including both solar and thermal radiation. A complete solution and boundary equations are obtained using the discrete-ordinate method. An efficient numerical procedure is presented for calculating the phase matrix and achieving computational stability. With natural light used as a beam source, the Stokes parameters from the model proposed here are compared with the analytical solutions of Chandrasekhar (1960) for a Rayleigh scattering atmosphere. The model is then applied to microwave frequencies with a thermal source, and the brightness temperatures are compared with those from Stamnes'(1988) radiative transfer model.
Manifestation of 12-quark bag state of 4He nucleus in elastic d4He scattering
International Nuclear Information System (INIS)
Mosallem, A.M.; Uzhinskij, V.V.
2002-01-01
The 4 He d elastic scattering at the momentum of 19.8 GeV/c is analyzed in the framework of the Glauber theory. The scattering amplitude was evaluated using different sets of values of the nucleon-nucleon amplitude parameters and the 4 He density function as a superposition of the Gaussian functions. It is shown that it is impossible to describe simultaneously the p 4 He and d 4 He elastic scattering cross sections using the same set of the NN-amplitude parameters. Inclusion of the twelve-quark bag admixture to the ground state of the 4 He nucleus in the calculations allows one to reproduce the experimental data quite well. It is shown that the admixture manifests itself in the d 4 He elastic scattering in the whole region of the momentum transfer. At small t the effect can be at the level of ∼ 10%. At large t it can be ∼30%
Momentum scale in the HARP TPC
Catanesi, M G; Edgecock, R; Ellis, M; Soler, F J P; Gössling, C; Bunyatov, S; Krasnoperov, A; Popov, B; Serdiouk, V; Tereschenko, V; Di Capua, E; Vidal-Sitjes, G; Artamonov, A; Giani, S; Gilardoni, S; Gorbunov, P; Grant, A; Grossheim, A; Ivanchenko, V; Kayis-Topaksu, A; Panman, J; Papadopoulos, I; Chernyaev, E; Tsukerman, I; Veenhof, R; Wiebusch, C; Zucchelli, P; Blondel, A; Borghi, S; Morone, M C; Prior, G; Schroeter, R; Meurer, C; Gastaldi, Ugo; Mills, G B; Graulich, J S; Grégoire, G; Bonesini, M; Ferri, F; Kirsanov, M; Bagulya, A; Grichine, V; Polukhina, N; Palladino, V; Coney, L; Schmitz, D; Barr, G; De Santo, A; Bobisut, F; Gibin, D; Guglielmi, A; Mezzetto, M; Dumarchez, J; Dore, U; Orestano, D; Pastore, F; Tonazzo, A; Tortora, L; Booth, C; Howlett, L; Bogomilov, M; Chizhov, M; Kolev, D; Tsenov, R; Piperov, S; Temnikov, P; Apollonio, M; Chimenti, P; Giannini, G; Burguet-Castell, J; Cervera-Villanueva, A; Gómez-Cadenas, J J; Martín-Albo, J; Novella, P; Sorel, M
2007-01-01
Recently a claim was made that the reconstruction of the large angle tracks in the HARP TPC was affected by a momentum bias as large as 15% at 500 MeV/c transverse momentum. In the following we recall the main issues with the momentum measurement in the HARP TPC, and describe the cross-checks made to validate the momentum scale. Proton-proton elastic scattering data off the hydrogen target are used to alibrate the momentum of charged particles with a precision evaluated to be 3.5%. A full description of the time development of the dynamic distortions in the TPC during physics spills is now available together with a correction algorithm. This allows a new cross-check using an enlarged data set made by comparing positive and negative pion elasticscattering data collected with negative polarity of the solenoid magnet. These data confirm the absence of a bias in the sagitta measurement. The dE/dx versus momentum curves are revisited, and shown to provide a confirmation that the HARP momentum calibration is correc...
Data reduction for neutron scattering from plutonium samples. Final report
International Nuclear Information System (INIS)
Seeger, P.A.
1997-01-01
An experiment performed in August, 1993, on the Low-Q Diffractometer (LQD) at the Manual Lujan Jr. Neutron Scattering Center (MLNSC) was designed to study the formation and annealing of He bubbles in aged 239 Pu metal. Significant complications arise in the reduction of the data because of the very high total neutron cross section of 239 Pu, and also because the sample are difficult to make uniform and to characterize. This report gives the details of the data and the data reduction procedures, presents the resulting scattering patterns in terms of macroscopic cross section as a function of momentum transfer, and suggests improvements for future experiments
Probing Quark-Gluon Interactions with Transverse Polarized Scattering
International Nuclear Information System (INIS)
Rondon, Oscar A.
2011-01-01
Transverse polarized inelastic scattering extends the power of the electromagnetic interaction as a probe of nucleon dynamics beyond the leading order regime explored with longitudinally polarized DIS. In transverse polarized scattering, the twist-3 g 2 spin structure function contributes at the same order as the longitudinal, twist-2, g 1 , so interactions between quarks and gluons can be studied, opening a window on the mechanisms of confinement. This talk reports the results of Jefferson Lab's Resonances Spin Structure experiment measurement of g 2 and the d 2 twist-3 quark matrix element at a four-momentum transfer of 1.3 GeV 2 .
Normal Spin Asymmetries in Elastic Electron-Proton Scattering
International Nuclear Information System (INIS)
M. Gorchtein; P.A.M. Guichon; M. Vanderhaeghen
2004-01-01
We discuss the two-photon exchange contribution to observables which involve lepton helicity flip in elastic lepton-nucleon scattering. This contribution is accessed through the single spin asymmetry for a lepton beam polarized normal to the scattering plane. We estimate this beam normal spin asymmetry at large momentum transfer using a parton model and we express the corresponding amplitude in terms of generalized parton distributions. We further discuss this observable in the quasi-RCS kinematics which may be dominant at certain kinematical conditions and find it to be governed by the photon helicity-flip RCS amplitudes
Normal Spin Asymmetries in Elastic Electron-Proton Scattering
International Nuclear Information System (INIS)
Gorchtein, M.; Guichon, P.A.M.; Vanderhaeghen, M.
2005-01-01
We discuss the two-photon exchange contribution to observables which involve lepton helicity flip in elastic lepton-nucleon scattering. This contribution is accessed through the single spin asymmetry for a lepton beam polarized normal to the scattering plane. We estimate this beam normal spin asymmetry at large momentum transfer using a parton model and we express the corresponding amplitude in terms of generalized parton distributions. We further discuss this observable in the quasi-RCS kinematics which may be dominant at certain kinematical conditions and find it to be governed by the photon helicity-flip RCS amplitudes
International Nuclear Information System (INIS)
Goloskokov, S.V.; Kuleshov, S.P.; Selyugin, O.V.
