WorldWideScience

Sample records for scattering calculations based

  1. Test of Mie-based single-scattering properties of non-spherical dust aerosols in radiative flux calculations

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Fu, Q.; Thorsen, T.J.; Su, J.; Ge, J.M.; Huang, J.P.

    2009-01-01

    We simulate the single-scattering properties (SSPs) of dust aerosols with both spheroidal and spherical shapes at a wavelength of 0.55 μm for two refractive indices and four effective radii. Herein spheres are defined by preserving both projected area and volume of a non-spherical particle. It is shown that the relative errors of the spheres to approximate the spheroids are less than 1% in the extinction efficiency and single-scattering albedo, and less than 2% in the asymmetry factor. It is found that the scattering phase function of spheres agrees with spheroids better than the Henyey-Greenstein (HG) function for the scattering angle range of 0-90 o . In the range of ∼90-180 o , the HG function is systematically smaller than the spheroidal scattering phase function while the spherical scattering phase function is smaller from ∼90 o to 145 o but larger from ∼145 o to 180 o . We examine the errors in reflectivity and absorptivity due to the use of SSPs of equivalent spheres and HG functions for dust aerosols. The reference calculation is based on the delta-DISORT-256-stream scheme using the SSPs of the spheroids. It is found that the errors are mainly caused by the use of the HG function instead of the SSPs for spheres. By examining the errors associated with the delta-four- and delta-two-stream schemes using various approximate SSPs of dust aerosols, we find that the errors related to the HG function dominate in the delta-four-stream results, while the errors related to the radiative transfer scheme dominate in the delta-two-stream calculations. We show that the relative errors in the global reflectivity due to the use of sphere SSPs are always less than 5%. We conclude that Mie-based SSPs of non-spherical dust aerosols are well suited in radiative flux calculations.

  2. Rain Scattering and Co-ordinate Distance Calculation

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    M. Hajny

    1998-12-01

    Full Text Available Calculations of scattered field on the rain objects are based on using of Multiple MultiPole (MMP numerical method. Both bi-static scattering function and bi-static scattering cross section are calculated in the plane parallel to Earth surface. The co-ordination area was determined using the simple model of scattering volume [1]. Calculation for frequency 9.595 GHz and antenna elevation of 25° was done. Obtained results are compared with calculation in accordance to ITU-R recommendation.

  3. Microscopic calculations of elastic scattering between light nuclei based on a realistic nuclear interaction

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Dohet-Eraly, Jeremy [F.R.S.-FNRS (Belgium); Sparenberg, Jean-Marc; Baye, Daniel, E-mail: jdoheter@ulb.ac.be, E-mail: jmspar@ulb.ac.be, E-mail: dbaye@ulb.ac.be [Physique Nucleaire et Physique Quantique, CP229, Universite Libre de Bruxelles (ULB), B-1050 Brussels (Belgium)

    2011-09-16

    The elastic phase shifts for the {alpha} + {alpha} and {alpha} + {sup 3}He collisions are calculated in a cluster approach by the Generator Coordinate Method coupled with the Microscopic R-matrix Method. Two interactions are derived from the realistic Argonne potentials AV8' and AV18 with the Unitary Correlation Operator Method. With a specific adjustment of correlations on the {alpha} + {alpha} collision, the phase shifts for the {alpha} + {alpha} and {alpha} + {sup 3}He collisions agree rather well with experimental data.

  4. Calculating scattering matrices by wave function matching

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Zwierzycki, M.; Khomyakov, P.A.; Starikov, A.A.; Talanana, M.; Xu, P.X.; Karpan, V.M.; Marushchenko, I.; Brocks, G.; Kelly, P.J.; Xia, K.; Turek, I.; Bauer, G.E.W.

    2008-01-01

    The conductance of nanoscale structures can be conveniently related to their scattering properties expressed in terms of transmission and reflection coefficients. Wave function matching (WFM) is a transparent technique for calculating transmission and reflection matrices for any Hamiltonian that can be represented in tight-binding form. A first-principles Kohn-Sham Hamiltonian represented on a localized orbital basis or on a real space grid has such a form. WFM is based upon direct matching of the scattering-region wave function to the Bloch modes of ideal leads used to probe the scattering region. The purpose of this paper is to give a pedagogical introduction to WFM and present some illustrative examples of its use in practice. We briefly discuss WFM for calculating the conductance of atomic wires, using a real space grid implementation. A tight-binding muffin-tin orbital implementation very suitable for studying spin-dependent transport in layered magnetic materials is illustrated by looking at spin-dependent transmission through ideal and disordered interfaces. (copyright 2008 WILEY-VCH Verlag GmbH and Co. KGaA, Weinheim) (orig.)

  5. Calculation of electron-helium scattering

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Fursa, D.V.; Bray, I.

    1994-11-01

    We present the Convergent Close-Coupling (CCC) theory for the calculation of electron-helium scattering. We demonstrate its applicability at a range of projectile energies of 1.5 to 500 eV to scattering from the ground state to n ≤3 states. Excellent agreement with experiment is obtained with the available differential, integrated, ionization, and total cross sections, as well as with the electron-impact coherence parameters up to and including the 3 3 D state excitation. Comparison with other theories demonstrates that the CCC theory is the only general reliable method for the calculation of electron helium scattering. (authors). 66 refs., 2 tabs., 24 figs

  6. H + Ar collisions. II. Differential scattering calculations

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Neumann, H.; Le, T.Q.; van Zyl, B.

    1977-01-01

    Differential elastic scattering cross-section calculations have been made for H + Ar collisions using classical and eikonal techniques. The calculation procedures are described and compared with existing experimental data. It is shown that the angular distribution of the elastic cross section is similar to that obtained for proton production in such collisions at energies above about 200 eV. By combining the angular dependence of the computed elastic cross section with experimental measurements described in the preceding paper, absolute differential cross sections for proton production have been determined

  7. Comparison of the ESTRO formalism for monitor unit calculation with a Clarkson based algorithm of a treatment planning system and a traditional ''full-scatter'' methodology

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Pirotta, M.; Aquilina, D.; Bhikha, T.; Georg, D.

    2005-01-01

    The ESTRO formalism for monitor unit (MU) calculations was evaluated and implemented to replace a previous methodology based on dosimetric data measured in a full-scatter phantom. This traditional method relies on data normalised at the depth of dose maximum (z m ), as well as on the utilisation of the BJR 25 table for the conversion of rectangular fields into equivalent square fields. The treatment planning system (TPS) was subsequently updated to reflect the new beam data normalised at a depth z R of 10 cm. Comparisons were then carried out between the ESTRO formalism, the Clarkson-based dose calculation algorithm on the TPS (with beam data normalised at z m and z R ), and the traditional ''full-scatter'' methodology. All methodologies, except for the ''full-scatter'' methodology, separated head-scatter from phantom-scatter effects and none of the methodologies; except for the ESTRO formalism, utilised wedge depth dose information for calculations. The accuracy of MU calculations was verified against measurements in a homogeneous phantom for square and rectangular open and wedged fields, as well as blocked open and wedged fields, at 5, 10, and 20 cm depths, under fixed SSD and isocentric geometries for 6 and 10 MV. Overall, the ESTRO Formalism showed the most accurate performance, with the root mean square (RMS) error with respect to measurements remaining below 1% even for the most complex beam set-ups investigated. The RMS error for the TPS deteriorated with the introduction of a wedge, with a worse RMS error for the beam data normalised at z m (4% at 6 MV and 1.6% at 10 MV) than at z R (1.9% at 6 MV and 1.1% at 10 MV). The further addition of blocking had only a marginal impact on the accuracy of this methodology. The ''full-scatter'' methodology showed a loss in accuracy for calculations involving either wedges or blocking, and performed worst for blocked wedged fields (RMS errors of 7.1% at 6 MV and 5% at 10 MV). The origins of these discrepancies were

  8. Reactive scattering of H2 from Cu(100): comparison of dynamics calculations based on the specific reaction parameter approach to density functional theory with experiment.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sementa, L; Wijzenbroek, M; van Kolck, B J; Somers, M F; Al-Halabi, A; Busnengo, H F; Olsen, R A; Kroes, G J; Rutkowski, M; Thewes, C; Kleimeier, N F; Zacharias, H

    2013-01-28

    We present new experimental and theoretical results for reactive scattering of dihydrogen from Cu(100). In the new experiments, the associative desorption of H(2) is studied in a velocity resolved and final rovibrational state selected manner, using time-of-flight techniques in combination with resonance-enhanced multi-photon ionization laser detection. Average desorption energies and rotational quadrupole alignment parameters were obtained in this way for a number of (v = 0, 1) rotational states, v being the vibrational quantum number. Results of quantum dynamics calculations based on a potential energy surface computed with a specific reaction parameter (SRP) density functional, which was derived earlier for dihydrogen interacting with Cu(111), are compared with the results of the new experiments and with the results of previous molecular beam experiments on sticking of H(2) and on rovibrationally elastic and inelastic scattering of H(2) and D(2) from Cu(100). The calculations use the Born-Oppenheimer and static surface approximations. With the functional derived semi-empirically for dihydrogen + Cu(111), a chemically accurate description is obtained of the molecular beam experiments on sticking of H(2) on Cu(100), and a highly accurate description is obtained of rovibrationally elastic and inelastic scattering of D(2) from Cu(100) and of the orientational dependence of the reaction of (v = 1, j = 2 - 4) H(2) on Cu(100). This suggests that a SRP density functional derived for H(2) interacting with a specific low index face of a metal will yield accurate results for H(2) reactively scattering from another low index face of the same metal, and that it may also yield accurate results for H(2) interacting with a defected (e.g., stepped) surface of that same metal, in a system of catalytic interest. However, the description that was obtained of the average desorption energies, of rovibrationally elastic and inelastic scattering of H(2) from Cu(100), and of the

  9. Direct Calculation of the Scattering Amplitude Without Partial Wave Analysis

    Science.gov (United States)

    Shertzer, J.; Temkin, A.; Fisher, Richard R. (Technical Monitor)

    2001-01-01

    Two new developments in scattering theory are reported. We show, in a practical way, how one can calculate the full scattering amplitude without invoking a partial wave expansion. First, the integral expression for the scattering amplitude f(theta) is simplified by an analytic integration over the azimuthal angle. Second, the full scattering wavefunction which appears in the integral expression for f(theta) is obtained by solving the Schrodinger equation with the finite element method (FEM). As an example, we calculate electron scattering from the Hartree potential. With minimal computational effort, we obtain accurate and stable results for the scattering amplitude.

  10. How to calculate the Coulomb scattering amplitude

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Grosse, H.; Narnhofer, H.; Thirring, W.

    1974-01-01

    The derivation of scattering amplitudes for Coulomb scattering is discussed. A derivation of the S-matrix elements for a dense set of states in momentum space is given in the framework of time dependent scattering theory. The convergence of the S-matrix is studied. A purely algebraic derivation of the S-matrix elements and phase shifts is also presented. (HFdV)

  11. Practical model for the calculation of multiply scattered lidar returns

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Eloranta, E.W.

    1998-01-01

    An equation to predict the intensity of the multiply scattered lidar return is presented. Both the scattering cross section and the scattering phase function can be specified as a function of range. This equation applies when the cloud particles are larger than the lidar wavelength. This approximation considers photon trajectories with multiple small-angle forward-scattering events and one large-angle scattering that directs the photon back toward the receiver. Comparisons with Monte Carlo simulations, exact double-scatter calculations, and lidar data demonstrate that this model provides accurate results. copyright 1998 Optical Society of America

  12. An Efficient Method for Electron-Atom Scattering Using Ab-initio Calculations

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Xu, Yuan; Yang, Yonggang; Xiao, Liantuan; Jia, Suotang [Shanxi University, Taiyuan (China)

    2017-02-15

    We present an efficient method based on ab-initio calculations to investigate electron-atom scatterings. Those calculations profit from methods implemented in standard quantum chemistry programs. The new approach is applied to electron-helium scattering. The results are compared with experimental and other theoretical references to demonstrate the efficiency of our method.

  13. Correlation expansion: a powerful alternative multiple scattering calculation method

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Zhao Haifeng; Wu Ziyu; Sebilleau, Didier

    2008-01-01

    We introduce a powerful alternative expansion method to perform multiple scattering calculations. In contrast to standard MS series expansion, where the scattering contributions are grouped in terms of scattering order and may diverge in the low energy region, this expansion, called correlation expansion, partitions the scattering process into contributions from different small atom groups and converges at all energies. It converges faster than MS series expansion when the latter is convergent. Furthermore, it takes less memory than the full MS method so it can be used in the near edge region without any divergence problem, even for large clusters. The correlation expansion framework we derive here is very general and can serve to calculate all the elements of the scattering path operator matrix. Photoelectron diffraction calculations in a cluster containing 23 atoms are presented to test the method and compare it to full MS and standard MS series expansion

  14. Relativistic multiple scattering X-alpha calculations

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Chermette, H.; Goursot, A.

    1986-01-01

    The necessity to include self-consistent relativistic corrections in molecular calculations has been pointed out for all compounds involving heavy atoms. Most of the changes in the electronic properties are due to the mass-velocity and the so-called Darwin terms so that the use of Wood and Boring's Hamiltonian is very convenient for this purpose as it can be easily included in MSXalpha programs. Although the spin orbit operator effects are only obtained by perturbation theory, the results compare fairly well with experiment and with other relativistic calculations, namely Hartree-Fock-Slater calculations

  15. Effects of scattering anisotropy approximation in multigroup radiation shielding calculations

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Altiparmakov, D.

    1983-01-01

    Expansion of the scattering cross sections into Legendre series is the usual way of solving neutron transport problems. Because of the large space gradients of the neutron flux, the effects of that approximation become especially remarkable in the radiation shielding calculations. In this paper, a method taking into account the scattering anisotropy is presented. From the point od view of the accuracy and computing rate, the optimal approximation of the scattering anisotropy is established for the basic protective materials on the basis of simple problem calculations. (author)

  16. Calculations of neutron spectra after neutron-neutron scattering

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Crawford, B E [Gettysburg College, Box 405, Gettysburg, PA 17325 (United States); Stephenson, S L [Gettysburg College, Box 405, Gettysburg, PA 17325 (United States); Howell, C R [Duke University and Triangle Universities Nuclear Laboratory, Durham, NC 27708-0308 (United States); Mitchell, G E [North Carolina State University, Raleigh, NC 27695-8202 (United States); Tornow, W [Duke University and Triangle Universities Nuclear Laboratory, Durham, NC 27708-0308 (United States); Furman, W I [Joint Institute for Nuclear Research, 141980 Dubna (Russian Federation); Lychagin, E V [Joint Institute for Nuclear Research, 141980 Dubna (Russian Federation); Muzichka, A Yu [Joint Institute for Nuclear Research, 141980 Dubna (Russian Federation); Nekhaev, G V [Joint Institute for Nuclear Research, 141980 Dubna (Russian Federation); Strelkov, A V [Joint Institute for Nuclear Research, 141980 Dubna (Russian Federation); Sharapov, E I [Joint Institute for Nuclear Research, 141980 Dubna (Russian Federation); Shvetsov, V N [Joint Institute for Nuclear Research, 141980 Dubna (Russian Federation)

    2004-09-01

    A direct neutron-neutron scattering length, a{sub nn}, measurement with the goal of 3% accuracy (0.5 fm) is under preparation at the aperiodic pulsed reactor YAGUAR. A direct measurement of a{sub nn} will not only help resolve conflicting results of a{sub nn} by indirect means, but also in comparison to the proton-proton scattering length, a{sub pp}, shed light on the charge-symmetry of the nuclear force. We discuss in detail the analysis of the nn-scattering data in terms of a simple analytical expression. We also discuss calibration measurements using the time-of-flight spectra of neutrons scattered on He and Ar gases and the neutron activation technique. In particular, we calculate the neutron velocity and time-of-flight spectra after scattering neutrons on neutrons and after scattering neutrons on He and Ar atoms for the proposed experimental geometry, using a realistic neutron flux spectrum-Maxwellian plus epithermal tail. The shape of the neutron spectrum after scattering is appreciably different from the initial spectrum, due to collisions between thermal-thermal and thermal-epithermal neutrons. At the same time, the integral over the Maxwellian part of the realistic scattering spectrum differs by only about 6 per cent from that of a pure Maxwellian nn-scattering spectrum.

  17. On the thermal scattering law data for reactor lattice calculations

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Trkov, A.; Mattes, M.

    2004-01-01

    Thermal scattering law data for hydrogen bound in water, hydrogen bound in zirconium hydride and deuterium bound in heavy water have been re-evaluated. The influence of the thermal scattering law data on critical lattices has been studied with detailed Monte Carlo calculations and a summary of results is presented for a numerical benchmark and for the TRIGA reactor benchmark. Systematics for a large sequence of benchmarks analysed with the WIMS-D lattice code are also presented. (author)

  18. Compton-scatter tissue densitometry: calculation of single and multiple scatter photon fluences

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Battista, J.J.; Bronskill, M.J.

    1978-01-01

    The accurate measurement of in vivo electron densities by the Compton-scatter method is limited by attenuations and multiple scattering in the patient. Using analytic and Monte Carlo calculation methods, the Clarke tissue density scanner has been modelled for incident monoenergetic photon energies from 300 to 2000 keV and for mean scattering angles of 30 to 130 degrees. For a single detector focussed to a central position in a uniform water phantom (25 x 25 x 25 cm 3 ) it has been demonstrated that: (1) Multiple scatter contamination is an inherent limitation of the Compton-scatter method of densitometry which can be minimised, but not eliminated, by improving the energy resolution of the scattered radiation detector. (2) The choice of the incident photon energy is a compromise between the permissible radiation dose to the patient and the tolerable level of multiple scatter contamination. For a mean scattering angle of 40 degrees, the intrinsic multiple-single scatter ratio decreases from 64 to 35%, and the radiation dose (per measurement) increases from 1.0 to 4.1 rad, as the incident photon energy increases from 300 to 2000 keV. These doses apply to a sampled volume of approximately 0.3 cm 3 and an electron density precision of 0.5%. (3) The forward scatter densitometer configuration is optimum, minimising both the dose and the multiple scatter contamination. For an incident photon energy of 1250 keV, the intrinsic multiple-single scatter ratio reduces from 122 to 27%, and the dose reduces from 14.3 to 1.2 rad, as the mean scattering angle decreases from 130 to 30 degrees. These calculations have been confirmed by experimental measurements. (author)

  19. Repair for scattering expansion truncation errors in transport calculations

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Emmett, M.B.; Childs, R.L.; Rhoades, W.A.

    1980-01-01

    Legendre expansion of angular scattering distributions is usually limited to P 3 in practical transport calculations. This truncation often results in non-trivial errors, especially alternating negative and positive lateral scattering peaks. The effect is especially prominent in forward-peaked situations such as the within-group component of the Compton Scattering of gammas. Increasing the expansion to P 7 often makes the peaks larger and narrower. Ward demonstrated an accurate repair, but his method requires special cross section sets and codes. The DOT IV code provides fully-compatible, but heuristic, repair of the erroneous scattering. An analytical Klein-Nishina estimator, newly available in the MORSE code, allows a test of this method. In the MORSE calculation, particle scattering histories are calculated in the usual way, with scoring by an estimator routine at each collision site. Results for both the conventional P 3 estimator and the analytical estimator were obtained. In the DOT calculation, the source moments are expanded into the directional representation at each iteration. Optionally a sorting procedure removes all negatives, and removes enough small positive values to restore particle conservation. The effect of this is to replace the alternating positive and negative values with positive values of plausible magnitude. The accuracy of those values is examined herein

  20. a Proposed Benchmark Problem for Scatter Calculations in Radiographic Modelling

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jaenisch, G.-R.; Bellon, C.; Schumm, A.; Tabary, J.; Duvauchelle, Ph.

    2009-03-01

    Code Validation is a permanent concern in computer modelling, and has been addressed repeatedly in eddy current and ultrasonic modeling. A good benchmark problem is sufficiently simple to be taken into account by various codes without strong requirements on geometry representation capabilities, focuses on few or even a single aspect of the problem at hand to facilitate interpretation and to avoid that compound errors compensate themselves, yields a quantitative result and is experimentally accessible. In this paper we attempt to address code validation for one aspect of radiographic modeling, the scattered radiation prediction. Many NDT applications can not neglect scattered radiation, and the scatter calculation thus is important to faithfully simulate the inspection situation. Our benchmark problem covers the wall thickness range of 10 to 50 mm for single wall inspections, with energies ranging from 100 to 500 keV in the first stage, and up to 1 MeV with wall thicknesses up to 70 mm in the extended stage. A simple plate geometry is sufficient for this purpose, and the scatter data is compared on a photon level, without a film model, which allows for comparisons with reference codes like MCNP. We compare results of three Monte Carlo codes (McRay, Sindbad and Moderato) as well as an analytical first order scattering code (VXI), and confront them to results obtained with MCNP. The comparison with an analytical scatter model provides insights into the application domain where this kind of approach can successfully replace Monte-Carlo calculations.

  1. Unitary three-body calculation of nucleon-nucleon scattering

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Tanabe, H.; Ohta, K.

    1986-07-01

    We calculate nucleon-nucleon elastic scattering phase parameters based on a unitary, relativistic, pion-exchange model. The results are highly dependent on the off-shell amplitudes of πN scattering. The isobar-dominated model for the P 33 interaction leads to too small pion production rates owing to its strong suppression of off-shell pions. We propose to expand the idea of the Δ-isobar model in such a manner as to incorporate a background (non-pole) interaction. The two-potential model, which was first applied to the P 11 partial wave by Mizutani and Koltun, is applied also to the P 33 wave. Our phenomenological model for πN interaction in the P 33 partial wave differs from the conventional model only in its off-shell extrapolation, and has two different variants for the πN → Δ vertex. The three-body approach of Kloet and Silbar is extended such that the background interactions can be included straightfowardly. We make detailed comparisons of the new model with the conventional one and find that our model adequately reproduces the 1 D 2 phase parameters as well as those of peripheral partial waves. We also find that the longitudinal total cross section difference Δσ L (pp → NNπ) comes closer to the data compared to Kloet and Silbar. We discuss about the backward pion propagation in the three-body calculation, and the Pauli-principle violating states for the background P 11 interaction. (author)

  2. Quantum Monte Carlo calculation of neutral-current ν -12C inclusive quasielastic scattering

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lovato, A.; Gandolfi, S.; Carlson, J.; Lusk, Ewing; Pieper, Steven C.; Schiavilla, R.

    2018-02-01

    Quasielastic neutrino scattering is an important aspect of the experimental program to study fundamental neutrino properties including neutrino masses, mixing angles, mass hierarchy, and charge-conjugation parity (CP)- violating phase. Proper interpretation of the experiments requires reliable theoretical calculations of neutrino-nucleus scattering. In this paper we present calculations of response functions and cross sections by neutral-current scattering of neutrinos off 12C. These calculations are based on realistic treatments of nuclear interactions and currents, the latter including the axial, vector, and vector-axial interference terms crucial for determining the difference between neutrino and antineutrino scattering and the CP-violating phase. We find that the strength and energy dependence of two-nucleon processes induced by correlation effects and interaction currents are crucial in providing the most accurate description of neutrino-nucleus scattering in the quasielastic regime.

  3. The simple analytical method for scattered radiation calculation in contrast X-ray diagnostic techniques

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Markovic, S; Pavlovic, R [Inst. of Nuclear Science Vinca, Belgrade (Yugoslavia). Radiation and Environmental Protection Lab.; Boreli, F [Fac. of Electrical Engineering, Belgrade (Yugoslavia)

    1996-12-31

    In realization of radiation protection measures for medical staff present during diagnostic procedures, the necessary condition is knowledge of the space - energy distributions of the scattered radiation from the patient. In this paper, the simple calculation procedure for the scattered radiation field of the actual diagnostic energies is presented. Starting from the single Compton scattering model and using the justified transformations the final equations in elementary form are derived. For numerical calculations the computer code ANGIO was created. The calculated results were confirmed by detailed dosimetric measurements of the scattered field around patient (the water phantom) in SSDL in the Institute of nuclear sciences `Vinca`, Belgrade. These results are good base for assessment of irradiation. The main irradiation source for the physician and the other members of the medical team is the back scattered radiation from patient - albedo. (author). 3 figs., 3 refs.

  4. Calculation of Thomson scattering spectral fits for interpenetrating flows

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Swadling, G. F., E-mail: george.swadling@imperial.ac.uk; Lebedev, S. V., E-mail: george.swadling@imperial.ac.uk; Burdiak, G. C.; Suttle, L.; Patankar, S.; Smith, R. A.; Bennett, M.; Suzuki-Vidal, F. [Blackett Laboratory, Imperial College, London SW7 2BW (United Kingdom); Harvey-Thompson, A. J. [Sandia National Laboratories, PO Box 5800, Albuquerque, New Mexico 87185-1193 (United States); Rozmus, W. [Department of Physics, University of Alberta, Edmonton, Alberta T6G 2JI (Canada); Hall, G. N. [Blackett Laboratory, Imperial College, London, United Kingdom SW7 2BW and Lawrence Livermore National Laboratory, P.O. Box 808, Livermore, California 94551 (United States); Yuan, J. [Key Laboratory of Pulsed Power, Institute of Fluid Physics, CAE, Mianyang 621900 (China)

    2014-12-15

    Collective mode optical Thomson scattering has been used to investigate the interactions of radially convergent ablation flows in Tungsten wire arrays. These experiments were carried out at the Magpie pulsed power facility at Imperial College, London. Analysis of the scattered spectra has provided direct evidence of ablation stream interpenetration on the array axis, and has also revealed a previously unobserved axial deflection of the ablation streams towards the anode as they approach the axis. It is has been suggested that this deflection is caused by the presence of a static magnetic field, advected with the ablation streams, stagnated and accrued around the axis. Analysis of the Thomson scattering spectra involved the calculation and fitting of the multi-component, non-relativistic, Maxwellian spectral density function S (k, ω). The method used to calculate the fits of the data are discussed in detail.

  5. Benchmark calculations of thermal reaction rates. I - Quantal scattering theory

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chatfield, David C.; Truhlar, Donald G.; Schwenke, David W.

    1991-01-01

    The thermal rate coefficient for the prototype reaction H + H2 yields H2 + H with zero total angular momentum is calculated by summing, averaging, and numerically integrating state-to-state reaction probabilities calculated by time-independent quantum-mechanical scattering theory. The results are very carefully converged with respect to all numerical parameters in order to provide high-precision benchmark results for confirming the accuracy of new methods and testing their efficiency.

  6. THERMAL: A routine designed to calculate neutron thermal scattering

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Cullen, D.E.

    1995-01-01

    THERMAL is designed to calculate neutron thermal scattering that is isotropic in the center of mass system. At low energy thermal motion will be included. At high energies the target nuclei are assumed to be stationary. The point of transition between low and high energies has been defined to insure a smooth transition. It is assumed that at low energy the elastic cross section is constant in the center of mass system. At high energy the cross section can be of any form. You can use this routine for all energies where the elastic scattering is isotropic in the center of mass system. In most materials this will be a fairly high energy

  7. Faddeev and Glauber calculations at intermediate energies in a model for n+d scattering

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Elster, Ch.; Lin, T.; Gloeckle, W.; Jeschonnek, S.

    2008-01-01

    Obtaining cross sections for nuclear reactions at intermediate energies based on the Glauber formulation has a long tradition. Only recently the energy regime of a few hundred MeV has become accessible to ab initio Faddeev calculations of three-body scattering. In order to go to higher energies, the Faddeev equation for three-body scattering is formulated and directly solved without employing a partial wave decomposition. In the simplest form the Faddeev equation for interacting scalar particles is a three-dimensional integral equation in five variables, from which the total cross section, the cross sections for elastic scattering and breakup reactions, as well as differential cross sections are obtained. The same observables are calculated based on the Glauber formulation. The first order Glauber calculation and the Glauber rescattering corrections are compared in detail with the corresponding terms of the Faddeev multiple scattering series for projectile energies between 100 MeV and 2 GeV

  8. Comparison of analytic source models for head scatter factor calculation and planar dose calculation for IMRT

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Yan Guanghua; Liu, Chihray; Lu Bo; Palta, Jatinder R; Li, Jonathan G

    2008-01-01

    The purpose of this study was to choose an appropriate head scatter source model for the fast and accurate independent planar dose calculation for intensity-modulated radiation therapy (IMRT) with MLC. The performance of three different head scatter source models regarding their ability to model head scatter and facilitate planar dose calculation was evaluated. A three-source model, a two-source model and a single-source model were compared in this study. In the planar dose calculation algorithm, in-air fluence distribution was derived from each of the head scatter source models while considering the combination of Jaw and MLC opening. Fluence perturbations due to tongue-and-groove effect, rounded leaf end and leaf transmission were taken into account explicitly. The dose distribution was calculated by convolving the in-air fluence distribution with an experimentally determined pencil-beam kernel. The results were compared with measurements using a diode array and passing rates with 2%/2 mm and 3%/3 mm criteria were reported. It was found that the two-source model achieved the best agreement on head scatter factor calculation. The three-source model and single-source model underestimated head scatter factors for certain symmetric rectangular fields and asymmetric fields, but similar good agreement could be achieved when monitor back scatter effect was incorporated explicitly. All the three source models resulted in comparable average passing rates (>97%) when the 3%/3 mm criterion was selected. The calculation with the single-source model and two-source model was slightly faster than the three-source model due to their simplicity

  9. Comparison of analytic source models for head scatter factor calculation and planar dose calculation for IMRT

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Yan Guanghua [Department of Nuclear and Radiological Engineering, University of Florida, Gainesville, FL 32611 (United States); Liu, Chihray; Lu Bo; Palta, Jatinder R; Li, Jonathan G [Department of Radiation Oncology, University of Florida, Gainesville, FL 32610-0385 (United States)

    2008-04-21

    The purpose of this study was to choose an appropriate head scatter source model for the fast and accurate independent planar dose calculation for intensity-modulated radiation therapy (IMRT) with MLC. The performance of three different head scatter source models regarding their ability to model head scatter and facilitate planar dose calculation was evaluated. A three-source model, a two-source model and a single-source model were compared in this study. In the planar dose calculation algorithm, in-air fluence distribution was derived from each of the head scatter source models while considering the combination of Jaw and MLC opening. Fluence perturbations due to tongue-and-groove effect, rounded leaf end and leaf transmission were taken into account explicitly. The dose distribution was calculated by convolving the in-air fluence distribution with an experimentally determined pencil-beam kernel. The results were compared with measurements using a diode array and passing rates with 2%/2 mm and 3%/3 mm criteria were reported. It was found that the two-source model achieved the best agreement on head scatter factor calculation. The three-source model and single-source model underestimated head scatter factors for certain symmetric rectangular fields and asymmetric fields, but similar good agreement could be achieved when monitor back scatter effect was incorporated explicitly. All the three source models resulted in comparable average passing rates (>97%) when the 3%/3 mm criterion was selected. The calculation with the single-source model and two-source model was slightly faster than the three-source model due to their simplicity.

  10. Method for calculating anisotropic neutron transport using scattering kernel without polynomial expansion

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Takahashi, Akito; Yamamoto, Junji; Ebisuya, Mituo; Sumita, Kenji

    1979-01-01

    A new method for calculating the anisotropic neutron transport is proposed for the angular spectral analysis of D-T fusion reactor neutronics. The method is based on the transport equation with new type of anisotropic scattering kernels formulated by a single function I sub(i) (μ', μ) instead of polynomial expansion, for instance, Legendre polynomials. In the calculation of angular flux spectra by using scattering kernels with the Legendre polynomial expansion, we often observe the oscillation with negative flux. But in principle this oscillation disappears by this new method. In this work, we discussed anisotropic scattering kernels of the elastic scattering and the inelastic scatterings which excite discrete energy levels. The other scatterings were included in isotropic scattering kernels. An approximation method, with use of the first collision source written by the I sub(i) (μ', μ) function, was introduced to attenuate the ''oscillations'' when we are obliged to use the scattering kernels with the Legendre polynomial expansion. Calculated results with this approximation showed remarkable improvement for the analysis of the angular flux spectra in a slab system of lithium metal with the D-T neutron source. (author)

  11. Scattering calculation and image reconstruction using elevation-focused beams.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Duncan, David P; Astheimer, Jeffrey P; Waag, Robert C

    2009-05-01

    Pressure scattered by cylindrical and spherical objects with elevation-focused illumination and reception has been analytically calculated, and corresponding cross sections have been reconstructed with a two-dimensional algorithm. Elevation focusing was used to elucidate constraints on quantitative imaging of three-dimensional objects with two-dimensional algorithms. Focused illumination and reception are represented by angular spectra of plane waves that were efficiently computed using a Fourier interpolation method to maintain the same angles for all temporal frequencies. Reconstructions were formed using an eigenfunction method with multiple frequencies, phase compensation, and iteration. The results show that the scattered pressure reduces to a two-dimensional expression, and two-dimensional algorithms are applicable when the region of a three-dimensional object within an elevation-focused beam is approximately constant in elevation. The results also show that energy scattered out of the reception aperture by objects contained within the focused beam can result in the reconstructed values of attenuation slope being greater than true values at the boundary of the object. Reconstructed sound speed images, however, appear to be relatively unaffected by the loss in scattered energy. The broad conclusion that can be drawn from these results is that two-dimensional reconstructions require compensation to account for uncaptured three-dimensional scattering.

  12. Dose calculations for irregular fields using three-dimensional first-scatter integration

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Boesecke, R.; Scharfenberg, H.; Schlegel, W.; Hartmann, G.H.

    1986-01-01

    This paper describes a method of dose calculations for irregular fields which requires only the mean energy of the incident photons, the geometrical properties of the irregular field and of the therapy unit, and the attenuation coefficient of tissue. The method goes back to an approach including spatial aspects of photon scattering for inhomogeneities for the calculation of dose reduction factors as proposed by Sontag and Cunningham (1978). It is based on the separation of dose into a primary component and a scattered component. The scattered component can generally be calculated for each field by integration over dose contributions from scattering in neighbouring volume elements. The quotient of this scattering contribution in the irregular field and the scattering contribution in the equivalent open field is then the correction factor for scattering in an irregular field. A correction factor for the primary component can be calculated if the attenuation of the photons in the shielding block is properly taken into account. The correction factor is simply given by the quotient of primary photons of the irregular field and the primary photons of the open field. (author)

  13. Optical model calculation of neutron-nucleus scattering cross sections

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Smith, M.E.; Camarda, H.S.

    1980-01-01

    A program to calculate the total, elastic, reaction, and differential cross section of a neutron interacting with a nucleus is described. The interaction between the neutron and the nucleus is represented by a spherically symmetric complex potential that includes spin-orbit coupling. This optical model problem is solved numerically, and is treated with the partial-wave formalism of scattering theory. The necessary scattering theory required to solve this problem is briefly stated. Then, the numerical methods used to integrate the Schroedinger equation, calculate derivatives, etc., are described, and the results of various programming tests performed are presented. Finally, the program is discussed from a user's point of view, and it is pointed out how and where the program (OPTICAL) can be changed to satisfy particular needs

  14. Calculation and Measurement of Low-Energy Radiative Moller Scattering

    Science.gov (United States)

    Epstein, Charles; DarkLight Collaboration

    2017-09-01

    A number of current nuclear physics experiments have come to rely on precise knowledge of electron-electron (Moller) and positron-electron (Bhabha) scattering. Some of these experiments, having lepton beams on targets containing atomic electrons, use these purely-QED processes as normalization. In other scenarios, with electron beams at low energy and very high intensity, Moller scattering and radiative Moller scattering have such enormous cross-sections that the backgrounds they produce must be understood. In this low-energy regime, the electron mass is also not negligible in the calculation of the cross section. This is important, for example, in the DarkLight experiment (100 MeV). As a result, we have developed a new event generator for the radiative Moller and Bhabha processes, with new calculations that keep all terms of the electron mass. The MIT High Voltage Research Laboratory provides us a unique opportunity to study this process experimentally and compare it with our work, at a low beam energy of 2.5 MeV where the effects of the electron mass are significant. We are preparing a dedicated apparatus consisting of a magnetic spectrometer in order to directly measure this process. An overview of the calculation and the status of the experiment will be presented.

  15. Calculation of electron scattering on the He+ ion

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Bray, I.; McCarthy, I.E.; Wigley, J.; Stelbovics, A.T.

    1993-11-01

    The Convergent Close-Coupling method is applied to the calculation of electron scattering on the ground state of He + . The inclusion of the treatment of the continuum, even below the ionization threshold, significantly reduces the calculated 2S cross section. Generally, it shows good agreement with the measurements of the 2S excitation cross section, though in the vicinity of a few eV near threshold the results are characteristically higher than the experiment. Complete quantitative agreement is obtained with the measurement of the total ionization cross section from threshold to 700 eV. 18 refs., 3 fig

  16. Efficient SPECT scatter calculation in non-uniform media using correlated Monte Carlo simulation

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Beekman, F.J.

    1999-01-01

    Accurate simulation of scatter in projection data of single photon emission computed tomography (SPECT) is computationally extremely demanding for activity distribution in non-uniform dense media. This paper suggests how the computation time and memory requirements can be significantly reduced. First the scatter projection of a uniform dense object (P SDSE ) is calculated using a previously developed accurate and fast method which includes all orders of scatter (slab-derived scatter estimation), and then P SDSE is transformed towards the desired projection P which is based on the non-uniform object. The transform of P SDSE is based on two first-order Compton scatter Monte Carlo (MC) simulated projections. One is based on the uniform object (P u ) and the other on the object with non-uniformities (P ν ). P is estimated by P-tilde=P SDSE P ν /P u . A tremendous decrease in noise in P-tilde is achieved by tracking photon paths for P ν identical to those which were tracked for the calculation of P u and by using analytical rather than stochastic modelling of the collimator. The method was validated by comparing the results with standard MC-simulated scatter projections (P) of 99m Tc and 201 Tl point sources in a digital thorax phantom. After correction, excellent agreement was obtained between P-tilde and P. The total computation time required to calculate an accurate scatter projection of an extended distribution in a thorax phantom on a PC is a only few tens of seconds per projection, which makes the method attractive for application in accurate scatter correction in clinical SPECT. Furthermore, the method removes the need of excessive computer memory involved with previously proposed 3D model-based scatter correction methods. (author)

  17. Accurate calculation of high harmonics generated by relativistic Thomson scattering

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Popa, Alexandru

    2008-01-01

    The recent emergence of the field of ultraintense laser pulses, corresponding to beam intensities higher than 10 18 W cm -2 , brings about the problem of the high harmonic generation (HHG) by the relativistic Thomson scattering of the electromagnetic radiation by free electrons. Starting from the equations of the relativistic motion of the electron in the electromagnetic field, we give an exact solution of this problem. Taking into account the Lienard-Wiechert equations, we obtain a periodic scattered electromagnetic field. Without loss of generality, the solution is strongly simplified by observing that the electromagnetic field is always normal to the direction electron-detector. The Fourier series expansion of this field leads to accurate expressions of the high harmonics generated by the Thomson scattering. Our calculations lead to a discrete HHG spectrum, whose shape and angular distribution are in agreement with the experimental data from the literature. Since no approximations were made, our approach is also valid in the ultrarelativistic regime, corresponding to intensities higher than 10 23 W cm -2 , where it predicts a strong increase of the HHG intensities and of the order of harmonics. In this domain, the nonlinear Thomson scattering could be an efficient source of hard x-rays

  18. Calculations of the Thermal Scattering Law for Solids and Liquids

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Jarvis, R.G.

    1968-01-01

    a method has been developed, based on the incoherent approximation, to describe scattering in solids and liquids. It deals with molecules which are made up of one or more types of scatterer, such as UO 2 and D 2 O. For each scatterer there is a scattering law S(α, β) = 1/2π ∫ ∞ -∞ exp(-αw(t))exp(iβ)dt in Egelstaff's notation. The width function w(t) corresponds to a 'generalized frequency distribution' p(β) which, in its most complicated form, has five components. The first and second describe sharp peaks (such as the two main vibration levels in D 2 O ), the third and fourth represent broader peaks (such as the combined effects of minor vibration levels and the rotations and translations), the fifth is for diffusion and is omitted for solids. The integral for S is expanded over the vibration terms and then evaluated by a combination of numerical methods and saddle-point integrations. Finally, the S 1 s for the scatterers are combined to give an S for the molecule. (author)

  19. Monte Carlo calculation of scattered radiation from applicators in low energy clinical electron beams

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Jabbari, N.; Hashemi-Malayeri, B.; Farajollahi, A. R.; Kazemnejad, A.

    2007-01-01

    In radiotherapy with electron beams, scattered radiation from an electron applicator influences the dose distribution in the patient. The contribution of this radiation to the patient dose is significant, even in modern accelerators. In most of radiotherapy treatment planning systems, this component is not explicitly included. In addition, the scattered radiation produced by applicators varies based on the applicator design as well as the field size and distance from the applicators. The aim of this study was to calculate the amount of scattered dose contribution from applicators. We also tried to provide an extensive set of calculated data that could be used as input or benchmark data for advanced treatment planning systems that use Monte Carlo algorithms for dose distribution calculations. Electron beams produced by a NEPTUN 10PC medical linac were modeled using the BEAMnrc system. Central axis depth dose curves of the electron beams were measured and calculated, with and without the applicators in place, for different field sizes and energies. The scattered radiation from the applicators was determined by subtracting the central axis depth dose curves obtained without the applicators from that with the applicator. The results of this study indicated that the scattered radiation from the electron applicators of the NEPTUN 10PC is significant and cannot be neglected in advanced treatment planning systems. Furthermore, our results showed that the scattered radiation depends on the field size and decreases almost linearly with depth. (author)

  20. SCATLAW: a code of scattering law and cross sections calculation for liquids and solids

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Padureanu, I.; Rapeanu, S.; Rotarascu, G.; Craciun, C.

    1978-11-01

    A code for calculation of the scattering law S(Q,ω), differential and double differential cross sections and scattering kernels in the energy range E(0 - 683 meV) and wave-vector transfer Q(0 - 40 A -1 ) is presented. The code can be used both for solids and liquids which are coherent or incoherent scatterer. For liquids the calculations are based on the most recent theoretical models involving the correlation functions and generalized field approach. The phonon expansion model and the free gas model are also analysed in term of frequency spectra obtained from inelastic neutron scattering using time-of-flight technique. Several results on liquid sodium at T = 233 deg C and on liquid bismuth at T = 286 deg C and T = 402 deg C are presented. (author)

  1. Magnetic Compton scattering study of Laves phase ZrFe2 and Sc doped ZrFe2: Experiment and Green function based relativistic calculations

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bhatt, Samir; Mund, H. S.; Kumar, Kishor; Bapna, Komal; Dashora, Alpa; Itou, M.; Sakurai, Y.; Ahuja, B. L.

    2018-05-01

    Spin momentum densities of ferromagnetic ZrFe2 and Zr0.8Sc0.2Fe2 have been measured using magnetic Compton scattering with 182.65 keV circularly polarized synchrotron radiations. Site specific spin moments, which are responsible for the formation of total spin moment, have been deduced from Compton line shapes. At room temperature, the computed spin moment of ZrFe2 is found to be slightly higher than that of Sc doped ZrFe2 which is in consensus with the magnetization data. To compare the experimental data, we have also computed magnetic Compton profiles (MCPs), total and partial spin projected density of states (DOS) and the site specific spin moments using spin-polarized relativistic Korringa-Kohn-Rostoker method. It is observed that the spin moment at Fe site is aligned antiparallel to that of Zr site in both ZrFe2 and Zr0.8Sc0.2Fe2. The MCP results when compared with vibrating sample magnetometer based magnetization data, show a very small contribution of orbital moment in the formation of total magnetic moments in both the compounds. The DOS of ferromagnetic ground state of ZrFe2 and Zr0.8Sc0.2Fe2 are interpreted on the basis of a covalent magnetic model beyond the Stoner rigid band model. It appears that on alloying between a magnetic and a non-magnetic partner (with low valence), a polarization develops on the non-magnetic atom which is anti-parallel to that of the magnetic atom.

  2. Merkuriev Cut-off in e+ − H Multichannel Scattering Calculations

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Vitaly A. Gradusov

    2016-03-01

    Full Text Available We present the results of positron-Hydrogen multichannel scattering calculations performed on the base of Faddeev-Merkuriev equations. We discuss an optimal choice of the Merkuriev’s Coulomb splitting parameters. Splitting the Coulomb potential in two-body configuration space is applicable for a limited energy range. Splitting the potential in three-body configuration space makes it possible to perform calculations in a broader range of energies and to optimize the numerical convergence. Scattering cross sections for zero total angular momentum for all processes between the positronium formation threshold and the third excitation threshold of the Hydrogen atom are reported.

  3. Calculations of light scattering matrices for stochastic ensembles of nanosphere clusters

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Bunkin, N.F.; Shkirin, A.V.; Suyazov, N.V.; Starosvetskiy, A.V.

    2013-01-01

    Results of the calculation of the light scattering matrices for systems of stochastic nanosphere clusters are presented. A mathematical model of spherical particle clustering with allowance for cluster–cluster aggregation is used. The fractal properties of cluster structures are explored at different values of the model parameter that governs cluster–cluster interaction. General properties of the light scattering matrices of nanosphere-cluster ensembles as dependent on their mean fractal dimension have been found. The scattering-matrix calculations were performed for finite samples of 10 3 random clusters, made up of polydisperse spherical nanoparticles, having lognormal size distribution with the effective radius 50 nm and effective variance 0.02; the mean number of monomers in a cluster and its standard deviation were set to 500 and 70, respectively. The implemented computation environment, modeling the scattering matrices for overall sequences of clusters, is based upon T-matrix program code for a given single cluster of spheres, which was developed in [1]. The ensemble-averaged results have been compared with orientation-averaged ones calculated for individual clusters. -- Highlights: ► We suggested a hierarchical model of cluster growth allowing for cluster–cluster aggregation. ► We analyzed the light scattering by whole ensembles of nanosphere clusters. ► We studied the evolution of the light scattering matrix when changing the fractal dimension

  4. A fast calculating two-stream-like multiple scattering algorithm that captures azimuthal and elevation variations

    Science.gov (United States)

    Fiorino, Steven T.; Elmore, Brannon; Schmidt, Jaclyn; Matchefts, Elizabeth; Burley, Jarred L.

    2016-05-01

    Properly accounting for multiple scattering effects can have important implications for remote sensing and possibly directed energy applications. For example, increasing path radiance can affect signal noise. This study describes the implementation of a fast-calculating two-stream-like multiple scattering algorithm that captures azimuthal and elevation variations into the Laser Environmental Effects Definition and Reference (LEEDR) atmospheric characterization and radiative transfer code. The multiple scattering algorithm fully solves for molecular, aerosol, cloud, and precipitation single-scatter layer effects with a Mie algorithm at every calculation point/layer rather than an interpolated value from a pre-calculated look-up-table. This top-down cumulative diffusivity method first considers the incident solar radiance contribution to a given layer accounting for solid angle and elevation, and it then measures the contribution of diffused energy from previous layers based on the transmission of the current level to produce a cumulative radiance that is reflected from a surface and measured at the aperture at the observer. Then a unique set of asymmetry and backscattering phase function parameter calculations are made which account for the radiance loss due to the molecular and aerosol constituent reflectivity within a level and allows for a more accurate characterization of diffuse layers that contribute to multiple scattered radiances in inhomogeneous atmospheres. The code logic is valid for spectral bands between 200 nm and radio wavelengths, and the accuracy is demonstrated by comparing the results from LEEDR to observed sky radiance data.

  5. A simple algorithm for calculating the scattering angle in atomic collisions

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Belchior, J.C.; Braga, J.P.

