WorldWideScience

Sample records for scattering experiment carried

  1. Virtual neutron scattering experiments

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Overgaard, Julie Hougaard; Bruun, Jesper; May, Michael

    2017-01-01

    . In the last week of the course, students travel to a large-scale neutron scattering facility to perform real neutron scattering experiments. Through student interviews and survey answers, we argue, that the virtual training prepares the students to engage more fruitfully with experiments by letting them focus......We describe how virtual experiments can be utilized in a learning design that prepares students for hands-on experiments at large-scale facilities. We illustrate the design by showing how virtual experiments are used at the Niels Bohr Institute in a master level course on neutron scattering...

  2. Virtual neutron scattering experiments

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Overgaard, Julie Hougaard; Bruun, Jesper; May, Michael

    2016-01-01

    We describe how virtual experiments can be utilized in a learning design that prepares students for hands-on experiments at large-scale facilities. We illustrate the design by showing how virtual experiments are used at the Niels Bohr Institute in a master level course on neutron scattering....... In the last week of the course, students travel to a large-scale neutron scattering facility to perform real neutron scattering experiments. Through student interviews and survey answers, we argue, that the virtual training prepares the students to engage more fruitfully with experiments by letting them focus...... on physics and data rather than the overwhelming instrumentation. We argue that this is because they can transfer their virtual experimental experience to the real-life situation. However, we also find that learning is still situated in the sense that only knowledge of particular experiments is transferred...

  3. Neutron scattering. Experiment manuals

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Brueckel, Thomas; Heger, Gernot; Richter, Dieter; Roth, Georg; Zorn, Reiner (eds.)

    2010-07-01

    The following topics are dealt with: The thermal triple axis spectrometer PUMA, the high-resolution powder diffractometer SPODI, the hot single-crystal diffractometer HEiDi for structure analysis with neutrons, the backscattering spectrometer SPHERES, neutron polarization analysis with tht time-of-flight spectrometer DNS, the neutron spin-echo spectrometer J-NSE, small-angle neutron scattering with the KWS-1 and KWS-2 diffractometers, the very-small-angle neutron scattering diffractrometer with focusing mirror KWS-3, the resonance spin-echo spectrometer RESEDA, the reflectometer TREFF, the time-of-flight spectrometer TOFTOF. (HSI)

  4. Slow neutron scattering experiments

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Moon, R.M.

    1985-01-01

    Neutron scattering is a versatile technique that has been successfully applied to condensed-matter physics, biology, polymer science, chemistry, and materials science. The United States lost its leadership role in this field to Western Europe about 10 years ago. Recently, a modest investment in the United States in new facilities and a positive attitude on the part of the national laboratories toward outside users have resulted in a dramatic increase in the number of US scientists involved in neutron scattering research. Plans are being made for investments in new and improved facilities that could return the leadership role to the United States. 23 references, 4 figures, 3 tables

  5. Neutron scattering. Experiment manuals

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Brueckel, Thomas; Heger, Gernot; Richter, Dieter; Roth, Georg; Zorn, Reiner

    2014-01-01

    The following topics are dealt with: The thermal triple-axis spectrometer PUMA, the high-resolution powder diffractometer SPODI, the hot-single-crystal diffractometer HEiDi, the three-axis spectrometer PANDA, the backscattering spectrometer SPHERES, the DNS neutron-polarization analysis, the neutron spin-echo spectrometer J-NSE, small-angle neutron scattering at KWS-1 and KWS-2, a very-small-angle neutron scattering diffractometer with focusing mirror, the reflectometer TREFF, the time-of-flight spectrometer TOFTOF. (HSI)

  6. Neutron scattering. Experiment manuals

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Brueckel, Thomas; Heger, Gernot; Richter, Dieter; Roth, Georg; Zorn, Reiner

    2010-01-01

    The following topics are dealt with: The thermal triple axis spectrometer PUMA, the high-resolution powder diffractometer SPODI, the hot single-crystal diffractometer HEiDi for structure analysis with neutrons, the backscattering spectrometer SPHERES, neutron polarization analysis with tht time-of-flight spectrometer DNS, the neutron spin-echo spectrometer J-NSE, small-angle neutron scattering with the KWS-1 and KWS-2 diffractometers, the very-small-angle neutron scattering diffractrometer with focusing mirror KWS-3, the resonance spin-echo spectrometer RESEDA, the reflectometer TREFF, the time-of-flight spectrometer TOFTOF. (HSI)

  7. Stimulated Brillouin scattering experiments

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Slater, D.C.; Berger, R.L.; Busch, G.; Kinzer, C.M.; Mayer, F.J.; Powers, L.V.; Tanner, D.J.

    1981-01-01

    This report describes two experiments in which SBS would be expected to play an important role. In the first experiment, we find a clear signature of the Brillouin backscatter of a short (100 psec) pulse from a long (approx. 50 μm) gradient length gas target plasma. The second experiment used much longer (approx. 1 nsec) pulses on spherical glass shell targets. These experiments were done with both narrow ( 30A) bandwidth laser light. Using one-dimensional, spherically symmetric fluid simulations, we have attempted to model many of the laser-plasma interaction processes which combine to determine the amount of absorbed energy in the long-pulse experiments. These simulations indicate that modest laser bandwidths are successful in reducing the level of SBS at the irradiances ( 15 W/cm 2 ) used in these experiments

  8. Carry

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Koijen, Ralph S.J.; Moskowitz, Tobias J.; Heje Pedersen, Lasse

    that include global equities, global bonds, currencies, commodities, US Treasuries, credit, and equity index options. This predictability underlies the strong returns to "carry trades" that go long high-carry and short low-carry securities, applied almost exclusively to currencies, but shown here...

  9. Carry

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Koijen, Ralph S.J.; Moskowitz, Tobias; Pedersen, Lasse Heje

    2018-01-01

    -sectionally and in time series for a host of different asset classes, including global equities, global bonds, commodities, US Treasuries, credit, and options. Carry is not explained by known predictors of returns from these asset classes, and it captures many of these predictors, providing a unifying framework...... for return predictability. We reject a generalized version of Uncovered Interest Parity and the Expectations Hypothesis in favor of models with varying risk premia, in which carry strategies are commonly exposed to global recession, liquidity, and volatility risks, though none fully explains carry’s premium....

  10. Quantum entanglement and neutron scattering experiments

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Cowley, R A

    2003-01-01

    It is shown that quantum entanglement in condensed matter can be observed with scattering experiments if the energy resolution of the experiments enables a clear separation between the elastic scattering and the scattering from the excitations in the system. These conditions are not satisfied in recent deep inelastic neutron scattering experiments from hydrogen-containing systems that have been interpreted as showing the existence of quantum entanglement for short times in, for example, water at room temperature. It is shown that the theory put forward to explain these experiments is inconsistent with the first-moment sum rule for the Van Hove scattering function and we suggest that the theory is incorrect. The experiments were performed using the unique EVS spectrometer at ISIS and suggestions are made about how the data and their interpretation should be re-examined

  11. Size estimates of nobel gas clusters by Rayleigh scattering experiments

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Pinpin Zhu (朱频频); Guoquan Ni (倪国权); Zhizhan Xu (徐至展)

    2003-01-01

    Noble gases (argon, krypton, and xenon) are puffed into vacuum through a nozzle to produce clusters for studying laser-cluster interactions. Good estimates of the average size of the argon, krypton and xenon clusters are made by carrying out a series of Rayleigh scattering experiments. In the experiments, we have found that the scattered signal intensity varied greatly with the opening area of the pulsed valve. A new method is put forward to choose the appropriate scattered signal and measure the size of Kr cluster.

  12. Experiments on criticality carried out from 1975 till 1980

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Heinicke, W.; Tischer, A.; Weber, W.J.

    1981-11-01

    The report on hand includes the experiments on criticality published from 1975 till 1980. About 90 experiments with the most important related data are listed. They are capable of being called up, with the data base system KRITEXP, by 14 different descriptors or printed in any arrangement or order. This is the basis for a global or purposeful verification of the calculating method for criticality safety. The proof of reliability of the calculations for the criticality analysis are immediately relevant for the licencing procedure under atomic law for all plants of the nuclear fuel cycle where nuclear fuels are handled. Since no criticality experiments are being carried out in the Federal Republic of Germany, the data collection on hand will help to fill this gap with regard to the assessment of experiments carried out in other countries. (orig.) [de

  13. Stimulated scattering of electromagnetic waves carrying orbital angular momentum in quantum plasmas.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Shukla, P K; Eliasson, B; Stenflo, L

    2012-07-01

    We investigate stimulated scattering instabilities of coherent circularly polarized electromagnetic (CPEM) waves carrying orbital angular momentum (OAM) in dense quantum plasmas with degenerate electrons and nondegenerate ions. For this purpose, we employ the coupled equations for the CPEM wave vector potential and the driven (by the ponderomotive force of the CPEM waves) equations for the electron and ion plasma oscillations. The electrons are significantly affected by the quantum forces (viz., the quantum statistical pressure, the quantum Bohm potential, as well as the electron exchange and electron correlations due to electron spin), which are included in the framework of the quantum hydrodynamical description of the electrons. Furthermore, our investigation of the stimulated Brillouin instability of coherent CPEM waves uses the generalized ion momentum equation that includes strong ion coupling effects. The nonlinear equations for the coupled CPEM and quantum plasma waves are then analyzed to obtain nonlinear dispersion relations which exhibit stimulated Raman, stimulated Brillouin, and modulational instabilities of CPEM waves carrying OAM. The present results are useful for understanding the origin of scattered light off low-frequency density fluctuations in high-energy density plasmas where quantum effects are eminent.

  14. Extinguishing experiments of sodium fires carried out by TNO

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Meijer, G.J.A.M.; Rulkens, W.H.

    1979-01-01

    For the collection of burning sodium from the components and pipes of the secondary circuit of SNR 300, spill-trays are foreseen which are connected to dump tanks. These spill-trays are covered with a sieve in order to reduce the flow of air to the sodium in the spill-tray and hence to reduce the burning rate. In order to further minimize the consequences of a large sodium fire for the components, the licensing authority required as a back-up the installation of a remotely operated distribution system by means of which an extinguishing powder can be sprayed upon the spill-trays. Experiments were carried out in which the effectiveness of different extinguishing powders in combination with the sieve covered spill-trays were tested in a comparative manner. Attention was paid to the question whether such a spray system would have also additional benefits in the case of smaller sodium leaks. To this purpose three commercially available extinguishing powders were tested, one on a sodium chloride, two on a carbonate base. Also the effectiveness of the sieves proper with respect to reducing the burning rate was tested without applying any extinguishing powders. Finally for a reference some tests were done on open spill-trays, i.e. spill-trays not covered with a sieve.The investigations which were carried out in 1976-1977 were limited to fire experiments, aspects of transport of the powder in the distribution system were not investigated

  15. Status and neutron scattering experiments at KENS

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Watanabe, N.; Sasaki, H.; Ishikawa, Y.; Endoh, Y.; Inoue, K.

    1983-01-01

    This paper reports present status of the KENS facility, progress in neutron scattering experiments and instrumental developments, and status of the KENS-I' program. A design study of a high intensity rapid-cycle 800 MeV proton synchrotron for proposed new pulsed neutron (KENS-II) and meson source is also descirbed

  16. Classical wave experiments on chaotic scattering

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Kuhl, U; Stoeckmann, H-J; Weaver, R

    2005-01-01

    We review recent research on the transport properties of classical waves through chaotic systems with special emphasis on microwaves and sound waves. Inasmuch as these experiments use antennas or transducers to couple waves into or out of the systems, scattering theory has to be applied for a quantitative interpretation of the measurements. Most experiments concentrate on tests of predictions from random matrix theory and the random plane wave approximation. In all studied examples a quantitative agreement between experiment and theory is achieved. To this end it is necessary, however, to take absorption and imperfect coupling into account, concepts that were ignored in most previous theoretical investigations. Classical phase space signatures of scattering are being examined in a small number of experiments

  17. The basic physics of neutron scattering experiments

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Mezei, F.

    1999-01-01

    The basic physical principles behind the well-established but also developing practice of neutron scattering experiments are presented. A few examples are given either to illustrate the physical principles or to give an idea of the variety, importance or magnitude of various phenomena. The evolution of neutron scattering experimental techniques is investigated from a special aspect: the increasing capability of taking into account more and more important and sometimes decisive finer details by using more and more realistic mathematical models of the evolution of the neutrons from birth do death, eventually passing by the sample and being scattered more than one times. Working with such numerical 'virtual instruments' one will have to go far beyond notions like resolution function, convolution etc, and actually eliminate a large number of approximations currently in use. (K.A.)

  18. Specimen environments in thermal neutron scattering experiments

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Cebula, D.J.

    1980-11-01

    This report is an attempt to collect into one place outline information concerning the techniques used and basic design of sample environment apparatus employed in neutron scattering experiments. Preliminary recommendations for the specimen environment programme of the SNS are presented. The general conclusion reached is that effort should be devoted towards improving reliability and efficiency of operation of specimen environment apparatus and developing systems which are robust and easy to use, rather than achieving performance at the limits of technology. (author)

  19. Monte Carlo simulation of fast neutron scattering experiments including DD-breakup neutrons

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Schmidt, D.; Siebert, B.R.L.

    1993-06-01

    The computational simulation of the deuteron breakup in a scattering experiment has been investigated. Experimental breakup spectra measured at 16 deuteron energies and at 7 angles for each energy served as the data base. Analysis of these input data and of the conditions of the scattering experiment made it possible to reduce the input data. The use of one weighted breakup spectrum is sufficient to simulate the scattering spectra at one incident neutron energy. A number of tests were carried out to prove the validity of this result. The simulation of neutron scattering on carbon, including the breakup, was compared with measured spectra. Differences between calculated and measured spectra were for the most part within the experimental uncertainties. Certain significant deviations can be attributed to erroneous scattering cross sections taken from an evaluation and used in the simulation. Scattering on higher-lying states in [sup 12]C can be analyzed by subtracting the simulated breakup-scattering from the experimental spectra. (orig.)

  20. Monte Carlo simulation of fast neutron scattering experiments including DD-breakup neutrons

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Schmidt, D.; Siebert, B.R.L.

    1993-06-01

    The computational simulation of the deuteron breakup in a scattering experiment has been investigated. Experimental breakup spectra measured at 16 deuteron energies and at 7 angles for each energy served as the data base. Analysis of these input data and of the conditions of the scattering experiment made it possible to reduce the input data. The use of one weighted breakup spectrum is sufficient to simulate the scattering spectra at one incident neutron energy. A number of tests were carried out to prove the validity of this result. The simulation of neutron scattering on carbon, including the breakup, was compared with measured spectra. Differences between calculated and measured spectra were for the most part within the experimental uncertainties. Certain significant deviations can be attributed to erroneous scattering cross sections taken from an evaluation and used in the simulation. Scattering on higher-lying states in 12 C can be analyzed by subtracting the simulated breakup-scattering from the experimental spectra. (orig.)

  1. Basic experiment on scattering type level gauge using neutron source

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Kumazaki, Hiroshi; Fukuchi, Ryoichi; Horiguchi, Yasuhiro

    1984-01-01

    The level gauges using sealed radiation sources have been utilized for pulp and chemical industries, however, for those gauges, transmission type gamma sources are used, which require considerably large radioactivity, and it hinders the spread to medium and small enterprises. Recently, Cf-252 has become easily available, and various He-3 counters are on the market, consequently, the scattering type level gauges combining them have been examined. With the level gauges of this type, the judgement of level can be made sufficiently with the Cf-252 below 3.7 x 10 6 Bq, therefore, if the practical instruments are made, they seem to spread into medium and small enterprises because of the safety and the chief handling radiation being unnecessary. For the purpose of developing and manufacturing for trial this scattering type level gauge, the basic experiment was carried out to examine the effects of the change of salt content and the thickness of vessels and the effect of scattering materials. The possibility of the on-off operation as level gauges was also examined. The experimental method and the results are reported. The count considerably decreased with increasing salt content. Scattering materials worked effectively to increase the count. (Kako, I.)

  2. Scattering by two spheres: Theory and experiment

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Bjørnø, Irina; Jensen, Leif Bjørnø

    1998-01-01

    of suspended sediments. The scattering properties of single regular-shaped particles have been studied in depth by several authors in the past. However, single particle scattering cannot explain all features of scattering by suspended sediment. When the concentration of particles exceeds a certain limit...... on three issues: (1) to develop a simplified theory for scattering by two elastical spheres; (2) to measure the scattering by two spheres in a water tank, and (3) to compare the theoretical/numerical results with the measured data. A number of factors influencing multiple scattering, including...

  3. Detector system for e-d scattering experiments on the VEPP-3 storage ring

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Isaeva, L.G.; Lazarenko, B.A.; Nikolenko, D.M.; Popov, S.G.; Rachek, I.A.; Ukraintsev, Yu.G.; Tsentalovich, E.P.; Wojtsekhowski, B.B.; Nelubin, V.V.

    1993-01-01

    Experiments on electron scattering from polarized deuterons were carried out on the VEPP-3 storage ring at the Novosibirsk Institute for Nuclear Physics. The e-D coincidences were detected for elastic scattering experiments, and the p-n coincidences for photo disintegration studies. The tensor analyzing power of the elastic scattering was measured in the range of momentum transfer up to 3 f -1 , and of photo disintegration in the range of photon energy up to 500 MeV. The detector system created for these experiments and the data analysis procedures are described in this paper. (orig.)

  4. Enhanced Thomson scattering theory applied to eight experiments

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Simon, A.; Short, R.W.; Seka, W.; Goldman, L.M.

    1985-01-01

    The onset of an instability, such as the 2ω/sub p/ at the n/sub c//4 surface, usually leads to wave breaking and the emission of hot electron pulses which can profoundly influence instability thresholds and scattering behavior elsewhere in the plasma. In particular, enhanced Thomson scattering (via the plasma line) can occur, and this has been used to explain the observation of the SRS instability well below the theoretical threshold. A simple model of the hot electron pulses based on measured values of the hot and cold electron temperatures, T/sub h/ and T/sub c/, has yielded good agreement with experimental observation of the Raman spectral frequency bands. The agreement has continued, even for experiments which are clearly above the SRS threshold, with the enhanced noise likely acting as a ''seed'' for the SRS growth. We will show details of the successful comparison of this theory with six experiments carried out on SHIVA, ARGUS, NOVETTE(2), and GDL(2), and also with an upscattering feature seen at Garching. In addition, a recent experiment using 6 beams of OMEGA (at 0.35μ) will be discussed, and compared with the theory. The report is comprised of viewgraphs of the talks

  5. Small-angle neutron-scattering experiments

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Hardy, A.D.; Thomas, M.W.; Rouse, K.D.

    1981-04-01

    A brief introduction to the technique of small-angle neutron scattering is given. The layout and operation of the small-angle scattering spectrometer, mounted on the AERE PLUTO reactor, is also described. Results obtained using the spectrometer are presented for three materials (doped uranium dioxide, Magnox cladding and nitrided steel) of interest to Springfields Nuclear Power Development Laboratories. The results obtained are discussed in relation to other known data for these materials. (author)

  6. Resonant neutrino scattering: An impossible experiment?

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Suzuki, D.; Sumikama, T.; Ogura, M.; Mittig, W.; Shiraki, A.; Ichikawa, Y.; Kimura, H.; Otsu, H.; Sakurai, H.; Nakai, Y.; Hussein, M.S.

    2010-01-01

    The experimental feasibility was investigated for the resonant scattering of monoenergetic neutrinos emitted in the two-body β decay. A simple general formula shows that the resonance cross section can be as large as of the order of 10 -17 cm 2 . The Moessbauer setup using a solid crystal was examined with a focus on the electronic structure of the emitter and the absorber. Based on realistic calculations, we show that interactions of valence electrons in the solid lead to a level broadening of the atomic ground state, which considerably suppresses the resonant scattering of neutrinos.

  7. DISCUS, Neutron Single to Double Scattering Ratio in Inelastic Scattering Experiment by Monte-Carlo

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Johnson, M.W.

    1993-01-01

    1 - Description of problem or function: DISCUS calculates the ratio of once-scattered to twice-scattered neutrons detected in an inelastic neutron scattering experiment. DISCUS also calculates the flux of once-scattered neutrons that would have been observed if there were no absorption in the sample and if, once scattered, the neutron would emerge without further re-scattering or absorption. Three types of sample geometry are used: an infinite flat plate, a finite flat plate or a finite length cylinder. (The infinite flat plate is included for comparison with other multiple scattering programs.) The program may be used for any sample for which the scattering law is of the form S(/Q/, omega). 2 - Method of solution: Monte Carlo with importance sampling is used. Neutrons are 'forced' both into useful angular trajectories, and useful energy bins. Biasing of the collision point according to the point of entry of the neutron into the sample is also utilised. The first and second order scattered neutron fluxes are calculated in independent histories. For twice-scattered neutron histories a square distribution in Q-omega space is used to sample the neutron coming from the first scattering event, whilst biasing is used for the second scattering event. (A square distribution is used so as to obtain reasonable inelastic-inelastic statistics.) 3 - Restrictions on the complexity of the problem: Unlimited number of detectors. Max. size of (Q, omega) matrix is 39*149. Max. number of points in momentum space for the scattering cross section is 199

  8. Polarized neutron inelastic scattering experiments on spin dynamics

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Kakurai, Kazuhisa

    2016-01-01

    The principles of polarized neutron scattering are introduced and examples of polarized neutron inelastic scattering experiments on spin dynamics investigation are presented. These examples should demonstrate the importance of the polarized neutron utilization for the investigation of non-trivial magnetic ground and excited states in frustrated and low dimensional quantum spin systems. (author)

  9. Proceedings of the workshop on scattering experiments under extreme conditions

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Sakai, N.; Ikeda, H.; Ando, M.

    1991-10-01

    In the National Laboratory for High Energy Physics (KEK), as the research facilities, there are Photon Factory, the facility for utilizing the booster and University of Tokyo Meson Science Research Center. For the research on physical properties, it is very important to do structural analysis in a broad sense and to observe the behavior of quasiparticles in solids. The X-ray and pulsed neutrons required for these researches can be obtained in a single laboratory in KEK, and it is rare in the world. At this opportunity of the workshop on scattering experiments under extreme conditions, it is hoped that the positive interchange between both PF and booster groups will be carried out. The research on magnetic substances using X-ray is a most noteworthy utilization of synchrotron radiation. The discovery of X-ray resonance magnetic scattering by K. Namikawa is one of the remarkable researches using synchrotron radiation in the world. When the extreme conditions around samples are prepared, the quality of signals for the research on physical properties is to be heightened. In this report, the researches on physical properties under ultrahigh pressure and ultralow temperature are reported. (K.I.)

  10. Experimenting from a Distance in the Case of Rutherford Scattering

    Science.gov (United States)

    Grober, S.; Vetter, M.; Eckert, B.; Jodl, H. -J.

    2010-01-01

    The Rutherford scattering experiment plays a central role in working out atomic models in physics and chemistry. Nevertheless, the experiment is rarely performed at school or in introductory physics courses at university. Therefore, we realized this experiment as a remotely controlled laboratory (RCL), i.e. the experiment is set up in reality and…

  11. Probing Supersymmetry with Neutral Current Scattering Experiments

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kurylov, A.; Ramsey-Musolf, M. J.; Su, S.

    2004-02-01

    We compute the supersymmetric contributions to the weak charges of the electron (QWe) and proton (QWp) in the framework of Minimal Supersymmetric Standard Model. We also consider the ratio of neutral current to charged current cross sections, R v and Rv¯ at v (v¯)-nucleus deep inelastic scattering, and compare the supersymmetric corrections with the deviations of these quantities from the Standard Model predictions implied by the recent NuTeV measurement.

  12. The Small Carry-on Impactor (SCI) and the Hayabusa2 Impact Experiment

    Science.gov (United States)

    Saiki, T.; Imamura, H.; Arakawa, M.; Wada, K.; Takagi, Y.; Hayakawa, M.; Shirai, K.; Yano, H.; Okamoto, C.

    2017-07-01

    Hayabusa2 is a sample return mission of JAXA launched on 3 December 2014. Hayabusa2 is the successor of Hayabusa, which returned samples from the asteroid Itokawa to the Earth. Although the design of Hayabusa2 follows that of Hayabusa, the former is equipped with some new components. The small carry-on impactor (SCI) is one of those components. The SCI is a compact kinetic impactor designed to remove the asteroid surface regolith locally and create an artificial crater. One of the most important scientific objectives of Hayabusa2 is to investigate the chemical and physical properties of the internal materials and structures of the target body, asteroid Ryugu. Hayabusa2 will attempt to observe the resultant crater with some scientific instruments and to get samples from around the crater. High kinetic energy is required to create a meaningful crater, however, the impact system design needs to fit within strict constraints. Complicated functions, such as a guidance and control system, are not permitted. A special type of shaped charge is used for the acceleration of the impactor of the SCI in order to make system simpler. Using this explosion technique makes it possible to accelerate the impactor very quickly and to hit the asteroid without a guidance system. However, the impact operation will be complicated because the explosive is very powerful and it scatters high-speed debris at the detonation. This paper describes an overview of the SCI system, the results of the development testing and an outline of the impact experiment of the Hayabusa2 mission.

  13. The Manuel Lujan, Jr. Neutron Scattering Center LANSCE experiment reports 1989 run cycle

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Hyer, D.K.; DiStravolo, M.A.

    1990-10-01

    This report contains a listing and description of experiments carried on at the LANSCE neutron scattering facility in the following areas: High Density Powder Diffraction; Neutron Powder Diffractometer, (NPD); Single Crystal Diffractometer, (SCD); Low-Q Diffractometer, (LQD); Surface Profile Analysis Reflectometer, (SPEAR); Filter Difference Spectrometer, (FDS); and Constant-Q Spectrometer

  14. The Manuel Lujan, Jr. Neutron Scattering Center LANSCE experiment reports 1989 run cycle

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Hyer, D.K.; DiStravolo, M.A. (comps.)

    1990-10-01

    This report contains a listing and description of experiments carried on at the LANSCE neutron scattering facility in the following areas: High Density Powder Diffraction; Neutron Powder Diffractometer, (NPD); Single Crystal Diffractometer, (SCD); Low-Q Diffractometer, (LQD); Surface Profile Analysis Reflectometer, (SPEAR); Filter Difference Spectrometer, (FDS); and Constant-Q Spectrometer.

  15. Multiple scattering and attenuation corrections in Deep Inelastic Neutron Scattering experiments

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Dawidowski, J; Blostein, J J; Granada, J R

    2006-01-01

    Multiple scattering and attenuation corrections in Deep Inelastic Neutron Scattering experiments are analyzed. The theoretical basis of the method is stated, and a Monte Carlo procedure to perform the calculation is presented. The results are compared with experimental data. The importance of the accuracy in the description of the experimental parameters is tested, and the implications of the present results on the data analysis procedures is examined

  16. VLAD for epithermal neutron scattering experiments at large energy transfers

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Tardocchi, M; Gorini, G; Perelli-Cippo, E; Andreani, C; Imberti, S; Pietropaolo, A; Senesi, R; Rhodes, N R; Schooneveld, E M

    2006-01-01

    The Very Low Angle Detector (VLAD) bank will extend the kinematical region covered by today's epithermal neutron scattering experiments to low momentum transfer ( -1 ) together with large energy transfer 0 -4 0 . In this paper the design of VLAD is presented together with Montecarlo simulations of the detector performances. The results of tests made with prototype VLAD detectors are also presented, confirming the usefulness of the Resonance Detector for measurements at very low scattering angles

  17. Introduction of sample environment equipment for neutron scattering experiments

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Shimojo, Yutaka; Ihata, Yoshiaki; Kaneko, Koji; Takeda, Masayasu

    2013-02-01

    Neutron scattering experiments have been frequently performed under variety of sample conditions, such as various temperatures, pressures, magnetic fields and stresses, and those complex conditions to fully utilize superior properties of neutron. To this aim, a number of sample environment equipment, refrigerators, furnaces, pressure cells, superconducting magnets are equipped in JRR-3 to be used for experiments. In this document, all available sample environment equipment in both JRR-3 reactor and guide halls are summarized. We hope this document would help neutron scattering users to perform effective and excellent experiments. (author)

  18. Simulation of a complete inelastic neutron scattering experiment

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Edwards, H.; Lefmann, K.; Lake, B.

    2002-01-01

    A simulation of an inelastic neutron scattering experiment on the high-temperature superconductor La2-xSrxCuO4 is presented. The complete experiment, including sample, is simulated using an interface between the experiment control program and the simulation software package (McStas) and is compared...... with the experimental data. Simulating the entire experiment is an attractive alternative to the usual method of convoluting the model cross section with the resolution function, especially if the resolution function is nontrivial....

  19. Defect properties from X-ray scattering experiments

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Peisl, H.

    1976-01-01

    Lattice distortions due to defects in crystals can be studied most directly by elastic X-ray or neutron scattering experiments. The 'size' of the defects can be determined from the shift of the Bragg reflections. Defect induced diffuse scattering intensity close to and between Bragg reflections gives information on the strength and symmetry of the distortion fields and yields the atomic structure of point defects (interstitials, vacancies, small aggregates). Diffuse scattering is a very sensitive method to decide whether defects are present as isolated point defects or have formed aggregates. X-ray scattering has been used to study defects produced in various ionic crystals by γ- and neutron irradiation. After an introduction to the principles of the method the experimental results will be reviewed and discussed in some detail. (orig.) [de

  20. Elastic scattering with the MINERνA experiment

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Ziemer, Benjamin P

    2013-01-01

    The Main Injector Experiment ν-A (MINERνA) located at Fermi National Laboratory will measure neutrino cross sections, nuclear effects from a broad range of nuclear targets and a variety of other neutrino interactions. Neutrino elastic scattering will be one of the first focuses of the MINERA collaboration; these measurements will be an important input to current and future neutrino oscillation experiments. Results of the charged current quasi-elastic channel exposure in anti-neutrino NuMI running are presented. Future elastic scattering results, both charged current and neutral current, in anti-neutrino and neutrino exposures are also discussed.

  1. The complete experiment for backward elastic dp scattering

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Rekalo, M.P.; Piskunov, N.M.; Sitnik, I.M.

    1996-01-01

    The problem of the complete experiment in backward elastic dp scattering is analyzed. All effects due to polarization of one or two initial and one of secondary particles are considered. It is shown that the minimal set of measurements allowing to reconstruct each of four amplitudes describing this process does not comprise too complicated experiments and is quite realistic nowadays. The geography of realization of the complete experiment is briefly reviewed. 21 refs

  2. Specific experiments carried out in Germany in order to demonstrate the safety of existing structures

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Krutzik, Norbert

    2002-01-01

    Specific experiments are carried out in Germany in order to demonstrate the safety of existing NPPs. HDR research program includes operational loads testing (pressure test, pressure and temperature test, thermal shock, fatigue); extreme loads (earthquake, aircraft crash, external explosion); internal emergency loads (blowdown, hydrogen combustion, fire, thermal shock, water hammer, condensation loads)

  3. Practical way to avoid spurious geometrical contributions in Brillouin light scattering experiments at variable scattering angles.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Battistoni, Andrea; Bencivenga, Filippo; Fioretto, Daniele; Masciovecchio, Claudio

    2014-10-15

    In this Letter, we present a simple method to avoid the well-known spurious contributions in the Brillouin light scattering (BLS) spectrum arising from the finite aperture of collection optics. The method relies on the use of special spatial filters able to select the scattered light with arbitrary precision around a given value of the momentum transfer (Q). We demonstrate the effectiveness of such filters by analyzing the BLS spectra of a reference sample as a function of scattering angle. This practical and inexpensive method could be an extremely useful tool to fully exploit the potentiality of Brillouin acoustic spectroscopy, as it will easily allow for effective Q-variable experiments with unparalleled luminosity and resolution.

  4. ‘Rutherford’s experiment’ on alpha particles scattering: the experiment that never was

    Science.gov (United States)

    Leone, M.; Robotti, N.; Verna, G.

    2018-05-01

    The so-called Rutherford’s experiment, as it is outlined in many physics textbooks, is a case in point of the flaws around the history at the educational level of one of the decisive event of modern physics: the discovery that the atom has a nucleus. This paper shows that this alleged experiment is a very approximate and very partial synthesis of a series of different particle scattering experiments, starting with that carried out by Rutherford in 1906 and ending with Geiger and Marsden’s 1913 experiments.

  5. Thomson scattering diagnostic for the Microwave Tokamak Experiment

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Foote, J.H.; Barter, J.D.; Sewall, N.R.; Jolly, J.J.; Schlander, L.F.

    1990-01-01

    The Thomson-scattering diagnostic system (TSS) on the Microwave Tokamak Experiment (MTX) at LLNL routinely monitors electron temperature (T e ) and density. Typical measured values at the plasma center under clean conditions are 900 ± 70 eV and 1 to 2 x 10 14 (±30%) cm -3 . The TSS apparatus is compact, with all elements mounted on one sturdy, two-level optics table. Because of this, we maintain with minimum effort the alignment of both the ruby-laser input optics and the scattered-light collecting optics. Undesired background signals, e.g., plasma light as well as ruby-laser light scattered off obstacles and walls, are generally small compared with the Thomson-scattered signals we normally detect. In the MTX T e region, the TSS data are definitely fitted better when relativistic effects are included in the equations. Besides determining the temperature of the Maxwellian electron distribution, the system is designed to detect electron heating from GW-level free-electron laser (FEL) pulses by measuring large wavelength shifts of the scattered laser photons. TSS data suggest that we may indeed by able to detect these electrons, which can have energies up to 10 keV, according to computer simulation. 7 refs., 4 figs

  6. Thomson scattering diagnostic for the microwave tokamak experiment

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Foote, J.H.; Barter, J.D.; Sewall, N.R.; Jolly, J.J.; Schlander, L.F.

    1990-01-01

    The Thomson scattering diagnostic system (TSS) on the microwave tokamak experiment (MTX) at LLNL routinely monitors electron temperature (T e ) and density. Typical measured values at the plasma center under clean conditions are 900±70 eV and 1--2x10 14 (±30%) cm -3 . The TSS apparatus is compact, with all elements mounted on one sturdy, two-level optics table. Because of this, we maintain with minimum effort the alignment of both the ruby-laser input optics and the scattered-light collecting optics. Undesired background signals, e.g., plasma light as well as ruby-laser light scattered off obstacles and walls, are generally small compared with the Thomson-scattered signals we normally detect. In the MTX T e region, the TSS data are definitely fitted better when relativistic effects are included in the equations. Besides determining the temperature of the Maxwellian electron distribution, the system is designed to detect electron heating from GW-level free-electron laser (FEL) pulses by measuring large wavelength shifts of the scattered laser photons. TSS data suggest that we may indeed be able to detect these electrons, which can have energies up to 10 keV, according to computer simulation

  7. Background studies for the MINER Coherent Neutrino Scattering reactor experiment

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Agnolet, G.; Baker, W.; Barker, D.; Beck, R.; Carroll, T.J.; Cesar, J.; Cushman, P.; Dent, J.B.; De Rijck, S.; Dutta, B.; Flanagan, W.; Fritts, M.; Gao, Y.; Harris, H.R.; Hays, C.C.; Iyer, V.

    2017-01-01

    The proposed Mitchell Institute Neutrino Experiment at Reactor (MINER) experiment at the Nuclear Science Center at Texas A&M University will search for coherent elastic neutrino-nucleus scattering within close proximity (about 2 m) of a 1 MW TRIGA nuclear reactor core using low threshold, cryogenic germanium and silicon detectors. Given the Standard Model cross section of the scattering process and the proposed experimental proximity to the reactor, as many as 5–20 events/kg/day are expected. We discuss the status of preliminary measurements to characterize the main backgrounds for the proposed experiment. Both in situ measurements at the experimental site and simulations using the MCNP and GEANT4 codes are described. A strategy for monitoring backgrounds during data taking is briefly discussed.

  8. Background studies for the MINER Coherent Neutrino Scattering reactor experiment

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Agnolet, G.; Baker, W. [Department of Physics and Astronomy, and the Mitchell Institute for Fundamental Physics and Astronomy, Texas A& M University, College Station, TX 77843 (United States); Barker, D. [School of Physics & Astronomy, University of Minnesota, Minneapolis, MN 55455 (United States); Beck, R. [Department of Physics and Astronomy, and the Mitchell Institute for Fundamental Physics and Astronomy, Texas A& M University, College Station, TX 77843 (United States); Carroll, T.J.; Cesar, J. [Department of Physics, University of Texas at Austin, Austin, TX 78712 (United States); Cushman, P. [School of Physics & Astronomy, University of Minnesota, Minneapolis, MN 55455 (United States); Dent, J.B. [Department of Physics, University of Louisiana at Lafayette, Lafayette, LA 70504 (United States); De Rijck, S. [Department of Physics, University of Texas at Austin, Austin, TX 78712 (United States); Dutta, B. [Department of Physics and Astronomy, and the Mitchell Institute for Fundamental Physics and Astronomy, Texas A& M University, College Station, TX 77843 (United States); Flanagan, W. [Department of Physics, University of Texas at Austin, Austin, TX 78712 (United States); Fritts, M. [School of Physics & Astronomy, University of Minnesota, Minneapolis, MN 55455 (United States); Gao, Y. [Department of Physics and Astronomy, and the Mitchell Institute for Fundamental Physics and Astronomy, Texas A& M University, College Station, TX 77843 (United States); Department of Physics & Astronomy, Wayne State University, Detroit 48201 (United States); Harris, H.R.; Hays, C.C. [Department of Physics and Astronomy, and the Mitchell Institute for Fundamental Physics and Astronomy, Texas A& M University, College Station, TX 77843 (United States); Iyer, V. [School of Physical Sciences, National Institute of Science Education and Research, Jatni - 752050 (India); and others

    2017-05-01

    The proposed Mitchell Institute Neutrino Experiment at Reactor (MINER) experiment at the Nuclear Science Center at Texas A&M University will search for coherent elastic neutrino-nucleus scattering within close proximity (about 2 m) of a 1 MW TRIGA nuclear reactor core using low threshold, cryogenic germanium and silicon detectors. Given the Standard Model cross section of the scattering process and the proposed experimental proximity to the reactor, as many as 5–20 events/kg/day are expected. We discuss the status of preliminary measurements to characterize the main backgrounds for the proposed experiment. Both in situ measurements at the experimental site and simulations using the MCNP and GEANT4 codes are described. A strategy for monitoring backgrounds during data taking is briefly discussed.

  9. Simple smoothing technique to reduce data scattering in physics experiments

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Levesque, L

    2008-01-01

    This paper describes an experiment involving motorized motion and a method to reduce data scattering from data acquisition. Jitter or minute instrumental vibrations add noise to a detected signal, which often renders small modulations of a graph very difficult to interpret. Here we describe a method to reduce scattering amongst data points from the signal measured by a photodetector that is motorized and scanned in a direction parallel to the plane of a rectangular slit during a computer-controlled diffraction experiment. The smoothing technique is investigated using subsets of many data points from the data acquisition. A limit for the number of data points in a subset is determined from the results based on the trend of the small measured signal to avoid severe changes in the shape of the signal from the averaging procedure. This simple smoothing method can be achieved using any type of spreadsheet software

  10. Recent single ARM electron scattering experiments at Saclay

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Frois, B.

    1981-07-01

    Some recent electron scattering experiments at intermediate energies performed at the Saclay linear accelerator (ALS) are presented. First the definitive results of the measurements of the size of valence orbits by magnetic elastic electron scattering are discussed and followed by an overview of the study of charge distributions in closed shell nuclei. These results are among the most stringent experimental tests of nuclear theory because they probe without ambiguity the shape of nuclei. Then, it is shown how the details of the transition densities of the first excited states of 152 Sm have been brought out by very high momentum transfer experiments. Finally, the results of the investigation of mesonic degrees of freedom in deuterium and helium-3 are presented

  11. On the analysis of Deep Inelastic Neutron Scattering Experiments

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Blostein, J.J.; Dawidowski, J.; Granada, J.R.

    2001-01-01

    We analyze the different steps that must be followed for data processing in Deep Inelastic Neutron Scattering Experiments. Firstly we discuss to what extent multiple scattering effects can affect the measured peak shape, concluding the an accurate calculation of these effects must be performed to extract the desired effective temperature from the experimental data. We present a Monte Carlo procedure to perform these corrections. Next, we focus our attention on experiments performed on light nuclei. We examine cases in which the desired information is obtained from the observed peak areas, and we analyze the procedure to obtain an effective temperature from the experimental peaks. As a consequence of the results emerging from those cases we trace the limits of validity of the convolution formalism usually employed, and propose a different treatment of the experimental data for this kind of measurements. (author)

  12. On the analysis of Deep Inelastic Neutron Scattering Experiments

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Blostein, J.J.; Dawidowski, J.; Granada, J.R. [Comision Nacional de Energia Atomica and CONICET, Centro Atomico Bariloche and Instituto Balseiro, Bariloche (Argentina)

    2001-03-01

    We analyze the different steps that must be followed for data processing in Deep Inelastic Neutron Scattering Experiments. Firstly we discuss to what extent multiple scattering effects can affect the measured peak shape, concluding the an accurate calculation of these effects must be performed to extract the desired effective temperature from the experimental data. We present a Monte Carlo procedure to perform these corrections. Next, we focus our attention on experiments performed on light nuclei. We examine cases in which the desired information is obtained from the observed peak areas, and we analyze the procedure to obtain an effective temperature from the experimental peaks. As a consequence of the results emerging from those cases we trace the limits of validity of the convolution formalism usually employed, and propose a different treatment of the experimental data for this kind of measurements. (author)

  13. Laser light scatter experiments on plasma focus plant

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Wenzel, N.

    1985-01-01

    The plasma focus plant is an experiment on nuclear fusion, which is distinguished by a high neutron yield. Constituting an important method of diagnosis in plasma focussing, the laser light scatter method makes it possible, apart from finding the electron temperature and density, to determine the ion temperature resolved according to time and place and further, to study the occurrence of micro-turbulent effects. Starting from the theoretical basis, this dissertation describes light scatter measurements with ruby lasers on the POSEIDON plasma focus. They are given, together with earlier measurements on the Frascati 1 MJ plant and the Heidelberg 12 KJ plant. The development of the plasma parameters and the occurrence of superthermal light scatter events are discussed in connection with the dynamics of the plasma and the neutron emission characteristics of the individual plants. The results support the view that the thermo-nuclear neutron production at the plasma focus is negligible. Although the importance of micro-turbulent mechanisms in producing neutrons cannot be finally judged, important guidelines are given for the spatial and time relationships with plasma dynamics, plasma parameters and neutron emission. The work concludes with a comparison of all light scatter measurements at the plasma focus described in the literature. (orig.) [de

  14. Progress on Thomson scattering in the Pegasus Toroidal Experiment

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Schlossberg, D J; Bongard, M W; Fonck, R J; Schoenbeck, N L; Winz, G R

    2013-01-01

    A novel Thomson scattering system has been implemented on the Pegasus Toroidal Experiment where typical densities of 10 19 m −3 and electron temperatures of 10 to 500 eV are expected. The system leverages technological advances in high-energy pulsed lasers, volume phase holographic (VPH) diffraction gratings, and gated image intensified (ICCD) cameras to provide a relatively low-maintenance, economical, robust diagnostic system. Scattering is induced by a frequency-doubled, Q-switched Nd:YAG laser (2 J at 532 nm, 7 ns FWHM pulse) directed to the plasma over a 7.7 m long beam path, and focused to 80%) and fast-gated ICCDs (gate > 2 ns, Gen III intensifier) with high-throughput (F/1.8), achromatic lensing. A stray light mitigation facility has been implemented, consisting of a multi-aperture optical baffle system and a simple beam dump. Successful stray light reduction has enabled detection of scattered signal, and Rayleigh scattering has been used to provide a relative calibration. Initial temperature measurements have been made and data analysis algorithms are under development

  15. Progress on Thomson scattering in the Pegasus Toroidal Experiment

    Science.gov (United States)

    Schlossberg, D. J.; Bongard, M. W.; Fonck, R. J.; Schoenbeck, N. L.; Winz, G. R.

    2013-11-01

    A novel Thomson scattering system has been implemented on the Pegasus Toroidal Experiment where typical densities of 1019 m-3 and electron temperatures of 10 to 500 eV are expected. The system leverages technological advances in high-energy pulsed lasers, volume phase holographic (VPH) diffraction gratings, and gated image intensified (ICCD) cameras to provide a relatively low-maintenance, economical, robust diagnostic system. Scattering is induced by a frequency-doubled, Q-switched Nd:YAG laser (2 J at 532 nm, 7 ns FWHM pulse) directed to the plasma over a 7.7 m long beam path, and focused to VPH transmission gratings (eff. > 80%) and fast-gated ICCDs (gate > 2 ns, Gen III intensifier) with high-throughput (F/1.8), achromatic lensing. A stray light mitigation facility has been implemented, consisting of a multi-aperture optical baffle system and a simple beam dump. Successful stray light reduction has enabled detection of scattered signal, and Rayleigh scattering has been used to provide a relative calibration. Initial temperature measurements have been made and data analysis algorithms are under development.

  16. Signature for g bosons from medium energy proton scattering experiments

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Kuyucak, S.

    1993-01-01

    We apply the recently developed algebraic (1/N expansion) scattering formalism to medium energy proton scattering from 154 Sm and 176 Yb. The nuclear structure effects in this formalism are described by the interacting boson model generalized to arbitrary interactions and types of bosons i.e. s,d,g, etc. We find that, in the sd boson model, a consistent description of cross sections is possible only for the 0 + and 2 + states. The failure of the model with regard to the 4 + states indicates that the effective hexadecapole operator used in the sd model is inadequate. In contrast, the data for scattering to the 0 + , 2 + and 4 + states could be consistently described in the sdg boson model. The spectroscopic data for the low-lying levels usually can not distinguish between the sd and sdg models due to renormalization of parameters, and one has to look at high spin or energy data for evidence of g bosons. The inelastic proton scattering experiments, on the other hand, directly probe the wave functions, and hence could provide a signature for g bosons even in the ground band states

  17. Experiments in Special Relativity Using Compton Scattering of Gamma Rays.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Egelstaff, P. A.; And Others

    1981-01-01

    Some simple undergraduate laboratory experiments are described, which verify the energy-momentum relationship of special relativity. These experiments have been designed either to be used as classroom demonstrations or to be carried out by second-year students. (Author/JN)

  18. Goiania radiation accident: activities carried out and lessons learned based on personal experience

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Silva, F.C.A. da

    2017-01-01

    Goiânia Radiological Accident, on September 13, 1987, with a radioactive source of cesium-137 with 50.9 TBq, used in radiotherapy, is one of the most important accidents in the scientific area, representing a milestone for all workers in the areas of radiation protection and radiological emergency that worked during the event. A personal view of the Goiânia Radiological Accident is presented, showing some activities carried out in contaminated areas and lessons learned based on own experience during the event

  19. Experience in industrial radiography equipment into carry out inspections in Brazil

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Lopes, Valdir Maciel; Silva, Joao

    2008-01-01

    The Nuclear and Energy Research Institute (IPEN), in accordance with the attributions given by the National Commission of Nuclear Energy (CNEN), has been supplying the market with radioactive sealed sources of Iridium 192 ( 192 Ir), for Brazil and some South America Countries, for more than 24 years. In this period, the experience acquired in the accompanied of the technological improvement in the industrial gammagraphy equipment; into Sealed Sources Production Laboratory (LPFS) will be show. Of the set of operations carry out in the LPFS, since the assemblies, tests of qualification of the sources also inspection at of the equipment for posterior applications in field, it is intended to demonstrate to the technological improvement associate to the radiological and operational security. In this work, the data base of the system of the LPFS will be used, as well as the professional experience of the laboratory team in the daily relationship with the companies responsible for the equipment operation. (author)

  20. Intra-beam Scattering Theory and RHIC Experiments

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Wei, J.; Fedotov, A.; Fischer, W.; Malitsky, N.; Parzen, G.; Qiang, J.

    2005-01-01

    Intra-beam scattering is the leading mechanism limiting the luminosity in heavy-ion storage rings like the Relativistic Heavy Ion Collider (RHIC). The multiple Coulomb scattering among the charged particles causes transverse emittance growth and longitudinal beam de-bunching and beam loss, compromising machine performance during collision. Theoretically, the original theories developed by Piwinski, Bjorken, and Mtingwa only describe the rms beam size growth of an unbounded Gaussian distribution. Equations based on the Fokker-Planck approach are developed to further describe the beam density profile evolution and beam loss. During the 2004 RHIC heavy-ion operation, dedicated IBS experiments were performed to bench-mark the rms beam size growth, beam loss, and profile evolution both for a Gaussian-like and a longitudinal hollow beam. This paper summarizes the IBS theory and discusses the experimental bench-marking results

  1. Scattering of phytoplankton cells from cytometry during a microcosm experiment

    Science.gov (United States)

    Moutier, W.; Duforêt-Gaurier, L.; Loisel, H.; Thyssen, M.; Mériaux, X.; Desailly, D.; Courcot, L.; Dugenne, M.

    2016-02-01

    This study presents an application of the CytoSense flow cytometer (CytoBuoy b.v., NL) as a powerful tool to analyze optical properties of phytoplankton cells. Recently, Duforêt et al., (2015) developed a methodology to derive the forward, sideward and backward cross section (σFWS, σSWS and σbb, respectively) of individual particles from the CytoSense. For the first time, this methodology was applied to phytoplankton cultures. A 20 day microcosm experiment was conducted on two phytoplankton species (Chlamydomonas concordia and Thalassiosira pseudonana). We realized daily sampling for biogeochemical and flow cytometer analysis and carried out optical measurements. Scanning electron migrographs (SEM) were performed at different life stages to investigate the cells morphology.First, CytoSense estimates were tested against radiative transfer computations. The comparison exercise, is based on radiative transfer simulations because for phytoplankton cultures, in situ measurements of σFWS and σSWS, particle by particle, are not available in literature. For that purpose, we build a database of 590,000 simulations, considering homogeneous and multi-layered spheres, to represent the optical properties of a large diversity of phytoplankton cells. Comparison showed that the CytoSense estimates for the cultures are consistent with values predicted by the theory. Second, the flow cytometer was used to analyze the temporal course of the forward and the sideward efficiency during the entire life-cycle. Results showed differences between the two species. From an ACP analysis, the variation of the optical properties were associated with the chlorophyll-a concentration by living cell, the thickness of the frustule and the aggregate formation. To finish, the bulk backscattering coefficient was rebuilt from σbb of individual cells and compare with the bb measured by a WET Labs ECO-BB9. Relative errors (RE) were between 0.3 and 0.47 and the mean RE was of 0.36. A such work shows

  2. Enhancing detection sensitivity of SST-1 Thomson scattering experiment

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Chaudhari, Vishnu; Patel, Kiran; Thomas, Jinto; Kumar, Ajai, E-mail: ajai@ipr.res.in

    2016-10-15

    Thomson Scattering System (TSS) is the main diagnostic to extract electron temperature and density of steady state superconducting (SST-1) tokamak plasma. Silicon avalanche photo diode is used with low noise and fast signal conditioning electronics (SCE) to detect incoming Thomson scattered laser photons. A stringent requirement for the measurement is to detect high speed and low level light signal (detection of 100 numbers of Thomson scattered photons for 50 ns pulse width at input of active area of detector) in the presence of wide band electro-magnetic interference (EMI) noise. The electronics and instruments for different sub-systems kept in laboratory contribute to the radiated and conductive noise in a complex manner to the experiment, which can degrade the resultant signal to noise ratio (SNR <1). In general a repeated trial method with flexible grounding scheme are used to improve system signal to noise ratio, which is time consuming and less efficient. In the present work a simple, robust, cost-effective instrumentation system is used for the measurement and monitoring with improved ground scheme and shielding method to minimize noise, isolating the internal sub-system generated noise and external interference which leads to an improved SNR.

  3. Dark matter effective field theory scattering in direct detection experiments

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Schneck, K.; Cabrera, B.; Cerdeño, D. G.; Mandic, V.; Rogers, H. E.; Agnese, R.; Anderson, A. J.; Asai, M.; Balakishiyeva, D.; Barker, D.; Basu Thakur, R.; Bauer, D. A.; Billard, J.; Borgland, A.; Brandt, D.; Brink, P. L.; Bunker, R.; Caldwell, D. O.; Calkins, R.; Chagani, H.; Chen, Y.; Cooley, J.; Cornell, B.; Crewdson, C. H.; Cushman, P.; Daal, M.; Di Stefano, P. C. F.; Doughty, T.; Esteban, L.; Fallows, S.; Figueroa-Feliciano, E.; Godfrey, G. L.; Golwala, S. R.; Hall, J.; Harris, H. R.; Hofer, T.; Holmgren, D.; Hsu, L.; Huber, M. E.; Jardin, D. M.; Jastram, A.; Kamaev, O.; Kara, B.; Kelsey, M. H.; Kennedy, A.; Leder, A.; Loer, B.; Lopez Asamar, E.; Lukens, P.; Mahapatra, R.; McCarthy, K. A.; Mirabolfathi, N.; Moffatt, R. A.; Morales Mendoza, J. D.; Oser, S. M.; Page, K.; Page, W. A.; Partridge, R.; Pepin, M.; Phipps, A.; Prasad, K.; Pyle, M.; Qiu, H.; Rau, W.; Redl, P.; Reisetter, A.; Ricci, Y.; Roberts, A.; Saab, T.; Sadoulet, B.; Sander, J.; Schnee, R. W.; Scorza, S.; Serfass, B.; Shank, B.; Speller, D.; Toback, D.; Upadhyayula, S.; Villano, A. N.; Welliver, B.; Wilson, J. S.; Wright, D. H.; Yang, X.; Yellin, S.; Yen, J. J.; Young, B. A.; Zhang, J.

    2015-05-18

    We examine the consequences of the effective field theory (EFT) of dark matter–nucleon scattering for current and proposed direct detection experiments. Exclusion limits on EFT coupling constants computed using the optimum interval method are presented for SuperCDMS Soudan, CDMS II, and LUX, and the necessity of combining results from multiple experiments in order to determine dark matter parameters is discussed. We demonstrate that spectral differences between the standard dark matter model and a general EFT interaction can produce a bias when calculating exclusion limits and when developing signal models for likelihood and machine learning techniques. We also discuss the implications of the EFT for the next-generation (G2) direct detection experiments and point out regions of complementarity in the EFT parameter space.

  4. Neutron-Proton Scattering Experiments at ANKE-COSY

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kacharava, A.; Chiladze, D.; Chiladze, B.; Keshelashvili, I.; Lomidze, N.; Macharashvili, G.; McHedlishvili, D.; Nioradze, M.; Rathmann, F.; Ströher, H.; Wilkin, C.

    2010-04-01

    The nucleon-nucleon interaction (NN) is fundamental for the whole of nuclear physics and hence to the composition of matter as we know it. It has been demonstrated that stored, polarised beams and polarised internal targets are experimental tools of choice to probe spin effects in NN-scattering experiments. While the EDDA experiment has dramatically improved the proton-proton date base, information on spin observables in neutron-proton scattering is very incomplete above 800 MeV, resulting in large uncertainties in isoscalar n p phase shifts. Experiments at COSY, using a polarised deuteron beam or target, can lead to significant improvements in the situation through the study of quasi-free reactions on the neutron in the deuteron. Such a measurements has already been started at ANKE by using polarised deuterons on an unpolarised target to study the dp → ppn deuteron charge-exchange reaction and the full program with a polarised storage cell target just has been conducted. At low excitation energies of the final pp system, the spin observables are directly related to the spin- dependent parts of the neutron-proton charge-exchange amplitudes. Our measurement of the deuteron-proton spin correlations will allow us to determine the relative phases of these amplitudes in addition to their overall magnitudes.

  5. Neutron–Proton Scattering Experiments at ANKE–COSY

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Rathmann F.

    2010-04-01

    Full Text Available The nucleon–nucleon interaction (NN is fundamental for the whole of nuclear physics and hence to the composition of matter as we know it. It has been demonstrated that stored, polarised beams and polarised internal targets are experimental tools of choice to probe spin effects in NN–scattering experiments. While the EDDA experiment has dramatically improved the proton–proton date base, information on spin observables in neutron–proton scattering is very incomplete above 800 MeV, resulting in large uncertainties in isoscalar n p phase shifts. Experiments at COSY, using a polarised deuteron beam or target, can lead to significant improvements in the situation through the study of quasi–free reactions on the neutron in the deuteron. Such a measurements has already been started at ANKE by using polarised deuterons on an unpolarised target to study the dp → {pp}n deuteron charge–exchange reaction and the full program with a polarised storage cell target just has been conducted. At low excitation energies of the final pp system, the spin observables are directly related to the spin– dependent parts of the neutron–proton charge–exchange amplitudes. Our measurement of the deuteron–proton spin correlations will allow us to determine the relative phases of these amplitudes in addition to their overall magnitudes.

  6. Detection of inverse Compton scattering in plasma wakefield experiments

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Bohlen, Simon

    2016-12-15

    Inverse Compton scattering (ICS) is the process of scattering of photons and electrons, where the photons gain a part of the electrons energy. In combination with plasma wakefield acceleration (PWA), ICS offers a compact MeV γ-ray source. A numerical study of ICS radiation produced in PWA experiments at FLASHForward was performed, using an ICS simulation code and the results from particle-in-cell modelling. The possibility of determining electron beam properties from measurements of the γ-ray source was explored for a wide range of experimental conditions. It was found that information about the electron divergence, the electron spectrum and longitudinal information can be obtained from measurements of the ICS beams for some cases. For the measurement of the ICS profile at FLASHForward, a CsI(Tl) scintillator array was chosen, similar to scintillators used in other ICS experiments. To find a suitable detector for spectrum measurements, an experimental test of a Compton spectrometer at the RAL was conducted. This test showed that a similar spectrometer could also be used at FLASHForward. However, changes to the spectrometer could be needed in order to use the pair production effect. In addition, further studies using Geant4 could lead to a better reconstruction of the obtained data. The studies presented here show that ICS is a promising method to analyse electron parameters from PWA experiments in further detail.

  7. High-pressure system for Compton scattering experiments

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Oomi, G.; Honda, F.; Kagayama, T.; Itoh, F.; Sakurai, H.; Kawata, H.; Shimomura, O.

    1998-01-01

    High-pressure apparatus for Compton scattering experiments has been developed to study the momentum distribution of conduction electrons in metals and alloys at high pressure. This apparatus was applied to observe the Compton profile of metallic Li under pressure. It was found that the Compton profile at high pressure could be obtained within several hours by using this apparatus and synchrotron radiation. The result on the pressure dependence of the Fermi momentum of Li obtained here is in good agreement with that predicted from the free-electron model

  8. Doppler shift simulation of scattered HF signals during the Tromsø HF pumping experiment on 16 February 1996

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    T. D. Borisova

    2002-09-01

    Full Text Available Comparisons between bistatic scatter measurements and simulation results during the Tromsø HF pumping experiment on 16 February 1996 are made. Doppler measurements of an HF diagnostic signal scattered from the field-aligned irregularities (FAIs in the auroral E-region were carried out on the London – Tromsø – St. Petersburg path at 9410 kHz from 21:00 to 22:00 UT. The scattered signals were observed both from natural and artificial ionospheric irregularities located in the vicinity of Tromsø. To simulate the Doppler frequency shifts, fd , of scattered signals, a radio channel model, named CONE, was developed. The model allows for ray tracing, group and phase paths, and Doppler frequency shift calculations. The calculated Doppler shifts were analyzed for dependence on the magnitude and direction of plasma velocities in the scattering volume. It was found that the velocity components in the north-south direction are crucial for explaining the Doppler frequency shifts of the scattered diagnostic signals. To simulate fd , real velocities obtained from the EISCAT UHF radar at an altitude of 278 km and from the digital all-sky imager during the experiment were employed. The simulation results of Doppler frequency shift variations with time are in reasonable agreement with the experimental Doppler shifts of scattered signals on the London – Tromsø – St. Petersburg path.Key words. Ionosphere (active experiments; ionospheric irregularities Radio science (ionospheric propagation

  9. The Thomson scattering experiment pulsed by CO2 laser in FT

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Bartolini, L.; Fornetti, G.; Nardi, M.; Occhionero, G.; Ferri de Collibus, M.

    1987-01-01

    An experiment carried out to measure the plasma ion temperature Tsub(i) in the tokamak FT in Frascati by Collective Thomson Scattering. A tandem laser system generates two single mode beams (10.6μ) one of which is pulsed and amplified up to levels of 5 MW, 1μs and actively frequency locked to a second continuous wave low pressure CO 2 laser. The pulse beam crosses the plasma and the forward scattered light is collected at angles between 1 degrees centigrade and 1.6 degrees centigrade. An heterodyne technique in which the c.w. beam is the local oscillator is used to measure the Doppler enlarged spectral density of the signal. The experimental apparatus is described and the results are reported and discussed

  10. Spectrometer magnet for experiment NA4 (deep inelastic muon scattering)

    CERN Multimedia

    CERN PhotoLab

    1977-01-01

    This is one section of the toroidal-field spectrometer magnet of experiment NA4 (deep inelastic muon scattering), shown here during the installation period and later located in the North Area of the SPS. To see all 4 sections, select 7709201. Igor Savin from Dubna looks at what his lab had provided: the huge iron disks were machined at and provided by Dubna. Multi-Wire Proportional Chambers were installed in the gaps between the packs of 4 disks. When the beam from the SPS struck the target (to the right in this picture), the iron would quickly stop the hadronic shower, whilst the muons would go on, performing oscillations in the toroidal field. NA4 was a CERN-Dubna-Munich-Saclay (later also Bologna) collaboration, spokesman: Carlo Rubbia.

  11. Terrestrial effects on dark matter-electron scattering experiments

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Emken, Timon; Kouvaris, Chris; Shoemaker, Ian M.

    2017-01-01

    A well-studied possibility is that dark matter may reside in a sector secluded from the Standard Model, except for the so-called photon portal: kinetic mixing between the ordinary and dark photons. Such interactions can be probed in dark matter direct detection experiments, and new experimental...... techniques involving detection of dark matter-electron scattering offer new sensitivity to sub-GeV dark matter. Typically however it is implicitly assumed that the dark matter is not altered as it traverses the Earth to arrive at the detector. In this paper we study in detail the effects of terrestrial...... stopping on dark photon models of dark matter, and find that they significantly reduce the sensitivity of XENON10 and DAMIC. In particular we find that XENON10 only excludes masses in the range (5-3000) MeV while DAMIC only probes (20-50) MeV. Their corresponding cross section sensitivity is reduced...

  12. Developments on positron scattering experiments including beam production and detection

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Selim, F.A.; Golovchenko, J.A.

    2001-01-01

    Positron scattering and channeling experiments require high quality (low emittance) beams. A new electrostatic optics system for extracting positrons from a moderator is presented. The system features improved efficiency of focusing and beam transport of moderated positrons emitted with angular spreads up to ± 30 , with good phase space characteristics. The presented optics also provides a high degree of freedom in controlling exit beam trajectories. The system has been installed in the LLNL Pelletron accelerator and showed great enhancement on the beam quality. On the detection side, image plates were used to measure the angular distributions of positrons transmitted through the gold crystals. The measurements demonstrate the advantages of image plates as quantitative position sensitive detectors for positrons. (orig.)

  13. How do we know what is ‘inside the atom’?—Simulating scattering experiments in the classroom

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cunningham, E. S.

    2017-07-01

    The idea of the indivisible atom, held since the time of the ancient Greeks, was smashed just over 100 years ago. Ernest Rutherford and his team of scientists in the UK used scattering experiments to discover that atoms have a very dense and extremely small central nucleus that contains more than 99.9% of the mass of an atom and is ten thousand times smaller than an atom. Then just over 50 years ago three physicists in America: Jerome Friedman, Henry Kendall and Richard Taylor carried out scattering experiments in California, that revealed the internal structure of nucleons—later called quarks. This workshop, developed by the Public Engagement team at the Science and Technology Facilities Council, takes secondary school students through these historic discoveries and the present day scattering experiments still changing the world of science.

  14. Recent Measurements from the G0 Parity Violation Experiment Carried out at Jefferson Laboratory

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Bimbot, L.

    2008-01-01

    The measurements were made at the Thomas Jefferson National Accelerator Facility (J Lab.), Newport News, V A (USA) in the backward angle configuration set-up. A toroidal spectrometer, associated with particle detectors, is used to count electrons and pions from a liquid hydrogen or deuterium target. Parity-violating than the former one by orders of magnitude and requires special techniques to be observed and isolated. Parity violation is specific to the electro-weak interaction and forms the basis asymmetries in elastic electron-proton scattering are determined for momentum transfers of Q 2 = 0.62 and 0.23 (GeV/c) 2 . Combined with previous results obtained with the forward angle configuration setup, these measurements give access to the separation of the values of electric and magnetic strange form factors of the proton. More results may be extracted from the asymmetries for inelastically scattered electrons and for produced pions

  15. Virtual neutron scattering experiments - Training and preparing students for large-scale facility experiments

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Julie Hougaard Overgaard

    2016-11-01

    Full Text Available Dansk Vi beskriver, hvordan virtuelle eksperimenter kan udnyttes i et læringsdesign ved at forberede de studerende til hands-on-eksperimenter ved storskalafaciliteter. Vi illustrerer designet ved at vise, hvordan virtuelle eksperimenter bruges på Niels Bohr Institutets kandidatkursus om neutronspredning. I den sidste uge af kurset, rejser studerende til et storskala neutronspredningsfacilitet for at udføre neutronspredningseksperimenter. Vi bruger studerendes udsagn om deres oplevelser til at argumentere for, at arbejdet med virtuelle experimenter forbereder de studerende til at engagere sig mere frugtbart med eksperimenter ved at lade dem fokusere på fysikken og relevante data i stedet for instrumenternes funktion. Vi hævder, at det er, fordi de kan overføre deres erfaringer med virtuelle eksperimenter til rigtige eksperimenter. Vi finder dog, at læring stadig er situeret i den forstand, at kun kendskab til bestemte eksperimenter overføres. Vi afslutter med at diskutere de muligheder, som virtuelle eksperimenter giver. English We describe how virtual experiments can be utilized in a learning design that prepares students for hands-on experiments at large-scale facilities. We illustrate the design by showing how virtual experiments are used at the Niels Bohr Institute in a master level course on neutron scattering. In the last week of the course, students travel to a large-scale neutron scattering facility to perform real neutron scattering experiments. Through student interviews and survey answers, we argue, that the virtual training prepares the students to engage more fruitfully with experiments by letting them focus on physics and data rather than the overwhelming instrumentation. We argue that this is because they can transfer their virtual experimental experience to the real-life situation. However, we also find that learning is still situated in the sense that only knowledge of particular experiments is transferred. We proceed to

  16. Experiment of laser thomson scattering at HL-1 tokamak device

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Zuo Henian; Chen Jiafu; Yan Derong; Liu Aiping; Shi Peilan; Wang Wei; Liu Xiaomei

    1989-05-01

    The structure and performance of the Ruby Laser Thomson Scattering apparatus for HL-1 tokamak device is described. The method of acquisition and calibration of multichannel scattered signals are presented. Examples of measured electron temperature T. with experimental error are given

  17. Transverse momentum at work in high-energy scattering experiments

    Science.gov (United States)

    Signori, Andrea

    2017-01-01

    I will review some aspects of the definition and the phenomenology of Transverse-Momentum-Dependent distributions (TMDs) which are potentially interesting for the physics program at several current and future experimental facilities. First of all, I will review the definition of quark, gluon and Wilson loop TMDs based on gauge invariant hadronic matrix elements. Looking at the phenomenology of quarks, I will address the flavor dependence of the intrinsic transverse momentum in unpolarized TMDs, focusing on its extraction from Semi-Inclusive Deep-Inelastic Scattering. I will also present an estimate of its impact on the transverse momentum spectrum of W and Z bosons produced in unpolarized hadronic collisions and on the determination of the W boson mass. Moreover, the combined effect of the flavor dependence and the evolution of TMDs with the energy scale will be discussed for electron-positron annihilation. Concerning gluons, I will present from an effective theory point of view the TMD factorization theorem for the transverse momentum spectrum of pseudoscalar quarkonium produced in hadronic collisions. Relying on this, I will discuss the possibility of extracting precise information on (un)polarized gluon TMDs at a future Fixed Target Experiment at the LHC (AFTER@LHC).

  18. The TUNL neutron-neutron scattering length experiment

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Trotter, D.E.G.; Tornow, W.; Howell, C.R.

    1995-01-01

    Since an accurate value for the neutron-neutron (nn) scattering length a nn is of fundamental interest, its determination should not rely on one source of experimental information only. Besides the π d capture reaction, the nd breakup reaction has been the classical reaction used for determining a nn . However, none of the published values for a nn obtained from kinematically complete nd → n+n+p breakup data are based on a rigorous treatment of the three-nucleon continuum. In addition, the scale uncertainty associated with the existing nd breakup cross-section data in the region of the nn final-state interaction peak is too large to allow for a meaningful reanalysis. Therefore, a new kinematically complete nd breakup experiment is underway at TUNL at an incident neutron energy of 13 MeV. State-of-the-art three-nucleon continuum calculations will be used to analyze the data. In order to investigate the possible influence of three-nucleon force effects, a nn will be determined from data taken at four production angles of the nn pair between 20.5 degrees and 43 degrees (lab)

  19. SCATTER

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Broome, J.

    1965-11-01

    The programme SCATTER is a KDF9 programme in the Egtran dialect of Fortran to generate normalized angular distributions for elastically scattered neutrons from data input as the coefficients of a Legendre polynomial series, or from differential cross-section data. Also, differential cross-section data may be analysed to produce Legendre polynomial coefficients. Output on cards punched in the format of the U.K. A. E. A. Nuclear Data Library is optional. (author)

  20. Inexpensive Mie scattering experiment for the classroom manufactured by 3D printing

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Scholz, Christian; Sack, Achim; Heckel, Michael; Pöschel, Thorsten

    2016-01-01

    Scattering experiments are fundamental for structure analysis of matter on molecular, atomic and sub-atomic length scales. In contrast, it is not standard to demonstrate optical scattering experiments on the undergraduate level beyond simple diffraction gratings. We present an inexpensive Mie scattering setup manufactured with 3D printing and open hardware. The experiment can be used to determine the particle size in dilute monodisperse colloidal suspensions with surprisingly high accuracy and is, thus, suitable to demonstrate relations between scattering measurements and microscopic properties of particles within undergraduate lab course projects. (paper)

  1. Experiments recently carried out on the photoemission station at Beijing Synchrotron Radiation Facility

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Kurash Ibrahim; Wu Ziyu; Qian Haijie; Zhang Jing; Abbas, M.I.; Chen Zhigang; Su Run; Liu Fengqin

    2003-01-01

    With a sustained and steady operation of the photoemission station at Beijing Synchrotron Radiation Facility, users from different research fields have carried out their investigation on the electronic structure of metal surface-interface, metal doped fullerene as well as colossal magneto-resistance materials utilizing different experimental modes provided by the photoemission station. In this paper authors would present some representative experimental results obtained on the station

  2. Processing of thermal scattering data with NJOY experience and comments

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Mattes, M.

    1989-01-01

    The THERMR module of NJOY-89 generates pointwise integrated cross sections and double differential neutron scattering cross sections in the thermal energy range where the binding of the scatterer in a material or the motion of atoms in a gas is important. The results are added to an existing PENDF tape using special MT numbers in the range 221 to 250. The cross sections can then be group-averaged with the GROUPR module or plotted and reformated in subsequent modules

  3. Organization and Carrying out the Educational Experiment and Statistical Analysis of Its Results in IHL

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sidorov, Oleg V.; Kozub, Lyubov' V.; Goferberg, Alexander V.; Osintseva, Natalya V.

    2018-01-01

    The article discusses the methodological approach to the technology of the educational experiment performance, the ways of the research data processing by means of research methods and methods of mathematical statistics. The article shows the integrated use of some effective approaches to the training of the students majoring in…

  4. Experiments with Rydberg atoms on a current-carrying atom chip

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Cisternas San Martín, N.V.

    2018-01-01

    On one side, atom-chip experiments have demonstrated to be a versatile tool to study quantum physics in cold atoms systems. On the other side, Rydberg atoms have exaggerated properties that makes them good candidates to study quantum information and quantum simulations protocols. In this thesis both

  5. Doppler shift simulation of scattered HF signals during the Tromsø HF pumping experiment on 16 February 1996

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    T. D. Borisova

    Full Text Available Comparisons between bistatic scatter measurements and simulation results during the Tromsø HF pumping experiment on 16 February 1996 are made. Doppler measurements of an HF diagnostic signal scattered from the field-aligned irregularities (FAIs in the auroral E-region were carried out on the London – Tromsø – St. Petersburg path at 9410 kHz from 21:00 to 22:00 UT. The scattered signals were observed both from natural and artificial ionospheric irregularities located in the vicinity of Tromsø. To simulate the Doppler frequency shifts, fd , of scattered signals, a radio channel model, named CONE, was developed. The model allows for ray tracing, group and phase paths, and Doppler frequency shift calculations. The calculated Doppler shifts were analyzed for dependence on the magnitude and direction of plasma velocities in the scattering volume. It was found that the velocity components in the north-south direction are crucial for explaining the Doppler frequency shifts of the scattered diagnostic signals. To simulate fd , real velocities obtained from the EISCAT UHF radar at an altitude of 278 km and from the digital all-sky imager during the experiment were employed. The simulation results of Doppler frequency shift variations with time are in reasonable agreement with the experimental Doppler shifts of scattered signals on the London – Tromsø – St. Petersburg path.

    Key words. Ionosphere (active experiments; ionospheric irregularities Radio science (ionospheric propagation

  6. Mikheyev-Smirnov-Wolfenstein effect in electron-neutrino scattering experiments

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Bahcall, J.N.; Gelb, J.M.; Rosen, S.P.