1993-01-01
Theoretical predictions for the behavior of the slope of the nucleon-nucleon scattering and other parameters of the differential cross sections in the framework of the dynamic model are compared with the recent U A 4/2 data at small transfer momenta and at a centre-of-mass energy of 541 GeV. Predictions at superhigh energies are considered. (author.). 13 refs.; 1 fig.; 1 tab
Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)
Zhuo, Ye [Iowa State Univ., Ames, IA (United States)
2011-01-01
In this thesis, we theoretically study the electromagnetic wave propagation in several passive and active optical components and devices including 2-D photonic crystals, straight and curved waveguides, organic light emitting diodes (OLEDs), and etc. Several optical designs are also presented like organic photovoltaic (OPV) cells and solar concentrators. The first part of the thesis focuses on theoretical investigation. First, the plane-wave-based transfer (scattering) matrix method (TMM) is briefly described with a short review of photonic crystals and other numerical methods to study them (Chapter 1 and 2). Next TMM, the numerical method itself is investigated in details and developed in advance to deal with more complex optical systems. In chapter 3, TMM is extended in curvilinear coordinates to study curved nanoribbon waveguides. The problem of a curved structure is transformed into an equivalent one of a straight structure with spatially dependent tensors of dielectric constant and magnetic permeability. In chapter 4, a new set of localized basis orbitals are introduced to locally represent electromagnetic field in photonic crystals as alternative to planewave basis. The second part of the thesis focuses on the design of optical devices. First, two examples of TMM applications are given. The first example is the design of metal grating structures as replacements of ITO to enhance the optical absorption in OPV cells (chapter 6). The second one is the design of the same structure as above to enhance the light extraction of OLEDs (chapter 7). Next, two design examples by ray tracing method are given, including applying a microlens array to enhance the light extraction of OLEDs (chapter 5) and an all-angle wide-wavelength design of solar concentrator (chapter 8). In summary, this dissertation has extended TMM which makes it capable of treating complex optical systems. Several optical designs by TMM and ray tracing method are also given as a full complement of this
Double-slit experiment in momentum space
Ivanov, I. P.; Seipt, D.; Surzhykov, A.; Fritzsche, S.
2016-08-01
Young's classic double-slit experiment demonstrates the reality of interference when waves and particles travel simultaneously along two different spatial paths. Here, we propose a double-slit experiment in momentum space, realized in the free-space elastic scattering of vortex electrons. We show that this process proceeds along two paths in momentum space, which are well localized and well separated from each other. For such vortex beams, the (plane-wave) amplitudes along the two paths acquire adjustable phase shifts and produce interference fringes in the final angular distribution. We argue that this experiment can be realized with the present-day technology. We show that it gives experimental access to the Coulomb phase, a quantity which plays an important role in all charged particle scattering but which usual scattering experiments are insensitive to.
Incoherent neutron scattering functions for random jump diffusion in bounded and infinite media
International Nuclear Information System (INIS)
Hall, P.L.; Ross, D.K.
1981-01-01
The incoherent neutron scattering function for unbounded jump diffusion is calculated from random walk theory assuming a gaussian distribution of jump lengths. The method is then applied to calculate the scattering function for spatially bounded random jumps in one dimension. The dependence on momentum transfer of the quasi-elastic energy broadenings predicted by this model and a previous model for bounded one-dimensional continuous diffusion are calculated and compared with the predictions of models for diffusion in unbounded media. The one-dimensional solutions can readily be generalized to three dimensions to provide a description of quasi-elastic scattering of neutrons by molecules undergoing localized random motions. (author)
Quantum mechanical study of elastic scattering and rotational excitation of CO by electrons
Onda, K.; Truhlar, D. G.
1980-01-01
Coupling calculations of differential, integral, and momentum transfer cross sections for pure elastic scattering and rotational excitation of CO by electron impact are reported. The calculations are based on a static charge distribution that has correct dipole and quadrupole moments, has cusps at the nuclei, and is augmented by an SCF treatment of charge polarization and a local approximation for exchange. The rotationally summed cross sections, with no adjustable parameters in the scattering calculation, are in reasonably good agreement with the experimental cross sections but are somewhat larger at small scattering angles.
Detector system for e-d scattering experiments on the VEPP-3 storage ring
International Nuclear Information System (INIS)
Isaeva, L.G.; Lazarenko, B.A.; Nikolenko, D.M.; Popov, S.G.; Rachek, I.A.; Ukraintsev, Yu.G.; Tsentalovich, E.P.; Wojtsekhowski, B.B.; Nelubin, V.V.
1993-01-01
Experiments on electron scattering from polarized deuterons were carried out on the VEPP-3 storage ring at the Novosibirsk Institute for Nuclear Physics. The e-D coincidences were detected for elastic scattering experiments, and the p-n coincidences for photo disintegration studies. The tensor analyzing power of the elastic scattering was measured in the range of momentum transfer up to 3 f -1 , and of photo disintegration in the range of photon energy up to 500 MeV. The detector system created for these experiments and the data analysis procedures are described in this paper. (orig.)
Strong Three-magnon Scattering in Cuprates by Resonant X-rays
Ament, Luuk J. P.; Brink, Jeroen van den
2010-01-01
We show that Resonant Inelastic X-ray scattering (RIXS) is sensitive to three-magnon excitations in cuprates. Even if it requires three electrons to simultaneously flip their spin, the RIXS tri-magnon scattering amplitude is not small. At the Cu $L$-edge its intensity is generally larger than the bi-magnon one and at low transferred momentum even larger than the single-magnon intensity. At the copper $M$-edge the situation is yet more extreme: in this case three-magnon scattering is dominatin...
International Nuclear Information System (INIS)
Peterson, G.A.
1977-10-01
Tune-up experiments were carried out at the Bates Linear Accelerator of Middleton, Massachusetts, on the 180 0 electron scattering apparatus designed and constructed by the University of Massachusetts under contract E(11-1)-2545. This apparatus serves as adjunct equipment to the Bates dispersion-matching spectrometer. Form factors were measured for the low-lying states of 27 Al over the momentum transfer range from 0.7 to 2.6 fm -1 . A paper was published in the Physical Review on low-momentum transfer elastic electron scattering from 3 He. The 3 He rms radius was determined to be 1.89 +- 0.05 fm from measurements made at the National Bureau of Standards over the momentum transfer range-squared between 0.032 and 0.34 fm -2 . A Physical Review paper was published in November, 1977, on the results of elastic electron scattering from 25 Mg over the momentum transfer range from 0.19 to 2.56 fm -1 at both forward and backward angles. Values of all of the ground-state multipole moments of both Coulomb and magnetic character were obtained. A paper was submitted for publication on the electroexcitation of giant dipole and quadrupole resonances in 20 Ne. Electric dipole and quadrupole strength was found throughout the region from 12.5 through 25 MeV. About 65% and 100% of the energy-weighted dipole and quadrupole sum rules, respectively, were exhausted. A preliminary run was made on 42 Ca and 44 Ca at the National Bureau of Standards for an incident electron energy of 54.3 MeV and a 145 0 scattering angle in an attempt to observe f/sub 7 / 2 / to f/sub 5 / 2 / magnetic dipole transitions. A paper was composed on the 160 0 inelastic scattering of electrons from 58 Ni at momentum transfers near 2 fm -1 . Strong M8 transitions were observed which are characterized by predominantly one particle--one hole excitations characterized by the configuration
Battistoni, Andrea; Bencivenga, Filippo; Fioretto, Daniele; Masciovecchio, Claudio
2014-10-15
In this Letter, we present a simple method to avoid the well-known spurious contributions in the Brillouin light scattering (BLS) spectrum arising from the finite aperture of collection optics. The method relies on the use of special spatial filters able to select the scattered light with arbitrary precision around a given value of the momentum transfer (Q). We demonstrate the effectiveness of such filters by analyzing the BLS spectra of a reference sample as a function of scattering angle. This practical and inexpensive method could be an extremely useful tool to fully exploit the potentiality of Brillouin acoustic spectroscopy, as it will easily allow for effective Q-variable experiments with unparalleled luminosity and resolution.