    1996-01-01

    A geometric approach to calculate the classical atomic scattering angle is presented. The trajectory of the particle is divided into several straight-lines and changing in direction from one sector to the other is used to calculate the scattering angle. In this model, calculation of the scattering angle does not involve either the direct evaluation of integrals nor classical turning points. (author)

  6. Calculation of accurate small angle X-ray scattering curves from coarse-grained protein models

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Stovgaard, Kasper; Andreetta, Christian; Ferkinghoff-Borg, Jesper

    2010-01-01

    , which is paramount for structure determination based on statistical inference. Results: We present a method for the efficient calculation of accurate SAXS curves based on the Debye formula and a set of scattering form factors for dummy atom representations of amino acids. Such a method avoids......DBN. This resulted in a significant improvement in the decoy recognition performance. In conclusion, the presented method shows great promise for use in statistical inference of protein structures from SAXS data....

  7. Statistical mechanical calculations of molecular pair correlation functions and scattering intensities

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Bertagnolli, H.

    1978-01-01

    For the case of special molecular models representing the acetonitrile molecule the expansion coefficients of the molecular par distribution function are calculated by use of pertubation theory. These results are used to get theoretical access to scattering intensities in the frame of several approximations. The first model describes the molecule by three hard spheres and uses a hard sphere liquid as reference. In the second cast the calculations are based on an anisotropic Lennard-Jones potential by application of a model of overlapping ellipsoids and by use of a Lennard-Jones liquid as a reference system. In the third model dipolar attractive forces are taken into account with an anisotropic hard-sphere liquid as a reference. In the third model dipolar attractive forces are taken into account with an anisotropic hard-sphere liquid as a reference. Finally all the calculations with different intermolecular potentials are compared with neutron scattering experiments. (orig.) 891 HK [de

  8. A calculation of Zsub(eff) for low-energy positron-hydrogen-molecule scattering

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Armour, E.A.G.; Baker, D.J.

    1985-01-01

    The value of Zsub(eff), the effective number of electrons per molecule available to the positron for annihilation, is calculated for low-energy positron-hydrogen-molecule scattering using the scattering wavefunctions obtained in recent detailed ab initio calculations. The results are higher than those obtained in previous calculations but much lower than the experimental value. (author)

  9. Calculating Rayleigh scattering amplitudes from 100 eV to 10 MeV

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Parker, J.C.; Reynaud, G.W.; Botto, D.J.; Pratt, R.H.

    1979-01-01

    An attempt is made to explain how to calculate the contribution to elastic photon-atom scattering due to Rayleigh scattering (the scattering off bound electrons) in the photon energy range 100 eV less than or equal to W less than or equal to 10 MeV. All intermediate calculations are described, including the calculation of the potential, bound state wave functions, matrix elements, and final cross sections. 12 references

  10. Calculation of accurate small angle X-ray scattering curves from coarse-grained protein models

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Stovgaard Kasper

    2010-08-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background Genome sequencing projects have expanded the gap between the amount of known protein sequences and structures. The limitations of current high resolution structure determination methods make it unlikely that this gap will disappear in the near future. Small angle X-ray scattering (SAXS is an established low resolution method for routinely determining the structure of proteins in solution. The purpose of this study is to develop a method for the efficient calculation of accurate SAXS curves from coarse-grained protein models. Such a method can for example be used to construct a likelihood function, which is paramount for structure determination based on statistical inference. Results We present a method for the efficient calculation of accurate SAXS curves based on the Debye formula and a set of scattering form factors for dummy atom representations of amino acids. Such a method avoids the computationally costly iteration over all atoms. We estimated the form factors using generated data from a set of high quality protein structures. No ad hoc scaling or correction factors are applied in the calculation of the curves. Two coarse-grained representations of protein structure were investigated; two scattering bodies per amino acid led to significantly better results than a single scattering body. Conclusion We show that the obtained point estimates allow the calculation of accurate SAXS curves from coarse-grained protein models. The resulting curves are on par with the current state-of-the-art program CRYSOL, which requires full atomic detail. Our method was also comparable to CRYSOL in recognizing native structures among native-like decoys. As a proof-of-concept, we combined the coarse-grained Debye calculation with a previously described probabilistic model of protein structure, TorusDBN. This resulted in a significant improvement in the decoy recognition performance. In conclusion, the presented method shows great promise for

  11. Independent dosimetric calculation with inclusion of head scatter and MLC transmission for IMRT

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Yang, Y.; Xing, L.; Li, J.G.; Palta, J.; Chen, Y.; Luxton, Gary; Boyer, A.

    2003-01-01

    Independent verification of the MU settings and dose calculation of IMRT treatment plans is an important step in the IMRT quality assurance (QA) procedure. At present, the verification is mainly based on experimental measurements, which are time consuming and labor intensive. Although a few simplified algorithms have recently been proposed for the independent dose (or MU) calculation, head scatter has not been precisely taken into account in all these investigations and the dose validation has mainly been limited to the central axis. In this work we developed an effective computer algorithm for IMRT MU and dose validation. The technique is superior to the currently available computer-based MU check systems in that (1) it takes full consideration of the head scatter and leaf transmission effects; and (2) it allows a precise dose calculation at an arbitrary spatial point instead of merely a point on the central axis. In the algorithm the dose at an arbitrary spatial point is expressed as a summation of the contributions of primary and scatter radiation from all beamlets. Each beamlet is modulated by a dynamic modulation factor (DMF), which is determined by the MLC leaf trajectories, the head scatter, the jaw positions, and the MLC leaf transmission. A three-source model was used to calculate the head scatter distribution for irregular segments shaped by MLC and the scatter dose contributions were computed using a modified Clarkson method. The system reads in MLC leaf sequence files (or RTP files) generated by the Corvus (NOMOS Corporation, Sewickley, PA) inverse planning system and then computes the doses at the desired points. The algorithm was applied to study the dose distributions of several testing intensity modulated fields and two multifield Corvus plans and the results were compared with Corvus plans and experimental measurements. The final dose calculations at most spatial points agreed with the experimental measurements to within 3% for both the specially

  12. Lloyd's formula in multiple-scattering calculations with finite temperature

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Zeller, Rudolf

    2005-01-01

    Lloyd's formula is an elegant tool to calculate the number of states directly from the imaginary part of the logarithm of the Korringa-Kohn-Rostoker (KKR) determinant. It is shown how this formula can be used at finite electronic temperatures and how the difficult problem to determine the physically significant correct phase of the complex logarithm can be circumvented by working with the single-valued real part of the logarithm. The approach is based on contour integrations in the complex energy plane and exploits the analytical properties of the KKR Green function and the Fermi-Dirac function. It leads to rather accurate results, which is illustrated by a local-density functional calculation of the temperature dependence of the intrinsic Fermi level in zinc-blende GaN

  13. Calculations on nucleon-deuteron scattering with realistic potentials

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Stolk, C.

    1978-01-01

    The purpose of this study is to find out how the three-nucleon observables are affected by details of the two-nucleon force. The theory of the perturbational treatment of the Faddeev equations for the three-particle transition matrix, for both elastic and breakup scattering is dealt with. Some details of the numerical treatment are discussed, results for the elastic and breakup scattering presented and conclusions drawn. (C.F.)

  14. Biasing anisotropic scattering kernels for deep-penetration Monte Carlo calculations

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Carter, L.L.; Hendricks, J.S.

    1983-01-01

    The exponential transform is often used to improve the efficiency of deep-penetration Monte Carlo calculations. This technique is usually implemented by biasing the distance-to-collision kernel of the transport equation, but leaving the scattering kernel unchanged. Dwivedi obtained significant improvements in efficiency by biasing an isotropic scattering kernel as well as the distance-to-collision kernel. This idea is extended to anisotropic scattering, particularly the highly forward Klein-Nishina scattering of gamma rays

  15. Ab initio calculation of scattering length and cross sections at very low energies for electron-helium scattering

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Saha, H.P.

    1993-01-01

    The multiconfiguration Hartree-Fock method for continuum wave functions has been used to calculate the scattering length and phase shifts over extremely low energies ranging from 0 to 1 eV very accurately for electron-helium scattering. The scattering length is calculated very accurately with wave functions computed exactly at zero energy, resulting in an upper bound of 1.1784. The electron correlation and polarization of the target by the scattering electron, which are very important in these calculations, have been taken into account in an accurate ab initio manner through the configuration-interaction procedure by optimizing both bound and continuum orbitals simultaneously at each kinetic energy of the scattered electron. Detailed results for scattering length, differential, total, and momentum-transfer cross sections obtained from the phase shifts are presented. The present scattering length is found to be in excellent agreement with the experimental result of Andrick and Bitsch [J. Phys. B 8, 402 (1975)] and the theoretical result of O'Malley, Burke, and Berrington [J. Phys. B 12, 953 (1979)]. There is excellent agreement between the present total cross sections and the corresponding experimental measurements of Buckman and Lohmann [J. Phys. B 19, 2547 (1986)]. The present momentum-transfer cross sections also show remarkable agreement with the experimental results of Crompton, Elford, and Robertson [Aust. J. Phys. 23, 667 (1970)

  16. New developments in analytical calculation of first order scattering for 3D complex objects

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Duvauchelle, Philippe; Berthier, Jerome

    2007-01-01

    The principle of the analytical calculation of first order scattering used in our simulation code named VXI (Virtual X-ray Imaging) is based on a double ray-tracing. The first step consists in realizing a ray-tracing from the X-ray source point to each point of the object (an elementary volume in practice) including attenuation effect in the primary beam. This calculation gives the number of photons and their direction arriving on each voxel. A voxel acts as a secondary source which properties accord to the physics of X-ray scattering (Compton and Rayleigh). The second step of the ray-tracing is then done from each voxel of the object in the direction of each pixel of the detector, taking into account the attenuation along the scattering path. To simulate a 3D complex object, the first problem consists in realizing an automatic 3D sampling of the object. This is done by using an octree-based method optimized for deterministic scattering computation. The basic octree method consists in dividing recursively the volume of the object in decreasing-size voxels until each of them is completely included under the surface of the sample. The object volume is then always under evaluated. This is a problem because the scattering phenomenon strongly depends on the real volume of the object. The second problem is that artefacts due to sampling effects can occur in synthesis images. These two particular aspects are taken into account in our simulation code and an optimized octree-based method has been specially developed for this application. To respond to the first problem, our 3D sampling algorithm may accept voxels on the surface of the sample under conditions defined by the user. The second problem is treated in generating a random sampling instead of a regular one. The algorithm developed for 3D sampling is easily configurable, fast (about a few seconds maximum), robust and can be applied to all object shapes (thin, massive). The sampling time depends on the number of

  17. Development of a computer model using the EGS4 simulation code to calculate scattered X-rays through some materials

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Al-Ghorabie, F.H.H.

    2003-01-01

    In this paper a computer model based on the use of the well-known Monte Carlo simulation code EGS4 was developed to simulate the scattering of polyenergetic X-ray beams through some materials. These materials are: lucite, polyethylene, polypropylene and aluminium. In particular, the ratio of the scattered to total X-ray fluence (scatter fraction) has been calculated for X-ray beams in the energy region 30-120 keV. In addition scatter fractions have been determined experimentally using a polyenergetic superficial X-ray unit. Comparison of the measured and the calculated results has been performed. The Monte Carlo calculations have also been carried out for water, bakelite and bone to examine the dependence of scatter fraction on the density of the scatterer. Good agreement (estimated statistical error < 5%) was obtained between the measured and the calculated values of the scatter fractions for materials with Z < 20 that were studied in this paper. Copyright (2003) Australasian College of Physical Scientists and Engineers in Medicine

  18. Wall attenuation and scatter corrections for ion chambers: measurements versus calculations

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Rogers, D W.O.; Bielajew, A F [National Research Council of Canada, Ottawa, ON (Canada). Div. of Physics

    1990-08-01

    In precision ion chamber dosimetry in air, wall attenuation and scatter are corrected for A{sub wall} (K{sub att} in IAEA terminology, K{sub w}{sup -1} in standards laboratory terminology). Using the EGS4 system the authors show that Monte Carlo calculated A{sub wall} factors predict relative variations in detector response with wall thickness which agree with all available experimental data within a statistical uncertainty of less than 0.1%. They calculated correction factors for use in exposure and air kerma standards are different by up to 1% from those obtained by extrapolating these same measurements. Using calculated correction factors would imply increases of 0.7-1.0% in the exposure and air kerma standards based on spherical and large diameter, large length cylindrical chambers and decreases of 0.3-0.5% for standards based on large diameter pancake chambers. (author).

  19. The boomerang effect in electron-hydrogen molecule scattering as determined by time-dependent calculations

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ben-Asher, Anael; Moiseyev, Nimrod

    2017-05-01

    The appearance of oscillations in the energy-dependent cross sections of the vibrational excitation ν =0 →ν ≥3 of the hydrogen molecule in its electronic ground state as predicted by Mündel, Berman, and Domcke [Phys. Rev. A 32, 181 (1985)] was confirmed in the electron scattering experiments by Allan [J. Phys. B: At. Mol. Phys. 18, L451 (1985)]. These unusual structures were obtained in spite of the extremely short lifetime of H2- in its ro-vibrational states. Based on the standard (Hermitian) time-independent scattering calculations, Horáček et al. [Phys. Rev. A 73, 022701 (2006)] associated these oscillations with the boomerang effect. Here, we show the boomerang effect as developed in time, based on our time-dependent nuclear wavepacket (WP) calculations. The nuclear WP dynamics of H2- is determined using the non-Hermitian quantum mechanics (NH-QM) which enables the use of the Born-Oppenheimer approximation with complex potential energy surfaces. This NH-QM approach, which enables us the association of the nuclear WP dynamics as obtained from the complex potential energy curve of H2- with the evolution of cross section in time, can enlighten the dynamics in other scattering experiments.

  20. From parallel to distributed computing for reactive scattering calculations

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Lagana, A.; Gervasi, O.; Baraglia, R.

    1994-01-01

    Some reactive scattering codes have been ported on different innovative computer architectures ranging from massively parallel machines to clustered workstations. The porting has required a drastic restructuring of the codes to single out computationally decoupled cpu intensive subsections. The suitability of different theoretical approaches for parallel and distributed computing restructuring is discussed and the efficiency of related algorithms evaluated

  1. Classical Calculations of Scattering Signatures from a Gravitational ...

    Indian Academy of Sciences (India)

    The objective of this section is to compile the relevant equations to compute the trajectories and the scattering cross-sections for objects with small velocities (with respect to the speed of light) and with large impact parameters (in Schwarzschild radius units), s >> sl. We are going to reference later these equations as the limit.

  2. Variational treatment of electron-polyatomic-molecule scattering calculations using adaptive overset grids

    Science.gov (United States)

    Greenman, Loren; Lucchese, Robert R.; McCurdy, C. William

    2017-11-01

    The complex Kohn variational method for electron-polyatomic-molecule scattering is formulated using an overset-grid representation of the scattering wave function. The overset grid consists of a central grid and multiple dense atom-centered subgrids that allow the simultaneous spherical expansions of the wave function about multiple centers. Scattering boundary conditions are enforced by using a basis formed by the repeated application of the free-particle Green's function and potential Ĝ0+V ̂ on the overset grid in a Born-Arnoldi solution of the working equations. The theory is shown to be equivalent to a specific Padé approximant to the T matrix and has rapid convergence properties, in both the number of numerical basis functions employed and the number of partial waves employed in the spherical expansions. The method is demonstrated in calculations on methane and CF4 in the static-exchange approximation and compared in detail with calculations performed with the numerical Schwinger variational approach based on single-center expansions. An efficient procedure for operating with the free-particle Green's function and exchange operators (to which no approximation is made) is also described.

  3. Progress on calculation of direct inelastic scattering cross section of neutron

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Zhenpeng, Chen [Qinghua Univ., Beijing, BJ (China). Dept. of Physics

    1996-06-01

    For n+ {sup 238}U inelastic scattering cross, there exist discrepancies among the available evaluations in various libraries. This is partly duo to the difference of direct inelastic scattering cross section calculated with coupled channel optical model (CCOM). The research on the level frame used in CCOM calculation, the research on used parameters of spherical optical model in CCOM calculation and the research on the amplitude of octupole phonon {beta}{sub 3} were presented. (2 figs.).

  4. Impact of the Improved Resonance Scattering Kernel on HTR Calculations

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Becker, B.; Dagan, R.; Broeders, C.H.M.; Lohnert, G.

    2008-01-01

    The importance of an advanced neutron scattering model for heavy isotopes with strong energy dependent cross sections such as the pronounced resonances of U 238 has been discussed in various publications where the full double differential scattering kernel was derived. In this study we quantify the effect of the new scattering model for specific innovative types of High Temperature Reactor (HTR) systems which commonly exhibit a higher degree of heterogeneity and higher fuel temperatures, hence increasing the importance of the secondary neutron energy distribution. In particular the impact on the multiplication factor (k ∞ ) and the Doppler reactivity coefficient is presented in view of the packing factors and operating temperatures. A considerable reduction of k ∞ (up to 600 pcm) and an increased Doppler reactivity (up to 10%) is observed. An increase of up to 2.3% of the Pu 239 inventory can be noticed at 90 MWd/tHM burnup due to enhanced neutron absorption of U 238 . Those effects are more pronounced for design cases in which the neutron flux spectrum is hardened towards the resolved resonance range. (authors)

  5. Hybrid theory and calculation of e-N2 scattering. [quantum mechanics - nuclei (nuclear physics)

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chandra, N.; Temkin, A.

    1975-01-01

    A theory of electron-molecule scattering was developed which was a synthesis of close coupling and adiabatic-nuclei theories. The theory is shown to be a close coupling theory with respect to vibrational degrees of freedom but is a adiabatic-nuclei theory with respect to rotation. It can be applied to any number of partial waves required, and the remaining ones can be calculated purely in one or the other approximation. A theoretical criterion based on fixed-nuclei calculations and not on experiment can be given as to which partial waves and energy domains require the various approximations. The theory allows all cross sections (i.e., pure rotational, vibrational, simultaneous vibration-rotation, differential and total) to be calculated. Explicit formulae for all the cross sections are presented.

  6. Calculation of far-field scattering from nonspherical particles using a geometrical optics approach

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hovenac, Edward A.

    1991-01-01

    A numerical method was developed using geometrical optics to predict far-field optical scattering from particles that are symmetric about the optic axis. The diffractive component of scattering is calculated and combined with the reflective and refractive components to give the total scattering pattern. The phase terms of the scattered light are calculated as well. Verification of the method was achieved by assuming a spherical particle and comparing the results to Mie scattering theory. Agreement with the Mie theory was excellent in the forward-scattering direction. However, small-amplitude oscillations near the rainbow regions were not observed using the numerical method. Numerical data from spheroidal particles and hemispherical particles are also presented. The use of hemispherical particles as a calibration standard for intensity-type optical particle-sizing instruments is discussed.

  7. Probability density of tunneled carrier states near heterojunctions calculated numerically by the scattering method.

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Wampler, William R. [Sandia National Lab. (SNL-NM), Albuquerque, NM (United States); Myers, Samuel M. [Sandia National Lab. (SNL-NM), Albuquerque, NM (United States); Modine, Normand A. [Sandia National Lab. (SNL-NM), Albuquerque, NM (United States)

    2017-09-01

    The energy-dependent probability density of tunneled carrier states for arbitrarily specified longitudinal potential-energy profiles in planar bipolar devices is numerically computed using the scattering method. Results agree accurately with a previous treatment based on solution of the localized eigenvalue problem, where computation times are much greater. These developments enable quantitative treatment of tunneling-assisted recombination in irradiated heterojunction bipolar transistors, where band offsets may enhance the tunneling effect by orders of magnitude. The calculations also reveal the density of non-tunneled carrier states in spatially varying potentials, and thereby test the common approximation of uniform- bulk values for such densities.

  8. Exciton scattering approach for optical spectra calculations in branched conjugated macromolecules

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Li, Hao; Wu, Chao; Malinin, Sergey V.; Tretiak, Sergei; Chernyak, Vladimir Y.

    2016-01-01

    The exciton scattering (ES) technique is a multiscale approach based on the concept of a particle in a box and developed for efficient calculations of excited-state electronic structure and optical spectra in low-dimensional conjugated macromolecules. Within the ES method, electronic excitations in molecular structure are attributed to standing waves representing quantum quasi-particles (excitons), which reside on the graph whose edges and nodes stand for the molecular linear segments and vertices, respectively. Exciton propagation on the linear segments is characterized by the exciton dispersion, whereas exciton scattering at the branching centers is determined by the energy-dependent scattering matrices. Using these ES energetic parameters, the excitation energies are then found by solving a set of generalized “particle in a box” problems on the graph that represents the molecule. Similarly, unique energy-dependent ES dipolar parameters permit calculations of the corresponding oscillator strengths, thus, completing optical spectra modeling. Both the energetic and dipolar parameters can be extracted from quantum-chemical computations in small molecular fragments and tabulated in the ES library for further applications. Subsequently, spectroscopic modeling for any macrostructure within a considered molecular family could be performed with negligible numerical effort. We demonstrate the ES method application to molecular families of branched conjugated phenylacetylenes and ladder poly-para-phenylenes, as well as structures with electron donor and acceptor chemical substituents. Time-dependent density functional theory (TD-DFT) is used as a reference model for electronic structure. The ES calculations accurately reproduce the optical spectra compared to the reference quantum chemistry results, and make possible to predict spectra of complex macromolecules, where conventional electronic structure calculations are unfeasible.

  9. Exciton scattering approach for optical spectra calculations in branched conjugated macromolecules

    Science.gov (United States)

    Li, Hao; Wu, Chao; Malinin, Sergey V.; Tretiak, Sergei; Chernyak, Vladimir Y.

    2016-12-01

    The exciton scattering (ES) technique is a multiscale approach based on the concept of a particle in a box and developed for efficient calculations of excited-state electronic structure and optical spectra in low-dimensional conjugated macromolecules. Within the ES method, electronic excitations in molecular structure are attributed to standing waves representing quantum quasi-particles (excitons), which reside on the graph whose edges and nodes stand for the molecular linear segments and vertices, respectively. Exciton propagation on the linear segments is characterized by the exciton dispersion, whereas exciton scattering at the branching centers is determined by the energy-dependent scattering matrices. Using these ES energetic parameters, the excitation energies are then found by solving a set of generalized "particle in a box" problems on the graph that represents the molecule. Similarly, unique energy-dependent ES dipolar parameters permit calculations of the corresponding oscillator strengths, thus, completing optical spectra modeling. Both the energetic and dipolar parameters can be extracted from quantum-chemical computations in small molecular fragments and tabulated in the ES library for further applications. Subsequently, spectroscopic modeling for any macrostructure within a considered molecular family could be performed with negligible numerical effort. We demonstrate the ES method application to molecular families of branched conjugated phenylacetylenes and ladder poly-para-phenylenes, as well as structures with electron donor and acceptor chemical substituents. Time-dependent density functional theory (TD-DFT) is used as a reference model for electronic structure. The ES calculations accurately reproduce the optical spectra compared to the reference quantum chemistry results, and make possible to predict spectra of complex macromolecules, where conventional electronic structure calculations are unfeasible.

  10. Exciton scattering approach for optical spectra calculations in branched conjugated macromolecules

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Li, Hao [Department of Chemistry, University of Houston, Houston, TX 77204 (United States); Wu, Chao [Electronic Structure Lab, Center of Microscopic Theory and Simulation, Frontier Institute of Science and Technology, Xian Jiaotong University, Xian 710054 (China); Malinin, Sergey V. [Department of Chemistry, Wayne State University, 5101 Cass Avenue, Detroit, MI 48202 (United States); Tretiak, Sergei, E-mail: serg@lanl.gov [Theoretical Division and Center for Nonlinear Studies, Los Alamos National Laboratory, Los Alamos, NM 87545 (United States); Center for Integrated Nanotechnologies, Los Alamos National Laboratory, Los Alamos, NM 87545 (United States); Chernyak, Vladimir Y., E-mail: chernyak@chem.wayne.edu [Department of Chemistry, Wayne State University, 5101 Cass Avenue, Detroit, MI 48202 (United States)

    2016-12-20

    The exciton scattering (ES) technique is a multiscale approach based on the concept of a particle in a box and developed for efficient calculations of excited-state electronic structure and optical spectra in low-dimensional conjugated macromolecules. Within the ES method, electronic excitations in molecular structure are attributed to standing waves representing quantum quasi-particles (excitons), which reside on the graph whose edges and nodes stand for the molecular linear segments and vertices, respectively. Exciton propagation on the linear segments is characterized by the exciton dispersion, whereas exciton scattering at the branching centers is determined by the energy-dependent scattering matrices. Using these ES energetic parameters, the excitation energies are then found by solving a set of generalized “particle in a box” problems on the graph that represents the molecule. Similarly, unique energy-dependent ES dipolar parameters permit calculations of the corresponding oscillator strengths, thus, completing optical spectra modeling. Both the energetic and dipolar parameters can be extracted from quantum-chemical computations in small molecular fragments and tabulated in the ES library for further applications. Subsequently, spectroscopic modeling for any macrostructure within a considered molecular family could be performed with negligible numerical effort. We demonstrate the ES method application to molecular families of branched conjugated phenylacetylenes and ladder poly-para-phenylenes, as well as structures with electron donor and acceptor chemical substituents. Time-dependent density functional theory (TD-DFT) is used as a reference model for electronic structure. The ES calculations accurately reproduce the optical spectra compared to the reference quantum chemistry results, and make possible to predict spectra of complex macromolecules, where conventional electronic structure calculations are unfeasible.

  11. Detailed calculations on low-energy positron-hydrogen-molecule and helium-antihydrogen scattering

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Armour, E A G; Cooper, J N; Gregory, M R; Todd, A C [School of Mathematical Sciences, University of Nottingham, Nottingham NG7 2RD (United Kingdom); Jonsell, S [Department of Physics, University of Swansea, Swansea SA2 8PP (United Kingdom); Plummer, M, E-mail: edward.armour@nottingham.ac.u [Computational Science and Engineering, STFC Daresbury Laboratory, Warrington WA4 4AD (United Kingdom)

    2010-01-01

    In this paper, we consider two scattering processes: low-energy positron-hydrogen-molecule and helium-antihydrogen scattering. In the positron-hydrogen-molecule scattering calculations, we use the Kohn variational method to calculate Z{sub eff}, the number of target electrons available to the positron for annihilation. In the helium-antihydrogen scattering calculations, we use the Rayleigh-Ritz variational method to calculate a wave function for the leptons as a function of the distance between the helium and the antihydrogen. This is used, together with the associated nuclear wave function and the wave function for {alpha} p-bar + Ps{sup -}, to calculate the cross section for the rearrangement reaction He + H-bar {yields} {alpha} p-bar + Ps{sup -}, using the T-matrix and a form of the distorted wave approximation. For both processes, positron-electron correlation is taken into account accurately using Hylleraas-type functions.

  12. Static model calculation of pion-nucleon scattering

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Itoh, Takashi

    1975-01-01

    The p-wave pion-nucleon scattering phase-shifts are computed by the Chew-Low static model for pion incident energy of 0-300 MeV. The square of the unrenormalized coupling constant is taken to be f 2 =0.2, and the cutoff is made at k sub(max)=6μ. The computed 3,3 phase-shift passes through 90 deg about at the right energy. The other phase-shifts computed are small in rough agreement with experiment. (auth.)

  13. Proton dose calculation on scatter-corrected CBCT image: Feasibility study for adaptive proton therapy

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Park, Yang-Kyun, E-mail: ykpark@mgh.harvard.edu; Sharp, Gregory C.; Phillips, Justin; Winey, Brian A. [Department of Radiation Oncology, Massachusetts General Hospital and Harvard Medical School, Boston, Massachusetts 02114 (United States)

    2015-08-15

    Purpose: To demonstrate the feasibility of proton dose calculation on scatter-corrected cone-beam computed tomographic (CBCT) images for the purpose of adaptive proton therapy. Methods: CBCT projection images were acquired from anthropomorphic phantoms and a prostate patient using an on-board imaging system of an Elekta infinity linear accelerator. Two previously introduced techniques were used to correct the scattered x-rays in the raw projection images: uniform scatter correction (CBCT{sub us}) and a priori CT-based scatter correction (CBCT{sub ap}). CBCT images were reconstructed using a standard FDK algorithm and GPU-based reconstruction toolkit. Soft tissue ROI-based HU shifting was used to improve HU accuracy of the uncorrected CBCT images and CBCT{sub us}, while no HU change was applied to the CBCT{sub ap}. The degree of equivalence of the corrected CBCT images with respect to the reference CT image (CT{sub ref}) was evaluated by using angular profiles of water equivalent path length (WEPL) and passively scattered proton treatment plans. The CBCT{sub ap} was further evaluated in more realistic scenarios such as rectal filling and weight loss to assess the effect of mismatched prior information on the corrected images. Results: The uncorrected CBCT and CBCT{sub us} images demonstrated substantial WEPL discrepancies (7.3 ± 5.3 mm and 11.1 ± 6.6 mm, respectively) with respect to the CT{sub ref}, while the CBCT{sub ap} images showed substantially reduced WEPL errors (2.4 ± 2.0 mm). Similarly, the CBCT{sub ap}-based treatment plans demonstrated a high pass rate (96.0% ± 2.5% in 2 mm/2% criteria) in a 3D gamma analysis. Conclusions: A priori CT-based scatter correction technique was shown to be promising for adaptive proton therapy, as it achieved equivalent proton dose distributions and water equivalent path lengths compared to those of a reference CT in a selection of anthropomorphic phantoms.

  14. Efficient Calculation of Born Scattering for Fixed-Offset Ground-Penetrating Radar Surveys

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Meincke, Peter

    2007-01-01

    A formulation is presented for efficient calculation of linear electromagnetic scattering by buried penetrable objects, as involved in the analysis of fixed-offset ground-penetrating radar (GPR) systems. The actual radiation patterns of the GPR antennas are incorporated in the scattering...

  15. Calculation of the mean scattering angle, the logarithmic decrement and its mean square

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Bersillon, O.; Caput, B.

    1984-06-01

    The calculation of the mean scattering angle, the logarithmic decrement and its mean square, starting from the Legendre polynomial expansion coefficients of the relevant elastic scattering angular distribution, is numerically studied with different methods, one of which is proposed for the usual determination of these quantities which are present in the evaluated data files ENDF [fr

  16. A least squares calculational method: application to e±-H elastic scattering

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Das, J.N.; Chakraborty, S.

    1989-01-01

    The least squares calcualtional method proposed by Das has been applied for the e ± -H elastic scattering problems for intermediate energies. Some important conclusions are made on the basis of the calculation. (author). 7 refs ., 2 tabs

  17. Sources of the X-rays Based on Compton Scattering

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Androsov, V.; Bulyak, E.; Gladkikh, P.; Karnaukhov, I.; Mytsykov, A.; Telegin, Yu.; Shcherbakov, A.; Zelinsky, A.

    2007-01-01

    The principles of the intense X-rays generation by laser beam scattering on a relativistic electron beam are described and description of facilities assigned to produce the X-rays based on Compton scattering is presented. The possibilities of various types of such facilities are estimated and discussed. The source of the X-rays based on a storage ring with low beam energy is described in details and advantages of the sources of such type are discussed.The results of calculation and numerical simulation carried out for laser electron storage ring NESTOR that is under development in NSC KIPT show wide prospects of the accelerator facility of such type

  18. Calculation of zero-norm states and reduction od stringy scattering amplitudes

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Lee Jen-Chi

    2005-01-01

    We give a simplified method to generate two types of zero-norm states in the old covariant first quantized (OCFQ) spectrum of open bosonic string. Zero-norm states up to the fourth massive level and general formulas of some zero-norm tensor states at arbitrary mass levels are calculated. On-shell Ward identities generated by zero-norm states and the factor-ization property of stringy vertex operators can then be used to argue that the string-tree scattering amplitudes of the degenerate lower spin propagating states are fixed by those of higher spin propagating states at each fixed mass level. This decoupling phenomenon is, in contrast to Gross's high-energy symmetries, valid to all energies. As examples, we explicitly demonstrate this stringy phenomenon up to fourth massive level (spin-five), which justifies the calculation of two other previous approaches based on the massive worldsheet sigma-model and Witten's string field theory (WSFT). (author)

  19. Effects of the scattering anisotropy approximation in multigroup radiation shielding calculations

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Altiparmarkov, D.

    1983-01-01

    Expansion of the scattering cross-sections into Legendre series is the usual way of solving the neutron transport problem. Because of the large space gradients of the neutron flux, the effects of that approximations become especially remarkable in the radiation shielding calculations. In this paper, a method taking into account scattering anisotropy is presented. From the point of view of the accuracy and computing speed, the optimal approximation of the scattering anisotropy is established for the basic protective materials on the basis of simple problem calculations (author) [sr

  20. Density of states calculations and multiple-scattering theory for photons

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Moroz, A.

    1994-05-01

    The density of states for a finite or an infinite cluster of scatterers in the case of both, electrons and photons, can be represented in a general form as the sum over all Krein-Friedel contributions of individual scatterers and a contribution due to the presence of multiple scatterers. The latter is given by the sum over all periodic orbits between different scatterers. General three dimensional multiple-scattering theory for electromagnetic waves in the presence of scatterers of arbitrary shape is presented. Vector structure constants are calculated and general rules for obtaining them from known scalar structure constants are given. The KKR equations for photons are explicitly written down. (author). 22 refs., 2 figs

  1. Modified automatic term selection v2: A faster algorithm to calculate inelastic scattering cross-sections

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Rusz, Ján, E-mail: jan.rusz@fysik.uu.se

    2017-06-15

    Highlights: • New algorithm for calculating double differential scattering cross-section. • Shown good convergence properties. • Outperforms older MATS algorithm, particularly in zone axis calculations. - Abstract: We present a new algorithm for calculating inelastic scattering cross-section for fast electrons. Compared to the previous Modified Automatic Term Selection (MATS) algorithm (Rusz et al. [18]), it has far better convergence properties in zone axis calculations and it allows to identify contributions of individual atoms. One can think of it as a blend of MATS algorithm and a method described by Weickenmeier and Kohl [10].

  2. Generating bessel functions in mie scattering calculations using continued fractions.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lentz, W J

    1976-03-01

    A new method of generating the Bessel functions and ratios of Bessel functions necessary for Mie calculations is presented. Accuracy is improved while eliminating the need for extended precision word lengths or large storage capability. The algorithm uses a new technique of evaluating continued fractions that starts at the beginning rather than the tail and has a built-in error check. The continued fraction representations for both spherical Bessel functions and ratios of Bessel functions of consecutive order are presented.

  3. Point kernels and superposition methods for scatter dose calculations in brachytherapy

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Carlsson, A.K.

    2000-01-01

    Point kernels have been generated and applied for calculation of scatter dose distributions around monoenergetic point sources for photon energies ranging from 28 to 662 keV. Three different approaches for dose calculations have been compared: a single-kernel superposition method, a single-kernel superposition method where the point kernels are approximated as isotropic and a novel 'successive-scattering' superposition method for improved modelling of the dose from multiply scattered photons. An extended version of the EGS4 Monte Carlo code was used for generating the kernels and for benchmarking the absorbed dose distributions calculated with the superposition methods. It is shown that dose calculation by superposition at and below 100 keV can be simplified by using isotropic point kernels. Compared to the assumption of full in-scattering made by algorithms currently in clinical use, the single-kernel superposition method improves dose calculations in a half-phantom consisting of air and water. Further improvements are obtained using the successive-scattering superposition method, which reduces the overestimates of dose close to the phantom surface usually associated with kernel superposition methods at brachytherapy photon energies. It is also shown that scatter dose point kernels can be parametrized to biexponential functions, making them suitable for use with an effective implementation of the collapsed cone superposition algorithm. (author)

  4. Convergent close-coupling calculations of electron-hydrogen scattering

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Bray, Igor; Stelbovics, A.T.

    1992-04-01

    The convergence of the close-coupling formalism is studied by expanding the target states in an orthogonal L 2 Laguerre basis. The theory is without approximation and convergence is established by simply increasing the basis size. The convergent elastic, 2s, and 2p differential cross sections, spin asymmetries, and angular correlation parameters for the 2p excitation at 35, 54.4, and 100 eV are calculated. Integrated and total cross sections as well as T-matrix elements for the first five partial waves are also given. 30 refs., 3 tabs., 9 figs

  5. Analytical calculations of multiple scattering for high energy photons and neutrons

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Thoe, R.S.

    1994-04-01

    Radiography of large dense objects often require the use of highly penetrating radiation. For example, a couple of centimeters of steel attenuates 50 keV x-rays by a factor of approximately 10 -14 whereas this same amount of steel would attenuate a 500 keV photon beam by only a factor of about 0.25. However, this increase in penetrating power comes with a price. In the case of x-radiation there are two bills to pay: (1) For projection radiography, this increase in penetration directly causes a corresponding decrease in resolution. (2) This increase in penetration occurs in a region where the interaction of radiation and matter is changing from absorption to scattering. In the above example the fraction of scattering goes from about 0.1 at 50 keV to over 0.99 at 500 keV. These scattered photons can significantly degrade contrast. In order to overcome some of these difficulties, radiography using scattered photons has been studied by myself and numerous other authors. In all the above cases, calculation of the intensity of scattered radiation is of primary importance. In cases where scattering is probable, multiple scattering can also be probable. Calculations of multiple scattering are generally very difficult and usually require the use of extremely sophisticated Monte Carlo simulations. It is not unusual for these calculations to require several hours of CPU time on some of the worlds largest and fastest supercomputers. In this paper I will present an alternative approach. I will present an analytical solution to the equations of double scattering, and show how this solution can extended to the case of higher order scattering. Finally, I will give numerical examples of these solutions and compare them to solutions obtained by Monte Carlo simulations

  6. Calculations for very low energy scattering of positrons by molecular hydrogen

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Cooper, J.N. [School of Mathematical Sciences, University of Nottingham, Nottingham NG7 2RD (United Kingdom)], E-mail: james.cooper@maths.nottingham.ac.uk; Armour, E.A.G. [School of Mathematical Sciences, University of Nottingham, Nottingham NG7 2RD (United Kingdom)

    2008-02-15

    We give a progress report on ongoing calculations of phase shifts for very low energy elastic scattering of positrons by molecular hydrogen, using the generalised Kohn variational method. Further, provisional calculations of Z{sub eff} for molecular hydrogen at low energies are presented and discussed. The preliminary nature of the work is emphasised throughout.

  7. A Calculation of the Angular Moments of the Kernel for a Monatomic Gas Scatterer

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Haakansson, Rune

    1964-07-15

    B. Davison has given in an unpublished paper a method of calculating the moments of the monatomic gas scattering kernel. We present here this method and apply it to calculate the first four moments. Numerical results for these moments for the masses M = 1 and 3.6 are also given.

  8. RGM calculation of scattering in 4He + 6Li system at Eα ≤ 30 MeV

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Kozyr', Yu.E.

    2005-01-01

    One carried out the resonating-group method based calculations using the shell model results of the structural basis of two-particle channels with 2≤A≤8 clusters making possible to describe the experimental data on 6 Li(αα') inelastic scattering at E α = 29.4 MeV. The results within inelastic channels are formed almost without regard to d + 8 Be channels included in the calculation. The calculation overvalues significantly the elastic scattering cross sections, as well as the calculation grounded on the basis A ≤ 4 clusters. 6 Li → 2 H + 4 He direct break-down in the Coulomb field of 4 He incident nucleus may serve as a probable reason of divergences [ru

  9. Evaluation of neutron thermalization parameters and benchmark reactor calculations using a synthetic scattering function for molecular gases

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Gillete, V.H.; Patino, N.E.; Granada, J.E.; Mayer, R.E.

    1988-01-01

    Using a synthetic scattering function which describes the interaction of neutrons with molecular gases we provide analytical expressions for zero-and first-order scattering kernels, σ 0 (E 0 →E), σ 1 (E 0 →E), and total cross section σ 0 (E 0 ). Based on these quantities, we have performed calculations of thermalization parameters and transport coefficients for H 2 O, D 2 O, C 6 H 6 and (CH 2 ) n at room temperature. Comparasion of such values with available experimental data and other calculations is satisfactory. We also generated nuclear data libraries for H 2 O with 47 thermal groups at 300K and performed some benchmark calculations ( 235 U, 239 Pu, PWR cell and typical APWR cell); the resulting reactivities are compared with experimental data and ENDF/B-IV calculations. (author) [pt

  10. Inelastic plasmon and inter-band electron-scattering potentials for Si from dielectric matrix calculations

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Josefsson, T.W.; Smith, A.E.

    1994-01-01

    Inelastic scattering of electrons in a crystalline environment may be represented by a complex non-hermitian potential. Completed generalised expressions for this inelastic electron scattering potential matrix, including virtual inelastic scattering, are derived for outer-shell electron and plasmon excitations. The relationship between these expressions and the general anisotropic dielectric response matrix of the solid is discussed. These generalised expressions necessarily include the off-diagonal terms representing effects due to departure from translational invariance in the interaction. Results are presented for the diagonal back structure dependent inelastic and virtual inelastic scattering potentials for Si, from a calculation of the inverse dielectric matrix in the random phase approximation. Good agreement is found with experiment as a function of incident energies from 10 eV to 100 keV. Anisotropy effects and hence the interaction de localisation represented by the off-diagonal scattering potential terms, are found to be significant below 1 keV. 38 refs., 2 figs

  11. Practical considerations in the calculation of orientation distribution functions from electron back-scattered diffraction patterns

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Bowen, A.W.

    1994-01-01

    Using model data sets for the Brass orientation, the importance of scatter width, angular accuracy and grain size and volume fraction on the sensitivity of the calculated Orientation Distribution Functions have been determined in order to highlight some of the practical considerations needed in the processing of experimental data from individual grain orientation measurements determined by the Electron Back-Scattered Diffraction technique. It is suggested that the most appropriate scatter width can be calculated from the maximum function height versus scatter width curve in order to accommodate variations in texture sharpness. The sensitivity of the ODF to careful sample preparation, mounting and pattern analysis, in order to keep errors in angular accuracy to 1 or less is demonstrated, as is the imperative need to correct for the size of grains, and their volume fractions. (orig.)

  12. The effect of the new nucleon-nucleus elastic scattering data in LAHET trademark Version 2.8 on neutron displacement cross section calculations

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Pitcher, E.J.; Ferguson, P.D.; Russell, G.J.; Prael, R.E.; Madland, D.G.; Court, J.D.; Daemen, L.L.; Wechsler, M.S.

    1997-01-01

    The latest release of the medium-energy Monte Carlo transport code LAHET includes a new nucleon-nucleus elastic scattering treatment based on a global medium-energy phenomenological optical-model potential. Implementation of this new model in LAHET allows nuclear elastic scattering for neutrons with energies greater than 15 MeV and for protons with energies greater than 50 MeV. Previous investigations on the impact of the new elastic scattering data revealed that the addition of the proton elastic scattering channel can lead to a significant increase in the calculated damage energy under certain conditions. The authors report here results on the impact of the new elastic scattering data on calculated displacement cross sections in various elements for neutrons with energies in the range 16 to 3,160 MeV. Calculated displacement cross sections at 20 MeV in low-mass materials are in better agreement with SPECTER-calculated cross sections

  13. Feynman path integrals - from the prodistribution definition to the calculation of glory scattering

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    DeWitt-Morette, C.

    1984-01-01

    In these lectures I present a path integral calculation, starting from a global definition of Feynman path integrals and ending at a scattering cross section formula. Along the way I discuss some basic issues which had to be resolved to exploit the computational power of the proposed definition of Feynman integrals. I propose to compute the glory scattering of gravitational waves by black holes. (orig./HSI)

  14. Anisotropic scattering effect in calculations of nuclear reactor cells by the surface preseudosource method

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Laletin, N.I.; Sultanov, N.V.; Boyarinov, V.F.

    1992-01-01

    Estimation is fulfilled of an influence of scattering anisotropy on K ef the TRX and BAPL assemblies by the WIMS-D4 program in the transport (TA) and linear-anisotropic (LAA) approximations. It is shown that account for the scattering anisotropy in the LAA in comparison with TA decreases K ef by 0.8% for TRX assemblies and by 0.5-0.6% for BAPL ones. For more detailed account for the scattering anisotropy in calculations of cylindrical and cluster cells in the one-velocity approximation is developed a technique for account for the anisotropy in the methods of surface pseudosources

  15. Calculation of the Kernel scattering for thermal neutrons in H2O e D2O

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Leal, L.C.; Assis, J.T. de

    1981-01-01

    A computer code, using the Nelkin-and Butler models for the calculations of the Kernel scattering, was developed. Calculations of the thermal neutron flux in an homogeneous-and infinite medium with a 1 /v absorber in 30 energy groups were done and compared with experimental data. The reactors parameters calculated by the Hammer code (in the original version and with the new library generated by the authors' code) are presented. (E.G) [pt

  16. Calculation of the Scattered Radiation Profile in 64 Slice CT Scanners Using Experimental Measurement

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Afshin Akbarzadeh

    2009-06-01

    Full Text Available Introduction: One of the most important parameters in x-ray CT imaging is the noise induced by detected scattered radiation. The detected scattered radiation is completely dependent on the scanner geometry as well as size, shape and material of the scanned object. The magnitude and spatial distribution of the scattered radiation in x-ray CT should be quantified for development of robust scatter correction techniques. Empirical methods based on blocking the primary photons in a small region are not able to extract scatter in all elements of the detector array while the scatter profile is required for a scatter correction procedure. In this study, we measured scatter profiles in 64 slice CT scanners using a new experimental measurement. Material and Methods: To measure the scatter profile, a lead block array was inserted under the collimator and the phantom was exposed at the isocenter. The raw data file, which contained detector array readouts, was transferred to a PC and was read using a dedicated GUI running under MatLab 7.5. The scatter profile was extracted by interpolating the shadowed area. Results: The scatter and SPR profiles were measured. Increasing the tube voltage from 80 to 140 kVp resulted in an 80% fall off in SPR for a water phantom (d=210 mm and 86% for a polypropylene phantom (d = 350 mm. Increasing the air gap to 20.9 cm caused a 30% decrease in SPR. Conclusion: In this study, we presented a novel approach for measurement of scattered radiation distribution and SPR in a CT scanner with 64-slice capability using a lead block array. The method can also be used on other multi-slice CT scanners. The proposed technique can accurately estimate scatter profiles. It is relatively straightforward, easy to use, and can be used for any related measurement.

  17. Calculation of cobalt-60 primary and scatter dose in layered heterogeneous phantoms using primary and scatter dose spread arrays

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Iwasaki, Akira

    1993-01-01

    A method of making 60 Co γ-ray primary and scatter dose spread arrays in water is described. The primary dose spread array is made using forward and backward primary dose spread equations (h 1 and h 2 ), where both equations contain a laterally spread primary dose equation (G), made from measured dose data in a cork phantom. The scatter dose spread array is made using differential scatter-maximum ratio (dSMR) and differential backscatter factor (dBSF) equations (k 1 and k 2 ), where both equations are made to be continuous on the boundary. Primary and scatter dose calculations are performed along the beam axis in layered cork heterogeneous phantoms. It is found, even for 60 Co γ-rays, that when a small tumor in the lung is irradiated with a field that just surrounds the tumor, the beam entrance surface and lateral side of the tumor may obtain no therapeutic dose, because of loss of longitudinal and lateral electronic equilibrium, and when a large tumor in the lung is irradiated with a field just surrounding the tumor, the lateral side of the tumor may obtain no therapeutic dose due to loss of lateral electronic equilibrium. (author)

  18. Calculation of the thermal utilization factor in a heterogeneous slab cell scattering neutrons anisotropically

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Abdallah, A M; Elsherbiny, E M; Sobhy, M [Reactor departement, nuclear research centre, Inshaas, (Egypt)

    1995-10-01

    The P{sub n}-spatial expansion method has been used for calculating the one speed transport utilization factor in heterogenous slab cells in which neutrons may scatter anisotropically; by considering the P{sup 1-} approximation with a two-term scattering kernel in both the fuel and moderator regions, an analytical expression for the disadvantage factor has been derived. The numerical results obtained have been shown to be much better than those calculated by the usual P{sup 1-} and P{sup 3-} approximations and comparable with those obtained by some exact methods. 3 tabs.