    1987-01-01

    We calculate the influence of resonant neutrino scattering [the Mikheyev-Smirnov-Wolfenstein (MSW) effect] in the Sun and in the Earth on measurable quantities in solar-neutrino--electron scattering experiments. The MSW effect reduces the expected rate for 8 B-neutrino--electron scattering by a factor that ranges from --0.8 to --0.2 if resonant scattering is the correct explanation for the discrepancy between observation and calculation in the /sup 37/Cl experiment. The Earth can produce a significant diurnal effect for certain values of the neutrino mixing angle and mass difference

  7. Set of thermal neutron-scattering experiments for the Weapons Neutron Research Facility

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Brugger, R.M.

    1975-12-01

    Six classes of experiments form the base of a program of thermal neutron scattering at the Weapons Neutron Research (WNR) Facility. Three classes are to determine the average microscopic positions of atoms in materials and three are to determine the microscopic vibrations of these atoms. The first three classes concern (a) powder sample neutron diffraction, (b) small angle scattering, and (c) single crystal Laue diffraction. The second three concern (d) small kappa inelastic scattering, (e) scattering surface phonon measurements, and (f) line widths. An instrument to couple with the WNR pulsed source is briefly outlined for each experiment

  8. A report on the aquatic dilution experiment carried out at discharge canal, KGS site

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Reji, T.K.; Nayak, P.D.; Sudhakar, J.; Ajith, T.L.; Vishnu, M.S.; Ravi, P.M.; James, J.P.; Joshi, R.M.; Naik, S.B.; Kudtharkar, A.M.; Gaonkar, S.M.; Verma, P.C.; Datta, D.; Dahiya, Sudhir; Brijkumar; Datta, Maduparna; Sajeevan, G.

    2009-08-01

    Under Nuclear Power Corporation of India Limited (NPCIL), three units of (each of capacity 220MWe) Nuclear Power Stations are operational and one unit of similar capacity is under advanced stage of construction at Kaiga site. The radioactive liquid effluents generated in the plant are diluted with Condenser Coolant Water Stream (CCW) which is then discharged into Kadra reservoir through an artificially made discharge canal. The basic objective of the present study is to estimate the Dilution Factors at various locations of discharge canal and to understand the process of dilution and dispersion of radioactive effluent in the discharge canal. The strategy of the experiment involved the collection of samples from discharge canal lengthwise, breadth wise and depth wise immediately after the routine release of one of the batches of effluent stream into the CCW stream. No additional activity was released for the purpose of this experiment. The study compared the experimentally obtained Dilution Factor with that calculated based on the flow rates of CCW pumps and active liquid effluent discharge pumps. In the present conditions of experiment, Dilution Factor, based on flow rates of CCW pumps and Liquid Effluent Discharge pump, works out to be 8.11 E -05 while experimentally observed Mean Dilution Factor in the discharge canal works out to be (7.75±2.15) E-05. Hence this experiment clearly demonstrate the validity of the method of calculating dilution factor based on the flow rates of CCW line and that of Effluent discharge pump. The data analysis indicates that mass flow seems to be the major process of dispersion in the discharge canal. The tritium activity was found to be moving faster in the midstream as compared to that near the shore. The conclusions are drawn purely based on experimental results. This experimental data can be used for validation of aquatic dispersion models. (author)

  9. The design of PSB-VVER experiments carried-out inside the TACIS contract N. 30303

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Del Nevo, A.; D'Auria, F.; Mazzini, M.; Bykov, M.; Elkin, I.V.; Suslov, A.

    2007-01-01

    Integral Test Facility (ITF) experimental programs are relevant for validating the Best Estimate (BE) Thermal Hydraulic codes (TH) used for transient and accident analyses, design of Accident Management (AM) procedures, licensing of Nuclear Power Plants (NPP), etc. The validation process is based on well designed experiments. It consists in the comparison of the measured and calculated parameters and the determination whether a computer code has an adequate capability in predicting the major phenomena expected to occur for transient and/or accidents. University of Pisa (UNIPI) was responsible of the numerical design of the 12 experiments executed in PSB-VVER facility, operated at Electrogorsk Research and Engineering Center (EREC), in the framework of the TACIS Contract 3.03.03 Part A. This paper describes the methodology adopted at UNIPI, starting form the scenarios foreseen in the final Test Matrix (TM) until the execution of the experiments. This process considers three key topics: a) the scaling issue and the simulation, with unavoidable distortions, of the expected performance of the reference NPP, b) the code assessment process involving the identification of phenomena challenging the code models, c) the features of the concerned ITF (scaling limitations, control logics, data acquisition system, instrumentation, etc.). An overview of all the activities performed in this respect is provided focusing the discussion on the relevance of the heat losses. This issue is particularly relevant for addressing the scaling approach related to the power and volume of the facility. (author)

  10. A novel technique for determining luminosity in electron-scattering/positron-scattering experiments from multi-interaction events

    Science.gov (United States)

    Schmidt, A.; O'Connor, C.; Bernauer, J. C.; Milner, R.

    2018-01-01

    The OLYMPUS experiment measured the cross-section ratio of positron-proton elastic scattering relative to electron-proton elastic scattering to look for evidence of hard two-photon exchange. To make this measurement, the experiment alternated between electron beam and positron beam running modes, with the relative integrated luminosities of the two running modes providing the crucial normalization. For this reason, OLYMPUS had several redundant luminosity monitoring systems, including a pair of electromagnetic calorimeters positioned downstream from the target to detect symmetric Møller and Bhabha scattering from atomic electrons in the hydrogen gas target. Though this system was designed to monitor the rate of events with single Møller/Bhabha interactions, we found that a more accurate determination of relative luminosity could be made by additionally considering the rate of events with both a Møller/Bhabha interaction and a concurrent elastic ep interaction. This method was improved by small corrections for the variance of the current within bunches in the storage ring and for the probability of three interactions occurring within a bunch. After accounting for systematic effects, we estimate that the method is accurate in determining the relative luminosity to within 0.36%. This precise technique can be employed in future electron-proton and positron-proton scattering experiments to monitor relative luminosity between different running modes.

  11. Small Angle Neutron Scattering experiments on ``side-on fixed"" liquid crystal polyacrylates

    Science.gov (United States)

    Leroux, N.; Keller, P.; Achard, M. F.; Noirez, L.; Hardouin, F.

    1993-08-01

    Small Angle Neutron Scattering experiments were carried out on liquid crystalline “side-on fixed” polyacrylates : we observe that the polymer backbone adopts a prolate conformation in the nematic phase. Such anisotropy of the global backbone is larger for smaller spacer length. In every case we measure at low temperatures a large chain extension as previously described in polysiloxanes. Par diffusion des neutrons aux petits angles nous observons que la chaîne de polyacrylates “en haltère” adopte une conformation type prolate en phase nématique. Son anisotropie est d'autant plus grande que l'espaceur est plus court. Dans tous les cas, nous retrouvons à basse température la forte extension de la chaîne polymère qui fut d'abord révélée dans les polysiloxanes.

  12. Observation of fluxes of electrons scattered by the atmosphere in the second Araks experiment

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Lyachov, S.B.; Managadze, G.G.

    1980-01-01

    This paper describes the results of the USHBA spectrometer measurements of the fluxes of atmospheric scattered electrons in the second Araks experiment. The experimental data are presented for heights from 100 to 140 km. The spectral distributions of the scattered electron fluxes are given and the altitude variation of their intensity is compared with the atmosphere models. The conclusion is made about the possible effect of rocket gassing on the electron scattering processes for definite angles of injection

  13. Compton scattering by mesons in nuclei: Experiment on 208Pb

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Fuhrberg, K.; Martin, G.; Haeger, D.; Ludwig, M.; Schumacher, M.; Andersson, B.E.; Blomqvist, K.I.; Ruijter, H.; Sandell, A.; Schroeder, B.; Hayward, E.; Nilsson, L.; Zorro, R.

    1992-01-01

    Using 58 and 73 MeV tagged photons and scattering angles from 60deg to 150deg, it is shown that is possible to observe Compton scattering by 'mesons in nuclei ' through an incomplete cancellation of the mesonic (exchange- current) seagull amplitude by parts of the nuclear resonance amplitude related to the giant-dipole resonance of 208 Pb. This phenomenon is a property of an extended nucleus and , therefore, cannot be dtudied on the deuteron. Predictions of the exchange form factor which determines the angular distribution of the exchange seagull amplitude are compared with experimental data. (orig.)

  14. Scattering by ensembles of small particles experiment, theory and application

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gustafson, B. A. S.

    1980-01-01

    A hypothetical self consistent picture of evolution of prestellar intertellar dust through a comet phase leads to predictions about the composition of the circum-solar dust cloud. Scattering properties of thus resulting conglomerates with a bird's-nest type of structure are investigated using a micro-wave analogue technique. Approximate theoretical methods of general interest are developed which compared favorably with the experimental results. The principal features of scattering of visible radiation by zodiacal light particles are reasonably reproduced. A component which is suggestive of (ALPHA)-meteoroids is also predicted.

  15. Scattering by ensembles of small particles experiment, theory and application

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Gustafson, B.Aa.S.

    1980-01-01

    A hypothetical selfconsistent picture of evolution of prestellar interstellar dust through a comet phase leades to predictions about the composition of the circum-solar dust cloud. Scattering properties of thus resulting conglomerates with a bird's-nest type of structure are investigated using a micro-wave analogue technique. Approximate theoretical methods of general interest are developed which compared favorably with the experimental results. The principal features of scattering of visible radiation by zodiacal light particles are reasonably reproduced. A component which is suggestive of β-meteoroids is also predicted. (author)

  16. TLE Balloon experiment campaign carried out on 25 August 2006 in Japan

    Science.gov (United States)

    Takahashi, Y.; Chikada, S.; Yoshida, A.; Adachi, T.; Sakanoi, T.

    2006-12-01

    The balloon observation campaign for TLE and lightning study was carried out 25 August 2006 in Japan by Tohoku University, supported by JAXA. The balloon was successfully launched at 18:33 LT at Sanriku Balloon Center of JAXA located in the east coast of northern part of Japan (Iwate prefecture). Three types of scientific payloads were installed at the 1 m-cubic gondola, that is, 3-axis VLF electric filed antenna and receiver (VLFR), 4 video frame CCD cameras (CCDI) and 2-color photometer (PM). The video images were stored in 4 HD video recorders, which have 20GB memories respectively, at 30 frames/sec and VLFR and PM data were put into digital data recorder with 30 GB memory at sampling rate of 100 kHz. The balloon floated at the altitude of 13 km until about 20:30 LT, going eastward and went up to 26 km at a distance of 130 km from the coast. And it went back westward at the altitude of 26 km until midnight. The total observation period is about 5 hours. Most of the equipments worked properly except for one video recorder. Some thunderstorms existed within the direct FOV from the balloon in the range of 400-600 km and more than about 400 lightning flashes were recorded as video images. We confirmed that, at least, one sprite halo was captured by CCDI which occurred in the oceanic thunderstorm at a distance of about 500 km from balloon. This is the first TLE image obtained by a balloon-borne camera. Simultaneous measurements of VLF sferics and lightning/TLE images will clarify the role of intracloud (IC) currents in producing and/or modulating TLEs as well as cloud-to-ground discharges (CG). Especially the effect of horizontal components will be investigated in detail, which cannot be detected on the ground, to explain the unsolved properties of TLEs, such as long time delay of TLE from the timing of stroke and large horizontal displacement between CG and TLEs.

  17. Elastic scattering of surface plasmon polaritons: Modeling and experiment

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Bozhevolnyi, Sergey I.; Coello, V.

    1998-01-01

    excitation wavelengths (594 and 633 nm) and different metal (silver and gold) films. The near-field optical images obtained are related to the calculated SPP intensity distributions demonstrating that the model developed can be successfully used in studies of SPP elastic scattering, e.g., to design...

  18. Experiment on direct nn scattering - The radiation-induced outgassing complication

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Stephenson, S.L., E-mail: sstephen@gettysburg.edu [Gettysburg College, Gettysburg, PA 17325 (United States); Crawford, B.E. [Gettysburg College, Gettysburg, PA 17325 (United States); Furman, W.I.; Lychagin, E.V.; Muzichka, A.Yu.; Nekhaev, G.V.; Sharapov, E.I.; Shvetsov, V.N.; Strelkov, A.V. [Joint Institute for Nuclear Research, 141980 Dubna (Russian Federation); Levakov, B.G.; Lyzhin, A.E.; Chernukhin, Yu.I. [Russian Federal Nuclear Center - All Russian Research Institute of Technical Physics, P.O. Box 245, 456770 Snezhinsk (Russian Federation); Howell, C.R. [Duke University and Triangle Universities Nuclear Laboratory, Durham, NC 27708-0308 (United States); Mitchell, G.E. [North Carolina State University, Raleigh, NC 27695-8202 (United States); Triangle Universities Nuclear Laboratory, Durham, NC 27708-0308 (United States); Tornow, W. [Duke University and Triangle Universities Nuclear Laboratory, Durham, NC 27708-0308 (United States); Showalter-Bucher, R.A. [Northeastern University, Boston, MA 02115 (United States)

    2012-12-01

    The first direct neutron-neutron scattering experiment using the YAGUAR pulsed reactor has yielded initial results. They show a unforeseen significant thermal neutron background as a result of radiation-induced desorption within the scattering chamber. Thermal neutrons are mostly scattering not from other neutrons but instead from the desorbed gas molecules. Analysis of the obtained neutron time-of-flight spectra suggests neutron scattering from H{sub 2} molecules. The presented desorption model agrees with our experimental value of the desorption yield {eta}{sub {gamma}}=0.02 molecules/gamma. Possible techniques to reduce the effect of the desorption background are presented.

  19. Simulation of complete neutron scattering experiments: from model systems to liquid germanium

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Hugouvieux, V.

    2004-11-01

    In this thesis, both theoretical and experimental studies of liquids are done. Neutron scattering enables structural and dynamical properties of liquids to be investigated. On the theoretical side, molecular dynamics simulations are of great interest since they give positions and velocities of the atoms and the forces acting on each of them. They also enable spatial and temporal correlations to be computed and these quantities are also available from neutron scattering experiments. Consequently, the comparison can be made between results from molecular dynamics simulations and from neutron scattering experiments, in order to improve our understanding of the structure and dynamics of liquids. However, since extracting reliable data from a neutron scattering experiment is difficult, we propose to simulate the experiment as a whole, including both instrument and sample, in order to gain understanding and to evaluate the impact of the different parasitic contributions (absorption, multiple scattering associated with elastic and inelastic scattering, instrument resolution). This approach, in which the sample is described by its structure and dynamics as computed from molecular dynamics simulations, is presented and tested on isotropic model systems. Then liquid germanium is investigated by inelastic neutron scattering and both classical and ab initio molecular dynamics simulations. This enables us to simulate the experiment we performed and to evaluate the influence of the contributions from the instrument and from the sample on the detected signal. (author)

  20. Small angle X-ray scattering experiments with three-dimensional imaging gas detectors

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    La Monaca, A.; Iannuzzi, M.; Messi, R.

    1985-01-01

    Measurements of small angle X-ray scattering of lupolen - R, dry collagen and dry cornea are presented. The experiments have been performed with synchrotron radiation and a new three-dimensional imaging drif-chamber gas detector

  1. Report of blind start-up experiments carried out on the reactor Cabri between 4. and 8. July 1966

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Filipczak, N.; Filipczak, W.; Furet, J.; Kaiser, J.

    1967-01-01

    The blind start-up of a reactor without any neutronic data concerning a relatively wide range of power dynamics can be necessary when difficulties arise in the positioning of the detector or in neutron-gamma discrimination near the multiplying medium. The object of the experiments carried out on the reactor Cabri was to check the very complete analysis of the start-up accident which was studied on an analogue computer. The number of experiments carried out (12) is not sufficient to allow a definite conclusion. Nevertheless the blind start-up method advocated by N. FILIPCZAK and W. FILIPCZAK does not appear to be incompatible with the security during the operational phase (on condition that its dynamic characteristics are close to that of the reactor Cabri). (authors) [fr

  2. Proton polarizing system with Ar-ion laser for p-vector-RI scattering experiments

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Wakui, T.; Hatano, M.; Sakai, H.; Uesaka, T.; Tamii, A.

    2005-01-01

    A proton polarizing system for use in scattering experiments with radioactive isotope beams is described. Protons in a naphthalene crystal doped with pentacene are polarized in a magnetic field of 0.3T at 100K by transferring a large population difference among the photo-excited triplet states of pentacene to the hydrogen nuclei. An Ar-ion laser, which demands minimal maintenance during scattering experiments, is employed to excite the pentacene molecules. A proton polarization of 37% is obtained

  3. The Manuel Lujan Jr. Neutron Scattering Center (LANSCE) experiment reports 1993 run cycle. Progress report

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Farrer, R.; Longshore, A. [comps.

    1995-06-01

    This year the Manuel Lujan Jr. Neutron Scattering Center (LANSCE) ran an informal user program because the US Department of Energy planned to close LANSCE in FY1994. As a result, an advisory committee recommended that LANSCE scientists and their collaborators complete work in progress. At LANSCE, neutrons are produced by spallation when a pulsed, 800-MeV proton beam impinges on a tungsten target. The proton pulses are provided by the Clinton P. Anderson Meson Physics Facility (LAMPF) accelerator and a associated Proton Storage Ring (PSR), which can Iter the intensity, time structure, and repetition rate of the pulses. The LAMPF protons of Line D are shared between the LANSCE target and the Weapons Neutron Research (WNR) facility, which results in LANSCE spectrometers being available to external users for unclassified research about 80% of each annual LAMPF run cycle. Measurements of interest to the Los Alamos National Laboratory (LANL) may also be performed and may occupy up to an additional 20% of the available beam time. These experiments are reviewed by an internal program advisory committee. This year, a total of 127 proposals were submitted. The proposed experiments involved 229 scientists, 57 of whom visited LANSCE to participate in measurements. In addition, 3 (nuclear physics) participating research teams, comprising 44 scientists, carried out experiments at LANSCE. Instrument beam time was again oversubscribed, with 552 total days requested an 473 available for allocation.

  4. The Manuel Lujan Jr. Neutron Scattering Center (LANSCE) experiment reports 1993 run cycle. Progress report

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Farrer, R.; Longshore, A.

    1995-06-01

    This year the Manuel Lujan Jr. Neutron Scattering Center (LANSCE) ran an informal user program because the US Department of Energy planned to close LANSCE in FY1994. As a result, an advisory committee recommended that LANSCE scientists and their collaborators complete work in progress. At LANSCE, neutrons are produced by spallation when a pulsed, 800-MeV proton beam impinges on a tungsten target. The proton pulses are provided by the Clinton P. Anderson Meson Physics Facility (LAMPF) accelerator and a associated Proton Storage Ring (PSR), which can Iter the intensity, time structure, and repetition rate of the pulses. The LAMPF protons of Line D are shared between the LANSCE target and the Weapons Neutron Research (WNR) facility, which results in LANSCE spectrometers being available to external users for unclassified research about 80% of each annual LAMPF run cycle. Measurements of interest to the Los Alamos National Laboratory (LANL) may also be performed and may occupy up to an additional 20% of the available beam time. These experiments are reviewed by an internal program advisory committee. This year, a total of 127 proposals were submitted. The proposed experiments involved 229 scientists, 57 of whom visited LANSCE to participate in measurements. In addition, 3 (nuclear physics) participating research teams, comprising 44 scientists, carried out experiments at LANSCE. Instrument beam time was again oversubscribed, with 552 total days requested an 473 available for allocation

  5. Theory Analysis and Experiment Research of the Leg Mechanism for the Human-Carrying Walking Chair Robot

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Lingfeng Sang

    2014-01-01

    Full Text Available For the high carrying capacity of the human-carrying walking chair robot, in this paper, 2-UPS+UP parallel mechanism is selected as the leg mechanism; then kinematics, workspace, control, and experiment of the leg mechanism are researched in detail. Firstly, design of the whole mechanism is described and degrees of freedom of the leg mechanism are analyzed. Second, the forward position, inverse position, and velocity of leg mechanism are studied. Third, based on the kinematics analysis and the structural constraints, the reachable workspace of 2-UPS+UP parallel mechanism is solved, and then the optimal motion workspace is searched in the reachable workspace by choosing the condition number as the evaluation index. Fourth, according to the theory analysis of the parallel leg mechanism, its control system is designed and the compound position control strategy is studied. Finally, in optimal motion workspace, the compound position control strategy is verified by using circular track with the radius 100 mm; the experiment results show that the leg mechanism moves smoothly and does not tremble obviously. Theory analysis and experiment research of the single leg mechanism provide a theoretical foundation for the control of the quadruped human-carrying walking chair robot.

  6. ELECTRON SCATTERING EXPERIMENTS ON THE NEUTRON AND PROTON

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Berkelman, Karl

    1963-06-15

    The electric and magnetic helicity form factors of the proton are measured at 4-momentum transfers (squared) of 25 to 45 f/sup -2/, by means of electron scattering by protons at high energies. The results are combined with other e/sup -/--p and e/sup -/--d experimental findings in order to show the proton form fuctors from 0 to 45 f/sup -2/ and the neutron form factors from 0 to 25 f/sup -2/. (T.F.H.)

  7. np Elastic-scattering experiments with polarized neutron beams

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Chalmers, J.S.; Ditzler, W.R.; Hill, D.

    1985-01-01

    Measurements of the spin transfer parameters, K/sub NN/ and K/sub LL/, at 500, 650, and 800 MeV are presented for the reaction p-vector d → n-vector pp at 0 0 . The data are useful input to the NN data base and indicate that the quasi-free charge exchange (CEX) reaction is a useful mechanism for producing neutrons with at least 40% polarization at energies as low as 500 MeV. Measurements of np elastic scattering observables C/sub LL/ and C/sub SL/ covering 35 0 to 172 0 are performed using a polarized neutron beam at 500, 650, and 800 MeV. Preliminary results are presented. 3 refs., 6 figs

  8. Analysing neutron scattering data using McStas virtual experiments

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Udby, L.; Willendrup, Peter Kjær; Bergbäck Knudsen, Erik

    2011-01-01

    With the intention of developing a new data analysis method using virtual experiments we have built a detailed virtual model of the cold triple-axis spectrometer RITA-II at PSI, Switzerland, using the McStas neutron ray-tracing package. The parameters characterising the virtual instrument were...... carefully tuned against real experiments. In the present paper we show that virtual experiments reproduce experimentally observed linewidths within 1–3% for a variety of samples. Furthermore we show that the detailed knowledge of the instrumental resolution found from virtual experiments, including sample...

  9. π-Helium-4 scattering experiment at 5GeV/c. Data processing

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Cotte, Philippe.

    1978-01-01

    The context of this work is an experiment realised at CERN, with the object to search pre-existing isobaric states in helium nucleus, by means of the study of scattering reactions of π - with simultaneous observation of recoil nucleus ( 3 He or 3 H) and forward pion. In this work, only the study of recoil detectors is done. This one, described with many details consists of a set of four wire chamber planes, two planes of semiconductors and two scintillators planes. The performances of this set of detectors are presented in regard to identification of recoil particle, energy and recoil angle measurements. A 'missing mass' analysis of the events of the experiment is done. Preliminary results of elastic and inelastic scattering are given. For elastic scattering a qualitative comparison is done with the multiple scattering Glauber formalism [fr

  10. Electron-nucleon scattering experiments in the GeV range

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Glawe, U.B.

    1980-01-01

    In the framework of this thesis a computer code systems was developed which describes the inclusive electron scattering on bound nucleons in the impact approximation. It could be shown that the structure functions for the quasi-free scattering can be represented as an incoherent superposition of the structure functions of the free processes. The structure functions of the free processes were determined from experimental cross sections. From the comparison of the calculations with electron scattering experiments on the nuclei 6 Li, 9 Be, 12 C, 27 Al, and 28 Si in the kinematic range 0.0 2 2 and W [de

  11. Comparison of scattering experiments using synchrotron radiation with Monte Carlo simulations using Geant4

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Gerlach, M.; Krumrey, M.; Cibik, L.; Mueller, P.; Ulm, G.

    2009-01-01

    Monte Carlo techniques are powerful tools to simulate the interaction of electromagnetic radiation with matter. One of the most widespread simulation program packages is Geant4. Almost all physical interaction processes can be included. However, it is not evident what accuracy can be obtained by a simulation. In this work, results of scattering experiments using monochromatized synchrotron radiation in the X-ray regime are quantitatively compared to the results of simulations using Geant4. Experiments were performed for various scattering foils made of different materials such as copper and gold. For energy-dispersive measurements of the scattered radiation, a cadmium telluride detector was used. The detector was fully characterized and calibrated with calculable undispersed as well as monochromatized synchrotron radiation. The obtained quantum efficiency and the response functions are in very good agreement with the corresponding Geant4 simulations. At the electron storage ring BESSY II the number of incident photons in the scattering experiments was measured with a photodiode that had been calibrated against a cryogenic radiometer, so that a direct comparison of scattering experiments with Monte Carlo simulations using Geant4 was possible. It was shown that Geant4 describes the photoeffect, including fluorescence as well as the Compton and Rayleigh scattering, with high accuracy, resulting in a deviation of typically less than 20%. Even polarization effects are widely covered by Geant4, and for Doppler broadening of Compton-scattered radiation the extension G4LECS can be included, but the fact that both features cannot be combined is a limitation. For most polarization-dependent simulations, good agreement with the experimental results was found, except for some orientations where Rayleigh scattering was overestimated in the simulation.

  12. Comparison of scattering experiments using synchrotron radiation with Monte Carlo simulations using Geant4

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gerlach, M.; Krumrey, M.; Cibik, L.; Müller, P.; Ulm, G.

    2009-09-01

    Monte Carlo techniques are powerful tools to simulate the interaction of electromagnetic radiation with matter. One of the most widespread simulation program packages is Geant4. Almost all physical interaction processes can be included. However, it is not evident what accuracy can be obtained by a simulation. In this work, results of scattering experiments using monochromatized synchrotron radiation in the X-ray regime are quantitatively compared to the results of simulations using Geant4. Experiments were performed for various scattering foils made of different materials such as copper and gold. For energy-dispersive measurements of the scattered radiation, a cadmium telluride detector was used. The detector was fully characterized and calibrated with calculable undispersed as well as monochromatized synchrotron radiation. The obtained quantum efficiency and the response functions are in very good agreement with the corresponding Geant4 simulations. At the electron storage ring BESSY II the number of incident photons in the scattering experiments was measured with a photodiode that had been calibrated against a cryogenic radiometer, so that a direct comparison of scattering experiments with Monte Carlo simulations using Geant4 was possible. It was shown that Geant4 describes the photoeffect, including fluorescence as well as the Compton and Rayleigh scattering, with high accuracy, resulting in a deviation of typically less than 20%. Even polarization effects are widely covered by Geant4, and for Doppler broadening of Compton-scattered radiation the extension G4LECS can be included, but the fact that both features cannot be combined is a limitation. For most polarization-dependent simulations, good agreement with the experimental results was found, except for some orientations where Rayleigh scattering was overestimated in the simulation.

  13. Comparison of scattering experiments using synchrotron radiation with Monte Carlo simulations using Geant4

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Gerlach, M. [Physikalisch-Technische Bundesanstalt, Abbestr. 2-12, 10587 Berlin (Germany); Krumrey, M. [Physikalisch-Technische Bundesanstalt, Abbestr. 2-12, 10587 Berlin (Germany)], E-mail: Michael.Krumrey@ptb.de; Cibik, L.; Mueller, P.; Ulm, G. [Physikalisch-Technische Bundesanstalt, Abbestr. 2-12, 10587 Berlin (Germany)

    2009-09-11

    Monte Carlo techniques are powerful tools to simulate the interaction of electromagnetic radiation with matter. One of the most widespread simulation program packages is Geant4. Almost all physical interaction processes can be included. However, it is not evident what accuracy can be obtained by a simulation. In this work, results of scattering experiments using monochromatized synchrotron radiation in the X-ray regime are quantitatively compared to the results of simulations using Geant4. Experiments were performed for various scattering foils made of different materials such as copper and gold. For energy-dispersive measurements of the scattered radiation, a cadmium telluride detector was used. The detector was fully characterized and calibrated with calculable undispersed as well as monochromatized synchrotron radiation. The obtained quantum efficiency and the response functions are in very good agreement with the corresponding Geant4 simulations. At the electron storage ring BESSY II the number of incident photons in the scattering experiments was measured with a photodiode that had been calibrated against a cryogenic radiometer, so that a direct comparison of scattering experiments with Monte Carlo simulations using Geant4 was possible. It was shown that Geant4 describes the photoeffect, including fluorescence as well as the Compton and Rayleigh scattering, with high accuracy, resulting in a deviation of typically less than 20%. Even polarization effects are widely covered by Geant4, and for Doppler broadening of Compton-scattered radiation the extension G4LECS can be included, but the fact that both features cannot be combined is a limitation. For most polarization-dependent simulations, good agreement with the experimental results was found, except for some orientations where Rayleigh scattering was overestimated in the simulation.

  14. Forward and backward scattering experiments in ultra-cold Rubidium atoms

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Kampel, Nir Shlomo

    project, we have studied coherent forward scattering in the form of a memory experiment. In such an experiment we convert the input light pulse to an atomic excitation, and at a later time convert back the atomic excitation into the retrieved light pulse. In the first project, we investigate the source...

  15. Analysis of hard exclusive scattering processes of the HERMES recoil experiment

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Brodski, Irina

    2014-11-01

    Deeply virtual Compton Scattering (DVCS), ep → epγ is the simplest reaction giving indication of generalized parton distributions (GPD) of the nucleon. The DVCS process has the same final state as the Bethe-Heitler process (BH). For this reason the access is taken not through the cross-sections directly but through asymmetries between DVCS events depending on charge and polarization of the 27.6 GeV beam. For the first time the azimuthal asymmetry amplitudes according the charge of the lepton beam are extracted using a kinematically complete reconstruction method at the HERMES experiment. The recoil detector installed in 2006 allows the reconstruction of recoiling protons that completes the measurements of the forward detector to cover almost the complete angle range around the vertex. This approach allows suppressing the background processes by almost a complete magnitude compared to the traditional method using only the information of the forward spectrometer. The analysis of the asymmetries was carried out at different values of the kinematic variables t c' x B and Q 2 to investigate the dependence of these variables. This work pushes the limits of the readability of data and shows which periods have been found to be unstable in the data acquisition. It points out the impact of this finding to previous HERMES publications.

  16. Analysis and implementation of a space resolving spherical crystal spectrometer for x-ray Thomson scattering experiments.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Harding, E C; Ao, T; Bailey, J E; Loisel, G; Sinars, D B; Geissel, M; Rochau, G A; Smith, I C

    2015-04-01

    The application of a space-resolving spectrometer to X-ray Thomson Scattering (XRTS) experiments has the potential to advance the study of warm dense matter. This has motivated the design of a spherical crystal spectrometer, which is a doubly focusing geometry with an overall high sensitivity and the capability of providing high-resolution, space-resolved spectra. A detailed analysis of the image fluence and crystal throughput in this geometry is carried out and analytical estimates of these quantities are presented. This analysis informed the design of a new spectrometer intended for future XRTS experiments on the Z-machine. The new spectrometer collects 6 keV x-rays with a spherically bent Ge (422) crystal and focuses the collected x-rays onto the Rowland circle. The spectrometer was built and then tested with a foam target. The resulting high-quality spectra prove that a spherical spectrometer is a viable diagnostic for XRTS experiments.

  17. Cryogen free low temperature sample environment for neutron scattering experiments

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Kirichek, O; Evans, B E; Down, R B E; Bowden, Z A

    2009-01-01

    Recent increase in liquid helium cost caused by global helium supply problems rose significant concern about affordability of conventional cryogenic equipment. Luckily the progress in cryo-cooler technology offers a new generation of cryogenic systems with significantly reduced consumption and in some cases nearly complete elimination of cryogens. These cryogen-free systems also offer the advantage of operational simplicity and require less space than conventional cryogen-cooled systems. The ISIS facility carries on an internal development program intended to substitute gradually all conventional cryogenic systems with cryogen free systems preferably based on pulse tube refrigerators. A unique feature of this cryo-cooler is the absence of cold moving parts. This considerably reduces vibrations and increases the reliability of the cold head. The program includes few development projects which are aiming to deliver range of cryogen free equipment including top-loading cryostat, superconducting magnets and dilution refrigerators. Here we are going to describe the design of these systems and discuss the results of prototypes testing.

  18. Modelling of the UO2 dissolution mechanisms in synthetic groundwater. Experiments carried out under anaerobic and reducing conditions

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Cera, E.; Grive, M.; Bruno, J.; Ollila, K.

    2000-07-01

    The experimental data generated under anaerobic and reducing conditions within the EU R and D programme 1996-1998 entitled 'Source term for performance assessment of spent fuel as a waste form' and published as a POSIVA report (Ollila, 1999) have been modelled in the present work. The dissolution data available, mainly U in the aqueous phase as a function of time and redox potentials have been used to elucidate the redox pairs controlling the redox potential of the systems studied. Dissolution experiments carried out under anaerobic conditions have shown the important role of the uranium system on buffering the redox capacity of these systems. In the presence of carbonates in the system, the redox control has been given by the UO 2 (c)/U(VI) aqueous redox couple while in absence of carbonates in the system, the redox control has been governed by the UO 2 (c)/UO 2+x transition. In addition dissolution rates have been satisfactorily modelled by assuming an oxidative dissolution mechanism consisting in an initial oxidation of the surface of the uranium dioxide, binding of the HCO 3 or H+ at the U(VI) sites of the oxidised surface layer and detachment of these surface complexes. The redox controls in the experiments carried out under reducing conditions have been exerted by the different reducing agents added in the systems. Therefore, the addition of Fe 2+ lead to a redox control exerted by the Fe 2+ /Fe(OH) 3 (s) redox pair, while the addition of sulphide lead to a different redox control governed by the HS/SO 3 2- redox pair. (orig.)

  19. Modelling of the UO{sub 2} dissolution mechanisms in synthetic groundwater. Experiments carried out under anaerobic and reducing conditions

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Cera, E.; Grive, M.; Bruno, J. [EnvirosQuantiSci (Spain); Ollila, K. [VTT Chemical Technology, Espoo (Finland)

    2000-07-01

    The experimental data generated under anaerobic and reducing conditions within the EU R and D programme 1996-1998 entitled 'Source term for performance assessment of spent fuel as a waste form' and published as a POSIVA report (Ollila, 1999) have been modelled in the present work. The dissolution data available, mainly U in the aqueous phase as a function of time and redox potentials have been used to elucidate the redox pairs controlling the redox potential of the systems studied. Dissolution experiments carried out under anaerobic conditions have shown the important role of the uranium system on buffering the redox capacity of these systems. In the presence of carbonates in the system, the redox control has been given by the UO{sub 2}(c)/U(VI) aqueous redox couple while in absence of carbonates in the system, the redox control has been governed by the UO{sub 2}(c)/UO{sub 2+x} transition. In addition dissolution rates have been satisfactorily modelled by assuming an oxidative dissolution mechanism consisting in an initial oxidation of the surface of the uranium dioxide, binding of the HCO{sub 3} or H+ at the U(VI) sites of the oxidised surface layer and detachment of these surface complexes. The redox controls in the experiments carried out under reducing conditions have been exerted by the different reducing agents added in the systems. Therefore, the addition of Fe{sup 2+} lead to a redox control exerted by the Fe{sup 2+}/Fe(OH){sub 3}(s) redox pair, while the addition of sulphide lead to a different redox control governed by the HS/SO{sub 3}{sup 2-} redox pair. (orig.)

  20. Validation of large-angle scattering data via shadow-bar experiment

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Ohnishi, S., E-mail: ohnishi@nmri.go.jp [National Maritime Research Institute, 6-38-1, Shinkawa, Mitaka, Tokyo 181-0004 (Japan); Tamaki, S.; Murata, I. [Osaka University, 1-14-16-1, Yamadaoka, Suita-si, Osaka 565-0871 (Japan)

    2016-11-15

    Highlights: • An experiment to validate large-angle scattering cross section is conducted. • Pieces of Nb foil are set behind a shadow bar to obtain the {sup 92m}Nb production rates. • The results calculated using ENDF/B-VI library data exhibit a 57% overestimation. • The adjustment of cross section in large-angle region makes the C/E close to 1. - Abstract: An experiment emphasizing the influence of large-angle scattering on nuclear data was conducted, in which a Fe shadow bar and a Fe slab target were placed before a deuterium–tritium fusion (DT) neutron source. Two Nb foils were set on both sides of the shadow bar in order to monitor the neutron source intensity and to measure the neutrons scattered from the slab target. The {sup 93}Nb(n,2n){sup 92m}Nb reaction rate of the foil was measured following the DT neutron irradiation and calculated using the MCNP5 Monte Carlo radiation transportation code. The {sup 92m}Nb production rates calculated using data from the JEFF-3.1 and JENDL-4.0 libraries agreed with that measured in the experiment, while the result calculated using data from the ENDF/B-VI library exhibited a 57% overestimation. Because the sensitivity of the {sup 92m}Nb production rate to the scattering angular distribution was large in the angular region between scattering direction cosines of −0.9 and −0.4, the scattering angular distribution was adjusted in that region. This adjustment resulted in a calculation-to-experiment ratio close to 1, but had little influence on the existing integral benchmark experiment.

  1. Background determination for the neutron-neutron scattering experiment at the reactor YAGUAR

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Muzichka, A.Yu. [Joint Institute for Nuclear Research, 141980 Dubna (Russian Federation); Furman, W.I. [Joint Institute for Nuclear Research, 141980 Dubna (Russian Federation); Lychagin, E.V. [Joint Institute for Nuclear Research, 141980 Dubna (Russian Federation); Krylov, A.R. [Joint Institute for Nuclear Research, 141980 Dubna (Russian Federation); Nekhaev, G.V. [Joint Institute for Nuclear Research, 141980 Dubna (Russian Federation); Sharapov, E.I. [Joint Institute for Nuclear Research, 141980 Dubna (Russian Federation); Shvetsov, V.N. [Joint Institute for Nuclear Research, 141980 Dubna (Russian Federation); Strelkov, A.V. [Joint Institute for Nuclear Research, 141980 Dubna (Russian Federation); Levakov, B.G. [Russian Federal Nuclear Center-All-Russian Research Institute of Technical Physics, PO Box 245, 456770 Snezhinsk (Russian Federation); Lyzhin, A.E. [Russian Federal Nuclear Center-All-Russian Research Institute of Technical Physics, PO Box 245, 456770 Snezhinsk (Russian Federation); Chernukhin, Yu.I. [Russian Federal Nuclear Center-All-Russian Research Institute of Technical Physics, PO Box 245, 456770 Snezhinsk (Russian Federation); Kandiev, Ya.Z. [Russian Federal Nuclear Center-All-Russian Research Institute of Technical Physics, PO Box 245, 456770 Snezhinsk (Russian Federation); Howell, C.R. [Duke University and Triangle Universities Nuclear Laboratory, Durham, NC 27708-0308 (United States); Mitchell, G.E. [North Carolina State University, Raleigh, NC 27695-8202 (United States); Triangle Universities Nuclear Laboratory, Durham, NC 27708-0308 (United States); Crawford, B.E. [Gettysburg College, Box 405, Gettysburg, PA 17325 (United States); Stephenson, S.L. [Gettysburg College, Box 405, Gettysburg, PA 17325 (United States)]. E-mail: sstephen@gettysburg.edu; Tornow, W. [Duke University and Triangle Universities Nuclear Laboratory, Durham, NC 27708-0308 (United States)

    2007-06-01

    The motivation and design is outlined for the experiment to measure the neutron-neutron singlet scattering length directly with thermal neutrons at the pulsed reactor YAGUAR. A statistical accuracy of 3% can be reached, though achieving the goal of an overall accuracy of 3-5% for the nn-scattering length depends on the background level. Possible sources of background are discussed in depth and the results of extensive modeling of the background are presented. Measurements performed at YAGUAR to test these background calculations are described. The experimental results indicate an anticipated background level up to 30% relative to the expected nn effect at the maximal energy burst of the reactor. The conclusion is made that the nn experiment at YAGUAR is feasible to produce the first directly measured value for the neutron-neutron scattering length.

  2. A qualitative study exploring student midwives' experiences of carrying a caseload as part of their midwifery education in England.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rawnson, Stella

    2011-12-01

    To explore student midwives' experiences of caseloading to develop an understanding of how they perceive this educational strategy has impacted on their learning journey to becoming a midwife. A qualitative approach drawing upon the principles of grounded theory. Data were collected by in-depth semi-structured interviews. A university in the South of England providing undergraduate pre-registration midwifery education across Advanced Diploma and BSc (Hons) programmes. Eight Caucasian female final-year student midwives aged 23-50 years who had completed their caseloading experience. One core category ('making it good') and four major categories emerged: (1) 'developing and managing caseload', (2) 'learning partnerships', (3) 'feeling like a midwife' and (4) 'afterwards'. The core category was reflected in all the other categories and was dependent upon them. Students identified caseloading as a highly beneficial learning approach, facilitating application of theory to practice and acquisition of new skills promoting confidence and competence in practice. Students articulated an overwhelming desire and concern to meet and facilitate women's expectations. Perceptions of letting the woman down evoked feelings of inadequacy and failure. Flexible working practices, on-call commitment and carrying a caseload alongside academic and home commitments was, for many, emotionally stressful. Effective preparation of students for the realities of caseloading, the development of realistic caseloads that take account of the student's individual situation, and the provision of supportive frameworks are essential. Copyright © 2010 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  3. MCRTOF, Multiple Scattering of Resonance Region Neutron in Time of Flight Experiments

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Ohkubo, Mako

    1984-01-01

    1 - Description of program or function: Multiple scattering of neutrons in the resonance energy region impinging on a disk with an arbitrary angle. 2 - Method of solution: The Monte Carlo method is employed to simulate the path of an incident neutron in a medium for which macroscopic cross sections are determined by resonance parameters. By tracing a large number of neutrons, probabilities for capture, transmission, front-face scattering, rear-face scattering and side-face scattering are determined and printed out as function of incident neutron energy. Optionally, the distribution of capture locations in the disk can be printed. The incident neutron energy is swept to fit a situation as encountered in time-of-flight experiments. 3 - Restrictions on the complexity of the problem: The cross section file is constructed from input resonance parameters with a single- level Breit-Wigner formula. The following restrictions and simplifications apply: - The maximum number of resonances is five. - Reactions other than capture and scattering are neglected. - The angular scattering distribution in the center-of-mass system is assumed to be uniform. - Chemical binding effects are neglected

  4. A new instrumental set-up for polarized neutron scattering experiments

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Schmidt, Wolfgang; Ohl, Michael

    2005-01-01

    Neutron scattering with polarization analysis is a powerful tool to determine magnetic structures and excitations. A common setup is to mount the sample at the center of a Helmholtz-type coil which can provide a magnetic field of any direction at the sample position and also a guide field along the neutron flight paths around the sample. Recent experiments showed quite a high demand for measurements at low momentum transfers. For the corresponding low scattering angles air scattering gives rise to a very large background. For this reason we have extended the standard setup to a combination of a large vacuum tank surrounded by electrical coils. The vacuum tank eliminates the air scattering and we can use the polarization analysis down to the lowest accessible momentum transfers. The coils themselves also show some new features: In contrary to the classic (symmetric) coil distribution we use an asymmetric setup which gives the advantage of a larger scattering window. Due to a more sophisticated current distribution this modified coil arrangement needs not to be rotated for different scattering conditions. The whole set-up will soon be available at IN12, a cold neutrons three-axis spectrometer operated by FZ Juelich in collaboration with CEA Grenoble as a CRG-B instrument at the Institut Laue Langevin in Grenoble

  5. Data processing with PC-9801 micro-computer for HCN laser scattering experiments

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Iwasaki, T.; Okajima, S.; Kawahata, K.; Tetsuka, T.; Fujita, J.

    1986-09-01

    In order to process the data of HCN laser scattering experiments, a micro-computer software has been developed and applied to the measurements of density fluctuations in the JIPP T-IIU tokamak plasma. The data processing system consists of a spectrum analyzer, SM-2100A Signal Analyzer (IWATSU ELECTRIC CO., LTD.), PC-9801m3 micro-computer, a CRT-display and a dot-printer. The output signals from the spectrum analyzer are A/D converted, and stored on a mini-floppy-disk equipped to the signal analyzer. The software to process the data is composed of system-programs and several user-programs. The real time data processing is carried out for every shot of plasma at 4 minutes interval by the micro-computer connected with the signal analyzer through a GP-IB interface. The time evolutions of the frequency spectrum of the density fluctuations are displayed on the CRT attached to the micro-computer and printed out on a printer-sheet. In the case of the data processing after experiments, the data stored on the floppy-disk of the signal analyzer are read out by using a floppy-disk unit attached to the micro-computer. After computation with the user-programs, the results, such as monitored signal, frequency spectra, wave number spectra and the time evolutions of the spectrum, are displayed and printed out. In this technical report, the system, the software and the directions for use are described. (author)

  6. Neutron inelastic scattering experiments on the mixed-valent compound YbCuAl

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Mattens, W.C.M.; de Boer, F.R.; Murani, A.P.; Lander, G.H.

    1979-01-01

    The dynamical susceptibility of YbCuAl has been established by means of time of flight neutron scattering experiments. Non-Korringa behavior of the quasi-elastic line-width has been found and comparison with NMR data will be given

  7. Laser Light Scattering, from an Advanced Technology Development Program to Experiments in a Reduced Gravity Environment

    Science.gov (United States)

    Meyer, William V.; Tscharnuter, Walther W.; Macgregor, Andrew D.; Dautet, Henri; Deschamps, Pierre; Boucher, Francois; Zuh, Jixiang; Tin, Padetha; Rogers, Richard B.; Ansari, Rafat R.

    1994-01-01

    Recent advancements in laser light scattering hardware are described. These include intelligent single card correlators; active quench/active reset avalanche photodiodes; laser diodes; and fiber optics which were used by or developed for a NASA advanced technology development program. A space shuttle experiment which will employ aspects of these hardware developments is previewed.

  8. Carrying Capacity

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Schroll, Henning; Andersen, Jan; Kjærgård, Bente

    2012-01-01

    A spatial planning act was introduced inIndonesia 1992 and renewed in 2008. It emphasised the planning role of decentralised authorities. The spatial planning act covers both spatial and environmental issues. It defines the concept of carrying capacity and includes definitions of supportive....../cities. Four different sectors (water, food production, waste, and forests) were selected as core areas for decentralised spatial planning. Indicators for SCC and ACC were identified and assessed with regard to relevance and quantifiability. For each of the indicators selected, a legal threshold or guiding...... was introduced inIndonesia 1992 and renewed in 2008. It emphasised the planning role of decentralised authorities. The spatial planning act covers both spatial and environmental issues. It defines the concept of carrying capacity and includes definitions of supportive carrying capacity (SCC) and assimilative...

  9. The EDDA experiment: proton-proton elastic scattering excitation functions at intermediate energies

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Hinterberher, F.

    1996-01-01

    The EDDA experiment is designed to provide a high precision measurement of proton-proton elastic scattering excitation functions ranging from 0.5 to 2.5 GeV of (lab) incident kinetic energy. It is an internal target experiment utilizing the proton beam of the cooler synchrotron COSY operated by KFA Juelich. The excitation functions are measured during the acceleration ramp of COSY. (author)

  10. From light polarization to the basic ideas of Quantum Mechanics. Experience carried out in a Technical Institute in Scampia (Naples)

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Moretti, M.

    2014-01-01

    The article focuses on teaching/learning Quantum Mechanics (QM) in secondary schools and involves two fundamental aspects: teacher training and experimentation in the classroom, carefully reflecting on the content and highlighting innovation in the teaching methodology. The experience of training took place within a second level post-graduate Master course for Physics teachers (The II level post-graduate Master course in Didactic Innovation in Physics and Guidance (Innovazione Didattica in Fisica e Orientamento IDIFO) http://www.fisica.uniud.it/ URDF/laurea/index.htm) is directed by M. Michelini. The University of Udine organizes the course with the collaboration of the Physiscs Education Research Groups of eighteen Italian Universities, and is a part of a training project addressed to physics teachers focused on modern physics. IDIFO is part of a national plan of the Ministry of Education, Research and University for the Scientific Degrees project (Piano Lauree Scientifiche)), based on a module dedicated to teaching/learning QM according to the fundamental concepts of Dirac theory. The teacher achieved formation attending three e-learning courses about teaching/learning quantum mechanics in secondary schools, researching and discussing research materials of physics education, planning an intervention module and experimenting in a real classroom the planned innovative path for a situated formation. The experimentation, carried out in a fifth class of a Technical Institute at Scampia (Naples), made the conclusive phase and gave data concerning the thinking ways of the students about some basic concepts of QM collected and evaluated. In particular, average students focused more the functional/applicative aspects of formal and conceptual constructs rather than on their physical meanings.

  11. Precise measurement in elastic electron scattering: HAPPEX and E-158 experiments

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Vacheret, A.

    2004-12-01

    Parity Violation asymmetry measurements in elastic electron scattering are in one hand an interesting way of retrieving new informations about the sea quarks of the nucleon and in the other hand a powerful test of the Standard Model electroweak sector at low energy. This thesis describes the HAPPEX experiment at JLab and the E-158 experiment at SLAC (USA) which measure de parity violation asymmetries in elastic scattering of polarized electron on nuclei like Hydrogen or Helium and on atomic electrons. With the measurements on hadronic targets one can extract the strange quarks contribution to the charge and current density of the nucleon. With the electron-electron scattering one can test the standard model at the loop level and far from the Z pole by extracting sin 2 θ W . In this thesis we describe the formalism associated with the electroweak probe. We present in detail the experimental methods used to make such precise measurements of parity violation asymmetry. Then, we describe the experimental set-up of each experiment and in particular the electron detector and the feedback loop on the beam current for the HAPPEX experiment and the analysis of E-158 run III with a dedicated systematic study on the beam sub-pulse fluctuations. We present the preliminary results for each experiment with a comparison with the other existing results and the future experiments. (author)

  12. Inelastic neutron scattering experiments with the monochromatic imaging mode of the RITA-II spectrometer

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Bahl, C.R.H.; Lefmann, K.; Abrahamsen, A.B.; Ronnow, H.M.; Saxild, F.; Jensen, T.B.S.; Udby, L.; Andersen, N.H.; Christensen, N.B.; Jakobsen, H.S.; Larsen, T.; Haefliger, P.S.; Streule, S.; Niedermayer, Ch.

    2006-01-01

    Recently a monochromatic multiple data taking mode has been demonstrated for diffraction experiments using a RITA type cold neutron spectrometer with a multi-bladed analyser and a position-sensitive detector. Here, we show how this mode can be used in combination with a flexible radial collimator to perform real inelastic neutron scattering experiments. We present the results from inelastic powder, single crystal dispersion and single crystal constant energy mapping experiments. The advantages and complications of performing these experiments are discussed along with a comparison between the imaging mode and the traditional monochromatic focussing mode

  13. Inelastic neutron scattering experiments with the monochromatic imaging mode of the RITA-II spectrometer

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Bahl, C.R.H. [Department of Materials Research, Riso National Laboratory, Building 227, Frederiksborgvej 399, DK-4000 Roskilde (Denmark) and Department of Physics, Technical University of Denmark, DK-2800 Lyngby (Denmark)]. E-mail: christian.bahl@risoe.dk; Lefmann, K. [Department of Materials Research, Riso National Laboratory, Building 227, Frederiksborgvej 399, DK-4000 Roskilde (Denmark)]. E-mail: kim.lefmann@risoe.dk; Abrahamsen, A.B. [Department of Materials Research, Riso National Laboratory, Building 227, Frederiksborgvej 399, DK-4000 Roskilde (Denmark); Ronnow, H.M. [Laboratory for Neutron Scattering, Paul Scherrer Institute, CH-5232 Villigen (Switzerland); Saxild, F. [Department of Materials Research, Riso National Laboratory, Building 227, Frederiksborgvej 399, DK-4000 Roskilde (Denmark); Jensen, T.B.S. [Department of Materials Research, Riso National Laboratory, Building 227, Frederiksborgvej 399, DK-4000 Roskilde (Denmark); Udby, L. [Department of Materials Research, Riso National Laboratory, Building 227, Frederiksborgvej 399, DK-4000 Roskilde (Denmark); Andersen, N.H. [Department of Materials Research, Riso National Laboratory, Building 227, Frederiksborgvej 399, DK-4000 Roskilde (Denmark); Christensen, N.B. [Department of Materials Research, Riso National Laboratory, Building 227, Frederiksborgvej 399, DK-4000 Roskilde (Denmark); Laboratory for Neutron Scattering, Paul Scherrer Institute, CH-5232 Villigen (Switzerland); Jakobsen, H.S. [Niels Bohr Institute for Astronomy, Physics and Geophysics, University of Copenhagen, DK-2100 Copenhagen (Denmark); Larsen, T. [Niels Bohr Institute for Astronomy, Physics and Geophysics, University of Copenhagen, DK-2100 Copenhagen (Denmark); Haefliger, P.S. [Laboratory for Neutron Scattering, Paul Scherrer Institute, CH-5232 Villigen (Switzerland); Streule, S.; Niedermayer, Ch. [Laboratory for Neutron Scattering, Paul Scherrer Institute, CH-5232 Villigen (Switzerland)

    2006-05-15

    Recently a monochromatic multiple data taking mode has been demonstrated for diffraction experiments using a RITA type cold neutron spectrometer with a multi-bladed analyser and a position-sensitive detector. Here, we show how this mode can be used in combination with a flexible radial collimator to perform real inelastic neutron scattering experiments. We present the results from inelastic powder, single crystal dispersion and single crystal constant energy mapping experiments. The advantages and complications of performing these experiments are discussed along with a comparison between the imaging mode and the traditional monochromatic focussing mode.

  14. Neutrino Scattering Uncertainties and their Role in Long Baseline Oscillation Experiments

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    D.A. Harris; G. Blazey; Arie Bodek; D. Boehnlein; S. Boyd; William Brooks; Antje Bruell; Howard S. Budd; R. Burnstein; D. Casper; A. Chakravorty; Michael Christy; Jesse Chvojka; M.A.C. Cummings; P. deBarbaro; D. Drakoulakos; J. Dunmore; Rolf Ent; Hugh Gallagher; David Gaskell; Ronald Gilman; Charles Glashausser; Wendy Hinton; Xiaodong Jiang; T. Kafka; O. Kamaev; Cynthia Keppel; M. Kostin; Sergey Kulagin; Gerfried Kumbartzki; Steven Manly; W.A. Mann; Kevin Mcfarland-porter; Wolodymyr Melnitchouk; Jorge Morfin; D. Naples; John Nelson; Gabriel Niculescu; Maria-ioana Niculescu; W. Oliver; Michael Paolone; Emmanuel Paschos; A. Pla-Dalmau; Ronald Ransome; C. Regis; P. Rubinov; V. Rykalin; Willis Sakumoto; P. Shanahan; N. Solomey; P. Spentzouris; P. Stamoulis; G. Tzanakos; Stephen Wood; F.X. Yumiceva; B. Ziemer; M. Zois

    2004-01-01

    The field of oscillation physics is about to make an enormous leap forward in statistical precision: first through the MINOS experiment in the coming year, and later through the NOvA and T2K experiments. Because of the relatively poor understanding of neutrino interactions in the energy ranges of these experiments, there are systematics that can arise in interpreting far detector data that can be as large as or even larger than the expected statistical uncertainties. We describe how these systematic errors arise, and how specific measurements in a dedicated neutrino scattering experiment like MINERvA can reduce the cross section systematic errors to well below the statistical errors

  15. Geometry Survey of the Time-of-Flight Neutron-Elastic Scattering (Antonella) Experiment

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Oshinowo, Babatunde O. [Fermilab; Izraelevitch, Federico [Buenos Aires U.

    2016-10-17

    The Antonella experiment is a measurement of the ionization efficiency of nuclear recoils in silicon at low energies [1]. It is a neutron elastic scattering experiment motivated by the search for dark matter particles. In this experiment, a proton beam hits a lithium target and neutrons are produced. The neutron shower passes through a collimator that produces a neutron beam. The beam illuminates a silicon detector. With a certain probability, a neutron interacts with a silicon nucleus of the detector producing elastic scattering. After the interaction, a fraction of the neutron energy is transferred to the silicon nucleus which acquires kinetic energy and recoils. This kinetic energy is then dissipated in the detector producing ionization and thermal energy. The ionization produced is measured with the silicon detector electronics. On the other hand, the neutron is scattered out of the beam. A neutron-detector array (made of scintillator bars) registers the neutron arrival time and the scattering angle to reconstruct the kinematics of the neutron-nucleus interaction with the time-of-flight technique [2]. In the reconstruction equations, the energy of the nuclear recoil is a function of the scattering angle with respect to the beam direction, the time-of-flight of the neutron and the geometric distances between components of the setup (neutron-production target, silicon detector, scintillator bars). This paper summarizes the survey of the different components of the experiment that made possible the off-line analysis of the collected data. Measurements were made with the API Radian Laser Tracker and I-360 Probe Wireless. The survey was completed at the University of Notre Dame, Indiana, USA in February 2015.

  16. Investigation with automatic ultrasonic equipment to trace flaws in a large test piece, and experience gained in carrying out inspections

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Lindner, J.P.

    1975-01-01

    Based on the FRG codes providing guide lines for the Reactor Safety Commission regarding the size and location of flaws to be detected during in-service inspections, investigations were carried out into the possibility of detecting defects in thick-walled reactor pressure vessel components with the aid of ultrasonic inspection systems. A large test rig was used and, in a similar manner to the in-service inspections on a reactor, the tests were carried out with remote-controlled, automatically guided inspection equipment. For this purpose, a test specimen weighing about 10 tons was produced and provided with two weld seams having a large number of artificial defects. Essential parameters for the various reflectors in the test specimen were the size, location, angle and roughness or structure of the reflecting surfaces. As it is known that austenitic cladding has a considerable influence on flaw detection, the tests were undertaken first without cladding and then with cladding. A manipulator was designed for automatic remote-controlled inspection with which the inspection system travels on a meandering route over the area to be inspected. The inspection system employed was of the same type as the one used for baseline tests during external inspections of reactor vessel walls with parallel surfaces. Digital data collection was by a magnetic tape recorder designed to store both the data of the ultrasonic inspection system as well as the allied position data. The data stored on the tape are evaluated with electronic data processing programmes especially developed for this purpose. These programmes allow locally coherent indication patterns to be prepared, thus simplifying the interpretation of the data obtained. The author initially describes the equipment with the aid of which the studies were undertaken. A detailed discussion is then presented on the design of the test specimen and the inspection systems employed. Following this, the results obtained are explained and

  17. Update on the direct n-n scattering experiment at the reactor YAGUAR

    Science.gov (United States)

    Stephenson, S. L.; Crawford, B. E.; Furman, W. I.; Lychagin, E. V.; Muzichka, A. Yu.; Nekhaev, G. V.; Sharapov, E. I.; Shvetsov, V. N.; Strelkov, A. V.; Levakov, B. G.; Lyzhin, A. E.; Chernukhin, Yu. I.; Howell, C. R.; Mitchell, G. E.; Tornow, W.; Showalter-Bucher, R. A.

    2013-10-01

    The first direct measurement of the 1S0 neutron-neutron scattering experiment using the YAGUAR aperiodic reactor at the Russian Federal Nuclear Center - All Russian Research Institute of Technical Physics has preliminary results. Thermal neutrons are scattered from a thermal neutron ``gas'' within the scattering chamber of the reactor and measured via time-of-flight. These initial results show an unexpectedly large thermal neutron background now understood to be from radiation-induced desorption within the scattering chamber. Analysis of the neutron time-of-flight spectra suggests neutron scattering from H2 and possibly H2O molecules. An experimental value for the desorption yield ηγ of 0.02 molecules/gamma agrees with modeled results. Techniques to reduce the effect of the nonthermal desorption will be presented. This work was supported in part by ISTC project No. 2286, Russia Found. Grant 01-02-17181, the US DOE grants Nos. DE-FG02-97-ER41042 and DE-FG02-97-ER41033, and by the US NSF through Award Nos. 0107263 and 0555652.

  18. Elastic scattering of protons at the TOTEM experiment at the LHC

    CERN Document Server

    AUTHOR|(CDS)2080719; Csanád, Máté; Niewiadomski, Hubert

    The TOTEM experiment at the LHC at CERN is optimized to measure elastic and diffractive scattering at the LHC and measures the total proton-proton cross-section with\tthe luminosity-independent method. The TOTEM experiment uses the special technique of movable beam pipe insertions -- called Roman Pots -- to detect very forward protons. The reconstruction of the forward proton kinematics requires the precise understanding of the LHC beam optics. A new method of LHC optics determination is reported, which exploits kinematical distributions of elastically scattered proton-proton data measured by the Roman Pots of the TOTEM experiment. The method has been successfully applied to data samples recorded since 2010. The interpretation of the proton-proton elastic differential cross-section is a challenging task. The geometrical model of proton-proton elastic scattering of Bialas and Bzdak is fitted to ISR data and to data measured by the TOTEM experiment at LHC energy of $\\sqrt{s}=7$~TeV. The Bialas-Bzdak model is g...

  19. Multiple scattering effects in fast neutron polarization experiments using high-pressure helium-xenon gas scintillators as analyzers

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Tornow, W.; Mertens, G.

    1977-01-01

    In order to study multiple scattering effects both in the gas and particularly in the solid materials of high-pressure gas scintillators, two asymmetry experiments have been performed by scattering of 15.6 MeV polarized neutrons from helium contained in stainless steel vessels of different wall thicknesses. A monte Carlo computer code taking into account the polarization dependence of the differential scattering cross sections has been written to simulate the experiments and to calculate corrections for multiple scattering on helium, xenon and the gas containment materials. Besides the asymmetries for the various scattering processes involved, the code yields time-of-flight spectra of the scattered neutrons and pulse height spectra of the helium recoil nuclei in the gas scintillator. The agreement between experimental results and Monte Carlo calculations is satisfactory. (Auth.)

  20. Hard two-photon contribution to elastic lepton-proton scattering determined by the OLYMPUS experiment

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hasell, D. K.; OLYMPUS Collaboration

    2018-02-01

    The OLYMPUS collaboration has recently made a precise measurement of the positron-proton to electron-proton elastic scattering cross section ratio, R 2γ, over a wide range of the virtual photon polarization, 0.456 reasonable agreement with predictions based on phenomenological fits to the available form factor data. The motivation for measuring R 2γ will be presented followed by a description of the OLYMPUS experiment. The importance of radiative corrections in the analysis will be shown also. Then we will present the OLYMPUS results and compare with results from two similar experiments and theoretical calculations.

  1. Complete experiment for dp and 3He,d backward elastic scattering

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Rekalo, M.P.; Piskunov, N.M.; Sitnik, I.M.

    1997-01-01

    The problem of the complete experiment in backward elastic scattering of particles with spins of 1 and 1/2 is considered. For the first time all possible effects caused by polarization of one or two initial and one final particles are touched upon. The minimal set of measurements allowing to reconstruct each of four amplitudes describing this process is suggested. Some observables are expected to be sensitive to such deuteron peculiarities as possible P-wave components. The developed technique is a good tool to calculate easily the expectations in the Impulse Approximation for any observables. The geography of the complete experiment is briefly discussed

  2. A didactic experiment showing the Compton scattering by means of a clinical gamma camera.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Amato, Ernesto; Auditore, Lucrezia; Campennì, Alfredo; Minutoli, Fabio; Cucinotta, Mariapaola; Sindoni, Alessandro; Baldari, Sergio

    2017-06-01

    We describe a didactic approach aimed to explain the effect of Compton scattering in nuclear medicine imaging, exploiting the comparison of a didactic experiment with a gamma camera with the outcomes from a Monte Carlo simulation of the same experimental apparatus. We employed a 99m Tc source emitting 140.5keV photons, collimated in the upper direction through two pinholes, shielded by 6mm of lead. An aluminium cylinder was placed on the source at 50mm of distance. The energy of the scattered photons was measured on the spectra acquired by the gamma camera. We observed that the gamma ray energy measured at each step of rotation gradually decreased from the characteristic energy of 140.5keV at 0° to 102.5keV at 120°. A comparison between the obtained data and the expected results from the Compton formula and from the Monte Carlo simulation revealed a full agreement within the experimental error (relative errors between -0.56% and 1.19%), given by the energy resolution of the gamma camera. Also the electron rest mass has been evaluated satisfactorily. The experiment was found useful in explaining nuclear medicine residents the phenomenology of the Compton scattering and its importance in the nuclear medicine imaging, and it can be profitably proposed during the training of medical physics residents as well. Copyright © 2017 Associazione Italiana di Fisica Medica. Published by Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  3. The SAMPLE experiment: Parity-violating electron scattering from the proton and deuteron

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Pitt, M.; Arrington, J.; Beck, D.; Beise, E.; Candell, E.; Cardman, L.; Carr, R.; Dodson, G.; Dow, K.; Duncan, F.; Farkhondeh, M.; Filippone, B.; Forest, T.; Gao, H.; Korsch, W.; Kowalski, S.; Lung, A.; McKeown, R.; Mohring, R.; Mueller, B.; Napolitano, J.; Simicevic, N.; Terburg, B.; Witkowski, M.

    1995-01-01

    Recent experimental evidence on nucleon structure has provided indications that some strange quark matrix elements can be comparable to those involving up and down quarks. The SAMPLE experiment will determine the strange magnetic form factor G s M at Q 2 =0.1 (GeV/c) 2 from a measurement of the asymmetry in the scattering of polarized electrons from the proton. The error on the extraction of G s M is ultimately limited by a theoretical uncertainty---the uncertain electroweak hadronic radiative correction to the axial form factor, R T=1 A . To address this issue, the collaboration is also approved to measure the asymmetry in parity-violating quasielastic electron scattering from the deuteron. The combination of the proton and deuteron measurements will yield a value of G s M that is almost completely free of the uncertainty in R T=1 A

  4. Meeting the future of coherent neutrino scattering. A feasibility study for upcoming reactor experiments

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Salathe, Marco; Rink, Thomas [Max-Planck-Institut fuer Kernphysik, Heidelberg (Germany)

    2016-07-01

    Due to ongoing progress in detector development and background suppression techniques first evidence of neutrino coherent scattering seems reachable in future experiments. In recent years efforts have been enhanced to detect this effect with germanium detectors. This work aims at summarizing and improving past studies on the potential of an experiment at a reactor site to a new level of accuracy by using the most recent neutrino spectra, knowledge gained in recent detector developments and in contrast to prior studies an energy-dependent quenching factor. The influence of the main parameters (background suppression, detector resolution and threshold, reactor spectra, different isotopes) of a germanium detector experiment is presented and the sensitivities regarding the main reaction channels are calculated. The results were obtained through two independent methods; an algebraic computation and a numerical simulation. Both methods reveal the most important experimental parameters and clarify the state of the art challenges that research has to meet in such an experiment.

  5. Preparation and characterisation of magnetic nanostructured samples for inelastic neutron scattering experiments

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Kreuzpaintner, Wolfgang

    2010-06-22

    Recent advances in thin-film structuring techniques have generated significant interest in the dynamics of spin waves in magnetic nanostructures and the possible use of inelastic neutron scattering (INS) for their investigation. This thesis describes the design and implementation, at GKSS Research Centre, of equipment for preparation of large and laterally submicron and nanometre structured magnetic samples for such future INS experiments. After a brief resume on spin waves in nanostructures, the development work on new purpose-designed equipment, including high vacuum (HV) argon ion beam milling and ultra high vacuum (UHV) e-beam evaporation setups, is described. Ni nanodot as well as Ni and novel Gd nanowire samples were prepared using combinations of sputter deposition, laser interference lithography, argon ion beam milling, e-beam evaporation and self organisation techniques. With reference to sample preparation, epitaxial growth studies for Ni on Si(100) substrate were performed, resulting in the development of a new deposition process, which by thermal tuning allows for the direct epitaxial growth of Ni on Si with unprecedented crystalline quality. The results of various characterisation experiments on the prepared nanostructured samples, including Scanning Electron Microscopy (SEM), microprobe analysis, Atomic and Magnetic Force Microscopy (AFM/MFM), Vibrating Sample Magnetometry (VSM), X-ray Diffraction (XRD) and Reflectivity (XRR), unpolarised and Polarised Neutron Scattering (PNR) and off-specular scattering by X-rays and neutrons using rocking scans and Time-Of-Flight Grazing Incidence Small Angle Neutron Scattering (TOF-GISANS), together with various analysis procedures such as Distorted-Wave Born Approximation (DWBA), are reported. The analysis of a Gd nanowire sample by TOF-GISANS led to a novel evaluation technique which in comparison with single wavelength methods allows portions of reciprocal space to be scanned without changing the angle of

  6. A fully computerized multi-pass Fabry-Perot interferometer for Rayleigh-Brillouin scattering experiments

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Bohidar, H.; Berland, T.; Boger, F.; Joessang, T.; Feder, J.

    1987-01-01

    The development of a Multipass Fabry-Perot interforometer assembly for use in Rayleigh-Brillouin scattering experiments is reported. The optical alignment and the scattered signal data acquisition have been completely computerized. Digital scanning and alignment strategies of the Fabry-Perot resonator have been incorporated, which makes this instrument quite unique in this respect. The high contrast (∼10 10 ) and finesse (∼50) offered by this instrument makes it possible to detect Brillouin peaks from samples that have a small Brillouin scattering cross-section. As part of this system a compatible and precision sample chamber has been constructed, which has been designed to operate in the pressure and temperature ranges of 1-1000B and 20-150 o C, respectively. The cell has been constructed to be small and compact, but it still has a large heat capacity (∼250J/K) which ensures easy and stable temperature control of the liquid sample volume which has a size of 40 mm 3 . The achievable temperature stability is +-1mK and +-2mK for operating temperatures below and above 100 o C, respectively. The pressure stability is in the range of +-0.05B of the set pressure for pressures below 100B and it is +-0.05% for higher pressures up to 1000B. Both pressure and temperature are remotely monitored and controlled by a ND/100 computer. Special care has been taken in designing the optics of the pressure cell to ensure that both the primary and secondary reflections from the entrance window, as well as the main beam, go out of the scattering region in order to achieve higher signal-to-noise ratio in actual experiments

  7. Stimulated scattering in laser driven fusion and high energy density physics experiments

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Yin, L., E-mail: lyin@lanl.gov; Albright, B. J.; Rose, H. A.; Montgomery, D. S.; Kline, J. L.; Finnegan, S. M.; Bergen, B.; Bowers, K. J. [Los Alamos National Laboratory, Los Alamos, New Mexico 87545 (United States); Kirkwood, R. K.; Milovich, J. [Lawrence Livermore National Laboratory, Livermore, California 94550 (United States)

    2014-09-15

    In laser driven fusion and high energy density physics experiments, one often encounters a kλ{sub D} range of 0.15 < kλ{sub D} < 0.5, where stimulated Raman scattering (SRS) is active (k is the initial electron plasma wave number and λ{sub D} is the Debye length). Using particle-in-cell simulations, the SRS reflectivity is found to scale as ∼ (kλ{sub D}){sup −4} for kλ{sub D} ≳ 0.3 where electron trapping effects dominate SRS saturation; the reflectivity scaling deviates from the above for kλ{sub D} < 0.3 when Langmuir decay instability (LDI) is present. The SRS risk is shown to be highest for kλ{sub D} between 0.2 and 0.3. SRS re-scattering processes are found to be unimportant under conditions relevant to ignition experiments at the National Ignition Facility (NIF). Large-scale simulations of the hohlraum plasma show that the SRS wavelength spectrum peaks below 600 nm, consistent with most measured NIF spectra, and that nonlinear trapping in the presence of plasma gradients determines the SRS spectral peak. Collisional effects on SRS, stimulated Brillouin scattering (SBS), LDI, and re-scatter, together with three dimensional effects, are examined. Effects of collisions are found to include de-trapping as well as cross-speckle electron temperature variation from collisional heating, the latter of which reduces gain, introduces a positive frequency shift that counters the trapping-induced negative frequency shift, and affects SRS and SBS saturation. Bowing and breakup of ion-acoustic wavefronts saturate SBS and cause a dramatic, sharp decrease in SBS reflectivity. Mitigation of SRS and SBS in the strongly nonlinear trapping regime is discussed.

  8. Preparation and characterisation of magnetic nanostructured samples for inelastic neutron scattering experiments

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Kreuzpaintner, Wolfgang

    2010-01-01

    Recent advances in thin-film structuring techniques have generated significant interest in the dynamics of spin waves in magnetic nanostructures and the possible use of inelastic neutron scattering (INS) for their investigation. This thesis describes the design and implementation, at GKSS Research Centre, of equipment for preparation of large and laterally submicron and nanometre structured magnetic samples for such future INS experiments. After a brief resume on spin waves in nanostructures, the development work on new purpose-designed equipment, including high vacuum (HV) argon ion beam milling and ultra high vacuum (UHV) e-beam evaporation setups, is described. Ni nanodot as well as Ni and novel Gd nanowire samples were prepared using combinations of sputter deposition, laser interference lithography, argon ion beam milling, e-beam evaporation and self organisation techniques. With reference to sample preparation, epitaxial growth studies for Ni on Si(100) substrate were performed, resulting in the development of a new deposition process, which by thermal tuning allows for the direct epitaxial growth of Ni on Si with unprecedented crystalline quality. The results of various characterisation experiments on the prepared nanostructured samples, including Scanning Electron Microscopy (SEM), microprobe analysis, Atomic and Magnetic Force Microscopy (AFM/MFM), Vibrating Sample Magnetometry (VSM), X-ray Diffraction (XRD) and Reflectivity (XRR), unpolarised and Polarised Neutron Scattering (PNR) and off-specular scattering by X-rays and neutrons using rocking scans and Time-Of-Flight Grazing Incidence Small Angle Neutron Scattering (TOF-GISANS), together with various analysis procedures such as Distorted-Wave Born Approximation (DWBA), are reported. The analysis of a Gd nanowire sample by TOF-GISANS led to a novel evaluation technique which in comparison with single wavelength methods allows portions of reciprocal space to be scanned without changing the angle of

  9. A letter of intent for a neutrino scattering experiment on the booster neutrino meanline: FINeSSE

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Fleming, B.T.; Tayloe, R.; /Indiana U. /Yale U.

