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Sample records for scattering langmuir circulations

  1. Vertical mixing by Langmuir circulations

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    McWilliams, James C.; Sullivan, Peter P.

    2001-01-01

    Wind and surface wave frequently induce Langmuir circulations (LC) in the upper ocean, and the LC contribute to mixing materials down from the surface. In this paper we analyze large-eddy simulation (LES) cases based on surface-wave-averaged, dynamical equations and show that the effect of the LC is a great increase in the vertical mixing efficiency for both material properties and momentum. We provide new confirmation that the previously proposed K-profile parameterization (KPP) model accurately characterizes the turbulent transport in a weakly convective, wind-driven boundary layer with stable interior stratification. We also propose a modest generalization of KPP for the regime of weakly convective Langmuir turbulence. This makes the KPP turbulent flux profiles match those in the LES case with LC present fairly well, especially so for material properties being transported downwards from the ocean surface. However, some open issues remain about how well the present LES and KPP formulations represent Langmuir turbulence, in part because wave-breaking effects are not yet included. (Author)

  2. Planktonic interactions and chaotic advection in Langmuir circulation

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Bees, Martin Alan; Mezic, I.; McGlade, J.

    1998-01-01

    The role of unsteady laminar flows for planktonic communities is investigated. Langmuir circulation is used, as a typical medium-scale structure, to illustrate mechanisms for the generation of plankton patches. Two behaviours are evident: chaotic regions that help to spread plankton and locally...

  3. Numerical Simulations of a Multiscale Model of Stratified Langmuir Circulation

    Science.gov (United States)

    Malecha, Ziemowit; Chini, Gregory; Julien, Keith

    2012-11-01

    Langmuir circulation (LC), a prominent form of wind and surface-wave driven shear turbulence in the ocean surface boundary layer (BL), is commonly modeled using the Craik-Leibovich (CL) equations, a phase-averaged variant of the Navier-Stokes (NS) equations. Although surface-wave filtering renders the CL equations more amenable to simulation than are the instantaneous NS equations, simulations in wide domains, hundreds of times the BL depth, currently earn the ``grand challenge'' designation. To facilitate simulations of LC in such spatially-extended domains, we have derived multiscale CL equations by exploiting the scale separation between submesoscale and BL flows in the upper ocean. The numerical algorithm for simulating this multiscale model resembles super-parameterization schemes used in meteorology, but retains a firm mathematical basis. We have validated our algorithm and here use it to perform multiscale simulations of the interaction between LC and upper ocean density stratification. ZMM, GPC, KJ gratefully acknowledge funding from NSF CMG Award 0934827.

  4. Tests of Parameterized Langmuir Circulation Mixing in the Oceans Surface Mixed Layer II

    Science.gov (United States)

    2017-08-11

    inertial oscillations in the ocean are governed by three-dimensional processes that are not accounted for in a one-dimensional simulation , and it was...Unlimited 52 Paul Martin (228) 688-5447 Recent large-eddy simulations (LES) of Langmuir circulation (LC) within the surface mixed layer (SML) of...used in the Navy Coastal Ocean Model (NCOM) and tested for (a) a simple wind-mixing case, (b) simulations of the upper ocean thermal structure at Ocean

  5. Nonlinear Raman scattering behavior with Langmuir and sound waves coupling in a homogeneous plasma

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Bonnaud, G.; Pesme, D.; Pellat, R.

    1990-01-01

    By means of wave-coupling simulations, the typical nonlinear evolution of stimulated Raman scattering (SRS) is investigated in a homogeneous sub-quarter-critical plasma for present-day low laser irradiances and kilo-electron-volt electron temperatures. The decrease of the Langmuir energy observed after the SRS growth is found to be basically the result of the electrostatic decay instability (EDI) onset, which generates a high-amplitude ion-acoustic wave. The resulting strong modulation of the plasma density causes a conversion process that transforms the initial one-wave-vector Langmuir wave driven by SRS into a Bloch wave and induces SRS detuning and larger damping. The conditions involved herein have allowed isolation of these processes from the modulational instability; in addition, the Langmuir collapse is found not to occur owing to the high electron temperature

  6. Stimulated Raman scattering and ion dynamics: the role of Langmuir wave non-linearities

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Bonnaud, G.; Pesme, D.

    1988-02-01

    The non-linear evolution of stimulated Raman scattering by coupling of the SRS-driven Langmuir waves to ion acoustic waves is studied numerically, in a homogeneous density laser-irradiated plasma. The coupled wave amplitude behaviour is represented either by envelope equations or by complete wave-like equations. The various physical phenomena which are involved are described. This preliminary work has been presented at the 17th Anomalous Absorption Conference, held in last May, in Lake Tahoe City (USA) [fr

  7. A maximally informative version of inelastic scattering of electromagnetic waves by Langmuir waves

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Erofeev, V. I.

    2015-01-01

    The concept of informativeness of nonlinear plasma physics scenarios is explained. Natural ideas of developing highly informative models of plasma kinetics are spelled out. A maximally informative version of inelastic scattering of electromagnetic waves by Langmuir waves in a weakly turbulent inhomogeneous plasma is developed with consideration of possible changes in wave polarization. In addition, a new formula for wave drift in spatial positions and wave vectors is derived. New scenarios of the respective wave drift and inelastic scattering are compared with the previous visions. The results indicate the need for further revision of the traditional understanding of nonlinear plasma phenomena

  8. NOAA-MMS joint Langmuir circulation and oil spill trajectory models workshop

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Simecek-Beatty, D.; Lehr, W.

    2000-01-01

    An NOAA/HAZMAT workshop was held in October 1999 which provided an opportunity for 14 spill response officials to discuss the scientific theory of Langmuir Circulation (LC) and to determine ways that it affects oil spreading, dispersion and transport. The workshop helped identify potential modifications to existing oil spill trajectory models. LC is a result of the interaction between wind-driven surface currents and waves. This interaction causes vortices in the surface mixed layer of the water body. The vortices are aligned in the general direction of the wind. The surface water between the vortices either diverges or converges. For cleanup purposes and remote sensing it is necessary to incorporate LC into most oil and spill trajectory and behavior models. It was determined it should be possible to build simple models to predict the intensity of LC since current knowledge suggests that LC is forced by wind and waves. A prediction equation would be of tremendous use to oil spill response personnel. 39 refs., 1 tab., 1 fig

  9. Synthesis of Novel Amphiphilic Azobenzenes and X-ray Scattering Studies of Their Langmuir Monolayers

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Sørensen, Thomas Just; Kjær, Kristian; Breiby, Dag Werner

    2008-01-01

    . At the air-water interface, the amphiphilic azobenzenes form noncrystalline but stable Langmuir films that display an unusual reversible monolayer collapse close to 35 mN/m. The structures and phase transitions were studied by X-ray reflectivity (XR) and grazing-incidence X-ray diffraction, both utilizing...... synchrotron radiation. Compression beyond the collapse point does not change the XR data, showing that the film is unchanged at the molecular level, even at areas less than half of that of the collapse. This leads to the conclusion that few macroscopic collapse sites are responsible for reversibly removing...

  10. Resonance effects in Raman scattering of quantum dots formed by the Langmuir-Blodgett method

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Milekhin, A G; Sveshnikova, L L; Duda, T A [Institute of Semiconductor Physics, Lavrentjev av.13, 630090, Novosibirsk (Russian Federation); Surovtsev, N V; Adichtchev, S V [Institute of Automation and Electrometry, Koptyug av.1, 630090, Novosibirsk (Russian Federation); Azhniuk, Yu M [Institute of Electron Physics, Universytetska Str. 21, 88017, Uzhhorod (Ukraine); Himcinschi, C [Institut fuer Theoretische Physik, TU Bergakademie Freiberg, Leipziger Str. 23, 09596, Freiberg (Germany); Kehr, M; Zahn, D R T, E-mail: milekhin@thermo.isp.nsc.r [Semiconductor Physics, Chemnitz University of Technology, Chemnitz (Germany)

    2010-09-01

    The enhancement of Raman scattering by optical phonon modes in quantum dots was achieved in resonant and surface-enhanced Raman scattering experiments by approaching the laser energy to the energy of either the interband transitions or the localized surface plasmons in silver nanoclusters deposited onto the nanostructures. Resonant Raman scattering by TO, LO, and SO phonons as well as their overtones was observed for PbS, ZnS, and ZnO quantum dots while enhancement for LO and SO modes in CdS quantum dots with a factor of about 700 was measured in surface enhanced Raman scattering experiments. Multiple phonon Raman scattering observed up to 5th and 7th order for CdS and ZnO, respectively, confirms the high crystalline quality of the grown QDs.

  11. Comparative studies of the laser Thomson scattering and Langmuir probe methods for measurements of negative ion density in a glow discharge plasma

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Noguchi, M; Hirao, T; Shindo, M; Sakurauchi, K; Yamagata, Y; Uchino, K; Kawai, Y; Muraoka, K

    2003-01-01

    The newly developed method of the negative ion density measurement in a plasma by laser Thomson scattering (LTS) was checked by comparing the obtained results against an independent technique, namely the Langmuir probe method. Both measurements were performed at the same position of the same inductively coupled plasma. The results agree quite well with each other and this has given confidence in the LTS method of negative ion density measurement. At the same time, both methods are complementary to each other, because the Langmuir probe measurement requires knowledge of the positive ion mass number

  12. Stimulated Raman scattering and ion dynamics: the role of Langmuir wave non-linearities

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Bonnaud, G.; Pesme, D.

    1987-01-01

    The saturation of the Stimulated Raman Scattering (SRS) is studied by means of wave-coupling numerical simulations. A new code (CHEOPS) has been designed in order to model these couplings, in real 1-D space, with aperiodic boundary conditions. Each wave can be represented either by a complete amplitude or by an envelope amplitude only. The choice of the wave set to be coupled allows to investigate separately some mechanisms relevant in long time SRS evolution. The various mechanisms which may inhibit SRS growth are reviewed and the SRS saturation scenarios are exhibited in an homogeneous density plasma slab. The ion dependent mechanisms appear to be the most efficient ones to saturate SRS. Their importance is strongly bound to the electron temperature and to the ion fluctuation level at time when SRS has already grown many e-foldings

  13. Role of collective effects in dominance of scattering off thermal ions over Langmuir wave decay: Analysis, simulations, and space applications

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Cairns, Iver H.

    2000-01-01

    Langmuir waves driven to high levels by beam instabilities are subject to nonlinear processes, including the closely related processes of scattering off thermal ions (STI) and a decay process in which the ion response is organized into a product ion acoustic wave. Calculations of the nonlinear growth rates predict that the decay process should always dominate STI, creating two paradoxes. The first is that three independent computer simulation studies show STI proceeding, with no evidence for the decay at all. The second is that observations in space of type III solar radio bursts and Earth's foreshock, which the simulations were intended to model, show evidence for the decay proceeding but no evidence for STI. Resolutions to these paradoxes follow from the realization that a nonlinear process cannot proceed when its growth rate exceeds the minimum frequency of the participating waves, since the required collective response cannot be maintained and the waves cannot respond appropriately, and that a significant number of e-foldings and wave periods must be contained in the time available. It is shown that application of these ''collective'' and ''time scale'' constraints to the simulations explains why the decay does not proceed in them, as well as why STI proceeds in specific simulations. This appears to be the first demonstration that collective constraints are important in understanding nonlinear phenomena. Furthermore, applying these constraints to space observations, it is predicted that the decay should proceed (and dominate STI) in type III sources and the high beam speed regions of Earth's foreshock for a specific range of wave levels, with a possible role for STI alone at slightly higher wave levels. Deeper in the foreshock, for slower beams and weaker wave levels, the decay and STI are predicted to become ineffective. Suggestions are given for future testing of the collective constraint and an explanation for why waves in space are usually much weaker than

  14. Role of collective effects in dominance of scattering off thermal ions over Langmuir wave decay: Analysis, simulations, and space applications

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Cairns, Iver H.

    2000-12-01

    Langmuir waves driven to high levels by beam instabilities are subject to nonlinear processes, including the closely related processes of scattering off thermal ions (STI) and a decay process in which the ion response is organized into a product ion acoustic wave. Calculations of the nonlinear growth rates predict that the decay process should always dominate STI, creating two paradoxes. The first is that three independent computer simulation studies show STI proceeding, with no evidence for the decay at all. The second is that observations in space of type III solar radio bursts and Earth's foreshock, which the simulations were intended to model, show evidence for the decay proceeding but no evidence for STI. Resolutions to these paradoxes follow from the realization that a nonlinear process cannot proceed when its growth rate exceeds the minimum frequency of the participating waves, since the required collective response cannot be maintained and the waves cannot respond appropriately, and that a significant number of e-foldings and wave periods must be contained in the time available. It is shown that application of these ''collective'' and ''time scale'' constraints to the simulations explains why the decay does not proceed in them, as well as why STI proceeds in specific simulations. This appears to be the first demonstration that collective constraints are important in understanding nonlinear phenomena. Furthermore, applying these constraints to space observations, it is predicted that the decay should proceed (and dominate STI) in type III sources and the high beam speed regions of Earth's foreshock for a specific range of wave levels, with a possible role for STI alone at slightly higher wave levels. Deeper in the foreshock, for slower beams and weaker wave levels, the decay and STI are predicted to become ineffective. Suggestions are given for future testing of the collective constraint and an explanation

  15. Irving Langmuir

    Indian Academy of Sciences (India)

    Home; Journals; Resonance – Journal of Science Education; Volume 13; Issue 7. Irving Langmuir - A Pioneering Industrial Physical Chemist. Anil K Rajvanshi. General Article Volume 13 Issue 7 July 2008 pp 619-626. Fulltext. Click here to view fulltext PDF. Permanent link:

  16. Strategies for enumeration of circulating microvesicles on a conventional flow cytometer: Counting beads and scatter parameters.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Alkhatatbeh, Mohammad J; Enjeti, Anoop K; Baqar, Sara; Ekinci, Elif I; Liu, Dorothy; Thorne, Rick F; Lincz, Lisa F

    2018-01-01

    Enumeration of circulating microvesicles (MVs) by conventional flow cytometry is accomplished by the addition of a known amount of counting beads and calculated from the formula: MV/μl = (MV count/bead count) × final bead concentration. We sought to optimize each variable in the equation by determining the best parameters for detecting 'MV count' and examining the effects of different bead preparations and concentrations on the final calculation. Three commercially available bead preparations (TruCount, Flow-Count and CountBright) were tested, and MV detection on a BD FACSCanto was optimized for gating by either forward scatter (FSC) or side scatter (SSC); the results were compared by calculating different subsets of MV on a series of 74 typical patient plasma samples. The relationship between the number of beads added to each test and the number of beads counted by flow cytometry remained linear over a wide range of bead concentrations ( R 2 ≥ 0.997). However, TruCount beads produced the most consistent (concentration variation = 3.8%) calculated numbers of plasma CD41 + /Annexin V + MV, which were significantly higher from that calculated using either Flow-Count or CountBright ( p beads by FSC and 0.16 μm beads by SSC, but there were significantly more background events using SSC compared with FSC (3113 vs. 470; p = 0.008). In general, sample analysis by SSC resulted in significantly higher numbers of MV ( p beads provided linear results at concentrations ranging from 6 beads/μl to 100 beads/μl, but TruCount was the most consistent. Using SSC to gate MV events produced high background which negatively affected counting bead enumeration and overall MV calculations. Strategies to reduce SSC background should be employed in order to reliably use this technique.

  17. The child-Langmuir limit for semiconductors: a numerical validation

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Caceres, M.J.; Carrillo, J.A.; Degond, P.

    2002-01-01

    The Boltzmann-Poisson system modeling the electron flow in semiconductors is used to discuss the validity of the Child-Langmuir asymptotics. The scattering kernel is approximated by a simple relaxation time operator. The Child-Langmuir limit gives an approximation of the current-voltage characteristic curves by means of a scaling procedure in which the ballistic velocity is much larger that the thermal one. We discuss the validity of the Child-Langmuir regime by performing detailed numerical comparisons between the simulation of the Boltzmann-Poisson system and the Child-Langmuir equations in test problems. (authors)

  18. Strong Langmuir turbulence

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Goldman, M.V.

    1984-01-01

    After a brief discussion of beam-excited Langmuir turbulence in the solar wind, we explain the criteria for wave-particle, three-wave and strong turbulence interactions. We then present the results of a numerical integration of the Zakharov equations, which describe the strong turbulence saturation of a weak (low-density) high energy, bump-on-tail beam instability. (author)

  19. Collapse of nonlinear Langmuir waves

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Malkin, V.M.

    1986-01-01

    The dispersion of sufficiently intensive Langmuir waves is determined by intrinsic (electron) nonlinearity. During Langmuir collapse the wave energy density required for the appearance of electron nonlinearity is attained, generally speaking, prior to the development of dissipative processes. Up to now, the effect of electron nonlinearity on the collapse dynamics and spectrum of strong Langmuir turbulence ( which may be very appreciable ) has not been studied extensively because of the difficulty of describing nonlinear Langmuir waves. In the present paper the positive determinacy of the electron nonlinear hamiltonian is proven, the increment of modulation instability of a nonlinear Langmuir wave cluster localized in a cavity is calculated, and the universal law of their collapse is found

  20. Caviton dynamics in strong Langmuir turbulence

    Science.gov (United States)

    DuBois, Don; Rose, Harvey A.; Russell, David

    1990-01-01

    Recent studies based on long time computer simulations of Langmuir turbulence as described by Zakharov's model will be reviewed. These show that for strong to moderate ion sound damping the turbulent energy is dominantly in non-linear "caviton" excitations which are localized in space and time. A local caviton model will be presented which accounts for the nucleation-collapse-burnout cycles of individual cavitons as well as their space-time correlations. This model is in detailed agreement with many features of the electron density fluctuation spectra in the ionosphere modified by powerful HF waves as measured by incoherent scatter radar. Recently such observations have verified a prediction of the theory that "free" Langmuir waves are emitted in the caviton collapse process. These observations and theoretical considerations also strongly imply that cavitons in the heated ionosphere, under certain conditions, evolve to states in which they are ordered in space and time. The sensitivity of the high frequency Langmuir field dynamics to the low frequency ion density fluctuations and the related caviton nucleation process will be discussed.

  1. Dynamics of cavitons in strong Langmuir turbulence

    Science.gov (United States)

    Dubois, D. F.; Rose, Harvey A.; Russell, David

    Recent studies of Langmuir turbulence as described by Zakharov's model will be reviewed. For parameters of interest in laser-plasma experiments and for ionospheric hf heating experiments a significant fraction of the turbulent energy is in nonlinear caviton excitations which are localized in space and time. A local caviton model will be presented which accounts for the nucleation-collapse-burnout cycles of individual cavitons as well as their space-time correlations. This model is in detailed agreement with many features of the electron density fluctuation spectra in the ionosphere modified by powerful hf waves as measured by incoherent scatter radar. Recently such observations have verified a prediction of the theory that free Langmuir waves are emitted in the caviton collapse process. Observations and theoretical considerations also imply that when the pump frequency is slightly lower than the ambient electron plasma frequency cavitons may evolve to states in which they are ordered in space and time. The sensitivity of the high frequency Langmuir field dynamics to the low frequency ion density fluctuations and the related caviton nucleation process will be discussed.

  2. Caviton dynamics in strong Langmuir turbulence

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    DuBois, D.; Rose, H.A.; Russell, D.

    1990-01-01

    Recent studies based on long time computer simulations of Langmuir turbulence as described by Zakharov's model will be reviewed. These show that for strong to moderate ion sound damping the turbulent energy is dominantly in non-linear ''caviton'' excitations which are localized in space and time. A local caviton model will be presented which accounts for the nucleation-collapse-burnout cycles of individual cavitons as well as their space-time correlations. This model is in detailed agreement with many features of the electron density fluctuation spectra in the ionosphere modified by powerful HF waves as measured by incoherent scatter radar. Recently such observations have verified a prediction of the theory that ''free'' Langmuir waves are emitted in the caviton collapse process. These observations and theoretical considerations also strongly imply that cavitons in the heated ionosphere, under certain conditions, evolve to states in which they are ordered in space and time. The sensitivity of the high frequency Langmuir field dynamics to the low frequency ion density fluctuations and the related caviton nucleation process will be discussed. (orig.)

  3. Caviton dynamics in strong Langmuir turbulence

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    DuBois, D.; Rose, H.A.; Russell, D.

    1989-01-01

    Recent studies based on long time computer simulations of Langmuir turbulence as described by Zakharov's model will be reviewed. These show that for strong to moderate ion sound samping the turbulent energy is dominantly in nonlinear ''caviton'' excitations which are localized in space and time. A local caviton model will be presented which accounts for the nucleation-collapse-burnout cycles of individual cavitons as well as their space-time correlations. This model is in detailed agreement with many features of the electron density fluctuation spectra in the ionosphere modified by powerful hf waves as measured by incoherent scatter radar. Recently such observations have verified a prediction of the theory that ''free'' Langmuir waves are emitted in the caviton collapse process. These observations and theoretical considerations also strongly imply that cavitons in the heated ionosphere, under certain conditions, evolve to states in which they are ordered in space and time. The sensitivity of the high frequency Langmuir field dynamics to the low frequency ion density fluctuations and the related caviton nucleation process will be discussed. 40 refs., 19 figs

  4. Detection of Lipid-Rich Prostate Circulating Tumour Cells with Coherent Anti-Stokes Raman Scattering Microscopy

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Mitra, Ranjana; Chao, Olivia; Urasaki, Yasuyo; Goodman, Oscar B; Le, Thuc T

    2012-01-01

    Circulating tumour cells (CTC) are an important indicator of metastasis and associated with a poor prognosis. Detection sensitivity and specificity of CTC in the peripheral blood of metastatic cancer patient remain a technical challenge. Coherent anti-Stokes Raman scattering (CARS) microscopy was employed to examine the lipid content of CTC isolated from the peripheral blood of metastatic prostate cancer patients. CARS microscopy was also employed to evaluate lipid uptake and mobilization kinetics of a metastatic human prostate cancer cell line. One hundred CTC from eight metastatic prostate cancer patients exhibited strong CARS signal which arose from intracellular lipid. In contrast, leukocytes exhibited weak CARS signal which arose mostly from cellular membrane. On average, CARS signal intensity of prostate CTC was 7-fold higher than that of leukocytes (P<0.0000001). When incubated with human plasma, C4-2 metastatic human prostate cancer cells exhibited rapid lipid uptake kinetics and slow lipid mobilization kinetics. Higher expression of lipid transport proteins in C4-2 cells compared to non-transformed RWPE-1 and non-malignant BPH-1 prostate epithelial cells further indicated strong affinity for lipid of metastatic prostate cancer cells. Intracellular lipid could serve as a biomarker for prostate CTC which could be sensitively detected with CARS microscopy in a label-free manner. Strong affinity for lipid by metastatic prostate cancer cells could be used to improve detection sensitivity and therapeutic targeting of prostate CTC

  5. Limitations on the upconversion of ion sound to Langmuir turbulence

    Science.gov (United States)

    Vlahos, L.; Papadopoulos, K.

    1982-01-01

    The weak turbulence theory of Tsytovich, Stenflo and Wilhelmsson (1981) for evaluation of the nonlinear transfer of ion acoustic waves to Langmuir waves is shown to be limited in its region of validity to the level of ion acoustic waves. It is also demonstrated that, in applying the upconversion of ion sound to Langmuir waves for electron acceleration, nonlinear scattering should be self-consistently included, with a suppression of the upconversion process resulting. The impossibility of accelerating electrons by such a process for any reasonable physical system is thereby reaffirmed.

  6. Three-dimensional Langmuir wave instabilities in type III solar radio bursts

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Bardwell, S.; Goldman, M.V.

    1976-01-01

    Assuming that type III solar radio bursts are associated with electron streams moving at about c/3, Langmuir waves should be strongly excited. We have studied all of the Langmuir-wave linear parametric instabilities excited in cylindrical symmetry by an electron-stream--driven Langmuir wave-pump propagating along the stream axis. Included in this unified homogeneous treatment are induced backscattering off ions, the oscillating two-stream instability, and a new ''stimulated modulational instability,'' previously unconsidered in this context. Near a few solar radii, the latter two deposit Langmuir wave energy into a forward-scattering cone about the stream axis. It is concluded that the linear stage of the forward-scattering instabilities involves transfer of energy to Langmuir waves which remain in resonance with the stream, and therefore probably do not prevent rapid depletion of the electron stream due to quasilinear plateau formation at these distances from the Sun

  7. SCATTER

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Broome, J.

    1965-11-01

    The programme SCATTER is a KDF9 programme in the Egtran dialect of Fortran to generate normalized angular distributions for elastically scattered neutrons from data input as the coefficients of a Legendre polynomial series, or from differential cross-section data. Also, differential cross-section data may be analysed to produce Legendre polynomial coefficients. Output on cards punched in the format of the U.K. A. E. A. Nuclear Data Library is optional. (author)

  8. Dynamics of beam-driven Langmuir and ion-acoustic waves including electrostatic decay

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Li, B.; Willes, A.J.; Robinson, P.A.; Cairns, I.H.

    2003-01-01

    The evolution of Langmuir waves and ion-acoustic waves stimulated by a hot electron beam in an initially homogeneous plasma is investigated numerically in time, position, and wave number space. Quasilinear interactions between the beam particles and Langmuir waves, nonlinear interactions between the Langmuir and ion-acoustic waves through Langmuir decay processes, and spontaneous emission are taken into account in the kinetic theory employed. For illustrative parameters of those in the solar wind near 1 a.u., nonlinear Langmuir decays are observed to transfer the beam-driven Langmuir waves rapidly out of resonance. The scattered Langmuir waves then undergo further decays, moving sequentially toward small wave numbers, until decay is kinematically prohibited. The main features of the evolution of Langmuir and ion-acoustic waves are spatially inhomogeneous. The scattered Langmuir spectra increase and eventually reach or exceed the beam-driven Langmuir spectra at a given spatial location (except in regions where further decays proceed). The ion-acoustic waves are relatively weak and subject to damping at the later stages of their evolution. The development of fine structures in the product Langmuir and ion-acoustic waves are observed, due to depletion of their energy by decay and dominant damping effects, respectively. The propagation of the beam is essentially unaffected by the operation of the decay process. The decay process is thus slaved to the primary beam-plasma evolution, as assumed in previous studies. A variation of the ratio of electron temperature to ion temperature is found to affect not only the ion-acoustic wave levels through effects on the damping rate, but also the dynamics of decay via effects on the decay rate. The latter was not addressed in previous studies. Furthermore, spontaneous emission of ion-acoustic waves is found to affect the dynamics of decay, thus its inclusion is necessary to correctly model the Langmuir and ion-acoustic spectra

  9. Langmuir turbulence in space plasmas

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Goldman, M.V. [Colorado Univ., Boulder, CO (United States); Newman, D.L. [Colorado Univ., Boulder, CO (United States); Wang, J.G. [Colorado Univ., Boulder, CO (United States); Muschietti, L. [California Univ., Berkeley (United States). Space Sciences Lab.

    1996-11-01

    Recent developments in theoretical and numerical modeling of Langmuir turbulence in space and laboratory plasmas are addressed. Kinetic effects, which have been missing from (fluid) traditional Zakharov equation models are explored using Vlasov code simulations. These studies are motivated by beam-driven Langmuir waves and particle distributions measured in earth`s foreshock region, and by beam-driven Langmuir waves and beams that underlie type III solar radio emission in the solar wind. The nonlinear physical processes studied in these 1-D Vlasov simulations include both wave-wave interactions and acceleration of particles by waves-leading to electron-beam flattening. We study bump-on-tail instabilities as boundary value problems, and determine the interplay in space and time between beam plateau formation, stimulated wave-wave backscatter cascades, and strong turbulence wave-packet collapse. (orig.).

  10. Topics in strong Langmuir turbulence

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Skoric, M.M.

    1981-01-01

    This thesis discusses certain aspects of the turbulence of a fully ionised non-isothermal plasma dominated by the Langmuir mode. Some of the basic properties of strongly turbulent plasmas are reviewed. In particular, interest is focused on the state of Langmuir turbulence, that is the turbulence of a simple externally unmagnetized plasma. The problem of the existence and dynamics of Langmuir collapse is discussed, often met as a non-linear stage of the modulational instability in the framework of the Zakharov equations (i.e. simple time-averaged dynamical equations). Possible macroscopic consequences of such dynamical turbulent models are investigated. In order to study highly non-linear collapse dynamics in its advanced stage, a set of generalized Zakharov equations are derived. Going beyond the original approximation, the author includes the effects of higher electron non-linearities and a breakdown of slow-timescale quasi-neutrality. He investigates how these corrections may influence the collapse stabilisation. Recently, it has been realised that the modulational instability in a Langmuir plasma will be accompanied by the collisionless-generation of a slow-timescale magnetic field. Accordingly, a novel physical situation has emerged which is investigated in detail. The stability of monochromatic Langmuir waves in a self-magnetized Langmuir plasma, is discussed, and the existence of a novel magneto-modulational instability shown. The wave collapse dynamics is investigated and a physical interpretation of the basic results is given. A problem of the transient analysis of an interaction of time-dependent electromagnetic pulses with linear cold plasma media is investigated. (Auth.)

  11. LANGMUIR WAVE DECAY IN INHOMOGENEOUS SOLAR WIND PLASMAS: SIMULATION RESULTS

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Krafft, C. [Laboratoire de Physique des Plasmas, Ecole Polytechnique, F-91128 Palaiseau Cedex (France); Volokitin, A. S. [IZMIRAN, Troitsk, 142190, Moscow (Russian Federation); Krasnoselskikh, V. V., E-mail: catherine.krafft@u-psud.fr [Laboratoire de Physique et Chimie de l’Environnement et de l’Espace, 3A Av. de la Recherche Scientifique, F-45071 Orléans Cedex 2 (France)

    2015-08-20

    Langmuir turbulence excited by electron flows in solar wind plasmas is studied on the basis of numerical simulations. In particular, nonlinear wave decay processes involving ion-sound (IS) waves are considered in order to understand their dependence on external long-wavelength plasma density fluctuations. In the presence of inhomogeneities, it is shown that the decay processes are localized in space and, due to the differences between the group velocities of Langmuir and IS waves, their duration is limited so that a full nonlinear saturation cannot be achieved. The reflection and the scattering of Langmuir wave packets on the ambient and randomly varying density fluctuations lead to crucial effects impacting the development of the IS wave spectrum. Notably, beatings between forward propagating Langmuir waves and reflected ones result in the parametric generation of waves of noticeable amplitudes and in the amplification of IS waves. These processes, repeated at different space locations, form a series of cascades of wave energy transfer, similar to those studied in the frame of weak turbulence theory. The dynamics of such a cascading mechanism and its influence on the acceleration of the most energetic part of the electron beam are studied. Finally, the role of the decay processes in the shaping of the profiles of the Langmuir wave packets is discussed, and the waveforms calculated are compared with those observed recently on board the spacecraft Solar TErrestrial RElations Observatory and WIND.

  12. Langmuir wave turbulence generated by electromagnetic waves in the laboratory and the ionosphere

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Lee, M.C.; Riddolls, R.J.; Moriarty, D.T.; Dalrymple, N.E.; Rowlands, M.J.

    1996-01-01

    The authors will present some recent results of the laboratory experiments at MIT, using a large plasma device known as the Versatile Toroidal Facility (VTF). These experiments are aimed at cross-checking the ionospheric plasma heating experiments at Arecibo, Puerto Rico using an HF heating facility (heater). The plasma phenomenon under investigation is the spectral characteristic of Langmuir wave turbulence produced by ordinary (o-mode) electromagnetic pump waves. The Langmuir waves excited by o-mode heaters waves at Arecibo have both a frequency-upshifted spectrum and a frequency-downshifted (viz., cascading) spectrum. While the cascading spectrum can be well explained in terms of the parametric decay instability (PDI), the authors have interpreted the frequency-upshifted Langmuir waves to be anti-Stokes Langmuir waves produced by a nonlinear scattering process as follows. Lower hybrid waves creates presumably by lightning-induced whistler waves can scatter nonlinearly the PDI-excited mother langmuir waves, yielding obliquely propagating langmuir waves with frequencies as the summation of the mother Langmuir wave frequencies and the lower hybrid wave frequencies. This suggested process has been confirmed in the laboratory experiments, that can reproduce the characteristic spectra of Langmuir wave turbulence observed in the Arecibo experiments

  13. Interaction of langmuir and ion acoustic waves

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Lee, Hee Jae

    1991-01-01

    Interaction of Langmuir and ion acoustic waves in a plasma is described by Landau-Ginzburg type of equation when the group velocity of the Langmuir wave is equal to the wave velocity of ion acoustic wave. (Author)

  14. Preliminary Langmuir probe results on the CTX gun experiment

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Tuszewski, M.

    1981-12-01

    Preliminary results obtained with a double Langmuir probe in the Compact Toroid experiment facility confirm the existence of a gun plasma of n approx. 5 x 10 14 cm -3 and T approx. 10 eV lasting for approx. 250 to 400 μs, which is consistent with interferometry and Thomson scattering data. The probe current characteristics as a function of voltage suggest non-Maxwellian features of the particles distribution functions

  15. Renormalization method and singularities in the theory of Langmuir turbulence

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Pelletier, G.

    1977-01-01

    The method of renormalization, using propagators and diagrams, is recalled with enough mathematical details to be read and used by a non-specialist. The Markovian models are discussed and applied to plasma turbulence. The physical meaning of the diagrams is exhibited. In addition to the usual resonance broadening, an improved renormalization is set out, including broadening of the nonlinear resonance with a beat wave by induced scattering. This improved renormalization is emphasized. In the case of Langmuir turbulence, it removes difficulties arising at the group velocity, and enhances large-scale induced-scattering diffusion. (author)

  16. Saturation of radiation-induced parametric instabilities by excitation of Langmuir turbulence

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    DuBois, D.F.

    1996-01-01

    Progress made in the last few years in the calculation of the saturation spectra of parametric instabilities which involve Langmuir daughter waves will be reviewed. These instabilities include the ion acoustic decay instability, the two plasmon decay instability (TPDI), and stimulated Raman scattering (SRS). In particular we will emphasize spectral signatures which can be directly compared with experiment. The calculations are based on reduced models of driven Langmuir turbulence. Thomson scattering from hf-induced Langmuir turbulence in the unpreconditioned ionosphere has resulted in detailed agreement between theory and experiment at early times. Strong turbulence signatures dominate in this regime where the weak turbulence approximation fails completely. Recent experimental studies of the TPDI have measured the Fourier spectra of Langmuir waves as well as the angular and frequency spectra of light emitted near 3/2 of the pump frequency again permitting some detailed comparisons with theory. Thomson scattering measurements of the Langmuir wave spectra from SRS are consistent with the saturation by secondary and tertiary decay of the primary SRS Langmuir waves. Scaling laws derived from a local model of SRS saturation are compared with full simulations and recent Nova experiments. (orig.)

  17. A computerized Langmuir probe system

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Pilling, L.S.; Bydder, E.L.; Carnegie, D.A.

    2003-01-01

    For low pressure plasmas it is important to record entire single or double Langmuir probe characteristics accurately. For plasmas with a depleted high energy tail, the accuracy of the recorded ion current plays a critical role in determining the electron temperature. Even for high density Maxwellian distributions, it is necessary to accurately model the ion current to obtain the correct electron density. Since the electron and ion current saturation values are, at best, orders of magnitude apart, a single current sensing resistor cannot provide the required resolution to accurately record these values. We present an automated, personal computer based data acquisition system for the determination of fundamental plasma properties in low pressure plasmas. The system is designed for single and double Langmuir probes, whose characteristics can be recorded over a bias voltage range of ±70 V with 12 bit resolution. The current flowing through the probes can be recorded within the range of 5 nA-100 mA. The use of a transimpedance amplifier for current sensing eliminates the requirement for traditional current sensing resistors and hence the need to correct the raw data. The large current recording range is realized through the use of a real time gain switching system in the negative feedback loop of the transimpedance amplifier

  18. A computerized Langmuir probe system

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pilling, L. S.; Bydder, E. L.; Carnegie, D. A.

    2003-07-01

    For low pressure plasmas it is important to record entire single or double Langmuir probe characteristics accurately. For plasmas with a depleted high energy tail, the accuracy of the recorded ion current plays a critical role in determining the electron temperature. Even for high density Maxwellian distributions, it is necessary to accurately model the ion current to obtain the correct electron density. Since the electron and ion current saturation values are, at best, orders of magnitude apart, a single current sensing resistor cannot provide the required resolution to accurately record these values. We present an automated, personal computer based data acquisition system for the determination of fundamental plasma properties in low pressure plasmas. The system is designed for single and double Langmuir probes, whose characteristics can be recorded over a bias voltage range of ±70 V with 12 bit resolution. The current flowing through the probes can be recorded within the range of 5 nA-100 mA. The use of a transimpedance amplifier for current sensing eliminates the requirement for traditional current sensing resistors and hence the need to correct the raw data. The large current recording range is realized through the use of a real time gain switching system in the negative feedback loop of the transimpedance amplifier.

  19. Langmuir and Langmuir-Blodgett films of amphiphilic hexa-peri-hexabenzocoronene: New phase transitions and electronic properties controlled by pressure

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Reitzel, N.; Hassenkam, T.; Balashev, K.

    2001-01-01

    from a solution at the air-water interface. Grazing-incidence X-ray diffraction (GIXD) and X-ray reflectivity studies of the Langmuir monolayer reveal two crystallographic phases at room temperature which depend on the surface pressure applied to the film. Scattering from very well-ordered (xi = 200...

  20. Collisionless dissipation of Langmuir turbulence

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Erofeev, V.I.

    2002-01-01

    An analysis of two experimental observations of Langmuir wave collapse is performed. The corresponding experimental data are shown to give evidence against the collapse. The physical reason for preventing the collapses is found to be the nonresonant electron diffusion in momentums. In this process, plasma thermal electrons are efficiently heated at the expense of wave energy, and intense collisionless wave dissipation takes place. The basic reason of underestimation of this phenomenon in traditional theory is shown to be the substitution of real plasma by a plasma probabilistic ensemble. A theory of nonresonant electron diffusion in a single collisionless plasma is developed. It is shown that corresponding collisionless wave dissipation may arrest spectral energy transfer towards small wave numbers

  1. High frequency ion sound waves associated with Langmuir waves in type III radio burst source regions

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    G. Thejappa

    2004-01-01

    Full Text Available Short wavelength ion sound waves (2-4kHz are detected in association with the Langmuir waves (~15-30kHz in the source regions of several local type III radio bursts. They are most probably not due to any resonant wave-wave interactions such as the electrostatic decay instability because their wavelengths are much shorter than those of Langmuir waves. The Langmuir waves occur as coherent field structures with peak intensities exceeding the Langmuir collapse thresholds. Their scale sizes are of the order of the wavelength of an ion sound wave. These Langmuir wave field characteristics indicate that the observed short wavelength ion sound waves are most probably generated during the thermalization of the burnt-out cavitons left behind by the Langmuir collapse. Moreover, the peak intensities of the observed short wavelength ion sound waves are comparable to the expected intensities of those ion sound waves radiated by the burnt-out cavitons. However, the speeds of the electron beams derived from the frequency drift of type III radio bursts are too slow to satisfy the needed adiabatic ion approximation. Therefore, some non-linear process such as the induced scattering on thermal ions most probably pumps the beam excited Langmuir waves towards the lower wavenumbers, where the adiabatic ion approximation is justified.

  2. Postcollaptical effects in strong Langmuir turbulence

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Malkin, V.M.

    1989-01-01

    The qualitative theory of Langmuir turbulence is constructed, which takes into account the postcollaptical effects. The spectra obtained for Langmuir waves and accelerated electrons differ substantially from those predicted earlier. An interesting feature of new spectra is their dependence on the collapse symmetry. 6 refs

  3. Saturation of Langmuir waves in laser-produced plasmas

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Baker, K.L.

    1996-04-01

    This dissertation deals with the interaction of an intense laser with a plasma (a quasineutral collection of electrons and ions). During this interaction, the laser drives large-amplitude waves through a class of processes known as parametric instabilities. Several such instabilities drive one type of wave, the Langmuir wave, which involves oscillations of the electrons relative to the nearly-stationary ions. There are a number of mechanisms which limit the amplitude to which Langmuir waves grow. In this dissertation, these mechanisms are examined to identify qualitative features which might be observed in experiments and/or simulations. In addition, a number of experiments are proposed to specifically look for particular saturation mechanisms. In a plasma, a Langmuir wave can decay into an electromagnetic wave and an ion wave. This parametric instability is proposed as a source for electromagnetic emission near half of the incident laser frequency observed from laser-produced plasmas. This interpretation is shown to be consistent with existing experimental data and it is found that one of the previous mechanisms used to explain such emission is not. The scattering version of the electromagnetic decay instability is shown to provide an enhanced noise source of electromagnetic waves near the frequency of the incident laser

  4. Langmuir-Blodgett nanotemplates for protein crystallography.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pechkova, Eugenia; Nicolini, Claudio

    2017-12-01

    The new generation of synchrotrons and microfocused beamlines has enabled great progress in X-ray protein crystallography, resulting in new 3D atomic structures for proteins of high interest to the pharmaceutical industry and life sciences. It is, however, often still challenging to produce protein crystals of sufficient size and quality (order, intensity of diffraction, radiation stability). In this protocol, we provide instructions for performing the Langmuir-Blodgett (LB) nanotemplate method, a crystallization approach that can be used for any protein (including membrane proteins). We describe how to produce highly ordered 2D LB protein monolayers at the air-water interface and deposit them on glass slides. LB-film formation can be observed by surface-pressure measurements and Brewster angle microscopy (BAM), although its quality can be characterized by atomic force microscopy (AFM) and nanogravimetry. Such films are then used as a 2D template for triggering 3D protein crystal formation by hanging-drop vapor diffusion. The procedure for forming the 2D template takes a few minutes. Structural information about the protein reorganization in the LB film during the crystallization process on the nano level can be obtained using an in situ submicron GISAXS (grazing-incidence small-angle X-ray scattering) method. MicroGISAXS spectra, measured directly at the interface of the LB films and protein solution in real time, as described in this protocol, can be interpreted in terms of the buildup of layers, islands, or holes. In our experience, the obtained LB crystals take 1-10 d to prepare and they are more ordered and radiation stable as compared with those produced using other crystallization methods.

  5. Non linear dynamic of Langmuir and electromagnetic waves in space plasmas

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Guede, Jose Ricardo Abalde

    1995-11-01

    The aim of this work is to study the nonlinear dynamics of Langmuir and electromagnetic waves in space plasmas. Firstly, the generalized Zakharov equations are derived which are used to study the hybrid parametric instability involving the generation of daughter Langmuir, electromagnetic and ion-acoustic waves induced by two counter-propagating Langmuir pump waves with different amplitudes based on a coupled dispersion relation. Secondly, starting from the generalized Zakharov equations the linear and nonlinear coupled mode theories of three-wave and four-wave parametric interactions are developed, respectively. In three-waves processes, a Langmuir wave decays into another Langmuir wave and an ion-acoustic wave (electrostatic parametric decay) or into an electromagnetic wave and an ion-acoustic wave (electromagnetic parametric decay). In four-wave (modulational) processes, the interaction involves two wave triplets: in the decay triplet a pump wave couples with a low-frequency wave to generate a Stokes wave, and in the fusion triplets: in the decay triplet a pump wave couples with a low-frequency wave to generate a Stokes wave, and in the fusion triplet the coupling of a pump wave with a low-frequency wave generate an anti-Stokes wave. These modulational processes are convective and resonant processes wherein the low-frequency modes are Eigenmodes of plasma and are known as the stimulated modulational processes. Four such processes are investigated in this thesis: two with Langmuir pump waves (electrostatic and hybrid stimulated modulation processes) and the other two with electromagnetic pump waves (stimulated modulation Brillouin scattering and electromagnetic stimulated modulation process). Applications of the theoretical results in space plasmas are discussed. In particular, it is shown that the electrostatic and electromagnetic parametric decay processes of Langmuir waves can model the generation and modulation of radio emissions and Langmuir waves in the

  6. Saturation of radiation-induced parametric instabilities by excitation of Langmuir turbulence

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Dubois, D.F.; Rose, H.A. [Los Alamos National Lab., NM (United States); Russell, D. [Lodestar Research Inc., Boulder, CO (United States)

    1995-12-01

    Progress made in the last few years in the calculation of the saturation spectra of parametric instabilities which involve Langmuir daughter waves will be reviewed. These instabilities include the ion acoustic decay instability, the two plasmon decay instability (TPDI), and stimulated Raman scattering (SRS). In particular I will emphasize spectral signatures which can be directly compared with experiment. The calculations are based on reduced models of driven Laugmuir turbulence. Thomson scattering from hf-induced Langmuir turbulence in the unpreconditioned ionosphere has resulted in detailed agreement between theory and experiment at early times. Strong turbulence signatures dominate in this regime where the weak turbulence approximation fails completely. Recent experimental studies of the TPDI have measured the Fourier spectra of Langmuir waves as well as the angular and frequency, spectra of light emitted near 3/2 of the pump frequency again permitting some detailed comparisons with theory. The experiments on SRS are less detailed but by Thomson scattering the secondary decay of the daughter Langmuir wave has been observed. Scaling laws derived from a local model of SRS saturation are compared with full simulations and recent Nova experiments.

  7. Langmuir-Blodgett Films of Graphene Derivatives

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Petersen, Søren Vermehren

    The work presented in this PhD thesis can be divided into two main categories: 1) Syn-thesis and Langmuir-Blodgett assembly of graphene derivatives and 2) Application and characterization of graphene derivatives as an interface material in molecular electron-ics. While the first category could...... be divided further, the synthesis and Langmuir-Blodgett results are intertwined in such a way that it would be more confusing to pre-sent them separately. The Langmuir-Blodgett deposition also played a crucial, but more isolated, part in the investigation of graphene derivatives as interface material....... Solution processable graphene in the form of chemically derived graphene has been synthesized through the modified Hummers method with subsequent reduction into reduced graphene oxide with hydrazine. The completeness of oxidation, the effect of the refinement steps and the reduction of the graphene oxide...

  8. Non linear dynamic of Langmuir and electromagnetic waves in space plasmas; Dinamica nao linear de ondas de Langmuir e eletromagneticas em plasmas espaciais

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Guede, Jose Ricardo Abalde

    1995-11-01

    The aim of this work is to study the nonlinear dynamics of Langmuir and electromagnetic waves in space plasmas. Firstly, the generalized Zakharov equations are derived which are used to study the hybrid parametric instability involving the generation of daughter Langmuir, electromagnetic and ion-acoustic waves induced by two counter-propagating Langmuir pump waves with different amplitudes based on a coupled dispersion relation. Secondly, starting from the generalized Zakharov equations the linear and nonlinear coupled mode theories of three-wave and four-wave parametric interactions are developed, respectively. In three-waves processes, a Langmuir wave decays into another Langmuir wave and an ion-acoustic wave (electrostatic parametric decay) or into an electromagnetic wave and an ion-acoustic wave (electromagnetic parametric decay). In four-wave (modulational) processes, the interaction involves two wave triplets: in the decay triplet a pump wave couples with a low-frequency wave to generate a Stokes wave, and in the fusion triplets: in the decay triplet a pump wave couples with a low-frequency wave to generate a Stokes wave, and in the fusion triplet the coupling of a pump wave with a low-frequency wave generate an anti-Stokes wave. These modulational processes are convective and resonant processes wherein the low-frequency modes are Eigenmodes of plasma and are known as the stimulated modulational processes. Four such processes are investigated in this thesis: two with Langmuir pump waves (electrostatic and hybrid stimulated modulation processes) and the other two with electromagnetic pump waves (stimulated modulation Brillouin scattering and electromagnetic stimulated modulation process). Applications of the theoretical results in space plasmas are discussed. In particular, it is shown that the electrostatic and electromagnetic parametric decay processes of Langmuir waves can model the generation and modulation of radio emissions and Langmuir waves in the

  9. Statistical models of global Langmuir mixing

    Science.gov (United States)

    Li, Qing; Fox-Kemper, Baylor; Breivik, Øyvind; Webb, Adrean

    2017-05-01

    The effects of Langmuir mixing on the surface ocean mixing may be parameterized by applying an enhancement factor which depends on wave, wind, and ocean state to the turbulent velocity scale in the K-Profile Parameterization. Diagnosing the appropriate enhancement factor online in global climate simulations is readily achieved by coupling with a prognostic wave model, but with significant computational and code development expenses. In this paper, two alternatives that do not require a prognostic wave model, (i) a monthly mean enhancement factor climatology, and (ii) an approximation to the enhancement factor based on the empirical wave spectra, are explored and tested in a global climate model. Both appear to reproduce the Langmuir mixing effects as estimated using a prognostic wave model, with nearly identical and substantial improvements in the simulated mixed layer depth and intermediate water ventilation over control simulations, but significantly less computational cost. Simpler approaches, such as ignoring Langmuir mixing altogether or setting a globally constant Langmuir number, are found to be deficient. Thus, the consequences of Stokes depth and misaligned wind and waves are important.

  10. Langmuir Turbulence: Proposal for a Closure

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Dysthe, K. B.; Espedal, M. S.; Pécseli, Hans

    1986-01-01

    The Wigner formalism is applied to the standard equations for weakly nonlinear Langmuire waves. On the basis of this formulation, a closed set of equations is obtained to describe the statistical evolution of the average field intensity and the intensity correlation function. The analysis allows...

  11. Structure of binary mixed polymer Langmuir layers

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Bernardini, C.

    2012-01-01

    The possibility of preparing 2D stable emulsions through mixing of homopolymers in a Langmuir monolayer is the core topic of this thesis. While colloid science has achieved well established results in the study of bulk dispersed systems, accounts on properties of mixed monomolecular films are

  12. Second harmonic electromagnetic emission via Langmuir wave coalescence

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Willes, A.J.; Robinson, P.A.; Melrose, D.B.

    1996-01-01

    The coalescence of Langmuir waves to produce electromagnetic waves at twice the plasma frequency is considered. A simplified expression for the rate of production of second harmonic electromagnetic waves is obtained for a broad class of Langmuir spectra. In addition, two different analytic approximations are considered. The validity of the commonly used head-on approximation is explored, in which the two coalescing Langmuir waves are assumed to approach from opposite directions. This approximation breaks down at low Langmuir wavenumbers, and for narrow Langmuir wave spectra. A second, more general, approximation is introduced, called the narrow-spectrum approximation, which requires narrow spectral widths of the Langmuir spectra. The advantages of this approximation are that it does not break down at low Langmuir wavenumbers, and that it remains valid for relatively broad Langmuir wave spectra. Finally, the applicability of these approximations in treating harmonic radiation in type III solar radio bursts is discussed. copyright 1996 American Institute of Physics

  13. The Effect of Large Scale Salinity Gradient on Langmuir Turbulence

    Science.gov (United States)

    Fan, Y.; Jarosz, E.; Yu, Z.; Jensen, T.; Sullivan, P. P.; Liang, J.

    2017-12-01

    Langmuir circulation (LC) is believed to be one of the leading order causes of turbulent mixing in the upper ocean. It is important for momentum and heat exchange across the mixed layer (ML) and directly impact the dynamics and thermodynamics in the upper ocean and lower atmosphere including the vertical distributions of chemical, biological, optical, and acoustic properties. Based on Craik and Leibovich (1976) theory, large eddy simulation (LES) models have been developed to simulate LC in the upper ocean, yielding new insights that could not be obtained from field observations and turbulent closure models. Due its high computational cost, LES models are usually limited to small domain sizes and cannot resolve large-scale flows. Furthermore, most LES models used in the LC simulations use periodic boundary conditions in the horizontal direction, which assumes the physical properties (i.e. temperature and salinity) and expected flow patterns in the area of interest are of a periodically repeating nature so that the limited small LES domain is representative for the larger area. Using periodic boundary condition can significantly reduce computational effort in problems, and it is a good assumption for isotropic shear turbulence. However, LC is anisotropic (McWilliams et al 1997) and was observed to be modulated by crosswind tidal currents (Kukulka et al 2011). Using symmetrical domains, idealized LES studies also indicate LC could interact with oceanic fronts (Hamlington et al 2014) and standing internal waves (Chini and Leibovich, 2005). The present study expands our previous LES modeling investigations of Langmuir turbulence to the real ocean conditions with large scale environmental motion that features fresh water inflow into the study region. Large scale gradient forcing is introduced to the NCAR LES model through scale separation analysis. The model is applied to a field observation in the Gulf of Mexico in July, 2016 when the measurement site was impacted by

  14. Modulated Langmuir waves and nonlinear Landau damping

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Yajima, Nobuo; Oikawa, Masayuki; Satsuma, Junkichi; Namba, Chusei.

    1975-01-01

    The nonlinear Schroedinger euqation with an integral term, iusub(t)+P/2.usub(xx)+Q/u/ 2 u+RP∫sub(-infinity)sup(infinity)[/u(x',t)/ 2 /(x-x')]dx'u=0, which describes modulated Langmuir waves with the nonlinear Landau damping effect, is solved by numerical calculations. Especially, the effects of nonlinear Landau damping on solitary wave solutions are studied. For both cases, PQ>0 and PQ<0, the results show that the solitary waves deform in an asymmetric way changing its velocity. (auth.)

  15. Interaction of Langmuir solitons with sound

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Kurin, V.V.; Fraiman, G.M.

    1981-01-01

    The adiabatic approximation is used to study the interaction of Langmuir solitons with long ion-acoustic waves. The finite acoustic velocity gives rise to an effective mass for the soliton which is quite different from that in the approximation of a local nonlinearity. The force acting on a soliton, averaged over the period of the acoustic wave, is derived. The system of kinetic equations is analyzed in the approximation of random phases of the acoustic waves. The interaction of acoustic waves with solitons causes the acoustic spectrum to become more nearly isotropic, and the solitons are effectively damped

  16. Contamination-free sounding rocket Langmuir probe

    Science.gov (United States)

    Amatucci, W. E.; Schuck, P. W.; Walker, D. N.; Kintner, P. M.; Powell, S.; Holback, B.; Leonhardt, D.

    2001-04-01

    A technique for removing surface contaminants from a sounding rocket spherical Langmuir probe is presented. Contamination layers present on probe surfaces can skew the collected data, resulting in the incorrect determination of plasma parameters. Despite following the usual probe cleaning techniques that are used prior to a launch, the probe surface can become coated with layers of adsorbed neutral gas in less than a second when exposed to atmosphere. The laboratory tests reported here show that by heating the probe from the interior using a small halogen lamp, adsorbed neutral particles can be removed from the probe surface, allowing accurate plasma parameter measurements to be made.

  17. ECR plasma diagnostics with Langmuir probe

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Kenez, L.; Biri, S.; Valek, A.

    2000-01-01

    Complete text of publication follows. An Electron Cyclotron Resonance (ECR) Ion Source is a tool to generate highly charged ions. The ion beam is extracted from the plasma chamber of the ECRIS. Higher charge states and beam intensities are the main objectives of ECR research. The heart of an ion source is the confined plasma which should be well known to reach those objectives. Information about the plasma can be obtained by plasma diagnostics methods. Langmuir probes were successfully used in case of other plasmas, e.g. TOKAMAK. Until last year plasma diagnostics at the ATOMKI ECRIS was performed by X-ray and visible light measurements. While X-ray measurements give global information, the Langmuir probe method can give information on the local plasma parameters. This is an advantage because the local parameters are not known in detail. By Langmuir probe measurements it is possible to get information on plasma density, plasma potential and partly on the electron temperature. From the experimental point of view a Langmuir probe is very simple. However, the precise positioning of the probe in the plasma chamber (HV platform, strong magnetic field, RF waves) is a difficult task. Also the theory of probes is complicated: the ECR plasma is a special one because the confining magnetic field is inhomogeneous, beside hot electrons it contains cold ions with different charge states and it is heated with high frequency EM waves. What can be measured with a probe is a voltage-current (U-I) characteristics. Figure 1 shows a typical U-I curve measured in our lab. As it can be seen in the figure the diagram has three main parts. An ion saturation current region (I.), an electron saturation current region (III.) and a transition region (II.) between them. These measurements were performed using two different power supplies to bias the probe to positive and negative voltage. To perform more precise U-I measurements we need a special power supply which is presently being built in

  18. On the theory of Langmuir solitons

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Gibbons, J.; Thornhill, S.G.; Wardrop, M.J.; Ter Haar, D.

    1977-01-01

    A Lagrangian density is found from which the equations of motion for the Langmuir solitons follow in the usual way. It is shown how this Lagrangian leads to the usual conservation laws. For the one-dimensional case a consideration of these conservation laws can help in understanding some of the results obtained in numerical experiments on the behaviour of a strongly turbulent plasma. It is shown that the situation in the three-dimensional case may be fundamentally different, and the near-sonic perturbations and Karpman's treatment of these is discussed. (U.K.)

  19. Validating experimental and theoretical Langmuir probe analyses

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pilling, L. S.; Carnegie, D. A.

    2007-08-01

    Analysis of Langmuir probe characteristics contains a paradox in that it is unknown a priori which theory is applicable before it is applied. Often theories are assumed to be correct when certain criteria are met although they may not validate the approach used. We have analysed the Langmuir probe data from cylindrical double and single probes acquired from a dc discharge plasma over a wide variety of conditions. This discharge contains a dual-temperature distribution and hence fitting a theoretically generated curve is impractical. To determine the densities, an examination of the current theories was necessary. For the conditions where the probe radius is the same order of magnitude as the Debye length, the gradient expected for orbital-motion limited (OML) is approximately the same as the radial-motion gradients. An analysis of the 'gradients' from the radial-motion theory was able to resolve the differences from the OML gradient value of two. The method was also able to determine whether radial or OML theories applied without knowledge of the electron temperature, or separation of the ion and electron contributions. Only the value of the space potential is necessary to determine the applicable theory.

  20. Accounting for Debye sheath expansion for proud Langmuir probes in magnetic confinement fusion plasmas.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tsui, C K; Boedo, J A; Stangeby, P C

    2018-01-01

    A Child-Langmuir law-based method for accounting for Debye sheath expansion while fitting the current-voltage I-V characteristic of proud Langmuir probes (electrodes that extend into the volume of the plasma) is described. For Langmuir probes of a typical size used in tokamak plasmas, these new estimates of electron temperature and ion saturation current density values decreased by up to 60% compared to methods that did not account for sheath expansion. Changes to the collection area are modeled using the Child-Langmuir law and effective expansion perimeter l p , and the model is thus referred to as the "perimeter sheath expansion method." l p is determined solely from electrode geometry, so the method may be employed without prior measurement of the magnitude of the sheath expansion effects for a given Langmuir probe and can be used for electrodes of different geometries. This method correctly predicts the non-saturating ΔI/ΔV slope for cold, low-density plasmas where sheath-expansion effects are strong, as well as for hot plasmas where ΔI/ΔV ∼ 0, though it is shown that the sheath can still significantly affect the collection area in these hot conditions. The perimeter sheath expansion method has several advantages compared to methods where the non-saturating current is fitted: (1) It is more resilient to scatter in the I-V characteristics observed in turbulent plasmas. (2) It is able to separate the contributions to the ΔI/ΔV slope from sheath expansion to that of the high energy electron tail in high Te conditions. (3) It calculates the change in the collection area due to the Debye sheath for conditions where ΔI/ΔV ∼ 0 and for V = V f .