Electron momentum spectroscopy of the core state of solid carbon
International Nuclear Information System (INIS)
Caprari, R.S.; Clark, S.A.C.; McCarthy, I.E.; Storer, P.J.; Vos, M.; Weigold, E.
1994-08-01
Electron momentum spectroscopy (binary encounter (e,2e)) experimental results are presented for the core state of an amorphous carbon allotrope. The (e,2e) cross section has two identifiable regions. One is a narrow energy width 'core band peak' that does not disperse with momentum. At higher binding energies there is an energy diffuse 'multiple scattering continuum', which is a consequence of (e,2e) collisions with core electrons that are accompanied by inelastic scattering of one or more of the incoming or outgoing electrons. Comparisons of experimental momentum distributions with the Hartree-Fock atomic carbon ls orbital are presented for both regions. 16 refs., 4 figs
Introducing Conservation of Momentum
Brunt, Marjorie; Brunt, Geoff
2013-01-01
The teaching of the principle of conservation of linear momentum is considered (ages 15 + ). From the principle, the momenta of two masses in an isolated system are considered. Sketch graphs of the momenta make Newton's laws appear obvious. Examples using different collision conditions are considered. Conservation of momentum is considered…
Attention and Representational Momentum
Hayes, Amy; Freyd, Jennifer J
1995-01-01
Representational momentum, the tendency for memory to be distorted in the direction of an implied transformation, suggests that dynamics are an intrinsic part of perceptual representations. We examined the effect of attention on dynamic representation by testing for representational momentum under conditions of distraction. Forward memory shifts increase when attention is divided. Attention may be involved in halting but not in maintaining dynamic representations.
Momentum sharing in imbalanced Fermi systems
Hen, O.; Sargsian, M.; Weinstein, L. B.; Piasetzky, E.; Hakobyan, H.; Higinbotham, D. W.; Braverman, M.; Brooks, W. K.; Gilad, S.; Adhikari, K. P.; Arrington, J.; Asryan, G.; Avakian, H.; Ball, J.; Baltzell, N. A.
2014-01-01
The atomic nucleus is composed of two different kinds of fermions, protons and neutrons. If the protons and neutrons did not interact, the Pauli exclusion principle would force the majority fermions (usually neutrons) to have a higher average momentum. Our high-energy electron scattering measurements using 12C, 27Al, 56Fe and 208Pb targets show that, even in heavy neutron-rich nuclei, short-range interactions between the fermions form correlated high-momentum neutron-proton pairs. Thus, in ne...
Diffuse scattering in metallic tin polymorphs
International Nuclear Information System (INIS)
Wehinger, Björn; Bosak, Alexeï; Piccolboni, Giuseppe; Krisch, Michael; Refson, Keith; Chernyshov, Dmitry; Ivanov, Alexandre; Rumiantsev, Alexander
2014-01-01
The lattice dynamics of the metallic tin β and γ polymorphs has been studied by a combination of diffuse scattering, inelastic x-ray scattering and density functional perturbation theory. The non-symmorphic space group of the β -tin structure results in unusual asymmetry of thermal diffuse scattering. Strong resemblance of the diffuse scattering intensity distribution in β and γ-tin were observed, reflecting the structural relationship between the two phases and revealing the qualitative similarity of the underlying electronic potential. The strong influence of the electron subsystem on inter-ionic interactions creates anomalies in the phonon dispersion relations. All observed features are described in great detail by the density functional perturbation theory for both β - and γ-tin at arbitrary momentum transfers. The combined approach delivers thus a complete picture of the lattice dynamics in harmonic description. (paper)
Anomalous neutron Compton scattering cross section in zirconium hydride
International Nuclear Information System (INIS)
Abdul-Redah, T.; Krzystyniak, M.; Mayers, J.; Chatzidimitriou-Dreismann, C.A.
2005-01-01
In the last few years we observed a shortfall of intensity of neutrons scattered from protons in various materials including metal hydrogen systems using neutron Compton scattering (NCS) on the VESUVIO instrument (ISIS, UK). This anomaly has been attributed to the existence of short-lived quantum entangled states of protons in these materials. Here we report on results of very recent NCS measurements on ZrH 2 at room temperature. Also here an anomalous shortfall of scattering intensity due to protons is observed. In contrast to previous experiments on NbH 0.8 , the anomalies found in ZrH 2 are independent of the scattering angle (or momentum transfer). These different results are discussed in the light of recent criticisms and experimental tests related to the data analysis procedure on VESUVIO
International Nuclear Information System (INIS)
Le Brun, C.; Lecolley, J.F.; Lefebvres, F.; L'Haridon, M.; Osmont, A.; Patry, J.P.; Steckmeyer, J.C.; Chechik, R.; Guilbault, F.
We have measured the angular distribution of the target-like reaction product fission fragments emitted in coincidence with the light projectile like reaction product. For the first time, a sequential fission experiment in deeply inelastic collisions has observed an increase of the width of the out of plane angular distributions with the in-plane angle phi. The in-plane distribution exhibits an anisotropy centered in the recoil direction of the heavy fissionning nucleus, and shows up a dealignment mechanism of the transferred angular comparatively to the normal to the reaction plane. The de-aligned spin components have a gaussian distribution with a r.m.s width of about 10h and are lying preferentially in a plane perpendicular to the recoil direction. The mean value of the aligned component is of about 45h in agreement with the sticking limit with deformed nuclei. The dependence of the target-like reaction product fission probabilities on the total kinetic energy loss and Z of the projectile-like reaction product have been measured [fr
International Nuclear Information System (INIS)
Karastoyanov, A.
1990-01-01
The relativistic law of momentum transformation shows that the sum of momenta of even isolated particles is not invariable in all inertial reference systems. This is connected with the relativistic change of kinetic energy and mass of a system of particles in result of internal interactions. The paper proposes a short and simple proof on the necessity of potential momentum. The momentum conservation law (for all interactions in the Minkowski world) is expressed in a generalized form. The constancy of the sum of kinetic and potential momentum of closed system of particles is shown. The energy conservation is a necessary condition. The potential momentum is defined as usual (e.g. as in the Berkeley Physics Course). (author). 13 refs
Is physics in the infinite momentum frame independent of the compactificaction radius?