    2005-03-01

    The experiment described in this Letter of Intent provides a decisive measurement of {Delta}s, the spin of the nucleon carried by strange quarks. This is crucial as, after more than thirty years of study, the spin contribution of strange quarks to the nucleon is still not understood. The interpretation of {Delta}s measurements from inclusive Deep Inelastic Scattering (DIS) experiments using charged leptons suffers from two questionable techniques; an assumption of SU(3)-flavor symmetry, and an extrapolation into unmeasured kinematic regions, both of which provide ample room for uncertain theoretical errors in the results. The results of recent semi-inclusive DIS data from HERMES paint a somewhat different picture of the contribution of strange quarks to the nucleon spin than do the inclusive results, but since HERMES does not make use of either of the above-mentioned techniques, then the results are somewhat incomparable. What is required is a measurement directly probing the spin contribution of the strange quarks in the nucleon. Neutrino experiments provide a theoretically clean and robust method of determining {Delta}s by comparing the neutral current interaction, which is isoscalar plus isovector, to the charged current interaction, which is strictly isovector. A past experiment, E734, performed at Brookhaven National Laboratory, has pioneered this effort. Building on what they have learned, we present an experiment which achieves a measurement to {+-} 0.025 using neutrino scattering, and {+-} 0.04 using anti-neutrino scattering, significantly better than past measurements. The combination of the neutrino and anti-neutrino data, when combined with the results of the parity-violating electron-nucleon scattering data, will produce the most significant result for {Delta}s. This experiment can also measure neutrino cross sections in the energy range required for accelerator-based precision oscillation measurements. Accurate measurements of cross sections have been

  10. Conceptual Framework of Tourism Carrying Capacity for a Tourism City: Experiences from National Parks in the United States

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Zheng Nasha; Zheng Xilai

    2010-01-01

    There is no universally-accepted definition of tourism carrying capacity(TCC).Numerical TCC focuses on use level and is considered as"a magic number"of the saturation point for tourism.There are several reasons why numerical tourism capacity is inadequate.Alternatively,tourism capacity can be defined in terms of limits of acceptable change,which shifts the focus from"how much use is too much"to"how much change is acceptable".This article proposes an improved conceptual framework for evaluating carrying capacity for the tourism city based on approaches used in US national parks,which consider the impact of human use on a city's economic,environmental/resource,and socio-cultural conditions.Based on the basic data of indicator values and relevant standards,the framework monitors the current indicators and predicts future indicator values; it can also be used to assess and predict TCC.

  11. Size, flexibility, and scattering functions of semiflexible polyelectrolytes with excluded volume effects: Monte Carlo simulations and neutron scattering experiments

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Cannavacciuolo, L.; Sommer, C.; Pedersen, J.S.

    2000-01-01

    outlined in the Odijk-Skolnick-Fixman theory, in which the behavior of charged polymers is described only in terms of increasing local rigidity and excluded volume effects. Moreover, the Monte Carlo data are found to be in very good agreement with experimental scattering measurements with equilibrium......We present a systematic Monte Carlo study of the scattering function S(q) of semiflexible polyelectrolytes at infinite dilution, in solutions with different concentrations of added salt. In the spirit of a theoretical description of polyelectrolytes in terms of the equivalent parameters, namely......, persistence length and excluded volume interactions, we used a modified wormlike chain model, in which the monomers are represented by charged hard spheres placed at distance a. The electrostatic interactions are approximated by a Debye-Huckel potential. We show that the scattering function is quantitatively...

  12. "Rutherford's Experiment" on Alpha Particles Scattering: The Experiment That Never Was

    Science.gov (United States)

    Leone, M.; Robotti, N.; Verna, G.

    2018-01-01

    The so-called "Rutherford's experiment," as it is outlined in many physics textbooks, is a case in point of the flaws around the history at the educational level of one of the decisive event of modern physics: the discovery that the atom has a nucleus. This paper shows that this alleged experiment is a very approximate and very partial…

  13. Deeply Virtual Compton Scattering off a deuterium target at the HERMES experiment

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Movsisyan, Aram

    2011-05-01

    Deeply virtual Compton scattering is studied in this report, using all data collected at the HERMES experiment from 1996 to 2005. Azimuthal asymmetries with respect to beam-helicity, beam-charge and target polarization alone and also to their different combinations for hard exclusive electroproduction of real photons in deep-inelastic scattering from a both unpolarized and longitudinally polarized deuterium targets are measured. The asymmetries are attributed to the interference between the deeply virtual Compton scattering and Bethe-Heitler processes. The asymmetries are observed in the exclusive region -(1.5) 2 GeV 2 2 X 2 GeV 2 of the squared missing mass. The dependences of these asymmetries on -t, x N , or Q 2 are investigated. The results include the coherent process ed→edγ and the incoherent process ed→epnγ where in addition a nucleon may be excited to a resonance. For an unpolarized deuterium target, the leading Fourier amplitude of the beam-helicity asymmetry that is sensitive to the interference term is found to be substantial, but no significant t dependence is observed. The leading amplitude of the beam-charge asymmetry is substantial at large -t, but becomes small at small values of -t. The amplitudes of the beam-helicity asymmetry that are sensitive to the squared DVCS term are found to be consistent with zero. The deuteron Compton form factor H 1 appears to have a similar behavior as H of the proton. (orig.)

  14. A small-angle camera for resonant scattering experiments at the storage ring DORIS

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Stuhrmann, H.B.; Gabriel, A.

    1983-01-01

    Resonant small-angle scattering is measured routinely in the wavelength range of 0.6 to 3.25 A with the instrument X15 at the storage ring DORIS. The monochromatic beam with a vertical offset of 1.22 m is achieved by a double monochromator system with a constant exit slit. The small-angle instrument allows for sample-detector distances between 0.37 and 7.33 m. A multiwire proportional counter with a sensitive area of 200 X 200 mm detects the scattered intensity with a spatial resolution of 2 X 2 mm. Its sensitivity can be adapted to the requirements of the experiment by activating a drift chamber of 8 cm depth at the back end of the detector. The performance of the instrument as a function of the wavelength is described. The energy resolution is about 1 eV at the L 3 absorption edge of caesium, as shown by the resonant scattering of ferritin in 30% CsCl solution. (Auth.)

  15. An instrument for collecting and processing data from radiometric experiments carried out in field and industrial conditions

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Mirowicz, J.; Owczarczyk, A.; Pienkos, J.; Swistowski, E.; Urbanski, P.

    2002-01-01

    The FIR-1 radiometer is designed to collect and process radiometric measurements carried out in industrial and field environment. A specialized software of the radiometer enables use of the collected measuring results for further processing e.g. modelling of dynamics of the objects. The main unit of the radiometer is the control block. The task of the block is control of the measuring cycles and its analysis as well as displaying and store of the measuring results. The investigated processes can be watched at LCD screen, the measuring results can be stored in the memory and can be sent for further processing to external PC. The radiometer is equipped with 4 pulse channels to which scintillation or GM detection probes can be connected depending on the measurements to be carried out. Additionally, the radiometer is equipped with the spectrometric channel with 256 channel analyser. The radiometer is powered from 6 V accumulator. The radiometer is based on up-to-date technology with large scale integrated circuits. Thanks to microprocessor system used in the radiometer the measurements can be highly automated. The software of the radiometer is based on MATLAB. (author)

  16. Inelastic X-ray scattering experiments at extreme conditions: high temperatures and high pressures

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    S.Hosokawa

    2008-03-01

    Full Text Available In this article, we review the present status of experimental techniques under extreme conditions of high temperature and high pressure used for inelastic X-ray scattering (IXS experiments of liquid metals, semiconductors, molten salts, molecular liquids, and supercritical water and methanol. For high temperature experiments, some types of single-crystal sapphire cells were designed depending on the temperature of interest and the sample thickness for the X-ray transmission. Single-crystal diamond X-ray windows attached to the externally heated high-pressure vessel were used for the IXS experiment of supercritical water and methanol. Some typical experimental results are also given, and the perspective of IXS technique under extreme conditions is discussed.

  17. Limiting effects on laser compression by resonant backward Raman scattering in modern experiments

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Yampolsky, Nikolai A.; Fisch, Nathaniel J.

    2011-01-01

    Through resonant backward Raman scattering, the plasma wave mediates the energy transfer between long pump and short seed laser pulses. These mediations can result in pulse compression at extraordinarily high powers. However, both the overall efficiency of the energy transfer and the duration of the amplified pulse depend upon the persistence of the plasma wave excitation. At least with respect to the recent state-of-the-art experiments, it is possible to deduce that at present the experimentally realized efficiency of the amplifier is likely constrained mainly by two effects, namely, the pump chirp and the plasma wave wavebreaking.

  18. Perfect/complete scattering experiments. Probing quantum mechanics on atomic and molecular collisions and coincidences

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Lohmann, Bernd; Grum-Grzhimailo, Alexei N.; Kleinpoppen, Hans

    2013-01-01

    Derives parameters for electrons, photons, atoms, ions, molecules calculated from theory. Delivers the quantum mechanical knowledge of atomic and molecular physics. Presents state-of-the-art experiments in atomic and molecular physics and related theoretical approaches. The main goal of this book is to elucidate what kind of experiment must be performed in order to determine the full set of independent parameters which can be extracted and calculated from theory, where electrons, photons, atoms, ions, molecules, or molecular ions may serve as the interacting constituents of matter. The feasibility of such perfect' and-or 'complete' experiments, providing the complete quantum mechanical knowledge of the process, is associated with the enormous potential of modern research techniques, both, in experiment and theory. It is even difficult to overestimate the role of theory in setting of the complete experiment, starting with the fact that an experiment can be complete only within a certain theoretical framework, and ending with the direct prescription of what, and in what conditions should be measured to make the experiment 'complete'. The language of the related theory is the language of quantum mechanical amplitudes and their relative phases. This book captures the spirit of research in the direction of the complete experiment in atomic and molecular physics, considering some of the basic quantum processes: scattering, Auger decay and photo-ionization. It includes a description of the experimental methods used to realize, step by step, the complete experiment up to the level of the amplitudes and phases. The corresponding arsenal includes, beyond determining the total cross section, the observation of angle and spin resolved quantities, photon polarization and correlation parameters, measurements applying coincidence techniques, preparing initially polarized targets, and even more sophisticated methods. The 'complete' experiment is, until today, hardly to perform

  19. Perfect/complete scattering experiments. Probing quantum mechanics on atomic and molecular collisions and coincidences

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Lohmann, Bernd [Muenster Univ. (Germany). Inst. fuer Theoretische Physik 1; Grum-Grzhimailo, Alexei N. [Moscow State Univ. (Russian Federation). Skobeltsyn Inst. of Nuclear Physics; Kleinpoppen, Hans

    2013-07-01

    Derives parameters for electrons, photons, atoms, ions, molecules calculated from theory. Delivers the quantum mechanical knowledge of atomic and molecular physics. Presents state-of-the-art experiments in atomic and molecular physics and related theoretical approaches. The main goal of this book is to elucidate what kind of experiment must be performed in order to determine the full set of independent parameters which can be extracted and calculated from theory, where electrons, photons, atoms, ions, molecules, or molecular ions may serve as the interacting constituents of matter. The feasibility of such perfect' and-or 'complete' experiments, providing the complete quantum mechanical knowledge of the process, is associated with the enormous potential of modern research techniques, both, in experiment and theory. It is even difficult to overestimate the role of theory in setting of the complete experiment, starting with the fact that an experiment can be complete only within a certain theoretical framework, and ending with the direct prescription of what, and in what conditions should be measured to make the experiment 'complete'. The language of the related theory is the language of quantum mechanical amplitudes and their relative phases. This book captures the spirit of research in the direction of the complete experiment in atomic and molecular physics, considering some of the basic quantum processes: scattering, Auger decay and photo-ionization. It includes a description of the experimental methods used to realize, step by step, the complete experiment up to the level of the amplitudes and phases. The corresponding arsenal includes, beyond determining the total cross section, the observation of angle and spin resolved quantities, photon polarization and correlation parameters, measurements applying coincidence techniques, preparing initially polarized targets, and even more sophisticated methods. The 'complete' experiment is

  20. List of publications covering bubble chamber experiments carried out at CERN during the period 1960-1974

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Steel, E.W.D.

    1976-01-01

    Some 950 references are given, grouped by experiment number and bubble chamber under the main headings of incoming beam particle and momentum. The particles and momenta are: protons (4-24 GeV/c), antiprotons (0-12 GeV/c), positive kaons (0-16 GeV/c), negative kaons (0-16 GeV/c), positive pions (2.75-16 GeV/c), negative pions (2.75-18 GeV/c), deuterons (3 GeV/c), long-lived neutral kaons (0.5-2 GeV/c), and neutrinos and antineutrinos. The bubble chambers are: 30 cm CERN Chamber, 100 cm Ecole Polytechnique Heavy Liquid Chamber, 80 cm Saclay Hydrogen Bubble Chamber, 120 cm CERN Heavy Liquid Chamber, 150 cm British National Bubble Chamber, 200 cm CERN Chamber, Gargamelle heavy-liquid bubble chamber. A table of all bubble-chamber experiments proposed during 1960-1974 is included, as well as lists of experiments, for each beam particle, for which results have been published. The references give title, first author, collaborating institutions (in abbreviated form), and reference to the scientific periodical; conference papers and theses are not included. (Author)

  1. ISPyB for BioSAXS, the gateway to user autonomy in solution scattering experiments

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    De Maria Antolinos, Alejandro; Pernot, Petra; Brennich, Martha E.; Kieffer, Jérôme; Bowler, Matthew W.; Delageniere, Solange; Ohlsson, Staffan; Malbet Monaco, Stephanie; Ashton, Alun; Franke, Daniel; Svergun, Dmitri; McSweeney, Sean; Gordon, Elspeth; Round, Adam

    2015-01-01

    The ISPyB information-management system for crystallography has been adapted to include data from small-angle X-ray scattering of macromolecules in solution experiments. Logging experiments with the laboratory-information management system ISPyB (Information System for Protein crystallography Beamlines) enhances the automation of small-angle X-ray scattering of biological macromolecules in solution (BioSAXS) experiments. The ISPyB interface provides immediate user-oriented online feedback and enables data cross-checking and downstream analysis. To optimize data quality and completeness, ISPyBB (ISPyB for BioSAXS) makes it simple for users to compare the results from new measurements with previous acquisitions from the same day or earlier experiments in order to maximize the ability to collect all data required in a single synchrotron visit. The graphical user interface (GUI) of ISPyBB has been designed to guide users in the preparation of an experiment. The input of sample information and the ability to outline the experimental aims in advance provides feedback on the number of measurements required, calculation of expected sample volumes and time needed to collect the data: all of this information aids the users to better prepare for their trip to the synchrotron. A prototype version of the ISPyBB database is now available at the European Synchrotron Radiation Facility (ESRF) beamline BM29 and is already greatly appreciated by academic users and industrial clients. It will soon be available at the PETRA III beamline P12 and the Diamond Light Source beamlines I22 and B21

  2. ISPyB for BioSAXS, the gateway to user autonomy in solution scattering experiments

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    De Maria Antolinos, Alejandro; Pernot, Petra; Brennich, Martha E.; Kieffer, Jérôme [European Synchrotron Radiation Facility, 71 avenue des Martyrs, CS 40220, 38042 Grenoble (France); Bowler, Matthew W. [European Molecular Biology Laboratory, Grenoble Outstation, 71 avenue des Martyrs, CS 90181, 38042 Grenoble (France); Université Grenoble Alpes–EMBL–CNRS, 71 avenue des Martyrs, CS 90181, 38042 Grenoble (France); Delageniere, Solange; Ohlsson, Staffan; Malbet Monaco, Stephanie [European Synchrotron Radiation Facility, 71 avenue des Martyrs, CS 40220, 38042 Grenoble (France); Ashton, Alun [DLS, Diamond House, Harwell Science and Innovation Campus, Fermi Avenue, Didcot OX11 0QX (United Kingdom); Franke, Daniel; Svergun, Dmitri [European Molecular Biology Laboratory, Hamburg Outstation, c/o DESY, Building 25A, Notkestrasse 85, 22603 Hamburg (Germany); McSweeney, Sean; Gordon, Elspeth [European Synchrotron Radiation Facility, 71 avenue des Martyrs, CS 40220, 38042 Grenoble (France); Round, Adam, E-mail: around@embl.fr [European Molecular Biology Laboratory, Grenoble Outstation, 71 avenue des Martyrs, CS 90181, 38042 Grenoble (France); Université Grenoble Alpes–EMBL–CNRS, 71 avenue des Martyrs, CS 90181, 38042 Grenoble (France); European Synchrotron Radiation Facility, 71 avenue des Martyrs, CS 40220, 38042 Grenoble (France)

    2015-01-01

    The ISPyB information-management system for crystallography has been adapted to include data from small-angle X-ray scattering of macromolecules in solution experiments. Logging experiments with the laboratory-information management system ISPyB (Information System for Protein crystallography Beamlines) enhances the automation of small-angle X-ray scattering of biological macromolecules in solution (BioSAXS) experiments. The ISPyB interface provides immediate user-oriented online feedback and enables data cross-checking and downstream analysis. To optimize data quality and completeness, ISPyBB (ISPyB for BioSAXS) makes it simple for users to compare the results from new measurements with previous acquisitions from the same day or earlier experiments in order to maximize the ability to collect all data required in a single synchrotron visit. The graphical user interface (GUI) of ISPyBB has been designed to guide users in the preparation of an experiment. The input of sample information and the ability to outline the experimental aims in advance provides feedback on the number of measurements required, calculation of expected sample volumes and time needed to collect the data: all of this information aids the users to better prepare for their trip to the synchrotron. A prototype version of the ISPyBB database is now available at the European Synchrotron Radiation Facility (ESRF) beamline BM29 and is already greatly appreciated by academic users and industrial clients. It will soon be available at the PETRA III beamline P12 and the Diamond Light Source beamlines I22 and B21.

  3. Track reconstruction for the Mu3e experiment based on a novel Multiple Scattering fit

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Kozlinskiy Alexandr

    2017-01-01

    Full Text Available The Mu3e experiment is designed to search for the lepton flavor violating decay μ+ → e+e+e−. The aim of the experiment is to reach a branching ratio sensitivity of 10−16. In a first phase the experiment will be performed at an existing beam line at the Paul-Scherrer Institute (Switzerland providing 108 muons per second, which will allow to reach a sensitivity of 2 · 10−15. The muons with a momentum of about 28 MeV/c are stopped and decay at rest on a target. The decay products (positrons and electrons with energies below 53MeV are measured by a tracking detector consisting of two double layers of 50 μm thin silicon pixel sensors. The high granularity of the pixel detector with a pixel size of 80 μm × 80 μm allows for a precise track reconstruction in the high multiplicity environment of the Mu3e experiment, reaching 100 tracks per reconstruction frame of 50 ns in the final phase of the experiment. To deal with such high rates and combinatorics, the Mu3e track reconstruction uses a novel fit algorithm that in the simplest case takes into account only the multiple scattering, which allows for a fast online tracking on a GPU based filter farm. An implementation of the 3-dimensional multiple scattering fit based on hit triplets is described. The extension of the fit that takes into account energy losses and pixel size is used for offline track reconstruction. The algorithm and performance of the offline track reconstruction based on a full Geant4 simulation of the Mu3e detector are presented.

  4. Preparing Monodisperse Macromolecular Samples for Successful Biological Small-Angle X-ray and Neutron Scattering Experiments

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jeffries, Cy M.; Graewert, Melissa A.; Blanchet, Clément E.; Langley, David B.; Whitten, Andrew E.; Svergun, Dmitri I

    2017-01-01

    Small-angle X-ray and neutron scattering (SAXS and SANS) are techniques used to extract structural parameters and determine the overall structures and shapes of biological macromolecules, complexes and assemblies in solution. The scattering intensities measured from a sample contain contributions from all atoms within the illuminated sample volume including the solvent and buffer components as well as the macromolecules of interest. In order to obtain structural information, it is essential to prepare an exactly matched solvent blank so that background scattering contributions can be accurately subtracted from the sample scattering to obtain the net scattering from the macromolecules in the sample. In addition, sample heterogeneity caused by contaminants, aggregates, mismatched solvents, radiation damage or other factors can severely influence and complicate data analysis so it is essential that the samples are pure and monodisperse for the duration of the experiment. This Protocol outlines the basic physics of SAXS and SANS and reveals how the underlying conceptual principles of the techniques ultimately ‘translate’ into practical laboratory guidance for the production of samples of sufficiently high quality for scattering experiments. The procedure describes how to prepare and characterize protein and nucleic acid samples for both SAXS and SANS using gel electrophoresis, size exclusion chromatography and light scattering. Also included are procedures specific to X-rays (in-line size exclusion chromatography SAXS) and neutrons, specifically preparing samples for contrast matching/variation experiments and deuterium labeling of proteins. PMID:27711050

  5. Scattering from extended targets in range-dependent fluctuating ocean-waveguides with clutter from theory and experiments.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jagannathan, Srinivasan; Küsel, Elizabeth T; Ratilal, Purnima; Makris, Nicholas C

    2012-08-01

    Bistatic, long-range measurements of acoustic scattered returns from vertically extended, air-filled tubular targets were made during three distinct field experiments in fluctuating continental shelf waveguides. It is shown that Sonar Equation estimates of mean target-scattered intensity lead to large errors, differing by an order of magnitude from both the measurements and waveguide scattering theory. The use of the Ingenito scattering model is also shown to lead to significant errors in estimating mean target-scattered intensity in the field experiments because they were conducted in range-dependent ocean environments with large variations in sound speed structure over the depth of the targets, scenarios that violate basic assumptions of the Ingenito model. Green's theorem based full-field modeling that describes scattering from vertically extended tubular targets in range-dependent ocean waveguides by taking into account nonuniform sound speed structure over the target's depth extent is shown to accurately describe the statistics of the targets' scattered field in all three field experiments. Returns from the man-made targets are also shown to have a very different spectral dependence from the natural target-like clutter of the dominant fish schools observed, suggesting that judicious multi-frequency sensing may often provide a useful means of distinguishing fish from man-made targets.

  6. X-ray Compton scattering experiments for fluid alkali metals at high temperatures and pressures

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Matsuda, K., E-mail: kazuhiro-matsuda@scphys.kyoto-u.ac.jp; Fukumaru, T.; Kimura, K.; Yao, M. [Graduate School of Science, Kyoto University, Kyoto 606-8502 (Japan); Tamura, K. [Graduate School of Engineering, Kyoto University, Kyoto 606-8502 (Japan); Katoh, M. [A.L.M.T. Corp., Iwasekoshi-Machi 2, Toyama 931-8543 (Japan); Kajihara, Y.; Inui, M. [Graduate School of Integrated Arts and Sciences, Hiroshima University, Higashi-Hiroshima 739-8521 (Japan); Itou, M.; Sakurai, Y. [Japan Synchrotron Radiation Research Institute, SPring-8, 1-1-1 Kouto, Sayo, Hyogo 679-5198 (Japan)

    2015-08-17

    We have developed a high-pressure vessel and a cell for x-ray Compton scattering measurements of fluid alkali metals. Measurements have been successfully carried out for alkali metal rubidium at elevated temperatures and pressures using synchrotron radiation at SPring-8. The width of Compton profiles (CPs) of fluid rubidium becomes narrow with decreasing fluid density, which indicates that the CPs sensitively detect the effect of reduction in the valence electron density. At the request of all authors of the paper, and with the agreement of the Proceedings Editor, an updated version of this article was published on 10 September 2015. The original article supplied to AIP Publishing was not the final version and contained PDF conversion errors in Formulas (1) and (2). The errors have been corrected in the updated and re-published article.

  7. Deposited power in a complex device by gamma radiation of test reactors; experiments and calculations carried out at SILOE

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Petitcolas, H.; Besson, A.; Bevilacqua, A.; Cosoli, G.

    1984-09-01

    Eight samples, which represent different materials used in testing reactors, were irradiated in the device ''CYRANO'' placed in the water reflector at different distances from the reactor core. The power dissipated in the device was measured by the ''CYRANO'' equipment itself, whereas the calorimeter juxtaposed served to monitor the gamma flux. Parallel to each experiment, the power deposited in the samples, the device materials and the calorimeter was calculated by the code MERCURE 4. The measured values were compared with the calculated ones, both in relative and in absolute values, for each sample and for each distance in the reflector. The comparison shows very good agreement [fr

  8. Very large solid angle spectrometer for single arm electron scattering experiments

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Leconte, P.

    1981-01-01

    Major information about short range behavior of nuclear forces should be obtained through electron scattering experiments at high momentum transfer. Cross sections will be very low as is usually the case in electron scattering. In order to reach them, the solid angle of the detection system will have to be enlarged. Traditional optics cannot give correct answer to the problem. For very large apertures, it is impossible to obtain good focussing properties which provide accurate momentum/position correlation with no dependence on the entrance angles. Furthermore, the experiment will require the measurement of these angles. It means that the final system will be equipped with a complete set of position sensitive detectors able to measure positions and angles of trajectories in both planes. Then, the question arises: is it really necessary to provide good focussing, or more precisely: is it possible to get all the required information without the help of a sophisticated predetermined magnetic optics. We try to answer this question and then to sketch from a new point of view the best spectrometer we could think of

  9. Studies on laser beam propagation and stimulated scattering in multiple beam experiments

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Labaune, C.; Lewis, K.; Bandulet, H.; Lewis, K.; Depierreux, S.; Huller, S.; Masson-Laborde, P.E.; Pesme, D.; Riazuelo, G.

    2006-01-01

    The propagation and stimulated scattering of intense laser beams interacting with underdense plasmas are two important issues for inertial confinement fusion (ICF). The purpose of this work was to perform experiments under well-controlled interaction conditions and confront them with numerical simulations to test the physics included in the codes. Experimental diagnostics include time and space resolved images of incident and SBS light and of SBS-ion acoustic activity. New numerical diagnostics, including similar constraints as the experimental ones and the treatment of the propagation of the light between the emitting area and the detectors, have been developed. Particular care was put to include realistic plasma density and velocity profiles, as well as laser pulse shape in the simulations. In the experiments presented in this paper, the interaction beam was used with a random phase plate (RPP) to produce a statistical distribution of speckles in the focal volume. Stimulated Brillouin Scattering (SBS) was described using a decomposition of the spatial scales which provides a predictive modeling of SBS in an expanding mm-scale plasma. Spatial and temporal behavior of the SBS-ion acoustic waves was found to be in good agreement with the experimental ones for two laser intensities. (authors)

  10. Advanced approach to the analysis of a series of in-situ nuclear forward scattering experiments

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Vrba, Vlastimil, E-mail: vlastimil.vrba01@upol.cz [Department of Experimental Physics, Faculty of Science, Palacký University Olomouc, 17. listopadu 12, 771 46 Olomouc (Czech Republic); Procházka, Vít, E-mail: v.prochazka@upol.cz [Department of Experimental Physics, Faculty of Science, Palacký University Olomouc, 17. listopadu 12, 771 46 Olomouc (Czech Republic); Smrčka, David, E-mail: david.smrcka@upol.cz [Department of Experimental Physics, Faculty of Science, Palacký University Olomouc, 17. listopadu 12, 771 46 Olomouc (Czech Republic); Miglierini, Marcel, E-mail: marcel.miglierini@stuba.sk [Slovak University of Technology in Bratislava, Faculty of Electrical Engineering and Information Technology, Institute of Nuclear and Physical Engineering, Ilkovicova 3, 812 19 Bratislava (Slovakia); Department of Nuclear Reactors, Faculty of Nuclear Science and Physical Engineering, Czech Technical University in Prague, V Holešovičkách 2, 180 00 Prague (Czech Republic)

    2017-03-01

    This study introduces a sequential fitting procedure as a specific approach to nuclear forward scattering (NFS) data evaluation. Principles and usage of this advanced evaluation method are described in details and its utilization is demonstrated on NFS in-situ investigations of fast processes. Such experiments frequently consist of hundreds of time spectra which need to be evaluated. The introduced procedure allows the analysis of these experiments and significantly decreases the time needed for the data evaluation. The key contributions of the study are the sequential use of the output fitting parameters of a previous data set as the input parameters for the next data set and the model suitability crosscheck option of applying the procedure in ascending and descending directions of the data sets. Described fitting methodology is beneficial for checking of model validity and reliability of obtained results.

  11. Development of a system for simultaneously generating triple extreme conditions for neutron scattering experiments

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Ichimura, Shigeju [Japan Atomic Energy Research Inst., Tokai, Ibaraki (Japan). Tokai Research Establishment

    1998-10-01

    We have developed new system available for controlling sample environment during the neutron scattering experiments. The system can simultaneously generate triple extreme conditions of low temperature, high magnetic field and high pressure. The system consists of : (1) a liquid-helium cryostat which enables the sample temperature range of 1.7 K to 200 K, (2) a superconducting magnet providing a vertical field up to 5 Tesla with antisymmetric split-coil geometry for polarized-beam experiments, and (3) a non-magnetic clamping high-pressure cell designed with the aim of generating hydrostatic pressure up to 2.5 Gpa. In the workshop, we will report the outline of the system and some results of performance tests using the system at JRR-3M of JAERI. (author)

  12. LabVIEW-based X-ray detection system for laser compton scattering experiment

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Luo Wen; Xu Wang; Pan Qiangyan

    2010-01-01

    A LabVIEW-based X-ray detection system has been developed for laser-Compton scattering (LCS) experiment at the 100 MeV Linac of the Shanghai Institute of Applied Physics (SINAP). It mainly consists of a Si (Li) detector, readout electronics and a LabVIEW-based Data Acquisition (DAQ), and possesses the functions of signal spectrum displaying, acquisition control and simple online data analysis and so on. The performance test shows that energy and time resolutions of the system are 184 eV at 5.9 keV and ≤ 1% respectively and system instability is found to be 0.3‰ within a week. As a result, this X-ray detection system has low-cost and high-performance features and can meet the requirements of LCS experiment. (authors)

  13. Quasi-elastic helium-atom scattering from surfaces: experiment and interpretation

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Jardine, A.P.; Ellis, J.; Allison, W.

    2002-01-01

    Diffusion of an adsorbate is affected both by the adiabatic potential energy surface in which the adsorbate moves and by the rate of thermal coupling between the adsorbate and substrate. In principle both factors are amenable to investigation through quasi-elastic broadening in the energy spread of a probing beam of helium atoms. This review provides a topical summary of both the quasi-elastic helium-atom scattering technique and the available data in relation to the determination of diffusion parameters. In particular, we discuss the activation barriers deduced from experiment and their relation to the adiabatic potential and the central role played by the friction parameter, using the CO/Cu(001) system as a case study. The main issues to emerge are the need for detailed molecular dynamics simulations in the interpretation of data and the desirability of significantly greater energy resolution in the experiments themselves. (author)

  14. Advanced approach to the analysis of a series of in-situ nuclear forward scattering experiments

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Vrba, Vlastimil; Procházka, Vít; Smrčka, David; Miglierini, Marcel

    2017-01-01

    This study introduces a sequential fitting procedure as a specific approach to nuclear forward scattering (NFS) data evaluation. Principles and usage of this advanced evaluation method are described in details and its utilization is demonstrated on NFS in-situ investigations of fast processes. Such experiments frequently consist of hundreds of time spectra which need to be evaluated. The introduced procedure allows the analysis of these experiments and significantly decreases the time needed for the data evaluation. The key contributions of the study are the sequential use of the output fitting parameters of a previous data set as the input parameters for the next data set and the model suitability crosscheck option of applying the procedure in ascending and descending directions of the data sets. Described fitting methodology is beneficial for checking of model validity and reliability of obtained results.

  15. Assessment of convergence angle of full veneer preparations carried out by practitioners with different levels of experience

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Ali, AlKhalil; AlWazzan, Khalid A; AlAmri, Mohammad D; AlShahrani, AbdulMajeed; AlShahrani, Mohammed; AlQahtani, Hussain

    2009-01-01

    To investigate the convergence angle (CA) of dies achieved by clinicians with different levels of experience and to study the effect of the number and location of abutments on the CA. Two hundred and ninety one dies were obtained and mounted with the occlusal plane of the prepared teeth parallel to the floor. Photographs of facial and proximal aspects were taken for each die. The photographs were transferred into a personal computer and an AutoCAD software program was used to measure the bucco-lingual and mesio-distal CA of each preparation. Analysis of Variance (ANOVA) was used to test the significance at 95% confidence level. The greatest mean CA was in the teeth prepared by general practitioners (25.7degree) while the smallest was in teeth prepared by prosthodontists (16.9 degree). Statistically significant difference was found among CA values of the three groups (P<.0001). Statistical significant difference was also found between the CA of the preparation for single crown and for fixed partial denture abutments. No statistically significant differences were found between the CA of the anterior and posterior tooth preparations. The prosthodontists produced a lower convergence angle of prepared teeth compared to students and general practitioners. There is a need for all groups to exert extra effort to reduce the CA during tooth preparation. The recommended 6 degree taper is difficult to be achieved clinically (author)

  16. Neutron scattering

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    1991-02-01

    The annual report on hand gives an overview of the research work carried out in the Laboratory for Neutron Scattering (LNS) of the ETH Zuerich in 1990. Using the method of neutron scattering, it is possible to examine in detail the static and dynamic properties of the condensed material. In accordance with the multidisciplined character of the method, the LNS has for years maintained a system of intensive co-operation with numerous institutes in the areas of biology, chemistry, solid-state physics, crystallography and materials research. In 1990 over 100 scientists from more than 40 research groups both at home and abroad took part in the experiments. It was again a pleasure to see the number of graduate students present, who were studying for a doctorate and who could be introduced into the neutron scattering during their stay at the LNS and thus were in the position to touch on central ways of looking at a problem in their dissertation using this modern experimental method of solid-state research. In addition to the numerous and interesting ways of formulating the questions to explain the structure, nowadays the scientific programme increasingly includes particularly topical studies in connection with high temperature-supraconductors and materials research

  17. Very large-scale structures in sintered silica aerogels as evidenced by atomic force microscopy and ultra-small angle X-ray scattering experiments

    CERN Document Server

    Marliere, C; Etienne, P; Woignier, T; Dieudonné, P; Phalippou, J

    2001-01-01

    During the last few years the bulk structure of silica aerogels has been extensively studied mainly by scattering techniques (neutrons, X-rays, light). It has been shown that small silica particles aggregate to constitute a fractal network. Its spatial extension and fractal dimension are strongly dependent on the synthesis conditions (e.g., pH of gelifying solutions). These typical lengths range from 1 to 10 nm. Ultra-small angle X-ray scattering (USAXS) and atomic force microscopy (AFM) experiments have been carried out on aerogels at different steps of densification. The results presented in this paper reveal the existence of a spatial arrangement of the solid part at a very large length scale. The evolution of this very large-scale structure during the densification process has been studied and reveals a contraction of this macro-structure made of aggregates of clusters. (16 refs).

  18. Fine structure of the isoscalar giant quadrupole resonance from high-resolution inelastic proton scattering experiments

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Shevchenko, A.

    2005-02-01

    In the present work the phenomenon of fine structure in the region of the isoscalar giant quadrupole resonance in a number of heavy and medium-heavy nuclei is systematically investigated for the first time. High energy-resolution inelastic proton scattering experiments were carried out in September-October 2001 and in October 2003 at the iThemba LABS cyclotron facility in South Africa with an incident proton energy of 200 MeV. The obtained data with the energy resolution of triangle E 58 Ni, 89 Y, 90 Zr, 120 Sn, 142 Nd, 166 Er, 208 Pb), thereby establishing the global character of this phenomenon. Fine structure can be described using characteristic energy scales, appearing as a result of the decay of collective modes towards the compound nucleus through a hierarchy of couplings to complex degrees of freedom. For the extraction of the characteristic energy scales from the spectra an entropy index method and a novel technique based on the wavelet analysis are utilized. The global analysis of available data shows the presence of three groups of scales, according to their values. To the first group belong the scales with the values around and below 100 keV, which were detected in all the nuclei studied. The second group contains intermediate scales in the range of 100 keV to 1 MeV. These scales show large variations depending on the nuclear structure of the nucleus. The largest scales above 1 MeV are classified to the third group, describing the global structure of the resonance (the width). The interpretation of the observed scales is realized via the comparison with microscopic model calculations including the coupling of the initial one-particle-one-hole excitations to more complex configurations. A qualitative agreement of the experimentally observed scales with those obtained from the theoretical predictions supports the suggestion of the origin of fine structure from the coupling to the two-particle-two-hole states. However, quantitatively, large deviations are

  19. Deeply Virtual Compton Scattering off a deuterium target at the HERMES experiment

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Movsisyan, Aram

    2011-05-15

    Deeply virtual Compton scattering is studied in this report, using all data collected at the HERMES experiment from 1996 to 2005. Azimuthal asymmetries with respect to beam-helicity, beam-charge and target polarization alone and also to their different combinations for hard exclusive electroproduction of real photons in deep-inelastic scattering from a both unpolarized and longitudinally polarized deuterium targets are measured. The asymmetries are attributed to the interference between the deeply virtual Compton scattering and Bethe-Heitler processes. The asymmetries are observed in the exclusive region -(1.5){sup 2} GeV{sup 2}

  20. Design and performance of U7B beamline and X-ray diffraction and scattering station at NSRL and its preliminary experiments in protein crystallography

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Pan Guoqiang; Xu, Chaoyin; Fan Rong; Gao Chen; Lou Xiaohua; Teng Maikun; Huang Qingqiu; Niu Liwen

    2005-01-01

    This publication describes the design and performance of the U7B beamline and X-ray diffraction and diffuse scattering station at National Synchrotron Radiation Laboratory (NSRL). The beamline optics comprise a Pt-coated toroidal focusing mirror and a double-crystal Si(1 1 1) monochromator. A preliminary experiment of diffraction data collection and processing was carried out using a commercial imaging plate detector system (Mar345). The data collected from one single crystal of acutohaemolysin, a Lys49-type PLA2 from Agkistrodon acutus venom, are of high quality

  1. Charge exchange during pion-nucleon scattering at low energy: experiment and analysis

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Vernin, Pascal

    1972-01-01

    This research thesis lies within the frame of a more general study of pion-nucleon scattering according to the following processes: π + p → π + p; π - p → π - p; π - p → π 0 n. It more precisely addresses the last reaction, so-called charge exchange. Pion-nucleon interactions are described by phase shifts of scattering waves. But the measurement of one of these phase shifts (that of the S wave) requires very low energy pions, and could not have been performed until now with a good precision. In order to fill this gap, the author performed charge exchange experiments at 180 deg. and for energies of 22.6, 33.9 and 42.6 MeV. After a recall on involved theoretical data, the author describes the experimental setup, and reports the detailed study of problems raised by neutron detection. He shows that the analysis of experimental data allows (a 3 - a 1 ) to be obtained with a precision which, without being as high as desired, is nevertheless satisfying [fr

  2. New generation of cryogen free advanced superconducting magnets for neutron scattering experiments

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Kirichek, O; Adroja, D T; Manuel, P; Bewley, R I; Brown, J; Kouzmenko, G; Wotherspoon, R

    2012-01-01

    Recent advances in superconducting technology and cryocooler refrigeration have resulted in a new generation of advanced superconducting magnets for neutron beam applications. These magnets have outstanding parameters such as high homogeneity and stability at highest magnetic fields possible, a reasonably small stray field, low neutron scattering background and larger exposure to neutron detectors. At the same time the pulse tube refrigeration technology provides a complete re-condensing regime which allows to minimise the requirements for cryogens without introducing additional noise and mechanical vibrations. The magnets can be used with dilution refrigerator insert which expands the temperature range from 20mK to 300K. Here we are going to present design, test results and the operational data of the 14T magnet for neutron diffraction and the 9T wide angle chopper magnet for neutron spectroscopy developed by Oxford Instruments in collaboration with ISIS neutron source. First scientific results obtained from the neutron scattering experiments with these magnets are also going to be discussed.

  3. Hard two-photon contribution to elastic lepton-proton scattering determined by the OLYMPUS experiment

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Henderson, B.S. [Massachusetts Institute of Technology, Cambridge, MA (United States); Ice, L.D. [Arizona State Univ., Tempe, AZ (United States); Khaneft, D. [Mainz Univ. (Germany); Collaboration: OLYMPUS Collaboration; and others

    2016-12-15

    The OLYMPUS collaboration reports on a precision measurement of the positron-proton to electron-proton elastic cross section ratio, R{sub 2γ}, a direct measure of the contribution of hard two- photon exchange to the elastic cross section. In the OLYMPUS measurement, 2.01 GeV electron and positron beams were directed through a hydrogen gas target internal to the DORIS storage ring at DESY. A toroidal magnetic spectrometer instrumented with drift chambers and time-of-flight scintillators detected elastically scattered leptons in coincidence with recoiling protons over a scattering angle range of ∼20 to 80 . The relative luminosity between the two beam species was monitored using tracking telescopes of interleaved GEM and MWPC detectors at 12 , as well as symmetric Moeller/Bhabha calorimeters at 1.29 . A total integrated luminosity of 4.5 fb{sup -1} was collected. In the extraction of R{sub 2γ}, radiative effects were taken into account using a Monte Carlo generator to simulate the convolutions of internal bremsstrahlung with experiment-specific conditions such as detector acceptance and reconstruction efficiency. The resulting values of R{sub 2γ}, presented here for a wide range of virtual photon polarization 0.456<ε<0.978, are smaller than some hadronic two-photon exchange calculations predict, but are in reasonable agreement with a subtracted dispersion model and a phenomenological fit to the form factor data.

  4. Hard Two-Photon Contribution to Elastic Lepton-Proton Scattering Determined by the OLYMPUS Experiment

    Science.gov (United States)

    Henderson, B. S.; Ice, L. D.; Khaneft, D.; O'Connor, C.; Russell, R.; Schmidt, A.; Bernauer, J. C.; Kohl, M.; Akopov, N.; Alarcon, R.; Ates, O.; Avetisyan, A.; Beck, R.; Belostotski, S.; Bessuille, J.; Brinker, F.; Calarco, J. R.; Carassiti, V.; Cisbani, E.; Ciullo, G.; Contalbrigo, M.; de Leo, R.; Diefenbach, J.; Donnelly, T. W.; Dow, K.; Elbakian, G.; Eversheim, P. D.; Frullani, S.; Funke, Ch.; Gavrilov, G.; Gläser, B.; Görrissen, N.; Hasell, D. K.; Hauschildt, J.; Hoffmeister, Ph.; Holler, Y.; Ihloff, E.; Izotov, A.; Kaiser, R.; Karyan, G.; Kelsey, J.; Kiselev, A.; Klassen, P.; Krivshich, A.; Lehmann, I.; Lenisa, P.; Lenz, D.; Lumsden, S.; Ma, Y.; Maas, F.; Marukyan, H.; Miklukho, O.; Milner, R. G.; Movsisyan, A.; Murray, M.; Naryshkin, Y.; Perez Benito, R.; Perrino, R.; Redwine, R. P.; Rodríguez Piñeiro, D.; Rosner, G.; Schneekloth, U.; Seitz, B.; Statera, M.; Thiel, A.; Vardanyan, H.; Veretennikov, D.; Vidal, C.; Winnebeck, A.; Yeganov, V.; Olympus Collaboration

    2017-03-01

    The OLYMPUS Collaboration reports on a precision measurement of the positron-proton to electron-proton elastic cross section ratio, R2 γ , a direct measure of the contribution of hard two-photon exchange to the elastic cross section. In the OLYMPUS measurement, 2.01 GeV electron and positron beams were directed through a hydrogen gas target internal to the DORIS storage ring at DESY. A toroidal magnetic spectrometer instrumented with drift chambers and time-of-flight scintillators detected elastically scattered leptons in coincidence with recoiling protons over a scattering angle range of ≈20 ° to 80°. The relative luminosity between the two beam species was monitored using tracking telescopes of interleaved gas electron multiplier and multiwire proportional chamber detectors at 12°, as well as symmetric Møller or Bhabha calorimeters at 1.29°. A total integrated luminosity of 4.5 fb-1 was collected. In the extraction of R2 γ, radiative effects were taken into account using a Monte Carlo generator to simulate the convolutions of internal bremsstrahlung with experiment-specific conditions such as detector acceptance and reconstruction efficiency. The resulting values of R2 γ, presented here for a wide range of virtual photon polarization 0.456 <ɛ <0.978 , are smaller than some hadronic two-photon exchange calculations predict, but are in reasonable agreement with a subtracted dispersion model and a phenomenological fit to the form factor data.

  5. Water diffusion through compacted clays analyzed by neutron scattering and tracer experiments

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Gonzalez Sanchez, F.

    2007-11-01

    /cm 3 , in order to reduce the pore sizes and to better study the dynamic properties of water close to the water-clay interface. We compared the water dynamics in fully hydrated compacted clays, at two significantly different time-space scales, in an attempt to distinguish the relevant features of the water transport. A fundamental microscopic investigation, tracing down to the atomic level was carried out, by neutron scattering, using time-of-flight and backscattering techniques. A classical macroscopic study was performed by using tracer through-diffusion methods. At the macroscopic level (time/spatial scale of about hours/mm to cm) the water diffusion depends strongly on the clay pore size and arrangement of the particles. However, at the microscopic level (time/spatial scale of about ten to hundred picosecond/10 -8 cm) the diffusion is governed by the local environment, which concerns to cations and clay surfaces and less to the particle arrangement. For a further understanding of this local environment, the water diffusion in clays was also measured at different hydration states, to vary the fraction of interlayer or external layer water, as compared to free pore water. The large difference in the diffusion paths of the two selected techniques makes a direct comparison of water diffusivities impossible. Therefore, two possibilities were established: An indirect comparison by connecting the results for diffusion coefficient at the two different scales through pure geometrical and electrostatic factors; and a direct comparison through the activation energy E a which was estimated from the dependence of the diffusion coefficients on the temperature. In contrast to the macroscopic diffusion coefficients, the activation energy is probably less influenced by geometrical factors and more by microscopic interactions, and thus could possibly be directly compared at the two different scales. The research was accomplished by a detailed characterization of the clay samples

  6. Water diffusion through compacted clays analyzed by neutron scattering and tracer experiments

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Gonzalez Sanchez, F

    2007-11-15

    /cm{sup 3}, in order to reduce the pore sizes and to better study the dynamic properties of water close to the water-clay interface. We compared the water dynamics in fully hydrated compacted clays, at two significantly different time-space scales, in an attempt to distinguish the relevant features of the water transport. A fundamental microscopic investigation, tracing down to the atomic level was carried out, by neutron scattering, using time-of-flight and backscattering techniques. A classical macroscopic study was performed by using tracer through-diffusion methods. At the macroscopic level (time/spatial scale of about hours/mm to cm) the water diffusion depends strongly on the clay pore size and arrangement of the particles. However, at the microscopic level (time/spatial scale of about ten to hundred picosecond/10{sup -8} cm) the diffusion is governed by the local environment, which concerns to cations and clay surfaces and less to the particle arrangement. For a further understanding of this local environment, the water diffusion in clays was also measured at different hydration states, to vary the fraction of interlayer or external layer water, as compared to free pore water. The large difference in the diffusion paths of the two selected techniques makes a direct comparison of water diffusivities impossible. Therefore, two possibilities were established: An indirect comparison by connecting the results for diffusion coefficient at the two different scales through pure geometrical and electrostatic factors; and a direct comparison through the activation energy E{sub a} which was estimated from the dependence of the diffusion coefficients on the temperature. In contrast to the macroscopic diffusion coefficients, the activation energy is probably less influenced by geometrical factors and more by microscopic interactions, and thus could possibly be directly compared at the two different scales. The research was accomplished by a detailed characterization of the clay

  7. ISPyB for BioSAXS, the gateway to user autonomy in solution scattering experiments.

    Science.gov (United States)

    De Maria Antolinos, Alejandro; Pernot, Petra; Brennich, Martha E; Kieffer, Jérôme; Bowler, Matthew W; Delageniere, Solange; Ohlsson, Staffan; Malbet Monaco, Stephanie; Ashton, Alun; Franke, Daniel; Svergun, Dmitri; McSweeney, Sean; Gordon, Elspeth; Round, Adam

    2015-01-01

    Logging experiments with the laboratory-information management system ISPyB (Information System for Protein crystallography Beamlines) enhances the automation of small-angle X-ray scattering of biological macromolecules in solution (BioSAXS) experiments. The ISPyB interface provides immediate user-oriented online feedback and enables data cross-checking and downstream analysis. To optimize data quality and completeness, ISPyBB (ISPyB for BioSAXS) makes it simple for users to compare the results from new measurements with previous acquisitions from the same day or earlier experiments in order to maximize the ability to collect all data required in a single synchrotron visit. The graphical user interface (GUI) of ISPyBB has been designed to guide users in the preparation of an experiment. The input of sample information and the ability to outline the experimental aims in advance provides feedback on the number of measurements required, calculation of expected sample volumes and time needed to collect the data: all of this information aids the users to better prepare for their trip to the synchrotron. A prototype version of the ISPyBB database is now available at the European Synchrotron Radiation Facility (ESRF) beamline BM29 and is already greatly appreciated by academic users and industrial clients. It will soon be available at the PETRA III beamline P12 and the Diamond Light Source beamlines I22 and B21.

  8. Tutorial on Fourier space coverage for scattering experiments, with application to SAR

    Science.gov (United States)

    Deming, Ross W.

    2010-04-01

    The Fourier Diffraction Theorem relates the data measured during electromagnetic, optical, or acoustic scattering experiments to the spatial Fourier transform of the object under test. The theorem is well-known, but since it is based on integral equations and complicated mathematical expansions, the typical derivation may be difficult for the non-specialist. In this paper, the theorem is derived and presented using simple geometry, plus undergraduatelevel physics and mathematics. For practitioners of synthetic aperture radar (SAR) imaging, the theorem is important to understand because it leads to a simple geometric and graphical understanding of image resolution and sampling requirements, and how they are affected by radar system parameters and experimental geometry. Also, the theorem can be used as a starting point for imaging algorithms and motion compensation methods. Several examples are given in this paper for realistic scenarios.

  9. Experiment to measure total cross sections, differential cross sections and polarization effects in pp elastic scattering at RHIC

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Guryn, W.

    1998-02-01

    The authors are describing an experiment to study proton-proton (pp) elastic scattering experiment at the Relativistic Heavy Ion Collider (RHIC). Using both polarized and unpolarized beams, the experiment will study pp elastic scattering from √s = 50 GeV to √s = 500 GeV in two kinematical regions. In the Coulomb Nuclear Interference (CNI) region, 0.0005 2 , they will measure and study the s dependence of the total and elastic cross sections, σ tot and σ el ; the ratio of the real to the imaginary part of the forward elastic scattering amplitude, ρ; and the nuclear slope parameter of the pp elastic scattering, b. In the medium |t|-region, |t| 2 , they plan to study the evolution of the dip structure with s, as observed at ISR in the differential elastic cross section, dσ el /dt, and the s and |t| dependence of b. With the polarized beams the following can be measured: the difference in the total cross sections as function of initial transverse spin states Δσ T , the analyzing power, A N , and the transverse spin correlation parameter A NN . The behavior of the analyzing power A N at RHIC energies in the dip region of dσ el /dt, where a pronounced structure was found at fixed-target experiments will be studied. The relation of pp elastic scattering to the beam polarization measurement at RHIC is also discussed

  10. Modeling and design of radiative hydrodynamic experiments with X-ray Thomson Scattering measurements on NIF

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ma, K. H.; Lefevre, H. J.; Belancourt, P. X.; MacDonald, M. J.; Doeppner, T.; Keiter, P. A.; Kuranz, C. C.; Johnsen, E.

    2017-10-01

    Recent experiments at the National Ignition Facility studied the effect of radiation on shock-driven hydrodynamic instability growth. X-ray radiography images from these experiments indicate that perturbation growth is lower in highly radiative shocks compared to shocks with negligible radiation flux. The reduction in instability growth is attributed to ablation from higher temperatures in the foam for highly radiative shocks. The proposed design implements the X-ray Thomson Scattering (XRTS) technique in the radiative shock tube platform to measure electron temperatures and densities in the shocked foam. We model these experiments with CRASH, an Eulerian radiation hydrodynamics code with block-adaptive mesh refinement, multi-group radiation transport and electron heat conduction. Simulations are presented with SiO2 and carbon foams for both the high temperature, radiative shock and the low-temperature, hydrodynamic shock cases. Calculations from CRASH give estimations for shock speed, electron temperature, effective ionization, and other quantities necessary for designing the XRTS diagnostic measurement. This work is funded by the LLNL under subcontract B614207, and was performed under the auspices of the U.S. DOE by LLNL under Contract No. DE-AC52-07NA27344.

  11. A Platform for X-Ray Thomson Scattering Measurements of Radiation Hydrodynamics Experiments on the NIF

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lefevre, Heath; Ma, Kevin; Belancourt, Patrick; MacDonald, Michael; Doeppner, Tilo; Keiter, Paul; Kuranz, Carolyn

    2017-10-01

    A recent experiment on the National Ignition Facility (NIF) radiographed the evolution of the Rayleigh-Taylor (RT) instability under high and low drive cases. This experiment showed that under a high drive the growth rate of the RT instability is reduced relative to the low drive case. The high drive launches a radiative shock, increases the temperature of the post-shock region, and ablates the spikes, which reduces the RT growth rate. The plasma parameters must be measured to validate this claim. We present a target design for making X-Ray Thomson Scattering (XRTS) measurements on radiation hydrodynamics experiments on NIF to measure the electron temperature of the shocked region in the above cases. Specifically, we show that a previously fielded NIF radiation hydrodynamics platform can be modified to allow sufficient signal and temperature resolution for XRTS measurements. This work is funded by the NNSA-DS and SC-OFES Joint Program in High-Energy-Density Laboratory Plasmas, Grant Number DE-NA0002956 and the National Science Foundation through the Basic Plasma Science and Engineering program.

  12. Analysis of a neutron scattering integral experiment on iron for neutron energies from 1 to 15 MeV

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Cramer, S.N.; Oblow, E.M.

    1976-11-01

    Monte Carlo calculations were made to analyze the results of an integral experiment with an iron sample to determine the adequacy of neutron scattering cross section data for iron. The experimental results analyzed included energy-dependent NE-213 detector count rates at a scattering angle of 90 deg and pulse-height spectra for scattered neutrons produced in an iron ring pulsed with a 1- to 20-MeV neutron source. The pulse-height data were unfolded to generate secondary neutron spectra at 90 deg as a function of incident neutron energy. Multigroup Monte Carlo calculations using the MORSE code and ENDF/B-IV cross sections were made to analyze all reported results. Discrepancies between calculated and measured responses were found for inelastic scattering reactions in the range from 1 to 4 MeV. These results were related to deficiencies in ENDF/B-IV iron cross section data

  13. A study of interference effects in Na(3S,3P)-Ne, Ar scattering experiments at high angular resolution

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Berg, F.T.M. van den.

    1984-01-01

    In this thesis the author presents measurements of differential cross sections for the scattering of Na-atoms in the ground-state and first excited-state by the rare gas atoms Ne and Ar. The scattering experiments were performed in a crossed-beam apparatus built and tested by van Deventer et al. The unique high angular-resolution (0.1 0 ) of this beam-scattering apparatus permits us (i) to remove the discrepancies that still exist between the various X 2 Σ- and A 2 PI-potential curves for Na-Ar and Na-Ne reported up to now, (ii) to obtain detailed information on the B 2 Σ-potentials for these systems and (iii) to demonstrate the necessity of taking into account the spin-uncoupling effects, in the interpretation of the experimental Na-Ne scattering patterns. (Auth.)

  14. Molecular beam scattering experiments on the abstraction and exchange reactions of deuterium atoms with the hydrogen halides HCl, HBr, and HI

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Bauer, W.; Rusin, L.Y.; Toennies, J.P.

    1978-01-01

    Molecular beam scattering experiments have been carried out on the abstraction and exchange reactions of deuterium atoms (T=2600 K) with the hydrogen halides HX(T=300 K) in the range of scattering angles: 0 0 0 (theta/sub cm/=0 0 is the direction of the incident D-atom beam). The apparatus employed a very sensitive electron bombardment detector with a sufficiently low H 2 background to make possible the measurement of differential cross sections of about 0.1 A 2 /sr for reactively scattered HD and H and nonreactively scattered D-atoms. The measured HD signal can be largely attributed to various background sources and only serves to establish a rough upper limit on the abstraction cross section in the angular range investigated. The H-atom signal was more intense. The observed angular distribution was forward peaked, and is attributed to the exchange reaction. The nonreactively scattered D-atom signal was used in conjunction with a recently reported effective spherically symmetric potential to provide an absolute calibration of the detector sensitivity. The measured integral cross sections for the exchange reactions are 2.3 A 2 (D+HCl), 1.3 A 2 (D+HBr) and 1.6 A 2 (D+HI) with an estimated error of about +- 30%. The absolute cross sections and the H-atom angular distributions are consistent with the DX distributions measured by McDonald and Herschbach. Both experimental angular distributions are considerably narrower than those predicted by the recent classical trajectory calculations of Raff, Suzukawa, and Thompson. The implications of the new data for the activation energies for the exchange reactions are discussed

  15. Fragmentation and nucleon structure in semi-inclusive deep-inelastic scattering at the HERMES experiment

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Jossten, Sylvester Johannes

    2013-10-15

    Multiplicities for the semi-inclusive production of each charge state of {pi}{sup {+-}} and K{sup {+-}} mesons in deep-inelastic scattering are presented as a function of the kinematic quantities x, Q{sup 2}, z and P{sub h} {sub perpendicular} {sub to}. The multiplicities were extracted from data collected by the HERMES experiment at the HERA storage ring using 27.6 GeV electron and positron beams on a hydrogen or deuterium gas target. These results for identified hadrons constitute the most precise measurement to date, and will significantly enhance our understanding of the proton structure, as well as the fragmentation process in deep-inelastic scattering. Furthermore, the 3D binning at an unprecedented level of precision provides a handle to help disentangle the transverse momentum structure of both. The high level of precision coupled with an intermediate energy regime requires a careful study of the complex interaction between the experimental systematics, theoretical uncertainties, and the applicability of the factorization theorem within the standard framework of leading-twist collinear QCD. This is illustrated by the extraction of the valence quark ratio d{sub {nu}}/u{sub {nu}} at leading-order in {alpha}{sub s}. These results show a strong z-dependence below z {approx} 0.30, which could be interpreted as evidence for factorization breaking. This evidence weakens somewhat when isospin invariance of the fragmentation functions is assumed to be broken. Additionally, the multiplicities for the semi-inclusive production of {pi}{sup 0} mesons in deep-inelastic scattering are presented as a function of z. These multiplicities were extracted from the same data sample as used for the charged meson results. The neutral pion multiplicity is the same as the average charged pion multiplicity, up to z {approx} 0.70. This is consistent with isospin invariance below z {approx} 0.70. The results at high values of z show strong signs of isospin symmetry breaking.

  16. “SmartGlass” Obstacles for Dynamic Inducing of Light Scattering in Vision Research Experiments

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Olga DANILENKO

    2016-11-01

    Full Text Available We describe a technique that allows control of visual stimuli quality through the use of a setup with a polymer dispersed liquid crystal (PDLC film positioned in the optical pathway of one or both human eyes. Nowadays, PDLC films allow alteration of the resolution and contrast limits of the transmitted light due to continuous change in the light scattering that is obtained by the application of an AC electrical field. In our experimental setup, the use of a wide-aperture up to area of 20 x 15 cm2 PDLC sheet is combined with a flat-screen PC display or with a modified display emission block without its interference filter unit and with an installed individually controllable colored light-emitting diode (LED backlight. In the latter case, the spatial structure of visual stimulus remains constant, but the PDLC switching-on timing for intensity, color, and contrast of visual stimuli control is done by a PC via an Arduino USB interface. Arduino applies a voltage to the backlight colored LEDs and the low voltage up to 30 – 80 V to light-scattering PDLC sheet. Modifications to this setup can improve the resolution of the timing and screen stimulus intensity and color purity, and increase the flexibility of its application in visual research tasks. A particular use of PDLC scattering sheets involves the altering of the stimuli input strength of the eye in different binocular viewing schemes. In such applications, a restricted-optical-aperture PDLC element is mounted in a goggle frame, and the element is controlled by the application of low-voltage AC field. The efficacy of the setup is demonstrated in experiments of human vision contrast sensitivity adaptation studies. Studies allow to determine the characteristic time of the contrast sensitivity altering of 4 s during adaptation phase and the same order of the characteristic time during recovery.DOI: http://dx.doi.org/10.5755/j01.ms.22.4.12907

  17. Investigation into magnetic correlations in cuprates by means of neutron scattering experiments

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Henggeler, W.

    1996-01-01

    This thesis shows the results of our investigation on cuprate materials containing rare earth ions. The main experimental tools were inelastic and elastic neutron scattering techniques. In some cases we also performed μSR, susceptibility and specific heat measurements. One aim was to learn more about the crystalline environment of the rare earth ions in these substances via the crystalline electric field (CEF) interaction. Furthermore, we investigated the correlations of the magnetic moments of these ions by a determination of the dispersion of the CEF excitations. The theory that is essential for the understanding of this work is outlined. The instruments on which the experiments have been performed are presented in the third chapter. In the fourth chapter we show the measurements of the CEF excitations of Ho 3+ in Y 0.99 Ho 0.01 Ba 2 Cu 3 O 6+x . The Ho ions represent ideal local probes to examine changes of the charge distribution in the copper oxide planes upon doping with oxygen. To prevent any influence of the Ho-Ho exchange interaction on the CEF excitations we performed the experiments on substances containing only one percent of Ho. Our results show that for all the intermediately doped compounds the charge distribution is very inhomogeneous. For all the highly doped samples we observe a line asymmetry for which several possible origins are discussed. In the fifth chapter we examine the Pr 3+ CEF excitations in the Pr 2-x Ce x CuO 4(-δ) (0≤x≤0.2)-substances. Our results show a coexistence of different environments of the Pr ions in all the doped compounds. We try to describe these inhomogeneities with the help of a model. We used the μSR-technique on some of these samples in order to learn more about the oxygen reduction process. Finally, we performed inelastic neutron scattering experiments on Pr 1.86 Ce 0.14 CuO 4 single crystal, which allowed a direct determination of the coupling constants between the magnetic moments of the Pr ions. (author

  18. Summary of Thomson-scattering data from the Tandem Mirror Experiment (TMX)

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Goodman, R.K.

    1982-01-01

    We provide a synthesis of our Thomson-scattering measurements of electron temperature (T/sub e/) and density (n/sub e/) for the Tandem Mirror Experiment (TMX). TMX operated in two modes - high and low T/sub e/. When performing in the high T/sub e/ mode (in general > 100 eV), heating the central-cell ions with neutral beams raised T/sub e/ in the end plug. We achieved a maximum T/sub e/ of 260 eV in the east end plug. Specifically, our experiments demonstrated that in the end plug, the radial T/sub e/ profiles were flat to r = 5 cm; the ratio of potential (phi/sub p/) to T/sub e/ ranged between four and six. In addition, we found that although T/sub e/ in the central cell was generally comparable to that in the plug, it was often not constant along a magnetic field line. Under some conditions a non-Maxwellian electron distribution may have been present

  19. A fast filter processor as a part of the trigger logic in an elastic scattering experiment

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Kenyon Gjerpe, I.

    1981-01-01

    A fast special purpose processor as a part of the trigger logic in an elastic scattering experiment is described. The decision to incorporate such a processor was taken because the trigger rate was estimated to be an order of magnitude higher than the date taking capability of the on-line minicomputer, a NORD 10. The processor is capable of checking the coplanarity and the opening angle of the two outgoing tracks within about 100 μs. This is done with a spatial resolution of 1 mm by using two points each track given by 3 MWPCs. For comparison this is two orders of magnitude faster than the same algorithm coded in assembly language on a PDP 11/40. The main contribution to this increased speed is due to extensive use of pipelining and parallelism. When running with the processor in the trigger, 75% more elastic events per incoming beam particle were collected, and 3 times as many elastic events per trigger were recorded on to tape for further in-depth analysis, than previously. Due to major improvements in the primary trigger logic this was less than the gain initially anticipated. A first version of the processor was designed and constructed in the CERN DD division by J. Joosten, M. Letheren and B. Martin under the supervision of C. Verkerk. The author was involved in the final design, construction and testing, and subsequently was responsible for the intergration, programming and running of the processor in the experiment. (orig.)

  20. QCD Precision Measurements and Structure Function Extraction at a High Statistics, High Energy Neutrino Scattering Experiment: NuSOnG

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Adams, T.; Batra, P.; Bugel, Leonard G.; Camilleri, Leslie Loris; Conrad, Janet Marie; Fisher, Peter H.; Formaggio, Joseph Angelo; Karagiorgi, Georgia S.; )

    2009-01-01

    We extend the physics case for a new high-energy, ultra-high statistics neutrino scattering experiment, NuSOnG (Neutrino Scattering On Glass) to address a variety of issues including precision QCD measurements, extraction of structure functions, and the derived Parton Distribution Functions (PDFs). This experiment uses a Tevatron-based neutrino beam to obtain a sample of Deep Inelastic Scattering (DIS) events which is over two orders of magnitude larger than past samples. We outline an innovative method for fitting the structure functions using a parameterized energy shift which yields reduced systematic uncertainties. High statistics measurements, in combination with improved systematics, will enable NuSOnG to perform discerning tests of fundamental Standard Model parameters as we search for deviations which may hint of 'Beyond the Standard Model' physics

  1. Experiment and application of soft x-ray grazing incidence optical scattering phenomena

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chen, Shuyan; Li, Cheng; Zhang, Yang; Su, Liping; Geng, Tao; Li, Kun

    2017-08-01

    For short wavelength imaging systems,surface scattering effects is one of important factors degrading imaging performance. Study of non-intuitive surface scatter effects resulting from practical optical fabrication tolerances is a necessary work for optical performance evaluation of high resolution short wavelength imaging systems. In this paper, Soft X-ray optical scattering distribution is measured by a soft X-ray reflectometer installed by my lab, for different sample mirrors、wavelength and grazing angle. Then aim at space solar telescope, combining these scattered light distributions, and surface scattering numerical model of grazing incidence imaging system, PSF and encircled energy of optical system of space solar telescope are computed. We can conclude that surface scattering severely degrade imaging performance of grazing incidence systems through analysis and computation.

  2. Design and construction of a spectrometer facility and experiment for intermediate energy proton scattering on helium

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Rolfe, R.M.

    1976-12-01

    The goal of the research was to investigate proton scattering on nuclei at intermediate energies and in particular to investigate proton scattering on helium. A theoretical investigation of the helium nucleus and the nature of the intermediate energy interaction, design and optimization of an energy-loss spectrometer facility for proton-nucleus scattering, and the unique superfluid helium target and experimental design are discussed

  3. Deriving profiles of incident and scattered neutrons for TOF experiments with the spallation sources

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Watanabe, Hidehiro

    1993-01-01

    A formula that closely matches the incident profile of epi-thermal and thermal neutrons for time of flight experiments carried out with a spallation neutron source and moderator scheme is derived based on the slowing-down and diffusing-out processes in a moderator. This analytical description also enables us to predict burst-function profiles; these profiles are verified by a comparison with a diffraction pattern. The limits of the analytical model are discussed through the predictable peak position shift brought about by the slowing-down process. (orig.)

  4. Experiment to measure total cross sections, differential cross sections and polarization effects in pp elastic scattering at RHIC

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Guryn, W.

    1995-01-01

    The author is describing an experiment to study proton-proton (pp) elastic scattering experiment at the Relativistic Heavy Ion Collider (RHIC). Using both polarized and unpolarized beams, the experiment will study pp elastic scattering from √s = 60 GeV to √s = 500 GeV in two kinematical regions .In the Coulomb Nuclear Interference (CNI) region, 0.0005 2 , we will measure and study the s dependence of the total and elastic cross sections, σ tot and σ el ; the ratio of the real to the imaginary part of the forward elastic scattering amplitude, ρ; and the nuclear slope parameter of the pp elastic scattering, b. In the medium |t|, |t| ≤ 1.5 (GeV/c) 2 , we plan to study the evolution of the dip structure with s, as observed at ISR in the differential elastic cross section, dσ el /dt, and the s and |t| dependence of b. With the polarized beams the following can be measured: the difference in the total cross sections as function of initial transverse spin stated Δσ T , the analyzing power, A N , and the transverse spin correlation parameter A NN . The behavior of the analyzing power A N at RHIC energies in the dip region of dσ el /dt, where a pronounced structure was found at fixed-target experiments will be studied

  5. Possible interpretation of the scale invariance violation during a deep inelastic muons scattering experiment on an hadron target

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Salati, Pierre.

    1980-01-01

    The purpose of this work is to analyse the structure functions produced by a deep inelastic scattering experiment of muons upon a hadronic target. A non perturbative model is tested. In order to chek the quantum chromodynamics, the moments and the Altarelli-Parisi equations are used. The main result is the scaling parameter lambda [fr

  6. Achieving Very Low Levels of Detection: An Improved Surface-Enhanced Raman Scattering Experiment for the Physical Chemistry Teaching Laboratory

    Science.gov (United States)

    McMillan, Brian G.

    2016-01-01

    This experiment was designed and successfully introduced to complement the nanochemistry taught to undergraduate students in a useful and interesting way. Colloidal Ag nanoparticles were synthesized by a simple, room-temperature method, and the resulting suspension was then used to study the surface-enhanced Raman scattering (SERS) of methylene…

  7. Direct measurement of the cross section of neutron-neutron scattering at the YAGUAR reactor. Substantiation of the experiment technique

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Chernukhin, Yu.G.; Kandiev, Ya.Z.; Lartsev, V.D.; Levakov, B.G.; Modestov, D.G.; Simonenko, V.A.; Streltsov, S.I.; Khmel'nitskij, D.V.

    2006-01-01

    The main stage of experiment for direct measurement of cross section of neutron-neutron scattering σ nn at low energies (E nn determination. It was shown, that for achieving the criterion ε ∼ 4% it will be necessary to have 40-50 pulses of a reactor [ru

  8. Study methods for borings carried out near the underground nuclear experiments in the Sahara. Part 2. techniques for studying the walls of the bore-holes

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Faure, J.

    1969-01-01

    Measurements by drilling have been carried out during the underground nuclear bomb explosions on the Sahara test site: observation of the rock by television and permeability measurements. After a presentation of the principle of the experiment, a description is given of the technique used, i.l. the equipment and its manipulation. Finally problems arising from the interpretation of the results are considered. The conclusion stresses the importance of the results of this work from the point of view of possible industrial applications. (author) [fr

  9. Transition from hydrodynamic to fast sound in a He-Ne mixture a neutron Brillouin scattering experiment

    CERN Document Server

    Bafile, U; Barocchi, F; Sampoli, M

    2002-01-01

    The presence of a fast-sound mode in the microscopic dynamics of the rare-gas mixture He-Ne, predicted by theoretical studies and molecular-dynamics simulations, was demonstrated by an inelastic neutron scattering experiment. In order to study the transition between the fast and the normal acoustic modes in the hydrodynamic regime, k values lower by about one order of magnitude than in the usual experiments have to be probed. We describe here the results of the first neutron Brillouin scattering experiment performed with this purpose on the same system already investigated at larger k. The results of both experiments, together with those of a new molecular-dynamics simulation, provide a complete and consistent description, still missing so far, of the onset of fast-sound propagation in a binary mixture. (orig.)

  10. Electron scattering for exotic nuclei

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Suda, T.

    2013-01-01

    An electron scattering facility is under construction in RIKEN RI Beam Factory, Japan, which is dedicated to the structure studies of short-lived nuclei. This is the world's first and currently only facility of its type. The construction is nearly completed, and the first electron scattering experiment off short-lived nuclei will be carried out in the beginning of next year. The charge density distributions of short-lived nuclei will be precisely determined by elastic electron scattering for the first time. Physics pursued at this facility including future perspectives are explained

  11. Spin-density correlations in the dynamic spin-fluctuation theory: Comparison with polarized neutron scattering experiments

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Melnikov, N.B., E-mail: melnikov@cs.msu.su [Lomonosov Moscow State University, Moscow 119991 (Russian Federation); Reser, B.I., E-mail: reser@imp.uran.ru [Miheev Institute of Metal Physics, Ural Branch of Russian Academy of Sciences, Ekaterinburg 620990 (Russian Federation); Paradezhenko, G.V., E-mail: gparadezhenko@cs.msu.su [Lomonosov Moscow State University, Moscow 119991 (Russian Federation)

    2016-08-01

    To study the spin-density correlations in the ferromagnetic metals above the Curie temperature, we relate the spin correlator and neutron scattering cross-section. In the dynamic spin-fluctuation theory, we obtain explicit expressions for the effective and local magnetic moments and spatial spin-density correlator. Our theoretical results are demonstrated by the example of bcc Fe. The effective and local moments are found in good agreement with results of polarized neutron scattering experiment over a wide temperature range. The calculated short-range order is small (up to 4 Å) and slowly decreases with temperature.

  12. Mean square hydrogen fluctuations in chitosan/lecithin nanoparticles from elastic neutron scattering experiments

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sonvico, Fabio; Teresa Di Bari, Maria; Bove, Livia; Deriu, Antonio; Cavatorta, Fabrizio; Albanese, Gianfranco

    2006-11-01

    Recently, we have started a systematic study of the structure and dynamics of nano- and microparticles of interest as highly biocompatible drug carriers. For these particles, that are composed of polymeric and lipid material, a detailed understanding of the particle-solvent interactions is of key importance in order to tailor their characteristics for delivering drugs with specific chemical properties. Here we report results of elastic neutron scattering (ENS) investigations on lecithin/chitosan nanoparticles. They were first prepared by autoassembling the two components in aqueous solution; the samples were then freeze-dried and re-hydrated in a D 2O atmosphere. The experiments were performed in the temperature range of 20-50 K using the backscattering spectrometer IN13 at ILL (Grenoble, France). The comparison of samples in the dry state with similar ones at an hydration level of about 0.3-0.4 (g D 2O/g hydrated sample), indicates that the presence of an outer chitosan ‘‘coating’’ reduces the mean square fluctuations of the hydrogens in the lipid component, leading thus to a stiffer nanoparticle structure.