  1. Simulation of weak and strong Langmuir collapse regimes

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Hadzievski, L.R.; Skoric, M.M.; Kono, M.; Sato, T.

    1998-01-01

    In order to check the validity of the self-similar solutions and the existence of weak and strong collapse regimes, direct two dimensional simulation of the time evolution of a Langmuir soliton instability is performed. Simulation is based on the Zakharov model of strong Langmuir turbulence in a weakly magnetized plasma accounting for the full ion dynamics. For parameters considered, agreement with self-similar dynamics of the weak collapse type is found with no evidence of the strong Langmuir collapse. (author)

  2. Electromagnetic radiation from strong Langmuir turbulence

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Akimoto, K.; Rowland, H.L.; Papadopoulos, K.

    1988-01-01

    A series of computer simulations is reported showing the generation of electromagnetic radiation by strong Langmuir turbulence. The simulations were carried out with a fully electromagnetic 2 1/2 -dimensional fluid code. The radiation process takes place in two stages that reflect the evolution of the electrostatic turbulence. During the first stage while the electrostatic turbulence is evolving from an initial linear wave packet into a planar soliton, the radiation is primarily at ω/sub e/. During the second stage when transverse instabilities lead to the collapse and dissipation of the solitons, 2ω/sub e/ and ω/sub e/ radiation are comparable, and 3ω/sub e/ is also present. The radiation power at ω = 2ω/sub e/ is in good agreement with theoretical predictions for electromagnetic emissions by collapsing solitons

  3. Asymmetric double Langmuir probe: Small signal application

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Uckan, T.

    1987-11-01

    We discuss the asymmetric double Langmuir probe (ADLP) and demonstrate the possibility of using it to measure plasma temperature T/sub e/ and density n when it is operated in the region of small signal response. The area of one of the ADLP collectors is considerably larger than the other. This probe can be operated at a relatively low applied voltage, eV/sub a/T/sub e/ < 1, and still provides sufficient information to determine the plasma T/sub e/ and n. There is no need for a direct measurement of the ion saturation current, which can be on the order of a few amperes in large fusion devices. This reduces the requirements on the probe power supply. 6 refs., 6 figs

  4. The Sheath-less Planar Langmuir Probe

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cooke, D. L.

    2017-12-01

    The Langmuir probe is one of the oldest plasma diagnostics, provided the plasma density and species temperature from analysis of a current-voltage curve as the voltage is swept over a practically chosen range. The analysis depends on a knowledge or theory of the many factors that influence the current-voltage curve including, probe shape, size, nearby perturbations, and the voltage reference. For applications in Low Earth Orbit, the Planar Langmuir Probe, PLP, is an attractive geometry because the ram ion current is very constant over many Volts of a sweep, allowing the ion density and electron temperature to be determined independently with the same instrument, at different points on the sweep. However, when the physical voltage reference is itself small and electrically floating as with a small spacecraft, the spacecraft and probe system become a double probe where the current collection theory depends on the interaction of the spacecraft with the plasma which is generally not as simple as the probe itself. The Sheath-less PLP, SPLP, interlaces on a single ram facing surface, two variably biased probe elements, broken into many small and intertwined segments on a scale smaller than the plasma Debye length. The SPLP is electrically isolated from the rest of the spacecraft. For relative bias potentials of a few volts, the ion current to all segments of each element will be constant, while the electron currents will vary as a function of the element potential and the electron temperature. Because the segments are small, intertwined, and floating, the assembly will always present the same floating potential to the plasma, with minimal growth as a function of voltage, thus sheath-less and still planar. This concept has been modelled with Nascap, and tested with a physical model inserted into a Low Earth Orbit-like chamber plasma. Results will be presented.

  5. Adsorption and enzyme activity of asparaginase at lipid Langmuir and Langmuir-Blodgett films

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Rocha Junior, Carlos da; Caseli, Luciano

    2017-01-01

    In this present work, the surface activity of the enzyme asparaginase was investigated at the air-water interface, presenting surface activity in high ionic strengths. Asparaginase was incorporated in Langmuir monolayers of the phospholipid dipalmitoylphosphatidylcholine (DPPC), forming a mixed film, which was characterized with surface pressure-area isotherms, surface potential-area isotherms, polarization-modulated infrared reflection-absorption spectroscopy (PM-IRRAS), and Brewster angle microscopy (BAM). The adsorption of the enzyme at the air-water interface condensed the lipid monolayer and increased the film compressibility at high surface pressures. Amide bands in the PM-IRRAS spectra were identified, with the C−N and C =O dipole moments lying parallel to monolayer plane, revealing the structuring of the enzyme into α-helices and β-sheets. The floating monolayers were transferred to solid supports as Langmuir-Blodgett (LB) films and characterized with fluorescence spectroscopy and atomic force microscopy. Catalytic activities of the films were measured and compared to the homogenous medium. The enzyme accommodated in the LB films preserved more than 78% of the enzyme activity after 30 days, in contrast for the homogeneous medium, which preserved less than 13%. The method presented in this work not only allows for an enhanced catalytic activity, but also can help explain why certain film architectures exhibit better performance. - Highlights: • Biomembranes are mimicked with Langmuir monolayers. • Asparaginase is incorporated into the lipid monolayer. • Enzyme adsorption is confirmed with tensiometry and infrared spectroscopy. • Langmuir-Blodgett films of the enzyme present enzyme activity.

  6. Adsorption and enzyme activity of asparaginase at lipid Langmuir and Langmuir-Blodgett films

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Rocha Junior, Carlos da; Caseli, Luciano, E-mail: lcaseli@unifesp.br

    2017-04-01

    In this present work, the surface activity of the enzyme asparaginase was investigated at the air-water interface, presenting surface activity in high ionic strengths. Asparaginase was incorporated in Langmuir monolayers of the phospholipid dipalmitoylphosphatidylcholine (DPPC), forming a mixed film, which was characterized with surface pressure-area isotherms, surface potential-area isotherms, polarization-modulated infrared reflection-absorption spectroscopy (PM-IRRAS), and Brewster angle microscopy (BAM). The adsorption of the enzyme at the air-water interface condensed the lipid monolayer and increased the film compressibility at high surface pressures. Amide bands in the PM-IRRAS spectra were identified, with the C−N and C =O dipole moments lying parallel to monolayer plane, revealing the structuring of the enzyme into α-helices and β-sheets. The floating monolayers were transferred to solid supports as Langmuir-Blodgett (LB) films and characterized with fluorescence spectroscopy and atomic force microscopy. Catalytic activities of the films were measured and compared to the homogenous medium. The enzyme accommodated in the LB films preserved more than 78% of the enzyme activity after 30 days, in contrast for the homogeneous medium, which preserved less than 13%. The method presented in this work not only allows for an enhanced catalytic activity, but also can help explain why certain film architectures exhibit better performance. - Highlights: • Biomembranes are mimicked with Langmuir monolayers. • Asparaginase is incorporated into the lipid monolayer. • Enzyme adsorption is confirmed with tensiometry and infrared spectroscopy. • Langmuir-Blodgett films of the enzyme present enzyme activity.

  7. Upconversion of ion-sound to Langmuir turbulence

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Vlahos, L.; Papadopoulos, K.

    1979-01-01

    It is shown that upconversion of ion sound to Langmuir waves is impossible in a plasma with upsilon/sub d/< upsilon/sub e/. Previous conclusions to the opposite were in error, owing to neglect of the reverse process (i.e., reabsorbtion of Langmuir waves), which always dominates for upsilon/sub d/< upsilon/sub e/

  8. On the role of sound in the strong Langmuir turbulence

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Malkin, V.M.

    1989-01-01

    The main directions in the precision of the theory of strong Langmuir turbulence caused by the necessity of account of sound waves in plasma are preseted. In particular the effect of conversion of short-wave modulations in Langmuir waves induced by sound waves, are briefly described. 8 refs

  9. Non-Linear Langmuir Wave Modulation in Collisionless Plasmas

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Dysthe, K. B.; Pécseli, Hans

    1977-01-01

    in the expressions concerning the modulation instability of a plane Langmuir wave. When the Vlasov equation for the ions is applied, a Langmuir wave is modulationally unstable for arbitrary perturbations independent of the unperturbed wave amplitude, in contrast to what is found for fluid ions. A simple analogy...

  10. PMMA highlights the layering transition of PDMS in Langmuir films

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Bernardini, C.; Stoyanov, S.D.; Cohen Stuart, M.A.; Arnaudov, L.N.; Leermakers, F.A.M.

    2011-01-01

    We report a system consisting of a mixed Langmuir monolayer, made of water-insoluble, spreadable, fluid-like polymers polydimethylsiloxane (PDMS) and polymethylmethacrylate (PMMA) with a minority P(DMS-b-MMA) copolymer. We have performed both Langmuir trough pressure/area isotherm measurements and

  11. ON QUIET-TIME SOLAR WIND ELECTRON DISTRIBUTIONS IN DYNAMICAL EQUILIBRIUM WITH LANGMUIR TURBULENCE

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Zaheer, S.; Yoon, P. H.

    2013-01-01

    A recent series of papers put forth a self-consistent theory of an asymptotically steady-state electron distribution function and Langmuir turbulence intensity. The theory was developed in terms of the κ distribution which features Maxwellian low-energy electrons and a non-Maxwellian energetic power-law tail component. The present paper discusses a generalized κ distribution that features a Davydov-Druyvesteyn type of core component and an energetic power-law tail component. The physical motivation for such a generalization is so that the model may reflect the influence of low-energy electrons interacting with low-frequency kinetic Alfvénic turbulence as well as with high-frequency Langmuir turbulence. It is shown that such a solution and the accompanying Langmuir wave spectrum rigorously satisfy the balance requirement between the spontaneous and induced emission processes in both the particle and wave kinetic equations, and approximately satisfy the similar balance requirement between the spontaneous and induced scattering processes, which are nonlinear. In spite of the low velocity modification of the electron distribution function, it is shown that the resulting asymptotic velocity power-law index α, where f e ∼ v –α is close to the average index observed during the quiet-time solar wind condition, i.e., α ∼ O(6.5) whereas α average ∼ 6.69, according to observation

  12. Langmuir field structures favored in wave collapse

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Robinson, P.A.; Wouters, M.J.; Broderick, N.G.

    1996-01-01

    Study of Langmuir collapse thresholds shows that they have little polarization dependence and that moving packets have the lowest thresholds in the undamped case. However, incorporation of damping into the density response inhibits collapse of packets moving at more than a small fraction of the sound speed. Investigation of energy transfer to packets localized in density wells emdash the nucleation process emdash shows that at most a few trapped states can exist and that energy transfer is most effective when there is a single barely-trapped state. Coupled with an argument that closely packed wave packets have lower collapse thresholds, this argument yields an estimate of the number density of localized nucleating states in a turbulent plasma. It also leads to a simple and direct semiquantitative estimate of the collapse threshold. All these results are in accord with previous numerical simulations incorporating ion-sound damping, which show a preponderance of slow-moving or stationary packets with little or no intrinsic polarization dependence of thresholds. Likewise, the number densities obtained are in good agreement with simulation values, and the simple estimate of the threshold is semiquantitatively correct. The extent of the agreement supports the nucleation scenario with close-packed nucleation sites in the turbulent state. copyright 1996 American Institute of Physics

  13. Langmuir wave dispersion relation in non-Maxwellian plasmas

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Ouazene, M.; Annou, R.

    2010-01-01

    The Langmuir wave dispersion relation is derived in partially ionized plasmas, where free electrons are confined to move in a nearest neighbor ions' potential well. The equilibrium velocity distribution function experiences then, a departure from Maxwell distribution function. The effect of the non-Maxwellian character of the distribution function on the Langmuir phase and group velocities as well as the phase matching conditions and the nonlinear growth rate of decay instability is investigated. The proposed Langmuir wave dispersion relation is relevant to dense and cryogenic plasmas.

  14. Theory of Langmuir probes in anisotropic plasmas

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Sudit, I.D.; Woods, R.C.

    1994-01-01

    A theory has been developed for electron retardation by Langmuir probes of several geometries in a general anisotropic plasma with arbitrary probe orientation and valid for any sheath thickness. Electron densities and electron velocity distribution functions (EVDFs) are obtained from the second derivative of probe I-V curves, as in Druyvesteyn's original method, which was developed for isotropic plasmas. Fedorov had extended the latter method in the context of a thin sheath approximation, to axisymmetric plasmas, in which the EVDF is expanded in a series of Legendary polynomials. In the present work an expansion in a series of spherical harmonics is employed, and the coordinate transformations are handled using the irreducible representation of the three dimensional rotation group. It is shown that the Volterra integral equations that must be solved to obtain the expansion coefficients of the EVDF from the second derivative data are no more complicated in the general case that hose for the axisymmetric plasma. Furthermore in the latter case the results can be shown to be equivalent to Fedrov's thin sheath expression. For the case of planar probes a formulation based on first derivatives of the I-V curves has been obtained. If data is obtained at enough different probe orientation of a one sided planar disc probe, any number of spherical harmonic coefficient functions may be obtained by inverting a set of linear equations and the complete EVDF deduced. For a cylindrical probe or a two-sided planar disc probe the integration of the second derivative of the probe current gives the exact electron density with any arbitrary probe orientation and any degree of plasma anisotropy

  15. Metallic Langmuir and Langmuir-Blodgett films based on TTF derivatives and fatty acid

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Ohnuki, H.; Ishizaki, Y.; Suzuki, M.; Desbat, B.; Delhaes, P.; Giffard, M.; Imakubo, T.; Mabon, G.; Izumi, M.

    2002-01-01

    Recent progress in the metallic conducting Langmuir-Blodgett (LB) films built from TTF derivative and fatty acids is reported. A simple LB method of transferring the mixed Langmuir (L) film of BEDO-TTF (BO) and stearic acid (SA) onto substrates provided metallic conducting LB films. A homogeneous L film formation on the water surface observed by Brewster angle microscope (BAM) is an essential factor for the well-ordered LB films. In the L film, the carboxylate group of fatty acid forms anion layer bringing about a spontaneous formation of mixed valence state (MVS) of BO layer. Similar spontaneous formation was also found in the molecular combination of nonoxygen-substituted donor of EDT-TTF and octadecanesulfonic acid (OS). This type of reaction would be useful for obtaining conducting LB films. For the LB films of BEDO-TTF and stearic acid, we found a negative transverse magnetoresistance at low temperature that was interpreted in the weak localization of a two-dimensional (2D) electronic system based on the well-defined conducting layer

  16. Experimental signatures of localization in Langmuir wave turbulence

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Rose, H.A.; DuBois, D.F.; Russell, D.; Bezzerides, B.

    1988-01-01

    Features in certain laser-plasma and ionospheric experiments are identified with the basic properties of Langmuir wave turbulence. Also, a model of caviton nucleation is presented which leads to certain novel scaling predictions. 12 refs., 19 figs.

  17. Langmuir and Langmuir–Blodgett films of capsules of haemoglobin ...

    Indian Academy of Sciences (India)

    Dynamic surface tension and the associated dilational and shear ... logy of the protein films spread in a Langmuir trough. In ..... ing effect of the lateral electrostatic repulsions, such ... formation did not alter the conformation of the protein.

  18. An Adaptive Langmuir Probe for CubeSats and Explorers

    Data.gov (United States)

    National Aeronautics and Space Administration — We propose to build an Adaptive Langmuir Probe (ALP) for CubeSats designed to mitigate spacecraft charging unique to small platforms. This project builds a new...

  19. Langmuir and Langmuir-Blodgett films of multifunctional, amphiphilic polyethers with cholesterol moieties.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Reuter, Sascha; Hofmann, Anna M; Busse, Karsten; Frey, Holger; Kressler, Jörg

    2011-03-01

    Langmuir films of multifunctional, hydrophilic polyethers containing a hydrophobic cholesterol group (Ch) were studied by surface pressure-mean molecular area (π-mmA) measurements and Brewster angle microscopy (BAM). The polyethers were either homopolymers or diblock copolymers of linear poly(glycerol) (lPG), linear poly(glyceryl glycidyl ether) (lPGG), linear poly(ethylene glycol) (lPEG), or hyperbranched poly(glycerol) (hbPG). Surface pressure measurements revealed that the homopolymers lPG and hbPG did not stay at the water surface after spreading and solvent evaporation, in contrast to lPEG. Because of the incorporation of the Ch group in the polymer structure, stable Langmuir films were formed by Ch-lPG(n), Ch-lPGG(n), and Ch-hbPG(n). The Ch-hbPG(n), Ch-lPEG(n), Ch-lPEG(n)-b-lPG(m), Ch-lPEG(n)-b-lPGG(m), and Ch-lPEG(n)-b-hbPG(m) systems showed an extended plateau region assigned to a phase transition involving the Ch groups. Typical hierarchically ordered morphologies of the LB films on hydrophilic substrates were observed for all Ch-initiated polymers. All LB films showed that Ch of the Ch-initiated homopolymers is able to crystallize. This strong tendency of self-aggregation then triggers further dewetting effects of the respective polyether entities. Fingerlike morphologies are observed for Ch-lPEG(69), since the lPEG(69) entity is able to undergo crystallization after transfer onto the silicon substrate.

  20. A theory for the Langmuir waves in the electron foreshock

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Cairns, I.H.

    1987-01-01

    A theory for the Langmuir (L) waves observed in the electron foreshock is suggested. Free energy for the Langmuir wave growth is contained in cutoff distributions of energetic electrons streaming from the bow shock. These cutoff distributions drive Langmuir wave growth primarily by the kinetic version of the beam instability, and wave growth is limited by quasi-linear relaxation. The observed bump-on-tail electron distributions are interpreted as the remnants of cutoff distributions after quasi-linear relaxation has limited the wave growth. Only plausibility arguments for this theory are given since suitable treatments of quasi-linear relaxation are not presently available. However, it is shown that the wave processes L ± S → L' and L ± S → T (where S and T denote ion sound and transverse waves, respectively), refraction in steady-state density structures, diffusion due to interactions with ion sound turbulence, and effects due to wave convection and spatial gradients in the beam velocity, are unable to suppress the beam instability. The theory leads to natural interpretations of the Langmuir electric field waveforms observed and of the decrease in the Langmuir wave electric fields with increasing distance from the foreshock boundary. The theory for the beam instability is reviewed, and previous analytic and numerical treatments of the beam instability are related

  1. Magnetized Langmuir wave packets excited by a strong beam-plasma interaction

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Pelletier, G.; Sol, H.; Asseo, E.

    1988-01-01

    The physics of beam-plasma interaction, which has been investigated for a long time mostly in relation with solar bursts, is now more widely invoked in various astrophysical contexts such as pulsars, active galactic nuclei, close binaries, cataclysmic variables, γ bursters, and so on. In these situations the interaction is more likely in the spirit of strong Langmuir turbulence rather than in the spirit of quasilinear theory. Many investigations have been done for two opposite extremes, namely, in very weak and in very strong magnetic fields. Very few properties of the strong Langmuir turbulence are known in the most usual astrophysical situation where the magnetic field plays a significant role but is not strong enough to force the electrons into one-dimensional motion. For this case, we analyze the dynamics of Langmuir wave packets and provide new results about the stability of the solitons against transverse perturbations. It turns out that both the averaged Lagrangian method and the adiabatic perturbation method derived from the inverse scattering transform give exactly the same results (which is not obvious in soliton perturbation theory). In particular, they predict the stability of the solitons as long as the electron gyrofrequency is greater than the plasma frequency (strong magnetic field) and their instability against transverse self-modulation in the opposite case (weak magnetic field); moreover, they allow one to deduce the self-similar collapsing oblate cavitons in the latter case. The laws governing the collapse of the wave packets determine the relaxation of the beam in the surrounding medium and we derive a useful formula giving the power loss of the beam. We outline the astrophysical consequences of this investigation

  2. A Robust Definition for the Turbulent Langmuir Number

    Science.gov (United States)

    Christensen, K. H.; Breivik, O.; Sutherland, G.; Belcher, S. E.; Gargett, A.

    2016-02-01

    The turbulent Langmuir number combines the water side friction velocity and the surface value of the Stokes drift, and is central to parameterizations of mixing by Langmuir turbulence. Making a direct comparison between such parameterizations and observations is difficult since the surface Stokes drift is sensitive to both the spectral tail and the directional spread of the waves. We propose a new definition for the turbulent Langmuir number based on low order moments of the one-dimensional frequency spectrum, hence eliminating most of the uncertainties associated with the diagnostic spectral tail. Comparison is made between the old and the new definitions using both observed and modeled wave spectra. The new definition has a higher variation around the mean and is better at resolving typical oceanic conditions. In addition, it is backwards compatible with the old definition for monochromatic waves, which means that scalings based on large eddy simulations with monochromatic wave forcing are still valid.

  3. Child-Langmuir flow with periodically varying anode voltage

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Rokhlenko, A.

    2015-01-01

    Using the Lagrangian technique, we study settled Child-Langmuir flows in a one dimensional planar diodes whose anode voltages periodically vary around given positive values. Our goal is to find analytically if the average currents in these systems can exceed the famous Child-Langmuir limit found for the stationary current a long time ago. The main result of our study is that in a periodic quasi-stationary regime the average current can be larger than the Child-Langmuir maximum even by 50% compared with its adiabatic average value. The cathode current in this case has the form of rectangular pulses which are formed by a very special triangular voltage modulation. This regime, i.e., periodicity, shape of pulses, and their amplitude, needs to be carefully chosen for the best performance

  4. Charged particle emission: the Child-Langmuir model

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Degond, P.; Raviart, P.A.

    1993-01-01

    The recent mathematical results concerning boundary emission modelling are reviewed with a synthetical view. The plane diode case is first studied; the Child-Langmuir model is then characterized as the limit to an absolutely non standard singular perturbation problem and is associated with approximate models (constrained and penalized models) which may be easily generalized in more realistic cases; an iterative solution method for the penalized problem is studied. The derived Child-Langmuir model is extended to the cylindrical diode case and to an arbitrary geometry case: constrained and penalized models related to the stationary Vlasov-Poisson equations are studied and extended to the Vlasov-Maxwell evolution equation general case

  5. Calibration of langmuir probes by a microwave method; Etalonnage des sondes de langmuir par une methode hyperfrequence

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Consoli, T [Commissariat a l' Energie Atomique, Saclay (France).Centre d' Etudes Nucleaires

    1960-07-01

    Measurements of the electronic density of a plasma between 10{sup 6} and 10{sup 8} e/cm{sup 3}, made by the Langmuir probe and by resonance frequency shift of a cavity are compared. (author) [French] On compare les mesures de la densite electronique d'un plasma peu dense 10{sup 6} < ne < 10{sup 8} e/cm{sup 3}, par sonde de Langmuir et par glissement de la frequence de resonance d'une cavite contenant le plasma. (auteur)

  6. Simulation of the collapse and dissipation of Langmuir wave packets

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Newman, D.L.; Winglee, R.M.; Robinson, P.A.; Glanz, J.; Goldman, M.V.

    1990-01-01

    The collapse of isolated Langmuir wave packets is studied numerically in two dimensions using both particle-in-cell (PIC) simulations and by integrating the Zakharov partial differential equations (PDE's). The initial state consists of a localized Langmuir wave packet in an ion background that either is uniform or has a profile representative of the density wells in which wave packets form during strong plasma turbulence. Collapse thresholds are determined numerically and compared to analytical estimates. A model in which Langmuir damping is significantly stronger than Landau damping is constructed which, when included in the PDE simulations, yields good agreement with the collapse dynamics observed in PIC simulations for wave packets with initial wave energy densities small compared to the thermal level. For more intense initial Langmuir fields, collapse is arrested in PIC simulations at lower field strengths than in PDE simulations. Neither nonlinear saturation of the density perturbation nor fluid electron nonlinearities can account for the difference between simulation methods in this regime. However, at these wave levels inhomogeneous electron heating and coherent jets of transit-time accelerated electrons in phase space are observed, resulting in further enhancement of wave damping and the consequent reduction of fields in the PIC simulations

  7. Contamination effects on fixed-bias Langmuir probes

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Steigies, C. T. [Institut fuer Experimentelle und Angewandte Physik, Christian-Albrechts-Universitaet zu Kiel, 24098 Kiel (Germany); Barjatya, A. [Department of Physical Sciences, Embry-Riddle Aeronautical University, Daytona Beach, Florida 32114 (United States)

    2012-11-15

    Langmuir probes are standard instruments for plasma density measurements on many sounding rockets. These probes can be operated in swept-bias as well as in fixed-bias modes. In swept-bias Langmuir probes, contamination effects are frequently visible as a hysteresis between consecutive up and down voltage ramps. This hysteresis, if not corrected, leads to poorly determined plasma densities and temperatures. With a properly chosen sweep function, the contamination parameters can be determined from the measurements and correct plasma parameters can then be determined. In this paper, we study the contamination effects on fixed-bias Langmuir probes, where no hysteresis type effect is seen in the data. Even though the contamination is not evident from the measurements, it does affect the plasma density fluctuation spectrum as measured by the fixed-bias Langmuir probe. We model the contamination as a simple resistor-capacitor circuit between the probe surface and the plasma. We find that measurements of small scale plasma fluctuations (meter to sub-meter scale) along a rocket trajectory are not affected, but the measured amplitude of large scale plasma density variation (tens of meters or larger) is attenuated. From the model calculations, we determine amplitude and cross-over frequency of the contamination effect on fixed-bias probes for different contamination parameters. The model results also show that a fixed bias probe operating in the ion-saturation region is affected less by contamination as compared to a fixed bias probe operating in the electron saturation region.

  8. Study of molecular orientations in Langmuir-Blodgett films

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Lesieur, Pierre

    1986-01-01

    This research thesis reports the characterization of Langmuir-Blodgett films by electric paramagnetic resonance and by resonant Raman diffusion in polarized light. Films are made of mixed or alternated multi-layers of amphiphilic porphyrins and docosenoic acid. The author more particularly studied the orientation of porphyrinic macro-cycles with respect to the layer substrate [fr

  9. Self-consistent Langmuir waves in resonantly driven thermal plasmas

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lindberg, R. R.; Charman, A. E.; Wurtele, J. S.

    2007-12-01

    The longitudinal dynamics of a resonantly driven Langmuir wave are analyzed in the limit that the growth of the electrostatic wave is slow compared to the bounce frequency. Using simple physical arguments, the nonlinear distribution function is shown to be nearly invariant in the canonical particle action, provided both a spatially uniform term and higher-order spatial harmonics are included along with the fundamental in the longitudinal electric field. Requirements of self-consistency with the electrostatic potential yield the basic properties of the nonlinear distribution function, including a frequency shift that agrees closely with driven, electrostatic particle simulations over a range of temperatures. This extends earlier work on nonlinear Langmuir waves by Morales and O'Neil [G. J. Morales and T. M. O'Neil, Phys. Rev. Lett. 28, 417 (1972)] and Dewar [R. L. Dewar, Phys. Plasmas 15, 712 (1972)], and could form the basis of a reduced kinetic treatment of plasma dynamics for accelerator applications or Raman backscatter.

  10. Self-consistent Langmuir waves in resonantly driven thermal plasmas

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Lindberg, R. R.; Charman, A. E.; Wurtele, J. S.

    2007-01-01

    The longitudinal dynamics of a resonantly driven Langmuir wave are analyzed in the limit that the growth of the electrostatic wave is slow compared to the bounce frequency. Using simple physical arguments, the nonlinear distribution function is shown to be nearly invariant in the canonical particle action, provided both a spatially uniform term and higher-order spatial harmonics are included along with the fundamental in the longitudinal electric field. Requirements of self-consistency with the electrostatic potential yield the basic properties of the nonlinear distribution function, including a frequency shift that agrees closely with driven, electrostatic particle simulations over a range of temperatures. This extends earlier work on nonlinear Langmuir waves by Morales and O'Neil [G. J. Morales and T. M. O'Neil, Phys. Rev. Lett. 28, 417 (1972)] and Dewar [R. L. Dewar, Phys. Plasmas 15, 712 (1972)], and could form the basis of a reduced kinetic treatment of plasma dynamics for accelerator applications or Raman backscatter

  11. Operation of a Langmuir Probe in a Photoelectron Plasma

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Dove, Adrienne; Robertson, Scott; Horanyi, Mihaly; Poppe, Andrew; Wang Xu

    2011-01-01

    Dust transport on the lunar surface is likely facilitated by the variable electric fields that are generated by changing plasma conditions. We have developed an experimental apparatus to study lunar photoelectric phenomena and gain a better understanding of the conditions controlling dust transport. As an initial step, Langmuir probe measurements are used to characterize the photoelectron plasma produced above a Zr surface, and these techniques will be extended to CeO 2 and lunar simulant surfaces.

  12. Langmuir probe study of plasma expansion in pulsed laser ablation

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Hansen, T.N.; Schou, Jørgen; Lunney, J.G.

    1999-01-01

    Langmuir probes were used to monitor the asymptotic expansion of the plasma produced by the laser ablation of a silver target in a vacuum. The measured angular and temporal distributions of the ion flux and electron temperature were found to be in good agreement with the self-similar isentropic...... and adiabatic solution of the gas dynamics equations describing the expansion. The value of the adiabatic index gamma was about 1.25, consistent with the ablation plume being a low temperature plasma....

  13. Epidemic Intelligence. Langmuir and the Birth of Disease Surveillance

    OpenAIRE

    Lyle Fearnley

    2010-01-01

    In the wake of the SARS and influenza epidemics of the past decade, one public health solution has become a refrain: surveillance systems for detection of disease outbreaks. This paper is an effort to understand how disease surveillance for outbreak detection gained such paramount rationality in contemporary public health. The epidemiologist Alexander Langmuir is well known as the creator of modern disease surveillance. But less well known is how he imagined disease surveillance as one part o...

  14. Solitary Langmuir waves in two-electron temperature plasma

    Science.gov (United States)

    Prudkikh, V. V.; Prudkikh

    2014-06-01

    Nonlinear interaction of Langmuir and ion-acoustic waves in two-electron temperature plasma is investigated. New integrable wave interaction regime was discovered, this regime corresponds to the Langmuir soliton with three-hump amplitude, propagating with a speed close to the ion-sound speed in the conditions of strong non-isothermality of electronic components. It was discovered that besides the known analytical solution in the form of one- and two-hump waves, there exists a range of solutions in the form of solitary waves, which in the form of envelope has multi-peak structure and differs from the standard profiles described by hyperbolic functions. In case of fixed plasma parameters, different group velocities correspond to the waves with different number of peaks. It is found that the Langmuir wave package contains both even and uneven numbers of oscillations. Low-frequency potential here has uneven number of peaks. Interrelation of obtained and known earlier results are also discussed.

  15. Langmuir-Blodgett films of molecular organic materials

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Talham, Daniel R; Yamamoto, Takashi; Meisel, Mark W

    2008-01-01

    Langmuir-Blodgett methods are perhaps the original approach for achieving controlled deposition of organic thin films. Molecules are first organized into a monolayer array on the surface of water before transfer as a monolayer onto solid supports. Molecular monolayers, multilayers, and multilayered heterostructures can be achieved. The capability of exercising such control over thin film assemblies has attracted materials chemists and physicists to develop Langmuir-Blodgett films for studies on organic conductors, magnets, non-linear optics, rectifiers, and intermolecular electron transfer. This article reviews objectives in each of these areas and selects some specific examples from the literature to highlight the state of the art, mostly from the point of view of the chemical systems that are studied. Mixed organic/inorganic hybrid films represent a new direction for Langmuir-Blodgett films in materials science, combining conventional inorganic solid-state phenomena with the properties of the organic networks, and recent examples, taken principally from the authors' work, are highlighted

  16. Epidemic Intelligence. Langmuir and the Birth of Disease Surveillance

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Lyle Fearnley

    2010-12-01

    Full Text Available In the wake of the SARS and influenza epidemics of the past decade, one public health solution has become a refrain: surveillance systems for detection of disease outbreaks. This paper is an effort to understand how disease surveillance for outbreak detection gained such paramount rationality in contemporary public health. The epidemiologist Alexander Langmuir is well known as the creator of modern disease surveillance. But less well known is how he imagined disease surveillance as one part of what he called “epidemic intelligence.” Langmuir developed the practice of disease surveillance during an unprecedented moment in which the threat of biological warfare brought civil defense experts and epidemiologists together around a common problem. In this paper, I describe how Langmuir navigated this world, experimenting with new techniques and rationales of epidemic control. Ultimately, I argue, Langmuir′s experiments resulted in a set of techniques and infrastructures – a system of epidemic intelligence – that transformed the epidemic as an object of human art.

  17. Scattering, Adsorption, and Langmuir-Hinshelwood Desorption Models for Physisorptive and Chemisorptive Gas-Surface Systems

    Science.gov (United States)

    2013-09-01

    quantum effects by incorporating Zero- Point Energy ( ZPE ) in the initial conditions [19; 108]. Desorption calculations, in order to be incorporated...TST Transition State Theory TTPD Threshold Temperature-Programmed Desorption UHV Ultra-High Vacuum XHV Extreme-High Vacuum ZPE Zero-Point Energy 141

  18. Thermionic phenomena the collected works of Irving Langmuir

    CERN Document Server

    Suits, C Guy

    1961-01-01

    Thermionic Phenomena is the third volume of the series entitled The Collected Works of Irving Langmuir. This volume compiles articles written during the 1920's and early 1930's, the period when the science of thermionics is beginning to be of importance. This text is divided into two parts. The first part discusses vacuum pumps, specifically examining the effect of space charge and residual gases on thermionic currents in high vacuum. This part also explains fundamental phenomena in electron tubes having tungsten cathodes and the use of high-power vacuum tubes. The second part of this text loo

  19. Study of a Laser-Produced Plasma by Langmuir Probes

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Chang, C. T.; Hasimi, M.; Pant, H. C.

    1977-01-01

    -emission peak and the main plasma from the target. The flow velocity, density and electron temperature of the plasma were determined. The expansion of the plasma was found to be adiabatic, yielding gamma =5/3. The spatial distribution of the plasma was observed to be strongly anisotropic.......The structure, the parameters and the expansion of the plasma produced by focusing a 7 J, 20 ns Nd-glass laser on stainless-steel and glass targets suspended in a high-vacuum chamber were investigated by Langmuir probes. It was observed that the probe signals consisted of a photoelectric...

  20. Spreading dynamics of 2D dipolar Langmuir monolayer phases.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Heinig, P; Wurlitzer, S; Fischer, Th M

    2004-07-01

    We study the spreading of a liquid 2D dipolar droplet in a Langmuir monolayer. Interfacial tensions (line tensions) and microscopic contact angles depend on the scale on which they are probed and obey a scaling law. Assuming rapid equilibration of the microscopic contact angle and ideal slippage of the 2D solid/liquid and solid/gas boundary, the driving force of spreading is merely expressed by the shape-dependent long-range interaction integrals. We obtain good agreement between experiment and numerical simulations using this theory.

  1. Self-similar Langmuir collapse at critical dimension

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Berge, L.; Dousseau, Ph.; Pelletier, G.; Pesme, D.

    1991-01-01

    Two spherically symmetric versions of a self-similar collapse are investigated within the framework of the Zakharov equations, namely, one relative to a vectorial electric field and the other corresponding to a scalar modeling of the Langmuir field. Singular solutions of both of them depend on a linear time contraction rate ξ(t) = V(t * -t), where t * and V = -ξ denote, respectively, the collapse time and the constant collapse velocity. It is shown that under certain conditions, only the scalar model admits self-similar solutions, varying regularly as a function of the control parameter V from the subsonic (V >1) regime. (author)

  2. Designs of Langmuir probes for W7-X

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Laube, Ralph; Laux, Michael; Ye, Min You; Greuner, Henri; Lindig, Stefan

    2011-01-01

    Several designs of Langmuir probes for the stellarator Wendelstein 7-X (W7-X) are described. Different types of probes are proposed for the different divertors to be used during different operational phases of W7-X. Comb-like arrays of stiff probes, arrays of flexible probes, and fixed inlay probes are reviewed. For the initial phase of W7-X it was decided to install arrays of fixed inlay probes. Two mockups were manufactured and one of them was tested with success in the high heat flux test facility GLADIS. For long-pulse operation of W7-X different conceptual designs are proposed and are still developed further. This paper summarizes the different design constrains for the Langmuir probes in the different divertor surroundings, describes the design of the array of inlay probes for the initial phase and the result of the GLADIS test, and gives a preview of the conceptual designs of probes for the long-pulse operational phase of W7-X.

  3. Protonation of octadecylamine Langmuir monolayer by adsorption of halide counterions

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sung, Woongmo; Avazbaeva, Zaure; Lee, Jonggwan; Kim, Doseok

    Langmuir monolayer consisting of octadecylamine (C18H37NH2, ODA) was investigated by heterodyne vibrational sum-frequency generation (HD-VSFG) spectroscopy in conjunction with surface pressure-area (π- A) isotherm, and the result was compared with that from cationic-lipid (DPTAP) Langmuir monolayer. In case of ODA monolayer on pure water, both SF intensity of water OH band and the surface pressure were significantly smaller than those of the DPTAP monolayer implying that only small portion of the amine groups (-NH3+ is protonated in the monolayer. In the presence of sodium halides (NaCl and NaI) in the subphase water, it was found that the sign of Imχ (2) of water OH band remained the same as that of the ODA monolayer on pure water, but there was a substantial increase in the SF amplitude. From this, we propose that surface excess of the halide counterions (Cl- and I-) makes the solution condition near the ODA monolayer/water interface more acidic so that ODA molecules in the monolayer are more positively charged, which works to align the water dipoles at the interface.

  4. Photo-induced travelling waves in condensed Langmuir monolayers

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Tabe, Y [Yokoyama Nano-Structured Liquid Crystal Project, ERATO, Japan Science and Technology Corporation, 5-9-9 Tokodai, Tsukuba, Ibaraki 300-2635, Japan (Japan); Yamamoto, T [Yokoyama Nano-Structured Liquid Crystal Project, ERATO, Japan Science and Technology Corporation, 5-9-9 Tokodai, Tsukuba, Ibaraki 300-2635, Japan (Japan); Yokoyama, H [Yokoyama Nano-Structured Liquid Crystal Project, ERATO, Japan Science and Technology Corporation, 5-9-9 Tokodai, Tsukuba, Ibaraki 300-2635, Japan (Japan)

    2003-06-01

    We report the detailed properties of photo-induced travelling waves in liquid crystalline Langmuir monolayers composed of azobenzene derivatives. When the monolayer, in which the constituent rodlike molecules are coherently tilted from the layer normal, is weakly illuminated to undergo the trans-cis photo-isomerization, spatio-temporal periodic oscillations of the molecular azimuth begin over the entire excited area and propagate as a two-dimensional orientational wave. The wave formation takes place only when the film is formed at an asymmetric interface with broken up-down symmetry and when the chromophores are continuously excited near the long-wavelength edge of absorption to induce repeated photo-isomerizations between the trans and cis forms. Under proper illumination conditions, Langmuir monolayers composed of a wide variety of azobenzene derivatives have been confirmed to exhibit similar travelling waves with velocity proportional to the excitation power irrespective of the degree of amphiphilicity. The dynamics can be qualitatively explained by the modified reaction-diffusion model proposed by Reigada, Sagues and Mikhailov.

  5. Plasma potential and electron temperature evaluated by ball-pen and Langmuir probes in the COMPASS tokamak

    Science.gov (United States)

    Dimitrova, M.; Popov, Tsv K.; Adamek, J.; Kovačič, J.; Ivanova, P.; Hasan, E.; López-Bruna, D.; Seidl, J.; Vondráček, P.; Dejarnac, R.; Stöckel, J.; Imríšek, M.; Panek, R.; the COMPASS Team

    2017-12-01

    The radial distributions of the main plasma parameters in the scrape-off-layer of the COMPASS tokamak are measured during L-mode and H-mode regimes by using both Langmuir and ball-pen probes mounted on a horizontal reciprocating manipulator. The radial profile of the plasma potential derived previously from Langmuir probes data by using the first derivative probe technique is compared with data derived using ball-pen probes. A good agreement can be seen between the data acquired by the two techniques during the L-mode discharge and during the H-mode regime within the inter-ELM periods. In contrast with the first derivative probe technique, the ball-pen probe technique does not require a swept voltage and, therefore, the temporal resolution is only limited by the data acquisition system. In the electron temperature evaluation, in the far scrape-off layer and in the limiter shadow, where the electron energy distribution is Maxwellian, the results from both techniques match well. In the vicinity of the last closed flux surface, where the electron energy distribution function is bi-Maxwellian, the ball-pen probe technique results are in agreement with the high-temperature components of the electron distribution only. We also discuss the application of relatively large Langmuir probes placed in parallel and perpendicularly to the magnetic field lines to studying the main plasma parameters. The results obtained by the two types of the large probes agree well. They are compared with Thomson scattering data for electron temperatures and densities. The results for the electron densities are compared also with the results from ASTRA code calculation of the electron source due to the ionization of the neutrals by fast electrons and the origin of the bi-Maxwellian electron energy distribution function is briefly discussed.

  6. Photo-switching of a non-ionic azobenzene amphiphile in Langmuir and Langmuir-Blodgett films.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Piosik, Emilia; Kotkowiak, Michał; Korbecka, Izabela; Galewski, Zbigniew; Martyński, Tomasz

    2017-08-30

    The concept of programmable and reconfigurable soft matter has emerged in science in the last few decades and can be realized by photoisomerization of azobenzene derivatives. This possibility results in great application potential of these compounds in optical storage devices, molecular junctions of electronic devices, command layers of liquid crystal displays or holographic gratings. In this paper, we present the results of a study on the organization and isomerization of the non-ionic and amphiphilic methyl 4-[(E)-2-[4-(nonyloxy)phenyl]diazen-1-yl]benzoate (LCA) in a 2D layer architecture of Langmuir and Langmuir-Blodgett (LB) films supported by spectroscopic studies on LCA chloroform solutions. Our investigation has shown a significantly different molecular organization of LCA depending on the ratio of trans and cis isomers in the monolayers. Taking advantage of a relatively low packing density and aggregation strength in the cis-LCA monolayer, we demonstrated the reversible isomerization in the LB film initially formed of LCA molecules in the cis form, while in the trans-LCA monolayer this effect was not observed. Our approach allows the formation of a switchable monolayer made of the amphiphilic LCA showing liquid crystalline properties without introducing an ionic group into the molecule structure, mixing with another compound or changing the subphase pH to provide free space for the molecules' isomerization.

  7. Behavior of Triple Langmuir Probes in Non-Equilibrium Plasmas

    Science.gov (United States)

    Polzin, Kurt A.; Ratcliffe, Alicia C.

    2018-01-01

    The triple Langmuir probe is an electrostatic probe in which three probe tips collect current when inserted into a plasma. The triple probe differs from a simple single Langmuir probe in the nature of the voltage applied to the probe tips. In the single probe, a swept voltage is applied to the probe tip to acquire a waveform showing the collected current as a function of applied voltage (I-V curve). In a triple probe three probe tips are electrically coupled to each other with constant voltages applied between each of the tips. The voltages are selected such that they would represent three points on the single Langmuir probe I-V curve. Elimination of the voltage sweep makes it possible to measure time-varying plasma properties in transient plasmas. Under the assumption of a Maxwellian plasma, one can determine the time-varying plasma temperature T(sub e)(t) and number density n(sub e)(t) from the applied voltage levels and the time-histories of the collected currents. In the present paper we examine the theory of triple probe operation, specifically focusing on the assumption of a Maxwellian plasma. Triple probe measurements have been widely employed for a number of pulsed and timevarying plasmas, including pulsed plasma thrusters (PPTs), dense plasma focus devices, plasma flows, and fusion experiments. While the equilibrium assumption may be justified for some applications, it is unlikely that it is fully justifiable for all pulsed and time-varying plasmas or for all times during the pulse of a plasma device. To examine a simple non-equilibrium plasma case, we return to basic governing equations of probe current collection and compute the current to the probes for a distribution function consisting of two Maxwellian distributions with different temperatures (the two-temperature Maxwellian). A variation of this method is also employed, where one of the Maxwellians is offset from zero (in velocity space) to add a suprathermal beam of electrons to the tail of the

  8. Langmuir-like waves and radiation in planetary foreshocks

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cairns, Iver H.; Robinson, P. A.; Anderson, R. R.; Gurnett, D. A.; Kurth, W. S.

    1995-01-01

    The basic objectives of this NASA Grant are to develop theoretical understandings (tested with spacecraft data) of the generation and characteristics of electron plasma waves, commonly known as Langmuir-like waves, and associated radiation near f(sub p) and 2f(sub p) in planetary foreshocks. (Here f(sub p) is plasma frequency.) Related waves and radiation in the source regions of interplanetary type III solar radio bursts provide a simpler observational and theoretical context for developing and testing such understandings. Accordingly, applications to type III bursts constitute a significant fraction of the research effort. The testing of the new Stochastic Growth Theory (SGT) for type III bursts, and its extension and testing for foreshock waves and radiation, constitutes a major longterm strategic goal of the research effort.

  9. On bistable states retention in ferroelectric Langmuir-Blodgett films

    Science.gov (United States)

    Geivandov, A. R.; Palto, S. P.; Yudin, S. G.; Fridkin, V. M.; Blinov, L. M.; Ducharme, S.

    2003-08-01

    A new insight into the nature of ferroelectricity is emerging from the study of ultra-thin ferroelectric films prepared of poly(vinylidene fluoride with trifluoroethylene) copolymer using Langmuir-Blodgett (LB) technique. Unique properties of these films indicate the existence of two-dimensional ferroelectricity. The retention of two polarized states in ferroelectric polymer LB films is studied using nonlinear dielectric spectroscopy. The technique is based on phase sensitive measurements of nonlinear dielectric spectroscopy. The amplitude of the current response at the 2nd harmonic of the applied voltage is proportional to the magnitude of the remnant polarization, while its phase gives the sign. We have found that 10 - 20 mm thick LB films can show fast switching time and long retention of the two polarized states. Nevertheless, LB films show a pronounced asymmetry in switching to the opposite states. Possible mechanisms of such behavior are discussed.

  10. Langmuir probe characteristic in a current - carrying magnetized plasma

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Stanojevic, M.; Cercek, M.; Gyergyek, T.

    1995-01-01

    Experimental investigation of the Langmuir probe characteristic is a magnetized plasma with an electron current along the magnetic field direction shows that the standard procedure for determination of the electron temperature and plasma density, which is applicable in a current - free magnetized plasma, gives erroneous results for these plasma parameters. However, more precise values of the plasma parameters can be calculated from the ion saturation currents and electron temperatures obtained with that procedure for two opposite orientations of the one - sided planar probe collecting surface with respect to the direction of the electron drift. With the existing theoretical models only the order of magnitude of the electron drift velocity can be accurately determined from the measured electron saturation currents for the two probe orientations. (author)

  11. Studies of lipid interactions in mixed Langmuir monolayers

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Gzyl-Malcher, Barbara [Department of Physical Chemistry and Electrochemistry, Faculty of Chemistry, Jagiellonian University, Ingardena 3, 30-060 Krakow (Poland)], E-mail: gzyl@chemia.uj.edu.pl; Paluch, Maria [Department of Physical Chemistry and Electrochemistry, Faculty of Chemistry, Jagiellonian University, Ingardena 3, 30-060 Krakow (Poland)

    2008-10-31

    The mixed monolayers of dipalmitoyl phosphatidylcholine (DPPC) with 3-monopalmitoyl glycerol (PG) and palmitic acid 4-methylumbelliferyl ester (4-MU) were compared. Relevant thermodynamic parameters such as excess area ({delta}A{sup E}) and excess free energy of mixing ({delta}G{sub mix}{sup E}) were derived from the surface pressure data obtained from compression measurements performed in a Langmuir trough. Generally, DPPC formed more condensed monolayers with PG and greater negative values of {delta}A{sup E} and {delta}G{sub mix}{sup E} were observed for DPPC/PG system than for DPPC/4-MU one. The positive values of the excess free entropy of mixing ({delta}S{sub mix}{sup E}) were calculated for DPPC/4-MU system at lower temperatures and for DPPC/PG system at higher temperatures.

  12. Langmuir waveforms at interplanetary shocks: STEREO statistical analysis

    Science.gov (United States)

    Briand, C.

    2016-12-01

    Wave-particle interactions and particle acceleration are the two main processes allowing energy dissipation at non collisional shocks. Ion acceleration has been deeply studied for many years, also for their central role in the shock front reformation. Electron dynamics is also important in the shock dynamics through the instabilities they can generate which may impact the ion dynamics.Particle measurements can be efficiently completed by wave measurements to determine the characteristics of the electron beams and study the turbulence of the medium. Electric waveforms obtained from the S/WAVES instrument of the STEREO mission between 2007 to 2014 are analyzed. Thus, clear signature of Langmuir waves are observed on 41 interplanetary shocks. These data enable a statistical analysis and to deduce some characteristics of the electron dynamics on different shocks sources (SIR or ICME) and types (quasi-perpendicular or quasi-parallel). The conversion process between electrostatic to electromagnetic waves has also been tested in several cases.

  13. Collisional damping of Langmuir waves in the collisionless limit

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Auerbach, S.P.

    1977-01-01

    Linear Langmuir wave damping by collisions is studied in the limit of collision frequency ν approaching zero. In this limit, collisions are negligible, except in a region in velocity space, the boundary layer, centered about the phase velocity. If kappa, the ratio of the collisional equilibration time in the boundary layer to the Landau damping time, is small, the boundary layer width scales as ν/sup 1/3/, and the perturbed distribution function scales as ν/sup -1/3/. The damping rate is thus independent of ν, although essentially all the damping occurs in the collision-dominated boundary layer. Solution of the Fokker--Planck equation shows that the damping rate is precisely the Landau (collisionless) rate. The damping rate is independent of kappa, although the boundary layer thickness is not

  14. Stability of the Tonks–Langmuir discharge pre-sheath

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Tskhakaya, D. D. [Fusion@ÖAW, Institute of Applied Physics, TU Wien, Wiedner Hauptstraße 8-10, 1040 Vienna (Austria); Kos, L. [LECAD Laboratory, Faculty of Mechanical Engineering, University of Ljubljana, SI-1000 Ljubljana (Slovenia); Tskhakaya, D. [Fusion@ÖAW, Institute of Applied Physics, TU Wien, Wiedner Hauptstraße 8-10, 1040 Vienna (Austria); Institute for Theoretical Physics, University of Innsbruck, A-6020 Innsbruck (Austria)

    2016-03-15

    The article formulates the stability problem of the plasma sheath in the Tonks–Langmuir discharge. Using the kinetic description of the ion gas, i.e., the stability of the potential shape in the quasi-neutral pre-sheath regarding the high and low frequency, the perturbations are investigated. The electrons are assumed to be Maxwell–Boltzmann distributed. Regarding high-frequency perturbations, the pre-sheath is shown to be stable. The stability problem regarding low-frequency perturbations can be reduced to an analysis of the “diffusion like” equation, which results in the instability of the potential distribution in the pre-sheath. By means of the Particle in Cell simulations, also the nonlinear stage of low frequency oscillations is investigated. Comparing the figure obtained with the figure for linear stage, one can find obvious similarity in the spatial-temporal behavior of the potential.

  15. Estudo de filmes de Langmuir e Langmuir-Blodgett de aminas anfifílicas utilizando a espectroscopia SFG

    OpenAIRE

    Thiers Massami Uehara

    2010-01-01

    O estudo da interação de moléculas orgânicas com a água é de grande importância para diversas áreas das ciências, como por exemplo, na compreensão de sistemas biológicos. Uma elevada diversidade de estudos nesta área já foram realizados, no entanto, alguns aspectos do estudo de filmes finos de aminas anfifílicas não foram satisfatoriamente esclarecidos. Este trabalho aborda filmes de Langmuir de octadecilamina em função do pH e da força iônica de subfases aquosas, investigando a estrutura d...

  16. Relativistic effects on large amplitude nonlinear Langmuir waves in a two-fluid plasma

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Nejoh, Yasunori

    1994-07-01

    Large amplitude relativistic nonlinear Langmuir waves are analyzed by the pseudo-potential method. The existence conditions for nonlinear Langmuir waves are confirmed by considering relativistic high-speed electrons in a two-fluid plasma. The significant feature of this investigation is that the propagation of nonlinear Langmuir waves depends on the ratio of the electron streaming velocity to the velocity of light, the normalized potential and the ion mass to electron mass ratio. The constant energy is determined by the specific range of the relativistic effect. In the non-relativistic limit, large amplitude relativistic Langmuir waves do not exist. The present investigation predicts new findings of large amplitude nonlinear Langmuir waves in space plasma phenomena in which relativistic electrons are important. (author)

  17. Concerning the electromagnetic radiation spectrum of a hot plasma with Langmuir turbulence in a magnetic field

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Tirsky, V.V.; Ledenev, V.G.; Tomozov, V.M.

    2001-01-01

    We consider the process of generation of electromagnetic waves as a consequence of the merging of two Langmuir plasmons. The case of a hot plasma in a magnetic field is investigated. It is shown that under such conditions the frequency of Langmuir plasmons can vary over the range from 0.8 to 1.1 of the Langmuir frequency of electrons. The spectrum and polarization of electromagnetic radiation are analyzed. It is shown that allowance for the thermal motion of plasma particles under the conditions involved permits electromagnetic waves in the range from 1.6 to 2.2 of the Langmuir frequency of electrons to be generated. The degree of circular polarization of the radiation can reach 50% even in the case of an isotropic spectrum of Langmuir turbulence. (orig.)

  18. Nonlinear dynamics of resonant electrons interacting with coherent Langmuir waves

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tobita, Miwa; Omura, Yoshiharu

    2018-03-01

    We study the nonlinear dynamics of resonant particles interacting with coherent waves in space plasmas. Magnetospheric plasma waves such as whistler-mode chorus, electromagnetic ion cyclotron waves, and hiss emissions contain coherent wave structures with various discrete frequencies. Although these waves are electromagnetic, their interaction with resonant particles can be approximated by equations of motion for a charged particle in a one-dimensional electrostatic wave. The equations are expressed in the form of nonlinear pendulum equations. We perform test particle simulations of electrons in an electrostatic model with Langmuir waves and a non-oscillatory electric field. We solve equations of motion and study the dynamics of particles with different values of inhomogeneity factor S defined as a ratio of the non-oscillatory electric field intensity to the wave amplitude. The simulation results demonstrate deceleration/acceleration, thermalization, and trapping of particles through resonance with a single wave, two waves, and multiple waves. For two-wave and multiple-wave cases, we describe the wave-particle interaction as either coherent or incoherent based on the probability of nonlinear trapping.

  19. The structure of organic langmuir films on liquid metal surfaces

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Kraack, H.; Deutsch, M.; Ocko, B.M.; Pershan, P.S.

    2003-01-01

    Langmuir films (LFs) on water have long been studied for their interest for basic science and their numerous applications in chemistry, physics, materials science and biology. We present here A-resolution synchrotron X-ray studies of the structure of stearic acid LFs on a liquid mercury surface. At low coverage, ≥110 A 2 /mol, a 2D gas phase of flat-lying molecules is observed. At high coverage, ≤23 A 2 /mol, two different hexatic phases of standing-up molecules are observed. At intermediate coverage, 52≤A≤110 A 2 /mol, novel single- and double-layered phases of flat-lying molecular dimers are found, exhibiting a 1D in-layer order. Such flat-lying phases were not hitherto observed in any LF. Measurements on LFs of fatty acids of other chain lengths indicate that this structure is generic to chain molecules on mercury, although the existence of some of the flat-lying phases, and the observed phase sequence, depend on the chain length. Organic LFs on Hg, and in particular the new flat-lying phases, should provide a broader nano-structural tunability range for molecular electronic device construction than most solid-supported self-assembled monolayers used at present

  20. Tonks-Langmuir problem for a bi-Maxwellian plasma

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Godyak, V.A.; Meytlis, V.P.; Strauss, H.R.

    1995-01-01

    An analytical solution of the Tonks-Langmuir (T-L) problem with a bi-Maxwellian electron energy distribution function (EEDF) is obtained for a plasma slab. The solution shows that the ambipolar potential, the plasma density distribution, and the ion flux to the wall are mainly governed by the cold electrons, while the ionization rate and voltage drop across the wall sheath are governed by the hot electrons. The ionization rate by direct electron impact is found to be spatially rather uniform, contrary to the T-L solution where it is proportional to the plasma density distribution. The temperature of hot electrons defined by the ionization balance is found to be close to that of the T-L solution for a mono-Maxwellian EEDF, and is in reasonable agreement with experiments carried out in a low pressure capacitance RF discharge. The energy balance for cold electrons in this discharge shows that their heating by hot electrons via Coulomb interaction is equalized by the cold electrons' escape to the RF electrodes during collapse of the RF sheath

  1. Photopatterning of heterostructured polymer Langmuir-Blodgett films

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Li Tiesheng; Mitsuishi, Masaya; Miyashita, Tokuji

    2008-01-01

    Heterostructured polymer Langmuir-Blodgett (LB) film prepared by using poly(N-dodecylacrylamide-co-t-butyl 4-vinylphenyl carbonate) (p(DDA-tBVPC53)) and poly(N-neopentyl methacrylamide-co-9-anthrylmethyl methacrylate) (p(nPMA-AMMA10)) polymer LB films which can act as photogenerator layers were investigated. Patterns with a resolution of 0.75 μm were obtained on heterostructured polymer LB films composed of 4 layers of p(nPMA-AMMA10) LB film (top layers) and 40 layers of p(DDA-tBVPC53) LB film (under layers) on a silicon wafer by deep UV irradiation followed by development with 1% tetramethylammonium hydroxide aqueous solution. The sensitivity of the heterostructured polymer LB films was improved without loss of the resolution compared with p(DDA-tBVPC53) LB film. The etch resistance of the heterostructured polymer LB films was sufficiently good to allow patterning of a copper film suitable for photomask fabrication

  2. Langmuir instability in partially spin polarized bounded degenerate plasma

    Science.gov (United States)

    Iqbal, Z.; Jamil, M.; Murtaza, G.

    2018-04-01

    Some new features of waves inside the cylindrical waveguide on employing the separated spin evolution quantum hydrodynamic model are evoked. Primarily, the instability of Langmuir wave due to the electron beam in a partially spin polarized degenerate plasma considering a nano-cylindrical geometry is discussed. Besides, the evolution of a new spin-dependent wave (spin electron acoustic wave) due to electron spin polarization effects in the real wave spectrum is elaborated. Analyzing the growth rate, it is found that in the absence of Bohm potential, the electron spin effects or exchange interaction reduce the growth rate as well as k-domain but the inclusion of Bohm potential increases both the growth rate and k-domain. Further, we investigate the geometry effects expressed by R and pon and find that they have opposite effects on the growth rate and k-domain of the instability. Additionally, how the other parameters like electron beam density or streaming speed of beam electrons influence the growth rate is also investigated. This study may find its applications for the signal analysis in solid state devices at nanoscales.