  19. DWPI: a computer program to calculate the inelastic scattering of pions from nuclei

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Eisenstein, R A; Miller, G A [Carnegie-Mellon Univ., Pittsburgh, Pa. (USA). Dept. of Physics

    1976-02-01

    Angular distributions for the inelastic scattering of pions are generated using the distorted wave impulse approximation (DWIA). The cross section for a given transition is calculated by summing a partial wave expansion. The T-matrix elements are calculated using distorted pion waves from the program PIRK, and therefore include elastic scattering to all orders. The excitation is treated in first order only. Several optical potentials and nuclear densities are available in the program. The transition form factor may be uncoupled from the ground-state density. Coulomb excitation, which interferes coherently with the strong interaction, is a program option.

  20. Precision calculation of the {pi}{sup -}d scattering length and its impact on threshold {pi}N scattering

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Baru, V. [Institut fuer Kernphysik and Juelich Center for Hadron Physics, Forschungszentrum Juelich, D-52425 Juelich (Germany); Institute for Theoretical and Experimental Physics, B. Cheremushinskaya 25, 117218 Moscow (Russian Federation); Hanhart, C. [Institut fuer Kernphysik and Juelich Center for Hadron Physics, Forschungszentrum Juelich, D-52425 Juelich (Germany); Institute for Advanced Simulation, Forschungszentrum Juelich, D-52425 Juelich (Germany); Hoferichter, M.; Kubis, B. [Helmholtz-Institut fuer Strahlen- und Kernphysik and Bethe Center for Theoretical Physics, Universitaet Bonn, D-53115 Bonn (Germany); Nogga, A. [Institut fuer Kernphysik and Juelich Center for Hadron Physics, Forschungszentrum Juelich, D-52425 Juelich (Germany); Institute for Advanced Simulation, Forschungszentrum Juelich, D-52425 Juelich (Germany); Phillips, D.R., E-mail: phillips@phy.ohiou.ed [Helmholtz-Institut fuer Strahlen- und Kernphysik and Bethe Center for Theoretical Physics, Universitaet Bonn, D-53115 Bonn (Germany); Institute of Nuclear and Particle Physics and Department of Physics and Astronomy, Ohio University, Athens, OH 45701 (United States)

    2011-01-03

    We present a calculation of the {pi}{sup -}d scattering length with an accuracy of a few percent using chiral perturbation theory. For the first time isospin-violating corrections are included consistently. Using data on pionic deuterium and pionic hydrogen atoms, we extract the isoscalar and isovector pion-nucleon scattering lengths and obtain a{sup +}=(7.6{+-}3.1).10{sup -3}M{sub {pi}}{sup -1} and a{sup -}=(86.1{+-}0.9).10{sup -3}M{sub {pi}}{sup -1}. Via the Goldberger-Miyazawa-Oehme sum rule, this leads to a charged-pion-nucleon coupling constant g{sub c}{sup 2}/4{pi}=13.69{+-}0.20.

  1. ELSEPA—Dirac partial-wave calculation of elastic scattering of electrons and positrons by atoms, positive ions and molecules

    Science.gov (United States)

    Salvat, Francesc; Jablonski, Aleksander; Powell, Cedric J.

    2005-01-01

    -103) obtained from multiconfiguration Dirac-Fock self-consistent calculations. For comparison purposes, three simple analytical approximations to the electron density of neutral atoms (corresponding to the Thomas-Fermi, the Thomas-Fermi-Dirac and the Dirac-Hartree-Fock-Slater models) are also included. For calculations of elastic scattering by ions, the electron density should be provided by the user. The exchange potential for electron scattering can be selected among three different analytical approximations (Thomas-Fermi, Furness-McCarthy, Riley-Truhlar). The offered options for the correlation-polarization potential are based on the empirical Buckingham potential. The imaginary absorption potential is calculated from the local-density approximation proposed by Salvat [Phys. Rev. A 68 (2003) 012708]. Program summaryTitle of program:ELSEPA Catalogue identifier: ADUS Program summary URL:http://cpc.cs.qub.ac.uk/cpc/summaries/ADUS Program obtainable from: CPC Program Library, Queen's University of Belfast, N. Ireland License provisions: none Computer for which the program is designed and others in which it is operable: Any computer with a FORTRAN 77 compiler Operating systems under which the program has been tested: Windows XP, Windows 2000, Debian GNU/Linux 3.0r0 (sarge) Compilers:Compaq Visual Fortran v6.5 (Windows); GNU FORTRAN, g77 (Windows and Linux) Programming language used: FORTRAN 77 No. of bits in a word: 32 Memory required to execute with typical data: 0.6 Mb No. of lines in distributed program, including test data, etc.:135 489 No. of bytes in distributed program, including test data, etc.: 1 280 006 Distribution format: tar.gz Keywords: Dirac partial-wave analysis, electron elastic scattering, positron elastic scattering, differential cross sections, momentum transfer cross sections, transport cross sections, scattering amplitudes, spin polarization, scattering by complex potentials, high-energy atomic screening functions Nature of the physical problem: The code

  2. Ab Initio Many-Body Calculations Of Nucleon-Nucleus Scattering

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Quaglioni, S; Navratil, P

    2008-12-17

    We develop a new ab initio many-body approach capable of describing simultaneously both bound and scattering states in light nuclei, by combining the resonating-group method with the use of realistic interactions, and a microscopic and consistent description of the nucleon clusters. This approach preserves translational symmetry and Pauli principle. We outline technical details and present phase shift results for neutron scattering on {sup 3}H, {sup 4}He and {sup 10}Be and proton scattering on {sup 3,4}He, using realistic nucleon-nucleon (NN) potentials. Our A = 4 scattering results are compared to earlier ab initio calculations. We find that the CD-Bonn NN potential in particular provides an excellent description of nucleon-{sup 4}He S-wave phase shifts. We demonstrate that a proper treatment of the coupling to the n-{sup 10}Be continuum is successful in explaining the parity-inverted ground state in {sup 11}Be.

  3. Calculation of the Full Scattering Amplitude without Partial Wave Decomposition II: Inclusion of Exchange

    Science.gov (United States)

    Shertzer, Janine; Temkin, A.

    2003-01-01

    As is well known, the full scattering amplitude can be expressed as an integral involving the complete scattering wave function. We have shown that the integral can be simplified and used in a practical way. Initial application to electron-hydrogen scattering without exchange was highly successful. The Schrodinger equation (SE), which can be reduced to a 2d partial differential equation (pde), was solved using the finite element method. We have now included exchange by solving the resultant SE, in the static exchange approximation, which is reducible to a pair of coupled pde's. The resultant scattering amplitudes, both singlet and triplet, calculated as a function of energy are in excellent agreement with converged partial wave results.

  4. Calculation of the Full Scattering Amplitude without Partial Wave Decomposition II

    Science.gov (United States)

    Shertzer, J.; Temkin, A.

    2003-01-01

    As is well known, the full scattering amplitude can be expressed as an integral involving the complete scattering wave function. We have shown that the integral can be simplified and used in a practical way. Initial application to electron-hydrogen scattering without exchange was highly successful. The Schrodinger equation (SE) can be reduced to a 2d partial differential equation (pde), and was solved using the finite element method. We have now included exchange by solving the resultant SE, in the static exchange approximation. The resultant equation can be reduced to a pair of coupled pde's, to which the finite element method can still be applied. The resultant scattering amplitudes, both singlet and triplet, as a function of angle can be calculated for various energies. The results are in excellent agreement with converged partial wave results.

  5. ASYMPTOTICAL CALCULATION OF ELECTROMAGNETIC WAVES SCATTERED FROM A DIELECTRIC COATED CYLINDRICAL SURFACE WITH PHYSICAL OPTICS APPROACH

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Uğur YALÇIN

    2004-02-01

    Full Text Available In this study, quasi-optical scattering of finite source electromagnetic waves from a dielectric coated cylindrical surface is analysed with Physical Optics (PO approach. A linear electrical current source is chosen as the finite source. Reflection coefficient of the cylindrical surface is derived by using Geometrical Theory of Diffraction (GTD. Then, with the help of this coefficient, fields scattered from the surface are obtained. These field expressions are used in PO approach and surface scattering integral is determined. Evaluating this integral asymptotically, fields reflected from the surface and surface divergence coefficient are calculated. Finally, results obtained in this study are evaluated numerically and effects of the surface impedance to scattered fields are analysed. The time factor is taken as j te? in this study.

  6. CRPA calculations for neutrino-nucleus scattering. From very low energies to the quasielastic peak

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Jachowicz, Natalie; Pandey, Vishvas; Martini, Marco; Gonzalez-Jimenez, Raul; Van Cuyck, Tom; Van Dessel, Nils

    2016-01-01

    We present continuum random phase approximation calculations (CRPA) for neutrino-induced quasielastic scattering off atomic nuclei. The validity of our formalism is checked by a careful confrontation of its results with semi-inclusive double-differential electron scattering data. We pay special attention to excitations in the giant resonance region. The CRPA is well-suited for the description of interactions in this energy range. We aim at providing a uniform description of one-nucleon knockout processes over the whole energy range from threshold to the quasielastic peak. Our calculations point to the fact that low-energy and giant-resonance excitations provide a non-negligible contribution to the interaction strength, especially at forward lepton-scattering angles. (author)

  7. Precision calculation of threshold {pi}{sup -}d scattering, {pi}N scattering lengths, and the GMO sum rule

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Baru, V. [Institut fuer Theoretische Physik II, Ruhr-Universitaet Bochum, D-44870 Bochum (Germany); Institut fuer Kernphysik and Juelich Center for Hadron Physics, Forschungszentrum Juelich, D-52425 Juelich (Germany); Institute for Theoretical and Experimental Physics, B. Cheremushinskaya 25, 117218 Moscow (Russian Federation); Hanhart, C. [Institut fuer Kernphysik and Juelich Center for Hadron Physics, Forschungszentrum Juelich, D-52425 Juelich (Germany); Institute for Advanced Simulation, Forschungszentrum Juelich, D-52425 Juelich (Germany); Hoferichter, M., E-mail: hoferichter@hiskp.uni-bonn.de [Helmholtz-Institut fuer Strahlen- und Kernphysik and Bethe Center for Theoretical Physics, Universitaet Bonn, D-53115 Bonn (Germany); Institute of Nuclear and Particle Physics and Department of Physics and Astronomy, Ohio University, Athens, OH 45701 (United States); Kubis, B. [Helmholtz-Institut fuer Strahlen- und Kernphysik and Bethe Center for Theoretical Physics, Universitaet Bonn, D-53115 Bonn (Germany); Nogga, A. [Institut fuer Kernphysik and Juelich Center for Hadron Physics, Forschungszentrum Juelich, D-52425 Juelich (Germany); Institute for Advanced Simulation, Forschungszentrum Juelich, D-52425 Juelich (Germany)

    2011-12-15

    We use chiral perturbation theory (ChPT) to calculate the {pi}{sup -}d scattering length with an accuracy of a few percent, including isospin-violating corrections in both the two- and three-body sectors. In particular, we provide the technical details of a recent letter (Baru et al., 2011) , where we used data on pionic deuterium and pionic hydrogen atoms to extract the isoscalar and isovector pion-nucleon scattering lengths a{sup +} and a{sup -}. We study isospin-breaking contributions to the three-body part of a{sub {pi}}{sup -}{sub d} due to mass differences, isospin violation in the {pi}N scattering lengths, and virtual photons. This last class of effects is ostensibly infrared enhanced due to the smallness of the deuteron binding energy. However, we show that the leading virtual-photon effects that might undergo such enhancement cancel, and hence the standard ChPT counting provides a reliable estimate of isospin violation in a{sub {pi}}{sup -}{sub d} due to virtual photons. Finally, we discuss the validity of the Goldberger-Miyazawa-Oehme sum rule in the presence of isospin violation, and use it to determine the charged-pion-nucleon coupling constant.

  8. Precision calculation of threshold πd scattering, πN scattering lengths, and the GMO sum rule

    Science.gov (United States)

    Baru, V.; Hanhart, C.; Hoferichter, M.; Kubis, B.; Nogga, A.; Phillips, D. R.

    2011-12-01

    We use chiral perturbation theory (ChPT) to calculate the πd scattering length with an accuracy of a few percent, including isospin-violating corrections in both the two- and three-body sectors. In particular, we provide the technical details of a recent letter (Baru et al., 2011) [1], where we used data on pionic deuterium and pionic hydrogen atoms to extract the isoscalar and isovector pion-nucleon scattering lengths a and a. We study isospin-breaking contributions to the three-body part of a due to mass differences, isospin violation in the πN scattering lengths, and virtual photons. This last class of effects is ostensibly infrared enhanced due to the smallness of the deuteron binding energy. However, we show that the leading virtual-photon effects that might undergo such enhancement cancel, and hence the standard ChPT counting provides a reliable estimate of isospin violation in a due to virtual photons. Finally, we discuss the validity of the Goldberger-Miyazawa-Oehme sum rule in the presence of isospin violation, and use it to determine the charged-pion-nucleon coupling constant.

  9. Calculation of atom ranges in solids for quasi-small-angle scattering

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Pustovit, A.N.

    2004-01-01

    A formula for quasi-small-angle scattering of atomic particle and power law interaction potential have been used for the calculation of the differential cross-section, elastic stopping cross-section and a mean projected range in a solid. It is found that the limit energy transfer in the collisions depends on the screening of the power law interaction potentials. The calculated mean ranges in matter are compared with experimental data [ru

  10. Multigroup transport calculations of critical and fuel assemblies with taking into account the scattering anisotropy

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Rubin, I.E.; Dneprovskaya, N.M.

    2005-01-01

    A technique for calculation of reactor lattices by means of the transmission probabilities with taking into account the scattering anisotropy is generalized for the multigroup case. The errors of the calculated multiplication coefficients and energy release distributions do noe exceed practically the errors, of these values, obtained by the Monte Carlo method. The proposed method is most effective when determining the small difference effects [ru

  11. Calculation of the radiance distribution at the boundary of an isotropically scattering slab

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Doosje, M; Hoenders, B.J; Rinzema, K.

    The radiance arising from an anisotropically scattering illuminated stack of n slabs is calulated using the equation of radiative transfer. It appears to be unnecessary to calculate the radiance inside the material; including only the radiance at the boundary surfaces is sufficient to obtain the

  12. On calculating phase shifts and performing fits to scattering cross sections or transport properties

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Hepburn, J.W.; Roy, R.J. Le

    1978-01-01

    Improved methods of calculating quantum mechanical phase shifts and for performing least-squares fits to scattering cross sections or transport properties, are described. Their use in a five-parameter fit to experimental differential cross sections reduces the computer time by a factor of 4-7. (Auth.)

  13. Convergent Close-Coupling Calculations for Electron-Atom and Electron-Molecule Scattering

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Fursa, Dmitry; Zammit, M.C.; Bostock, C.J.; Bray, I.

    2014-01-01

    The Convergent Close-Coupling (CCC) method developed in our group has been applied extensively to study electron-atom/ion collisions and recently has been extended to electron collisions with diatomic molecules. This approach relies on the ability to represent the infinite number of target bound states and its continuum via a finite number of states obtained by a diagonalization of the target in a square-integrable (Sturmian) one-electron basis. We normally use a Laguerre basis though other choices are possible, for example a boxed-based basis or a B-spline basis. The choice of the basis is governed by the physical problem under consideration. As the size of a Sturmian basis increases the calculated negative energy states (relative to the corresponding ionization stage of the target) converge to the target true bound states and the positive energy states provide an increasingly dense representation of the target continuum. We then perform a multichannel expansion of the total (projectile plus target electrons) wave function and formulate a set of close-coupling equations. These equations are transformed into momentum space where they take the form of the Lippmann-Schwinger equations for the T-matrix. A solution of the T-matrix equations is obtained at each total energy E by converting them into a set of linear equations that are solved by standard techniques. We perform a partial-wave expansion of the projectile wave function and take into account the symmetry of the scattering system (e.g, total spin, parity, etc.) in order to reduce the size of the coupled equations and make calculations feasible. As soon as the T-matrix is obtained we can evaluate scattering amplitudes and cross sections for the transitions of interest. For the case of molecular targets the formulation is done within the fixed-nuclei approximation. We adopt a single-centre approach in CCC calculations. This allows us to utilize a great deal of computational development thoroughly tested for

  14. Calculating the reduced scattering coefficient of turbid media from a single optical reflectance signal

    Science.gov (United States)

    Johns, Maureen; Liu, Hanli

    2003-07-01

    When light interacts with tissue, it can be absorbed, scattered or reflected. Such quantitative information can be used to characterize the optical properties of tissue, differentiate tissue types in vivo, and identify normal versus diseased tissue. The purpose of this research is to develop an algorithm that determines the reduced scattering coefficient (μs") of tissues from a single optical reflectance spectrum with a small source-detector separation. The basic relationship between μs" and optical reflectance was developed using Monte Carlo simulations. This produced an analytical equation containing μs" as a function of reflectance. To experimentally validate this relationship, a 1.3-mm diameter fiber optic probe containing two 400-micron diameter fibers was used to deliver light to and collect light from Intralipid solutions of various concentrations. Simultaneous measurements from optical reflectance and an ISS oximeter were performed to validate the calculated μs" values determined by the reflectance measurement against the 'gold standard" ISS readings. The calculated μs" values deviate from the expected values by approximately -/+ 5% with Intralipid concentrations between 0.5 - 2.5%. The scattering properties within this concentration range are similar to those of in vivo tissues. Additional calculations are performed to determine the scattering properties of rat brain tissues and to discuss accuracy of the algorithm for measured samples with a broad range of the absorption coefficient (μa).

  15. Time-Dependent Wave Packet Dynamics Calculations of Cross Sections for Ultracold Scattering of Molecules

    Science.gov (United States)

    Huang, Jiayu; Liu, Shu; Zhang, Dong H.; Krems, Roman V.

    2018-04-01

    Because the de Broglie wavelength of ultracold molecules is very large, the cross sections for collisions of molecules at ultracold temperatures are always computed by the time-independent quantum scattering approach. Here, we report the first accurate time-dependent wave packet dynamics calculation for reactive scattering of ultracold molecules. Wave packet dynamics calculations can be applied to molecular systems with more dimensions and provide real-time information on the process of bond rearrangement and/or energy exchange in molecular collisions. Our work thus makes possible the extension of rigorous quantum calculations of ultracold reaction properties to polyatomic molecules and adds a new powerful tool for the study of ultracold chemistry.

  16. Numerical tables of anomalous scattering factors calculated by the Cromer and Liberman's method

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Sasaki, Satoshi.

    1989-02-01

    Anomalous scattering factors f' and f'' have been calculated for the atoms Li through Bi, plus U, using the relativistic treatment described by Cromer and Liberman. The final f' value does not include the Jensen's correction term on the magnetic scattering. The tables are presented with the f' and f'' values (i) at 0.01 A intervals in the wavelength range from 0.1 to 2.89 A and (ii) at 0.0001 A intervals in the neighborhood of the K, L 1 , L 2 , and L 3 absorption edges. (author)

  17. Light scattering by multiple spheres: comparison between Maxwell theory and radiative-transfer-theory calculations.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Voit, Florian; Schäfer, Jan; Kienle, Alwin

    2009-09-01

    We present a methodology to compare results of classical radiative transfer theory against exact solutions of Maxwell theory for a high number of spheres. We calculated light propagation in a cubic scattering region (20 x 20 x 20 microm(3)) consisting of different concentrations of polystyrene spheres in water (diameter 2 microm) by an analytical solution of Maxwell theory and by a numerical solution of radiative transfer theory. The relative deviation of differential as well as total scattering cross sections obtained by both approaches was evaluated for each sphere concentration. For the considered case, we found that deviations due to radiative transfer theory remain small, even for concentrations up to ca. 20 vol. %.

  18. Extracting scattering phase shifts in higher partial waves from lattice QCD calculations

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Luu, Thomas; Savage, Martin J.

    2011-06-01

    Lüscher’s method is routinely used to determine meson-meson, meson-baryon, and baryon-baryon s-wave scattering amplitudes below inelastic thresholds from lattice QCD calculations—presently at unphysical light-quark masses. In this work we review the formalism and develop the requisite expressions to extract phase shifts describing meson-meson scattering in partial waves with angular momentum l≤6 and l=9. The implications of the underlying cubic symmetry, and strategies for extracting the phase shifts from lattice QCD calculations, are presented, along with a discussion of the signal-to-noise problem that afflicts the higher partial waves.

  19. Larmor-precession based neutron scattering instrumentation

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Ioffe, Alexander

    2009-01-01

    The Larmor precession of the neutron spin in a magnetic field allows the attachment of a Larmor clock to every neutron. Such Larmor labelling opens the possibility for the development of unusual neutron scattering techniques, where the energy (momentum) resolution does not require the initial and final states to be well selected. This principally allows for achievement of very high energy (momentum) resolution that is not feasible at all with conventional neutron scattering techniques, because the required neutron beam monochromatization (collimation) will result in intolerable intensity losses. Such decoupling of resolution and collimation allows, for example, for a significant increase in the luminosity of small-angle scattering or high-resolution diffractometers; the fact that opens new perspectives for their implementation at middle flux neutron sources. Different kinds of Larmor clock-based instrumentation, particularly two alternative NSE techniques using rotating and time-gradient magnetic field arrangements, which can be considered as inexpensive and affordable alternatives to present day NSE techniques, will be discussed and results of simulations and first experiments will be presented. (author)

  20. Calculation of total cross sections for electron and positron scattering on sodium and potassium

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    McCarthy, I.E.; Ratnavelu, K.; Zhou, Y.

    1993-02-01

    Total cross sections for electron and positron scattering on sodium and potassium are calculated at various energies and compared with experiment. The method use is the coupled-channels-optical method with the equivalent-local polarisation potential, which takes all channels into account. For electrons the calculations are checked by comparison with coupled-channels-optical calculations using a detailed polarisation potential that makes only one approximation, that of weak coupling in the ionisation space. The polarisation potential for positrons includes effects of ionisation and positronium formation. 13 refs., 2 tabs

  1. Calculation of total and ionization cross sections for electron scattering by primary benzene compounds

    Science.gov (United States)

    Singh, Suvam; Naghma, Rahla; Kaur, Jaspreet; Antony, Bobby

    2016-07-01

    The total and ionization cross sections for electron scattering by benzene, halobenzenes, toluene, aniline, and phenol are reported over a wide energy domain. The multi-scattering centre spherical complex optical potential method has been employed to find the total elastic and inelastic cross sections. The total ionization cross section is estimated from total inelastic cross section using the complex scattering potential-ionization contribution method. In the present article, the first theoretical calculations for electron impact total and ionization cross section have been performed for most of the targets having numerous practical applications. A reasonable agreement is obtained compared to existing experimental observations for all the targets reported here, especially for the total cross section.

  2. Calculation of total and ionization cross sections for electron scattering by primary benzene compounds

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Singh, Suvam; Naghma, Rahla; Kaur, Jaspreet; Antony, Bobby, E-mail: bka.ism@gmail.com [Atomic and Molecular Physics Lab, Department of Applied Physics, Indian School of Mines, Dhanbad (India)

    2016-07-21

    The total and ionization cross sections for electron scattering by benzene, halobenzenes, toluene, aniline, and phenol are reported over a wide energy domain. The multi-scattering centre spherical complex optical potential method has been employed to find the total elastic and inelastic cross sections. The total ionization cross section is estimated from total inelastic cross section using the complex scattering potential-ionization contribution method. In the present article, the first theoretical calculations for electron impact total and ionization cross section have been performed for most of the targets having numerous practical applications. A reasonable agreement is obtained compared to existing experimental observations for all the targets reported here, especially for the total cross section.

  3. Accurate Calculations of Rotationally Inelastic Scattering Cross Sections Using Mixed Quantum/Classical Theory.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Semenov, Alexander; Babikov, Dmitri

    2014-01-16

    For computational treatment of rotationally inelastic scattering of molecules, we propose to use the mixed quantum/classical theory, MQCT. The old idea of treating translational motion classically, while quantum mechanics is used for rotational degrees of freedom, is developed to the new level and is applied to Na + N2 collisions in a broad range of energies. Comparison with full-quantum calculations shows that MQCT accurately reproduces all, even minor, features of energy dependence of cross sections, except scattering resonances at very low energies. The remarkable success of MQCT opens up wide opportunities for computational predictions of inelastic scattering cross sections at higher temperatures and/or for polyatomic molecules and heavier quenchers, which is computationally close to impossible within the full-quantum framework.

  4. Calculated energy distributions for light 0.25--18-keV ions scattered from solid surfaces

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Robinson, J.E.; Harms, A.A.; Karapetsas, S.K.

    1975-01-01

    Scattered energy distributions are calculated for light ions incident on Nb and Mo surfaces of interest for controlled nulcear fusion reactors. The scattered energy is found to vary as a function of the reflection coefficient between a multiple-collision limit at low energies and a single-collision Rutherford scattering limit at high energies. High-energy peaking of the scattered particle distributions is also found for low incident energies

  5. Absolute values of inelastic neutron scattering cross-sections calculated with account taken of the pre-equilibrium mechanism

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Jahn, H.

    1980-01-01

    Absolute values of secondary energy-dependent inelastic neutron scattering cross sections can be calculated either with the master equation pre-equilibrium formalism of Cline and Blann or with Blann's more recent geometry-dependent hybrid model. The master equation formalism was used at Dubna and Dresden to reproduce experimental results for 14 MeV incident energy. The geometry-dependent hybrid model was used at Karlsruhe to cover for a number of materials the whole range from 5 to 14 MeV incident energy and to reproduce smoothed experimental spectra at 7.45 and 14 MeV. Only the geometry-dependent hybrid model accounts for scattering in the diffuse nuclear surface and thus for a certain average over the direct interaction. It is also free of any fit parameters other than those of the usual optical model. The master equation calculations, on the other hand, are based on nucleon-nucleon scattering cross sections inserted into the high-energy approximation of Kikuchi and Kawai for the intranuclear transition rate. Other approaches require either mass- or energy-dependent or more global fit parameters for a satisfactory reproduction of experimental results, but a genuine prediction of the incident-energy dependence of the inelastic neutron cross section, especially below 14 MeV, is needed for transport and shielding calculations for instance in connection with fusion reactor design studies. (author)

  6. Groebner bases in perturbative calculations

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Gerdt, Vladimir P. [Laboratory of Information Technologies, Joint Institute for Nuclear Research, 141980 Dubna (Russian Federation)

    2004-10-01

    In this paper we outline the most general and universal algorithmic approach to reduction of loop integrals to basic integrals. The approach is based on computation of Groebner bases for recurrence relations derived from the integration by parts method. In doing so we consider generic recurrence relations when propagators have arbitrary integer powers treated as symbolic variables (indices) for the relations.

  7. Groebner bases in perturbative calculations

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Gerdt, Vladimir P.

    2004-01-01

    In this paper we outline the most general and universal algorithmic approach to reduction of loop integrals to basic integrals. The approach is based on computation of Groebner bases for recurrence relations derived from the integration by parts method. In doing so we consider generic recurrence relations when propagators have arbitrary integer powers treated as symbolic variables (indices) for the relations

  8. Calculation of Scattering Amplitude Without Partial Analysis. II; Inclusion of Exchange

    Science.gov (United States)

    Temkin, Aaron; Shertzer, J.; Fisher, Richard R. (Technical Monitor)

    2002-01-01

    There was a method for calculating the whole scattering amplitude, f(Omega(sub k)), directly. The idea was to calculate the complete wave function Psi numerically, and use it in an integral expression for f, which can be reduced to a 2 dimensional quadrature. The original application was for e-H scattering without exchange. There the Schrodinger reduces a 2-d partial differential equation (pde), which was solved using the finite element method (FEM). Here we extend the method to the exchange approximation. The S.E. can be reduced to a pair of coupled pde's, which are again solved by the FEM. The formal expression for f(Omega(sub k)) consists two integrals, f+/- = f(sub d) +/- f(sub e); f(sub d) is formally the same integral as the no-exchange f. We have also succeeded in reducing f(sub e) to a 2-d integral. Results will be presented at the meeting.

  9. A computer graphics based model for scattering from objects of arbitrary shapes in the optical region

    Science.gov (United States)

    Goel, Narendra S.; Rozehnal, Ivan; Thompson, Richard L.

    1991-01-01

    A computer-graphics-based model, named DIANA, is presented for generation of objects of arbitrary shape and for calculating bidirectional reflectances and scattering from them, in the visible and infrared region. The computer generation is based on a modified Lindenmayer system approach which makes it possible to generate objects of arbitrary shapes and to simulate their growth, dynamics, and movement. Rendering techniques are used to display an object on a computer screen with appropriate shading and shadowing and to calculate the scattering and reflectance from the object. The technique is illustrated with scattering from canopies of simulated corn plants.

  10. Detailed calculation of low-energy positron scattering by the hydrogen molecular ion

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Armour, E.A.G.; Carr, J.M.; Franklin, C.P.

    1996-01-01

    Detailed calculations are made using the Kohn method of positron scattering by the hydrogen molecular ion below the positronium formation threshold at 9.45 eV. Phase shifts from the two-centre Coulomb value are obtained for the lowest partial wave of Σ g + symmetry using a very flexible trial function containing a large number of short-range correlation functions. The convergence of the results with respect to both the linear and non-linear parameters is explored. (author)

  11. Convergent J-matrix calculation of the Poet-Temkin model of electron-hydrogen scattering

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Konovalov, D.A.; McCarthy, I.E.

    1994-01-01

    It is shown that the Poet-Temkin model of electron-hydrogen scattering could be solved to any required accuracy using the J-matrix method. The convergence in the basis size is achieved to an accuracy of better than 2% with the inclusion of 37 basis L 2 functions. Previously observed pseudoresonances in the J-matrix calculation naturally disappear with an increase in basis size. No averaging technique is necessary to smooth the convergent J-matrix results. (Author)

  12. Anomalous scattering factors for synchrotron radiation users, calculated using Cromer and Liberman's method

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Sasaki, Satoshi.

    1984-01-01

    Anomalous scattering factors f' and f'' have been calculated for the atoms Li through Bi, plus U, using the relativistic treatment described by Cromer and Liberman (1970, 1981). The tables presented in this paper include values (i) in the wavelength range from 0.1 to 2.89 A in 0.01 A intervals and (ii) in the neighborhood of the K,L 1 ,L 2 , and L 3 absorption edges in 0.0001 A intervals. (author)

  13. Hybrid theory calculation of electron-N2 scattering at 5 and 10 eV

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chandra, N.; Temkin, A.

    1976-01-01

    Hybrid theory results pertaining to e-N2 scattering have been evaluated for differential elastic and first vibrational excitation cross sections at 5 and 10 eV. Comparison with the recent experiment of Chutjian, Srivastava, and Trajmar is good (1976), although there is an indication that the calculated nonresonant (adiabatic-nuclei) contribution is somewhat too small. A short discussion engendered by this point is given.

  14. A new shielding calculation method for X-ray computed tomography regarding scattered radiation.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Watanabe, Hiroshi; Noto, Kimiya; Shohji, Tomokazu; Ogawa, Yasuyoshi; Fujibuchi, Toshioh; Yamaguchi, Ichiro; Hiraki, Hitoshi; Kida, Tetsuo; Sasanuma, Kazutoshi; Katsunuma, Yasushi; Nakano, Takurou; Horitsugi, Genki; Hosono, Makoto

    2017-06-01

    The goal of this study is to develop a more appropriate shielding calculation method for computed tomography (CT) in comparison with the Japanese conventional (JC) method and the National Council on Radiation Protection and Measurements (NCRP)-dose length product (DLP) method. Scattered dose distributions were measured in a CT room with 18 scanners (16 scanners in the case of the JC method) for one week during routine clinical use. The radiation doses were calculated for the same period using the JC and NCRP-DLP methods. The mean (NCRP-DLP-calculated dose)/(measured dose) ratios in each direction ranged from 1.7 ± 0.6 to 55 ± 24 (mean ± standard deviation). The NCRP-DLP method underestimated the dose at 3.4% in fewer shielding directions without the gantry and a subject, and the minimum (NCRP-DLP-calculated dose)/(measured dose) ratio was 0.6. The reduction factors were 0.036 ± 0.014 and 0.24 ± 0.061 for the gantry and couch directions, respectively. The (JC-calculated dose)/(measured dose) ratios ranged from 11 ± 8.7 to 404 ± 340. The air kerma scatter factor κ is expected to be twice as high as that calculated with the NCRP-DLP method and the reduction factors are expected to be 0.1 and 0.4 for the gantry and couch directions, respectively. We, therefore, propose a more appropriate method, the Japanese-DLP method, which resolves the issues of possible underestimation of the scattered radiation and overestimation of the reduction factors in the gantry and couch directions.

  15. Numerical Exact Ab Initio Four-Nucleon Scattering Calculations: from Dream to Reality

    Science.gov (United States)

    Fonseca, A. C.; Deltuva, A.

    2017-03-01

    In the present manuscript we review the work of the last ten years on the pursuit to obtain numerical exact solutions of the four-nucleon scattering problem using the most advanced force models that fit two nucleon data up to pion production threshold with a χ ^2 per data point approximately one, together with the Coulomb interaction between protons; three- and four-nucleon forces are also included in the framework of a meson exchange potential model where NN couples to NΔ. Failure to describe the world data on four-nucleon scattering observables in the framework of a non relativistic scattering approach falls necessarily on the force models one uses. Four-nucleon observables pose very clear challenges, particular in the low energy region where there are a number of resonances whose position and width needs to be dynamically generated by the nucleon-nucleon (NN) interactions one uses. In addition, our calculations constitute the most advance piece of work where observables for all four-nucleon reactions involving isospin I=0, I=0 coupled to I=1 and isospin I=1 initial states are calculated at energies both below and above breakup threshold. We also present a very extensive comparison between calculated results and data for cross sections and spin observables. Therefore the present work reveals both the shortcomings and successes of some of the present NN force models in describing four-nucleon data and serve as a benchmark for future developments.

  16. Neutron-deuteron scattering calculations with W-matrix representation of the two-body input

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Bartnik, E.A.; Haberzettl, H.; Januschke, T.; Kerwath, U.; Sandhas, W.

    1987-05-01

    Employing the W-matrix representation of the partial-wave T matrix introduced by Bartnik, Haberzettl, and Sandhas, we show for the example of the Malfliet-Tjon potentials I and III that the single-term separable part of the W-matrix representation, when used as input in three-nucleon neutron-deuteron scattering calculations, is fully capable of reproducing the exact results obtained by Kloet and Tjon. This approximate two-body input not only satisfies the two-body off-shell unitarity relation but, moreover, it also contains a parameter which may be used in optimizing the three-body data. We present numerical evidence that there exists a variational (minimum) principle for the determination of the three-body binding energy which allows one to choose this parameter also in the absence of an exact reference calculation. Our results for neutron-deuteron scattering show that it is precisely this choice of the parameter which provides optimal scattering data. We conclude that the W-matrix approach, despite its simplicity, is a remarkably efficient tool for high-quality three-nucleon calculations. (orig.)

  17. Kharkov X-ray Generator Based On Compton Scattering

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Shcherbakov, A.; Zelinsky, A.; Mytsykov, A.; Gladkikh, P.; Karnaukhov, I.; Lapshin, V.; Telegin, Y.; Androsov, V.; Bulyak, E.; Botman, J.I.M.; Tatchyn, R.; Lebedev, A.

    2004-01-01

    Nowadays X-ray sources based on storage rings with low beam energy and Compton scattering of intense laser beams are under development in several laboratories. An international cooperative project of an advanced X-ray source of this type at the Kharkov Institute of Physics and Technology (KIPT) is described. The status of the project is reviewed. The design lattice of the storage ring and calculated X-ray beam parameters are presented. The results of numerical simulation carried out for proposed facility show a peak spectral X-ray intensity of about 1014 can be produced

  18. Dynamical basis sets for algebraic variational calculations in quantum-mechanical scattering theory

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sun, Yan; Kouri, Donald J.; Truhlar, Donald G.; Schwenke, David W.

    1990-01-01

    New basis sets are proposed for linear algebraic variational calculations of transition amplitudes in quantum-mechanical scattering problems. These basis sets are hybrids of those that yield the Kohn variational principle (KVP) and those that yield the generalized Newton variational principle (GNVP) when substituted in Schlessinger's stationary expression for the T operator. Trial calculations show that efficiencies almost as great as that of the GNVP and much greater than the KVP can be obtained, even for basis sets with the majority of the members independent of energy.

  19. Monte Carlo Calculation of Thermal Neutron Inelastic Scattering Cross Section Uncertainties by Sampling Perturbed Phonon Spectra

    Science.gov (United States)

    Holmes, Jesse Curtis

    Nuclear data libraries provide fundamental reaction information required by nuclear system simulation codes. The inclusion of data covariances in these libraries allows the user to assess uncertainties in system response parameters as a function of uncertainties in the nuclear data. Formats and procedures are currently established for representing covariances for various types of reaction data in ENDF libraries. This covariance data is typically generated utilizing experimental measurements and empirical models, consistent with the method of parent data production. However, ENDF File 7 thermal neutron scattering library data is, by convention, produced theoretically through fundamental scattering physics model calculations. Currently, there is no published covariance data for ENDF File 7 thermal libraries. Furthermore, no accepted methodology exists for quantifying or representing uncertainty information associated with this thermal library data. The quality of thermal neutron inelastic scattering cross section data can be of high importance in reactor analysis and criticality safety applications. These cross sections depend on the material's structure and dynamics. The double-differential scattering law, S(alpha, beta), tabulated in ENDF File 7 libraries contains this information. For crystalline solids, S(alpha, beta) is primarily a function of the material's phonon density of states (DOS). Published ENDF File 7 libraries are commonly produced by calculation and processing codes, such as the LEAPR module of NJOY, which utilize the phonon DOS as the fundamental input for inelastic scattering calculations to directly output an S(alpha, beta) matrix. To determine covariances for the S(alpha, beta) data generated by this process, information about uncertainties in the DOS is required. The phonon DOS may be viewed as a probability density function of atomic vibrational energy states that exist in a material. Probable variation in the shape of this spectrum may be

  20. THERMAL: A routine designed to calculate neutron thermal scattering. Revision 1

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Cullen, D.E.

    1995-01-01

    THERMAL is designed to calculate neutron thermal scattering that is elastic and isotropic in the center of mass system. At low energy thermal motion will be included. At high energies the target nuclei are assumed to be stationary. The point of transition between low and high energies has been defined to insure a smooth transition. It is assumed that at low energy the elastic cross section is constant in the relative system. At high energy the cross section can be of any form. You can use this routine for all energies where the elastic scattering is isotropic in the center of mass system. In most materials this will be a fairly high energy, e.g., the keV energy range. The THERMAL method is simple, clean, easy to understand, and most important very efficient; on a SUN SPARC-10 workstation, at low energies with thermal scattering it can do almost 6 million scatters a minute and at high energy over 13 million. Warning: This version of THERMAL completely supersedes the original version described in the same report number, dated February 24, 1995. The method used in the original code is incorrect, as explained in this report

  1. The equivalent square concept for the head scatter factor based on scatter from flattening filter

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Kim, Siyong; Palta, Jatinder R.; Zhu, Timothy C.

    1998-01-01

    The equivalent field relationship between square and circular fields for the head scatter factor was evaluated at the source plane. The method was based on integrating the head scatter parameter for projected shaped fields in the source plane and finding a field that produced the same ratio of head scatter to primary dose on the central axis. A value of σ/R≅0.9 was obtained, where σ was one-half of the side length of the equivalent square and R was the radius of the circular field. The assumptions were that the equivalent field relationship for head scatter depends primarily on the characteristics of scatter from the flattening filter, and that the differential scatter-to-primary ratio of scatter from the flattening filter decreases linearly with the radius, within the physical radius of the flattening filter. Lam and co-workers showed empirically that the area-to-perimeter ratio formula, when applied to an equivalent square formula at the flattening filter plane, gave an accurate prediction of the head scatter factor. We have analytically investigated the validity of the area-to-perimeter ratio formula. Our results support the fact that the area-to-perimeter ratio formula can also be used as the equivalent field formula for head scatter at the source plane. The equivalent field relationships for wedge and tertiary collimator scatter were also evaluated. (author)

  2. The equivalent square concept for the head scatter factor based on scatter from flattening filter

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Kim, Siyong; Palta, Jatinder R.; Zhu, Timothy C. [Department of Radiation Oncology, University of Florida College of Medicine, Gainesville, Florida (United States)

    1998-06-01

    The equivalent field relationship between square and circular fields for the head scatter factor was evaluated at the source plane. The method was based on integrating the head scatter parameter for projected shaped fields in the source plane and finding a field that produced the same ratio of head scatter to primary dose on the central axis. A value of {sigma}/R{approx_equal}0.9 was obtained, where {sigma} was one-half of the side length of the equivalent square and R was the radius of the circular field. The assumptions were that the equivalent field relationship for head scatter depends primarily on the characteristics of scatter from the flattening filter, and that the differential scatter-to-primary ratio of scatter from the flattening filter decreases linearly with the radius, within the physical radius of the flattening filter. Lam and co-workers showed empirically that the area-to-perimeter ratio formula, when applied to an equivalent square formula at the flattening filter plane, gave an accurate prediction of the head scatter factor. We have analytically investigated the validity of the area-to-perimeter ratio formula. Our results support the fact that the area-to-perimeter ratio formula can also be used as the equivalent field formula for head scatter at the source plane. The equivalent field relationships for wedge and tertiary collimator scatter were also evaluated. (author)

  3. Influence of six-quark bags on the NN interaction in a resonating group scattering calculation

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Zhang Zongye; Braeuer, K.; Faessler, A.; Shimizu, K.

    1985-01-01

    The influence of six-quark bags oin the nucleon-nucleon (NN) interaction is studied in a dynamical calculation of the NN scattering process. The NN interaction is described by the exchange of gluons and pions between quarks and a phenomenological sigma-meson exchange between nucleons. The quark wave functions are harmonic oscillators and the relative wave function between the two nucleons is determined by the resonating group method. At short distances the NN system is allowed to fuse to a six-quark bag where all six quarks are in a ground state or where two quarks are in excited Op states. The sizes of these six-quark bags are dynamical parameters in the resonating group calculation allowing for spatial polarisation effects during the interaction. The S-wave NN scattering data can be reproduced by adjusting the sigma-coupling strength. The main result is that the six-quark bags with an increased radius have a large influence on the NN scattering process. (orig.)

  4. On the calculation of x-ray scattering signals from pairwise radial distribution functions

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Dohn, Asmus Ougaard; Biasin, Elisa; Haldrup, Kristoffer

    2015-01-01

    We derive a formulation for evaluating (time-resolved) x-ray scattering signals of solvated chemical systems, based on pairwise radial distribution functions, with the aim of this formulation to accompany molecular dynamics simulations. The derivation is described in detail to eliminate any possi...

  5. Elastic electron scattering from the DNA bases: cytosine and thymine

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Colyer, C J; Bellm, S M; Lohmanny, B; Blanco, F; Garcia, G

    2012-01-01

    Relative elastic differential cross sections for elastic scattering from cytosine and thymine have been measured using the crossed beam method. The experimental data are compared with theoretical cross sections calculated by the screen corrected additivity rule method.

  6. On the representation of electron multiple elastic-scattering distributions for Monte Carlo calculations

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Kawrakow, I.; Bielajew, A.F.

    1998-01-01

    A new representation of elastic electron-nucleus (Coulomb) multiple-scattering distributions is developed. Using the screened Rutherford cross section with the Moliere screening parameter as an example, a simple analytic angular transformation of the Goudsmit-Saunderson multiple-scattering distribution accounts for most of the structure of the angular distribution leaving a residual 3-parameter (path-length, transformed angle and screening parameter) function that is reasonably slowly varying and suitable for rapid, accurate interpolation in a computer-intensive algorithm. The residual function is calculated numerically for a wide range of Moliere screening parameters and path-lengths suitable for use in a general-purpose condensed-history Monte Carlo code. Additionally, techniques are developed that allow the distributions to be scaled to account for energy loss. This new representation allows ''''on-the-fly'''' sampling of Goudsmit-Saunderson angular distributions in a screened Rutherford approximation suitable for class II condensed-history Monte Carlo codes. (orig.)

  7. Inelastic neutron scattering an ab-initio calculation of negative thermal expansion in Ag2O

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Gupta, M.K.; Mittal, R.; Rols, S.; Chaplot, S.L.

    2012-01-01

    The compound Ag 2 O undergoes large and isotropic negative thermal expansion over 0-500 K. We report temperature dependent inelastic neutron scattering measurements and ab-initio calculations of the phonon spectrum. The temperature dependence of the experimental phonon spectrum shows strong anharmonic nature of phonon modes of energy around 2.4 meV. The ab-initio calculations reveal that the maximum negative Grüneisen parameter, which is a measure of the relevant anharmonicity, occurs for the transverse phonon modes that involve bending motions of the Ag 4 O tetrahedra. The thermal expansion is evaluated from the ab-initio calculation of the pressure dependence of the phonon modes, and found in good agreement with available experimental data.

  8. Scattering angle-based filtering via extension in velocity

    KAUST Repository

    Kazei, Vladimir; Tessmer, Ekkehart; Alkhalifah, Tariq

    2016-01-01

    The scattering angle between the source and receiver wavefields can be utilized in full-waveform inversion (FWI) and in reverse-time migration (RTM) for regularization and quality control or to remove low frequency artifacts. The access to the scattering angle information is costly as the relation between local image features and scattering angles has non-stationary nature. For the purpose of a more efficient scattering angle information extraction, we develop techniques that utilize the simplicity of the scattering angle based filters for constantvelocity background models. We split the background velocity model into several domains with different velocity ranges, generating an

  9. Scattering angle-based filtering via extension in velocity

    KAUST Repository

    Kazei, Vladimir

    2016-09-06

    The scattering angle between the source and receiver wavefields can be utilized in full-waveform inversion (FWI) and in reverse-time migration (RTM) for regularization and quality control or to remove low frequency artifacts. The access to the scattering angle information is costly as the relation between local image features and scattering angles has non-stationary nature. For the purpose of a more efficient scattering angle information extraction, we develop techniques that utilize the simplicity of the scattering angle based filters for constantvelocity background models. We split the background velocity model into several domains with different velocity ranges, generating an

  10. Q resolution calculation of small angle neutron scattering spectrometer and analysis of form factor

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Chen Liang; Peng Mei; Wang Yan; Sun Liangwei; Chen Bo

    2011-01-01

    The calculational methods of Small Angle Neutron Scattering (SANS) spectrometer Q resolution function and its correlative Q standard difference were introduced. The effects of Q standard difference were analysed with the geometry lay out of spectrometer and the spread of neutron wavelength. The one dimension Q resolution Gaussian function were analysed. The form factor curve of ideal solid sphere and two different instrument arrangement parameter was convoluted respectively and the different smearing curve of form factor was obtained. The combination of using the Q resolution function to more accurately analysis SANS data. (authors)

  11. Archean Earth Atmosphere Fractal Haze Aggregates: Light Scattering Calculations and the Faint Young Sun Paradox

    Science.gov (United States)

    Boness, D. A.; Terrell-Martinez, B.