International Nuclear Information System (INIS)
Gueijosa, A.
1998-01-01
With the aim of clarifying the eleven-dimensional content of matrix theory, we examine the dependence of a theory in the infinite momentum frame (IMF) on the (purely spatial) longitudinal compactification radius R. It is shown that in a point particle theory the generic scattering amplitude becomes independent of R in the IMF. Processes with zero longitudinal momentum transfer are found to be exceptional. The same question is addressed in a theory with extended objects. A one-loop type II string amplitude is shown to be R-independent in the IMF, and to coincide with that of the uncompactified theory. No exceptional processes exist in this case. The possible implications of these results for M theory are discussed. In particular, if amplitudes in M theory are independent of R in the IMF, matrix theory can be rightfully expected (in the N→∞ limit) to describe uncompactified M theory. (orig.)
Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)
Feng, Zhenbao; Yang, Bing; Lin, Yangming; Su, Dangsheng, E-mail: dssu@imr.ac.cn [Shenyang National Laboratory of Materials Science, Institute of Metal Research, Chinese Academy of Sciences, Wenhua Road 72, Shenyang 110016 (China)
2015-12-07
The electron momentum distribution of detonation nanodiamonds (DND) was investigated by recording electron energy-loss spectra at large momentum transfer in the transmission electron microscope (TEM), which is known as electron Compton scattering from solid (ECOSS). Compton profile of diamond film obtained by ECOSS was found in good agreement with prior photon experimental measurement and theoretical calculation that for bulk diamond. Compared to the diamond film, the valence Compton profile of DND was found to be narrower, which indicates a more delocalization of the ground-state charge density for the latter. Combining with other TEM characterizations such as high-resolution transmission electron spectroscopy, diffraction, and energy dispersive X-ray spectroscopy measurements, ECOSS was shown to be a great potential technique to study ground-state electronic properties of nanomaterials.
Molina Garcia, Victor; Sasi, Sruthy; Efremenko, Dmitry; Doicu, Adrian; Loyola, Diego
2017-04-01
In this work, the requirements for the retrieval of cloud properties in the back-scattering region are described, and their application to the measurements taken by the Earth Polychromatic Imaging Camera (EPIC) on board the Deep Space Climate Observatory (DSCOVR) is shown. Various radiative transfer models and their linearizations are implemented, and their advantages and issues are analyzed. As radiative transfer calculations in the back-scattering region are computationally time-consuming, several acceleration techniques are also studied. The radiative transfer models analyzed include the exact Discrete Ordinate method with Matrix Exponential (DOME), the Matrix Operator method with Matrix Exponential (MOME), and the approximate asymptotic and equivalent Lambertian cloud models. To reduce the computational cost of the line-by-line (LBL) calculations, the k-distribution method, the Principal Component Analysis (PCA) and a combination of the k-distribution method plus PCA are used. The linearized radiative transfer models for retrieval of cloud properties include the Linearized Discrete Ordinate method with Matrix Exponential (LDOME), the Linearized Matrix Operator method with Matrix Exponential (LMOME) and the Forward-Adjoint Discrete Ordinate method with Matrix Exponential (FADOME). These models were applied to the EPIC oxygen-A band absorption channel at 764 nm. It is shown that the approximate asymptotic and equivalent Lambertian cloud models give inaccurate results, so an offline processor for the retrieval of cloud properties in the back-scattering region requires the use of exact models such as DOME and MOME, which behave similarly. The combination of the k-distribution method plus PCA presents similar accuracy to the LBL calculations, but it is up to 360 times faster, and the relative errors for the computed radiances are less than 1.5% compared to the results when the exact phase function is used. Finally, the linearized models studied show similar behavior
Small Angle X-Ray Scattering Detector
Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)
Hessler, Jan P.
2004-06-15
A detector for time-resolved small-angle x-ray scattering includes a nearly constant diameter, evacuated linear tube having an end plate detector with a first fluorescent screen and concentric rings of first fiber optic bundles for low angle scattering detection and an annular detector having a second fluorescent screen and second fiber optic bundles concentrically disposed about the tube for higher angle scattering detection. With the scattering source, i.e., the specimen under investigation, located outside of the evacuated tube on the tube's longitudinal axis, scattered x-rays are detected by the fiber optic bundles, to each of which is coupled a respective photodetector, to provide a measurement resolution, i.e., dq/q, where q is the momentum transferred from an incident x-ray to an x-ray scattering specimen, of 2% over two (2) orders of magnitude in reciprocal space, i.e., qmax/qmin approx=lO0.
Preliminary Examination of X-ray Scattering from Human Tissues
International Nuclear Information System (INIS)
Desouky, O.S.; Wilkinson, S.; Hall, C.; Rogers, K.; Round, A.
2008-01-01
Small Angle x-ray scattering (SAXS) and wide angle x-ray scattering (WAXS) patterns have been recorded from different human soft tissues using x-ray synchrotron radiation.Pathological breast, normal kidney and lung tissues show SAXS peaks at q-values equal to 0.291 nm -1 and 0.481 nm -1 (d 21.6 nm and d =13. nm) which are the 3 r d and 5 t h order of the well known axial D-spacing of collagen fibrils. The diffraction is particularly intense in the meridional direction indicating some febrile alignment. In contrast, the normal tissue of brain, liver and heart shows diffuse scatter.The wide-angle coherent scattering from normal human tissues of brain, liver, heart, lung, and kidney is typical of that for amorphous materials. The scatter of the healthy adipose breast tissue shows a sharp peak at momentum transfer 1.24 nm -1 (d= 0.417 nm). The data of the other tissues appears to consist of a broad scattering peak. The two scattering regimes succeed in differentiating between the two major components of breast tissue, collagen and adipose tissue. The results of this study suggest that the soft tissues may have scattering patterns that are characteristics for the particular tissue types and tissue disease state. These results indicate that it may be possible use the coherent scattering as a diagnostic tool
Magneto optical trap recoil ion momentum spectroscopy: application to ion-atom collisions
International Nuclear Information System (INIS)
Blieck, J.