  3. Magnetic volcanos in gadolinium Langmuir-Blodgett films

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Tishin, A.M. E-mail: amt@mailaps.org; Snigirev, O.V.; Khomutov, G.B.; Gudoshnikov, S.A.; Bohr, J

    2001-09-01

    Magnetic, structural and electronic properties of Langmuir-Blodgett films with incorporated Gd{sup 3+} ions has been detected using a scanning DC SQUID microscope, scanning electron microscope and X-ray diffraction. The magnetic images of 28 and 50 layer thick films at 77 K have been obtained after in-plane and out-of-plane pre-magnetization in a field of 1.4 T at 300 K. Randomly placed 'magnetic volcanos' with a remanent magnetic moment of the order of 10{sup -13} A m{sup 2} was observed. A decay of the remanent magnetization with a characteristic time of about 120 h was observed. It is suggested that the magnetic order is relatively long ranged, and that topological defects (vortices) lead to the observed out-of-plane field lines, and are responsible for the magnetic volcanos. Finally, it is hypothesized that a similar topology of field lines is responsible for superconductivity as observed in ceramic high-T{sub C} superconductors.

  4. Study of magnetic materials in Langmuir-Blodgett films

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Coronel, Philippe

    1990-01-01

    As one of the key issue in molecular electronics is the fabrication of organised systems with specific properties born by molecules, one of these properties being the possibility of information storage, this research thesis reports an exploratory study based on the development of a magnetic complex in a two-dimensional organisation in order to obtain a molecular magnetic memory. For this purpose, the chosen property for the complex was the molecular bi-stability which is a characteristic of magnetic materials which display a spin transition phenomenon. Two types of complex families have been studied: [(Phenanthroline)_2Fe'' (NCS)_2] and [Fe''' (8-quinolyl-salicyl-aldimine)_2](X''). The fabrication of a two-dimensional organised system is performed by using the Langmuir-Blodgett technique. With this technique, three synthesis ways are considered: an in-situ synthesis, a semi-amphiphilic way, and an amphiphilic way. Within this research, the author tried to see whether the existence of 3D (powder) spin transition phenomenon was transposable in 2D (case of a LB film) [fr

  5. Interaction between counter-streaming ion-acoustic solitons and the Langmuir waves

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Basovich, A.Ya.; Gromov, E.M.; Talanov, V.I.

    1984-01-01

    The interaction between strong counter-streaming ion-acoustic solitons and the Langmuir waves is considered. At first the Langmuir waves spectrum transformation by counter-streaming ion-acoustic solutions of a preset amplitude e has been found. An increase in the frequency and number of the Langmuir waves due to the Doppler effect in the course of multiple reflection from the f front soliton slope has been determined and the wave number range in which the confinement of the Langmuir waves by counter-streaning solitons is possible has s been found. It is shown that the time of the Langmuir wave transformation into the short-wave region under the effect of the counter-streaming soliton may y be short as compared with the time of the Langmuir wave diffusion into the Landau damping region under the effect of random fields of ion-acoustic waves. In the adiabatic fpproximation changes in the counter-streaming ion acoustic parameters of solitons owing to the Langmuir waves have been

  6. Surface chemistry of lipid raft and amyloid Aβ (1-40) Langmuir monolayer.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Thakur, Garima; Pao, Christine; Micic, Miodrag; Johnson, Sheba; Leblanc, Roger M

    2011-10-15

    Lipid rafts being rich in cholesterol and sphingolipids are considered to provide ordered lipid environment in the neuronal membranes, where it is hypothesized that the cleavage of amyloid precursor protein (APP) to Aβ (1-40) and Aβ (1-42) takes place. It is highly likely that the interaction of lipid raft components like cholesterol, sphingomylein or GM1 leads to nucleation of Aβ and results in aggregation or accumulation of amyloid plaques. One has investigated surface pressure-area isotherms of the lipid raft and Aβ (1-40) Langmuir monolayer. The compression-decompression cycles and the stability of the lipid raft Langmuir monolayer are crucial parameters for the investigation of interaction of Aβ (1-40) with the lipid raft Langmuir monolayer. It was revealed that GM1 provides instability to the lipid raft Langmuir monolayer. Adsorption of Aβ (1-40) onto the lipid raft Langmuir monolayer containing neutral (POPC) or negatively charged phospholipid (DPPG) was examined. The adsorption isotherms revealed that the concentration of cholesterol was important for adsorption of Aβ (1-40) onto the lipid raft Langmuir monolayer containing POPC whereas for the lipid raft Langmuir monolayer containing DPPG:cholesterol or GM1 did not play any role. In situ UV-vis absorption spectroscopy supported the interpretation of results for the adsorption isotherms. Copyright © 2011 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  7. Quasiresonant scattering

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Hategan, Cornel; Comisel, Horia; Ionescu, Remus A.

    2004-01-01

    The quasiresonant scattering consists from a single channel resonance coupled by direct interaction transitions to some competing reaction channels. A description of quasiresonant Scattering, in terms of generalized reduced K-, R- and S- Matrix, is developed in this work. The quasiresonance's decay width is, due to channels coupling, smaller than the width of the ancestral single channel resonance (resonance's direct compression). (author)

  8. Thomson Scattering

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Donne, A. J. H.

    1994-01-01

    Thomson scattering is a very powerful diagnostic which is applied at nearly every magnetic confinement device. Depending on the experimental conditions different plasma parameters can be diagnosed. When the wave vector is much larger than the plasma Debye length, the total scattered power is

  9. Langmuir wave phase-mixing in warm electron-positron-dusty plasmas

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pramanik, Sourav; Maity, Chandan

    2018-04-01

    An analytical study on nonlinear evolution of Langmuir waves in warm electron-positron-dusty plasmas is presented. The massive dust grains of either positively or negatively charged are assumed to form a fixed charge neutralizing background. A perturbative analysis of the fluid-Maxwell's equations confirms that the excited Langmuir waves phase-mix and eventually break, even at arbitrarily low amplitudes. It is shown that the nature of the dust-charge as well as the amount of dust grains can significantly influence the Langmuir wave phase-mixing process. The phase-mixing time is also found to increase with the temperature.

  10. Calixarene Langmuir-Blodgett Thin Films For Volatile Organic Compounds

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Capan, R.

    2010-01-01

    Volatile Organic Compounds (VOC's) such as benzene, toluene, chloroform are chemicals that evaporate easily at room temperature and create many health effects on young children, elderly and a person with heightened sensitivity to chemicals. Concentrations of many VOC's are consistently higher indoors (up to ten times higher) than outdoors because many household products (for example paints, varnishes, many cleaning, disinfecting, cosmetic, degreasing, hobby products etc.) contains VOC's. Some effects of VOC's for human beings can be followed as the eye, nose, and throat irritations; headaches, loss of coordination, nausea; damage to liver, kidneys, and central nervous system. These are big incentives for the development of portable, user-friendly VOC's sensors and for the investigation of the sensing properties of new materials to be prepared as a thin film sensing element. Langmuir-Blodgett (LB) ultra-thin film technique allows us to produce monolayer or multilayer organic thin films that can be used as chemical sensing elements.In this work, materials known as the calix[n]arene are investigated for the production of sensing material against several VOC's such as the chloroform, benzene, ethylbenzene and toluene by using LB thin film techniques. UV-visible, Quartz Crystal Microbalance (QCM) system and Surface Plasmon Resonance (SPR) measurement techniques are used to check the quality of the deposition process onto a solid substrate. Surface morphology and sensing properties of the final sensing layers are then studied by Atomic Force Microscopy (AFM) and SPR techniques. Our results indicated that selected calixarene materials are sensitive enough and quite suitable to fabricate a highly ordered, reproducible and uniform LB film that can be used as a very thin sensing layer against VOC's.

  11. Polycyclic aromatic hydrocarbons in model bacterial membranes - Langmuir monolayer studies.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Broniatowski, Marcin; Binczycka, Martyna; Wójcik, Aneta; Flasiński, Michał; Wydro, Paweł

    2017-12-01

    High molecular weight polycyclic aromatic hydrocarbons (HMW-PAHs) are persistent organic pollutants which due to their limited biodegradability accumulate in soils where their increased presence can lead to the impoverishment of the decomposer organisms. As very hydrophobic PAHs easily penetrate cellular membranes of soil bacteria and can be incorporated therein, changing the membrane fluidity and other functions which in consequence can lead to the death of the organism. The structure and size of PAH molecule can be crucial for its membrane activity; however the correlation between PAH structure and its interaction with phospholipids have not been investigated so far. In our studies we applied phospholipid Langmuir monolayers as model bacterial membranes and investigated how the incorporation of six structurally different PAH molecules change the membrane texture and physical properties. In our studies we registered surface pressure and surface potential isotherms upon the monolayer compression, visualized the monolayer texture with the application of Brewster angle microscopy and searched the ordering of the film-forming molecules with molecular resolution with the application of grazing incidence X-ray diffraction (GIXD) method. It turned out that the phospholipid-PAH interactions are strictly structure dependent. Four and five-ring PAHs of the angular or cluster geometry can be incorporated into the model membranes changing profoundly their textures and fluidity; whereas linear or large cluster PAHs cannot be incorporated and separate from the lipid matrix. The observed phenomena were explained based on structural similarities of the applied PAHs with membrane steroids and hopanoids. Copyright © 2017. Published by Elsevier B.V.

  12. Scattering theory

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Sitenko, A.

    1991-01-01

    This book emerged out of graduate lectures given by the author at the University of Kiev and is intended as a graduate text. The fundamentals of non-relativistic quantum scattering theory are covered, including some topics, such as the phase-function formalism, separable potentials, and inverse scattering, which are not always coverded in textbooks on scattering theory. Criticisms of the text are minor, but the reviewer feels an inadequate index is provided and the citing of references in the Russian language is a hindrance in a graduate text

  13. Single-Residue Sensitivity in Neutron Reflectivity and Resonant X-ray Reflectivity from Langmuir Monolayers of Synthetic Peptides

    Science.gov (United States)

    Strzalka, Joseph; Satija, Sushil; Dimasi, Elaine; Kuzmenko, Ivan; Gog, Thomas; Blasie, J. Kent

    2004-03-01

    Labeling groups with ^2H to distinguish them in the scattering length density (SLD) profile constitutes the chief advantage of neutron reflectivity (NR) in studying Langmuir monolayers (LM) of lipids and proteins. Solid phase synthesis (SPPS) permits the labeling of a single residue in a peptide. Recent work demonstrates the sensitivity of NR to single ^2H-labeled residues in LM of vectorially oriented α -helical bundle peptides. NR requires comparison of isomorphic samples of all-^1H and ^2H-labeled peptides. Alternately, resonant x-ray reflectivity (RXR) uses only one sample. RXR exploits energy-dependent changes in the scattering factor from heavy atoms to distinguish them within the SLD profile. Peptides may be labeled by SPPS (e.g. Br-Phe), or may have inherent labels (e.g. Fe in heme proteins). As test cases, we studied LM of Br-labeled lipids and peptides with RXR. Both approaches require a model-independent means of obtaining SLD profiles from the reflectivity data. We have applied box-refinement to obtain the gradient SLD profile. This is fit uniquely with a sum of Gaussians and integrated analytically [Blasie et al., PRB 67 224201 (2003)] to provide the SLD profile. Label positions can then be determined to sub-Ångstrom accuracy. This work supported by the NIH (GM55876).

  14. The Child-Langmuir law and analytical theory of collisionless to collision-dominated sheaths

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Benilov, M S

    2009-01-01

    This paper is concerned with summarizing simple analytical models of space-charge sheaths and tracing their relation to the Child-Langmuir model of an ion sheath. The topics discussed include the Child-Langmuir law and model of a collisionless ion sheath, the Mott-Gurney law and model of a collision-dominated ion sheath, the Bohm model of a collisionless ion-electron sheath, the Su-Lam-Cohen model of a collision-dominated ion-electron sheath, ion sheaths with arbitrary collisionality, high-accuracy boundary conditions for the Child-Langmuir and Mott-Gurney models of an ion sheath and the mathematical sense of Child-Langmuir type models of an ion sheath from the point of view of modern theoretical physics.

  15. Electron nonlinearity in the field of powerful Langmuir wave in plasmas

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Chernousenko, V.M.; Kuklin, V.M.; Panchenko, I.P.; Romenskij, I.V.

    1988-01-01

    The system of equations that determines the dynamics of the development of parametric instability of intensive Langmuir plasma oscillation is obtained for two- and three-dimensional Cartessian geometries. 9 refs

  16. Chiral hierarchical self-assembly in Langmuir monolayers of diacetylenic lipids

    KAUST Repository

    Basnet, Prem B.; Mandal, Pritam; Malcolm, Dominic W.; Mann, Elizabeth; Chaieb, Saharoui

    2013-01-01

    When compressed in the intermediate temperature range below the chain-melting transition yet in the low-pressure liquid phase, Langmuir monolayers made of chiral lipid molecules form hierarchical structures. Using Brewster angle microscopy to reveal

  17. Density determination of langmuir-blodgett monolayer films using x-ray reflectivity technique

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Damar Yoga Kusuma

    2015-01-01

    Monolayer deposition by Langmuir-Blodgett technique produces monolayer films that are uniform with controllable thickness down to nanometer scale. To evaluate the quality of the monolayer deposition, X-ray reflectivity technique are employed to monitor the monolayers density. Langmuir-Blodgett monolayer with good coverage and uniformity results in film density close to its macroscopic film counterpart whereas films with presence of air gaps shows lower density compared to its macroscopic film counterpart. (author)

  18. Critical scattering

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Stirling, W.G.; Perry, S.C.

    1996-01-01

    We outline the theoretical and experimental background to neutron scattering studies of critical phenomena at magnetic and structural phase transitions. The displacive phase transition of SrTiO 3 is discussed, along with examples from recent work on magnetic materials from the rare-earth (Ho, Dy) and actinide (NpAs, NpSb, USb) classes. The impact of synchrotron X-ray scattering is discussed in conclusion. (author) 13 figs., 18 refs

  19. Validation of double Langmuir probe in-orbit performance onboard a nano-satellite

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tejumola, Taiwo Raphael; Zarate Segura, Guillermo Wenceslao; Kim, Sangkyun; Khan, Arifur; Cho, Mengu

    2018-03-01

    Many plasma measurement systems have been proposed and used onboard different satellites to characterize space plasma. Most of these systems employed the technique of Langmuir probes either using the single or double probes methods. Recent growth of lean satellites has positioned it on advantage to be used for space science missions using Langmuir probes because of its simplicity and convenience. However, single Langmuir probes are not appropriate to be used on lean satellites because of their limited conducting area which leads to spacecraft charging and drift of the instrument's electrical ground during measurement. Double Langmuir probes technique can overcome this limitation, as a measurement reference in relation to the spacecraft is not required. A double Langmuir probe measurement system was designed and developed at Kyushu Institute of Technology for HORYU-IV satellite, which is a 10 kg, 30 cm cubic class lean satellite launched into Low Earth Orbit on 17th February 2016. This paper presents the on-orbit performance and validation of the double Langmuir probe measurement using actual on-orbit measured data and computer simulations.

  20. Microwave circulator design

    CERN Document Server

    Linkhart, Douglas K

    2014-01-01

    Circulator design has advanced significantly since the first edition of this book was published 25 years ago. The objective of this second edition is to present theory, information, and design procedures that will enable microwave engineers and technicians to design and build circulators successfully. This resource contains a discussion of the various units used in the circulator design computations, as well as covers the theory of operation. This book presents numerous applications, giving microwave engineers new ideas about how to solve problems using circulators. Design examples are provided, which demonstrate how to apply the information to real-world design tasks.

  1. Compton scattering

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Botto, D.J.; Pratt, R.H.

    1979-05-01

    The current status of Compton scattering, both experimental observations and the theoretical predictions, is examined. Classes of experiments are distinguished and the results obtained are summarized. The validity of the incoherent scattering function approximation and the impulse approximation is discussed. These simple theoretical approaches are compared with predictions of the nonrelativistic dipole formula of Gavrila and with the relativistic results of Whittingham. It is noted that the A -2 based approximations fail to predict resonances and an infrared divergence, both of which have been observed. It appears that at present the various available theoretical approaches differ significantly in their predictions and that further and more systematic work is required

  2. Compton scattering

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Botto, D.J.; Pratt, R.H.

    1979-05-01

    The current status of Compton scattering, both experimental observations and the theoretical predictions, is examined. Classes of experiments are distinguished and the results obtained are summarized. The validity of the incoherent scattering function approximation and the impulse approximation is discussed. These simple theoretical approaches are compared with predictions of the nonrelativistic dipole formula of Gavrila and with the relativistic results of Whittingham. It is noted that the A/sup -2/ based approximations fail to predict resonances and an infrared divergence, both of which have been observed. It appears that at present the various available theoretical approaches differ significantly in their predictions and that further and more systematic work is required.

  3. Circulation pump mounting

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Skalicky, A.

    1976-01-01

    The suspension is described of nuclear reactor circulating pumps enabling their dilatation with a minimum reverse force consisting of spacing rods supported with one end in the anchor joints and provided with springs and screw joints engaging the circulating pump shoes. The spacing rods are equipped with side vibration dampers anchored in the shaft side wall and on the body of the circulating pump drive body. The negative reverse force F of the spacing rods is given by the relation F=Q/l.y, where Q is the weight of the circulating pump, l is the spatial distance between the shoe joints and anchor joints, and y is the deflection of the circulating pump vertical axis from the mean equilibrium position. The described suspension is advantageous in that that the reverse force for the deflection from the mean equilibrium position is minimal, dynamic behaviour is better, and construction costs are lower compared to suspension design used so far. (J.B.)

  4. Seasonal overturning circulation in the Red Sea: 2. Winter circulation

    KAUST Repository

    Yao, Fengchao; Hoteit, Ibrahim; Pratt, Lawrence J.; Bower, Amy S.; Kö hl, Armin; Gopalakrishnan, Ganesh; Rivas, David

    2014-01-01

    The shallow winter overturning circulation in the Red Sea is studied using a 50 year high-resolution MITgcm (MIT general circulation model) simulation with realistic atmospheric forcing. The overturning circulation for a typical year, represented

  5. Immbolization of uricase enzyme in Langmuir and Langmuir-Blodgett films of fatty acids: possible use as a uric acid sensor.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zanon, Nathaly C M; Oliveira, Osvaldo N; Caseli, Luciano

    2012-05-01

    Preserving the enzyme structure in solid films is key for producing various bioelectronic devices, including biosensors, which has normally been performed with nanostructured films that allow for control of molecular architectures. In this paper, we investigate the adsorption of uricase onto Langmuir monolayers of stearic acid (SA), and their transfer to solid supports as Langmuir-Blodgett (LB) films. Structuring of the enzyme in β-sheets was preserved in the form of 1-layer LB film, which was corroborated with a higher catalytic activity than for other uricase-containing LB film architectures where the β-sheets structuring was not preserved. The optimized architecture was also used to detect uric acid within a range covering typical concentrations in the human blood. The approach presented here not only allows for an optimized catalytic activity toward uric acid but also permits one to explain why some film architectures exhibit a superior performance. Copyright © 2011 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  6. Means to remove electrode contamination effect of Langmuir probe measurement in space

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Oyama, K.-I.; Lee, C. H.; Fang, H. K.; Cheng, C. Z. [Plasma and Space Science Center, National Cheng Kung University, No.1 Ta-Hsueh Rd., Tainan 70101, Taiwan (China)

    2012-05-15

    Precaution to remove the serious effect of electrode contamination in Langmuir probe experiments has not been taken in many space measurements because the effect is either not understood or ignored. We stress here that one should pay extra attention to the electrode contamination effect to get accurate and reliable plasma measurements so that the long time effort for sounding rocket/satellite missions does not end in vain or becomes less fruitful. In this paper, we describe two main features of voltage-current characteristic curves associated with the contaminated Langmuir probe, which are predicted from the equivalent circuit model, which we proposed in 1970's. We then show that fast sweeping dc Langmuir probes can give reliable results in the steady state regime. The fast sweeping probe can also give reliable results in transient situations such as satellite moves through plasma bubble in the ionosphere where the electron density drastically changes. This fact was first confirmed in our laboratory experiment.

  7. Statistical Analysis of Langmuir Waves Associated with Type III Radio Bursts: I. Wind Observations

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Vidojević S.

    2011-12-01

    Full Text Available Interplanetary electron beams are unstable in the solar wind and they generate Langmuir waves at the local plasma frequency or its harmonic. Radio observations of the waves in the range 4-256 kHz, observed in 1994-2010 with the WAVES experiment onboard the WIND spacecraft, are statistically analyzed. A subset of 36 events with Langmuir waves and type III bursts occurring at the same time was selected. After removal of the background, the remaining power spectral density is modeled by the Pearson system of probability distributions (types I, IV and VI. The Stochastic Growth Theory (SGT predicts log-normal distribution for the power spectrum density of the Langmuir waves. Our results indicate that SGT possibly requires further verification.

  8. Thermal and electrothermal sensitivity of polyglutamic acid with incorporated carbocyanine dyes in Langmuir-Blodgett films

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Popova, G. [Mendeleyev University of Chemical Technology of Russia, Miusskaya sq., 9, Moscow 125047 (Russian Federation)], E-mail: galina@muctr.edu.ru; Spitsyn, A; Vantsyan, M [Mendeleyev University of Chemical Technology of Russia, Miusskaya sq., 9, Moscow 125047 (Russian Federation); Matveeva, N [Lukin Institute Phys. Problems, Zelenograd (Russian Federation); Yudin, S; Palto, S [Crystallography Institute Rus., Leninsky prosp., 57, 117336 Moscow (Russian Federation)

    2008-03-31

    Light-and electrosensitive carbocyanine dyes were incorporated into polyglutamic acid via covalent and non-covalent bonding. The reversible colour change on heating the Langmuir-Blodgett films of polyaminoacid has been studied by absorption spectroscopy and electroconductivity techniques. Characteristic shifts of the absorption spectrum are explained by formation of aggregates and hydrogen bonds. It was shown that H-aggregates and dimers are formed in Langmuir-Blodgett films; each type of assemblies contributes to the absorption spectrum. At elevated temperatures the ratio between concentrations of monomers, dimers and H-aggregates varies due to a breakdown of a part of aggregates into monomers. The change in molecular polarizability was also noticed. Electroconductivity of Langmuir-Blodgett films is observed in longitudinal and transverse directions. Electrochromic effect is noticed under weak electric current by change from red to colourless with iodine doping.

  9. Elastic scattering

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Leader, Elliot

    1991-01-01

    With very few unexplained results to challenge conventional ideas, physicists have to look hard to search for gaps in understanding. An area of physics which offers a lot more than meets the eye is elastic and diffractive scattering where particles either 'bounce' off each other, emerging unscathed, or just graze past, emerging relatively unscathed. The 'Blois' workshops provide a regular focus for this unspectacular, but compelling physics, attracting highly motivated devotees

  10. Ion-sound emission by Langmuir soliton reflected at density barrier

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    El-Ashry, M.Y.

    1989-07-01

    The emission of ion-sound waves by an accelerated Langmuir soliton is studied. The acceleration of the soliton is due to an inhomogeneous density barrier. On the assumption that the kinetic energy of the Langmuir soliton is smaller than the potential energy created by the barrier. The basic equations describing the dynamic behaviour of the soliton and the emission of the ion-sound waves are formulated. The qualitative spatial distributions of the perturbed concentration in the ion-sound waves are analyzed at different characteristic points of the soliton. The energy lost by the soliton, as a result of the emission, is estimated. (author). 6 refs, 4 figs

  11. Development of pop-up Langmuir probe system for the JET MkIIa divertor

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Davies, S.J.; Tellier, X.; Matthews, G.F.; Wilson, C.H.

    1999-01-01

    The successful operation of a pop-up Langmuir probe system, which was installed in the JET MkIIa divertor, is described. The system utilises the ambient magnetic field in tokamak plasmas to act on a current carrying coil and pop up a rail containing Langmuir probes. Measurements were made using pin-plate probes which, owing to their relatively large exposed area, are ideally suited for use with such a system. Details of the design, testing, measurements and potential applications of JET's pop-up system are given. (orig.)

  12. Development of 'popup' Langmuir probe system for the JET MkIIa divertor

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Davies, S.; Tellier, X.; Matthews, G.

    1999-01-01

    The successful operation of a 'popup' Langmuir probe system, which was installed in the JET MkIIa divertor, is described. The system utilises the ambient magnetic field in tokamak plasmas to act on a current carrying coil and pop up a rail containing Langmuir probes. Measurements were made using 'Pin-Plate' probes which, owing to their relatively large exposed area, are ideally suited for use with such a system. Details of the design, testing, measurements and potential applications of JET's 'popup' system are given. (author)

  13. Ion source plasma parameters measurement based on Langmuir probe with commercial frequency sweep

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Xie, Y.H.; Hu, C.D.; Liu, S.; Shong, S.H.; Jiang, C.C.; Liu, Z.M.

    2010-01-01

    Langmuir probe is one of the main diagnostic tools to measure the plasma parameters in the ion source. In this article, the commercial frequency power, which is sine wave of 50 Hz, was supplied on the Langmuir probe to measure the plasma parameters. The best feature of this probe sweep voltage is that it does not need extra design. The probe I-V characteristic curve can be got in less than 5 ms and the plasma parameters, the electron temperature and the electron density, varying with the time can be got in one plasma discharge of 400 ms.

  14. Neutron scattering

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    1991-02-01

    The annual report on hand gives an overview of the research work carried out in the Laboratory for Neutron Scattering (LNS) of the ETH Zuerich in 1990. Using the method of neutron scattering, it is possible to examine in detail the static and dynamic properties of the condensed material. In accordance with the multidisciplined character of the method, the LNS has for years maintained a system of intensive co-operation with numerous institutes in the areas of biology, chemistry, solid-state physics, crystallography and materials research. In 1990 over 100 scientists from more than 40 research groups both at home and abroad took part in the experiments. It was again a pleasure to see the number of graduate students present, who were studying for a doctorate and who could be introduced into the neutron scattering during their stay at the LNS and thus were in the position to touch on central ways of looking at a problem in their dissertation using this modern experimental method of solid-state research. In addition to the numerous and interesting ways of formulating the questions to explain the structure, nowadays the scientific programme increasingly includes particularly topical studies in connection with high temperature-supraconductors and materials research

  15. Scattering theory

    CERN Document Server

    Friedrich, Harald

    2016-01-01

    This corrected and updated second edition of "Scattering Theory" presents a concise and modern coverage of the subject. In the present treatment, special attention is given to the role played by the long-range behaviour of the projectile-target interaction, and a theory is developed, which is well suited to describe near-threshold bound and continuum states in realistic binary systems such as diatomic molecules or molecular ions. It is motivated by the fact that experimental advances have shifted and broadened the scope of applications where concepts from scattering theory are used, e.g. to the field of ultracold atoms and molecules, which has been experiencing enormous growth in recent years, largely triggered by the successful realization of Bose-Einstein condensates of dilute atomic gases in 1995. The book contains sections on special topics such as near-threshold quantization, quantum reflection, Feshbach resonances and the quantum description of scattering in two dimensions. The level of abstraction is k...

  16. Chaotic scattering of two identical point vortex pairs revisited

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Tophøj, Laust Emil Hjerrild; Aref, Hassan

    2008-01-01

    A new numerical exploration suggests that the motion of two vortex pairs, with constituent vortices all of the same absolute circulation, displays chaotic scattering regimes. The mechanisms leading to chaotic scattering are different from the “slingshot effect” identified by Price [Phys. Fluids A...

  17. Total kinetic energy in four global eddying ocean circulation models and over 5000 current meter records

    KAUST Repository

    Scott, Robert B.; Arbic, Brian K.; Chassignet, Eric P.; Coward, Andrew C.; Maltrud, Mathew; Merryfield, William J.; Srinivasan, Ashwanth; Varghese, Anson

    2010-01-01

    We compare the total kinetic energy (TKE) in four global eddying ocean circulation simulations with a global dataset of over 5000, quality controlled, moored current meter records. At individual mooring sites, there was considerable scatter between

  18. Diffractive scattering

    CERN Document Server

    De Wolf, E.A.

    2002-01-01

    We discuss basic concepts and properties of diffractive phenomena in soft hadron collisions and in deep-inelastic scattering at low Bjorken-x. The paper is not a review of the rapidly developing field but presents an attempt to show in simple terms the close inter-relationship between the dynamics of high-energy hadronic and deep-inelastic diffraction. Using the saturation model of Golec-Biernat and Wusthoff as an example, a simple explanation of geometrical scaling is presented. The relation between the QCD anomalous multiplicity dimension and the Pomeron intercept is discussed.

  19. Diffractive Scattering

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Wolf, E.A. de

    2002-01-01

    We discuss basic concepts and properties of diffractive phenomena in soft hadron collisions and in deep-inelastic scattering at low Bjorken - x. The paper is not a review of the rapidly developing field but presents an attempt to show in simple terms the close inter-relationship between the dynamics of high-energy hadronic and deep-inelastic diffraction. Using the saturation model of Golec-Biernat and Wuesthoff as an example, a simple explanation of geometrical scaling is presented. The relation between the QCD anomalous multiplicity dimension and the Pomeron intercept is discussed. (author)

  20. Statistical properties of small-amplitude Langmuir waves in the Earth’s electron foreshock

    Czech Academy of Sciences Publication Activity Database

    Musatenko, K.; Lobzin, V.; Souček, Jan; Krasnoselskikh, V. V.; Décréau, P.

    2007-01-01

    Roč. 55, č. 15 (2007), s. 2273-2280 ISSN 0032-0633 Institutional research plan: CEZ:AV0Z30420517 Keywords : Langmuir waves * Electron foreshock * Density inhomogeneities * Probability density functions * Beam-plasma instability * Plasma waves * Kinetic waves and instabilities Subject RIV: BL - Plasma and Gas Discharge Physics Impact factor: 1.842, year: 2007

  1. Generalization of the Child-Langmuir law for nonzero injection velocities in a planar diode

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Puri, R.R.; Biswas, Debabrata; Kumar, Raghwendra

    2004-01-01

    The Child-Langmuir law relates the voltage applied across a planar diode to the saturation value J CL of current density that can be transmitted through it in case the injection velocity of electrons is zero. The Child-Langmuir current density J CL is, at the same time: (i) the maximum current density that can be transmitted through a planar diode, (ii) the current density below which the flow is steady and unidirectional in the long time limit, and (iii) the average transmitted current density for any value of injected current density above J CL . Existing generalizations of Child-Langmuir law to nonzero velocities of injection are based on the characteristics (i) and (ii) of J CL . This paper generalizes the law to nonzero velocities of injection based on the characteristic (iii) by deriving an analytical expression for the saturation value of current density. The analytical expression for the saturation current density is found to be well supported by numerical computations. A reason behind preferring the saturation property of the Child-Langmuir current density as the basis for its generalization is the importance of that property in numerical simulations of high current diode devices

  2. Development of Langmuir probe diagnostic system for 13.56 MHz plasma sources

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Ranjini, K.; Nabhiraj, P.Y.; Mallik, C.; Bhandari, R.K.

    2006-01-01

    A work on development of high brightness ion source has been started recently. Plasma parameters are strongly linked to the brightness of the ion beams produced from the ion sources. A self compensated Langmuir probe and related automation system for the measurement of plasma parameters is developed. This paper describes design of the probe, software, hardware and the results. (author)

  3. Langmuir- Blodgett layers of amphiphilic molecules investigated by Atomic Force Microscopy

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Zdravkova, Aneliya Nikolova

    2007-01-01

    Langmuir - Blodgett technique and Atomic Force Microscopy were used to study the phase behaviour of organic molecules (fatty alcohols and monoacid saturated triglycerides) at air-water and air-solid interfaces. The structure of binary mixed LB monolayers of fatty alcohols was reported. The

  4. When Langmuir is too simple: H-2 dissociation on Pd(111) at high coverage

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Lopez, Nuria; Lodziana, Zbigniew; Illas, F.

    2004-01-01

    Recent experiments of H-2 adsorption on Pd(111) [T. Mitsui et al., Nature (London) 422, 705 (2003)] have questioned the classical Langmuir picture of second order adsorption kinetics at high surface coverage requiring pairs of empty sites for the dissociative chemisorption. Experiments find that ...

  5. The effect of gauche molecular conformations on the phase diagram of a Langmuir monolayer

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Zangi, R; Rice, SA

    2003-01-01

    Experimental and simulation studies have shown that the gauche conformational degrees of freedom of long-chain amphiphile molecules assembled in a dense Langmuir monolayer play an important role in determining the structures of the several phases that the monolayer supports. Nevertheless, for

  6. Oxidative coupling polymerization in a Langmuir monolayer of octadecyl 3,5-diaminobenzoate

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Kimkes, P.; Sohling, U.; Oostergetel, G.T.; Schouten, A.J.

    1996-01-01

    In a Langmuir monolayer of the surface active monomer octadecyl 3,5-diaminobenzoate (ODDB), stabilized at a surface pressure of 10 mN/m and a temperature of 23.7 degrees C at the air-water interface, oxidative coupling polymerization occurs when copper(II) chloride was added or already was present

  7. Langmuir probe measurement of the bismuth plasma plume formed by an extreme-ultraviolet pulsed laser

    Czech Academy of Sciences Publication Activity Database

    Pira, P.; Burian, T.; Kolpaková, A.; Tichý, M.; Kudrna, P.; Daniš, S.; Juha, Libor; Lančok, Ján; Vyšín, Luděk; Civiš, Svatopluk; Zelinger, Zdeněk; Kubát, Pavel; Wild, J.

    2014-01-01

    Roč. 47, č. 40 (2014), 1-6 ISSN 0022-3727 R&D Projects: GA ČR(CZ) GAP108/11/1312 Institutional support: RVO:68378271 ; RVO:61388955 Keywords : XUV laser * pulsed laser deposition * Langmuir probe * plasma plume Subject RIV: BL - Plasma and Gas Discharge Physics Impact factor: 2.721, year: 2014

  8. Molecular structure of dipalmitoylphospatidylcholine Langmuir-Blodgett monolayers studied by atomic force microscopy.

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Zhai, X.; Kleijn, J.M.

    1997-01-01

    Monolayers of dipalmitoylphosphatidylcholine (DPPC) on the air-water interface have been transferred at various surface pressures onto quartz substrates using the Langmuir-Blodgett (LB) technique. The topography of these layers, on a molecular scale, has been examined by atomic force microscopy

  9. Structure of Langmuir and electromagnetic collapsing wave packets in two-dimensional strong plasma turbulence

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Alinejad, H.; Robinson, P. A.; Cairns, I. H.; Skjaeraasen, O.; Sobhanian, S.

    2007-01-01

    Nucleating and collapsing wave packets relevant to electromagnetic strong plasma turbulence are studied theoretically in two dimensions. Model collapsing Langmuir and transverse potentials are constructed as superpositions of approximate eigenstates of a spherically symmetric density well. Electrostatic and electromagnetic potentials containing only components with azimuthal quantum numbers m=0, 1, 2 are found to give a good representation of the electric fields of nucleating collapsing wave packets in turbulence simulations. The length scales of these trapped states are related to the electron thermal speed v e and the length scale of the density well. It is shown analytically that the electromagnetic trapped states change with v e and that for v e e > or approx. 0.17c, the Langmuir and transverse modes remain coupled during collapse, with autocorrelation lengths in a constant ratio. An investigation of energy transfer to packets localized in density wells shows that the strongest power transfer to the nucleating state occurs for Langmuir waves. Energy transitions between different trapped and free states for collapsing wave packets are studied, and the transition rate from trapped Langmuir to free plane electromagnetic waves is calculated and related to the emission of electromagnetic waves at the plasma frequency

  10. Extracting surface diffusion coefficients from batch adsorption measurement data: application of the classic Langmuir kinetics model.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chu, Khim Hoong

    2017-11-09

    Surface diffusion coefficients may be estimated by fitting solutions of a diffusion model to batch kinetic data. For non-linear systems, a numerical solution of the diffusion model's governing equations is generally required. We report here the application of the classic Langmuir kinetics model to extract surface diffusion coefficients from batch kinetic data. The use of the Langmuir kinetics model in lieu of the conventional surface diffusion model allows derivation of an analytical expression. The parameter estimation procedure requires determining the Langmuir rate coefficient from which the pertinent surface diffusion coefficient is calculated. Surface diffusion coefficients within the 10 -9 to 10 -6  cm 2 /s range obtained by fitting the Langmuir kinetics model to experimental kinetic data taken from the literature are found to be consistent with the corresponding values obtained from the traditional surface diffusion model. The virtue of this simplified parameter estimation method is that it reduces the computational complexity as the analytical expression involves only an algebraic equation in closed form which is easily evaluated by spreadsheet computation.

  11. The Langmuir isotherm and the standard model of ion-assisted etching

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Lieberman, M A

    2009-01-01

    Langmuir is lured to the General Electric Research Laboratory, where he creates a new science-surface chemistry-and christens another-plasma. His atomistic views of gas-surface interactions are extended 65 years later to describe ion-assisted plasma etching, an indispensable process in modern semiconductor device manufacturing.

  12. Properties of excited singular states of the anthraquinone dye in the Langmuir-Blodgett films

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Baratova, A.A.; Ibraev, N.Kh.

    2004-01-01

    The spectral luminescence properties of the anthraquinone dye solution and the Langmuir-Blodgett films have been investigated. The nature of the absorption centers is determined from the spectral characteristics. The conclusion about probable spatial configuration of the dye molecule in the dye molecule in monolayer on water surface is made. (author)

  13. Ion currents to cylindrical Langmuir probes for finite ion temperature values: Theory

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Ballesteros, J.; Palop, J.I.F.; Colomer, V.; Hernandez, M.A.

    1995-01-01

    As it is known, the experimental ion currents to a cylindrical Langmuir probe fit quite well to the radial motion theory, developed by Allen, Boyd and Reynolds (ABR Model) and generalized by Chen for the cylindrical probe case. In this paper, we are going to develop a generalization of the ABR theory, taking into account the influence of a finite ion temperature value

  14. Phase behaviour in binary mixed Langmuir-Blodgett monolayers of triglycerides

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Zdravkova, A.N.; van der Eerden, J.P.J.M.

    2007-01-01

    Binary mixed monolayers of the triglycerides (TAGs)-tripalmitin (PPP), tristearin (SSS) and triarachidin (AAA) at the air–water interface are investigated with the Langmuir method. Langmuir–Blodgett (LB) layers obtained by deposition on mica are investigated by Atomic Force Microscopy. Combining

  15. Comment on ''On the upconversion of ion sound to Langmuir turbulence,'' By L. Vlahos and K. Papadopoulos

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Kuijpers, J.

    1980-01-01

    It is shown that the production of Langmuir waves from ion sound by the turbulent Bremsstrahlung mechanism can be more effective than the destruction of the Langmuir waves by the Dawson-Oberman resistivity. Previous conclusions to the contrary are in error owing to the neglect of the wave-number dependence of the ion-sound waves

  16. Chain length dependence of the helix orientation in Langmuir-Blodgett monolayers of alpha-helical diblock copolypeptides

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Nguyen, Le-Thu T.; Ardana, Aditya; Vorenkamp, Eltjo J.; ten Brinke, Gerrit; Schouten, Arend J.

    2010-01-01

    The effect of chain length on the helix orientation of alpha-helical diblock copolypeptides in Langmuir and Langmuir-Blodgett monolayers is reported for the first time. Amphiphilic diblock copolypeptides (PLGA-b-PMLGSLGs) of poly(alpha-L-glutamic acid) (PLGA) and

  17. Numerical test of a weak turbulence approximation for an electromagnetically driven Langmuir turbulence

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Hanssen, A.; Mjolhus, E.

    1993-01-01

    In ionospheric radio modification experiments, manifestations of excited Langmuir turbulence are observed by means of VHF or UHF radars. Such experiments are performed in Arecibo, Puerto Rico, and at Tromso, Northern Norway. A weak turbulence theory involving parametric cascade of Langmuir waves, has earlier dominated the theoretical understanding of these experiments. This has recently been challenged, both from a theoretical and an experimental point of view, and a theory of strong Langmuir turbulence, involving a large number of nucleation collapse burnout cycles has been advocated. A version of the Zakharov model including damping and parametric driving, contains both of these scenarios, the crucial parameter being ΔΩ = ω-ω pe where ω is the applied frequency and ω pe the plasma frequency. This model allows the construction of a weak turbulence wave kinetic equation. In the present work spectra obtained from full wave solutions of the one dimensional Zakharov model are compared with saturation spectra of the wave kinetic model. The results can be described as follows: (i) for large values of ΔΩ, cascades are formed, and the number of cascades increases with the strength of the driver E 0 ; (ii) the number of cascades found in the full wave solution is smaller than that obtained from the wave kinetic equation; (iii) when E 0 becomes sufficiently large, the narrowly peaked cascade structure of the full wave spectrum breaks down, and a broad spectrum comes instead; (iv) this breakdown comes far before the cascade sequence has reached the Langmuir condensate; thus the Langmuir condensate plays no role in this process. At smaller values of ΔΩ, the turbulence is characterized by caviton nucleation resulting in broad wave number spectra. Also a coexistence range is found at intermediate values of ΔΩ, in which a few cascade lines ride upon a broad cavitation type spectrum

  18. Neutron scattering. Lectures

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Brueckel, Thomas; Heger, Gernot; Richter, Dieter; Roth, Georg; Zorn, Reiner

    2012-01-01

    The following topics are dealt with: Neutron scattering in contemporary research, neutron sources, symmetry of crystals, diffraction, nanostructures investigated by small-angle neutron scattering, the structure of macromolecules, spin dependent and magnetic scattering, structural analysis, neutron reflectometry, magnetic nanostructures, inelastic scattering, strongly correlated electrons, dynamics of macromolecules, applications of neutron scattering. (HSI)

  19. Arctic circulation regimes.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Proshutinsky, Andrey; Dukhovskoy, Dmitry; Timmermans, Mary-Louise; Krishfield, Richard; Bamber, Jonathan L

    2015-10-13

    Between 1948 and 1996, mean annual environmental parameters in the Arctic experienced a well-pronounced decadal variability with two basic circulation patterns: cyclonic and anticyclonic alternating at 5 to 7 year intervals. During cyclonic regimes, low sea-level atmospheric pressure (SLP) dominated over the Arctic Ocean driving sea ice and the upper ocean counterclockwise; the Arctic atmosphere was relatively warm and humid, and freshwater flux from the Arctic Ocean towards the subarctic seas was intensified. By contrast, during anticylonic circulation regimes, high SLP dominated driving sea ice and the upper ocean clockwise. Meanwhile, the atmosphere was cold and dry and the freshwater flux from the Arctic to the subarctic seas was reduced. Since 1997, however, the Arctic system has been under the influence of an anticyclonic circulation regime (17 years) with a set of environmental parameters that are atypical for this regime. We discuss a hypothesis explaining the causes and mechanisms regulating the intensity and duration of Arctic circulation regimes, and speculate how changes in freshwater fluxes from the Arctic Ocean and Greenland impact environmental conditions and interrupt their decadal variability. © 2015 The Authors.

  20. Statistical behavior of foreshock Langmuir waves observed by the Cluster wideband data plasma wave receiver

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    K. Sigsbee

    2004-07-01

    Full Text Available We present the statistics of Langmuir wave amplitudes in the Earth's foreshock using Cluster Wideband Data (WBD Plasma Wave Receiver electric field waveforms from spacecraft 2, 3 and 4 on 26 March 2002. The largest amplitude Langmuir waves were observed by Cluster near the boundary between the foreshock and solar wind, in agreement with earlier studies. The characteristics of the waves were similar for all three spacecraft, suggesting that variations in foreshock structure must occur on scales greater than the 50-100km spacecraft separations. The electric field amplitude probability distributions constructed using waveforms from the Cluster WBD Plasma Wave Receiver generally followed the log-normal statistics predicted by stochastic growth theory for the event studied. Comparison with WBD receiver data from 17 February 2002, when spacecraft 4 was set in a special manual gain mode, suggests non-optimal auto-ranging of the instrument may have had some influence on the statistics.

  1. Thermal and Driven Stochastic Growth of Langmuir Waves in the Solar Wind and Earth's Foreshock

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cairns, Iver H.; Robinson, P. A.; Anderson, R. R.

    2000-01-01

    Statistical distributions of Langmuir wave fields in the solar wind and the edge of Earth's foreshock are analyzed and compared with predictions for stochastic growth theory (SGT). SGT quantitatively explains the solar wind, edge, and deep foreshock data as pure thermal waves, driven thermal waves subject to net linear growth and stochastic effects, and as waves in a pure SGT state, respectively, plus radiation near the plasma frequency f(sub p). These changes are interpreted in terms of spatial variations in the beam instability's growth rate and evolution toward a pure SGT state. SGT analyses of field distributions are shown to provide a viable alternative to thermal noise spectroscopy for wave instruments with coarse frequency resolution, and to separate f(sub p) radiation from Langmuir waves.

  2. Determining the wavelength of Langmuir wave packets at the Earth's bow shock

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    V. V. Krasnoselskikh

    2011-03-01

    Full Text Available The propagation of Langmuir waves in plasmas is known to be sensitive to density fluctuations. Such fluctuations may lead to the coexistence of wave pairs that have almost opposite wave-numbers in the vicinity of their reflection points. Using high frequency electric field measurements from the WIND satellite, we determine for the first time the wavelength of intense Langmuir wave packets that are generated upstream of the Earth's electron foreshock by energetic electron beams. Surprisingly, the wavelength is found to be 2 to 3 times larger than the value expected from standard theory. These values are consistent with the presence of strong inhomogeneities in the solar wind plasma rather than with the effect of weak beam instabilities.

  3. Statistical behavior of foreshock Langmuir waves observed by the Cluster wideband data plasma wave receiver

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    K. Sigsbee

    2004-07-01

    Full Text Available We present the statistics of Langmuir wave amplitudes in the Earth's foreshock using Cluster Wideband Data (WBD Plasma Wave Receiver electric field waveforms from spacecraft 2, 3 and 4 on 26 March 2002. The largest amplitude Langmuir waves were observed by Cluster near the boundary between the foreshock and solar wind, in agreement with earlier studies. The characteristics of the waves were similar for all three spacecraft, suggesting that variations in foreshock structure must occur on scales greater than the 50-100km spacecraft separations. The electric field amplitude probability distributions constructed using waveforms from the Cluster WBD Plasma Wave Receiver generally followed the log-normal statistics predicted by stochastic growth theory for the event studied. Comparison with WBD receiver data from 17 February 2002, when spacecraft 4 was set in a special manual gain mode, suggests non-optimal auto-ranging of the instrument may have had some influence on the statistics.

  4. Langmuir wave-packet generation from an electron beam propagating in the inhomogeneous solar wind

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Zaslavsky, A.; Maksimovic, M.; Volokitin, A. S.; Krasnoselskikh, V. V.; Bale, S. D.

    2010-01-01

    Recent in-situ observations by the TDS instrument equipping the STEREO spacecraft revealed that large amplitude spatially localized Langmuir waves are frequent in the solar wind, and correlated with the presence of suprathermal electron beams during type III events or close to the electron foreshock. We briefly present the new theoretical model used to perform the study of these localized electrostatic waves, and show first results of simulations of the destabilization of Langmuir waves by a beam propagating in the inhomogeneous solar wind. The main results are that the destabilized waves are mainly focalized near the minima of the density profiles, and that the nonlinear interaction of the waves with the resonant particles enhances this focalization compared to a situation in which the only propagation effects are taken into account.

  5. A new Langmuir probe concept for rapid sampling of space plasma electron density

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Jacobsen, K S; Pedersen, A; Moen, J I; Bekkeng, T A

    2010-01-01

    In this paper we describe a new Langmuir probe concept that was invented for the in situ investigation of HF radar backscatter irregularities, with the capability to measure absolute electron density at a resolution sufficient to resolve the finest conceivable structure in an ionospheric plasma. The instrument consists of two or more fixed-bias cylindrical Langmuir probes whose radius is small compared to the Debye length. With this configuration, it is possible to acquire absolute electron density measurements independent of electron temperature and rocket/satellite potential. The system was flown on the ICI-2 sounding rocket to investigate the plasma irregularities which cause HF backscatter. It had a sampling rate of more than 5 kHz and successfully measured structures down to the scale of one electron gyro radius. The system can easily be adapted for any ionospheric rocket or satellite, and provides high-quality measurements of electron density at any desired resolution

  6. ANTENNA RADIATION NEAR THE LOCAL PLASMA FREQUENCY BY LANGMUIR WAVE EIGENMODES

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Malaspina, David M.; Cairns, Iver H.; Ergun, Robert E.

    2012-01-01

    Langmuir waves (LWs) in the solar wind are generated by electron beams associated with solar flares, interplanetary shock fronts, planetary bow shocks, and magnetic holes. In principle, LWs localized as eigenmodes of density fluctuations can emit electromagnetic (EM) radiation by an antenna mechanism near the local plasma frequency f p and twice the local plasma frequency. In this work, analytic expressions are derived for the radiated electric and magnetic fields and power generated near f p by LW eigenmodes. The EM wave power emitted near f p is predicted as a function of the eigenmode length scale L, maximum electric field, driving electron beam speed, and the ambient plasma density and temperature. The escape to a distant observer of f p radiation from a localized Langmuir eigenmode is also briefly explored as a function of the plasma conditions.

  7. Nanoparticle Langmuir-Blodgett Arrays for Sensing of CO and NO2 Gases

    Science.gov (United States)

    Luby, Stefan; Jergel, Matej; Majkova, Eva; Siffalovic, Peter; Chitu, Livia; Rella, Roberto; Manera, Maria Grazia; Caricato, Anna-Paola; Luches, Armando; Martino, Maurizio

    Metal oxide sensors with active Fe2O3 and CoFe2O4 nanoparticle arrays were studied. Sensing nanoparticle films from 1, 2, 4 or 7 monolayers were deposited by Langmuir-Blodgett technique. Sensors are formed on the alumina substrates equipped with heating meander. Langmuir-Blodgett layers were heated or UV irradiated to remove the insulating surfactant. Sensing properties were studied towards CO or NO2 gases in concentrations between 0.5 and 100 ppm in mixture with the dry air. Best response values Igas/Iair were obtained with CoFe2O4 device being 3 for 100 ppm of CO and with Fe2O3 device being (38)-1 for 0.5 ppm of NO2.

  8. Biasing, acquisition, and interpretation of a dense Langmuir probe array in NSTX

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Jaworski, M. A.; Kallman, J.; Kaita, R.; Kugel, H.; LeBlanc, B.; Marsala, R. [Princeton Plasma Physics Laboratory, Princeton, New Jersey 08543 (United States); Ruzic, D. N. [Department of Nuclear, Plasma, and Radiological Engineering, University of Illinois at Urbana-Champaign, Urbana, Illinois 60181 (United States)

    2010-10-15

    A dense array of 99 Langmuir probes has been installed in the lower divertor region of the National Spherical Torus Experiment (NSTX). This array is instrumented with a system of electronics that allows flexibility in the choice of probes to bias as well as the type of measurement (including standard swept, single probe, triple probe, and operation as passive floating potential and scrape-off-layer SOL current monitors). The use of flush-mounted probes requires careful interpretation. The time dependent nature of the SOL makes swept-probe traces difficult to interpret. To overcome these challenges, the single- and triple-Langmuir probe signals are used in complementary fashion to determine the temperature and density at the probe location. A comparison to midplane measurements is made.

  9. Chiral hierarchical self-assembly in Langmuir monolayers of diacetylenic lipids

    KAUST Repository

    Basnet, Prem B.

    2013-01-01

    When compressed in the intermediate temperature range below the chain-melting transition yet in the low-pressure liquid phase, Langmuir monolayers made of chiral lipid molecules form hierarchical structures. Using Brewster angle microscopy to reveal this structure, we found that as the liquid monolayer is compressed, an optically anisotropic condensed phase nucleates in the form of long, thin claws. These claws pack closely to form stripes. This appears to be a new mechanism for forming stripes in Langmuir monolayers. In the lower temperature range, these stripes arrange into spirals within overall circular domains, while near the chain-melting transition, the stripes arrange into target patterns. We attributed this transition to a change in boundary conditions at the core of the largest-scale circular domains. © 2013 The Royal Society of Chemistry.

  10. Experimental investigation of the creation of a fire-rod by Langmuir and emissive probes

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Gyergyek, T.; Cercek, M.

    2000-01-01

    Positive voltage steps are applied to a plane electrode immersed in a weakly magnetized discharge plasma column with its surface perpendicular to the magnetic field lines. Steps of different amplitude are applied at various neutral gas pressures. If the amplitude of the voltage step and the gas pressure are high enough, additional discharge occurs in front of the anode and a fire-rod is created. In this work time development of the electron distribution function is measured using Langmuir and emissive probes. The formation of the anode plasma electron population is followed on the derivatives of the probe characteristics. Results obtained by Langmuir and emissive probes are compared and are found to be in good agreement. (author)

  11. Biasing, Acquisition and Interpretation of a Dense Langmuir Probe Array in NSTX

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Jaworski, M.A.; Kallman, J.; Kaita, R.; Kugel, H.; LeBlanc, B.; Marsala, R.; Ruzic, D.

    2010-01-01

    A dense array of 99 Langmuir probes has been installed in the lower divertor region of the National Spherical Torus Experiments (NSTX). This array is instrumented with a system of elec- tronics that allows flexibility in the choice of probes to bias as well as the type of measurement (including standard swept, single probe, triple probe and operation as passive floating potential and scrape-off-layer (SOL) current monitors). The use of flush-mounted probes requires careful inter- pretation. The time dependent nature of the SOL makes swept-probe traces difficult to interpret. To overcome these challenges, the single- and triple-Langmuir probe signals are used in comple- mentary fashion to determine the temperature and density at the probe location. A comparison to mid-plane measurements is made.

  12. Child-Langmuir law for cathode sheath of glow discharge in CO2

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Lisovskiy, V.A.; Krol, H.H.; Osmayev, R.O.; Yegorenkov, V.D.

    2016-01-01

    This work is devoted to the determination of the law that may be applicable to the description of the cathode sheath in CO 2 . To this end three versions of the Child-Langmuir law have been considered - a collision free one (for the ions moving through a cathode sheath without collisions with gas molecules) as well as two collision- related versions - one for a constant mean free path of positive ions and one for a constant mobility of positive ions. The current-voltage characteristics and the cathode sheath thickness of the glow discharge in CO 2 have been simultaneously measured in the pressure range from 0.05 to 1 Torr and with the discharge current values up to 80 mA. In the whole range of the discharge conditions we have studied the cathode sheath characteristics are found to obey correctly only to the Child-Langmuir law version with a constant ion mobility.

  13. Elaboration of Langmuir-Blodgett films of oligothiophenes derivatives for solid state polymerisation

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Isz, Sandrine

    1995-01-01

    Molecular electronics requires the elaboration of highly organised conductive architectures, and this research thesis addresses the fabrication of oriented conductive molecular wires. Precursors can be oriented by using the Langmuir-Blodgett technique. Synthesized molecules are oligothiophenes. After a UV-visible study in solution, these molecules have been tested under the form of Langmuir-Blodgett films. Their behaviour at the air-water interface has been characterized by using various techniques (compression isothermal, Brewster angle microscope, transmission electronic microscope, atomic force microscope) to check that higher oligothiophenes are forming a molecular film. Crystal structure reveals an almost vertical orientation of molecules at the water surface. A solid state coupling between these organised molecules has been attempted by electrochemical, thermal, and chemical ways [fr

  14. A compact, smart Langmuir Probe control module for MAST-Upgrade

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lovell, J.; Stephen, R.; Bray, S.; Naylor, G.; Elmore, S.; Willett, H.; Peterka, M.; Dimitrova, M.; Havranek, A.; Hron, M.; Sharples, R.

    2017-11-01

    A new control module for the MAST-Upgrade Langmuir Probe system has been developed. It is based on a Xilinx Zynq FPGA, which allows for excellent configurability and ease of retrieving data. The module is capable of arbitrary bias voltage waveform generation, and digitises current and voltage readings from 16 probes. The probes are biased and measured one at a time in a time multiplexed fashion, with the multiplexing sequence completely configurable. In addition, simultaneous digitisation of the floating potential of all unbiased probes is possible. A suite of these modules, each coupled with a high voltage amplifier, enables biasing and digitisation of 640 Langmuir Probes in the MAST-Upgrade Super-X divertor. The system has been successfully tested on the York Linear Plasma Device and on the COMPASS tokamak. It will be installed on MAST-Upgrade ready for operations in 2018.

  15. Crystallite structure formation at the collapse pressure of fatty acid Langmuir films

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Valdes-Covarrubias, M A; Cadena-Nava, R D; Vasquez-MartInez, E; Valdez-Perez, D; Ruiz-GarcIa, J

    2004-01-01

    We report isotherm and atomic force microscopy studies of collapsed Langmuir monolayers of fatty acids. The Langmuir monolayers were overcompressed in the range 7-40 deg. C and transferred onto mica after the sharp pressure drop when the collapse pressure was reached. Collapsed material was observed by AFM, which revealed that the multilayers are indeed three-dimensional crystallites. We found that the shape of the crystallites depends on the collapse temperature, the phase from which the collapse occurs and/or the chain length. However, at higher temperatures the collapsed films no longer show a well defined crystallite formation, but rather a more heterogeneous melt-like pattern. We associated the crystallite formation with known bulk crystal phases of the fatty acids

  16. DC Langmuir Probe for Measurement of Space Plasma: A Brief Review

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Koichiro Oyama

    2015-09-01

    Full Text Available Herein, we discuss the in situ measurement of the electron temperature in the ionosphere/plasmasphere by means of DC Langmuir probes. Major instruments which have been reported are a conventional DC Langmuir probe, whose probe voltage is swept; a pulsed probe, which uses pulsed bias voltage; a rectification probe, which uses sinusoidal signal; and a resonance cone probe, which uses radio wave propagation. The content reviews past observations made with the instruments above. We also discuss technical factors that should be taken into account for reliable measurement, such as problems related to the contamination of electrodes and the satellite surface. Finally, we discuss research topics to be studied in the near future.

  17. Maximum Langmuir Fields in Planetary Foreshocks Determined from the Electrostatic Decay Threshold

    Science.gov (United States)

    Robinson, P. A.; Cairns, Iver H.

    1995-01-01

    Maximum electric fields of Langmuir waves at planetary foreshocks are estimated from the threshold for electrostatic decay, assuming it saturates beam driven growth, and incorporating heliospheric variation of plasma density and temperature. Comparisons with spacecraft observations yields good quantitative agreement. Observations in type 3 radio sources are also in accord with this interpretation. A single mechanism can thus account for the highest fields of beam driven waves in both contexts.

  18. Spatial distribution of Langmuir waves observed upstream of Saturn's bow shock by Cassini

    Czech Academy of Sciences Publication Activity Database

    Píša, David; Santolík, Ondřej; Hospodarsky, G. B.; Kurth, W. S.; Gurnett, D. A.; Souček, Jan

    2016-01-01

    Roč. 121, č. 8 (2016), s. 7771-7784 ISSN 2169-9380 R&D Projects: GA ČR GJ16-16050Y; GA ČR(CZ) GAP209/12/2394 Institutional support: RVO:68378289 Keywords : Langmuir waves * Cassini * foreshock * Saturn Subject RIV: BL - Plasma and Gas Discharge Physics Impact factor: 2.733, year: 2016 http://onlinelibrary.wiley.com/doi/10.1002/2016JA022912/abstract

  19. Second derivative Langmuir probe diagnostics of gas discharge plasma at intermediate pressures (review article)

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Popov, Tsv K; Dimitrova, M; Dias, F M; Tsaneva, V N; Stelmashenko, N A; Blamire, M G; Barber, Z H

    2006-01-01

    The second-derivative Langmuir probe method for precise determination of the plasma potential, the electron energy distribution function (respectively the electron temperature,) and the electron density of gas discharge plasma at intermediate pressures (100-1000 Pa) is reviewed. Results of applying the procedure proposed to different kinds of gas discharges are presented. Factors affecting the accuracy of the plasma characteristics evaluated are discussed

  20. Asymmetric double Langmuir probe for fast and automatic measurements of plasma temperature

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Uckan, T.