    2010-12-01

    As part of an ongoing undergraduate research project of light scattering calculations involving fractal carbonaceous soot aggregates relevant to current anthropogenic and natural sources in Earth's atmosphere, we have read with interest a recent paper [E.T. Wolf and O.B Toon,Science 328, 1266 (2010)] claiming that the Faint Young Sun paradox discussed four decades ago by Carl Sagan and others can be resolved without invoking heavy CO2 concentrations as a greenhouse gas warming the early Earth enough to sustain liquid water and hence allow the origin of life. Wolf and Toon report that a Titan-like Archean Earth haze, with a fractal haze aggregate nature due to nitrogen-methane photochemistry at high altitudes, should block enough UV light to protect the warming greenhouse gas NH3 while allowing enough visible light to reach the surface of the Earth. To test this hypothesis, we have employed a rigorous T-Matrix arbitrary-particle light scattering technique, to avoid the simplifications inherent in Mie-sphere scattering, on haze fractal aggregates at UV and visible wavelenths of incident light. We generate these model aggregates using diffusion-limited cluster aggregation (DLCA) algorithms, which much more closely fit actual haze fractal aggregates than do diffusion-limited aggregation (DLA) algorithms.

  12. Anisotropic kernel p(μ → μ') for transport calculations of elastically scattered neutrons

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Stevenson, B.

    1985-01-01

    Literature in the area of anisotropic neutron scattering is by no means lacking. Attention, however, is usually devoted to solution of some particular neutron transport problem and the model employed is at best approximate. The present approach to the problem in general is classically exact and may be of some particular value to individuals seeking exact numerical results in transport calculations. For attempts neutrons originally directed toward the unit vector Omega, it attempts the evaluation of p(theta'), defined such that p(theta') d theta' is that fraction of scattered neutrons that emerges in the vicinity of a cone i.e., having been scattered to between angles theta' and theta' + d theta' with the axis of preferred orientation i; Omega makes an angle theta with i. The relative simplicity of the final form of the solution for hydrogen, in spite of the complicated nature of the limits involved, is a trade-off that truly is not necessary. The exact general solution presented here in integral form, has exceedingly simple limits, i.e., 0 ≤ theta' ≤ π regardless of the material involved; but the form of the final solution is extraordinarily complicated

  13. Equilibrium Limit of Boundary Scattering in Carbon Nanostructures: Molecular Dynamics Calculations of Thermal Transport

    Science.gov (United States)

    Haskins, Justin; Kinaci, Alper; Sevik, Cem; Cagin, Tahir

    2012-01-01

    It is widely known that graphene and many of its derivative nanostructures have exceedingly high reported thermal conductivities (up to 4000 W/mK at 300 K). Such attractive thermal properties beg the use of these structures in practical devices; however, to implement these materials while preserving transport quality, the influence of structure on thermal conductivity should be thoroughly understood. For graphene nanostructures, having average phonon mean free paths on the order of one micron, a primary concern is how size influences the potential for heat conduction. To investigate this, we employ a novel technique to evaluate the lattice thermal conductivity from the Green-Kubo relations and equilibrium molecular dynamics in systems where phonon-boundary scattering dominates heat flow. Specifically, the thermal conductivities of graphene nanoribbons and carbon nanotubes are calculated in sizes up to 3 microns, and the relative influence of boundary scattering on thermal transport is determined to be dominant at sizes less than 1 micron, after which the thermal transport largely depends on the quality of the nanostructure interface. The method is also extended to carbon nanostructures (fullerenes) where phonon confinement, as opposed to boundary scattering, dominates, and general trends related to the influence of curvature on thermal transport in these materials are discussed.

  14. Coupled-channel optical calculation of electron-atom scattering: elastic scattering from sodium at 20 to 150 eV

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Bray, Igor; Konovalov, D.A.; McCarthy, I.E.

    1991-04-01

    A coupled-channel optical method for electron-atom scattering is applied to elastic electron-sodium scattering at energies of 20, 22.1, 54.4, 100, and 150 eV. It is demonstrated that the effect of all the inelastic channels on elastic scattering may be well reproduced by the 'ab initio' calculated complex non-local polarization potential. Whilst the experiments generally agree at small angles and therefore agree on the total elastic cross section, there is considerable discrepancy at intermediate and backward angles. 9 refs., 2 tabs., 1 fig

  15. The nodal discrete-ordinate transport calculation of anisotropy scattering problem in three-dimensional cartesian geometry

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Wu Hongchun; Xie Zhongsheng; Zhu Xuehua

    1994-01-01

    The nodal discrete-ordinate transport calculating model of anisotropy scattering problem in three-dimensional cartesian geometry is given. The computing code NOTRAN/3D has been encoded and the satisfied conclusion is gained

  16. Physics Model-Based Scatter Correction in Multi-Source Interior Computed Tomography.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gong, Hao; Li, Bin; Jia, Xun; Cao, Guohua

    2018-02-01

    Multi-source interior computed tomography (CT) has a great potential to provide ultra-fast and organ-oriented imaging at low radiation dose. However, X-ray cross scattering from multiple simultaneously activated X-ray imaging chains compromises imaging quality. Previously, we published two hardware-based scatter correction methods for multi-source interior CT. Here, we propose a software-based scatter correction method, with the benefit of no need for hardware modifications. The new method is based on a physics model and an iterative framework. The physics model was derived analytically, and was used to calculate X-ray scattering signals in both forward direction and cross directions in multi-source interior CT. The physics model was integrated to an iterative scatter correction framework to reduce scatter artifacts. The method was applied to phantom data from both Monte Carlo simulations and physical experimentation that were designed to emulate the image acquisition in a multi-source interior CT architecture recently proposed by our team. The proposed scatter correction method reduced scatter artifacts significantly, even with only one iteration. Within a few iterations, the reconstructed images fast converged toward the "scatter-free" reference images. After applying the scatter correction method, the maximum CT number error at the region-of-interests (ROIs) was reduced to 46 HU in numerical phantom dataset and 48 HU in physical phantom dataset respectively, and the contrast-noise-ratio at those ROIs increased by up to 44.3% and up to 19.7%, respectively. The proposed physics model-based iterative scatter correction method could be useful for scatter correction in dual-source or multi-source CT.

  17. Data base to compare calculations and observations

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Tichler, J.L.

    1985-01-01

    Meteorological and climatological data bases were compared with known tritium release points and diffusion calculations to determine if calculated concentrations could replace measure concentrations at the monitoring stations. Daily tritium concentrations were monitored at 8 stations and 16 possible receptors. Automated data retrieval strategies are listed

  18. Measurement with total scatter calibrate factor at different depths in the calculation of prescription dose

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Li Lijun; Zhu Haijun; Zhang Xinzhong; Li Feizhou; Song Hongyu

    2004-01-01

    Objective: To evaluate the method of measurement of total scatter calibrate factor (Sc, p). Methods: To measure the Sc, p at different depths on central axis of 6MV, 15MV photon beams through different ways. Results: It was found that the measured data of Sc, p changed with the different depths to a range of 1% - 7%. Using the direct method, the Sc, p measured depth should be the same as the depth in dose normalization point of the prescription dose. If the Sc, p (fsz, d) was measured at the other depths, it could be obtained indirectly by the calculation formula. Conclusions: The Sc, p in the prescription dose can be obtained either by the direct measure method or the indirect calculation formula. But emphasis should be laid on the proper measure depth. (authors)

  19. User's manual for EXALPHA (a code for calculating electronic properties of molecules). [Muscatel code, multiply scattered electron approximation

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Jones, H.D.

    1976-06-01

    The EXALPHA procedures provide a simplified method for running the MUSCATEL computer code, which in turn is used for calculating electronic properties of simple molecules and atomic clusters, based on the multiply scattered electron approximation for the wave equations. The use of the EXALPHA procedures to set up a run of MUSCATEL is described.

  20. A comparison of three time-dependent wave packet methods for calculating electron--atom elastic scattering cross sections

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Judson, R.S.; McGarrah, D.B.; Sharafeddin, O.A.; Kouri, D.J.; Hoffman, D.K.

    1991-01-01

    We compare three time-dependent wave packet methods for performing elastic scattering calculations from screened Coulomb potentials. The three methods are the time-dependent amplitude density method (TDADM), what we term a Cayley-transform method (CTM), and the Chebyshev propagation method of Tal-Ezer and Kosloff. Both the TDADM and the CTM are based on a time-dependent integral equation for the wave function. In the first, we propagate the time-dependent amplitude density, |ζ(t)right-angle=U|ψ(t)right-angle, where U is the interaction potential and |ψ(t)right-angle is the usual time-dependent wave function. In the other two, the wave function is propagated. As a numerical example, we calculate phase shifts and cross sections using a screened Coulomb, Yukawa type potential over the range 200--1000 eV. One of the major advantages of time-dependent methods such as these is that we get scattering information over this entire range of energies from one propagation. We find that in most cases, all three methods yield comparable accuracy and are about equally efficient computationally. However for l=0, where the Coulomb well is not screened by the centrifugal potential, the TDADM requires smaller grid spacings to maintain accuracy

  1. Bremsstrahlung scattering calculations for the beam stops and collimators in the APS insertion-device beamlines

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Job, P.K.; Haeffner, D.R.; Shu, D.

    1994-12-01

    Bremsstrahlung is produced in the APS storage ring by the interaction of positrons with the residual gas molecules in the vacuum chamber of the storage ring. The bremsstrahlung production causes a serious challenge in shielding the insertion-device beamlines because the entire straight section (15 meters) is in the line of sight of the beamline. The radiation emerges in a narrow cone tangential to the beam path with the characteristic emission angle 1/γ, where γ is E/mc 2 which is the ratio of the kinetic energy to the rest mass for the positrons. This high-energy gamma radiation has an approximate 1/E spectrum with the maximum energy extending up to the particle energy (7 GeV for the APS). Bremsstrahlung, being high-energy photons, produces an electromagnetic shower when it encounters the beamline elements. A beamline element not thick enough to fully contain an electromagnetic shower can cause considerable scatter of the high-energy bremsstrahlung radiation. The low-energy component of the bremsstrahlung can also be scattered and create high dose rates in the first-optical and white-beam enclosures. The fully developed electromagnetic shower will have a photon spectrum almost independent of the material. The electromagnetic showers in the high-Z materials can also produce photoneutrons. This note reports the summary of EGS4 calculations performed on bremsstrahlung scattering from different beamline components in a typical APS insertion-device beamline. The related recommendations for shielding are also given. The shielding criterion adopted is a total dose rate of 2.5μSv/h (0.25 mrem/h) at 30 cm from the shield

  2. Exact-exchange-based quasiparticle calculations

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Aulbur, Wilfried G.; Staedele, Martin; Goerling, Andreas

    2000-01-01

    One-particle wave functions and energies from Kohn-Sham calculations with the exact local Kohn-Sham exchange and the local density approximation (LDA) correlation potential [EXX(c)] are used as input for quasiparticle calculations in the GW approximation (GWA) for eight semiconductors. Quasiparticle corrections to EXX(c) band gaps are small when EXX(c) band gaps are close to experiment. In the case of diamond, quasiparticle calculations are essential to remedy a 0.7 eV underestimate of the experimental band gap within EXX(c). The accuracy of EXX(c)-based GWA calculations for the determination of band gaps is as good as the accuracy of LDA-based GWA calculations. For the lowest valence band width a qualitatively different behavior is observed for medium- and wide-gap materials. The valence band width of medium- (wide-) gap materials is reduced (increased) in EXX(c) compared to the LDA. Quasiparticle corrections lead to a further reduction (increase). As a consequence, EXX(c)-based quasiparticle calculations give valence band widths that are generally 1-2 eV smaller (larger) than experiment for medium- (wide-) gap materials. (c) 2000 The American Physical Society

  3. A T-matrix calculation for in-medium heavy-quark gluon scattering

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Huggins, K.; Rapp, R.

    2012-01-01

    The interactions of charm and bottom quarks in a quark-gluon plasma (QGP) are evaluated using a thermodynamic 2-body T-matrix. We specifically focus on heavy-quark (HQ) interactions with thermal gluons with an input potential motivated by lattice-QCD computations of the HQ free energy. The latter is implemented into a field-theoretic ansatz for color-Coulomb and (remnants of) confining interactions. This, in particular, enables to discuss corrections to the potential approach, specifically hard-thermal-loop corrections to the vertices, relativistic corrections deduced from pertinent Feynman diagrams, and a suitable projection on transverse thermal gluons. The resulting potentials are applied to compute scattering amplitudes in different color channels and utilized for a calculation of the corresponding HQ drag coefficient in the QGP. A factor of ∼2-3 enhancement over perturbative results is obtained, mainly driven by the resummation in the attractive color-channels.

  4. Hauser-Feshbach cross-section calculations for elastic and inelastic scattering of alpha particles-program CORA

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Hartman, A.; Siemaszko, M.; Zipper, W.

    1975-01-01

    The program CORA was prepared on the basis of Hauser and Feshbach compound reaction formalism. It allows the differential cross-section distributions for the elastic and inelastic scattering of alpha particles (via compound nucleus state) to be calculated. The transmission coefficients are calculated on the basis of a four parameter optical model. The search procedure is also included. (author)

  5. Some experience in applying the REDUCE algebraic system to the calculation of scattering processes in QED and QCD

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Mohring, H.J.; Schiller, A.

    1980-01-01

    The problems arising in the use of the REDUCE algebraic system for calculating traces of the Dirac matrix products describing scattering processes in quantum electrodynamics (QED) and quantum chromodynamics (QCD) are considered. Application of the REDUCE system for describing two-photon processes in e + e - reactions is discussed. An example of using the REDUCE system for calculating matrix elements of elementary processes of hard scattering is described. The calculations were performed by means of the REDUCE2 version on an EC1040 computer. The computations take almost 10 minutes of machine time and computer storage capacity of abo t 800 kiuobites

  6. Ultrafast cone-beam CT scatter correction with GPU-based Monte Carlo simulation

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Yuan Xu

    2014-03-01

    Full Text Available Purpose: Scatter artifacts severely degrade image quality of cone-beam CT (CBCT. We present an ultrafast scatter correction framework by using GPU-based Monte Carlo (MC simulation and prior patient CT image, aiming at automatically finish the whole process including both scatter correction and reconstruction within 30 seconds.Methods: The method consists of six steps: 1 FDK reconstruction using raw projection data; 2 Rigid Registration of planning CT to the FDK results; 3 MC scatter calculation at sparse view angles using the planning CT; 4 Interpolation of the calculated scatter signals to other angles; 5 Removal of scatter from the raw projections; 6 FDK reconstruction using the scatter-corrected projections. In addition to using GPU to accelerate MC photon simulations, we also use a small number of photons and a down-sampled CT image in simulation to further reduce computation time. A novel denoising algorithm is used to eliminate MC noise from the simulated scatter images caused by low photon numbers. The method is validated on one simulated head-and-neck case with 364 projection angles.Results: We have examined variation of the scatter signal among projection angles using Fourier analysis. It is found that scatter images at 31 angles are sufficient to restore those at all angles with < 0.1% error. For the simulated patient case with a resolution of 512 × 512 × 100, we simulated 5 × 106 photons per angle. The total computation time is 20.52 seconds on a Nvidia GTX Titan GPU, and the time at each step is 2.53, 0.64, 14.78, 0.13, 0.19, and 2.25 seconds, respectively. The scatter-induced shading/cupping artifacts are substantially reduced, and the average HU error of a region-of-interest is reduced from 75.9 to 19.0 HU.Conclusion: A practical ultrafast MC-based CBCT scatter correction scheme is developed. It accomplished the whole procedure of scatter correction and reconstruction within 30 seconds.----------------------------Cite this

  7. A method based on light scattering to estimate the concentration of virus particles without the need for virus particle standards

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    István Makra

    2015-01-01

    • The concentration of virus nanoparticles can be calculated based on the two measured scattered light intensities by knowing the refractive index of the dispersing solution, of the polymer and virus nanoparticles as well as their relative sphere equivalent diameters.

  8. Electron density values of various human tissues: in vitro Compton scatter measurements and calculated ranges

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Shrimpton, P.C.

    1981-01-01

    Accurate direct measurements of electron density have been performed on specimens from 10 different tissue types of the human body, representing the major organs, using a Compton scatter technique. As a supplement to these experimental values, calculations have been carried out to determine the electron densities expected for these tissue types. The densities observed are in good agreement with the broad ranges deduced from the basic data previously published. The results of both the in vitro sample measurements and the approximate calculations indicate that the electron density of most normal healthy soft tissue can be expected to fall within the fairly restricted range of +- 5% around 3.4 X 10 23 electrons per cm 3 . The obvious exception to this generalisation is the result for lung tissue, which falls considerably below this range owing to the high air content inherent in its construction. In view of such an overall limited variation with little difference between tissues, it would appear that electron density alone is likely to be a rather poor clinical parameter for tissue analysis, with high accuracy and precision being essential in any in vivo Compton measurements for imaging or diagnosis on specific organs. (author)

  9. Calculation of the thermal neutron scattering kernel using the synthetic model. Pt. 2. Zero-order energy transfer kernel

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Drozdowicz, K.

    1995-01-01

    A comprehensive unified description of the application of Granada's Synthetic Model to the slow-neutron scattering by the molecular systems is continued. Detailed formulae for the zero-order energy transfer kernel are presented basing on the general formalism of the model. An explicit analytical formula for the total scattering cross section as a function of the incident neutron energy is also obtained. Expressions of the free gas model for the zero-order scattering kernel and for total scattering kernel are considered as a sub-case of the Synthetic Model. (author). 10 refs

  10. SCATTER

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Broome, J.

    1965-11-01

    The programme SCATTER is a KDF9 programme in the Egtran dialect of Fortran to generate normalized angular distributions for elastically scattered neutrons from data input as the coefficients of a Legendre polynomial series, or from differential cross-section data. Also, differential cross-section data may be analysed to produce Legendre polynomial coefficients. Output on cards punched in the format of the U.K. A. E. A. Nuclear Data Library is optional. (author)

  11. The exact calculation of the e. m. field arising from the scattering of twodimensional electromagnetic waves at a perfectly conducting cylindrical surface of arbitrary shape

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Hoenders, B.J.

    1982-01-01

    The scattered field generated by the interaction of an incoming twodimensional electromagnetic wave with a cylindrical perfectly conducting surface is calculated. The scattered field is obtained in closed form.

  12. On the application of the theory of the translational Brownian movement to the calculation of the differential cross-sections for the incoherent scattering of slow neutrons

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Coffey, W.T.

    1978-01-01

    It is shown how three models (based on the theory of the Brownian movement) for the translational motion of an atom in a fluid may be used to calculate explicitly the intermediate scattering functions and differential cross-sections for the incoherent scattering of slow neutrons. In the first model the translational motion of the atom is represented by the motion of a particle in space subjected to no forces other than those arising from the thermal motion of its surroundings. The differential scattering cross-section for this model is then obtained as a continued fraction similar to that given by Sack (Proc. Phys. Soc.; B70:402 and 414 (1957)) for the electric polarisability in his investigation of the role of inertial effects in dielectric relaxation. The second model is a corrected version of the itinerant oscillator model of Sears (Proc. Phys. Soc.; 86:953 (1965)). Here the differential cross-section is obtained in the form of a series and a closed-form expression is found for the intermediate scattering function. The last model to be considered is the harmonically bound particle where again a closed form expression is obtained for the intermediate scattering function. In each case the intermediate scattering function has a mathematical form which is similar to the after-effect function describing the decay of electric polarisation for the rotational versions of the models. (author)

  13. Albedo analytical method for multi-scattered neutron flux calculation in cavity

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Shin, Kazuo; Selvi, S.; Hyodo, Tomonori

    1986-01-01

    A simple formula which describes multi-scattered neutron flux in a spherical cavity was derived based on the albedo concept. The formura treats a neutron source which has an arbitrary energy-angle distribution and is placed at any point in the cavity. The derived formula was applied to the estimation of neutron fluxes in two cavities, i.e. a spherical concrete cell with a 14-MeV neutron source at the center and the ''YAYOI'' reactor cavity with a pencil beam of reactor neutrons. The results of the analytical formula agreed very well with the reference data in the both problems. It was concluded that the formula is applicable to estimate the neutron fluxes in a spherical cell except for special cases that tangential source neutrons are incident to the cavity wall. (author)

  14. Coupled-channel optical calculation of electron-hydrogen scattering: elastic scattering from 0.5 to 30 eV

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Bray, I.; Konovalov, D.A.; McCarthy, I.E.

    1991-01-01

    A coupled-channel optical method for electron-atomic hydrogen scattering is presented in a form that treats both the projectile and the target electrons symmetrically. Elastic differential cross sections are calculated at a range of energies from 0.5 to 30 eV and are found to be in complete agreement with the absolute measurements, previously reported. Total and total ionization cross sections are also presented. 13 refs., 2 tabs., 2 figs

  15. Speckle-learning-based object recognition through scattering media.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ando, Takamasa; Horisaki, Ryoichi; Tanida, Jun

    2015-12-28

    We experimentally demonstrated object recognition through scattering media based on direct machine learning of a number of speckle intensity images. In the experiments, speckle intensity images of amplitude or phase objects on a spatial light modulator between scattering plates were captured by a camera. We used the support vector machine for binary classification of the captured speckle intensity images of face and non-face data. The experimental results showed that speckles are sufficient for machine learning.

  16. Rayleigh Scattering Density Measurements, Cluster Theory, and Nucleation Calculations at Mach 10

    Science.gov (United States)

    Balla, R. Jeffrey; Everhart, Joel L.

    2012-01-01

    In an exploratory investigation, quantitative unclustered laser Rayleigh scattering measurements of density were performed in the air in the NASA Langley Research Center's 31 in. Mach 10 wind tunnel. A review of 20 previous years of data in supersonic and Mach 6 hypersonic flows is presented where clustered signals typically overwhelmed molecular signals. A review of nucleation theory and accompanying nucleation calculations are also provided to interpret the current observed lack of clustering. Data were acquired at a fixed stagnation temperature near 990Kat five stagnation pressures spanning 2.41 to 10.0 MPa (350 to 1454 psi) using a pulsed argon fluoride excimer laser and double-intensified charge-coupled device camera. Data averaged over 371 images and 210 pixels along a 36.7mmline measured freestream densities that agree with computed isentropic-expansion densities to less than 2% and less than 6% at the highest and lowest densities, respectively. Cluster-free Mach 10 results are compared with previous clustered Mach 6 and condensation-free Mach 14 results. Evidence is presented indicating vibrationally excited oxygen and nitrogen molecules are absorbed as the clusters form, release their excess energy, and inhibit or possibly reverse the clustering process. Implications for delaying clustering and condensation onset in hypersonic and hypervelocity facilities are discussed.

  17. Evaluation of scattering laws and cross sections for calculation of production and transport of cold and ultracold neutrons

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Bernnat, W.; Keinert, J.; Mattes, M.

    2004-01-01

    For the calculation of neutron spectra in cold and super thermal sources scattering laws for a variety of liquid and solid cyrogenic materials were evaluated and prepared for use in deterministic and Monte Carlo transport calculations. For moderator materials like liquid and solid H 2 O, liquid He, liquid D 2 O, liquid and solid H 2 and D 2 , solid CH 4 and structure materials such as Al, Bi, Pb, ZrHx, and graphite scattering law data and cross sections are available. The evaluated data were validated by comparison with measured cross sections and comparison of measured and calculated neutron spectra as far as available. Further applications are the calculation of production and transport and storing of ultra cold neutrons (UCN) in different UCN sources. The data structures of the evaluated data are prepared for the common S N -transport codes and the Monte Carlo Code MCNP. (orig.)

  18. Evaluation of scattering laws and cross sections for calculation of production and transport of cold and ultracold neutrons

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Bernnat, W.; Keinert, J.; Mattes, M. [Inst. for Nuclear Energy and Energy Systems, Univ. of Stuttgart, Stuttgart (Germany)

    2004-03-01

    For the calculation of neutron spectra in cold and super thermal sources scattering laws for a variety of liquid and solid cyrogenic materials were evaluated and prepared for use in deterministic and Monte Carlo transport calculations. For moderator materials like liquid and solid H{sub 2}O, liquid He, liquid D{sub 2}O, liquid and solid H{sub 2} and D{sub 2}, solid CH{sub 4} and structure materials such as Al, Bi, Pb, ZrHx, and graphite scattering law data and cross sections are available. The evaluated data were validated by comparison with measured cross sections and comparison of measured and calculated neutron spectra as far as available. Further applications are the calculation of production and transport and storing of ultra cold neutrons (UCN) in different UCN sources. The data structures of the evaluated data are prepared for the common S{sub N}-transport codes and the Monte Carlo Code MCNP. (orig.)

  19. Calculation of the nonlinear relativistic Thomson scattering fields and Its application to electron distribution function diagnostic

    Science.gov (United States)

    Guasp, J.; Pastor, I.; Álvarez-Estrada, R. F.; Castejón, F.

    2015-02-01

    Analytical results obtained recently of the ab-initio classical incoherent Thomson Scattering (TS) spectrum from a single-electron (Alvarez-Estrada et al 2012 Phys. Plasmas 19 062302) have been numerically implemented in a paralelized code to efficiently compute the TS emission from a given electron distribution function, irrespective of its characteristics and/or the intensity of the incoming radiation. These analytical results display certain differences, when compared with other authors, in the general case of incoming linearly and circularly polarized radiation and electrons with arbitrary initial directions. We regard such discrepancies and the ubiquitous interest in TS as motivations for this work. Here, we implement some analytical advances (like generalized Bessel functions for incoming linearly polarized radiation) in TS. The bulk of this work reports on the efficient computation of TS spectra (based upon our analytical approach), for an electron population having an essentially arbitrary distribution function and for both incoming linearly and circularly polarized radiation. A detailed comparison between the present approach and a previous Monte Carlo one (Pastor et al 2011 Nuclear Fusion 51 043011), dealing with the ab-initio computation of TS spectra, is reported. Both approaches are shown to fully agree with each other. As key computational improvements, the analytical technique yields a × 30 to × 100 gain in computation time and is a very flexible tool to compute the scattered spectrum and eventually the scattered electromagnetic fields in the time domain. The latter are computed explicitly here for the first time, as far as we know. Scaling laws for the power integrated over frequency versus initial kinetic energy are studied for the case of isotropic and monoenergetic electron distribution functions and their potential application as diagnostic tools for high-energy populations is briefly discussed. Finally, we discuss the application of these

  20. Multilevel fast multipole method based on a potential formulation for 3D electromagnetic scattering problems.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Fall, Mandiaye; Boutami, Salim; Glière, Alain; Stout, Brian; Hazart, Jerome

    2013-06-01

    A combination of the multilevel fast multipole method (MLFMM) and boundary element method (BEM) can solve large scale photonics problems of arbitrary geometry. Here, MLFMM-BEM algorithm based on a scalar and vector potential formulation, instead of the more conventional electric and magnetic field formulations, is described. The method can deal with multiple lossy or lossless dielectric objects of arbitrary geometry, be they nested, in contact, or dispersed. Several examples are used to demonstrate that this method is able to efficiently handle 3D photonic scatterers involving large numbers of unknowns. Absorption, scattering, and extinction efficiencies of gold nanoparticle spheres, calculated by the MLFMM, are compared with Mie's theory. MLFMM calculations of the bistatic radar cross section (RCS) of a gold sphere near the plasmon resonance and of a silica coated gold sphere are also compared with Mie theory predictions. Finally, the bistatic RCS of a nanoparticle gold-silver heterodimer calculated with MLFMM is compared with unmodified BEM calculations.

  1. Ab initio molecular dynamics calculations on scattering of hyperthermal H atoms from Cu(111) and Au(111)

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Kroes, Geert-Jan, E-mail: g.j.kroes@chem.leidenuniv.nl; Pavanello, Michele [Leiden Institute of Chemistry, Gorlaeus Laboratories, Leiden University, P.O. Box 9502, 2300 RA Leiden (Netherlands); Blanco-Rey, María [Departamento de Física de Materiales, Facultad de Químicas UPV/EHU, Apartado 1072, 20080 Donostia-San Sebastián (Spain); Donostia International Physics Center, Paseo Manuel de Lardizabal 4, 20018 Donostia-San Sebastián (Spain); Alducin, Maite [Donostia International Physics Center, Paseo Manuel de Lardizabal 4, 20018 Donostia-San Sebastián (Spain); Centro de Física de Materiales, Centro Mixto CSIC-UPV/EHU, Paseo Manuel de Lardizabal 5, 20018 Donostia-San Sebastián (Spain); Auerbach, Daniel J. [Leiden Institute of Chemistry, Gorlaeus Laboratories, Leiden University, P.O. Box 9502, 2300 RA Leiden (Netherlands); Max Planck Institute for Biophysical Chemistry, Göttingen (Germany); Institute for Physical Chemistry, Georg-August University of Göttingen, Göttingen (Germany)

    2014-08-07

    Energy loss from the translational motion of an atom or molecule impinging on a metal surface to the surface may determine whether the incident particle can trap on the surface, and whether it has enough energy left to react with another molecule present at the surface. Although this is relevant to heterogeneous catalysis, the relative extent to which energy loss of hot atoms takes place to phonons or electron-hole pair (ehp) excitation, and its dependence on the system's parameters, remain largely unknown. We address these questions for two systems that present an extreme case of the mass ratio of the incident atom to the surface atom, i.e., H + Cu(111) and H + Au(111), by presenting adiabatic ab initio molecular dynamics (AIMD) predictions of the energy loss and angular distributions for an incidence energy of 5 eV. The results are compared to the results of AIMDEFp calculations modeling energy loss to ehp excitation using an electronic friction (“EF”) model applied to the AIMD trajectories, so that the energy loss to the electrons is calculated “post” (“p”) the computation of the AIMD trajectory. The AIMD calculations predict average energy losses of 0.38 eV for Cu(111) and 0.13-0.14 eV for Au(111) for H-atoms that scatter from these surfaces without penetrating the surface. These energies closely correspond with energy losses predicted with Baule models, which is suggestive of structure scattering. The predicted adiabatic integral energy loss spectra (integrated over all final scattering angles) all display a lowest energy peak at an energy corresponding to approximately 80% of the average adiabatic energy loss for non-penetrative scattering. In the adiabatic limit, this suggests a way of determining the approximate average energy loss of non-penetratively scattered H-atoms from the integral energy loss spectrum of all scattered H-atoms. The AIMDEFp calculations predict that in each case the lowest energy loss peak should show additional energy

  2. Ab initio molecular dynamics calculations on scattering of hyperthermal H atoms from Cu(111) and Au(111).

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kroes, Geert-Jan; Pavanello, Michele; Blanco-Rey, María; Alducin, Maite; Auerbach, Daniel J

    2014-08-07

    Energy loss from the translational motion of an atom or molecule impinging on a metal surface to the surface may determine whether the incident particle can trap on the surface, and whether it has enough energy left to react with another molecule present at the surface. Although this is relevant to heterogeneous catalysis, the relative extent to which energy loss of hot atoms takes place to phonons or electron-hole pair (ehp) excitation, and its dependence on the system's parameters, remain largely unknown. We address these questions for two systems that present an extreme case of the mass ratio of the incident atom to the surface atom, i.e., H + Cu(111) and H + Au(111), by presenting adiabatic ab initio molecular dynamics (AIMD) predictions of the energy loss and angular distributions for an incidence energy of 5 eV. The results are compared to the results of AIMDEFp calculations modeling energy loss to ehp excitation using an electronic friction ("EF") model applied to the AIMD trajectories, so that the energy loss to the electrons is calculated "post" ("p") the computation of the AIMD trajectory. The AIMD calculations predict average energy losses of 0.38 eV for Cu(111) and 0.13-0.14 eV for Au(111) for H-atoms that scatter from these surfaces without penetrating the surface. These energies closely correspond with energy losses predicted with Baule models, which is suggestive of structure scattering. The predicted adiabatic integral energy loss spectra (integrated over all final scattering angles) all display a lowest energy peak at an energy corresponding to approximately 80% of the average adiabatic energy loss for non-penetrative scattering. In the adiabatic limit, this suggests a way of determining the approximate average energy loss of non-penetratively scattered H-atoms from the integral energy loss spectrum of all scattered H-atoms. The AIMDEFp calculations predict that in each case the lowest energy loss peak should show additional energy loss in the

  3. Calculated shape dependence of electromagnetic field in tip-enhanced Raman scattering by using a monopole antenna model

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kitahama, Yasutaka; Itoh, Tamitake; Suzuki, Toshiaki

    2018-05-01

    To evaluate the shape of an Ag tip with regard to tip-enhanced Raman scattering (TERS) signal, the enhanced electromagnetic (EM) field and scattering spectrum, arising from surface plasmon resonance at the apex of the tip, were calculated using a finite-difference time domain (FDTD) method. In the calculated forward scattering spectra from the smooth Ag tip, the band appeared within the visible region, similar to the experimental results and calculation for a corrugated Ag cone. In the FDTD calculation of TERS, the Ag tip acting as a monopole antenna was adopted by insertion of a perfect electric conductor between the root of the tip and a top boundary surface of the calculation space. As a result, the EM field was only enhanced at the apex. The shape dependence i.e. the EM field calculated at the apex with various curvatures on the different tapered tips, obtained using the monopole antenna model, was different from that simulated using a conventional dipole antenna model.

  4. Basis for calculating cross sections for nuclear magnetic resonance spin-modulated polarized neutron scattering.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kotlarchyk, Michael; Thurston, George M

    2016-12-28

    In this work we study the potential for utilizing the scattering of polarized neutrons from nuclei whose spin has been modulated using nuclear magnetic resonance (NMR). From first principles, we present an in-depth development of the differential scattering cross sections that would arise in such measurements from a hypothetical target system containing nuclei with non-zero spins. In particular, we investigate the modulation of the polarized scattering cross sections following the application of radio frequency pulses that impart initial transverse rotations to selected sets of spin-1/2 nuclei. The long-term aim is to provide a foundational treatment of the scattering cross section associated with enhancing scattering signals from selected nuclei using NMR techniques, thus employing minimal chemical or isotopic alterations, so as to advance the knowledge of macromolecular or liquid structure.

  5. Importance of scatter compensation algorithm in heterogeneous tissue for the radiation dose calculation of small lung nodules. A clinical study

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Baba, Yuji; Murakami, Ryuji; Mizukami, Naohisa; Morishita, Shoji; Yamashita, Yasuyuki; Araki, Fujio; Moribe, Nobuyuki; Hirata, Yukinori

    2004-01-01

    The purpose of this study was to compare radiation doses of small lung nodules calculated with beam scattering compensation and those without compensation in heterogeneous tissues. Computed tomography (CT) data of 34 small (1-2 cm: 12 nodules, 2-3 cm 11 nodules, 3-4 cm 11 nodules) lung nodules were used in the radiation dose measurements. Radiation planning for lung nodule was performed with a commercially available unit using two different radiation dose calculation methods: the superposition method (with scatter compensation in heterogeneous tissues), and the Clarkson method (without scatter compensation in heterogeneous tissues). The energy of the linac photon used in this study was 10 MV and 4 MV. Monitor unit (MU) to deliver 10 Gy at the center of the radiation field (center of the nodule) calculated with the two methods were compared. In 1-2 cm nodules, MU calculated by Clarkson method (MUc) was 90.0±1.1% (4 MV photon) and 80.5±2.7% (10 MV photon) compared to MU calculated by superposion method (MUs), in 2-3 cm nodules, MUc was 92.9±1.1% (4 MV photon) and 86.6±2.8% (10 MV photon) compared to MUs, and in 3-4 cm nodules, MUc was 90.5±2.0% (4 MV photon) and 90.1±1.7% (10 MV photon) compared to MUs. In 1-2 cm nodules, MU calculated without lung compensation (MUn) was 120.6±8.3% (4 MV photon) and 95.1±4.1% (10 MV photon) compared to MU calculated by superposion method (MUs), in 2-3 cm nodules, MUc was 120.3±11.5% (4 MV photon) and 100.5±4.6% (10 MV photon) compared to MUs, and in 3-4 cm nodules, MUc was 105.3±9.0% (4 MV photon) and 103.4±4.9% (10 MV photon) compared to MUs. The MU calculated without lung compensation was not significantly different from the MU calculated by superposition method in 2-3 cm nodules. We found that the conventional dose calculation algorithm without scatter compensation in heterogeneous tissues substantially overestimated the radiation dose of small nodules in the lung field. In the calculation of dose distribution of small

  6. Complex Correlation Kohn-T Method of Calculating Total and Elastic Cross Sections. Part 1; Electron-Hydrogen Elastic Scattering

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bhatia, A. K.; Temkin, A.; Fisher, Richard R. (Technical Monitor)

    2001-01-01

    We report on the first part of a study of electron-hydrogen scattering, using a method which allows for the ab initio calculation of total and elastic cross sections at higher energies. In its general form the method uses complex 'radial' correlation functions, in a (Kohn) T-matrix formalism. The titled method, abbreviated Complex Correlation Kohn T (CCKT) method, is reviewed, in the context of electron-hydrogen scattering, including the derivation of the equation for the (complex) scattering function, and the extraction of the scattering information from the latter. The calculation reported here is restricted to S-waves in the elastic region, where the correlation functions can be taken, without loss of generality, to be real. Phase shifts are calculated using Hylleraas-type correlation functions with up to 95 terms. Results are rigorous lower bounds; they are in general agreement with those of Schwartz, but they are more accurate and outside his error bounds at a couple of energies,

  7. Large-scale nuclear structure calculations for spin-dependent WIMP scattering with chiral effective field theory currents

    OpenAIRE

    Klos, P.; Menéndez, J.; Gazit, D.; Schwenk, A.

    2013-01-01

    We perform state-of-the-art large-scale shell-model calculations of the structure factors for elastic spin-dependent WIMP scattering off 129,131Xe, 127I, 73Ge, 19F, 23Na, 27Al, and 29Si. This comprehensive survey covers the non-zero-spin nuclei relevant to direct dark matter detection. We include a pedagogical presentation of the formalism necessary to describe elastic and inelastic WIMP-nucleus scattering. The valence spaces and nuclear interactions employed have been previously used in nucl...

  8. Calculation of spin-dependent observables in electron-sodium scattering using the coupled-channel optical method

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Bray, Igor.

    1992-04-01

    The calculations of the 3 2 S and 3 2 P spin asymmetries and the angular momentum for singlet and triplet scattering for projectile energies of 10 and 20 eV is presented. Together these observables give a most stringent test of any electron-atom scattering theory. An excellent agreement was found between the results of the coupled-channel optical method and experiment, which for the spin asymmetries can only be obtained by a good description of the couplings between the lower-lying target states and the target continuum. 10 refs., 2 figs

  9. Spontaneous Rayleigh-Brillouin scattering spectral analysis based on the Wiener filter

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Tao Wu

    2018-01-01

    Full Text Available In this paper, a spontaneous Rayleigh-Brillouin scattering spectrometer is developed to measure the gaseous spontaneous Rayleigh-Brillouin scattering profiles over the pressure range from 1 to 5 atm for a wavelength of 532nm at a constant room temperature of 296K and a 90o scattering angle. In order to make a direct comparison between the experimentally obtained spectrum and the theoretical spectrum calculated from the Tenti S6 model, the measured spontaneous Rayleigh-Brillouin scattering signal is deconvolved by the Wiener filtering. The purpose is to remove the effect on the spectrum by the transmission function of the Fabry-Perrot scanning interferometer. The results of the comparison show that the deconvolved spectra are consistent with the theoretical spectra calculated from the Tenti S6 model, and thus confirm that the deconvolution based on the Wiener filter is able to process the measured spectra and improve the spectral resolution. Some factors that influence the accuracy of deconvolution are analyzed and discussed. At the same time, another comparison between the raw experimentally obtained spectra and the theoretical spectra calculated by convolving the Tenti S6 model with instrument function of the measurement system is performed in the same experimental condition. The results of the two comparisons show that, compared with the raw experimentally obtained spectrum, the deconvolved spectrum matches the theoretically calculated spectrum more accurately under lower pressure (≤2atm than under relative higher pressure (>2atm.

  10. Improving quantitative dosimetry in (177)Lu-DOTATATE SPECT by energy window-based scatter corrections

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    de Nijs, Robin; Lagerburg, Vera; Klausen, Thomas L

    2014-01-01

    and the activity, which depends on the collimator type, the utilized energy windows and the applied scatter correction techniques. In this study, energy window subtraction-based scatter correction methods are compared experimentally and quantitatively. MATERIALS AND METHODS: (177)Lu SPECT images of a phantom...... technique, the measured ratio was close to the real ratio, and the differences between spheres were small. CONCLUSION: For quantitative (177)Lu imaging MEGP collimators are advised. Both energy peaks can be utilized when the ESSE correction technique is applied. The difference between the calculated...

  11. Calculation of HPGe Detector Response for NRF Photons Scattered from Threat Materials

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Park, B. G.; Choi, H. D.

    2009-01-01

    Nuclear Resonance Fluorescence (NRF) is a process of resonant nuclear absorption of photons, followed by deexcitation with emission of fluorescence photons. The cross section of NRF photons process is given by σ i max ≡ 2π(λ/2π) 2 2J+1/2J 0 +1 Γ 0 Γ i /Γ tot 2 , where λ is the wavelength of the photon, J 0 and J are the nuclear spins of the ground state and excited state, respectively, Γ 0 , Γ i and Γ tot are decay width for deexcitation to the ground state, to the i-th mode state and total decay width, respectively. NRF based security inspection technique uses the signatures of resonance energies of the fluorescence photon scattered from nuclides of the illicit materials in cargo container. NRF can be used to identify the material type, quantity and location. It is performed by measuring the fluorescence photon and the transmitted photon spectrum while irradiating Bremsstrahlung photon beam to the sample

  12. Accurate calculation of the differential cross section of compton scattering with electron mixed chain propagator in SM

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Chen Xuewen; Fang Zhenyun; Shi Chengye

    2012-01-01

    By using the electroweak standard model (SM), we analyzed the framework of electron mixed chain propagator which composed of serious of different physical loops participating in electroweak interaction and completed the relevant analytical calculation. Then, we obtained the analytical result of electron mixed chain propagator. By applying our result to Compton scattering, the differential cross section of Compton scattering dσ SM (chain) /dcosθ is counted accurately. This result is compared with the lowest order differential cross section dσ (tree) /dcosθ and the electronic chain propagator Compton scattering differential cross section dσ QED (chain) /dcosθ in quantum electrodynamics (QED). It can be seen that dσ SM (chain ) /dcosθ can show the radiation correction more subtly than dσ QED (chain) /dcosθ. (authors)

  13. Scattering-angle based filtering of the waveform inversion gradients

    KAUST Repository

    Alkhalifah, Tariq Ali

    2014-01-01

    Full waveform inversion (FWI) requires a hierarchical approach to maneuver the complex non-linearity associated with the problem of velocity update. In anisotropic media, the non-linearity becomes far more complex with the potential trade-off between the multiparameter description of the model. A gradient filter helps us in accessing the parts of the gradient that are suitable to combat the potential non-linearity and parameter trade-off. The filter is based on representing the gradient in the time-lag normalized domain, in which the low scattering angle of the gradient update is initially muted out in the FWI implementation, in what we may refer to as a scattering angle continuation process. The result is a low wavelength update dominated by the transmission part of the update gradient. In this case, even 10 Hz data can produce vertically near-zero wavenumber updates suitable for a background correction of the model. Relaxing the filtering at a later stage in the FWI implementation allows for smaller scattering angles to contribute higher-resolution information to the model. The benefits of the extended domain based filtering of the gradient is not only it's ability in providing low wavenumber gradients guided by the scattering angle, but also in its potential to provide gradients free of unphysical energy that may correspond to unrealistic scattering angles.

  14. Scattering-angle based filtering of the waveform inversion gradients

    KAUST Repository

    Alkhalifah, Tariq Ali

    2014-11-22

    Full waveform inversion (FWI) requires a hierarchical approach to maneuver the complex non-linearity associated with the problem of velocity update. In anisotropic media, the non-linearity becomes far more complex with the potential trade-off between the multiparameter description of the model. A gradient filter helps us in accessing the parts of the gradient that are suitable to combat the potential non-linearity and parameter trade-off. The filter is based on representing the gradient in the time-lag normalized domain, in which the low scattering angle of the gradient update is initially muted out in the FWI implementation, in what we may refer to as a scattering angle continuation process. The result is a low wavelength update dominated by the transmission part of the update gradient. In this case, even 10 Hz data can produce vertically near-zero wavenumber updates suitable for a background correction of the model. Relaxing the filtering at a later stage in the FWI implementation allows for smaller scattering angles to contribute higher-resolution information to the model. The benefits of the extended domain based filtering of the gradient is not only it\\'s ability in providing low wavenumber gradients guided by the scattering angle, but also in its potential to provide gradients free of unphysical energy that may correspond to unrealistic scattering angles.

  15. Optical photon transport in powdered-phosphor scintillators. Part II. Calculation of single-scattering transport parameters

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Poludniowski, Gavin G. [Joint Department of Physics, Division of Radiotherapy and Imaging, Institute of Cancer Research and Royal Marsden NHS Foundation Trust, Downs Road, Sutton, Surrey SM2 5PT, United Kingdom and Centre for Vision Speech and Signal Processing (CVSSP), Faculty of Engineering and Physical Sciences, University of Surrey, Guildford, Surrey GU2 7XH (United Kingdom); Evans, Philip M. [Centre for Vision Speech and Signal Processing (CVSSP), Faculty of Engineering and Physical Sciences, University of Surrey, Guildford, Surrey GU2 7XH (United Kingdom)

    2013-04-15

    Purpose: Monte Carlo methods based on the Boltzmann transport equation (BTE) have previously been used to model light transport in powdered-phosphor scintillator screens. Physically motivated guesses or, alternatively, the complexities of Mie theory have been used by some authors to provide the necessary inputs of transport parameters. The purpose of Part II of this work is to: (i) validate predictions of modulation transform function (MTF) using the BTE and calculated values of transport parameters, against experimental data published for two Gd{sub 2}O{sub 2}S:Tb screens; (ii) investigate the impact of size-distribution and emission spectrum on Mie predictions of transport parameters; (iii) suggest simpler and novel geometrical optics-based models for these parameters and compare to the predictions of Mie theory. A computer code package called phsphr is made available that allows the MTF predictions for the screens modeled to be reproduced and novel screens to be simulated. Methods: The transport parameters of interest are the scattering efficiency (Q{sub sct}), absorption efficiency (Q{sub abs}), and the scatter anisotropy (g). Calculations of these parameters are made using the analytic method of Mie theory, for spherical grains of radii 0.1-5.0 {mu}m. The sensitivity of the transport parameters to emission wavelength is investigated using an emission spectrum representative of that of Gd{sub 2}O{sub 2}S:Tb. The impact of a grain-size distribution in the screen on the parameters is investigated using a Gaussian size-distribution ({sigma}= 1%, 5%, or 10% of mean radius). Two simple and novel alternative models to Mie theory are suggested: a geometrical optics and diffraction model (GODM) and an extension of this (GODM+). Comparisons to measured MTF are made for two commercial screens: Lanex Fast Back and Lanex Fast Front (Eastman Kodak Company, Inc.). Results: The Mie theory predictions of transport parameters were shown to be highly sensitive to both grain size

  16. X-ray generator based on Compton scattering

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Androsov, V.P.; Agafonov, A.V.; Botman, J.I.M.; Bulyak, E.V.; Drebot, I.; Gladkikh, P.I.; Grevtsev, V.; Ivashchenko, V.; Karnaukhov, I.M.; Lapshin, V.I.