2008-10-01
87 Rb atoms have been cooled, trapped and prepared as targets for collision studies with 2 and 5 keV Na + projectiles. The physics studied deals with charge exchange processes. The active electron, which is generally the most peripheral electron of the atomic target, is transferred from the target onto the ionic projectile. The ionized target is called recoil ion. The technique used to study this physics is the MOTRIMS (Magneto Optical Trap Recoil Ion Momentum Spectroscopy) technique, which combines a magneto optical trap and a recoil ion momentum spectrometer. The spectrometer is used for the measurement of the recoil ions momentum, which gives access to all the information of the collision: the Q-value (which is the potential energy difference of the active electron on each particle) and the scattering angle of the projectile. The trap provides extremely cold targets to optimize the measurement of the momentum, and to release the latter from thermal motion. Through cinematically complete experiments, the MOTRIMS technique gives access to better resolutions on momentum measurements. Measurements of differential cross sections in initial and final capture states and in scattering angle have been done. Results obtained for differential cross sections in initial and final states show globally a good agreement with theory and an other experiment. Nevertheless, discrepancies with theory and this other experiment are shown for the measurements of doubly differential cross sections. These discrepancies are not understood yet. The particularity of the experimental setup designed and tested in this work, namely a low background noise, allows a great sensitivity to weak capture channels, and brings a technical and scientific gain compared with previous works. (author)
DEFF Research Database (Denmark)
Wahlgren, Bjarne; Aarkrog, Vibe
Bogen er den første samlede indføring i transfer på dansk. Transfer kan anvendes som praksis-filosofikum. Den giver en systematisk indsigt til den studerende, der spørger: Hvordan kan teoretisk viden bruges til at reflektere over handlinger i situationer, der passer til min fremtidige arbejdsplads?...
On the observability of the quark orbital angular momentum distribution
Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)
Courtoy, Aurore, E-mail: aurore.courtoy@ulg.be [IFPA, AGO Department, Université de Liège, Bât. B5, Sart Tilman, B-4000 Liège (Belgium); Laboratori Nazionali di Frascati, INFN, Frascati (Italy); Goldstein, Gary R., E-mail: gary.goldstein@tufts.edu [Department of Physics and Astronomy, Tufts University, Medford, MA 02155 (United States); Osvaldo Gonzalez Hernandez, J., E-mail: jog4m@virginia.edu [Istituto Nazionale di Fisica Nucleare (INFN) – Sezione di Torino, via P. Giuria, 1, 10125 Torino (Italy); Liuti, Simonetta, E-mail: sl4y@virginia.edu [University of Virginia – Physics Department, 382 McCormick Rd., Charlottesville, VA 22904 (United States); Laboratori Nazionali di Frascati, INFN, Frascati (Italy); Rajan, Abha, E-mail: ar5xc@virginia.edu [University of Virginia – Physics Department, 382 McCormick Rd., Charlottesville, VA 22904 (United States)
2014-04-04
We argue that due to parity constraints, the helicity combination of the purely momentum space counterparts of the Wigner distributions – the generalized transverse momentum distributions – that describes the configuration of an unpolarized quark in a longitudinally polarized nucleon can enter the deeply virtual Compton scattering amplitude only through matrix elements involving a final state interaction. The relevant matrix elements in turn involve light-cone operators projections in the transverse direction, or they appear in the deeply virtual Compton scattering amplitude at twist three. Orbital angular momentum or the spin structure of the nucleon was a major reason for these various distributions and amplitudes to have been introduced. We show that the twist three contributions associated with orbital angular momentum are related to the target-spin asymmetry in deeply virtual Compton scattering, already measured at HERMES.
The Glauber model and heavy ion reaction and elastic scattering cross sections
Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)
Mehndiratta, Ajay [Physics Department, Indian Institute of Technology, Guwahati (India); Shukla, Prashant, E-mail: pshukla@barc.gov.in [Nuclear Physics Division, Bhabha Atomic Research Centre, Mumbai 400085 (India); Homi Bhabha National Institute, Anushakti Nagar, Mumbai 400094 (India)
2017-05-15
We revisit the Glauber model to study the heavy ion reaction cross sections and elastic scattering angular distributions at low and intermediate energies. The Glauber model takes nucleon–nucleon cross sections and nuclear densities as inputs and has no free parameter and thus can predict the cross sections for unknown systems. The Glauber model works at low energies down to Coulomb barrier with very simple modifications. We present new parametrization of measured total cross sections as well as ratio of real to imaginary parts of the scattering amplitudes for pp and np collisions as a function of nucleon kinetic energy. The nuclear (charge) densities obtained by electron scattering form factors measured in large momentum transfer range are used in the calculations. The heavy ion reaction cross sections are calculated for light and heavy systems and are compared with available data measured over large energy range. The model gives excellent description of the data. The elastic scattering angular distributions are calculated for various systems at different energies. The model gives good description of the data at small momentum transfer but the calculations deviate from the data at large momentum transfer.
Momentum fractionation on superstrata
International Nuclear Information System (INIS)
Bena, Iosif; Martinec, Emil; Turton, David; Warner, Nicholas P.
2016-01-01
Superstrata are bound states in string theory that carry D1, D5, and momentum charges, and whose supergravity descriptions are parameterized by arbitrary functions of (at least) two variables. In the D1-D5 CFT, typical three-charge states reside in high-degree twisted sectors, and their momentum charge is carried by modes that individually have fractional momentum. Understanding this momentum fractionation holographically is crucial for understanding typical black-hole microstates in this system. We use solution-generating techniques to add momentum to a multi-wound supertube and thereby construct the first examples of asymptotically-flat superstrata. The resulting supergravity solutions are horizonless and smooth up to well-understood orbifold singularities. Upon taking the AdS_3 decoupling limit, our solutions are dual to CFT states with momentum fractionation. We give a precise proposal for these dual CFT states. Our construction establishes the very nontrivial fact that large classes of CFT states with momentum fractionation can be realized in the bulk as smooth horizonless supergravity solutions.
Monks, P D D; Connor, J N L; Bouakline, F
2009-04-23
We investigate methods for filtering reaction mechanisms in the angular scattering of the state-to-state reaction, H + D(2)(v(i) = 0, j(i) = 0, m(i) = 0) --> HD(v(f) = 3, j(f) = 0, m(f) = 0) + D, where v(i), j(i), and m(i) and v(f), j(f), and m(f) are initial and final vibrational, rotational, and helicity quantum numbers, respectively. The input to our filtrations is a new set of accurate quantum scattering matrix elements for total energies in the range 1.52-2.50 eV (in steps of 0.01 eV) and for total angular momentum quantum numbers in the range, 0-40, in steps of unity. We filter reaction mechanisms in both the energy domain and the time domain. The time-domain calculations employ the plane wave packet formulation of time-dependent scattering. The theoretical tools used are nearside-farside (NF) analysis of partial wave series for scattering amplitudes, together with NF local angular momentum (LAM) theory. An energy-domain LAM analysis reveals the existence of an important dynamical feature in the N scattering, a "trench" which bisects the (energy, angle) plane. We use the location of this trench to approximately filter two reaction mechanisms. Transformation to the time domain demonstrates that the two reaction mechanisms correspond to direct and delayed (by about 25 fs) scattering. Further analysis, including filtration in the time domain, shows that the pronounced LAM trench arises from the interference of the energy-domain analogues of the time-direct and time-delayed scattering. Our theory and results provide the first successful demonstration of reaction mechanism filtering carried out directly in the (energy, angle) domain. The calculations and results in this paper extend and complement earlier research reported by Monks, Connor, and Althorpe (Monks, P. D. D.; Connor, J. N. L.; Althorpe, S. C. J. Phys. Chem. A 2006, 110, 741; J. Phys. Chem. A 2007, 111, 10302).