    1987-11-01

    We present a fast technique for determining the plasma electron temperature T/sub e/ automatically from the small signal application of the asymmetric double Langmuir probe when it is operated in the region where -1 < eV/sub a/T/sub e/ < 1. The method described here is based on simple time and rms averages of the probe current that results from a sinusoidally varying applied voltage V/sub a/. 4 refs., 2 figs

  1. Fabrication of phytic acid sensor based on mixed phytase-lipid Langmuir-Blodgett films.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Caseli, Luciano; Moraes, Marli L; Zucolotto, Valtencir; Ferreira, Marystela; Nobre, Thatyane M; Zaniquelli, Maria Elisabete D; Rodrigues Filho, Ubirajara P; Oliveira, Osvaldo N

    2006-09-26

    This paper reports the surface activity of phytase at the air-water interface, its interaction with lipid monolayers, and the construction of a new phytic acid biosensor on the basis of the Langmuir-Blodgett (LB) technique. Phytase was inserted in the subphase solution of dipalmitoylphosphatidylglycerol (DPPG) Langmuir monolayers, and its incorporation to the air-water interface was monitored with surface pressure measurements. Phytase was able to incorporate into DPPG monolayers even at high surface pressures, ca. 30 mN/m, under controlled ionic strength, pH, and temperature. Mixed Langmuir monolayers of phytase and DPPG were characterized by surface pressure-area and surface potential-area isotherms, and the presence of the enzyme provided an expansion in the monolayers (when compared to the pure lipid at the interface). The enzyme incorporation also led to significant changes in the equilibrium surface compressibility (in-plane elasticity), especially in liquid-expanded and liquid-condensed regions. The dynamic surface elasticity for phytase-containing interfaces was investigated using harmonic oscillation and axisymmetric drop shape analysis. The insertion of the enzyme at DPPG monolayers caused an increase in the dynamic surface elasticity at 30 mN m(-)(1), indicating a strong interaction between the enzyme and lipid molecules at a high-surface packing. Langmuir-Blodgett (LB) films containing 35 layers of mixed phytase-DPPG were characterized by ultraviolet-visible and fluorescence spectroscopy and crystal quartz microbalance nanogravimetry. The ability in detecting phytic acid was studied with voltammetric measurements.

  2. Influence of unharmonic changes of plasma potential on the Langmuir probe characteristics for a grounded probe

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Surda, V.

    1990-01-01

    A theory is presented of the deformation of Langmuir probe characteristics by the presence of a.c. plasma potential oscillations at the space charge layer around the probe, making allowance for the fundamental frequency and the second harmonic. It is applicable particularly to the determination of the electron temperature in actual high-frequency discharges with a Maxwellian electron energy distribution. The effect of an a.c. signal on the ion current is also treated. (author). 8 figs., 14 refs

  3. New depositing method of Langmuir-Blodgett film of fatty acid soap as a radioactive source

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Iwahashi, Makio; Watanabe, Norifumi; Seimiya, Tsutomu; Naito, Fujio

    1985-02-01

    A stable radioactive source in vacuo was obtained by a new depositing method of Langmuir-Blodgett (L/B) film. In spite of the slight consumption of the substrate solution (only 2-2.5 ml) for preparing a 15 mm x 25 mm sized L/B film containing four molecular layers of /sup 109/Cd-eicosanoate, the deposition of the film was complete. (author).

  4. Statistics of Langmuir wave amplitudes observed inside Saturn's foreshock by the Cassini spacecraft

    Czech Academy of Sciences Publication Activity Database

    Píša, David; Hospodarsky, G. B.; Kurth, W. S.; Santolík, Ondřej; Souček, Jan; Gurnett, D. A.; Masters, A.; Hill, M. E.

    2015-01-01

    Roč. 120, č. 4 (2015), s. 2531-2542 ISSN 2169-9380 R&D Projects: GA ČR GAP205/10/2279; GA ČR(CZ) GAP209/12/2394 Institutional support: RVO:68378289 Keywords : Langmuir waves * foreshock * Saturn * Cassini Subject RIV: BL - Plasma and Gas Discharge Physics Impact factor: 3.318, year: 2015 http://onlinelibrary.wiley.com/doi/10.1002/2014JA020560/abstract

  5. Electronegative plasma diagnostic by laser photo-detachment combined with negatively biased Langmuir probe

    Science.gov (United States)

    Oudini, N.; Sirse, N.; Taccogna, F.; Ellingboe, A. R.; Bendib, A.

    2018-05-01

    We propose a new technique for diagnosing negative ion properties using Langmuir probe assisted pulsed laser photo-detachment. While the classical technique uses a laser pulse to convert negative ions into electron-atom pairs and a positively biased Langmuir probe tracking the change of electron saturation current, the proposed method uses a negatively biased Langmuir probe to track the temporal evolution of positive ion current. The negative bias aims to avoid the parasitic electron current inherent to probe tip surface ablation. In this work, we show through analytical and numerical approaches that, by knowing electron temperature and performing photo-detachment at two different laser wavelengths, it is possible to deduce plasma electronegativity (ratio of negative ion to electron densities) α, and anisothermicity (ratio of electron to negative ion temperatures) γ-. We present an analytical model that links the change in the collected positive ion current to plasma electronegativity and anisothermicity. Particle-In-Cell simulation is used as a numerical experiment covering a wide range of α and γ- to test the new analysis technique. The new technique is sensitive to α in the range 0.5 1.

  6. Payload charging events in the mesosphere and their impact on Langmuir type electric probes

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    T. A. Bekkeng

    2013-02-01

    Full Text Available Three sounding rockets were launched from Andøya Rocket Range in the ECOMA campaign in December 2010. The aim was to study the evolution of meteoric smoke particles during a major meteor shower. Of the various instruments onboard the rocket payload, this paper presents the data from a multi-Needle Langmuir Probe (m-NLP and a charged dust detector. The payload floating potential, as observed using the m-NLP instrument, shows charging events on two of the three flights. These charging events cannot be explained using a simple charging model, and have implications towards the use of fixed bias Langmuir probes on sounding rockets investigating mesospheric altitudes. We show that for a reliable use of a single fixed bias Langmuir probe as a high spatial resolution relative density measurement, each payload should also carry an additional instrument to measure payload floating potential, and an instrument that is immune to spacecraft charging and measures absolute plasma density.

  7. Langmuir and Freundlich Isotherm Adsorption Equations for Chromium (VI) Waste Adsorption by Zeolite

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Murni Handayani; Eko Sulistiyono

    2009-01-01

    The research of chromium (VI) waste adsorption by zeolite has done. Wastes which are produced by Industries, both radioactive waste and heavy metal waste need done more processing so that they are not endanger environment and human health. Zeolite has very well-ordered crystal form with cavity each other to way entirely so that cause surface wide of zeolite become very big and very good as adsorbents. This research intends to know appropriate isotherm adsorption method to determine maximum capacity of zeolite to chromium (VI) waste. The equations which used in adsorption process are Langmuir and Freundlich isotherm Adsorption equations. The instrument was used in adsorption process by using Atomic Adsorption Spectroscopy (AAS). The experiment result showed that the biggest mass of chromium (VI) metal ion which was absorb by zeolite in 20 ppm concentration was 7.71 mg/gram zeolite. Adsorption process of Chromium (VI) waste by zeolite followed Langmuir and Freundlich isotherm equations with R 2 >0,9 . Appropriate equation to determine maximum adsorption capacity of zeolite for chromium (VI) waste adsorption is Langmuir equation. The maximum adsorption capacity of zeolite is 52.25 mg/gram. (author)

  8. Impact of Langmuir Turbulence on Upper Ocean Response to Hurricane Edouard: Model and Observations

    Science.gov (United States)

    Blair, A.; Ginis, I.; Hara, T.; Ulhorn, E.

    2017-12-01

    Tropical cyclone intensity is strongly affected by the air-sea heat flux beneath the storm. When strong storm winds enhance upper ocean turbulent mixing and entrainment of colder water from below the thermocline, the resulting sea surface temperature cooling may reduce the heat flux to the storm and weaken the storm. Recent studies suggest that this upper ocean turbulence is strongly affected by different sea states (Langmuir turbulence), which are highly complex and variable in tropical cyclone conditions. In this study, the upper ocean response under Hurricane Edouard (2014) is investigated using a coupled ocean-wave model with and without an explicit sea state dependent Langmuir turbulence parameterization. The results are compared with in situ observations of sea surface temperature and mixed layer depth from AXBTs, as well as satellite sea surface temperature observations. Overall, the model results of mixed layer deepening and sea surface temperature cooling under and behind the storm are consistent with observations. The model results show that the effects of sea state dependent Langmuir turbulence can be significant, particularly on the mixed layer depth evolution. Although available observations are not sufficient to confirm such effects, some observed trends suggest that the sea state dependent parameterization might be more accurate than the traditional (sea state independent) parameterization.

  9. Bidirectional optical scattering facility

    Data.gov (United States)

    Federal Laboratory Consortium — Goniometric optical scatter instrument (GOSI)The bidirectional reflectance distribution function (BRDF) quantifies the angular distribution of light scattered from a...

  10. Controlled humidity gas circulators

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Gruner, S.M.

    1981-01-01

    A programmable circulator capable of regulating the humidity of a gas stream over a wide range of humidity is described. An optical dew-point hygrometer is used as a feedback element to control the addition or removal of water vapor. Typical regulation of the gas is to a dew-point temperature of +- 0.2 0 C and to an accuracy limited by the dew-point hygrometer

  11. Fluid circulation control device

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Benard, Henri; Henocque, Jean.

    1982-01-01

    Horizontal fluid circulation control device, of the type having a pivoting flap. This device is intended for being fitted in the pipes of hydraulic installation, particularly in a bleed and venting system of a nuclear power station shifting radioactive or contaminated liquids. The characteristic of this device is the cut-out at the top of the flap to allow the air contained in the pipes to flow freely [fr

  12. Supramolecular architectures of iron phthalocyanine Langmuir-Blodgett films: The role played by the solution solvents

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rubira, Rafael Jesus Gonçalves; Aoki, Pedro Henrique Benites; Constantino, Carlos José Leopoldo; Alessio, Priscila

    2017-09-01

    The developing of organic-based devices has been widely explored using ultrathin films as the transducer element, whose supramolecular architecture plays a central role in the device performance. Here, Langmuir and Langmuir-Blodgett (LB) ultrathin films were fabricated from iron phthalocyanine (FePc) solutions in chloroform (CHCl3), dichloromethane (CH2Cl2), dimethylformamide (DMF), and tetrahydrofuran (THF) to determine the influence of different solvents on the supramolecular architecture of the ultrathin films. The UV-vis absorption spectroscopy shows a strong dependence of the FePc aggregation on these solvents. As a consequence, the surface pressure vs. mean molecular area (π-A) isotherms and Brewster angle microscopy (BAM) reveal a more homogeneous (surface morphology) Langmuir film at the air/water interface for FePc in DMF. The same morphological pattern observed for the Langmuir films is preserved upon LB deposition onto solid substrates. The Raman and FTIR analyses indicate the DMF-FePc interaction relies on coordination bonds between N atom (from DMF) and Fe atom (from FePc). Besides, the FePc molecular organization was also found to be affected by the DMF-FePc chemical interaction. It is interesting to note that, if the DMF-FePc leads to less aggregated FePc either in solution or ultrathin films (Langmuir and LB), with time (one week) the opposite trend is found. Taking into account the N-Fe interaction, the performance of the FePc ultrathin films with distinct supramolecular architectures composing sensing units was explored as proof-of-principle in the detection of trace amounts of atrazine herbicide in water using impedance spectroscopy. Further statistical and computational analysis reveal not only the role played by FePc supramolecular architecture but also the sensitivity of the system to detect atrazine solutions down to 10-10 mol/L, which is sufficient to monitor the quality of drinking water even according to the most stringent international

  13. Predicting heavy metals' adsorption edges and adsorption isotherms on MnO2 with the parameters determined from Langmuir kinetics.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hu, Qinghai; Xiao, Zhongjin; Xiong, Xinmei; Zhou, Gongming; Guan, Xiaohong

    2015-01-01

    Although surface complexation models have been widely used to describe the adsorption of heavy metals, few studies have verified the feasibility of modeling the adsorption kinetics, edge, and isotherm data with one pH-independent parameter. A close inspection of the derivation process of Langmuir isotherm revealed that the equilibrium constant derived from the Langmuir kinetic model, KS-kinetic, is theoretically equivalent to the adsorption constant in Langmuir isotherm, KS-Langmuir. The modified Langmuir kinetic model (MLK model) and modified Langmuir isotherm model (MLI model) incorporating pH factor were developed. The MLK model was employed to simulate the adsorption kinetics of Cu(II), Co(II), Cd(II), Zn(II) and Ni(II) on MnO2 at pH3.2 or 3.3 to get the values of KS-kinetic. The adsorption edges of heavy metals could be modeled with the modified metal partitioning model (MMP model), and the values of KS-Langmuir were obtained. The values of KS-kinetic and KS-Langmuir are very close to each other, validating that the constants obtained by these two methods are basically the same. The MMP model with KS-kinetic constants could predict the adsorption edges of heavy metals on MnO2 very well at different adsorbent/adsorbate concentrations. Moreover, the adsorption isotherms of heavy metals on MnO2 at various pH levels could be predicted reasonably well by the MLI model with the KS-kinetic constants. Copyright © 2014. Published by Elsevier B.V.

  14. Resonant Raman scattering of ZnS, ZnO, and ZnS/ZnO core/shell quantum dots

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Milekhin, A.G. [Institute of Semiconductor Physics, Novosibirsk (Russian Federation); Novosibirsk State University, Novosibirsk (Russian Federation); Yeryukov, N.A.; Sveshnikova, L.L.; Duda, T.A. [Institute of Semiconductor Physics, Novosibirsk (Russian Federation); Himcinschi, C. [TU Bergakademie Freiberg, Institut fuer Theoretische Physik, Freiberg (Germany); Zenkevich, E.I. [Belarussian National Technical University, Minsk (Belarus); Zahn, D.R.T. [Chemnitz University of Technology, Semiconductor Physics, Chemnitz (Germany)

    2012-05-15

    Resonant Raman scattering by optical phonon modes as well as their overtones was investigated in ZnS and ZnO quantum dots grown by the Langmuir-Blodgett technique. The in situ formation of ZnS/ZnO core/shell quantum dots was monitored by Raman spectroscopy during laser illumination. (orig.)

  15. Neutron scattering. Lectures

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Brueckel, Thomas; Heger, Gernot; Richter, Dieter; Roth, Georg; Zorn, Reiner [eds.

    2010-07-01

    The following topics are dealt with: Neutron sources, symmetry of crystals, diffraction, nanostructures investigated by small-angle neutron scattering, the structure of macromolecules, spin dependent and magnetic scattering, structural analysis, neutron reflectometry, magnetic nanostructures, inelastic scattering, strongly correlated electrons, dynamics of macromolecules, applications of neutron scattering. (HSI)

  16. Neutron scattering. Lectures

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Brueckel, Thomas; Heger, Gernot; Richter, Dieter; Roth, Georg; Zorn, Reiner

    2013-01-01

    The following topics are dealt with: Neutron sources, symmetry of crystals, nanostructures investigated by small-angle neutron scattering, structure of macromolecules, spin dependent and magnetic scattering, structural analysis, neutron reflectometry, magnetic nanostructures, inelastic neutron scattering, strongly correlated electrons, polymer dynamics, applications of neutron scattering. (HSI)

  17. Neutron scattering. Lectures

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Brueckel, Thomas; Heger, Gernot; Richter, Dieter; Roth, Georg; Zorn, Reiner

    2010-01-01

    The following topics are dealt with: Neutron sources, symmetry of crystals, diffraction, nanostructures investigated by small-angle neutron scattering, the structure of macromolecules, spin dependent and magnetic scattering, structural analysis, neutron reflectometry, magnetic nanostructures, inelastic scattering, strongly correlated electrons, dynamics of macromolecules, applications of neutron scattering. (HSI)

  18. Neutron scattering. Lectures

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Brueckel, Thomas; Heger, Gernot; Richter, Dieter; Roth, Georg; Zorn, Reiner (eds.)

    2010-07-01

    The following topics are dealt with: Neutron sources, neutron properties and elastic scattering, correlation functions measured by scattering experiments, symmetry of crystals, applications of neutron scattering, polarized-neutron scattering and polarization analysis, structural analysis, magnetic and lattice excitation studied by inelastic neutron scattering, macromolecules and self-assembly, dynamics of macromolecules, correlated electrons in complex transition-metal oxides, surfaces, interfaces, and thin films investigated by neutron reflectometry, nanomagnetism. (HSI)

  19. Neutron scattering. Lectures

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Brueckel, Thomas; Heger, Gernot; Richter, Dieter; Roth, Georg; Zorn, Reiner

    2010-01-01

    The following topics are dealt with: Neutron sources, neutron properties and elastic scattering, correlation functions measured by scattering experiments, symmetry of crystals, applications of neutron scattering, polarized-neutron scattering and polarization analysis, structural analysis, magnetic and lattice excitation studied by inelastic neutron scattering, macromolecules and self-assembly, dynamics of macromolecules, correlated electrons in complex transition-metal oxides, surfaces, interfaces, and thin films investigated by neutron reflectometry, nanomagnetism. (HSI)

  20. Radiology of liver circulation

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Hermine, C.L.

    1985-01-01

    This book proposes that careful evaluation of the arterioportogram is the cornerstone in assessing portal flow obstruction, being the most consistent of all observations including liver histology, portal venous pressure, size and number of portosystemic collaterals, and wedged hepatic venous pressure. Very brief chapters cover normal hepatic circulation and angiographic methods. Contrast volumes and flow rates for celiac, hepatic, and superior mesenteric injection are given, with the timing for venous phase radiographs. In the main body of the text, portal obstruction is divided very simply into presinusoidal (all proximal causes) and postsinusoidal (all distal causes, including Budd-Chiari). Changes are discussed regarding the splenic artery and spleen; hepatic artery and its branches; portal flow rate and direction; and arterioportal shunting and portosystemic collateral circulation in minimal, moderate, severe, and very severe portal obstruction and in recognizable entities such as prehepatic portal and hepatic venous obstructions. The major emphasis in this section is the recognition and understanding of flow changes by which level and severity of obstruction are assessed (not simply the anatomy of portosystemic collateral venous flow). Excellent final chapters discuss the question of portal hypertension without obstruction, and the contribution of arterioportography to the treatment of portal hypertension, again with an emphasis on hemodynamics before and after shunt surgery. There is a fascinating final chapter on segmental intrahepatic obstruction without portal hypertension that explains much of the unusual contrast enhancement sometimes seen in CT scanning of hepatic mass lesions

  1. Circulation of Stars

    Science.gov (United States)

    Boitani, P.

    2016-01-01

    Since the dawn of man, contemplation of the stars has been a primary impulse in human beings, who proliferated their knowledge of the stars all over the world. Aristotle sees this as the product of primeval and perennial “wonder” which gives rise to what we call science, philosophy, and poetry. Astronomy, astrology, and star art (painting, architecture, literature, and music) go hand in hand through millennia in all cultures of the planet (and all use catasterisms to explain certain phenomena). Some of these developments are independent of each other, i.e., they take place in one culture independently of others. Some, on the other hand, are the product of the “circulation of stars.” There are two ways of looking at this. One seeks out forms, the other concentrates on the passing of specific lore from one area to another through time. The former relies on archetypes (for instance, with catasterism), the latter constitutes a historical process. In this paper I present some of the surprising ways in which the circulation of stars has occurred—from East to West, from East to the Far East, and from West to East, at times simultaneously.

  2. Strong Evidence for Stochastic Growth of Langmuir-Like Waves in Earth's Foreshock

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cairns, Iver H.; Robinson, P. A.

    1999-01-01

    Bursty Langmuir-like waves driven by electron beams in Earth's foreshock have properties which are inconsistent with the standard plasma physics paradigm of uniform exponential growth saturated by nonlinear processes. Here it is demonstrated for a specific period that stochastic growth theory (SGT) quantitatively describes these waves throughout a large fraction of the foreshock. The statistical wave properties are inconsistent with nonlinear processes or self-organized criticality being important. SGT's success in explaining the foreshock waves and type III solar bursts suggests that SGT is widely applicable to wave growth in space, astrophysical, and laboratory plasmas.

  3. Second harmonic generation in anisotropic Langmuir-Blodgett films of N-docosyl-4-nitroaniline

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Geisler, T.; Rosenkilde, S.; Ramanujam, P.S.

    1992-01-01

    Langmuir-Blodgett (LB) films of N-docosyl-4-nitroaniline have been made and their nonlinear optical properties studied by second harmonic generation (SHG) measurements. A significant enhancement of the intensity of the second harmonic of the 1.064-mu-m YAG was observed when a two layer Y-type film...... structure. Both of these observations are not common for Y-type LB films and the usual assumption of C(infinity nu) symmetry is therefore not valid. The results make us suggest that these LB films possess C(s) and C2-nu symmetry for mono- and multilayers, respectively. Theoretical expressions...

  4. Radicals as EPR probes of magnetization of gadolinium stearate Langmuir-Blodgett film

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Koksharov, Y.A.; Bykov, I.V.; Malakho, A.P.

    2002-01-01

    In the present work we have applied the method of the EPR spin probes which allows performing simultaneously EPR and magnetization measurements to the investigation of magnetism of the Cid stearate Langmuir-Blodgett (LB) films. For this purpose we have prepared and studied by the EPR technique...... the Gd and Y stearate LB films. Placing the small BDPA crystal on the film surface we have found that for the Gd LB sample the effective g-value of the radical's resonance depends on the film orientation in respect to the external magnetic field direction. The relative shift of the EPR signal...

  5. Modification of ion-acoustic solitons on interaction with Langmuir waves

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Basovich, A.Ya.; Gromov, E.M.; Karpman, V.I.

    1981-01-01

    Variation of an ion-accoustic soliton under the effect of the Langmuir quasimonochromatic wave has been considered. Parameters of the soliton tail and variation of soliton velocity have been determined. It is shown that the soliton tail consists of two parts: averaged and oscillating. Density oscillations have a forced nature and are related to the modulation of striction force appearing during interference of waves incident and reflected from a soliton. Oscillations appear behind soliton when the wave runs after soliton and in front of soliton when soliton runs after wave [ru

  6. Non-parametric correlative uncertainty quantification and sensitivity analysis: Application to a Langmuir bimolecular adsorption model

    Science.gov (United States)

    Feng, Jinchao; Lansford, Joshua; Mironenko, Alexander; Pourkargar, Davood Babaei; Vlachos, Dionisios G.; Katsoulakis, Markos A.

    2018-03-01

    We propose non-parametric methods for both local and global sensitivity analysis of chemical reaction models with correlated parameter dependencies. The developed mathematical and statistical tools are applied to a benchmark Langmuir competitive adsorption model on a close packed platinum surface, whose parameters, estimated from quantum-scale computations, are correlated and are limited in size (small data). The proposed mathematical methodology employs gradient-based methods to compute sensitivity indices. We observe that ranking influential parameters depends critically on whether or not correlations between parameters are taken into account. The impact of uncertainty in the correlation and the necessity of the proposed non-parametric perspective are demonstrated.

  7. Non-parametric correlative uncertainty quantification and sensitivity analysis: Application to a Langmuir bimolecular adsorption model

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Jinchao Feng

    2018-03-01

    Full Text Available We propose non-parametric methods for both local and global sensitivity analysis of chemical reaction models with correlated parameter dependencies. The developed mathematical and statistical tools are applied to a benchmark Langmuir competitive adsorption model on a close packed platinum surface, whose parameters, estimated from quantum-scale computations, are correlated and are limited in size (small data. The proposed mathematical methodology employs gradient-based methods to compute sensitivity indices. We observe that ranking influential parameters depends critically on whether or not correlations between parameters are taken into account. The impact of uncertainty in the correlation and the necessity of the proposed non-parametric perspective are demonstrated.

  8. Quantitative study of the trapped particle bunching instability in Langmuir waves

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Hara, Kentaro; Boyd, Iain D.; Chapman, Thomas; Joseph, Ilon; Berger, Richard L.; Banks, Jeffrey W.; Brunner, Stephan

    2015-01-01

    The bunching instability of particles trapped in Langmuir waves is studied using Vlasov simulations. A measure of particle bunching is defined and used to extract the growth rate from numerical simulations, which are compared with theory [Dodin et al., Phys. Rev. Lett. 110, 215006 (2013)]. In addition, the general theory of trapped particle instability in 1D is revisited and a more accurate description of the dispersion relation is obtained. Excellent agreement between numerical and theoretical predictions of growth rates of the bunching instability is shown over a range of parameters

  9. Quantitative study of the trapped particle bunching instability in Langmuir waves

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Hara, Kentaro, E-mail: kenhara@umich.edu; Boyd, Iain D. [Department of Aerospace Engineering, University of Michigan, Ann Arbor, Michigan 48109 (United States); Chapman, Thomas; Joseph, Ilon; Berger, Richard L. [Lawrence Livermore National Laboratory, Livermore, California 94550 (United States); Banks, Jeffrey W. [Department of Mathematical Sciences, Rensselaer Polytechnic Institute, Troy, New York 12180 (United States); Brunner, Stephan [Centre de Recherches en Physique des Plasmas, Association Euratom-Confederation Suisse, Ecole Polytechnique Fédérale de Lausanne, CRPP-PPB, CH-1015 Lausanne (Switzerland)

    2015-02-15

    The bunching instability of particles trapped in Langmuir waves is studied using Vlasov simulations. A measure of particle bunching is defined and used to extract the growth rate from numerical simulations, which are compared with theory [Dodin et al., Phys. Rev. Lett. 110, 215006 (2013)]. In addition, the general theory of trapped particle instability in 1D is revisited and a more accurate description of the dispersion relation is obtained. Excellent agreement between numerical and theoretical predictions of growth rates of the bunching instability is shown over a range of parameters.

  10. Langmuir-Blodgett films of polyaniline for low density lipoprotein detection

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Matharu, Zimple [Department of Science and Technology Centre on Biomolecular Electronics, Biomedical Instrumentation Section, National Physical Laboratory (CSIR), Dr. K. S. Krishnan Marg, New Delhi-110012 (India); Department of Physics and Astrophysics, University of Delhi, Delhi-110007 (India); Sumana, G. [Department of Science and Technology Centre on Biomolecular Electronics, Biomedical Instrumentation Section, National Physical Laboratory (CSIR), Dr. K. S. Krishnan Marg, New Delhi-110012 (India); Gupta, Vinay [Department of Physics and Astrophysics, University of Delhi, Delhi-110007 (India); Malhotra, B.D., E-mail: bansi.malhotra@gmail.co [Department of Science and Technology Centre on Biomolecular Electronics, Biomedical Instrumentation Section, National Physical Laboratory (CSIR), Dr. K. S. Krishnan Marg, New Delhi-110012 (India)

    2010-11-30

    Langmuir-Blodgett (LB) films of polyaniline (PANI) were utilized for the fabrication of impedimetric immunosensor for detection of human plasma low density lipoprotein (LDL) by immobilizing anti-apolipoprotein B (AAB) via EDC-NHS coupling. The modified electrodes were characterized by electrochemical impedance spectroscopy (EIS) and scanning electron microscopy. AAB/PANI-SA LB immunoelectrodes studied by EIS spectroscopy revealed detection of LDL in the wide range of 0.018 {mu}M (6 mg/dl) to 0.39 {mu}M (130 mg/dl), covering the physiological range in blood, with a sensitivity of 11.25 k{Omega} {mu}M{sup -1}.

  11. Langmuir-Blodgett films of polyaniline for low density lipoprotein detection

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Matharu, Zimple; Sumana, G.; Gupta, Vinay; Malhotra, B.D.

    2010-01-01

    Langmuir-Blodgett (LB) films of polyaniline (PANI) were utilized for the fabrication of impedimetric immunosensor for detection of human plasma low density lipoprotein (LDL) by immobilizing anti-apolipoprotein B (AAB) via EDC-NHS coupling. The modified electrodes were characterized by electrochemical impedance spectroscopy (EIS) and scanning electron microscopy. AAB/PANI-SA LB immunoelectrodes studied by EIS spectroscopy revealed detection of LDL in the wide range of 0.018 μM (6 mg/dl) to 0.39 μM (130 mg/dl), covering the physiological range in blood, with a sensitivity of 11.25 kΩ μM -1 .

  12. Macroscopic alignment of graphene stacks by Langmuir-Blodgett deposition of amphiphilic hexabenzocoronenes

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Laursen, B.W.; Nørgaard, K.; Reitzel, N.

    2004-01-01

    ). Grazing-incidence X-ray diffraction (GIXD) and X-ray reflectivity, both utilizing synchrotron radiation, show that these amphiphilic HBCs form well-defined Langmuir monolayers at the air-water interface, with pi-stacked columnar structure where the HBC cores are rotated around the surface normal...... and tilted relative to the water surface. The intercolumnar distance is 20 A. The HBCs are confined to a layer lying on top of the layer of polar groups that are in contact with the water subphase. Efficient transfer of the monolayer of the anthraquinone-substituted HBC derivative to hydrophobic quartz...

  13. Langmuir-Blodgett films of alkane chalcogenice (S, Se, Te) stabilized gold nanoparticles

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Brust, M.; Stuhr-Hansen, N.; Norgaard, K.

    2001-01-01

    Gold nanoparticles stabilized by alkanethiolates, alkaneselenides, and alkanetellurides have been prepared by analogous methods. Chloroform solutions of thiolate and selenide stabilized particles were spread and evaporated on the water/air interface where the particles formed well-defined Langmuir...... films. The films were transferred to solid supports of freshly cleaved mica and were studied by atomic force microscopy (AFM). The particles were found to have an average core diameter of 2 nm. The stability of the particles under ambient conditions increased in the order Te

  14. Child–Langmuir law applicability for a cathode sheath description of glow discharge in hydrogen

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Lisovskiy, V A; Artushenko, K P; Yegorenkov, V D

    2016-01-01

    The present paper reveals that the Child-Langmuir law version with the constant ion mobility has to be applied for the cathode sheath description of the glow discharge in hydrogen. Using the analytical model we demonstrate that even in a high electric field the constant mobility law version rather than that for the constant ion mean free path has to hold in the case of impeded charge exchange and the dominant effect of polarization forces on the ion motion through the cathode sheath. (paper)

  15. An introduction to ultrathin organic films from Langmuir-Blodgett to self-assembly

    CERN Document Server

    Ulman, Abraham

    1991-01-01

    The development of oriented organic monomolecular layers by the Langmuir-Blodgett (LB) and self-assembly (SA) techniques has led researchers toward their goal of assembling individual molecules into highly ordered architectures. Thus the continually growing contribution of LB and SA systems to the chemistry and physics of thin organic films is widely recognized. Equally well-known is the difficulty in keeping up to date with the burgeoning multidisciplinary research in this area. Dr. Ulman provides a massive survey of the available literature. The book begins with a section on analytical tools

  16. Plasma flow measurement using directional Langmuir probe under weakly ion-magnetized conditions

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Nagaoka, Kenichi; Okamoto, Atsushi [Graduate School of Science, Nagoya Univ., Nagoya (Japan); Yoshimura, Shinji; Tanaka, Masayoshi Y. [National Inst. for Fusion Science, Toki, Gifu (Japan)

    2000-07-01

    It is both experimentally and theoretically demonstrated that ion flow velocity at an arbitrary angle with respect to the magnetic field can be measured with a directional Langmuir probe. Based on the symmetry argument, we show that the effect of magnetic field on directional probe current is exactly canceled in determining the ion flow velocity, and obtain the generalized relation between flow velocity and directional probe currents valid for any flowing direction. The absolute value of the flow velocity is determined by an in situ calibration method of the probe. The applicability limit of the present method to a strongly ion-magnetized plasma is experimentally examined. (author)

  17. First simultaneous measurements of Reynolds stress with ball-pen and Langmuir probes

    Czech Academy of Sciences Publication Activity Database

    Grover, Ondřej; Adámek, Jiří; Seidl, Jakub; Devitre, A.; Šos, Miroslav; Vondráček, Petr; Bílková, Petra; Hron, Martin

    2017-01-01

    Roč. 88, č. 6 (2017), č. článku 063501. ISSN 0034-6748 R&D Projects: GA ČR(CZ) GA15-10723S; GA ČR(CZ) GA16-25074S; GA MŠk(CZ) LM2015045 Institutional support: RVO:61389021 Keywords : COMPASS tokamak * Electric field effects * Electric fields * Langmuir probes * Magnetoplasma * Ball-pen probes Subject RIV: BL - Plasma and Gas Discharge Physics OBOR OECD: 2.11 Other engineering and technologies Impact factor: 1.515, year: 2016 http://aip.scitation.org/doi/full/10.1063/1.4984240

  18. Conceptual design of a Langmuir probe system for the tokamak ASDEX-UPGRADE

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Anastassiadis, A.; Tsingas, A.C.; Tsois, N.N.; Zoumbos, G.A.

    1985-05-01

    The conceptual design of a Langmuir probe system for the tokamak ASDEX-UPG is presented. This system is intended to carry out electrostatic measurements, in space and time, on the boundary layer plasma over the largest possible volume of the divertor plasma during discharges. Conducted by preset design requirements a fast probe system is proposed. During discharges signal measurements will be performed by means of a data-acquisition system and the motion will be controlled by a real-time computer. The desired information concerning plasma parameters and the motion of the probe system will be available to the diagnostician via a video display unit. (author)

  19. Electron non-linearities in Langmuir waves with application to beat-wave experiments

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Bell, A.R.; Gibbon, P.

    1988-01-01

    Non-linear Langmuir waves are examined in the context of the beat-wave accelerator. With a background of immobile ions the waves in one dimension are subject to the relativistic non-linearity of Rosenbluth, M.N. and Liu, C.S., Phys. Rev. Lett., 1972, 29, 701. In two or three dimensions, other electron non-linearities occur which involve electric and magnetic fields. The quasi-linear equations for these non-linearities are developed and solved numerically in a geometry representative of laser-driven beat waves. (author)

  20. Embedded calibration system for the DIII-D Langmuir probe analog fiber optic links

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Watkins, J. G.; Rajpal, R.; Mandaliya, H.; Watkins, M.; Boivin, R. L.

    2012-01-01

    This paper describes a generally applicable technique for simultaneously measuring offset and gain of 64 analog fiber optic data links used for the DIII-D fixed Langmuir probes by embedding a reference voltage waveform in the optical transmitted signal before every tokamak shot. The calibrated data channels allow calibration of the power supply control fiber optic links as well. The array of fiber optic links and the embedded calibration system described here makes possible the use of superior modern data acquisition electronics in the control room.

  1. RF plasma parameter determination by a Langmuir multipoint double probe array

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Rojas-Olmedo, I A; López-Callejas, R; De la Piedad-Beneitez, A; Valencia-Alvarado, R; Peña-Eguiluz, R; Mercado-Cabrera, A; Barocio, S R; Muñoz-Castro, A E; Rodríguez-Méndez, B G

    2012-01-01

    A multipoint double Langmuir (MDL) probe system, which is exempt from interference, has been designed and assembled to be applied to an RF plasma. The system provides the measurement of fundamental plasma parameters such as density, temperature, plasma potential, etc. on the basis of the Bohm Approximation Theory and the Orbital Movement Limit. Thus, one pair of the MDL system is selected so as to consider the right plasma parameters within the prevailing pressure-power intervals. Both the hardware and software of the system have been applied to the modification of material properties by means of the PIII process.

  2. RF compensation of single Langmuir probe in low density helicon plasma

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Ghosh, Soumen, E-mail: soumen@ipr.res.in; Chattopadhyay, Prabal K.; Ghosh, Joydeep; Bora, Dhiraj

    2016-11-15

    Highlights: • Appropriate density and temperature measurement with Langmuir probe in RF Eenvironment. • Necessity of large auxiliary electrode for RF compensation at low densities (∼10{sup 16} m{sup −3}). • Measured two temperature electrons in low pressure helicon antenna produced RF plasma. • Tail electrons are localized only at off-axis in our cylindrical plasma system. - Abstract: Interpretations of Single Langmuir probe measurements in electrode-less radio frequency (RF) plasmas are noteworthy tricky and require adequate compensation of RF. Conventional RF compensation technique is limited only at high density (>10{sup 17} m{sup −3}) RF plasmas. RF compensation of single Langmuir probe at low density RF plasmas (∼10{sup 16} m{sup −3}) is presented in this paper. In RF driven plasmas, where the RF voltage is high (∼50 V) and density is in the range (∼10{sup 16} m{sup −3}), the primary RF compensation condition (Z{sub ck} > >Z{sub sh}) is very difficult to fulfill, because of high sheath impedance (Z{sub sh}) at 13.56 MHz and the construction limitation of a self-resonant tiny chock (Z{sub ck}) with very high impedance. Introducing a large auxiliary electrode (A{sub x}), (A{sub x} >>> A{sub p}), close to the small Langmuir probe (A{sub p}) tip, connected in parallel with probe via a coupling capacitor (C{sub cp}), significantly reduces the effective sheath impedance (Z{sub sh}) and allows probe bias to follow the RF oscillation. Dimensional requirements of the auxiliary electrode and the role of suitable coupling capacitor are discussed in this paper. Observations show proper compensation leads to estimation of more positive floating potentials and lower electron temperatures compared to uncompensated probe. The electron energy probability function (EEPF) is also obtained by double differentiating the collected current with respect to the applied bias voltage using an active analog circuit.

  3. Parametric decay of current-driven Langmuir waves in plateau plasmas: Relevance to solar wind and foreshock events

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sauer, Konrad; Malaspina, David M.; Pulupa, Marc; Salem, Chadi S.

    2017-07-01

    Langmuir amplitude modulation in association with type III radio bursts is a well-known phenomenon since the beginning of space observations. It is commonly attributed to the superposition of beam-excited Langmuir waves and their backscattered counterparts as a result of parametric decay. The dilemma, however, is the discrepancy between fast beam relaxation and long-lasting Langmuir wave activity. Instead of starting with an unstable electron beam, our focus in this paper is on the nonlinear response of Langmuir oscillations that are driven after beam stabilization by the still persisting current of the (stable) two-electron plasma. The velocity distribution function of the second population forms a plateau (index h) with a point at which ∂fh/∂v ˜0 associated with weak damping over a more or less extended wave number range k. As shown by particle-in-cell simulations, this so-called plateau plasma drives primarily Langmuir oscillations at the plasma frequency (ωe) with k = 0 over long times without remarkable change of the distribution function. These Langmuir oscillations act as a pump wave for parametric decay by which an electron-acoustic wave slightly below ωe and a counterstreaming ion-acoustic wave are generated. Both high-frequency waves have nearly the same amplitude, which is given by the product of plateau density and velocity. Beating of these two wave types leads to pronounced Langmuir amplitude modulation, in reasonable agreement with solar wind and terrestrial foreshock observations made by the Wind spacecraft.

  4. THE EFFECTS OF ELECTRON-BEAM-INDUCED ELECTRIC FIELD ON THE GENERATION OF LANGMUIR TURBULENCE IN FLARING ATMOSPHERES

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Zharkova, Valentina V.; Siversky, Taras V.

    2011-01-01

    The precipitation of an electron beam injected into the solar atmosphere is studied for the generation of Langmuir wave turbulence in the presence of collisional and Ohmic losses. The system of quasi-linear time-dependent kinetic equations describing the evolution of beams and Langmuir waves is solved by using the summary approximation method. It is found that at upper atmospheric levels the self-induced electric field suppresses the generation of Langmuir turbulence to very small regions below injection. With further precipitation into deeper atmosphere the initial single power-law distributions of beam electrons are transformed into energy distributions with maxima at lower energies formed by collisional and Ohmic energy depletion. The electrons with lower energies (<20 keV) generate on large spatial scales intense low-hybrid and high-hybrid Langmuir waves with well-defined patterns in the corona while higher energy electrons generate moderate low-hybrid waves in the chromosphere. The maximum wave density appears at the maximum of the ambient density. The self-induced electric field reduces the level and makes the regions with low-hybrid Langmuir turbulence narrower in the corona and upper chromosphere. The higher the beam energy flux or its self-induced electric field, the narrower the regions with Langmuir turbulence. High-hybrid Langmuir waves in the form of multiple patterns in space (in the corona) and energy (below 20 keV) are found to be generated only by a very intense electron beam. The number of patterns in both dimensions is also shown to be significantly reduced by the self-induced electric field.

  5. Scattering and multiple scattering in disordered materials

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Weaver, R.L.; Butler, W.H.

    1992-01-01

    The papers in this section were presented at a joint session of symposium V on Applications of Multiple Scattering Theory and of Symposium P on Disordered Systems. They show that the ideas of scattering theory can help us to understand a very broad class of phenomena

  6. Circulation Systems Past and Present

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Maurice J. Freedman

    1981-01-01

    Full Text Available A review of the development of circulation systems shows two areas of change. The librarian's perception of circulation control has shifted from a broad service orientation to a narrow record-keeping approach and recently back again. The technological development of circulation sys-tems has evolved from manual systems to the online systems of today. The trade-offs and deficiencies of earlier systems in relation to the comprehensive services made possible by the online computer are detailed.

  7. First Test of Stochastic Growth Theory for Langmuir Waves in Earth's Foreshock

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cairns, Iver H.; Robinson, P. A.

    1997-01-01

    This paper presents the first test of whether stochastic growth theory (SGT) can explain the detailed characteristics of Langmuir-like waves in Earth's foreshock. A period with unusually constant solar wind magnetic field is analyzed. The observed distributions P(logE) of wave fields E for two intervals with relatively constant spacecraft location (DIFF) are shown to agree well with the fundamental prediction of SGT, that P(logE) is Gaussian in log E. This stochastic growth can be accounted for semi-quantitatively in terms of standard foreshock beam parameters and a model developed for interplanetary type III bursts. Averaged over the entire period with large variations in DIFF, the P(logE) distribution is a power-law with index approximately -1; this is interpreted in terms of convolution of intrinsic, spatially varying P(logE) distributions with a probability function describing ISEE's residence time at a given DIFF. Wave data from this interval thus provide good observational evidence that SGT can sometimes explain the clumping, burstiness, persistence, and highly variable fields of the foreshock Langmuir-like waves.

  8. Studies on the Electrical Characteristics of a DC Glow Discharge by Using Langmuir Probe

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Safaai, S. S.; Yap, S. L.; Wong, C. S.; Muniandy, S. V.; Smith, P. W.

    2010-01-01

    Electrical characteristics of a DC glow discharge are studied with the aim of determining the suitable parameters for stable operation of the dusty plasma system. The presence of dust particles in plasma significantly alters the charged particle equilibrium in the plasma and leads to various phenomena. Argon plasma produced by DC glow discharge is investigated with a further goal of studying dusty plasma phenomena. The discharge system has two disc-shaped parallel plate electrodes. The electrodes are enclosed in a large cylindrical stainless steel chamber filled with argon gas. Two important physical parameters affecting the condition of the discharge are the gas pressure and the inter-electrode distance. A single Langmuir probe based on the Keithley source meter is used to determine the electron temperature of the positive column. A custom designed probe is employed to determine the potential distribution between the electrodes during the discharge. The I-V characteristic curve and the Langmuir probe measurement are then used to determine the electron energy distribution of the glow discharge plasma.

  9. Soliton solutions and chaotic motions of the Zakharov equations for the Langmuir wave in the plasma

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Zhen, Hui-Ling; Tian, Bo, E-mail: tian-bupt@163.com; Wang, Yu-Feng; Liu, De-Yin [State Key Laboratory of Information Photonics and Optical Communications, and School of Science, Beijing University of Posts and Telecommunications, Beijing 100876 (China)

    2015-03-15

    For the interaction between the high-frequency Langmuir waves and low-frequency ion-acoustic waves in the plasma, the Zakharov equations are studied in this paper. Via the Hirota method, we obtain the soliton solutions, based on which the soliton propagation is presented. It is found that with λ increasing, the amplitude of u decreases, whereas that of v remains unchanged, where λ is the ion-acoustic speed, u is the slowly-varying envelope of the Langmuir wave, and v is the fluctuation of the equilibrium ion density. Both the head-on and bound-state interactions between the two solitons are displayed. We observe that with λ decreasing, the interaction period of u decreases, while that of v keeps unchanged. It is found that the Zakharov equations cannot admit any chaotic motions. With the external perturbations taken into consideration, the perturbed Zakharov equations are studied for us to see the associated chaotic motions. Both the weak and developed chaotic motions are investigated, and the difference between them roots in the relative magnitude of the nonlinearities and perturbations. The chaotic motions are weakened with λ increasing, or else, strengthened. Periodic motion appears when the nonlinear terms and external perturbations are balanced. With such a balance kept, one period increases with λ increasing.

  10. Luminescent Langmuir-Blodgett film of a new amphiphilic Eu3+ β-diketonate

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Gomes, Luciano F.; Oliveira, Kleber T. de; Neri, Claudio R.; Sousa Filho, Paulo C. de; Bianco, Marcos J. dal; Ramos, Ana P.; Zaniquelli, Maria E.D.; Serra, Osvaldo A.

    2008-01-01

    This work reports on the synthesis and characterization of the ligand 3-hexadecylpentane-2,4-dione (Hhdacac) and its Eu 3+ complexes Eu(hdacac) 6 .2H 2 O, Eu(hdacac) 6 .phen and Eu(hdacac) 6 .tta, where phen and tta denote 1,10-phenanthroline and thenoyltrifluoroacetone, respectively. These new compounds present long carbon chains and their expected miscibility into non-polar ambients is confirmed by the emission spectra of Eu(hdacac) 6 .tta in hexane. Moreover, the amphiphilic properties of Eu(hdacac) 6 complexes allow the obtainment of thin luminescent films by the Langmuir-Blodgett technique. In both cases (solids and films), the typical antenna effect of β-diketonates is observed. The alluring characteristics of these compounds raise great interest in many fields of Materials Science, like photo- and electro-luminescent materials (mainly thin 'organic' films), metal catalysts or probes in non-polar solutions, and Langmuir-Blodgett films of several compositions. For the characterization of these products, nuclear magnetic resonance spectroscopy ( 1 H NMR), thermogravimetric analysis, elementary analyses (C, H), scanning electron microscopy (energy dispersive X-ray spectroscopy), absorption (UV-vis/FT-IR) and photoluminescence spectroscopies were used

  11. The composite phthalocyanine-based Langmuir-Blodgett films: structural peculiarities and NO-sensitive properties

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Emelianov, I.L.; Khatko, V.V. [Nat. Acad. of Sci., Minsk (Belarus). Phys. Tech. Inst.

    1999-10-08

    Surface pressure versus area per molecule isotherms of the Langmuir monolayers of copper tetra-tert-butyl phthalocyanine (abbreviated as CuTTBPc), arachidic acid (abbreviated as AA), and their mixtures were measured depending upon the film component ratio and ionic content of the subphase. Substantial deviations of the mixed monolayer behaviour from an ideal one, which is characteristic of fully immiscible compounds forming separate surface domains on the liquid subphase, were observed if the molar fraction of AA in mixed monolayers exceeded 50%. This abnormality in the monolayer behaviour correlated with the drastic changes in the kinetics responses to NO gas of the sensors based on the mixed Langmuir-Blodgett (LB) films. The comparison and analysis of the results obtained suggest that the gas-sensitive properties of the two-component LB films are determined by two features of their structure, namely, hole-like defects existing in the AA matrix and interlayer cavities. The corresponding structure model of the mixed films is proposed. The results obtained may be useful for understanding the gas-sensitive mechanism of the composite phthalocyanine-based LB films. (orig.)

  12. Description of two-metal biosorption equilibria by Langmuir-type models.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chong, K H; Volesky, B

    1995-08-20

    A biosorbent prepared from Ascophyllum nodosum seaweed biomass, FCAN2, was examined for its sorption capacity. Equilibrium batch sorption studies were performed using two-matal systems containing either (Cu + Zn), (Cu + Cd), or (Zn + Cd). In the evaluation of the two-metal sorption system performance, simple isotherm curves had to be replaced by three-dimensional sorption isotherm surfaces. In order to describe the isotherm surfaces mathematically, three Langmuir-type models were evaluated. The apparent one-parameter Langmuir constant (b) was used to quantify FCAN2 "affinity" for one metal in the presence of another one. The uptake of Zn decreased drastically when Cu or Cd were present. The uptake of Cd wasmuch more sensitive to the presence of Cu than to that of Zn. The presence of Cd and Zn alter the "affinity" of FCAN2 for Cu the least at high Cu equilibrium concentrations. The mathematical model of the two-metal sorption system enabled quantitative estimation of one-metal (bio)sorption inhibition due to the influence of a second metal. (c) 1995 John Wiley & Sons Inc.

  13. Fluctuations measured by flush mounted versus proud divertor Langmuir probes - why are they different?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Garcia, O. E.; Kuang, A. Q.; Brunner, D.; Labombard, B.; Kube, R.

    2017-10-01

    A flush-mounted, toroidally-elongated, and field-aligned divertor `rail' Langmuir probe array was installed in Alcator C-Mod in 2015. This geometry is heat flux tolerant and effectively mitigates sheath expansion effects down to incident field line angles of 0.5 degree. Further complications have arisen that cannot be explained by sheath-expansion. In particular, the `rail' probe geometry measures significantly higher plasma fluctuation levels in the common flux region compared to traditional proud probes, whereas they are similar in the private flux zone. In some instances, the amplitudes of ion saturation current fluctuations normalized to the mean are a factor of 2 higher; probability distribution functions correspondingly record large amplitude events that are not seen by the proud probes. This discrepancy also appears to depend on divertor plasma regime. For example, fluctuations become similar near the strikepoint when the electron temperature is low. To ensure that these discrepancies were not due to perturbations caused by the voltage bias or currents collected by the probes, the two Langmuir probe systems were left to `float' and the fluctuation statistics analyzed. Yet, even in this non-perturbative situation, there exist clear differences in the fluctuation characteristics. The raises two questions: how does the probe geometry affect plasma fluctuations measurements and what are the true plasma fluctuations experienced by the divertor surface? Supported by USDoE awards DE-FC02-99ER54512.

  14. Study of plasma-material surface interaction using Langmuir probe technique during plasma treatment

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Saloum, S.; Akel, M.

    2009-06-01

    In this study, we tried to understand the plasma-surface interactions by using Langmuir probes. Two different types of plasmas were studied, the first is the electropositive plasma in Argon and the second is the electronegative plasma in Sulfur Hexafluoride. In the first type, the effects of Argon gas pressure, the injection of Helium in the remote zone and the substrate bias on the measurements of the Electron Energy Probability Function (EEPF) and on the plasma parameters (electron density (n e ), effective electron temperature (T e ff), plasma potential (V p ) and floating potential (V f )) have been investigated. The obtained EEPFs and plasma parameters have been used to control two remote plasma processes. The first is the remote Plasma Enhanced Chemical Vapor Deposition (PE-CVD) of thin films, on silicon wafers, from Hexamethyldisoloxane (HMDSO) precursor diluted in the remote Ar-He plasma. The second is the pure Argon remote plasma treatment of polymethylmethacrylate (PMMA) polymer surface. In the second type, the plasma diagnostics were performed in the remote zone as a function of SF 6 flow rate, where relative concentrations of fluorine atoms were measured using actinometry optical emission spectroscopy; electron density, electron temperature and plasma potential were determined using single cylindrical Langmuir probe, positive ion flux and negative ion fraction were determined using an planar probe. The silicon etching process in SF 6 plasma was studied. (author)

  15. Study of plasma-material surface interaction using langmuir probe technique during plasma treatment

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Saloum, S.; Akel, M.

    2012-01-01

    In this study, we tried to understand the plasma-surface interactions by using Langmuir probes. Two different types of plasmas were studied, the first is the electropositive plasma in Argon and the second is the electronegative plasma in Sulfur Hexafluoride. In the first type, the effects of Argon gas pressure, the injection of Helium in the remote zone and the substrate bias on the measurements of the Electron Energy Probability Function (EEPF) and on the plasma parameters (electron density (n e ), effective electron temperature (T e ff), plasma potential (V p ) and floating potential (V f )) have been investigated. The obtained EEPFs and plasma parameters have been used to control two remote plasma processes. The first is the remote Plasma Enhanced Chemical Vapor Deposition (PE-CVD) of thin films, on silicon wafers, from Hexamethyldisiloxane (HMDSO) precursor diluted in the remote Ar-He plasma. The second is the pure Argon remote plasma treatment of polymethylmethacrylate (PMMA) polymer surface. In the second type, the plasma diagnostics were performed in the remote zone as a function of SF 6 flow rate, where relative concentrations of fluorine atoms were measured using actinometry optical emission spectroscopy; electron density, electron temperature and plasma potential were determined using single cylindrical Langmuir probe, positive ion flux and negative ion fraction were determined using an planar probe. The silicon etching process in SF 6 plasma was studied. (author)

  16. A theoretical model for the pyroelectric response in Langmuir-Blodgett films

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Capan, R.; Basaran, I.; Richardson, T.H.; Lacey, D.

    2002-01-01

    Understanding the structure of pyroelectric materials is important to elucidate the nature of the temperature-dependent microscopic and macroscopic electric polarisation. Pyroelectric materials must have a non-centrosymmetric structure. Previously, researchers [C.A. Jones, PhD thesis, University of Durham, (1987); J. Mater. Chem. 1 (1991) 819; Langmuir 11 (1995) 4623] have reported the pyroelectric effect of non-centrosymmetric ultrathin LB films prepared using the alternate layer Langmuir-Blodgett (LB) deposition technique. They have proposed three main mechanisms to explain the origin of the pyroelectric activity, namely, tilting, proton transfer, and ionic processes. Linear and cyclic polysiloxane materials with aliphatic and aromatic side groups have been studied in this work. These materials have been alternately deposited with eicosylamine to form the active pyroelectric material in metal-LB film-metal (MIM) devices, whose pyroelectric coefficients have been measured using a quasi-static measurement technique [W.H. Majid, Abd., PhD thesis, Univ. of Sheffield (1994); Mater. Sci. Eng., C, Biomim. Mater., Sens. Syst. 3 (1995) 197; Thin Solid Films 327-329 (1998) 369]. The relation between pyroelectric mechanism(s) and microscopic and macroscopic pyroelectric response for polysiloxane/eicosylamine alternate layer LB films will be explained in this work. Results indicate that the physical mechanism by which the pyroelectric activity arises in the LB films is critically dependent upon their structural quality, the ions within the multilayer arrangement and the molecular dipole moments of the molecules

  17. Langmuir probe measurement of the bismuth plasma plume formed by an extreme-ultraviolet pulsed laser

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Pira, P; Burian, T; Kolpaková, A; Tichý, M; Kudrna, P; Daniš, S; Wild, J; Juha, L; Lančok, J; Vyšín, L; Civiš, S; Zelinger, Z; Kubát, P

    2014-01-01

    Properties of the plasma plume produced on a bismuth (Bi) target irradiated by a focused extreme-ultraviolet (XUV) capillary-discharge laser beam were investigated. Langmuir probes were used in both single- and double-probe arrangements to determine the electron temperature and the electron density, providing values of 1–3 eV and ∼10 13 –10 14  m −3 , respectively. Although the temperatures seem to be comparable with values obtained in ablation plasmas produced by conventional, long-wavelength lasers, the density is significantly lower. This finding indicates that the desorption-like phenomena are responsible for the plume formation rather than the ablation processes. A very thin Bi film was prepared on an MgO substrate by pulsed XUV laser deposition. The non-uniform, sub-monolayer character of the deposited bismuth film confirms the Langmuir probe's observation of the desorption-like erosion induced by the XUV laser on the primary Bi target. (paper)

  18. Effect of temperature dependence of the Langmuir constant molecular pair potentials on gas hydrates formation mechanism

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Mokhtari, B.; Enayati, M. [Iranian Offshore Oil Co., Tehran (Iran, Islamic Republic of); Heidaryan, E. [Islamic Azad Univ., Tehran (Iran, Islamic Republic of). Masjidosolayman Branch

    2008-07-01

    Theoretical methods show that crystalline hydrates can form from single-phase systems consisting of both vapor water with gaseous hydrate former and liquid water with dissolved hydrate former. Two phase systems consist of both liquid water with gaseous hydrate former and with liquid hydrate former on the surface. This paper presented a Langmuir constant related model for the prediction of equilibrium pressures and cage occupancies of pure component hydrates. Intermolecular potentials were fit to quantum mechanical energies to obtain the Langmuir constants, which differed from the procedure utilized with the vdWP model. The paper described the experimental method and model calculations. This included the Fugacity model and Van der Waals and Platteeuw model. The paper also discussed pair potential of non-spherical molecules, including the multicentre (site-site) potential; Gaussian overlap potential; Lennard-Jones potential; and Kihara generalized pair potential. It was concluded that fraction of occupied cavities is a function of pair potentials between hard core and empty hydrate lattice. These pair potentials could be calculated from some model as Kihara cell potential, Gaussian potential, Lennard-Jones potential and multicentre pair potential. 49 refs., 3 figs.

  19. Phase-mixing of Langmuir oscillations in cold electron-positron-ion plasmas

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Maity, Chandan [Saha Institute of Nuclear Physics, 1/AF Bidhannagar, Kolkata 700 064 (India)

    2014-07-15

    Space-time evolution of Langmuir oscillations in a cold homogeneous electron-positron-ion plasma has been analyzed by employing a straightforward perturbation expansion method, showing phase-mixing and, thus, wave-breaking of excited oscillations at arbitrary amplitudes. Within an assumption of infinitely massive ions, an approximate phase-mixing time is found to scale as ω{sub pe}t{sub mix}∼[(6/δ{sup 2})((2−α){sup 5/2}/(1−α))]{sup 1/3}, where “δ” and “α” (= n{sub 0i}/n{sub 0e}) are the amplitude of perturbation and the ratio of equilibrium ion density to equilibrium electron density, respectively, and ω{sub pe}∼√(4πn{sub 0e}e{sup 2}/m) is the electron plasma frequency. The results presented on phase-mixing of Langmuir modes in multispecies plasmas are expected to be relevant to laboratory and astrophysical environments.

  20. Immobilization of alcohol dehydrogenase in phospholipid Langmuir-Blodgett films to detect ethanol.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Caseli, Luciano; Perinotto, Angelo C; Viitala, Tapani; Zucolotto, Valtencir; Oliveira, Osvaldo N

    2009-03-03

    Enzyme immobilization in nanostructured films may be useful for a number of biomimetic systems, particularly if suitable matrixes are identified. Here we show that alcohol dehydrogenase (ADH) has high affinity toward a negatively charged phospholipid, dimyristoylphosphatidic acid (DMPA), which forms a Langmuir monolayer at an air-water interface. Incorporation of ADH into the DMPA monolayer was monitored with surface pressure measurements and polarization-modulation infrared reflection absorption spectroscopy, with the alpha-helices from ADH being mainly oriented parallel to the water surface. ADH remained at the interface even at high surface pressures, thus allowing deposition of Langmuir-Blodgett (LB) films from the DMPA-ADH film. Indeed, interaction with DMPA enhances the transfer of ADH, where the mass transferred onto a solid support increased from 134 ng for ADH on a Gibbs monolayer to 178 ng for an LB film with DMPA. With fluorescence spectroscopy it was possible to confirm that the ADH structure was preserved even after one month of the LB deposition. ADH-containing films deposited onto gold-interdigitated electrodes were employed in a sensor array capable of detecting ethanol at concentrations down to 10 ppb (in volume), using impedance spectroscopy as the method of detection.