    2005-01-01

    Nowadays, the sources of the X-rays based on a storage ring with low beam energy and Compton scattering of intense laser beam are under development in several laboratories. In the paper the state-of-art in development and construction of cooperative project of a Kharkov advanced X-ray source NESTOR

  17. Thermal invisibility based on scattering cancellation and mantle cloaking

    KAUST Repository

    Farhat, Mohamed; Chen, P.-Y.; Bagci, Hakan; Amra, C.; Guenneau, S.; Alù , A.

    2015-01-01

    We theoretically and numerically analyze thermal invisibility based on the concept of scattering cancellation and mantle cloaking. We show that a small object can be made completely invisible to heat diffusion waves, by tailoring the heat conductivity of the spherical shell enclosing the object. This means that the thermal scattering from the object is suppressed, and the heat flow outside the object and the cloak made of these spherical shells behaves as if the object is not present. Thermal invisibility may open new vistas in hiding hot spots in infrared thermography, military furtivity, and electronics heating reduction.

  18. A compact X-ray source based on Compton scattering

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Bulyak, E.; Gladkikh, P.; Grigor' ev, Yu.; Guk, I.; Karnaukhov, I.; Khodyachikh, A.; Kononenko, S.; Mocheshnikov, N.; Mytsykov, A.; Shcherbakov, A. E-mail: shcherbakov@kipt.kharkov.ua; Tarasenko, A.; Telegin, Yu.; Zelinsky, A

    2001-07-21

    The main parameters of Kharkov electron storage ring N-100 with a beam energy range from 70 to 150 MeV are presented. The main results that were obtained in experimental researches are briefly described. The future of the N-100 upgrade to the development of the X-ray generator based on Compton back-scattering are presented. The electron beam energy range will be extended up to 250 MeV and the circumference of the storage ring will be 13.72 m. The lattice, parameters of the electron beam and the Compton back-scattering photons flux are described.

  19. A compact X-ray source based on Compton scattering

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Bulyak, E.; Gladkikh, P.; Grigor'ev, Yu.; Guk, I.; Karnaukhov, I.; Khodyachikh, A.; Kononenko, S.; Mocheshnikov, N.; Mytsykov, A.; Shcherbakov, A.; Tarasenko, A.; Telegin, Yu.; Zelinsky, A.

    2001-01-01

    The main parameters of Kharkov electron storage ring N-100 with a beam energy range from 70 to 150 MeV are presented. The main results that were obtained in experimental researches are briefly described. The future of the N-100 upgrade to the development of the X-ray generator based on Compton back-scattering are presented. The electron beam energy range will be extended up to 250 MeV and the circumference of the storage ring will be 13.72 m. The lattice, parameters of the electron beam and the Compton back-scattering photons flux are described

  20. Thermal invisibility based on scattering cancellation and mantle cloaking

    KAUST Repository

    Farhat, Mohamed

    2015-04-30

    We theoretically and numerically analyze thermal invisibility based on the concept of scattering cancellation and mantle cloaking. We show that a small object can be made completely invisible to heat diffusion waves, by tailoring the heat conductivity of the spherical shell enclosing the object. This means that the thermal scattering from the object is suppressed, and the heat flow outside the object and the cloak made of these spherical shells behaves as if the object is not present. Thermal invisibility may open new vistas in hiding hot spots in infrared thermography, military furtivity, and electronics heating reduction.

  1. Recent progress on the calculation of three-loop heavy flavor Wilson coefficients in deep-inelastic scattering

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Ablinger, J.; Hasselhuhn, A.; Schneider, C.; Behring, A.; Bluemlein, J.; Freitas, A. de; Raab, C.; Round, M.; Manteuffel, A. von

    2014-07-01

    We report on our latest results in the calculation of the three-loop heavy flavor contributions to the Wilson coefficients in deep-inelastic scattering in the asymptotic region Q 2 >>m 2 . We discuss the different methods used to compute the required operator matrix elements and the corresponding Feynman integrals. These methods very recently allowed us to obtain a series of new operator matrix elements and Wilson coefficients like the flavor non-singlet and pure singlet Wilson coefficients.

  2. Towards efficient ab initio calculations of electron scattering by polyatomic molecules: II. Efficient evaluation of exchange integrals

    Czech Academy of Sciences Publication Activity Database

    Čársky, Petr

    2010-01-01

    Roč. 43, č. 17 (2010), s. 175204 ISSN 0953-4075 R&D Projects: GA MŠk OC09079; GA MŠk(CZ) OC10046; GA ČR GA202/08/0631 Institutional research plan: CEZ:AV0Z40400503 Keywords : ab initio calculations * electron scattering * polyatomic molecules Subject RIV: CF - Physical ; Theoretical Chemistry Impact factor: 1.902, year: 2010

  3. On the use of a Hamiltonian with projected potential for the calculation of scattering wave functions : Methods and general properties

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Colle, R.; Simonucci, S.

    1996-01-01

    The theoretical framework of a method that utilizes a projected potential operator to construct scattering wave functions is presented. Theorems and spectral properties of a Hamiltonian with the potential energy operator represented in terms of L'2(R'3)-functions are derived. The computational advantages offered by the method for calculating spectroscopic quantities, like resonance energies, decay probabilities and photoionization cross-sections, are discussed

  4. Convergent close-coupling calculations of low-energy positron-atomic-hydrogen scattering

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Bray, I.; Stelbovics, A.T.

    1993-07-01

    The convergent close coupling approach developed by the authors is applied to positron scattering from atomic hydrogen below the first excitation threshold. In this approach the multi-channel expansion one-electron states are obtained by diagonalizing the target Hamiltonian in a large Laguerre basis. It is demonstrated that this expansion of the scattering wave function is sufficient to reproduce the very accurate low-energy variational results, provided target states with l≤ 15 are included in the expansions. 10 refs., 1 tab

  5. Electron-longitudinal-acoustic-phonon scattering in double-quantum-dot based quantum gates

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Zhao Peiji; Woolard, Dwight L.

    2008-01-01

    We propose a nanostructure design which can significantly suppress longitudinal-acoustic-phonon-electron scattering in double-quantum-dot based quantum gates for quantum computing. The calculated relaxation rates vs. bias voltage exhibit a double-peak feature with a minimum approaching 10 5 s -1 . In this matter, the energy conservation law prohibits scattering contributions from phonons with large momenta; furthermore, increasing the barrier height between the double quantum dots reduces coupling strength between the dots. Hence, the joint action of the energy conservation law and the decoupling greatly reduces the scattering rates. The degrading effects of temperatures can be reduced simply by increasing the height of the barrier between the dots

  6. Realization of low-scattering metamaterial shell based on cylindrical wave expanding theory.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wu, Xiaoyu; Hu, Chenggang; Wang, Min; Pu, Mingbo; Luo, Xiangang

    2015-04-20

    In this paper, we demonstrate the design of a low-scattering metamaterial shell with strong backward scattering reduction and a wide bandwidth at microwave frequencies. Low echo is achieved through cylindrical wave expanding theory, and such shell only contains one metamaterial layer with simultaneous low permittivity and permeability. Cut-wire structure is selected to realize the low electromagnetic (EM) parameters and low loss on the resonance brim region. The full-model simulations show good agreement with theoretical calculations, and illustrate that near -20dB reduction is achieved and the -10 dB bandwidth can reach up to 0.6 GHz. Compared with the cloak based on transformation electromagnetics, the design possesses advantage of simpler requirement of EM parameters and is much easier to be implemented when only backward scattering field is cared.

  7. Retrieval method of aerosol extinction coefficient profile based on backscattering, side-scattering and Raman-scattering lidar

    Science.gov (United States)

    Shan, Huihui; Zhang, Hui; Liu, Junjian; Tao, Zongming; Wang, Shenhao; Ma, Xiaomin; Zhou, Pucheng; Yao, Ling; Liu, Dong; Xie, Chenbo; Wang, Yingjian

    2018-03-01

    Aerosol extinction coefficient profile is an essential parameter for atmospheric radiation model. It is difficult to get higher signal to noise ratio (SNR) of backscattering lidar from the ground to the tropopause especially in near range. Higher SNR problem can be solved by combining side-scattering and backscattering lidar. Using Raman-scattering lidar, aerosol extinction to backscatter ratio (lidar ratio) can be got. Based on side-scattering, backscattering and Raman-scattering lidar system, aerosol extinction coefficient is retrieved precisely from the earth's surface to the tropopause. Case studies show this method is reasonable and feasible.

  8. GPU based acceleration of first principles calculation

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Tomono, H; Tsumuraya, K; Aoki, M; Iitaka, T

    2010-01-01

    We present a Graphics Processing Unit (GPU) accelerated simulations of first principles electronic structure calculations. The FFT, which is the most time-consuming part, is about 10 times accelerated. As the result, the total computation time of a first principles calculation is reduced to 15 percent of that of the CPU.

  9. Elastic electron scattering from the DNA bases cytosine and thymine

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Colyer, C. J.; Bellm, S. M.; Lohmann, B.; Blanco, F.; Garcia, G.

    2011-01-01

    Cross-section data for electron scattering from biologically relevant molecules are important for the modeling of energy deposition in living tissue. Relative elastic differential cross sections have been measured for cytosine and thymine using the crossed-beam method. These measurements have been performed for six discrete electron energies between 60 and 500 eV and for detection angles between 15 deg. and 130 deg. Calculations have been performed via the screen-corrected additivity rule method and are in good agreement with the present experiment.

  10. Calculation of inelastic helium atom scattering from H2/ NaCl(001)

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Bruch, L.W.; Hansen, Flemming Yssing; Traeger, F.

    2011-01-01

    The one-phonon inelastic low energy helium atom scattering theory is adapted to cases where the target monolayer is a p(1 × 1) commensurate square lattice. Experimental data for para-H2/NaCl(001) are re-analyzed and the relative intensities of energy loss peaks in the range 6 to 9 meV are determi......The one-phonon inelastic low energy helium atom scattering theory is adapted to cases where the target monolayer is a p(1 × 1) commensurate square lattice. Experimental data for para-H2/NaCl(001) are re-analyzed and the relative intensities of energy loss peaks in the range 6 to 9 me...

  11. Exact Rayleigh scattering calculations for use with the Nimbus-7 Coastal Zone Color Scanner

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gordon, Howard R.; Brown, James W.; Evans, Robert H.

    1988-01-01

    The radiance reflected from a plane-parallel atmosphere and flat sea surface in the absence of aerosols has been determined with an exact multiple scattering code to improve the analysis of Nimbus-7 CZCS imagery. It is shown that the single scattering approximation normally used to compute this radiance can result in errors of up to 5 percent for small and moderate solar zenith angles. A scheme to include the effect of variations in the surface pressure in the exact computation of the Rayleigh radiance is discussed. The results of an application of these computations to CZCS imagery suggest that accurate atmospheric corrections can be obtained for solar zenith angles at least as large as 65 deg.

  12. Ultraviolet refractometry using field-based light scattering spectroscopy

    Science.gov (United States)

    Fu, Dan; Choi, Wonshik; Sung, Yongjin; Oh, Seungeun; Yaqoob, Zahid; Park, YongKeun; Dasari, Ramachandra R.; Feld, Michael S.

    2010-01-01

    Accurate refractive index measurement in the deep ultraviolet (UV) range is important for the separate quantification of biomolecules such as proteins and DNA in biology. This task is demanding and has not been fully exploited so far. Here we report a new method of measuring refractive index using field-based light scattering spectroscopy, which is applicable to any wavelength range and suitable for both solutions and homogenous objects with well-defined shape such as microspheres. The angular scattering distribution of single microspheres immersed in homogeneous media is measured over the wavelength range 260 to 315 nm using quantitative phase microscopy. By least square fitting the observed scattering distribution with Mie scattering theory, the refractive index of either the sphere or the immersion medium can be determined provided that one is known a priori. Using this method, we have measured the refractive index dispersion of SiO2 spheres and bovine serum albumin (BSA) solutions in the deep UV region. Specific refractive index increments of BSA are also extracted. Typical accuracy of the present refractive index technique is ≤0.003. The precision of refractive index measurements is ≤0.002 and that of specific refractive index increment determination is ≤0.01 mL/g. PMID:20372622

  13. Analytical calculation of the average scattering cross sections using fourier series

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Palma, Daniel A.P.; Goncalves, Alessandro C.; Martinez, Aquilino S.; Silva, Fernando C. da

    2009-01-01

    The precise determination of the Doppler broadening functions is very important in different applications of reactors physics, mainly in the processing of nuclear data. Analytical approximations are obtained in this paper for average scattering cross section using expansions in Fourier series, generating an approximation that is simple and precise. The results have shown to be satisfactory from the point-of-view of accuracy and do not depend on the type of resonance considered. (author)

  14. Analytical calculation of the average scattering cross sections using fourier series

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Palma, Daniel A.P. [Instituto Federal do Rio de Janeiro, Nilopolis, RJ (Brazil)], e-mail: dpalmaster@gmail.com; Goncalves, Alessandro C.; Martinez, Aquilino S.; Silva, Fernando C. da [Coordenacao dos Programas de Pos-graduacao de Engenharia (COPPE/UFRJ), Rio de Janeiro, RJ (Brazil). Programa de Engenharia Nuclear], e-mail: asilva@con.ufrj.br, e-mail: agoncalves@con.ufrj.br, e-mail: aquilino@lmp.ufrj.br, e-mail: fernando@con.ufrj.br

    2009-07-01

    The precise determination of the Doppler broadening functions is very important in different applications of reactors physics, mainly in the processing of nuclear data. Analytical approximations are obtained in this paper for average scattering cross section using expansions in Fourier series, generating an approximation that is simple and precise. The results have shown to be satisfactory from the point-of-view of accuracy and do not depend on the type of resonance considered. (author)

  15. COUPLED-CHANNELS FADDEEV CALCULATION OF THE K(-) d SCATTERING LENGTH

    Czech Academy of Sciences Publication Activity Database

    Shevchenko, Nina V.

    2011-01-01

    Roč. 26, 3-4 (2011), s. 558-560 ISSN 0217-751X. [11th International Workshop on Meson Production , Properties and Interaction. Krakow, 10.06.2010-15.06.2010] R&D Projects: GA AV ČR KJB100480801 Institutional research plan: CEZ:AV0Z10480505 Keywords : Few-body systems * multichannel scattering * antikaon-baryon interaction Subject RIV: BF - Elementary Particles and High Energy Physics Impact factor: 1.053, year: 2011

  16. Cloudy bag model calculation of P11 πN scattering

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Rinat, A.S.

    1981-05-01

    πN, πΔ scattering in the cloudy bag model (CBM) is considered using an elementary π field and bare bag states for N, Δ, Nsup(*)(1470). The resulting 2-channel problem is solved neglecting intermediate states with anti-baryons and states with more than a single pion. It is shown that delta 11 may be reproduced for parameters close to their theoretical values. The fit thus provides a test for the CBM. (author)

  17. Scattering angle base filtering of the inversion gradients

    KAUST Repository

    Alkhalifah, Tariq Ali

    2014-01-01

    Full waveform inversion (FWI) requires a hierarchical approach based on the availability of low frequencies to maneuver the complex nonlinearity associated with the problem of velocity inversion. I develop a model gradient filter to help us access the parts of the gradient more suitable to combat this potential nonlinearity. The filter is based on representing the gradient in the time-lag normalized domain, in which low scattering angles of the gradient update are initially muted. The result are long-wavelength updates controlled by the ray component of the wavefield. In this case, even 10 Hz data can produce near zero wavelength updates suitable for a background correction of the model. Allowing smaller scattering angle to contribute provides higher resolution information to the model.

  18. Polarization effects in coherent and incoherent photon scattering: survey of measurements and theory relevant to radiation transport calculations

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Hubbell, J.H.

    1993-01-01

    This report reviews available information on polarization effects arising when photons in the X-ray and gamma-ray energy regime undergo coherent (Rayleigh) scattering and incoherent (Compton) scattering by atomic electrons. In addition to descriptions and discussions of these effects, including estimates of their magnitudes as they apply to radiation transport calculations, an annotated bibliography of 102 selected works covering the period 1905-1991 is provided, with particularly relevant works for the purpose of this report flagged with asterisks (*). A major resource for this report is a 1948 unpublished informal report by L.V. Spencer which has been quoted here almost in its entirety, since, of all the works cited in the annotated bibliography, it appears to be the only one which explicitly and directly addresses the purpose of this report. Hence this valuable material should be re-introduced into the available and current literature. (author). 119 refs., 7 figs

  19. Insights inot the atomic many-particle dynamics of scattering processes by ab-initio calculations

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Zapukhlyak, Myroslav

    2008-01-01

    The present thesis gives a theoretical contribution to the understanding of the many-particle dynamics in inelastic ion-atom collisions. Many-electron dynamics in ion-helium collisions and proton-sodium collisions was theoretically studied. The description is based on the semiclassical approximation with the straight orbit for the projectile motion. The ion-atom collision problem is by this reduced to a time-dependent many-electron problem and in the non-relativistic approximation described by the time-dependent Schroedinger equation. The solution of the many-electron problem pursues in the framework of the time-dependent density functional theory. The time-dependent Schroedinger equation for the interacting many-electron problem is transformed to the system of the time-dependent Kohn-Sham equations and solved by the two-center-basis generator method. The unknown time-dependent exchange-correlation one-particle potential forces different approximation int he time-dependent Kohn-Shan scheme. In this thesis the model of the independent electrons was applied as basis model, in which the electron-electron correlation is consistently neglected in all parts and in all steps. Differential cross sections for different one- and two-electron processes were calculated in the so-called eikonal approximation for the collisional systems p-He, He 2+ -He, and Ar q+ -He (q=15-18) [de

  20. Evaluation bases for calculation methods in radioecology

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Bleck-Neuhaus, J.; Boikat, U.; Franke, B.; Hinrichsen, K.; Hoepfner, U.; Ratka, R.; Steinhilber-Schwab, B.; Teufel, D.; Urbach, M.

    1982-03-01

    The seven contributions in this book deal with the state and problems of radioecology. In particular it analyses: The propagation of radioactive materials in the atmosphere, the transfer of radioactive substances from the soil into plants, respectively from animal feed into meat, the exposure pathways for, and high-risk groups of the population, the uncertainties and the band width of the ingestion factor, as well as the treatment of questions of radioecology in practice. The calculation model is assessed and the difficulty evaluated of laying down data in the general calculation basis. (DG) [de

  1. Calculating Traffic based on Road Sensor Data

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Bisseling, Rob; Gao, Fengnan; Hafkenscheid, Patrick; Idema, Reijer; Jetka, Tomasz; Guerra Ones, Valia; Rata, Debanshu; Sikora, Monika

    2014-01-01

    Road sensors gather a lot of statistical data about traffic. In this paper, we discuss how a measure for the amount of traffic on the roads can be derived from this data, such that the measure is independent of the number and placement of sensors, and the calculations can be performed quickly for

  2. Criticality criteria for submissions based on calculations

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Burgess, M.H.

    1975-06-01

    Calculations used in criticality clearances are subject to errors from various sources, and allowance must be made for these errors is assessing the safety of a system. A simple set of guidelines is defined, drawing attention to each source of error, and recommendations as to its application are made. (author)

  3. Scattering transform and LSPTSVM based fault diagnosis of rotating machinery

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ma, Shangjun; Cheng, Bo; Shang, Zhaowei; Liu, Geng

    2018-05-01

    This paper proposes an algorithm for fault diagnosis of rotating machinery to overcome the shortcomings of classical techniques which are noise sensitive in feature extraction and time consuming for training. Based on the scattering transform and the least squares recursive projection twin support vector machine (LSPTSVM), the method has the advantages of high efficiency and insensitivity for noise signal. Using the energy of the scattering coefficients in each sub-band, the features of the vibration signals are obtained. Then, an LSPTSVM classifier is used for fault diagnosis. The new method is compared with other common methods including the proximal support vector machine, the standard support vector machine and multi-scale theory by using fault data for two systems, a motor bearing and a gear box. The results show that the new method proposed in this study is more effective for fault diagnosis of rotating machinery.

  4. A new potential energy surface for vibration-vibration coupling in HF-HF collisions. Formulation and quantal scattering calculations

    Science.gov (United States)

    Schwenke, David W.; Truhlar, Donald G.

    1988-04-01

    We present new ab initio calculations of the HF-HF interaction potential for the case where both molecules are simultaneously displaced from their equilibrium internuclear distance. These and previous ab initio calculations are then fit to a new analytic representation which is designed to be efficient to evaluate and to provide an especially faithful account of the forces along the vibrational coordinates. We use the new potential for two sets of quantal scattering calculations for collisions in three dimensions with total angular momentum zero. First we test that the angular harmonic representation of the anisotropy is adequate by comparing quantal rigid rotator calculations to those carried out for potentials involving higher angular harmonics and for which the expansion in angular harmonics is systematically increased to convergence. Then we carry out large-scale quantal calculations of vibration-vibration energy transfer including the coupling of both sets of vibrational and rotational coordinates. These calculations indicate that significant rotational energy transfer accompanies the vibration-to-vibration energy transfer process.

  5. Recent progress on the calculation of three-loop heavy flavor Wilson coefficients in deep-inelastic scattering

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Ablinger, J.; Hasselhuhn, A.; Schneider, C. [Johannes Kepler Univ., Linz (Austria). Research Inst. for Symbolic Computation (RISC); Behring, A.; Bluemlein, J.; Freitas, A. de; Raab, C.; Round, M. [Deutsches Elektronen-Synchrotron (DESY), Zeuthen (Germany); Manteuffel, A. von [Mainz Univ. (Germany). PRISMA Cluster of Excellence; Wissbrock, F. [Johannes Kepler Univ., Linz (Austria). Research Inst. for Symbolic Computation (RISC); Deutsches Elektronen-Synchrotron (DESY), Zeuthen (Germany); IHES Institut des Hautes Etudes Scientifiques, Bures-sur-Yvette (France)

    2014-07-15

    We report on our latest results in the calculation of the three-loop heavy flavor contributions to the Wilson coefficients in deep-inelastic scattering in the asymptotic region Q{sup 2}>>m{sup 2}. We discuss the different methods used to compute the required operator matrix elements and the corresponding Feynman integrals. These methods very recently allowed us to obtain a series of new operator matrix elements and Wilson coefficients like the flavor non-singlet and pure singlet Wilson coefficients.

  6. Sensitivity of relativistic impulse approximation proton-nucleus elastic scattering calculations on relativistic mean-field parameterizations

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Hojsik, M.; Gmuca, S.

    1998-01-01

    Relativistic microscopic calculations are presented for proton elastic scattering from 40 Ca at 500 MeV. The underlying target densities are calculated within the framework of the relativistic mean-field theory with several parameter sets commonly in use. The self consistency of the scalar and vector densities (and thus to relativistic mean-field parameters) is investigated. Recently, the relativistic impulse approximation (RIA) has been widely and repeatedly used for the calculations of proton-nucleus scattering at intermediate energies. These calculations have exhibited significant improvements over the nonrelativistic approaches. The relativistic impulse approximation calculations. in particular, provide a dramatically better description of the spin observables, namely the analyzing power, A y , and the spin-rotation function, Q, at least for energies higher than 400 MeV. In the relativistic impulse approximation, the Dirac optical potential is obtained by folding of the local Lorentz-invariant amplitudes with the corresponding nuclear densities. For the spin zero targets the scalar and vector terms give the dominant contributions. Thus the scalar and vector nuclear densities (both, proton and neutron ones) play the dominant role in the relativistic impulse approximation. While the proton vector densities can be obtained by unfolding from the empirically known charge densities, all other densities used rely to a great extent on theoretical models. The various recipes are used to construct the neutron vector densities and the scalar densities for both, neutrons and protons. In this paper we will study the sensitivity of the relativistic impulse approximation results on the various sets of relativistic mean-field parameters currently in use

  7. TH-A-18C-04: Ultrafast Cone-Beam CT Scatter Correction with GPU-Based Monte Carlo Simulation

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Xu, Y [UT Southwestern Medical Center, Dallas, TX (United States); Southern Medical University, Guangzhou (China); Bai, T [UT Southwestern Medical Center, Dallas, TX (United States); Xi' an Jiaotong University, Xi' an (China); Yan, H; Ouyang, L; Wang, J; Pompos, A; Jiang, S; Jia, X [UT Southwestern Medical Center, Dallas, TX (United States); Zhou, L [Southern Medical University, Guangzhou (China)

    2014-06-15

    Purpose: Scatter artifacts severely degrade image quality of cone-beam CT (CBCT). We present an ultrafast scatter correction framework by using GPU-based Monte Carlo (MC) simulation and prior patient CT image, aiming at automatically finish the whole process including both scatter correction and reconstructions within 30 seconds. Methods: The method consists of six steps: 1) FDK reconstruction using raw projection data; 2) Rigid Registration of planning CT to the FDK results; 3) MC scatter calculation at sparse view angles using the planning CT; 4) Interpolation of the calculated scatter signals to other angles; 5) Removal of scatter from the raw projections; 6) FDK reconstruction using the scatter-corrected projections. In addition to using GPU to accelerate MC photon simulations, we also use a small number of photons and a down-sampled CT image in simulation to further reduce computation time. A novel denoising algorithm is used to eliminate MC scatter noise caused by low photon numbers. The method is validated on head-and-neck cases with simulated and clinical data. Results: We have studied impacts of photo histories, volume down sampling factors on the accuracy of scatter estimation. The Fourier analysis was conducted to show that scatter images calculated at 31 angles are sufficient to restore those at all angles with <0.1% error. For the simulated case with a resolution of 512×512×100, we simulated 10M photons per angle. The total computation time is 23.77 seconds on a Nvidia GTX Titan GPU. The scatter-induced shading/cupping artifacts are substantially reduced, and the average HU error of a region-of-interest is reduced from 75.9 to 19.0 HU. Similar results were found for a real patient case. Conclusion: A practical ultrafast MC-based CBCT scatter correction scheme is developed. The whole process of scatter correction and reconstruction is accomplished within 30 seconds. This study is supported in part by NIH (1R01CA154747-01), The Core Technology Research

  8. A Study on Scattered Wave Amplitude Closed-Form Solution Calculation of Torsional Wave Mode by Reciprocity Theorem

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Lee, Jaesun; Cho, Younho; Achenbach, Jan D.

    2016-01-01

    Guided waves can be used for the inspection of long range pipelines. Surface corrosion is often found as a major defect type in pipelines. The reciprocity relation is a well-established theorem by which one can simplify complicated mathematical expressions. The approach has been already applied to plate and half-space structures to obtain the closed-form solutions of scattered amplitude. However, results for the case of cylindrical structures have not been reported yet. In this paper, the scattering of torsional waves, which is widely used in commercial applications, is explored by the reciprocity theorem approach. Obtaining closed-form solutions of the amplitudes of propagating waves is much simplified by using the reciprocal relation. The scattered amplitudes for elliptical and rectangular defect shapes are calculated with respect to defect depth and width, at frequencies between 0 and 500 kHz. The amplitude shows the periodic result as a function of frequency. The derived closed-form solutions can play a significant role in quantitative signal interpretation

  9. A Study on Scattered Wave Amplitude Closed-Form Solution Calculation of Torsional Wave Mode by Reciprocity Theorem

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Lee, Jaesun; Cho, Younho [Pusan National Univ., Pusan (Korea, Republic of); Achenbach, Jan D. [Northwestern Univ., Everston (United States)

    2016-07-15

    Guided waves can be used for the inspection of long range pipelines. Surface corrosion is often found as a major defect type in pipelines. The reciprocity relation is a well-established theorem by which one can simplify complicated mathematical expressions. The approach has been already applied to plate and half-space structures to obtain the closed-form solutions of scattered amplitude. However, results for the case of cylindrical structures have not been reported yet. In this paper, the scattering of torsional waves, which is widely used in commercial applications, is explored by the reciprocity theorem approach. Obtaining closed-form solutions of the amplitudes of propagating waves is much simplified by using the reciprocal relation. The scattered amplitudes for elliptical and rectangular defect shapes are calculated with respect to defect depth and width, at frequencies between 0 and 500 kHz. The amplitude shows the periodic result as a function of frequency. The derived closed-form solutions can play a significant role in quantitative signal interpretation.

  10. Space and time dependent boltzmann calculation in the forward backward scattering approximation

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Boeuf, J.P.; Marode, E.; Segur, P.

    1984-01-01

    The spatio-temporal evolution of an electron swarm under a uniform field has been simulated for a forward/backward scattering model, using a Mac Cormak numerical scheme. Using model cross-sections, the effect of attachment and ionization on the spatial variations of the swarm density and velocity distribution function and on the higher order transport coefficients has been analysed. It is shown that the non uniform spatial distribution of energy within the swarm can induce, for the electron number density, a large deviation from the Gaussian shape. This deviation is due mainly to the fact that ionization is more important in the front of the swarm while attachment prevails in the back of the swarm

  11. ORNL-SAS: Versatile software for calculation of small-angle x-ray and neutron scattering intensity profiles from arbitrary structures

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Heller, William T; Tjioe, Elina

    2007-01-01

    ORNL-SAS is software for calculating solution small-angle scattering intensity profiles from any structure provided in the Protein Data Bank format and can also compare the results with experimental data

  12. He atom scattering from ZnO surfaces: calculation of diffraction peak intensities using the close-coupling approach

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    MartInez-Casado, R [Department of Chemistry, Imperial College London, South Kensington, London SW7 2AZ (United Kingdom); Miret-Artes, S [Instituto de Fisica Fundamental, Consejo Superior de Investigaciones CientIficas, Serrano 123, 28006 Madrid (Spain); Meyer, B [Interdisziplinaeres Zentrum fuer Molekulare Materialien ICMM and Computer-Chemie-Centrum CCC, Friedrich-Alexander-Universitaet Erlangen-Nuernberg, Naegelsbachstrasse 25, 91052 Erlangen (Germany); Traeger, F [Lehrstuhl fuer Physikalische Chemie I, Ruhr-Universitaet Bochum, 44801 Bochum (Germany); Woell, Ch, E-mail: r.martinezcasado@imperial.ac.u [Institut fuer Funktionelle Grenzflaechen, Karlsruher Institut fuer Technologie KIT, Kaiserstrasse 12, 76131 Karlsruhe (Germany)

    2010-08-04

    Diffraction intensities of a molecular He beam scattered off the clean and water-covered ZnO(101-bar0) surface have been simulated using a new potential model in conjunction with the close-coupling formalism. The effective corrugation functions for the systems He-ZnO(101-bar0) and He-H{sub 2}O/ZnO(101-bar0) have been obtained from density functional theory calculations within the Esbjerg-Noerskov approximation. Using these data a potential model is constructed consisting of a corrugated Morse potential at small He-surface distances and a semiempiric attractive part at larger distances. The diffraction patterns obtained from close-coupling calculations agree with the experimental data within about 10%, which opens the possibility to simulate He diffraction from surfaces of any structural complexity and to verify surface and adsorbate structures proposed theoretically by employing this kind of analysis.

  13. Comparisons of vector analyzing-power data and calculations for neutron-deuteron elastic scattering from 10 to 14 MeV

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Howell, C.R.; Tornow, W.; Murphy, K.; Pfuetzner, H.G.; Roberts, M.L.; Li, A.; Felsher, P.D.; Walter, R.L.; Slaus, I.; Treado, P.A.; Koike, Y.

    1987-01-01

    High-accuracy analyzing-power A y (θ) data for n-d elastic scattering at 12 MeV have been measured using the polarized-neutron facilities at the Triangle Universities Nuclear Laboratory (TUNL). The present data have been combined with previous n-d measurements at 10, 12, and 14.1 MeV to form the highest-accuracy A y (θ) data set for n-d elastic scattering below 20 MeV. These data are compared to recent Faddeev-based neutron-deuteron (n-d) calculations which use the Paris and Bonn equivalent separable potentials PEST and BEST, as well as Doleschall's representation of the P- and D-wave nucleon-nucleon interactions. None of these models adequately describe the data in the angular region around the maximum of A y (θ). Possible reasons for the discrepancies are discussed. The sensitivity of the present Faddeev-based calculations to various angular momentum components of the nucleon-nucleon interaction are examined. (Auth.)

  14. A screening-corrected additivity rule for the calculation of electron scattering from macro-molecules

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Blanco, F; Garcia, G

    2009-01-01

    A simplified form of the well-known screening-corrected additivity rule procedure for the calculation of electron-molecule cross sections is proposed for the treatment of some very large macro-molecules. While the comparison of the standard and simplified treatments for a DNA dodecamer reveals very similar results, the new treatment presents some important advantages for large molecules.

  15. Correlation functions for fully or partially state-resolved reactive scattering calculations

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Manthe, Uwe; Welsch, Ralph

    2014-01-01

    Flux correlation functions and the quantum transition state concept are important tools for the accurate description of polyatomic reaction processes. Combined with the multi-configurational time-dependent Hartree approach, they facilitate rigorous full-dimensional calculations of cumulative and initial-state selected reaction probabilities for six atom reactions. In recent work [R. Welsch, F. Huarte-Larrañaga, and U. Manthe, J. Chem. Phys. 136, 064117 (2012)], an approach which allows one to calculate also state-to-state reaction probabilities within the quantum transition state concept has been introduced. This article presents further developments. Alternative generalized flux correlation functions are introduced and discussed. Equations for the calculation of fully state-resolved differential cross section using arbitrary definitions of the body fixed frame are derived. An approach for the efficient calculation of partially state-resolved observables as a function of the collision energy is introduced. Finally, numerical test studying the D + H 2 reaction illustrate important aspects of the formalism

  16. Calculation of dipole polarizability derivatives of adamantane and their use in electron scattering computations

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Sauer, Stephan P. A.; Paidarová, Ivana; Čársky, Petr

    2016-01-01

    In this paper we present calculations of the static polarizability and its derivatives for the adamantane molecule carried out at the density functional theory level using the B3LYP exchange correlation functional and Sadlej’s polarized valence triple zeta basis set. It is shown...

  17. [Biometric bases: basic concepts of probability calculation].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Dinya, E

    1998-04-26

    The author gives or outline of the basic concepts of probability theory. The bases of the event algebra, definition of the probability, the classical probability model and the random variable are presented.

  18. Target scattering characteristics for OAM-based radar

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Kang Liu

    2018-02-01

    Full Text Available The target scattering characteristics are crucial for radar systems. However, there is very little study conducted for the recently developed orbital angular momentum (OAM based radar system. To illustrate the role of OAM-based radar cross section (ORCS, conventional radar equation is modified by taking characteristics of the OAM waves into account. Subsequently, the ORCS is defined in analogy to classical radar cross section (RCS. The unique features of the incident OAM-carrying field are analyzed. The scattered field is derived, and the analytical expressions of ORCSs for metal plate and cylinder targets are obtained. Furthermore, the ORCS and RCS are compared to illustrate the influences of OAM mode number, target size and signal frequency on the ORCS. Analytical studies demonstrate that the mirror-reflection phenomenon disappears and peak values of ORCS are in the non-specular direction. Finally, the ORCS features are summarized to show its advantages in radar target detection. This work can provide theoretical guidance to the design of OAM-based radar as well as the target detection and identification applications.

  19. Target scattering characteristics for OAM-based radar

    Science.gov (United States)

    Liu, Kang; Gao, Yue; Li, Xiang; Cheng, Yongqiang

    2018-02-01

    The target scattering characteristics are crucial for radar systems. However, there is very little study conducted for the recently developed orbital angular momentum (OAM) based radar system. To illustrate the role of OAM-based radar cross section (ORCS), conventional radar equation is modified by taking characteristics of the OAM waves into account. Subsequently, the ORCS is defined in analogy to classical radar cross section (RCS). The unique features of the incident OAM-carrying field are analyzed. The scattered field is derived, and the analytical expressions of ORCSs for metal plate and cylinder targets are obtained. Furthermore, the ORCS and RCS are compared to illustrate the influences of OAM mode number, target size and signal frequency on the ORCS. Analytical studies demonstrate that the mirror-reflection phenomenon disappears and peak values of ORCS are in the non-specular direction. Finally, the ORCS features are summarized to show its advantages in radar target detection. This work can provide theoretical guidance to the design of OAM-based radar as well as the target detection and identification applications.

  20. Structural reconstruction of the catalytic center of LiPDF through multiple scattering calculation with MXAN

    Science.gov (United States)

    Guo, Xiaoyun; Chu, Wangsheng; Ma, Sixuan; Gong, Weimin; Benfatto, Maurizio; Hu, Tiandou; Xie, Yaning; Wu, ZiYu

    2006-11-01

    Peptide deformylase (PDF, EC 3.5.1.27) is essential for the normal growth of eubacterium but not for mammalians. Recently, PDF has been studied as a target for new antibiotics. In this paper, X-ray absorption spectroscopy was employed to determine the local structure around the zinc ion of PDF from Leptospira Interrogans in dry powder, because it is very difficult to obtain the crystallized sample of LiPDF. We performed X-ray absorption near edge structure (XANES) calculation and reconstructed successfully the local geometry of the active center, and the results from calculations show that a water molecule (Wat1) has moved towards the zinc ion and lies in the distance range to coordinate with the zinc ion weakly. In addition, the sensitivity of theoretical spectra to the different ligand bodies was evaluated in terms of goodness-of-fit.

  1. Structural reconstruction of the catalytic center of LiPDF through multiple scattering calculation with MXAN

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Guo Xiaoyun [Beijing Synchrotron Radiation Facility, Institute of High Energy Physics, CAS, 100049 Beijing (China); School of Life Science, Key Laboratory of Structural Biology, University of Science and Technology of China, 230026 Hefei, Anhui (China); Chu Wangsheng [Beijing Synchrotron Radiation Facility, Institute of High Energy Physics, CAS, 100049 Beijing (China); Department of Physics, University of Science and Technology of China, 230026 Hefei, Anhui (China); Ma Sixuan [Beijing Synchrotron Radiation Facility, Institute of High Energy Physics, CAS, 100049 Beijing (China); Gong Weimin [National Laboratory of Biomacromolecules, Institute of Biophysics, Chinese Academy of Sciences, 100101 Beijing (China); Benfatto, Maurizio [Instituto Nazionale di Fisica Nucleare, Laboratori Nazionali di Frascati, P.O. Box 13, 00044 Frascati (Italy); Hu Tiandou [Beijing Synchrotron Radiation Facility, Institute of High Energy Physics, CAS, 100049 Beijing (China); Xie Yaning [Beijing Synchrotron Radiation Facility, Institute of High Energy Physics, CAS, 100049 Beijing (China); Wu Ziyu [Beijing Synchrotron Radiation Facility, Institute of High Energy Physics, CAS, 100049 Beijing (China) and Instituto Nazionale di Fisica Nucleare, Laboratori Nazionali di Frascati, P.O. Box 13, 00044 Frascati (Italy)]. E-mail: wuzy@mail.ihep.ac.cn

    2006-11-15

    Peptide deformylase (PDF, EC 3.5.1.27) is essential for the normal growth of eubacterium but not for mammalians. Recently, PDF has been studied as a target for new antibiotics. In this paper, X-ray absorption spectroscopy was employed to determine the local structure around the zinc ion of PDF from Leptospira Interrogans in dry powder, because it is very difficult to obtain the crystallized sample of LiPDF. We performed X-ray absorption near edge structure (XANES) calculation and reconstructed successfully the local geometry of the active center, and the results from calculations show that a water molecule (Wat1) has moved towards the zinc ion and lies in the distance range to coordinate with the zinc ion weakly. In addition, the sensitivity of theoretical spectra to the different ligand bodies was evaluated in terms of goodness-of-fit.

  2. Structural reconstruction of the catalytic center of LiPDF through multiple scattering calculation with MXAN

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Guo Xiaoyun; Chu Wangsheng; Ma Sixuan; Gong Weimin; Benfatto, Maurizio; Hu Tiandou; Xie Yaning; Wu Ziyu

    2006-01-01

    Peptide deformylase (PDF, EC 3.5.1.27) is essential for the normal growth of eubacterium but not for mammalians. Recently, PDF has been studied as a target for new antibiotics. In this paper, X-ray absorption spectroscopy was employed to determine the local structure around the zinc ion of PDF from Leptospira Interrogans in dry powder, because it is very difficult to obtain the crystallized sample of LiPDF. We performed X-ray absorption near edge structure (XANES) calculation and reconstructed successfully the local geometry of the active center, and the results from calculations show that a water molecule (Wat1) has moved towards the zinc ion and lies in the distance range to coordinate with the zinc ion weakly. In addition, the sensitivity of theoretical spectra to the different ligand bodies was evaluated in terms of goodness-of-fit

  3. Calculation of dipole polarizability derivatives of adamantane and their use in electron scattering computations

    Czech Academy of Sciences Publication Activity Database

    Sauer, S. P. A.; Paidarová, Ivana; Čársky, Petr; Čurík, Roman

    2016-01-01

    Roč. 70, č. 5 (2016), č. článku 105. ISSN 1434-6060 R&D Projects: GA MŠk LD14088 Grant - others:COST(XE) CM1301 Institutional support: RVO:61388955 Keywords : DENSITY-FUNCTIONAL- THEORY * COUPLED-CLUSTER CALCULATIONS * FREQUENCY-DEPENDENT POLARIZABILITIES Subject RIV: CF - Physical ; Theoretical Chemistry Impact factor: 1.288, year: 2016

  4. Scattering in particle-hole space: simple approximations to nuclear RPA calculations in the continuum

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Toledo Piza, A.F.R. de.

    1987-01-01

    The Random Phase Approximation (RPA) treatment of nuclear small amplitude vibrations including particle-hole continua is handled in terms of previously developed techniques to treat single-particle resonances in a reaction theoretical framework. A hierarchy of interpretable approximations is derived and a simple working approximation is proposed which involves a numerical effort no larger than that involved in standard, discrete RPA calculations. (Author) [pt

  5. Windows pollution problems of the dust concentration measurement based on scattering method

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Zhao Yanjun; Zhang Yongtao; Shi Xinyue; Xu Chuanlong; Wang Shimin

    2009-01-01

    The windows are separated the measurement system from the dust space in the light Scattering dust concentration measurement system. The windows are polluted unavoidably by the dust and the measurement error is produced. Based on the Mie Scattering theory, the measurement error is researched in this paper. The numerical simulation results show that the measurement error is related to the particles diameter distribution and the refractive index, but is independent of the particles average diameter. A novel photoelectricity sensor is developed in this paper in order to solve the measurement error by the windows pollution. The calculated method is brought out which can amend the measurement errors by the windows pollution and improve the measurement accuracy.

  6. Metamaterial-based theoretical description of light scattering by metallic nano-hole array structures

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Singh, Mahi R. [Department of Physics and Astronomy, University of Western Ontario, London N6A 3K7 (Canada); Najiminaini, Mohamadreza; Carson, Jeffrey J. L. [Lawson Health Research Institute, St. Joseph' s Health Care, 268 Grosvenor Street, London N6A 4V2 (Canada); Department of Medical Biophysics, University of Western Ontario, London N6A 3K7 (Canada); Balakrishnan, Shankar [Department of Physics and Astronomy, University of Western Ontario, London N6A 3K7 (Canada); Lawson Health Research Institute, St. Joseph' s Health Care, 268 Grosvenor Street, London N6A 4V2 (Canada); Department of Medical Biophysics, University of Western Ontario, London N6A 3K7 (Canada)

    2015-05-14

    We have experimentally and theoretically investigated the light-matter interaction in metallic nano-hole array structures. The scattering cross section spectrum was measured for three samples each having a unique nano-hole array radius and periodicity. Each measured spectrum had several peaks due to surface plasmon polaritons. The dispersion relation and the effective dielectric constant of the structure were calculated using transmission line theory and Bloch's theorem. Using the effective dielectric constant and the transfer matrix method, the surface plasmon polariton energies were calculated and found to be quantized. Using these quantized energies, a Hamiltonian for the surface plasmon polaritons was written in the second quantized form. Working with the Hamiltonian, a theory of scattering cross section was developed based on the quantum scattering theory and Green's function method. For both theory and experiment, the location of the surface plasmon polariton spectral peaks was dependant on the array periodicity and radii of the nano-holes. Good agreement was observed between the experimental and theoretical results. It is proposed that the newly developed theory can be used to facilitate optimization of nanosensors for medical and engineering applications.

  7. Scattered Data Processing Approach Based on Optical Facial Motion Capture

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Qiang Zhang

    2013-01-01

    Full Text Available In recent years, animation reconstruction of facial expressions has become a popular research field in computer science and motion capture-based facial expression reconstruction is now emerging in this field. Based on the facial motion data obtained using a passive optical motion capture system, we propose a scattered data processing approach, which aims to solve the common problems of missing data and noise. To recover missing data, given the nonlinear relationships among neighbors with the current missing marker, we propose an improved version of a previous method, where we use the motion of three muscles rather than one to recover the missing data. To reduce the noise, we initially apply preprocessing to eliminate impulsive noise, before our proposed three-order quasi-uniform B-spline-based fitting method is used to reduce the remaining noise. Our experiments showed that the principles that underlie this method are simple and straightforward, and it delivered acceptable precision during reconstruction.

  8. [Heart rate variability study based on a novel RdR RR Intervals Scatter Plot].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lu, Hongwei; Lu, Xiuyun; Wang, Chunfang; Hua, Youyuan; Tian, Jiajia; Liu, Shihai

    2014-08-01

    On the basis of Poincare scatter plot and first order difference scatter plot, a novel heart rate variability (HRV) analysis method based on scatter plots of RR intervals and first order difference of RR intervals (namely, RdR) was proposed. The abscissa of the RdR scatter plot, the x-axis, is RR intervals and the ordinate, y-axis, is the difference between successive RR intervals. The RdR scatter plot includes the information of RR intervals and the difference between successive RR intervals, which captures more HRV information. By RdR scatter plot analysis of some records of MIT-BIH arrhythmias database, we found that the scatter plot of uncoupled premature ventricular contraction (PVC), coupled ventricular bigeminy and ventricular trigeminy PVC had specific graphic characteristics. The RdR scatter plot method has higher detecting performance than the Poincare scatter plot method, and simpler and more intuitive than the first order difference method.

  9. Algorithm for calculations of asymptotic nuclear coefficients using phase-shift data for charged-particle scattering

    Science.gov (United States)

    Orlov, Yu. V.; Irgaziev, B. F.; Nabi, Jameel-Un

    2017-08-01

    A new algorithm for the asymptotic nuclear coefficients calculation, which we call the Δ method, is proved and developed. This method was proposed by Ramírez Suárez and Sparenberg (arXiv:1602.04082.) but no proof was given. We apply it to the bound state situated near the channel threshold when the Sommerfeld parameter is quite large within the experimental energy region. As a result, the value of the conventional effective-range function Kl(k2) is actually defined by the Coulomb term. One of the resulting effects is a wrong description of the energy behavior of the elastic scattering phase shift δl reproduced from the fitted total effective-range function Kl(k2) . This leads to an improper value of the asymptotic normalization coefficient (ANC) value. No such problem arises if we fit only the nuclear term. The difference between the total effective-range function and the Coulomb part at real energies is the same as the nuclear term. Then we can proceed using just this Δ method to calculate the pole position values and the ANC. We apply it to the vertices 4He+12C ↔16O and 3He+4He↔7Be . The calculated ANCs can be used to find the radiative capture reaction cross sections of the transfers to the 16O bound final states as well as to the 7Be.

  10. Use of the Boltzmann equation for calculating the scattering law in gas mixtures

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Eder, O.J.; Lackner, T.