Ratio of spin transfer parameters dt/rt in d(p vector, n vector)pp quasi-elastic scattering
International Nuclear Information System (INIS)
Abegg, R.; Green, W.; Greeniaus, L.G.; Miller, C.A.; Bardyopadhyay, D.; Birchall, J.; Davis, C.A.; Davison, N.E.; Page, S.A.; Ramsay, W.D.; van Oers, W.T.H.; Lapointe, C.; Moss, G.A.; Tkachuk, R.R.
1988-05-01
The ratio of spin transfer parameters d t /r t for the quasi-elastic process d(p,n)pp has been measured at four energies between 200 and 500 MeV at a neutron scattering angle of 9 degrees. From this, the following values of D t /R t for free np scattering have been deduced: -0.0190 ± 0.0072 (T p = 223 MeV); -0.2328 ± 0.0057 (324 MeV); -0.3731 ± 0.0068 (425 MeV); -0.4892 ± 0.0107 (492 MeV). These values have a noticeable effect on present day phase shift solutions. The magnitude of the ε 1 mixing parameter is reduced and other phase shifts are smoother around 300 MeV. (Author) (17 refs., 2 tabs., 3 figs.)
International Nuclear Information System (INIS)
Kahl, T.
1976-01-01
Compton scattering on hydrogen, deuterium and heavy nuclei up to hold was studied at very small momentum transfer and at two energies. Measurements were carried out in the region 0.002LT= /t/ LT=0.06 (GeV/c)**2 at 5 GeV and in the region 0.001 LT=/t/LT=0.02 (GeV/c)**2 at 3 GeV. (orig.) [de
International Nuclear Information System (INIS)
Kim, J.C.; Hicks, R.S.; Yen, R.; Auer, I.P.; Caplan, H.S.; Bergstrom, J.C.
1978-01-01
Cross sections for elastic and inelastic scattering of electrons from 17 O have been measured for momentum transfers up to 1.2 fm -1 . The elastic cross section indicates that the rms charge radii of 17 O and 16 O are equal to within a few parts in a thousand: 2 17 >sup(1/2)/ 2 16 >sub(1/2)=1.0015+-0.0025. Reduced transition probabilities and ground-state radiative widths are deduced for 17 O excited states below 9 MeV. Various aspects of the inelastic spectrum are discussed, with emphasis on the 'single-particle' levels at 0.871 (1/2 + ) and 5.083 (3/2 + ) MeV, the levels at 7.569 (7/2 - ) and 7.378 (5/2 + ) MeV, and the spectrum of electric octupole excitations. (Auth.)
International Nuclear Information System (INIS)
Arimondo, Ennio
2004-01-01
For many years the Institute of Physics has published books on hot topics based on a collection of reprints from different journals, including some remarks by the editors of each volume. The book on Optical Angular Momentum, edited by L Allen, S M Barnett and M J Padgett, is a recent addition to the series. It reproduces forty four papers originally published in different journals and in a few cases it provides direct access to works not easily accessible to a web navigator. The collection covers nearly a hundred years of progress in physics, starting from an historic 1909 paper by Poynting, and ending with a 2002 paper by Padgett, Barnett and coworkers on the measurement of the orbital angular momentum of a single photon. The field of optical angular momentum has expanded greatly, creating an interdisciplinary attraction for researchers operating in quantum optics, atomic physics, solid state physics, biophysics and quantum information theory. The development of laser optics, especially the control of single mode sources, has made possible the specific design of optical radiation modes with a high degree of control on the light angular momentum. The editors of this book are important figures in the field of angular momentum, having contributed to key progress in the area. L Allen published an historical paper in 1999, he and M J Padgett (together with M Babiker) produced few years ago a long review article which is today still the most complete basic introduction to the angular momentum of light, while S M Barnett has contributed several high quality papers to the progress of this area of physics. The editors' choice provides an excellent overview to all readers, with papers classified into eight different topics, covering the basic principles of the light and spin and orbital angular momentum, the laboratory tools for creating laser beams carrying orbital angular momentum, the optical forces and torques created by laser beams carrying angular momentum on
2016-01-01
Momentum is the quarterly magazine of the Department of Mechanical Engineering at Virginia Tech. In this issue: Lead-free piezoelectric material in development; Harnessing the energy of ocean waves; Meet the Hyperloop team; Maleshia Jones - Graduate student with focus.
Recoil-ion momentum spectroscopy
International Nuclear Information System (INIS)
Ullrich, J.; Moshammer, R.; Doerner, R.; Jagutzki, O.; Mergel, V.; Schmidt-Boecking, H.; Spielberger, L.
1996-10-01
High-resolution recoil-ion momentum spectroscopy (RIMS) is a novel technique to determine the charge state and the complete final momentum vector P R of a recoiling target ion emerging from an ionising collision of an atom with any kind of radiation. It offers a unique combination of superior momentum resolution in all three spatial directions of ΔP R = 0.07 a.u. with a large detection solid angle of ΔΩ R /4π≥ 98%. Recently, low-energy electron analysers based on rigorously new concepts and reaching similar specifications were successfully integrated into RIM spectrometers yielding so-called ''reaction microscopes''. Exploiting these techniques, a large variety of atomic reactions for ion, electron, photon and antiproton impact have been explored in unprecedented detail and completeness. Among them first kinematically complete experiments on electron capture, single and double ionisation in ion-atom collisions at projectile energies between 5 keV and 1.4 GeV. Double photoionisation of He has been investigated at energies E γ close to the threshold (E γ = 80 eV) up to E γ = 58 keV. At E γ >8 keV the contributions to double ionisation after photoabsorption and Compton scattering were kinematically separated for the first time. These and many other results will be reviewed in this article. In addition, the experimental technique is described in some detail and emphasis is given to envisage the rich future potential of the method in various fields of atomic collision physics with atoms, molecules and clusters. (orig.)
A new model for elastic deuteron-deuteron scattering
International Nuclear Information System (INIS)
Etim, E.; Satta, L.