  13. Spectrometer Development in Support of Thomson Scattering Investigations for the Helicon Plasma Experiment (HPX)

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sandri, Eva; Davies, Richard; Azzari, Phil; Frank, John; Frank, Jackson; James, Royce; Hopson, Jordon; Duke-Tinson, Omar; Paolino, Richard; Sherman, Justin; Wright, Erin; Turk, Jeremy

    2016-10-01

    Now that reproducible plasmas have been created on the Helicon Plasma Experiment (HPX) at the Coast Guard Academy Plasma Laboratory (CGAPL), a high-performance spectrometer utilizing volume-phase-holographic (VPH) grating and a charge coupled device (CCD) camera with a range of 380-1090 nm and resolution of 1024x1024 is being assembled. This spectrometer will collect doppler shifted photons created by exciting the plasma with the first harmonic of a 2.5 J Nd:YAG laser at a wavelength of 1064 nm. Direct measurements of the plasma's temperature and density will be determined using HPX's Thomson Scattering (TS) system as a single spatial point diagnostic. TS has the capability of determining plasma properties on short time scales and will be used to create a robust picture of the internal plasma parameters. A prototype spectrometer has been constructed to explore the Andor CCD camera's resolution and sensitivity. Concurrently, through intensive study of the high energy TS system, safety protocols and standard operation procedures (SOP) for the Coast Guard's largest and most powerful Laser have been developed. The current status of the TS SOP, diagnostic development, and the collection optic's spectrometer will be reported. Supported by U.S. DEPS Grant [HEL-JTO] PRWJFY15-16.

  14. The study of membrane formation via phase inversion method by cloud point and light scattering experiment

    Science.gov (United States)

    Arahman, Nasrul; Maimun, Teuku; Mukramah, Syawaliah

    2017-01-01

    The composition of polymer solution and the methods of membrane preparation determine the solidification process of membrane. The formation of membrane structure prepared via non-solvent induced phase separation (NIPS) method is mostly determined by phase separation process between polymer, solvent, and non-solvent. This paper discusses the phase separation process of polymer solution containing Polyethersulfone (PES), N-methylpirrolidone (NMP), and surfactant Tetronic 1307 (Tet). Cloud point experiment is conducted to determine the amount of non-solvent needed on induced phase separation. Amount of water required as a non-solvent decreases by the addition of surfactant Tet. Kinetics of phase separation for such system is studied by the light scattering measurement. With the addition of Tet., the delayed phase separation is observed and the structure growth rate decreases. Moreover, the morphology of fabricated membrane from those polymer systems is analyzed by scanning electron microscopy (SEM). The images of both systems show the formation of finger-like macrovoids through the cross-section.

  15. The Thomson Scattering System on the Lithium Tokamak eXperiment (LTX)

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Strickler, T.; Majeski, R.; Kaita, R.; LeBlanc, B.

    2008-01-01

    The Lithium Tokamak eXperiment (LTX) is a spherical tokamak with R0 = 0.4m, a = 0.26m, BTF ∼ 3.4kG, IP ∼ 400kA, and pulse length ∼ 0.25s. The goal of LTX is to investigate tokamak plasmas that are almost entirely surrounded by a lithium-coated plasma-facing shell conformal to the last closed magnetic flux surface. Based on previous experimental results and simulation, it is expected that the low-recycling liquid lithium surfaces will result in higher temperatures at the plasma edge, flatter overall temperature profiles, centrally-peaked density profiles, and an increased confinement time. To test these predictions, the electron temperature and density profiles in LTX will be measured by a multi-point Thomson scattering system (TVTS). Initially, TS measurements will be made at up to 12 simultaneous points between the plasma center and plasma edge. Later, high resolution edge measurements will be deployed to study the lithium edge physics in greater detail. Technical challenges to implementing the TS system included limited 'line of sight' access to the plasma due to the plasma-facing shell and problems associated with the presence of liquid lithium.

  16. Experimental setup for deeply virtual Compton scattering (DVCS) experiment in hall A at Jefferson Laboratory

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Camsonne, A.

    2005-11-01

    The Hall A Deeply Virtual Compton Scattering (DVCS) experiment used the 5.757 GeV polarized electron beam available at Jefferson Laboratory and ran from september until december 2004. Using the standard Hall A left high resolution spectrometer three kinematical points were taken at a fixed x b (jorken) = 0.32 value for three Q 2 values: 1.5 GeV 2 , 1.91 GeV 2 , 2.32 GeV 2 . An electromagnetic Lead Fluoride calorimeter and a proton detector scintillator array designed to work at a luminosity of 10 37 cm -2 s -1 were added to ensure the exclusivity of the DVCS reaction. In addition to the new detectors new custom electronics was used: a calorimeter trigger module which determines if an electron photon coincidence has occurred and a sampling system allowing to deal with pile-up events during the offline analysis. Finally the data from the kinematic at Q 2 = 2.32 GeV 2 and s = 5.6 GeV 2 allowed to get a preliminary result for the exclusive π 0 electroproduction on the proton. (author)

  17. A study of quasi-elastic muon (anti)neutrino scattering in he NOMAD experiment

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Lyubushkin, Vladimir

    2009-01-01

    We have studied the muon neutrino and antineutrino quasi-elastic (QEL) scattering reactions (v μ n→μ - p and v-bar μ p→μ + n using a set of experimental data collected by the NOMAD collaboration. We have performed measurements of the cross-section of these processes on a nuclear target (mainly Carbon) normalizing it to the total v μ (v-bar μ ) charged current cross-section. The results for the flux averaged QEL cross-sections in the (anti)neutrino energy interval 3-100 GeV are qel >v μ = (0.92±0.02(stat)±0.06(syst))x10 -38 cm 2 and qel >v-bar μ = (0.81±0.05(stat)±0.09(syst))x10 -38 cm 2 for neutrino and antineutrino, respectively. The axial mass parameter MA was extracted from the measured quasi-elastic neutrino cross-section. The corresponding result is M A = 1.05±0.02(stat)±0.06(syst) GeV. It is consistent with the axial mass values recalculated from the antineutrino cross-section and extracted from the pure Q 2 shape analysis of the high purity sample of v μ quasi-elastic 2-track events, but has smaller systematic error and should be quoted as the main result of this work. Our measured MA is found to be in good agreement with the world average value obtained in previous deuterium filled bubble chamber experiments. The NOMAD measurement of M A is lower than those recently published by K2K and MiniBooNE collaborations. However, within the large errors quoted by these experiments on M A , these results are compatible with the more precise NOMAD value.

  18. What can we learn about the lipid vesicle structure from the small angle neutron scattering experiment?

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Kiselev, M.A.; Zemlyanaya, E.V.; Aswal, V.K.; Neubert, R.H.H.

    2005-01-01

    Small angle neutron scattering (SANS) on the unilamellar vesicle populations (diameter of 500 and 1000 Armstrong) was used to characterize lipid vesicles from dimyristoylphosphatidylcholine (DMPC) in three phases (gel, ripple, and liquid). Parameters of vesicle populations and internal structure of the DMPC bilayer were characterized on the basis of the Separated Form Factor (SFF) model. Vesicle shape changes from about spherical in liquid phase to elliptical in ripple and gel phases for vesicles prepared via extrusion through pores with the diameter of 500 Armstrong. Parameters of the internal bilayer structure (membrane thickness, thickness of the hydrophobic core, hydration, and surface area of lipid molecule) were determined on the basis of the Hydrophobic-Hydrophilic (HH) approximation of neutron scattering length density across the bilayer ρ(x) and on the basis of the Step Function (SF) approximation of ρ(x). It was demonstrated in the framework of HH approximation that DMPC membrane thickness in the liquid phase (T = 30 deg C) depends on the membrane curvature. Vesicle population prepared via extrusion through pores with the diameter of 500 Armstrong is characterized by an average radius of 275.6 ± 0.5 Armstrong, polydispersity of 27%, membrane thickness of 47.8 ± 0.2 Armstrong, thickness of hydrophobic core of 20.5 ± 0.3 Armstrong, surface area per DMPC molecule of 61.0 ± 0.4 A 2 Armstrong, and the number of water molecules per DMPC molecule of 11.9 ± 0.3. Vesicles prepared via extrusion through pores with the diameter of 1000 Armstrong have a polydispersity of 48%, and a membrane thickness of 45.6 ± 0.2 Armstrong. SF approximation was used to describe the DMPC membrane structure in gel (T 10 deg C) and ripple (T = 20 deg C) phases. DMPC vesicles prepared via extrusion through 1000- Armstrong pores have a membrane thickness of 49.6 ± 0.5 Armstrong in the gel phase and 48.3 ± 0.6 Armstrong in the ripple phase. The dependence of the DMPC membrane

  19. Effect of neutrons scattered from boundary of neutron field on shielding experiment

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Ogawa, Tatsuhiko; Abe, Takuya; Kosako, Toshiso; Iimoto, Takeshi

    2009-01-01

    Neutron shielding experiment with 49 cm-thick ordinary concrete was carried out at the reactor 'Yayoi' The University of Tokyo. System of this experiment is enclosed by heavy concrete where neutrons backscattered from heavy concrete likely affected neutron flux on the back surface of shielding concrete. Reaction rate of 197 Au(n, γ), cadmium covered 197 Au(n, γ) and 115 In(n, n') in the shielding concrete was measured using foil activation method. Neutron transport calculation was carried out in order to simulate reaction rate by calculating neutron spectra and convoluting with neutron capture cross-section in neutron shielding concrete. Comparison was made between calculated reaction rate and experimental one, and almost satisfactory agreement was found except for the back surface of shielding. To compose adequate simulation model, description of heavy concrete behind the shielding was thought to be of importance. For example, disregarding neutrons backscattered from heavy concrete, calculation underestimated reaction rate by the factor of 10. In another example, assuming that chemical composition of heavy concrete is equal to the composition adopted from a literature, the reaction rate was overestimated by factor of 5. By making the composition of heavy concrete equal to that based on facility design, overestimation was found to be the factor of 2. Therefore, adequate description of chemical composition of heavy concrete is found to be of importance in order to simulate neutron induced reaction rate on the back surface of neutron shielding concrete in shielding experiment performed in a system enclosed by heavy concrete. (author)

  20. Neutron scattering experiments on well-staged graphite - FeCl3

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Axe, J.D.; Majkrzak, C.F.; Passell, L.; Satija, S.K.; Dresselhaus, G.; Mazurek, H.

    1981-01-01

    This paper reports results of a neutron diffraction study on both the magnetic and the lattice dynamic structure of graphite-FeCl 3 . The FeCl 3 system was selected for this study because of the interesting magnetic properties previously reported for this system. Of particular interest is the low temperature magnetic phase transition, which has been shown to be stage dependent. Special emphasis was given to the study of the low temperature magnetic state of the Fe 3+ spins and to the longitudinal phonon modes for k/sub z/ axis acoustic branches. All experiments reported here were carried out on a stage 2 sample of graphite-FeCl 3 . The sample was prepared by a two-zone vapor growth technique and was characterized by (00l) x-ray and neutron diffraction patterns to be > 95% stage 2, with only minor inclusions of other stages

  1. A study of quasi-elastic muon (anti) neutrino scattering in the NOMAD experiment

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Lyubushkin, V.V.; Popov, B.A.

    2008-01-01

    We have studied the muon neutrino and antineutrino-quasi-elastic (QEL) scattering reactions (ν μ n → μ - p and νbar μ p → μ + n) using a set of experimental data collected by the NOMAD collaboration. We have performed measurements of the cross section of these processes on a nuclear target (mainly carbon) normalizing it to the total ν μ (νbar μ ) charged current cross section. The results for the flux averaged QEL cross sections in the (anti)neutrino energy interval 3-100 GeV are (σ qel )ν μ = (0.92 ± 0.02 (stat.) ± 0.06 (syst.)) · 10 -38 cm 2 and (σ qel )νbar μ = (0.81 ± 0.05 (stat.) ± 0.08 (syst.)) · 10 -38 cm 2 for neutrino and antineutrino, respectively. The axial mass parameter M A was extracted from the measured quasi-elastic neutrino cross section. The corresponding result is M A = 1.05 ± 0.02 (stat.) ± 0.06 (syst.) GeV. It is consistent with the axial mass values recalculated from the antineutrino cross section and extracted from the pure Q 2 shape analysis of the high purity sample of ν μ quasi-elastic 2-track events, but has smaller systematic error and should be quoted as the main result of this work. The measured M A is found to be in good agreement with the world average value obtained in the previous deuterium filled bubble chamber experiments. These results do not support M A measurements published recently by the K2K and MiniBooNE collaborations, which reported somewhat larger values, which are however compatible with our results within their large errors

  2. Additional information about the chemistry of precipitates by variation of the scattering contrast in SANS and SAXS experiments

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Grosse, M.

    1999-01-01

    Contrast variation experiments provide the possibility to get information about the chemical composition of heterogeneities seen in the small angle scattering experiment. Phases in complex materials can become visible or invisible by changing the contrast. A very important question in this field is the determination of the type of precipitates which are formed during neutron irradiation. These irradiation-induced precipitates are the cause for the neutron embrittlement, which is the life time limiting process for a nuclear power plant. An example is presented, which shows that with contrast variation experiments information about chemical composition of precipitates can be obtained. Several phases in complex materials can be separated. (K.A.)

  3. The Brazilian psychiatric reform: historical and technical-supportive aspects of experiences carried out in the cities of São Paulo, Santos and Campinas

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Cristina Amélia Luzio

    2007-01-01

    Full Text Available The Brazilian psychiatric reform: historical and technical-supportive aspects of experiences carried out in the cities of São Paulo (capital, Santos and Campinas, in order to understand their material, social and political impacts, the progress in the process of breaking away from the psychiatric ward model, and the establishment of creative and productive groups, required to build up the psychosocial treatment in regard to mental health, as well as to evaluate the contribution that the SUS (Brazilian Public Health System had on the psychiatric reform in the mentioned cities. The research, which is the basis of this paper, is part of a thesis regarding mental health care, whereby the innovative projects implemented in those cities served as framework and basis for comparison to analyze mental health policy in small and medium-sized cities and towns in the state of São Paulo.

  4. Experimental determination and chemical modelling of radiolytic processes at the spent fuel/water interface. Experiments carried out in carbonate solutions in absence and presence of chloride

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Bruno, Jordi; Cera, Esther; Grive, Mireia; Duro, Lara [Enviros Spain SL (Spain); Eriksen, Trygve [Royal Inst. of Tech., Stockholm (Sweden). Dept. of Nuclear Chemistry

    2003-01-01

    We report on the recent experimental and modelling results of a research programme that started in 1995. The aim has been to understand the kinetic and thermodynamic processes that control the radiolytic generation of oxidants and reductants at the spent fuel water interface and their consequences for spent fuel matrix stability and radionuclide release. This has been done by carrying out well-controlled dissolution experiments of PWR Ringhals spent fuel fragments in an initially anoxic closed system and by using different solution compositions. Experimental series started with several tests carried out with deionised water as solvent, in a second phase experiments were conducted with 10 mM bicarbonate solutions. New experimental series were set up during the last two years by using the same bicarbonate content in solutions with varying NaCl concentrations in order to ascertain the role of this ligand on the radiolytic products and its consequence for radionuclide release. The selected NaCl concentrations are in the range of 0.1 to 10 mM. Experimental data shows that uranium dissolution at early contact times is controlled by the oxidation of the UO{sub 2} matrix. This process controls the co-dissolution of most of the analysed radionuclides, including Sr, Mo, Tc, Np and surprisingly enough, Cs. In the overall the release rates for U and the matrix associated radionuclides are in the range of 10{sup -6} moles/day with a clear decreasing trend with exposure time and after 2 years the initial release rates have decreased down to 3x10{sup -8} moles/day. The solubility of the released actinides appears to be limited by the formation of An(IV) hydroxide phases, although Np concentrations in solution did not reach solubility levels during the time intervals of the present tests. No secondary solid phase appears to control the solubility of the rest of the elements.

  5. Analysis of high resolution scatter images from laser damage experiments performed on KDP

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Runkel, M.; Woods, B.; Yan, M.

    1996-01-01

    Interest in producing high damage threshold KH 2 PO 4 (KDP) and (D x H 1-x ) 2 PO 4 (KD*P, DKDP) for optical switching and frequency conversion applications is being driven by the system requirements for the National Ignition Facility (NIF) at Lawrence Livermore National Lab (LLNL). Historically, the path to achieving higher damage thresholds has been to improve the purity of crystal growth solutions. Application of advanced filtration technology has increased the damage threshold, but gives little insight into the actual mechanisms of laser damage. We have developed a laser scatter diagnostic to better study bulk defects and laser damage mechanisms in KDP and KD*P crystals. This diagnostic consists of a cavity doubled, kilohertz class, Nd:YLF laser (527 nm) and high dynamic range CCD camera which allows imaging of bulk scatter signals. With it, we have performed damage tests at 355 nm on four different open-quotes vintagesclose quotes of KDP crystals, concentrating on crystals produced via fast growth methods. We compare the diagnostic's resolution to LLNL's standard damage detection method of 100X darkfield microscopy and discuss its impact on damage threshold determination. We have observed the disappearance of scatter sites upon exposure to subthreshold irradiation. In contrast, we have seen scatterers appear where none previously existed. This includes isolated, large (high signal) sites as well as multiple small scatter sites which appear at fluences above 7 J/cm 2 (fine tracking). However, we have not observed a strong correlation of preexisting scatter sites and laser damage sites. We speculate on the connection between the laser-induced disappearance of scatter sites and the observed increase in damage threshold with laser conditioning

  6. Scattering of a light wave by a thin fiber on or near a prism: experiment and analytical theory.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tajima, Fumiaki; Nishiyama, Yoshio

    2012-06-01

    We have performed an experiment of the scattering of the near field on a prism created by a laser wave, evanescent wave (EW), or plane wave (PW) of an incident angle slightly larger than or smaller than the critical angle, by a thin fiber of subwavelength diameter set above the prism, and we made an analytical theory of an adapted model for the experiment. We have been able to analyze the experimental data exactly by the model theory better than any other theory we have ever known. The importance of the multiple interaction of the wave between the fiber and the surface and also the close similarity of the scattering characteristics between the EW and the PW mentioned above have been acknowledged by the analysis of the data obtained.

  7. Study of problems met in muon pattern recognition for a deep inelastic scattering experiment at the S.P.S

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Besson, C.

    1976-01-01

    The problems of the muon pattern recognition are studied for a muon-proton deep inelastic scattering experiment at the S.P.S. The pattern recognition program is described together with the problems caused by some characteristics of the apparatus of the European muon collaboration. Several reconstruction technics are compared, and a way of handling big drift chamber problems is found. Some results on Monte-Carlo tracks are given [fr

  8. Multiple scattering of low energy rare gas ions: a comparison of experiment and computer simulation

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Heiland, W.; Taglauer, E.; Robinson, M.T.

    1976-01-01

    Some aspects of ion scattering below a few keV have been interpreted by multiple scattering. This can partly be simulated by chain or string models, where the single crystal surface is replaced by a chain of atoms. The computer program MARLOWE allows a simulation of solid-ion interaction, which is much closer to reality, e.g. the crystal is three-dimensional, includes lattice vibrations, electronic stopping power, different scattering potentials, etc. It is shown that the energy of the reflected ions as a function of the primary energy, lattice constant, impact angle and scattering angle can be understood within the string model. These results of the string model are confirmed by the MARLOWE calculations. For an interpretation of the measured intensities the simple string model is insufficient, whereas with MARLOWE reasonable agreement with experimental data may be achieved, if the thermal vibrations of the lattice atoms are taken into account. The experimental data include Ne + →Ni, Ne + →Ag and preliminary data on Ne + →W. The screening parameters of the scattering potentials are estimated for these ion-atom combinations. The results allow some conclusions about surface Debye temperatures. (Auth.)

  9. Effective coupling functions extracted from the scattering experiments with polarized protons at moderate energies

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Barut, A.O.; Anders, T.B.; Jachmann, W.

    1992-06-01

    The experimental data for the polarization asymmetries of pp-scattering available at the scattering angle θ = 90 deg. and at various moderate energies, as well as at E = 2.4434 GeV and various scattering angles are described by smooth phenomenological coupling functions for scalar, vector, tensor and the ''magnetic moment'' couplings as well as the corresponding parity conserving axial couplings. The analysis shows a predominant role of the ''axial magnetic moment'', the axial scalar, and the axial vector interactions. Moreover, the data contain oscillations of the type sin(qw 0 -π)/(qw 0 -π), where q is the square root of the energy-momentum transfer. The oscillations have amplitudes of 5%, and a constant frequency w o = 2π/0.88 m p . They arise from oscillating modulations up to 25% of the non-axial coupling functions. 8 refs, 21 figs, 4 tabs

  10. Gamow-Teller strength functions from (→p,→p') scattering experiments

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Hausser, O.

    1987-01-01

    We present here recent (→p, →'p) results from TRIUMF that are relevant to the determination of spin-flip isovector strength functions in nuclei. Distortion factors needed for the extraction of nuclear-structure information have been deduced from cross sections and analyzing powers in elastic scattering for several energies and targets. Nonrelativistic optical potentials obtained by folding effective nucleon (N)-nucleus interactions with nuclear densities are found to overpredict both elastic and reaction cross sections, whereas Dirac calculations that include Pauli blocking are in good agreement with the data. Spin observables (S nn and A y ) for the quasi-elastic region in 54 Fe(→p, →p) at 290 MeV provide some evidence for the reduction of the effective proton mass predicted in relativistic mean-field theories as a consequence of the attractive scalar field in the nuclear medium. The energy dependence of the effective N-nucleus interaction at small momentum transfers has been investigated using isoscalar and isovector 1 + states in 28 Si as probe states. We find that the cross sections for the isovector transitions are in good agreement with predictions for the dominant Vστ part of the Franey-Love interaction. Gamow-Teller (GT) strength functions have been obtained in 24 Mg and 54 Fe from measurements of both cross sections and spin-flip probabilities S nn . The spin-flip cross sections σS nn are particularly useful in heavier nuclei to discriminate against a continuous background of ΔS = 0 excitations. In the (s, d) shell where full shell-model wave functions are available, the GT quenching factors (g A eff / g A free ) 2 ≅ 0.7 are in good agreement with those from recent (p, n) and (n, p) experiments. We show that a state-by-state comparison of (p, p') and (e, e') results has the potential of identifying pionic current contributions in (e, e'). The GT quenching factors in 54 Fe are smaller than in the (s, d) shell probably because of severely

  11. Proposal to perform a high - statisics neutrino scattering experiment using a fine - grained detector in the NuMI Beam

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Morfin, J.G.; /Fermilab; McFarland, K.; /Rochester U.

    2003-12-01

    The NuMI facility at Fermilab will provide an extremely intense beam of neutrinos for the MINOS neutrino-oscillation experiment. The spacious and fully-outfitted MINOS near detector hall will be the ideal venue for a high-statistics, high-resolution {nu} and {bar {nu}}-nucleon/nucleus scattering experiment. The experiment described here will measure neutrino cross-sections and probe nuclear effects essential to present and future neutrino-oscillation experiments. Moreover, with the high NuMI beam intensity, the experiment will either initially address or significantly improve our knowledge of a wide variety of neutrino physics topics of interest and importance to the elementary-particle and nuclear-physics communities.

  12. Equipment and software for the experiment on polarized proton scattering on hydrogen and nuclei

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Buklej, A.E.; Govorun, N.N.; Zhurkin, V.V.

    1980-01-01

    Installation for the conduction of polarization measurements upon the beam of polarized protons with the 2.1 GeV/c momentum using ITEP synchrotron is described. The installation is designed for polarization measurement in elastic pp-scattering and asymmetry in summary (elastic and inelastic without meson production) scattering of polarized protons upon nuclei in the angle range up to 180 mrad, as well as polarization in elastic pn-scattering. The installation consists of 18 two-coordinate magnetostriction wire spark chambers (s.c.), emitting counters, the system of veto-counters surrounding the target, liquid hydrogen or (deuterium) target and magnet to conduct pulse analysis of scattered particles in the background measurements. Primary processing of the material is conducted on the basis of modernized programs using the M-220 and BESM-6 computers. With a help of the experimental installation described asymmetry measurement on hydrogen, Li, C, Al, Ca have been conducted. The prospect of use of the method described to separate elastic reactions in the range of very small momentum transmitted, where the background of inelastic interactions can be decreased to the negligibly low level, for precise measurement of elastic reactions cross sections and the study of polarization phenomena in the range of coulomb interference is underlined [ru

  13. Dynamics of chemical reactions of multiply-charged cations: Information from beam scattering experiments

    Czech Academy of Sciences Publication Activity Database

    Herman, Zdeněk

    2015-01-01

    Roč. 378, FEB 2015 (2015), s. 113-126 ISSN 1387-3806 Institutional support: RVO:61388955 Keywords : Multiply-charged ions * Dynamics of chemical reactions * Beam scattering Subject RIV: CF - Physical ; Theoretical Chemistry Impact factor: 2.183, year: 2015

  14. Density functional simulation of resonant inelastic X-ray scattering experiments in liquids: acetonitrile.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Niskanen, Johannes; Kooser, Kuno; Koskelo, Jaakko; Käämbre, Tanel; Kunnus, Kristjan; Pietzsch, Annette; Quevedo, Wilson; Hakala, Mikko; Föhlisch, Alexander; Huotari, Simo; Kukk, Edwin

    2016-09-21

    In this paper we report an experimental and computational study of liquid acetonitrile (H 3 C-C[triple bond, length as m-dash]N) by resonant inelastic X-ray scattering (RIXS) at the N K-edge. The experimental spectra exhibit clear signatures of the electronic structure of the valence states at the N site and incident-beam-polarization dependence is observed as well. Moreover, we find fine structure in the quasielastic line that is assigned to finite scattering duration and nuclear relaxation. We present a simple and light-to-evaluate model for the RIXS maps and analyze the experimental data using this model combined with ab initio molecular dynamics simulations. In addition to polarization-dependence and scattering-duration effects, we pinpoint the effects of different types of chemical bonding to the RIXS spectrum and conclude that the H 2 C-C[double bond, length as m-dash]NH isomer, suggested in the literature, does not exist in detectable quantities. We study solution effects on the scattering spectra with simulations in liquid and in vacuum. The presented model for RIXS proved to be light enough to allow phase-space-sampling and still accurate enough for identification of transition lines in physical chemistry research by RIXS.

  15. Benchmarking a first-principles thermal neutron scattering law for water ice with a diffusion experiment

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Holmes Jesse

    2017-01-01

    Full Text Available The neutron scattering properties of water ice are of interest to the nuclear criticality safety community for the transport and storage of nuclear materials in cold environments. The common hexagonal phase ice Ih has locally ordered, but globally disordered, H2O molecular orientations. A 96-molecule supercell is modeled using the VASP ab initio density functional theory code and PHONON lattice dynamics code to calculate the phonon vibrational spectra of H and O in ice Ih. These spectra are supplied to the LEAPR module of the NJOY2012 nuclear data processing code to generate thermal neutron scattering laws for H and O in ice Ih in the incoherent approximation. The predicted vibrational spectra are optimized to be representative of the globally averaged ice Ih structure by comparing theoretically calculated and experimentally measured total cross sections and inelastic neutron scattering spectra. The resulting scattering kernel is then supplied to the MC21 Monte Carlo transport code to calculate time eigenvalues for the fundamental mode decay in ice cylinders at various temperatures. Results are compared to experimental flux decay measurements for a pulsed-neutron die-away diffusion benchmark.

  16. A posteriori determination of the useful data range for small-angle scattering experiments on dilute monodisperse systems.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Konarev, Petr V; Svergun, Dmitri I

    2015-05-01

    Small-angle X-ray and neutron scattering (SAXS and SANS) experiments on solutions provide rapidly decaying scattering curves, often with a poor signal-to-noise ratio, especially at higher angles. On modern instruments, the noise is partially compensated for by oversampling, thanks to the fact that the angular increment in the data is small compared with that needed to describe adequately the local behaviour and features of the scattering curve. Given a (noisy) experimental data set, an important question arises as to which part of the data still contains useful information and should be taken into account for the interpretation and model building. Here, it is demonstrated that, for monodisperse systems, the useful experimental data range is defined by the number of meaningful Shannon channels that can be determined from the data set. An algorithm to determine this number and thus the data range is developed, and it is tested on a number of simulated data sets with various noise levels and with different degrees of oversampling, corresponding to typical SAXS/SANS experiments. The method is implemented in a computer program and examples of its application to analyse the experimental data recorded under various conditions are presented. The program can be employed to discard experimental data containing no useful information in automated pipelines, in modelling procedures, and for data deposition or publication. The software is freely accessible to academic users.

  17. On the neutron charge radius and the new experiments proposed for the precise (n,e) - scattering length measurement

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Enik, T.L.; Mitsyna, L.V.; Nikolenko, V.G.; Oprea, I.A.; Parzhitsky, S.S.; Popov, A.B.; Samosvat, G.S.; Vtiuryn, V.A.

    1999-01-01

    Relationship between the n,e scattering length, b ne , the neutron mean square charge radius n 2 > and anomalous magnetic moment μ n , the quantities which characterize the internal structure of the neutron, was investigated. The performed analysis showed that in the framework of the modern cloudy bag model (CBM) of the nucleon the values of b ne is determined by the value of n 2 > without the so-called Foldy term being taken into account, while in the framework of the phenomenological Foldy approach the experimental values of ne > obtained up to date can be described only by this Foldy term within an accuracy of about 10%, i.e. by the anomalous magnetic moment of the neutron, μ n . Then a necessity is obvious to obtain b ne with higher accuracy than in previous experiments. To remove the contradictions in the experimental b ne estimates, new experiments to measure the energy dependence of the slow neutron scattering cross section by 86 Kr and scattering anisotropy on Xe isotopes, have been proposed. The investigation has been performed at Frank Laboratory of Neutron Physics, JINR. (authors)

  18. Water structure as a function of temperature from X-ray scattering experiments and ab initio molecular dynamics

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Hura, Greg; Russo, Daniela; Glaeser, Robert M.; Head-Gordon, Teresa; Krack, Matthias; Parrinello, Michele

    2003-01-01

    We present high-quality X-ray scattering experiments on pure water taken over a temperature range of 2 to 77 C using a synchrotron beam line at the advanced light source (ALS) at Lawrence Berkeley National Laboratory. The ALS X-ray scattering intensities are qualitatively different in trend of maximum intensity over this temperature range compared to older X-ray experiments. While the common procedure is to report both the intensity curve and radial distribution function(s), the proper extraction of the real-space pair correlation functions from the experimental scattering is very difficult due to uncertainty introduced in the experimental corrections, the proper weighting of OO, OH, and HH contributions, and numerical problems of Fourier transforming truncated data in Q-space. Instead, we consider the direct calculation of X-ray scattering spectra using electron densities derived from density functional theory based on real-space configurations generated with classical water models. The simulation of the experimental intensity is therefore definitive for determining radial distribution functions over a smaller Q-range. We find that the TIP4P, TIP5P and polarizable TIP4P-Pol2 water models, with DFT-LDA densities, show very good agreement with the experimental intensities, and TIP4P-Pol2 in particular shows quantitative agreement over the full temperature range. The resulting radial distribution functions from TIP4P-Pol2 provide the current best benchmarks for real-space water structure over the biologically relevant temperature range studied here

  19. Possible effect of static surface disorder on diffractive scattering of H2 from Ru(0001): Comparison between theory and experiment.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kroes, G J; Wijzenbroek, Mark; Manson, J R

    2017-12-28

    Specific features of diffractive scattering of H 2 from metal surfaces can serve as fingerprints of the reactivity of the metal towards H 2 , and in principle theory-experiment comparisons for molecular diffraction can help with the validation of semi-empirical functionals fitted to experiments of sticking of H 2 on metals. However, a recent comparison of calculated and Debye-Waller (DW) extrapolated experimental diffraction probabilities, in which the theory was done on the basis of a potential energy surface (PES) accurately describing sticking to Ru(0001), showed substantial discrepancies, with theoretical and experimental probabilities differing by factors of 2 and 3. We demonstrate that assuming a particular amount of random static disorder to be present in the positions of the surface atoms, which can be characterized through a single parameter, removes most of the discrepancies between experiment and theory. Further improvement might be achievable by improving the accuracy of the DW extrapolation, the model of the H 2 rotational state distribution in the experimental beams, and by fine-tuning the PES. However, the question of whether the DW model is applicable to attenuation of diffractive scattering in the presence of a sizable van der Waals well (depth ≈ 50 meV) should also receive attention, in addition to the question of whether the amount of static surface disorder effectively assumed in the modeling by us could have been present in the experiments.

  20. Resolution of the VESUVIO spectrometer for High-energy Inelastic Neutron Scattering experiments

    Science.gov (United States)

    Imberti, S.; Andreani, C.; Garbuio, V.; Gorini, G.; Pietropaolo, A.; Senesi, R.; Tardocchi, M.

    2005-11-01

    New perspectives for epithermal neutron spectroscopy have been opened up as a result of the development of the Resonance Detector and its use on inverse geometry time-of-flight spectrometers at spallation sources. A special application of the Resonance Detector is the Very Low Angle Detector Bank (VLAD) for the VESUVIO spectrometer at ISIS, operating in the angular range 1∘500 meV, a regime so far inaccessible to experimental studies on condensed matter systems. The HINS measurements complement the Deep Inelastic Neutron Scattering (DINS) measurements performed on VESUVIO in the high wavevector q(20 Å-11 eV), where the short-time single-particle dynamics can be sampled. This paper will revise the main components of the resolution for HINS measurements of VESUVIO. Instrument performances and examples of applications for neutron scattering processes at high energy and at low wavevector transfer are discussed.

  1. The Inward Dispersion of the Neutron Scattering Experiments in HTSC Cuprates

    OpenAIRE

    Dayan, Moshe

    2016-01-01

    The theory of the high temperature superconducting cuprates, which is based on the condensation of holes into strings in checker-board geometry, was successful to explain the elastically scattered Neutrons by spin waves. Here it is extended to analyze the inward dispersion curve of its inelastic counterpart, up to the resonance energy- . This extension is done by applying the perturbation theory of the linear response to the condensed strings. The approximated susceptibility is derived by mea...

  2. Active target with plastic scintillating fibers for hyperon-proton scattering experiments

    Czech Academy of Sciences Publication Activity Database

    Ahn, J. K.; Akikawa, H.; Arvieux, H.; Bassalleck, B.; Chung, M. S.; En'yo, H.; Fukuda, T.; Funahashi, H.; Golovkin, SV.; Gorin, AM.; Goto, Y.; Hanabata, M.; Hayakawa, T.; Ichikawa, A.; Ieiri, M.; Imai, K.; Ishino, M.; Kanda, H.; Kim, Y. D.; Kondo, Y.; Kozarenko, E. N.; Kreslo, I. E.; Lee, J. M.; Masaike, A.; Mihara, S.; Nakai, K.; Nakazawa, K.; Ozawa, K.; Sato, A.; Sato, H. D.; Sim, K. S.; Tabaru, T.; Takeutchi, F.; Tlustý, Pavel; Torii, H.; Yamamoto, K.; Yokkaichi, S.; Yoshida, M.

    2002-01-01

    Roč. 49, č. 2 (2002), s. 592-596 ISSN 0018-9499 R&D Projects: GA AV ČR IAA1048304; GA AV ČR KSK1048102 Institutional research plan: CEZ:AV0Z1048901 Keywords : active target * hyperon-proton scattering * scintillating fibers Subject RIV: BG - Nuclear, Atomic and Molecular Physics, Colliders Impact factor: 1.431, year: 2002

  3. Resonance effects in elastic cross sections for electron scattering on pyrimidine: Experiment and theory.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Regeta, Khrystyna; Allan, Michael; Winstead, Carl; McKoy, Vincent; Mašín, Zdeněk; Gorfinkiel, Jimena D

    2016-01-14

    We measured differential cross sections for elastic (rotationally integrated) electron scattering on pyrimidine, both as a function of angle up to 180(∘) at electron energies of 1, 5, 10, and 20 eV and as a function of electron energy in the range 0.1-14 eV. The experimental results are compared to the results of the fixed-nuclei Schwinger variational and R-matrix theoretical methods, which reproduce satisfactorily the magnitudes and shapes of the experimental cross sections. The emphasis of the present work is on recording detailed excitation functions revealing resonances in the excitation process. Resonant structures are observed at 0.2, 0.7, and 4.35 eV and calculations for different symmetries confirm their assignment as the X̃(2)A2, Ã(2)B1, and B̃(2)B1 shape resonances. As a consequence of superposition of coherent resonant amplitudes with background scattering the B̃(2)B1 shape resonance appears as a peak, a dip, or a step function in the cross sections recorded as a function of energy at different scattering angles and this effect is satisfactorily reproduced by theory. The dip and peak contributions at different scattering angles partially compensate, making the resonance nearly invisible in the integral cross section. Vibrationally integrated cross sections were also measured at 1, 5, 10 and 20 eV and the question of whether the fixed-nuclei cross sections should be compared to vibrationally elastic or vibrationally integrated cross section is discussed.

  4. Multipoint Thomson scattering system for the EXTRAP Z-pinch experiment

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Karlsson, P.

    1986-03-01

    A Thomson scattering system for simultaneous measurements of the electron temperature and density at three different positions at two different times during a single plasma shot has been developed for the EXTRAP-L1 Z-pinch. The plasma in the present version of EXTRAP-L1 is characterized by densities in the range from 10 21 to 10 22 m -3 , temperatures up to 50 eV and a pinch radius of the order of 1 cm. A spatial resolution down to 3 mm between positions is obtained by imaging the plasma onto an array of quartz optical fibres at the output slit of the spectrometer. Fifteen PM-tubes are used to detect the scattered radiation as well as the background radiation. Due to the relatively dense plasma prevailing in the present version of EXTRAP-L1 the number of scattered photons in large and the photon to electron conversion noise is small. The background radiation is the most important factor limiting the accuracy of the measurements. (author)

  5. Resolution of the VESUVIO spectrometer for High-energy Inelastic Neutron Scattering experiments

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Imberti, S. [Universita degli Studi di Roma Tre, Dipartimento di Fisica ' E.Amaldi' , Rome (Italy) and CNR-INFM, Rome (Italy)]. E-mail: silvia.imberti@roma2.infn.it; Andreani, C. [Universita degli Studi di Roma Tor Vergata, Dipartimento di Fisica, Roma 60133 (Italy); CNR-INFM, Rome (Italy); Garbuio, V. [Universita degli Studi di Roma Tor Vergata, Dipartimento di Fisica, Roma 60133 (Italy); CNR-INFM, Rome (Italy); Gorini, G. [Universita degli Studi di Milano-Bicocca, Dipartimento di Fisica ' G.Occhialini' , Milan (Italy); CNR-INFM, Milan (Italy); Pietropaolo, A. [Universita degli Studi di Roma Tor Vergata, Dipartimento di Fisica, Roma 60133 (Italy); CNR-INFM, Rome (Italy); Senesi, R. [Universita degli Studi di Roma Tor Vergata, Dipartimento di Fisica, Roma 60133 (Italy); CNR-INFM, Rome (Italy); Tardocchi, M. [Universita degli Studi di Milano-Bicocca, Dipartimento di Fisica ' G.Occhialini' , Milan (Italy); CNR-INFM, Milan (Italy)

    2005-11-01

    New perspectives for epithermal neutron spectroscopy have been opened up as a result of the development of the Resonance Detector and its use on inverse geometry time-of-flight spectrometers at spallation sources. A special application of the Resonance Detector is the Very Low Angle Detector Bank (VLAD) for the VESUVIO spectrometer at ISIS, operating in the angular range 1 deg. <2{theta}<5 deg. This equipment allows High-energy Inelastic Neutron Scattering (HINS) measurements to be performed in the (q,{omega}) kinematical region at low wavevector (q<10A{sup -1}) and high energy (unlimited) transfer -bar {omega}>500meV, a regime so far inaccessible to experimental studies on condensed matter systems. The HINS measurements complement the Deep Inelastic Neutron Scattering (DINS) measurements performed on VESUVIO in the high wavevector q(20A{sup -1}1eV), where the short-time single-particle dynamics can be sampled. This paper will revise the main components of the resolution for HINS measurements of VESUVIO. Instrument performances and examples of applications for neutron scattering processes at high energy and at low wavevector transfer are discussed.

  6. Neutron scattering measurements from cryogenic ammonia: a progress report

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Carpenter, J.; Micklich, B.; Zanotti, J.M.

    2004-01-01

    We survey the results of an earlier study of the inelastic scattering from solid ammonia, and report the results of a preliminary experiment carried out at the ∝100 μeV-resolution quasielastic scattering spectrometer QENS at IPNS. (orig.)

  7. Molecular beam scattering experiments with polar molecules. 1. Differential elastic scattering of H2+NH3 and H2+H2O

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Bickes, R.W. Jr.; Scoles, G.; Smith, K.M.

    1974-01-01

    Differential elastic scattering cross sections with well resolved quantum oscillations have been measuremed for the systems H 2 +NH 3 and H 2 +H 2 O. Assuming a spherically symmetric interaction the data show that a simple spherical potential (i.e. Lennard-Jones) does not properly describe the scattering

  8. Elastic scattering and quasi-elastic transfers

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Mermaz, M.C.

    1978-01-01

    Experiments are presented which it will be possible to carry out at GANIL on the elastic scattering of heavy ions: diffraction phenomena if the absorption is great, refraction phenomena if absorption is low. The determination of the optical parameters can be performed. The study of the quasi-elastic transfer reactions will make it possible to know the dynamics of the nuclear reactions, form exotic nuclei and study their energy excitation spectrum, and analyse the scattering and reaction cross sections [fr

  9. An analysis of clock-shift experiments: is scatter increased and deflection reduced in clock-shifted homing pigeons?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chappell

    1997-01-01

    Clock-shifting (altering the phase of the internal clock) in homing pigeons leads to a deflection in the vanishing bearing of the clock-shifted group relative to controls. However, two unexplained phenomena are common in clock-shift experiments: the vanishing bearings of the clock-shifted group are often more scattered (with a shorter vector length) than those of the control group, and the deflection of the mean bearing of the clock-shifted group from that of the controls is often smaller than expected theoretically. Here, an analysis of 55 clock-shift experiments performed in four countries over 21 years is reported. The bearings of the clock-shifted groups were significantly more scattered than those of controls and less deflected than expected, but these effects were not significantly different at familiar and unfamiliar sites. The possible causes of the effects are discussed and evaluated with reference to this analysis and other experiments. The most likely causes appear to be conflict between the directions indicated by the sun compass and either unshifted familiar visual landmarks (at familiar sites only) or the unshifted magnetic compass (possible at both familiar and unfamiliar sites).

  10. The MOLLER Experiment: ``An Ultra-precise Measurement of the Weak Charge of the Electron using moller Scattering''

    Science.gov (United States)

    Beminiwattha, Rakitha; Moller Collaboration

    2017-09-01

    Parity Violating Electron Scattering (PVES) is an extremely successful precision frontier tool that has been used for testing the Standard Model (SM) and understanding nucleon structure. Several generations of highly successful PVES programs at SLAC, MIT-Bates, MAMI-Mainz, and Jefferson Lab have contributed to the understanding of nucleon structure and testing the SM. But missing phenomena like matter-antimatter asymmetry, neutrino flavor oscillations, and dark matter and energy suggest that the SM is only a `low energy' effective theory. The MOLLER experiment at Jefferson Lab will measure the weak charge of the electron, QWe = 1 - 4sin2θW , with a precision of 2.4 % by measuring the parity violating asymmetry in electron-electron () scattering and will be sensitive to subtle but measurable deviations from precisely calculable predictions from the SM. The MOLLER experiment will provide the best contact interaction search for leptons at low OR high energy makes it a probe of physics beyond the Standard Model with sensitivities to mass-scales of new PV physics up to 7.5 TeV. Overview of the experiment and recent pre-R&D progress will be reported.

  11. Strange Quark Contributions to Parity-Violating Asymmetries in the Forward G0 Electron-Proton Scattering Experiment

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    David Armstrong; Francois Arvieux; Razmik Asaturyan; Todd Averett; Stephanie Bailey; Guillaume Batigne; Douglas Beck; Elizabeth Beise; Jay Benesch; Louis Bimbot; James Birchall; Angela Biselli; Peter Bosted; Elodie Boukobza; Herbert Breuer; Roger Carlini; R. Carr; Nicholas Chant; Yu-Chiu Chao; Swapan Chattopadhyay; Russell Clark; Silviu Covrig; Anthony Cowley; Daniel Dale; C. Davis; Willie Falk; John Finn; Tony Forest; Gregg Franklin; Christophe Furget; David Gaskell; Joseph Grames; Keith Griffioen; Klaus Grimm; Benoit Guillon; Hayko Guler; Lars Hannelius; R. Hasty; A. Hawthorne Allen; Tanja Horn; Kathleen Johnston; Mark Jones; Peter Kammel; Reza Kazimi; Paul King; Ameya Kolarkar; Elie Korkmaz; Wolfgang Korsch; Serge Kox; Joachim Kuhn; Jeff Lachniet; Lawrence Lee; Jason Lenoble; Eric Liatard; J. Liu; Berenice Loupias; A. Lung; Glen MacLachlan; Dominique Marchand; J.W. Martin; Kenneth McFarlane; Daniella Mckee; Robert McKeown; Fernand Merchez; Hamlet Mkrtchyan; Bryan Moffit; M. Morlet; Itaru Nakagawa; Kazutaka Nakahara; Melissa Nakos; Retief Neveling; Silvia Niccolai; S. Ong; Shelley Page; Vassilios Papavassiliou; Stephen Pate; Sarah Phillips; Mark Pitt; Benard Poelker; Tracy Porcelli; Gilles Quemener; Brian Quinn; William Ramsay; Aamer Rauf; Jean-Sebastien Real; Julie Roche; Philip Roos; Gary Rutledge; Jeffery Secrest; Neven Simicevic; G.R. Smith; Damon Spayde; Samuel Stepanyan; Marcy Stutzman; Vincent Sulkosky; Vardan Tadevosyan; Raphael Tieulent; Jacques Van de Wiele; Willem van Oers; Eric Voutier; William Vulcan; G. Warren; S.P. Wells; Steven Williamson; S.A. Wood; Chen Yan; Junho Yun; Valdis Zeps

    2005-06-01

    We have measured parity-violating asymmetries in elastic electron-proton scattering over the range of momentum transfers 0.12 < Q{sup 2} < 1.0 GeV{sup 2}. These asymmetries, arising from interference of the electromagnetic and neutral weak interactions, are sensitive to strange quark contributions to the currents of the proton. The measurements were made at JLab using a toroidal spectrometer to detect the recoiling protons from a liquid hydrogen target. The results indicate non-zero, Q{sup 2} dependent, strange quark contributions and provide new information beyond that obtained in previous experiments.

  12. Enhancing signal detection and completely eliminating scattering using quasi-phase-cycling in 2D IR experiments.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bloem, Robbert; Garrett-Roe, Sean; Strzalka, Halina; Hamm, Peter; Donaldson, Paul

    2010-12-20

    We demonstrate how quasi-phase-cycling achieved by sub-cycle delay modulation can be used to replace optical chopping in a box-CARS 2D IR experiment in order to enhance the signal size, and, at the same time, completely eliminate any scattering contamination. Two optical devices are described that can be used for this purpose, a wobbling Brewster window and a photoelastic modulator. They are simple to construct, easy to incorporate into any existing 2D IR setup, and have attractive features such as a high optical throughput and a fast modulation frequency needed to phase cycle on a shot-to-shot basis.

  13. Sensitivity of ultracold-atom scattering experiments to variation of the fine-structure constant

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Borschevsky, A.; Beloy, K.; Flambaum, V. V.; Schwerdtfeger, P.

    2011-01-01

    We present numerical calculations for cesium and mercury to estimate the sensitivity of the scattering length to the variation of the fine-structure constant α. The method used follows the ideas of Chin and Flambaum [Phys. Rev. Lett. 96, 230801 (2006)], where the sensitivity to the variation of the electron-to-proton mass ratio β was considered. We demonstrate that for heavy systems, the sensitivity to the variation of α is of the same order of magnitude as to the variation of β. Near narrow Feshbach resonances, the enhancement of the sensitivity may exceed nine orders of magnitude.

  14. Small-angle neutron scattering from multilamellar lipid bilayers: Theory, model, and experiment

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Lemmich, Jesper; Mortensen, Kell; Ipsen, John Hjorth

    1996-01-01

    Small-angle neutron scattering data obtained from fully hydrated, multilamellar phospholipid bilayers with deuterated acyl chains of different length are presented and analyzed within a paracrystalline theory and a geometric model that permit the bilayer structure to be determined under conditions...... of temperature for the lamellar repeat distance, the hydrophobic bilayer thickness, as well as the thickness of the aqueous and polar head group region. In addition to these geometric parameters the analysis permits determination of molecular cross-sectional area, number of interlamellar water molecules, as well...

  15. Neutron scattering. Lectures

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Brueckel, Thomas; Heger, Gernot; Richter, Dieter; Roth, Georg; Zorn, Reiner (eds.)

    2010-07-01

    The following topics are dealt with: Neutron sources, neutron properties and elastic scattering, correlation functions measured by scattering experiments, symmetry of crystals, applications of neutron scattering, polarized-neutron scattering and polarization analysis, structural analysis, magnetic and lattice excitation studied by inelastic neutron scattering, macromolecules and self-assembly, dynamics of macromolecules, correlated electrons in complex transition-metal oxides, surfaces, interfaces, and thin films investigated by neutron reflectometry, nanomagnetism. (HSI)

  16. Neutron scattering. Lectures

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Brueckel, Thomas; Heger, Gernot; Richter, Dieter; Roth, Georg; Zorn, Reiner

    2010-01-01

    The following topics are dealt with: Neutron sources, neutron properties and elastic scattering, correlation functions measured by scattering experiments, symmetry of crystals, applications of neutron scattering, polarized-neutron scattering and polarization analysis, structural analysis, magnetic and lattice excitation studied by inelastic neutron scattering, macromolecules and self-assembly, dynamics of macromolecules, correlated electrons in complex transition-metal oxides, surfaces, interfaces, and thin films investigated by neutron reflectometry, nanomagnetism. (HSI)

  17. Matter Scatter and Energy Anarchy. The Second Law of Thermodynamics is Simply Common Experience.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ross, Keith A.

    1988-01-01

    Shows that the second law of thermodynamics is in the common experience of many people and if taught first, before the law of conservation, can result in fewer misconceptions among pupils. Stresses the use of common experiences in teaching. (CW)

  18. Resolution of the VESUVIO spectrometer for High-energy Inelastic Neutron Scattering experiments

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Imberti, S.; Andreani, C.; Garbuio, V.; Gorini, G.; Pietropaolo, A.; Senesi, R.; Tardocchi, M.

    2005-01-01

    New perspectives for epithermal neutron spectroscopy have been opened up as a result of the development of the Resonance Detector and its use on inverse geometry time-of-flight spectrometers at spallation sources. A special application of the Resonance Detector is the Very Low Angle Detector Bank (VLAD) for the VESUVIO spectrometer at ISIS, operating in the angular range 1 deg. -1 ) and high energy (unlimited) transfer -bar ω>500meV, a regime so far inaccessible to experimental studies on condensed matter systems. The HINS measurements complement the Deep Inelastic Neutron Scattering (DINS) measurements performed on VESUVIO in the high wavevector q(20A -1 -1 ) and high energy transfer (-bar ω>1eV), where the short-time single-particle dynamics can be sampled. This paper will revise the main components of the resolution for HINS measurements of VESUVIO. Instrument performances and examples of applications for neutron scattering processes at high energy and at low wavevector transfer are discussed

  19. Dynamic light scattering in ophthalmology: results of in vitro and in vivo experiments.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Fankhauser, Franz

    2006-01-01

    To calibrate new dynamic light scattering (DLS) devices in defined solutions and post mortem porcine and human eyes. To examine all segments of the eye and to become familiar with the usage of the technique in living subjects. METHODS, DESIGN: Three new DLS devices for the usage in patients were developed. Mono-disperse solutions, poly-disperse solutions, gels, post mortem porcine and human eyes as well as healthy volunteers were studied. The detected signals were inverted into autocorrelation functions. We constructed three DLS devices appropriate for in vitro as well as in vivo examinations. In mono disperse solution precise disintegration rates could be calculated. In poly-disperse solutions, in gel and in the vitreous the results did not correlate with movements of individual particles but we could calculate characteristics of the complete scattering system. In vivo measurements demonstrated that DLS can be used in all human eye segments. DLS is a unique technique. With DLS the molecular composition of eye segments can be studied in living subjects. This can be used to understand the molecular basis of severe eye diseases. The presented data demonstrate that DLS delivers reproducible data from all eye segments. It is possible to study the molecular structures of eye segments in living subjects. The developed devices were proved successfully in vitro as well as in vivo. Limitations are the low specificity of DLS and its sensitivity to background noise. Now clinical studies are necessary to demonstrate potential diagnostic benefits of DLS in specific eye diseases.

  20. The Manuel Lujan, Jr. Neutron Scattering Center (LANSCE) experiment reports, 1991 run cycle

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    DiStravolo, M.A.

    1992-12-01

    This report briefly discusses experiments conducted at the Lansce neutron source facility. The experiments were conducted on the following instruments: high intensity powder diffractometer; neutron powder diffractometer; single crystal diffractometer; low-q diffractometer; surface profile analysis reflectometer; filter difference spectrometer; experiment reports, and pharos

  1. Realization and utilization of a harmonic light scattering experiment to select new molecules with great optical nonlinearity

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Dhenaut, Christophe

    1995-01-01

    Conception of new organic materials for nonlinear optics is generally driven by a molecular engineering approach. The usual technique for determining the quadratic hyper polarizability of designed molecules is the electric field induced second harmonic (EFISH) experiment. However this technique is limited to neutral molecules with a permanent dipole moment. We have realized an harmonic light scattering (HLS) experiment which allow the measurement of any kind of molecules, polar or non polar, neutral or ionic. Using this technique we have been able to demonstrate experimentally the validity of the octupole concept (molecules without dipole moment) which has been proposed recently. We have studied molecules corresponding to various octupolar geometries. Nonlinearities are found to be comparable to those of the best dipolar compounds. We have also investigated other molecular families with different symmetry such as polyenes, sub-phthalocyanines and phthalocyanines by EFISH and HLS techniques. We have confronted results obtained by the two experiments. It appears that these results are not easy to compare, the tensorial components accessible by each experiment being different. The two experiments seems complementary. HLS experiments allow the observation of a quadratic hyper polarizability for centrosymmetric molecules. This surprising observation could be explained by the contribution of a vibration al part to the hyper polarizability measured by HLS (but not present in EFISH). Interpretation of this dynamic process is still in progress. (author) [fr

  2. How hadron collider experiments contributed to the development of QCD: from hard-scattering to the perfect liquid

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tannenbaum, M. J.

    2018-05-01

    A revolution in elementary particle physics occurred during the period from the ICHEP1968 to the ICHEP1982 with the advent of the parton model from discoveries in Deeply Inelastic electron-proton Scattering at SLAC, neutrino experiments, hard-scattering observed in p+p collisions at the CERN ISR, the development of QCD, the discovery of the J/ Ψ at BNL and SLAC and the clear observation of high transverse momentum jets at the CERN SPS p¯ + p collider. These and other discoveries in this period led to the acceptance of QCD as the theory of the strong interactions. The desire to understand nuclear physics at high density such as in neutron stars led to the application of QCD to this problem and to the prediction of a Quark-Gluon Plasma (QGP) in nuclei at high energy density and temperatures. This eventually led to the construction of the Relativistic Heavy Ion Collider (RHIC) at BNL to observe superdense nuclear matter in the laboratory. This article discusses how experimental methods and results which confirmed QCD at the first hadron collider, the CERN ISR, played an important role in experiments at the first heavy ion collider, RHIC, leading to the discovery of the QGP as a perfect liquid as well as discoveries at RHIC and the LHC which continue to the present day.

  3. Neutron scattering from fractals

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Kjems, Jørgen; Freltoft, T.; Richter, D.

    1986-01-01

    The scattering formalism for fractal structures is presented. Volume fractals are exemplified by silica particle clusters formed either from colloidal suspensions or by flame hydrolysis. The determination of the fractional dimensionality through scattering experiments is reviewed, and recent small...

  4. Development and performance test of a system available for generating multiple extreme conditions for neutron scattering experiments

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Kawano, Shinji; Fukui, Susumu; Moriai, Atsushi; Ohtomo, Akitoshi; Ichimura, Shigeki; Onodera, Akifumi; Amita, F.; Katano, Susumu

    1998-01-01

    We have developed unique system available for controlling sample environment during the neutron scattering experiments. The system can simultaneously generate triple extreme conditions of low temperature, high magnetic field and high pressure. The system consists of: (i) a liquid-helium cryostat variable for sample temperature from 1.7 K to 200 K, (ii) a superconducting magnet providing a vertical field up to ±5 T with an antisymmetric split-coil geometry for polarized-beam experiments, and (iii) a non-magnetic piston-cylinder high-pressure cell designed with the aim of generating hydrostatic pressure up to 2.5 GPa. In the presentation, we will report the outline of the system and some results of performance tests at KURRI and JRR-3M of JAERI. (author)

  5. Structure of clathrin-coated vesicles from small-angle scattering experiments

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Pedersen, J.S.

    1993-01-01

    Previously published small-angle neutron and X-ray scattering data from coated vesicles, reassembled coats, and stripped vesicles have been analyzed in terms of one common model. The neutron data sets include contrast variation measurements at three different D2O solvent concentrations. The model...... used for interpreting the data has spherical symmetry and explicitly takes into account polydispersity, which is described by a Gaussian distribution. A constant thickness of the clathrin coats is assumed. The fitting of the model shows that the coated vesicles consist of a low-density outer protein....... Thus, the membrane and the high-density protein shell overlap in space, which shows that the lipid membrane contains protein. The molecular mass of the average particle is 27 x 10(6) Da. The coated vesicles consist, on average, of approximately 85% protein and 15% lipids. About 40% of the protein mass...

  6. Advances in Nucleon-Nucleon Scattering Experiments and Their Theoretical Consequences

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Bekteshi, Sadik; Kabashi, Skender; Kamishi, Burim

    2007-01-01

    An overview of critical analysis of the experimental data obtained from nucleon-nucleon scattering is given and investigated in this work. Comparison of the experimental data with results of recent partial wave analysis of Nijmegen group, VPI/GWU and Saclay is given. Potentials of Nijmegen, Bonn and Argonne group are discussed. Experimental data which lead to the break of charge symmetry, to the break of the charge independence and to the determination of the off-shell tensor force, are particularly emphasized. Disagreements which exist between theoretical calculations related to the contribution of particular mechanism in different reactions are pointed out. In this relation, still open problems to be solved and measurement that should be undertaken in the future are identified, as well

  7. Two comments to utilization of structure function approach in deep inelastic scattering experiments

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Kuraev, E.; Galynskij, M.; Il'ichev, A.

    2002-01-01

    The 'returning to resonance' mechanism can be used to obtain the simple procedure of taking radiative corrections (RC) to deep inelastic scattering (DIS) cross sections into account in the framework of the Drell-Yan picture. Iteration procedure is proposed. Kinematical region y→1 can be described in the framework of the Drell-Yan picture using the structure function approach. The large RC in the lowest order reflect the Sudakov form factor suppression, which can be taken into account in all orders of the perturbation theory. Based on explicit calculation in two lowest orders of the perturbation theory, we construct the cross section in the y→1 region obeying renormalization group equations and including the Sudakov-like form factor suppression

  8. Investigation of the NN interaction from polarization transfer experiments in low energy pp scattering

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Weidmann, R.; Albert, J.; Glombik, A.; Kretschmer, W.; Nebert, P.; Rauscher, A. (Physikalisches Inst., Univ. Erlangen-Nuernberg (Germany)); Clajus, M.; Egun, P.M.; Grueebler, W.; Hautle, P. (Inst. fuer Mittelenergiephysik, ETH, Zurich (Switzerland)); Schmelzbach, P.A. (Paul Scherrer Inst., F1, Accelerator Div., Villigen (Switzerland)); Slaus, I. (Inst. Ruder Boscovic, Zagreb (Croatia))

    1993-03-01

    The polarization-Transfer observables K[sub y][sup y']([theta]), K[sub x][sup x']([theta]) and K[sub z][sup x']([theta]) for proton-proton scattering have been measured at E[sub p]=25.68 MeV. A simultaneous phase-shift analysis of these new data with differential cross section and analyzing power data at the same energy resulted in a very accurate determination of the p-wave phase-shift combinations [Delta][sub C], [Delta][sub LS] and [Delta][sub T] and of the [sup 3]F[sub 2]-[sup 3]P[sub 2] mixing parameter [epsilon][sub 2]. With this complete set of high precision data a critical test of microscopic NN-potential models has been performed. (orig.).

  9. Shear-induced breaking of cages in colloidal glasses: Scattering experiments and mode coupling theory

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Amann, Christian P., E-mail: Christian.2.Amann@uni-konstanz.de; Fuchs, Matthias, E-mail: Matthias.Fuchs@uni-konstanz.de [Fachbereich Physik, Universität Konstanz, 78457 Konstanz (Germany); Denisov, Dmitry; Dang, Minh Triet; Schall, Peter [Van der Waals-Zeeman Institute, University of Amsterdam, Amsterdam (Netherlands); Struth, Bernd [Deutsches Elektronen-Synchrotron, Hamburg (Germany)

    2015-07-21

    We employ x-ray scattering on sheared colloidal suspensions and mode coupling theory to study structure factor distortions of glass-forming systems under shear. We find a transition from quadrupolar elastic distortion at small strains to quadrupolar and hexadecupolar modes in the stationary state. The latter are interpreted as signatures of plastic rearrangements in homogeneous, thermalized systems. From their transient evolution with strain, we identify characteristic strain and length-scale values where these plastic rearrangements dominate. This characteristic strain coincides with the maximum of the shear stress versus strain curve, indicating the proliferation of plastic flow. The hexadecupolar modes dominate at the wavevector of the principal peak of the equilibrium structure factor that is related to the cage-effect in mode coupling theory. We hence identify the structural signature of plastic flow of glasses.

  10. Shear-induced breaking of cages in colloidal glasses: Scattering experiments and mode coupling theory

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Amann, Christian P.; Fuchs, Matthias; Denisov, Dmitry; Dang, Minh Triet; Schall, Peter; Struth, Bernd

    2015-01-01

    We employ x-ray scattering on sheared colloidal suspensions and mode coupling theory to study structure factor distortions of glass-forming systems under shear. We find a transition from quadrupolar elastic distortion at small strains to quadrupolar and hexadecupolar modes in the stationary state. The latter are interpreted as signatures of plastic rearrangements in homogeneous, thermalized systems. From their transient evolution with strain, we identify characteristic strain and length-scale values where these plastic rearrangements dominate. This characteristic strain coincides with the maximum of the shear stress versus strain curve, indicating the proliferation of plastic flow. The hexadecupolar modes dominate at the wavevector of the principal peak of the equilibrium structure factor that is related to the cage-effect in mode coupling theory. We hence identify the structural signature of plastic flow of glasses

  11. Shear-induced breaking of cages in colloidal glasses: Scattering experiments and mode coupling theory.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Amann, Christian P; Denisov, Dmitry; Dang, Minh Triet; Struth, Bernd; Schall, Peter; Fuchs, Matthias

    2015-07-21

    We employ x-ray scattering on sheared colloidal suspensions and mode coupling theory to study structure factor distortions of glass-forming systems under shear. We find a transition from quadrupolar elastic distortion at small strains to quadrupolar and hexadecupolar modes in the stationary state. The latter are interpreted as signatures of plastic rearrangements in homogeneous, thermalized systems. From their transient evolution with strain, we identify characteristic strain and length-scale values where these plastic rearrangements dominate. This characteristic strain coincides with the maximum of the shear stress versus strain curve, indicating the proliferation of plastic flow. The hexadecupolar modes dominate at the wavevector of the principal peak of the equilibrium structure factor that is related to the cage-effect in mode coupling theory. We hence identify the structural signature of plastic flow of glasses.

  12. Probing the hydrogen equilibrium and kinetics in zeolite imidazolate frameworks via molecular dynamics and quasi-elastic neutron scattering experiments.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pantatosaki, Evangelia; Jobic, Hervé; Kolokolov, Daniil I; Karmakar, Shilpi; Biniwale, Rajesh; Papadopoulos, George K

    2013-01-21

    The problem of simulating processes involving equilibria and dynamics of guest sorbates within zeolitic imidazolate frameworks (ZIF) by means of molecular dynamics (MD) computer experiments is of growing importance because of the promising role of ZIFs as molecular "traps" for clean energy applications. A key issue for validating such an atomistic modeling attempt is the possibility of comparing the MD results, with real experiments being able to capture analogous space and time scales to the ones pertained to the computer experiments. In the present study, this prerequisite is fulfilled through the quasi-elastic neutron scattering technique (QENS) for measuring self-diffusivity, by elaborating the incoherent scattering signal of hydrogen nuclei. QENS and MD experiments were performed in parallel to probe the hydrogen motion, for the first time in ZIF members. The predicted and measured dynamics behaviors show considerable concentration variation of the hydrogen self-diffusion coefficient in the two topologically different ZIF pore networks of this study, the ZIF-3 and ZIF-8. Modeling options such as the flexibility of the entire matrix versus a rigid framework version, the mobility of the imidazolate ligand, and the inclusion of quantum mechanical effects in the potential functions were examined in detail for the sorption thermodynamics and kinetics of hydrogen and also of deuterium, by employing MD combined with Widom averaging towards studying phase equilibria. The latter methodology ensures a rigorous and efficient way for post-processing the dynamics trajectory, thereby avoiding stochastic moves via Monte Carlo simulation, over the large number of configurational degrees of freedom a nonrigid framework encompasses.

  13. Simulation of complete neutron scattering experiments: from model systems to liquid germanium; Simulation complete d'une experience de diffusion de neutrons: des systemes modeles au germanium liquide

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Hugouvieux, V

    2004-11-15

    In this thesis, both theoretical and experimental studies of liquids are done. Neutron scattering enables structural and dynamical properties of liquids to be investigated. On the theoretical side, molecular dynamics simulations are of great interest since they give positions and velocities of the atoms and the forces acting on each of them. They also enable spatial and temporal correlations to be computed and these quantities are also available from neutron scattering experiments. Consequently, the comparison can be made between results from molecular dynamics simulations and from neutron scattering experiments, in order to improve our understanding of the structure and dynamics of liquids. However, since extracting reliable data from a neutron scattering experiment is difficult, we propose to simulate the experiment as a whole, including both instrument and sample, in order to gain understanding and to evaluate the impact of the different parasitic contributions (absorption, multiple scattering associated with elastic and inelastic scattering, instrument resolution). This approach, in which the sample is described by its structure and dynamics as computed from molecular dynamics simulations, is presented and tested on isotropic model systems. Then liquid germanium is investigated by inelastic neutron scattering and both classical and ab initio molecular dynamics simulations. This enables us to simulate the experiment we performed and to evaluate the influence of the contributions from the instrument and from the sample on the detected signal. (author)

  14. Trial fabrication of a secondary x-ray spectrometer with high energy resolution for use in x-ray resonant inelastic scattering experiments

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Iwazumi, Toshiaki

    2004-01-01

    An instrument was fabricated for use of x-ray resonant inelastic scattering with high-energy resolution in expectation of finding new physical phenomena in strongly correlated electron systems. In the scattering x-ray spectrometer, an asymmetric Johanson crystal spectrometer, which was deployed in an asymmetric Rowland configuration, was designed, fabricated and assessed. The performance expected theoretically for the Johanson spectrometer was recognized from experiments by use of synchrotron radiation. (Y. Kazumata)

  15. Optimization of a coherent soft x-ray beamline for coherent scattering experiments at NSLS-II

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Shapiro D.; Chubar, O.; Kaznatcheev, K.; Reininger, R.; Sanchez-Hanke, C.; Wang, S.

    2011-08-21

    The coherent soft x-ray and full polarization control (CSX) beamline at the National Synchrotron Light Source - II (NSLS-II) will deliver 1013 coherent photons per second in the energy range of 0.2-2 keV with a resolving power of 2000. The source, a dual elliptically polarizing undulator (EPU), and beamline optics should be optimized to deliver the highest possible coherent flux in a 10-30 {micro}m spot for use in coherent scattering experiments. Using the computer code Synchrotron Radiation Workshop (SRW), we simulate the photon source and focusing optics in order to investigate the conditions which provide the highest usable coherent intensity on the sample. In particular, we find that an intermediate phasing magnet is needed to correct for the relative phase between the two EPUs and that the optimum phase setting produces a spectrum in which the desired wavelength is slightly red-shifted thus requiring a larger aperture than originally anticipated. This setting is distinct from that which produces an on-axis spectrum similar to a single long undulator. Furthermore, partial coherence calculations, utilizing a multiple electron approach, indicate that a high degree of spatial coherence is still obtained at the sample location when such an aperture is used. The aperture size which maximizes the signal-to-noise ratio of a double-slit experiment is explored. This combination of high coherence and intensity is ideally suited for x-ray ptychography experiments which reconstruct the scattering density from micro-diffraction patterns. This technique is briefly reviewed and the effects on the image quality of proximity to the beamline focus are explored.

  16. Compton scattering

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Botto, D.J.; Pratt, R.H.

    1979-05-01

    The current status of Compton scattering, both experimental observations and the theoretical predictions, is examined. Classes of experiments are distinguished and the results obtained are summarized. The validity of the incoherent scattering function approximation and the impulse approximation is discussed. These simple theoretical approaches are compared with predictions of the nonrelativistic dipole formula of Gavrila and with the relativistic results of Whittingham. It is noted that the A -2 based approximations fail to predict resonances and an infrared divergence, both of which have been observed. It appears that at present the various available theoretical approaches differ significantly in their predictions and that further and more systematic work is required

  17. Compton scattering

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Botto, D.J.; Pratt, R.H.

    1979-05-01

    The current status of Compton scattering, both experimental observations and the theoretical predictions, is examined. Classes of experiments are distinguished and the results obtained are summarized. The validity of the incoherent scattering function approximation and the impulse approximation is discussed. These simple theoretical approaches are compared with predictions of the nonrelativistic dipole formula of Gavrila and with the relativistic results of Whittingham. It is noted that the A/sup -2/ based approximations fail to predict resonances and an infrared divergence, both of which have been observed. It appears that at present the various available theoretical approaches differ significantly in their predictions and that further and more systematic work is required.

  18. Enhanced Alignment Techniques for the Thomson Scattering Diagnostic on the Lithium Tokamak eXperiment (LTX)

    Science.gov (United States)

    Merino, Enrique; Kozub, Tom; Boyle, Dennis; Lucia, Matthew; Majeski, Richard; Kaita, Robert; Schmitt, John C.; Leblanc, Benoit; Diallo, Ahmed; Jacobson, C. M.

    2014-10-01

    The Thomson Scattering (TS) System in LTX is used to measure electron temperature and density profiles of core and edge plasmas. In view of TS measurements showing low signal-to-noise and high stray light, numerous improvements were performed in recent months. These will allow for better measurements. Due to the nature of LTX's lithium coated walls, a particular challenge was presented by alignment procedures which required insertion and precise positioning of equipment in the vacuum vessel without breaking vacuum. To overcome these difficulties, the laser flight tubes were removed and an alignment probe setup placed along the beam line on a differentially pumped assembly. The probe was then driven into the vacuum vessel and back-illumination of the viewing optics on it allowed for alignment and spatial calibration. Other upgrades included better bracing of flight tubes and viewing optics as well as a redesigned beam dump. An overview of these improvements will be presented. Supported by US DOE Contracts DE-AC02-09CH11466 and DE-AC52-07NA27344.

  19. Progress On The Thomson Scattering Diagnostic For The Helicon Plasma Experiment (HPX)

    Science.gov (United States)

    Green, A.; Emami, T.; Davies, R.; Frank, J.; Hopson, J.; Karama, J.; James, R. W.; Hopson, J.; Paolino, R. N.; Sandri, E.; Turk, J.; Wicke, M.; Cgapl Team

    2017-10-01

    A high-performance spectrometer utilizing volume-phase-holographic (VPH) grating and a charge coupled device (CCD) camera with a range of 380-1090 nm and resolution of 1024x1024 has been assembled on HPX at the Coast Guard Academy Plasma Laboratory (CGAPL). This spectrometer will collect doppler shifted photons, emitted from the plasma by the first harmonic (1064 nm) of a 2.5 J Nd:YAG laser. Direct measurements of the plasma's temperature and density will be determined using HPX's Thomson Scattering (TS) single spatial point diagnostic system. A zero order half wave plate rotates the polarization of the second harmonic TS laser beam when operating at a wavelength of 532 nm. A linear actuated periscope has been constructed to remotely redirect the beam so that 532 and 1064 nm wavelengths can both be used. TS has the capability of determining plasma properties on short time scales and will be used to create a robust picture of the internal plasma parameters. Operating at both 532 and 1064 nm results in a self-consistent measurement and better use our existing spectrometer and soon to be constructed polychrometer. A prototype spectrometer has been constructed to explore the Andor CCD camera's resolution and sensitivity. The current status of the diagnostic development, spectrometer, and collection optics system will be reported. Supported by U.S. DEPS Grant [HEL-JTO] PRWJFY17.

  20. Transverse magnetoresistance induced by electron-surface scattering on thin gold films: Experiment and theory

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Oyarzún, Simón; Henríquez, Ricardo; Suárez, Marco Antonio; Moraga, Luis; Kremer, Germán; Munoz, Raúl C.

    2014-01-01

    We report new experimental data regarding the transverse magnetoresistance measured in a family of thin gold films of different thickness with the electric field E oriented perpendicular to the magnetic field B (both fields contained within the plane of the film), as well as a theoretical description of size effects based upon a solution of Boltzmann Transport Equation. The measurements were performed at low temperatures T (4 K ≤ T ≤ 50 K) under magnetic field strengths B (1.5 T ≤ B ≤ 9 T). The magnetoresistance signal can be univocally identified as arising from electron-surface scattering, for the Hall mobility at 4 K depends linearly on film thickness. The magnetoresistance signal exhibits a marked thickness dependence, and its curvature as a function of magnetic field B varies with film thickness. The theoretical description of the magnetic field dependence of the magnetoresistance requires a Hall field that varies with the thickness of the film; this Hall field is tuned to reproduce the experimental data.