  1. A seven harmonic actively compensated Langmuir probe for the GEC Cell

    Science.gov (United States)

    Goodyear, A.; Nolle, L.; Hopgood, A. A.; Picton, P. D.; Braithwaite, N.

    2001-10-01

    The uncertainty of Langmuir probe measurements in capacitively coupled discharges depends to a great extent on how well harmonic components in the plasma potential are accounted for. The extent to which individual harmonics distort a probe characteristic has been determined across power and pressure parameter-space in the GEC cell. Langmuir probe current-voltage measurements are distorted by RF components across the probe sheath. A seven harmonic waveform was applied to the probe tip to actively match that generated by the plasma. In some circumstances harmonics above the 3rd contributed RF components of the order of the electron temperature in magnitude. Measurement of the EEDF was found to be particularly sensitive to these components. Optimization of the applied waveform (seven amplitudes and seven phases) was achieved using artificially intelligent control. This is advantageous given the large number of (possibly interacting) parameters and permits tracking of changes in plasma conditions. An algorithm utilizing simulated annealing determines the optimum waveform in a far shorter time than a skilled human operator can.

  2. Numerical model of operation of the Langmuir probe under intermediate pressure

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Dudin, S.V.

    1996-01-01

    The technique of a Langmuir probe is known reasonably well. However, despite plenty of work devoted to calculation of currents on the probe inserted into plasma, a theory does not at present exist which would allow calculation of plasma parameters at any size of the probe and pressure of the working gas. While the theory of a probe in absence of collisions is developed rather in detail by Bernstain and Rabinovich, Laframboise, Allen, and others, there is no rigorous theory which describes a probe under high pressure of a gas. As for intermediate pressure, the theories are absent. Solution of the problem is in this case considerably complicated because of non-local dependence of density of charged particles on potential or electric field strength that means unusability of hydrodynamic approach and necessity of application of the kinetic theory. To fill in this gap the author has developed a numerical model of ion kinetics in a near-boundary layer of a Langmuir probe, inserted into a weakly-ionized gas-discharge plasma, in a range of intermediate pressure of a neutral gas as well as at any ratio between thickness of the layer of space charge and radius of the probe. On the base of results of modeling, practical technique of processing of pore characteristics at intermediate pressure is developed: (i) a technique of calculation of density of ions; (2) a technique of division of a probe current on electron and ion part

  3. A generalization of the child-langmuir relation for one-dimensional time-dependent diodes

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Kadish, A.; Jones, M.E.; Peter, W.

    1985-01-01

    The steady-state Child-Langmuir relation between current and applied voltage has been a basic principle upon which all modern diode physics has been based. With advances in pulsed power technology and diode design, new devices which operate in vastly different parameter regimes have recently become of interest. Many of these devices cannot be said to satisfy the strict requirements necessary for Child-Langmuir flow. For instance, in a recent pulsed electron device for use in high-current accelerators, the applied voltage is sinusoidal in time. In another case, development of sources for heavy ion fusion necessitates understanding of transient current oscillations when the voltage is applied abruptly. We derive the time-dependent relationship between the emitted current and time-dependent applied voltage in a nonrelativistic planar diode. The relationship is valid for arbitrary voltage shapes V(t) applied to the diode for times less than the beam-front transit time across the gap. Using this relationship, transient and time-dependent effects in the start-up phase of any nonrelativistic diode can be analyzed

  4. Optical storage in azobenzene-containing epoxy polymers processed as Langmuir Blodgett films

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Fernández, Raquel; Mondragon, Iñaki; Sanfelice, Rafaela C.; Pavinatto, Felippe J.; Oliveira, Osvaldo N.; Oyanguren, Patricia; Galante, María J.

    2013-01-01

    In this study, azocopolymers containing different main-chain segments have been synthesized with diglycidyl ether of bisphenol A (DGEBA, DER 332, n = 0.03) and the azochromophore Disperse Orange 3 (DO3) cured with two monoamines, viz. benzylamine (BA) and m-toluidine (MT). The photoinduced birefringence was investigated in films produced with these azopolymers using the spin coating (SC) and Langmuir Blodgett (LB) techniques. In the LB films, birefringence increased with the content of azochromophore and the film thickness, as expected. The nanostructured nature of the LB films led to an enhanced birefringence and faster dynamics in the writing process, compared to the SC films. In summary, the combination of azocopolymers and the LB method may allow materials with tuned properties for various optical applications, including in biological systems were photoisomerization may be used to trigger actions such as drug delivery. Highlights: ► Langmuir Blodgett (LB) films of epoxy-based azopolymers were obtained and analyzed. ► Optical properties of LB and spin coated (SC) films were compared. ► Azo content, structure, laser power and number of layers were main factors studied. ► LB films had larger free volume for the azobenzenes isomerization than SC. ► LB films led to higher birefringence and faster dynamics compared to SC

  5. Optical storage in azobenzene-containing epoxy polymers processed as Langmuir Blodgett films

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Fernández, Raquel; Mondragon, Iñaki [‘Materials - Technologies’ Group, Department of Chemical and Environmental Engineering, Polytechnic School, Universidad País Vasco/Euskal Herriko Unibertsitatea, Pza Europa 1, 20018 Donostia-San Sebastián (Spain); Sanfelice, Rafaela C.; Pavinatto, Felippe J.; Oliveira, Osvaldo N. [Instituto de Física de São Carlos, Universidade de São Paulo, Av. Trabalhador São Carlense, 400, Centro, CEP 13560-970, São Carlos (Brazil); Oyanguren, Patricia [Institute of Materials Science and Technology (INTEMA), University of Mar del Plata and National Research Council (CONICET), J. B. Justo 4302, 7600 Mar del Plata (Argentina); Galante, María J., E-mail: galant@fi.mdp.edu.ar [Institute of Materials Science and Technology (INTEMA), University of Mar del Plata and National Research Council (CONICET), J. B. Justo 4302, 7600 Mar del Plata (Argentina)

    2013-04-01

    In this study, azocopolymers containing different main-chain segments have been synthesized with diglycidyl ether of bisphenol A (DGEBA, DER 332, n = 0.03) and the azochromophore Disperse Orange 3 (DO3) cured with two monoamines, viz. benzylamine (BA) and m-toluidine (MT). The photoinduced birefringence was investigated in films produced with these azopolymers using the spin coating (SC) and Langmuir Blodgett (LB) techniques. In the LB films, birefringence increased with the content of azochromophore and the film thickness, as expected. The nanostructured nature of the LB films led to an enhanced birefringence and faster dynamics in the writing process, compared to the SC films. In summary, the combination of azocopolymers and the LB method may allow materials with tuned properties for various optical applications, including in biological systems were photoisomerization may be used to trigger actions such as drug delivery. Highlights: ► Langmuir Blodgett (LB) films of epoxy-based azopolymers were obtained and analyzed. ► Optical properties of LB and spin coated (SC) films were compared. ► Azo content, structure, laser power and number of layers were main factors studied. ► LB films had larger free volume for the azobenzenes isomerization than SC. ► LB films led to higher birefringence and faster dynamics compared to SC.

  6. The ocean circulation inverse problem

    National Research Council Canada - National Science Library

    Wunsch, C

    1996-01-01

    .... This book addresses the problem of inferring the state of the ocean circulation, understanding it dynamically, and even forecasting it through a quantitative combination of theory and observation...

  7. Cellulase and alcohol dehydrogenase immobilized in Langmuir and Langmuir-Blodgett films and their molecular-level effects upon contact with cellulose and ethanol.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rodrigues, Dilmer; Camilo, Fernanda Ferraz; Caseli, Luciano

    2014-02-25

    The key challenges for producing devices based on nanostructured films with control over the molecular architecture are to preserve the catalytic activity of the immobilized biomolecules and to provide a reliable method for determining the intermolecular interactions and the accommodation of molecules at very small scales. In this work, the enzymes cellulase and alcohol dehydrogenase (ADH) were coimmobilized with dipalmitoylphosphatidylcholine (DPPC) as Langmuir-Blodgett (LB) films, and their biological activities were assayed by accommodating the structure formed in contact with cellulose. For this purpose, the polysaccharide was dissolved in an ionic liquid, 1-buthyl-3-methylimidazolium chloride (BMImCl), and dropped on the top of the hybrid cellulase-ADH-DPPC LB film. The interactions between cellulose and ethanol, which are the catalytic substrates of the enzymes as well as important elements in the production of second-generation fuels, were then investigated using polarization-modulation infrared reflection-absorption spectroscopy (PM-IRRAS). Investigation of the secondary structures of the enzymes was performed using PM-IRRAS, through which the presence of ethanol and cellulose was observed to highly affect the structures of ADH and cellulase, respectively. The detection of products formed from the catalyzed reactions as well as the changes of secondary structure of the enzymes immobilization could be carried out, which opens the possibility to produce a means for producing second-generation ethanol using nanoscale arrangements.

  8. Modification of diode characteristics by electron back-scatter from high-atomic-number anodes

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Mosher, D.; Cooperstein, G.; Rose, D.V.; Swanekamp, S.B.

    1996-01-01

    In high-power vacuum diodes with high-atomic-number anodes, back-scattered electrons alter the vacuum space charge and resulting electron and ion currents. Electron multiple back-scattering was studied through equilibrium solutions of the Poisson equation for 1-dimensional, bipolar diodes in order to predict their early-time behavior. Before ion turn-on, back-scattered electrons from high-Z anodes suppress the diode current by about 10%. After ion turn-on in the same diodes, electron back-scatter leads to substantial enhancements of both the electron and ion currents above the Child-Langmuir values. Current enhancements with ion flow from low-Z anodes are small. (author). 5 figs., 7 refs

  9. Modification of diode characteristics by electron back-scatter from high-atomic-number anodes

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Mosher, D; Cooperstein, G [Naval Research Laboratory, Washington, DC (United States); Rose, D V; Swanekamp, S B [JAYCOR, Vienna, VA (United States)

    1997-12-31

    In high-power vacuum diodes with high-atomic-number anodes, back-scattered electrons alter the vacuum space charge and resulting electron and ion currents. Electron multiple back-scattering was studied through equilibrium solutions of the Poisson equation for 1-dimensional, bipolar diodes in order to predict their early-time behavior. Before ion turn-on, back-scattered electrons from high-Z anodes suppress the diode current by about 10%. After ion turn-on in the same diodes, electron back-scatter leads to substantial enhancements of both the electron and ion currents above the Child-Langmuir values. Current enhancements with ion flow from low-Z anodes are small. (author). 5 figs., 7 refs.

  10. Neutron scattering from fractals

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Kjems, Jørgen; Freltoft, T.; Richter, D.

    1986-01-01

    The scattering formalism for fractal structures is presented. Volume fractals are exemplified by silica particle clusters formed either from colloidal suspensions or by flame hydrolysis. The determination of the fractional dimensionality through scattering experiments is reviewed, and recent small...

  11. Scatter from optical components

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Stover, J.C.

    1989-01-01

    This book is covered under the following topics: measurement and analysis techniques; BRDF standards, comparisons, and anomalies; scatter measurement of several materials; scatter from contaminations; and optical system contamination: effects, measurement, and control

  12. Electron scattering from tetrahydrofuran

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Fuss, M C; Sanz, A G; García, G; Muñoz, A; Oller, J C; Blanco, F; Do, T P T; Brunger, M J; Almeida, D; Limão-Vieira, P

    2012-01-01

    Electron scattering from Tetrahydrofuran (C 4 H 8 O) was investigated over a wide range of energies. Following a mixed experimental and theoretical approach, total scattering, elastic scattering and ionization cross sections as well as electron energy loss distributions were obtained.

  13. Neutron-proton scattering

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Doll, P.

    1990-02-01

    Neutron-proton scattering as fundamental interaction process below and above hundred MeV is discussed. Quark model inspired interactions and phenomenological potential models are described. The seminar also indicates the experimental improvements for achieving new precise scattering data. Concluding remarks indicate the relevance of nucleon-nucleon scattering results to finite nuclei. (orig.) [de

  14. Neutron Scattering Software

    Science.gov (United States)

    Home Page | Facilities | Reference | Software | Conferences | Announcements | Mailing Lists Neutron Scattering Banner Neutron Scattering Software A new portal for neutron scattering has just been established sets KUPLOT: data plotting and fitting software ILL/TAS: Matlab probrams for analyzing triple axis data

  15. Magnetic photon scattering

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Lovesey, S.W.

    1987-05-01

    The report reviews, at an introductory level, the theory of photon scattering from condensed matter. Magnetic scattering, which arises from first-order relativistic corrections to the Thomson scattering amplitude, is treated in detail and related to the corresponding interaction in the magnetic neutron diffraction amplitude. (author)

  16. Polarized Neutron Scattering

    OpenAIRE

    Roessli, B.; Böni, P.

    2000-01-01

    The technique of polarized neutron scattering is reviewed with emphasis on applications. Many examples of the usefulness of the method in various fields of physics are given like the determination of spin density maps, measurement of complex magnetic structures with spherical neutron polarimetry, inelastic neutron scattering and separation of coherent and incoherent scattering with help of the generalized XYZ method.

  17. Nonlinear generation of the fundamental radiation in plasmas: the influence of induced ion-acoustic and Langmuir waves

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Rizzato, F.B.

    1992-01-01

    A nonlinear emission mechanism of electromagnetic waves at the fundamental plasma frequency has been examined. This mechanism is based on the electromagnetic oscillating two-stream instability driven by two oppositely propagating Langmuir waves. The excitation of the electromagnetic oscillating two-stream instability is due to nonlinear wave-wave coupling involving Langmuir waves, low-frequency density waves and electromagnetic waves. The Chian and Alves model is improved using the generalized Zakharov equations. Attention is directed toward the influence of induced low-frequency and Langmuir waves on the properties of the electromagnetic oscillating two-stream instability. Presumably, the properties derived in the present context may be relevant to both space and laboratory plasmas. (author)

  18. Sino-Danish Brain Circulation

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Bertelsen, Rasmus Gjedssø; Du, Xiangyun; Søndergaard, Morten Karnøe

    2014-01-01

    China is faced with urgent needs to develop an economically and environmentally sustainable economy based on innovation and knowledge. Brain circulation and research and business investments from the outside are central for this development. Sino-American brain circulation and research...... and investment by overseas researchers and entrepreneurs are well described. In that case, the US is the center of global R&D and S&T. However, the brain circulation and research and investments between a small open Scandinavian economy, such as Denmark, and the huge developing economy of China are not well...... understood. In this case, Denmark is very highly developed, but a satellite in the global R&D and S&T system. With time and the growth of China as a R&D and S&T power house, both Denmark and China will benefit from brain circulation between them. Such brain circulation is likely to play a key role in flows...

  19. PEMILIHAN ADSORBEN UNTUK PENJERAPAN KARBON MONOKSIDA MENGGUNAKAN MODEL ADSORPSI ISOTERMIS LANGMUIR

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Yuliusman Yuliusman

    2013-11-01

    Full Text Available ADSORBENT SELECTION FOR CO ADSORPTION USING LANGMUIR ISOTHERMIC ADSORPTION MODEL. The objective of this research is to choose the adsorbent that can be applied to decrease toxicity level and to purify fire smoke. In case of fire, toxicity level is high due to carbon monoxide. Adsorbent is chosen based on its ability to adsorb carbon monoxide using volumetric method in constant temperature. Materials to be tested are natural zeolite, active carbon, TiO2, CuO, MgO. Due to existence of organic and mineral polluters, natural zeolite needs to be activated prior to adsorption test using fluoride acid (HF, chloride acid (HCl, ammonium chloride (NH4Cl and followed by calcination process. Result shows that activation of natural zeolite can increase Si/Al ratio and surface area. According to Langmuir adsorption model obtained, adsorption capacity of active carbon and natural zeolite are the highest. At 1 atmospheric pressure, adsorption capacity are 0.0682 mmol/g for active carbon, 0.0464 for activated natural zeolite with particle size of 400 nm, and 0.0265 mmol/g for activated natural zeolite with particle size of (37-50 μm. Penelitian ini bertujuan untuk memilih adsorben yang dapat diaplikasikan untuk menurunkan tingkat racun dan menjernihkan asap kebakaran. Pada kasus kebakaran tingkat racun asap disebabkan tingginya kandungan karbon monoksida. Proses pemilihan adsorben dilihat pada kemampuan adsorben mengadsorpsi karbon monoksida, yang dilakukan dengan metode volumetrik pada temperatur konstan. Material yang diuji adalah zeolit alam, karbon aktif, TiO2, CuO, MgO. Zeolit alam banyak terdapat pengotor baik organik maupun mineral, oleh karena itu sebelum dilakukan uji adsorpsi, zeolit alam terlebih dahulu diaktifasi menggunakan larutan asam florida (HF, asam khlorida (HCl dan larutan amonium khlorida (NH4Cl, dilanjutkan dengan proses kalsinasi. Hasil penelitian menunjukkan bahwa aktifasi zeolit alam dapat meningkatkan rasio Si/Al dan luas permukaan

  20. Characterization of Langmuir and Langmuir–Blodgett films of an octasubstituted zinc phthalocyanine

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Torrent-Burgués, J.; Cea, P.; Giner, I.; Guaus, E.

    2014-01-01

    In this work we report the fabrication of Langmuir and Langmuir–Blodgett (LB) films of a substituted ZnPc (octakis(oxyoctyl)phthalocyanine of zinc), and their characterization by means of several techniques. These characterization techniques include surface pressure (π-A) and surface potential (ΔV-A) isotherms as well as UV–vis Reflection spectroscopy and Brewster Angle Microscopy (BAM) for the films at the air–water interface together with UV–vis absorption and IR spectroscopies and Atomic Force Microscopy (AFM) for the LB films. The π-A and ΔV-A isotherms and BAM images indicate a phase transition at a surface pressure of ca. 9 mN/m and a multilayer formation at surface pressures around 19–20 mN/m; at a surface pressure around 27 mN/m a disordered collapse of the film occurs. In addition, AFM images of LB films at π = 10 mN/m and π = 20 mN/m show a monomolecular and a multilayered film, respectively. The comparison of the UV–vis spectrum of ZnPc in solution, the reflection spectra of the Langmuir films and UV–vis spectra of LB films reveals a significant reduction in the Q band intensity for the films, indicative of an organization of ZnPc in the Langmuir and LB films versus the random distribution in solution. The UV–vis Reflection spectra are also consistent with multilayer formation at surface pressures around 19–20 mN/m. The relative intensities of the IR spectrum bands change from the KBr pellet to the LB film which is also attributable to orientation effects in the film. Cyclic voltammetric experiments of LB films incorporating the ZnPc derivative show peaks that can be correlated with redox processes occurring in the phthalocyanine ring. A small but significant influence of the surface pressure and the number of deposited layers in the electrochemical behaviour is observed. The electrochemical response of cast films exhibits some differences with respect to that of LB films which have been attributed to their different molecular

  1. Characterization of Langmuir and Langmuir–Blodgett films of an octasubstituted zinc phthalocyanine

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Torrent-Burgués, J. [Department of Chemical Engineering, Universitat Politècnica de Catalunya (UPC), C/Colom 1, 08222 Terrassa, Barcelona (Spain); Institut de Bioenginyeria de Catalunya (IBEC), 08028 Barcelona (Spain); Cea, P. [Departamento de Química Orgánica y Química Física, Facultad de Ciencias, Universidad de Zaragoza, 50009 Zaragoza (Spain); Instituto de Nanociencia de Aragón (INA) y Laboratorio de Microscopias Avanzadas (LMA), Edificio i+d, Campus Rio Ebro, Universidad de Zaragoza, C/Mariano Esquillor, s/n, 50017 Zaragoza (Spain); Giner, I. [Departamento de Química Orgánica y Química Física, Facultad de Ciencias, Universidad de Zaragoza, 50009 Zaragoza (Spain); Guaus, E. [Department of Chemical Engineering, Universitat Politècnica de Catalunya (UPC), C/Colom 1, 08222 Terrassa, Barcelona (Spain)

    2014-04-01

    In this work we report the fabrication of Langmuir and Langmuir–Blodgett (LB) films of a substituted ZnPc (octakis(oxyoctyl)phthalocyanine of zinc), and their characterization by means of several techniques. These characterization techniques include surface pressure (π-A) and surface potential (ΔV-A) isotherms as well as UV–vis Reflection spectroscopy and Brewster Angle Microscopy (BAM) for the films at the air–water interface together with UV–vis absorption and IR spectroscopies and Atomic Force Microscopy (AFM) for the LB films. The π-A and ΔV-A isotherms and BAM images indicate a phase transition at a surface pressure of ca. 9 mN/m and a multilayer formation at surface pressures around 19–20 mN/m; at a surface pressure around 27 mN/m a disordered collapse of the film occurs. In addition, AFM images of LB films at π = 10 mN/m and π = 20 mN/m show a monomolecular and a multilayered film, respectively. The comparison of the UV–vis spectrum of ZnPc in solution, the reflection spectra of the Langmuir films and UV–vis spectra of LB films reveals a significant reduction in the Q band intensity for the films, indicative of an organization of ZnPc in the Langmuir and LB films versus the random distribution in solution. The UV–vis Reflection spectra are also consistent with multilayer formation at surface pressures around 19–20 mN/m. The relative intensities of the IR spectrum bands change from the KBr pellet to the LB film which is also attributable to orientation effects in the film. Cyclic voltammetric experiments of LB films incorporating the ZnPc derivative show peaks that can be correlated with redox processes occurring in the phthalocyanine ring. A small but significant influence of the surface pressure and the number of deposited layers in the electrochemical behaviour is observed. The electrochemical response of cast films exhibits some differences with respect to that of LB films which have been attributed to their different molecular

  2. Comment on 'Extrinsic versus intrinsic ferroelectric switching: experimental investigations using ultra-thin PVDF Langmuir-Blodgett films'

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Naber, R C G; Blom, P W M; Leeuw, D M de

    2006-01-01

    Previous work on ultra-thin P(VDF-TrFE) Langmuir-Blodgett films has indicated a transition from extrinsic to intrinsic ferroelectric switching. The lack of several key features of intrinsic switching in the experimental work reported by Kliem et al argues against intrinsic switching. In this Comment we discuss two published papers and new experimental results that support a lack of intrinsic switching and point to the conclusion that the thickness dependence of the Langmuir-Blodgett films is due to the influence of the electrode interfaces. (comment)

  3. Natural Circulation with Boiling

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Mathisen, R P

    1967-09-15

    A number of parameters with dominant influence on the power level at hydrodynamic instability in natural circulation, two-phase flow, have been studied experimentally. The geometrical dependent quantities were: the system driving head, the boiling channel and riser dimensions, the single-phase as well as the two phase flow restrictions. The parameters influencing the liquid properties were the system pressure and the test section inlet subcooling. The threshold of instability was determined by plotting the noise characteristics in the mass flow records against power. The flow responses to artificially obtained power disturbances at instability conditions were also measured in order to study the nature of hydrodynamic instability. The results presented give a review over relatively wide ranges of the main parameters, mainly concerning the coolant performance in both single and parallel boiling channel flow. With regard to the power limits the experimental results verified that the single boiling channel performance was intimately related to that of the parallel channels. In the latter case the additional inter-channel factors with attenuating effects were studied. Some optimum values of the parameters were observed.

  4. Behaviour of a planar Langmuir probe in a laser ablation plasma

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Doggett, B.; Budtz-Joergensen, C.; Lunney, J.G.; Sheerin, P.; Turner, M.M.

    2005-01-01

    We have investigated some aspects of the behaviour of planar Langmuir probes in the supersonic plasma flow produced by laser ablation of solid materials in vacuum. The ablation was done using a 26 ns, 248 nm excimer laser, irradiating a silver target at 1 J cm -2 . We have compared the behaviour of the probe when it is orientated perpendicular and parallel to the plasma flow. In particular, we have shown that it is possible to adapt an analytical model, developed for plasma immersion ion implantation, to quantitatively describe the variation of the ion current with probe bias for the case when the plasma flow is along the probe surface. The electron temperature was also measured

  5. Damping kinetics of annihilation slowed fluorescence of aromatic molecules in Langmuir films

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Ibraev, N.Kh.; Latonin, V.A.; Satybaldina, D.Zh.

    1996-01-01

    The paper is devoted to study of decay mechanism of phosphors molecules triplet states in the Langmuir-Blogett (L-B) films. The L-B-films have being prepared on the base of anthracene, pyrene, 3,4-benzopyrene and 1,2-benzanthracene molecules. Spectral and kinetic investigations were carried out in photons counting regime. Long-lived luminescence was observed under excitation of the LB-film by nitrogen laser radiation (λ=337 nm) .Spectrum of the long-lived luminescence coincides with spectrum of fast fluorescence of same film. Received spectral data indicate on similarity of LB-films structure of aromatic molecules and its crystals. It was defined, that deactivation of triplet states of aromatic molecules in LB-films has being carried out mainly in the result of annihilation of triplet excitation. 14 refs., 2 tabs., 5 figs

  6. Stochastic Growth Theory of Spatially-Averaged Distributions of Langmuir Fields in Earth's Foreshock

    Science.gov (United States)

    Boshuizen, Christopher R.; Cairns, Iver H.; Robinson, P. A.

    2001-01-01

    Langmuir-like waves in the foreshock of Earth are characteristically bursty and irregular, and are the subject of a number of recent studies. Averaged over the foreshock, it is observed that the probability distribution is power-law P(bar)(log E) in the wave field E with the bar denoting this averaging over position, In this paper it is shown that stochastic growth theory (SGT) can explain a power-law spatially-averaged distributions P(bar)(log E), when the observed power-law variations of the mean and standard deviation of log E with position are combined with the log normal statistics predicted by SGT at each location.

  7. Novel luminescent Langmuir-Blodgett films of europium complex embedded in titania matrix

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Zhang Li; Liu, H.-G.; Kang, S.-Z.; Mu, Y.-D.; Qian, D.-J.; Lee, Yong-Ill; Feng Xusheng

    2005-01-01

    A stable Eu(DBM) 3 (DB-bpy)/AA/TiO 2 monolayer was formed on the surface of a composite subphase by spreading an Eu(DBM) 3 (DB-bpy)/AA/TBT chloroform solution. DBM, DB-bpy, AA and TBT refer to dibenzoylmethanate, 4,4'-Di-tert-butyl-2,2'-bipyridine, arachidic acid and tetrabutyloxyltitanium, respectively. Eu(DBM) 3 (DB-bpy)/AA/TiO 2 Langmuir-Blodgett films were deposited on solid substrates and were characterized by low-angle X-ray diffractometry, UV-visible (UV refers to ultra-violet) spectroscopy, photoluminescent spectroscopy and electron probe microanalysis. The results show that a luminescent composite film with layered structure was fabricated, which shows characteristic emission of Eu(III)

  8. Study of an edge transport barrier by Langmuir probes in the compact helical system

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Takeuchi, M [Department of Energy Engineering and Science, Nagoya University, Nagoya 464-8603 (Japan); Toi, K [National Institute of Fusion Science, Toki 509-5292 (Japan); Nagaoka, K [National Institute of Fusion Science, Toki 509-5292 (Japan); Suzuki, C [National Institute of Fusion Science, Toki 509-5292 (Japan); Minami, T [National Institute of Fusion Science, Toki 509-5292 (Japan); Akiyama, T [National Institute of Fusion Science, Toki 509-5292 (Japan); Isobe, M [National Institute of Fusion Science, Toki 509-5292 (Japan); Yoshimura, Y [National Institute of Fusion Science, Toki 509-5292 (Japan); Nishimura, S [National Institute of Fusion Science, Toki 509-5292 (Japan); Shimizu, A [National Institute of Fusion Science, Toki 509-5292 (Japan); Takahashi, C [National Institute of Fusion Science, Toki 509-5292 (Japan); Matsuoka, K [National Institute of Fusion Science, Toki 509-5292 (Japan); Okamura, S [National Institute of Fusion Science, Toki 509-5292 (Japan)

    2006-05-15

    The edge transport barrier (ETB) produced by the L-H transition was measured by a triple Langmuir probe (LP) at two toroidal sections of the compact helical system (CHS), of which diagnostic method has good time and spatial resolutions. The radial profiles of electron density (n{sub e}), electron temperature (T{sub e}) and space potential (V{sub s}) in the ETB region have different shapes at two different toroidal sections. These profiles are deformed inside the ETB region at one location and are formed with rather smooth variations at the other. These deformations gradually disappear in the deep H-phase (after {approx}15 ms from the transition) and the profiles inside the ETB become similar at both sections. The deformation seems linked to the presence of a non-rotating magnetic island at the rational surface of the rotational transform {iota}/2{pi} = 1.

  9. Extrinsic versus intrinsic ferroelectric switching: experimental investigations using ultra-thin PVDF Langmuir-Blodgett films

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Kliem, H; Tadros-Morgane, R

    2005-01-01

    Mechanisms of extrinsic and intrinsic switching phenomena in ferroelectrics are explained and existing models are summarized. Then, criteria for an experimental distinction between both models are elaborated. Samples with thicknesses ranging from 2.7 to 63.8 nm prepared by a Langmuir-Blodgett technique were investigated with respect to these criteria. Measurements of their polarization switching behaviour, their polarization hysteresis loops, and their coercive fields were carried out. It is found that the coercive fields increase with decreasing sample thickness. Also, the switching time increases with decreasing sample thickness and it increases with decreasing field strength. The switching process turns out to be thermally activated. We find that neither intrinsic nor extrinsic models are sufficient to describe the experimental situation

  10. Measurements of Ozone, Lightning, and Electric Fields within Thunderstorms over Langmuir Laboratory, New Mexico

    Science.gov (United States)

    Eack, K. B.; Winn, W. P.; Rust, W. D.; Minschwaner, K.; Fredrickson, S.; Kennedy, D.; Edens, H. E.; Kalnajs, L. E.; Rabin, R. M.; Lu, G. P.; Bonin, D.

    2008-12-01

    A field project was conducted at the Langmuir Laboratory for Atmospheric Research during the summer of 2008 in an effort to better understand the direct production of ozone within electrically active storms. Five balloon flights were successfully launched into thunderstorms during this project. In situ measurements from the balloon instrument package included ozone mixing ratio, electric field strength, meteorological variables, and GPS location and timing. Lightning discharges were identified within each storm using a ground based lightning mapping array. The data show that the instruments ascended through regions of high electric fields within the sampled storms, and in some cases the balloon was in very close proximity to lightning. Relationships between electric field, lightning, and ozone observed during these flights will be discussed.

  11. Moessbauer study of C18N/Fe Langmuir-Blodgett layers

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Kuzmann, Erno [Institute of Chemistry, Eoetvoes Lorand University (Hungary); Telegdi, Judit [Institute of Nanochemistry and Catalysis, Chemical Research Center, HAS (Hungary); Nemeth, Zoltan, E-mail: hentes@chem.elte.hu; Vertes, Attila [Institute of Chemistry, Eoetvoes Lorand University (Hungary); Nyikos, Lajos [Institute of Nanochemistry and Catalysis, Chemical Research Center, HAS (Hungary)

    2012-03-15

    Langmuir-Blodgett (LB) films of octadecanoyl hydroxamic acid (C18N) complexed with Fe{sup 3 + } ions have been prepared at various subphase pH values. The LB films consisting of different number of layers were investigated by {sup 57}Fe conversion electron Moessbauer spectroscopy (CEM) at room temperature. The CEM detector contained a piece of {alpha}-iron, enriched with {sup 57}Fe, using as an internal standard. The Moessbauer pattern of the C18N/Fe LB films is a doublet with parameters {delta} = 0.35 mm/s and {Delta} = 0.74 mm/s. A gradual increase of the relative occurrence of the doublet compared to the sextet of the internal standard was observed with the increasing number of layers, indicating the nearly uniform distribution of Fe among the LB layers.

  12. Inorganic insertion compounds under the form of Langmuir-Blodgett films

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Zylberajch, Claire

    1989-01-01

    As the study of organic or mineral compounds under the form of thin layers showed that they are displaying very original properties with respect to massive compounds, this research thesis reports a work which aimed at obtaining mineral conductive materials under the form of extremely thin layers, notably metallic sulfides of mercury and cadmium. Synthesis is performed in soft conditions within an organic matrix produced by using the Langmuir-Blodgett technique with successive diffusions of mineral reactants. Salt formation is monitored by infrared spectroscopy. Physical properties of these compounds have been studied by various techniques (UV, visible, and IR spectroscopy, linear dichroism, X ray diffraction, X ray photoelectron spectrometry, conduction, and so on). Structural and electronic properties of these extremely thin films confirm that metallic sulfides adopt a lamellar geometry with molecular thickness. Conductivity and photo-conductivity are interpreted by means of a conventional band diagram [fr

  13. Langmuir Isotherm application to the competitive adsorption of Cadmium, Nickel and Zinc on a Bentonite

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Silva Giraldo, German Dario; Pinzon Bello, Jorge Alejo

    1999-01-01

    In the present work, it was studied the simultaneous adsorption of binary and ternary mixtures of cadmium, nickel and zinc ions in aqueous solution at 25oC over a bentonite from the Cauca Valley, in its native state as well as in its sodium homo ionic form. The Langmuir isotherm, initially introduced by Murali and Aylmore for the competitive adsorption of various adsorbents, adequately describes the simultaneous adsorption of the three ions over the studied bentonite. The lineal correlation coefficient is greater than 0.900 in the major part of the systems. The competitive effect was interpreted by means of the thermodynamic distribution coefficient, Kdm. The degree of adsorption in the binary mixtures is nickel > zinc, cadmium over the natural bentonite, and nickel > cadmium > zinc over the sodium homo ionic form, whereas in the ternary mixture the order Nickel > Cadmium > Zinc is found over both adsorbents

  14. Rocket-borne Langmuir probe response to an applied periodic potential

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Muralikrishna, P.; Abdu, M.A.; Kantor, I.J.

    1988-01-01

    A Langmuir Probe (LP) payload designed and developed at Instituto de Pesquisas Espaciais (INPE/MCT) was flown on-board a SONDA III rocket at 2259 hrs. (LST) on October 31, 1986 from the Centro de Lancamento da Barreira do Inferno in Natal, RN, Brazil, under a collaborative programme between INPE and Instituto de Atividades Espaciais (IAE/CTA). A sweep voltage varying between - IV and +4V in a period of about 2.6 seconds was applied to the LP sensor. As the applied voltage increased from -IV to +4V, the LP sensor current first showed an increase, reached a saturation level, and then, though the sensor potential increased towards a steady value, the current showed a systematic decrease. This sensor current characteristic also showed a clear dependence on altitude and hence on the ambient plasma parameters. Possible physical mechanisms responsible for these LP response characteristics are analysed and discussed here. (author) [pt

  15. Fractional-dimensional Child-Langmuir law for a rough cathode

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Zubair, M.; Ang, L. K.

    2016-01-01

    This work presents a self-consistent model of space charge limited current transport in a gap combined of free-space and fractional-dimensional space (F α ), where α is the fractional dimension in the range 0 < α ≤ 1. In this approach, a closed-form fractional-dimensional generalization of Child-Langmuir (CL) law is derived in classical regime which is then used to model the effect of cathode surface roughness in a vacuum diode by replacing the rough cathode with a smooth cathode placed in a layer of effective fractional-dimensional space. Smooth transition of CL law from the fractional-dimensional to integer-dimensional space is also demonstrated. The model has been validated by comparing results with an experiment.

  16. Structure and frictional properties of Langmuir-Blodgett films of Cu nanoparticles modified by dialkyldithiophosphate

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Xu Jun; Dai Shuxi; Cheng Gang; Jiang Xiaohong; Tao Xiaojun; Zhang Pingyu; Du Zuliang

    2006-01-01

    Langmuir-Blodgett (LB) films of dialkyldithiophosphate (DDP) modified Cu nanoparticles were prepared. The structure, microfrictional behaviors and adhesion of the LB films were investigated by transmission electron microscopy (TEM), X-ray photoelectron spectroscopy (XPS) and atomic/friction force microscopy (AFM/FFM). Our results showed that the modified Cu nanoparticles have a typical core-shell structure and fine film-forming ability. The images of AFM/FFM showed that LB films of modified Cu nanoparticles were composed of many nanoparticles arranged closely and orderly and the nanoparticles had favorable behaviors of lower friction. The friction loop of the films indicated that the friction force was affected prominently by the surface slope of the Cu nanoparticles and the microfrictional behaviors showed obvious 'ratchet effect'. The adhesion experiment showed that the modified Cu nanoparticle had a very small adhesive force

  17. Langmuir hydrogen dissociation approach in radiolabeling carbon nanotubes and graphene oxide

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Badun, Gennadii A.; Chernysheva, Maria G.; Eremina, Elena A.; Egorov, Alexander V.; Grigorieva, Anastasia V.

    2016-01-01

    Carbon-based nanomaterials have piqued the interest of several researchers. At the same time, radioactive labeling is a powerful tool for studying processes in different systems, including biological and organic; however, the introduction of radioactive isotopes into carbon-based nanomaterial remains a great challenge. We have used the Langmuir hydrogen dissociation method to introduce tritium in single-walled carbon nanotubes and graphene oxide. The technique allows us to achieve a specific radioactivity of 107 and 27 Ci/g for single-layer graphene oxide and single-walled carbon nanotubes, respectively. Based on the analysis of characteristic Raman modes at 1350 and 1580 cm -1 , a minimal amount of structural changes to the nanomaterials due to radiolabeling was observed. The availability of a simple, nondestructive, and economic technique for the introduction of radiolabels to single-walled carbon nanotubes and graphene oxide will ultimately expand the applicability of these materials.

  18. Langmuir-Blodgett films prepared from pre-formed cholestanic liquid-crystalline polymers

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Tundo, P.; Hodge, P.; Valli, L.; Davis, F. (Venice Univ. (Italy). Dip. di Scienze Ambientali Lecce Univ. (Italy). Dip. di Scienza dei Materiali Manchester Univ. (United Kingdom). Dep. of Chemistry)

    1992-01-01

    A series of alternating copolymers of maleic anhydride and a-olefins functionalized through different alkyl chains with cholestanic groups were synthetised and derivatives prepared by reactions of the anhydride residues with methanol, water, dimethylamine and morpholine, respectively. The same starting functionalized a-olefins were used to prepare other suitable compounds in order to correlate the features of the liquid-crystalline behaviour of the mesogenic cholestanic group with the stability of the forthcoming polymeric or not polymeric Langmuir-Blodgett (LB) films. For some copolymers surface pressure against area per molecule isotherms are reported. In some multilayer (LB) films, the spacings between the layers were determined by the detection of BRAGG peaks by X-ray diffraction. The (LB) films of these polymers are closed packed, owing to either the polymeric skeleton or liquid-crystalline interaction.

  19. Transition from two-dimensional to three-dimensional melting in Langmuir-Blodgett films

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Mukhopadhyay, M.K.; Sanyal, M.K.; Datta, A.; Mukherjee, M.; Geue, Th.; Grenzer, J.; Pietsch, U.

    2004-01-01

    Results of energy-dispersive x-ray reflectivity and grazing incidence diffraction studies of Langmuir-Blodgett films exhibited evolution of conventional three-dimensional melting from continuous melting, characteristic of two-dimensional systems, as a function of deposited monolayers. Continuous expansion followed by a sharp phase transition of the in-plane lattice was observed before the melting point and found to be independent of number of deposited layers. Evolution of conventional melting with an increase in the number of monolayers could be quantified by measuring stiffness against tilting of the vertical stack of molecules, which are kept together by an internal field. The internal field as defined in this model reduces as the in-plane lattice expands and the sample temperature approaches melting point. The sharpness of the melting transition, which has been approximated by a Langevin function, increases with the number of deposited monolayers

  20. Structural studies of Langmuir-Blodgett films containing rare-earth metal cations

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Khomutov, G.B.; Antipina, M.N.; Bykov, I.V.

    2002-01-01

    Comparative structural study of gadolinium stearate Langmuir-Blodgett (LB) films formed by monolayer deposition from either aqueous gadolinium acetate or gadolinium chloride solutions have been carried out. Structure of the films was characterized by X-ray diffraction, Fourier transform infrared...... spectroscopy, high-energy electron diffraction, atomic force microscopy and scanning electron microscopy. It was found that when subphase pH had a value at which all monolayer stearic acid molecules were ionized and bound with Gd3+ cations (pH > 5), the LB films deposited from gadolinium acetate and gadolinium....... The data obtained indicate that the control of multivalent metal cations complexes formation in the subphase and at the monolayer surface can be an instrument for optimization, the conditions to form metal-containing LB film with regulated structure and properties....

  1. Circular patterns of calcium oxalate monohydrate induced by defective Langmuir-Blodgett film on quartz substrates

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    He Jieyu [Institute of Biomineralization and Lithiasis Research, Jinan University, Guangzhou 510632 (China); Institute of Biomineralization and Lithiasis Research, Jinan University, Guangzhou 510632 (China); Ouyang Jianming [Institute of Biomineralization and Lithiasis Research, Jinan University, Guangzhou 510632 (China); Institute of Biomineralization and Lithiasis Research, Jinan University, Guangzhou 510632 (China)], E-mail: toyjm@jnu.edu.cn

    2009-01-01

    The defective Langmuir-Blodgett (LB) film of dipalmitoylphosphatidylcholine (DPPC) on quartz injured by potassium oxalate (K{sub 2}C{sub 2}O{sub 4}) was used as a model system to induce growth of calcium oxalate crystals. Atomic force microscopy (AFM) indicated that circular defective domains with a diameter of 1-200 {mu}m existed in the LB film. Scanning electron microscopy (SEM) showed circular patterns of aggregated calcium oxalate monohydrate (COM) crystallites were induced by these defective domains. It was ascribed to that the interaction between the negatively-charged oxalate ions and the phosphatidyl groups in DPPC headgroups makes the phospholipid molecules rearranged and exist in an out-of-order state in the LB film, especially at the boundaries of liquid-condensed (LC)/liquid-expanded (LE) phases, which provide much more nucleating sites for COM crystals.

  2. Dispersion relation and growth rate of a relativistic electron beam propagating through a Langmuir wave wiggler

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zirak, H.; Jafari, S.

    2015-06-01

    In this study, a theory of free-electron laser (FEL) with a Langmuir wave wiggler in the presence of an axial magnetic field has been presented. The small wavelength of the plasma wave (in the sub-mm range) allows obtaining higher frequency than conventional wiggler FELs. Electron trajectories have been obtained by solving the equations of motion for a single electron. In addition, a fourth-order Runge-Kutta method has been used to simulate the electron trajectories. Employing a perturbation analysis, the dispersion relation for an electromagnetic and space-charge waves has been derived by solving the momentum transfer, continuity, and wave equations. Numerical calculations show that the growth rate increases with increasing the e-beam energy and e-beam density, while it decreases with increasing the strength of the axial guide magnetic field.

  3. Langmuir hydrogen dissociation approach in radiolabeling carbon nanotubes and graphene oxide

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Badun, Gennadii A.; Chernysheva, Maria G.; Eremina, Elena A.; Egorov, Alexander V. [Lomonosov Moscow State Univ. (Russian Federation). Dept. of Chemistry; Grigorieva, Anastasia V. [Lomonosov Moscow State Univ., Moscow (Russian Federation). Dept. of Materials Science

    2016-11-01

    Carbon-based nanomaterials have piqued the interest of several researchers. At the same time, radioactive labeling is a powerful tool for studying processes in different systems, including biological and organic; however, the introduction of radioactive isotopes into carbon-based nanomaterial remains a great challenge. We have used the Langmuir hydrogen dissociation method to introduce tritium in single-walled carbon nanotubes and graphene oxide. The technique allows us to achieve a specific radioactivity of 107 and 27 Ci/g for single-layer graphene oxide and single-walled carbon nanotubes, respectively. Based on the analysis of characteristic Raman modes at 1350 and 1580 cm{sup -1}, a minimal amount of structural changes to the nanomaterials due to radiolabeling was observed. The availability of a simple, nondestructive, and economic technique for the introduction of radiolabels to single-walled carbon nanotubes and graphene oxide will ultimately expand the applicability of these materials.

  4. Self-organized dendritic patterns in the polymer Langmuir-Blodgett film

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Matsui, Jun, E-mail: jun_m@tagen.tohoku.ac.j [Institute of Multidisciplinary Research for Advanced Materials, Tohoku University, 2-1-1, Katahira, Aoba-ku Sendai, 980-8577 (Japan); Precursory Research for Embryonic Science and Technology (PRESTO), Japan Science and Technology Agency, 4-1-8, Honcho, Kawaguchi 332-0012 (Japan); Suzuki, Toshio; Mikayama, Takeshi [Institute of Multidisciplinary Research for Advanced Materials, Tohoku University, 2-1-1, Katahira, Aoba-ku Sendai, 980-8577 (Japan); Aoki, Atsushi [Materials Science and Engineering, Graduate School of Engineering, Nagoya Institute of Technology Gokiso, Shouwa-ku, Nagoya 466-8555 (Japan); Miyashita, Tokuji [Institute of Multidisciplinary Research for Advanced Materials, Tohoku University, 2-1-1, Katahira, Aoba-ku Sendai, 980-8577 (Japan)

    2011-01-03

    We report the formation of a self-organized dendritic pattern of nanometer thickness in polymer Langmuir-Blodgett (LB) films. Poly(N-dodecylacrylamide) (pDDA)/chloroform solution was spread on a water surface to form a stable polymer monolayer. A pDDA monolayer was deposited onto a hydrophilic silicon substrate by upward deposition from a water subphase, and a second layer was then deposited by downward deposition. The substrate with the two layers was withdrawn from a clean water surface at a high speed to form the dendritic pattern, which was imaged by atomic force microscopy. The height of the pattern, 3.5 nm, corresponds to the height of a bilayer pDDA LB film, suggesting that the pattern forms when the deposited outermost layer overturns by meniscus oscillation. A similar dendritic structure of narrower width and lower height was fabricated on a hydrophobic silicon substrate.

  5. Methods for the numerical calculation of the plasma potential from measured Langmuir probe characteristics

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Seifert, W.; Johanning, D.; Bankov, N.

    1986-01-01

    In a previous paper the results of the Langmuir probe experiment carried out on board of two INTERKOSMOS satellites have been described. The experiences have shown that the usage of high quality algorithms for analyzing the current-voltage-characteristics is necessary to yield real physical parameters. The key problem is the determination of the plasma potential. This paper reviews the different methods to determine the plasma potential especially under the circumstances of computer application. The test of the well developed methods shows, that for the evaluation of the applied methods a number of different factors, discussed in the following sections of this paper, has to be taken into account. The used test data are model values or real measurements obtained by the satellite missions IK-10, IK-18 and BULGARIA-1300. The computer procedures have been realized as FORTRAN-subroutines for the BESM 6 and ES 1040. (author)

  6. Langmuir probe measurements of the scrape-off plasma in ISX-A

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Namkung, W.; England, A.C.; Eldridge, O.C.

    1978-11-01

    A fixed double Langmuir probe was used to investigate the temporal behavior of the scrape-off plasma in the ISX-A tokamak. During gas puffing, the ion saturation current dropped rapidly to a very low level while the line average density showed a steady increase. This sudden transition was due mainly to a density change of more than a factor of five while the electron temperature remained relatively constant at approximately 10 eV. This behavior was easily observed at points away from the limiter with mild and moderate gas puffing rates, and near the inner edge of the limiter with strong gas puffing. In order to explain the phenomenon, it is suggested that there may be two distinct layers in the scrape-off plasma and that the boundary between the layers moves inward toward the limiter. The existence of the boundary has been confirmed indirectly by sudden shifts of the plasma during feedback control experiments

  7. Molecular recognition applied to gas detection: the contribution of Langmuir-Blodgett films

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Clemendot, Sylvain

    1992-01-01

    In the first part of this research thesis, the author presents the Langmuir-Blodgett technique and outlines how it can face the challenge of molecular electronics. Then, he proposes an overview of the state-of-the-art of chemical sensors based on LB films, and an assessment of the state of the art of conductive LB films based on TCNQ (tetracyanoquinodimethane) and on tetrathiafulvalene for which the author proposes a modelling. He describes how phosphine sensors with varying conductivity based on TCNQ-based conductive LB films have been developed and reports the study of electric performance of these sensors. He describes and compares mechanisms of interaction of phosphine with conductive LB films for films based on TCNQ and those based on tetrathiafulvalene [fr

  8. Stirring competes with chemical induction in chiral selection of Langmuir monolayer domains

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Petit-Garrido Nuria

    2013-08-01

    Full Text Available Chirality, the absence of mirror symmetry, can be equally invoked in relation to physical forces and chemical induction processes, yet a competition between these two types of influences is rarely reported. Here, we employ Langmuir monolayers of azobenzene surfactants as a prototypical self-assembled two-dimensional system in which chiral selection is controlled by the combined independent action of a chiral dopant and vortical stirring. The two effects can be arbitrarily coupled, either constructively or destructively, leading to a situation of perfect compensation. The induced enantiomorphic excess is measured in terms of the statistical imbalance of an ensemble of sub-millimeter monolayer domains, where achiral molecules self-assemble with a well-defined orientational chirality, which is unambiguously resolved using Brewster angle microscopy.

  9. Child-Langmuir flow in a planar diode filled with charged dust impurities

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Tang Xiaoyan; Shukla, Padma Kant

    2008-01-01

    The Child-Langmuir (CL) flow in a planar diode in the presence of stationary charged dust particles is studied. The limiting electron current density and other diode properties, such as the electrostatic potential, the electron flow speed, and the electron number density, are calculated analytically. A comparison of the results with the case without dust impurities reveals that the diode parameters mentioned above decrease with the increase of the dust charge density. Furthermore, it is found that the classical scaling of D -2 (the gap spacing D) for the CL current density remains exactly valid, while the scaling of V 3/2 (the applied gap voltage V) can be a good approximation for low applied gap voltage and for low dust charge density

  10. Design and fabrication of an actively cooled Langmuir probe for long pulse applications

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Paterson, J.A.; Biagi, L.A.; Ehlers, K.W.; Koehler, G.W.

    1985-11-01

    The details of the mechanical design and fabrication for a Langmuir Probe for the continuous monitoring of plasma density are given. The probe was designed for use as a diagnostic tool in the development of long pulse positive ion plasma sources for use on neutral beam systems. The essential design feature of this probe is the incorporation of two electrically isolated cooling water circuits which actively cool the probe tip and probe jacket. The electrical isolation is required to prevent drain currents from the probe body disturbing the measurement of the probe tip current and thereby the plasma density measurement. The successful realization of the design requires precision components and vacuum tight ceramic to refractory metal brazes. To date this design has successfully operated in steady-state in plasma densities up to 250 mA/cm 2 and surface heat fluxes of 25 W/cm 2

  11. Fractional-dimensional Child-Langmuir law for a rough cathode

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Zubair, M., E-mail: muhammad-zubair@sutd.edu.sg; Ang, L. K., E-mail: ricky-ang@sutd.edu.sg [SUTD-MIT International Design Centre, Singapore University of Technology and Design, Singapore 487372 and Engineering Product Development, Singapore University of Technology and Design, Singapore 487372 (Singapore)

    2016-07-15

    This work presents a self-consistent model of space charge limited current transport in a gap combined of free-space and fractional-dimensional space (F{sup α}), where α is the fractional dimension in the range 0 < α ≤ 1. In this approach, a closed-form fractional-dimensional generalization of Child-Langmuir (CL) law is derived in classical regime which is then used to model the effect of cathode surface roughness in a vacuum diode by replacing the rough cathode with a smooth cathode placed in a layer of effective fractional-dimensional space. Smooth transition of CL law from the fractional-dimensional to integer-dimensional space is also demonstrated. The model has been validated by comparing results with an experiment.

  12. Large-sized and highly radioactive 3H and 109Cd Langmuir-Blodgett films

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Shibata, S.; Kawakami, H.; Kato, S.

    1994-02-01

    A device for the deposition of a radioactive Langmuir-Blodgett (LB) film was developed with the use of: (1) a modified horizontal lifting method, (2) an extremely shallow trough, and (3) a surface pressure-generating system without piston oil. It made a precious radioactive subphase solution repeatedly usable while keeping its radioactivity concentration as high as possible. Any large-size thin films can be prepared by just changing the trough size. Two monomolecular-layers of Y-type films of cadmium [ 3 H] icosanoate and 109 Cd icosanoate were built up as 3 H and 109 Cd β-sources for electron spectroscopy with intensities of 1.5 GBq (40 mCi) and 7.4 MBq (200 μCi), respectively, and a size of 65x200 mm 2 . Excellent uniformity of the distribution of deposited radioactivity was confirmed by autoradiography and photometry. (author)

  13. Numerical Simulation of the Interaction between Phosphorus and Sediment Based on the Modified Langmuir Equation

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Pengjie Hu

    2018-06-01

    Full Text Available Phosphorus is the primary factor that limits eutrophication of surface waters in aquatic environments. Sediment particles have a strong affinity to phosphorus due to the high specific surface areas and surface active sites. In this paper, a numerical model containing hydrodynamics, sediment, and phosphorus module based on improved Langmuir equation is established, where the processes of adsorption and desorption are considered. Through the statistical analysis of the physical experiment data, the fitting formulas of two important parameters in the Langmuir equation are obtained, which are the adsorption coefficient, ka, and the ratio k between the adsorption coefficient and the desorption coefficient. In order to simulate the experimental flume and get a constant and uniform water flow, a periodical numerical flume is built by adding a streamwise body force, Fx. The adsorbed phosphorus by sediment and the dissolved phosphorus in the water are separately added into the Advection Diffusion equation as a source term to simulate the interaction between them. The result of the numerical model turns out to be well matched with that of the physical experiment and can thus provide the basis for further analysis. With the application of the numerical model to some new and relative cases, the conclusion will be drawn through an afterwards analysis. The concentration of dissolved phosphorus proves to be unevenly distributed along the depth and the maximum value approximately appears in the 3/4 water depth because both the high velocity in the top layer and the high turbulence intensity in the bottom layer can promote sediment adsorption on phosphorus.

  14. Seasonal overturning circulation in the Red Sea: 2. Winter circulation

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yao, Fengchao; Hoteit, Ibrahim; Pratt, Larry J.; Bower, Amy S.; Köhl, Armin; Gopalakrishnan, Ganesh; Rivas, David

    2014-04-01

    The shallow winter overturning circulation in the Red Sea is studied using a 50 year high-resolution MITgcm (MIT general circulation model) simulation with realistic atmospheric forcing. The overturning circulation for a typical year, represented by 1980, and the climatological mean are analyzed using model output to delineate the three-dimensional structure and to investigate the underlying dynamical mechanisms. The horizontal model circulation in the winter of 1980 is dominated by energetic eddies. The climatological model mean results suggest that the surface inflow intensifies in a western boundary current in the southern Red Sea that switches to an eastern boundary current north of 24°N. The overturning is accomplished through a cyclonic recirculation and a cross-basin overturning circulation in the northern Red Sea, with major sinking occurring along a narrow band of width about 20 km along the eastern boundary and weaker upwelling along the western boundary. The northward pressure gradient force, strong vertical mixing, and horizontal mixing near the boundary are the essential dynamical components in the model's winter overturning circulation. The simulated water exchange is not hydraulically controlled in the Strait of Bab el Mandeb; instead, the exchange is limited by bottom and lateral boundary friction and, to a lesser extent, by interfacial friction due to the vertical viscosity at the interface between the inflow and the outflow.

  15. Assessment of the effect of parallel temperature gradients in the JET SOL on Te measured by divertor target Langmuir probes

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Ďuran, I.; Ješko, K.; Fuchs, V.; Groth, M.; Guillemaut, C.; Gunn, J.P.; Horáček, J.; Pitts, R.A.; Tskhakaya, D.

    2015-01-01

    Abstract Higher than expected electron temperatures (Te) are often measured by divertor Langmuir probes (LP) in high recycling and detached regimes in JET and other tokamaks. As a possible mechanism to explain this discrepancy, we investigate the effect of penetration of fast, almost collisionless

  16. Comment on 'extrinsic versus intrinsic ferroelectric switching : experimental investigations using ultra-thin PVDF Langmuir-Blodgett films'

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Naber, R.C.G.; Blom, P.W.M.; de Leeuw, DM

    2006-01-01

    Previous work on ultra-thin P(VDF-TrFE) Langmuir-Blodgett films has indicated a transition from extrinsic to intrinsic ferroelectric switching. The lack of several key features of intrinsic switching in the experimental work reported by Kliem et al argues against intrinsic switching. In this Comment

  17. Antibacterial and Antibiofouling Properties of Light Triggered Fluorescent Hydrophobic Carbon Quantum Dots Langmuir-Blodgett Thin Films

    Czech Academy of Sciences Publication Activity Database

    Stanković, N. K.; Bodik, M.; Šiffalovič, P.; Kotlár, M.; Mičušik, M.; Špitalsky, Z.; Danko, M.; Milivojević, D. D.; Kleinová, A.; Kubát, Pavel; Capáková, Z.; Humpolíček, P.; Lehocký, M.; Todorović Marković, B. M.; Marković, Z. M.

    2018-01-01

    Roč. 6, č. 3 (2018), s. 4154-4163 ISSN 2168-0485 R&D Projects: GA ČR(CZ) GA17-05095S Institutional support: RVO:61388955 Keywords : Hydrophobic carbon quantum dots * Langmuir-Blodgett thin films * Photodynamic therapy * Singlet oxygen Subject RIV: CF - Physical ; Theoretical Chemistry OBOR OECD: Physical chemistry Impact factor: 5.951, year: 2016

  18. A quasi-time-resolved CryoTEM study of the nucleation of CaCO3 under Langmuir monolayers

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Pichon, B.P.R.; Bomans, P.H.H.; Frederik, P.M.; Sommerdijk, N.A.J.M.

    2008-01-01

    Calcium carbonate biomineralization uses complex assemblies of macromolecules that control the nucleation, growth, and positioning of the mineral with great detail. To investigate the mechanisms involved in these processes, for many years Langmuir monolayers have been used as model systems. Here, we

  19. Scattering with polarized neutrons

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Schweizer, J.

    2007-01-01

    In the history of neutron scattering, it was shown very soon that the use of polarized neutron beams brings much more information than usual scattering with unpolarized neutrons. We shall develop here the different scattering methods that imply polarized neutrons: 1) polarized beams without polarization analysis, the flipping ratio method; 2) polarized beams with a uniaxial polarization analysis; 3) polarized beams with a spherical polarization analysis. For all these scattering methods, we shall give examples of the physical problems which can been solved by these methods, particularly in the field of magnetism: investigation of complex magnetic structures, investigation of spin or magnetization densities in metals, insulators and molecular compounds, separation of magnetic and nuclear scattering, investigation of magnetic properties of liquids and amorphous materials and even, for non magnetic material, separation between coherent and incoherent scattering. (author)

  20. Neutron scattering and magnetism

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Mackintosh, A.R.