1988-01-01
Straightforward application of the Glauber multiple scattering theory is drammatically challenged by data on elastic deuteron-deuteron scattering. The challenge has been argued to be met by an improved representation of the ground state wave function of the deuteron as an admixture of S-and D-waves. In the light of the failure of the Glauber and geometrical picture models in general, to explain proton-proton and proton-antiproton scattering data up to and including collider energies and for all momentum transfers, this argument becomes less and less compelling and more and more unconvincing. A model inspired by unitarity and which produces substantial elastic scattering through a unitarity sum over a specific class of intermediate states is presented. The model fits not only deuteron-deuteron, but also proton-proton, proton-antiproton and αN -> αN (N =α, d, He 3 ) data for all energies and momentum transfers. No detailed knowledge of ground state wave functions is required
Scaling limit of deeply virtual Compton scattering
Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)
A. Radyushkin
2000-07-01
The author outlines a perturbative QCD approach to the analysis of the deeply virtual Compton scattering process {gamma}{sup *}p {r_arrow} {gamma}p{prime} in the limit of vanishing momentum transfer t=(p{prime}{minus}p){sup 2}. The DVCS amplitude in this limit exhibits a scaling behavior described by a two-argument distributions F(x,y) which specify the fractions of the initial momentum p and the momentum transfer r {equivalent_to} p{prime}{minus}p carried by the constituents of the nucleon. The kernel R(x,y;{xi},{eta}) governing the evolution of the non-forward distributions F(x,y) has a remarkable property: it produces the GLAPD evolution kernel P(x/{xi}) when integrated over y and reduces to the Brodsky-Lepage evolution kernel V(y,{eta}) after the x-integration. This property is used to construct the solution of the one-loop evolution equation for the flavor non-singlet part of the non-forward quark distribution.
Elastic and inelastic electron scattering on tensor polarized deuteron
International Nuclear Information System (INIS)
Zevakov, S.A.; Barkov, L.M.; Arenkhovel', Kh.
2006-01-01
The components T 20 and T 21 of the tensor analysis capability of the elastic electron scattering on deuteron are measured in the momentum transfer range of 8.4-21.6 fm -2 . The form factors of deuteron G C and G Q are defined in the momentum transfer range where the monopole charge form factor G C turns into zero. The preliminary measuring results of T 20 , T 21 and T 22 of the deuteron photodisintegration reaction in the photon energy range of 25-500 MeV and the proton departure angles equal to 20 deg-40 deg and 75 deg-105 deg are presented. The experimental results are compared with the theoretical predictions [ru
Diffusion of Hydrogen in the beta-Phase of Pd-H Studied by Small Energy Transfer Neutron Scattering
Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)
Nelin, G; Skoeld, K
1974-07-01
The diffusion of hydrogen in beta-PdH has been studied by quasielastic neutron scattering. It is shown that the diffusion occurs through jumps between adjacent octahedral interstitial sites. The observed integrated quasielastic intensities cannot be described by a simple Debye-Waller factor. The phase transition from the beta-phase to the alpha-phase has also been studied. No dramatic changes in the scattering patterns were observed. It is concluded that the diffusion mechanism is remarkably similar between the low concentration alpha-phase and the high concentration beta-phase
Neutron elastic scattering at very small angles
2002-01-01
This experiment will measure neutron-proton elastic scattering at very small angles and hence very small four-momentum transfer, |t|. The range of |t| depends on the incident neutron momentum of the events but the geometrical acceptance will cover the angular range 0.025 < $\\Theta_{lab}$ < 1.9 mrad. The higher figure could be extended to 8.4 mrad by changing the geometry of the experiment in a later phase. \\\\ \\\\ The neutron beam will be highly collimated and will be derived from a 400 GeV external proton beam of up to $4 \\times 10^{10}$ protons per pulse in the SPS North Area Hall 1. The hydrogen target will be gaseous, operating at 40 atm. pressure and acts as a multiwire proportional chamber to detect the recoil protons. The forward neutron will be detected and located by interaction in a neutron vertex detector and its energy measured by a conventional steel plate calorimeter. \\\\ \\\\ The experiment will cover the angular region of nucleon-nucleon scattering which is dominated by Coulomb scattering ...
Production of baryons with large transverse momentum
International Nuclear Information System (INIS)
Landshoff, P.V.; Polkinghorne, J.C.; Scott, D.M.
1975-01-01
The multiple scattering of constituent quarks provides a natural mechanism for fairly copious production of large-transverse-momentum baryons in nucleon--nucleon collisions. The predicted scaling law agrees well with available data, and the mechanism provides a qualitative explanation of nuclear-target effects. In comparison with previous parton models, correlations are predicted to be qualitatively different, and large-p/sub T/ baryon production by meson beams is relatively suppressed
Neutron scattering on partially deuterated polybutadiene
Kahle, S; Monkenbusch, M; Richter, D; Arbe, A; Colmenero, J; Frick, B
2002-01-01
The molecular nature of the secondary relaxation (Johari-Goldstein relaxation) and its relationship with the alpha relaxation is in most cases still unknown. In order to access these processes on a molecular level, it is necessary to obtain spatial information of the relaxation. Through the momentum-transfer dependence of the dynamic structure factor S(Q,t), this information can be provided by quasielastic neutron scattering techniques. The large difference in scattering lengths between hydrogen and deuterium allows us to accentuate specific correlations between atoms in a polymer melt. Here, we report on recent results on a polybutadiene melt, where the double bond was hydrogeneous, while the methylene groups carried deuterons (d4h2-PB). In this way the correlations between the double bonds are emphasised. We will show that the double bond/double bond correlation function, generated in this way, shows the same temperature dependence as the viscosity at higher temperatures at the structure factor peak maximum...
Molecule scattering from insulator and metal surfaces
International Nuclear Information System (INIS)
Moroz, Iryna; Ambaye, Hailemariam; Manson, J R
2004-01-01
Calculations are carried out and compared with data for the scattering of CH 4 molecules from a LiF(001) surface and for O 2 scattering from Al(111). The theory is a mixed classical-quantum formalism that includes energy and momentum transfers between the surface and projectile for translational and rotational motions as well as internal mode excitation of the projectile molecule. The translational and rotational degrees of freedom couple most strongly to multiphonon excitations of the surface and are treated with classical dynamics. Internal vibrational excitations of the molecules are treated with a semiclassical formalism with extension to arbitrary numbers of modes and arbitrary quantum numbers. Calculations show good agreement for the dependence on incident translational energy, incident beam angle and surface temperature when compared with data for energy-resolved intensity spectra and angular distributions
Hard scattering on light nuclei: a convenient way to study parton correlations
International Nuclear Information System (INIS)
Calucci, G.; Treleani, D.
2011-01-01
The one-body partonic distributions in the hadrons are well investigated using electromagnetic or weak interactions. If we wish to exploit the same procedure to study the two-body distributions we should study the very rare events with multiple electromagnetic or weak interactions on the same hadron.The alternative is to study events with hard QCD double scattering of partons of the same hadron, such events become more and more abundant when the energy of the colliding hadrons grows. In fact at very high energies even the parton at small fractional momentum χ may suffer collisions with momentum transfer large enough to allow a perturbative treatment
Theory of deep inelastic neutron scattering: Hard-core perturbation theory
International Nuclear Information System (INIS)
Silver, R.N.