    1989-01-01

    A new approach is presented for the calculation of the dynamical incoherent structure factor S s (q, ω) for a dilute binary gas mixture. The starting point is the linearized one-dimensional Boltzmann equation for a mixture of particles interacting via a quasi-Maxwell potential (V(r) ≅ 1/r ν , ν=4). It is shown how - in the Fourier-Laplace space (q, ω) - the solution of the Boltzman equation can be expressed as an infinite continued fraction. The well known hydrodynamic limit (q→0) and the free gas limit (q→∞) are correctly reproduced as the appropriate limits of the continued fraction. A brief comparison between S s (q, ω) for two interaction potentials (quasi-Maxwell potential, ν=4, and hard core potential, ν=∞) is presented, and it is found that, after scaling the variables to the respective diffusion coefficients, only little dependence on the potential remains. Furthermore, for a one-component system in three dimensions results are summarized for the dynamical incoherent and coherent structure factor. (orig.) [de

  11. Nd:YAG Laser-Based Dual-Line Detection Rayleigh Scattering and Current Efforts on UV, Filtered Rayleigh Scattering

    Science.gov (United States)

    Otugen, M. Volkan; Popovic, Svetozar

    1996-01-01

    Ongoing research in Rayleigh scattering diagnostics for variable density low speed flow applications and for supersonic flow measurements are described. During the past several years, the focus has been on the development and use of a Nd:YAG-based Rayleigh scattering system with improved signal-to-noise characteristics and with applicability to complex, confined flows. This activity serves other research projects in the Aerodynamics Laboratory which require the non-contact, accurate, time-frozen measurement of gas density, pressure, and temperature (each separately), in a fairly wide dynamic range of each parameter. Recently, with the acquisition of a new seed-injected Nd:YAG laser, effort also has been directed to the development of a high-speed velocity probe based on a spectrally resolved Rayleigh scattering technique.

  12. Calculation of X-ray scattering curves and electron distance distribution functions of biological macromolecules in solution using the PROTEIN DATA BANK

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Mueller, J.J.; Friedrichowicz, E.; Nothnagel, A.; Wunderlich, T.; Ziehlsdorf, E.; Damaschun, G.

    1983-01-01

    The wide angle X-ray scattering curve, the electron distance distribution function and the solvent excluded volume of a macromolecule in solution are calculated from the atomic coordinates contained in the PROTEIN DATA BANK. The structures and the projections of the excluded volumes are depicted using molecule graphic routines. The described computer programs are used to determine the three-dimensional structure of macromolecules in solution from wide angle X-ray scattering data. (author)

  13. The inclusion of long-range polarisation functions in calculations of low-energy e+-H2 scattering using the Kohn method

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Armour, E.A.G.; Plummer, M.

    1989-01-01

    An explanation is given of why it is necessary to include long-range polarisation functions in the trial function when carrying out Kohn calculations of low-energy positron (and electron) scattering by atoms and simple molecules. The asymptotic form of these functions in low-energy e + -H 2 scattering is deduced. Appropriate functions with this asymptotic form are used to represent the closed-channel part of the wavefunction in a Kohn calculation of the lowest partial wave of Σ u + symmetry in e + -H 2 scattering at very low energies. For k≤0.03a 0 -1 , the results obtained are in good agreement with those obtained using the Born approximation and the asymptotic forms of the static and polarisation potentials. The relationship is pointed out between this method of taking into account long-range polarisation and the polarised pseudostate method used in R-matrix calculations. (author)

  14. Calculation of the flux attenuation and multiple scattering correction factors in time of flight technique for double differential cross section measurements

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Martin, G.; Coca, M.; Capote, R.

    1996-01-01

    Using Monte Carlo method technique , a computer code which simulates the time of flight experiment to measure double differential cross section was developed. The correction factor for flux attenuation and multiple scattering, that make a deformation to the measured spectrum, were calculated. The energy dependence of the correction factor was determined and a comparison with other works is shown. Calculations for Fe 56 at two different scattering angles were made. We also reproduce the experiment performed at the Nuclear Analysis Laboratory for C 12 at 25 celsius degree and the calculated correction factor for the is measured is shown. We found a linear relation between the scatter size and the correction factor for flux attenuation

  15. The hybrid model for sampling multiple elastic scattering angular deflections based on Goudsmit-Saunderson theory

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Wasaye Muhammad Abdul

    2017-01-01

    Full Text Available An algorithm for the Monte Carlo simulation of electron multiple elastic scattering based on the framework of SuperMC (Super Monte Carlo simulation program for nuclear and radiation process is presented. This paper describes efficient and accurate methods by which the multiple scattering angular deflections are sampled. The Goudsmit-Saunderson theory of multiple scattering has been used for sampling angular deflections. Differential cross-sections of electrons and positrons by neutral atoms have been calculated by using Dirac partial wave program ELSEPA. The Legendre coefficients are accurately computed by using the Gauss-Legendre integration method. Finally, a novel hybrid method for sampling angular distribution has been developed. The model uses efficient rejection sampling method for low energy electrons (500 mean free paths. For small path lengths, a simple, efficient and accurate analytical distribution function has been proposed. The later uses adjustable parameters determined from the fitting of Goudsmith-Saunderson angular distribution. A discussion of the sampling efficiency and accuracy of this newly developed algorithm is given. The efficiency of rejection sampling algorithm is at least 50 % for electron kinetic energies less than 500 keV and longer path lengths (>500 mean free paths. Monte Carlo Simulation results are then compared with measured angular distributions of Ross et al. The comparison shows that our results are in good agreement with experimental measurements.

  16. A conversion method of air-kerma from the primary, scatter and leakage radiations to ambient dose equivalent for calculating the mamography x-ray shielding barrier

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Kharrati, H.

    2005-01-01

    The primary, scatter, and leakage doses(in Gy), which constitute the data base for calculating shielding requirements for x-ray facilities, are often converted to the equivalent dose (in sievert) by using a constant of conversion of 1.145Sv/Gy. This constant is used for diagnostic radiology as well as for mammography spectra, and is derived by considering an exposure of 1 R corresponds to an air kerma of 8.73 m Gy, which renders by tradition an equivalent dose of 10 mSv. However, this conversion does not take into account the energy dependence of the conversion coefficients relating air kerma to the equivalent dose as described in ICRU report. Moreover, current radiation protection standards propose the use of the quantity ambient dose equivalent in order to qualify the efficiently of given radiation shielding. Therefore, in this study, a new approach has been introduced for derivation ambient dose equivalent from air kerma to calculate shielding requirements in mammography facilities. This new approach has been used to compute the conversion coefficients relating air kerma to ambient dose equivalent for mammography reference beam series of the Netherlands Metrology Institute Van Swinden Laboratorium (NMi), National Institute of Standards and Technology (NIST), and International Atomic Energy Agency (AIEA) laboratories. The calculation has been performed by the means of two methods which show a maximum deviation less than 10%2 for the primary, scatter, and leakage radiations. The results show that the conversion coefficients vary from 0.242 Sv/ Gy to 0.692 Sv/Gy with an average value of 0.436 Sv/Gy for the primary and the scatter radiations, and form 0.156 Sv/Gy to 1.329 Sv/Gy with an average value of 0.98 Sv/Gy for the leakage radiation. Simpkin et al. using an empirical approach propose a conversion value of 0.50 Sv/Gy for the mammography x-ray spectra. This value approximately coincides with the average conversion value of 0.436 Sv/Gy obtained in this work for

  17. Soil-Carbon Measurement System Based on Inelastic Neutron Scattering

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Orion, I.; Wielopolski, L.

    2002-01-01

    Increase in the atmospheric CO 2 is associated with concurrent increase in the amount of carbon sequestered in the soil. For better understanding of the carbon cycle it is imperative to establish a better and extensive database of the carbon concentrations in various soil types, in order to develop improved models for changes in the global climate. Non-invasive soil carbon measurement is based on Inelastic Neutron Scattering (INS). This method has been used successfully to measure total body carbon in human beings. The system consists of a pulsed neutron generator that is based on D-T reaction, which produces 14 MeV neutrons, a neutron flux monitoring detector and a couple of large NaI(Tl), 6'' diameter by 6'' high, spectrometers [4]. The threshold energy for INS reaction in carbon is 4.8 MeV. Following INS of 14 MeV neutrons in carbon 4.44 MeV photons are emitted and counted during a gate pulse period of 10 μsec. The repetition rate of the neutron generator is 104 pulses per sec. The gamma spectra are acquired only during the neutron generator gate pulses. The INS method for soil carbon content measurements provides a non-destructive, non-invasive tool, which can be optimized in order to develop a system for in field measurements

  18. Approach to the nonrelatiVistic scattering theory based on the causality superposition and unitarity principles

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Gajnutdinov, R.Kh.

    1983-01-01

    Possibility is studied to build the nonrelativistic scattering theory on the base of the general physical principles: causality, superposition, and unitarity, making no use of the Schroedinger formalism. The suggested approach is shown to be more general than the nonrelativistic scattering theory based on the Schroedinger equation. The approach is applied to build a model ofthe scattering theory for a system which consists of heavy nonrelativistic particles and a light relativistic particle

  19. Multiple Scattering Principal Component-based Radiative Transfer Model (PCRTM) from Far IR to UV-Vis

    Science.gov (United States)

    Liu, X.; Wu, W.; Yang, Q.

    2017-12-01

    Modern satellite hyperspectral satellite remote sensors such as AIRS, CrIS, IASI, CLARREO all require accurate and fast radiative transfer models that can deal with multiple scattering of clouds and aerosols to explore the information contents. However, performing full radiative transfer calculations using multiple stream methods such as discrete ordinate (DISORT), doubling and adding (AD), successive order of scattering order of scattering (SOS) are very time consuming. We have developed a principal component-based radiative transfer model (PCRTM) to reduce the computational burden by orders of magnitudes while maintain high accuracy. By exploring spectral correlations, the PCRTM reduce the number of radiative transfer calculations in frequency domain. It further uses a hybrid stream method to decrease the number of calls to the computational expensive multiple scattering calculations with high stream numbers. Other fast parameterizations have been used in the infrared spectral region reduce the computational time to milliseconds for an AIRS forward simulation (2378 spectral channels). The PCRTM has been development to cover spectral range from far IR to UV-Vis. The PCRTM model have been be used for satellite data inversions, proxy data generation, inter-satellite calibrations, spectral fingerprinting, and climate OSSE. We will show examples of applying the PCRTM to single field of view cloudy retrievals of atmospheric temperature, moisture, traces gases, clouds, and surface parameters. We will also show how the PCRTM are used for the NASA CLARREO project.

  20. Light transport in turbid media with non-scattering, low-scattering and high absorption heterogeneities based on hybrid simplified spherical harmonics with radiosity model.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yang, Defu; Chen, Xueli; Peng, Zhen; Wang, Xiaorui; Ripoll, Jorge; Wang, Jing; Liang, Jimin

    2013-01-01

    Modeling light propagation in the whole body is essential and necessary for optical imaging. However, non-scattering, low-scattering and high absorption regions commonly exist in biological tissues, which lead to inaccuracy of the existing light transport models. In this paper, a novel hybrid light transport model that couples the simplified spherical harmonics approximation (SPN) with the radiosity theory (HSRM) was presented, to accurately describe light transport in turbid media with non-scattering, low-scattering and high absorption heterogeneities. In the model, the radiosity theory was used to characterize the light transport in non-scattering regions and the SPN was employed to handle the scattering problems, including subsets of low-scattering and high absorption. A Neumann source constructed by the light transport in the non-scattering region and formed at the interface between the non-scattering and scattering regions was superposed into the original light source, to couple the SPN with the radiosity theory. The accuracy and effectiveness of the HSRM was first verified with both regular and digital mouse model based simulations and a physical phantom based experiment. The feasibility and applicability of the HSRM was then investigated by a broad range of optical properties. Lastly, the influence of depth of the light source on the model was also discussed. Primary results showed that the proposed model provided high performance for light transport in turbid media with non-scattering, low-scattering and high absorption heterogeneities.

  1. Calculation of electromagnetic parameter based on interpolation algorithm

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Zhang, Wenqiang; Yuan, Liming; Zhang, Deyuan

    2015-01-01

    Wave-absorbing material is an important functional material of electromagnetic protection. The wave-absorbing characteristics depend on the electromagnetic parameter of mixed media. In order to accurately predict the electromagnetic parameter of mixed media and facilitate the design of wave-absorbing material, based on the electromagnetic parameters of spherical and flaky carbonyl iron mixture of paraffin base, this paper studied two different interpolation methods: Lagrange interpolation and Hermite interpolation of electromagnetic parameters. The results showed that Hermite interpolation is more accurate than the Lagrange interpolation, and the reflectance calculated with the electromagnetic parameter obtained by interpolation is consistent with that obtained through experiment on the whole. - Highlights: • We use interpolation algorithm on calculation of EM-parameter with limited samples. • Interpolation method can predict EM-parameter well with different particles added. • Hermite interpolation is more accurate than Lagrange interpolation. • Calculating RL based on interpolation is consistent with calculating RL from experiment

  2. A DE-Based Scatter Search for Global Optimization Problems

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Kun Li

    2015-01-01

    Full Text Available This paper proposes a hybrid scatter search (SS algorithm for continuous global optimization problems by incorporating the evolution mechanism of differential evolution (DE into the reference set updated procedure of SS to act as the new solution generation method. This hybrid algorithm is called a DE-based SS (SSDE algorithm. Since different kinds of mutation operators of DE have been proposed in the literature and they have shown different search abilities for different kinds of problems, four traditional mutation operators are adopted in the hybrid SSDE algorithm. To adaptively select the mutation operator that is most appropriate to the current problem, an adaptive mechanism for the candidate mutation operators is developed. In addition, to enhance the exploration ability of SSDE, a reinitialization method is adopted to create a new population and subsequently construct a new reference set whenever the search process of SSDE is trapped in local optimum. Computational experiments on benchmark problems show that the proposed SSDE is competitive or superior to some state-of-the-art algorithms in the literature.

  3. Beam Diagnostics for Laser Undulator Based on Compton Backward Scattering

    CERN Document Server

    Kuroda, R

    2005-01-01

    A compact soft X-ray source is required in various research fields such as material and biological science. The laser undulator based on Compton backward scattering has been developed as a compact soft X-ray source for the biological observation at Waseda University. It is performed in a water window region (250eV - 500 eV) using the interaction between 1047 nm Nd:YLF laser (10ps FWHM) and about 5 MeV high quality electron beam (10ps FWHM) generated from rf gun system. The range of X-ray energy in the water window region has K-shell absorption edges of Oxygen, Carbon and Nitrogen, which mainly constitute of living body. Since the absorption coefficient of water is much smaller than the protein's coefficient in this range, a dehydration of the specimens is not necessary. To generate the soft X-ray pulse stably, the electron beam diagnostics have been developed such as the emittance measurement using double slit scan technique, the bunch length measurement using two frequency analysis technique. In this confere...

  4. Project Robust Scheduling Based on the Scattered Buffer Technology

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Nansheng Pang

    2018-04-01

    Full Text Available The research object in this paper is the sub network formed by the predecessor’s affect on the solution activity. This paper is to study three types of influencing factors from the predecessors that lead to the delay of starting time of the solution activity on the longest path, and to analyze the influence degree on the delay of the solution activity’s starting time from different types of factors. On this basis, through the comprehensive analysis of various factors that influence the solution activity, this paper proposes a metric that is used to evaluate the solution robustness of the project scheduling, and this metric is taken as the optimization goal. This paper also adopts the iterative process to design a scattered buffer heuristics algorithm based on the robust scheduling of the time buffer. At the same time, the resource flow network is introduced in this algorithm, using the tabu search algorithm to solve baseline scheduling. For the generation of resource flow network in the baseline scheduling, this algorithm designs a resource allocation algorithm with the maximum use of the precedence relations. Finally, the algorithm proposed in this paper and some other algorithms in previous literature are taken into the simulation experiment; under the comparative analysis, the experimental results show that the algorithm proposed in this paper is reasonable and feasible.

  5. Continuous energy Monte Carlo method based homogenization multi-group constants calculation

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Li Mancang; Wang Kan; Yao Dong

    2012-01-01

    The efficiency of the standard two-step reactor physics calculation relies on the accuracy of multi-group constants from the assembly-level homogenization process. In contrast to the traditional deterministic methods, generating the homogenization cross sections via Monte Carlo method overcomes the difficulties in geometry and treats energy in continuum, thus provides more accuracy parameters. Besides, the same code and data bank can be used for a wide range of applications, resulting in the versatility using Monte Carlo codes for homogenization. As the first stage to realize Monte Carlo based lattice homogenization, the track length scheme is used as the foundation of cross section generation, which is straight forward. The scattering matrix and Legendre components, however, require special techniques. The Scattering Event method was proposed to solve the problem. There are no continuous energy counterparts in the Monte Carlo calculation for neutron diffusion coefficients. P 1 cross sections were used to calculate the diffusion coefficients for diffusion reactor simulator codes. B N theory is applied to take the leakage effect into account when the infinite lattice of identical symmetric motives is assumed. The MCMC code was developed and the code was applied in four assembly configurations to assess the accuracy and the applicability. At core-level, A PWR prototype core is examined. The results show that the Monte Carlo based multi-group constants behave well in average. The method could be applied to complicated configuration nuclear reactor core to gain higher accuracy. (authors)

  6. Neutron Elastic Scattering Cross Sections Experimental Data and Optical Model Cross Section Calculations. A Compilation of Neutron Data from the Studsvik Neutron Physics Laboratory

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Holmqvist, B; Wiedling, T

    1969-06-15

    Neutron elastic scattering cross section measurements have been going on for a long period at the Studsvik Van de Graaff laboratory. The cross sections of a range of elements have been investigated in the energy interval 1.5 to 8 MeV. The experimental data have been compared with cross sections calculated with the optical model when using a local nuclear potential.

  7. User interface tool based on the MCCM for the calculation of dpa distributions

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Pinnera, I.; Cruz, C.; Abreu, Y.; Leyva, A.

    2009-01-01

    The Monte Carlo assisted Classical Method (MCCM) was introduced by the authors to calculate the displacements per atom (dpa) distributions in solid materials, making use of the standard outputs of simulation code system MCNP and the classical theories of electron elastic scattering. Based on this method a new DLL with several user interface functions was implemented. Then, an application running on Windows systems was development in order to allow the easy handle of different useful functionalities included on it. In the present work this application is presented and some examples of it successful use in different interesting materials are exposed. (Author)

  8. Analysis of an atom laser based on the spatial control of the scattering length

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Carpentier, Alicia V.; Michinel, Humberto; Rodas-Verde, Maria I.; Perez-Garcia, Victor M.

    2006-01-01

    In this paper we analyze atom lasers based on the spatial modulation of the scattering length of a Bose-Einstein condensate. We demonstrate, through numerical simulations and approximate analytical methods, the controllable emission of matter-wave bursts and study the dependence of the process on the spatial shape of the scattering length along the axis of emission. We also study the role of an additional modulation of the scattering length in time

  9. Optimization-based scatter estimation using primary modulation for computed tomography

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Chen, Yi; Ma, Jingchen; Zhao, Jun, E-mail: junzhao@sjtu.edu.cn [School of Biomedical Engineering, Shanghai Jiao Tong University, Shanghai 200240 (China); Song, Ying [Department of Radiation Oncology, West China Hospital, Sichuan University, Chengdu 610041 (China)

    2016-08-15

    Purpose: Scatter reduces the image quality in computed tomography (CT), but scatter correction remains a challenge. A previously proposed primary modulation method simultaneously obtains the primary and scatter in a single scan. However, separating the scatter and primary in primary modulation is challenging because it is an underdetermined problem. In this study, an optimization-based scatter estimation (OSE) algorithm is proposed to estimate and correct scatter. Methods: In the concept of primary modulation, the primary is modulated, but the scatter remains smooth by inserting a modulator between the x-ray source and the object. In the proposed algorithm, an objective function is designed for separating the scatter and primary. Prior knowledge is incorporated in the optimization-based framework to improve the accuracy of the estimation: (1) the primary is always positive; (2) the primary is locally smooth and the scatter is smooth; (3) the location of penumbra can be determined; and (4) the scatter-contaminated data provide knowledge about which part is smooth. Results: The simulation study shows that the edge-preserving weighting in OSE improves the estimation accuracy near the object boundary. Simulation study also demonstrates that OSE outperforms the two existing primary modulation algorithms for most regions of interest in terms of the CT number accuracy and noise. The proposed method was tested on a clinical cone beam CT, demonstrating that OSE corrects the scatter even when the modulator is not accurately registered. Conclusions: The proposed OSE algorithm improves the robustness and accuracy in scatter estimation and correction. This method is promising for scatter correction of various kinds of x-ray imaging modalities, such as x-ray radiography, cone beam CT, and the fourth-generation CT.

  10. Programmable calculator: alternative to minicomputer-based analyzer

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Hochel, R.C.

    1979-01-01

    Described are a number of typical field and laboratory counting systems that use standard stand-alone multichannel analyzers (MCA) interfaced to a Hewlett-Packard Company (HP 9830) programmable calculator. Such systems can offer significant advantages in cost and flexibility over a minicomputyr-based system. Because most laboratories tend to accumulate MCA's over the years, the programmable calculator also offers an easy way to upgrade the laboratory while making optimum use of existing systems. Software programs are easily tailored to fit a variety of general or specific applications. The only disadvantage of the calculator vs a computer-based system is in speed of analyses; however, for most applications this handicap is minimal. Applications discussed give a brief overview of the power and flexibility of the MCA-calculator approach to automated counting and data reduction

  11. Charge-transfer energy in the water-hydrogen molecular aggregate revealed by molecular-beam scattering experiments, charge displacement analysis, and ab initio calculations.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Belpassi, Leonardo; Reca, Michael L; Tarantelli, Francesco; Roncaratti, Luiz F; Pirani, Fernando; Cappelletti, David; Faure, Alexandre; Scribano, Yohann

    2010-09-22

    Integral cross-section measurements for the system water-H(2) in molecular-beam scattering experiments are reported. Their analysis demonstrates that the average attractive component of the water-H(2) intermolecular potential in the well region is about 30% stronger than dispersion and induction forces would imply. An extensive and detailed theoretical analysis of the electron charge displacement accompanying the interaction, over several crucial sections of the potential energy surface (PES), shows that water-H(2) interaction is accompanied by charge transfer (CT) and that the observed stabilization energy correlates quantitatively with CT magnitude at all distances. Based on the experimentally determined potential and the calculated CT, a general theoretical model is devised which reproduces very accurately PES sections obtained at the CCSD(T) level with large basis sets. The energy stabilization associated with CT is calculated to be 2.5 eV per electron transferred. Thus, CT is shown to be a significant, strongly stereospecific component of the interaction, with water functioning as electron donor or acceptor in different orientations. The general relevance of these findings for water's chemistry is discussed.

  12. Development of an ejecta particle size measurement diagnostic based on Mie scattering

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Schauer, Martin Michael [Los Alamos National Lab. (LANL), Los Alamos, NM (United States); Buttler, William Tillman [Los Alamos National Lab. (LANL), Los Alamos, NM (United States); Frayer, Daniel K. [National Security Tech, Inc., Los Alamos, NM (United States); Grover, Michael [National Security Technologies, Santa Barbara, CA (United States). Special Technologies Lab.; Monfared, Shabnam Kalighi [Los Alamos National Lab. (LANL), Los Alamos, NM (United States); Stevens, Gerald D. [National Security Technologies, Santa Barbara, CA (United States). Special Technologies Lab.; Stone, Benjamin J. [Los Alamos National Lab. (LANL), Los Alamos, NM (United States); Turley, William Dale [National Security Technologies, Santa Barbara, CA (United States). Special Technologies Lab.

    2017-09-27

    The goal of this work is to determine the feasibility of extracting the size of particles ejected from shocked metal surfaces (ejecta) from the angular distribution of light scattered by a cloud of such particles. The basis of the technique is the Mie theory of scattering, and implicit in this approach are the assumptions that the scattering particles are spherical and that single scattering conditions prevail. The meaning of this latter assumption, as far as experimental conditions are concerned, will become clear later. The solution to Maxwell’s equations for spherical particles illuminated by a plane electromagnetic wave was derived by Gustav Mie more than 100 years ago, but several modern treatises discuss this solution in great detail. The solution is a complicated series expansion of the scattered electric field, as well as the field within the particle, from which the total scattering and absorption cross sections as well as the angular distribution of scattered intensity can be calculated numerically. The detailed nature of the scattering is determined by the complex index of refraction of the particle material as well as the particle size parameter, x, which is the product of the wavenumber of the incident light and the particle radius, i.e. x = 2rπ= λ. Figure 1 shows the angular distribution of scattered light for different particle size parameters and two orthogonal incident light polarizations as calculated using the Mie solution. It is obvious that the scattering pattern is strongly dependent on the particle size parameter, becoming more forward-directed and less polarizationdependent as the particle size parameter increases. This trend forms the basis for the diagnostic design.

  13. Refractive index sensor based on total scattering of plasmonic nanotube

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yao, Kaiqiang; Zeng, Qingbing; Hu, Zengrong; Zhan, Yaohui

    2018-03-01

    Plasmonic nanostructures can couple free space light into anultrafine space; therefore,they are employed extensively in the refractive index sensors to minimize the device size or further improve the detection sensitivity. In this work, the optical response of the plasmonic nanotube are investigated comprehensively by using full wave finite element method. With a subwavelength scale, the silver nanotube have prominent scattering peaks in the visible range, which is very suitable for observing through the dark field microscope. The geometric dependence of the scattering spectra and the sensing performance are evaluated carefully. Results show that the scattering peaks are in linear relationship to the circumstance refractive index and a sensitivity of 337 nm/RIUcan be achieved easily by such a plasmonicnanotube with an optimized size.

  14. Calculation of generalized Lorenz-Mie theory based on the localized beam models

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Jia, Xiaowei; Shen, Jianqi; Yu, Haitao

    2017-01-01

    It has been proved that localized approximation (LA) is the most efficient way to evaluate the beam shape coefficients (BSCs) in generalized Lorenz-Mie theory (GLMT). The numerical calculation of relevant physical quantities is a challenge for its practical applications due to the limit of computer resources. The study presents an improved algorithm of the GLMT calculation based on the localized beam models. The BSCs and the angular functions are calculated by multiplying them with pre-factors so as to keep their values in a reasonable range. The algorithm is primarily developed for the original localized approximation (OLA) and is further extended to the modified localized approximation (MLA). Numerical results show that the algorithm is efficient, reliable and robust. - Highlights: • In this work, we introduce the proper pre-factors to the Bessel functions, BSCs and the angular functions. With this improvement, all the quantities involved in the numerical calculation are scaled into a reasonable range of values so that the algorithm can be used for computing the physical quantities of the GLMT. • The algorithm is not only an improvement in numerical technique, it also implies that the set of basic functions involved in the electromagnetic scattering (and sonic scattering) can be reasonably chosen. • The algorithms of the GLMT computations introduced in previous references suggested that the order of the n and m sums is interchanged. In this work, the sum of azimuth modes is performed for each partial wave. This offers the possibility to speed up the computation, since the sum of partial waves can be optimized according to the illumination conditions and the sum of azimuth modes can be truncated by selecting a criterion discussed in . • Numerical results show that the algorithm is efficient, reliable and robust, even in very exotic cases. The algorithm presented in this paper is based on the original localized approximation and it can also be used for the

  15. Program package for calculation of cross sections of neutron scattering on deformed nuclei by the coupled-channel method

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Kloss, Yu.Yu.

    1985-01-01

    Program package and numerical solution of the problem for a system of coupled equations used in optical model to solve a problem on low and mean energy neutron scattering on deformed nuclei, is considered. With these programs differnet scattering cross sections depending on the incident neutron energy on even-even and even-odd nuclei were obtained. The programm permits to obtain different scattering cross sections (elastic, inelastic), excitation cross sections of the first three energy levels of rotational band depending on the energy, angular distributions and neutron polarizations including excited channels. In the program there is possibility for accounting even-even nuclei octupole deformation

  16. THE ACCOUNTING POSTEMPLOYMENT BENEFITS BASED ON ACTUARIAL CALCULATIONS

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Anna CEBOTARI

    2017-11-01

    Full Text Available The accounting post-employment benefits, based on actuarial calculations, at present remains a subject studied in Moldova only theoretically. Applying actuarial calculations of accounting in fact denotes its character of evolving. Because national accounting standards have been adapted to international, which, in turn, require the valuation of assets and debts at fair value, there is a need to draw up exact calculations on which stands the theory of probability and mathematical statistics. One of the main objectives of accounting information is reflected in its financial situations and providing internal and external users of the entity. Hence, arises the need to reflect highly reliable information that can be provided by applying actuarial calculations.

  17. SU-D-206-07: CBCT Scatter Correction Based On Rotating Collimator

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Yu, G; Feng, Z; Yin, Y; Qiang, L; Li, B; Huang, P; Li, D

    2016-01-01

    Purpose: Scatter correction in cone-beam computed tomography (CBCT) has obvious effect on the removal of image noise, the cup artifact and the increase of image contrast. Several methods using a beam blocker for the estimation and subtraction of scatter have been proposed. However, the inconvenience of mechanics and propensity to residual artifacts limited the further evolution of basic and clinical research. Here, we propose a rotating collimator-based approach, in conjunction with reconstruction based on a discrete Radon transform and Tchebichef moments algorithm, to correct scatter-induced artifacts. Methods: A rotating-collimator, comprising round tungsten alloy strips, was mounted on a linear actuator. The rotating-collimator is divided into 6 portions equally. The round strips space is evenly spaced on each portion but staggered between different portions. A step motor connected to the rotating collimator drove the blocker to around x-ray source during the CBCT acquisition. The CBCT reconstruction based on a discrete Radon transform and Tchebichef moments algorithm is performed. Experimental studies using water phantom and Catphan504 were carried out to evaluate the performance of the proposed scheme. Results: The proposed algorithm was tested on both the Monte Carlo simulation and actual experiments with the Catphan504 phantom. From the simulation result, the mean square error of the reconstruction error decreases from 16% to 1.18%, the cupping (τcup) from 14.005% to 0.66%, and the peak signal-to-noise ratio increase from 16.9594 to 31.45. From the actual experiments, the induced visual artifacts are significantly reduced. Conclusion: We conducted an experiment on CBCT imaging system with a rotating collimator to develop and optimize x-ray scatter control and reduction technique. The proposed method is attractive in applications where a high CBCT image quality is critical, for example, dose calculation in adaptive radiation therapy. We want to thank Dr. Lei

  18. SU-D-206-07: CBCT Scatter Correction Based On Rotating Collimator

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Yu, G; Feng, Z [Shandong Normal University, Jinan, Shandong (China); Yin, Y [Shandong Cancer Hospital and Institute, China, Jinan, Shandong (China); Qiang, L [Zhang Jiagang STFK Medical Device Co, Zhangjiangkang, Suzhou (China); Li, B [Shandong Academy of Medical Sciences, Jinan, Shandong provice (China); Huang, P [Shandong Province Key Laboratory of Medical Physics and Image Processing Te, Ji’nan, Shandong province (China); Li, D [School of Physics and Electronics, Shandong Normal University, Jinan, Shandong (China)

    2016-06-15

    Purpose: Scatter correction in cone-beam computed tomography (CBCT) has obvious effect on the removal of image noise, the cup artifact and the increase of image contrast. Several methods using a beam blocker for the estimation and subtraction of scatter have been proposed. However, the inconvenience of mechanics and propensity to residual artifacts limited the further evolution of basic and clinical research. Here, we propose a rotating collimator-based approach, in conjunction with reconstruction based on a discrete Radon transform and Tchebichef moments algorithm, to correct scatter-induced artifacts. Methods: A rotating-collimator, comprising round tungsten alloy strips, was mounted on a linear actuator. The rotating-collimator is divided into 6 portions equally. The round strips space is evenly spaced on each portion but staggered between different portions. A step motor connected to the rotating collimator drove the blocker to around x-ray source during the CBCT acquisition. The CBCT reconstruction based on a discrete Radon transform and Tchebichef moments algorithm is performed. Experimental studies using water phantom and Catphan504 were carried out to evaluate the performance of the proposed scheme. Results: The proposed algorithm was tested on both the Monte Carlo simulation and actual experiments with the Catphan504 phantom. From the simulation result, the mean square error of the reconstruction error decreases from 16% to 1.18%, the cupping (τcup) from 14.005% to 0.66%, and the peak signal-to-noise ratio increase from 16.9594 to 31.45. From the actual experiments, the induced visual artifacts are significantly reduced. Conclusion: We conducted an experiment on CBCT imaging system with a rotating collimator to develop and optimize x-ray scatter control and reduction technique. The proposed method is attractive in applications where a high CBCT image quality is critical, for example, dose calculation in adaptive radiation therapy. We want to thank Dr. Lei

  19. Influence of thermal history on the photostructural changes in glassy As15S85 studied by Raman scattering and ab initio calculations

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Kolar, J.; Strizik, L.; Kohoutek, T.; Wagner, T.; Voyiatzis, G. A.; Chrissanthopoulos, A.; Yannopoulos, S. N.

    2013-01-01

    Photostructural changes—the hallmark of non-crystalline chalcogenides—are in essence the basis of a number of photoinduced effects, i.e., changes of their physical properties, which are exploited in a variety of applications, especially in photonics and optoelectronics. Despite the vast number of investigations of photostructural changes, there is currently lack of systematic studies on how the thermal history, which affects glass structure, modifies the extent of photostructural changes. In this article, we study the role of thermal history on photostructural changes in glassy As 15 S 85 . This particular sulfur-rich composition has been chosen based on the colossal photostructural response it exhibits under near-band gap light irradiation, which inherently originates from its nanoscale phase-separated nature. To control the thermal history, the glass was quenched to various temperatures and each of these quenched products was annealed under four different conditions. Off-resonant Raman scattering was used to study the equilibrium study of each product. Structural changes of interest involve changes of the sulfur atoms participating into S 8 rings and S n chains. Their ratio was found to depend on quenching/annealing conditions. Near-band gap light was used to perturb the rings-to-chain ratio and at the same time to record these changes through Raman scattering, revealing an intricate behavior of photostructural changes. Ab initio calculations were employed to determine the stability of various sulfur clusters/molecules thus aiding the correlation of the particular photo-response of glassy As 15 S 85 with its structural constituents

  20. New approximations for the interference term applied to the calculation of scattering cross section of the {sup 238} U isotope

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Palma, Daniel Artur Pinheiro [Centro Federal de Educacao Tecnologica de Quimica de Nilopolis, RJ (Brazil)]. E-mails: dpalma@cefeteq.br; Martinez, Aquilino Senra; Goncalves, Alessandro C. [Universidade Federal do Rio de Janeiro (UFRJ), RJ (Brazil). Coordenacao dos Programas de Pos-Graduacao em Engenharia (COPPE). Programa de Engenharia Nuclear]. E-mail: agoncalves@con.ufrj.br; aquilino@lmp.ufrj.br

    2008-07-01

    The calculation of the Doppler broadening function and the interference term are very important in the generation of nuclear data. Recent papers have proposed analytical formulations for both functions and, despite their being simple and precise, they contain the error function with a complex argument. With the intention of simplifying the mathematical treatment two approximations are proposed in this paper. The first one consists of using an expansion in the form of series to treat the error function. The other approximation is based on simplifications in the differential equations that govern the Doppler broadening function. For validation purpose the result obtained is compared to the one obtained in the calculation of the cross sections for isotope {sup 238}U for different resonances. Results obtained have proved satisfactory from the standpoint of accuracy. (author)

  1. New approximations for the interference term applied to the calculation of scattering cross section of the 238 U isotope

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Palma, Daniel Artur Pinheiro; Martinez, Aquilino Senra; Goncalves, Alessandro C.

    2008-01-01

    The calculation of the Doppler broadening function and the interference term are very important in the generation of nuclear data. Recent papers have proposed analytical formulations for both functions and, despite their being simple and precise, they contain the error function with a complex argument. With the intention of simplifying the mathematical treatment two approximations are proposed in this paper. The first one consists of using an expansion in the form of series to treat the error function. The other approximation is based on simplifications in the differential equations that govern the Doppler broadening function. For validation purpose the result obtained is compared to the one obtained in the calculation of the cross sections for isotope 238 U for different resonances. Results obtained have proved satisfactory from the standpoint of accuracy. (author)

  2. Impact on dose and image quality of a software-based scatter correction in mammography.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Monserrat, Teresa; Prieto, Elena; Barbés, Benigno; Pina, Luis; Elizalde, Arlette; Fernández, Belén

    2017-01-01

    Background In 2014, Siemens developed a new software-based scatter correction (Progressive Reconstruction Intelligently Minimizing Exposure [PRIME]), enabling grid-less digital mammography. Purpose To compare doses and image quality between PRIME (grid-less) and standard (with anti-scatter grid) modes. Material and Methods Contrast-to-noise ratio (CNR) was measured for various polymethylmethacrylate (PMMA) thicknesses and dose values provided by the mammograph were recorded. CDMAM phantom images were acquired for various PMMA thicknesses and inverse Image Quality Figure (IQF inv ) was calculated. Values of incident entrance surface air kerma (ESAK) and average glandular dose (AGD) were obtained from the DICOM header for a total of 1088 pairs of clinical cases. Two experienced radiologists compared subjectively the image quality of a total of 149 pairs of clinical cases. Results CNR values were higher and doses were lower in PRIME mode for all thicknesses. IQF inv values in PRIME mode were lower for all thicknesses except for 40 mm of PMMA equivalent, in which IQF inv was slightly greater in PRIME mode. A mean reduction of 10% in ESAK and 12% in AGD in PRIME mode with respect to standard mode was obtained. The clinical image quality in PRIME and standard acquisitions resulted to be similar in most of the cases (84% for the first radiologist and 67% for the second one). Conclusion The use of PRIME software reduces, in average, the dose of radiation to the breast without affecting image quality. This reduction is greater for thinner and denser breasts.

  3. WE-DE-207B-12: Scatter Correction for Dedicated Cone Beam Breast CT Based On a Forward Projection Model

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Shi, L; Zhu, L [Georgia Institute of Technology, Atlanta, GA (Georgia); Vedantham, S; Karellas, A [University of Massachusetts Medical School, Worcester, MA (United States)

    2016-06-15

    Purpose: The image quality of dedicated cone-beam breast CT (CBBCT) is fundamentally limited by substantial x-ray scatter contamination, resulting in cupping artifacts and contrast-loss in reconstructed images. Such effects obscure the visibility of soft-tissue lesions and calcifications, which hinders breast cancer detection and diagnosis. In this work, we propose to suppress x-ray scatter in CBBCT images using a deterministic forward projection model. Method: We first use the 1st-pass FDK-reconstructed CBBCT images to segment fibroglandular and adipose tissue. Attenuation coefficients are assigned to the two tissues based on the x-ray spectrum used for imaging acquisition, and is forward projected to simulate scatter-free primary projections. We estimate the scatter by subtracting the simulated primary projection from the measured projection, and then the resultant scatter map is further refined by a Fourier-domain fitting algorithm after discarding untrusted scatter information. The final scatter estimate is subtracted from the measured projection for effective scatter correction. In our implementation, the proposed scatter correction takes 0.5 seconds for each projection. The method was evaluated using the overall image spatial non-uniformity (SNU) metric and the contrast-to-noise ratio (CNR) with 5 clinical datasets of BI-RADS 4/5 subjects. Results: For the 5 clinical datasets, our method reduced the SNU from 7.79% to 1.68% in coronal view and from 6.71% to 3.20% in sagittal view. The average CNR is improved by a factor of 1.38 in coronal view and 1.26 in sagittal view. Conclusion: The proposed scatter correction approach requires no additional scans or prior images and uses a deterministic model for efficient calculation. Evaluation with clinical datasets demonstrates the feasibility and stability of the method. These features are attractive for clinical CBBCT and make our method distinct from other approaches. Supported partly by NIH R21EB019597, R21CA134128

  4. Program POD; A computer code to calculate nuclear elastic scattering cross sections with the optical model and neutron inelastic scattering cross sections by the distorted-wave born approximation

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Ichihara, Akira; Kunieda, Satoshi; Chiba, Satoshi; Iwamoto, Osamu; Shibata, Keiichi; Nakagawa, Tsuneo; Fukahori, Tokio; Katakura, Jun-ichi

    2005-07-01

    The computer code, POD, was developed to calculate angle-differential cross sections and analyzing powers for shape-elastic scattering for collisions of neutron or light ions with target nucleus. The cross sections are computed with the optical model. Angle-differential cross sections for neutron inelastic scattering can also be calculated with the distorted-wave Born approximation. The optical model potential parameters are the most essential inputs for those model computations. In this program, the cross sections and analyzing powers are obtained by using the existing local or global parameters. The parameters can also be inputted by users. In this report, the theoretical formulas, the computational methods, and the input parameters are explained. The sample inputs and outputs are also presented. (author)

  5. Observations and calculations of two-dimensional angular optical scattering (TAOS) patterns of a single levitated cluster of two and four microspheres

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Krieger, U.K.; Meier, P.

    2011-01-01

    We use single bi-sphere particles levitated in an electrodynamic balance to record two-dimensional angular scattering patterns at different angles of the coordinate system of the aggregate relative to the incident laser beam. Due to Brownian motion the particle covers the whole set of possible angles with time and allows to select patterns with high symmetry for analysis. These are qualitatively compared to numerical calculations. A small cluster of four spheres shows complex scattering patterns, comparison with computations suggest a low compactness for these clusters. An experimental procedure is proposed for studying restructuring effects occurring in mixed particles upon evaporation. - Research highlights: → Single levitated bi-sphere particle. → Two-dimensional angular scattering pattern. → Comparison experiment with computations.

  6. Polarimetric SAR interferometry-based decomposition modelling for reliable scattering retrieval

    Science.gov (United States)

    Agrawal, Neeraj; Kumar, Shashi; Tolpekin, Valentyn

    2016-05-01

    Fully Polarimetric SAR (PolSAR) data is used for scattering information retrieval from single SAR resolution cell. Single SAR resolution cell may contain contribution from more than one scattering objects. Hence, single or dual polarized data does not provide all the possible scattering information. So, to overcome this problem fully Polarimetric data is used. It was observed in previous study that fully Polarimetric data of different dates provide different scattering values for same object and coefficient of determination obtained from linear regression between volume scattering and aboveground biomass (AGB) shows different values for the SAR dataset of different dates. Scattering values are important input elements for modelling of forest aboveground biomass. In this research work an approach is proposed to get reliable scattering from interferometric pair of fully Polarimetric RADARSAT-2 data. The field survey for data collection was carried out for Barkot forest during November 10th to December 5th, 2014. Stratified random sampling was used to collect field data for circumference at breast height (CBH) and tree height measurement. Field-measured AGB was compared with the volume scattering elements obtained from decomposition modelling of individual PolSAR images and PolInSAR coherency matrix. Yamaguchi 4-component decomposition was implemented to retrieve scattering elements from SAR data. PolInSAR based decomposition was the great challenge in this work and it was implemented with certain assumptions to create Hermitian coherency matrix with co-registered polarimetric interferometric pair of SAR data. Regression analysis between field-measured AGB and volume scattering element obtained from PolInSAR data showed highest (0.589) coefficient of determination. The same regression with volume scattering elements of individual SAR images showed 0.49 and 0.50 coefficients of determination for master and slave images respectively. This study recommends use of

  7. How to simplify transmission-based scatter correction for clinical application

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Baccarne, V.; Hutton, B.F.

    1998-01-01

    Full text: The performances of ordered subsets (OS) EM reconstruction including attenuation, scatter and spatial resolution correction are evaluated using cardiac Monte Carlo data. We demonstrate how simplifications in the scatter model allow one to correct SPECT data for scatter in terms of quantitation and quality in a reasonable time. Initial reconstruction of the 20% window is performed including attenuation correction (broad beam μ values), to estimate the activity quantitatively (accuracy 3%), but not spatially. A rough reconstruction with 2 iterations (subset size: 8) is sufficient for subsequent scatter correction. Estimation of primary photons is obtained by projecting the previous distribution including attenuation (narrow beam μ values). Estimation of the scatter is obtained by convolving the primary estimates by a depth dependent scatter kernel, and scaling the result by a factor calculated from the attenuation map. The correction can be accelerated by convolving several adjacent planes with the same kernel, and using an average scaling factor. Simulation of the effects of the collimator during the scatter correction was demonstrated to be unnecessary. Final reconstruction is performed using 6 iterations OSEM, including attenuation (narrow beam μ values) and spatial resolution correction. Scatter correction is implemented by incorporating the estimated scatter as a constant offset in the forward projection step. The total correction + reconstruction (64 proj. 40x128 pixel) takes 38 minutes on a Sun Sparc 20. Quantitatively, the accuracy is 7% in a reconstructed slice. The SNR inside the whole myocardium (defined from the original object), is equal to 2.1 and 2.3 - in the corrected and the primary slices respectively. The scatter correction preserves the myocardium to ventricle contrast (primary: 0.79, corrected: 0.82). These simplifications allow acceleration of correction without influencing the quality of the result

  8. Data base for terrestrial food pathways dose commitment calculations

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Bailey, C.E.

    1979-01-01

    A computer program is under development to allow calculation of the dose-to-man in Georgia and South Carolina from ingestion of radionuclides in terrestrial foods resulting from deposition of airborne radionuclides. This program is based on models described in Regulatory Guide 1.109 (USNRC, 1977). The data base describes the movement of radionuclides through the terrestrial food chain, growth and consumption factors for a variety of radionuclides

  9. Rode's iterative calculation of surface optical phonon scattering limited electron mobility in N-polar GaN devices

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Ghosh, Krishnendu; Singisetti, Uttam

    2015-01-01

    N-polar GaN channel mobility is important for high frequency device applications. Here, we report theoretical calculations on the surface optical (SO) phonon scattering rate of two-dimensional electron gas (2DEG) in N-polar GaN quantum well channels with high-k dielectrics. Rode's iterative calculation is used to predict the scattering rate and mobility. Coupling of the GaN plasmon modes with the SO modes is taken into account and dynamic screening is employed under linear polarization response. The effect of SO phonons on 2DEG mobility was found to be small at >5 nm channel thickness. However, the SO mobility in 3 nm N-polar GaN channels with HfO 2 and ZrO 2 high-k dielectrics is low and limits the total mobility. The SO scattering for SiN dielectric on GaN was found to be negligible due to its high SO phonon energy. Using Al 2 O 3 , the SO phonon scattering does not affect mobility significantly only except the case when the channel is too thin with a low 2DEG density

  10. Electron scattering times in ZnO based polar heterostructures

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Falson, J., E-mail: j.falson@fkf.mpg.de [Department of Applied Physics and Quantum-Phase Electronics Center (QPEC), The University of Tokyo, Tokyo 113-8656 (Japan); Department of Advanced Materials Science, The University of Tokyo, Kashiwa 277-8561 (Japan); Max Planck Institute for Solid State Research, D-70569 Stuttgart (Germany); Kozuka, Y. [Department of Applied Physics and Quantum-Phase Electronics Center (QPEC), The University of Tokyo, Tokyo 113-8656 (Japan); Smet, J. H. [Max Planck Institute for Solid State Research, D-70569 Stuttgart (Germany); Arima, T. [Department of Advanced Materials Science, The University of Tokyo, Kashiwa 277-8561 (Japan); RIKEN Center for Emergent Matter Science (CEMS), Wako 351-0198 (Japan); Tsukazaki, A. [Institute for Materials Research, Tohoku University, Sendai 980-8577 (Japan); PRESTO, Japan Science and Technology Agency (JST), Tokyo 102-0075 (Japan); Kawasaki, M. [Department of Applied Physics and Quantum-Phase Electronics Center (QPEC), The University of Tokyo, Tokyo 113-8656 (Japan); RIKEN Center for Emergent Matter Science (CEMS), Wako 351-0198 (Japan)

    2015-08-24

    The remarkable historic advances experienced in condensed matter physics have been enabled through the continued exploration and proliferation of increasingly richer and cleaner material systems. In this work, we report on the scattering times of charge carriers confined in state-of-the-art MgZnO/ZnO heterostructures displaying electron mobilities in excess of 10{sup 6} cm{sup 2}/V s. Through an examination of low field quantum oscillations, we obtain the effective mass of charge carriers, along with the transport and quantum scattering times. These times compare favorably with high mobility AlGaAs/GaAs heterostructures, suggesting the quality of MgZnO/ZnO heterostructures now rivals that of traditional semiconductors.