    1983-01-01

    Those properties of the neutron which make it a unique tool for the study of magnetism are described. The scattering of neutrons by magnetic solids is briefly reviewed, with emphasis on the information on the magnetic structure and dynamics which is inherent in the scattering cross-section. The contribution of neutron scattering to our understanding of magnetic ordering, excitations and phase transitions is illustrated by experimental results on a variety of magnetic crystals. (author)

  1. Stationary theory of scattering

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Kato, T.

    1977-01-01

    A variant of the stationary methods is described, and it is shown that it is useful in a wide range of problems, including scattering, by long-range potentials, two-space scattering, and multichannel scattering. The method is based on the notion of spectral forms. The paper is restricted to the simplest case of continuous spectral forms defined on a Banach space embedded in the basic Hilbert space. (P.D.)

  2. Introduction to neutron scattering

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Fischer, W E [Paul Scherrer Inst. (PSI), Villigen (Switzerland)

    1996-11-01

    We give here an introduction to the theoretical principles of neutron scattering. The relationship between scattering- and correlation-functions is particularly emphasized. Within the framework of linear response theory (justified by the weakness of the basic interaction) the relation between fluctuation and dissipation is discussed. This general framework explains the particular power of neutron scattering as an experimental method. (author) 4 figs., 4 refs.

  3. Scattering from black holes

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Futterman, J.A.H.; Handler, F.A.; Matzner, R.A.

    1987-01-01

    This book provides a comprehensive treatment of the propagation of waves in the presence of black holes. While emphasizing intuitive physical thinking in their treatment of the techniques of analysis of scattering, the authors also include chapters on the rigorous mathematical development of the subject. Introducing the concepts of scattering by considering the simplest, scalar wave case of scattering by a spherical (Schwarzschild) black hole, the book then develops the formalism of spin weighted spheroidal harmonics and of plane wave representations for neutrino, electromagnetic, and gravitational scattering. Details and results of numerical computations are given. The techniques involved have important applications (references are given) in acoustical and radar imaging

  4. Quantum theory of scattering

    CERN Document Server

    Wu Ta You

    1962-01-01

    This volume addresses the broad formal aspects and applications of the quantum theory of scattering in atomic and nuclear collisions. An encyclopedic source of pioneering work, it serves as a text for students and a reference for professionals in the fields of chemistry, physics, and astrophysics. The self-contained treatment begins with the general theory of scattering of a particle by a central field. Subsequent chapters explore particle scattering by a non-central field, collisions between composite particles, the time-dependent theory of scattering, and nuclear reactions. An examinati

  5. Cross plane scattering correction

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Shao, L.; Karp, J.S.

    1990-01-01

    Most previous scattering correction techniques for PET are based on assumptions made for a single transaxial plane and are independent of axial variations. These techniques will incorrectly estimate the scattering fraction for volumetric PET imaging systems since they do not take the cross-plane scattering into account. In this paper, the authors propose a new point source scattering deconvolution method (2-D). The cross-plane scattering is incorporated into the algorithm by modeling a scattering point source function. In the model, the scattering dependence both on axial and transaxial directions is reflected in the exponential fitting parameters and these parameters are directly estimated from a limited number of measured point response functions. The authors' results comparing the standard in-plane point source deconvolution to the authors' cross-plane source deconvolution show that for a small source, the former technique overestimates the scatter fraction in the plane of the source and underestimate the scatter fraction in adjacent planes. In addition, the authors also propose a simple approximation technique for deconvolution

  6. A Statistical Analysis of Langmuir Wave-Electron Correlations Observed by the CHARM II Auroral Sounding Rocket

    Science.gov (United States)

    Dombrowski, M. P.; Labelle, J. W.; Kletzing, C.; Bounds, S. R.; Kaeppler, S. R.

    2014-12-01

    Langmuir-mode electron plasma waves are frequently observed by spacecraft in active plasma environments such as the ionosphere. Ionospheric Langmuir waves may be excited by the bump-on-tail instability generated by impinging beams of electrons traveling parallel to the background magnetic field (B). The Correlation of High-frequencies and Auroral Roar Measurement (CHARM II) sounding rocket was launched into a substorm at 9:49 UT on 17 February 2010, from the Poker Flat Research Range in Alaska. The primary instruments included the University of Iowa Wave-Particle Correlator (WPC), the Dartmouth High-Frequency Experiment (HFE), several charged particle detectors, low-frequency wave instruments, and a magnetometer. The HFE is a receiver system which effectively yields continuous (100% duty cycle) electric-field waveform measurements from 100 kHz to 5 MHz, and which had its detection axis aligned nominally parallel to B. The HFE output was fed on-payload to the WPC, which uses a phase-locked loop to track the incoming wave frequency with the most power, then sorting incoming electrons at eight energy levels into sixteen wave-phase bins. CHARM II encountered several regions of strong Langmuir wave activity throughout its 15-minute flight, and the WPC showed wave-lock and statistically significant particle correlation distributions during several time periods. We show results of an in-depth analysis of the CHARM II WPC data for the entire flight, including statistical analysis of correlations which show evidence of direct interaction with the Langmuir waves, indicating (at various times) trapping of particles and both driving and damping of Langmuir waves by particles. In particular, the sign of the gradient in particle flux appears to correlate with the phase relation between the electrons and the wave field, with possible implications for the wave physics.

  7. Synthesis and spectral properties of preorganized BODIPYs in solutions and Langmuir-Schaefer films

    Science.gov (United States)

    Marfin, Yuriy S.; Usoltsev, Sergey D.; Kazak, Alexandr V.; Smirnova, Antonina I.; Rumyantsev, Evgeniy V.; Molchanov, Evgeniy E.; Kuznetsov, Vladimir V.; Chumakov, Alexey S.; Glukhovskoy, Evgeny G.

    2017-12-01

    In order to investigate the influence of molecular structure peculiarities of boron-dipyrrine dyes (BODIPYs) on their properties in solutions and supramolecular organization in Langmuir-Schaefer (LS) films, four new BODIPY dyes with various aliphatic, aromatic or mixed nature meso-subtituents were synthesized and investigated. Spectral characteristics (electronic absorption and fluorescence) of the synthesized compounds in organic solvents and LS-films were studied. Floating monolayers of the BODIPYs were formed from chloroform solutions placed onto water subphase in Langmuir-Blodgett through. Thin films were prepared using the Langmuir-Schaefer technique by the transfer of floating monolayers onto standard polished glass, ITO covered glass or pure silicon substrate. The variation of the dye structure we consider as a preorganization aiming to influence the structure of LS-films. The morphology and structure of the LS-films was examined by fluorescent microscopy, scanning electron microscopy, atomic force microscopy and small angle X-ray diffraction analysis. It was found that the introduced substituents have no substantial influence on the position of the absorption and fluorescence bands in dilute solutions. In contrast, the fluorescent characteristics of the LS-films significantly depend on the substituent nature. Therefore, this strategy could be used for the direct tuning of compounds fluorescent properties in LS-films. Concerning the LS-film surface characteristics it was proved that the films are homogeneous, without disruptions and only some widely-spaced microcrystals could be observed. With respect to the LS-film structure, the change of the substituents introduced to the BODIPY molecule did not influence the average given periodicity of layers (d = 0.3-0.4 nm). This value corresponds to a single-layer arrangement of BODIPY molecules located parallel to the substrate surface. Nevertheless, the diffraction peak intensities depended on the molecular

  8. The spherical segmented Langmuir probe in a flowing thermal plasma: numerical model of the current collection

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    E. Séran

    2005-07-01

    Full Text Available The segmented Langmuir probe (SLP has been recently proposed by one of the authors (Lebreton, 2002 as an instrument to derive the bulk velocity of terrestrial or planetary plasmas, in addition to the electron density and temperature that are routinely measured by Langmuir probes. It is part of the scientific payload on the DEMETER micro-satellite developed by CNES. The basic concept of this probe is to measure the current distribution over the surface using independent collectors under the form of small spherical caps and to use the angular anisotropy of these currents to obtain the plasma bulk velocity in the probe reference frame. In order to determine the SLP capabilities, we have developed a numerical PIC (Particles In Cell model which provides a tool to compute the distribution of the current collected by a spherical probe. Our model is based on the simultaneous determination of the charge densities in the probe sheath and on the probe surface, from which the potential distribution in the sheath region can be obtained. This method is well adapted to the SLP problem and has some advantages since it provides a natural control of the charge neutrality inside the simulation box, allows independent mesh sizes in the sheath and on the probe surface, and can be applied to complex surfaces. We present in this paper initial results obtained for plasma conditions corresponding to a Debye length equal to the probe radius. These plasma conditions are observed along the Demeter orbit. The model results are found to be in very good agreement with those published by Laframboise (1966 for a spherical probe in a thermal non-flowing plasma. This demonstrates the adequacy of the computation method and of the adjustable numerical parameters (size of the numerical box and mesh, time step, number of macro-particles, etc. for the considered plasma-probe configuration. We also present the results obtained in the case of plasma flowing with mesothermal conditions

  9. The spherical segmented Langmuir probe in a flowing thermal plasma: numerical model of the current collection

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    E. Séran

    2005-07-01

    Full Text Available The segmented Langmuir probe (SLP has been recently proposed by one of the authors (Lebreton, 2002 as an instrument to derive the bulk velocity of terrestrial or planetary plasmas, in addition to the electron density and temperature that are routinely measured by Langmuir probes. It is part of the scientific payload on the DEMETER micro-satellite developed by CNES. The basic concept of this probe is to measure the current distribution over the surface using independent collectors under the form of small spherical caps and to use the angular anisotropy of these currents to obtain the plasma bulk velocity in the probe reference frame. In order to determine the SLP capabilities, we have developed a numerical PIC (Particles In Cell model which provides a tool to compute the distribution of the current collected by a spherical probe. Our model is based on the simultaneous determination of the charge densities in the probe sheath and on the probe surface, from which the potential distribution in the sheath region can be obtained. This method is well adapted to the SLP problem and has some advantages since it provides a natural control of the charge neutrality inside the simulation box, allows independent mesh sizes in the sheath and on the probe surface, and can be applied to complex surfaces. We present in this paper initial results obtained for plasma conditions corresponding to a Debye length equal to the probe radius. These plasma conditions are observed along the Demeter orbit. The model results are found to be in very good agreement with those published by Laframboise (1966 for a spherical probe in a thermal non-flowing plasma. This demonstrates the adequacy of the computation method and of the adjustable numerical parameters (size of the numerical box and mesh, time step, number of macro-particles, etc. for the considered plasma-probe configuration. We also present the results obtained in the case of plasma flowing with mesothermal conditions

  10. Pion-pion scattering

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Kuehnelt, H.

    1975-01-01

    We discuss a few properties of scattering amplitudes proved within the framework of the field theory and their significance in the derivation of quantitative statements. The state of the boundaries for the scattering lengths is to be especially discussed as well as the question as to how far it is possible to exclude various solutions from phase displacement analyses. (orig./LH) [de

  11. Modelling Hyperboloid Sound Scattering

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Burry, Jane; Davis, Daniel; Peters, Brady

    2011-01-01

    The Responsive Acoustic Surfaces workshop project described here sought new understandings about the interaction between geometry and sound in the arena of sound scattering. This paper reports on the challenges associated with modelling, simulating, fabricating and measuring this phenomenon using...... both physical and digital models at three distinct scales. The results suggest hyperboloid geometry, while difficult to fabricate, facilitates sound scattering....

  12. Incoherent Thomson scattering

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Donne, A. J. H.

    1996-01-01

    Thomson scattering is a very powerful diagnostic which is applied at nearly every magnetic confinement device. Depending on the experimental conditions different plasma parameters can be diagnosed. When the wave vector is much larger than the plasma Debye length, the total scattered power is

  13. Concentric layered Hermite scatterers

    Science.gov (United States)

    Astheimer, Jeffrey P.; Parker, Kevin J.

    2018-05-01

    The long wavelength limit of scattering from spheres has a rich history in optics, electromagnetics, and acoustics. Recently it was shown that a common integral kernel pertains to formulations of weak spherical scatterers in both acoustics and electromagnetic regimes. Furthermore, the relationship between backscattered amplitude and wavenumber k was shown to follow power laws higher than the Rayleigh scattering k2 power law, when the inhomogeneity had a material composition that conformed to a Gaussian weighted Hermite polynomial. Although this class of scatterers, called Hermite scatterers, are plausible, it may be simpler to manufacture scatterers with a core surrounded by one or more layers. In this case the inhomogeneous material property conforms to a piecewise continuous constant function. We demonstrate that the necessary and sufficient conditions for supra-Rayleigh scattering power laws in this case can be stated simply by considering moments of the inhomogeneous function and its spatial transform. This development opens an additional path for construction of, and use of scatterers with unique power law behavior.

  14. Introductory theory of neutron scattering

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Gunn, J.M.F.

    1986-12-01

    The paper comprises a set of six lecture notes which were delivered to the summer school on 'Neutron Scattering at a pulsed source', Rutherford Laboratory, United Kingdom, 1986. The lectures concern the physical principles of neutron scattering. The topics of the lectures include: diffraction, incoherent inelastic scattering, connection with the Schroedinger equation, magnetic scattering, coherent inelastic scattering, and surfaces and neutron optics. (UK)

  15. Diffuse scattering of neutrons

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Novion, C.H. de.

    1981-02-01

    The use of neutron scattering to study atomic disorder in metals and alloys is described. The diffuse elastic scattering of neutrons by a perfect crystal lattice leads to a diffraction spectrum with only Bragg spreads. the existence of disorder in the crystal results in intensity and position modifications to these spreads, and above all, to the appearance of a low intensity scatter between Bragg peaks. The elastic scattering of neutrons is treated in this text, i.e. by measuring the number of scattered neutrons having the same energy as the incident neutrons. Such measurements yield information on the static disorder in the crystal and time average fluctuations in composition and atomic displacements [fr

  16. Seasonal overturning circulation in the Red Sea: 2. Winter circulation

    KAUST Repository

    Yao, Fengchao

    2014-04-01

    The shallow winter overturning circulation in the Red Sea is studied using a 50 year high-resolution MITgcm (MIT general circulation model) simulation with realistic atmospheric forcing. The overturning circulation for a typical year, represented by 1980, and the climatological mean are analyzed using model output to delineate the three-dimensional structure and to investigate the underlying dynamical mechanisms. The horizontal model circulation in the winter of 1980 is dominated by energetic eddies. The climatological model mean results suggest that the surface inflow intensifies in a western boundary current in the southern Red Sea that switches to an eastern boundary current north of 24N. The overturning is accomplished through a cyclonic recirculation and a cross-basin overturning circulation in the northern Red Sea, with major sinking occurring along a narrow band of width about 20 km along the eastern boundary and weaker upwelling along the western boundary. The northward pressure gradient force, strong vertical mixing, and horizontal mixing near the boundary are the essential dynamical components in the model\\'s winter overturning circulation. The simulated water exchange is not hydraulically controlled in the Strait of Bab el Mandeb; instead, the exchange is limited by bottom and lateral boundary friction and, to a lesser extent, by interfacial friction due to the vertical viscosity at the interface between the inflow and the outflow. Key Points Sinking occurs in a narrow boundary layer along the eastern boundary Surface western boundary current switches into an eastern boundary current Water exchange in the Strait of Bab el Mandeb is not hydraulically controlled © 2014. American Geophysical Union. All Rights Reserved.

  17. Inelastic Light Scattering Processes

    Science.gov (United States)

    Fouche, Daniel G.; Chang, Richard K.

    1973-01-01

    Five different inelastic light scattering processes will be denoted by, ordinary Raman scattering (ORS), resonance Raman scattering (RRS), off-resonance fluorescence (ORF), resonance fluorescence (RF), and broad fluorescence (BF). A distinction between fluorescence (including ORF and RF) and Raman scattering (including ORS and RRS) will be made in terms of the number of intermediate molecular states which contribute significantly to the scattered amplitude, and not in terms of excited state lifetimes or virtual versus real processes. The theory of these processes will be reviewed, including the effects of pressure, laser wavelength, and laser spectral distribution on the scattered intensity. The application of these processes to the remote sensing of atmospheric pollutants will be discussed briefly. It will be pointed out that the poor sensitivity of the ORS technique cannot be increased by going toward resonance without also compromising the advantages it has over the RF technique. Experimental results on inelastic light scattering from I(sub 2) vapor will be presented. As a single longitudinal mode 5145 A argon-ion laser line was tuned away from an I(sub 2) absorption line, the scattering was observed to change from RF to ORF. The basis, of the distinction is the different pressure dependence of the scattered intensity. Nearly three orders of magnitude enhancement of the scattered intensity was measured in going from ORF to RF. Forty-seven overtones were observed and their relative intensities measured. The ORF cross section of I(sub 2) compared to the ORS cross section of N2 was found to be 3 x 10(exp 6), with I(sub 2) at its room temperature vapor pressure.

  18. The Invertibility, Explicit Determinants, and Inverses of Circulant and Left Circulant and g-Circulant Matrices Involving Any Continuous Fibonacci and Lucas Numbers

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Zhaolin Jiang

    2014-01-01

    Full Text Available Circulant matrices play an important role in solving delay differential equations. In this paper, circulant type matrices including the circulant and left circulant and g-circulant matrices with any continuous Fibonacci and Lucas numbers are considered. Firstly, the invertibility of the circulant matrix is discussed and the explicit determinant and the inverse matrices by constructing the transformation matrices are presented. Furthermore, the invertibility of the left circulant and g-circulant matrices is also studied. We obtain the explicit determinants and the inverse matrices of the left circulant and g-circulant matrices by utilizing the relationship between left circulant, g-circulant matrices and circulant matrix, respectively.

  19. Bovine insulin-phosphatidylcholine mixed Langmuir monolayers: behavior at the air-water interface.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pérez-López, S; Blanco-Vila, N M; Vila-Romeu, N

    2011-08-04

    The behavior of the binary mixed Langmuir monolayers of bovine insulin (INS) and phosphatidylcholine (PC) spread at the air-water interface was investigated under various subphase conditions. Pure and mixed monolayers were spread on water, on NaOH and phosphate-buffered solutions of pH 7.4, and on Zn(2+)-containing solutions. Miscibility and interactions between the components were studied on the basis of the analysis of the surface pressure (π)-mean molecular area (A) isotherms, surface compression modulus (C(s)(-1))-π curves, and plots of A versus mole fraction of INS (X(INS)). Our results indicate that intermolecular interactions between INS and PC depend on both the monolayer state and the structural characteristics of INS at the interface, which are strongly influenced by the subphase pH and salt content. Brewster angle microscopy (BAM) was applied to investigate the peptide aggregation pattern at the air-water interface in the presence of the studied lipid under any experimental condition investigated. The influence of the lipid on the INS behavior at the interface strongly depends on the subphase conditions.

  20. Characterisation of target plasma required for REB-plasma interaction studies using cylindrical Langmuir probes

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Roychowdhury, P.; Paithankar, A.S.; Iyyengar, S.K.; Rohatgi, V.K.

    1987-01-01

    The target plasma required for relativistic electron beam (REB)-plasma interaction studies has been generated by coaxial plasma gun. The measurement of electron density and temperature has been carried out using cylindrical Langmuir probes. Probes both oriented parallel and transverse to the flow have been used. The spatial as well as temporal variation of electron density and temperature have been studied. The typical electron density and temperature measured by probe were in the range of 9.0-3.5 x 10 13 cm -3 and 5-7 eV respectively. The typical e-folding decay time of density was 6.2 μs, while no appreciable change in electron temperature was observed until 10 μs after the peak density. The density decays by about 50% at distance of 30 cm from the gun. The plasma flow velocity has been measured by the time of flight technique and was found to be 2.5 x 10 6 cm s -1 . The plasma radius measured by dosimeter film, at distance of 30 cm from the gun was 3 cm. (author)

  1. Solving the Capacitive Effect in the High-Frequency sweep for Langmuir Probe in SYMPLE

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Pramila; Patel, J J; Rajpal, R; Hansalia, C J; Anitha, V P; Sathyanarayana, K

    2017-01-01

    Langmuir Probe based measurements need to be routinely carried out to measure various plasma parameters such as the electron density (n e ), the electron temperature (T e ), the floating potential (V f ), and the plasma potential (V p ). For this, the diagnostic electronics along with the biasing power supplies is installed in standard industrial racks with a 2KV isolation transformer. The Signal Conditioning Electronics (SCE) system is populated inside the 4U-chassis based system with the front-end electronics, designed using high common mode differential amplifiers which can measure small differential signal in presence of high common mode dc- bias or ac ramp voltage used for biasing the probes. DC-biasing of the probe is most common method for getting its I-V characteristic but method of biasing the probe with a sweep at high frequency encounters the problem of corruption of signal due to capacitive effect specially when the sweep period and the discharge time is very fast and die down in the order of μs or lesser. This paper presents and summarises the method of removing such effects encountered while measuring the probe current. (paper)

  2. Improvement of density control by feedback on Langmuir probe signals in Tore Supra

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Gunn, J.; Bucalossi, J.; Costanzo, L.; Grisolia, C.; Ghendrih, Ph.; Grosman, A.; Loarer, T.; Martin, G.; Monier-Garbet, P.; Moulin, D.; Pascal, J.Y.; Saint-Laurent, F.

    1999-12-01

    Real time control of deuterium or helium gas injection by feedback on Langmuir probe signals is implemented in Tore Supra ergodic divertor discharges. The feedback schemes are based on the robust experimental observation that the density limit coincides with edge temperature T e ∼ 10 eV. Three control algorithms are used: (1) proportional feedback on the central line-averaged density with real-time attenuation of the system gain and security cut-off of the gas injection if the edge temperature becomes too low; (2) proportional feedback on the central line-averaged density with security cut-off controlled by the degree of detachment (DoD); (3) proportional feedback on edge temperature with security cut-off on the DoD. The DoD is defined for deuterium discharges, but not for helium since those do not detach. All three feedback modes permit operation close to the density limit and have been successfully applied for plasma currents 0.4 p p =1.4 MA with up to 4 MW of ICRH power. (author)

  3. High-resolution disruption halo current measurements using Langmuir probes in Alcator C-Mod

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tinguely, R. A.; Granetz, R. S.; Berg, A.; Kuang, A. Q.; Brunner, D.; LaBombard, B.

    2018-01-01

    Halo currents generated during disruptions on Alcator C-Mod have been measured with Langmuir ‘rail’ probes. These rail probes are embedded in a lower outboard divertor module in a closely-spaced vertical (poloidal) array. The dense array provides detailed resolution of the spatial dependence (~1 cm spacing) of the halo current distribution in the plasma scrape-off region with high time resolution (400 kHz digitization rate). As the plasma limits on the outboard divertor plate, the contact point is clearly discernible in the halo current data (as an inversion of current) and moves vertically down the divertor plate on many disruptions. These data are consistent with filament reconstructions of the plasma boundary, from which the edge safety factor of the disrupting plasma can be calculated. Additionally, the halo current ‘footprint’ on the divertor plate is obtained and related to the halo flux width. The voltage driving halo current and the effective resistance of the plasma region through which the halo current flows to reach the probes are also investigated. Estimations of the sheath resistance and halo region resistivity and temperature are given. This information could prove useful for modeling halo current dynamics.

  4. Ionic channels in Langmuir-Blodgett films imaged by a scanning tunneling microscope.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kolomytkin, O V; Golubok, A O; Davydov, D N; Timofeev, V A; Vinogradova, S A; Tipisev SYa

    1991-01-01

    The molecular structure of channels formed by gramicidin A in a lipid membrane was imaged by a scanning tunneling microscope operating in air. The mono- and bimolecular films of lipid with gramicidin A were deposited onto a highly oriented pyrolitic graphite substrate by the Langmuir-Blodgett technique. It has been shown that under high concentration gramicidin A molecules can form in lipid films a quasi-regular, densely packed structure. Single gramicidin A molecules were imaged for the first time as well. The cavity of 0.4 +/- 0.05 nm in halfwidth was found on the scanning tunneling microscopy image of the gramicidin A molecule. The results of direct observation obtained by means of scanning tunneling microscope are in good agreement with the known molecular model of gramicidin A. It was shown that gramicidin A molecules can exist in a lipid monolayer as individual molecules or combined into clusters. The results demonstrate that scanning tunneling microscope can be used for high spatial resolution study of ionic channel structure. Images FIGURE 1 FIGURE 2 FIGURE 4 FIGURE 5 PMID:1712239

  5. Saponin Interactions with Model Membrane Systems - Langmuir Monolayer Studies, Hemolysis and Formation of ISCOMs.

    Science.gov (United States)

    de Groot, Carolin; Müller-Goymann, Christel C

    2016-12-01

    Saponins are used in medicine due to their pharmacological and immunological effects. To better understand interactions of saponins with model membranes and natural membranes of, for example, erythrocytes, Langmuir film balance experiments are well established. For most saponins, a strong interaction with cholesterol was demonstrated in dependence of both the aglycone part and the sugar moieties and is suggested to be correlated with a strong hemolytic activity, high toxicity, and high surface activity, as was demonstrated for the steroid saponin digitonin. In general, changes in the sugar chain or in substituents of the aglycone result in a modification of the saponin properties. A promising saponin with regard to fairly low hemolytic activity and high adjuvant effect is α -tomatine, which still shows a high affinity for cholesterol. An interaction with cholesterol and lipids has also been proven for the Quillaja saponin from the bark of Quillaja saponaria Molina. This triterpene saponin was approved in marketed vaccines as an adjuvant due to the formation of immunostimulating complexes. Immunostimulating complexes consist of a Quillaja saponin, cholesterol, phospholipids, and a corresponding antigen. Recently, another saponin from Quillaja brasiliensis was successfully tested in immunostimulating complexes, too. Based on the results of interaction studies, the formation of drug delivery systems such as immunostimulating complexes or similar self-assembled colloids is postulated for a variety of saponins. Georg Thieme Verlag KG Stuttgart · New York.

  6. Study of immunoglobulin G thin layers obtained by the Langmuir-Blodgett method: application to immunosensors.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Barraud, A; Perrot, H; Billard, V; Martelet, C; Therasse, J

    1993-01-01

    Nowadays, immunosensors play a leading part in the field of bioanalytical chemistry research. As with any biosensor, they need appropriate transducers and a suitable technique to immobilize the active biocomponents. In this study, two transduction modes were chosen: mass effects (quartz microbalance measurements) and geometric and dielectric effects (capacitance measurements). The Langmuir-Blodgett (LB) method appears to be quite suitable for generating biospecific surfaces. This work has focused on the detection of staphylococcal enterotoxin B, the corresponding antibody being immobilized at the surface of fatty acids by a variant of the LB method. The composition of the film and the nature of antibody-fatty acid interactions were studied by means of the two transducers mentioned above. FTIR (Fourier transform infra-red) spectroscopy and protein diagnostic assay. Influence of several parameters (pH, ionic strength, transfer pressure, antibody concentration in the subphase) was investigated. The immobilization rate reached its maximum when experimental conditions allowed optimal electrostatic interactions. In this case, the quartz crystal microbalance response, in air, reached 55 Hz per monolayer of immobilized immunoglobulin G and the equivalent capacitance variation, measured in liquid media, was around 300 pF cm-2. Activity of the biospecific LB films, when binding enterotoxin, was checked by the classical ELISA (enzyme immuno-linked assay) technique.

  7. Electrochemical properties of carbon nanotubes-hydrogenase conjugates Langmuir-Blodgett films

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Liu, Ai-Rong; Wakayama, Tatsuki; Nakamura, Chikashi; Miyake, Jun; Zorin, Nikolay A.; Qian, Dong-Jin

    2007-01-01

    We report the preparation of Langmuir-Blodgett (LB) films composed of oxidized carbon nanotubes (CNTs) and hydrogenase (H 2 ase) conjugates and their electrochemical properties. Both single-walled (SWNTs) and multi-walled CNTs (MWNTs) were used to form mixed monolayers with H 2 ase on the Tris-HCl subphase surfaces. By using the LB method, the CNTs-H 2 ase monolayers were transferred onto CaF 2 and indium tin oxide (ITO) electrode surfaces. The LB film modified electrodes showed a couple of waves centered at around -500 mV (versus Ag/AgCl), which corresponding to the redox reaction of [4Fe-4S] 2+/1+ clusters in the H 2 ase. The current intensity was enhanced after co-assembly with CNTs. Because of the different diameters of CNTs, this current intensity was proportional to the scan rate (υ) for the electrodes modified with the LB films of pure H 2 ase and SWNTs-H 2 ase, but to the root of scan rate (υ 1/2 ) for those modified with the MWNTs-H 2 ase LB film. The products of diffusion coefficient and concentration (D 1/2 C) increased in the order of pure H 2 ase, SWNTs-H 2 ase, and MWNTs-H 2 ase LB films

  8. Adsorption behaviour of aromatic in different activated carbon: (Frendlich and Langmuir models)

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Nouri, S.; Haghseresht, F.; Lu, Max

    2001-01-01

    Adsorption behavior of p-Cresol, Benzoic acid and nitrobenzene on the two different activated carbons was carried out at 301 K and at controlled ph conditions. In acidic conditions, well below the pK a of all solutes, it was observed that the adsorbate solubility and the electron density of its aromatic ring were the influencing factors on the extent of the adsorption by affecting the extent of London dispersion forces. In higher solution ph conditions, on the other hand, it was found that the electrostatic forces played a significant role on the extent on adsorption. The Effect of ph must be considered from its combined effects on the carbon surface and on the solute molecules. It was found that the uptake of the molecular form of the aromatic solute was dependent on the substituents of the aromatic ring. Adsorption of the solutes in higher ph values was found to be dependent on the concentration of anionic form of the solutes. All isotherms on the F 100 and S E I were fitted into Langmuir and Freundlich isotherm Equations, respectively to find the relative factors

  9. Plasma monitoring of the RLVIP-process with a Langmuir probe

    Science.gov (United States)

    Huber, D.; Hallbauer, A.; Pulker, H. K.

    2005-09-01

    The aim of this investigation was to study the characteristics of a reactive-low-voltage-high-current-ion-plating plasma and to correlate the observed plasma data with the properties of films deposited under such conditions. A Langmuir probe system (Smart Probe - Scientific Systems) was inserted into a Balzers BAP 800 ion plating plant above the e-gun evaporation source close to the insulated substrate holder. In this position during RLVIP deposition, plasma potential, floating potential, self-bias voltage, electron temperature, ion current density, and particle number density were measured and calculated, respectively. All measurements were performed in dependence of arc current (20-80A) and oxygen partial pressure (1 - 36 x 10-4mbar). With rising arc current the number of charged particles, the self-bias voltage between plasma and substrates as well as the energy of the condensing and bombarding species were increased. These data explain the increase of density, refractive index and mechanical stress of RLVIP-metal-oxide-layers, like Ta2O5 and Nb2O5, deposited with higher arc currents. An increase of gas pressure decreased the energy of the particles and therefore reduced slightly film density and refractive index. However, it improved chemistry and eliminated unwanted residual optical absorption and also decreased compressive mechanical film stress.

  10. Density, temperature, and potential fluctuation measurements by the swept Langmuir probe technique in Wendelstein 7-AS

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Giannone, L.; Balbin, R.; Niedermeyer, H.; Endler, M.; Herre, G.; Hidalgo, C.; Rudyj, A.; Theimer, G.; Verplanke, P.

    1994-01-01

    In the Wendelstein 7-AS stellarator (W7-AS) [Plasma Phys. Controlled Fusion 33, 1591 (1991)], current-voltage characteristics of the Langmuir probe at sweep frequencies in the range 400 kHz to 1 MHz were measured and it was found that the mean and fluctuation values of the ion saturation current, floating potential, and electron temperature were independent of the sweep frequency. A radial scan in the vicinity of the velocity shear layer was performed. The simultaneous sweeping of 3 probe tips showed a statistically significant spatial coherence of the fluctuations in the poloidal direction and a decrease in spatial coherence of the fluctuations with increasing tip separation could be demonstrated. The observation of a change in the propagation direction of fluctuations as the shear layer was crossed and a calculation of the transport spectrum show that the swept probe method is capable of reproducing known results. Apparent temperature fluctuations, due to variations of density and potential during a sweep, are shown by simulations to be only of importance at frequencies above half the Nyquist frequency

  11. Temperature, density and potential fluctuations by a swept Langmuir probe in Wendelstein 7-AS

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Giannone, L.; Niedermeyer, H; Endler, M; Theimer, G; Rudyj, A; Verplancke, Ph [Max-Planck-Institut fuer Plasmaphysik, Garching (Germany); Balbin, R; Hidalgo, C [Centro de Investigaciones Energeticas, Medioambientales y Tecnologicas (CIEMAT), Madrid (Spain)

    1994-12-31

    Numerous experiments using a Langmuir probe to investigate the magnitude of temperature fluctuations and their contribution to heat transport in the edge region of tokamak plasmas have been carried out. Sweeping the voltage applied to a tip fast enough to ensure that the ion saturation current, floating potential and electron temperature may be assumed to be constant during the sweep is experimentally more difficult than alternative schemes but this disadvantage is compensated by the ability to measure all three of these quantities at one spatial location. Sweep frequencies up to 600 kHz have been employed to obtain the current-voltage characteristic. A radial scan in the vicinity of the velocity shear layer on W7-AS stellarator was performed. Inside and outside the shear layer the normalised magnitude of the temperature fluctuations was found to be approximately 30% larger than the magnitude of the electron density fluctuations, approaching a value of 0.12 and 0.09 respectively at a radial position 1 cm inside the shear layer. An increase in the coherency of the temperature, floating potential and density fluctuations between tips with a poloidal separation of 2 mm was also measured as the shear layer was crossed. Heat conduction produced by correlated temperature and poloidal electric field fluctuations is therefore possible. An increasing coherence of temperature and floating potential fluctuations leads to an increase in the coherence of temperature and plasma potential fluctuations as the shear layer was crossed. (author) 7 refs., 3 figs.

  12. A deterministic mathematical model for bidirectional excluded flow with Langmuir kinetics.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zarai, Yoram; Margaliot, Michael; Tuller, Tamir

    2017-01-01

    In many important cellular processes, including mRNA translation, gene transcription, phosphotransfer, and intracellular transport, biological "particles" move along some kind of "tracks". The motion of these particles can be modeled as a one-dimensional movement along an ordered sequence of sites. The biological particles (e.g., ribosomes or RNAPs) have volume and cannot surpass one another. In some cases, there is a preferred direction of movement along the track, but in general the movement may be bidirectional, and furthermore the particles may attach or detach from various regions along the tracks. We derive a new deterministic mathematical model for such transport phenomena that may be interpreted as a dynamic mean-field approximation of an important model from mechanical statistics called the asymmetric simple exclusion process (ASEP) with Langmuir kinetics. Using tools from the theory of monotone dynamical systems and contraction theory we show that the model admits a unique steady-state, and that every solution converges to this steady-state. Furthermore, we show that the model entrains (or phase locks) to periodic excitations in any of its forward, backward, attachment, or detachment rates. We demonstrate an application of this phenomenological transport model for analyzing ribosome drop off in mRNA translation.

  13. A Langmuir probe system for high power RF-driven negative ion sources on high potential

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    McNeely, P; Christ-Koch, S; Fantz, U; Dudin, S V

    2009-01-01

    A fully automated Langmuir probe system capable of operating simultaneously with beam extraction has been developed and commissioned for the negative hydrogen ion source testbeds at IPP Garching. It allows the measurement of temporal and spatial distributions of the plasma parameters within a single plasma pulse ( 10 18 m -3 ) and hot (T e > 10 eV) plasma with bi-Maxwellian electron energy distribution at low pressures. The plasma found near the plasma grid is very different being of low density (≤10 17 m -3 ) and very cold (T e < 2 eV). This plasma is also strongly influenced by the presence of caesium, the potential of the plasma grid, and if an ion beam is extracted from the source. Caesium strongly reduces the plasma potential of the source and enhances the negative ion density near the plasma grid. Extracting an ion beam is observed to reduce the electron density and increase the potential near the plasma grid. Applying a potential greater than the plasma potential to the plasma grid is found to significantly decrease the electron density near the plasma grid.

  14. Characteristics of the Plasma Source for Ground Ionosphere Simulation Surveyed by Disk-Type Langmuir Probe

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ryu, Kwangsun; Lee, Junchan; Kim, Songoo; Chung, Taejin; Shin, Goo-Hwan; Cha, Wonho; Min, Kyoungwook; Kim, Vitaly P.

    2017-12-01

    A space plasma facility has been operated with a back-diffusion-type plasma source installed in a mid-sized vacuum chamber with a diameter of 1.5 m located in Satellite Technology Research Center (SaTReC), Korea Advanced Institute of Science and Technology (KAIST). To generate plasma with a temperature and density similar to the ionospheric plasma, nickel wires coated with carbonate solution were used as filaments that emit thermal electrons, and the accelerated thermal electrons emitted from the heated wires collide with the neutral gas to form plasma inside the chamber. By using a disk-type Langmuir probe installed inside the vacuum chamber, the generation of plasma similar to the space environment was validated. The characteristics of the plasma according to the grid and plate anode voltages were investigated. The grid voltage of the plasma source is realized as a suitable parameter for manipulating the electron density, while the plate voltage is suitable for adjusting the electron temperature. A simple physical model based on the collision cross-section of electron impact on nitrogen molecule was established to explain the plasma generation mechanism.

  15. Langmuir-Blodgett film based on MEH-PPV for cholesterol biosensor

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Matharu, Zimple; Arya, Sunil K.; Singh, S.P.; Gupta, Vinay; Malhotra, B.D.

    2009-01-01

    Cholesterol oxidase (ChOx) has been immobilized onto conducting poly[2-methoxy,5-(2'-ethyl-hexyloxy)-1,4-phenylene vinylene] (MEH-PPV)/stearic acid (SA) Langmuir-Blodgett film transferred onto octadecanethiol (ODT) modified gold plate. The ChOx/MEH-PPV/SA LB film bioelectrode exhibits has been characterized by FT-IR, contact angle, and atomic force microscopy. The response of the ChOx/MEH-PPV/SA LB film bioelectrode carried out using differential pulse voltammetry (DPV) studies reveal linearity from 1.29 to 12.91 mM of cholesterol concentration and response time as 30 s. This ChOx/MEH-PPV/SA bioelectrode exhibits values of correlation coefficient as 0.9939, standard deviation as 0.0029 μA and limit of detection as 1.66 mM. UV-visible spectrophotometer studies reveal that 5.2 x 10 -3 U of ChOx are actively working per cm 2 area of ChOx/MEH-PPV/SA LB film bioelectrode and this bioelectrode is thermally stable upto 55 deg. C with reusability of about 60 times

  16. Langmuir-Blodgett film based on MEH-PPV for cholesterol biosensor

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Matharu, Zimple [Biomolecular Electronics and Conducting Polymer Research Group, National Physical Laboratory, Dr. K.S. Krishnan Marg, New Delhi 110012 (India); Department of Physics and Astrophysics, University of Delhi, Delhi 110007 (India); Arya, Sunil K.; Singh, S.P. [Biomolecular Electronics and Conducting Polymer Research Group, National Physical Laboratory, Dr. K.S. Krishnan Marg, New Delhi 110012 (India); Gupta, Vinay [Department of Physics and Astrophysics, University of Delhi, Delhi 110007 (India); Malhotra, B.D. [Biomolecular Electronics and Conducting Polymer Research Group, National Physical Laboratory, Dr. K.S. Krishnan Marg, New Delhi 110012 (India)], E-mail: bansi.malhotra@gmail.com

    2009-02-23

    Cholesterol oxidase (ChOx) has been immobilized onto conducting poly[2-methoxy,5-(2'-ethyl-hexyloxy)-1,4-phenylene vinylene] (MEH-PPV)/stearic acid (SA) Langmuir-Blodgett film transferred onto octadecanethiol (ODT) modified gold plate. The ChOx/MEH-PPV/SA LB film bioelectrode exhibits has been characterized by FT-IR, contact angle, and atomic force microscopy. The response of the ChOx/MEH-PPV/SA LB film bioelectrode carried out using differential pulse voltammetry (DPV) studies reveal linearity from 1.29 to 12.91 mM of cholesterol concentration and response time as 30 s. This ChOx/MEH-PPV/SA bioelectrode exhibits values of correlation coefficient as 0.9939, standard deviation as 0.0029 {mu}A and limit of detection as 1.66 mM. UV-visible spectrophotometer studies reveal that 5.2 x 10{sup -3} U of ChOx are actively working per cm{sup 2} area of ChOx/MEH-PPV/SA LB film bioelectrode and this bioelectrode is thermally stable upto 55 deg. C with reusability of about 60 times.

  17. Spatial survey of a magnetron plasma sputtering system using a Langmuir probe

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Field, D.J.; Dew, S.K.; Burrell, R.E.

    2002-01-01

    A two-dimensional spatial survey is conducted for a magnetron sputtering plasma at two pressures (40 and 5 mTorr) using a Langmuir probe. The plasma density is found to be highest (up to 6.0x10 10 cm -3 ) above the etch region of the cathode, near the magnetic trap. The density drops between the etch regions, near the edges of the cathode and also at distances farther away from the cathode. The floating potential was found to be most negative (down to -12 V) in regions where the highest electron temperatures were observed (up to almost 4 eV) and became less negative (near 0 V) in regions where the electron temperature was lowest (less than 0.5 eV). This complementary trend was consistent in all spatial locations and at both pressures. The plasma potential was found to have very weak dependence, if any, on spatial location and pressure. The relationship between electron transport processes, collision processes and electron temperatures is discussed. Electron energy distribution functions were found to be either Maxwellian or bi-Maxwellian in nature, depending on pressure and spatial location. Maxwellian distributions were found near the magnetic trap or source of the plasma. Bi-Maxwellian distributions were found further away from the source, and it appears they result from Maxwellian distributions bifurcating as they diffuse away from the source. The suitability of the popular models for this bifurcation is discussed

  18. Combined Langmuir-magnetic probe measurements of type-I ELMy filaments in the EAST tokamak

    Science.gov (United States)

    Qingquan, YANG; Fangchuan, ZHONG; Guosheng, XU; Ning, YAN; Liang, CHEN; Xiang, LIU; Yong, LIU; Liang, WANG; Zhendong, YANG; Yifeng, WANG; Yang, YE; Heng, ZHANG; Xiaoliang, Li

    2018-06-01

    Detailed investigations on the filamentary structures associated with the type-I edge-localized modes (ELMs) should be helpful for protecting the materials of a plasma-facing wall on a future large device. Related experiments have been carefully conducted in the Experimental Advanced Superconducting Tokamak (EAST) using combined Langmuir-magnetic probes. The experimental results indicate that the radially outward velocity of type-I ELMy filaments can be up to 1.7 km s‑1 in the far scrape-off layer (SOL) region. It is remarkable that the electron temperature of these filaments is detected to be ∼50 eV, corresponding to a fraction of 1/6 to the temperature near the pedestal top, while the density (∼ 3× {10}19 {{{m}}}-3) of these filaments could be approximate to the line-averaged density. In addition, associated magnetic fluctuations have been clearly observed at the same time, which show good agreement with the density perturbations. A localized current on the order of ∼100 kA could be estimated within the filaments.

  19. ATF [Advanced Toroidal Facility] edge plasma turbulence studies using a fast reciprocating Langmuir probe

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Uckan, T.; Hidalgo, C.; Bell, J.D.; Harris, J.H.; Dunlap, J.L.; Dyer, G.R.; Mioduszewski, P.K.; Wilgen, J.B.; Ritz, C.P.; Wootton, A.J.; Rhodes, T.L.; Carter, K.

    1990-01-01

    Electrostatic turbulence on the edge of the Advanced Torodial Facility (ATF) torsatron is investigated experimentally with a fast reciprocating Langmuir probe (FRLP) array. Initial measurements of plasma electron density n e and temperature T e and fluctuations in density (n e ) and plasma floating potential (φ f ) are made in ECH plasmas at 1 T. At the last closed flux surface (LCFS, r/bar a ∼1), T e ∼ 20--40 eV and n e ∼ 10 12 cm -3 for a line-averaged electron density bar n e = (3--6) x 10 12 cm -3 . Relative fluctuation levels, as the FRLP is moved into core plasma where T e > 20 eV, are n e /n e ∼ 5%, and e φ f /T e ∼ 2n e /n e about 2 cm inside the LCFS. The observed fluctuation spectra are broadband (40--300 kHz) with bar kρ s ≤ 0.1, where bar k is the wavenumber of the fluctuations and ρ s is the ion Larmor radius at the sound speed. The propagation direction of the fluctuations reverses to the electron diamagnetic direction around r/bar a ph ∼ v de ). The fluctuation-induced particle flux is comparable to fluxes estimated from the particle balance using the H α spectroscopic measurements. Many of the features seen in these experiments resemble the features of ohmically heated plasmas in the Texas Experimental Tokamak (TEXT). 17 refs., 10 figs

  20. Solving the Capacitive Effect in the High-Frequency sweep for Langmuir Probe in SYMPLE

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pramila; Patel, J. J.; Rajpal, R.; Hansalia, C. J.; Anitha, V. P.; Sathyanarayana, K.

    2017-04-01

    Langmuir Probe based measurements need to be routinely carried out to measure various plasma parameters such as the electron density (ne), the electron temperature (Te), the floating potential (Vf), and the plasma potential (Vp). For this, the diagnostic electronics along with the biasing power supplies is installed in standard industrial racks with a 2KV isolation transformer. The Signal Conditioning Electronics (SCE) system is populated inside the 4U-chassis based system with the front-end electronics, designed using high common mode differential amplifiers which can measure small differential signal in presence of high common mode dc- bias or ac ramp voltage used for biasing the probes. DC-biasing of the probe is most common method for getting its I-V characteristic but method of biasing the probe with a sweep at high frequency encounters the problem of corruption of signal due to capacitive effect specially when the sweep period and the discharge time is very fast and die down in the order of μs or lesser. This paper presents and summarises the method of removing such effects encountered while measuring the probe current.

  1. Large Area Fabrication of Semiconducting Phosphorene by Langmuir-Blodgett Assembly

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kaur, Harneet; Yadav, Sandeep; Srivastava, Avanish. K.; Singh, Nidhi; Schneider, Jörg J.; Sinha, Om. P.; Agrawal, Ved V.; Srivastava, Ritu

    2016-01-01

    Phosphorene is a recently new member of the family of two dimensional (2D) inorganic materials. Besides its synthesis it is of utmost importance to deposit this material as thin film in a way that represents a general applicability for 2D materials. Although a considerable number of solvent based methodologies have been developed for exfoliating black phosphorus, so far there are no reports on controlled organization of these exfoliated nanosheets on substrates. Here, for the first time to the best of our knowledge, a mixture of N-methyl-2-pyrrolidone and deoxygenated water is employed as a subphase in Langmuir-Blodgett trough for assembling the nanosheets followed by their deposition on substrates and studied its field-effect transistor characteristics. Electron microscopy reveals the presence of densely aligned, crystalline, ultra-thin sheets of pristine phosphorene having lateral dimensions larger than hundred of microns. Furthermore, these assembled nanosheets retain their electronic properties and show a high current modulation of 104 at room temperature in field-effect transistor devices. The proposed technique provides semiconducting phosphorene thin films that are amenable for large area applications. PMID:27671093

  2. Studying the influence of substrate conductivity on the optoelectronic properties of quantum dots langmuir monolayer

    Science.gov (United States)

    Al-Alwani, Ammar J.; Chumakov, A. S.; Begletsova, N. N.; Shinkarenko, O. A.; Markin, A. V.; Gorbachev, I. A.; Bratashov, D. N.; Gavrikov, M. V.; Venig, S. B.; Glukhovskoy, E. G.

    2018-04-01

    The formation of CdSe quantum dots (QDs) monolayers was studied by Langmuir Blodgett method. The fluorescence (PL) spectra of QD monolayers were investigated at different substrate type (glass, silicon and ITO glass) and the influence of graphene sheets layer (as a conductive surface) on the QDs properties has also been studied. The optoelectronic properties of QDs can be tuned by deposition of insulating nano-size layers of the liquid crystal between QDs and conductive substrate. The monolayer of QDs transferred on conductive surface (glass with ITO) has lowest intensity of PL spectra due to quenching effect. The PL intensity of QDs could be tuned by using various type of substrates or/and by transformed high conductive layer. Also the photooxidation processes of CdSe QDs monolayer on the solid surface can be controlled by selection of suitable substrate. The current-voltage (I–V) characteristics of QDs thin film on ITO surface was studied using scanning tunneling microscope (STM).

  3. Conductive Langmuir-Blodgett films. Doping with iodine or self-doping?

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Bourgoin, Jean-Philippe

    1991-01-01

    In this research thesis dealing with molecular architecture, the author reports the testing of two strategies aiming at reducing the importance of defects in conductive Langmuir-Blodgett films, and at enabling the production of conductive mono-molecular layer. According to the first strategy, conductive films are obtained after doping based on the use of iodine vapours of an insulating precursor film of molecules derived from BEDT-TTF. The so-produced films display a high conductivity and can be used as sensitive elements in gas sensors, but remain macroscopically insulating, probably because molecular reorganisation, as shown by a study based on different techniques (IR and UV linear dichroism, Raman spectroscopy, X ray diffraction), generates too many defects. The second strategy, self-doping, is based on a mixing of two derivatives of the same electro-active nucleus (the TCNQ, tetracyanoquinodimethane), an amphiphilic one and a semi-amphiphilic one. This strategy opens new perspectives in molecular engineering as it is a general way to produce conductive LB films from TCNQ [fr

  4. Plasma-treated Langmuir-Blodgett reduced graphene oxide thin film for applications in biophotovoltaics

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ibrahim, Siti Aisyah; Jaafar, Muhammad Musoddiq; Ng, Fong-Lee; Phang, Siew-Moi; Kumar, G. Ghana; Majid, Wan Haliza Abd; Periasamy, Vengadesh

    2018-01-01

    The surface optimization and structural characteristics of Langmuir-Blodgett (LB) reduced graphene oxide thin (rGO) film treated by argon plasma treatment were studied. In this work, six times deposition of rGO was deposited on a clean glass substrate using the LB method. Plasma technique involving a variation of plasma power, i.e., 20, 60, 100 and 140 W was exposed to the LB-rGO thin films under argon ambience. The plasma treatment generally improves the wettability or hydrophilicity of the film surface compared to without treatment. Maximum wettability was observed at a plasma power of 20 W, while also increasing the adhesion of the rGO film with the glass substrate. The multilayer films fabricated were characterized by means of spectroscopic, structural and electrical studies. The treatment of rGO with argon plasma was found to have improved its biocompatibility, and thus its performance as an electrode for biophotovoltaic devices has been shown to be enhanced considerably.

  5. Estimation of plasma ion saturation current and reduced tip arcing using Langmuir probe harmonics.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Boedo, J A; Rudakov, D L

    2017-03-01

    We present a method to calculate the ion saturation current, I sat , for Langmuir probes at high frequency (>100 kHz) using the harmonics technique and we compare that to a direct measurement of I sat . It is noted that the I sat estimation can be made directly by the ratio of harmonic amplitudes, without explicitly calculating T e . We also demonstrate that since the probe tips using the harmonic method are oscillating near the floating potential, drawing little power, this method reduces tip heating and arcing and allows plasma density measurements at a plasma power flux that would cause continuously biased tips to arc. A multi-probe array is used, with two spatially separated tips employing the harmonics technique and measuring the amplitude of at least two harmonics per tip. A third tip, located between the other two, measures the ion saturation current directly. We compare the measured and calculated ion saturation currents for a variety of plasma conditions and demonstrate the validity of the technique and its use in reducing arcs.

  6. Light scattering studies at UNICAMP

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Luzzi, R.; Cerdeira, H.A.; Salzberg, J.; Vasconcellos, A.R.; Frota Pessoa, S.; Reis, F.G. dos; Ferrari, C.A.; Algarte, C.A.S.; Tenan, M.A.

    1975-01-01

    Current theoretical studies on light scattering spectroscopy at UNICAMP is presented briefly, such as: inelastic scattering of radiation from a solid state plasma; resonant Ramman scattering; high excitation effects; saturated semiconductors and glasses

  7. Proper Sizing of Circulation Pumps

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Tommerup, Henrik M.; Nørgaard, Jørgen

    2007-01-01

    The paper describes the preliminary results from field tests of replacing various types of old pumps used for circulating water in heating systems in single- and double-family houses with new types of pumps. The tests were carried out in Denmark for the Danish Electricity Savings Trust, but the r......The paper describes the preliminary results from field tests of replacing various types of old pumps used for circulating water in heating systems in single- and double-family houses with new types of pumps. The tests were carried out in Denmark for the Danish Electricity Savings Trust...

  8. Virtual neutron scattering experiments

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Overgaard, Julie Hougaard; Bruun, Jesper; May, Michael

    2017-01-01

    . In the last week of the course, students travel to a large-scale neutron scattering facility to perform real neutron scattering experiments. Through student interviews and survey answers, we argue, that the virtual training prepares the students to engage more fruitfully with experiments by letting them focus......We describe how virtual experiments can be utilized in a learning design that prepares students for hands-on experiments at large-scale facilities. We illustrate the design by showing how virtual experiments are used at the Niels Bohr Institute in a master level course on neutron scattering...

  9. Scattering on magnetic monopoles

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Petry, H.R.

    1980-01-01

    The time-dependent scattering theory of charged particles on magnetic monopoles is investigated within a mathematical frame-work, which duely pays attention to the fact that the wavefunctions of the scattered particles are sections in a non-trivial complex line-bundle. It is found that Moeller operators have to be defined in a way which takes into account the peculiar long-range behaviour of the monopole field. Formulas for the scattering matrix and the differential cross-section are derived, and, as a by-product, a momentum space picture for particles, which are described by sections in the underlying complex line-bundle, is presented. (orig.)

  10. Deep inelastic neutron scattering

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Mayers, J.

    1989-03-01

    The report is based on an invited talk given at a conference on ''Neutron Scattering at ISIS: Recent Highlights in Condensed Matter Research'', which was held in Rome, 1988, and is intended as an introduction to the techniques of Deep Inelastic Neutron Scattering. The subject is discussed under the following topic headings:- the impulse approximation I.A., scaling behaviour, kinematical consequences of energy and momentum conservation, examples of measurements, derivation of the I.A., the I.A. in a harmonic system, and validity of the I.A. in neutron scattering. (U.K.)

  11. Generation of Langmuir wave supercontinuum by phase-preserving equilibration of plasmons with irreversible wave-particle interaction

    Science.gov (United States)

    Eiichirou, Kawamori

    2018-04-01

    We report the observation of supercontinuum of Langmuir plasma waves, that exhibits broad power spectrum having significant spatio-temporal coherence grown from a monochromatic seed-wave, in one-dimensional particle-in-cell simulations. The Langmuir wave supercontinuum (LWSC) is formed when the seed wave excites side-band fields efficiently by the modulational instabilities. Its identification is achieved by the use of the tricoherence analysis, which detects four wave mixings (FWMs) of plasmons (plasma wave quanta), and evaluation of the first order coherence, which is a measure of temporal coherence, of the wave electric fields. The irreversible evolution to the coherent LWSC from the seed wave is realized by the wave-particle interactions causing stochastic electron motions in the phase space and the coherence of LWSC is maintained by the phase-preserving FWMs of plasmons. The LWSC corresponds to a quasi Bernstein-Greene-Kruskal mode.

  12. Network structure control of binary mixed langmuir monolayers of homo-PS and PS-b-P2VP.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wen, Gangyao

    2010-03-25

    Our recent work showed there existed a composition window for mixed Langmuir monolayers of homopolystyrene (h-PS) and a symmetric diblock copolymer polystyrene-block-poly(2-vinylpyridine) (PS-b-P2VP) to form necklace-network structures at the air/water interface. In order to study further the possible mechanism and control the network structure (i.e., surface coverage and nanoaggregate diameter), effects of spreading solution concentration and volume, subphase temperature, and transfer pressure on the network structure were studied by the Langmuir monolayer technique and tapping mode atomic force microscopy. With the increase of transfer pressure, there existed a novel nonlinear behavior for the nanoaggregate diameter first to increase, then to decrease, and finally to increase again, while the surface coverage tended to increase step by step. Moreover, with the elevation of temperature, chain motion between the adjoining nanoaggregates tended to be improved and thus the nanoaggregate diameter tended to be more uniform.

  13. Dependence of the electron Langmuir wave damping on the angle of propagation in weakly ionized neon plasma

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Zigman, V.J.; Milic, B.S.

    1995-01-01

    The dependence of the attenuation of the longitudinal electron Langmuir waves (ω ∼ ω pe ), in collisional weakly ionized, non-magnetized, uniform and steady-state plasmas placed in external d.c. electric field, on the angle θ between the wave vector and the electron drift rvec u is studied on the ground of the kinetic theory and the linear perturbation technique. The collisionless and collisional contributions to the overall attenuation were evaluated separately, as it was shown previously that in certain instances the elastic e - n encounters (with collision frequency ν en , ν en much-lt ω pe ) may attenuate the Langmuir waves more efficiently than the Landau mechanism. More precisely, it was found that, for any fixed value of E 0 /n n , there exists a critical value of the ratio n n /X above which the collisional attenuation prevails

  14. Intensity dependent waiting time for strong electron trapping events in speckle stimulated raman scatter

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Rose, Harvey [Los Alamos National Laboratory; Daughton, W [Los Alamos National Laboratory; Yin, L [Los Alamos National Laboratory

    2009-01-01

    The onset of Stimulated Raman scatter from an intense laser speckle is the simplest experimentally realizable laser-plasma-interaction environment. Despite this data and recent 3D particle simulations, the controlling mechanism at the onset of backscatter in the kinetic regime when strong electron trapping in the daughter Langmuir wave is a dominant nonlinearity is not understood. This paper explores the consequences of assuming that onset is controlled by large thermal fluctuations. A super exponential dependence of mean reflectivity on speckle intensity in the onset regime is predicted.

  15. Photocatalytic Degradation of Aniline Using TiO2 Nanoparticles in a Vertical Circulating Photocatalytic Reactor

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    F. Shahrezaei

    2012-01-01

    Full Text Available Photocatalytic degradation of aniline in the presence of titanium dioxide (TiO2 and ultraviolet (UV illumination was performed in a vertical circulating photocatalytic reactor. The effects of catalyst concentration (0–80 mg/L, initial pH (2–12, temperature (293–323 K, and irradiation time (0–120 min on aniline photodegradation were investigated in order to obtain the optimum operational conditions. The results reveal that the aniline degradation efficiency can be effectively improved by increasing pH from 2 to 12 and temperature from 313 to 323 K. Besides, the effect of temperature on aniline photo degradation was found to be unremarkable in the range of 293–313 K. The optimum catalyst concentration was about 60 mg/L. The Langmuir Hinshelwood kinetic model could successfully elucidate the effects of the catalyst concentration, pH, and temperature on the rate of heterogeneous photooxidation of aniline. The data obtained by applying the Langmuir Hinshelwood treatment are consistent with the available kinetic parameters. The activated energy for the photocatalytic degradation of aniline is 20.337 kj/mol. The possibility of the reactor use in the treatment of a real petroleum refinery wastewater was also investigated. The results of the experiments indicated that it can therefore be potentially applied for the treatment of wastewater contaminated by different organic pollutants.