1988-01-01
Details are presented of a new many-body theory for deep inelastic neutron scattering (DINS) experiments to measure momentum distributions in quantum fluids and solids. The high-momentum and energy-transfer scattering law in helium is shown to be a convolution of the impulse approximation with a final-state broadening function which depends on the scattering phase shifts and the radial distribution function. The predicted broadening satisfies approximate Y scaling, is neither Lorentzian nor Gaussian, and obeys the f, ω 2 , and ω 3 sum rules. The derivation uses a combination of Liouville perturbation theory, projection superoperators, and semiclassical methods which I term ''hard-core perturbation theory.'' A review is presented of the predictions of prior theories for DINS experiments in relation to the present work. A subsequent paper will present massive numerical predictions and a discussion of DINS experiments on superfluid 4 He
Simultaneous and sequential transfer of proton and alpha-particle in the elastic 11B+16O scattering
International Nuclear Information System (INIS)
Kamys, B.; Rudy, Z.; Kisiel, J.; Kwasniewicsz, E.; Wolter, H.H.
1992-01-01
We have developed a method to treat multi-nucleon transfer as the transfer of two - possible different - subclusters, as e.g. with ' 5 Li'=(α,p). As a consequence we take into account two reaction mechanisms, the one-step simultaneous and the two-step sequential transfer of the two clusters. We formulate the method of calculation of the simultaneous transfer form factor for two non-identifical particles and also of the two-cluster spectroscopic amplitudes from shell model wave functions. We apply the method to the elastic transfer reaction 11 B( 16 O, 11 B) 11 O together with the single α and p transfer reaction 11 B( 16 O, 15 N) 12 C for E lab between 30 and 60 MeV. We obtain a consistently good description of all the data by reasonable adjustment of the spectroscopic amplitudes. In particular we find that the simultaneous (αp) transfer is considerably more important than the sequential transfer indicating strong five-nucleon correlations in these light nuclei. (orig.)
Quantum effects in deep inelastic neutron scattering
International Nuclear Information System (INIS)
Mayers, J.
1989-07-01
In the Impulse Approximation (IA), which is used to interpret deep inelastic neutron scattering (DINS) measurements, it is assumed both that the target system can be treated as a gas of free atoms and that the struck atom recoils freely after the collision with the neutron. Departures from the IA are generally attributed to final state effects (FSE), which are due to the inaccuracy of the latter assumption. However it is shown that even when FSE are neglected, significant departures from the IA occur at low temperatures due to inaccuracies in the former assumption. These are referred to as initial state effects (ISE) and are due to the quantum nature of the initial state. Comparison with experimental data and exactly soluble models shows that ISE largely account for observed asymmetries and peak shifts in the neutron scattering function S(q,ω), compared with the IA prediction. It is shown that when FSE are neglected, ISE can also be neglected when either the momentum transfer or the temperature is high. Finally it is shown that FSE should be negligible at high momentum transfers in systems other than quantum fluids and that therefore in this regime the IA is reached in such systems. (author)
International Nuclear Information System (INIS)
Rotarescu, G.
1981-01-01
Measurements of inelastic scattering of soft neutrons on Bi and liquid Pb, applying all the necessary corrections in view of obtaining the dYnamic structure factor S(Q,ω) were performed. The F(Q,t) function of intermediate scattering was obtained by means of the Fourier transformation of S(Q,ω). Special attention was devoted to one multiple scattering correction, especially at small scattering angles, taking into account its influence on the results. A comparison of the experimental results with three recent theoretical models has shown a good agreement in the range of intermediate and high Q values. Measurements of neutron inelastic scattering on liquid sodium at a temperature of 233 Cdeg within a momentum transfer range of 1 A -1 -1 were performed. The scattering law S(α,β) that was compared to a series of theoretical models has been determined from the experimental data. The validity of the theoretical models for different ranges of energy and momenta was thoroughly checked. S(α,β) was calculated for each type of scattering since sodium proves a mixed, coherent and incoherent scattering agent. A study on the influence of the even interaction potential upon the S(Q,ω) dynamic structure factor, the fourth order momentum ω 4 (Q) and uoon the spectral function C(Q,ω) of longitudinal current correlations was performed. For this purpose, four potentials with oscillations at great distances and a Lennard-Jones type potential were used. (author)
On the exchange of orbital angular momentum between twisted photons and atomic electrons
International Nuclear Information System (INIS)
Davis, Basil S; Kaplan, L; McGuire, J H
2013-01-01
We obtain an expression for the matrix element for scattering of a twisted (Laguerre–Gaussian profile) photon from a hydrogen atom. We consider photons incoming with an orbital angular momentum (OAM) of ℓħ, carried by a factor of e iℓϕ not present in a plane-wave or pure Gaussian profile beam. The nature of the transfer of +2ℓ units of OAM from the photon to the azimuthal atomic quantum number of the atom is investigated. We obtain simple formulas for these OAM flip transitions for elastic forward scattering of twisted photons when the photon wavelength λ is large compared with the atomic target size a, and small compared with the Rayleigh range z R , which characterizes the collimation length of the twisted photon beam. (paper)
International Nuclear Information System (INIS)
Perelli-Cippo, E.; Andreani, C.; Casalboni, M.; Dire, S.; Fernandez-Canoto, D.; Gorini, G.; Imberti, S.; Pietropaolo, A.; Prosposito, P.; Schutzmann, S.; Senesi, R.; Tardocchi, M.
2006-01-01
High-energy inelastic neutron scattering (HINS) employing epithermal neutrons is a new technique under development at the VESUVIO spectrometer at ISIS, aiming to access the high-energy and low wave-vector transfer region in neutron scattering experiments at eV energies. New neutron detectors have been developed for HINS based on the resonant detector (RD). These make use of the detection of prompt gammas after neutron absorption in an analyzer foil. The RD is used in the very low angle detector (VLAD) bank, which will extend the explored kinematical region to momentum transfer -1 , whilst still keeping energy transfer >300 meV. The final VLAD will cover the scattering range 1-5 o and will be installed by the end of 2005. The results obtained with prototype VLAD detectors on polycrystalline ice and liquid water in silica xerogels provide a demonstration of the feasibility of the measurements under realistic conditions
The amplituhedron from momentum twistor diagrams
International Nuclear Information System (INIS)
Bai, Yuntao; He, Song
2015-01-01
We propose a new diagrammatic formulation of the all-loop scattering amplitudes/Wilson loops in planar N=4 SYM, dubbed the “momentum-twistor diagrams”. These are on-shell-diagrams obtained by gluing trivalent black and white vertices in momentum twistor space, which, in the reduced diagram case, are known to be related to diagrams in the original twistor space. The new diagrams are manifestly Yangian invariant, and they naturally represent factorization and forward-limit contributions in the all-loop BCFW recursion relations in momentum twistor space, in a fashion that is completely different from those in momentum space. We show how to construct and evaluate momentum-twistor diagrams, and how to use them to obtain tree-level amplitudes and loop-level integrands; in particular the latter involve isolated bubble-structures for loop variables arising from forward limits, or the entangled removal of particles. From each diagram, the generalized “boundary measurement” directly gives the C, D matrices, thus a cell in the amplituhedron associated with the amplitude, and we expect that our diagrammatic representations of the amplitude provide triangulations of the amplituhedron. To demonstrate the computational power of the formalism, we give explicit results for general two-loop integrands, and the cells of the amplituhedron for two-loop MHV amplitudes.