  1. Transverse magnetoresistance induced by electron-surface scattering on thin gold films: Experiment and theory

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Oyarzún, Simón [Institut Lumière Matière, UMR5306 Université Lyon 1-CNRS, Université de Lyon, 69622 Villeurbanne CEDEX (France); Henríquez, Ricardo [Departamento de Física, Universidad Técnica Federico Santa María, Av. España 1680, Casilla 110-V, Valparaíso (Chile); Suárez, Marco Antonio; Moraga, Luis [Departamento de Física, Facultad de Ciencias Físicas y Matemáticas, Universidad de Chile, Blanco Encalada 2008, Casilla 487-3, Santiago 8370449 (Chile); Kremer, Germán [Bachillerato, Facultad de Ciencias, Universidad de Chile, Las Palmeras 3425, Santiago 7800024 (Chile); Munoz, Raúl C., E-mail: ramunoz@ing.uchile.cl [Departamento de Física, Facultad de Ciencias Físicas y Matemáticas, Universidad de Chile, Blanco Encalada 2008, Casilla 487-3, Santiago 8370449 (Chile)

    2014-01-15

    We report new experimental data regarding the transverse magnetoresistance measured in a family of thin gold films of different thickness with the electric field E oriented perpendicular to the magnetic field B (both fields contained within the plane of the film), as well as a theoretical description of size effects based upon a solution of Boltzmann Transport Equation. The measurements were performed at low temperatures T (4 K ≤ T ≤ 50 K) under magnetic field strengths B (1.5 T ≤ B ≤ 9 T). The magnetoresistance signal can be univocally identified as arising from electron-surface scattering, for the Hall mobility at 4 K depends linearly on film thickness. The magnetoresistance signal exhibits a marked thickness dependence, and its curvature as a function of magnetic field B varies with film thickness. The theoretical description of the magnetic field dependence of the magnetoresistance requires a Hall field that varies with the thickness of the film; this Hall field is tuned to reproduce the experimental data.

  2. Perfect/complete scattering experiments probing quantum mechanics on atomic and molecular collisions and coincidences

    CERN Document Server

    Kleinpoppen, Hans; Grum-Grzhimailo, Alexei N

    2013-01-01

    The main goal of this book is to elucidate what kind of experiment must be performed in order to determine the full set of independent parameters which can be extracted and calculated from theory, where electrons, photons, atoms, ions, molecules, or molecular ions may serve as the interacting constituents of matter.  The feasibility of such perfect' and-or `complete' experiments, providing the complete quantum mechanical knowledge of the process, is associated with the enormous potential of modern research techniques, both, in experiment and theory.  It is even difficult to overestimate the role of theory in setting of the complete experiment, starting with the fact that an experiment can be complete only within a certain theoretical framework, and ending with the direct prescription of what, and in what conditions should be measured to make the experiment `complete'.  The language of the related theory is the language of quantum mechanical amplitudes and their relative phases.  This book captures the spi...

  3. Estimating the Analytical and Surface Enhancement Factors in Surface-Enhanced Raman Scattering (SERS): A Novel Physical Chemistry and Nanotechnology Laboratory Experiment

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pavel, Ioana E.; Alnajjar, Khadijeh S.; Monahan, Jennifer L.; Stahler, Adam; Hunter, Nora E.; Weaver, Kent M.; Baker, Joshua D.; Meyerhoefer, Allie J.; Dolson, David A.

    2012-01-01

    A novel laboratory experiment was successfully implemented for undergraduate and graduate students in physical chemistry and nanotechnology. The main goal of the experiment was to rigorously determine the surface-enhanced Raman scattering (SERS)-based sensing capabilities of colloidal silver nanoparticles (AgNPs). These were quantified by…

  4. Initial Thomson Scattering Survey of Local Helicity Injection and Ohmic Plasmas at the Pegasus Toroidal Experiment

    Science.gov (United States)

    Schlossberg, D. J.; Bodner, G. M.; Bongard, M. W.; Fonck, R. J.; Winz, G. R.

    2014-10-01

    A multipoint Thomson scattering diagnostic has recently been installed on the Pegasus ST. The system utilizes a frequency-doubled Nd:YAG laser (λ0 ~ 532 nm), spectrometers with volume phase holographic gratings, and a gated, intensified CCD camera. It provides measurements of Te and ne at 8 spatial locations for each spectrometer once per discharge. A new multiple aperture and beam dump system has been implemented to mitigate interference from stray light. This system has provided initial measurements in the core region of plasmas initiated by local helicity injection (LHI), as well as conventional Ohmic L- and H-mode discharges. Multi-shot averages of low-density (ne ~ 3 ×1018 m-3) , Ip ~ 0 . 1 MA LHI discharges show central Te ~ 75 eV at the end of the helicity injection phase. Ip ~ 0 . 13 MA Ohmic plasmas at moderate densities (ne ~ 2 ×1019 m-3) have core Te ~ 150 eV in L-mode. Generally, these plasmas do not reach transport equilibrium in the short 25 ms pulse length available. After an L-H transition, strong spectral broadening indicates increasing Te, to values above the range of the present spectrometer system with a high-dispersion VPH grating. Near-term system upgrades will focus on deploying a second spectrometer, with a lower-dispersion grating capable of measuring the 0.1-1.0 keV range. The second spectrometer system will also increase the available number of spatial channels, enabling study of H-mode pedestal structure. Work supported by US DOE Grant DE-FG02-96ER54375.

  5. Representation, testing and assessment of the 'Estelle' formal description technique from a computer-controlled neutron scatter experiment

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Wolschke, U.

    1986-08-01

    Estelle is a formal method of description, which was developed based on an extended state transition model for the specification of communication records and services. Regardless of the field of application, there are problems common to all systems in distributed systems, i.e. in communication systems as in process computer systems, which are to be specified. These include real time problems, such as waiting for events, reactions to expected events and those occurring at the correct time, reacting to unexpected events or those not occurring at the correct time, transmitting and receiving data and the synchronisation of process going on simultaneously. This work examines, using the example of a process computer-controlled neutron scatter experiment, whether Estelle is suitable for the specification of distributed real time systems in this field of application. (orig.) [de

  6. Improving a high-efficiency, gated spectrometer for x-ray Thomson scattering experiments at the National Ignition Facility

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Döppner, T., E-mail: doeppner1@llnl.gov; Bachmann, B.; Emig, J.; Hardy, M.; Kalantar, D. H.; Kritcher, A. L.; Landen, O. L.; Ma, T.; Wood, R. D. [Lawrence Livermore National Laboratory, Livermore, California 94720 (United States); Kraus, D.; Saunders, A. M. [University of California, Berkeley, California 94720 (United States); Neumayer, P. [Gesellschaft für Schwerionenphysik, Darmstadt (Germany); Falcone, R. W. [University of California, Berkeley, California 94720 (United States); Lawrence Berkeley National Laboratory, Berkeley, California 94720 (United States); Fletcher, L. B. [SLAC National Accelerator Laboratory, Menlo Park, California 94720 (United States)

    2016-11-15

    We are developing x-ray Thomson scattering for applications in implosion experiments at the National Ignition Facility. In particular we have designed and fielded MACS, a high-efficiency, gated x-ray spectrometer at 7.5–10 keV [T. Döppner et al., Rev. Sci. Instrum. 85, 11D617 (2014)]. Here we report on two new Bragg crystals based on Highly Oriented Pyrolytic Graphite (HOPG), a flat crystal and a dual-section cylindrically curved crystal. We have performed in situ calibration measurements using a brass foil target, and we used the flat HOPG crystal to measure Mo K-shell emission at 18 keV in 2nd order diffraction. Such high photon energy line emission will be required to penetrate and probe ultra-high-density plasmas or plasmas of mid-Z elements.

  7. Extraction of the neutron-neutron scattering length ann from kinematically complete neutron-deuteron breakup experiments

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Witala, H.; Hueber, D.; Gloeckle, W.; Tornow, W.; Gonzalez Trotter, D.E.

    1996-01-01

    Data for the neutron-neutron final-state-interaction cross section obtained recently in a kinematically complete neutron-deuteron breakup experiment have been reanalyzed using rigorous solutions of the three-nucleon Faddeev equations with realistic nucleon-nucleon interactions. A discrepancy was found with respect to a recent analysis based on the W-matrix approximation to the Paris potential. We also estimate theoretical uncertainties in extracting the neutron-neutron scattering length resulting from the use of different nucleon-nucleon interactions and the possible action of the two pion-exchange three-nucleon force. We find that there exists a certain production angle for the interacting neutron-neutron pair where the uncertainties become minimal. (author)

  8. Certain theories of multiple scattering in random media of discrete scatterers

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Olsen, R.L.; Kharadly, M.M.Z.; Corr, D.G.

    1976-01-01

    New information is presented on the accuracy of the heuristic approximations in two important theories of multiple scattering in random media of discrete scatterers: Twersky's ''free-space'' and ''two-space scatterer'' formalisms. Two complementary approaches, based primarily on a one-dimensional model and the one-dimensional forms of the theories, are used. For scatterer distributions of low average density, the ''heuristic'' asymptotic forms for the coherent field and the incoherent intensity are compared with asymptotic forms derived from a systematic analysis of the multiple scattering processes. For distributions of higher density, both in the average number of scatterers per wavelength and in the degree of packing of finite-size scatterers, the analysis is carried out ''experimentally'' by means of a Monte Carlo computer simulation. Approximate series expressions based on the systematic approach are numerically evaluated along with the heuristic expressions. The comparison (for both forward- and back-scattered field moments) is made for the worst-case conditions of strong multiple scattering for which the theories have not previously been evaluated. Several significant conclusions are drawn which have certain practical implications: in application of the theories to describe some of the scattering phenomena which occur in the troposphere, and in the further evaluation of the theories using experiments on physical models

  9. Opportunities for parity violating electron scattering experiments at the planned MESA facility

    Science.gov (United States)

    Aulenbacher, Kurt

    2011-11-01

    We suggest to start an accelerator physics project called the Mainz Energy recovering Superconducting Accelerator (MESA) as an extension to our experimental facilities. MESA may allow to introduce an innovative internal target regime based on the ERL principle. A second mode of operation will be to use an external polarized electron beam for parity violating experiments.

  10. Inelastic neutron scattering experiments with the monochromatic imaging mode of the RITA-II spectrometer

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Bahl, Christian Robert Haffenden; Lefmann, Kim; Abrahamsen, Asger Bech

    2006-01-01

    Recently a monochromatic multiple data taking mode has been demonstrated for diffraction experiments using a RITA type cold neutron spectrometer with a multi-bladed analyser and a position-sensitive detector. Here, we show how this mode can be used in combination with a flexible radial collimator...

  11. On the importance of fast scattering data for aluminium in the interpretation results from H{sub 2}O moderated lattice experiments

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Fayers, F J; Terry, M J [General Reactor Physics Division, Atomic Energy Establishment, Winfrith, Dorchester, Dorset (United Kingdom)

    1967-07-15

    Aluminium is often used as a structural material or fuel cladding in lattice experiments with light water moderators. In particular most of the experiments with regular rod lattices of plutonium fuel have contained significant quantities of aluminium. This report examines the importance of scattering data for aluminium in leakage calculations for light water systems. It is shown that some discrepancy exists between calculated plane moments and experimentally measured moments, which may be corrected by an 'ad hoc' adjustment of inelastic scattering data for aluminium. WIMS results are presented for some Battelle plutonium fuelled rod lattices, and it is shown that this adjustment of inelastic data leads to a noticeable correction for the predicted reactivities of these experiments. The influence of scattering data for aluminium on results for some other lattices of interest has been shown to be less important. (author)

  12. Neutron-deuteron breakup experiment at En=13 MeV: Determination of the 1S0 neutron-neutron scattering length ann

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Gonzalez Trotter, D.E.; Meneses, F. Salinas; Tornow, W.; Howell, C.R.; Chen, Q.; Crowell, A.S.; Roper, C.D.; Walter, R.L.; Schmidt, D.; Witala, H.; Gloeckle, W.; Tang, H.; Zhou, Z.; Slaus, I.

    2006-01-01

    We report on results of a kinematically complete neutron-deuteron breakup experiment performed at Triangle Universities Nuclear Laboratory using an E n =13 MeV incident neutron beam. The 1 S 0 neutron-neutron scattering length a nn has been determined for four production angles of the neutron-neutron final-state interaction configuration. The absolute cross-section data were analyzed with rigorous three-nucleon calculations. Our average value of a nn =-18.7±0.7 fm is in excellent agreement with a nn =-18.6±0.4 fm obtained from capture experiments of negative pions on deuterons. We also performed a shape analysis of the final-state interaction cross-section enhancements by allowing the normalization of the data to float. From these relative data, we obtained an average value of a nn =-18.8±0.5 fm, in agreement with the result obtained from the absolute cross-section measurements. Our result deviates from the world average of a nn =-16.7±0.5 fm determined from previous kinematically complete neutron-deuteron breakup experiments, including the most recent one carried out at Bonn. However, this low value for a nn is at variance with theoretical expectation and other experimental information about the sign of charge-symmetry breaking of the nucleon-nucleon interaction. In agreement with theoretical predictions, no evidence was found of significant three-nucleon force effects on the neutron-neutron final-state interaction cross sections

  13. Neutron-proton scattering experiments and phase analyses for the n-p system in the energy range from 17 to 50 MeV

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Krupp, H.

    1986-01-01

    In the framework of the study of the nucleon-nucleon interaction neutron-proton scattering experiments were performed at the neutron collimator POLKA of the Karlsruhe cyclotron. Neutrons were produced by the source reaction D(d,n)X in the energy range between 17 and 50 MeV. Measured were the differential cross section, the analyzing power, and the spin correlation coefficient of the elastic n-p scattering. By means of the new data the knowledge of the isospin T=0 scattering phases could be improved. It is for the first time possible to determine the scattering phases for T=1 independently from n-p and p-p data with comparable accuracy. (orig./HSI) [de

  14. The Manuel Lujan, Jr. Neutron Scattering Center, LANSCE experiment reports: 1990 Run Cycle

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    DiStravolo, M.A. (comp.)

    1991-10-01

    This year was the third in which LANSCE ran a formal user program. A call for proposals was issued before the scheduled run cycles, and experiment proposals were submitted by scientists from universities, industry, and other research facilities around the world. An external program advisory committee, which LANSCE shares with the Intense Pulsed Neutron Source (IPNS), Argonne National Laboratory examined the proposals and made recommendations. At LANSCE, neutrons are produced by spallation when a pulsed, 800-MeV proton beam impinges on a tungsten target. The proton pulses are provided by the Clinton P. Anderson Meson Physics Facility (LAMPF) accelerator and an associated Proton Storage Ring (PSR), which can alter the intensity, time structure, and repetition rate of the pulses. The LAMPF protons of Line D are shared between the LANSCE target and the Weapons Neutron Research facility, which results in LANSCE spectrometers being available to external users for unclassified research about 80% of each six-month LAMPF run cycle. Measurements of interest to the Los Alamos National Laboratory may also be performed and may occupy up to an additional 20% of the available beam time. These experiments are reviewed by an internal program advisory committee. One hundred thirty-four proposals were submitted for unclassified research and twelve proposals for research of a programmatic nature to the Laboratory. Our definition of beam availability is when the proton current from the PSR exceeds 50% of the planned value. The PSR ran at 65{mu}A current (average) at 20 Hz for most of 1990. All of the scheduled experiments were performed and experiments in support of the LANSCE research program were accomplished during the discretionary periods.

  15. The Manuel Lujan, Jr. Neutron Scattering Center, LANSCE experiment reports: 1990 Run Cycle

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    DiStravolo, M.A.

    1991-10-01

    This year was the third in which LANSCE ran a formal user program. A call for proposals was issued before the scheduled run cycles, and experiment proposals were submitted by scientists from universities, industry, and other research facilities around the world. An external program advisory committee, which LANSCE shares with the Intense Pulsed Neutron Source (IPNS), Argonne National Laboratory examined the proposals and made recommendations. At LANSCE, neutrons are produced by spallation when a pulsed, 800-MeV proton beam impinges on a tungsten target. The proton pulses are provided by the Clinton P. Anderson Meson Physics Facility (LAMPF) accelerator and an associated Proton Storage Ring (PSR), which can alter the intensity, time structure, and repetition rate of the pulses. The LAMPF protons of Line D are shared between the LANSCE target and the Weapons Neutron Research facility, which results in LANSCE spectrometers being available to external users for unclassified research about 80% of each six-month LAMPF run cycle. Measurements of interest to the Los Alamos National Laboratory may also be performed and may occupy up to an additional 20% of the available beam time. These experiments are reviewed by an internal program advisory committee. One hundred thirty-four proposals were submitted for unclassified research and twelve proposals for research of a programmatic nature to the Laboratory. Our definition of beam availability is when the proton current from the PSR exceeds 50% of the planned value. The PSR ran at 65μA current (average) at 20 Hz for most of 1990. All of the scheduled experiments were performed and experiments in support of the LANSCE research program were accomplished during the discretionary periods

  16. The review of the reactor physics experiments carried out on the LR-0 research reactor NRI Rez plc for reactors of the VVER type

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Hudec, Frantisek; Jansky, Bohumil; Juricek, Vlastimil; Mikus, Jan; Novak, Evzen; Osmera, Bohumil; Posta, Severin; Rypar, Vojtech; Svadlenkova, Marie

    2010-01-01

    LR-0 is an experimental zero power reactor mainly used for the determination of the neutron-physical characteristics of WWER and PWR type reactor lattices and shielding with UO2 or MOX fuel. Its major assets include capability to design and operate multizone cores, i.e. substituted cores, with an inner inserted part in hexagonal or square geometry (driven by LR-0 standard assemblies); Standard and special supporting plates for mock-up experiments; special supporting plates, which enables the triangular symmetrical assembly arrangement with an arbitrary pitch; Modeling neutron field parameters of power reactors; Wide range benchmarking possibilities, with high reproducibility of the benchmark design parameters; Wide range of measurement techniques including equipment and experienced personal; Flexible rearrangements of the core. The main experiments included: Pin wise flux distribution measurements; VVER-440 and VVER-1000 mock-ups; compact spent fuel storage; space kinetics experiment; core parameters experimental determination; experiment with new design fuel assembly; WWER-440 control assembly influence; and burnable absorber study. International research projects are also described. (P.A.)

  17. Electron Neutrino Charged-Current Quasielastic Scattering in the MINERvA Experiment

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Wolcott, Jeremy [Rochester U.

    2015-10-28

    The electron-neutrino charged-current quasielastic (CCQE) cross section on nuclei is an important input parameter to appearance-type neutrino oscillation experiments. Current experiments typically work from the muon neutrino cross section and apply corrections from theoretical arguments to obtain a prediction for the electron neutrino cross section, but to date there has been no experimental verification of the estimates for this channel at an energy scale appropriate to such experiments. We present the first measurement of an exclusive reaction in few-GeV electron neutrino interactions, namely, the cross section for a CCQE-like process, made using the MINERvA detector. The result is given as differential cross-sections vs. the electron energy, electron angle, and square of the four-momentum transferred to the nucleus, $Q^2$. We also compute the ratio to a muon neutrino cross-section in $Q^2$ from MINERvA. We find satisfactory agreement between this measurement and the predictions of the GENIE generator.

  18. The Manuel Lujan, Jr. Neutron Scattering Center (LANSCE) experiment reports 1992 run cycle. Progress report

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    DiStravolo, M.A. [comp.

    1993-09-01

    This year was the fifth in which LANSCE ran a formal user program. A call for proposals was issued before the scheduled run cycles, and experiment proposals were submitted by scientists from universities, industry, and other research facilities around the world. An external program advisory committee, which LANSCE shares with the Intense Pulsed Neutron Source (IPNS), Argonne National Laboratory, examined the proposals and made recommendations. At LANSCE, neutrons are produced by spallation when a pulsed, 800-MeV proton beam impinges on a tungsten target. The proton pulses are provided by the Clinton P. Anderson Meson Physics Facility (LAMPF) accelerator and an associated Proton Storage Ring (PSR), which can alter the intensity, time structure, and repetition rate of the pulses. The LAMPF protons of Line D are shared between the LANSCE target and the Weapons Neutron Research (WNR) facility, which results in LANSCE spectrometers being available to external users for unclassified research about 80% of each annual LAMPF run cycle. Measurements of interest to the Los Alamos National Laboratory may also be performed and may occupy up to an additional 20% of the available beam time. These experiments are reviewed by an internal program advisory committee. One hundred sixty-seven proposals were submitted for unclassified research and twelve proposals for research of a programmatic interest to the Laboratory; six experiments in support of the LANSCE research program were accomplished during the discretionary periods. Oversubscription for instrument beam time by a factor of three was evident with 839 total days requested and only 371 available for allocation.

  19. Performances and first experimental results of BACH, the beamline for dichroism and scattering experiments at ELETTRA

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Zangrando, M.; Zacchigna, M.; Bondino, F.; Finazzi, M.; Pardini, T.; Plate, M.; Rochow, R.; Cocco, D.; Parmigiani, F.

    2004-01-01

    BACH, the new soft x-ray beamline for polarization dependent experiments at the Italian synchrotron radiation facility ELETTRA, has been commissioned, characterized and opened to external users. Based on two APPLE II undulators, it covers an energy range between 35 eV and 1600 eV with the control of the light polarization. The monochromator works either in high resolution or high flux mode. Resolving powers of 16000 at 50 eV, 12000 at 90 eV, more than 12000 at 400 eV, 15000 at 534 eV and 6600 at 867 eV have been achieved with the three high resolution gratings. The resolving powers of the high flux grating, which covers the 290 - 1600 eV range, have been measured reaching 7000 at 400 eV and 2200 at 867 eV. The fluxes, in the high resolution mode, range between 4·1011 photons/s at 125 eV and 2·1010 photons/s at about 1100 eV. Using the high flux grating with the best resolution achievable 1.7·1011 photons/s impinge on the sample at 900 eV. Two branches are installed after the monochromator allowing the set-up of two different experimental stations. One of them, besides several facilities for surface preparation and analysis, hosts a compact inelastic soft x-ray spectrometer (ComIXS) dedicated to x-ray emission experiments exploiting the small spot (10 μm in the vertical direction) on the sample. The other branch hosts a liquid helium cryostat equipped with a superconducting coil to perform absorption and transmission experiments with temperatures down to 2 K and magnetic field up to ±7 T

  20. The Manuel Lujan, Jr. Neutron Scattering Center (LANSCE) experiment reports 1992 run cycle

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    DiStravolo, M.A.

    1993-09-01

    This year was the fifth in which LANSCE ran a formal user program. A call for proposals was issued before the scheduled run cycles, and experiment proposals were submitted by scientists from universities, industry, and other research facilities around the world. An external program advisory committee, which LANSCE shares with the Intense Pulsed Neutron Source (IPNS), Argonne National Laboratory, examined the proposals and made recommendations. At LANSCE, neutrons are produced by spallation when a pulsed, 800-MeV proton beam impinges on a tungsten target. The proton pulses are provided by the Clinton P. Anderson Meson Physics Facility (LAMPF) accelerator and an associated Proton Storage Ring (PSR), which can alter the intensity, time structure, and repetition rate of the pulses. The LAMPF protons of Line D are shared between the LANSCE target and the Weapons Neutron Research (WNR) facility, which results in LANSCE spectrometers being available to external users for unclassified research about 80% of each annual LAMPF run cycle. Measurements of interest to the Los Alamos National Laboratory may also be performed and may occupy up to an additional 20% of the available beam time. These experiments are reviewed by an internal program advisory committee. One hundred sixty-seven proposals were submitted for unclassified research and twelve proposals for research of a programmatic interest to the Laboratory; six experiments in support of the LANSCE research program were accomplished during the discretionary periods. Oversubscription for instrument beam time by a factor of three was evident with 839 total days requested and only 371 available for allocation

  1. Nuclear structure information from nucleon-nucleus scattering experiments at TRIUMF

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Haeusser, O.

    1989-02-01

    We discuss a variety of forward-angle measurements of cross sections for (n,p), (p,p') and (p,n) reactions which were carried out using the medium-resolution spectrometer (MRS) at TRIUMF. The ratio of L=0 isovector spinflip cross section and Gamow-Teller strength has been investigated at 200-450 MeV for several strong transitions of known B(GT) in p-shell nuclei. Isospin symmetry in N-nucleus reactions has been tested for Gamow-Teller transitions to isospin triads in A=6 and A=12 nuclei. The prospects of identifying orbital and meson exchange current contributions in M1 transitions from a state-by-state comparison of M1 and Gamow-Teller strength in sd shell nuclei are discussed. Finally we describe a test of the Gamow-Teller sum rule in 54 Fe where both S - and S + strength are substantial and have been extracted from a multipole decomposition of (p,n) and (n,p) angular distributions

  2. Computer-controlled back scattering and sputtering-experiment using a heavy-ion-accelerator

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Becker, H.; Birnbaum, M.; Degenhardt, K.H.; Mertens, P.; Tschammer, V.

    1978-12-01

    Control and data acquisition of a PDP 11/40 computer and CAMAC instrumentation are reported for an experiment that has been developed to measure sputtering in yields and energy losses for heavy 100 - 300 keV ions in thin metal foils. Besides a quadrupole mass filter or a bending magnet, a multichannel analyser is coupled to the computer, so that also pulse height analysis can be performed under computer control. CAMAC instrumentation and measuring programs are built in a modular form to enable an easy application to other experimental problems. (orig.) 891 KBE/orig. 892 BRE

  3. Validation of the U-238 inelastic scattering neutron cross section through the EXCALIBUR dedicated experiment

    OpenAIRE

    Leconte Pierre; Bernard David

    2017-01-01

    EXCALIBUR is an integral transmission experiment based on the fast neutron source produced by the bare highly enriched fast burst reactor CALIBAN, located in CEA/DAM Valduc (France). Two experimental campaigns have been performed, one using a sphere of diameter 17 cm and one using two cylinders of 17 cm diameter 9 cm height, both made of metallic Uranium 238. A set of 15 different dosimeters with specific threshold energies have been employed to provide information on the neutron flux attenua...

  4. Validation of the U-238 inelastic scattering neutron cross section through the EXCALIBUR dedicated experiment

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Leconte Pierre

    2017-01-01

    Full Text Available EXCALIBUR is an integral transmission experiment based on the fast neutron source produced by the bare highly enriched fast burst reactor CALIBAN, located in CEA/DAM Valduc (France. Two experimental campaigns have been performed, one using a sphere of diameter 17 cm and one using two cylinders of 17 cm diameter 9 cm height, both made of metallic Uranium 238. A set of 15 different dosimeters with specific threshold energies have been employed to provide information on the neutron flux attenuation as a function of incident energy. Measurements uncertainties are typically in the range of 0.5–3% (1σ. The analysis of these experiments is performed with the TRIPOLI4 continuous energy Monte Carlo code. A calculation benchmark with validated simplifications is defined in order to improve the statistical convergence under 2%. Various 238U evaluations have been tested: JEFF-3.1.1, ENDF/B-VII.1 and the IB36 evaluation from IAEA. A sensitivity analysis is presented to identify the contribution of each reaction cross section to the integral transmission rate. This feedback may be of interest for the international effort on 238U, through the CIELO project.

  5. Raman scattering and modulated-DSC experiments on Potassium Germanate glasses*

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wang, N.; Novita, D.; Boolchand, P.

    2006-03-01

    We have synthesized titled glasses in the 0 modulated-DSC (MDSC) experiments. Raman lineshapes observed in the present work are quite similar to those reported by Henderson and Wang ^1. Preliminary MDSC experiments reveal glass transition temperatures, Tg(x), starting from a value of 570 C at x = 0, to decrease to 508 C near x = 0.06, and to increase thereafter almost linearly to 552 C as x increases to 0.15. On the other hand, the non-reversing enthalpy associated with Tg provides evidence of a global minimum in the 0.08 0.10 as Floppy, while those in the reversibility window as representing the Intermediate Phase^2. The space filling nature of the Intermediate Phase is, independently, corroborated by trends in molar volumes which show a broad global minimum in the 9-11% range. Identification of the three elastic phases provides a physical basis to understand the origin of the Germanate anomaly, and the electrical conductivity threshold when glasses become mechanically floppy. *Supported by NSF grant DMR 04-56472. ^1 G.S.Henderson and H.M.Wang, Eur. J. Mineral. 14, 733 (2002). ^2 P.Boolchand, G.Lucovsky, J.C. Phillips and M.F.Thorpe, Phil. Mag 85,3823 (2005).

  6. Validation of the U-238 inelastic scattering neutron cross section through the EXCALIBUR dedicated experiment

    Science.gov (United States)

    Leconte, Pierre; Bernard, David

    2017-09-01

    EXCALIBUR is an integral transmission experiment based on the fast neutron source produced by the bare highly enriched fast burst reactor CALIBAN, located in CEA/DAM Valduc (France). Two experimental campaigns have been performed, one using a sphere of diameter 17 cm and one using two cylinders of 17 cm diameter 9 cm height, both made of metallic Uranium 238. A set of 15 different dosimeters with specific threshold energies have been employed to provide information on the neutron flux attenuation as a function of incident energy. Measurements uncertainties are typically in the range of 0.5-3% (1σ). The analysis of these experiments is performed with the TRIPOLI4 continuous energy Monte Carlo code. A calculation benchmark with validated simplifications is defined in order to improve the statistical convergence under 2%. Various 238U evaluations have been tested: JEFF-3.1.1, ENDF/B-VII.1 and the IB36 evaluation from IAEA. A sensitivity analysis is presented to identify the contribution of each reaction cross section to the integral transmission rate. This feedback may be of interest for the international effort on 238U, through the CIELO project.

  7. Tannin concentration enhances seed caching by scatter-hoarding rodents: An experiment using artificial ‘seeds’

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wang, Bo; Chen, Jin

    2008-11-01

    Tannins are very common among plant seeds but their effects on the fate of seeds, for example, via mediation of the feeding preferences of scatter-hoarding rodents, are poorly understood. In this study, we created a series of artificial 'seeds' that only differed in tannin concentration and the type of tannin, and placed them in a pine forest in the Shangri-La Alpine Botanical Garden, Yunnan Province of China. Two rodent species ( Apodemus latronum and A. chevrieri) showed significant preferences for 'seeds' with different tannin concentrations. A significantly higher proportion of seeds with low tannin concentration were consumed in situ compared with seeds with a higher tannin concentration. Meanwhile, the tannin concentration was significantly positively correlated with the proportion of seeds cached. The different types of tannin (hydrolysable tannin vs condensed tannin) did not differ significantly in their effect on the proportion of seeds eaten in situ vs seeds cached. Tannin concentrations had no significant effect on the distance that cached seeds were carried, which suggests that rodents may respond to different seed traits in deciding whether or not to cache seeds and how far they will transport seeds.

  8. Neutron scattering experiments of the ionic crystal deformed plastically with uniaxial compression under high temperature

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Tsuchiya, Yoshinori; Minakawa, Nobuaki; Aizawa, Kazuya; Ozawa, Kunio [Japan Atomic Energy Research Inst., Tokai, Ibaraki (Japan). Tokai Research Establishment

    1996-04-01

    As an aim of huge growth of alkali halide (AH) single crystal, a mosaic structure of small size AH single crystal deformed plastically with uniaxial compression under high temperature was evaluated due to its neutron irradiation experiment. Using TAS-2 installed at JRR-3M guide hole of Japan Atomic Energy Research Institute, locking curve at a representative face factor of the specimen was measured to observe the mosaic structure accompanied with expansion of the crystal due to compression. As a result, though the specimen before compression could be supposed to be divided to some parts already, the locking curve under 10 sec. of compression time showed already some fracture to divisions to suppose finer degradation of the crystal, and division of the locking curve at 600 sec. of compression time could be observed onto its 220 face. And, every compressed specimens showed some changes of crystallization method from standard sample. (G.K.)

  9. Deeply Virtual Compton Scattering off an unpolarized hydrogen target at the HERMES experiment

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Zeiler, Dietmar

    2009-11-15

    The structure of this thesis is as follows: In the second chapter the theoretical basis needed for the description of the exclusive electro-production of photons in the framework of GPDs is explained. Three different models are discussed and experimental observables are defined. The third chapter includes a description of the Hermes experiment and its components. The data analysis is discussed in chapter four, along with various studies both on real and Monte Carlo data and the derivations of the systematic uncertainties. In chapter five the present results are given and interpreted both from an experimental point of view, and in comparison to existing models. Conclusion from the results are drawn. Furthermore the calibration of the Recoil Silicon Detector and the performance of the complete Recoil Detector is outlined in chapter six. In chapter seven an outlook is presented followed by the summary. (orig.)

  10. First Determination of Generalized Polarizabilities of the Proton by a Virtual Compton Scattering Experiment

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Roche, J. [CEA Saclay, DSM/DAPNIA/SPhN, 91191 Gif-sur-Yvette Cedex, (France); Friedrich, J. M. [Institut fuer Kernphysik, Universitaet Mainz, 55099 Mainz, (Germany); Lhuillier, D. [CEA Saclay, DSM/DAPNIA/SPhN, 91191 Gif-sur-Yvette Cedex, (France); Bartsch, P. [Institut fuer Kernphysik, Universitaet Mainz, 55099 Mainz, (Germany); Baumann, D. [Institut fuer Kernphysik, Universitaet Mainz, 55099 Mainz, (Germany); Berthot, J. [LPC de Clermont-Fd, IN2P3-CNRS, Universite Blaise Pascal, 63177 Aubiere Cedex, (France); Bertin, P. Y. [LPC de Clermont-Fd, IN2P3-CNRS, Universite Blaise Pascal, 63177 Aubiere Cedex, (France); Breton, V. [LPC de Clermont-Fd, IN2P3-CNRS, Universite Blaise Pascal, 63177 Aubiere Cedex, (France); Boeglin, W. U. [Institut fuer Kernphysik, Universitaet Mainz, 55099 Mainz, (Germany); Boehm, R. [Institut fuer Kernphysik, Universitaet Mainz, 55099 Mainz, (Germany)] (and others)

    2000-07-24

    Absolute differential cross sections for the reaction ep{yields}ep{gamma} have been measured at a four-momentum transfer with virtuality Q{sup 2}=0.33 GeV{sup 2} and polarization {epsilon}=0.62 in the range 33.6 to 111.5 MeV/c for the momentum of the outgoing photon in the photon-proton center of mass frame. The experiment has been performed with the high-resolution spectrometers at the Mainz Microtron MAMI. From the photon angular distributions, two structure functions which are a linear combination of the generalized polarizabilities have been determined for the first time. (c) 2000 The American Physical Society.

  11. Experiments on exclusive proton and pion scattering for nuclear filtering and color transparency study

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Wu, J.

    1992-01-01

    The color transparency of pions in various nuclei has been measured and compared with the proton transparency. The measurement results are consistent with semi-classical predictions that the pion transparency is larger than the proton transparency at the same incident momentum and their ratio becomes larger as the nucleus becomes heavier. The energy dependence of the transparency has been studied based on the semi-classical theory and the result shows that the transparency can be written into two factors. The physics interpretations of the two factors have been discussed. A new experimental apparatus, the Exclusive Variable Apparatus (EVA) at Brookhaven National Laboratory, along with unique electronic techniques chosen for enabling the EVA trigger system to fulfill physics requirements of the experiment, have been described

  12. Deeply Virtual Compton Scattering off an unpolarized hydrogen target at the HERMES experiment

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Zeiler, Dietmar

    2009-11-01

    The structure of this thesis is as follows: In the second chapter the theoretical basis needed for the description of the exclusive electro-production of photons in the framework of GPDs is explained. Three different models are discussed and experimental observables are defined. The third chapter includes a description of the Hermes experiment and its components. The data analysis is discussed in chapter four, along with various studies both on real and Monte Carlo data and the derivations of the systematic uncertainties. In chapter five the present results are given and interpreted both from an experimental point of view, and in comparison to existing models. Conclusion from the results are drawn. Furthermore the calibration of the Recoil Silicon Detector and the performance of the complete Recoil Detector is outlined in chapter six. In chapter seven an outlook is presented followed by the summary. (orig.)

  13. Coincidence (e,e'p) Scattering on 40Ar and 48Ti to Aid Precision Neutrino Oscillation Experiments

    Science.gov (United States)

    Abrams, Dan; E12-14-012 Collaboration

    2017-09-01

    Neutrino oscillations are an active area of research, with experiments such as DUNE (Deep Underground Neutrino Experiment). DUNE will make use of large liquid argon detectors to perform a precision measurement of the CP violating phase. Hence, an understanding of the argon nuclear ground state and its response to (anti-)neutrino interactions is of paramount importance. Information about the nuclear ground state is encapsulated in the spectral function, S (k , E) , the joint probability of removing a nucleon of momentum k = |k | from the ground state leaving the residual (A-1) system with excitation energy E. E12-14-012 at Jefferson Lab ran in early 2017 and has measured the argon spectral function through coincidence (e ,e' p) scattering on 40Ar and 48Ti. The results of E12-14-012 are important to both the neutrino and nuclear physics communities. A direct measurement of the coincidence (e ,e' p) cross section from 40Ar and 48Ti will provide valuable information about the argon nucleus, as well as the experimental input necessary to constrain theoretical models used to calculate S (k , E) , paving the way for reliable estimates of the neutrino cross sections. Data from E12-14-012 is currently being analyzed at UVA and Va. Tech. Supported in part by the Department of Energy Grant No: DE-FG02-96ER40950.

  14. Emotional and cognitive experiences during the time of diagnosis and decision-making following a prenatal diagnosis : a qualitative study of males presented with congenital heart defect in the fetus carried by their pregnant partner

    OpenAIRE

    Carlsson, Tommy; Mattsson, Elisabet

    2018-01-01

    BACKGROUND: Expectant fathers consider the second-trimester obstetric ultrasound examination as an important step towards parenthood, but are ill prepared for a detection of a fetal anomaly. Inductive research is scarce concerning their experiences and needs for support. Consequently, the aim of this study was to explore the emotional and cognitive experiences, during the time of diagnosis and decision-making, among males presented with congenital heart defect in the fetus carried by their pr...

  15. The determination of electron momentum densities by inelastic scattering gamma-ray-electron coincidence measurements: The (γ,eγ)-experiment

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Rollason, A.J.; Bell, F.; Schneider, J.R.

    1989-09-01

    Measurements have been made of the recoiling electron in 320 keV gamma ray inelastic scattering collisions in thin aluminium targets. The angular correlation of these electrons detected in coincidence with the scattered photon is in agreement with the kinematic requirements of the Compton effect and is correctly predicted by Monte Carlo simulations based on the impulse approximation. Further simulations of ideal-geometry experiments indicate that information about the initial electron momenta is available from an examination of those electron-photon events originating in a surface layer of one electronic mean free path depth and that elastic scattering of the recoil electrons from greater depths produces a nearly flat background to this signal. The results clearly demonstrate the feasibility of the (γ,eγ) experiment for studying electron momentum densities with synchrotron radiation. (orig.) With 23 refs., 17 figs

  16. Licensing experiences, risk assessment, demonstration test on nuclear fuel packages and design criteria for sea going vessel carrying spent fuel in Japan

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Aoki, S.; Ikeda, K.

    1978-01-01

    In Japan spent fuels from nuclear power plants shall be shipped to reprocessing plants by sea-going vessels. Atomic Energy Committee has initiated a board of experts to implement the assessment of environmental safety for sea transport. As a part of the assessment a study has been conducted by Central Research Institute of Electric Power Industry under sponsorship of Nuclear Safety Bureau, which is intended to guarantee the safety of sea transport. Nuclear Safety Bureau also has a program to carry out a long term demonstration test on spent fuel package using full scale package models. The test consists of drop, heat transfer, fire, collapse under high external pressure, immersion, shielding and subcritical test. The purpose of this test is to obtain the public acceptance and also to verify the adequacy of the safety analysis for nuclear fuel packages. In order to secure the safety of sea transport, the Ministry of Transportation has provided for the design criteria for sea-going vessel in the case of full load shipping, which aims to make minimum the probability of sinking at collision, grounding and other unforeseen accidents on the sea and also to retain the radiation exposure to crews as low as possible. The design criteria consists of the following items: (1) structural strength of vessel, (2) collision protective structure, (3) arrangement of holds, (4) stability after damage, (5) grounding protective structure, (6) cooling system, (7) tie-down equipment, (8) radiation inspection apparatus, (9) decontamination facilities, (10) emergency water flooding equipment for ship fire, (11) emergency electric sources, etc. Based on the design criteria a sea-going vessel names HINOURA-MARU has been reconstructed to transport spent fuel packages from nuclear power stations to the reprocessing plant

  17. Optical Carry Adder.

    Science.gov (United States)

    1987-03-01

    AOM’s) with the deflected beam as the modulator "on" state. These AOM’s ( TeO2 crystals, manufactured by Newport E.O. Systems) have high deflection...caused by the slow acoustic propagation (4.2 - 105 cm/s for TeO2 ), but this delay can be minimized by placing the laser beam close to the acoustic...dependent jitter in the optical carry to below 1 ns, the total carry path must be less than 30 cm long (or 20 cm in glass , 14 cm in LiNbO 3). Thus, a 32

  18. Study of the influence of color van der Waals forces and of non-Coulombian effects in 208pb+208pb scattering using a high-precision experiment

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Casandjian, Jean-Marc

    1996-01-01

    This work deals with the precise measurement of the absolute angular position of the elastic 208 pb+ 208 pb scattering cross section oscillations. The main objective is to verify if all of the elastic scattering ingredients are known even with an angular position precision of a few milli-degrees or if it is necessary to introduce new elements such as the color van der Waals force. This experiment was performed at Ganil. We obtained a precision of 0.004 deg. on the absolute cross section oscillation position and an angular shift of a few hundredths of degrees in relation to the expected position of a pure coulomb scattering. The attainment of this precision required particular precautions in the measurement of the absolute energy target position and scattering angle. First, the angular straggling on a thin target and the production of δ electrons during the scattering is studied. Next the origin of the angular shift is examined by the calculation of all the potentials that act during the scattering. The agreement between experimentation and theory allowed us to set a new limit on the color van der Waals interaction. (author) [fr

  19. The electron-ion scattering experiment ELISe at the International Facility for Antiproton and Ion Research (FAIR)-A conceptual design study

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Antonov, A. N.; Gaidarov, M. K.; Ivanov, M. V.; Kadrev, D. N.; Aiche, M.; Barreau, G.; Czajkowski, S.; Jurado, B.; Belier, G.; Chatillon, A.; Granier, T.; Taieb, J.; Dore, D.; Letourneau, A.; Ridikas, D.; Dupont, E.; Berthoumieux, E.; Panebianco, S.; Farget, F.; Schmitt, C.; Audouin, L.; Khan, E.; Tassan-Got, L.; Aumann, T.; Beller, P.; Boretzky, K.; Dolinskii, A.; Egelhof, P.; Emling, H.; Franzke, B.; Geissel, H.; Kelic-Heil, A.; Kester, O.; Kurz, N.; Litvinov, Y.; Muenzenberg, G.; Nolden, F.; Schmidt, K. -H.; Scheidenberger, Ch.; Simon, H.; Steck, M.; Weick, H.; Enders, J.; Pietralla, N.; Richter, A.; Schrieder, G.; Zilges, A.; Distler, M. O.; Merkel, H.; Mueller, U.; Junghans, A. R.; Lenske, H.; Fujiwara, M.; Suda, T.; Kato, S.; Adachi, T.; Hamieh, S.; Harakeh, M. N.; Kalantar-Nayestanaki, N.; Woertche, H.; Berg, G. P. A.; Koop, I. A.; Logatchov, P. V.; Otboev, A. V.; Parkhomchuk, V. V.; Shatilov, D. N.; Shatunov, P. Y.; Shatunov, Y. M.; Shiyankov, S. V.; Shvartz, D. I.; Skrinsky, A. N.; Chulkov, L. V.; Danilin, B. V.; Korsheninnikov, A. A.; Kuzmin, E. A.; Ogloblin, A. A.; Volkov, V. A.; Grishkin, Y.; Lisin, V. P.; Mushkarenkov, A. N.; Nedorezov, V.; Polonski, A. L.; Rudnev, N. V.; Turinge, A. A.; Artukh, A.; Avdeichikov, V.; Ershov, S. N.; Fomichev, A.; Golovkov, M.; Gorshkov, A. V.; Grigorenko, L.; Klygin, S.; Krupko, S.; Meshkov, I. N.; Rodin, A.; Sereda, Y.; Seleznev, I.; Sidorchuk, S.; Syresin, E.; Stepantsov, S.; Ter-Akopian, G.; Teterev, Y.; Vorontsov, A. N.; Kamerdzhiev, S. P.; Litvinova, E. V.; Karataglidis, S.; Alvarez Rodriguez, R.; Borge, M. J. G.; Ramirez, C. Fernandez; Garrido, E.; Sarriguren, P.; Vignote, J. R.; Fraile Prieto, L. M.; Lopez Herraiz, J.; Moya de Guerra, E.; Udias-Moinelo, J.; Amaro Soriano, J. E.; Rojo, A. M. Lallena; Caballero, J. A.; Johansson, H. T.; Jonson, B.; Nilsson, T.; Nyman, G.; Zhukov, M.; Golubev, P.; Rudolph, D.; Hencken, K.; Jourdan, J.; Krusche, B.; Rauscher, T.; Kiselev, D.; Trautmann, D.; Al-Khalili, J.; Catford, W.; Johnson, R.; Stevenson, P. D.; Barton, C.; Jenkins, D.; Lemmon, R.; Chartier, M.; Cullen, D.; Bertulani, C. A.; Heinz, A.

    2011-01-01

    The electron-ion scattering experiment ELISe is part of the installations envisaged at the new experimental storage ring at the International Facility for Antiproton and Ion Research (FAIR) in Darmstadt, Germany. It offers an unique opportunity to use electrons as probe in investigations of the

  20. The electron-ion scattering experiment ELISe at the International Facility for Antiproton and Ion Research (FAIR)-A conceptual design study

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Antonov, A.N.; Gaidarov, M.K. [INRNE-BAS Sofia (Bulgaria); Ivanov, M.V. [Grupo de Physica Nuclear, Complutense University of Madrid (Spain); Kadrev, D.N. [INRNE-BAS Sofia (Bulgaria); Aiche, M.; Barreau, G.; Czajkowski, S.; Jurado, B. [Centre d' Etudes Nucleaires Bordeaux-Gradingnan (CENBG) (France); Belier, G.; Chatillon, A.; Granier, T.; Taieb, J. [CEA Bruyeres-le-Chatel (France); Dore, D.; Letourneau, A.; Ridikas, D.; Dupont, E.; Berthoumieux, E.; Panebianco, S. [CEA Saclay (France); Farget, F.; Schmitt, C. [GANIL Caen (France)

    2011-05-01

    The electron-ion scattering experiment ELISe is part of the installations envisaged at the new experimental storage ring at the International Facility for Antiproton and Ion Research (FAIR) in Darmstadt, Germany. It offers an unique opportunity to use electrons as probe in investigations of the structure of exotic nuclei. The conceptual design and the scientific challenges of ELISe are presented.

  1. The electron-ion scattering experiment ELISe at the International Facility for Antiproton and Ion Research (FAIR)-A conceptual design study

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Antonov, A.N.; Gaidarov, M.K.; Ivanov, M.V.; Kadrev, D.N.; Aiche, M.; Barreau, G.; Czajkowski, S.; Jurado, B.; Belier, G.; Chatillon, A.; Granier, T.; Taieb, J.; Dore, D.; Letourneau, A.; Ridikas, D.; Dupont, E.; Berthoumieux, E.; Panebianco, S.; Farget, F.; Schmitt, C.

    2011-01-01

    The electron-ion scattering experiment ELISe is part of the installations envisaged at the new experimental storage ring at the International Facility for Antiproton and Ion Research (FAIR) in Darmstadt, Germany. It offers an unique opportunity to use electrons as probe in investigations of the structure of exotic nuclei. The conceptual design and the scientific challenges of ELISe are presented.

  2. Answers to the questions about food irradiation. Concerning results of animal experiments in the specified integrated research. Data carrying a problem in human health were obtained?

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Ito, Hitoshi

    2007-01-01

    Experts of Food and Agriculture Organization (FAO)/ International Atomic Energy Agency (IAEA)/ World Health Organization (WHO) committee obtained their conclusion in 1980 that food irradiated with <10 kGy of radiation is safe for human health, which is now globally approved. However, in Japan, there have been still opposite opinions based on the doubt in the title on the safety of irradiated food. In this paper, the author answers those questions as he was a member to arrange the Research in the title for food irradiation. Described are data presentation and explanation about results of toxicity studies of diets added with irradiated materials of: weight reductions in rat ovary by irradiated potato (ip) in chronic studies, and in mouse testicle and ovary of F3 generation from the ancestor mice kept on diet with irradiated onion (io); bone malformation in mice by io; and reduction of body weight gain in female rats by ip and increase of mortality of male rats by ip. These are analyzed on the aspects of radiation dose-response, sustained tendency of results throughout the living period or generation, and apparent abnormality by other factors; and normal variation due to individual difference is pointed out to contribute to these findings. The safety test of irradiated food has been conducted valid not only in animal experiments but also other tests like genotoxicity and analysis of radiation-degraded products. (R.T.)

  3. Recent Heavy Ion Results on the Hard Scattering and Jet Quenching from the ATLAS and CMS experiments on the LHC.

    CERN Document Server

    Olszewski, A; The ATLAS collaboration

    2014-01-01

    "Recent results on studies of hard scattering processes and jet quenching in nuclear collisions from the ATLAS \\cite{atlas} and CMS \\cite{cms} experiments at the Large Hadron Collider (LHC) are reviewed. They are based on high statistics samples of PbPb collisions at $\\sqrt{s_{\\rm NN}}=2.76$~TeV collected at the LHC in 2011 and $pp$ collisions at $\\sqrt{s}=2.76$~TeV and $p$Pb collisions at $\\sqrt{s_{\\rm NN}}=5.02$~TeV collected in 2013. New results for $R_{\\rm AA}$ the jet nuclear modification factors confirm a strong suppression of jet production. Modifications of jet fragmentation properties in PbPb collisions are observed. In $p$Pb collisions jets are not strongly modified but some non-scaling behavior of jet rates in collisions with different centralities is observed by ATLAS. New measurements for the electroweak boson production in $p$Pb collisions allow a more precise testing of parton distributions in lead nuclei with the conclusion that the EPS09 description of nuclear modifications of parton distribu...

  4. Ultrasonic trap for light scattering measurement

    Science.gov (United States)

    Barton, Petr; Pavlu, Jiri

    2017-04-01

    Light scattering is complex phenomenon occurring widely in space environments, including the dense dusty clouds, nebulas or even the upper atmosphere of the Earth. However, when the size of the dust (or of other scattering center) is close to the incident light wavelength, theoretical determination is difficult. In such case, Mie theory is to be used but there is a lack of the material constants for most space-related materials. For experimental measurement of light scattering, we designed unique apparatus, based on ultrasonic trap. Using acoustic levitation we are able to capture the dust grain in midair, irradiate it with laser, and observe scattering directly with goniometer-mounted photodiode. Advantage of this approach is ability to measure directly in the air (thus, no need for the carrier medium) and possibility to study non-spherical particles. Since the trap development is nearly finished and initial experiments are carried out, the paper presents first tests on water droplets.

  5. Carrie Farberow | NREL

    Science.gov (United States)

    -384-7882 Research Interests Designing improved heterogeneous catalysts for chemical reactions in catalysis research Education Ph.D., Chemical Engineering, University of Wisconsin at Madison B.S ., Chemical Engineering, University of Oklahoma Professional Experience Research Engineer, National Renewable

  6. Effects of multiple scatter on the propagation and absorption of electromagnetic waves in a field-aligned-striated cold magneto-plasma: implications for ionospheric modification experiments

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    T. R. Robinson

    Full Text Available A new theory of the propagation of low power electromagnetic test waves through the upper-hybrid resonance layer in the presence of magnetic field-aligned plasma density striations, which includes the effects of multiple scatter, is presented. The case of sinusoidal striations in a cold magnetoplasma is treated rigorously and then extended, in an approximate manner, to the broad-band striation spectrum and warm plasma cases. In contrast to previous, single scatter theories, it is found that the interaction layer is much broader than the wavelength of the test wave. This is due to the combined electric fields of the scattered waves becoming localised on the contour of a fixed plasma density, which corresponds to a constant value for the local upper-hybrid resonance frequency over the whole interaction region. The results are applied to the calculation of the refractive index of an ordinary mode test wave during modification experiments in the ionospheric F-region. Although strong anomalous absorption arises, no new cutoffs occur at the upper-hybrid resonance, so that in contrast to the predictions of previous single scatter theories, no additional reflections occur there. These results are consistent with observations made during ionospheric modification experiments at Tromsø, Norway.

    Key words. Ionosphere (active experiments; ionospheric irregularities Radio science (ionospheric propagation

  7. Small-angle scattering from GP zones in Al–Cu alloy

    Indian Academy of Sciences (India)

    ... and smallangle scattering experiments were carried on the powdered samples as a function of time during artificial aging. Small-angle scattering data were analysed, and evidence has been obtained for the occurrence of spinodal decomposition as the mechanism responsible in the early stages of formation of GP zones.

  8. Next generation neutron scattering at Neutron Science Center project in JAERI

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Yamada, Yasusada; Watanabe, Noboru; Niimura, Nobuo; Morii, Yukio; Katano, Susumu; Aizawa, Kazuya; Suzuki, Jun-ichi; Koizumi, Satoshi; Osakabe, Toyotaka.

    1997-01-01

    Japan Atomic Energy Research Institute (JAERI) has promoted neutron scattering researches by means of research reactors in Tokai Research Establishment, and proposes 'Neutron Science Research Center' to develop the future prospect of the Tokai Research Establishment. The scientific fields which will be expected to progress by the neutron scattering experiments carried out at the proposed facility in the Center are surveyed. (author)

  9. Effect of scatter and attenuation correction in ROI analysis of brain perfusion scintigraphy. Phantom experiment and clinical study in patients with unilateral cerebrovascular disease

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Bai, J. [Keio Univ., Tokyo (Japan). 21st Century Center of Excellence Program; Hashimoto, J.; Kubo, A. [Keio Univ., Tokyo (Japan). Dept. of Radiology; Ogawa, K. [Hosei Univ., Tokyo (Japan). Dept. of Electronic Informatics; Fukunaga, A.; Onozuka, S. [Keio Univ., Tokyo (Japan). Dept. of Neurosurgery

    2007-07-01

    The aim of this study was to evaluate the effect of scatter and attenuation correction in region of interest (ROI) analysis of brain perfusion single-photon emission tomography (SPECT), and to assess the influence of selecting the reference area on the calculation of lesion-to-reference count ratios. Patients, methods: Data were collected from a brain phantom and ten patients with unilateral internal carotid artery stenosis. A simultaneous emission and transmission scan was performed after injecting {sup 123}I-iodoamphetamine. We reconstructed three SPECT images from common projection data: with scatter correction and nonuniform attenuation correction, with scatter correction and uniform attenuation correction, and with uniform attenuation correction applied to data without scatter correction. Regional count ratios were calculated by using four different reference areas (contralateral intact side, ipsilateral cerebellum, whole brain and hemisphere). Results: Scatter correction improved the accuracy of measuring the count ratios in the phantom experiment. It also yielded marked difference in the count ratio in the clinical study when using the cerebellum, whole brain or hemisphere as the reference. Difference between nonuniform and uniform attenuation correction was not significant in the phantom and clinical studies except when the cerebellar reference was used. Calculation of the lesion-to-normal count ratios referring the same site in the contralateral hemisphere was not dependent on the use of scatter correction or transmission scan-based attenuation correction. Conclusion: Scatter correction was indispensable for accurate measurement in most of the ROI analyses. Nonuniform attenuation correction is not necessary when using the reference area other than the cerebellum. (orig.)

  10. Neutron scattering. Experiment manuals

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Brueckel, Thomas; Heger, Gernot; Richter, Dieter; Roth, Georg; Zorn, Reiner

    2012-01-01

    The following topics are dealt with: The thermal triple-axis spectrometer PUMA, the high-resolution powder diffractometer SPODI, the hot single-crystal diffractometer HEiDi for structure analysis with neutrons, the backscattering spectrometer SPHERES, the neutron polarization analyzer DNS, the neutron spin-echo spectrometer J-NSE, the small-angle neutron diffractometers KWS-1/-2, the very-small-angle neutron diffractometer with focusing mirror KWS-3, the resonance spin-echo spectrometer RESEDA, the reflectometer TREFF, the time-of-flight spectrometer TOFTOF. (HSI)

  11. Testing special relativity theory using Compton scattering

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Contreras S, H.; Hernandez A, L.; Baltazar R, A.; Escareno J, E.; Mares E, C. A.; Hernandez V, C.; Vega C, H. R.

    2010-10-01

    The validity of the special relativity theory has been tested using the Compton scattering. Since 1905 several experiments has been carried out to show that time, mass, and length change with the velocity, in this work the Compton scattering has been utilized as a simple way to show the validity to relativity. The work was carried out through Monte Carlo calculations and experiments with different gamma-ray sources and a gamma-ray spectrometer with a 3 x 3 NaI (Tl) detector. The pulse-height spectra were collected and the Compton edge was observed. This information was utilized to determine the relationship between the electron's mass and energy using the Compton -knee- position, the obtained results were contrasted with two collision models between photon and electron, one model was built using the classical physics and another using the special relativity theory. It was found that calculations and experiments results fit to collision model made using the special relativity. (Author)

  12. Crossed-beam experiment for the scattering of low- and intermediate-energy electrons from BF{sub 3}: A comparative study with XF{sub 3} (X = C, N, and CH) molecules

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Hoshino, M., E-mail: masami-h@sophia.ac.jp; Suga, A.; Kato, H.; Tanaka, H. [Department of Physics, Sophia University, Tokyo 102-8554 (Japan); Limão-Vieira, P. [Department of Physics, Sophia University, Tokyo 102-8554 (Japan); Laboratório de Colisões Atómicas e Moleculares, CEFITEC, Departamento de Física, Faculdade de Ciências e Tecnologia, Universidade Nova de Lisboa, 2829-516 Caparica (Portugal); Ferreira da Silva, F. [Laboratório de Colisões Atómicas e Moleculares, CEFITEC, Departamento de Física, Faculdade de Ciências e Tecnologia, Universidade Nova de Lisboa, 2829-516 Caparica (Portugal); Blanco, F. [Departamento de Fisica Atomica, Molecular y Nuclear, Facultad de Ciencias Fisicas, Universidad Complutense de Madrid, E-28040 Madrid (Spain); García, G. [Instituto de Fisica Fundamental, Consejo Superior de Investigaciones Científicas, 28006 Madrid (Spain)

    2015-07-14

    Absolute differential cross sections (DCSs) for electron interaction with BF{sub 3} molecules have been measured in the impact energy range of 1.5–200 eV and recorded over a scattering angle range of 15°–150°. These angular distributions have been normalized by reference to the elastic DCSs of the He atom and integrated by employing a modified phase shift analysis procedure to generate integral cross sections (ICSs) and momentum transfer cross sections (MTCSs). The calculations of DCSs and ICSs have been carried out using an independent atom model under the screening corrected additivity rule (IAM-SCAR). The present elastic DCSs have been found to agree well with the results of IAM-SCAR calculation above 20 eV, and also with a recent Schwinger multichannel calculation below 30 eV. Furthermore, in the comparison with the XF{sub 3} (X = B, C, N, and CH) molecules, the elastic DCSs reveal a similar angular distribution which are approximately equal in magnitude from 30 to 200 eV. This feature suggests that the elastic scattering is dominated virtually by the 3-outer fluorine atoms surrounding the XF{sub 3} molecules. The vibrational DCSs have also been obtained in the energy range of 1.5–15 eV and vibrational analysis based on the angular correlation theory has been carried out to explain the nature of the shape resonances. Limited experiments on vibrational inelastic scattering confirmed the existence of a shape resonance with a peak at 3.8 eV, which is also observed in the vibrational ICS. Finally, the estimated elastic ICSs, MTCSs, as well as total cross sections are compared with the previous cross section data available.

  13. Evaluation of systematic uncertainties caused by radiative corrections in experiments on deep inelastic νsub(l)N-scattering

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Bardin, D.Yu.

    1979-01-01

    Basing on the simple quark-parton model of strong interaction and on the Weinberg-Salam theory compact formulae are derived for the radiative correction to the charged current induced deep inelastic scattering of neutrinos on nucleons. The radiative correction is found to be around 20-30%, i.e., the value typical for deep inelastic lN-scattering. The results obtained are rather different from the presently available estimations of the effect under consideration

  14. Search for narrow baryon resonances (of masses through 3.4 and 5 GeV) through a π-p large angle elastic scattering formation experiment

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Chauveau, J.

    1981-01-01

    This work describes a search for narrow baryon resonances (of masses between 3.4 and 5 GeV) through a π - p large angle elastic scattering formation experiment. An optimization of the sensitivity of the experiment to detect resonances is obtained by the measurement of the central part of the angular distribution (/cos theta*/ -4 . The apparatus and data analysis are described in details. No narrow resonance has been found, the sensitivity of the experiment being characterized by a width GAMMA approximately equal to 1 MeV and an elasticity x approximately equal to 0.01. Finally, the differential cross section measurement is compared to some parton models [fr

  15. New light on the Kr-(4p55s2) Feshbach resonances: high-resolution electron scattering experiments and B-spline R-matrix calculations

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Hoffmann, T H; Ruf, M-W; Hotop, H; Zatsarinny, O; Bartschat, K; Allan, M

    2010-01-01

    In a joint experimental and theoretical effort, we carried out a detailed study of electron scattering from Kr atoms in the energy range of the low-lying Kr - (4p 5 5s 2 ) Feshbach resonances. Absolute angle-differential cross sections for elastic electron scattering were measured over the energy range 9.3-10.3 eV with an energy width of about 13 meV at scattering angles between 10 deg. and 180 deg. Using several sets of elastic scattering phase shifts, a detailed analysis of the sharp Kr - (4p 5 5s 2 2 P 3/2 ) resonance was carried out, resulting in a resonance width of Γ 3/2 3.6(2) meV. By direct comparison with the position of the Ar - (3p 5 4s 2 2 P 3/2 ) resonance, the energy for the Kr - (4p 5 5s 2 2 P 3/2 ) resonance was determined as E 3/2 = 9.489(3) eV. A Fano-type fit of the higher lying Kr - (4p 5 5s 2 2 P 1/2 ) resonance yielded the resonance parameters Γ 1/2 = 33(5) meV and E 1/2 = 10.126(4) eV. In order to obtain additional insights, B-spline R-matrix calculations were performed for both the elastic and the inelastic cross sections above the threshold for 4p 5 5s excitation. They provide the total and angle-differential cross sections for excitation of long-lived and short-lived levels of the 4p 5 5s configuration in Kr and branching ratios for the decay of the Kr - (4p 5 5s 2 2 P 1/2 ) resonance into the three available exit channels. The results are compared with selected experimental data.

  16. Feasibility study of a microwave or far-infrared scattering experiment to measure small scale turbulence and anomalous transport in J.E.T

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Koechlin, F.; Olivain, J.; Gresillon, D.; Truc, A.

    1981-03-01

    In the first part, we make a rapid review of what can be expected as low frequency turbulence in J.E.T. This is to define the parameters of the density fluctuations which can be expected. A method to deduce the anomalous transport is described. In the second part, the physical problems of measuring these parameters by microwave or far-infrared scattering are outlined. In the third part, a preliminary study of a microwave scattering experiment at lambda approximately 1.3 mm is made. In the fourth part, a F.I.R. laser experiment at 10.6 μm is also proposed to perform the same measurements. In this last case, an estimation of the thermal nature of the plasma emission could be made, in order to eventually extend the diagnostic to the ion temperature measurement

  17. Scattering amplitudes in gauge theories

    CERN Document Server

    Henn, Johannes M

    2014-01-01

    At the fundamental level, the interactions of elementary particles are described by quantum gauge field theory. The quantitative implications of these interactions are captured by scattering amplitudes, traditionally computed using Feynman diagrams. In the past decade tremendous progress has been made in our understanding of and computational abilities with regard to scattering amplitudes in gauge theories, going beyond the traditional textbook approach. These advances build upon on-shell methods that focus on the analytic structure of the amplitudes, as well as on their recently discovered hidden symmetries. In fact, when expressed in suitable variables the amplitudes are much simpler than anticipated and hidden patterns emerge.   These modern methods are of increasing importance in phenomenological applications arising from the need for high-precision predictions for the experiments carried out at the Large Hadron Collider, as well as in foundational mathematical physics studies on the S-matrix in quantum ...

  18. Proposal for an experiment at the SIN: determination of D-state admixture in deuterons with the aid of π+-d scattering

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Gruebler, W.; Koenig, V.; Schmelzbach, P.A.; Stammbach, T.

    A double scatter experiment is proposed in which the tensor polarization of the recoil deuterons is measured in the forwards direction. It is noted that using a relatively simple measurement arrangement and a short measurement time, the D-state admixture in deuterons can be determined very precisely. The experimental facilities and arrangments, structural predictions, estimate of collision rates and measurement time, background, possible improvements, and the equipment and financing are discussed. 3 references

  19. Thermally stimulated scattering in plasmas

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Dysthe, K. B.; Mjølhus, E.; Pécseli, H. L.

    1985-01-01

    this experiment local heat conduction is of little importance and the dynamic evolution for the electron temperature is dominated by heating and energy exchange with the ion component. These features are incorporated in the analysis. The resulting set of equations gives a growth rate and characteristic scale size......A theory for stimulated scattering of a laser beam is formulated where the dominant nonlinearity is the ohmic heating of the plasma. The analysis is carried out with particular reference to experimental investigations of CO2 laser heating of linear discharge plasma. In the conditions characterizing...

  20. Some experience in applying the REDUCE algebraic system to the calculation of scattering processes in QED and QCD

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Mohring, H.J.; Schiller, A.

    1980-01-01

    The problems arising in the use of the REDUCE algebraic system for calculating traces of the Dirac matrix products describing scattering processes in quantum electrodynamics (QED) and quantum chromodynamics (QCD) are considered. Application of the REDUCE system for describing two-photon processes in e + e - reactions is discussed. An example of using the REDUCE system for calculating matrix elements of elementary processes of hard scattering is described. The calculations were performed by means of the REDUCE2 version on an EC1040 computer. The computations take almost 10 minutes of machine time and computer storage capacity of abo t 800 kiuobites

  1. An FPGA-based trigger processor for a measurement of deeply virtual Compton scattering at the COMPASS-II experiment

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Schopferer, Sebastian

    2013-12-16

    The COMPASS-II experiment at CERN is focusing on a measurement of the deeply virtual Compton scattering. Several upgrades of the experimental setup have been performed in 2012, namely the construction of a long liquid hydrogen target and a surrounding recoil proton detector called CAMERA. Based on a time-of-flight measurement between two barrels of scintillators, the CAMERA detector allows to detect protons with a kinetic energy down to 35 MeV, which leave the target under large polar angles. At the same time, protons can be distinguished from other particles resulting from background processes by means of an energy loss measurement in the scintillating material. In order to extend the existing COMPASS trigger scheme, a digital trigger system has been developed, which is detailed in the thesis at hand. The trigger system is able to select events with a recoil proton in the final state while suppressing background events, using the particle identification capabilities of the CAMERA detector. Challenging selection criteria based on both the time-of-flight and the energy loss measurement call for a powerful programmable logic board. At the same time, the integration into the existing COMPASS trigger system poses strict constraints on the latency of the trigger decision. For the implementation of the proton trigger system, a new FPGA-based trigger and DAQ hardware called TIGER has been built. The module is operated in two firmware configurations, serving two distinct purposes. Firstly, the trigger processor is responsible for the generation of a trigger signal based on recoil particles, which is included in the global first-level trigger decision. Secondly, a readout concentrator allows to multiplex the data streams of up to 18 readout modules into one link to the DAQ. The CAMERA detector and the corresponding readout and trigger electronics was commissioned during a test run in autumn 2012. This thesis contains details about the trigger concept, the development of the

  2. Reactive scattering of H2 from Cu(100): comparison of dynamics calculations based on the specific reaction parameter approach to density functional theory with experiment.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sementa, L; Wijzenbroek, M; van Kolck, B J; Somers, M F; Al-Halabi, A; Busnengo, H F; Olsen, R A; Kroes, G J; Rutkowski, M; Thewes, C; Kleimeier, N F; Zacharias, H

    2013-01-28

    We present new experimental and theoretical results for reactive scattering of dihydrogen from Cu(100). In the new experiments, the associative desorption of H(2) is studied in a velocity resolved and final rovibrational state selected manner, using time-of-flight techniques in combination with resonance-enhanced multi-photon ionization laser detection. Average desorption energies and rotational quadrupole alignment parameters were obtained in this way for a number of (v = 0, 1) rotational states, v being the vibrational quantum number. Results of quantum dynamics calculations based on a potential energy surface computed with a specific reaction parameter (SRP) density functional, which was derived earlier for dihydrogen interacting with Cu(111), are compared with the results of the new experiments and with the results of previous molecular beam experiments on sticking of H(2) and on rovibrationally elastic and inelastic scattering of H(2) and D(2) from Cu(100). The calculations use the Born-Oppenheimer and static surface approximations. With the functional derived semi-empirically for dihydrogen + Cu(111), a chemically accurate description is obtained of the molecular beam experiments on sticking of H(2) on Cu(100), and a highly accurate description is obtained of rovibrationally elastic and inelastic scattering of D(2) from Cu(100) and of the orientational dependence of the reaction of (v = 1, j = 2 - 4) H(2) on Cu(100). This suggests that a SRP density functional derived for H(2) interacting with a specific low index face of a metal will yield accurate results for H(2) reactively scattering from another low index face of the same metal, and that it may also yield accurate results for H(2) interacting with a defected (e.g., stepped) surface of that same metal, in a system of catalytic interest. However, the description that was obtained of the average desorption energies, of rovibrationally elastic and inelastic scattering of H(2) from Cu(100), and of the

  3. X-ray scattering in X-ray fluorescence spectra with X-ray tube excitation - Modelling, experiment, and Monte-Carlo simulation

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Hodoroaba, V.-D.; Radtke, M.; Vincze, L.; Rackwitz, V.; Reuter, D.

    2010-01-01

    X-ray scattering may contribute significantly to the spectral background of X-ray fluorescence (XRF) spectra. Based on metrological measurements carried out with a scanning electron microscope (SEM) having attached a well characterised X-ray source (polychromatic X-ray tube) and a calibrated energy dispersive X-ray spectrometer (EDS) the accuracy of a physical model for X-ray scattering is systematically evaluated for representative samples. The knowledge of the X-ray spectrometer efficiency, but also of the spectrometer response functions makes it possible to define a physical spectral background of XRF spectra. Background subtraction relying on purely mathematical procedures is state-of-the-art. The results produced by the analytical model are at least as reliable as those obtained by Monte-Carlo simulations, even without considering the very challenging contribution of multiple scattering. Special attention has been paid to Compton broadening. Relevant applications of the implementation of the analytical model presented in this paper are the prediction of the limits of detection for particular cases or the determination of the transmission of X-ray polycapillary lenses.

  4. Surface-Enhanced Resonance Raman Scattering and Visible Extinction Spectroscopy of Copper Chlorophyllin: An Upper Level Chemistry Experiment

    Science.gov (United States)

    Schnitzer, Cheryl S.; Reim, Candace Lawson; Sirois, John J.; House, Paul G.

    2010-01-01

    Advanced chemistry students are introduced to surface-enhanced resonance Raman scattering (SERRS) by studying how sodium copper chlorophyllin (CuChl) adsorbs onto silver colloids (CuChl/Ag) as a function of pH. Using both SERRS and visible extinction spectroscopy, the extent of CuChl adsorption and colloidal aggregation are monitored. Initially at…

  5. LIDAR Thomson scattering

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    1991-07-01

    This collection contains 21 papers on the application and development of LIDAR (Light Detection and Ranging) Thomson scattering techniques for the determination of spatially resolved electron temperature and density in magnetic confinement experiments, particularly tokamaks. Refs, figs and tabs

  6. Small-angle and surface scattering from porous and fractal materials.

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Sinha, S. K.

    1998-09-18

    We review the basic theoretical methods used to treat small-angle scattering from porous materials, treated as general two-phase systems, and also the basic experimental techniques for carrying out such experiments. We discuss the special forms of the scattering when the materials exhibit mass or surface fractal behavior, and review the results of recent experiments on several types of porous media and also SANS experiments probing the phase behavior of binary fluid mixtures or polymer solutions confined in porous materials. Finally, we discuss the analogous technique of off-specular scattering from surfaces and interfaces which is used to study surface roughness of various kinds.

  7. In memory of Paco Yndurain: A precise determination of ππ scattering from experiment and dispersion relations

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Pelaez, J.R.; Garcia Martin, R.; Kaminski, R.; Yndurain, F.J.