  16. Comparison of fluctuations properties measured by Langmuir and ball-pen probes in the ISTTOK boundary plasma

    Czech Academy of Sciences Publication Activity Database

    Silva, C.; Adámek, Jiří; Fernandes, H.; Figueiredo, H.

    2015-01-01

    Roč. 57, č. 2 (2015), č. článku 025003. ISSN 0741-3335 R&D Projects: GA ČR(CZ) GAP205/12/2327; GA MŠk(CZ) LM2011021 Institutional support: RVO:61389021 Keywords : langmuir probes * turbulence * tokamak Subject RIV: BL - Plasma and Gas Discharge Physics OBOR OECD: Fluids and plasma physics (including surface physics) Impact factor: 2.404, year: 2015 http://iopscience.iop.org/0741-3335/57/2/025003

  17. Structural studies on Langmuir-Blodgett ultra-thin films on tin (IV) stearate using X-ray diffraction technique

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Mohamad Deraman; Muhamad Mat Salleh; Mohd Ali Sulaiman; Mohd Ali Sufi

    1991-01-01

    X-ray diffraction measurements were carried out on Langmuir-Blodgett (LB) ultra-thin films of tin (IV) stearate for different numbers of layers. The structural information such as interplanar spacing, unit cells spacing, molecular length and orientation of molecular chains were obtained from the diffraction data. This information is discussed and compared with that previously published for LB ultra-thin films of manganese stearate and cadmium stearate

  18. Numerical evaluation of Cs adsorption in PB column by extended Langmuir formula and one-dimensional adsorption model

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Hiroshi Ogawa; Akiko Kitajima; Hisashi Tanaka; Tohru Kawamoto

    2015-01-01

    Adsorption property of granulated Prussian blue adsorbent on radioactive cesium was evaluated for efficient decontamination in Fukushima area. The adsorbent was found to show an inflective adsorption isotherm, which was expressed by extended Langmuir formula with three adsorption sites. Adsorption speeds of each site were evaluated by time-dependent batch experiment. The simulation using derived parameters and one-dimensional adsorption model successfully reproduced the experimental data of cesium decontamination by small and large columns. (author)

  19. The flush-mounted rail Langmuir probe array designed for the Alcator C-Mod vertical target plate divertor

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kuang, A. Q.; Brunner, D.; LaBombard, B.; Leccacorvi, R.; Vieira, R.

    2018-04-01

    An array of flush-mounted and toroidally elongated Langmuir probes (henceforth called rail probes) have been specifically designed for the Alcator C-Mod's vertical target plate divertor and operated over multiple campaigns. The "flush" geometry enables the tungsten electrodes to survive high heat flux conditions in which traditional "proud" tungsten electrodes suffer damage from melting. The toroidally elongated rail-like geometry reduces the influence of sheath expansion, which is an important effect to consider in the design and interpretation of flush-mounted Langmuir probes. The new rail probes successfully operated during C-Mod's FY2015 and FY2016 experimental campaigns with no evidence of damage, despite being regularly subjected to heat flux densities parallel to the magnetic field exceeding ˜1 GW m-2 for short periods of time. A comparison between rail and proud probe data indicates that sheath expansion effects were successfully mitigated by the rail design, extending the use of these Langmuir probes to incident magnetic field line angles as low as 0.5°.

  20. High-spatial-resolution electron density measurement by Langmuir probe for multi-point observations using tiny spacecraft

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hoang, H.; Røed, K.; Bekkeng, T. A.; Trondsen, E.; Clausen, L. B. N.; Miloch, W. J.; Moen, J. I.

    2017-11-01

    A method for evaluating electron density using a single fixed-bias Langmuir probe is presented. The technique allows for high-spatio-temporal resolution electron density measurements, which can be effectively carried out by tiny spacecraft for multi-point observations in the ionosphere. The results are compared with the multi-needle Langmuir probe system, which is a scientific instrument developed at the University of Oslo comprising four fixed-bias cylindrical probes that allow small-scale plasma density structures to be characterized in the ionosphere. The technique proposed in this paper can comply with the requirements of future small-sized spacecraft, where the cost-effectiveness, limited space available on the craft, low power consumption and capacity for data-links need to be addressed. The first experimental results in both the plasma laboratory and space confirm the efficiency of the new approach. Moreover, detailed analyses on two challenging issues when deploying the DC Langmuir probe on a tiny spacecraft, which are the limited conductive area of the spacecraft and probe surface contamination, are presented in the paper. It is demonstrated that the limited conductive area, depending on applications, can either be of no concern for the experiment or can be resolved by mitigation methods. Surface contamination has a small impact on the performance of the developed probe.

  1. Electron scattering from pyrimidine

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Colmenares, Rafael; Fuss, Martina C; García, Gustavo; Oller, Juan C; Muñoz, Antonio; Blanco, Francisco; Almeida, Diogo; Limão-Vieira, Paulo

    2014-01-01

    Electron scattering from pyrimidine (C 4 H 4 N 2 ) was investigated over a wide range of energies. Following different experimental and theoretical approaches, total, elastic and ionization cross sections as well as electron energy loss distributions were obtained.

  2. Gravitational Bhabha scattering

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Santos, A F; Khanna, Faqir C

    2017-01-01

    Gravitoelectromagnetism (GEM) as a theory for gravity has been developed similar to the electromagnetic field theory. A weak field approximation of Einstein theory of relativity is similar to GEM. This theory has been quantized. Traditional Bhabha scattering, electron–positron scattering, is based on quantized electrodynamics theory. Usually the amplitude is written in terms of one photon exchange process. With the development of quantized GEM theory, the scattering amplitude will have an additional component based on an exchange of one graviton at the lowest order of perturbation theory. An analysis will provide the relative importance of the two amplitudes for Bhabha scattering. This will allow an analysis of the relative importance of the two amplitudes as the energy of the exchanged particles increases. (paper)

  3. Applied electromagnetic scattering theory

    CERN Document Server

    Osipov, Andrey A

    2017-01-01

    Besides classical applications (radar and stealth, antennas, microwave engineering), scattering and diffraction are enabling phenomena for some emerging research fields (artificial electromagnetic materials or metamaterials, terahertz technologies, electromagnetic aspects of nano-science). This book is a tutorial for advanced students who need to study diffraction theory. The textbook gives fundamental knowledge about scattering and diffraction of electromagnetic waves and provides some working examples of solutions for practical high-frequency scattering and diffraction problems. The book focuses on the most important diffraction effects and mechanisms influencing the scattering process and describes efficient and physically justified simulation methods - physical optics (PO) and the physical theory of diffraction (PTD) - applicable in typical remote sensing scenarios. The material is presented in a comprehensible and logical form, which relates the presented results to the basic principles of electromag...

  4. Scattering by bound nucleons

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Tezuka, Hirokazu.

    1984-10-01

    Scattering of a particle by bound nucleons is discussed. Effects of nucleons that are bound in a nucleus are taken as a structure function. The way how to calculate the structure function is given. (author)

  5. LIDAR Thomson scattering

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    1991-07-01

    This collection contains 21 papers on the application and development of LIDAR (Light Detection and Ranging) Thomson scattering techniques for the determination of spatially resolved electron temperature and density in magnetic confinement experiments, particularly tokamaks. Refs, figs and tabs

  6. Magnetic electron scattering

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Peterson, G.A.

    1989-01-01

    We briefly review some of the motivations, early results, and techniques of magnetic elastic and inelastic electron-nucleus scattering. We then discuss recent results, especially those acquired at high momentum transfers. 50 refs., 19 figs

  7. Deep inelastic lepton scattering

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Nachtmann, O.

    1977-01-01

    Deep inelastic electron (muon) nucleon and neutrino nucleon scattering as well as electron positron annihilation into hadrons are reviewed from a theoretical point of view. The emphasis is placed on comparisons of quantum chromodynamics with the data. (orig.) [de

  8. VanderLaan Circulant Type Matrices

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Hongyan Pan

    2015-01-01

    Full Text Available Circulant matrices have become a satisfactory tools in control methods for modern complex systems. In the paper, VanderLaan circulant type matrices are presented, which include VanderLaan circulant, left circulant, and g-circulant matrices. The nonsingularity of these special matrices is discussed by the surprising properties of VanderLaan numbers. The exact determinants of VanderLaan circulant type matrices are given by structuring transformation matrices, determinants of well-known tridiagonal matrices, and tridiagonal-like matrices. The explicit inverse matrices of these special matrices are obtained by structuring transformation matrices, inverses of known tridiagonal matrices, and quasi-tridiagonal matrices. Three kinds of norms and lower bound for the spread of VanderLaan circulant and left circulant matrix are given separately. And we gain the spectral norm of VanderLaan g-circulant matrix.

  9. Lightning mapping and dual-polarization radar observations of electrified storms at Langmuir Laboratory

    Science.gov (United States)

    Krehbiel, P. R.; Hyland, P. T.; Edens, H. E.; Rison, W.

    2013-12-01

    Observations being made at Langmuir Laboratory with the NM Tech Lightning Mapping Array (LMA) and the University of Oklahoma ARRC PX-1000 dual polarization X-band radar strongly confirm and expand upon the normal polarity tripolar electrical structure of central New Mexico storms. This is in sharp contrast with the anomalously electrified storm structures observed in northern Colorado during and subsequent to the 2012 DC3 field campaign, as seen with North Colorado LMA and CSU CHILL dual-polarization radar observations. In this presentation we focus on the New Mexico observations, and several modes in which the tripolar structure appears initially to develop and evolve with time. Central New Mexico storms are often prolific producers of negative cloud-to-ground (CG) flashes, but rarely produce positive CGs. By contrast, many or most north Colorado storms are CG-deficient, with the relatively few CG discharges being of predominantly positive polarity. In addition, NM storms commonly produce bolt-from-the-blue (BFB) negative CGs, whereas anomalously electrified Colorado storms produce none. The occurrence of BFBs is indicative of a relatively weak lower positive charge region, while the occurrence of normal downward -CGs is indicative of a somewhat stronger lower positive charge. The lack of -CGs in Colorado storms results from lower positive charge being a dominant storm charge that is elevated in altitude. These and other basic features of the electrically activity of storms, coupled with dual polarization and Doppler radar observations of hydrometeor types and motions, are leading to a better understanding of the storm electrification processes.

  10. A Quantitative Study of Tethered Chains in Various Solution Conditions Using Langmuir Diblock Copolymer Monolayers

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Kent, Michael S.

    1999-08-13

    This article summarizes our investigations of tethered chain systems using Langmuir monolayer of polydimethysiloxane-poly styrene (PDMS-PS) diblock copolymers on organic liquids. In this system, the PDMS block adsorbs to the air surface while the PS block dangles into the subphase liquid. The air surface can be made either repulsive or attractive for the tethered PS chain segments by choosing a subphase liquid which has a surface tension lower or greater than that of PS, respectively. The segment profile of the PS block is determined by neutron reflection as a function of the surface density, the molecular weights of the PS and PDMS blocks, and the solution conditions. We cover the range of reduced surface density (SIGMA) characteristic of the large body of data in the literature for systems of chains tethered onto solid surfaces from dilute solution in good or theta solvent conditions (SIGMA < 12). We emphasize quantitative comparisons with analytical profile forms and scaling predictions. We find that the strong-stretching limit invoked in analytical SCF and scaling theories is not valid over this Z range. On the other hand, over a large portion of this range (SIGMA < 5) tethered layers are well described by a renormalization group theory addressing weakly interacting or noninteracting chains. Simultaneous with the study of the profile form, the free energy of the chains is examined through the surface tension. A strong increase in the surface pressure is observed with increasing surface density which determines the maximum surface density which can be achieved. This apparently nonequilibrium effect is attributed to steric interactions and limited lateral interpenetration. This effect may explain several outstanding discrepancies regarding the adsorption of end-functionalized chains and diblock copolymers onto solid surfaces.

  11. Weak turbulence theory of Langmuir waves: A reconsideration of validity of quasilinear theory

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Liang, Y.M.; Diamond, P.H.

    1991-01-01

    The weak turbulence theory of Langmuir waves in a one-dimensional, one-species plasma is discussed. Analytical calculations using the theory of two-point correlation functions show that in the weak turbulence regime τ ac much-lt min[τ tr , γ k -1 ], the nonlinear enhancement of the mode growth rate relative to the linear Landau mode growth rate γ k L is rather weak, and quasilinear theory is reproduced at the lowest order. Hence this work also proves the validity of the quasilinear theory. Here τ ac ∼ (kΔv ph ) -1 is the phase-mixing time or the auto-correlation time, and τ tr ∼ (k 2 D ql ) -1/3 is the particle decorrelation time or the turbulence trapping time. In particular, the lowest order nonlinear correction to γ k L in the regime τ ac much-lt τ tr much-lt γ k -1 is proportional to (1/ω k τ tr )γ k L . Both corrections are additive, not multiplicative, and are of higher order in the weak turbulence expansion. The smallness of the corrections is due to the fact that the only mechanism for the relaxation of the plasma distribution function in a one-dimensional, one-species plasma is momentum exchange between waves and particles, which is exactly the interaction considered in the quasilinear theory. No like-like particle momentum exchange is allowed due to momentum conservation constraints. Similar calculations are also done for the traveling wave tube, which can be used to test this theory experimentally, especially for the case of bump-on-tail instability. A comparison of theoretical predictions with experimental results is presented. 3 refs

  12. ATF edge plasma turbulence studies using a fast reciprocating Langmuir probe

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Uckan, T.; Hidalgo, C.; Bell, J.D.; Harris, J.H.; Dunlap, J.L.; Dyer, G.R.; Mioduszewski, P.K.; Wilgen, J.B.; Ritz, C.P.; Wootton, A.J.; Rhodes, T.L.; Carter, K.

    1991-01-01

    Electrostatic turbulence on the edge of the Advanced Toroidal Facility (ATF) torsatron is investigated experimentally with a fast reciprocating Langmuir probe (FRLP) array. Initial measurements of plasma electron density n e and temperature T e and fluctuations in density (n e ) and plasma floating potential (φ f ) are made in electron cyclotron heated plasmas at 1 T. At the last closed flux surface (LCFS, r√a ∼ 1), T e ∼ 20--40 eV and n e ∼ 10 12 cm -3 for a line-averaged electron density bar n e = (3--6) x 10 12 cm -3 . Relative fluctuation levels, as the FRLP is moved into core plasma where T e > 20 eV, are n e /n e ∼ 5% and eφ f /T e ∼ 2n e /n e about 2 cm inside the LCFS. The observed fluctuation spectra are broadband (40--300 kHz) with bar kρ s ≤ 0.1, where bar k is the wavenumber of the fluctuations and ρ s is the ion Larmor radius at the sound speed. The propagation direction of the fluctuations reverses to the electron diamagnetic direction around r√a ph ∼ v de ). The fluctuation-induced particle flux is comparable to fluxes estimated from the particle balance using the H α spectroscopic measurements. Many of the features seen in these experiments resemble the features of ohmically heated plasmas in the Texas Experimental Tokamak (TEXT). 18 refs., 10 figs

  13. Multi-channel Langmuir-probe and H[alpha]-measurements of edge fluctuations on ASDEX

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Niedermeyer, H; Carlson, A; Endler, M; Giannone, L.; Rudyj, A; Theimer, G [Max-Planck-Institut fuer Plasmaphysik, Garching (Germany)

    1991-01-01

    The anomalous transport observed in tokamaks is caused by turbulent fluctuations, the nature of which is still poorly understood. Diagnostic difficulties are one major reason for this lack of understanding, at least with respect to the bulk plasma. The plasma edge, however, is accessible by several diagnostics permitting localized measurements of different parameters with good spatial and temporal resolution. For this reason one can hope to obtain enough information about edge fluctuations to permit the development of theoretical models. Different ranges of plasma parameters and the lack of closed magnetic surfaces distinguish this plasma zone from the bulk plasma. Edge turbulence might well involve other mechanisms than the turbulence in the bulk. Although transport in the bulk plasma receives more attention transport in the edge plasma and edge physics are very relevant for reactor design. The realistic hope to find a solution and the importance of the problem for the next step in fusion research are reasons for the strong effort in this field on many tokamaks. Like in many limiter tokamaks Langmuir probes were used in the ASDEX divertor device for measurements of the floating potential and of the ion saturation current. Under certain assumptions the electron density and the plasma potential can be derived from these data. Observation of the H[alpha]-light emitted from the edge in the vicinity of a neutral gas source yields information about the electron density. While probe measurements are more suitable for quantitative evaluations including the calculation of the local particle flux the H[alpha]-method is not calibrated and integrates radially over the edge. It is however applicable in situations where probes fail because of excessive heat load. With 16-channel arrays both methods permit spatial correlations and wavenumber spectra to be determined without any further assumptions. (author) 4 refs., 2 figs.

  14. Interactions between an anticancer drug - edelfosine - and cholesterol in Langmuir monolayers

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Wiecek, Agata; Dynarowicz-Latka, Patrycja; Minones, J.; Conde, Olga; Casas, Matilde

    2008-01-01

    Edelfosine (1-O-octadecyl-2-O-methyl-rac-glycero-3-phosphocholine, abbr. Et-18-OCH 3 ) is a new generation anticancer drug based on a phospholipids-like structure. Since its mechanism of action is believed to be related to the lipids of cellular membrane, we have investigated the interactions between edelfosine and main mammalian sterol: cholesterol, using the Langmuir monolayer technique. The interactions have been analyzed by comparing the experimental curves with theoretical ones, obtained basing on the additivity rule. The observed contraction together with negative deviations from ideality observed on the mean molecular area (A 12 ) vs film composition plots proves the existence of strong attractive forces between edelfosine and cholesterol, which have been quantified with the excess free energy of mixing (ΔG exc ) values, calculated from the surface pressure-area isotherms datapoints. The most negative values of ΔG exc have been found for the mixture of equimolar composition, proving its highest thermodynamic stability and the existence of the strongest interactions between film components. Thus, it has been postulated that at the surface edelfosine and cholesterol form stable complexes of 1:1 stoichiometry. The analysis of the collapse pressure values for the investigated mixed monolayers proves that films of edelfosine mole fraction ≤ 0.5 are miscible within the whole range of surface pressures, while monolayers richer in edelfosine mix in the pressure region below ca. 37.6 mN/m, which corresponds to the collapse of pure edelfosine monolayer. At this very surface pressure, edelfosine is expelled from the mixed monolayer and the remaining film is composed by surface complexes of high stability. The hypothesis of complex formation explains the results performed in vitro on cell cultures, indicating that the increase of cholesterol content significantly reduces the uptake of edelfosine

  15. Instability and damping of one-dimensional high-amplitude Langmuir waves

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Buchel'nikova, N.S.; Matochkin, E.P.

    1981-01-01

    Numerical experiments (methods ''of particles in cells'') on investigation of instability and damping of one-dimensional Langmuir waves in the region Esub(0)sup(2)/8πnT>m/M>(ksub(0)rsub(d))sup(2) ksub(0) is wave vector, M- ion mass, m-electron mass, v=√T/M, vsub(ph)=Wsub(0)/ksub(0), Wsub(0)-proper plasma frequency) are performed. Numerical experiments have been conducted in a wide range of initial parameters of the wave: E 0 2 /8πnT approximately 4x10 2 -10 -2 , vsub(ph)/vsub(T) approximately 3-160, M/m=10 2 , in some cases M/m=10 3 . It is shown that the basic processes are modulation instability with a modulation length less than the wave length, wave conversion at density inhomogeneity and electron capture by the wave or its harmonics. Depending on initial wave parameters the predominant role is played by this or that process. In the range of linear waves Esub(0)sup(2)/8πnT ksub(0)rsub(d) - to the collapse. In the range of 4x10sup(-2)/(ksub(0)rsub(d)sup(2)>Esub(0)sup(2)/8πnT>10sup(-3)/(ksub(0)rsub(d))sup(2) all the three processes play a comparable role. In the range of strong damping Esub(0)sup(2)/8πnT>4x10sup(-2)/(h ksub(0)rsub(d))sup(2) the main part is played by the wave electron capture resulting in damping considerably exceeding the Lamdau damping [ru

  16. Langmuir probe diagnostics of an atmospheric pressure, vortex-stabilized nitrogen plasma jet

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Prevosto, L.; Mancinelli, B. R. [Grupo de Descargas Electricas, Departamento Ingenieria Electromecanica, Facultad Regional Venado Tuerto (UTN), Laprida 651, (2600) Venado Tuerto, Santa Fe (Argentina); Kelly, H. [Grupo de Descargas Electricas, Departamento Ingenieria Electromecanica, Facultad Regional Venado Tuerto (UTN), Laprida 651, (2600) Venado Tuerto, Santa Fe (Argentina) and Instituto de Fisica del Plasma (CONICET), Departamento de Fisica, Facultad de Ciencias Exactas y Naturales UBA Ciudad Universitaria Pab. I, (1428) Buenos Aires (Argentina)

    2012-09-15

    Langmuir probe measurements in an atmospheric pressure direct current (dc) plasma jet are reported. Sweeping probes were used. The experiment was carried out using a dc non-transferred arc torch with a rod-type cathode and an anode of 5 mm diameter. The torch was operated at a nominal power level of 15 kW with a nitrogen flow rate of 25 Nl min{sup -1}. A flat ion saturation region was found in the current-voltage curve of the probe. The ion saturation current to a cylindrical probe in a high-pressure non local thermal equilibrium (LTE) plasma was modeled. Thermal effects and ionization/recombination processes inside the probe perturbed region were taken into account. Averaged radial profiles of the electron and heavy particle temperatures as well as the electron density were obtained. An electron temperature around 11 000 K, a heavy particle temperature around 9500 K and an electron density of about 4 Multiplication-Sign 10{sup 22} m{sup -3}, were found at the jet centre at 3.5 mm downstream from the torch exit. Large deviations from kinetic equilibrium were found throughout the plasma jet. The electron and heavy particle temperature profiles showed good agreement with those reported in the literature by using spectroscopic techniques. It was also found that the temperature radial profile based on LTE was very close to that of the electrons. The calculations have shown that this method is particularly useful for studying spraying-type plasma jets characterized by electron temperatures in the range 9000-14 000 K.

  17. Langmuir probe measurements in the TEXTOR tokamak during ALT-I pump limiter experiments

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Goebel, D.M.; Campbell, G.A.; Conn, R.W.; Leung, W.K.; Dippel, K.H.; Finken, K.H.; Thomas, G.J.; Pontau, A.E.

    1986-04-01

    Langmuir probes have been used to characterize the edge plasma of the TEXTOR tokamak and measure the parameters of the plasma incident on the ALT-I pump limiter during ohmic and ICRH heating. Probes mounted directly on the ALT limiter, and a scanning probe located 90 0 toroidally from the limiter, provide data for the evaluation of pump limiter performance and its effect on the edge plasma. The edge plasma is characterized by density and flux e-folding lengths of about 1.8cm when ALT is the main limiter. These scrape-off lengths do not vary significantly as ALT is moved between the normal 42-46cm minor radii, but increase to over 2.2cm when ALT is inserted to 40cm. The flux to probes at a fixed position in the limiter shadow varies by less than 25% for core density changes of a factor of five. This suggests that the global particle confinement time tau/sub p/, scales as the core density. Estimates from the probes indicate that tau/sub p/ is on the order of the energy confinement time, tau/sub E/. The edge electron temperature, T/sub e/, typically decreases by a factor of two when the core density is raised from 1 to 4 x 10 13 cm -3 . The T/sub e/ profile is essentially flat in the limiter shadow, with values of 10-25 eV depending on the core plasma density and ICRH power. ICRH heating increases the electron temperature and flux in proportion to the coupled power. With ALT as the primary limiter and no direct shadowing, the ion side receives 2 to 3 times the flux of the electron side during both ohmic and ICRH heating. The edge plasma is not directly modified by pump limiter operation, but changes with the core plasma density as particle removal lowers the recycling of neutrals in the boundary

  18. Small angle neutron scattering

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Bernardini, G.; Cherubini, G.; Fioravanti, A.; Olivi, A.

    1976-09-01

    A method for the analysis of the data derived from neutron small angle scattering measurements has been accomplished in the case of homogeneous particles, starting from the basic theory without making any assumption on the form of particle size distribution function. The experimental scattering curves are interpreted with the aid the computer by means of a proper routine. The parameters obtained are compared with the corresponding ones derived from observations at the transmission electron microscope

  19. Pp scattering at SIN

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Aprile-Giboni, E.; Cantale, G.; Hausammann, R.

    1983-01-01

    Using the PM1 polarized proton beam at SIN and a polarized target, the elastic pp scattering as well as the inelastic channel pp → π + d have been studied between 400 and 600 MeV. For the elastic reaction, a sufficient number of spin dependent parameters has been measured in order to do a direct reconstruction of the scattering matrix between 38 0 /sub cm/ and 90 0 /sub cm/. 10 references, 6 figures

  20. Arguments for fundamental emission by the parametric process L yields T + S in interplanetary type III bursts. [langmuir, electromagnetic, ion acoustic waves (L, T, S)

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cairns, I. H.

    1984-01-01

    Observations of low frequency ion acoustic-like waves associated with Langmuir waves present during interplanetary Type 3 bursts are used to study plasma emission mechanisms and wave processes involving ion acoustic waves. It is shown that the observed wave frequency characteristics are consistent with the processes L yields T + S (where L = Langmuir waves, T = electromagnetic waves, S = ion acoustic waves) and L yields L' + S proceeding. The usual incoherent (random phase) version of the process L yields T + S cannot explain the observed wave production time scale. The clumpy nature of the observed Langmuir waves is vital to the theory of IP Type 3 bursts. The incoherent process L yields T + S may encounter difficulties explaining the observed Type 3 brightness temperatures when Langmuir wave clumps are incorporated into the theory. The parametric process L yields T + S may be the important emission process for the fundamental radiation of interplanetary Type 3 bursts.

  1. The Adsorption Langmuir Model of Transfer Metal Ti, V and Mn on System Water-Sediment in Along Side Code River, Yogyakarta

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Rini Jati Wardani; Muzakky; Agus Taftazani

    2007-01-01

    The adsorption langmuir model of transfer metal Ti, V and Mn on system water-sediment in along side Code river, Yogyakarta has been studied. For that purpose, the study is to make prediction about adsorption langmuir model of identified metal Ti, V and Mn from upstream until downstream samples water and sediment in along side Code river. The factor influenced of langmuir adsorption on transfer metal Ti, V and Mn in system water-sediment is Total Suspended Solid (TSS). The analysis showed that between TSS with metal concentration in sediment have linear correlation. The result of calculation from curve of langmuir isotherm, showed for Ti has R 2 = 0.8006 with capacities of adsorption = 0.5 mol/l and energy of adsorption = 13.286 J/mol, V has R 2 = 0.9883 with capacities of adsorption = 0.0137 mol/l and energy of adsorption = 16.64 J/mol, Mn has R 2 = 0.9624 with capacities of adsorption 0.152 mol/l and energy of adsorption = 10.51 J/mol. The conclusion from this topic about adsorption langmuir for metal Ti, V and Mn according to energy of langmuir adsorption by chemisorption process above 10 J/mo. (author)

  2. Journalism as Cultures of Circulation

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Bødker, Henrik

    2013-01-01

    The universe of journalism has always consisted of interspersed texts, meanings and practices. Yet, much journalism research has often isolated either texts and/or contexts and as such assumed relations between professional practices, informed (rational) readers and (conceived) core texts...... of journalism. It is, however, more important than ever to shift attention away from texts to the processes through which they are circulated. This is partly because the many cultural forms of journalism (textual, institutional, technological, material, behavioural and imagined) are undergoing significant......, likes, comments, searches, journalist roles, writing and reading positions and identities etc. Such forms will be traced within the mediation of a specific event with the overall aim of beginning a theorization of the landscape of journalism as highly interrelated cultures of circulation....

  3. Radioisotopic evaluation of portal circulation

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Maliska, C.; Rosenthal, D.

    1986-01-01

    The use of a radio-tracer of portal circulation through the intestine, should prevent cruel punctures in the portal-vein or spleen as it is usually the case with traditional methods in the study of portal-system. The absorption of I-131 and Tc-99m, previously cheked in rabbits presented similar results in dogs. The time of circulation between terminal large-intestine and the liver (t-RF) was determined by external counting at hepatic level by recording radioactivity variation-time. In healthy animals the t-RF was from 20to 60 seconds, with average time of 42 seconds. In 2 animals with partial binding of portal-vein the t-RF went up to 110 and 120 seconds. (Author) [pt

  4. Ocean circulation generated magnetic signals

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Manoj, C.; Kuvshinov, A.; Maus, S.

    2006-01-01

    Conducting ocean water, as it flows through the Earth's magnetic field, generates secondary electric and magnetic fields. An assessment of the ocean-generated magnetic fields and their detectability may be of importance for geomagnetism and oceanography. Motivated by the clear identification...... of ocean tidal signatures in the CHAMP magnetic field data we estimate the ocean magnetic signals of steady flow using a global 3-D EM numerical solution. The required velocity data are from the ECCO ocean circulation experiment and alternatively from the OCCAM model for higher resolution. We assume...... of the magnetic field, as compared to the ECCO simulation. Besides the expected signatures of the global circulation patterns, we find significant seasonal variability of ocean magnetic signals in the Indian and Western Pacific Oceans. Compared to seasonal variation, interannual variations produce weaker signals....

  5. Diffusion barrier characteristics of co monolayer prepared by Langmuir Blodgett technique

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Sharma, Sumit, E-mail: sumitelsd2007@gmail.com [Electronic Science Department, Kurukshetra University, Kurukshetra, Haryana 136119 (India); Kumar, Mukesh, E-mail: kumarmukesh@gmail.com [Department of Electrical Engineering, College of Engineering at Wadi Aldawasir, Prince Sattam Bin Abdulaziz University, Wadi Aldawasir 11991 (Saudi Arabia); Rani, Sumita [Electronic Science Department, Kurukshetra University, Kurukshetra, Haryana 136119 (India); Kumar, Dinesh, E-mail: dineshelsd@gmail.com [Electronic Science Department, Kurukshetra University, Kurukshetra, Haryana 136119 (India)

    2016-04-30

    Graphical abstract: Thermal stability of structures (a) Cu/SiO{sub 2}/Si and (b) Cu/Co/SiO{sub 2}/Si, indicating that presence of thin cobalt layer improves the thermal stability of the structure up to 600 °C. - Highlights: • Monolayers of cobalt were deposited on SiO{sub 2}/Si substrates using LB technique. • Copper layers were deposited on this structures using thermal evaporation method. • Thermal stability was determined by annealing the structures at various temperatures. • The structure was found to be stable up to 650 °C. - Abstract: Monolayers of Co over SiO{sub 2}/Si substrate were deposited using Langmuir Blodgett (LB) technique. The diffusion barrier capability of Co layer was evaluated against copper diffusion. The structure of the deposited Co layer was analyzed using X-ray photoelectron spectroscopy (XPS), Energy Dispersive X-ray Spectroscopy (EDS) and Atomic force microscopy (AFM) techniques. Thermal stability of Cu/SiO{sub 2}/Si and Cu/Co/SiO{sub 2}/Si test structures was studied and compared using X-ray diffraction (XRD), scanning electron microscope (SEM) and four probe techniques. The samples were annealed at different temperatures starting from 200 °C up to 700 °C in vacuum for 30 min. XRD results indicated that combination of Co/SiO{sub 2} worked as diffusion barrier up to 550 °C whereas SiO{sub 2} alone could work as barrier only up to 300 °C. Sheet resistance of these samples was measured as a function of annealing temperature which also supports XRD results. C–V curves of these structures under the influence of Biased Thermal Stress (BTS) were analyzed. BTS was applied at 2.5 MV cm{sup −1} at 150 °C. Results showed that in the presence of Co barrier layer there was no shift in the C–V curve even after 90 min of BTS while in the absence of barrier there was a significant shift in the C–V curve even after 30 min of BTS. Further these test structures were examined for leakage current density (j{sub L}) at same BTS

  6. Electron acoustic-Langmuir solitons in a two-component electron plasma

    Science.gov (United States)

    McKenzie, J. F.

    2003-04-01

    We investigate the conditions under which ‘high-frequency’ electron acoustic Langmuir solitons can be constructed in a plasma consisting of protons and two electron populations: one ‘cold’ and the other ‘hot’. Conservation of total momentum can be cast as a structure equation either for the ‘cold’ or ‘hot’ electron flow speed in a stationary wave using the Bernoulli energy equations for each species. The linearized version of the governing equations gives the dispersion equation for the stationary waves of the system, from which follows the necessary but not sufficient conditions for the existence of soliton structures; namely that the wave speed must be less than the acoustic speed of the ‘hot’ electron component and greater than the low-frequency compound acoustic speed of the two electron populations. In this wave speed regime linear waves are ‘evanescent’, giving rise to the exponential growth or decay, which readily can give rise to non-linear effects that may balance dispersion and allow soliton formation. In general the ‘hot’ component must be more abundant than the ‘cold’ one and the wave is characterized by a compression of the ‘cold’ component and an expansion in the ‘hot’ component necessitating a potential dip. Both components are driven towards their sonic points; the ‘cold’ from above and the ‘hot’ from below. It is this transonic feature which limits the amplitude of the soliton. If the ‘hot’ component is not sufficiently abundant the window for soliton formation shrinks to a narrow speed regime which is quasi-transonic relative to the ‘hot’ electron acoustic speed, and it is shown that smooth solitons cannot be constructed. In the special case of a very cold electron population (i.e. ‘highly supersonic’) and the other population being very hot (i.e. ‘highly subsonic’) with adiabatic index 2, the structure equation simplifies and can be integrated in terms of elementary

  7. Observations of Local Seychelles Circulation

    Science.gov (United States)

    2015-09-30

    1 DISTRIBUTION STATEMENT A. Approved for public release; distribution is unlimited. Observations of Local Seychelles Circulation Geno...goal for the proposed work is to develop predictive capabilities for physical oceanography for the Seychelles region in support of locally relevant...observations in the Seychelles region that will lead to long-term data collection efforts. In collaboration with local partnerships, we will carry out

  8. Circulating nucleic acids and evolution.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Anker, Philippe; Stroun, Maurice

    2012-06-01

    J.B. Lamarck in 1809 was the first to present a theory of evolution. He proposed it was due to the adaptation of species to environmental changes, this adaptation being acquired by the offspring. In 1868, Darwin suggested that cells excrete gemmules, which circulate through the body and reach the gonads where they are transmitted to the next generation. His main argument came from graft hybrids. In the fifties and sixties, Russian geneticists, rejecting neo-Darwinism, said that acquired characteristics were the basis of evolution. The main experiments on which they based their theory were the transmission of hereditary characteristics by a special technique of grafting between two varieties of plants. We repeated this kind of experiment and also succeeded in obtaining hereditary modifications of the pupil plants that acquired some characteristics of the mentor variety. Rather than adopting the views of the Russian scientists, we suggested that DNA was circulating between the mentor and pupil plants. Hirata's group have shown recently, by using molecular techniques such as cloning, RFLP PCR and sequencing some genes of their graft hybrids of pepper plants, that transfer of informative molecules from the mentor to the pupil plant does exist. Nucleic acids are actively released by cells; they circulate in the body. They can transform oncogenically or trigger antibody response but the only genetic transformation showing that DNA can go from the soma to the germen comes from graft hybrids. This suggests that circulating nucleic acids, in this case DNA, like Darwin's gemmules, play a role in the mechanism of evolution.

  9. Improvement of Classification of Enterprise Circulating Funds

    OpenAIRE

    Rohanova Hanna O.

    2014-01-01

    The goal of the article lies in revelation of possibilities of increase of efficiency of managing enterprise circulating funds by means of improvement of their classification features. Having analysed approaches of many economists to classification of enterprise circulating funds, systemised and supplementing them, the article offers grouping classification features of enterprise circulating funds. In the result of the study the article offers an expanded classification of circulating funds, ...

  10. Hall Effect Gyrators and Circulators

    Science.gov (United States)

    Viola, Giovanni; DiVincenzo, David P.

    2014-04-01

    The electronic circulator and its close relative the gyrator are invaluable tools for noise management and signal routing in the current generation of low-temperature microwave systems for the implementation of new quantum technologies. The current implementation of these devices using the Faraday effect is satisfactory but requires a bulky structure whose physical dimension is close to the microwave wavelength employed. The Hall effect is an alternative nonreciprocal effect that can also be used to produce desired device functionality. We review earlier efforts to use an Ohmically contacted four-terminal Hall bar, explaining why this approach leads to unacceptably high device loss. We find that capacitive coupling to such a Hall conductor has much greater promise for achieving good circulator and gyrator functionality. We formulate a classical Ohm-Hall analysis for calculating the properties of such a device, and show how this classical theory simplifies remarkably in the limiting case of the Hall angle approaching 90°. In this limit, we find that either a four-terminal or a three-terminal capacitive device can give excellent circulator behavior, with device dimensions far smaller than the ac wavelength. An experiment is proposed to achieve GHz-band gyration in millimeter (and smaller) scale structures employing either semiconductor heterostructure or graphene Hall conductors. An inductively coupled scheme for realizing a Hall gyrator is also analyzed.

  11. Virtual neutron scattering experiments

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Overgaard, Julie Hougaard; Bruun, Jesper; May, Michael

    2016-01-01

    We describe how virtual experiments can be utilized in a learning design that prepares students for hands-on experiments at large-scale facilities. We illustrate the design by showing how virtual experiments are used at the Niels Bohr Institute in a master level course on neutron scattering....... In the last week of the course, students travel to a large-scale neutron scattering facility to perform real neutron scattering experiments. Through student interviews and survey answers, we argue, that the virtual training prepares the students to engage more fruitfully with experiments by letting them focus...... on physics and data rather than the overwhelming instrumentation. We argue that this is because they can transfer their virtual experimental experience to the real-life situation. However, we also find that learning is still situated in the sense that only knowledge of particular experiments is transferred...

  12. Electron scattering off nuclei

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Gattone, A.O.

    1989-01-01

    Two recently developed aspects related to the scattering of electrons off nuclei are presented. On the one hand, a model is introduced which emphasizes the relativistic aspects of the problem in the impulse approximation, by demanding strict maintenance of the algebra of the Poincare group. On the other hand, the second model aims at a more sophisticated description of the nuclear response in the case of collective excitations. Basically, it utilizes the RPA formalism with a new development which enables a more careful treatment of the states in the continuum as is the case for the giant resonances. Applications of both models to the description of elastic scattering, inelastic scattering to discrete levels, giant resonances and the quasi-elastic region are discussed. (Author) [es

  13. Cold moderator scattering kernels

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    MacFarlane, R.E.

    1989-01-01

    New thermal-scattering-law files in ENDF format have been developed for solid methane, liquid methane liquid ortho- and para-hydrogen, and liquid ortho- and para-deuterium using up-to-date models that include such effects as incoherent elastic scattering in the solid, diffusion and hindered vibration and rotations in the liquids, and spin correlations for the hydrogen and deuterium. These files were generated with the new LEAPR module of the NJOY Nuclear Data Processing System. Other modules of this system were used to produce cross sections for these moderators in the correct format for the continuous-energy Monte Carlo code (MCNP) being used for cold-moderator-design calculations at the Los Alamos Neutron Scattering Center (LANSCE). 20 refs., 14 figs

  14. Quantum Optical Multiple Scattering

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Ott, Johan Raunkjær

    . In the first part we use a scattering-matrix formalism combined with results from random-matrix theory to investigate the interference of quantum optical states on a multiple scattering medium. We investigate a single realization of a scattering medium thereby showing that it is possible to create entangled...... states by interference of squeezed beams. Mixing photon states on the single realization also shows that quantum interference naturally arises by interfering quantum states. We further investigate the ensemble averaged transmission properties of the quantized light and see that the induced quantum...... interference survives even after disorder averaging. The quantum interference manifests itself through increased photon correlations. Furthermore, the theoretical description of a measurement procedure is presented. In this work we relate the noise power spectrum of the total transmitted or reflected light...

  15. MAGNETIC NEUTRON SCATTERING

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    ZALIZNYAK,I.A.; LEE,S.H.

    2004-07-30

    Much of our understanding of the atomic-scale magnetic structure and the dynamical properties of solids and liquids was gained from neutron-scattering studies. Elastic and inelastic neutron spectroscopy provided physicists with an unprecedented, detailed access to spin structures, magnetic-excitation spectra, soft-modes and critical dynamics at magnetic-phase transitions, which is unrivaled by other experimental techniques. Because the neutron has no electric charge, it is an ideal weakly interacting and highly penetrating probe of matter's inner structure and dynamics. Unlike techniques using photon electric fields or charged particles (e.g., electrons, muons) that significantly modify the local electronic environment, neutron spectroscopy allows determination of a material's intrinsic, unperturbed physical properties. The method is not sensitive to extraneous charges, electric fields, and the imperfection of surface layers. Because the neutron is a highly penetrating and non-destructive probe, neutron spectroscopy can probe the microscopic properties of bulk materials (not just their surface layers) and study samples embedded in complex environments, such as cryostats, magnets, and pressure cells, which are essential for understanding the physical origins of magnetic phenomena. Neutron scattering is arguably the most powerful and versatile experimental tool for studying the microscopic properties of the magnetic materials. The magnitude of the cross-section of the neutron magnetic scattering is similar to the cross-section of nuclear scattering by short-range nuclear forces, and is large enough to provide measurable scattering by the ordered magnetic structures and electron spin fluctuations. In the half-a-century or so that has passed since neutron beams with sufficient intensity for scattering applications became available with the advent of the nuclear reactors, they have became indispensable tools for studying a variety of important areas of modern

  16. Λ scattering equations

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gomez, Humberto

    2016-06-01

    The CHY representation of scattering amplitudes is based on integrals over the moduli space of a punctured sphere. We replace the punctured sphere by a double-cover version. The resulting scattering equations depend on a parameter Λ controlling the opening of a branch cut. The new representation of scattering amplitudes possesses an enhanced redundancy which can be used to fix, modulo branches, the location of four punctures while promoting Λ to a variable. Via residue theorems we show how CHY formulas break up into sums of products of smaller (off-shell) ones times a propagator. This leads to a powerful way of evaluating CHY integrals of generic rational functions, which we call the Λ algorithm.

  17. Electromagnetic scattering theory

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bird, J. F.; Farrell, R. A.

    1986-01-01

    Electromagnetic scattering theory is discussed with emphasis on the general stochastic variational principle (SVP) and its applications. The stochastic version of the Schwinger-type variational principle is presented, and explicit expressions for its integrals are considered. Results are summarized for scalar wave scattering from a classic rough-surface model and for vector wave scattering from a random dielectric-body model. Also considered are the selection of trial functions and the variational improvement of the Kirchhoff short-wave approximation appropriate to large size-parameters. Other applications of vector field theory discussed include a general vision theory and the analysis of hydromagnetism induced by ocean motion across the geomagnetic field. Levitational force-torque in the magnetic suspension of the disturbance compensation system (DISCOS), now deployed in NOVA satellites, is also analyzed using the developed theory.

  18. Encoders for block-circulant LDPC codes

    Science.gov (United States)

    Divsalar, Dariush (Inventor); Abbasfar, Aliazam (Inventor); Jones, Christopher R. (Inventor); Dolinar, Samuel J. (Inventor); Thorpe, Jeremy C. (Inventor); Andrews, Kenneth S. (Inventor); Yao, Kung (Inventor)

    2009-01-01

    Methods and apparatus to encode message input symbols in accordance with an accumulate-repeat-accumulate code with repetition three or four are disclosed. Block circulant matrices are used. A first method and apparatus make use of the block-circulant structure of the parity check matrix. A second method and apparatus use block-circulant generator matrices.

  19. Theoretical and experimental study of a non-linear disintegration process for a langmuir wave; Etude theorique et experimental d'un processus non lineaire de desintegration d'une onde de langmuir

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Perulli, M [Commissariat a l' Energie Atomique, Fontenay-aux-Roses (France). Centre d' Etudes Nucleaires

    1968-07-01

    Using the Vlasov equation we calculate and discuss non-linear coupling equations between three electronic plasma waves (Langmuir waves) which propagate in a cylindrical plasma column confined by a strong magnetic field. We study, in the experimental device EOS, along the magnetic field, the disintegration of a Langmuir wave excited in the plasma column by means of an antenna. Space structure measurements for various waves show that the resonance conditions (selection rules) are satisfied. The measured disintegration threshold is in agreement with the theoretical value within 30 per cent and shows that this non linear mechanism appears when the oscillating density to the mean density ratio is about 10{sup -3} to 10{sup -2}. The variation of the spatial growth rate as a function of the amplitude of the disintegrated wave shows that the resulting waves are correlated in groups of three along the magnetic field even though the disintegrating spectrum appears in a wide frequency band. (author) [French] A partir de l'equation de Vlasov nous calculons et discutons les equations de couplage non lineaire entre trois ondes plasma electroniques (ou ondes de Langmuir) qui se propagent dans une colonne de plasma cylindrique confinee par un champ magnetique de forte intensite. Nous etudions, dans le dispositif experimental EOS, le long du champ magnetique, la desintegration d'une onde de Langmuir excitee dans la colonne de plasma a l'aide d'une antenne. La mesure de la structure spatiale des differentes ondes montre que l'ensemble des conditions de resonance (ou regles de selection) sont satisfaites. Le seuil de desintegration mesure est en accord avec la valeur theorique a 30 pour cent pres et montre que ce mecanisme non lineaire apparait lorsque le rapport de la densite oscillante a la densite moyenne est de l'ordre de 10{sup -3} a 10{sup -2}. La variation du taux de croissance spatiale en fonction de l'amplitude de l'onde qui se desintegre montre que les ondes restent trois

  20. Theoretical and experimental study of a non-linear disintegration process for a langmuir wave; Etude theorique et experimental d'un processus non lineaire de desintegration d'une onde de langmuir

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Perulli, M. [Commissariat a l' Energie Atomique, Fontenay-aux-Roses (France). Centre d' Etudes Nucleaires

    1968-07-01

    Using the Vlasov equation we calculate and discuss non-linear coupling equations between three electronic plasma waves (Langmuir waves) which propagate in a cylindrical plasma column confined by a strong magnetic field. We study, in the experimental device EOS, along the magnetic field, the disintegration of a Langmuir wave excited in the plasma column by means of an antenna. Space structure measurements for various waves show that the resonance conditions (selection rules) are satisfied. The measured disintegration threshold is in agreement with the theoretical value within 30 per cent and shows that this non linear mechanism appears when the oscillating density to the mean density ratio is about 10{sup -3} to 10{sup -2}. The variation of the spatial growth rate as a function of the amplitude of the disintegrated wave shows that the resulting waves are correlated in groups of three along the magnetic field even though the disintegrating spectrum appears in a wide frequency band. (author) [French] A partir de l'equation de Vlasov nous calculons et discutons les equations de couplage non lineaire entre trois ondes plasma electroniques (ou ondes de Langmuir) qui se propagent dans une colonne de plasma cylindrique confinee par un champ magnetique de forte intensite. Nous etudions, dans le dispositif experimental EOS, le long du champ magnetique, la desintegration d'une onde de Langmuir excitee dans la colonne de plasma a l'aide d'une antenne. La mesure de la structure spatiale des differentes ondes montre que l'ensemble des conditions de resonance (ou regles de selection) sont satisfaites. Le seuil de desintegration mesure est en accord avec la valeur theorique a 30 pour cent pres et montre que ce mecanisme non lineaire apparait lorsque le rapport de la densite oscillante a la densite moyenne est de l'ordre de 10{sup -3} a 10{sup -2}. La variation du taux de croissance spatiale en fonction de l'amplitude de l'onde qui se

  1. Neutron scattering. Experiment manuals

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Brueckel, Thomas; Heger, Gernot; Richter, Dieter; Roth, Georg; Zorn, Reiner (eds.)

    2010-07-01

    The following topics are dealt with: The thermal triple axis spectrometer PUMA, the high-resolution powder diffractometer SPODI, the hot single-crystal diffractometer HEiDi for structure analysis with neutrons, the backscattering spectrometer SPHERES, neutron polarization analysis with tht time-of-flight spectrometer DNS, the neutron spin-echo spectrometer J-NSE, small-angle neutron scattering with the KWS-1 and KWS-2 diffractometers, the very-small-angle neutron scattering diffractrometer with focusing mirror KWS-3, the resonance spin-echo spectrometer RESEDA, the reflectometer TREFF, the time-of-flight spectrometer TOFTOF. (HSI)

  2. Nuclear Compton scattering

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Christillin, P.

    1986-01-01

    The theory of nuclear Compton scattering is reformulated with explicit consideration of both virtual and real pionic degrees of freedom. The effects due to low-lying nuclear states, to seagull terms, to pion condensation and to the Δ dynamics in the nucleus and their interplay in the different energy regions are examined. It is shown that all corrections to the one-body terms, of diffractive behaviour determined by the nuclear form factor, have an effective two-body character. The possibility of using Compton scattering as a complementary source of information about nuclear dynamics is restressed. (author)

  3. Diffraction in nuclear scattering

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Wojciechowski, H.

    1986-01-01

    The elastic scattering amplitudes for charged and neutral particles have been decomposed into diffractive and refractive parts by splitting the nuclear elastic scattering matrix elements into components responsible for these effects. It has been shown that the pure geometrical diffractive effect which carries no information about the nuclear interaction is always predominant at forward angle of elastic angular distributions. This fact suggests that for strongly absorbed particles only elastic cross section at backward angles, i.e. the refractive cross section, can give us basic information about the central nuclear potential. 12 refs., 4 figs., 1 tab. (author)

  4. Proton nuclear scattering radiography

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Saudinos, J.

    1982-04-01

    Nuclear scattering of protons allows to radiograph objects with specific properties: 3-dimensional radiography, different information as compared to X-ray technique, hydrogen radiography. Furthermore the nuclear scattering radiography (NSR) is a well adapted method to gating techniques allowing the radiography of fast periodic moving objects. Results obtained on phantoms, formalin fixed head and moving object are shown and discussed. The dose delivery is compatible with clinical use, but at the moment, the irradiation time is too long between 1 and 4 hours. Perspectives to make the radiograph faster and to get a practical method are discussed

  5. Slow neutron scattering experiments

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Moon, R.M.

    1985-01-01

    Neutron scattering is a versatile technique that has been successfully applied to condensed-matter physics, biology, polymer science, chemistry, and materials science. The United States lost its leadership role in this field to Western Europe about 10 years ago. Recently, a modest investment in the United States in new facilities and a positive attitude on the part of the national laboratories toward outside users have resulted in a dramatic increase in the number of US scientists involved in neutron scattering research. Plans are being made for investments in new and improved facilities that could return the leadership role to the United States. 23 references, 4 figures, 3 tables

  6. Neutron scattering. Experiment manuals

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Brueckel, Thomas; Heger, Gernot; Richter, Dieter; Roth, Georg; Zorn, Reiner

    2014-01-01

    The following topics are dealt with: The thermal triple-axis spectrometer PUMA, the high-resolution powder diffractometer SPODI, the hot-single-crystal diffractometer HEiDi, the three-axis spectrometer PANDA, the backscattering spectrometer SPHERES, the DNS neutron-polarization analysis, the neutron spin-echo spectrometer J-NSE, small-angle neutron scattering at KWS-1 and KWS-2, a very-small-angle neutron scattering diffractometer with focusing mirror, the reflectometer TREFF, the time-of-flight spectrometer TOFTOF. (HSI)

  7. Electron-atom scattering

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    McCarthy, I.E.

    1991-07-01

    The coupled-channels-optical method has been implemented using two different approximations to the optical potential. The half-on-shell optical potential involves drastic approximations for numerical feasibility but still gives a good semiquantitative description of the effect of uncoupled channels on electron scattering from hydrogen, helium and sodium. The distorted-wave optical potential makes no approximations other than the weak coupling approximation for uncoupled channels. In applications to hydrogen and sodium it shows promise of describing scattering phenomena excellently at all energies. 27 refs., 5 figs

  8. Neutron scattering. Experiment manuals

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Brueckel, Thomas; Heger, Gernot; Richter, Dieter; Roth, Georg; Zorn, Reiner

    2010-01-01

    The following topics are dealt with: The thermal triple axis spectrometer PUMA, the high-resolution powder diffractometer SPODI, the hot single-crystal diffractometer HEiDi for structure analysis with neutrons, the backscattering spectrometer SPHERES, neutron polarization analysis with tht time-of-flight spectrometer DNS, the neutron spin-echo spectrometer J-NSE, small-angle neutron scattering with the KWS-1 and KWS-2 diffractometers, the very-small-angle neutron scattering diffractrometer with focusing mirror KWS-3, the resonance spin-echo spectrometer RESEDA, the reflectometer TREFF, the time-of-flight spectrometer TOFTOF. (HSI)

  9. Exact evaluation of the rates of electrostatic decay and scattering off thermal ions for an unmagnetized Maxwellian plasma

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Layden, B.; Cairns, Iver H.; Robinson, P. A. [School of Physics, University of Sydney, Sydney, NSW 2006 (Australia)

    2013-08-15

    Electrostatic decay of Langmuir waves into Langmuir and ion sound waves (L→L′+S) and scattering of Langmuir waves off thermal ions (L+i→L′+i′, also called “nonlinear Landau damping”) are important nonlinear weak-turbulence processes. The rates for these processes depend on the quadratic longitudinal response function α{sup (2)} (or, equivalently, the quadratic longitudinal susceptibility χ{sup (2)}), which describes the second-order response of a plasma to electrostatic wave fields. Previous calculations of these rates for an unmagnetized Maxwellian plasma have relied upon an approximate form for α{sup (2)} that is valid where two of the wave fields are fast (i.e., v{sub φ}=ω/k≫V{sub e} where ω is the angular frequency, k is the wavenumber, and V{sub e} is the electron thermal speed) and one is slow (v{sub φ}≪V{sub e}). Recently, an exact expression was derived for α{sup (2)} that is valid for any phase speeds of the three waves in an unmagnetized Maxwellian plasma. Here, this exact α{sup (2)} is applied to the calculation of the three-dimensional rates for electrostatic decay and scattering off thermal ions, and the resulting exact rates are compared with the approximate rates. The calculations are performed using previously derived three-dimensional rates for electrostatic decay given in terms of a general α{sup (2)}, and newly derived three-dimensional rates for scattering off thermal ions; the scattering rate is derived assuming a Maxwellian ion distribution, and both rates are derived assuming arc distributions for the wave spectra. For most space plasma conditions, the approximate rate is found to be accurate to better than 20%; however, for sufficiently low Langmuir phase speeds (v{sub φ}/V{sub e}≈3) appropriate to some spatial domains of the foreshock regions of planetary bow shocks and type II solar radio bursts, the use of the exact rate may be necessary for accurate calculations. The relative rates of electrostatic decay

  10. Mode Conversion of Langmuir to Electromagnetic Waves with Parallel Inhomogeneity in the Solar Wind and the Corona

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Kim, Eun-Hwa; Cairns, Iver H.; Robinson, Peter A.

    2008-06-09

    Linear mode conversion of Langmuir waves to radiation near the plasma frequency at density gradients is potentially relevant to multiple solar radio emissions, ionospheric radar experiments, laboratory plasma devices, and pulsars. Here we study mode conversion in warm magnetized plasmas using a numerical electron fluid simulation code with the density gradient parallel to the ambient magnetic field B0 for a range of incident Langmuir wavevectors. Our results include: (1) Both o- and x-mode waves are produced for Ω ∝ (ωL)1/3(ωc/ω) somewhat less than 1, contrary to previous ideas. Only o mode is produced for Ω and somewhat greater than 1.5. Here ωc is the (angular) electron cyclotron frequency, ω the angular wave frequency, and L the length scale of the (linear) density gradient. (2) In the unmagnetized limit, equal amounts of o- and x-mode radiation are produced. (3) The mode conversion window narrows as Ω increases. (4) As Ω increases the total electromagnetic field changes from linear to circular polarization, with the o- and x- mode signals remaining circularly polarized. (5) The conversion efficiency to the x mode decreases monotonically as Ω increases while the o-mode conversion efficiency oscillates due to an interference phenomenon between incoming and reflected Langmuir/z modes. (6) The total conversion efficiency for wave energy from the Langmuir/z mode to radiation is typically less than 10%, but the corresponding power efficiencies differ by the ratio of the group speeds for each mode and are of order 50 – 70%. (7) The interference effect and the disappearance of the x mode at Ω somewhat greater than 1 can be accounted for semiquantitatively using a WKB-like analysis. (8) Constraints on density turbulence are developed for the x mode to be generated and be able to propagate from the source. (9) Standard parameters for the corona and the solar wind near 1 AU suggest that linear mode conversion should produce both o- and x- mode radiation for

  11. Plasma potential and electron temperature evaluated by ball-pen and Langmuir probes in the COMPASS tokamak.

    Czech Academy of Sciences Publication Activity Database

    Dimitrova, Miglena; Popov, Tsv.K.; Adámek, Jiří; Kovačič, J.; Ivanova, P.; Hasan, E.; López-Bruna, D.; Seidl, Jakub; Vondráček, Petr; Dejarnac, Renaud; Stöckel, Jan; Imríšek, Martin; Pánek, Radomír

    2017-01-01

    Roč. 59, č. 12 (2017), č. článku 125001. ISSN 0741-3335 R&D Projects: GA ČR(CZ) GA15-10723S; GA MŠk(CZ) LM2015045 Institutional support: RVO:61389021 Keywords : Plasma potential * electron temperature * bi-Maxwellian EEDF * ball-pen probe * Langmuir probe * COMPASS tokamak * last closed flux surface Subject RIV: BL - Plasma and Gas Discharge Physics OBOR OECD: Fluids and plasma physics (including surface physics) Impact factor: 2.392, year: 2016

  12. Mode Conversion of Langmuir to Electromagnetic Waves with Parallel Inhomogeneity in the Solar Wind and the Corona

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Kim, Eun-Hwa; Cairns, Iver H.; Robinson, Peter A.

    2008-01-01

    Linear mode conversion of Langmuir waves to radiation near the plasma frequency at density gradients is potentially relevant to multiple solar radio emissions, ionospheric radar experiments, laboratory plasma devices, and pulsars. Here we study mode conversion in warm magnetized plasmas using a numerical electron fluid simulation code with the density gradient parallel to the ambient magnetic field B0 for a range of incident Langmuir wavevectors. Our results include: (1) Both o- and x-mode waves are produced for (Omega) ∝ (ωL) 1/3 (ω c /ω) ∼ 1.5. Here ω c is the (angular) electron cyclotron frequency, ω the angular wave frequency, and L the length scale of the (linear) density gradient. (2) In the unmagnetized limit, equal amounts of o- and x-mode radiation are produced. (3) The mode conversion window narrows as (Omega) increases. (4) As (Omega) increases the total electromagnetic field changes from linear to circular polarization, with the o- and x- mode signals remaining circularly polarized. (5) The conversion efficiency to the x mode decreases monotonically as (Omega) increases while the o-mode conversion efficiency oscillates due to an interference phenomenon between incoming and reflected Langmuir/z modes. (6) The total conversion efficiency for wave energy from the Langmuir/z mode to radiation is typically less than 10%, but the corresponding power efficiencies differ by the ratio of the group speeds for each mode and are of order 50-70%. (7) The interference effect and the disappearance of the x mode at (Omega) ∼> 1 can be accounted for semiquantitatively using a WKB-like analysis. (8) Constraints on density turbulence are developed for the x mode to be generated and be able to propagate from the source. (9) Standard parameters for the corona and the solar wind near 1 AU suggest that linear mode conversion should produce both o- and x- mode radiation for solar and interplanetary radio bursts. It is therefore possible that linear mode conversion

  13. Interaction of the modulated electron beam with inhomogeneous plasma: plasma density profile deformation and langmuir waves excitation

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Anisimov, I.O.; Kelnyk, O.I.; Soroka, S.V.; Siversky, T.V.