  11. Software-Based Visual Loan Calculator For Banking Industry

    Science.gov (United States)

    Isizoh, A. N.; Anazia, A. E.; Okide, S. O. 3; Onyeyili, T. I.; Okwaraoka, C. A. P.

    2012-03-01

    industry is very necessary in modern day banking system using many design techniques for security reasons. This paper thus presents the software-based design and implementation of a Visual Loan calculator for banking industry using Visual Basic .Net (VB.Net). The fundamental approach to this is to develop a Graphical User Interface (GUI) using VB.Net operating tools, and then developing a working program which calculates the interest of any loan obtained. The VB.Net programming was done, implemented and the software proved satisfactory.

  12. An EPID response calculation algorithm using spatial beam characteristics of primary, head scattered and MLC transmitted radiation

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Rosca, Florin; Zygmanski, Piotr

    2008-01-01

    We have developed an independent algorithm for the prediction of electronic portal imaging device (EPID) response. The algorithm uses a set of images [open beam, closed multileaf collimator (MLC), various fence and modified sweeping gap patterns] to separately characterize the primary and head-scatter contributions to EPID response. It also characterizes the relevant dosimetric properties of the MLC: Transmission, dosimetric gap, MLC scatter [P. Zygmansky et al., J. Appl. Clin. Med. Phys. 8(4) (2007)], inter-leaf leakage, and tongue and groove [F. Lorenz et al., Phys. Med. Biol. 52, 5985-5999 (2007)]. The primary radiation is modeled with a single Gaussian distribution defined at the target position, while the head-scatter radiation is modeled with a triple Gaussian distribution defined downstream of the target. The distances between the target and the head-scatter source, jaws, and MLC are model parameters. The scatter associated with the EPID is implicit in the model. Open beam images are predicted to within 1% of the maximum value across the image. Other MLC test patterns and intensity-modulated radiation therapy fluences are predicted to within 1.5% of the maximum value. The presented method was applied to the Varian aS500 EPID but is designed to work with any planar detector with sufficient spatial resolution

  13. Development of a golden beam data set for the commissioning of a proton double-scattering system in a pencil-beam dose calculation algorithm

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Slopsema, R. L.; Flampouri, S.; Yeung, D.; Li, Z.; Lin, L.; McDonough, J. E.; Palta, J.

    2014-01-01

    Purpose: The purpose of this investigation is to determine if a single set of beam data, described by a minimal set of equations and fitting variables, can be used to commission different installations of a proton double-scattering system in a commercial pencil-beam dose calculation algorithm. Methods: The beam model parameters required to commission the pencil-beam dose calculation algorithm (virtual and effective SAD, effective source size, and pristine-peak energy spread) are determined for a commercial double-scattering system. These parameters are measured in a first room and parameterized as function of proton energy and nozzle settings by fitting four analytical equations to the measured data. The combination of these equations and fitting values constitutes the golden beam data (GBD). To determine the variation in dose delivery between installations, the same dosimetric properties are measured in two additional rooms at the same facility, as well as in a single room at another facility. The difference between the room-specific measurements and the GBD is evaluated against tolerances that guarantee the 3D dose distribution in each of the rooms matches the GBD-based dose distribution within clinically reasonable limits. The pencil-beam treatment-planning algorithm is commissioned with the GBD. The three-dimensional dose distribution in water is evaluated in the four treatment rooms and compared to the treatment-planning calculated dose distribution. Results: The virtual and effective SAD measurements fall between 226 and 257 cm. The effective source size varies between 2.4 and 6.2 cm for the large-field options, and 1.0 and 2.0 cm for the small-field options. The pristine-peak energy spread decreases from 1.05% at the lowest range to 0.6% at the highest. The virtual SAD as well as the effective source size can be accurately described by a linear relationship as function of the inverse of the residual energy. An additional linear correction term as function of

  14. Development of a golden beam data set for the commissioning of a proton double-scattering system in a pencil-beam dose calculation algorithm

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Slopsema, R. L., E-mail: rslopsema@floridaproton.org; Flampouri, S.; Yeung, D.; Li, Z. [University of Florida Proton Therapy Institute, 2015 North Jefferson Street, Jacksonville, Florida 32205 (United States); Lin, L.; McDonough, J. E. [Department of Radiation Oncology, University of Pennsylvania, 3400 Civic Boulevard, 2326W TRC, PCAM, Philadelphia, Pennsylvania 19104 (United States); Palta, J. [VCU Massey Cancer Center, Virginia Commonwealth University, 401 College Street, Richmond, Virginia 23298 (United States)

    2014-09-15

    Purpose: The purpose of this investigation is to determine if a single set of beam data, described by a minimal set of equations and fitting variables, can be used to commission different installations of a proton double-scattering system in a commercial pencil-beam dose calculation algorithm. Methods: The beam model parameters required to commission the pencil-beam dose calculation algorithm (virtual and effective SAD, effective source size, and pristine-peak energy spread) are determined for a commercial double-scattering system. These parameters are measured in a first room and parameterized as function of proton energy and nozzle settings by fitting four analytical equations to the measured data. The combination of these equations and fitting values constitutes the golden beam data (GBD). To determine the variation in dose delivery between installations, the same dosimetric properties are measured in two additional rooms at the same facility, as well as in a single room at another facility. The difference between the room-specific measurements and the GBD is evaluated against tolerances that guarantee the 3D dose distribution in each of the rooms matches the GBD-based dose distribution within clinically reasonable limits. The pencil-beam treatment-planning algorithm is commissioned with the GBD. The three-dimensional dose distribution in water is evaluated in the four treatment rooms and compared to the treatment-planning calculated dose distribution. Results: The virtual and effective SAD measurements fall between 226 and 257 cm. The effective source size varies between 2.4 and 6.2 cm for the large-field options, and 1.0 and 2.0 cm for the small-field options. The pristine-peak energy spread decreases from 1.05% at the lowest range to 0.6% at the highest. The virtual SAD as well as the effective source size can be accurately described by a linear relationship as function of the inverse of the residual energy. An additional linear correction term as function of

  15. Unconventional application of the two-flux approximation for the calculation of the Ambartsumyan-Chandrasekhar function and the angular spectrum of the backward-scattered radiation for a semi-infinite isotropically scattering medium

    Science.gov (United States)

    Remizovich, V. S.

    2010-06-01

    It is commonly accepted that the Schwarzschild-Schuster two-flux approximation (1905, 1914) can be employed only for the calculation of the energy characteristics of the radiation field (energy density and energy flux density) and cannot be used to characterize the angular distribution of radiation field. However, such an inference is not valid. In several cases, one can calculate the radiation intensity inside matter and the reflected radiation with the aid of this simplest approximation in the transport theory. In this work, we use the results of the simplest one-parameter variant of the two-flux approximation to calculate the angular distribution (reflection function) of the radiation reflected by a semi-infinite isotropically scattering dissipative medium when a relatively broad beam is incident on the medium at an arbitrary angle relative to the surface. We do not employ the invariance principle and demonstrate that the reflection function exhibits the multiplicative property. It can be represented as a product of three functions: the reflection function corresponding to the single scattering and two identical h functions, which have the same physical meaning as the Ambartsumyan-Chandrasekhar function ( H) has. This circumstance allows a relatively easy derivation of simple analytical expressions for the H function, total reflectance, and reflection function. We can easily determine the relative contribution of the true single scattering in the photon backscattering at an arbitrary probability of photon survival Λ. We compare all of the parameters of the backscattered radiation with the data resulting from the calculations using the exact theory of Ambartsumyan, Chandrasekhar, et al., which was developed decades after the two-flux approximation. Thus, we avoid the application of fine mathematical methods (the Wiener-Hopf method, the Case method of singular functions, etc.) and obtain simple analytical expressions for the parameters of the scattered radiation

  16. Application of a generalisation of the Kohn variational method to the calculation of cross sections for low-energy positron-hydrogen-molecule scattering

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Armour, E.A.G.

    1984-01-01

    The phaseshift corresponding to the lowest partial wave and the associated approximation to the total cross section are calculated for low-energy positron-hydrogen-molecule scattering using a generalisation of the Kohn variational method. The trial wavefunction is expressed in terms of confocal elliptical coordinates. Except at incident positron energies below about 2 eV, reasonable agreement with experiment is obtained below the positronium formation threshold at 8.63 eV. (author)

  17. A software-based x-ray scatter correction method for breast tomosynthesis

    OpenAIRE

    Jia Feng, Steve Si; Sechopoulos, Ioannis

    2011-01-01

    Purpose: To develop a software-based scatter correction method for digital breast tomosynthesis (DBT) imaging and investigate its impact on the image quality of tomosynthesis reconstructions of both phantoms and patients.

  18. Subsurface Scattering-Based Object Rendering Techniques for Real-Time Smartphone Games

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Won-Sun Lee

    2014-01-01

    Full Text Available Subsurface scattering that simulates the path of a light through the material in a scene is one of the advanced rendering techniques in the field of computer graphics society. Since it takes a number of long operations, it cannot be easily implemented in real-time smartphone games. In this paper, we propose a subsurface scattering-based object rendering technique that is optimized for smartphone games. We employ our subsurface scattering method that is utilized for a real-time smartphone game. And an example game is designed to validate how the proposed method can be operated seamlessly in real time. Finally, we show the comparison results between bidirectional reflectance distribution function, bidirectional scattering distribution function, and our proposed subsurface scattering method on a smartphone game.

  19. The calculation of the contributions to low energy e+H2 scattering from sigma u+ and pion u symmetries using the Kohn variational method

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Armour, E.A.G.; Baker, D.J.; Plummer, M.

    1990-01-01

    Above incident energies of about 2 eV, the contribution to the total cross section in positron+H2 scattering from the sigma g+ symmetry is insufficient to account for the experimental value. Calculations carried out of the lowest partial waves of sigma u+ symmetry and Pion u symmetry using the Kohn variational method are described. The contributions to the total cross section from the two equivalent partial waves of Pion u symmetry significantly reduce the discrepancy with experiment up to incident energies of 4 to 5 eV. Comparisons are made with recent R-matrix calculations performed by Danby and Tennyson

  20. The calculation of the contributions to low energy e+H2 scattering from sigma u+ and Pion u symmetries using the Kohn variational method

    Science.gov (United States)

    Armour, E. A. G.; Baker, D. J.; Plummer, M.

    1990-01-01

    Above incident energies of about 2 eV, the contribution to the total cross section in positron+H2 scattering from the sigma g+ symmetry is insufficient to account for the experimental value. Calculations carried out of the lowest partial waves of sigma u+ symmetry and Pion u symmetry using the Kohn variational method are described. The contributions to the total cross section from the two equivalent partial waves of Pion u symmetry significantly reduce the discrepancy with experiment up to incident energies of 4 to 5 eV. Comparisons are made with recent R-matrix calculations performed by Danby and Tennyson.

  1. Non-local coupled-channels optical calculation of electron scattering by atomic hydrogen at 54.42 eV

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Ratnavelu, K.; McCarthy, I.E.

    1990-01-01

    The present study incorporates the non-local optical potentials for the continuum within the coupled-channels optical framework to study electron scattering from atomic hydrogen at 54.42 eV. Nine-state coupled-channels calculations with non-local and local continuum optical potentials were performed. The results for differential, total and ionization cross sections as well as the 2p angular correlation parameters λ and R are comparable with other non-perturbative calculations. There are still discrepancies between theory and experiment, particularly for λ and R at larger angles. (author)

  2. Fast implementations of reconstruction-based scatter compensation in fully 3D SPECT image reconstruction

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Kadrmas, Dan J.; Karimi, Seemeen S.; Frey, Eric C.; Tsui, Benjamin M.W.

    1998-01-01

    Accurate scatter compensation in SPECT can be performed by modelling the scatter response function during the reconstruction process. This method is called reconstruction-based scatter compensation (RBSC). It has been shown that RBSC has a number of advantages over other methods of compensating for scatter, but using RBSC for fully 3D compensation has resulted in prohibitively long reconstruction times. In this work we propose two new methods that can be used in conjunction with existing methods to achieve marked reductions in RBSC reconstruction times. The first method, coarse-grid scatter modelling, significantly accelerates the scatter model by exploiting the fact that scatter is dominated by low-frequency information. The second method, intermittent RBSC, further accelerates the reconstruction process by limiting the number of iterations during which scatter is modelled. The fast implementations were evaluated using a Monte Carlo simulated experiment of the 3D MCAT phantom with 99m Tc tracer, and also using experimentally acquired data with 201 Tl tracer. Results indicated that these fast methods can reconstruct, with fully 3D compensation, images very similar to those obtained using standard RBSC methods, and in reconstruction times that are an order of magnitude shorter. Using these methods, fully 3D iterative reconstruction with RBSC can be performed well within the realm of clinically realistic times (under 10 minutes for 64x64x24 image reconstruction). (author)

  3. Scatter measurement and correction method for cone-beam CT based on single grating scan

    Science.gov (United States)

    Huang, Kuidong; Shi, Wenlong; Wang, Xinyu; Dong, Yin; Chang, Taoqi; Zhang, Hua; Zhang, Dinghua

    2017-06-01

    In cone-beam computed tomography (CBCT) systems based on flat-panel detector imaging, the presence of scatter significantly reduces the quality of slices. Based on the concept of collimation, this paper presents a scatter measurement and correction method based on single grating scan. First, according to the characteristics of CBCT imaging, the scan method using single grating and the design requirements of the grating are analyzed and figured out. Second, by analyzing the composition of object projection images and object-and-grating projection images, the processing method for the scatter image at single projection angle is proposed. In addition, to avoid additional scan, this paper proposes an angle interpolation method of scatter images to reduce scan cost. Finally, the experimental results show that the scatter images obtained by this method are accurate and reliable, and the effect of scatter correction is obvious. When the additional object-and-grating projection images are collected and interpolated at intervals of 30 deg, the scatter correction error of slices can still be controlled within 3%.

  4. Calculations of accelerator-based neutron sources characteristics

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Tertytchnyi, R.G.; Shorin, V.S.

    2000-01-01

    Accelerator-based quasi-monoenergetic neutron sources (T(p,n), D(d;n), T(d;n) and Li (p,n)-reactions) are widely used in experiments on measuring the interaction cross-sections of fast neutrons with nuclei. The present work represents the code for calculation of the yields and spectra of neutrons generated in (p, n)- and ( d; n)-reactions on some targets of light nuclei (D, T; 7 Li). The peculiarities of the stopping processes of charged particles (with incident energy up to 15 MeV) in multilayer and multicomponent targets are taken into account. The code version is made in terms of the 'SOURCE,' a subroutine for the well-known MCNP code. Some calculation results for the most popular accelerator- based neutron sources are given. (authors)

  5. Two-phase flow measurement based on oblique laser scattering

    Science.gov (United States)

    Vendruscolo, Tiago P.; Fischer, Robert; Martelli, Cícero; Rodrigues, Rômulo L. P.; Morales, Rigoberto E. M.; da Silva, Marco J.

    2015-07-01

    Multiphase flow measurements play a crucial role in monitoring productions processes in many industries. To guarantee the safety of processes involving multiphase flows, it is important to detect changes in the flow conditions before they can cause damage, often in fractions of seconds. Here we demonstrate how the scattering pattern of a laser beam passing a two-phase flow under an oblique angle to the flow direction can be used to detect derivations from the desired flow conditions in microseconds. Applying machine-learning techniques to signals obtained from three photo-detectors we achieve a compact, versatile, low-cost sensor design for safety applications.

  6. A study of lattice dynamics in iron-based superconductors by inelastic light scattering

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Um, Youngje

    2013-12-13

    After the discovery of high temperature (high T{sub c}) superconductivity in copper oxide-based materials (cuprates) in 1986, this phenomenon was a unique property of the cuprates for more than 20 years. The origin of high T{sub c} superconductivity is still under debate. In 2008, high T{sub c} superconductivity was discovered in iron-based compounds. This discovery presents new opportunities for the development of a fundamental understanding of high T{sub c} superconductivity. Density functional calculations indicate a weak electron-phonon coupling strength in iron-based superconductors and these suggest that superconductivity is not mediated by phonons. However, experimental report of a large isotope effect of the iron atoms on the superconductivity T{sub c} suggests that phonons play an important role in iron-based superconductors. Motivated by these findings, this thesis presents a Raman scattering study of the lattice dynamics of the iron-based superconductors Fe{sub 1+y}Te{sub 1-x}Se{sub x}, LiFeAs and NaFe{sub 1-x}Co{sub x}As as a function of chemical composition and temperature. In Fe{sub 1+y}Te{sub 1-x}Se{sub x}, an unconventional linewidth broadening of the c-axis polarized Fe phonon of B{sub 1g} symmetry is found with decreasing temperature, which indicates an unusual coupling between the phonon and iron excessinduced magnetic fluctuations in this compound. In LiFeAs, the Raman scattering data provide evidence for a weak electron-phonon coupling, which is consistent with non-phonon mediated Cooper pairing in this compound. In NaFe{sub 1-x}Co{sub x}As, upon cooling two features are observed: (i) an unconventional linewidth broadening of several phonons, which is indicative of spin fluctuation-phonon coupling, and (ii) a superconductivity-induced phonon lineshape renormalization, which can not be explained by standard model calculations.

  7. Dose distribution around Ir192 brachytherapy source in non-full scattering conditions: comparison of in-phantom measurements and Nucletron-Oldelft plato system calculations

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Jastrzembski, Michal; Kabacinska, Renata; Makarewicz, Roman

    1996-01-01

    Introduction: Comparing the values of doses measured in vivo during gynaecological brachytherapy with those computed with the use of Nucletron-Oldelft brachytherapy treatment planning system a high level of uncertainty appears. In case of points located close to the media border this is also due to the lack of scattering in this region. The influence of the lack of scattering on dose distribution has been investigated. Measured data has been compared to those given by Nucletron-Oldelft BPS. Materials and methods: Profiles in a large water phantom (PTW MP3 system) has been measured in directions perpendicular to the long axis of the fixed source at varied water level and at varied source-to-detector distances. Normalization values for the curves has been acquired by absolute dose measurements. Obtained data has been compared to profiles calculated in the same axes by Nucletron-Oldelft BPS. Results: The lack of scattering in the region close to water surface (up to 8cm) results in significant drop in measured dose. The decrease depends both on the distance from the medium border and on the distance from the source. For source-to-detector distance of 6.5cm the difference between calculated and measured dose is 8% for 3cm and 21% for 1cm of water above the source. Profiles in this region become flattened and asymmetric according to the drop in dose level. Conclusions: The lack of scattering in the region close to the patient skin results in significant drop in dose which is not taken into account by Nucletron-Oldelft BPS. This means that dose distribution calculated in this region by the System is not correct

  8. New Products and Technologies, Based on Calculations Developed Areas

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Gheorghe Vertan

    2013-09-01

    Full Text Available Following statistics, currently prosperous and have high GDP / capita, only countries that have and fructify intensively large natural resources and/or produce and export products massive based on patented inventions accordingly. Without great natural wealth and the lowest GDP / capita in the EU, Romania will prosper only with such products. Starting from the top experience in the country, some patented, can develop new and competitive technologies and patentable and exportable products, based on exact calculations of developed areas, such as that double shells welded assemblies and plating of ships' propellers and blade pump and hydraulic turbines.

  9. Plasma density calculation based on the HCN waveform data

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Chen Liaoyuan; Pan Li; Luo Cuiwen; Zhou Yan; Deng Zhongchao

    2004-01-01

    A method to improve the plasma density calculation is introduced using the base voltage and the phase zero points obtained from the HCN interference waveform data. The method includes making the signal quality higher by putting the signal control device and the analog-to-digit converters in the same location and charging them by the same power, and excluding the noise's effect according to the possible changing rate of the signal's phase, and to make the base voltage more accurate by dynamical data processing. (authors)

  10. Modeling and Calculation of Dent Based on Pipeline Bending Strain

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Qingshan Feng

    2016-01-01

    Full Text Available The bending strain of long-distance oil and gas pipelines can be calculated by the in-line inspection tool which used inertial measurement unit (IMU. The bending strain is used to evaluate the strain and displacement of the pipeline. During the bending strain inspection, the dent existing in the pipeline can affect the bending strain data as well. This paper presents a novel method to model and calculate the pipeline dent based on the bending strain. The technique takes inertial mapping data from in-line inspection and calculates depth of dent in the pipeline using Bayesian statistical theory and neural network. To verify accuracy of the proposed method, an in-line inspection tool is used to inspect pipeline to gather data. The calculation of dent shows the method is accurate for the dent, and the mean relative error is 2.44%. The new method provides not only strain of the pipeline dent but also the depth of dent. It is more benefit for integrity management of pipeline for the safety of the pipeline.

  11. On the use of flux limiters in the discrete ordinates method for 3D radiation calculations in absorbing and scattering media

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Godoy, William F.; DesJardin, Paul E.

    2010-01-01

    The application of flux limiters to the discrete ordinates method (DOM), S N , for radiative transfer calculations is discussed and analyzed for 3D enclosures for cases in which the intensities are strongly coupled to each other such as: radiative equilibrium and scattering media. A Newton-Krylov iterative method (GMRES) solves the final systems of linear equations along with a domain decomposition strategy for parallel computation using message passing libraries in a distributed memory system. Ray effects due to angular discretization and errors due to domain decomposition are minimized until small variations are introduced by these effects in order to focus on the influence of flux limiters on errors due to spatial discretization, known as numerical diffusion, smearing or false scattering. Results are presented for the DOM-integrated quantities such as heat flux, irradiation and emission. A variety of flux limiters are compared to 'exact' solutions available in the literature, such as the integral solution of the RTE for pure absorbing-emitting media and isotropic scattering cases and a Monte Carlo solution for a forward scattering case. Additionally, a non-homogeneous 3D enclosure is included to extend the use of flux limiters to more practical cases. The overall balance of convergence, accuracy, speed and stability using flux limiters is shown to be superior compared to step schemes for any test case.

  12. Calculating acid-base and oxygenation status during COPD exacerbation using mathematically arterialised venous blood

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Rees, Stephen Edward; Rychwicka-Kielek, Beate A; Andersen, Bjarne F

    2012-01-01

    Abstract Background: Repeated arterial puncture is painful. A mathematical method exists for transforming peripheral venous pH, PCO2 and PO2 to arterial eliminating the need for arterial sampling. This study evaluates this method to monitor acid-base and oxygenation during admission...... for exacerbation of chronic obstructive pulmonary disease (COPD). Methods: Simultaneous arterial and peripheral venous blood was analysed. Venous values were used to calculate arterial pH, PCO2 and PO2, with these compared to measured values using Bland-Altman analysis and scatter plots. Calculated values of PO2......H, PCO2 and PO2 were 7.432±0.047, 6.8±1.7 kPa and 9.2±1.5 kPa, respectively. Calculated and measured arterial pH and PCO2 agreed well, differences having small bias and SD (0.000±0.022 pH, -0.06±0.50 kPa PCO2), significantly better than venous blood alone. Calculated PO2 obeyed the clinical rules...

  13. A small angle neutron scattering study of mica based glass-ceramics with applications in dentistry

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Kilcoyne, S.H.; Bentley, P.M.; Al-Jawad, M.; Bubb, N.L.; Al-Shammary, H.A.O.; Wood, D.J.

    2004-01-01

    We are currently developing machinable and load-bearing mica-based glass-ceramics for use in restorative dental surgery. In this paper we present the results of an ambient temperature small angle neutron scattering (SANS) study of several such ceramics with chemical compositions chosen to optimise machinability and strength. The SANS spectra are all dominated by scattering from the crystalline-amorphous phase interface and exhibit Q -4 dependence (Porod scattering) indicating that, on a 100 A scale, the surface of the crystals is smooth

  14. MO-FG-CAMPUS-JeP1-05: Water Equivalent Path Length Calculations Using Scatter-Corrected Head and Neck CBCT Images to Evaluate Patients for Adaptive Proton Therapy

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Kim, J; Park, Y; Sharp, G; Winey, B [Massachusetts General Hospital and Harvard Medical School, Boston, MA (United States)

    2016-06-15

    Purpose: To establish a method to evaluate the dosimetric impact of anatomic changes in head and neck patients during proton therapy by using scatter-corrected cone-beam CT (CBCT) images. Methods: The water equivalent path length (WEPL) was calculated to the distal edge of PTV contours by using tomographic images available for six head and neck patients received photon therapy. The proton range variation was measured by calculating the difference between the distal WEPLs calculated with the planning CT and weekly treatment CBCT images. By performing an automatic rigid registration, six degrees-of-freedom (DOF) correction was made to the CBCT images to account for the patient setup uncertainty. For accurate WEPL calculations, an existing CBCT scatter correction algorithm, whose performance was already proven for phantom images, was calibrated for head and neck patient images. Specifically, two different image similarity measures, mutual information (MI) and mean square error (MSE), were tested for the deformable image registration (DIR) in the CBCT scatter correction algorithm. Results: The impact of weight loss was reflected in the distal WEPL differences with the aid of the automatic rigid registration reducing the influence of patient setup uncertainty on the WEPL calculation results. The WEPL difference averaged over distal area was 2.9 ± 2.9 (mm) across all fractions of six patients and its maximum, mostly found at the last available fraction, was 6.2 ± 3.4 (mm). The MSE-based DIR successfully registered each treatment CBCT image to the planning CT image. On the other hand, the MI-based DIR deformed the skin voxels in the planning CT image to the immobilization mask in the treatment CBCT image, most of which was cropped out of the planning CT image. Conclusion: The dosimetric impact of anatomic changes was evaluated by calculating the distal WEPL difference with the existing scatter-correction algorithm appropriately calibrated. Jihun Kim, Yang-Kyun Park

  15. The internal radiation dose calculations based on Chinese mathematical phantom

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Wang Haiyan; Li Junli; Cheng Jianping; Fan Jiajin

    2006-01-01

    The internal radiation dose calculations built on Chinese facts become more and more important according to the development of nuclear medicine. the MIRD method developed and consummated by the society of Nuclear Medicine (America) is based on the European and American mathematical phantom and can't fit Chinese well. The transport of γ-ray in the Chinese mathematical phantom was simulated with Monte Carlo method in programs as MCNP4C. the specific absorbed fraction (Φ) of Chinese were calculated and the Chinese Φ database was created. The results were compared with the recommended values by ORNL. the method was proved correct by the coherence when the target organ was the same with the source organ. Else, the difference was due to the different phantom and the choice of different physical model. (authors)

  16. A density gradient theory based method for surface tension calculations

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Liang, Xiaodong; Michelsen, Michael Locht; Kontogeorgis, Georgios

    2016-01-01

    The density gradient theory has been becoming a widely used framework for calculating surface tension, within which the same equation of state is used for the interface and bulk phases, because it is a theoretically sound, consistent and computationally affordable approach. Based on the observation...... that the optimal density path from the geometric mean density gradient theory passes the saddle point of the tangent plane distance to the bulk phases, we propose to estimate surface tension with an approximate density path profile that goes through this saddle point. The linear density gradient theory, which...... assumes linearly distributed densities between the two bulk phases, has also been investigated. Numerical problems do not occur with these density path profiles. These two approximation methods together with the full density gradient theory have been used to calculate the surface tension of various...

  17. Criticality calculations on pebble-bed HTR-PROTEUS configuration as a validation for the pseudo-scattering tracking method implemented in the MORET 5 Monte Carlo code

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Forestier, Benoit; Miss, Joachim; Bernard, Franck; Dorval, Aurelien [Institut de Radioprotection et Surete Nucleaire, Fontenay aux Roses (France); Jacquet, Olivier [Independent consultant (France); Verboomen, Bernard [Belgian Nuclear Research Center - SCK-CEN (Belgium)

    2008-07-01

    The MORET code is a three dimensional Monte Carlo criticality code. It is designed to calculate the effective multiplication factor (k{sub eff}) of any geometrical configuration as well as the reaction rates in the various volumes and the neutron leakage out of the system. A recent development for the MORET code consists of the implementation of an alternate neutron tracking method, known as the pseudo-scattering tracking method. This method has been successfully implemented in the MORET code and its performances have been tested by mean of an extensive parametric study on very simple geometrical configurations. In this context, the goal of the present work is to validate the pseudo-scattering method against realistic configurations. In this perspective, pebble-bed cores are particularly well-adapted cases to model, as they exhibit large amount of volumes stochastically arranged on two different levels (the pebbles in the core and the TRISO particles inside each pebble). This paper will introduce the techniques and methods used to model pebble-bed cores in a realistic way. The results of the criticality calculations, as well as the pseudo-scattering tracking method performance in terms of computation time, will also be presented. (authors)

  18. Improvement of gamma-ray Sn transport calculations including coherent and incoherent scatterings and secondary sources of bremsstrahlung and fluorescence: Determination of gamma-ray buildup factors

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Kitsos, S.; Diop, C.M.; Assad, A.; Nimal, J.C.; Ridoux, P.

    1996-01-01

    Improvements of gamma-ray transport calculations in S n codes aim at taking into account the bound-electron effect of Compton scattering (incoherent), coherent scattering (Rayleigh), and secondary sources of bremsstrahlung and fluorescence. A computation scheme was developed to take into account these phenomena by modifying the angular and energy transfer matrices, and no modification in the transport code has been made. The incoherent and coherent scatterings as well as the fluorescence sources can be strictly treated by the transfer matrix change. For bremsstrahlung sources, this is possible if one can neglect the charged particles path as they pass through the matter (electrons and positrons) and is applicable for the energy range of interest for us (below 10 MeV). These improvements have been reported on the kernel attenuation codes by the calculation of new buildup factors. The gamma-ray buildup factors have been carried out for 25 natural elements up to 30 mean free paths in the energy range between 15 keV and 10 MeV

  19. Multiphase flow parameter estimation based on laser scattering

    Science.gov (United States)

    Vendruscolo, Tiago P.; Fischer, Robert; Martelli, Cicero; Rodrigues, Rômulo L. P.; Morales, Rigoberto E. M.; da Silva, Marco J.

    2015-07-01

    The flow of multiple constituents inside a pipe or vessel, known as multiphase flow, is commonly found in many industry branches. The measurement of the individual flow rates in such flow is still a challenge, which usually requires a combination of several sensor types. However, in many applications, especially in industrial process control, it is not necessary to know the absolute flow rate of the respective phases, but rather to continuously monitor flow conditions in order to quickly detect deviations from the desired parameters. Here we show how a simple and low-cost sensor design can achieve this, by using machine-learning techniques to distinguishing the characteristic patterns of oblique laser light scattered at the phase interfaces. The sensor is capable of estimating individual phase fluxes (as well as their changes) in multiphase flows and may be applied to safety applications due to its quick response time.

  20. Multiphase flow parameter estimation based on laser scattering

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Vendruscolo, Tiago P; Fischer, Robert; Martelli, Cicero; Da Silva, Marco J; Rodrigues, Rômulo L P; Morales, Rigoberto E M

    2015-01-01

    The flow of multiple constituents inside a pipe or vessel, known as multiphase flow, is commonly found in many industry branches. The measurement of the individual flow rates in such flow is still a challenge, which usually requires a combination of several sensor types. However, in many applications, especially in industrial process control, it is not necessary to know the absolute flow rate of the respective phases, but rather to continuously monitor flow conditions in order to quickly detect deviations from the desired parameters. Here we show how a simple and low-cost sensor design can achieve this, by using machine-learning techniques to distinguishing the characteristic patterns of oblique laser light scattered at the phase interfaces. The sensor is capable of estimating individual phase fluxes (as well as their changes) in multiphase flows and may be applied to safety applications due to its quick response time. (paper)

  1. Measurement of the double differential dijet rate in deep inelastic scattering at HERA and comparison to NLO QCD calculations

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Poeschl, R.

    2000-12-01

    The analysis presented the measurement of the dijet rate R 2 , the fraction of dijet events in all DIS events, as a function of the kinematic variables x B and Q 2 in the range of 5 2 2 and 10 -4 B -2 . The analysis is based on data collected with the H1 detector in the years 1996/97. The large amount of integrated luminosity (21.9 pb -1 ) available for this analysis allowed for the first time a double differential measurement of R 2 as a function of both x B and Q 2 . The single differential dijet rate, R 2 (x B ) and R 2 (Q 2 ), increases for increasing Q 2 as well as for increasing x B . The double differential dijet rate R 2 (x B , Q 2 ) is more sensitive to the x B dependence of dijet production since it shows a strong increase towards small values of x B if Q 2 is kept fixed. The double differential dijet rate has been compared to predictions of NLO QCD calculations. For the comparison it is required that at least one of the jets has a transverse energy 5 + Δ GeV where Δ = 2 GeV was chosen to be the central cut scenario. The dijet rate is well described by NLO calculations when μ r 2 = Q 2 is chosen as the renormalization scale albeit at the cost of large scale uncertainties. If, however, μ r 2 = Q 2 + E t 2 is chosen, which considerable reduces the scale uncertainties, substantial contributions from other sources of dijet production are needed. (orig.)

  2. Dose calculation in eye brachytherapy with Ir-192 threads using the Sievert integral and corrected by attenuation and scattering with the Meisberg polynomials

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Vivanco, M.G. Bernui de; Cardenas R, A.

    2006-01-01

    The ocular brachytherapy many times unique alternative to conserve the visual organ in patients of ocular cancer, one comes carrying out in the National Institute of Neoplastic Illnesses (INEN) using threads of Iridium 192; those which, they are placed in radial form on the interior surface of a spherical cap of gold of 18 K; the cap remains in the eye until reaching the prescribed dose by the doctor. The main objective of this work is to be able to calculate in a correct and practical way the one time that the treatment of ocular brachytherapy should last to reach the dose prescribed by the doctor. To reach this objective I use the Sievert integral corrected by attenuation effects and scattering (Meisberg polynomials); calculating it by the Simpson method. In the calculations by means of the Sievert integral doesn't take into account the scattering produced by the gold cap neither the variation of the constant of frequency of exposure with the distance. The calculations by means of Sievert integral are compared with those obtained using the Monte Carlo Penelope simulation code, where it is observed that they agree at distances of the surface of the cap greater or equal to 2mm. (Author)

  3. SU-E-T-59: Calculations of Collimator Scatter Factors (Sc) with and Without Custom-Made Build-Up Caps for CyberKnife

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Wokoma, S; Yoon, J; Jung, J [East Carolina University, Greenville, NC (United States); Lee, S [Rhode Island Hospital / Warren Alpert Medical, Providence, RI (United States)

    2014-06-01

    Purpose: To investigate the impact of custom-made build-up caps for a diode detector in robotic radiosurgery radiation fields with variable collimator (IRIS) for collimator scatter factor (Sc) calculation. Methods: An acrylic cap was custom-made to fit our SFD (IBA Dosimetry, Germany) diode detector. The cap has thickness of 5 cm, corresponding to a depth beyond electron contamination. IAEA phase space data was used for beam modeling and DOSRZnrc code was used to model the detector. The detector was positioned at 80 cm source-to-detector distance. Calculations were performed with the SFD, with and without the build-up cap, for clinical IRIS settings ranging from 7.5 to 60 mm. Results: The collimator scatter factors were calculated with and without 5 cm build-up cap. They were agreed within 3% difference except 15 mm cone. The Sc factor for 15 mm cone without buildup was 13.2% lower than that with buildup. Conclusion: Sc data is a critical component in advanced algorithms for treatment planning in order to calculate the dose accurately. After incorporating build-up cap, we discovered differences of up to 13.2 % in Sc factors in the SFD detector, when compared against in-air measurements without build-up caps.

  4. Quantitative Evaluation of 2 Scatter-Correction Techniques for 18F-FDG Brain PET/MRI in Regard to MR-Based Attenuation Correction.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Teuho, Jarmo; Saunavaara, Virva; Tolvanen, Tuula; Tuokkola, Terhi; Karlsson, Antti; Tuisku, Jouni; Teräs, Mika

    2017-10-01

    In PET, corrections for photon scatter and attenuation are essential for visual and quantitative consistency. MR attenuation correction (MRAC) is generally conducted by image segmentation and assignment of discrete attenuation coefficients, which offer limited accuracy compared with CT attenuation correction. Potential inaccuracies in MRAC may affect scatter correction, because the attenuation image (μ-map) is used in single scatter simulation (SSS) to calculate the scatter estimate. We assessed the impact of MRAC to scatter correction using 2 scatter-correction techniques and 3 μ-maps for MRAC. Methods: The tail-fitted SSS (TF-SSS) and a Monte Carlo-based single scatter simulation (MC-SSS) algorithm implementations on the Philips Ingenuity TF PET/MR were used with 1 CT-based and 2 MR-based μ-maps. Data from 7 subjects were used in the clinical evaluation, and a phantom study using an anatomic brain phantom was conducted. Scatter-correction sinograms were evaluated for each scatter correction method and μ-map. Absolute image quantification was investigated with the phantom data. Quantitative assessment of PET images was performed by volume-of-interest and ratio image analysis. Results: MRAC did not result in large differences in scatter algorithm performance, especially with TF-SSS. Scatter sinograms and scatter fractions did not reveal large differences regardless of the μ-map used. TF-SSS showed slightly higher absolute quantification. The differences in volume-of-interest analysis between TF-SSS and MC-SSS were 3% at maximum in the phantom and 4% in the patient study. Both algorithms showed excellent correlation with each other with no visual differences between PET images. MC-SSS showed a slight dependency on the μ-map used, with a difference of 2% on average and 4% at maximum when a μ-map without bone was used. Conclusion: The effect of different MR-based μ-maps on the performance of scatter correction was minimal in non-time-of-flight 18 F-FDG PET

  5. Influence of different contributions of scatter and attenuation on the threshold values in contrast-based algorithms for volume segmentation.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Matheoud, Roberta; Della Monica, Patrizia; Secco, Chiara; Loi, Gianfranco; Krengli, Marco; Inglese, Eugenio; Brambilla, Marco

    2011-01-01

    The aim of this work is to evaluate the role of different amount of attenuation and scatter on FDG-PET image volume segmentation using a contrast-oriented method based on the target-to-background (TB) ratio and target dimensions. A phantom study was designed employing 3 phantom sets, which provided a clinical range of attenuation and scatter conditions, equipped with 6 spheres of different volumes (0.5-26.5 ml). The phantoms were: (1) the Hoffman 3-dimensional brain phantom, (2) a modified International Electro technical Commission (IEC) phantom with an annular ring of water bags of 3 cm thickness fit over the IEC phantom, and (3) a modified IEC phantom with an annular ring of water bags of 9 cm. The phantoms cavities were filled with a solution of FDG at 5.4 kBq/ml activity concentration, and the spheres with activity concentration ratios of about 16, 8, and 4 times the background activity concentration. Images were acquired with a Biograph 16 HI-REZ PET/CT scanner. Thresholds (TS) were determined as a percentage of the maximum intensity in the cross section area of the spheres. To reduce statistical fluctuations a nominal maximum value is calculated as the mean from all voxel > 95%. To find the TS value that yielded an area A best matching the true value, the cross section were auto-contoured in the attenuation corrected slices varying TS in step of 1%, until the area so determined differed by less than 10 mm² versus its known physical value. Multiple regression methods were used to derive an adaptive thresholding algorithm and to test its dependence on different conditions of attenuation and scatter. The errors of scatter and attenuation correction increased with increasing amount of attenuation and scatter in the phantoms. Despite these increasing inaccuracies, PET threshold segmentation algorithms resulted not influenced by the different condition of attenuation and scatter. The test of the hypothesis of coincident regression lines for the three phantoms used

  6. Validation of GPU based TomoTherapy dose calculation engine.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chen, Quan; Lu, Weiguo; Chen, Yu; Chen, Mingli; Henderson, Douglas; Sterpin, Edmond

    2012-04-01

    The graphic processing unit (GPU) based TomoTherapy convolution/superposition(C/S) dose engine (GPU dose engine) achieves a dramatic performance improvement over the traditional CPU-cluster based TomoTherapy dose engine (CPU dose engine). Besides the architecture difference between the GPU and CPU, there are several algorithm changes from the CPU dose engine to the GPU dose engine. These changes made the GPU dose slightly different from the CPU-cluster dose. In order for the commercial release of the GPU dose engine, its accuracy has to be validated. Thirty eight TomoTherapy phantom plans and 19 patient plans were calculated with both dose engines to evaluate the equivalency between the two dose engines. Gamma indices (Γ) were used for the equivalency evaluation. The GPU dose was further verified with the absolute point dose measurement with ion chamber and film measurements for phantom plans. Monte Carlo calculation was used as a reference for both dose engines in the accuracy evaluation in heterogeneous phantom and actual patients. The GPU dose engine showed excellent agreement with the current CPU dose engine. The majority of cases had over 99.99% of voxels with Γ(1%, 1 mm) engine also showed similar degree of accuracy in heterogeneous media as the current TomoTherapy dose engine. It is verified and validated that the ultrafast TomoTherapy GPU dose engine can safely replace the existing TomoTherapy cluster based dose engine without degradation in dose accuracy.

  7. Metric for Calculation of System Complexity based on its Connections

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    João Ricardo Braga de Paiva

    2017-02-01

    Full Text Available This paper proposes a methodology based on system connections to calculate its complexity. Two study cases are proposed: the dining Chinese philosophers’ problem and the distribution center. Both studies are modeled using the theory of Discrete Event Systems and simulations in different contexts were performed in order to measure their complexities. The obtained results present i the static complexity as a limiting factor for the dynamic complexity, ii the lowest cost in terms of complexity for each unit of measure of the system performance and iii the output sensitivity to the input parameters. The associated complexity and performance measures aggregate knowledge about the system.

  8. Design of software for calculation of shielding based on various standards radiodiagnostic calculation

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Falero, B.; Bueno, P.; Chaves, M. A.; Ordiales, J. M.; Villafana, O.; Gonzalez, M. J.

    2013-01-01

    The aim of this study was to develop a software application that performs calculation shields in radiology room depending on the type of equipment. The calculation will be done by selecting the user, the method proposed in the Guide 5.11, the Report 144 and 147 and also for the methodology given by the Portuguese Health Ministry. (Author)

  9. Microscopic calculation of four-nucleon scattering observables in dd → dd and dd → p3H

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Fonseca, A.C.

    1998-01-01

    The four-body equations of Alt, Grassberger and Sandhas are solved for a system of four nucleons, using realistic NN interactions. The results of the calculations are compared with data for the reactions and dd → dd and dd → p 3 H. Preliminary calculations indicate that the nucleon-nucleon p-waves have a strong effect on 4N observables. (orig.)

  10. Electron scattering in graphene by defects in underlying h-BN layer: First-principles transport calculations

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kaneko, Tomoaki; Ohno, Takahisa

    2018-03-01

    We investigate the electronic structure and the transport properties of graphene adsorbed onto h-BN with carbon impurities or atomic vacancies using density functional theory and the non-equilibrium Green's function method. We find that the transport properties are degraded due to carrier doping and scattering off of localized defect states in h-BN. When graphene is doped by introducing defects in h-BN, the transmission spectra become asymmetric owing to the reduction of the electronic density of states, which contributes significantly to the degradation of graphene transport properties as compared with the effect of defect levels.

  11. Portable bacterial identification system based on elastic light scatter patterns

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Bae Euiwon

    2012-08-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background Conventional diagnosis and identification of bacteria requires shipment of samples to a laboratory for genetic and biochemical analysis. This process can take days and imposes significant delay to action in situations where timely intervention can save lives and reduce associated costs. To enable faster response to an outbreak, a low-cost, small-footprint, portable microbial-identification instrument using forward scatterometry has been developed. Results This device, weighing 9 lb and measuring 12 × 6 × 10.5 in., utilizes elastic light scatter (ELS patterns to accurately capture bacterial colony characteristics and delivers the classification results via wireless access. The overall system consists of two CCD cameras, one rotational and one translational stage, and a 635-nm laser diode. Various software algorithms such as Hough transform, 2-D geometric moments, and the traveling salesman problem (TSP have been implemented to provide colony count and circularity, centering process, and minimized travel time among colonies. Conclusions Experiments were conducted with four bacteria genera using pure and mixed plate and as proof of principle a field test was conducted in four different locations where the average classification rate ranged between 95 and 100%.

  12. Simple systematization of vibrational excitation cross-section calculations for resonant electron-molecule scattering in the boomerang and impulse models.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sarma, Manabendra; Adhikari, S; Mishra, Manoj K

    2007-01-28

    Vibrational excitation (nu(f), where psi(nu(i))(R,t) approximately =e(-iH(A(2))-(R)t/h phi(nu(i))(R) with time evolution under the influence of the resonance anionic Hamiltonian H(A(2) (-))(A(2) (-)=N(2)(-)/H(2) (-)) implemented using Lanczos and fast Fourier transforms. The target (A(2)) vibrational eigenfunctions phi(nu(i))(R) and phi(nu(f))(R) are calculated using Fourier grid Hamiltonian method applied to potential energy (PE) curves of the neutral target. Application of this simple systematization to calculate vibrational structure in e-N(2) and e-H(2) scattering cross-sections provides mechanistic insights into features underlying presence/absence of structure in e-N(2) and e-H(2) scattering cross-sections. The results obtained with approximate PE curves are in reasonable agreement with experimental/calculated cross-section profiles, and cross correlation functions provide a simple demarcation between the boomerang and impulse models.

  13. DiSCaMB: a software library for aspherical atom model X-ray scattering factor calculations with CPUs and GPUs.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chodkiewicz, Michał L; Migacz, Szymon; Rudnicki, Witold; Makal, Anna; Kalinowski, Jarosław A; Moriarty, Nigel W; Grosse-Kunstleve, Ralf W; Afonine, Pavel V; Adams, Paul D; Dominiak, Paulina Maria

    2018-02-01

    It has been recently established that the accuracy of structural parameters from X-ray refinement of crystal structures can be improved by using a bank of aspherical pseudoatoms instead of the classical spherical model of atomic form factors. This comes, however, at the cost of increased complexity of the underlying calculations. In order to facilitate the adoption of this more advanced electron density model by the broader community of crystallographers, a new software implementation called DiSCaMB , 'densities in structural chemistry and molecular biology', has been developed. It addresses the challenge of providing for high performance on modern computing architectures. With parallelization options for both multi-core processors and graphics processing units (using CUDA), the library features calculation of X-ray scattering factors and their derivatives with respect to structural parameters, gives access to intermediate steps of the scattering factor calculations (thus allowing for experimentation with modifications of the underlying electron density model), and provides tools for basic structural crystallographic operations. Permissively (MIT) licensed, DiSCaMB is an open-source C++ library that can be embedded in both academic and commercial tools for X-ray structure refinement.

  14. Jet identification based on probability calculations using Bayes' theorem

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Jacobsson, C.; Joensson, L.; Lindgren, G.; Nyberg-Werther, M.

    1994-11-01

    The problem of identifying jets at LEP and HERA has been studied. Identification using jet energies and fragmentation properties was treated separately in order to investigate the degree of quark-gluon separation that can be achieved by either of these approaches. In the case of the fragmentation-based identification, a neural network was used, and a test of the dependence on the jet production process and the fragmentation model was done. Instead of working with the separation variables directly, these have been used to calculate probabilities of having a specific type of jet, according to Bayes' theorem. This offers a direct interpretation of the performance of the jet identification and provides a simple means of combining the results of the energy- and fragmentation-based identifications. (orig.)