    2009-01-01

    This talk is dedicated to the memory of Paco Yndurain, the original speaker in the conference. After a short account of his scientific career, we briefly review our ongoing collaboration to determine precisely the ππ scattering amplitude including the most recent data by means of Forward Dispersion Relations and Roy Equations. A remarkable improvement in precision over the intermediate energy region is obtained by using once-subtracted Roy Equations in addition to the standard twice-subtracted ones

  8. Understanding nucleic acid structural changes by comparing wide-angle x-ray scattering (WAXS) experiments to molecular dynamics simulations

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Pabit, Suzette A.; Katz, Andrea M.; Pollack, Lois [School of Applied and Engineering Physics, Cornell University, Ithaca, New York 14853 (United States); Tolokh, Igor S. [Department of Computer Science, Virginia Tech, Blacksburg, Virginia 24061 (United States); Drozdetski, Aleksander [Department of Physics, Virginia Tech, Blacksburg, Virginia 24061 (United States); Baker, Nathan [Pacific Northwest National Laboratory, Richland, Washington 99352 (United States); Onufriev, Alexey V. [Department of Computer Science, Virginia Tech, Blacksburg, Virginia 24061 (United States); Department of Physics, Virginia Tech, Blacksburg, Virginia 24061 (United States)

    2016-05-28

    Wide-angle x-ray scattering (WAXS) is emerging as a powerful tool for increasing the resolution of solution structure measurements of biomolecules. Compared to its better known complement, small angle x-ray scattering (SAXS), WAXS targets higher scattering angles and can enhance structural studies of molecules by accessing finer details of solution structures. Although the extension from SAXS to WAXS is easy to implement experimentally, the computational tools required to fully harness the power of WAXS are still under development. Currently, WAXS is employed to study structural changes and ligand binding in proteins; however, the methods are not as fully developed for nucleic acids. Here, we show how WAXS can qualitatively characterize nucleic acid structures as well as the small but significant structural changes driven by the addition of multivalent ions. We show the potential of WAXS to test all-atom molecular dynamics (MD) simulations and to provide insight into understanding how the trivalent ion cobalt(III) hexammine (CoHex) affects the structure of RNA and DNA helices. We find that MD simulations capture the RNA structural change that occurs due to addition of CoHex.

  9. Electron scattering on molecular hydrogen

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Wingerden, B. van.

    1980-01-01

    The author considers scattering phenomena which occur when a beam of electrons interacts with a molecular hydrogen gas of low density. Depending on the energy loss of the scattered electrons one can distinguish elastic scattering, excitation and (auto)ionization of the H 2 -molecule. The latter processes may also lead to dissociation. These processes are investigated in four experiments in increasing detail. (Auth.)

  10. Time dependent variation of carrying capacity of prestressed precast beam

    Science.gov (United States)

    Le, Tuan D.; Konečný, Petr; Matečková, Pavlína

    2018-04-01

    The article deals with the evaluation of the precast concrete element time dependent carrying capacity. The variation of the resistance is inherited property of laboratory as well as in-situ members. Thus the specification of highest, yet possible, laboratory sample resistance is important with respect to evaluation of laboratory experiments based on the test machine loading capabilities. The ultimate capacity is evaluated through the bending moment resistance of a simply supported prestressed concrete beam. The probabilistic assessment is applied. Scatter of random variables of compressive strength of concrete and effective height of the cross section is considered. Monte Carlo simulation technique is used to investigate the performance of the cross section of the beam with changes of tendons’ positions and compressive strength of concrete.

  11. X-ray scattering by interstellar dust

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Rolf, D.

    1980-10-01

    This thesis reports work carried out to make a first observation of x-rays scattered by interstellar dust grains. Data about the dust, obtained at wavelengths ranging from the infrared to ultra-violet spectral regions, are discussed in order to establish a useful description of the grains themselves. This is then used to estimate the magnitude and form of the expected x-ray scattering effect which is shown to manifest itself as a diffuse halo accompanying the image of a celestial x-ray source. Two x-ray imaging experiments are then discussed. The first, specifically proposed to look for this effect surrounding a point x-ray source, was the Skylark 1611 project, and comprised an imaging proportional counter coupled to an x-ray mirror. This is described up to its final calibration when the basis for a concise model of its point response function was established. The experiment was not carried out but its objective and the experience gained during its testing were transferred to the second of the x-ray imaging experiments, the Einstein Observatory. The new instrumental characteristics are described and a model for its point response function is developed. Using this, image data for the point x-ray source GX339-4 is shown to exhibit the sought after scattering phenomenon. (author)

  12. CONFERENCE: Elastic and diffractive scattering

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    White, Alan

    1989-09-15

    Elastic scattering, when particles appear to 'bounce' off each other, and the related phenomena of diffractive scattering are currently less fashionable than the study of hard scattering processes. However this could change rapidly if unexpected results from the UA4 experiment at the CERN Collider are confirmed and their implications tested. These questions were highlighted at the third 'Blois Workshop' on Elastic and Diffractive Scattering, held early in May on the Evanston campus of Northwestern University, near Chicago.

  13. Elastic Scattering and Total Cross-Section in p+p reactions measured by the LHC Experiment TOTEM at sqrt(s) = 7 TeV

    OpenAIRE

    Collaboration, T. Csörgő for the TOTEM; :; Antchev, G.; Aspell, P.; Atanassov, I.; Avati, V.; Baechler, J.; Berardi, V.; Berretti, M.; Bossini, E.; Bozzo, M.; Brogi, P.; Brücken, E.; Buzzo, A.; Cafagna, F. S.

    2012-01-01

    Proton-proton elastic scattering has been measured by the TOTEM experiment at the CERN Large Hadron Collider at $\\sqrt{s} = 7 $ TeV in special runs with the Roman Pot detectors placed as close to the outgoing beam as seven times the transverse beam size. The differential cross-section measurements are reported in the |t|-range of 0.36 to 2.5 GeV^2. Extending the range of data to low t values from 0.02 to 0.33 GeV^2,and utilizing the luminosity measurements of CMS, the total proton-proton cros...

  14. Emotional and cognitive experiences during the time of diagnosis and decision-making following a prenatal diagnosis: a qualitative study of males presented with congenital heart defect in the fetus carried by their pregnant partner.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Carlsson, Tommy; Mattsson, Elisabet

    2018-01-12

    Expectant fathers consider the second-trimester obstetric ultrasound examination as an important step towards parenthood, but are ill prepared for a detection of a fetal anomaly. Inductive research is scarce concerning their experiences and needs for support. Consequently, the aim of this study was to explore the emotional and cognitive experiences, during the time of diagnosis and decision-making, among males presented with congenital heart defect in the fetus carried by their pregnant partner. Twelve expectant fathers were consecutively recruited through two tertiary referral centers for fetal cardiology in Sweden, after they had been presented with a prenatal diagnosis of congenital heart defect in the fetus carried by their pregnant partner. The respondents were interviewed via telephone, and the interviews were analyzed using inductive qualitative content analysis. The respondents experienced an intense emotional shock in connection with detection. However, they set their own needs aside to attend to the supportive needs of their pregnant partner, and stressed the importance of an informed joint decision regarding whether to continue or terminate the pregnancy. When terminating the pregnancy, they experienced a loss of a wanted child, an emotionally intense termination procedure, needs of support neglected by professionals, and worries about the risk of recurrence in future pregnancies. When continuing the pregnancy, they tried to keep a positive attitude about the coming birth, but were simultaneously worried about the postnatal situation. The findings illustrate the importance of inclusive care and adequate follow-up routines for both expectant parents following a prenatal diagnosis. This includes the initial emotional shock, the decisional process, and depending on decision reached, the termination or continuation of the pregnancy. Expectant fathers presented with a fetal anomaly need adequate follow-up routines to address worries about risk of recurrence

  15. Order in poly(di-n-alkyl itaconate)s revealed by X-ray scattering experiments

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Holmes, P.F.; Arrighi, V.; McEwen, I.J.; Qian, H.; Terrill, N.J.

    2003-01-01

    The effects of both blending and copolymersiation on local ordering in poly(di-n-alkyl itaconate)s is investigated, as a function of side chain length, using small-angle X-ray scattering. Preliminary results show that local ordering is unaffected by blending in these immiscible materials, however copolymerisation leads to different behaviour. For short side chains the characteristic distance varies smoothly with copolymer composition, but with longer side chains the characteristic separations found for the homopolymers are observed, and these remain unchanged with composition

  16. Order in poly(di-n-alkyl itaconate)s revealed by X-ray scattering experiments

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Holmes, P.F.; Arrighi, V. E-mail: v.arrighi@hw.ac.uk; McEwen, I.J.; Qian, H.; Terrill, N.J

    2003-01-01

    The effects of both blending and copolymersiation on local ordering in poly(di-n-alkyl itaconate)s is investigated, as a function of side chain length, using small-angle X-ray scattering. Preliminary results show that local ordering is unaffected by blending in these immiscible materials, however copolymerisation leads to different behaviour. For short side chains the characteristic distance varies smoothly with copolymer composition, but with longer side chains the characteristic separations found for the homopolymers are observed, and these remain unchanged with composition.

  17. Design study of a traveling-wave Thomson-scattering experiment for the realization of optical free electron lasers

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Steiniger, Klaus; Loeser, Markus; Pausch, Richard; Schramm, Ulrich [Helmholtz-Zentrum Dresden-Rossendorf (Germany); Technische Universitaet Dresden (Germany); Albach, Daniel; Debus, Alexander; Roeser, Fabian; Siebold, Matthias; Bussmann, Michael [Helmholtz-Zentrum Dresden-Rossendorf (Germany)

    2016-07-01

    We present an experimental setup strategy for the realization of an optical free-electron laser (OFEL) in the Traveling-Wave Thomson-Scattering geometry (TWTS). In TWTS, the electric field of petawatt class, pulse-front tilted laser pulses is used to provide an optical undulator field. This is passed by a relativistic electron bunch so that electron direction of motion and laser propagation direction enclose an interaction angle. The combination of side scattering and pulse-front tilt provides continuous overlap of electrons and laser pulse over meter scale distances which are achieved with centimeter wide laser pulses. An experimental challenge lies in shaping of these wide laser pulses in terms of laser dispersion compensation along the electron trajectory and focusing. In the talk we show how diffraction gratings in combination with mirrors are used to introduce and control dispersion of the laser in order to provide a plane wave laser field along the electron trajectory. Furthermore we give tolerance limits on alignment errors to operate the OFEL. Example setups illustrate functioning and demonstrate feasibility of the scheme.

  18. Neutron Scattering from 36Ar and 4He Films

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Carneiro, K.

    1977-01-01

    Scale factors for neutron diffraction and neutron inelastic scattering are presented for common adsorbates, and the feasibility of experiments is discussed together with the information gained by each type of experiment. Diffraction, coherent inelastic scattering, and incoherent scattering are tr...

  19. Effect of different electron elastic-scattering cross sections on inelastic mean free paths obtained from elastic-backscattering experiments

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Jablonskiz, A.; Salvatz, F.; Powellz, C.J.

    2004-01-01

    Inelastic mean free paths (IMFPs) of electrons with energies between 100 eV and 5,000 eV have been frequently obtained from measurements of elastic-backscattering probabilities for different specimen materials. A calculation of these probabilities is also required to determine IMFPs. We report calculations of elastic-backscattering probabilities for gold at energies of 100 eV and 500 eV with differential elastic-scattering cross sections obtained from the Thomas-Fermi-Dirac potential and the more reliable Dirac-Hartree-Fock potential. For two representative experimental configurations, the average deviation between IMFPs obtained with cross sections from the two potentials was 11.4 %. (author)

  20. Progress report on neutron scattering at JAERI

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Morii, Yukio [Japan Atomic Energy Research Inst., Tokai, Ibaraki (Japan). Tokai Research Establishment

    1998-10-01

    In the first half of fiscal year 1997, JRR-3M was operated for 97 days followed by a long term shut down for its annual maintenance. Three days were lost out of 100 scheduled operation days, due to a trouble in irradiation facility. Neutron scattering research activities at the JRR-3M have been extended from that of fiscal year 1996. In the Research Group for Quantum Condensed Matter System, experimental study under high pressures, low temperatures and high fields as well as coupling of these conditions were planned to find new quantum condensed matter systems. And, obtained experimental results were immediately provided to theorists for their investigations. In cooperation with new group, Research Group for Neutron Scattering of Strongly Correlated Electron Systems and Research Group for Neutron Scattering at Ultralow Temperatures were carrying neutron scattering experiments at JRR-3M. Research Group for Neutron Crystallography in Biology had opened a way for investigating biomatter neutron diffraction research with high experimental accuracy by growing a millimeter-class large single crystal. In fiscal year 1997, 39 research projects were conducted by these four groups and other staffs in JAERI, 27 projects collaborated with university researchers and 3 projects collaborated with private enterprises were also conducted as complementary researches. 2117 days of machine times were requested to use 8 neutron scattering instruments this year, which corresponded to 1.51 times larger than those planned at its beginning. (G.K.)

  1. Introducing a standard method for experimental determination of the solvent response in laser pump, x-ray probe time-resolved wide-angle x-ray scattering experiments on systems in solution

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Kjær, Kasper Skov; Brandt van Driel, Tim; Kehres, Jan

    2013-01-01

    In time-resolved laser pump, X-ray probe wide-angle X-ray scattering experiments on systems in solution the structural response of the system is accompanied by a solvent response. The solvent response is caused by reorganization of the bulk solvent following the laser pump event, and in order...... response-the solvent term-experimentally when applying laser pump, X-ray probe time-resolved wide-angle X-ray scattering. The solvent term describes difference scattering arising from the structural response of the solvent to changes in the hydrodynamic parameters: pressure, temperature and density. We...... is demonstrated to exhibit first order behaviour with respect to the amount of energy deposited in the solution. We introduce a standardized method for recording solvent responses in laser pump, X-ray probe time-resolved X-ray wide-angle scattering experiments by using dye mediated solvent heating. Furthermore...

  2. Neutron magnetic scattering experiments performed by VIKRA group at the RA reactor in Vinca; Eksperimenti grupe VIKRA na reaktoru RA u Vinci sa rasejanjem neutrona na magnetnim materijalima

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Kranicki, S; Rzany, H; Wanic, A [Institute of Nuclear Physics, Krakov (Poland); Szytula, A [Jagiellonian University, Krakov (Poland); Todorovic, J; Dimitrijevic, Z; Radenkovic, S [Institute of Nuclear Sciences Boris Kidric, Vinca, Beograd (Yugoslavia)

    1978-05-15

    A short communication about investigations of magnetic materials by means of the neutron magnetic scattering performed by Polish-Yugoslav group VIKRA (Vinca-Krakov) at the RA reactor in Vinca in the period 1962-1977 will be presented. In the field of neutron inelastic scattering information about magnetic interactions (exchange integrals) and their temperature behaviour in such substances as Fe{sub 7}S{sub 8}, {alpha}-Fe{sub 2}O{sub 3}, CR{sub 2}O{sub 3}, {alpha}-Co, Cu{sub 2}MnAl and Mn{sub 1.88}Cr{sub 0.12}Sb was obtained by measuring magnon dispersion relations. In the field of neutron elastic scattering valuable results concerning crystallographic and magnetic structures of oxyhydroxides, several Heusler alloys and intermetallic compounds of 3d metals (for instance of NiMnGe, CoMnSi) were obtained. A short description of the KSN spectrometer used in all experiments will also be given. (author) Dato je kratko saopstenje o istrazivanjima magnetnih materijala magnetnim neutronskim rasejanjem izvrsenim od strane poljsko-jugoslovenske grupe VIKRA (Vinca-Krakov) na reaktoru RA u Vinci u periodu od 1962-1977. U oblasti neelasticnog rasejanja neutrona, obavestenja o magnetnim uzajamnim dejstvima (integralima izmene) i njihovim temperaturskim ponasanjima su dobijeni merenjem disperzione relacije magnona u takvim materijalima kao sto su Fe{sub 7}S{sub 8}, {alpha}-Fe{sub 2}O{sub 3}, CR{sub 2}O{sub 3}, {alpha}-Co, Cu{sub 2}MnAl and Mn{sub 1.88}Cr{sub 0.12}Sb. U oblasti neutronskog elasticnog rasejanja dobijeni su korisni rezultati o kristalografskim i magnetnim strukturama oksihidroksida gvozdja, niza Heuslerovih legura i intermetalnih jedinjenja 3d metala (napr. NiMnGe, Co,MnSi). Dat je kratak opis KSN spektrometra upotrebljenog u svim ovim eksperimentima. (author)

  3. On the road to metallic nanoparticles by rational design: bridging the gap between atomic-level theoretical modeling and reality by total scattering experiments

    Science.gov (United States)

    Prasai, Binay; Wilson, A. R.; Wiley, B. J.; Ren, Y.; Petkov, Valeri

    2015-10-01

    The extent to which current theoretical modeling alone can reveal real-world metallic nanoparticles (NPs) at the atomic level was scrutinized and demonstrated to be insufficient and how it can be improved by using a pragmatic approach involving straightforward experiments is shown. In particular, 4 to 6 nm in size silica supported Au100-xPdx (x = 30, 46 and 58) explored for catalytic applications is characterized structurally by total scattering experiments including high-energy synchrotron X-ray diffraction (XRD) coupled to atomic pair distribution function (PDF) analysis. Atomic-level models for the NPs are built by molecular dynamics simulations based on the archetypal for current theoretical modeling Sutton-Chen (SC) method. Models are matched against independent experimental data and are demonstrated to be inaccurate unless their theoretical foundation, i.e. the SC method, is supplemented with basic yet crucial information on the length and strength of metal-to-metal bonds and, when necessary, structural disorder in the actual NPs studied. An atomic PDF-based approach for accessing such information and implementing it in theoretical modeling is put forward. For completeness, the approach is concisely demonstrated on 15 nm in size water-dispersed Au particles explored for bio-medical applications and 16 nm in size hexane-dispersed Fe48Pd52 particles explored for magnetic applications as well. It is argued that when ``tuned up'' against experiments relevant to metals and alloys confined to nanoscale dimensions, such as total scattering coupled to atomic PDF analysis, rather than by mere intuition and/or against data for the respective solids, atomic-level theoretical modeling can provide a sound understanding of the synthesis-structure-property relationships in real-world metallic NPs. Ultimately this can help advance nanoscience and technology a step closer to producing metallic NPs by rational design.The extent to which current theoretical modeling alone can

  4. Neutron scattering on molten transition metals and on Fe-C melts

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Weber, M.

    1978-01-01

    In order to find out whether short-range order phenomena can be detected in iron-carbon melts, neutron scattering experiments were carried out in molten iron-carbon alloys. The method of isotope substitution, where the natural alloying iron was substituted by a 57 Fe-enriched isotope mixture, helped to increase the ratio between the scattering length of the carbon atoms and that of the iron atoms. The mean coherent scattering length for the isotope mixture which is required for further evaluation of the measurements, was determined in an experiment by measuring the limiting angle for total reflection of neutrons on evaporated films. From this determination of the scattering length, a value for the so far unknown scattering length of the 58 Fe isotope was obtained. The small angle scattering in corrected intensity curves of molten Fe-C alloys was investigated in detail. Scattering experiments in unalloyed Fe, Co, and Ni in the range of small scattering vectors proved that this small-angle scattering effect, which was observed here for the first time, is of magnetic origin. It is caused by short-range spin correlations fluctuating with space and time. [de

  5. Thermal-neutron multiple scattering: critical double scattering

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Holm, W.A.

    1976-01-01

    A quantum mechanical formulation for multiple scattering of thermal-neutrons from macroscopic targets is presented and applied to single and double scattering. Critical nuclear scattering from liquids and critical magnetic scattering from ferromagnets are treated in detail in the quasielastic approximation for target systems slightly above their critical points. Numerical estimates are made of the double scattering contribution to the critical magnetic cross section using relevant parameters from actual experiments performed on various ferromagnets. The effect is to alter the usual Lorentzian line shape dependence on neutron wave vector transfer. Comparison with corresponding deviations in line shape resulting from the use of Fisher's modified form of the Ornstein-Zernike spin correlations within the framework of single scattering theory leads to values for the critical exponent eta of the modified correlations which reproduce the effect of double scattering. In addition, it is shown that by restricting the range of applicability of the multiple scattering theory from the outset to critical scattering, Glauber's high energy approximation can be used to provide a much simpler and more powerful description of multiple scattering effects. When sufficiently close to the critical point, it provides a closed form expression for the differential cross section which includes all orders of scattering and has the same form as the single scattering cross section with a modified exponent for the wave vector transfer

  6. Quasiresonant scattering

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Hategan, Cornel; Comisel, Horia; Ionescu, Remus A.

    2004-01-01

    The quasiresonant scattering consists from a single channel resonance coupled by direct interaction transitions to some competing reaction channels. A description of quasiresonant Scattering, in terms of generalized reduced K-, R- and S- Matrix, is developed in this work. The quasiresonance's decay width is, due to channels coupling, smaller than the width of the ancestral single channel resonance (resonance's direct compression). (author)

  7. Thomson Scattering

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Donne, A. J. H.

    1994-01-01

    Thomson scattering is a very powerful diagnostic which is applied at nearly every magnetic confinement device. Depending on the experimental conditions different plasma parameters can be diagnosed. When the wave vector is much larger than the plasma Debye length, the total scattered power is

  8. Structure of kaolinite and influence of stacking faults: reconciling theory and experiment using inelastic neutron scattering analysis.

    Science.gov (United States)

    White, Claire E; Kearley, Gordon J; Provis, John L; Riley, Daniel P

    2013-05-21

    The structure of kaolinite at the atomic level, including the effect of stacking faults, is investigated using inelastic neutron scattering (INS) spectroscopy and density functional theory (DFT) calculations. The vibrational dynamics of the standard crystal structure of kaolinite, calculated using DFT (VASP) with normal mode analysis, gives good agreement with the experimental INS data except for distinct discrepancies, especially for the low frequency modes (200-400 cm(-1)). By generating several types of stacking faults (shifts in the a,b plane for one kaolinite layer relative to the adjacent layer), it is seen that these low frequency modes are affected, specifically through the emergence of longer hydrogen bonds (O-H⋯O) in one of the models corresponding to a stacking fault of -0.3151a - 0.3151b. The small residual disagreement between observed and calculated INS is assigned to quantum effects (which are not taken into account in the DFT calculations), in the form of translational tunneling of the proton in the hydrogen bonds, which lead to a softening of the low frequency modes. DFT-based molecular dynamics simulations show that anharmonicity does not play an important role in the structural dynamics of kaolinite.

  9. The ν-cleus experiment: a gram-scale fiducial-volume cryogenic detector for the first detection of coherent neutrino-nucleus scattering

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Strauss, R.; Rothe, J.; Angloher, G.; Hauff, D.; Mancuso, M.; Petricca, F.; Proebst, F.; Seidel, W.; Stodolsky, L. [Max-Planck-Institut fuer Physik, Muenchen (Germany); Bento, A. [Universidade de Coimbra, CIUC, Departamento de Fisica, Coimbra (Portugal); Guetlein, A.; Kluck, H.; Schieck, J. [Institut fuer Hochenergiephysik, Oesterreichische Akademie der Wissenschaften, Vienna (Austria); Vienna University of Technology, Atominstitut, Vienna (Austria); Oberauer, L.; Schoenert, S. [Technische Universitaet Muenchen, Physik-Department, Garching (Germany)

    2017-08-15

    We discuss a small-scale experiment, called ν-cleus, for the first detection of coherent neutrino-nucleus scattering by probing nuclear-recoil energies down to the 10 eV regime. The detector consists of low-threshold CaWO{sub 4} and Al{sub 2}O{sub 3} calorimeter arrays with a total mass of about 10 g and several cryogenic veto detectors operated at millikelvin temperatures. Realizing a fiducial volume and a multi-element target, the detector enables active discrimination of γ, neutron and surface backgrounds. A first prototype Al{sub 2}O{sub 3} device, operated above ground in a setup without shielding, has achieved an energy threshold of ∝20 eV and further improvements are in reach. A sensitivity study for the detection of coherent neutrino scattering at nuclear power plants shows a unique discovery potential (5 σ) within a measuring time of

  10. Diffraction in nuclear scattering

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Wojciechowski, H.

    1986-01-01

    The elastic scattering amplitudes for charged and neutral particles have been decomposed into diffractive and refractive parts by splitting the nuclear elastic scattering matrix elements into components responsible for these effects. It has been shown that the pure geometrical diffractive effect which carries no information about the nuclear interaction is always predominant at forward angle of elastic angular distributions. This fact suggests that for strongly absorbed particles only elastic cross section at backward angles, i.e. the refractive cross section, can give us basic information about the central nuclear potential. 12 refs., 4 figs., 1 tab. (author)

  11. Theoretical study of parity violating asymmetry in proton-proton (pp) scattering

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Singh, S.K.; Sajjad Athar, M.; Waris, Atiya

    2000-01-01

    Measurements of parity violating asymmetries in the pp scattering and proton-nucleus scattering with polarised protons provide a very useful tool to study the interplay of weak and strong interactions between the nucleons and within the nucleus. In order to understand these processes in terms of the conventional nucleon-nucleon interaction models, new experiments at the intermediate energies of 221 and 450 MeV and in the higher energy of multi GeV range are to be carried out

  12. Elastic Scattering and Total Cross-Section in p+p reactions as measured by the LHC Experiment TOTEM at $\\sqrt{s}$ = 7 TeV

    CERN Document Server

    Csörgö, Tamás; Aspell, P; Atanassov, I; Avati, V; Baechler, J; Berardi, V; Berretti, M; Bossini, E; Bozzo, M; Brogi, P; Brücken, E; Buzzo, A; Cafagna, F S; Calicchio, M; Catanesi, M G; Covault, C; Csanád, M; Deile, M; Dimovasili, E; Doubek, M; Eggert, K; Eremin, V; Ferretti, R; Ferro, F; Fiergolski, A; Garcia, F; Giani, S; Greco, V; Grzanka, L; Heino, J; Hilden, T; Intonti, M R; Janda, M; Kaspar, J; Kopal, J; Kundrát, V; Kurvinen, K; Lami, S; Latino, G; Lauhakangas, R; Leszko, T; Lippmaa, E; Lokajícek, M; Lo Vetere, M; Lucas Rodríguez, F; Macrí, M; Magaletti, L; Magazzù, G; Mercadante, A; Meucci, M; Minutoli, S; Nemes, F; Niewiadomski, H; Noschis, E; Novák, T; Oliveri, E; Oljemark, F; Orava, R; Oriunno, M; Österberg, K; Palazzi, P; Perrot, A-L; Pedreschi, E; Petäjäjärvi, J; Procházka, J; Quinto, M; Radermacher, E; Radicioni, E; Ravotti, F; Robutti, E; Ropelewski, L; Ruggiero, G; Saarikko, H; Sanguinetti, G; Santroni, A; Scribano, A; Sette, G; Snoeys, W; Spinella, F; Sziklai, J; Taylor, C; Turini, N; Vacek, V; Vítek, M; Welti, J; Whitmore, J

    2012-01-01

    Proton-proton elastic scattering has been measured by the TOTEM experiment at the CERN Large Hadron Collider at $\\sqrt{s} = 7 $ TeV in special runs with the Roman Pot detectors placed as close to the outgoing beam as seven times the transverse beam size. The differential cross-section measurements are reported in the |t|-range of 0.36 to 2.5 GeV$^2$. Extending the range of data to low t values from 0.02 to 0.33 GeV$^2$,and utilizing the luminosity measurements of CMS, the total proton-proton cross section at $\\sqrt{s}$ = 7 TeV is measured to be $(98.3 \\pm 0.2^{stat} \\pm 2.8^{syst})$ mb.

  13. Scattering theory

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Sitenko, A.

    1991-01-01

    This book emerged out of graduate lectures given by the author at the University of Kiev and is intended as a graduate text. The fundamentals of non-relativistic quantum scattering theory are covered, including some topics, such as the phase-function formalism, separable potentials, and inverse scattering, which are not always coverded in textbooks on scattering theory. Criticisms of the text are minor, but the reviewer feels an inadequate index is provided and the citing of references in the Russian language is a hindrance in a graduate text

  14. A silicon microstrip detector in a magnetic spectrometer for high-resolution electron scattering experiments at the S-DALINAC

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Lenhardt, A.W.; Bonnes, U.; Burda, O.; Neumann-Cosel, P. von; Platz, M.; Richter, A.; Watzlawik, S.

    2006-01-01

    A silicon microstrip detector was developed as focal plane detector of the 169.7 deg. magic angle double-focussing spectrometer at the superconducting Darmstadt electron linear accelerator (S-DALINAC). It allows experiments with minimum ionizing electrons at data rates up to 100 kHz, utilizing the maximum resolution of the spectrometer achievable in dispersion-matching mode

  15. The two-component spin-fermion model for high-Tc cuprates: its applications in neutron scattering and ARPES experiments

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Bang, Yunkyu

    2012-01-01

    Motivated by neutron scattering experiments in high-T c cuprates, we propose the two-component spin-fermion model as a minimal phenomenological model, which has both local spins and itinerant fermions as independent degrees of freedom (d.o.f.). Our calculations of the dynamic spin correlation function provide a successful description of the puzzling neutron experiment data and show that: (i) the upward dispersion branch of magnetic excitations is mostly due to local spin excitations; (ii) the downward dispersion branch is from collective particle-hole excitations of fermions; and (iii) the resonance mode is a mixture of both d.o.f. Using the same model with the same set of parameters, we calculated the renormalized quasiparticle (q.p.) dispersion and successfully reproduced one of the key features of the angle-resolved photoemission spectroscopy (ARPES) experiments, namely the high-energy kink structure in the fermion q.p. dispersion, thus supporting the two-component spin-fermion phenomenology. (paper)

  16. Streaming experiment of gamma-ray obliquely incident on concrete shield wall with straight cylindrical ducts and verification of single scattering code

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Yamaji, Akio; Saito, Tetsuo.

    1988-01-01

    To investigate a proximity effect of ducts on shield performance against γ radiation, an experiment was performed at JRR-4 by entering the γ-ray beam into a concrete shield wall of 100 cm-thickness with 3 or 5 straight cylindrical ducts of radius of 4.45 cm placed in a straight line or crosswise at interval of 8.9 cm. The dose rates were measured using digital dosimeters on a horizontal line 20 cm apart from the rear of the wall with 0, 1, 3 and 5 ducts, and with the incident angles of 0deg, 7deg, 14deg and 20deg, respectively. The dose rate distributions depended on the number of ducts and the incident angle, and the dose rate ratios of with-three-ducts to no-duct distributed within 3.6∼12, 1.3∼5.0 and 1.1∼4.3, for the incident angles of 7deg, 14deg and 20deg, while those of with-single-duct to no-duct within 1.2∼7.1, 1.1∼2.7 and 1.0∼1.9, respectively. The experiment was analyzed using a multigroup single scattering code G33YSN able to deal with the geometry of the ducts exactly. For each incident angle, the calculation agreed with the experiment within a factor of 2. (author)

  17. Extraction of the 1S0 neutron-neutron scattering length from a kinematically-complete n-d breakup experiment at TUNL

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Gonzalez Trotter, D. E.; Tornow, W.; Howell, C. R.; Salinas, F.; Walter, R. L.; Witalea, H.

    1999-01-01

    The 1 S 0 neutron-neutron (nn) scattering length's currently accepted value (a nn =-18.6±0.3 fm) is derived exclusively from two π - -d capture-reaction experiments, in disagreement with the average -16.7±0.5 fm extracted from kinematically-complete nd breakup experiments. This discrepancy may be due to deficiencies in the analyses of n-d breakup data and/or three-nucleon force (3NF) effects. A kinematically-complete n+d→n 1 +n 2 +p breakup experiment at an incident neutron energy of 13.0 MeV was performed recently at TUNL. The value of a nn was extracted from the direct comparison of experimental and rigorously-calculated theoretical nd breakup differential cross sections at four production angles of the nn pair. Using modern nucleon-nucleon potential models in the three-nucleon cross-section calculations we obtained a nn =-18.7±0.6 fm, in agreement with the π - -d result. We found no significant effect due to 3NFs on our a nn value

  18. Transgenic cassava lines carrying heterologous alternative oxidase ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Afuape

    2013-07-03

    Jul 3, 2013 ... Organized embryogenic callus development: In our experiment, somatic embryos were developed from leaf lobes collected from transgenic cassava lines carrying the AtAOX1a gene. Immature leaf lobes measuring about 1 to 6 mm obtained from about six weeks old in vitro derived plants were used.

  19. Studies on solid-state physics carried out with the Saclay reactor (1962)

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Herpin, A.

    1962-01-01

    This paper deals only with solid-state physics experiments carried out on outgoing beams: rather than giving a general review of the work performed, if refers to only a few of the most important studies or those nearest completion. These are being made with the experimental beams of the two Saclay reactors EL-2, with a central flux of 10 13 n/cm 2 , and - since 1958 - EL-3, whose central flux is equal ta 10 14 n/cm 2 . The experiments are being carried out by two separate groups of physicists, employing different techniques, namely neutron diffraction using a crystal spectrometer, and inelastic scattering using a time-of-flight spectrometer. (author) [fr

  20. Critical scattering

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Stirling, W.G.; Perry, S.C.

    1996-01-01

    We outline the theoretical and experimental background to neutron scattering studies of critical phenomena at magnetic and structural phase transitions. The displacive phase transition of SrTiO 3 is discussed, along with examples from recent work on magnetic materials from the rare-earth (Ho, Dy) and actinide (NpAs, NpSb, USb) classes. The impact of synchrotron X-ray scattering is discussed in conclusion. (author) 13 figs., 18 refs

  1. Study of di-jet events in deep inelastic scattering from H1 experiment realized in HERA accelerator

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Laforge, B.

    1997-01-01

    During this PhD thesis, we concentrated studying electron-proton collision dynamics with a large rapidity gap without hadronic activity in the incoming proton direction. These events are interpreted as an electron-pomeron collision where the latter is 'emitted' by the proton. We studied the hadronic final state in an exclusive way studying di-jet production in the γ * -IP CM frame. Such a process is calculable with perturbative QCD theory. Using the H1 1994 data, we have proved the existence of such events and measured their production cross section as functions of the p 2 of jets, the fraction ξ IP of the IP longitudinal momentum carried by the two jets and Φ e,jet , the azimuthal angle between the electron and the most forward jet. We show that the results are in agreement with the structure function F 2 D(3) QCD analysis results and that s, the invariant mass of the colliding parton and the photon system, is favoured by the data to be the relevant perturbative scale for di-jet production. (author)

  2. Focusing Double Bent Crystal (DBC) diffractometer for medium-resolution small-angle. Neutron scattering (SANS) experiments

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Mikula, P.; Wagner, V.; Scherm, R.

    1991-01-01

    A new modification of a focusing SANS instrument where at least the first crystal is set for diffraction in the asymmetric transmission geometry is presented. Unlike an earlier version which employed both crystals in the symmetric Bragg-case geometry, the new modification permits one simultaneously to exploit the effects of natural wavelength focusing and space condensation of the diffracted beam due to asymmetric diffraction. This DBC instrument seems to be suitable for use with beams with a large cross section at the first crystal and for SANS experiments on samples with a small width (few mm). (orig.)

  3. The ELISe experiment, potential paths towards its realization

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Simon, H

    2015-01-01

    In this paper the opportunities and prerequisites for carrying out electron scattering experiments off unstable beams for the first time will be outlined. A colliding beam experiment with intersecting electron and RIBs will be described, which allows making the best uses of the precious unstable nuclei for elastic and inelastic scattering using a pure electromagnetic probe. The experiment could be already realized within the modularized start version of the FAIR facility which is currently being constructed. (paper)

  4. PREFACE: Atom-surface scattering Atom-surface scattering

    Science.gov (United States)

    Miret-Artés, Salvador

    2010-08-01

    ; all of them were ready for use! We cannot imagine him without his two old-fashioned Mercedes, also in his collection. He also has technical skills in construction and music and always has time for jogging. I would finally say that he is an even-tempered person. In brief, mens sana in corpore sano 1 . Dick is a theorist bound to experimental work, extremely intuitive and very dedicated. In his long stays outside Clemson, he always visited places where experiments were being carried out. He has been, and still is, of great help to experimental PhD students, postdocs or senior scientists in providing valuable advice and suggestions towards new measurements. Plausible interpretations of their results developing theoretical models or always searching for good agreement with experiment are two constants in his daily scientific work. Experimental work is present in most of his 150 papers. One of the main theoretical challenges in this field was to develop a formalism where the plethora of experimental results reported in the literature were accommodated. His transition matrix formalism was also seminal in the field of atom-surface scattering. Elastic and inelastic (single and double phonon) contributions were determined as well as the multiphonon background. This work was preceded by a theory for diffuse inelastic scattering and a posterior contribution for multiphonon scattering, both with V Celli. In a similar vein, a theory of molecule-surface scattering was also derived and, more recently, a theory for direct scattering, trapping and desorption. Very interesting extensions to scattering with molten metal and liquid surfaces have also been carried out. Along with collaborators he has studied energy accommodation and sticking coefficients, providing a better understanding of their meaning. G Armand and Dick proposed the well-known corrugated Morse potential as an interaction potential model providing reliable results of diffraction patterns and selective adsorption

  5. BioSAXS Sample Changer: a robotic sample changer for rapid and reliable high-throughput X-ray solution scattering experiments

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Round, Adam, E-mail: around@embl.fr; Felisaz, Franck [European Molecular Biology Laboratory, Grenoble Outstation, 71 Avenue des Martyrs, CS 90181, 38042 Grenoble (France); Université Grenoble Alpes–EMBL–CNRS, 71 Avenue des Martyrs, CS 90181, 38042 Grenoble (France); Fodinger, Lukas; Gobbo, Alexandre [European Molecular Biology Laboratory, Grenoble Outstation, 71 Avenue des Martyrs, CS 90181, 38042 Grenoble (France); Huet, Julien [European Molecular Biology Laboratory, Grenoble Outstation, 71 Avenue des Martyrs, CS 90181, 38042 Grenoble (France); Université Grenoble Alpes–EMBL–CNRS, 71 Avenue des Martyrs, CS 90181, 38042 Grenoble (France); Villard, Cyril [European Molecular Biology Laboratory, Grenoble Outstation, 71 Avenue des Martyrs, CS 90181, 38042 Grenoble (France); Blanchet, Clement E., E-mail: around@embl.fr [EMBL c/o DESY, Notkestrasse 85, 22603 Hamburg (Germany); Pernot, Petra; McSweeney, Sean [ESRF, 6 Rue Jules Horowitz, 38000 Grenoble (France); Roessle, Manfred; Svergun, Dmitri I. [EMBL c/o DESY, Notkestrasse 85, 22603 Hamburg (Germany); Cipriani, Florent, E-mail: around@embl.fr [European Molecular Biology Laboratory, Grenoble Outstation, 71 Avenue des Martyrs, CS 90181, 38042 Grenoble (France); Université Grenoble Alpes–EMBL–CNRS, 71 Avenue des Martyrs, CS 90181, 38042 Grenoble (France)

    2015-01-01

    A robotic sample changer for solution X-ray scattering experiments optimized for speed and to use the minimum amount of material has been developed. This system is now in routine use at three high-brilliance European synchrotron sites, each capable of several hundred measurements per day. Small-angle X-ray scattering (SAXS) of macromolecules in solution is in increasing demand by an ever more diverse research community, both academic and industrial. To better serve user needs, and to allow automated and high-throughput operation, a sample changer (BioSAXS Sample Changer) that is able to perform unattended measurements of up to several hundred samples per day has been developed. The Sample Changer is able to handle and expose sample volumes of down to 5 µl with a measurement/cleaning cycle of under 1 min. The samples are stored in standard 96-well plates and the data are collected in a vacuum-mounted capillary with automated positioning of the solution in the X-ray beam. Fast and efficient capillary cleaning avoids cross-contamination and ensures reproducibility of the measurements. Independent temperature control for the well storage and for the measurement capillary allows the samples to be kept cool while still collecting data at physiological temperatures. The Sample Changer has been installed at three major third-generation synchrotrons: on the BM29 beamline at the European Synchrotron Radiation Facility (ESRF), the P12 beamline at the PETRA-III synchrotron (EMBL@PETRA-III) and the I22/B21 beamlines at Diamond Light Source, with the latter being the first commercial unit supplied by Bruker ASC.

  6. Investigation into magnetic correlations in cuprates by means of neutron scattering experiments; Untersuchung magnetischer Korrelationen in Kupraten mit Hilfe von Neutronenstreuexperimenten

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Henggeler, W [Paul Scherrer Inst. (PSI), Villigen (Switzerland)

    1997-12-31

    Cuprate materials containing rare earth ions were studied. The main experimental tools were inelastic and elastic neutron scattering techniques. Some {mu}SR, susceptibility and specific heat measurements were also performed. One aim was to learn more about the crystalline environment of the rare earth ions in these substances via the crystalline electric field (CEF) interaction. Furthermore, we investigated the correlations of the magnetic moments of these ions by a determination of the dispersion of the CEF excitations. The theory that is essential for the understanding of this work is outlined. The instruments on which the experiments have been performed are presented. We show the measurements of the CEF excitations of Ho{sup 3+} in Y{sub 0.99}Ho{sub 0.01}Ba{sub 2}Cu{sub 3}O{sub 6+x}. The Ho ions represent ideal local probes to examine changes of the charge distribution in the copper oxide planes upon doping with oxygen. To prevent any influence of the Ho-Ho exchange interaction on the CEF excitations we performed the experiments on substances containing only one percent of Ho. Our results show that for all the intermediately doped compounds the charge distribution is very inhomogeneous. For all the highly doped samples we observe a line asymmetry for which several possible origins are discussed. We examine the Pr{sup 3+} CEF excitations in the Pr{sub 2-x}Ce{sub x}CuO{sub 4(-{delta})} (0{<=}x{<=}0.2)-substances. Our results show a coexistence of different environments of the Pr ions in all the doped compounds. We try to describe these inhomogeneities with the help of a model. We used the {mu}SR-technique on some of these samples in order to learn more about the oxygen reduction process. Finally, we performed inelastic neutron scattering experiments on Pr{sub 1.86}Ce{sub 0.14}CuO{sub 4} single crystal, which allowed a direct determination of the coupling constants between the magnetic moments of the Pr ions. (author) figs., tabs., 93 refs.

  7. Investigation into magnetic correlations in cuprates by means of neutron scattering experiments; Untersuchung magnetischer Korrelationen in Kupraten mit Hilfe von Neutronenstreuexperimenten

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Henggeler, W. [Paul Scherrer Inst. (PSI), Villigen (Switzerland)

    1996-12-31

    Cuprate materials containing rare earth ions were studied. The main experimental tools were inelastic and elastic neutron scattering techniques. Some {mu}SR, susceptibility and specific heat measurements were also performed. One aim was to learn more about the crystalline environment of the rare earth ions in these substances via the crystalline electric field (CEF) interaction. Furthermore, we investigated the correlations of the magnetic moments of these ions by a determination of the dispersion of the CEF excitations. The theory that is essential for the understanding of this work is outlined. The instruments on which the experiments have been performed are presented. We show the measurements of the CEF excitations of Ho{sup 3+} in Y{sub 0.99}Ho{sub 0.01}Ba{sub 2}Cu{sub 3}O{sub 6+x}. The Ho ions represent ideal local probes to examine changes of the charge distribution in the copper oxide planes upon doping with oxygen. To prevent any influence of the Ho-Ho exchange interaction on the CEF excitations we performed the experiments on substances containing only one percent of Ho. Our results show that for all the intermediately doped compounds the charge distribution is very inhomogeneous. For all the highly doped samples we observe a line asymmetry for which several possible origins are discussed. We examine the Pr{sup 3+} CEF excitations in the Pr{sub 2-x}Ce{sub x}CuO{sub 4(-{delta})} (0{<=}x{<=}0.2)-substances. Our results show a coexistence of different environments of the Pr ions in all the doped compounds. We try to describe these inhomogeneities with the help of a model. We used the {mu}SR-technique on some of these samples in order to learn more about the oxygen reduction process. Finally, we performed inelastic neutron scattering experiments on Pr{sub 1.86}Ce{sub 0.14}CuO{sub 4} single crystal, which allowed a direct determination of the coupling constants between the magnetic moments of the Pr ions. (author) figs., tabs., 93 refs.

  8. Time-of-flight data acquisition unit (DAU) for neutron scattering experiments. Specification of the requirements and design concept. Version 3.1

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Herdam, G.; Klessmann, H.; Wawer, W.; Adebayo, J.; David, G.; Szatmari, F.

    1989-12-01

    This specification describes the requirements for the Data Acquisition Unit (DAU) and defines the design concept for the functional units involved. The Data Acquisition Unit will be used in the following neutron scattering experiments: Time-of-Flight Spectrometer NEAT, Time-of-Flight Spectrometer SPAN. In addition, the data of the SPAN spectrometer in Spin Echo experiments will be accumulated. The Data Acquisition Unit can be characterised by the following requirements: Time-of-flight measurement with high time resolution (125 ns), sorting the time-of-flight in up to 4096 time channels (channel width ≥ 1 μs), selection of different time channel widths for peak and background, on-line time-of-flight correction for neutron flight paths of different lengths, sorting the detector position information in up to 4096 position channels, accumulation of two-dimensional spectra in a 32 Mbyte RAM memory (4 K time channels*4 K position channels*16 bits). Because of the stringent timing requirements the functional units of the DAU are hardware controlled via tables. The DAU is part of a process control system which has access to the functional units via the VMEbus in order to initialise, to load tables and control information, and to read status information and spectra. (orig.) With 18 figs

  9. Electron Scattering on deuterium

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Platchkov, S.

    1987-01-01

    Selected electron scattering experiments on the deuteron system are discussed. The main advantages of the electromagnetic probe are recalled. The deuteron A(q 2 ) structure function is analyzed and found to be very sensitive to the neutron electric form factor. Electrodisintegration of the deuteron near threshold is presented as evidence for the importance of meson exchange currents in nuclei [fr

  10. Parity violating electron scattering

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    McKeown, R.D.

    1990-01-01

    Previous measurements of parity violation in electron scattering are reviewed with particular emphasis on experimental techniques. Significant progress in the attainment of higher precision is evident in these efforts. These pioneering experiments provide a basis for consideration of a future program of such measurements. In this paper some future plans and possibilities in this field are discussed

  11. Scattering amplitudes in gauge theories

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Henn, Johannes M. [Institute for Advanced Study, Princeton, NJ (United States). School of Natural Sciences; Plefka, Jan C. [Humboldt-Universitaet, Berlin (Germany). Inst. fuer Physik

    2014-03-01

    First monographical text on this fundamental topic. Course-tested, pedagogical and self-contained exposition. Includes exercises and solutions. At the fundamental level, the interactions of elementary particles are described by quantum gauge field theory. The quantitative implications of these interactions are captured by scattering amplitudes, traditionally computed using Feynman diagrams. In the past decade tremendous progress has been made in our understanding of and computational abilities with regard to scattering amplitudes in gauge theories, going beyond the traditional textbook approach. These advances build upon on-shell methods that focus on the analytic structure of the amplitudes, as well as on their recently discovered hidden symmetries. In fact, when expressed in suitable variables the amplitudes are much simpler than anticipated and hidden patterns emerge. These modern methods are of increasing importance in phenomenological applications arising from the need for high-precision predictions for the experiments carried out at the Large Hadron Collider, as well as in foundational mathematical physics studies on the S-matrix in quantum field theory. Bridging the gap between introductory courses on quantum field theory and state-of-the-art research, these concise yet self-contained and course-tested lecture notes are well-suited for a one-semester graduate level course or as a self-study guide for anyone interested in fundamental aspects of quantum field theory and its applications. The numerous exercises and solutions included will help readers to embrace and apply the material presented in the main text.

  12. Scattering amplitudes in gauge theories

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Henn, Johannes M.; Plefka, Jan C.

    2014-01-01

    First monographical text on this fundamental topic. Course-tested, pedagogical and self-contained exposition. Includes exercises and solutions. At the fundamental level, the interactions of elementary particles are described by quantum gauge field theory. The quantitative implications of these interactions are captured by scattering amplitudes, traditionally computed using Feynman diagrams. In the past decade tremendous progress has been made in our understanding of and computational abilities with regard to scattering amplitudes in gauge theories, going beyond the traditional textbook approach. These advances build upon on-shell methods that focus on the analytic structure of the amplitudes, as well as on their recently discovered hidden symmetries. In fact, when expressed in suitable variables the amplitudes are much simpler than anticipated and hidden patterns emerge. These modern methods are of increasing importance in phenomenological applications arising from the need for high-precision predictions for the experiments carried out at the Large Hadron Collider, as well as in foundational mathematical physics studies on the S-matrix in quantum field theory. Bridging the gap between introductory courses on quantum field theory and state-of-the-art research, these concise yet self-contained and course-tested lecture notes are well-suited for a one-semester graduate level course or as a self-study guide for anyone interested in fundamental aspects of quantum field theory and its applications. The numerous exercises and solutions included will help readers to embrace and apply the material presented in the main text.

  13. CONFERENCE: Elastic and diffractive scattering

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    White, Alan

    1989-01-01

    Elastic scattering, when particles appear to 'bounce' off each other, and the related phenomena of diffractive scattering are currently less fashionable than the study of hard scattering processes. However this could change rapidly if unexpected results from the UA4 experiment at the CERN Collider are confirmed and their implications tested. These questions were highlighted at the third 'Blois Workshop' on Elastic and Diffractive Scattering, held early in May on the Evanston campus of Northwestern University, near Chicago

  14. Use of scatter correction in quantitative I-123 MIBG scintigraphy for differentiating patients with Parkinsonism: Results from Phantom experiment and clinical study

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Bai, J.; Hashimoto, J.; Suzuki, T.; Nakahara, T.; Kubo, A.; Ohira, M.; Takao, M.; Ogawa, K.

    2007-01-01

    The aims of this study were to elucidate the feasibility of scatter correction in improving the quantitative accuracy of the Heart-to-Mediastinum (H/M) ratio in I-123 MIBG imaging and to clarify whether the H/M ratio calculated from the scatter corrected image improves the accuracy of differentiating patients with Parkinsonism from other neurological disorders. The H/M ratio was calculated using the counts from planar images processed with and without scatter correction in the phantom and on patients. The triple energy window (TEW) method was used for scatter correction. Fifty five patients were enrolled in the clinical study. The Receiver Operating Characteristic (ROC) Curve analysis was used to evaluate diagnostic performance. The H/M ratio was found to be increased after scatter correction in the phantom simulating normal cardiac uptake, while no changes were observed in the phantom simulating no uptake. It was observed that scatter correction stabilized the H/M ratio by eliminating the influence of scatter photons originating from the liver, especially in the condition of no cardiac uptake. Similarly, scatter correction increased the H/M ratio in conditions other than Parkinson's disease but did not show any change in Parkinson's disease itself to widen the differences in the H/M ratios between the two groups. The overall power of the test did not show any significant improvement after scatter correction in differentiating patients with Parkinsonism. Based on the results of this study it has been concluded that scatter correction improves the quantitative accuracy of H/M ratio in MIBG imaging, but it does not offer any significant incremental diagnostic value over conventional imaging (without scatter correction). Nevertheless it is felt that the scatter correction technique deserves special consideration in order to make the test more robust and obtain stable H/M ratios. (author)

  15. Low-Field Mobility and Galvanomagnetic Properties of Holes in Germanium with Phonon Scattering

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Lawætz, Peter

    1968-01-01

    acoustic scattering, no overall consistency is found between available galvanomagnetic data and deformation potentials derived directly from experiments on strained Ge. The discrepancies may be ascribed to ionized-impurity scattering, but at higher temperatures where optical phonon scattering is operative......A theoretical calculation of the low-field galvanomagnetic properties of holes in Ge has been carried out incorporating all relevant details of the band structure. The scattering is limited to acoustic and optical phonons and is described by the deformation potentials a, b, d, and d0. For pure......, the deviations are still appreciable. We are led to conclude that the deformation-potential theory of phonon scattering needs reconsideration, and a nontrivial correction is pointed out....

  16. Diffraction and absorption of inelastically scattered electrons for K-shell ionization

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Josefsson, T.W.; Allen, L.J.

    1995-01-01

    An expression for the nonlocal inelastic scattering cross section for fast electrons in a crystalline environment, which explicitly includes diffraction as well as absorption for the inelastically scattered electrons, is used to carry out realistic calculations of K-shell electron energy loss spectroscopy (EELS) and energy dispersive x-ray (EDX) analysis cross sections. The calculations demonstrate quantitatively why, in EDX spectroscopy, integration over the dynamical states of the inelastically scattered electron averages in such a way that an effective plane wave representation of the scattered electrons is a good approximation. This is only the case for large enough acceptance angles of the detector in an EELS experiment. For EELS with smaller detector apertures, explicit integration over the dynamical final states is necessary and inclusion of absorption for the scattered electrons is important, particularly for thicker crystals. 50 refs., 7 figs

  17. Experimental observation of energy dependence of saturation thickness of multiply scattered gamma photons

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Singh, Manpreet; Singh, Gurvinderjit; Singh, Bhajan; Sandhu, B.S.

    2008-01-01

    The gamma photons continue to soften in energy as the number of scatterings increases in the target having finite dimensions both in depth and lateral dimensions. The number of multiply scattered photons increases with an increase in target thickness, and saturates at a particular value of the target thickness known as saturation thickness (depth). The present measurements are carried out to study the energy dependence of saturation thickness of multiply scattered gamma photons from targets of various thicknesses. The scattered photons are detected by a properly shielded NaI(Tl) gamma ray detector placed at 90 deg. to the incident beam. We observe that the saturation thickness increases with increasing incident gamma photon energy. Monte Carlo calculations based upon the package developed by Bauer and Pattison [Compton scattering experiments at the HMI (1981), HMI-B 364, pp. 1-106] support the present experimental results

  18. New insights into nucleation. Pressure trace measurements and the first small angle X-ray scattering experiments in a supersonic laval nozzle

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Ghosh, D.

    2007-07-01

    Homogeneous nucleation rates of the n-alcohols and the n-alkanes have been determined by combining information from two sets of supersonic Laval nozzle expansion experiments under identical conditions. The nucleation rates J=N/{delta}t{sub Jmax} for the n-alcohols are in the range of 1.10{sup 17}experiment static pressure measurements were conducted for the n-alkanes to determine the condensible partial pressure, temperature, supersaturation, characteristic time, and the expansion rate corresponding to the maximum nucleation rate. Characteristic times in the range of 13{<=}{delta}t{sub Jmax}/{mu}s{<=}34 were found. In the second set of experiments, the first flow rate resolved Small Angle X-ray Scattering experiments are conducted to determine the particle number density for both substance classes. Particle number densities in the range of 1.10{sup 12}scattering spectrum, information on the

  19. New insights into nucleation. Pressure trace measurements and the first small angle X-ray scattering experiments in a supersonic laval nozzle

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Ghosh, D.

    2007-01-01

    Homogeneous nucleation rates of the n-alcohols and the n-alkanes have been determined by combining information from two sets of supersonic Laval nozzle expansion experiments under identical conditions. The nucleation rates J=N/Δt Jmax for the n-alcohols are in the range of 1.10 17 -3 s -1 17 for the temperatures 207≤T/K≤249, the nucleation rates for the n-alkanes lie in the range of 5.10 15 -3 s -1 18 for the temperatures 143 ≤T/K≤215. For the first time it is shown that the nucleation rate is not only a function of the supersaturation and temperature but clearly also sensitive to the expansion rate during supersonic nozzle expansion. A good agreement between the experimental results and those available in literature is found by applying Hale's scaling formalism [Hale, B., Phys. Rev. A 33, 4256 (1986); Hale, B., Metall. Trans. A 23, 1863 (1992)]. The scaling parameters from this work are also in good agreement with those shown by Rusyniak et al. [Rusyniak, M., M. S. El-Shall, J. Phys. Chem. B 105, 11873 (2001)] and Brus et al. [Brus, D., V. Zdimal F. Stratmann, J. Chem Phys. 124, 164306 (2006)]. In the first experiment static pressure measurements were conducted for the n-alkanes to determine the condensible partial pressure, temperature, supersaturation, characteristic time, and the expansion rate corresponding to the maximum nucleation rate. Characteristic times in the range of 13≤Δt Jmax /μs≤34 were found. In the second set of experiments, the first flow rate resolved Small Angle X-ray Scattering experiments are conducted to determine the particle number density for both substance classes. Particle number densities in the range of 1.10 12 -3 12 and 1.10 11 -3 12 for the n-alcohols and n-alkanes are found, respectively. Additionally, by analyzing the radially averaged scattering spectrum, information on the mean radius and the width of the size distribution of the aerosols is obtained. Mean radii for the n-alcohols in the range of 4< left angle r

  20. Primer on laser scattering diagnostics

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Jahoda, F.C.

    1978-07-01

    The theory of laser scattering is presented in abbreviated format, with emphasis on physical interpretation, followed by sections on laser sources, practical considerations in designing experiments, and current developments in extending the techniques to multispace and multitime point measurements

  1. Time collimation for elastic neutron scattering instrument at a pulsed source

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Aksenov, V.L.; Nikitenko, Yu.V.

    1996-01-01

    Conditions for carrying out elastic neutron scattering experiments using the time-of-flight technique are considered. It is shown that the employment of time dependent neutron beam collimation in the source-sample flight path increases the luminosity of the spectrometer under certain resolution restrictions. 3 refs., 8 figs

  2. Comparison of fast ion collective Thomson scattering measurements at ASDEX Upgrade with numerical simulations

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Salewski, Mirko; Meo, Fernando; Stejner Pedersen, Morten

    2010-01-01

    Collective Thomson scattering (CTS) experiments were carried out at ASDEX Upgrade to measure the one-dimensional velocity distribution functions of fast ion populations. These measurements are compared with simulations using the codes TRANSP/NUBEAM and ASCOT for two different neutral beam injecti...

  3. Reduction of Raman scattering and fluorescence from anvils in high pressure Raman scattering

    Science.gov (United States)

    Dierker, S. B.; Aronson, M. C.

    2018-05-01

    We describe a new design and use of a high pressure anvil cell that significantly reduces the Raman scattering and fluorescence from the anvils in high pressure Raman scattering experiments. The approach is particularly useful in Raman scattering studies of opaque, weakly scattering samples. The effectiveness of the technique is illustrated with measurements of two-magnon Raman scattering in La2CuO4.

  4. Double Regge pole exchange model analysis of a 7 Gev/c. pi. /sup -/p experiment. [Absolute cross sections, one-particle exchange, diffraction scattering

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Chao, A C.L.

    1973-01-01

    A double Regge Pole Exchange Model is used to analyze Quasi-Three-Body final states selected from a 7 GeV/c - /sup -/p experiment. Three sets of data are analyzed namely: I ..pi../sup -/p ..-->.. p..pi../sup +/..pi../sup -/..pi../sup -/; II ..pi../sup -/p ..-->.. p..pi../sup +/..pi../sup -/..pi../sup -/..pi../sup 0/; III ..pi../sup -/p ..-->.. ..pi../sup +/..pi../sup +/..pi../sup -/..pi../sup -/n. The final states, selected from data sets I, II and III are (rho/sup 0/..pi../sup -/p, f/sup 0/..pi../sup -/p, ..pi../sup -/..pi../sup -/..delta../sup + +/), (rho/sup 0/..pi../sup -/..delta../sup +/, rho/sup -/..pi..-..delta../sup + +/, ..omega pi../sup -/p) and (rho/sup 0/..pi../sup -/..delta../sup +/), respectively. It is found that these channels after appropriate kinematic cuts can be well described by exchanging two Regge Trajectories. Predictions for the absolute cross-sections were also obtained by taking limits of one particle exchange and a diffraction scattering approximation. (auth)

  5. Charge-transfer energy in the water-hydrogen molecular aggregate revealed by molecular-beam scattering experiments, charge displacement analysis, and ab initio calculations.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Belpassi, Leonardo; Reca, Michael L; Tarantelli, Francesco; Roncaratti, Luiz F; Pirani, Fernando; Cappelletti, David; Faure, Alexandre; Scribano, Yohann

    2010-09-22

    Integral cross-section measurements for the system water-H(2) in molecular-beam scattering experiments are reported. Their analysis demonstrates that the average attractive component of the water-H(2) intermolecular potential in the well region is about 30% stronger than dispersion and induction forces would imply. An extensive and detailed theoretical analysis of the electron charge displacement accompanying the interaction, over several crucial sections of the potential energy surface (PES), shows that water-H(2) interaction is accompanied by charge transfer (CT) and that the observed stabilization energy correlates quantitatively with CT magnitude at all distances. Based on the experimentally determined potential and the calculated CT, a general theoretical model is devised which reproduces very accurately PES sections obtained at the CCSD(T) level with large basis sets. The energy stabilization associated with CT is calculated to be 2.5 eV per electron transferred. Thus, CT is shown to be a significant, strongly stereospecific component of the interaction, with water functioning as electron donor or acceptor in different orientations. The general relevance of these findings for water's chemistry is discussed.

  6. Double parton scattering in four-jet events in $pp$ collisions at $\\sqrt{s}$=7 TeV with the ATLAS experiment at the LHC

    CERN Document Server

    INSPIRE-00232391; Levy, Aharon

    The dijet double-differential cross section is measured as a function of the dijet invariant mass, using data taken during 2010 and during 2011 with the ATLAS experiment at the LHC, with a center-of-mass energy, $\\sqrt{s}=7$ TeV. The measurements are sensitive to invariant masses between 70 GeV and 4.27 TeV with center-of-mass jet rapidities up to 3.5. A novel technique to correct jets for pile-up (additional proton-proton collisions) in the 2011 data is developed and subsequently used in the measurement. The data are found to be consistent over 12 orders of magnitude with fixed-order NLO pQCD predictions provided by NLOJET++. The results constitute a stringent test of pQCD, in an energy regime previously unexplored. The dijet analysis is a confidence building step for the extraction of the signal of hard double parton scattering in four-jet events, and subsequent extraction of the effective overlap area between the interacting protons, expressed in terms of the variable, $\\sigma_{\\mathrm{eff}}$. The measur...

  7. Hydration and Ion Pairing in Aqueous Mg2+ and Zn2+ Solutions: Force-Field Description Aided by Neutron Scattering Experiments and Ab Initio Molecular Dynamics Simulations.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Duboué-Dijon, Elise; Mason, Philip E; Fischer, Henry E; Jungwirth, Pavel

    2018-04-05

    Magnesium and zinc dications possess the same charge and have an almost identical size, yet they behave very differently in aqueous solutions and play distinct biological roles. It is thus crucial to identify the origins of such different behaviors and to assess to what extent they can be captured by force-field molecular dynamics simulations. In this work, we combine neutron scattering experiments in a specific mixture of H 2 O and D 2 O (the so-called null water) with ab initio molecular dynamics simulations to probe the difference in the hydration structure and ion-pairing properties of chloride solutions of the two cations. The obtained data are used as a benchmark to develop a scaled-charge force field for Mg 2+ that includes electronic polarization in a mean field way. We show that using this electronic continuum correction we can describe aqueous magnesium chloride solutions well. However, in aqueous zinc chloride specific interaction terms between the ions need to be introduced to capture ion pairing quantitatively.

  8. How honey bees carry pollen

    Science.gov (United States)

    Matherne, Marguerite E.; Anyanwu, Gabriel; Leavey, Jennifer K.; Hu, David L.

    2017-11-01

    Honey bees are the tanker of the skies, carrying thirty percent of their weight in pollen per foraging trip using specialized orifices on their body. How do they manage to hang onto those pesky pollen grains? In this experimental study, we investigate the adhesion force of pollen to the honeybee. To affix pollen to themselves, honey bees form a suspension of pollen in nectar, creating a putty-like pollen basket that is skewered by leg hairs. We use tensile tests to show that the viscous force of the pollen basket is more than ten times the honeybee's flight force. This work may provide inspiration for the design of robotic flying pollinators.

  9. Calculation of Thomson scattering spectral fits for interpenetrating flows

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Swadling, G. F., E-mail: george.swadling@imperial.ac.uk; Lebedev, S. V., E-mail: george.swadling@imperial.ac.uk; Burdiak, G. C.; Suttle, L.; Patankar, S.; Smith, R. A.; Bennett, M.; Suzuki-Vidal, F. [Blackett Laboratory, Imperial College, London SW7 2BW (United Kingdom); Harvey-Thompson, A. J. [Sandia National Laboratories, PO Box 5800, Albuquerque, New Mexico 87185-1193 (United States); Rozmus, W. [Department of Physics, University of Alberta, Edmonton, Alberta T6G 2JI (Canada); Hall, G. N. [Blackett Laboratory, Imperial College, London, United Kingdom SW7 2BW and Lawrence Livermore National Laboratory, P.O. Box 808, Livermore, California 94551 (United States); Yuan, J. [Key Laboratory of Pulsed Power, Institute of Fluid Physics, CAE, Mianyang 621900 (China)

    2014-12-15

    Collective mode optical Thomson scattering has been used to investigate the interactions of radially convergent ablation flows in Tungsten wire arrays. These experiments were carried out at the Magpie pulsed power facility at Imperial College, London. Analysis of the scattered spectra has provided direct evidence of ablation stream interpenetration on the array axis, and has also revealed a previously unobserved axial deflection of the ablation streams towards the anode as they approach the axis. It is has been suggested that this deflection is caused by the presence of a static magnetic field, advected with the ablation streams, stagnated and accrued around the axis. Analysis of the Thomson scattering spectra involved the calculation and fitting of the multi-component, non-relativistic, Maxwellian spectral density function S (k, ω). The method used to calculate the fits of the data are discussed in detail.

  10. Pelletron general purpose scattering chamber

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Chatterjee, A.; Kailas, S.; Kerekette, S.S.; Navin, A.; Kumar, Suresh

    1993-01-01

    A medium sized stainless steel scattering chamber has been constructed for nuclear scattering and reaction experiments at the 14UD pelletron accelerator facility. It has been so designed that several types of detectors, varying from small sized silicon surface barrier detectors to medium sized gas detectors and NaI detectors can be conveniently positioned inside the chamber for detection of charged particles. The chamber has been planned to perform the following types of experiments : angular distributions of elastically scattered particles, fission fragments and other charged particles, angular correlations for charged particles e.g. protons, alphas and fission fragments. (author). 2 figs

  11. Spin-lattice interactions studied by polarised and unpolarised inelastic scattering application to the invar problem

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Brown, P J [Institut Max von Laue - Paul Langevin (ILL), 38 - Grenoble (France)

    1996-11-01

    A semi-quantitative analysis is given of some of the ways in which spin-lattice interactions can modify the cross-sections observable in neutron scattering experiments. This analysis is applied to the scattering from the invar alloy Fe{sub 65}Ni{sub 35} using a model in which the magnetic moment is a function of the near neighbour separation. This model has been applied to clarify the results of inelastic scattering experiments carried out on Fe{sub 65}Ni{sub 35} using both polarised and unpolarised neutrons. The extra information obtainable using polarised neutrons as well as the difficulties and limitations of the technique for inelastic scattering are discussed. (author) 8 figs., 14 refs.

  12. Scattering measurements in Tokamak type devices

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Matoba, Tohru

    1975-03-01

    Theories, experiments and proposals for light scattering in Tokamak type devices are reviewed. Thomson scattering, measuring method of the current density distribution by scattering and resonance fluorescence are summarily described. These methods may be useful for diagnosis of the fusion plasmas. The report may help planning of the measuring apparatus for the fusion plasmas in future. (auth.)

  13. Neutron scattering studies in the actinide region

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Kegel, G.H.R.; Egan, J.J.

    1993-09-01

    This report discusses the following topics: Prompt fission neutron energy spectra for 235 U and 239 Pu; Two-parameter measurement of nuclear lifetimes; ''Black'' neutron detector; Data reduction techniques for neutron scattering experiments; Inelastic neutron scattering studies in 197 Au; Elastic and inelastic scattering studies in 239 Pu; and neutron induced defects in silicon dioxide MOS structures

  14. Intermediate energy nucleon-deuteron scattering theory.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wilson, J. W.

    1973-01-01

    Sloan's conclusion (1969) that terms of the multiple-scattering series beyond single scattering contribute only to S- and P-wave amplitudes in an S-wave separable model is examined. A comparison of experiments with the calculation at 146 MeV shows that the conclusion is valid in nucleon-deuteron scattering applications.

  15. Time-resolved X-ray scattering program at the Advanced Photon Source

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Rodricks, B.

    1994-01-01

    The Time-Resolved Scattering Program's goal is the development of instruments and techniques for time-resolved studies. This entails the development of wide bandpass and focusing optics, high-speed detectors, mechanical choppers, and components for the measurement and creation of changes in samples. Techniques being developed are pump-probe experiments, single-bunch scattering experiments, high-speed white and pink beam Laue scattering, and nanosecond to microsecond synchronization of instruments. This program will be carried out primarily from a white-beam, bend-magnet source, experimental station, 1-BM-B, that immediately follows the first optics enclosure (1-BM-A). This paper will describe the experimental station and instruments under development to carry out the program

  16. Elastic scattering

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Leader, Elliot

    1991-01-01

    With very few unexplained results to challenge conventional ideas, physicists have to look hard to search for gaps in understanding. An area of physics which offers a lot more than meets the eye is elastic and diffractive scattering where particles either 'bounce' off each other, emerging unscathed, or just graze past, emerging relatively unscathed. The 'Blois' workshops provide a regular focus for this unspectacular, but compelling physics, attracting highly motivated devotees

  17. Neutrino proton scattering and the isosinglet term

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    White, D.H.

    1990-01-01

    Elastic neutrino proton scattering is sensitive to the SU(3) axial isosinglet term which is in turn dependent on the strangeness content of the proton. The uncertainties in the analysis of a neutrino proton elastic scattering experiment are discussed, and an experiment which is insensitive to many of the difficulties of the previous experiment is described

  18. Scattering theory

    CERN Document Server

    Friedrich, Harald

    2016-01-01

    This corrected and updated second edition of "Scattering Theory" presents a concise and modern coverage of the subject. In the present treatment, special attention is given to the role played by the long-range behaviour of the projectile-target interaction, and a theory is developed, which is well suited to describe near-threshold bound and continuum states in realistic binary systems such as diatomic molecules or molecular ions. It is motivated by the fact that experimental advances have shifted and broadened the scope of applications where concepts from scattering theory are used, e.g. to the field of ultracold atoms and molecules, which has been experiencing enormous growth in recent years, largely triggered by the successful realization of Bose-Einstein condensates of dilute atomic gases in 1995. The book contains sections on special topics such as near-threshold quantization, quantum reflection, Feshbach resonances and the quantum description of scattering in two dimensions. The level of abstraction is k...

  19. BUILDING A NETWORK FOR NEUTRON SCATTERING EDUCATION

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Pynn, Roger; Baker, Shenda Mary; Louca, Despo A.; McGreevy, Robert L.; Ekkebus, Allen E.; Kszos, Lynn A.; Anderson, Ian S.

    2008-01-01

    concerted effort was made to involve representatives from historically black colleges and universities (HBCUs) and minority educational institutions (MEIs). The roadmap contained herein provides the path to a national infrastructure for education of students, faculty, and professional researchers who wish to make use of national neutron scattering facilities but do not have (or do not believe they have) the educational background to do so. Education of other stakeholders, including the public, students in kindergarten through twelfth grade (K-12), and policy makers is also included. The opening sessions of the workshop provided the current status of neutron scattering education in North America, Europe, and Australia. National neutron sources have individually developed outreach and advertising programs aimed at increasing awareness among researchers of the potential applications of neutron scattering. However, because their principal mission is to carry out scientific research, their outreach efforts are necessarily self-limiting. The opening session was designed to build awareness that the individual programs need to be coupled with, and integrated into, a broader education program that addresses the complete range of experience, from the student to the experienced researcher, and the wide range of scientific disciplines covered by neutron scattering. Such a program must also take full advantage of existing educational programs and expertise at universities and expand them using modern distance learning capabilities, recognizing that the landscape of education is changing

  20. BUILDING A NETWORK FOR NEUTRON SCATTERING EDUCATION

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Pynn, Roger [ORNL; Baker, Shenda Mary [ORNL; Louca, Despo A [ORNL; McGreevy, Robert L [ORNL; Ekkebus, Allen E [ORNL; Kszos, Lynn A [ORNL; Anderson, Ian S [ORNL

    2008-10-01

    scattering education. A concerted effort was made to involve representatives from historically black colleges and universities (HBCUs) and minority educational institutions (MEIs). The roadmap contained herein provides the path to a national infrastructure for education of students, faculty, and professional researchers who wish to make use of national neutron scattering facilities but do not have (or do not believe they have) the educational background to do so. Education of other stakeholders, including the public, students in kindergarten through twelfth grade (K-12), and policy makers is also included. The opening sessions of the workshop provided the current status of neutron scattering education in North America, Europe, and Australia. National neutron sources have individually developed outreach and advertising programs aimed at increasing awareness among researchers of the potential applications of neutron scattering. However, because their principal mission is to carry out scientific research, their outreach efforts are necessarily self-limiting. The opening session was designed to build awareness that the individual programs need to be coupled with, and integrated into, a broader education program that addresses the complete range of experience, from the student to the experienced researcher, and the wide range of scientific disciplines covered by neutron scattering. Such a program must also take full advantage of existing educational programs and expertise at universities and expand them using modern distance learning capabilities, recognizing that the landscape of education is changing.

  1. Diffractive scattering

    CERN Document Server

    De Wolf, E.A.

    2002-01-01

    We discuss basic concepts and properties of diffractive phenomena in soft hadron collisions and in deep-inelastic scattering at low Bjorken-x. The paper is not a review of the rapidly developing field but presents an attempt to show in simple terms the close inter-relationship between the dynamics of high-energy hadronic and deep-inelastic diffraction. Using the saturation model of Golec-Biernat and Wusthoff as an example, a simple explanation of geometrical scaling is presented. The relation between the QCD anomalous multiplicity dimension and the Pomeron intercept is discussed.

  2. Diffractive Scattering

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Wolf, E.A. de

    2002-01-01

    We discuss basic concepts and properties of diffractive phenomena in soft hadron collisions and in deep-inelastic scattering at low Bjorken - x. The paper is not a review of the rapidly developing field but presents an attempt to show in simple terms the close inter-relationship between the dynamics of high-energy hadronic and deep-inelastic diffraction. Using the saturation model of Golec-Biernat and Wuesthoff as an example, a simple explanation of geometrical scaling is presented. The relation between the QCD anomalous multiplicity dimension and the Pomeron intercept is discussed. (author)

  3. Scintillation Counters for Neutron Scattering Experiments; Compteurs a scintillations pour les experiences de diffusion neutronique; Stsintillyatsionnye schetchiki dlya ehksperimentov s rasseyaniem nejtronov; Contadores de centelleo para experimentos de dispersion neutronica.