    2005-01-01

    Nonlinear deformation of the initially linear plasma density profile due to the modulated electron beam is studied via computer simulation. In the initial time period the field slaves to the instantaneous profile of the plasma density. Langmuir waves excitation is suppressed by the density profile deformation. The character of the plasma density profile deformation for the late time period depends significantly on the plasma properties. Particularly, for plasma with hot electrons quasi-periodic generation of ion-acoustic pulses takes place in the vicinity of the initial point of plasma resonance

  14. Towards Fast Measurement of the Electron Temperature in the SOL of ASDEX Upgrade Using Swept Langmuir Probes

    Czech Academy of Sciences Publication Activity Database

    Müller, H. W.; Adámek, Jiří; Horáček, Jan; Ionita, C.; Mehlmann, F.; Rohde, V.; Schrittwieser, R.

    2010-01-01

    Roč. 50, č. 9 (2010), s. 847-853 ISSN 0863-1042. [International Workshop on Electric Probes in Magnetized Plasmas/8th./. Innsbruck, 21.09.2009-24.09.2009] R&D Projects: GA AV ČR KJB100430901; GA ČR GA202/09/1467 Institutional research plan: CEZ:AV0Z20430508 Keywords : Tokamak * Langmuir probe * swept probe * ball-pen probe * fast temperature measurement * ELM Subject RIV: BL - Plasma and Gas Discharge Physics Impact factor: 1.006, year: 2010 http://onlinelibrary.wiley.com/doi/10.1002/ctpp.201010144/pdf

  15. Validating the collision-dominated Child-Langmuir law for a dc discharge cathode sheath in an undergraduate laboratory

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Lisovskiy, V; Yegorenkov, V

    2009-01-01

    In this paper, we propose a simple method of observing the collision-dominated Child-Langmuir law in the course of an undergraduate laboratory work devoted to studying the properties of gas discharges. To this end we employ the dc gas discharge whose properties are studied in sufficient detail. The undergraduate laboratory work itself is reduced to registering the voltage drop across the electrodes, the discharge current as well as the cathode sheath thickness. We can easily perform the measurements of all three quantities with sufficient accuracy in a laboratory equipped with vacuum pumps.

  16. Phonon scattering in graphite

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Wagner, P.

    1976-04-01

    Effects on graphite thermal conductivities due to controlled alterations of the graphite structure by impurity addition, porosity, and neutron irradiation are shown to be consistent with the phonon-scattering formulation 1/l = Σ/sub i equals 1/sup/n/ 1/l/sub i/. Observed temperature effects on these doped and irradiated graphites are also explained by this mechanism

  17. High energy hadron scattering

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Johnson, R.C.

    1980-01-01

    High energy and small momentum transfer 2 'yields' 2 hadronic scattering processes are described in the physical framework of particle exchange. Particle production in high energy collisions is considered with emphasis on the features of inclusive reactions though with some remarks on exclusive processes. (U.K.)

  18. Critical scattering by bubbles

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Fiedler-Ferrari, N.; Nussenzveig, H.M.

    1986-11-01

    We apply the complex angular momentum theory to the problem of the critical scattering of light by spherical cavities in the high frequency limit (permittivity greater than the external media) (e.g, air bubble in water) (M.W.O.) [pt

  19. Radiation scattering techniques

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Edmonds, E.A.

    1986-01-01

    Radiation backscattering techniques are useful when access to an item to be inspected is restricted to one side. These techniques are very sensitive to geometrical effects. Scattering processes and their application to the determination of voids, thickness measuring, well-logging and the use of x-ray fluorescence techniques are discussed. (U.K.)

  20. Scattering theory. 2. ed.

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Friedrich, Harald [Technische Univ. Muenchen, Garching (Germany). Physik-Department

    2016-07-01

    This corrected and updated second edition of ''Scattering Theory'' presents a concise and modern coverage of the subject. In the present treatment, special attention is given to the role played by the long-range behaviour of the projectile-target interaction, and a theory is developed, which is well suited to describe near-threshold bound and continuum states in realistic binary systems such as diatomic molecules or molecular ions. It is motivated by the fact that experimental advances have shifted and broadened the scope of applications where concepts from scattering theory are used, e.g. to the field of ultracold atoms and molecules, which has been experiencing enormous growth in recent years, largely triggered by the successful realization of Bose-Einstein condensates of dilute atomic gases in 1995. The book contains sections on special topics such as near-threshold quantization, quantum reflection, Feshbach resonances and the quantum description of scattering in two dimensions. The level of abstraction is kept as low as at all possible and deeper questions related to the mathematical foundations of scattering theory are passed by. It should be understandable for anyone with a basic knowledge of nonrelativistic quantum mechanics. The book is intended for advanced students and researchers, and it is hoped that it will be useful for theorists and experimentalists alike.

  1. Lepton-nucleon scattering

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Windmolders, R.

    1989-01-01

    In this paper the following topics are reviewed: 1. the structure functions measured in deep inelastic e-N, μ-N and ν-N scattering; 2. nuclear effects on the structure functions; 3. nuclear effects on the fragmentation functions; 4. the spin dependent structure functions and their interpretation in terms of nucleon constituents. (orig./HSI)

  2. Deeply Virtual Neutrino Scattering

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Ales Psaker

    2007-01-01

    We investigate the extension of the deeply virtual Compton scattering process into the weak interaction sector. Standard electromagnetic Compton scattering provides a unique tool for studying hadrons, which is one of the most fascinating frontiers of modern science. In this process the relevant Compton scattering amplitude probes the hadron structure by means of two quark electromagnetic currents. We argue that replacing one of the currents with the weak interaction current can promise a new insight. The paper is organized as follows. In Sec. II we briefly discuss the features of the handbag factorization scheme. We introduce a new set of phenomenological functions, known as generalized parton distributions (GPDs) [1-6], and discuss some of their basic properties in Sec. III. An application of the GPD formalism to the neutrino-induced deeply virtual Compton scattering in the kinematics relevant to future high-intensity neutrino experiments is given in Sec. IV. The cross section results are presented in Sec. V. Finally, in Sec. VI we draw some conclusions and discuss future prospects. Some of the formal results in this paper have appeared in preliminary reports in Refs. [7] and [8], whereas a comprehensive analysis of the weak neutral and weak charged current DVCS reactions in collaboration with W. Melnitchouk and A. Radyushkin has been presented in Ref. [9

  3. Symposium on neutron scattering

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Lehmann, M.S.; Saenger, W.; Hildebrandt, G.; Dachs, H.

    1984-01-01

    Extended abstracts of the named symposium are presented. The first part of this report contains the abstracts of the lectures, the second those of the posters. Topics discussed on the symposium include neutron diffraction and neutron scattering studies in magnetism, solid state chemistry and physics, materials research. Some papers discussing instruments and methods are included too. (GSCH)

  4. Inversion assuming weak scattering

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Xenaki, Angeliki; Gerstoft, Peter; Mosegaard, Klaus

    2013-01-01

    due to the complex nature of the field. A method based on linear inversion is employed to infer information about the statistical properties of the scattering field from the obtained cross-spectral matrix. A synthetic example based on an active high-frequency sonar demonstrates that the proposed...

  5. Atom electron scattering

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Santoso, B.

    1976-01-01

    Green Lippmann-Schwinger functions operator representations, derivation of perturbation method using Green function and atom electron scattering, are discussed. It is concluded that by using complex coordinate places where resonances occur, can be accurately identified. The resonance can be processed further for practical purposes, for example for the separation of atom. (RUW)

  6. Electron Scattering on deuterium

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Platchkov, S.

    1987-01-01

    Selected electron scattering experiments on the deuteron system are discussed. The main advantages of the electromagnetic probe are recalled. The deuteron A(q 2 ) structure function is analyzed and found to be very sensitive to the neutron electric form factor. Electrodisintegration of the deuteron near threshold is presented as evidence for the importance of meson exchange currents in nuclei [fr

  7. Parity violating electron scattering

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    McKeown, R.D.

    1990-01-01

    Previous measurements of parity violation in electron scattering are reviewed with particular emphasis on experimental techniques. Significant progress in the attainment of higher precision is evident in these efforts. These pioneering experiments provide a basis for consideration of a future program of such measurements. In this paper some future plans and possibilities in this field are discussed

  8. Heavy ion elastic scatterings

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Mermaz, M.C.

    1984-01-01

    Diffraction and refraction play an important role in particle elastic scattering. The optical model treats correctly and simultaneously both phenomena but without disentangling them. Semi-classical discussions in terms of trajectories emphasize the refractive aspect due to the real part of the optical potential. The separation due to to R.C. Fuller of the quantal cross section into two components coming from opposite side of the target nucleus allows to understand better the refractive phenomenon and the origin of the observed oscillations in the elastic scattering angular distributions. We shall see that the real part of the potential is responsible of a Coulomb and a nuclear rainbow which allows to determine better the nuclear potential in the interior region near the nuclear surface since the volume absorption eliminates any effect of the real part of the potential for the internal partial scattering waves. Resonance phenomena seen in heavy ion scattering will be discussed in terms of optical model potential and Regge pole analysis. Compound nucleus resonances or quasi-molecular states can be indeed the more correct and fundamental alternative

  9. Multienergy anomalous diffuse scattering

    Czech Academy of Sciences Publication Activity Database

    Kopecký, Miloš; Fábry, Jan; Kub, Jiří; Lausi, A.; Busetto, E.

    2008-01-01

    Roč. 100, č. 19 (2008), 195504/1-195504/4 ISSN 0031-9007 R&D Projects: GA AV ČR IAA100100529 Institutional research plan: CEZ:AV0Z10100523 Keywords : diffuse scattering * x-rays * structure determination Subject RIV: BM - Solid Matter Physics ; Magnetism Impact factor: 7.180, year: 2008

  10. Correlation in atomic scattering

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    McGuire, J.H.

    1987-01-01

    Correlation due to the Coulomb interactions between electrons in many-electron targets colliding with charged particles is formulated, and various approximate probability amplitudes are evaluated. In the limit that the electron-electron, 1/r/sub i//sub j/, correlation interactions are ignored or approximated by central potentials, the independent-electron approximation is obtained. Two types of correlations, or corrections to the independent-electron approximation due to 1/r/sub i//sub j/ terms, are identified: namely, static and scattering correlation. Static correlation is that contained in the asymptotic, e.g., bound-state, wave functions. Scattering correlation, arising from correlation in the scattering operator, is new and is considered in some detail. Expressions for a scattering correlation amplitude, static correlation or rearrangement amplitude, and independent-electron or direct amplitude are derived at high collision velocity and compared. At high velocities the direct and rearrangement amplitudes dominate. At very high velocities, ν, the rearrangement amplitude falls off less rapidly with ν than the direct amplitude which, however, is dominant as electron-electron correlation tends to zero. Comparisons with experimental observations are discussed

  11. Superradiative scattering magnons

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Shrivastava, K.N.

    1980-01-01

    A magnon-photon interaction for the magnetic vector of the electromagnetic wave perpendicular to the direction of magnetization in a ferromagnet is constructed. The magnon part of the interaction is reduced with the use of Bogoliubov transformation. The resulting magnon-photon interaction is found to contain several interesting new radiation effects. The self energy of the magnon is calculated and life times arising from the radiation scattering are predicted. The magnon frequency shift due to the radiation field is found. One of the terms arising from the one-magnon one-photon scattering gives a line width in reasonable agreement with the experimentally measured value of ferromagnetic resonance line width in yttrium iron garnet. Surface magnon scattering is indicated and the contribution of this type of scattering to the radiative line width is discussed. The problem of magnetic superradiance is indicated and it is shown that in anisotropic ferromagnets the emission is proportional to the sqare of the number of magnons and the divergence is considerably minimized. Accordingly the magnetic superradiance emerges as a hyperradiance with much more radiation intensity than in the case of disordered atomic superradiance. (author)

  12. Inelastic magnon scattering

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Robert de Mello Koch

    2017-05-01

    Full Text Available We study the worldsheet S-matrix of a string attached to a D-brane in AdS5×S5. The D-brane is either a giant graviton or a dual giant graviton. In the gauge theory, the operators we consider belong to the su(2|3 sector of the theory. Magnon excitations of open strings can exhibit both elastic (when magnons in the bulk of the string scatter and inelastic (when magnons at the endpoint of an open string participate scattering. Both of these S-matrices are determined (up to an overall phase by the su(2|22 global symmetry of the theory. In this note we study the S-matrix for inelastic scattering. We show that it exhibits poles corresponding to boundstates of bulk and boundary magnons. A crossing equation is derived for the overall phase. It reproduces the crossing equation for maximal giant gravitons, in the appropriate limit. Finally, scattering in the su(2 sector is computed to two loops. This two loop result, which determines the overall phase to two loops, will be useful when a unique solution to the crossing equation is to be selected.

  13. Small angle neutron scattering

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Cousin Fabrice

    2015-01-01

    Full Text Available Small Angle Neutron Scattering (SANS is a technique that enables to probe the 3-D structure of materials on a typical size range lying from ∼ 1 nm up to ∼ a few 100 nm, the obtained information being statistically averaged on a sample whose volume is ∼ 1 cm3. This very rich technique enables to make a full structural characterization of a given object of nanometric dimensions (radius of gyration, shape, volume or mass, fractal dimension, specific area… through the determination of the form factor as well as the determination of the way objects are organized within in a continuous media, and therefore to describe interactions between them, through the determination of the structure factor. The specific properties of neutrons (possibility of tuning the scattering intensity by using the isotopic substitution, sensitivity to magnetism, negligible absorption, low energy of the incident neutrons make it particularly interesting in the fields of soft matter, biophysics, magnetic materials and metallurgy. In particular, the contrast variation methods allow to extract some informations that cannot be obtained by any other experimental techniques. This course is divided in two parts. The first one is devoted to the description of the principle of SANS: basics (formalism, coherent scattering/incoherent scattering, notion of elementary scatterer, form factor analysis (I(q→0, Guinier regime, intermediate regime, Porod regime, polydisperse system, structure factor analysis (2nd Virial coefficient, integral equations, characterization of aggregates, and contrast variation methods (how to create contrast in an homogeneous system, matching in ternary systems, extrapolation to zero concentration, Zero Averaged Contrast. It is illustrated by some representative examples. The second one describes the experimental aspects of SANS to guide user in its future experiments: description of SANS spectrometer, resolution of the spectrometer, optimization of

  14. Pattern Formation in Langmuir Monolayers Due to Long-Range Electrostatic Interactions

    Science.gov (United States)

    Fischer, Thomas M.; Lösche, Mathias

    A distinctive characteristic of Langmuir monolayers that bears important consequences for the physics of structure formation within membranes is the uniaxial orientation of the constituent dipolar molecules, brought about by the symmetry break which is induced by the surface of the aqueous substrate. The association of oriented molecular dipoles with the interface leads to the formation of image dipoles within the polarizeable medium - the subphase - such that the effective dipole orientation of every of the individual molecules is strictly normal to the surface, even within molecularly disordered phases. As a result, dipole-dipole repulsions play an eminently important role for the molecular interactions within the system - independent of the state of phase (while the dipole area density does of course depend on the state of phase) - and control the morphogenesis of the phase boundaries in their interplay with the one-dimensional (1D) line tension between coexisting phases. The physics of these phenomena is only now being explored and is particularly exciting for systems within a three-phase coexistence region where complete or partial wetting, as well as dewetting between the coexisting phases may be experimentally observed by applying fluorescence microscopy to the monolayer films. It is revealed that the wetting behavior depends sensitively on the details of the electrostatic interactions, in that the apparent contact angles observed at three-phase contact points depends on the sizes of the coexisting phases. This is in sharp contrast to the physics of wetting in conventional 3D systems where the contact angle is a materials property, independent of the local details. In 3D systems, this leads to Youngs equation - which has been established more than two centuries ago. We report recent progress in the understanding of this unusual and rather unexpected behavior of a quasi-2D system by reviewing recent experimental results from optical microscopy on equilibrium

  15. Light scattering reviews 8 radiative transfer and light scattering

    CERN Document Server

    Kokhanovsky, Alexander A

    2013-01-01

    Light scattering review (vol 8) is aimed at the presentation of recent advances in radiative transfer and light scattering optics. The topics to be covered include: scattering of light by irregularly shaped particles suspended in atmosphere (dust, ice crystals), light scattering by particles much larger as compared the wavelength of incident radiation, atmospheric radiative forcing, astrophysical radiative transfer, radiative transfer and optical imaging in biological media, radiative transfer of polarized light, numerical aspects of radiative transfer.

  16. Foreshock Langmuir Waves for Unusually Constant Solar Wind Conditions: Data and Implications for Foreshock Structure

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cairns, Iver H.; Robinson, P. A.; Anderson, Roger R.; Strangeway, R. J.

    1997-01-01

    Plasma wave data are compared with ISEE 1's position in the electron foreshock for an interval with unusually constant (but otherwise typical) solar wind magnetic field and plasma characteristics. For this period, temporal variations in the wave characteristics can be confidently separated from sweeping of the spatially varying foreshock back and forth across the spacecraft. The spacecraft's location, particularly the coordinate D(sub f) downstream from the foreshock boundary (often termed DIFF), is calculated by using three shock models and the observed solar wind magnetometer and plasma data. Scatterplots of the wave field versus D(sub f) are used to constrain viable shock models, to investigate the observed scatter in the wave fields at constant D(sub f), and to test the theoretical predictions of linear instability theory. The scatterplots confirm the abrupt onset of the foreshock waves near the upstream boundary, the narrow width in D(sub f) of the region with high fields, and the relatively slow falloff of the fields at large D(sub f), as seen in earlier studies, but with much smaller statistical scatter. The plots also show an offset of the high-field region from the foreshock boundary. It is shown that an adaptive, time-varying shock model with no free parameters, determined by the observed solar wind data and published shock crossings, is viable but that two alternative models are not. Foreshock wave studies can therefore remotely constrain the bow shock's location. The observed scatter in wave field at constant D(sub f) is shown to be real and to correspond to real temporal variations, not to unresolved changes in D(sub f). By comparing the wave data with a linear instability theory based on a published model for the electron beam it is found that the theory can account qualitatively and semiquantitatively for the abrupt onset of the waves near D(sub f) = 0, for the narrow width and offset of the high-field region, and for the decrease in wave intensity

  17. Diarrhea caused by circulating agents.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Fabian, Elisabeth; Kump, Patrizia; Krejs, Guenter J

    2012-09-01

    Circulating agents cause intestinal secretion or changes in motility with decreased intestinal transit time, resulting in secretory-type diarrhea. Secretory diarrhea as opposed to osmotic diarrhea is characterized by large-volume, watery stools, often more than 1 L per day; by persistence of diarrhea when patients fast; and by the fact that on analysis of stool-water, measured osmolarity is identical to that calculated from the electrolytes present. Although sodium plays the main role in water and electrolyte absorption, chloride is the major ion involved in secretion. Copyright © 2012 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  18. Vasculitis of the mesenteric circulation.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Koster, Matthew J; Warrington, Kenneth J

    2017-02-01

    Vasculitis of the mesenteric circulation is an uncommon but life-threatening manifestation of systemic vasculitis. Initial symptoms are frequently non-specific and therefore patients often present to primary care physicians and gastroenterologists with abdominal pain or gastrointestinal bleeding. Given the severity of the conditions associated with mesenteric vasculitis, it is imperative to appropriately diagnose and initiate treatment of suspected cases. This review will focus on diseases commonly associated with vasculitis of the mesenteric vessels. Imaging characteristics and clinical features assisting in diagnosis as well as initial approaches to treatment are emphasized. Copyright © 2016 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  19. Autonomic Regulation of Splanchnic Circulation

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Kathleen A Fraser

    1991-01-01

    Full Text Available The role of the autonomic nervous system in circulatory regulation of the splanchnic organs (stomach, small intestine, colon, liver, pancreas and spleen is reviewed. In general, the sympathetic nervous system is primarily involved in vasoconstriction, while the parasympathetic contributes to vasodilation. Vasoconstriction in the splanchnic circulation appears to be mediated by alpha-2 receptors and vasodilation by activation of primary afferent nerves with subsequent release of vasodilatory peptides, or by stimulation of beta-adrenergic receptors. As well, an important function of the autonomic nervous system is to provide a mechanism by which splanchnic vascular reserve can be mobilized during stress to maintain overall cardiovascular homeostasis.

  20. Thermal-neutron multiple scattering: critical double scattering

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Holm, W.A.

    1976-01-01

    A quantum mechanical formulation for multiple scattering of thermal-neutrons from macroscopic targets is presented and applied to single and double scattering. Critical nuclear scattering from liquids and critical magnetic scattering from ferromagnets are treated in detail in the quasielastic approximation for target systems slightly above their critical points. Numerical estimates are made of the double scattering contribution to the critical magnetic cross section using relevant parameters from actual experiments performed on various ferromagnets. The effect is to alter the usual Lorentzian line shape dependence on neutron wave vector transfer. Comparison with corresponding deviations in line shape resulting from the use of Fisher's modified form of the Ornstein-Zernike spin correlations within the framework of single scattering theory leads to values for the critical exponent eta of the modified correlations which reproduce the effect of double scattering. In addition, it is shown that by restricting the range of applicability of the multiple scattering theory from the outset to critical scattering, Glauber's high energy approximation can be used to provide a much simpler and more powerful description of multiple scattering effects. When sufficiently close to the critical point, it provides a closed form expression for the differential cross section which includes all orders of scattering and has the same form as the single scattering cross section with a modified exponent for the wave vector transfer

  1. FDTD scattered field formulation for scatterers in stratified dispersive media.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Olkkonen, Juuso

    2010-03-01

    We introduce a simple scattered field (SF) technique that enables finite difference time domain (FDTD) modeling of light scattering from dispersive objects residing in stratified dispersive media. The introduced SF technique is verified against the total field scattered field (TFSF) technique. As an application example, we study surface plasmon polariton enhanced light transmission through a 100 nm wide slit in a silver film.

  2. Electroweak physics and electron scattering

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Henley, E.M.; Hwang, W.Y.P.

    1988-01-01

    The electroweak theory is developed and applied to electron scattering from nucleons and light nuclei. It is shown that these scatterings can be used to test the standard theory and probe structure effects. 33 refs., 5 figs

  3. Regge poles and alpha scattering

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Ceuleneer, R.

    1974-01-01

    The direct Regge pole model as a means of describing resonances in elastic particle scattering has been used for the analysis of the so-called ''anormalous large angle scattering'' of alpha particles by spinless nuclei. (Z.M.)

  4. Electromagnetic scattering from random media

    CERN Document Server

    Field, Timothy R

    2009-01-01

    - ;The book develops the dynamical theory of scattering from random media from first principles. Its key findings are to characterize the time evolution of the scattered field in terms of stochastic differential equations, and to illustrate this framework

  5. Preparation of porous monolayer film by immersing the stearic acid Langmuir-Blodgett monolayer on mica in salt solution

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Wang, S. [Institute of Near-Field Optics and Nano Technology, School of Physics and Optoelectronic Technology, Dalian University of Technology, Street No. 2 Linggong Road, Dalian 116024 (China); Li, Y.L.; Zhao, H.L.; Liang, H. [Institute of Photo-Biophysics, School of Physics and Electronic, Henan University, Jinming, Kaifeng 475004, Henan (China); Liu, B., E-mail: boliu@henu.edu.cn [Institute of Photo-Biophysics, School of Physics and Electronic, Henan University, Jinming, Kaifeng 475004, Henan (China); Pan, S., E-mail: span@dlut.edu.cn [Institute of Near-Field Optics and Nano Technology, School of Physics and Optoelectronic Technology, Dalian University of Technology, Street No. 2 Linggong Road, Dalian 116024 (China)

    2012-11-15

    Highlights: Black-Right-Pointing-Pointer Porous film has been prepared by immersing the stearic acid Langmuir-Blodgett monolayer on mica in salt solution. Black-Right-Pointing-Pointer The mechanism relies on the electrostatic screening effect of the cations in salt solution. Black-Right-Pointing-Pointer The factors influencing the size and area of the pores were investigated. - Abstract: Porous materials have drawn attention from scientists in many fields such as life sciences, catalysis and photonics since they can be used to induce some materials growth as expected. Especially, porous Langmuir-Blodgett (LB) film is an ideal material with controlled thickness and flat surface. In this paper, stearic acid (SA), which has been extensively explored in LB film technique, is chosen as the template material with known parameters to prepare the LB film, and then the porous SA monolayer film is obtained by means of etching in salt solution. The main etching mechanism is suggested that the cations in the solution block the electrostatic interaction between the polar carboxyl group of SA and the electronegative mica surface. The influencing factors (such as concentration of salt solution, valence of cation and surface pressure) of the porous SA film are systematically studied in this work. The novel method proposed in this paper makes it convenient to prepare porous monolayer film for designed material growth or cell culture.

  6. Analysis of wall-embedded Langmuir probe signals in different conditions on the Tokamak à Configuration Variable

    Science.gov (United States)

    Février, O.; Theiler, C.; De Oliveira, H.; Labit, B.; Fedorczak, N.; Baillod, A.

    2018-05-01

    This paper presents the current wall-embedded Langmuir probe system installed on the Tokamak à Configuration Variable (TCV), as well as the analysis tool chain used to interpret the current-voltage characteristic obtained when the probes are operated in swept-bias conditions. The analysis is based on a four-parameter fit combined with a minimum temperature approach. In order to reduce the effect of plasma fluctuations and measurement noise, several current-voltage characteristics are usually averaged before proceeding to the fitting. The impact of this procedure on the results is investigated, as well as the possible role of finite resistances in the circuitry, which could lead to an overestimation of the temperature. We study the application of the procedure in a specific regime, the plasma detachment, where results from other diagnostics indicate that the electron temperature derived from the Langmuir probes might be overestimated. To address this issue, we explore other fitting models and, in particular, an extension of the asymmetric double probe fit, which features effects of sheath expansion. We show that these models yield lower temperatures (up to approximately 60%) than the standard analysis in detached conditions, particularly for a temperature peak observed near the plasma strike point, but a discrepancy with other measurements remains. We explore a possible explanation for this observation, the presence of a fast electron population, and assess how robust the different methods are in such conditions.

  7. Carbon Nanotubes and Algal Polysaccharides To Enhance the Enzymatic Properties of Urease in Lipid Langmuir-Blodgett Films.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rodrigues, Raul T; Morais, Paulo V; Nordi, Cristina S F; Schöning, Michael J; Siqueira, José R; Caseli, Luciano

    2018-03-06

    Algal polysaccharides (extracellular polysaccharides) and carbon nanotubes (CNTs) were adsorbed on dioctadecyldimethylammonium bromide Langmuir monolayers to serve as a matrix for the incorporation of urease. The physicochemical properties of the supramolecular system as a monolayer at the air-water interface were investigated by surface pressure-area isotherms, surface potential-area isotherms, interfacial shear rheology, vibrational spectroscopy, and Brewster angle microscopy. The floating monolayers were transferred to hydrophilic solid supports, quartz, mica, or capacitive electrolyte-insulator-semiconductor (EIS) devices, through the Langmuir-Blodgett (LB) technique, forming mixed films, which were investigated by quartz crystal microbalance, fluorescence spectroscopy, and field emission gun scanning electron microscopy. The enzyme activity was studied with UV-vis spectroscopy, and the feasibility of the thin film as a urea sensor was essayed in an EIS sensor device. The presence of CNT in the enzyme-lipid LB film not only tuned the catalytic activity of urease but also helped to conserve its enzyme activity. Viability as a urease sensor was demonstrated with capacitance-voltage and constant capacitance measurements, exhibiting regular and distinctive output signals over all concentrations used in this work. These results are related to the synergism between the compounds on the active layer, leading to a surface morphology that allowed fast analyte diffusion owing to an adequate molecular accommodation, which also preserved the urease activity. This work demonstrates the feasibility of employing LB films composed of lipids, CNT, algal polysaccharides, and enzymes as EIS devices for biosensing applications.

  8. Surface correlation behaviors of metal-organic Langmuir-Blodgett films on differently passivated Si(001) surfaces

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bal, J. K.; Kundu, Sarathi

    2013-03-01

    Langmuir-Blodgett films of standard amphiphilic molecules like nickel arachidate and cadmium arachidate are grown on wet chemically passivated hydrophilic (OH-Si), hydrophobic (H-Si), and hydrophilic plus hydrophobic (Br-Si) Si(001) surfaces. Top surface morphologies and height-difference correlation functions g(r) with in-plane separation (r) are obtained from the atomic force microscopy studies. Our studies show that deposited bilayer and trilayer films have self-affine correlation behavior irrespective of different passivations and different types of amphiphilic molecules, however, liquid like correlation coexists only for a small part of r, which is located near the cutoff length (1/κ) or little below the correlation length ξ obtained from the liquid like and self-affine fitting, respectively. Thus, length scale dependent surface correlation behavior is observed for both types of Langmuir-Blodgett films. Metal ion specific interactions (ionic, covalent, etc.,) in the headgroup and the nature of the terminated bond (polar, nonpolar, etc.,) of Si surface are mainly responsible for having different correlation parameters.

  9. Physicochemical and structural characterization of a two-dimensional polymer performed by using the Langmuir-Blodgett technique

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Lefevre, Didier

    1995-01-01

    This research thesis addresses the physicochemical and structural characterization of two-dimensional polymer made of polymerizable macro-cycles pre-organised in-plane by using the Langmuir-Blodgett technique. Macro-cycles are porphyrins with four acetylenic functions which bind in both plane directions by formation of diacetylenic covalent bonds. These porphyrins are adsorbed under a single layer of dihexadecyl-phosphoric acid to build up a monomer amphiphilic film. The author reports the characterization of the Langmuir film by the study of compression isotherms and by Brewster angle microscopy. Other techniques are used (UV, visible and infrared spectroscopy, Raman spectroscopy) to highlight the polymerization in LB film. X photo-electronic spectroscopy and secondary ion mass spectroscopy are also used. The author reports the study of the orientation of macro-cycles before and after polymerization by using linear dichroism, electronic paramagnetic resonance and X ray diffraction. The in-plane LB film structure is studied by transmission X ray diffraction, atomic force microscopy in correlation with molecular simulation. The two-dimensional feature of the polymer formed at the water surface is highlighted. The membrane is visualized by electronic and optic microscopy, and characterized by EDXS and electronic diffraction [fr

  10. Applicability of the Child-Langmuir laws versions for describing the glow discharge cathode sheath in CO2

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lisovskiy, Valeriy; Krol, Hennadii; Osmayev, Ruslan; Yegorenkov, Vladimir

    2016-09-01

    This work is devoted to the determination of the law that may be applicable to the description of the cathode sheath in CO2. To this end three versions of the Child-Langmuir law have been considered - a collision free one (for the ions moving through a cathode sheath without collisions with gas molecules) as well as two collision- related versions- one for a constant mean free path of positive ions and one for a constant mobility of positive ions. The current-voltage characteristics and the cathode sheath thickness of the glow discharge in carbon oxide have been simultaneously measured in the pressure range from 0.05 to 1 Torr and with the discharge current values up to 80 mA. The inter-electrode distance has been chosen such that the discharge consists only of the cathode sheath and a small portion of the negative glow, i.e. the experiments have been performed in short tubes. In this case the voltage drop across the cathode sheath is equal approximately to the voltage drop across the electrodes. In the whole range of the discharge conditions we have studied the cathode sheath characteristics are found to obey correctly only to the Child-Langmuir law version with a constant ion mobility. The reason for this phenomenon may be related with a significant conversion of carbon dioxide molecules.

  11. Examination of fluorination effect on physical properties of saturated long-chain alcohols by DSC and Langmuir monolayer.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Nakahara, Hiromichi; Nakamura, Shohei; Okahashi, Yoshinori; Kitaguchi, Daisuke; Kawabata, Noritake; Sakamoto, Seiichi; Shibata, Osamu

    2013-02-01

    Partially fluorinated long-chain alcohols have been newly synthesized from a radical reaction, which is followed by a reductive reaction. The fluorinated alcohols have been investigated by differential scanning calorimetry (DSC) and compression isotherms in a Langmuir monolayer state. Their melting points increase with an increase in chain length due to elongation of methylene groups. However, the melting points for the alcohols containing shorter fluorinated moieties are lower than those for the typical hydrogenated fatty alcohols. Using the Langmuir monolayer technique, surface pressure (π)-molecular area (A) and surface potential (ΔV)-A isotherms of monolayers of the fluorinated alcohols have been measured in the temperature range from 281.2 to 303.2K. In addition, a compressibility modulus (Cs(-1)) is calculated from the π-A isotherms. Four kinds of the alcohol monolayers show a phase transition (π(eq)) from a disordered to an ordered state upon lateral compression. The π(eq) values increase linearly with increasing temperatures. A slope of π(eq) against temperature for the alcohols with shorter fluorocarbons is unexpectedly larger than that for the corresponding fatty alcohols. Generally, fluorinated amphiphiles have a greater thermal stability (or resistance), which is a characteristic of highly fluorinated or perfluorinated compounds. Herein, however, the alcohols containing perfluorobutylated and perfluorohexylated chains show the irregular thermal behavior in both the solid and monolayer states. Copyright © 2012 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  12. Beyond the Child-Langmuir law: A review of recent results on multidimensional space-charge-limited flow

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Luginsland, J.W.; Lau, Y.Y.; Umstattd, R.J.; Watrous, J.J.

    2002-01-01

    Space-charge-limited (SCL) flows in diodes have been an area of active research since the pioneering work of Child and Langmuir in the early part of the last century. Indeed, the scaling of current density with the voltage to the 3/2's power is one of the best-known limits in the fields of non-neutral plasma physics, accelerator physics, sheath physics, vacuum electronics, and high power microwaves. In the past five years, there has been renewed interest in the physics and characteristics of SCL emission in physically realizable configurations. This research has focused on characterizing the current and current density enhancement possible from two- and three-dimensional geometries, such as field-emitting arrays. In 1996, computational efforts led to the development of a scaling law that described the increased current drawn due to two-dimensional effects. Recently, this scaling has been analytically derived from first principles. In parallel efforts, computational work has characterized the edge enhancement of the current density, leading to a better understanding of the physics of explosive emission cathodes. In this paper, the analytic and computational extensions to the one-dimensional Child-Langmuir law will be reviewed, the accuracy of SCL emission algorithms will be assessed, and the experimental implications of multidimensional SCL flows will be discussed

  13. Intestinal circulation during inhalation anesthesia

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Tverskoy, M.; Gelman, S.; Fowler, K.C.; Bradley, E.L.

    1985-01-01

    This study was designed to evaluate the influence of inhalational agents on the intestinal circulation in an isolated loop preparation. Sixty dogs were studied, using three intestinal segments from each dog. Selected intestinal segments were pumped with aortic blood at a constant pressure of 100 mmHg. A mixture of 86 Rb and 9-microns spheres labeled with 141 Ce was injected into the arterial cannula supplying the intestinal loop, while mesenteric venous blood was collected for activity counting. A very strong and significant correlation was found between rubidium clearance and microsphere entrapment (r = 0.97, P less than 0.0001). Nitrous oxide anesthesia was accompanied by a higher vascular resistance (VR), lower flow (F), rubidium clearance (Cl-Rb), and microspheres entrapment (Cl-Sph) than pentobarbital anesthesia, indicating that the vascular bed in the intestinal segment was constricted and flow (total and nutritive) decreased. Halothane, enflurane, and isoflurane anesthesia were accompanied by a much lower arteriovenous oxygen content difference (AVDO 2 ) and oxygen uptake than pentobarbital or nitrous oxide. Compared with pentobarbital, enflurane anesthesia was not accompanied by marked differences in VR, F, Cl-Rb, and Cl-Sph; halothane at 2 MAC decreased VR and increased F and Cl-Rb while isoflurane increased VR and decreased F. alpha-Adrenoceptor blockade with phentolamine (1 mg . kg-1) abolished isoflurane-induced vasoconstriction, suggesting that the increase in VR was mediated via circulating catecholamines

  14. Roadmap for cardiovascular circulation model

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bradley, Christopher P.; Suresh, Vinod; Mithraratne, Kumar; Muller, Alexandre; Ho, Harvey; Ladd, David; Hellevik, Leif R.; Omholt, Stig W.; Chase, J. Geoffrey; Müller, Lucas O.; Watanabe, Sansuke M.; Blanco, Pablo J.; de Bono, Bernard; Hunter, Peter J.

    2016-01-01

    Abstract Computational models of many aspects of the mammalian cardiovascular circulation have been developed. Indeed, along with orthopaedics, this area of physiology is one that has attracted much interest from engineers, presumably because the equations governing blood flow in the vascular system are well understood and can be solved with well‐established numerical techniques. Unfortunately, there have been only a few attempts to create a comprehensive public domain resource for cardiovascular researchers. In this paper we propose a roadmap for developing an open source cardiovascular circulation model. The model should be registered to the musculo‐skeletal system. The computational infrastructure for the cardiovascular model should provide for near real‐time computation of blood flow and pressure in all parts of the body. The model should deal with vascular beds in all tissues, and the computational infrastructure for the model should provide links into CellML models of cell function and tissue function. In this work we review the literature associated with 1D blood flow modelling in the cardiovascular system, discuss model encoding standards, software and a model repository. We then describe the coordinate systems used to define the vascular geometry, derive the equations and discuss the implementation of these coupled equations in the open source computational software OpenCMISS. Finally, some preliminary results are presented and plans outlined for the next steps in the development of the model, the computational software and the graphical user interface for accessing the model. PMID:27506597

  15. CONFERENCE: Elastic and diffractive scattering

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    White, Alan

    1989-09-15

    Elastic scattering, when particles appear to 'bounce' off each other, and the related phenomena of diffractive scattering are currently less fashionable than the study of hard scattering processes. However this could change rapidly if unexpected results from the UA4 experiment at the CERN Collider are confirmed and their implications tested. These questions were highlighted at the third 'Blois Workshop' on Elastic and Diffractive Scattering, held early in May on the Evanston campus of Northwestern University, near Chicago.

  16. Electron scattering on molecular hydrogen

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Wingerden, B. van.

    1980-01-01

    The author considers scattering phenomena which occur when a beam of electrons interacts with a molecular hydrogen gas of low density. Depending on the energy loss of the scattered electrons one can distinguish elastic scattering, excitation and (auto)ionization of the H 2 -molecule. The latter processes may also lead to dissociation. These processes are investigated in four experiments in increasing detail. (Auth.)

  17. Scattering Of Nonplanar Acoustic Waves

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gillman, Judith M.; Farassat, F.; Myers, M. K.

    1995-01-01

    Report presents theoretical study of scattering of nonplanar acoustic waves by rigid bodies. Study performed as part of effort to develop means of predicting scattering, from aircraft fuselages, of noise made by rotating blades. Basic approach was to model acoustic scattering by use of boundary integral equation to solve equation by the Galerkin method.

  18. Electron scattering for exotic nuclei

    Indian Academy of Sciences (India)

    2014-11-04

    Nov 4, 2014 ... A brand-new electron scattering facility, the SCRIT Electron Scattering Facility, will soon start its operation at RIKEN RI Beam Factory, Japan. This is the world's first electron scattering facility dedicated to the structure studies of short-lived nuclei. The goal of this facility is to determine the charge density ...

  19. Scattering theory and chemical reactions

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Kuppermann, A.

    1988-01-01

    In this course, scattering theory and chemical reactions are presented including scattering of one particle by a potential, n-particle systems, colinear triatomic molecules and the study of reactive scattering for 3-dimensional triatomic systems. (A.C.A.S.) [pt

  20. Deep inelastic scattering

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Zakharov, V.I.

    1977-01-01

    The present status of the quark-parton-gluon picture of deep inelastic scattering is reviewed. The general framework is mostly theoretical and covers investigations since 1970. Predictions of the parton model and of the asymptotically free field theories are compared with experimental data available. The valence quark approximation is concluded to be valid in most cases, but fails to account for the data on the total momentum transfer. On the basis of gluon corrections introduced to the parton model certain predictions concerning both the deep inelastic structure functions and form factors are made. The contributions of gluon exchanges and gluon bremsstrahlung are highlighted. Asymptotic freedom is concluded to be very attractive and provide qualitative explanation to some experimental observations (scaling violations, breaking of the Drell-Yan-West type relations). Lepton-nuclear scattering is pointed out to be helpful in probing the nature of nuclear forces and studying the space-time picture of the parton model

  1. Semiclassical scattering theory

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Di Salvo, A.

    1985-01-01

    It is intended to write the semiclassical scattering amplitude as a sum of terms, each of them being associated to trajectory. First of all the classical equations of motion are studied, considering both the analytical (real and complex) solutions and a certain type of singular solutions, which behave similary to the difracted rays in optics; in particular, in the case of a central nuclear potential, classical effects like rainbow and orbiting and also wave effects like diffraction and direct reflection are singled out. Successively, considering the Debye expansion of the scattering amplitude relative to a central nuclear potential, and evaluating asymptotically each term by means of the saddle point technique, the decay exponents and difraction coefficients relative to such a potential are determined

  2. Stationary scattering theory

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Combes, J.M.

    1980-10-01

    A complementary approach to the time dependent scattering theory for one-body Schroedinger operators is presented. The stationary theory is concerned with objects of quantum theory like scattering waves and amplitudes. In the more recent abstract stationary theory some generalized form of the Lippman-Schwinger equation plays the basic role. Solving this equation leads to a linear map between generalized eigenfunctions of the perturbed and unperturbed operators. This map is the section at fixed energy of the wave-operator from the time dependent theory. Although the radiation condition does not appears explicitely in this formulation it can be shown to hold a posteriori in a variety of situations thus restoring the link with physical theories

  3. Pion nucleus scattering lengths

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Huang, W.T.; Levinson, C.A.; Banerjee, M.K.

    1971-09-01

    Soft pion theory and the Fubini-Furlan mass dispersion relations have been used to analyze the pion nucleon scattering lengths and obtain a value for the sigma commutator term. With this value and using the same principles, scattering lengths have been predicted for nuclei with mass number ranging from 6 to 23. Agreement with experiment is very good. For those who believe in the Gell-Mann-Levy sigma model, the evaluation of the commutator yields the value 0.26(m/sub σ//m/sub π/) 2 for the sigma nucleon coupling constant. The large dispersive corrections for the isosymmetric case implies that the basic idea behind many of the soft pion calculations, namely, slow variation of matrix elements from the soft pion limit to the physical pion mass, is not correct. 11 refs., 1 fig., 3 tabs

  4. Magnetic diffuse scattering

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Cable, J.W.

    1987-01-01

    The diffuse scattering of neutrons from magnetic materials provides unique and important information regarding the spatial correlations of the atoms and the spins. Such measurements have been extensively applied to magnetically ordered systems, such as the ferromagnetic binary alloys, for which the observed correlations describe the magnetic moment fluctuations associated with local environment effects. With the advent of polarization analysis, these techniques are increasingly being applied to study disordered paramagnetic systems such as the spin-glasses and the diluted magnetic semiconductors. The spin-pair correlations obtained are essential in understanding the exchange interactions of such systems. In this paper, we describe recent neutron diffuse scattering results on the atom-pair and spin-pair correlations in some of these disordered magnetic systems. 56 refs

  5. Scattering of charged particles

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Barrachina, R.O.; Macek, J.H.

    1989-01-01

    Different methods of avoiding the known difficulties of the Coulomb potential scattering theory are reviewed. Mulherin and Zinnes' [J. Math. Phys. 11, 1402 (1976)] ''distorted'' free waves and van Haeringen's [J. Math. Phys. 17, 995 (1976)] Coulomb asymptotic states are considered. The equivalence of both approaches on the energy shell is shown. Actually the possibility of deriving the first method within van Haeringen's formalism by means of a distorted wave procedure is demonstrated

  6. Molecular-beam scattering

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Vernon, M.F.

    1983-07-01

    The molecular-beam technique has been used in three different experimental arrangements to study a wide range of inter-atomic and molecular forces. Chapter 1 reports results of a low-energy (0.2 kcal/mole) elastic-scattering study of the He-Ar pair potential. The purpose of the study was to accurately characterize the shape of the potential in the well region, by scattering slow He atoms produced by expanding a mixture of He in N 2 from a cooled nozzle. Chapter 2 contains measurements of the vibrational predissociation spectra and product translational energy for clusters of water, benzene, and ammonia. The experiments show that most of the product energy remains in the internal molecular motions. Chapter 3 presents measurements of the reaction Na + HCl → NaCl + H at collision energies of 5.38 and 19.4 kcal/mole. This is the first study to resolve both scattering angle and velocity for the reaction of a short lived (16 nsec) electronic excited state. Descriptions are given of computer programs written to analyze molecular-beam expansions to extract information characterizing their velocity distributions, and to calculate accurate laboratory elastic-scattering differential cross sections accounting for the finite apparatus resolution. Experimental results which attempted to determine the efficiency of optically pumping the Li(2 2 P/sub 3/2/) and Na(3 2 P/sub 3/2/) excited states are given. A simple three-level model for predicting the steady-state fraction of atoms in the excited state is included

  7. Analytic nuclear scattering theories

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Di Marzio, F.; University of Melbourne, Parkville, VIC

    1999-01-01

    A wide range of nuclear reactions are examined in an analytical version of the usual distorted wave Born approximation. This new approach provides either semi analytic or fully analytic descriptions of the nuclear scattering processes. The resulting computational simplifications, when used within the limits of validity, allow very detailed tests of both nuclear interaction models as well as large basis models of nuclear structure to be performed

  8. Polarimetric neutron scattering

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Tasset, F.

    2001-01-01

    Polarimetric Neutron Scattering in introduced, both by, explaining methodological issues and the corresponding instrumental developments. After a short overview of neutron spin polarization and the neutron polarization 3d-vector a pictorial approach of the microscopic theory is used to show how a polarized beam interacts with lattice and magnetic Fourier components in a crystal. Examples are given of using Spherical Neutron Polarimetry (SNP) and the corresponding Cryopad polarimeter for the investigation of non-collinear magnetic structures. (R.P.)

  9. Means on scattered compacta

    Czech Academy of Sciences Publication Activity Database

    Banakh, T.; Bonnet, R.; Kubiś, Wieslaw

    2014-01-01

    Roč. 2, č. 1 (2014), s. 5-10 ISSN 2299-3231 R&D Projects: GA ČR(CZ) GAP201/12/0290 Institutional support: RVO:67985840 Keywords : scattered compact space * mean operation Subject RIV: BA - General Mathematics http://www.degruyter.com/view/j/taa.2014.2.issue-1/taa-2014-0002/taa-2014-0002.xml

  10. Small angle neutron scattering analysis programs on the Rutherford Laboratory IBM 360/195 computers

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Knowles, K.J.; Johnson, M.W.

    1980-06-01

    The implementation and operation of the suite of programs used for the analysis of small angle neutron scattering data originally written at the ILL (Grenoble) is described. The programs make use of a circulating data file which is also described and may be used by a variety of data analysis programs. (author)

  11. Neutron scattering in Australia

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Knott, R.B.

    1994-01-01

    Neutron scattering techniques have been part of the Australian scientific research community for the past three decades. The High Flux Australian Reactor (HIFAR) is a multi-use facility of modest performance that provides the only neutron source in the country suitable for neutron scattering. The limitations of HIFAR have been recognized and recently a Government initiated inquiry sought to evaluate the future needs of a neutron source. In essence, the inquiry suggested that a delay of several years would enable a number of key issues to be resolved, and therefore a more appropriate decision made. In the meantime, use of the present source is being optimized, and where necessary research is being undertaken at major overseas neutron facilities either on a formal or informal basis. Australia has, at present, a formal agreement with the Rutherford Appleton Laboratory (UK) for access to the spallation source ISIS. Various aspects of neutron scattering have been implemented on HIFAR, including investigations of the structure of biological relevant molecules. One aspect of these investigations will be presented. Preliminary results from a study of the interaction of the immunosuppressant drug, cyclosporin-A, with reconstituted membranes suggest that the hydrophobic drug interdigitated with lipid chains

  12. Neutron scattering in Australia

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Knott, R.B. [Australian Nuclear Science and Technology Organisation, Menai (Australia)

    1994-12-31

    Neutron scattering techniques have been part of the Australian scientific research community for the past three decades. The High Flux Australian Reactor (HIFAR) is a multi-use facility of modest performance that provides the only neutron source in the country suitable for neutron scattering. The limitations of HIFAR have been recognized and recently a Government initiated inquiry sought to evaluate the future needs of a neutron source. In essence, the inquiry suggested that a delay of several years would enable a number of key issues to be resolved, and therefore a more appropriate decision made. In the meantime, use of the present source is being optimized, and where necessary research is being undertaken at major overseas neutron facilities either on a formal or informal basis. Australia has, at present, a formal agreement with the Rutherford Appleton Laboratory (UK) for access to the spallation source ISIS. Various aspects of neutron scattering have been implemented on HIFAR, including investigations of the structure of biological relevant molecules. One aspect of these investigations will be presented. Preliminary results from a study of the interaction of the immunosuppressant drug, cyclosporin-A, with reconstituted membranes suggest that the hydrophobic drug interdigitated with lipid chains.

  13. Basic scattering theory

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Queen, N.M.

    1978-01-01

    This series of lectures on basic scattering theory were given as part of a course for postgraduate high energy physicists and were designed to acquaint the student with some of the basic language and formalism used for the phenomenological description of nuclear reactions and decay processes used for the study of elementary particle interactions. Well established and model independent aspects of scattering theory, which are the basis of S-matrix theory, are considered. The subject is considered under the following headings; the S-matrix, cross sections and decay rates, phase space, relativistic kinematics, the Mandelstam variables, the flux factor, two-body phase space, Dalitz plots, other kinematic plots, two-particle reactions, unitarity, the partial-wave expansion, resonances (single-channel case), multi-channel resonances, analyticity and crossing, dispersion relations, the one-particle exchange model, the density matrix, mathematical properties of the density matrix, the density matrix in scattering processes, the density matrix in decay processes, and the helicity formalism. Some exercises for the students are included. (U.K.)

  14. pp-elastic scattering

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Aprile, E; Cantale, G; Degli-Agosti, S; Hausammann, R; Heer, E; Hess, R; Lechanoine-LeLuc, C; Leo, W; Morenzoni, S; Onel, Y [Geneva Univ. (Switzerland). Dept. de Physique Nucleaire et Corpusculaire

    1983-01-01

    The aim of the elastic pp experimental program at SIN was to measure enough spin dependent parameters in order to do a direct experimental reconstruction of the elastic scattering amplitudes at a few energies between 400 and 600 MeV and at several angles between 38/sup 0/ cm and 90/sup 0/ cm. This reconstruction was not possible until recently due to lack of experimental data. Information instead has come mainly from phase shift analysis (PSA). The only way to extract the elastic scattering amplitudes without any hypotheses except those of basic symmetries, is to measure a sufficient set of spin dependent parameters at a given angle and energy. With this in view, the authors have measured at 448, 494, 515, 536 and 579 MeV, the polarization, the spin correlation parameters Asub(00nn), Asub(00ss), Asub(00kk), Asub(00ks), the 2-spin parameters Dsub(n0n0), Ksub(n00n), Dsub(s'0s0), Dsub(s'0k0) and the 3-spin parameters Msub(s'0sn), Msub(s'0kn) between 34/sup 0/ cm and 118/sup 0/ cm. A few of these parameters have also been measured at 560 and 470 MeV and at a few energies below 448 MeV. The indices refer to the polarization orientation of the scattered, recoil, beam and target particle respectively.

  15. Diffuse scattering in Ih ice

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Wehinger, Björn; Krisch, Michael; Bosak, Alexeï; Chernyshov, Dmitry; Bulat, Sergey; Ezhov, Victor

    2014-01-01

    Single crystals of ice Ih, extracted from the subglacial Lake Vostok accretion ice layer (3621 m depth) were investigated by means of diffuse x-ray scattering and inelastic x-ray scattering. The diffuse scattering was identified as mainly inelastic and rationalized in the frame of ab initio calculations for the ordered ice XI approximant. Together with Monte-Carlo modelling, our data allowed reconsidering previously available neutron diffuse scattering data of heavy ice as the sum of thermal diffuse scattering and static disorder contribution. (paper)

  16. Scattering of intermediate energy protons

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Chaumeaux, Alain.

    1980-06-01

    The scattering of 1 GeV protons appears to be a powerful means of investigating nuclear matter. We worked with SPESI and the formalism of Kerman-Mc Manus and Thaler. The amplitude of nucleon-nucleon scattering was studied as were the aspects of 1 GeV proton scattering (multiple scattering, absorption, spin-orbit coupling, N-N amplitude, KMT-Glauber comparison, second order effects). The results of proton scattering on 16 O, the isotopes of calcium, 58 Ni, 90 Zr and 208 Pb are given [fr

  17. Compton scattering revisited

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Pratt, R.H., E-mail: rpratt@pitt.ed [Department of Physics and Astronomy, University of Pittsburgh, Pittsburgh, PA 15260 (United States); LaJohn, L.A., E-mail: lal18@pitt.ed [Department of Physics and Astronomy, University of Pittsburgh, Pittsburgh, PA 15260 (United States); Florescu, V., E-mail: flor@barutu.fizica.unibuc.r [Centre for Advanced Quantum Physics, University of Bucharest, MG-11 Bucharest-Magurele, 077125 Magurele (Romania); Suric, T., E-mail: suric@irb.h [R. Boskovic Institute, Bijenicka 54, 10000 Zagreb (Croatia); Chatterjee, B.K., E-mail: barun_k_chatterjee@yahoo.co [Department of Physics, Bose Institute, Kolkata 700009 (India); Roy, S.C., E-mail: suprakash.roy@gmail.co [Department of Physics, Bose Institute, Kolkata 700009 (India)

    2010-02-15

    We review the standard theory of Compton scattering from bound electrons, and we describe recent findings that require modification of the usual understanding, noting the nature of consequences for experiment. The subject began with Compton and scattering from free electrons. Experiment actually involved bound electrons, and this was accommodated with the use of impulse approximation (IA), which described inelastic scattering from bound electrons in terms of scattering from free electrons. This was good for the Compton peak but failed for soft final photons. The standard theory was formalized by Eisenberger and Platzman (EP) [1970. Phys. Rev. A 2, 415], whose work also suggested why impulse approximation was better than one would expect, for doubly differential cross sections (DDCS), but not for triply differential cross sections (TDCS). A relativistic version of IA (RIA) was worked out by Ribberfors [1975. Phys. Rev. B 12, 2067]. And Suric et al. [1991. Phys. Rev. Lett. 67, 189] and Bergstrom et al. [1993. Phys. Rev. A 48, 1134] developed a full relativistic second order S-matrix treatment, not making impulse approximation, but within independent particle approximation (IPA). Newer developments in the theory of Compton scattering include: (1) Demonstration that the EP estimates of the validity of IA are incorrect, although the qualitative conclusion remains unchanged; IA is not to be understood as the first term in a standard series expansion. (2) The greater validity of IA for DDCS than for the TDCS, which when integrated give DDCS, is related to the existence of a sum rule, only valid for DDCS. (3) The so-called 'asymmetry' of a Compton profile is primarily to be understood as simply the shift of the peak position in the profile; symmetric and anti-symmetric deviations from a shifted Compton profile are very small, except for high Z inner shells where further p{sup -}>.A{sup -}> effects come into play. (4) Most relativistic effects, except at low

  18. Compton scattering revisited

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Pratt, R.H.; LaJohn, L.A.; Florescu, V.; Suric, T.; Chatterjee, B.K.; Roy, S.C.

    2010-01-01

    We review the standard theory of Compton scattering from bound electrons, and we describe recent findings that require modification of the usual understanding, noting the nature of consequences for experiment. The subject began with Compton and scattering from free electrons. Experiment actually involved bound electrons, and this was accommodated with the use of impulse approximation (IA), which described inelastic scattering from bound electrons in terms of scattering from free electrons. This was good for the Compton peak but failed for soft final photons. The standard theory was formalized by Eisenberger and Platzman (EP) [1970. Phys. Rev. A 2, 415], whose work also suggested why impulse approximation was better than one would expect, for doubly differential cross sections (DDCS), but not for triply differential cross sections (TDCS). A relativistic version of IA (RIA) was worked out by Ribberfors [1975. Phys. Rev. B 12, 2067]. And Suric et al. [1991. Phys. Rev. Lett. 67, 189] and Bergstrom et al. [1993. Phys. Rev. A 48, 1134] developed a full relativistic second order S-matrix treatment, not making impulse approximation, but within independent particle approximation (IPA). Newer developments in the theory of Compton scattering include: (1) Demonstration that the EP estimates of the validity of IA are incorrect, although the qualitative conclusion remains unchanged; IA is not to be understood as the first term in a standard series expansion. (2) The greater validity of IA for DDCS than for the TDCS, which when integrated give DDCS, is related to the existence of a sum rule, only valid for DDCS. (3) The so-called 'asymmetry' of a Compton profile is primarily to be understood as simply the shift of the peak position in the profile; symmetric and anti-symmetric deviations from a shifted Compton profile are very small, except for high Z inner shells where further p → .A → effects come into play. (4) Most relativistic effects, except at low energies, are to be

  19. Uranus atmospheric dynamics and circulation

    Science.gov (United States)

    Allison, Michael; Beebe, Reta F.; Conrath, Barney J.; Hinson, David P.; Ingersoll, Andrew P.

    1991-01-01

    The observations, models, and theories relevant to the atmospheric dynamics and meteorology of Uranus are discussed. The available models for the large-scale heat transport and atmospheric dynamics as well as diagnostic interpretations of the Voyager data are reviewed. Some pertinent ideas and questions regarding the global circulation balance are considered, partly in comparison with other planetary atmospheres. The available data indicate atmospheric rotation at midlatitudes nearly 200 m/s faster than that of the planetary magnetic field. Analysis of the dynamical deformation of the shape and size of isobaric surfaces measured by the Voyager radio-occultation experiment suggests a subrotating equator at comparable altitudes. Infrared temperature retrievals above the cloud deck indicate a smaller equator-to-pole contrast than expected for purely radiative-convective equilibrium, but show local variations implying a latitudinally correlated decrease with altitude in the cloud-tracked wind.

  20. Improvement of Classification of Enterprise Circulating Funds

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Rohanova Hanna O.

    2014-02-01

    Full Text Available The goal of the article lies in revelation of possibilities of increase of efficiency of managing enterprise circulating funds by means of improvement of their classification features. Having analysed approaches of many economists to classification of enterprise circulating funds, systemised and supplementing them, the article offers grouping classification features of enterprise circulating funds. In the result of the study the article offers an expanded classification of circulating funds, which clearly shows the role of circulating funds in managing enterprise finance and economy in general. The article supplements and groups classification features of enterprise circulating funds by: the organisation level, functioning character, sources of formation and their cost, and level of management efficiency. The article shows that the provided grouping of classification features of circulating funds allows exerting all-sided and purposeful influence upon indicators of efficiency of circulating funds functioning and facilitates their rational management in general. The prospect of further studies in this direction is identification of the level of attraction of loan resources by production enterprises for financing circulating funds.