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Harris, D; Duffil, C [Atomic Energy of Canada Ltd., Chalk River, Ontario (Canada); Wraight, L A [Aere, Harwell, Didcot, Berks (United Kingdom)

    1963-01-15

    Scintillation counters discussed in this paper are of two types : (i) UP or B{sub 2}O{sub 3} fixed with zinc sulphide in varving composition, (ii) Li containing glasses of varying composition. The ideal composition of each rype for neutron scattering experiments and their relative sensitivity tae neutrons and {gamma}-rays are considered. The ZnS type can be used with a {gamma}-ray pulse shape discriminator and practical experience of its use in a multi-counter time-of-flight experiment is described. The Li glass has higher {gamma}-background but also higher neutron efficiency. Performance figures of a scintillator containing 25% by wt. Li{sub 2}O and 1 mm thick will be given. (author) [French] Les compteurs a scintillations etudies sont de deux types : i) LiF ou B{sub 2}O{sub 3} fixe par du sulfure de zinc en composition variable, ii) verres contenant du lithium en composition variable. Les auteurs examinent la composition ideale de chaque type de compteur pour les experiences de diffusion de neutrons, ainsi que leur sinsibilite rrelative aux neutrons et aux rayons gamma. On peut utiliser le compteur a ZnS avec un discriminates de forme pour rayons gamma; les auteurs decrivent l'experience qu'ils ont de son emploi dans une experience de temps de vol a plusieurs compteurs. Le compteur verre-Li a un mouvement propre plus eleve pour les rayons gamma mais une meilleure efficacite vis-a-vis des neutrons. Les auteurs donnent quelques chiffres concernant le fonctionnement d'un scintillateur contenant 25% en poids de Li{sub 2}O et ayant une epaisseur de un millimetre. (author) [Spanish] Los contadores de centelleo examinados en esta memoria son de dos tipos : a) de LiF o B{sub 2}O{sub 3} mezclado con sulfuro de cinc en proporciones variables; b) de vidrios litiados de diversas composiciones. Los autores estudian la composicion ideal de cada tipo para experimentos de dispersion neutronica, asi como su sensibilidad relativa a los neutrones y a los rayos gamma. El tio de Zn

  4. Deeply Virtual Neutrino Scattering

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Ales Psaker

    2007-01-01

    We investigate the extension of the deeply virtual Compton scattering process into the weak interaction sector. Standard electromagnetic Compton scattering provides a unique tool for studying hadrons, which is one of the most fascinating frontiers of modern science. In this process the relevant Compton scattering amplitude probes the hadron structure by means of two quark electromagnetic currents. We argue that replacing one of the currents with the weak interaction current can promise a new insight. The paper is organized as follows. In Sec. II we briefly discuss the features of the handbag factorization scheme. We introduce a new set of phenomenological functions, known as generalized parton distributions (GPDs) [1-6], and discuss some of their basic properties in Sec. III. An application of the GPD formalism to the neutrino-induced deeply virtual Compton scattering in the kinematics relevant to future high-intensity neutrino experiments is given in Sec. IV. The cross section results are presented in Sec. V. Finally, in Sec. VI we draw some conclusions and discuss future prospects. Some of the formal results in this paper have appeared in preliminary reports in Refs. [7] and [8], whereas a comprehensive analysis of the weak neutral and weak charged current DVCS reactions in collaboration with W. Melnitchouk and A. Radyushkin has been presented in Ref. [9

  5. Cluster folding-model for quasi-elastic scattering of 23Na from 208Pb

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Kabir, A.; Johnson, R.C.; Tostevin, M.H.

    1991-01-01

    A cluster model of 23 Na is used to calculate the 23 Na-target interaction potentials by folding the cluster wavefunction with the cluster-target interaction potentials. Coupled channels calculations are carried out for the quasi-elastic scattering of polarized 23 Na from 208 Pb at 170 MeV and compared with recent experiments. Qualitative agreement with experiment is obtained when the interaction is adjusted by a single overall normalization constant. (author)

  6. Small angle neutron scattering

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Cousin Fabrice

    2015-01-01

    Full Text Available Small Angle Neutron Scattering (SANS is a technique that enables to probe the 3-D structure of materials on a typical size range lying from ∼ 1 nm up to ∼ a few 100 nm, the obtained information being statistically averaged on a sample whose volume is ∼ 1 cm3. This very rich technique enables to make a full structural characterization of a given object of nanometric dimensions (radius of gyration, shape, volume or mass, fractal dimension, specific area… through the determination of the form factor as well as the determination of the way objects are organized within in a continuous media, and therefore to describe interactions between them, through the determination of the structure factor. The specific properties of neutrons (possibility of tuning the scattering intensity by using the isotopic substitution, sensitivity to magnetism, negligible absorption, low energy of the incident neutrons make it particularly interesting in the fields of soft matter, biophysics, magnetic materials and metallurgy. In particular, the contrast variation methods allow to extract some informations that cannot be obtained by any other experimental techniques. This course is divided in two parts. The first one is devoted to the description of the principle of SANS: basics (formalism, coherent scattering/incoherent scattering, notion of elementary scatterer, form factor analysis (I(q→0, Guinier regime, intermediate regime, Porod regime, polydisperse system, structure factor analysis (2nd Virial coefficient, integral equations, characterization of aggregates, and contrast variation methods (how to create contrast in an homogeneous system, matching in ternary systems, extrapolation to zero concentration, Zero Averaged Contrast. It is illustrated by some representative examples. The second one describes the experimental aspects of SANS to guide user in its future experiments: description of SANS spectrometer, resolution of the spectrometer, optimization of

  7. 'It's like a personal motivator that you carried around wi' you': utilising self-determination theory to understand men's experiences of using pedometers to increase physical activity in a weight management programme.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Donnachie, Craig; Wyke, Sally; Mutrie, Nanette; Hunt, Kate

    2017-05-05

    Self-monitoring using pedometers is an effective behaviour change technique to support increased physical activity (PA). However, the ways in which pedometers operate as motivational tools in adoption and maintenance of PA is not well understood. This paper investigates men's experiences of pedometers as motivational tools both during and after their participation in a 12-week group-based, weight management programme for overweight/obese men, Football Fans in Training (FFIT). Semi-structured telephone interviews were conducted with 28 men, purposively sampled to include men who did and did not achieve 5% weight loss during the programme. Data were analysed thematically utilising the framework approach, using Self-Determination Theory (SDT) - namely concepts of behavioural regulation and the basic needs of relatedness, competence and autonomy - as an analytical lens. During the programme, FFIT's context and fellow participants supported relatedness and encouraged use of the pedometer. The pedometer was seen to provide tangible proof of progress, thus increasing competence for change, whilst the ability to monitor one's own progress and take remedial action supported autonomy; these men portrayed the pedometer as an 'ally'. However, a minority found the pedometer 'dispiriting' or controlling when it evidenced their inability to meet their PA targets. After the programme, some men no longer used the device as they had fully internalised their motivations for increased PA. In contrast, others continued to use pedometers or progressed to other self-monitoring technologies because it was enjoyable and facilitated maintenance of their increased PA. However, the minority of men who experienced the pedometer as controlling no longer used it. They were less successful in achieving 5% weight loss and appeared reliant on external factors, including support from coach and group members, to maintain motivation. These findings show how self-monitoring using pedometers and

  8. Ultrastrong Coupling Few-Photon Scattering Theory

    Science.gov (United States)

    Shi, Tao; Chang, Yue; García-Ripoll, Juan José

    2018-04-01

    We study the scattering of individual photons by a two-level system ultrastrongly coupled to a waveguide. The scattering is elastic for a broad range of couplings and can be described with an effective U (1 )-symmetric Hamiltonian. This simple model allows the prediction of scattering resonance line shapes, validated up to α =0.3 , and close to the Toulouse point α =1 /2 , where inelastic scattering becomes relevant. Our predictions model experiments with superconducting circuits [P. Forn-Díaz et al., Nat. Phys. 13, 39 (2017), 10.1038/nphys3905] and can be extended to study multiphoton scattering.

  9. HEAVY ION FUSION SCIENCE VIRTUAL NATIONAL LABORATORY 3nd QUARTER 2009 MILESTONE REPORT: Upgrade plasma source configuration and carry out initial experiments. Characterize improvements in focal spot beam intensity

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Lidia, S.; Anders, A.; Barnard, J.J.; Bieniosek, F.M.; Dorf, M.; Faltens, A.; Friedman, A.; Gilson, E.; Greenway, W.; Grote, D.; Jung, J.Y.; Katayanagi, T.; Logan, B.G.; Lee, C.W.; Leitner, M.; Ni, P.; Pekedis, A.; Regis, M. J.; Roy, P. K.; Seidl, P. A.; Waldron, W.

    2009-01-01

    Simulations suggest that the plasma density must exceed the beam density throughout the drift compression and focusing section in order to inhibit the space charge forces that would limit the spot size and beam intensity on the target. WDM experiments will therefore require plasma densities up to 10 14 /cm 3 , with the highest density in the last few centimeters before the target. This work was guided by the simulations performed for the FY09 Q1 milestone. This milestone has been met and we report results of modifications made to the NDCX beamline to improve the longitudinal and radial distribution of the neutralizing plasma in the region near the target plane. In Section 2, we review pertinent simulation results from the FY09 Q1 milestone. Section 3 describes the design, and beam measurements following installation, of a biased, self-supporting metal grid that produces neutralizing electrons from glancing interception of beam ions. Section 4 describes the design and initial testing of a compact Ferro-Electric Plasma Source (FEPS) that will remove the remaining 'exclusion zone' in the neutralizing plasma close to the target plane. Section 5 describes the modification of the beamline to decrease the gap between the FEPS section exit and the final focus solenoid (FFS). Section 6 presents a summary and conclusions.

  10. Pion nucleus scattering lengths

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Huang, W.T.; Levinson, C.A.; Banerjee, M.K.

    1971-09-01

    Soft pion theory and the Fubini-Furlan mass dispersion relations have been used to analyze the pion nucleon scattering lengths and obtain a value for the sigma commutator term. With this value and using the same principles, scattering lengths have been predicted for nuclei with mass number ranging from 6 to 23. Agreement with experiment is very good. For those who believe in the Gell-Mann-Levy sigma model, the evaluation of the commutator yields the value 0.26(m/sub σ//m/sub π/) 2 for the sigma nucleon coupling constant. The large dispersive corrections for the isosymmetric case implies that the basic idea behind many of the soft pion calculations, namely, slow variation of matrix elements from the soft pion limit to the physical pion mass, is not correct. 11 refs., 1 fig., 3 tabs

  11. Using Raman Spectroscopy and Surface-Enhanced Raman Scattering to Identify Colorants in Art: An Experiment for an Upper-Division Chemistry Laboratory

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mayhew, Hannah E.; Frano, Kristen A.; Svoboda, Shelley A.; Wustholz, Kristin L.

    2015-01-01

    Surface-enhanced Raman scattering (SERS) studies of art represent an attractive way to introduce undergraduate students to concepts in nanoscience, vibrational spectroscopy, and instrumental analysis. Here, we present an undergraduate analytical or physical chemistry laboratory wherein a combination of normal Raman and SERS spectroscopy is used to…

  12. Study of hard double-parton scattering in four-jet events in $pp$ collisions at $\\sqrt{s} =7$ TeV with the ATLAS experiment

    CERN Document Server

    Aaboud, Morad; Abbott, Brad; Abdallah, Jalal; Abdinov, Ovsat; Abeloos, Baptiste; Aben, Rosemarie; AbouZeid, Ossama; Abraham, Nicola; Abramowicz, Halina; Abreu, Henso; Abreu, Ricardo; Abulaiti, Yiming; Acharya, Bobby Samir; Adachi, Shunsuke; Adamczyk, Leszek; Adams, David; Adelman, Jahred; Adomeit, Stefanie; Adye, Tim; Affolder, Tony; Agatonovic-Jovin, Tatjana; Aguilar-Saavedra, Juan Antonio; Ahlen, Steven; Ahmadov, Faig; Aielli, Giulio; Akerstedt, Henrik; Åkesson, Torsten Paul Ake; Akimov, Andrei; Alberghi, Gian Luigi; Albert, Justin; Albrand, Solveig; Alconada Verzini, Maria Josefina; Aleksa, Martin; Aleksandrov, Igor; Alexa, Calin; Alexander, Gideon; Alexopoulos, Theodoros; Alhroob, Muhammad; Ali, Babar; Aliev, Malik; Alimonti, Gianluca; Alison, John; Alkire, Steven Patrick; Allbrooke, Benedict; Allen, Benjamin William; Allport, Phillip; Aloisio, Alberto; Alonso, Alejandro; Alonso, Francisco; Alpigiani, Cristiano; Alshehri, Azzah Aziz; Alstaty, Mahmoud; Alvarez Gonzalez, Barbara; Άlvarez Piqueras, Damián; Alviggi, Mariagrazia; Amadio, Brian Thomas; Amako, Katsuya; Amaral Coutinho, Yara; Amelung, Christoph; Amidei, Dante; Amor Dos Santos, Susana Patricia; Amorim, Antonio; Amoroso, Simone; Amundsen, Glenn; Anastopoulos, Christos; Ancu, Lucian Stefan; Andari, Nansi; Andeen, Timothy; Anders, Christoph Falk; Anders, Gabriel; Anders, John Kenneth; Anderson, Kelby; Andreazza, Attilio; Andrei, George Victor; Angelidakis, Stylianos; Angelozzi, Ivan; Angerami, Aaron; Anghinolfi, Francis; Anisenkov, Alexey; Anjos, Nuno; Annovi, Alberto; Antel, Claire; Antonelli, Mario; Antonov, Alexey; Anulli, Fabio; Aoki, Masato; Aperio Bella, Ludovica; Arabidze, Giorgi; Arai, Yasuo; Araque, Juan Pedro; Arce, Ayana; Arduh, Francisco Anuar; Arguin, Jean-Francois; Argyropoulos, Spyridon; Arik, Metin; Armbruster, Aaron James; Armitage, Lewis James; Arnaez, Olivier; Arnold, Hannah; Arratia, Miguel; Arslan, Ozan; Artamonov, Andrei; Artoni, Giacomo; Artz, Sebastian; Asai, Shoji; Asbah, Nedaa; Ashkenazi, Adi; Åsman, Barbro; Asquith, Lily; Assamagan, Ketevi; Astalos, Robert; Atkinson, Markus; Atlay, Naim Bora; Augsten, Kamil; Avolio, Giuseppe; Axen, Bradley; Ayoub, Mohamad Kassem; Azuelos, Georges; Baak, Max; Baas, Alessandra; Baca, Matthew John; Bachacou, Henri; Bachas, Konstantinos; Backes, Moritz; Backhaus, Malte; Bagiacchi, Paolo; Bagnaia, Paolo; Bai, Yu; Baines, John; Baker, Oliver Keith; Baldin, Evgenii; Balek, Petr; Balestri, Thomas; Balli, Fabrice; Balunas, William Keaton; Banas, Elzbieta; Banerjee, Swagato; Bannoura, Arwa A E; Barak, Liron; Barberio, Elisabetta Luigia; Barberis, Dario; Barbero, Marlon; Barillari, Teresa; Barisits, Martin-Stefan; Barklow, Timothy; Barlow, Nick; Barnes, Sarah Louise; Barnett, Bruce; Barnett, Michael; Barnovska-Blenessy, Zuzana; Baroncelli, Antonio; Barone, Gaetano; Barr, Alan; Barranco Navarro, Laura; Barreiro, Fernando; Barreiro Guimarães da Costa, João; Bartoldus, Rainer; Barton, Adam Edward; Bartos, Pavol; Basalaev, Artem; Bassalat, Ahmed; Bates, Richard; Batista, Santiago Juan; Batley, Richard; Battaglia, Marco; Bauce, Matteo; Bauer, Florian; Bawa, Harinder Singh; Beacham, James; Beattie, Michael David; Beau, Tristan; Beauchemin, Pierre-Hugues; Bechtle, Philip; Beck, Hans~Peter; Becker, Kathrin; Becker, Maurice; Beckingham, Matthew; Becot, Cyril; Beddall, Andrew; Beddall, Ayda; Bednyakov, Vadim; Bedognetti, Matteo; Bee, Christopher; Beemster, Lars; Beermann, Thomas; Begel, Michael; Behr, Janna Katharina; Belanger-Champagne, Camille; Bell, Andrew Stuart; Bella, Gideon; Bellagamba, Lorenzo; Bellerive, Alain; Bellomo, Massimiliano; Belotskiy, Konstantin; Beltramello, Olga; Belyaev, Nikita; Benary, Odette; Benchekroun, Driss; Bender, Michael; Bendtz, Katarina; Benekos, Nektarios; Benhammou, Yan; Benhar Noccioli, Eleonora; Benitez, Jose; Benjamin, Douglas; Bensinger, James; Bentvelsen, Stan; Beresford, Lydia; Beretta, Matteo; Berge, David; Bergeaas Kuutmann, Elin; Berger, Nicolas; Beringer, Jürg; Berlendis, Simon; Bernard, Nathan Rogers; Bernius, Catrin; Bernlochner, Florian Urs; Berry, Tracey; Berta, Peter; Bertella, Claudia; Bertoli, Gabriele; Bertolucci, Federico; Bertram, Iain Alexander; Bertsche, Carolyn; Bertsche, David; Besjes, Geert-Jan; Bessidskaia Bylund, Olga; Bessner, Martin Florian; Besson, Nathalie; Betancourt, Christopher; Bethani, Agni; Bethke, Siegfried; Bevan, Adrian John; Bianchi, Riccardo-Maria; Bianchini, Louis; Bianco, Michele; Biebel, Otmar; Biedermann, Dustin; Bielski, Rafal; Biesuz, Nicolo Vladi; Biglietti, Michela; Bilbao De Mendizabal, Javier; Billoud, Thomas Remy Victor; Bilokon, Halina; Bindi, Marcello; Binet, Sebastien; Bingul, Ahmet; Bini, Cesare; Biondi, Silvia; Bisanz, Tobias; Bjergaard, David Martin; Black, Curtis; Black, James; Black, Kevin; Blackburn, Daniel; Blair, Robert; Blanchard, Jean-Baptiste; Blazek, Tomas; Bloch, Ingo; Blocker, Craig; Blue, Andrew; Blum, Walter; Blumenschein, Ulrike; Blunier, Sylvain; Bobbink, Gerjan; Bobrovnikov, Victor; Bocchetta, Simona Serena; Bocci, Andrea; Bock, Christopher; Boehler, Michael; Boerner, Daniela; Bogaerts, Joannes Andreas; Bogavac, Danijela; Bogdanchikov, Alexander; Bohm, Christian; Boisvert, Veronique; Bokan, Petar; Bold, Tomasz; Boldyrev, Alexey; Bomben, Marco; Bona, Marcella; Boonekamp, Maarten; Borisov, Anatoly; Borissov, Guennadi; Bortfeldt, Jonathan; Bortoletto, Daniela; Bortolotto, Valerio; Bos, Kors; Boscherini, Davide; Bosman, Martine; Bossio Sola, Jonathan David; Boudreau, Joseph; Bouffard, Julian; Bouhova-Thacker, Evelina Vassileva; Boumediene, Djamel Eddine; Bourdarios, Claire; Boutle, Sarah Kate; Boveia, Antonio; Boyd, James; Boyko, Igor; Bracinik, Juraj; Brandt, Andrew; Brandt, Gerhard; Brandt, Oleg; Bratzler, Uwe; Brau, Benjamin; Brau, James; Breaden Madden, William Dmitri; Brendlinger, Kurt; Brennan, Amelia Jean; Brenner, Lydia; Brenner, Richard; Bressler, Shikma; Bristow, Timothy Michael; Britton, Dave; Britzger, Daniel; Brochu, Frederic; Brock, Ian; Brock, Raymond; Brooijmans, Gustaaf; Brooks, Timothy; Brooks, William; Brosamer, Jacquelyn; Brost, Elizabeth; Broughton, James; Bruckman de Renstrom, Pawel; Bruncko, Dusan; Bruneliere, Renaud; Bruni, Alessia; Bruni, Graziano; Bruni, Lucrezia Stella; Brunt, Benjamin; Bruschi, Marco; Bruscino, Nello; Bryant, Patrick; Bryngemark, Lene; Buanes, Trygve; Buat, Quentin; Buchholz, Peter; Buckley, Andrew; Budagov, Ioulian; Buehrer, Felix; Bugge, Magnar Kopangen; Bulekov, Oleg; Bullock, Daniel; Burckhart, Helfried; Burdin, Sergey; Burgard, Carsten Daniel; Burghgrave, Blake; Burka, Klaudia; Burke, Stephen; Burmeister, Ingo; Burr, Jonathan Thomas Peter; Busato, Emmanuel; Büscher, Daniel; Büscher, Volker; Bussey, Peter; Butler, John; Buttar, Craig; Butterworth, Jonathan; Butti, Pierfrancesco; Buttinger, William; Buzatu, Adrian; Buzykaev, Aleksey; Cabrera Urbán, Susana; Caforio, Davide; Cairo, Valentina; Cakir, Orhan; Calace, Noemi; Calafiura, Paolo; Calandri, Alessandro; Calderini, Giovanni; Calfayan, Philippe; Callea, Giuseppe; Caloba, Luiz; Calvente Lopez, Sergio; Calvet, David; Calvet, Samuel; Calvet, Thomas Philippe; Camacho Toro, Reina; Camarda, Stefano; Camarri, Paolo; Cameron, David; Caminal Armadans, Roger; Camincher, Clement; Campana, Simone; Campanelli, Mario; Camplani, Alessandra; Campoverde, Angel; Canale, Vincenzo; Canepa, Anadi; Cano Bret, Marc; Cantero, Josu; Cao, Tingting; Capeans Garrido, Maria Del Mar; Caprini, Irinel; Caprini, Mihai; Capua, Marcella; Carbone, Ryne Michael; Cardarelli, Roberto; Cardillo, Fabio; Carli, Ina; Carli, Tancredi; Carlino, Gianpaolo; Carminati, Leonardo; Carney, Rebecca; Caron, Sascha; Carquin, Edson; Carrillo-Montoya, German D; Carter, Janet; Carvalho, João; Casadei, Diego; Casado, Maria Pilar; Casolino, Mirkoantonio; Casper, David William; Castaneda-Miranda, Elizabeth; Castelijn, Remco; Castelli, Angelantonio; Castillo Gimenez, Victoria; Castro, Nuno Filipe; Catinaccio, Andrea; Catmore, James; Cattai, Ariella; Caudron, Julien; Cavaliere, Viviana; Cavallaro, Emanuele; Cavalli, Donatella; Cavalli-Sforza, Matteo; Cavasinni, Vincenzo; Ceradini, Filippo; Cerda Alberich, Leonor; Santiago Cerqueira, Augusto; Cerri, Alessandro; Cerrito, Lucio; Cerutti, Fabio; Cerv, Matevz; Cervelli, Alberto; Cetin, Serkant Ali; Chafaq, Aziz; Chakraborty, Dhiman; Chan, Stephen Kam-wah; Chan, Yat Long; Chang, Philip; Chapman, John Derek; Charlton, Dave; Chatterjee, Avishek; Chau, Chav Chhiv; Chavez Barajas, Carlos Alberto; Che, Siinn; Cheatham, Susan; Chegwidden, Andrew; Chekanov, Sergei; Chekulaev, Sergey; Chelkov, Gueorgui; Chelstowska, Magda Anna; Chen, Chunhui; Chen, Hucheng; Chen, Karen; Chen, Shenjian; Chen, Shion; Chen, Xin; Chen, Ye; Cheng, Hok Chuen; Cheng, Huajie; Cheng, Yangyang; Cheplakov, Alexander; Cheremushkina, Evgenia; Cherkaoui El Moursli, Rajaa; Chernyatin, Valeriy; Cheu, Elliott; Chevalier, Laurent; Chiarella, Vitaliano; Chiarelli, Giorgio; Chiodini, Gabriele; Chisholm, Andrew; Chitan, Adrian; Chizhov, Mihail; Choi, Kyungeon; Chomont, Arthur Rene; Chouridou, Sofia; Chow, Bonnie Kar Bo; Christodoulou, Valentinos; Chromek-Burckhart, Doris; Chudoba, Jiri; Chuinard, Annabelle Julia; Chwastowski, Janusz; Chytka, Ladislav; Ciapetti, Guido; Ciftci, Abbas Kenan; Cinca, Diane; Cindro, Vladimir; Cioara, Irina Antonela; Ciocca, Claudia; Ciocio, Alessandra; Cirotto, Francesco; Citron, Zvi Hirsh; Citterio, Mauro; Ciubancan, Mihai; Clark, Allan G; Clark, Brian Lee; Clark, Michael; Clark, Philip James; Clarke, Robert; Clement, Christophe; Coadou, Yann; Cobal, Marina; Coccaro, Andrea; Cochran, James H; Colasurdo, Luca; Cole, Brian; Colijn, Auke-Pieter; Collot, Johann; Colombo, Tommaso; Compostella, Gabriele; Conde Muiño, Patricia; Coniavitis, Elias; Connell, Simon Henry; Connelly, Ian; Consorti, Valerio; Constantinescu, Serban; Conti, Geraldine; Conventi, Francesco; Cooke, Mark; Cooper, Ben; Cooper-Sarkar, Amanda; Cormier, Kyle James Read; Cornelissen, Thijs; Corradi, Massimo; Corriveau, Francois; Cortes-Gonzalez, Arely; Cortiana, Giorgio; Costa, Giuseppe; Costa, María José; Costanzo, Davide; Cottin, Giovanna; Cowan, Glen; Cox, Brian; Cranmer, Kyle; Crawley, Samuel Joseph; Cree, Graham; Crépé-Renaudin, Sabine; Crescioli, Francesco; Cribbs, Wayne Allen; Crispin Ortuzar, Mireia; Cristinziani, Markus; Croft, Vince; Crosetti, Giovanni; Cueto, Ana; Cuhadar Donszelmann, Tulay; Cummings, Jane; Curatolo, Maria; Cúth, Jakub; Czirr, Hendrik; Czodrowski, Patrick; D'amen, Gabriele; D'Auria, Saverio; D'Onofrio, Monica; Da Cunha Sargedas De Sousa, Mario Jose; Da Via, Cinzia; Dabrowski, Wladyslaw; Dado, Tomas; Dai, Tiesheng; Dale, Orjan; Dallaire, Frederick; Dallapiccola, Carlo; Dam, Mogens; Dandoy, Jeffrey Rogers; Dang, Nguyen Phuong; Daniells, Andrew Christopher; Dann, Nicholas Stuart; Danninger, Matthias; Dano Hoffmann, Maria; Dao, Valerio; Darbo, Giovanni; Darmora, Smita; Dassoulas, James; Dattagupta, Aparajita; Davey, Will; David, Claire; Davidek, Tomas; Davies, Merlin; Davison, Peter; Dawe, Edmund; Dawson, Ian; De, Kaushik; de Asmundis, Riccardo; De Benedetti, Abraham; De Castro, Stefano; De Cecco, Sandro; De Groot, Nicolo; de Jong, Paul; De la Torre, Hector; De Lorenzi, Francesco; De Maria, Antonio; De Pedis, Daniele; De Salvo, Alessandro; De Sanctis, Umberto; De Santo, Antonella; De Vivie De Regie, Jean-Baptiste; Dearnaley, William James; Debbe, Ramiro; Debenedetti, Chiara; Dedovich, Dmitri; Dehghanian, Nooshin; Deigaard, Ingrid; Del Gaudio, Michela; Del Peso, Jose; Del Prete, Tarcisio; Delgove, David; Deliot, Frederic; Delitzsch, Chris Malena; Dell'Acqua, Andrea; Dell'Asta, Lidia; Dell'Orso, Mauro; Della Pietra, Massimo; della Volpe, Domenico; Delmastro, Marco; Delsart, Pierre-Antoine; DeMarco, David; Demers, Sarah; Demichev, Mikhail; Demilly, Aurelien; Denisov, Sergey; Denysiuk, Denys; Derendarz, Dominik; Derkaoui, Jamal Eddine; Derue, Frederic; Dervan, Paul; Desch, Klaus Kurt; Deterre, Cecile; Dette, Karola; Deviveiros, Pier-Olivier; Dewhurst, Alastair; Dhaliwal, Saminder; Di Ciaccio, Anna; Di Ciaccio, Lucia; Di Clemente, William Kennedy; Di Donato, Camilla; Di Girolamo, Alessandro; Di Girolamo, Beniamino; Di Micco, Biagio; Di Nardo, Roberto; Di Simone, Andrea; Di Sipio, Riccardo; Di Valentino, David; Diaconu, Cristinel; Diamond, Miriam; Dias, Flavia; Diaz, Marco Aurelio; Diehl, Edward; Dietrich, Janet; Díez Cornell, Sergio; Dimitrievska, Aleksandra; Dingfelder, Jochen; Dita, Petre; Dita, Sanda; Dittus, Fridolin; Djama, Fares; Djobava, Tamar; Djuvsland, Julia Isabell; Barros do Vale, Maria Aline; Dobos, Daniel; Dobre, Monica; Doglioni, Caterina; Dolejsi, Jiri; Dolezal, Zdenek; Donadelli, Marisilvia; Donati, Simone; Dondero, Paolo; Donini, Julien; Dopke, Jens; Doria, Alessandra; Dova, Maria-Teresa; Doyle, Tony; Drechsler, Eric; Dris, Manolis; Du, Yanyan; Duarte-Campderros, Jorge; Duchovni, Ehud; Duckeck, Guenter; Ducu, Otilia Anamaria; Duda, Dominik; Dudarev, Alexey; Dudder, Andreas Christian; Duffield, Emily Marie; Duflot, Laurent; Dührssen, Michael; Dumancic, Mirta; Dunford, Monica; Duran Yildiz, Hatice; Düren, Michael; Durglishvili, Archil; Duschinger, Dirk; Dutta, Baishali; Dyndal, Mateusz; Eckardt, Christoph; Ecker, Katharina Maria; Edgar, Ryan Christopher; Edwards, Nicholas Charles; Eifert, Till; Eigen, Gerald; Einsweiler, Kevin; Ekelof, Tord; El Kacimi, Mohamed; Ellajosyula, Venugopal; Ellert, Mattias; Elles, Sabine; Ellinghaus, Frank; Elliot, Alison; Ellis, Nicolas; Elmsheuser, Johannes; Elsing, Markus; Emeliyanov, Dmitry; Enari, Yuji; Endner, Oliver Chris; Ennis, Joseph Stanford; Erdmann, Johannes; Ereditato, Antonio; Ernis, Gunar; Ernst, Jesse; Ernst, Michael; Errede, Steven; Ertel, Eugen; Escalier, Marc; Esch, Hendrik; Escobar, Carlos; Esposito, Bellisario; Etienvre, Anne-Isabelle; Etzion, Erez; Evans, Hal; Ezhilov, Alexey; Ezzi, Mohammed; Fabbri, Federica; Fabbri, Laura; Facini, Gabriel; Fakhrutdinov, Rinat; Falciano, Speranza; Falla, Rebecca Jane; Faltova, Jana; Fang, Yaquan; Fanti, Marcello; Farbin, Amir; Farilla, Addolorata; Farina, Christian; Farina, Edoardo Maria; Farooque, Trisha; Farrell, Steven; Farrington, Sinead; Farthouat, Philippe; Fassi, Farida; Fassnacht, Patrick; Fassouliotis, Dimitrios; Faucci Giannelli, Michele; Favareto, Andrea; Fawcett, William James; Fayard, Louis; Fedin, Oleg; Fedorko, Wojciech; Feigl, Simon; Feligioni, Lorenzo; Feng, Cunfeng; Feng, Eric; Feng, Haolu; Fenyuk, Alexander; Feremenga, Last; Fernandez Martinez, Patricia; Fernandez Perez, Sonia; Ferrando, James; Ferrari, Arnaud; Ferrari, Pamela; Ferrari, Roberto; Ferreira de Lima, Danilo Enoque; Ferrer, Antonio; Ferrere, Didier; Ferretti, Claudio; Ferretto Parodi, Andrea; Fiedler, Frank; Filipčič, Andrej; Filipuzzi, Marco; Filthaut, Frank; Fincke-Keeler, Margret; Finelli, Kevin Daniel; Fiolhais, Miguel; Fiorini, Luca; Firan, Ana; Fischer, Adam; Fischer, Cora; Fischer, Julia; Fisher, Wade Cameron; Flaschel, Nils; Fleck, Ivor; Fleischmann, Philipp; Fletcher, Gareth Thomas; Fletcher, Rob Roy MacGregor; Flick, Tobias; Flores Castillo, Luis; Flowerdew, Michael; Forcolin, Giulio Tiziano; Formica, Andrea; Forti, Alessandra; Foster, Andrew Geoffrey; Fournier, Daniel; Fox, Harald; Fracchia, Silvia; Francavilla, Paolo; Franchini, Matteo; Francis, David; Franconi, Laura; Franklin, Melissa; Frate, Meghan; Fraternali, Marco; Freeborn, David; Fressard-Batraneanu, Silvia; Friedrich, Felix; Froidevaux, Daniel; Frost, James; Fukunaga, Chikara; Fullana Torregrosa, Esteban; Fusayasu, Takahiro; Fuster, Juan; Gabaldon, Carolina; Gabizon, Ofir; Gabrielli, Alessandro; Gabrielli, Andrea; Gach, Grzegorz; Gadatsch, Stefan; Gadomski, Szymon; Gagliardi, Guido; Gagnon, Louis Guillaume; Gagnon, Pauline; Galea, Cristina; Galhardo, Bruno; Gallas, Elizabeth; Gallop, Bruce; Gallus, Petr; Galster, Gorm Aske Gram Krohn; Gan, KK; Ganguly, Sanmay; Gao, Jun; Gao, Yanyan; Gao, Yongsheng; Garay Walls, Francisca; García, Carmen; García Navarro, José Enrique; Garcia-Sciveres, Maurice; Gardner, Robert; Garelli, Nicoletta; Garonne, Vincent; Gascon Bravo, Alberto; Gasnikova, Ksenia; Gatti, Claudio; Gaudiello, Andrea; Gaudio, Gabriella; Gauthier, Lea; Gavrilenko, Igor; Gay, Colin; Gaycken, Goetz; Gazis, Evangelos; Gecse, Zoltan; Gee, Norman; Geich-Gimbel, Christoph; Geisen, Marc; Geisler, Manuel Patrice; Gellerstedt, Karl; Gemme, Claudia; Genest, Marie-Hélène; Geng, Cong; Gentile, Simonetta; Gentsos, Christos; George, Simon; Gerbaudo, Davide; Gershon, Avi; Ghasemi, Sara; Ghneimat, Mazuza; Giacobbe, Benedetto; Giagu, Stefano; Giannetti, Paola; Gibbard, Bruce; Gibson, Stephen; Gignac, Matthew; Gilchriese, Murdock; Gillam, Thomas; Gillberg, Dag; Gilles, Geoffrey; Gingrich, Douglas; Giokaris, Nikos; Giordani, MarioPaolo; Giorgi, Filippo Maria; Giorgi, Francesco Michelangelo; Giraud, Pierre-Francois; Giromini, Paolo; Giugni, Danilo; Giuli, Francesco; Giuliani, Claudia; Giulini, Maddalena; Gjelsten, Børge Kile; Gkaitatzis, Stamatios; Gkialas, Ioannis; Gkougkousis, Evangelos Leonidas; Gladilin, Leonid; Glasman, Claudia; Glatzer, Julian; Glaysher, Paul; Glazov, Alexandre; Goblirsch-Kolb, Maximilian; Godlewski, Jan; Goldfarb, Steven; Golling, Tobias; Golubkov, Dmitry; Gomes, Agostinho; Gonçalo, Ricardo; Goncalves Pinto Firmino Da Costa, Joao; Gonella, Giulia; Gonella, Laura; Gongadze, Alexi; González de la Hoz, Santiago; Gonzalez-Sevilla, Sergio; Goossens, Luc; Gorbounov, Petr Andreevich; Gordon, Howard; Gorelov, Igor; Gorini, Benedetto; Gorini, Edoardo; Gorišek, Andrej; Gornicki, Edward; Goshaw, Alfred; Gössling, Claus; Gostkin, Mikhail Ivanovitch; Goudet, Christophe Raymond; Goujdami, Driss; Goussiou, Anna; Govender, Nicolin; Gozani, Eitan; Graber, Lars; Grabowska-Bold, Iwona; Gradin, Per Olov Joakim; Grafström, Per; Gramling, Johanna; Gramstad, Eirik; Grancagnolo, Sergio; Gratchev, Vadim; Gravila, Paul Mircea; Gray, Heather; Graziani, Enrico; Greenwood, Zeno Dixon; Grefe, Christian; Gregersen, Kristian; Gregor, Ingrid-Maria; Grenier, Philippe; Grevtsov, Kirill; Griffiths, Justin; Grillo, Alexander; Grimm, Kathryn; Grinstein, Sebastian; Gris, Philippe Luc Yves; Grivaz, Jean-Francois; Groh, Sabrina; Gross, Eilam; Grosse-Knetter, Joern; Grossi, Giulio Cornelio; Grout, Zara Jane; Guan, Liang; Guan, Wen; Guenther, Jaroslav; Guescini, Francesco; Guest, Daniel; Gueta, Orel; Gui, Bin; Guido, Elisa; Guillemin, Thibault; Guindon, Stefan; Gul, Umar; Gumpert, Christian; Guo, Jun; Guo, Yicheng; Gupta, Ruchi; Gupta, Shaun; Gustavino, Giuliano; Gutierrez, Phillip; Gutierrez Ortiz, Nicolas Gilberto; Gutschow, Christian; Guyot, Claude; Gwenlan, Claire; Gwilliam, Carl; Haas, Andy; Haber, Carl; Hadavand, Haleh Khani; Haddad, Nacim; Hadef, Asma; Hageböck, Stephan; Hagihara, Mutsuto; Hajduk, Zbigniew; Hakobyan, Hrachya; Haleem, Mahsana; Haley, Joseph; Halladjian, Garabed; Hallewell, Gregory David; Hamacher, Klaus; Hamal, Petr; Hamano, Kenji; Hamilton, Andrew; Hamity, Guillermo Nicolas; Hamnett, Phillip George; Han, Liang; Hanagaki, Kazunori; Hanawa, Keita; Hance, Michael; Haney, Bijan; Hanke, Paul; Hanna, Remie; Hansen, Jørgen Beck; Hansen, Jorn Dines; Hansen, Maike Christina; Hansen, Peter Henrik; Hara, Kazuhiko; Hard, Andrew; Harenberg, Torsten; Hariri, Faten; Harkusha, Siarhei; Harrington, Robert; Harrison, Paul Fraser; Hartjes, Fred; Hartmann, Nikolai Marcel; Hasegawa, Makoto; Hasegawa, Yoji; Hasib, A; Hassani, Samira; Haug, Sigve; Hauser, Reiner; Hauswald, Lorenz; Havranek, Miroslav; Hawkes, Christopher; Hawkings, Richard John; Hayakawa, Daiki; Hayden, Daniel; Hays, Chris; Hays, Jonathan Michael; Hayward, Helen; Haywood, Stephen; Head, Simon; Heck, Tobias; Hedberg, Vincent; Heelan, Louise; Heim, Sarah; Heim, Timon; Heinemann, Beate; Heinrich, Jochen Jens; Heinrich, Lukas; Heinz, Christian; Hejbal, Jiri; Helary, Louis; Hellman, Sten; Helsens, Clement; Henderson, James; Henderson, Robert; Heng, Yang; Henkelmann, Steffen; Henriques Correia, Ana Maria; Henrot-Versille, Sophie; Herbert, Geoffrey Henry; Herde, Hannah; Herget, Verena; Hernández Jiménez, Yesenia; Herten, Gregor; Hertenberger, Ralf; Hervas, Luis; Hesketh, Gavin Grant; Hessey, Nigel; Hetherly, Jeffrey Wayne; Hickling, Robert; Higón-Rodriguez, Emilio; Hill, Ewan; Hill, John; Hiller, Karl Heinz; Hillier, Stephen; Hinchliffe, Ian; Hines, Elizabeth; Hinman, Rachel Reisner; Hirose, Minoru; Hirschbuehl, Dominic; Hobbs, John; Hod, Noam; Hodgkinson, Mark; Hodgson, Paul; Hoecker, Andreas; Hoeferkamp, Martin; Hoenig, Friedrich; Hohn, David; Holmes, Tova Ray; Homann, Michael; Honda, Takuya; Hong, Tae Min; Hooberman, Benjamin Henry; Hopkins, Walter; Horii, Yasuyuki; Horton, Arthur James; Hostachy, Jean-Yves; Hou, Suen; Hoummada, Abdeslam; Howarth, James; Hoya, Joaquin; Hrabovsky, Miroslav; Hristova, Ivana; Hrivnac, Julius; Hryn'ova, Tetiana; Hrynevich, Aliaksei; Hsu, Catherine; Hsu, Pai-hsien Jennifer; Hsu, Shih-Chieh; Hu, Qipeng; Hu, Shuyang; Huang, Yanping; Hubacek, Zdenek; Hubaut, Fabrice; Huegging, Fabian; Huffman, Todd Brian; Hughes, Emlyn; Hughes, Gareth; Huhtinen, Mika; Huo, Peng; Huseynov, Nazim; Huston, Joey; Huth, John; Iacobucci, Giuseppe; Iakovidis, Georgios; Ibragimov, Iskander; Iconomidou-Fayard, Lydia; Ideal, Emma; Idrissi, Zineb; Iengo, Paolo; Igonkina, Olga; Iizawa, Tomoya; Ikegami, Yoichi; Ikeno, Masahiro; Ilchenko, Yuriy; Iliadis, Dimitrios; Ilic, Nikolina; Ince, Tayfun; Introzzi, Gianluca; Ioannou, Pavlos; Iodice, Mauro; Iordanidou, Kalliopi; Ippolito, Valerio; Ishijima, Naoki; Ishino, Masaya; Ishitsuka, Masaki; Ishmukhametov, Renat; Issever, Cigdem; Istin, Serhat; Ito, Fumiaki; Iturbe Ponce, Julia Mariana; Iuppa, Roberto; Iwanski, Wieslaw; Iwasaki, Hiroyuki; Izen, Joseph; Izzo, Vincenzo; Jabbar, Samina; Jackson, Brett; Jackson, Paul; Jain, Vivek; Jakobi, Katharina Bianca; Jakobs, Karl; Jakobsen, Sune; Jakoubek, Tomas; Jamin, David Olivier; Jana, Dilip; Jansky, Roland; Janssen, Jens; Janus, Michel; Jarlskog, Göran; Javadov, Namig; Javůrek, Tomáš; Jeanneau, Fabien; Jeanty, Laura; Jeng, Geng-yuan; Jennens, David; Jenni, Peter; Jeske, Carl; Jézéquel, Stéphane; Ji, Haoshuang; Jia, Jiangyong; Jiang, Hai; Jiang, Yi; Jiang, Zihao; Jiggins, Stephen; Jimenez Pena, Javier; Jin, Shan; Jinaru, Adam; Jinnouchi, Osamu; Jivan, Harshna; Johansson, Per; Johns, Kenneth; Johnson, William Joseph; Jon-And, Kerstin; Jones, Graham; Jones, Roger; Jones, Sarah; Jones, Tim; Jongmanns, Jan; Jorge, Pedro; Jovicevic, Jelena; Ju, Xiangyang; Juste Rozas, Aurelio; Köhler, Markus Konrad; Kaczmarska, Anna; Kado, Marumi; Kagan, Harris; Kagan, Michael; Kahn, Sebastien Jonathan; Kaji, Toshiaki; Kajomovitz, Enrique; Kalderon, Charles William; Kaluza, Adam; Kama, Sami; Kamenshchikov, Andrey; Kanaya, Naoko; Kaneti, Steven; Kanjir, Luka; Kantserov, Vadim; Kanzaki, Junichi; Kaplan, Benjamin; Kaplan, Laser Seymour; Kapliy, Anton; Kar, Deepak; Karakostas, Konstantinos; Karamaoun, Andrew; Karastathis, Nikolaos; Kareem, Mohammad Jawad; Karentzos, Efstathios; Karnevskiy, Mikhail; Karpov, Sergey; Karpova, Zoya; Karthik, Krishnaiyengar; Kartvelishvili, Vakhtang; Karyukhin, Andrey; Kasahara, Kota; Kashif, Lashkar; Kass, Richard; Kastanas, Alex; Kataoka, Yousuke; Kato, Chikuma; Katre, Akshay; Katzy, Judith; Kawade, Kentaro; Kawagoe, Kiyotomo; Kawamoto, Tatsuo; Kawamura, Gen; Kazanin, Vassili; Keeler, Richard; Kehoe, Robert; Keller, John; Kempster, Jacob Julian; Keoshkerian, Houry; Kepka, Oldrich; Kerševan, Borut Paul; Kersten, Susanne; Keyes, Robert; Khader, Mazin; Khalil-zada, Farkhad; Khanov, Alexander; Kharlamov, Alexey; Kharlamova, Tatyana; Khoo, Teng Jian; Khovanskiy, Valery; Khramov, Evgeniy; Khubua, Jemal; Kido, Shogo; Kilby, Callum; Kim, Hee Yeun; Kim, Shinhong; Kim, Young-Kee; Kimura, Naoki; Kind, Oliver Maria; King, Barry; King, Matthew; Kirk, Julie; Kiryunin, Andrey; Kishimoto, Tomoe; Kisielewska, Danuta; Kiss, Florian; Kiuchi, Kenji; Kivernyk, Oleh; Kladiva, Eduard; Klein, Matthew Henry; Klein, Max; Klein, Uta; Kleinknecht, Konrad; Klimek, Pawel; Klimentov, Alexei; Klingenberg, Reiner; Klinger, Joel Alexander; Klioutchnikova, Tatiana; Kluge, Eike-Erik; Kluit, Peter; Kluth, Stefan; Knapik, Joanna; Kneringer, Emmerich; Knoops, Edith; Knue, Andrea; Kobayashi, Aine; Kobayashi, Dai; Kobayashi, Tomio; Kobel, Michael; Kocian, Martin; Kodys, Peter; Koehler, Nicolas Maximilian; Koffas, Thomas; Koffeman, Els; Koi, Tatsumi; Kolanoski, Hermann; Kolb, Mathis; Koletsou, Iro; Komar, Aston; Komori, Yuto; Kondo, Takahiko; Kondrashova, Nataliia; Köneke, Karsten; König, Adriaan; Kono, Takanori; Konoplich, Rostislav; Konstantinidis, Nikolaos; Kopeliansky, Revital; Koperny, Stefan; Köpke, Lutz; Kopp, Anna Katharina; Korcyl, Krzysztof; Kordas, Kostantinos; Korn, Andreas; Korol, Aleksandr; Korolkov, Ilya; Korolkova, Elena; Kortner, Oliver; Kortner, Sandra; Kosek, Tomas; Kostyukhin, Vadim; Kotwal, Ashutosh; Koulouris, Aimilianos; Kourkoumeli-Charalampidi, Athina; Kourkoumelis, Christine; Kouskoura, Vasiliki; Kowalewska, Anna Bozena; Kowalewski, Robert Victor; Kowalski, Tadeusz; Kozakai, Chihiro; Kozanecki, Witold; Kozhin, Anatoly; Kramarenko, Viktor; Kramberger, Gregor; Krasnopevtsev, Dimitriy; Krasny, Mieczyslaw Witold; Krasznahorkay, Attila; Krauss, Frank; Kravchenko, Anton; Kretz, Moritz; Kretzschmar, Jan; Kreutzfeldt, Kristof; Krieger, Peter; Krizka, Karol; Kroeninger, Kevin; Kroha, Hubert; Kroll, Joe; Kroseberg, Juergen; Krstic, Jelena; Kruchonak, Uladzimir; Krüger, Hans; Krumnack, Nils; Kruse, Mark; Kruskal, Michael; Kubota, Takashi; Kucuk, Hilal; Kuday, Sinan; Kuechler, Jan Thomas; Kuehn, Susanne; Kugel, Andreas; Kuger, Fabian; Kuhl, Andrew; Kuhl, Thorsten; Kukhtin, Victor; Kukla, Romain; Kulchitsky, Yuri; Kuleshov, Sergey; Kuna, Marine; Kunigo, Takuto; Kupco, Alexander; Kurashige, Hisaya; Kurochkin, Yurii; Kus, Vlastimil; Kuwertz, Emma Sian; Kuze, Masahiro; Kvita, Jiri; Kwan, Tony; Kyriazopoulos, Dimitrios; La Rosa, Alessandro; La Rosa Navarro, Jose Luis; La Rotonda, Laura; Lacasta, Carlos; Lacava, Francesco; Lacey, James; Lacker, Heiko; Lacour, Didier; Lacuesta, Vicente Ramón; Ladygin, Evgueni; Lafaye, Remi; Laforge, Bertrand; Lagouri, Theodota; Lai, Stanley; Lammers, Sabine; Lampl, Walter; Lançon, Eric; Landgraf, Ulrich; Landon, Murrough; Lanfermann, Marie Christine; Lang, Valerie Susanne; Lange, J örn Christian; Lankford, Andrew; Lanni, Francesco; Lantzsch, Kerstin; Lanza, Agostino; Laplace, Sandrine; Lapoire, Cecile; Laporte, Jean-Francois; Lari, Tommaso; Lasagni Manghi, Federico; Lassnig, Mario; Laurelli, Paolo; Lavrijsen, Wim; Law, Alexander; Laycock, Paul; Lazovich, Tomo; Lazzaroni, Massimo; Le, Brian; Le Dortz, Olivier; Le Guirriec, Emmanuel; Le Quilleuc, Eloi; LeBlanc, Matthew Edgar; LeCompte, Thomas; Ledroit-Guillon, Fabienne Agnes Marie; Lee, Claire Alexandra; Lee, Shih-Chang; Lee, Lawrence; Lefebvre, Benoit; Lefebvre, Guillaume; Lefebvre, Michel; Legger, Federica; Leggett, Charles; Lehan, Allan; Lehmann Miotto, Giovanna; Lei, Xiaowen; Leight, William Axel; Leister, Andrew Gerard; Leite, Marco Aurelio Lisboa; Leitner, Rupert; Lellouch, Daniel; Lemmer, Boris; Leney, Katharine; Lenz, Tatjana; Lenzi, Bruno; Leone, Robert; Leone, Sandra; Leonidopoulos, Christos; Leontsinis, Stefanos; Lerner, Giuseppe; Leroy, Claude; Lesage, Arthur; Lester, Christopher; Levchenko, Mikhail; Levêque, Jessica; Levin, Daniel; Levinson, Lorne; Levy, Mark; Lewis, Dave; Leyko, Agnieszka; Leyton, Michael; Li, Bing; Li, Changqiao; Li, Haifeng; Li, Ho Ling; Li, Lei; Li, Liang; Li, Qi; Li, Shu; Li, Xingguo; Li, Yichen; Liang, Zhijun; Liberti, Barbara; Liblong, Aaron; Lichard, Peter; Lie, Ki; Liebal, Jessica; Liebig, Wolfgang; Limosani, Antonio; Lin, Simon; Lin, Tai-Hua; Lindquist, Brian Edward; Lionti, Anthony Eric; Lipeles, Elliot; Lipniacka, Anna; Lisovyi, Mykhailo; Liss, Tony; Lister, Alison; Litke, Alan; Liu, Bo; Liu, Dong; Liu, Hao; Liu, Hongbin; Liu, Jian; Liu, Jianbei; Liu, Kun; Liu, Lulu; Liu, Miaoyuan; Liu, Minghui; Liu, Yanlin; Liu, Yanwen; Livan, Michele; Lleres, Annick; Llorente Merino, Javier; Lloyd, Stephen; Lo Sterzo, Francesco; Lobodzinska, Ewelina Maria; Loch, Peter; Loebinger, Fred; Loew, Kevin Michael; Loginov, Andrey; Lohse, Thomas; Lohwasser, Kristin; Lokajicek, Milos; Long, Brian Alexander; Long, Jonathan David; Long, Robin Eamonn; Longo, Luigi; Looper, Kristina Anne; López, Jorge Andrés; Lopez Mateos, David; Lopez Paredes, Brais; Lopez Paz, Ivan; Lopez Solis, Alvaro; Lorenz, Jeanette; Lorenzo Martinez, Narei; Losada, Marta; Lösel, Philipp Jonathan; Lou, XinChou; Lounis, Abdenour; Love, Jeremy; Love, Peter; Lu, Haonan; Lu, Nan; Lubatti, Henry; Luci, Claudio; Lucotte, Arnaud; Luedtke, Christian; Luehring, Frederick; Lukas, Wolfgang; Luminari, Lamberto; Lundberg, Olof; Lund-Jensen, Bengt; Luzi, Pierre Marc; Lynn, David; Lysak, Roman; Lytken, Else; Lyubushkin, Vladimir; Ma, Hong; Ma, Lian Liang; Ma, Yanhui; Maccarrone, Giovanni; Macchiolo, Anna; Macdonald, Calum Michael; Maček, Boštjan; Machado Miguens, Joana; Madaffari, Daniele; Madar, Romain; Maddocks, Harvey Jonathan; Mader, Wolfgang; Madsen, Alexander; Maeda, Junpei; Maeland, Steffen; Maeno, Tadashi; Maevskiy, Artem; Magradze, Erekle; Mahlstedt, Joern; Maiani, Camilla; Maidantchik, Carmen; Maier, Andreas Alexander; Maier, Thomas; Maio, Amélia; Majewski, Stephanie; Makida, Yasuhiro; Makovec, Nikola; Malaescu, Bogdan; Malecki, Pawel; Maleev, Victor; Malek, Fairouz; Mallik, Usha; Malon, David; Malone, Caitlin; Malone, Claire; Maltezos, Stavros; Malyukov, Sergei; Mamuzic, Judita; Mancini, Giada; Mandelli, Luciano; Mandić, Igor; Maneira, José; Manhaes de Andrade Filho, Luciano; Manjarres Ramos, Joany; Mann, Alexander; Manousos, Athanasios; Mansoulie, Bruno; Mansour, Jason Dhia; Mantifel, Rodger; Mantoani, Matteo; Manzoni, Stefano; Mapelli, Livio; Marceca, Gino; March, Luis; Marchiori, Giovanni; Marcisovsky, Michal; Marjanovic, Marija; Marley, Daniel; Marroquim, Fernando; Marsden, Stephen Philip; Marshall, Zach; Marti-Garcia, Salvador; Martin, Brian Thomas; Martin, Tim; Martin, Victoria Jane; Martin dit Latour, Bertrand; Martinez, Mario; Martinez Outschoorn, Verena; Martin-Haugh, Stewart; Martoiu, Victor Sorin; Martyniuk, Alex; Marzin, Antoine; Masetti, Lucia; Mashimo, Tetsuro; Mashinistov, Ruslan; Masik, Jiri; Maslennikov, Alexey; Massa, Ignazio; Massa, Lorenzo; Mastrandrea, Paolo; Mastroberardino, Anna; Masubuchi, Tatsuya; Mättig, Peter; Mattmann, Johannes; Maurer, Julien; Maxfield, Stephen; Maximov, Dmitriy; Mazini, Rachid; Maznas, Ioannis; Mazza, Simone Michele; Mc Fadden, Neil Christopher; Mc Goldrick, Garrin; Mc Kee, Shawn Patrick; McCarn, Allison; McCarthy, Robert; McCarthy, Tom; McClymont, Laurie; McDonald, Emily; Mcfayden, Josh; Mchedlidze, Gvantsa; McMahon, Steve; McPherson, Robert; Medinnis, Michael; Meehan, Samuel; Mehlhase, Sascha; Mehta, Andrew; Meier, Karlheinz; Meineck, Christian; Meirose, Bernhard; Melini, Davide; Mellado Garcia, Bruce Rafael; Melo, Matej; Meloni, Federico; Mengarelli, Alberto; Menke, Sven; Meoni, Evelin; Mergelmeyer, Sebastian; Mermod, Philippe; Merola, Leonardo; Meroni, Chiara; Merritt, Frank; Messina, Andrea; Metcalfe, Jessica; Mete, Alaettin Serhan; Meyer, Carsten; Meyer, Christopher; Meyer, Jean-Pierre; Meyer, Jochen; Meyer Zu Theenhausen, Hanno; Miano, Fabrizio; Middleton, Robin; Miglioranzi, Silvia; Mijović, Liza; Mikenberg, Giora; Mikestikova, Marcela; Mikuž, Marko; Milesi, Marco; Milic, Adriana; Miller, David; Mills, Corrinne; Milov, Alexander; Milstead, David; Minaenko, Andrey; Minami, Yuto; Minashvili, Irakli; Mincer, Allen; Mindur, Bartosz; Mineev, Mikhail; Minegishi, Yuji; Ming, Yao; Mir, Lluisa-Maria; Mistry, Khilesh; Mitani, Takashi; Mitrevski, Jovan; Mitsou, Vasiliki A; Miucci, Antonio; Miyagawa, Paul; Mjörnmark, Jan-Ulf; Mlynarikova, Michaela; Moa, Torbjoern; Mochizuki, Kazuya; Mohapatra, Soumya; Molander, Simon; Moles-Valls, Regina; Monden, Ryutaro; Mondragon, Matthew Craig; Mönig, Klaus; Monk, James; Monnier, Emmanuel; Montalbano, Alyssa; Montejo Berlingen, Javier; Monticelli, Fernando; Monzani, Simone; Moore, Roger; Morange, Nicolas; Moreno, Deywis; Moreno Llácer, María; Morettini, Paolo; Morgenstern, Stefanie; Mori, Daniel; Mori, Tatsuya; Morii, Masahiro; Morinaga, Masahiro; Morisbak, Vanja; Moritz, Sebastian; Morley, Anthony Keith; Mornacchi, Giuseppe; Morris, John; Mortensen, Simon Stark; Morvaj, Ljiljana; Mosidze, Maia; Moss, Josh; Motohashi, Kazuki; Mount, Richard; Mountricha, Eleni; Moyse, Edward; Muanza, Steve; Mudd, Richard; Mueller, Felix; Mueller, James; Mueller, Ralph Soeren Peter; Mueller, Thibaut; Muenstermann, Daniel; Mullen, Paul; Mullier, Geoffrey; Munoz Sanchez, Francisca Javiela; Murillo Quijada, Javier Alberto; Murray, Bill; Musheghyan, Haykuhi; Muškinja, Miha; Myagkov, Alexey; Myska, Miroslav; Nachman, Benjamin Philip; Nackenhorst, Olaf; Nagai, Koichi; Nagai, Ryo; Nagano, Kunihiro; Nagasaka, Yasushi; Nagata, Kazuki; Nagel, Martin; Nagy, Elemer; Nairz, Armin Michael; Nakahama, Yu; Nakamura, Koji; Nakamura, Tomoaki; Nakano, Itsuo; Naranjo Garcia, Roger Felipe; Narayan, Rohin; Narrias Villar, Daniel Isaac; Naryshkin, Iouri; Naumann, Thomas; Navarro, Gabriela; Nayyar, Ruchika; Neal, Homer; Nechaeva, Polina; Neep, Thomas James; Negri, Andrea; Negrini, Matteo; Nektarijevic, Snezana; Nellist, Clara; Nelson, Andrew; Nemecek, Stanislav; Nemethy, Peter; Nepomuceno, Andre Asevedo; Nessi, Marzio; Neubauer, Mark; Neumann, Manuel; Neves, Ricardo; Nevski, Pavel; Newman, Paul; Nguyen, Duong Hai; Nguyen Manh, Tuan; Nickerson, Richard; Nicolaidou, Rosy; Nielsen, Jason; Nikiforov, Andriy; Nikolaenko, Vladimir; Nikolic-Audit, Irena; Nikolopoulos, Konstantinos; Nilsen, Jon Kerr; Nilsson, Paul; Ninomiya, Yoichi; Nisati, Aleandro; Nisius, Richard; Nobe, Takuya; Nomachi, Masaharu; Nomidis, Ioannis; Nooney, Tamsin; Norberg, Scarlet; Nordberg, Markus; Norjoharuddeen, Nurfikri; Novgorodova, Olga; Nowak, Sebastian; Nozaki, Mitsuaki; Nozka, Libor; Ntekas, Konstantinos; Nurse, Emily; Nuti, Francesco; O'grady, Fionnbarr; O'Neil, Dugan; O'Rourke, Abigail Alexandra; O'Shea, Val; Oakham, Gerald; Oberlack, Horst; Obermann, Theresa; Ocariz, Jose; Ochi, Atsuhiko; Ochoa, Ines; Ochoa-Ricoux, Juan Pedro; Oda, Susumu; Odaka, Shigeru; Ogren, Harold; Oh, Alexander; Oh, Seog; Ohm, Christian; Ohman, Henrik; Oide, Hideyuki; Okawa, Hideki; Okumura, Yasuyuki; Okuyama, Toyonobu; Olariu, Albert; Oleiro Seabra, Luis Filipe; Olivares Pino, Sebastian Andres; Oliveira Damazio, Denis; Olszewski, Andrzej; Olszowska, Jolanta; Onofre, António; Onogi, Kouta; Onyisi, Peter; Oreglia, Mark; Oren, Yona; Orestano, Domizia; Orlando, Nicola; Orr, Robert; Osculati, Bianca; Ospanov, Rustem; Otero y Garzon, Gustavo; Otono, Hidetoshi; Ouchrif, Mohamed; Ould-Saada, Farid; Ouraou, Ahmimed; Oussoren, Koen Pieter; Ouyang, Qun; Owen, Mark; Owen, Rhys Edward; Ozcan, Veysi Erkcan; Ozturk, Nurcan; Pachal, Katherine; Pacheco Pages, Andres; Pacheco Rodriguez, Laura; Padilla Aranda, Cristobal; Pagáčová, Martina; Pagan Griso, Simone; Paganini, Michela; Paige, Frank; Pais, Preema; Pajchel, Katarina; Palacino, Gabriel; Palazzo, Serena; Palestini, Sandro; Palka, Marek; Pallin, Dominique; Panagiotopoulou, Evgenia; Pandini, Carlo Enrico; Panduro Vazquez, William; Pani, Priscilla; Panitkin, Sergey; Pantea, Dan; Paolozzi, Lorenzo; Papadopoulou, Theodora; Papageorgiou, Konstantinos; Paramonov, Alexander; Paredes Hernandez, Daniela; Parker, Adam Jackson; Parker, Michael Andrew; Parker, Kerry Ann; Parodi, Fabrizio; Parsons, John; Parzefall, Ulrich; Pascuzzi, Vincent; Pasqualucci, Enrico; Passaggio, Stefano; Pastore, Francesca; Pásztor, Gabriella; Pataraia, Sophio; Pater, Joleen; Pauly, Thilo; Pearce, James; Pearson, Benjamin; Pedersen, Lars Egholm; Pedersen, Maiken; Pedraza Lopez, Sebastian; Pedro, Rute; Peleganchuk, Sergey; Penc, Ondrej; Peng, Cong; Peng, Haiping; Penwell, John; Peralva, Bernardo; Perego, Marta Maria; Perepelitsa, Dennis; Perez Codina, Estel; Perini, Laura; Pernegger, Heinz; Perrella, Sabrina; Peschke, Richard; Peshekhonov, Vladimir; Peters, Krisztian; Peters, Yvonne; Petersen, Brian; Petersen, Troels; Petit, Elisabeth; Petridis, Andreas; Petridou, Chariclia; Petroff, Pierre; Petrolo, Emilio; Petrov, Mariyan; Petrucci, Fabrizio; Pettersson, Nora Emilia; Peyaud, Alan; Pezoa, Raquel; Phillips, Peter William; Piacquadio, Giacinto; Pianori, Elisabetta; Picazio, Attilio; Piccaro, Elisa; Piccinini, Maurizio; Pickering, Mark Andrew; Piegaia, Ricardo; Pilcher, James; Pilkington, Andrew; Pin, Arnaud Willy J; Pinamonti, Michele; Pinfold, James; Pingel, Almut; Pires, Sylvestre; Pirumov, Hayk; Pitt, Michael; Plazak, Lukas; Pleier, Marc-Andre; Pleskot, Vojtech; Plotnikova, Elena; Plucinski, Pawel; Pluth, Daniel; Poettgen, Ruth; Poggioli, Luc; Pohl, David-leon; Polesello, Giacomo; Poley, Anne-luise; Policicchio, Antonio; Polifka, Richard; Polini, Alessandro; Pollard, Christopher Samuel; Polychronakos, Venetios; Pommès, Kathy; Pontecorvo, Ludovico; Pope, Bernard; Popeneciu, Gabriel Alexandru; Poppleton, Alan; Pospisil, Stanislav; Potamianos, Karolos; Potrap, Igor; Potter, Christina; Potter, Christopher; Poulard, Gilbert; Poveda, Joaquin; Pozdnyakov, Valery; Pozo Astigarraga, Mikel Eukeni; Pralavorio, Pascal; Pranko, Aliaksandr; Prell, Soeren; Price, Darren; Price, Lawrence; Primavera, Margherita; Prince, Sebastien; Prokofiev, Kirill; Prokoshin, Fedor; Protopopescu, Serban; Proudfoot, James; Przybycien, Mariusz; Puddu, Daniele; Purohit, Milind; Puzo, Patrick; Qian, Jianming; Qin, Gang; Qin, Yang; Quadt, Arnulf; Quayle, William; Queitsch-Maitland, Michaela; Quilty, Donnchadha; Raddum, Silje; Radeka, Veljko; Radescu, Voica; Radhakrishnan, Sooraj Krishnan; Radloff, Peter; Rados, Pere; Ragusa, Francesco; Rahal, Ghita; Raine, John Andrew; Rajagopalan, Srinivasan; Rammensee, Michael; Rangel-Smith, Camila; Ratti, Maria Giulia; Rauch, Daniel; Rauscher, Felix; Rave, Stefan; Ravenscroft, Thomas; Ravinovich, Ilia; Raymond, Michel; Read, Alexander Lincoln; Readioff, Nathan Peter; Reale, Marilea; Rebuzzi, Daniela; Redelbach, Andreas; Redlinger, George; Reece, Ryan; Reed, Robert; Reeves, Kendall; Rehnisch, Laura; Reichert, Joseph; Reiss, Andreas; Rembser, Christoph; Ren, Huan; Rescigno, Marco; Resconi, Silvia; Rezanova, Olga; Reznicek, Pavel; Rezvani, Reyhaneh; Richter, Robert; Richter, Stefan; Richter-Was, Elzbieta; Ricken, Oliver; Ridel, Melissa; Rieck, Patrick; Riegel, Christian Johann; Rieger, Julia; Rifki, Othmane; Rijssenbeek, Michael; Rimoldi, Adele; Rimoldi, Marco; Rinaldi, Lorenzo; Ristić, Branislav; Ritsch, Elmar; Riu, Imma; Rizatdinova, Flera; Rizvi, Eram; Rizzi, Chiara; Robertson, Steven; Robichaud-Veronneau, Andree; Robinson, Dave; Robinson, James; Robson, Aidan; Roda, Chiara; Rodina, Yulia; Rodriguez Perez, Andrea; Rodriguez Rodriguez, Daniel; Roe, Shaun; Rogan, Christopher Sean; Røhne, Ole; Roloff, Jennifer; Romaniouk, Anatoli; Romano, Marino; Romano Saez, Silvestre Marino; Romero Adam, Elena; Rompotis, Nikolaos; Ronzani, Manfredi; Roos, Lydia; Ros, Eduardo; Rosati, Stefano; Rosbach, Kilian; Rose, Peyton; Rosien, Nils-Arne; Rossetti, Valerio; Rossi, Elvira; Rossi, Leonardo Paolo; Rosten, Jonatan; Rosten, Rachel; Rotaru, Marina; Roth, Itamar; Rothberg, Joseph; Rousseau, David; Rozanov, Alexandre; Rozen, Yoram; Ruan, Xifeng; Rubbo, Francesco; Rudolph, Matthew Scott; Rühr, Frederik; Ruiz-Martinez, Aranzazu; Rurikova, Zuzana; Rusakovich, Nikolai; Ruschke, Alexander; Russell, Heather; Rutherfoord, John; Ruthmann, Nils; Ryabov, Yury; Rybar, Martin; Rybkin, Grigori; Ryu, Soo; Ryzhov, Andrey; Rzehorz, Gerhard Ferdinand; Saavedra, Aldo; Sabato, Gabriele; Sacerdoti, Sabrina; Sadrozinski, Hartmut; Sadykov, Renat; Safai Tehrani, Francesco; Saha, Puja; Sahinsoy, Merve; Saimpert, Matthias; Saito, Tomoyuki; Sakamoto, Hiroshi; Sakurai, Yuki; Salamanna, Giuseppe; Salamon, Andrea; Salazar Loyola, Javier Esteban; Salek, David; Sales De Bruin, Pedro Henrique; Salihagic, Denis; Salnikov, Andrei; Salt, José; Salvatore, Daniela; Salvatore, Pasquale Fabrizio; Salvucci, Antonio; Salzburger, Andreas; Sammel, Dirk; Sampsonidis, Dimitrios; Sanchez, Arturo; Sánchez, Javier; Sanchez Martinez, Victoria; Sandaker, Heidi; Sandbach, Ruth Laura; Sandhoff, Marisa; Sandoval, Carlos; Sankey, Dave; Sannino, Mario; Sansoni, Andrea; Santoni, Claudio; Santonico, Rinaldo; Santos, Helena; Santoyo Castillo, Itzebelt; Sapp, Kevin; Sapronov, Andrey; Saraiva, João; Sarrazin, Bjorn; Sasaki, Osamu; Sato, Koji; Sauvan, Emmanuel; Savage, Graham; Savard, Pierre; Savic, Natascha; Sawyer, Craig; Sawyer, Lee; Saxon, James; Sbarra, Carla; Sbrizzi, Antonio; Scanlon, Tim; Scannicchio, Diana; Scarcella, Mark; Scarfone, Valerio; Schaarschmidt, Jana; Schacht, Peter; Schachtner, Balthasar Maria; Schaefer, Douglas; Schaefer, Leigh; Schaefer, Ralph; Schaeffer, Jan; Schaepe, Steffen; Schaetzel, Sebastian; Schäfer, Uli; Schaffer, Arthur; Schaile, Dorothee; Schamberger, R Dean; Scharf, Veit; Schegelsky, Valery; Scheirich, Daniel; Schernau, Michael; Schiavi, Carlo; Schier, Sheena; Schillo, Christian; Schioppa, Marco; Schlenker, Stefan; Schmidt-Sommerfeld, Korbinian Ralf; Schmieden, Kristof; Schmitt, Christian; Schmitt, Stefan; Schmitz, Simon; Schneider, Basil; Schnoor, Ulrike; Schoeffel, Laurent; Schoening, Andre; Schoenrock, Bradley Daniel; Schopf, Elisabeth; Schott, Matthias; Schouwenberg, Jeroen; Schovancova, Jaroslava; Schramm, Steven; Schreyer, Manuel; Schuh, Natascha; Schulte, Alexandra; Schultens, Martin Johannes; Schultz-Coulon, Hans-Christian; Schulz, Holger; Schumacher, Markus; Schumm, Bruce; Schune, Philippe; Schwartzman, Ariel; Schwarz, Thomas Andrew; Schweiger, Hansdieter; Schwemling, Philippe; Schwienhorst, Reinhard; Schwindling, Jerome; Schwindt, Thomas; Sciolla, Gabriella; Scuri, Fabrizio; Scutti, Federico; Searcy, Jacob; Seema, Pienpen; Seidel, Sally; Seiden, Abraham; Seifert, Frank; Seixas, José; Sekhniaidze, Givi; Sekhon, Karishma; Sekula, Stephen; Seliverstov, Dmitry; Semprini-Cesari, Nicola; Serfon, Cedric; Serin, Laurent; Serkin, Leonid; Sessa, Marco; Seuster, Rolf; Severini, Horst; Sfiligoj, Tina; Sforza, Federico; Sfyrla, Anna; Shabalina, Elizaveta; Shaikh, Nabila Wahab; Shan, Lianyou; Shang, Ruo-yu; Shank, James; Shapiro, Marjorie; Shatalov, Pavel; Shaw, Kate; Shaw, Savanna Marie; Shcherbakova, Anna; Shehu, Ciwake Yusufu; Sherwood, Peter; Shi, Liaoshan; Shimizu, Shima; Shimmin, Chase Owen; Shimojima, Makoto; Shirabe, Shohei; Shiyakova, Mariya; Shmeleva, Alevtina; Shoaleh Saadi, Diane; Shochet, Mel; Shojaii, Seyed Ruhollah; Shope, David Richard; Shrestha, Suyog; Shulga, Evgeny; Shupe, Michael; Sicho, Petr; Sickles, Anne Marie; Sidebo, Per Edvin; Sideras Haddad, Elias; Sidiropoulou, Ourania; Sidorov, Dmitri; Sidoti, Antonio; Siegert, Frank; Sijacki, Djordje; Silva, José; Silverstein, Samuel; Simak, Vladislav; Simic, Ljiljana; Simion, Stefan; Simioni, Eduard; Simmons, Brinick; Simon, Dorian; Simon, Manuel; Sinervo, Pekka; Sinev, Nikolai; Sioli, Maximiliano; Siragusa, Giovanni; Sivoklokov, Serguei; Sjölin, Jörgen; Skinner, Malcolm Bruce; Skottowe, Hugh Philip; Skubic, Patrick; Slater, Mark; Slavicek, Tomas; Slawinska, Magdalena; Sliwa, Krzysztof; Slovak, Radim; Smakhtin, Vladimir; Smart, Ben; Smestad, Lillian; Smiesko, Juraj; Smirnov, Sergei; Smirnov, Yury; Smirnova, Lidia; Smirnova, Oxana; Smith, Matthew; Smith, Russell; Smizanska, Maria; Smolek, Karel; Snesarev, Andrei; Snyder, Ian Michael; Snyder, Scott; Sobie, Randall; Socher, Felix; Soffer, Abner; Soh, Dart-yin; Sokhrannyi, Grygorii; Solans Sanchez, Carlos; Solar, Michael; Soldatov, Evgeny; Soldevila, Urmila; Solodkov, Alexander; Soloshenko, Alexei; Solovyanov, Oleg; Solovyev, Victor; Sommer, Philip; Son, Hyungsuk; Song, Hong Ye; Sood, Alexander; Sopczak, Andre; Sopko, Vit; Sorin, Veronica; Sosa, David; Sotiropoulou, Calliope Louisa; Soualah, Rachik; Soukharev, Andrey; South, David; Sowden, Benjamin; Spagnolo, Stefania; Spalla, Margherita; Spangenberg, Martin; Spanò, Francesco; Sperlich, Dennis; Spettel, Fabian; Spighi, Roberto; Spigo, Giancarlo; Spiller, Laurence Anthony; Spousta, Martin; St Denis, Richard Dante; Stabile, Alberto; Stamen, Rainer; Stamm, Soren; Stanecka, Ewa; Stanek, Robert; Stanescu, Cristian; Stanescu-Bellu, Madalina; Stanitzki, Marcel Michael; Stapnes, Steinar; Starchenko, Evgeny; Stark, Giordon; Stark, Jan; Staroba, Pavel; Starovoitov, Pavel; Stärz, Steffen; Staszewski, Rafal; Steinberg, Peter; Stelzer, Bernd; Stelzer, Harald Joerg; Stelzer-Chilton, Oliver; Stenzel, Hasko; Stewart, Graeme; Stillings, Jan Andre; Stockton, Mark; Stoebe, Michael; Stoicea, Gabriel; Stolte, Philipp; Stonjek, Stefan; Stradling, Alden; Straessner, Arno; Stramaglia, Maria Elena; Strandberg, Jonas; Strandberg, Sara; Strandlie, Are; Strauss, Michael; Strizenec, Pavol; Ströhmer, Raimund; Strom, David; Stroynowski, Ryszard; Strubig, Antonia; Stucci, Stefania Antonia; Stugu, Bjarne; Styles, Nicholas Adam; Su, Dong; Su, Jun; Suchek, Stanislav; Sugaya, Yorihito; Suk, Michal; Sulin, Vladimir; Sultansoy, Saleh; Sumida, Toshi; Sun, Siyuan; Sun, Xiaohu; Sundermann, Jan Erik; Suruliz, Kerim; Susinno, Giancarlo; Sutton, Mark; Suzuki, Shota; Svatos, Michal; Swiatlowski, Maximilian; Sykora, Ivan; Sykora, Tomas; Ta, Duc; Taccini, Cecilia; Tackmann, Kerstin; Taenzer, Joe; Taffard, Anyes; Tafirout, Reda; Taiblum, Nimrod; Takai, Helio; Takashima, Ryuichi; Takeshita, Tohru; Takubo, Yosuke; Talby, Mossadek; Talyshev, Alexey; Tan, Kong Guan; Tanaka, Junichi; Tanaka, Masahiro; Tanaka, Reisaburo; Tanaka, Shuji; Tanioka, Ryo; Tannenwald, Benjamin Bordy; Tapia Araya, Sebastian; Tapprogge, Stefan; Tarem, Shlomit; Tartarelli, Giuseppe Francesco; Tas, Petr; Tasevsky, Marek; Tashiro, Takuya; Tassi, Enrico; Tavares Delgado, Ademar; Tayalati, Yahya; Taylor, Aaron; Taylor, Geoffrey; Taylor, Pierre Thor Elliot; Taylor, Wendy; Teischinger, Florian Alfred; Teixeira-Dias, Pedro; Temming, Kim Katrin; Temple, Darren; Ten Kate, Herman; Teng, Ping-Kun; Teoh, Jia Jian; Tepel, Fabian-Phillipp; Terada, Susumu; Terashi, Koji; Terron, Juan; Terzo, Stefano; Testa, Marianna; Teuscher, Richard; Theveneaux-Pelzer, Timothée; Thomas, Juergen; Thomas-Wilsker, Joshuha; Thompson, Paul; Thompson, Stan; Thomsen, Lotte Ansgaard; Thomson, Evelyn; Tibbetts, Mark James; Ticse Torres, Royer Edson; Tikhomirov, Vladimir; Tikhonov, Yury; Timoshenko, Sergey; Tipton, Paul; Tisserant, Sylvain; Todome, Kazuki; Todorov, Theodore; Todorova-Nova, Sharka; Tojo, Junji; Tokár, Stanislav; Tokushuku, Katsuo; Tolley, Emma; Tomlinson, Lee; Tomoto, Makoto; Tompkins, Lauren; Toms, Konstantin; Tong, Baojia(Tony); Tornambe, Peter; Torrence, Eric; Torres, Heberth; Torró Pastor, Emma; Toth, Jozsef; Touchard, Francois; Tovey, Daniel; Trefzger, Thomas; Tricoli, Alessandro; Trigger, Isabel Marian; Trincaz-Duvoid, Sophie; Tripiana, Martin; Trischuk, William; Trocmé, Benjamin; Trofymov, Artur; Troncon, Clara; Trottier-McDonald, Michel; Trovatelli, Monica; Truong, Loan; Trzebinski, Maciej; Trzupek, Adam; Tseng, Jeffrey; Tsiareshka, Pavel; Tsipolitis, Georgios; Tsirintanis, Nikolaos; Tsiskaridze, Shota; Tsiskaridze, Vakhtang; Tskhadadze, Edisher; Tsui, Ka Ming; Tsukerman, Ilya; Tsulaia, Vakhtang; Tsuno, Soshi; Tsybychev, Dmitri; Tu, Yanjun; Tudorache, Alexandra; Tudorache, Valentina; Tuna, Alexander Naip; Tupputi, Salvatore; Turchikhin, Semen; Turecek, Daniel; Turgeman, Daniel; Turra, Ruggero; Tuts, Michael; Tyndel, Mike; Ucchielli, Giulia; Ueda, Ikuo; Ughetto, Michael; Ukegawa, Fumihiko; Unal, Guillaume; Undrus, Alexander; Unel, Gokhan; Ungaro, Francesca; Unno, Yoshinobu; Unverdorben, Christopher; Urban, Jozef; Urquijo, Phillip; Urrejola, Pedro; Usai, Giulio; Usui, Junya; Vacavant, Laurent; Vacek, Vaclav; Vachon, Brigitte; Valderanis, Chrysostomos; Valdes Santurio, Eduardo; Valencic, Nika; Valentinetti, Sara; Valero, Alberto; Valery, Loic; Valkar, Stefan; Valls Ferrer, Juan Antonio; Van Den Wollenberg, Wouter; Van Der Deijl, Pieter; van der Graaf, Harry; van Eldik, Niels; van Gemmeren, Peter; Van Nieuwkoop, Jacobus; van Vulpen, Ivo; van Woerden, Marius Cornelis; Vanadia, Marco; Vandelli, Wainer; Vanguri, Rami; Vaniachine, Alexandre; Vankov, Peter; Vardanyan, Gagik; Vari, Riccardo; Varnes, Erich; Varol, Tulin; Varouchas, Dimitris; Vartapetian, Armen; Varvell, Kevin; Vasquez, Jared Gregory; Vasquez, Gerardo; Vazeille, Francois; Vazquez Schroeder, Tamara; Veatch, Jason; Veeraraghavan, Venkatesh; Veloce, Laurelle Maria; Veloso, Filipe; Veneziano, Stefano; Ventura, Andrea; Venturi, Manuela; Venturi, Nicola; Venturini, Alessio; Vercesi, Valerio; Verducci, Monica; Verkerke, Wouter; Vermeulen, Jos; Vest, Anja; Vetterli, Michel; Viazlo, Oleksandr; Vichou, Irene; Vickey, Trevor; Vickey Boeriu, Oana Elena; Viehhauser, Georg; Viel, Simon; Vigani, Luigi; Villa, Mauro; Villaplana Perez, Miguel; Vilucchi, Elisabetta; Vincter, Manuella; Vinogradov, Vladimir; Vittori, Camilla; Vivarelli, Iacopo; Vlachos, Sotirios; Vlasak, Michal; Vogel, Marcelo; Vokac, Petr; Volpi, Guido; Volpi, Matteo; von der Schmitt, Hans; von Toerne, Eckhard; Vorobel, Vit; Vorobev, Konstantin; Vos, Marcel; Voss, Rudiger; Vossebeld, Joost; Vranjes, Nenad; Vranjes Milosavljevic, Marija; Vrba, Vaclav; Vreeswijk, Marcel; Vuillermet, Raphael; Vukotic, Ilija; Vykydal, Zdenek; Wagner, Peter; Wagner, Wolfgang; Wahlberg, Hernan; Wahrmund, Sebastian; Wakabayashi, Jun; Walder, James; Walker, Rodney; Walkowiak, Wolfgang; Wallangen, Veronica; Wang, Chao; Wang, Chao; Wang, Fuquan; Wang, Haichen; Wang, Hulin; Wang, Jike; Wang, Jin; Wang, Kuhan; Wang, Rui; Wang, Song-Ming; Wang, Tan; Wang, Tingting; Wang, Wenxiao; Wanotayaroj, Chaowaroj; Warburton, Andreas; Ward, Patricia; Wardrope, David Robert; Washbrook, Andrew; Watkins, Peter; Watson, Alan; Watson, Miriam; Watts, Gordon; Watts, Stephen; Waugh, Ben; Webb, Samuel; Weber, Michele; Weber, Stefan Wolf; Weber, Stephen; Webster, Jordan S; Weidberg, Anthony; Weinert, Benjamin; Weingarten, Jens; Weiser, Christian; Weits, Hartger; Wells, Phillippa; Wenaus, Torre; Wengler, Thorsten; Wenig, Siegfried; Wermes, Norbert; Werner, Matthias; Werner, Michael David; Werner, Per; Wessels, Martin; Wetter, Jeffrey; Whalen, Kathleen; Whallon, Nikola Lazar; Wharton, Andrew Mark; White, Andrew; White, Martin; White, Ryan; Whiteson, Daniel; Wickens, Fred; Wiedenmann, Werner; Wielers, Monika; Wiglesworth, Craig; Wiik-Fuchs, Liv Antje Mari; Wildauer, Andreas; Wilk, Fabian; Wilkens, Henric George; Williams, Hugh; Williams, Sarah; Willis, Christopher; Willocq, Stephane; Wilson, John; Wingerter-Seez, Isabelle; Winklmeier, Frank; Winston, Oliver James; Winter, Benedict Tobias; Wittgen, Matthias; Wittkowski, Josephine; Wolf, Tim Michael Heinz; Wolter, Marcin Wladyslaw; Wolters, Helmut; Worm, Steven D; Wosiek, Barbara; Wotschack, Jorg; Woudstra, Martin; Wozniak, Krzysztof; Wu, Mengqing; Wu, Miles; Wu, Sau Lan; Wu, Xin; Wu, Yusheng; Wyatt, Terry Richard; Wynne, Benjamin; Xella, Stefania; Xu, Da; Xu, Lailin; Yabsley, Bruce; Yacoob, Sahal; Yamaguchi, Daiki; Yamaguchi, Yohei; Yamamoto, Akira; Yamamoto, Shimpei; Yamanaka, Takashi; Yamauchi, Katsuya; Yamazaki, Yuji; Yan, Zhen; Yang, Haijun; Yang, Hongtao; Yang, Yi; Yang, Zongchang; Yao, Weiming; Yap, Yee Chinn; Yasu, Yoshiji; Yatsenko, Elena; Yau Wong, Kaven Henry; Ye, Jingbo; Ye, Shuwei; Yeletskikh, Ivan; Yildirim, Eda; Yorita, Kohei; Yoshida, Rikutaro; Yoshihara, Keisuke; Young, Charles; Young, Christopher John; Youssef, Saul; Yu, David Ren-Hwa; Yu, Jaehoon; Yu, Jiaming; Yu, Jie; Yuan, Li; Yuen, Stephanie P; Yusuff, Imran; Zabinski, Bartlomiej; Zaidan, Remi; Zaitsev, Alexander; Zakharchuk, Nataliia; Zalieckas, Justas; Zaman, Aungshuman; Zambito, Stefano; Zanello, Lucia; Zanzi, Daniele; Zeitnitz, Christian; Zeman, Martin; Zemla, Andrzej; Zeng, Jian Cong; Zeng, Qi; Zenin, Oleg; Ženiš, Tibor; Zerwas, Dirk; Zhang, Dongliang; Zhang, Fangzhou; Zhang, Guangyi; Zhang, Huijun; Zhang, Jinlong; Zhang, Lei; Zhang, Matt; Zhang, Rui; Zhang, Ruiqi; Zhang, Xueyao; Zhang, Zhiqing; Zhao, Xiandong; Zhao, Yongke; Zhao, Zhengguo; Zhemchugov, Alexey; Zhong, Jiahang; Zhou, Bing; Zhou, Chen; Zhou, Lei; Zhou, Li; Zhou, Mingliang; Zhou, Ning; Zhu, Cheng Guang; Zhu, Hongbo; Zhu, Junjie; Zhu, Yingchun; Zhuang, Xuai; Zhukov, Konstantin; Zibell, Andre; Zieminska, Daria; Zimine, Nikolai; Zimmermann, Christoph; Zimmermann, Stephanie; Zinonos, Zinonas; Zinser, Markus; Ziolkowski, Michael; Živković, Lidija; Zobernig, Georg; Zoccoli, Antonio; zur Nedden, Martin; Zwalinski, Lukasz

    2016-11-21

    Inclusive four-jet events produced in proton--proton collisions at a centre-of-mass energy of $\\sqrt{s} = 7$ TeV are analysed for the presence of hard double-parton scattering using data corresponding to an integrated luminosity of 37.3 pb$^{-1}$, collected with the ATLAS detector at the LHC. The contribution of hard double-parton scattering to the production of four-jet events is extracted using an artificial neural network, assuming that hard double-parton scattering can be approximated by an uncorrelated overlaying of dijet events. For events containing at least four jets with transverse momentum $p_{\\mathrm{T}} \\geq 20$ GeV and pseudorapidity $\\eta \\leq 4.4$, and at least one having $p_{\\mathrm{T}} \\geq 42.5$ GeV, the contribution of hard double-parton scattering is estimated to be $f_{\\mathrm{DPS}} = 0.092 ^{+0.005}_{-0.011} (\\mathrm{stat.}) ^{+0.033}_{-0.037} (\\mathrm{syst.})$. After combining this measurement with those of the inclusive dijet and four-jet cross-sections in the appropriate phase space r...

  13. Neutron scattering. Lectures

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Brueckel, Thomas; Heger, Gernot; Richter, Dieter; Roth, Georg; Zorn, Reiner

    2012-01-01

    The following topics are dealt with: Neutron scattering in contemporary research, neutron sources, symmetry of crystals, diffraction, nanostructures investigated by small-angle neutron scattering, the structure of macromolecules, spin dependent and magnetic scattering, structural analysis, neutron reflectometry, magnetic nanostructures, inelastic scattering, strongly correlated electrons, dynamics of macromolecules, applications of neutron scattering. (HSI)

  14. Virtual compton scattering at low energy

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Lhuillier, D.

    1997-09-01

    The work described in this PhD is a study of the Virtual Compton scattering (VCS) off the proton at low energy, below pion production threshold. Our experiment has been carried out at MAMI in the collaboration with the help of two high resolution spectrometers. Experimentally, the VCS process is the electroproduction of photons off a liquid hydrogen target. First results of data analysis including radiative corrections are presented and compared with low energy theorem prediction. VCS is an extension of the Real Compton Scattering. The virtuality of the incoming photon allows us to access new observables of the nucleon internal structure which are complementarity to the elastic form factors: the generalized polarizabilities (GP). They are function of the squared invariant mass of the virtual photo. The mass limit of these observables restore the usual electric and magnetic polarizabilities. Our experiment is the first measurement of the VCS process at a virtual photon mass equals 0.33 Ge V square. The experimental development presents the analysis method. The high precision needed in the absolute cross-section measurement required an accurate estimate of radiative corrections to the VCS. This new calculation, which has been performed in the dimensional regulation scheme, composes the theoretical part of this thesis. At low q', preliminary results agree with low energy theorem prediction. At higher q', substraction of low energy theorem contribution to extract GP is discussed. (author)

  15. Commercial applications of neutron scattering

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Hutchings, M.T.

    1993-01-01

    The fact that industry is now willing to pay the full commercial cost for certain neutron scattering experiments aimed at solving its urgent materials - related problems is a true testimony to the usefulness of neutrons as microscopic probes. This paper gives examples of such use of three techniques drawn mainly from our experience at AEA Technology Harwell Laboratory. These are diffraction to measure residual stress, small angle neutron scattering to examine hardening precipitates in ferritic steels brought about by irradiation, and reflectivity to study amorphous diamond layers deposited on silicon. In most cases it is the penetrative power of the neutron which proves to be its best asset for commercial industrial applicaitons. (author)

  16. Bridging Three Orders of Magnitude: Multiple Scattered Waves Sense Fractal Microscopic Structures via Dispersion

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lambert, Simon A.; Näsholm, Sven Peter; Nordsletten, David; Michler, Christian; Juge, Lauriane; Serfaty, Jean-Michel; Bilston, Lynne; Guzina, Bojan; Holm, Sverre; Sinkus, Ralph

    2015-08-01

    Wave scattering provides profound insight into the structure of matter. Typically, the ability to sense microstructure is determined by the ratio of scatterer size to probing wavelength. Here, we address the question of whether macroscopic waves can report back the presence and distribution of microscopic scatterers despite several orders of magnitude difference in scale between wavelength and scatterer size. In our analysis, monosized hard scatterers 5 μ m in radius are immersed in lossless gelatin phantoms to investigate the effect of multiple reflections on the propagation of shear waves with millimeter wavelength. Steady-state monochromatic waves are imaged in situ via magnetic resonance imaging, enabling quantification of the phase velocity at a voxel size big enough to contain thousands of individual scatterers, but small enough to resolve the wavelength. We show in theory, experiments, and simulations that the resulting coherent superposition of multiple reflections gives rise to power-law dispersion at the macroscopic scale if the scatterer distribution exhibits apparent fractality over an effective length scale that is comparable to the probing wavelength. Since apparent fractality is naturally present in any random medium, microstructure can thereby leave its fingerprint on the macroscopically quantifiable power-law exponent. Our results are generic to wave phenomena and carry great potential for sensing microstructure that exhibits intrinsic fractality, such as, for instance, vasculature.

  17. Bidirectional optical scattering facility

    Data.gov (United States)

    Federal Laboratory Consortium — Goniometric optical scatter instrument (GOSI)The bidirectional reflectance distribution function (BRDF) quantifies the angular distribution of light scattered from a...

  18. Introduction to neutron scattering. Lecture notes of the introductory course

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Furrer, A.

    1996-01-01

    These proceedings enclose ten papers presented at the 1. European Conference on Neutron scattering (ECNS '96). The aim of the Introductory Course was fourfold: - to learn the basic principles of neutron scattering, - to get introduced into the most important classes of neutron scattering instruments, -to learn concepts and their transformation into neutron scattering experiments in various fields of condensed matter research, - to recognize the limitations of the neutron scattering technique as well as to the complementarity of other methods. figs., tabs., refs

  19. Compton scattering revisited

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Pratt, R.H., E-mail: rpratt@pitt.ed [Department of Physics and Astronomy, University of Pittsburgh, Pittsburgh, PA 15260 (United States); LaJohn, L.A., E-mail: lal18@pitt.ed [Department of Physics and Astronomy, University of Pittsburgh, Pittsburgh, PA 15260 (United States); Florescu, V., E-mail: flor@barutu.fizica.unibuc.r [Centre for Advanced Quantum Physics, University of Bucharest, MG-11 Bucharest-Magurele, 077125 Magurele (Romania); Suric, T., E-mail: suric@irb.h [R. Boskovic Institute, Bijenicka 54, 10000 Zagreb (Croatia); Chatterjee, B.K., E-mail: barun_k_chatterjee@yahoo.co [Department of Physics, Bose Institute, Kolkata 700009 (India); Roy, S.C., E-mail: suprakash.roy@gmail.co [Department of Physics, Bose Institute, Kolkata 700009 (India)

    2010-02-15

    We review the standard theory of Compton scattering from bound electrons, and we describe recent findings that require modification of the usual understanding, noting the nature of consequences for experiment. The subject began with Compton and scattering from free electrons. Experiment actually involved bound electrons, and this was accommodated with the use of impulse approximation (IA), which described inelastic scattering from bound electrons in terms of scattering from free electrons. This was good for the Compton peak but failed for soft final photons. The standard theory was formalized by Eisenberger and Platzman (EP) [1970. Phys. Rev. A 2, 415], whose work also suggested why impulse approximation was better than one would expect, for doubly differential cross sections (DDCS), but not for triply differential cross sections (TDCS). A relativistic version of IA (RIA) was worked out by Ribberfors [1975. Phys. Rev. B 12, 2067]. And Suric et al. [1991. Phys. Rev. Lett. 67, 189] and Bergstrom et al. [1993. Phys. Rev. A 48, 1134] developed a full relativistic second order S-matrix treatment, not making impulse approximation, but within independent particle approximation (IPA). Newer developments in the theory of Compton scattering include: (1) Demonstration that the EP estimates of the validity of IA are incorrect, although the qualitative conclusion remains unchanged; IA is not to be understood as the first term in a standard series expansion. (2) The greater validity of IA for DDCS than for the TDCS, which when integrated give DDCS, is related to the existence of a sum rule, only valid for DDCS. (3) The so-called 'asymmetry' of a Compton profile is primarily to be understood as simply the shift of the peak position in the profile; symmetric and anti-symmetric deviations from a shifted Compton profile are very small, except for high Z inner shells where further p{sup -}>.A{sup -}> effects come into play. (4) Most relativistic effects, except at low

  20. Compton scattering revisited

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Pratt, R.H.; LaJohn, L.A.; Florescu, V.; Suric, T.; Chatterjee, B.K.; Roy, S.C.

    2010-01-01

    We review the standard theory of Compton scattering from bound electrons, and we describe recent findings that require modification of the usual understanding, noting the nature of consequences for experiment. The subject began with Compton and scattering from free electrons. Experiment actually involved bound electrons, and this was accommodated with the use of impulse approximation (IA), which described inelastic scattering from bound electrons in terms of scattering from free electrons. This was good for the Compton peak but failed for soft final photons. The standard theory was formalized by Eisenberger and Platzman (EP) [1970. Phys. Rev. A 2, 415], whose work also suggested why impulse approximation was better than one would expect, for doubly differential cross sections (DDCS), but not for triply differential cross sections (TDCS). A relativistic version of IA (RIA) was worked out by Ribberfors [1975. Phys. Rev. B 12, 2067]. And Suric et al. [1991. Phys. Rev. Lett. 67, 189] and Bergstrom et al. [1993. Phys. Rev. A 48, 1134] developed a full relativistic second order S-matrix treatment, not making impulse approximation, but within independent particle approximation (IPA). Newer developments in the theory of Compton scattering include: (1) Demonstration that the EP estimates of the validity of IA are incorrect, although the qualitative conclusion remains unchanged; IA is not to be understood as the first term in a standard series expansion. (2) The greater validity of IA for DDCS than for the TDCS, which when integrated give DDCS, is related to the existence of a sum rule, only valid for DDCS. (3) The so-called 'asymmetry' of a Compton profile is primarily to be understood as simply the shift of the peak position in the profile; symmetric and anti-symmetric deviations from a shifted Compton profile are very small, except for high Z inner shells where further p → .A → effects come into play. (4) Most relativistic effects, except at low energies, are to be

  1. Quasi-elastic scattering

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Pizzi, J.R.

    1975-01-01

    In a first part, the kinematical conditions which are chosen to study quasi free scattering reactions are presented, as well as the impulse approximation which is used to interpret the experimental data. Then, the evolution of the study of these reactions in the last few years is analyzed. Three recent experiments are presented and discussed. Two of them deal with α-clusters studied by (p,pα) reaction at 157 and 600MeV. The third is concerned with d, t and 3 He clusters studied by (p,px) reaction at 75MeV [fr

  2. Molecular-beam scattering

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Vernon, M.F.

    1983-07-01

    The molecular-beam technique has been used in three different experimental arrangements to study a wide range of inter-atomic and molecular forces. Chapter 1 reports results of a low-energy (0.2 kcal/mole) elastic-scattering study of the He-Ar pair potential. The purpose of the study was to accurately characterize the shape of the potential in the well region, by scattering slow He atoms produced by expanding a mixture of He in N 2 from a cooled nozzle. Chapter 2 contains measurements of the vibrational predissociation spectra and product translational energy for clusters of water, benzene, and ammonia. The experiments show that most of the product energy remains in the internal molecular motions. Chapter 3 presents measurements of the reaction Na + HCl → NaCl + H at collision energies of 5.38 and 19.4 kcal/mole. This is the first study to resolve both scattering angle and velocity for the reaction of a short lived (16 nsec) electronic excited state. Descriptions are given of computer programs written to analyze molecular-beam expansions to extract information characterizing their velocity distributions, and to calculate accurate laboratory elastic-scattering differential cross sections accounting for the finite apparatus resolution. Experimental results which attempted to determine the efficiency of optically pumping the Li(2 2 P/sub 3/2/) and Na(3 2 P/sub 3/2/) excited states are given. A simple three-level model for predicting the steady-state fraction of atoms in the excited state is included

  3. Voltage-carrying states in superconducting microstrips

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Stuivinga, M.E.C.

    1983-01-01

    When the critical current is exceeded in a superconducting microstrip, voltage-carrying states with a resistance significantly below the normal state resistance can occur. Phase-slip centers (PSC) appear at about the critical temperature. These are successive local voltage units which manifest themselves as strip-like increments in voltage in the I-V characteristic. For temperatures off the critical temperature the PSC regime degenerates into a region of normal material, a so-called hot spot. These two phenomena, PSC and hot spots, form the subject of this thesis. To gain a better understanding of the phase-slip center process, an experiment was designed to measure local values of the quasi-particle and pair potential. The results of local potential and gap measurements at a PSC in aluminium are presented and discussed. Special attention is paid to pair-breaking interactions which can shorten the relaxation time. A non-linear differential equation is derived which describes the development of a PSC into a normal hot spot under the influence of Joule heating. It incorporates the temperature rise due to the dissipative processes occurring in the charge imbalance tails. Numerical solutions are presented for a set of parameters, including those for aluminium and tin. Subsequently, they are compared with experiments. (Auth.)

  4. Neutron scattering applied to environmental waste containment

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Elcombe, M.M.; Studer, A.J.; Waring, C.L.

    1998-01-01

    Full text: A major environmental problem in Australia occurs at mine sites, where rock dumps and tailings dams are still causing problems many years after the mines have ceased operation. ANSTO has developed a method of producing a neutral barrier in-situ, which reduces water flow through the waste material. This in turn prevents water carrying waste products out into the wider environment. Both the loose grained sand substrate and the Neutral Barrier produced are crystalline and therefore amenable to diffraction techniques. In recent laboratory experiments neutron scattering has been used to confirm the presence of the barrier and measure the amount of calcite forming the barrier, at centimetre depths below the surface. The results of these measurements will be presented

  5. Study of hard double-parton scattering in four-jet events in pp collisions at √s=7 TeV with the ATLAS experiment

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Aaboud, M. [Faculté des Sciences, Université Mohamed Premier and LPTPM, Oujda (Morocco); Aad, G. [CPPM, Aix-Marseille Université and CNRS/IN2P3, Marseille (France); Abbott, B. [Homer L. Dodge Department of Physics and Astronomy, University of Oklahoma, Norman OK, United States of America (United States); Abdallah, J. [Department of Physics, The University of Texas at Arlington, Arlington TX, United States of America (United States); Collaboration: The ATLAS collaboration; and others

    2016-11-21

    Inclusive four-jet events produced in proton-proton collisions at a centre-of-mass energy of √s=7 TeV are analysed for the presence of hard double-parton scattering using data corresponding to an integrated luminosity of 37.3 pb{sup −1}, collected with the ATLAS detector at the LHC. The contribution of hard double-parton scattering to the production of four-jet events is extracted using an artificial neural network, assuming that hard double-parton scattering can be approximated by an uncorrelated overlaying of dijet events. For events containing at least four jets with transverse momentum p{sub T}≥20 GeV and pseudorapidity ∣η∣≤4.4, and at least one having p{sub T}≥42.5 GeV, the contribution of hard double-parton scattering is estimated to be f{sub DPS}=0.092 {sub −0.011}{sup +0.005} (stat.) {sub −0.037}{sup +0.033} (syst.). After combining this measurement with those of the inclusive dijet and four-jet cross-sections in the appropriate phase space regions, the effective cross-section, σ {sub eff}, was determined to be σ {sub eff}=14.9 {sub −1.0}{sup +1.2} (stat.) {sub −3.8}{sup +5.1} (syst.) mb. This result is consistent within the quoted uncertainties with previous measurements of σ {sub eff}, performed at centre-of-mass energies between 63 GeV and 8 TeV using various final states, and it corresponds to 21{sub −6}{sup +7}% of the total inelastic cross-section measured at √s=7 TeV. The distributions of the observables sensitive to the contribution of hard double-parton scattering, corrected for detector effects, are also provided.

  6. Polarization transfer in inelastic scattering

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Moss, J.M.

    1980-01-01

    Polarization transfer experiments are now feasible for inelastic scattering experiments on complex nuclei. Experiments thus far have dealt with the spin-flip probability; this observable is sensitive to the action of spin-spin and tensor forces in inelastic scattering. Spin-flip probabilities at E approx. 40 MeV in isoscalar transitions in 12 C(12.71 MeV) and 15 O(8.89 MeV) show considerable deviation from DWBA-shell model predictions; this deviation indicates evidence for more complex reaction mechanisms. Experiments at intermediate energies will soon be possible and will yield data of much higher precision than is possible at lower (E < 100 MeV) energies. These experiments hold exciting promise in such areas as nuclear critical opalescence. 7 figures, 1 table

  7. Consumerism and the Sister Carrie's American Dream%Consumerism and the Sister Carrie''s American Dream

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    卢亚丽

    2017-01-01

    From the aspect of consumerism to this text analyze Sister Carrie's"American dream"destruction. The author wholly and deeply analyzes the embodiment of consumerism in Dreiser's Sister Carrie and Dreiser's outlook and values under the effect of consumerism. To prove that the reason for destruction of Carrie's American dream is consumerism.

  8. Methods of contrast variation by nuclear polarisation in small-angle neutron scattering: Observation of domains of nuclear polarisation by neutron scattering

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Leymarie, E.

    2002-11-01

    In this thesis we study the theoretical and experimental aspects of Contrast Variation by Nuclear Polarization (CVNP) applied to small-angle neutron scattering. The basics of neutron scattering theory is developed by highlighting the origin of the CVNP method: the strong spin dependence of thermal neutron scattering, especially on protons. We also present the principles of NMR with a special attention on the method of dynamic nuclear polarization by the solid effect which makes it possible to control the proton polarization and therefore the contrast for neutron scattering. We present a theoretical study of the CVNP method called static which supposes that the nuclear polarization is homogeneous in the sample and constant during the experiment. We show that it allows one to obtain partial structure functions of systems with multiple components, by carrying out several acquisitions with different polarizations on a single sample. For this purpose, we tested a simple device to stabilize the nuclear polarization. We describe finally a new application of the CVNP method called dynamic. In a solution of deuterated glycerol-water containing a small concentration of paramagnetic centres, we showed the existence of domains of polarized protons at the onset of dynamic polarization. This reinforces considerably the coherent scattering of paramagnetic centres. We describe the theoretical reasons explaining the appearance of these domains of polarization, as well as the various techniques used to observe them by neutron scattering. (author)

  9. Energetics of load carrying in Nepalese porters.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bastien, Guillaume J; Schepens, Bénédicte; Willems, Patrick A; Heglund, Norman C

    2005-06-17

    Nepalese porters routinely carry head-supported loads equal to 100 to 200% of their body weight (Mb) for many days up and down steep mountain footpaths at high altitudes. Previous studies have shown that African women carry head-supported loads of up to 60% of their Mb far more economically than army recruits carrying equivalent loads in backpacks. Here we show that Nepalese porters carry heavier loads even more economically than African women. Female Nepalese porters, for example, carry on average loads that are 10% of their Mb heavier than the maximum loads carried by the African women, yet do so at a 25% smaller metabolic cost.

  10. Laser Compton Scattering Gamma Ray Induced Photo-Trasmutation

    CERN Document Server

    Li, Dazhi

    2004-01-01

    High brightness beams of gamma rays produced with laser Compton scattering have the potential to realize photo-transmutation through (γ,n) reaction, implying an efficient method to dispose long-lived fission products. Preliminary investigations have been carried out in understanding the feasibility of development of a transmutation facility to repose nuclear waste. A laser Compton scattering experimental setup based on a storage ring started to generate gamma-ray beams for studying the coupling of gamma photons and nuclear giant resonance. This paper demonstrates the dependency of nuclear transmutation efficiency on target dimensions and gamma ray features. 197Au sample was adopted in our experiment, and experimental results correspond to the theoretical estimations.

  11. Proton-proton elastic scattering measurements at COSY

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Bagdasarian, Zara [Forschungszentrum Juelich, Juelich (Germany); Tbilisi State University, Tbilisi (Georgia); Collaboration: ANKE-Collaboration

    2014-07-01

    To construct the reliable phase shift analysis (PSA) that can successfully describe the nucleon-nucleon (NN) interaction it is necessary to measure variety of experimental observables for both proton-proton (pp) and neutron-proton (np) elastic scattering. The polarized beams and targets at COSY-ANKE facility allow a substantial contribution to the existing database. The experiment was carried out in April 2013 at ANKE using a transversely polarized proton beam incident on an unpolarized hydrogen cluster target. Six beam energies of T{sub p}=0.8,1.6,1.8,2.0,2.2,2.4 GeV were used. The aim of this talk is to present the preliminary results for the analyzing power (A{sub y}) for the pp elastic scattering in the so-far unexplored 5 <θ{sub cm}<30 angular range. Our measurements are also compared to the world data and current partial wave solutions.

  12. Neutron scattering. Lectures

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Brueckel, Thomas; Heger, Gernot; Richter, Dieter; Roth, Georg; Zorn, Reiner [eds.

    2010-07-01

    The following topics are dealt with: Neutron sources, symmetry of crystals, diffraction, nanostructures investigated by small-angle neutron scattering, the structure of macromolecules, spin dependent and magnetic scattering, structural analysis, neutron reflectometry, magnetic nanostructures, inelastic scattering, strongly correlated electrons, dynamics of macromolecules, applications of neutron scattering. (HSI)

  13. Neutron scattering. Lectures

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Brueckel, Thomas; Heger, Gernot; Richter, Dieter; Roth, Georg; Zorn, Reiner

    2013-01-01

    The following topics are dealt with: Neutron sources, symmetry of crystals, nanostructures investigated by small-angle neutron scattering, structure of macromolecules, spin dependent and magnetic scattering, structural analysis, neutron reflectometry, magnetic nanostructures, inelastic neutron scattering, strongly correlated electrons, polymer dynamics, applications of neutron scattering. (HSI)

  14. Neutron scattering. Lectures

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Brueckel, Thomas; Heger, Gernot; Richter, Dieter; Roth, Georg; Zorn, Reiner

    2010-01-01

    The following topics are dealt with: Neutron sources, symmetry of crystals, diffraction, nanostructures investigated by small-angle neutron scattering, the structure of macromolecules, spin dependent and magnetic scattering, structural analysis, neutron reflectometry, magnetic nanostructures, inelastic scattering, strongly correlated electrons, dynamics of macromolecules, applications of neutron scattering. (HSI)

  15. Light scattering from a binary-liquid entanglement gel

    Science.gov (United States)

    Xia, K.-Q.; Maher, J. V.

    1987-09-01

    Light-scattering experiments have been carried out on an entanglement gel with a binary-liquid mixture as solvent. The onset temperature for critical opalescence has a composition dependence which is similar to the coexistence curve of the free-liquid mixture. This system resembles previously reported work on the cross-linked gel polyacrylamide in two ways: (1) As temperature is lowered toward the critical temperature of the free-liquid mixture, the binary-fluid gel exhibits a strong and increasing light scattering over a broad temperature region of several kelvins, and (2) no appreciable temporal fluctuations are observed throughout this temperature region. Two added features are observed in the present, entanglement-gel measurements: (a) Gel samples with solvent composition both near and off the critical composition of the free-liquid mixture exhibit similar light-scattering behavior, and (b) a Lorentzian-squared fit to the light-scattering angular distributions yields a characteristic wave number which does not change with temperature and an amplitude which shows a very strong dependence on the temperature.

  16. Scattering Correction For Image Reconstruction In Flash Radiography

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Cao, Liangzhi; Wang, Mengqi; Wu, Hongchun; Liu, Zhouyu; Cheng, Yuxiong; Zhang, Hongbo

    2013-01-01

    Scattered photons cause blurring and distortions in flash radiography, reducing the accuracy of image reconstruction significantly. The effect of the scattered photons is taken into account and an iterative deduction of the scattered photons is proposed to amend the scattering effect for image restoration. In order to deduct the scattering contribution, the flux of scattered photons is estimated as the sum of two components. The single scattered component is calculated accurately together with the uncollided flux along the characteristic ray, while the multiple scattered component is evaluated using correction coefficients pre-obtained from Monte Carlo simulations.The arbitrary geometry pretreatment and ray tracing are carried out based on the customization of AutoCAD. With the above model, an Iterative Procedure for image restORation code, IPOR, is developed. Numerical results demonstrate that the IPOR code is much more accurate than the direct reconstruction solution without scattering correction and it has a very high computational efficiency

  17. Scattering Correction For Image Reconstruction In Flash Radiography

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Cao, Liangzhi; Wang, Mengqi; Wu, Hongchun; Liu, Zhouyu; Cheng, Yuxiong; Zhang, Hongbo [Xi' an Jiaotong Univ., Xi' an (China)

    2013-08-15

    Scattered photons cause blurring and distortions in flash radiography, reducing the accuracy of image reconstruction significantly. The effect of the scattered photons is taken into account and an iterative deduction of the scattered photons is proposed to amend the scattering effect for image restoration. In order to deduct the scattering contribution, the flux of scattered photons is estimated as the sum of two components. The single scattered component is calculated accurately together with the uncollided flux along the characteristic ray, while the multiple scattered component is evaluated using correction coefficients pre-obtained from Monte Carlo simulations.The arbitrary geometry pretreatment and ray tracing are carried out based on the customization of AutoCAD. With the above model, an Iterative Procedure for image restORation code, IPOR, is developed. Numerical results demonstrate that the IPOR code is much more accurate than the direct reconstruction solution without scattering correction and it has a very high computational efficiency.

  18. Device convolution effects on the collective scattering signal of the E × B mode from Hall thruster experiments: 2D dispersion relation

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Cavalier, J.; Lemoine, N.; Bonhomme, G.; Tsikata, S.; Honoré, C.; Grésillon, D.

    2012-01-01

    The effect of the collective light scattering diagnostic transfer function is considered in the context of the dispersion relation of the unstable E×B mode previously reported. This transfer function is found to have a contribution to the measured frequencies and mode amplitudes which is more or less significant depending on the measurement wavenumbers and angles. After deconvolution, the experimental data are found to be possibly compatible with the idea that the mode frequency in the jet frame (after subtraction of the Doppler effect due to the plasma motion along the thruster axis) is independent of the orientation of the wave vector in the plane orthogonal to the local magnetic field.

  19. Theoretical challenges in neutron scattering

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Lovesey, S.W.

    1985-07-01

    Topics in the interpretation of neutron scattering experiments from paramagnets and quantum fluids are used to illustrate the puissance of the technique in condensed matter research, and to record some fundamental shortcomings in the available theory of many-particle systems. (author)

  20. Consumerism and the Sister Carrie's American Dream

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    卢亚丽

    2017-01-01

    From the aspect of consumerism to this text analyze Sister Carrie's"American dream"destruction. The author wholly and deeply analyzes the embodiment of consumerism in Dreiser's Sister Carrie and Dreiser's outlook and values under the effect of consumerism. To prove that the reason for destruction of Carrie's American dream is consumerism.

  1. Local Dynamic Stability Associated with Load Carrying

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Jian Liu

    2013-03-01

    Conclusion: Current study confirmed the sensitivity of local dynamic stability measure in load carrying situation. It was concluded that load carrying tasks were associated with declined local dynamic stability, which may result in increased risk of fall accident. This finding has implications in preventing fall accidents associated with occupational load carrying.

  2. Elastic scattering of electrons from singly ionized argon

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Griffin, D.C.; Pindzola, M.S.

    1996-01-01

    Recently, Greenwood et al. [Phys. Rev. Lett. 75, 1062 (1995)] reported measurements of large-angle elastic scattering of electrons from singly ionized argon at an energy of 3.3 eV. They compared their results for the differential cross section with cross sections determined using phase shifts obtained from two different scattering potentials and found large discrepancies between theory and experiment at large angles. They state that these differences may be due to the effects of polarization of the target, which are not included in their calculations, as well as inaccurate representations of electron exchange in the local scattering potentials that are employed to determine the phase shifts. In order to test these proposed explanations of the discrepancies, we have carried out calculations of elastic scattering from Ar + using the R-matrix method. We compare both a single-state calculation, which does not include polarization, and a 17-state calculation, in which the effects of dipole polarizability are included through the use of polarization pseudostates within the close-coupling expansion, to each other and with the measurements. We find some differences between the two calculations at intermediate scattering angles, but very close agreement at angles above 100 degree. Although the calculated cross sections agree with experiment between 120 degree and 135 degree, large discrepancies persist at angles above 135 degree. We conclude that the differences between the measurements and theory cannot be explained on the basis of an inaccurate representation of electron exchange or polarization of the target. copyright 1996 The American Physical Society

  3. Thomson scattering using an atomic notch filter

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Bakker, L.P.; Freriks, J.M.; Hoog, de F.J.; Kroesen, G.M.W.

    2000-01-01

    One of the biggest problems in performing Thomson scattering experiments in low-density plasmas is the very high stray light intensity in comparison with the Thomson scattering intensity. This problem is especially present in fluorescent lamps because of the proximity of the glass tube. We propose

  4. Inverse acoustic problem of N homogeneous scatterers

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Berntsen, Svend

    2002-01-01

    The three-dimensional inverse acoustic medium problem of N homogeneous objects with known geometry and location is considered. It is proven that one scattering experiment is sufficient for the unique determination of the complex wavenumbers of the objects. The mapping from the scattered fields...

  5. Elastic and quasielastic scattering of light nuclei in the theory of multiple scattering

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Ismatov, E.I.; Kuterbekov, K.A.; Dzhuraev, Sh.Kh.; Ehsaniyazov, Sh.P.; Zholdasova, S.M.

    2005-01-01

    In the work the calculation method for diffraction scattering amplitudes of light nuclei by heavy nuclei is developed. For A 1 A 2 -scattering effects of pair-, three-fold, and four-fold screenings are estimated. It is shown, that in amplitude calculations for A 1 A 2 elastic scattering it is enough come to nothing more than accounting of total screenings in the first order. Analysis of nucleus-nucleus scattering sensitive characteristics to choice of single-particle nuclear densities parametrization is carried out

  6. Vegetation Composition, Biomass Production, Carrying Capacity ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Acacia tortilis, Acacia nilotica, Acacia mellifera and Acacia seyal were the most dominant shrubs with scattered Caddaba rotundifolia, Caddaba furmisa, Seddera bagshawei, Tamarix nilotica, Dobera glabra and abundant Parthenium hysterophorus, Cissus rotundifolia and C. quadrangularis. The grass biomass estimated in ...

  7. Scattering of acoustic waves by small crustaceans

    Science.gov (United States)

    Andreeva, I. B.; Tarasov, L. L.

    2003-03-01

    Features of underwater sound scattering by small crustaceans are considered. The scattering data are obtained with the use of unique instrumentation that allows one to measure quantitative scattering characteristics (backscattering cross sections and angular scattering patterns) for crustaceans of different sizes, at different frequencies (20 200 kHz) and different insonification aspects. A computational model of crustaceans is considered with allowance for both the soft tissues of the main massive part of the animal's body and the stiff armour. The model proves to be advantageous for explaining some scattering features observed in the experiments. The scattering cross sections of crustaceans measured by other researchers are presented in a unified form appropriate for comparison. Based on such a quantitative comparison, relatively simple approximate empirical formulas are proposed for estimating the backscattering cross sections of small (within several centimeters) marine crustaceans in a broad frequency range.

  8. Huang diffuse scattering of neutrons

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Burkel, E.; Guerard, B. v.; Metzger, H.; Peisl, J.

    1979-01-01

    Huang diffuse neutron scattering was measured for the first time on niobium with interstitially dissolved deuterium as well as on MgO after neutron irradiation and Li 7 F after γ-irradiation. With Huang diffuse scattering the strength and symmetry of the distortion field around lattice defects can be determined. Our results clearly demonstrate that this method is feasible with neutrons. The present results are compared with X-ray experiments and the advantages of using neutrons is discussed in some detail. (orig.)

  9. High energy elastic hadron scattering

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Fearnly, T.A.

    1986-04-01

    The paper deals with the WA7 experiment at the CERN super proton synchrotron (SPS). The elastic differential cross sections of pion-proton, kaon-proton, antiproton-proton, and proton-proton at lower SPS energies over a wide range of momentum transfer were measured. Some theoretical models in the light of the experimental results are reviewed, and a comprehensive impact parameter analysis of antiproton-proton elastic scattering over a wide energy range is presented. A nucleon valence core model for high energy proton-proton and antiproton-proton elastic scattering is described

  10. Electron scattering off palladium isotopes

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Laan, J.B. van der.

    1986-01-01

    The low-lying states of the even Pd isotopes are characterized by vibrator-like properties. In this thesis the results of an electron scattering experiment on the Pd isotopes, designed to study the description of such nuclei in the Anharmonic Vibrator Model (AVM) and the Interacting Boson Approximation (IBA), are presented and discussed. Data have been taken at the high-resolution electron scattering facility of NIKHEF-K and covered a momentum-transfer range of 0.4 to 2.5 fm -1 . (Auth.)

  11. Structural evolution of regenerated silk fibroin under shear: Combined wide- and small-angle x-ray scattering experiments using synchrotron radiation

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Rossle, Manfred; Panine, Pierre; Urban, Volker S.; Riekel, Christine

    2004-01-01

    The structural evolution of regenerated Bombyx mori silk fibroin during shearing with a Couette cell has been studied in situ by synchrotron radiation small- and wide-angle x-ray scattering techniques. An elongation of fibroin molecules was observed with increasing shear rate, followed by an aggregation phase. The aggregates were found to be amorphous with β-conformation according to infrared spectroscopy. Scanning x-ray microdiffraction with a 5 (micro)m beam on aggregated material, which had solidified in air, showed silk II reflections and a material with equatorial reflections close to the silk I structure reflections, but with strong differences in reflection intensities. This silk I type material shows up to two low-angle peaks suggesting the presence of water molecules that might be intercalated between hydrogen-bonded sheets.

  12. General Properties of Scattering Matrix for Mode Conversion Process between B Waves and External EM Waves and Their Consequence to Experiments

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Maekawa, T.; Tanaka, H.; Uchida, M.; Igami, H.

    2003-01-01

    General properties of scattering matrix, which governs the mode conversion process between electron Bernstein (B) waves and external electromagnetic (EM) waves in the presence of steep density gradient, are theoretically analyzed. Based on the analysis, polarization adjustment of incident EM waves for optimal mode conversion to B waves is possible and effective for a range of density gradient near the upper hybrid resonance, which are not covered by the previously proposed schemes of perpendicular injection of X mode and oblique injection of O mode. Furthermore, the analysis shows that the polarization of the externally emitted EM waves from B waves is uniquely related to the optimized polarization of incident EM waves for B wave heating and that the mode conversion rate is the same for the both processes of emission and the injection with the optimized polarization

  13. Results on the Spin-Dependent Scattering of Weakly Interacting Massive Particles on Nucleons from the Run 3 Data of the LUX Experiment

    Science.gov (United States)

    Akerib, D. S.; Araújo, H. M.; Bai, X.; Bailey, A. J.; Balajthy, J.; Beltrame, P.; Bernard, E. P.; Bernstein, A.; Biesiadzinski, T. P.; Boulton, E. M.; Bradley, A.; Bramante, R.; Cahn, S. B.; Carmona-Benitez, M. C.; Chan, C.; Chapman, J. J.; Chiller, A. A.; Chiller, C.; Currie, A.; Cutter, J. E.; Davison, T. J. R.; de Viveiros, L.; Dobi, A.; Dobson, J. E. Y.; Druszkiewicz, E.; Edwards, B. N.; Faham, C. H.; Fiorucci, S.; Gaitskell, R. J.; Gehman, V. M.; Ghag, C.; Gibson, K. R.; Gilchriese, M. G. D.; Hall, C. R.; Hanhardt, M.; Haselschwardt, S. J.; Hertel, S. A.; Hogan, D. P.; Horn, M.; Huang, D. Q.; Ignarra, C. M.; Ihm, M.; Jacobsen, R. G.; Ji, W.; Kazkaz, K.; Khaitan, D.; Knoche, R.; Larsen, N. A.; Lee, C.; Lenardo, B. G.; Lesko, K. T.; Lindote, A.; Lopes, M. I.; Malling, D. C.; Manalaysay, A.; Mannino, R. L.; Marzioni, M. F.; McKinsey, D. N.; Mei, D.-M.; Mock, J.; Moongweluwan, M.; Morad, J. A.; Murphy, A. St. J.; Nehrkorn, C.; Nelson, H. N.; Neves, F.; O'Sullivan, K.; Oliver-Mallory, K. C.; Ott, R. A.; Palladino, K. J.; Pangilinan, M.; Pease, E. K.; Phelps, P.; Reichhart, L.; Rhyne, C.; Shaw, S.; Shutt, T. A.; Silva, C.; Solovov, V. N.; Sorensen, P.; Stephenson, S.; Sumner, T. J.; Szydagis, M.; Taylor, D. J.; Taylor, W.; Tennyson, B. P.; Terman, P. A.; Tiedt, D. R.; To, W. H.; Tripathi, M.; Tvrznikova, L.; Uvarov, S.; Verbus, J. R.; Webb, R. C.; White, J. T.; Whitis, T. J.; Witherell, M. S.; Wolfs, F. L. H.; Yazdani, K.; Young, S. K.; Zhang, C.; LUX Collaboration

    2016-04-01

    We present experimental constraints on the spin-dependent WIMP (weakly interacting massive particle)-nucleon elastic cross sections from LUX data acquired in 2013. LUX is a dual-phase xenon time projection chamber operating at the Sanford Underground Research Facility (Lead, South Dakota), which is designed to observe the recoil signature of galactic WIMPs scattering from xenon nuclei. A profile likelihood ratio analysis of 1.4 ×104 kg day of fiducial exposure allows 90% C.L. upper limits to be set on the WIMP-neutron (WIMP-proton) cross section of σn=9.4 ×10-41 cm2 (σp=2.9 ×10-39 cm2 ) at 33 GeV /c2 . The spin-dependent WIMP-neutron limit is the most sensitive constraint to date.

  14. Structural evolution of regenerated silk fibroin under shear: Combined wide- and small-angle x-ray scattering experiments using synchrotron radiation

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Rossle, Manfred [European Molecular Biology Laboratory (EMBL), France; Panine, Pierre [European Synchrotron Radiation Facility (ESRF); Urban, Volker S [ORNL; Riekel, Christine [European Synchrotron Radiation Facility (ESRF)

    2004-04-01

    The structural evolution of regenerated Bombyx mori silk fibroin during shearing with a Couette cell has been studied in situ by synchrotron radiation small- and wide-angle x-ray scattering techniques. An elongation of fibroin molecules was observed with increasing shear rate, followed by an aggregation phase. The aggregates were found to be amorphous with {beta}-conformation according to infrared spectroscopy. Scanning x-ray microdiffraction with a 5 {micro}m beam on aggregated material, which had solidified in air, showed silk II reflections and a material with equatorial reflections close to the silk I structure reflections, but with strong differences in reflection intensities. This silk I type material shows up to two low-angle peaks suggesting the presence of water molecules that might be intercalated between hydrogen-bonded sheets.

  15. Large-scale single-crystal growth of (CH3)2NH2CuCl3 for neutron scattering experiments

    Science.gov (United States)

    Park, Garam; Oh, In-Hwan; Park, J. M. Sungil; Park, Seong-Hun; Hong, Chang Seop; Lee, Kwang-Sei

    2016-05-01

    Neutron scattering studies on low-dimensional quantum spin systems require large-size single-crystals. Single-crystals of (CH3)2NH2CuCl3 showing low-dimensional magnetic behaviors were grown by a slow solvent evaporation method in a two-solvent system at different temperature settings. The best results were obtained for the bilayer solution of methanol and isopropanol with a molar ratio of 2:1 at 35 °C. The quality of the obtained single-crystals was tested by powder and single-crystal X-ray diffraction and single-crystal neutron diffraction. In addition, to confirm structural phase transitions (SPTs), thermal analysis and single-crystal X-ray diffraction at 300 K and 175 K, respectively, were conducted, confirming the presence of a SPT at Tup=288 K on heating and Tdown=285 K on cooling.

  16. Elastic Scattering and Total Cross-Section in p+p Reactions --As Measured by the LHC Experiment TOTEM at √{s} = 7 TeV--

    Science.gov (United States)

    Csörgő, T.; Antchev, G.; Aspell, P.; Atanassov, I.; Avati, V.; Baechler, J.; Berardi, V.; Berretti, M.; Bossini, E.; Bozzo, M.; Brogi, P.; Brücken, E.; Buzzo, A.; Cafagna, F. S.; Calicchio, M.; Catanesi, M. G.; Covault, C.; Csanád, M.; Deile, M.; Dimovasili, E.; Doubek, M.; Eggert, K.; Eremin, V.; Ferretti, R.; Ferro, F.; Fiergolski, A.; Garcia, F.; Giani, S.; Greco, V.; Grzanka, L.; Heino, J.; Hilden, T.; Intonti, M. R.; Janda, M.; Kašpar, J.; Kopal, J.; Kundrát, V.; Kurvinen, K.; Lami, S.; Latino, G.; Lauhakangas, R.; Leszko, T.; Lippmaa, E.; Lokajíček, M.; Lo Vetere, M.; Lucas Rodríguez, F.; Macrí, M.; Magaletti, L.; Magazzù, G.; Mercadante, A.; Meucci, M.; Minutoli, S.; Nemes, F.; Niewiadomski, H.; Noschis, E.; Novák, T.; Oliveri, E.; Oljemark, F.; Orava, R.; Oriunno, M.; Österberg, K.; Palazzi, P.; Perrot, A.-L.; Pedreschi, E.; PetäJäjärvi, J.; Procházka, J.; Quinto, M.; Radermacher, E.; Radicioni, E.; Ravotti, F.; Robutti, E.; Ropelewski, L.; Ruggiero, G.; Saarikko, H.; Sanguinetti, G.; Santroni, A.; Scribano, A.; Sette, G.; Snoeys, W.; Spinella, F.; Sziklai, J.; Taylor, C.; Turini, N.; Vacek, V.; Vítek, M.; Welti, J.; Whitmore, J.; Totem Collaboration

    Proton-proton elastic scattering has been measured by the TOTEMexperiment at the CERN Large Hadron Collider at √{s} = 7 TeV in special runs with the Roman Pot detectors placed as close to the outgoing beam as seven times the transverse beam size. The differential cross-section measurements are reported in the |t|-range of 0.36 to 2.5 GeV^{2}. Extending the range of data to low t values from 0.02 to 0.33 GeV^2, and utilizing the luminosity measurements of CMS, the total proton-proton cross section at √{s} = 7 TeV is measured to be (98.3 ± 0.2^{stat} ± 2.8^{syst}) mb.

  17. Differential electron scattering cross sections for the 3 (2)S to 3 (2)P0 h, k transitions in Mg II - Comparison of experiment and theory

    Science.gov (United States)

    Williams, I. D.; Chutjian, A.; Msezane, A. Z.; Henry, R. J. W.

    1985-01-01

    Angular differential electron scattering cross sections are reported for the unresolved inelastic 3s (2)S to 3p (2)P0 h, k transitions in Mg II for the first time. Relative differential cross sections have been measured at 35 eV and 50 eV in the angular range of Theta between 6 and 17 deg using the newly developed electron energy loss technique in a crossed electron-ion beam geometry. Theoretical values have been calculated in a five-state close-coupling approximation in which 3s, 3p, 3d, 4s, and 4p states were included, and to which measurements were normalized at Theta = 12 deg.

  18. He atom-surface scattering: Surface dynamics of insulators, overlayers and crystal growth

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Safron, S.A.; Skofronick, J.G.

    1994-01-01

    This progress report describes work carried out in the study of surface structure and dynamics of ionic insulators, the microscopic interactions controlling epitaxial growth and the formation of overlayers, and energy exchange in multiphonon surface scattering. The approach used is to employ high resolution helium atom scattering to study the geometry and structural features of the surfaces. Experiments have been carried out on the surface dynamics of RbCl and preliminary studies done on CoO and NiO. Epitaxial growth and overlayer dynamics experiments on the systems NaCl/NaCl(001), KBr/NaCl(001), NaCl/KBr(001) and KBr/RbCl(001) have been performed. They have collaborated with two theoretical groups to explore models of overlayer dynamics with which to compare and to interpret their experimental results. They have carried out extensive experiments on the multiphonon scattering of helium atoms from NaCl and, particularly, LiF. Work has begun on self-assembling organic films on gold and silver surfaces (alkyl thiols/Au(111) and Ag(111))

  19. Inelastic neutron scattering from superconducting rings

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Agafonov, A.I.

    2010-01-01

    For the first time the differential cross section for the inelastic magnetic neutron scattering by superconducting rings is derived taking account of the interaction of the neutron magnetic moment with the magnetic field generated by the superconducting current. Calculations of the scattering cross section are carried out for cold neutrons and thin film rings from type-II superconductors with the magnetic fields not exceeding the first critical field.

  20. Attenuation and scatter correction in SPECT

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Pant, G.S.; Pandey, A.K.

    2000-01-01

    While passing through matter, photons undergo various types of interactions. In the process, some photons are completely absorbed, some are scattered in different directions with or without any change in their energy and some pass through unattenuated. These unattenuated photons carry the information with them. However, the image data gets corrupted with attenuation and scatter processes. This paper deals with the effect of these two processes in nuclear medicine images and suggests the methods to overcome them

  1. Possible role of double scattering in electron-atom scattering in a laser field

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Rabadan, I.; Mendez, L.; Dickinson, A.S.

    1996-01-01

    By considering observations of double-scattering effects in the excitation of the 2 1 P level of He, gas density values estimated for the laser-assisted elastic scattering experiments of Wallbank and Holmes (1993, 1994a,b) for which the Kroll-Watson approximation appears to fail. Using comparable densities for He and lower densities for Ar, and assuming the Kroll-Watson approximation for single-scattering events, differential cross sections are calculated including double scattering for laser-assisted scattering for a range of energies and scattering angles. Comparison with the observed values shows that double-scattering effects can give a semi-quantitative explanation of the apparent breakdown of the Kroll-Watson approximation in both He and Ar. (author)

  2. Electron re-scattering from aligned linear molecules using the R-matrix method

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Harvey, A G; Tennyson, J

    2009-01-01

    Electron re-scattering in a strong laser field provides an important probe of molecular structure and processes. The laser field drives the ionization of the molecule, followed by acceleration and subsequent recollision of the electron with the parent molecular ion, the scattered electrons carry information about the nuclear geometry and electronic states of the molecular ion. It is advantageous in strong field experiments to work with aligned molecules, which introduces extra physics compared to the standard gas-phase, electron-molecule scattering problem. The formalism for scattering from oriented linear molecules is presented and applied to H 2 and CO 2 . Differential cross sections are presented for (re-)scattering by these systems concentrating on the most common, linear alignment. In H 2 these cross sections show significant angular structure which, particularly for a scattering angle of 90 deg., are predicted to vary significantly between re-collisions stimulated by an even or an odd number of photons. In CO 2 these cross sections are zero indicating the necessity of using non-parallel alignment with this molecule.

  3. Measuring Social carrying Capacity: An Exploratory Study

    OpenAIRE

    López-Bonilla, Jesús Manuel; López-Bonilla, Luis Miguel

    2007-01-01

    The tourist carrying capacity commands a growing interest given that it is closely linked with sustainable tourist development. The justification of the utility of this concept is given by means of a simple and efficient methodological proposal, by analysing the social carrying capacity. To this end, an empirical application is carried out in the Western Andalusia. In some of the cases analysed, the satisfaction of the tourist is found to decline when the levels of the tourist use are higher ...

  4. Electromagnetic and gravitational scattering at Planckian energies

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Das, S.; Majumdar, P.

    1994-11-01

    The scattering of pointlike particles at very large center of mass energies and fixed low momentum transfers, occurring due to both their electromagnetic and gravitational interactions is re-examined in the particular case when one of the particles carries magnetic charge. At Planckian center-of-mass energies, when gravitational dominance is normally expected, the presence of magnetic charge is shown to produce dramatic modifications to the scattering cross section as well as to the holomorphic structure of the scattering amplitude. (author). 20 refs

  5. Quantum scattering at low energies

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Derezinski, Jan; Skibsted, Erik

    2009-01-01

    For a class of negative slowly decaying potentials, including V(x):=−γ|x|−μ with 0quantum mechanical scattering theory in the low-energy regime. Using appropriate modifiers of the Isozaki–Kitada type we show that scattering theory is well behaved on the whole continuous spectrum...... of the Hamiltonian, including the energy 0. We show that the modified scattering matrices S(λ) are well-defined and strongly continuous down to the zero energy threshold. Similarly, we prove that the modified wave matrices and generalized eigenfunctions are norm continuous down to the zero energy if we use...... of the kernel of S(λ) experiences an abrupt change from passing from positive energies λ to the limiting energy λ=0 . This change corresponds to the behaviour of the classical orbits. Under stronger conditions one can extract the leading term of the asymptotics of the kernel of S(λ) at its singularities....

  6. What's new in nuclear photon scattering

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Hayward, E. [National Bureau of Standards, Washington, DC (USA); Ikegami, H.; Muraoka, M. [eds.; Osaka Univ., Suita (Japan). Research Center for Nuclear Physics

    1980-01-01

    Our present understanding of photon scattering is reviewed. The results of new experiments to test the Dynamic Collective Model are summarized. An experimental measurement of the E2 strength in /sup 12/C is described.

  7. Effective polarization in quasi-free scattering

    OpenAIRE

    Maris, Theodor August Johannes; Teodoro, Maria Ribeiro; Veit, Eliane Angela

    1980-01-01

    A simple relation, involving only experimental quantmes, for the effective polarizations m quasi-free (p, 2p) scattering on closed shell nuclei IS tested for recent TRIUMF (p, 2p) experiments with 200 MeV polanzed protons.

  8. Scattering and multiple scattering in disordered materials

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Weaver, R.L.; Butler, W.H.

    1992-01-01

    The papers in this section were presented at a joint session of symposium V on Applications of Multiple Scattering Theory and of Symposium P on Disordered Systems. They show that the ideas of scattering theory can help us to understand a very broad class of phenomena

  9. Current status of neutron scattering in Thailand

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Ampornrat, Pantip

    1999-01-01

    Thailand's neutron spectrometer has been installed soon after the startup of the reactor. The neutron scattering experiments have been done continuously, although there were some problems involving the neutron intensity and instruments. Development program has been planned for better experimental result. This paper reports the past and present status of neutron scattering equipment and experiments in Thailand. In addition, installation of a HRPD (High Resolution Powder Diffraction) system is included within the scope of the Ongkharak Nuclear Research Center project. (author)

  10. Neutrino scattering and the reactor antineutrino anomaly

    Science.gov (United States)

    Garcés, Estela; Cañas, Blanca; Miranda, Omar; Parada, Alexander

    2017-12-01

    Low energy threshold reactor experiments have the potential to give insight into the light sterile neutrino signal provided by the reactor antineutrino anomaly and the gallium anomaly. In this work we analyze short baseline reactor experiments that detect by elastic neutrino electron scattering in the context of a light sterile neutrino signal. We also analyze the sensitivity of experimental proposals of coherent elastic neutrino nucleus scattering (CENNS) detectors in order to exclude or confirm the sterile neutrino signal with reactor antineutrinos.

  11. Scatter and leakage contributions to the out-of-field absorbed dose distribution in water phantom around the medical LINAC radiation beams

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Bordy, J.M.; Bessiere, I.; Ostrowsky, A.; Poumarede, B.; Sorel, S.; Vermesse, D.

    2013-01-01

    This work is carried out within the framework of EURADOS Working Group 9 (WG9) whose general objective is 'to assess non-target organ doses in radiotherapy and the related risks of second cancers, with the emphasis on dosimetry'. The objective of the present work is to provide reference values (i) to evaluate the current methods of deriving three-dimensional dose distributions in and around the target volume using passive dosimeters, (ii) to derive the leakage dose from the head of the medical linear accelerator (LINAC) and the doses due to scattered radiation from the collimator edges and the body (phantom) itself. Radiation qualities of 6, 12 and 20 MV are used with standard calibration conditions described in IAEA TRS 398 and nonstandard conditions at a reference facility at the Laboratoire National Henri Becquerel (CEA LIST/LNE LNHB). An ionisation chamber is used to measure profile and depth dose in especially design water phantom built to enable investigation of doses up to 60 cm from the beam axis. A first set of experiments is carried out with the beam passing through the tank. From this first experiment, penumbra and out-of-field dose profiles including water and collimator scatter and leakage are found over three orders of magnitude. Two further sets of experiments using the same experimental arrangement with the beam outside the tank, to avoid water scatter, are designed to measure collimator scatter and leakage by closing the jaws of the collimator. It is shown that the ratios between water scatter, collimator scatter and leakage depend on the photon energy. Depending on the energy, typical leakage and collimator scatter represents 10-40% and 30-50% of the total out-of-field doses respectively. Water scatter decreases with energy while leakage increases with energy, and collimator scatter varies only slowly with energy. (authors)

  12. Gluon bremstrahlung effects in large P/sub perpendicular/ hadron-hadron scattering

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Fox, G.C.; Kelly, R.L.

    1982-02-01

    We consider effects of parton (primarily gluon) bremstrahlung in the initial and final states of high transverse momentum hadron-hadron scattering. Monte Carlo calculations based on conventional QCD parton branching and scattering processes are presented. The calculations are carried only to the parton level in the final state. We apply the model to the Drell-Yan process and to high transverse momentum hadron-hadron scattering triggered with a large aperture calorimeter. We show that the latter triggers are biased in that they select events with unusually large bremstrahlung effects. We suggest that this trigger bias explains the large cross section and non-coplanar events observed in the NA5 experiment at the SPS

  13. Scatter from optical components

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Stover, J.C.

    1989-01-01

    This book is covered under the following topics: measurement and analysis techniques; BRDF standards, comparisons, and anomalies; scatter measurement of several materials; scatter from contaminations; and optical system contamination: effects, measurement, and control

  14. Towards a nonpotential scattering theory

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Mignani, R.

    1985-01-01

    We present a formal approach to nonpotential scattering theory (i.e. scattering under unrestricted nonlocal non-Hamiltonian forces), based on the generalization of the concept of scattering matrix (and related topics) to the Lie-isotopic and Lie-admissible case. In the time-dependent formalism, the main taks is the determination of the evolution operator, from which the S matrix is found as a double infinite limit. The study of time-development operators is carried out in detail in the isotopic case, and involves the isotopic generalizations of Moller wave operators, in- and out-states, and temporal (retarded and advanced) propagators. We give also expansion techniques for the S matrix, which extend to the Lie-isotopic formulation the Feynman-Dyson perturbation series, the Magnus expansion, and the Wei-Norman theorem. In the time-independent approach, we solve the isotopic Schroedinger eigenvalue equation by exploiting the properties of isotopic Green operators, Lippmann-Schwinger equations, and incoming and outgoing states, which turn out to be suitable generalizations of the conventional ones. The changes in cross sections due to nonpotential forces are explicitly worked out in some simple cases. A purely algebraic approach to nonpotential scattering, essentially based on the properties of the isowave operators, is presented. The Lie-admissible formulation of the main results is briefly outlined

  15. The Concept of Carrying Capacity in Tourism

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Josef Zelenka

    2014-05-01

    Full Text Available Carrying capacity is often pragmatically, theoretically as well as purely intuitively considered as a concept in the context of tourism sustainability. The carrying capacity application has the greatest potential in protected areas, in frequently visited cultural and natural attractions, and in relation to sustaining of the lifestyle of the local community and tourism destination potential in general. Despite its importance, partial applications, determination of basic theoretical principles, and specifying connection to the other theoretical concepts in tourism (particularly destination life cycle, LAC concept, visitors management, there still is a rightful opinion of some authors suggesting that there is no consistent theory of tourism carrying capacity. This theory would be the base for sophisticated practical carrying capacity applications. This paper is therefore focused on introduction of the theoretical concept of carrying capacity, which can be discussed and possibly further elaborated.

  16. Surface enhanced Raman scattering

    CERN Document Server

    Furtak, Thomas

    1982-01-01

    In the course of the development of surface science, advances have been identified with the introduction of new diagnostic probes for analytical characterization of the adsorbates and microscopic structure of surfaces and interfaces. Among the most recently de­ veloped techniques, and one around which a storm of controversy has developed, is what has now been earmarked as surface enhanced Raman scattering (SERS). Within this phenomenon, molecules adsorbed onto metal surfaces under certain conditions exhibit an anomalously large interaction cross section for the Raman effect. This makes it possible to observe the detailed vibrational signature of the adsorbate in the ambient phase with an energy resolution much higher than that which is presently available in electron energy loss spectroscopy and when the surface is in contact with a much larger amount of material than that which can be tolerated in infrared absorption experiments. The ability to perform vibrational spectroscopy under these conditions would l...

  17. BioSAXS Sample Changer: a robotic sample changer for rapid and reliable high-throughput X-ray solution scattering experiments.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Round, Adam; Felisaz, Franck; Fodinger, Lukas; Gobbo, Alexandre; Huet, Julien; Villard, Cyril; Blanchet, Clement E; Pernot, Petra; McSweeney, Sean; Roessle, Manfred; Svergun, Dmitri I; Cipriani, Florent

    2015-01-01

    Small-angle X-ray scattering (SAXS) of macromolecules in solution is in increasing demand by an ever more diverse research community, both academic and industrial. To better serve user needs, and to allow automated and high-throughput operation, a sample changer (BioSAXS Sample Changer) that is able to perform unattended measurements of up to several hundred samples per day has been developed. The Sample Changer is able to handle and expose sample volumes of down to 5 µl with a measurement/cleaning cycle of under 1 min. The samples are stored in standard 96-well plates and the data are collected in a vacuum-mounted capillary with automated positioning of the solution in the X-ray beam. Fast and efficient capillary cleaning avoids cross-contamination and ensures reproducibility of the measurements. Independent temperature control for the well storage and for the measurement capillary allows the samples to be kept cool while still collecting data at physiological temperatures. The Sample Changer has been installed at three major third-generation synchrotrons: on the BM29 beamline at the European Synchrotron Radiation Facility (ESRF), the P12 beamline at the PETRA-III synchrotron (EMBL@PETRA-III) and the I22/B21 beamlines at Diamond Light Source, with the latter being the first commercial unit supplied by Bruker ASC.

  18. Self and transport diffusivity of CO2 in the metal-organic framework MIL-47(V) explored by quasi-elastic neutron scattering experiments and molecular dynamics simulations.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Salles, Fabrice; Jobic, Hervé; Devic, Thomas; Llewellyn, Philip L; Serre, Christian; Férey, Gérard; Maurin, Guillaume

    2010-01-26

    Quasi-elastic neutron scattering measurements are combined with molecular dynamics simulations to determine the self-diffusivity, corrected diffusivity, and transport diffusivity of CO(2) in the metal-organic framework MIL-47(V) (MIL = Materials Institut Lavoisier) over a wide range of loading. The force field used for describing the host/guest interactions is first validated on the thermodynamics of the MIL-47(V)/CO(2) system, prior to being transferred to the investigations of the dynamics. A decreasing profile is then deduced for D(s) and D(o) whereas D(t) presents a non monotonous evolution with a slight decrease at low loading followed by a sharp increase at higher loading. Such decrease of D(t) which has never been evidenced in any microporous systems comes from the atypical evolution of the thermodynamic correction factor that reaches values below 1 at low loading. This implies that, due to intermolecular interactions, the CO(2) molecules in MIL-47(V) do not behave like an ideal gas. Further, molecular simulations enabled us to elucidate unambiguously a 3D diffusion mechanism within the pores of MIL-47(V).

  19. Theoretical aspects of the CEBAF 89-009 experiment on inclusive scattering of 4.05 GeV electrons from nuclei

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Avraham Rinat; Taragin, M.F.

    1999-01-01

    We compare recent CEBAF data on inclusive electron scattering of 4.05 GeV electrons on nuclei with predictions, based on a relation between structure functions (SF) of a nucleus, a nucleon, and a nucleus of point nucleons. The latter contains nuclear dynamics, e.g., binary collision contributions in addition to the asymptotic limit. The agreement with data is good, except in low-intensity regions. Computed ternary collision contributions appear too small for an explanation. We perform scaling analyses in Gurvitz's scaling variable and find that for y G (gt o r l t) 0, ratios of scaling functions for pairs of nuclei differ by less than 15-20% from 1. Scaling functions for (y G 2 , shown to approach a plateau from above. We observe only weak Q 2 dependence in final-state interactions (FSI), which in the relevant kinematic region is ascribed to the diffractive nature of NN amplitudes appearing in FSI. This renders it difficult to separate asymptotic from FSI parts and seriously hampers the extraction of n(p) from scaling analyses in a model-independent fashion

  20. Electron scattering from tetrahydrofuran

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Fuss, M C; Sanz, A G; García, G; Muñoz, A; Oller, J C; Blanco, F; Do, T P T; Brunger, M J; Almeida, D; Limão-Vieira, P

    2012-01-01

    Electron scattering from Tetrahydrofuran (C 4 H 8 O) was investigated over a wide range of energies. Following a mixed experimental and theoretical approach, total scattering, elastic scattering and ionization cross sections as well as electron energy loss distributions were obtained.