  15. Resolution of the multigroup scattering equation in a one-dimensional geometry and subsidiary calculations: the MUDE code; Resolution de l'equation multigroupe de la diffusion dans une geometrie a une dimension et calculs annexes: code MUDE

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Bore, C; Dandeu, Y; Saint-Amand, Ch [Commissariat a l' Energie Atomique, Saclay (France). Centre d' Etudes Nucleaires

    1965-07-01

    MUDE is a nuclear code written in FORTRAN II for IBM 7090-7094. It resolves a system of difference equations approximating to the one-dimensional multigroup neutron scattering problem. More precisely, this code makes it possible to: 1. Calculate the critical condition of a reactor (k{sub eff}, critical radius, critical composition) and the corresponding fluxes; 2. Calculate the associated fluxes and various subsidiary results; 3. Carry out perturbation calculations; 4. Study the propagation of fluxes at a distance; 5. Estimate the relative contributions of the cross sections (macroscopic or microscopic); 6. Study the changes with time of the composition of the reactor. (authors) [French] MUDE est un code nucleaire ecrit en FORTRAN II pour IBM 7090-7094. Il resout un systeme d'equations aux differences approchant le probleme de diffusion neutronique multigroupe a une dimension. Plus precisement ce code permet de: 1. Calculer la condition critique d'un reacteur (k{sub eff}, rayon critique, composition critique) et les flux correspondants; 2. Calculer les flux adjoints et divers resultats connexes; 3. Effectuer des calculs de perturbation; 4. Etudier la propagation des flux a longue distance; 5. Ponderer des sections efficaces (macroscopiques ou microscopiques); 6. Etudier l'evolution de la composition du reacteur au cours du temps. (auteurs)

  16. The dynamics of molecular dimers in the crystals of m-aminobenzoic acid studied by inelastic neutron scattering (INS), Raman, IR spectroscopy and DFT calculations

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Pawlukojc, A.; Leciejewicz, J

    2004-03-29

    Inelastic neutron scattering, Raman and IR spectra were measured for m-aminobenzoic acid (MABA). Optimized geometries and observed frequencies were assigned using DFT calculation on the B3LYP/6-311G** level using Gaussian 98 and Gamess programs. Experimental structural and spectroscopic data are in good agreement with computations assuming the presence in the crystals of molecular dimers composed of two MABA molecules linked by a pair of O-H...O hydrogen bonds each provided by the carboxylic group. INS frequencies have been identified for the O-H (out of plane) mod0008.

  17. A conversion method of air kerma from the primary, scatter, and leakage radiations to effective dose for calculating x-ray shielding barriers in mammography

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Kharrati, Hedi

    2005-01-01

    In this study, a new approach has been introduced for derivation of the effective dose from air kerma to calculate shielding requirements in mammography facilities. This new approach has been used to compute the conversion coefficients relating air kerma to the effective dose for the mammography reference beam series of the Netherlands Metrology Institute Van Swinden Laboratorium, National Institute of Standards and Technology, and International Atomic Energy Agency laboratories. The results show that, in all cases, the effective dose in mammography energy range is less than 25% of the incident air kerma for the primary and the scatter radiations and does not exceed 75% for the leakage radiation

  18. Quantization of an electromagnetic field in two-dimensional photonic structures based on the scattering matrix formalism ( S-quantization)

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ivanov, K. A.; Nikolaev, V. V.; Gubaydullin, A. R.; Kaliteevski, M. A.

    2017-10-01

    Based on the scattering matrix formalism, we have developed a method of quantization of an electromagnetic field in two-dimensional photonic nanostructures ( S-quantization in the two-dimensional case). In this method, the fields at the boundaries of the quantization box are expanded into a Fourier series and are related with each other by the scattering matrix of the system, which is the product of matrices describing the propagation of plane waves in empty regions of the quantization box and the scattering matrix of the photonic structure (or an arbitrary inhomogeneity). The quantization condition (similarly to the onedimensional case) is formulated as follows: the eigenvalues of the scattering matrix are equal to unity, which corresponds to the fact that the set of waves that are incident on the structure (components of the expansion into the Fourier series) is equal to the set of waves that travel away from the structure (outgoing waves). The coefficients of the matrix of scattering through the inhomogeneous structure have been calculated using the following procedure: the structure is divided into parallel layers such that the permittivity in each layer varies only along the axis that is perpendicular to the layers. Using the Fourier transform, the Maxwell equations have been written in the form of a matrix that relates the Fourier components of the electric field at the boundaries of neighboring layers. The product of these matrices is the transfer matrix in the basis of the Fourier components of the electric field. Represented in a block form, it is composed by matrices that contain the reflection and transmission coefficients for the Fourier components of the field, which, in turn, constitute the scattering matrix. The developed method considerably simplifies the calculation scheme for the analysis of the behavior of the electromagnetic field in structures with a two-dimensional inhomogeneity. In addition, this method makes it possible to obviate

  19. Structure of 14C via elastic and inelastic neutron scattering from 13C: Measurement, R-matrix analysis, and shell model calculations

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Resler, D.A.

    1987-03-01

    The specific purpose of this work is to provide a better understanding of the 14 C level structure; the general purpose is to provide the details for using shell model calculations in R-matrix analyses. Using the TOF facilities of the Ohio University Accelerator Laboratory, the elastic and first 3 inelastic differential scattering cross sections for 13 C + n were measured at 69 energies for 4.5 ≤ E/sub n/ ≤ 11 MeV. A multiple scattering code was developed which provided a simulation of the experimental scattering process allowing accurate corrections to the small inelastic data. The integrated 13 C(n,α) 10 Be cross section is estimated. The sequential 2n-decay of 14 C states populated by 13 C + n was observed. A shell model code was developed. Normal and nonnormal parity calculations were made for the lithium isotopes using a new two-body interaction. The results for 5 Li predict the 2s/sub 1/2/ and 1d/sub 5/2/ single-particle states to be located below the 3/2 + state. Similar calculations were made for 13 C, 13 N, and 14 C. Results for 13 C and 13 N show for E/sub x/ 7 Li and 14 C, 2 h-barω calculations were done. Shell model calculations generated the R-matrix parameters for the elastic and first 3 inelastic channels of 13 C + n. After adjusting some energies, the predicted structure generally agrees with experiment for E/sub n/ 13 C + n data were refit to replace R 0 background terms by more realistic broad states and to get better agreement with model calculations. R-matrix fitting of the full data set produced new 14 C level information. For E/sub n/ > 4 MeV (E/sub x/ > 12 MeV), 5 states are given definite J/sup π/ assignments; 3, tentative assignments. 122 refs., 91 figs., 30 tabs

  20. Electronic structure and related properties of ferrocyanide ion calculated by the SCF Xα-scattered wave method

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Guenzburger, D.; Maffeo, B.; Siqueira, M.L. de

    1975-08-01

    The SCF-XαSW method is used to calculate the electronic structure of the ferrocyanide ion. Optical transitions and X-Ray photoelectron emission are obtained from the energy level scheme and compared with experimental results. The charge density in the Fe nucleus is also computed and the result is correlated with isomer shift measurements made on this and other Fe complexes for which theoretical calculations have been performed

  1. The PHREEQE Geochemical equilibrium code data base and calculations

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Andersoon, K.

    1987-01-01

    Compilation of a thermodynamic data base for actinides and fission products for use with PHREEQE has begun and a preliminary set of actinide data has been tested for the PHREEQE code in a version run on an IBM XT computer. The work until now has shown that the PHREEQE code mostly gives satisfying results for specification of actinides in natural water environment. For U and Np under oxidizing conditions, however, the code has difficulties to converge with pH and Eh conserved when a solubility limit is applied. For further calculations of actinide and fission product specification and solubility in a waste repository and in the surrounding geosphere, more data are needed. It is necessary to evaluate the influence of the large uncertainties of some data. A quality assurance and a check on the consistency of the data base is also needed. Further work with data bases should include: an extension to fission products, an extension to engineering materials, an extension to other ligands than hydroxide and carbonate, inclusion of more mineral phases, inclusion of enthalpy data, a control of primary references in order to decide if values from different compilations are taken from the same primary reference and contacts and discussions with other groups, working with actinide data bases, e.g. at the OECD/NEA and at the IAEA. (author)

  2. Commissioning and Validation of the First Monte Carlo Based Dose Calculation Algorithm Commercial Treatment Planning System in Mexico

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Larraga-Gutierrez, J. M.; Garcia-Garduno, O. A.; Hernandez-Bojorquez, M.; Galvan de la Cruz, O. O.; Ballesteros-Zebadua, P.

    2010-01-01

    This work presents the beam data commissioning and dose calculation validation of the first Monte Carlo (MC) based treatment planning system (TPS) installed in Mexico. According to the manufacturer specifications, the beam data commissioning needed for this model includes: several in-air and water profiles, depth dose curves, head-scatter factors and output factors (6x6, 12x12, 18x18, 24x24, 42x42, 60x60, 80x80 and 100x100 mm 2 ). Radiographic and radiochromic films, diode and ionization chambers were used for data acquisition. MC dose calculations in a water phantom were used to validate the MC simulations using comparisons with measured data. Gamma index criteria 2%/2 mm were used to evaluate the accuracy of MC calculations. MC calculated data show an excellent agreement for field sizes from 18x18 to 100x100 mm 2 . Gamma analysis shows that in average, 95% and 100% of the data passes the gamma index criteria for these fields, respectively. For smaller fields (12x12 and 6x6 mm 2 ) only 92% of the data meet the criteria. Total scatter factors show a good agreement ( 2 ) that show a error of 4.7%. MC dose calculations are accurate and precise for clinical treatment planning up to a field size of 18x18 mm 2 . Special care must be taken for smaller fields.

  3. A reconstruction algorithm for coherent scatter computed tomography based on filtered back-projection

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Stevendaal, U. van; Schlomka, J.-P.; Harding, A.; Grass, M.

    2003-01-01

    Coherent scatter computed tomography (CSCT) is a reconstructive x-ray imaging technique that yields the spatially resolved coherent-scatter form factor of the investigated object. Reconstruction from coherently scattered x-rays is commonly done using algebraic reconstruction techniques (ART). In this paper, we propose an alternative approach based on filtered back-projection. For the first time, a three-dimensional (3D) filtered back-projection technique using curved 3D back-projection lines is applied to two-dimensional coherent scatter projection data. The proposed algorithm is tested with simulated projection data as well as with projection data acquired with a demonstrator setup similar to a multi-line CT scanner geometry. While yielding comparable image quality as ART reconstruction, the modified 3D filtered back-projection algorithm is about two orders of magnitude faster. In contrast to iterative reconstruction schemes, it has the advantage that subfield-of-view reconstruction becomes feasible. This allows a selective reconstruction of the coherent-scatter form factor for a region of interest. The proposed modified 3D filtered back-projection algorithm is a powerful reconstruction technique to be implemented in a CSCT scanning system. This method gives coherent scatter CT the potential of becoming a competitive modality for medical imaging or nondestructive testing

  4. Field-based dynamic light scattering microscopy: theory and numerical analysis.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Joo, Chulmin; de Boer, Johannes F

    2013-11-01

    We present a theoretical framework for field-based dynamic light scattering microscopy based on a spectral-domain optical coherence phase microscopy (SD-OCPM) platform. SD-OCPM is an interferometric microscope capable of quantitative measurement of amplitude and phase of scattered light with high phase stability. Field-based dynamic light scattering (F-DLS) analysis allows for direct evaluation of complex-valued field autocorrelation function and measurement of localized diffusive and directional dynamic properties of biological and material samples with high spatial resolution. In order to gain insight into the information provided by F-DLS microscopy, theoretical and numerical analyses are performed to evaluate the effect of numerical aperture of the imaging optics. We demonstrate that sharp focusing of fields affects the measured diffusive and transport velocity, which leads to smaller values for the dynamic properties in the sample. An approach for accurately determining the dynamic properties of the samples is discussed.

  5. Library based x-ray scatter correction for dedicated cone beam breast CT

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Shi, Linxi; Zhu, Lei; Vedantham, Srinivasan; Karellas, Andrew

    2016-01-01

    Purpose: The image quality of dedicated cone beam breast CT (CBBCT) is limited by substantial scatter contamination, resulting in cupping artifacts and contrast-loss in reconstructed images. Such effects obscure the visibility of soft-tissue lesions and calcifications, which hinders breast cancer detection and diagnosis. In this work, we propose a library-based software approach to suppress scatter on CBBCT images with high efficiency, accuracy, and reliability. Methods: The authors precompute a scatter library on simplified breast models with different sizes using the GEANT4-based Monte Carlo (MC) toolkit. The breast is approximated as a semiellipsoid with homogeneous glandular/adipose tissue mixture. For scatter correction on real clinical data, the authors estimate the breast size from a first-pass breast CT reconstruction and then select the corresponding scatter distribution from the library. The selected scatter distribution from simplified breast models is spatially translated to match the projection data from the clinical scan and is subtracted from the measured projection for effective scatter correction. The method performance was evaluated using 15 sets of patient data, with a wide range of breast sizes representing about 95% of general population. Spatial nonuniformity (SNU) and contrast to signal deviation ratio (CDR) were used as metrics for evaluation. Results: Since the time-consuming MC simulation for library generation is precomputed, the authors’ method efficiently corrects for scatter with minimal processing time. Furthermore, the authors find that a scatter library on a simple breast model with only one input parameter, i.e., the breast diameter, sufficiently guarantees improvements in SNU and CDR. For the 15 clinical datasets, the authors’ method reduces the average SNU from 7.14% to 2.47% in coronal views and from 10.14% to 3.02% in sagittal views. On average, the CDR is improved by a factor of 1.49 in coronal views and 2.12 in sagittal

  6. Library based x-ray scatter correction for dedicated cone beam breast CT

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Shi, Linxi; Zhu, Lei, E-mail: leizhu@gatech.edu [Nuclear and Radiological Engineering and Medical Physics Programs, The George W. Woodruff School of Mechanical Engineering, Georgia Institute of Technology, Atlanta, Georgia 30332 (United States); Vedantham, Srinivasan; Karellas, Andrew [Department of Radiology, University of Massachusetts Medical School, Worcester, Massachusetts 01655 (United States)

    2016-08-15

    Purpose: The image quality of dedicated cone beam breast CT (CBBCT) is limited by substantial scatter contamination, resulting in cupping artifacts and contrast-loss in reconstructed images. Such effects obscure the visibility of soft-tissue lesions and calcifications, which hinders breast cancer detection and diagnosis. In this work, we propose a library-based software approach to suppress scatter on CBBCT images with high efficiency, accuracy, and reliability. Methods: The authors precompute a scatter library on simplified breast models with different sizes using the GEANT4-based Monte Carlo (MC) toolkit. The breast is approximated as a semiellipsoid with homogeneous glandular/adipose tissue mixture. For scatter correction on real clinical data, the authors estimate the breast size from a first-pass breast CT reconstruction and then select the corresponding scatter distribution from the library. The selected scatter distribution from simplified breast models is spatially translated to match the projection data from the clinical scan and is subtracted from the measured projection for effective scatter correction. The method performance was evaluated using 15 sets of patient data, with a wide range of breast sizes representing about 95% of general population. Spatial nonuniformity (SNU) and contrast to signal deviation ratio (CDR) were used as metrics for evaluation. Results: Since the time-consuming MC simulation for library generation is precomputed, the authors’ method efficiently corrects for scatter with minimal processing time. Furthermore, the authors find that a scatter library on a simple breast model with only one input parameter, i.e., the breast diameter, sufficiently guarantees improvements in SNU and CDR. For the 15 clinical datasets, the authors’ method reduces the average SNU from 7.14% to 2.47% in coronal views and from 10.14% to 3.02% in sagittal views. On average, the CDR is improved by a factor of 1.49 in coronal views and 2.12 in sagittal

  7. Tropospheric nitrogen dioxide inversions based on spectral measurements of scattered sunlight

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Vlemmix, T.

    2011-01-01

    This thesis describes the development of inversion methods for tropospheric nitrogen dioxide (NO2), based on ground based observations of scattered sunlight with themulti-axis differential optical absorption spectroscopy (MAX-DOAS) technique. NO2 is an atmospheric trace gas which, when present near

  8. A drainage data-based calculation method for coalbed permeability

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Lai, Feng-peng; Li, Zhi-ping; Fu, Ying-kun; Yang, Zhi-hao

    2013-01-01

    This paper establishes a drainage data-based calculation method for coalbed permeability. The method combines material balance and production equations. We use a material balance equation to derive the average pressure of the coalbed in the production process. The dimensionless water production index is introduced into the production equation for the water production stage. In the subsequent stage, which uses both gas and water, the gas and water production ratio is introduced to eliminate the effect of flush-flow radius, skin factor, and other uncertain factors in the calculation of coalbed methane permeability. The relationship between permeability and surface cumulative liquid production can be described as a single-variable cubic equation by derivation. The trend shows that the permeability initially declines and then increases after ten wells in the southern Qinshui coalbed methane field. The results show an exponential relationship between permeability and cumulative water production. The relationship between permeability and cumulative gas production is represented by a linear curve and that between permeability and surface cumulative liquid production is represented by a cubic polynomial curve. The regression result of the permeability and surface cumulative liquid production agrees with the theoretical mathematical relationship. (paper)

  9. New light on the Kr-(4p55s2) Feshbach resonances: high-resolution electron scattering experiments and B-spline R-matrix calculations

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Hoffmann, T H; Ruf, M-W; Hotop, H; Zatsarinny, O; Bartschat, K; Allan, M

    2010-01-01

    In a joint experimental and theoretical effort, we carried out a detailed study of electron scattering from Kr atoms in the energy range of the low-lying Kr - (4p 5 5s 2 ) Feshbach resonances. Absolute angle-differential cross sections for elastic electron scattering were measured over the energy range 9.3-10.3 eV with an energy width of about 13 meV at scattering angles between 10 deg. and 180 deg. Using several sets of elastic scattering phase shifts, a detailed analysis of the sharp Kr - (4p 5 5s 2 2 P 3/2 ) resonance was carried out, resulting in a resonance width of Γ 3/2 3.6(2) meV. By direct comparison with the position of the Ar - (3p 5 4s 2 2 P 3/2 ) resonance, the energy for the Kr - (4p 5 5s 2 2 P 3/2 ) resonance was determined as E 3/2 = 9.489(3) eV. A Fano-type fit of the higher lying Kr - (4p 5 5s 2 2 P 1/2 ) resonance yielded the resonance parameters Γ 1/2 = 33(5) meV and E 1/2 = 10.126(4) eV. In order to obtain additional insights, B-spline R-matrix calculations were performed for both the elastic and the inelastic cross sections above the threshold for 4p 5 5s excitation. They provide the total and angle-differential cross sections for excitation of long-lived and short-lived levels of the 4p 5 5s configuration in Kr and branching ratios for the decay of the Kr - (4p 5 5s 2 2 P 1/2 ) resonance into the three available exit channels. The results are compared with selected experimental data.

  10. Definition and calculation of bottom quark cross-sections in deep-inelastic scattering at HERA and De termination of their uncertainties

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Carli, T. E-mail: tancredi.carli@cern.ch; Chiochia, V.; Klimek, K

    2003-09-01

    The uncertainties involved in the calculation of bottom quark cross-sections in deep-inelastic scattering at HERA are studied in different phase space regions. Besides the inclusive bottom quark cross-section, definitions closer to the detector acceptance requiring at least one high energetic muon from the semi-leptonic bottom quark decay or a jet with high transverse energy are investigated. For each case the uncertainties due to the choice of the renormalisation and factorisation scale as well as the bottom quark mass are estimated in the perturbative NLO QCD calculation and furthermore uncertainties in the fragmentation of the bottom quark to a B-meson and in its semi-leptonic decay are discussed. (author)

  11. Definition and calculation of bottom quark cross-sections in deep-inelastic scattering at HERA and determination of their uncertainties

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Carli, T.; Chiochia, V. [Deutsches Elektronen-Synchrotron (DESY), Hamburg (Germany)]|[Hamburg Univ. (Germany). Inst. fuer Experimentalphysik; Klimek, K. [Hamburg Univ. (Germany). Inst. fuer Experimentalphysik

    2003-05-01

    The uncertainties involved in the calculation of bottom quark (b-quark) cross-sections in deep-inelastic scattering at HERA are studied in different phase space regions. Besides the inclusive b-quark cross-section, definitions closer to the detector acceptance requiring at least one high energetic muon from the semi-leptonic b-quark decay or a jet with high transverse energy are investigated. For each case the uncertainties due to the choice of the renormalisation and factorisation scale as well as the b-quark mass are estimated in the perturbative NLO QCD calculation and furthermore uncertainties in the fragmentation of the b-quark to a B-meson and in its semi-leptonic decay are discussed. (orig.)

  12. Coherent anti-Stokes Raman scattering microscopy with a photonic crystal fiber based light source

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Paulsen, H.N.; Hilligsøe, Karen Marie; Thøgersen, J.

    2003-01-01

    A coherent anti-Stokes Raman scattering microscope based on a Ti:sapphire femtosecond oscillator and a photonic crystal fiber is demonstrated. The nonlinear response of the fiber is used to generate the additional wavelength needed in the Raman process. The applicability of the setup is demonstra......A coherent anti-Stokes Raman scattering microscope based on a Ti:sapphire femtosecond oscillator and a photonic crystal fiber is demonstrated. The nonlinear response of the fiber is used to generate the additional wavelength needed in the Raman process. The applicability of the setup...

  13. Improved adiabatic calculation of muonic-hydrogen-atom cross sections. I. Isotopic exchange and elastic scattering in asymmetric collisions

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Cohen, J.S.; Struensee, M.C.

    1991-01-01

    The improved adiabatic representation is used in calculations of elastic and isotopic-exchange cross sections for asymmetric collisions of pμ, dμ, and tμ with bare p, d, and t nuclei and with H, D, and T atoms. This formulation dissociates properly, correcting a well-known deficiency of the standard adiabatic method for muonic-atom collisions, and includes some effects at zeroth order that are normally considered nonadiabatic. The electronic screening is calculated directly and precisely within the improved adiabatic description; it is found to be about 30% smaller in magnitude than the previously used value at large internuclear distances and to deviate considerably from the asymptotic form at small distances. The reactance matrices, needed for calculations of molecular-target effects, are given in tables

  14. A software-based x-ray scatter correction method for breast tomosynthesis

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Jia Feng, Steve Si; Sechopoulos, Ioannis

    2011-01-01

    Purpose: To develop a software-based scatter correction method for digital breast tomosynthesis (DBT) imaging and investigate its impact on the image quality of tomosynthesis reconstructions of both phantoms and patients. Methods: A Monte Carlo (MC) simulation of x-ray scatter, with geometry matching that of the cranio-caudal (CC) view of a DBT clinical prototype, was developed using the Geant4 toolkit and used to generate maps of the scatter-to-primary ratio (SPR) of a number of homogeneous standard-shaped breasts of varying sizes. Dimension-matched SPR maps were then deformed and registered to DBT acquisition projections, allowing for the estimation of the primary x-ray signal acquired by the imaging system. Noise filtering of the estimated projections was then performed to reduce the impact of the quantum noise of the x-ray scatter. Three dimensional (3D) reconstruction was then performed using the maximum likelihood-expectation maximization (MLEM) method. This process was tested on acquisitions of a heterogeneous 50/50 adipose/glandular tomosynthesis phantom with embedded masses, fibers, and microcalcifications and on acquisitions of patients. The image quality of the reconstructions of the scatter-corrected and uncorrected projections was analyzed by studying the signal-difference-to-noise ratio (SDNR), the integral of the signal in each mass lesion (integrated mass signal, IMS), and the modulation transfer function (MTF). Results: The reconstructions of the scatter-corrected projections demonstrated superior image quality. The SDNR of masses embedded in a 5 cm thick tomosynthesis phantom improved 60%-66%, while the SDNR of the smallest mass in an 8 cm thick phantom improved by 59% (p < 0.01). The IMS of the masses in the 5 cm thick phantom also improved by 15%-29%, while the IMS of the masses in the 8 cm thick phantom improved by 26%-62% (p < 0.01). Some embedded microcalcifications in the tomosynthesis phantoms were visible only in the scatter

  15. Goal based mesh adaptivity for fixed source radiation transport calculations

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Baker, C.M.J.; Buchan, A.G.; Pain, C.C.; Tollit, B.S.; Goffin, M.A.; Merton, S.R.; Warner, P.

    2013-01-01

    Highlights: ► Derives an anisotropic goal based error measure for shielding problems. ► Reduces the error in the detector response by optimizing the finite element mesh. ► Anisotropic adaptivity captures material interfaces using fewer elements than AMR. ► A new residual based on the numerical scheme chosen forms the error measure. ► The error measure also combines the forward and adjoint metrics in a novel way. - Abstract: In this paper, the application of goal based error measures for anisotropic adaptivity applied to shielding problems in which a detector is present is explored. Goal based adaptivity is important when the response of a detector is required to ensure that dose limits are adhered to. To achieve this, a dual (adjoint) problem is solved which solves the neutron transport equation in terms of the response variables, in this case the detector response. The methods presented can be applied to general finite element solvers, however, the derivation of the residuals are dependent on the underlying finite element scheme which is also discussed in this paper. Once error metrics for the forward and adjoint solutions have been formed they are combined using a novel approach. The two metrics are combined by forming the minimum ellipsoid that covers both the error metrics rather than taking the maximum ellipsoid that is contained within the metrics. Another novel approach used within this paper is the construction of the residual. The residual, used to form the goal based error metrics, is calculated from the subgrid scale correction which is inherent in the underlying spatial discretisation employed

  16. Optical diagnostics based on elastic scattering: An update of clinical demonstrations with the Optical Biopsy System

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Bigio, I.J.; Boyer, J.; Johnson, T.M.; Lacey, J.; Mourant, J.R. [Los Alamos National Lab., NM (United States); Conn, R. [Lovelace Medical Center, Albuquerque, NM (United States); Bohorfoush, A. [Wisconsin Medical School, Milwaukee, WI (United States)

    1994-10-01

    The Los Alamos National Laboratory has continued the development of the Optical Biopsy System (OBS) for noninvasive, real-time in situ diagnosis of tissue pathologies. Our clinical studies have expanded since the last Biomedical Optics Europe conference (Budapest, September 1993), and we report here on the latest results of clinical tests in gastrointestinal tract. The OBS invokes a unique approach to optical diagnosis of tissue pathologies based on the elastic scattering properties, over a wide range of wavelengths, of the tissue. The use of elastic scattering as the key to optical tissue diagnostics in the OBS is based on the fact that many tissue pathologies, including a majority of cancer forms, manifest significant architectural changes at the cellular and sub-cellular level. Since the cellular components that cause elastic scattering have dimensions typically on the order of visible to near-IR wavelengths, the elastic (Mie) scattering properties will be wavelength dependent. Thus, morphology and size changes can be expected to cause significant changes in an optical signature that is derived from the wavelength-dependence of elastic scattering. The OBS employs a small fiberoptic probe that is amenable to use with any endoscope or catheter, or to direct surface examination. The probe is designed to be used in optical contact with the tissue under examination and has separate illuminating and collecting fibers. Thus, the light that is collected and transmitted to the analyzing spectrometer must first scatter through a small volume of the tissue before entering the collection fiber(s). Consequently, the system is also sensitive to the optical absorption spectrum of the tissue, over an effective operating range of <300 to 950 nm, and such absorption adds valuable complexity to the scattering spectral signature.

  17. Calculation of radiative corrections to virtual compton scattering - absolute measurement of the energy of Jefferson Lab. electron beam (hall A) by a magnetic method: arc project

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Marchand, D.

    1998-11-01

    This thesis presents the radiative corrections to the virtual compton scattering and the magnetic method adopted in the Hall A at Jefferson Laboratory, to measure the electrons beam energy with an accuracy of 10 4 . The virtual compton scattering experiments allow the access to the generalised polarizabilities of the protons. The extraction of these polarizabilities is obtained by the experimental and theoretical cross sections comparison. That's why the systematic errors and the radiative effects of the experiments have to be controlled very seriously. In this scope, a whole calculation of the internal radiative corrections has been realised in the framework of the quantum electrodynamic. The method of the dimensional regularisation has been used to the treatment of the ultraviolet and infra-red divergences. The absolute measure method of the energy, takes into account the magnetic deviation, made up of eight identical dipoles. The energy is determined from the deviation angle calculation of the beam and the measure of the magnetic field integral along the deviation

  18. A preliminary study of breast cancer diagnosis using laboratory based small angle x-ray scattering

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Round, A R [Daresbury Laboratories, Warrington, WA4 4AD (United Kingdom); Wilkinson, S J [Daresbury Laboratories, Warrington, WA4 4AD (United Kingdom); Hall, C J [Daresbury Laboratories, Warrington, WA4 4AD (United Kingdom); Rogers, K D [Department of Materials and Medical Sciences, Cranfield University, Swindon, SN6 8LA (United Kingdom); Glatter, O [Department of Chemistry, University of Graz (Austria); Wess, T [School of Optometry and Vision Sciences, Cardiff University, Cardiff CF10 3NB, Wales (United Kingdom); Ellis, I O [Nottingham City Hospital, Nottingham (United Kingdom)

    2005-09-07

    Breast tissue collected from tumour samples and normal tissue from bi-lateral mastectomy procedures were examined using small angle x-ray scattering. Previous work has indicated that breast tissue disease diagnosis could be performed using small angle x-ray scattering (SAXS) from a synchrotron radiation source. The technique would be more useful to health services if it could be made to work using a conventional x-ray source. Consistent and reliable differences in x-ray scatter distributions were observed between samples from normal and tumour tissue samples using the laboratory based 'SAXSess' system. Albeit from a small number of samples, a sensitivity of 100% was obtained. This result encourages us to pursue the implementation of SAXS as a laboratory based diagnosis technique.

  19. A preliminary study of breast cancer diagnosis using laboratory based small angle x-ray scattering

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Round, A R; Wilkinson, S J; Hall, C J; Rogers, K D; Glatter, O; Wess, T; Ellis, I O

    2005-01-01

    Breast tissue collected from tumour samples and normal tissue from bi-lateral mastectomy procedures were examined using small angle x-ray scattering. Previous work has indicated that breast tissue disease diagnosis could be performed using small angle x-ray scattering (SAXS) from a synchrotron radiation source. The technique would be more useful to health services if it could be made to work using a conventional x-ray source. Consistent and reliable differences in x-ray scatter distributions were observed between samples from normal and tumour tissue samples using the laboratory based 'SAXSess' system. Albeit from a small number of samples, a sensitivity of 100% was obtained. This result encourages us to pursue the implementation of SAXS as a laboratory based diagnosis technique

  20. A preliminary study of breast cancer diagnosis using laboratory based small angle x-ray scattering

    Science.gov (United States)

    Round, A. R.; Wilkinson, S. J.; Hall, C. J.; Rogers, K. D.; Glatter, O.; Wess, T.; Ellis, I. O.

    2005-09-01

    Breast tissue collected from tumour samples and normal tissue from bi-lateral mastectomy procedures were examined using small angle x-ray scattering. Previous work has indicated that breast tissue disease diagnosis could be performed using small angle x-ray scattering (SAXS) from a synchrotron radiation source. The technique would be more useful to health services if it could be made to work using a conventional x-ray source. Consistent and reliable differences in x-ray scatter distributions were observed between samples from normal and tumour tissue samples using the laboratory based 'SAXSess' system. Albeit from a small number of samples, a sensitivity of 100% was obtained. This result encourages us to pursue the implementation of SAXS as a laboratory based diagnosis technique.

  1. Ab initio calculations of scattering cross sections of the three-body system (p ¯,e+,e- ) between the e-+H ¯(n =2 ) and e-+H ¯(n =3 ) thresholds

    Science.gov (United States)

    Valdes, Mateo; Dufour, Marianne; Lazauskas, Rimantas; Hervieux, Paul-Antoine

    2018-01-01

    The ab initio method based on the Faddeev-Merkuriev equations is used to calculate cross sections involving the (p ¯,e+,e-) three-body system, with an emphasis on antihydrogen formation (H ¯) via antiproton (p ¯) scattering on positronium. This system is studied in the energy range between the e-+H ¯(n =2 ) and the e-+H ¯(n =3 ) thresholds, where precisely calculated cross sections can be useful for future experiments (GBAR, AEGIS, etc.) aiming to produce antihydrogen atoms. A special treatment is developed to take into account the long-range charge-dipole interaction effect on the wave function. Emphasis is placed on the impact of Feshbach resonances and Gailitis-Damburg oscillations appearing in the vicinity of the p ¯+Ps (n =2 ) threshold.

  2. Movable Thomson scattering system based on optical fiber (TS-probe)

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Narihara, K.; Hayashi, H.

    2009-01-01

    This paper proposes a movable compact Thomson scattering (TS) system based on optical fibers (TS-probe). A TS-probe consists of a probe head, optical fiber, a laser-diode, polychromators and lock-in amplifiers. A laser beam optics and light collection optics are mounted rigidly on a probe head with a fixed scattering position. Laser light and scattered light are transmitted by flexible optical fibers, enabling us to move the TS-prove head freely during plasma discharge. The light signal scattered from an amplitude-modulated laser is detected against the plasma light based on the principle of the lock-in amplifier. With a modulated laser power of 300W, the scattered signal from a sheet plasma of 15 mm depth and n e -10 19 m -3 will be measured with 10% accuracy by setting the integrating time to 0.1 s. The TS-probe head is like a 1/20 model of the currently operating LHD-TS. (author)

  3. Dose calculation based on Cone Beam CT images

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Slot Thing, Rune

    in the pursuit of personalised adaptive radiotherapy. The main limiting factor in the extended use of CBCT imaging for personalised radiotherapy is the relatively poor CBCT image quality. The limited image quality of CBCT images is mainly caused by contamination from scattered radiation. There are, however......, several other factors contributing to the image quality degradation, and while one should, theoretically, be able to obtain CT-like image quality from CBCT scans, clinical image quality is often very far from this ideal realisation. The present thesis describes the investigation of potential image quality...... simulations to be performed prior to CBCT acquisition, and through optimisations of the simulation efficiency, simulations were performed in a time frame which allows a full clinical implementation of the method. In addition to the scatter estimation model, corrections for additional artefacts arising from...

  4. Volume-based geometric modeling for radiation transport calculations

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Li, Z.; Williamson, J.F.

    1992-01-01

    Accurate theoretical characterization of radiation fields is a valuable tool in the design of complex systems, such as linac heads and intracavitary applicators, and for generation of basic dose calculation data that is inaccessible to experimental measurement. Both Monte Carlo and deterministic solutions to such problems require a system for accurately modeling complex 3-D geometries that supports ray tracing, point and segment classification, and 2-D graphical representation. Previous combinatorial approaches to solid modeling, which involve describing complex structures as set-theoretic combinations of simple objects, are limited in their ease of use and place unrealistic constraints on the geometric relations between objects such as excluding common boundaries. A new approach to volume-based solid modeling has been developed which is based upon topologically consistent definitions of boundary, interior, and exterior of a region. From these definitions, FORTRAN union, intersection, and difference routines have been developed that allow involuted and deeply nested structures to be described as set-theoretic combinations of ellipsoids, elliptic cylinders, prisms, cones, and planes that accommodate shared boundaries. Line segments between adjacent intersections on a trajectory are assigned to the appropriate region by a novel sorting algorithm that generalizes upon Siddon's approach. Two 2-D graphic display tools are developed to help the debugging of a given geometric model. In this paper, the mathematical basis of our system is described, it is contrasted to other approaches, and examples are discussed

  5. Design calculations for a xenon plasma x-ray shield to protect the NIF optical Thomson scattering diagnostic

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Swadling, G. F.; Ross, J. S.; Datte, P.; Moody, J.; Divol, L.; Jones, O.; Landen, O. [Lawrence Livermore National Laboratory, Livermore, California 94550 (United States)

    2016-11-15

    An Optical Thomson Scattering (OTS) diagnostic is currently being developed for the National Ignition Facility (NIF) at Lawrence Livermore National Laboratory. This diagnostic is designed to make measurements of the hohlraum plasma parameters, such as the electron temperature and the density, during inertial confinement fusion (ICF) experiments. NIF ICF experiments present a very challenging environment for optical measurements; by their very nature, hohlraums produce intense soft x-ray emission, which can cause “blanking” (radiation induced opacity) of the radiation facing optical components. The soft x-ray fluence at the surface of the OTS blast shield, 60 cm from the hohlraum, is estimated to be ∼8 J cm{sup −2}. This is significantly above the expected threshold for the onset of “blanking” effects. A novel xenon plasma x-ray shield is proposed to protect the blast shield from x-rays and mitigate “blanking.” Estimates suggest that an areal density of 10{sup 19} cm{sup −2} Xe atoms will be sufficient to absorb 99.5% of the soft x-ray flux. Two potential designs for this shield are presented.

  6. Design calculations for a xenon plasma x-ray shield to protect the NIF optical Thomson scattering diagnostic.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Swadling, G F; Ross, J S; Datte, P; Moody, J; Divol, L; Jones, O; Landen, O

    2016-11-01

    An Optical Thomson Scattering (OTS) diagnostic is currently being developed for the National Ignition Facility (NIF) at Lawrence Livermore National Laboratory. This diagnostic is designed to make measurements of the hohlraum plasma parameters, such as the electron temperature and the density, during inertial confinement fusion (ICF) experiments. NIF ICF experiments present a very challenging environment for optical measurements; by their very nature, hohlraums produce intense soft x-ray emission, which can cause "blanking" (radiation induced opacity) of the radiation facing optical components. The soft x-ray fluence at the surface of the OTS blast shield, 60 cm from the hohlraum, is estimated to be ∼8 J cm -2 . This is significantly above the expected threshold for the onset of "blanking" effects. A novel xenon plasma x-ray shield is proposed to protect the blast shield from x-rays and mitigate "blanking." Estimates suggest that an areal density of 10 19 cm -2 Xe atoms will be sufficient to absorb 99.5% of the soft x-ray flux. Two potential designs for this shield are presented.

  7. Optical noninvasive calculation of hemoglobin components concentrations and fractional oxygen saturation using a ring-scattering pulse oximeter

    Science.gov (United States)

    Abdallah, Omar; Stork, Wilhelm; Muller-Glaser, Klaus

    2004-06-01

    The deficiencies of the currently used pulse oximeter are discussed in diverse literature. A hazardous pitfalls of this method is that the pulse oximeter will not detect carboxyhemoglobin (COHb) and methemoglobin (metHb) concentrations. This leads to incorrect measurement of oxygen saturation by carbon monoxide poisoning and methemoglobinemia. Also the total hemoglobin concentration will not be considered and can only be measured in-vitro up to now. A second pitfall of the standard pulse oximetry is that it will not be able to show a result by low perfusion of tissues. This case is available inter alia when the patient is under shock or has a low blood pressure. The new non-invasive system we designed measures the actual (fractional) oxygen saturation and hemoglobin concentration. It will enable us also to measure COHb and metHb. The measurement can be applied at better perfused body central parts. Four or more light emitting diodes (LEDs) or laser diodes (LDs) and five photodiodes (PDs) are used. The reflected light signal detected by photodiodes is processed using a modified Lambert-Beer law (I=I0×e-α.d ). According to this law, when a non scattering probe is irradiated with light having the incident intensity I0, the intensity of transmitted light I decays exponentially with the absorption coefficient a of that probe and its thickness d. Modifications of this law have been performed following the theoretical developed models in literature, Monte Carlo simulation and experimental measurement.

  8. Comparison of CT number calibration techniques for CBCT-based dose calculation

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Dunlop, Alex; McQuaid, Dualta; Nill, Simeon; Hansen, Vibeke N.; Oelfke, Uwe; Murray, Julia; Bhide, Shreerang; Harrington, Kevin; Poludniowski, Gavin; Nutting, Christopher; Newbold, Kate

    2015-01-01

    The aim of this work was to compare and validate various computed tomography (CT) number calibration techniques with respect to cone beam CT (CBCT) dose calculation accuracy. CBCT dose calculation accuracy was assessed for pelvic, lung, and head and neck (H and N) treatment sites for two approaches: (1) physics-based scatter correction methods (CBCT r ); (2) density override approaches including assigning water density to the entire CBCT (W), assignment of either water or bone density (WB), and assignment of either water or lung density (WL). Methods for CBCT density assignment within a commercially available treatment planning system (RS auto ), where CBCT voxels are binned into six density levels, were assessed and validated. Dose-difference maps and dose-volume statistics were used to compare the CBCT dose distributions with the ground truth of a planning CT acquired the same day as the CBCT. For pelvic cases, all CTN calibration methods resulted in average dose-volume deviations below 1.5 %. RS auto provided larger than average errors for pelvic treatments for patients with large amounts of adipose tissue. For H and N cases, all CTN calibration methods resulted in average dose-volume differences below 1.0 % with CBCT r (0.5 %) and RS auto (0.6 %) performing best. For lung cases, WL and RS auto methods generated dose distributions most similar to the ground truth. The RS auto density override approach is an attractive option for CTN adjustments for a variety of anatomical sites. RS auto methods were validated, resulting in dose calculations that were consistent with those calculated on diagnostic-quality CT images, for CBCT images acquired of the lung, for patients receiving pelvic RT in cases without excess adipose tissue, and for H and N cases. (orig.) [de

  9. Comparison of two screening corrections to the additivity rule for the calculation of electron scattering from polyatomic molecules

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Blanco, F.; Rosado, J.; Illana, A.; Garcia, G.

    2010-01-01

    The SCAR and EGAR procedures have been proposed in order to extend to lower energies the applicability of the additivity rule for calculation of electron-molecule total cross sections. Both those approximate treatments arise after considering geometrical screening corrections due to partial overlapping of atoms in the molecule, as seen by the incident electrons. The main features, results and limitations of both treatments are put here in comparison by means of their application to some different sized species.

  10. Towards efficient ab initio calculations of electron scattering by polyatomic molecules: III. Modelling correlation-polarization interactions

    Czech Academy of Sciences Publication Activity Database

    Čurík, Roman; Šulc, M.

    2010-01-01

    Roč. 43, č. 17 (2010), s. 175205 ISSN 0953-4075 R&D Projects: GA MŠk(CZ) OC10046; GA MŠk OC09079; GA AV ČR KJB400400803; GA ČR GA202/08/0631 Institutional research plan: CEZ:AV0Z40400503 Keywords : Ab initio calculations * Commonly used * DFT potential Subject RIV: CF - Physical ; The oretical Chemistry Impact factor: 1.902, year: 2010

  11. 2D Static Light Scattering for Dairy Based Applications

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Skytte, Jacob Lercke

    from several different optical phenomena, which can be utilised to provide information on chemical composition and underlying microstructure of an investigated sample. The main goal of this thesis is to provide an exploratory study of the 2DSLS technique in relation to dairy based applications....... This includes getting an understanding of the various parameters in the setup as well as understanding the output signal in terms of potential and limitations. Furthermore, suitable ways of quantifying the signal are investigated. Here, both established physical models and statistical descriptions of the signal...

  12. New neutron-based isotopic analytical methods; An explorative study of resonance capture and incoherent scattering

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Perego, R.C.

    2004-01-01

    Two novel neutron-based analytical techniques have been treated in this thesis, Neutron Resonance Capture Analysis (NRCA), employing a pulsed neutron source, and Neutron Incoherent Scattering (NIS), making use of a cold neutron source. With the NRCA method isotopes are identified by the

  13. Status of Kharkov X-ray Generator based on Compton Scattering NESTOR

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Zelinsky, A.; Androsov, V.P.; Bulyak, E.V.; Drebot, I.; Gladkikh, P.I.; Grevtsev, V.; Botman, J.I.M.; Ivashchenko, V.; Karnaukhov, I.M.; Lapshin, V.I.; Markov, V.; Mocheshnikov, N.; Mytsykov, A.; Peev, F.A.; Rezaev, A.; Shcherbakov, A.; Skomorkohov, V.; Skyrda, V.; Telegin, Y.; Trotsenko, V.; Tatchyn, R.; Lebedev, B.; Agafonov, A.V.

    2004-01-01

    Nowadays the sources of the X-rays based on a storage ring with low beam energy and Compton scattering of intense laser beam are under development in several laboratories. In the paper the state-of-art in development and construction of cooperative project of a Kharkov advanced X-ray source NESTOR

  14. Diffuse reflectance relations based on diffusion dipole theory for large absorption and reduced scattering

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Bremmer, Rolf H.; van Gemert, Martin J. C.; Faber, Dirk J.; van Leeuwen, Ton G.; Aalders, Maurice C. G.

    2013-01-01

    Diffuse reflectance spectra are used to determine the optical properties of biological samples. In medicine and forensic science, the turbid objects under study often possess large absorption and/or scattering properties. However, data analysis is frequently based on the diffusion approximation to

  15. Structure of unilamellar vesicles: Numerical analysis based on small-angle neutron scattering data

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Zemlyanaya, E. V.; Kiselev, M. A.; Zbytovska, J.; Almasy, L.; Aswal, V. K.; Strunz, P.; Wartewig, S.; Neubert, R.

    2006-01-01

    The structure of polydispersed populations of unilamellar vesicles is studied by small-angle neutron scattering for three types of lipid systems, namely, single-, two-and four-component vesicular systems. Results of the numerical analysis based on the separated-form-factor model are reported

  16. Folding model analysis of the nucleus–nucleus scattering based on ...

    Indian Academy of Sciences (India)

    ... Lecture Workshops · Refresher Courses · Symposia · Live Streaming. Home; Journals; Pramana – Journal of Physics; Volume 87; Issue 6. Folding model analysis of the nucleus–nucleus scattering based on Jacobi coordinates. F PAKDEL A A RAJABI L NICKHAH. Regular Volume 87 Issue 6 December 2016 Article ID 90 ...

  17. Simulation on scattering features of biological tissue based on generated refractive-index model

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Wang Baoyong; Ding Zhihua

    2011-01-01

    Important information on morphology of biological tissue can be deduced from elastic scattering spectra, and their analyses are based on the known refractive-index model of tissue. In this paper, a new numerical refractive-index model is put forward, and its scattering properties are intensively studied. Spectral decomposition [1] is a widely used method to generate random medium in geology, but it is never used in biology. Biological tissue is different from geology in the sense of random medium. Autocorrelation function describe almost all of features in geology, but biological tissue is not as random as geology, its structure is regular in the sense of fractal geometry [2] , and fractal dimension can be used to describe its regularity under random. Firstly scattering theories of this fractal media are reviewed. Secondly the detailed generation process of refractive-index is presented. Finally the scattering features are simulated in FDTD (Finite Difference Time Domain) Solutions software. From the simulation results, we find that autocorrelation length and fractal dimension controls scattering feature of biological tissue.

  18. Real-time, ray casting-based scatter dose estimation for c-arm x-ray system.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Alnewaini, Zaid; Langer, Eric; Schaber, Philipp; David, Matthias; Kretz, Dominik; Steil, Volker; Hesser, Jürgen

    2017-03-01

    Dosimetric control of staff exposure during interventional procedures under fluoroscopy is of high relevance. In this paper, a novel ray casting approximation of radiation transport is presented and the potential and limitation vs. a full Monte Carlo transport and dose measurements are discussed. The x-ray source of a Siemens Axiom Artix C-arm is modeled by a virtual source model using single Gaussian-shaped source. A Geant4-based Monte Carlo simulation determines the radiation transport from the source to compute scatter from the patient, the table, the ceiling and the floor. A phase space around these scatterers stores all photon information. Only those photons are traced that hit a surface of phantom that represents medical staff in the treatment room, no indirect scattering is considered; and a complete dose deposition on the surface is calculated. To evaluate the accuracy of the approximation, both experimental measurements using Thermoluminescent dosimeters (TLDs) and a Geant4-based Monte Carlo simulation of dose depositing for different tube angulations of the C-arm from cranial-caudal angle 0° and from LAO (Left Anterior Oblique) 0°-90° are realized. Since the measurements were performed on both sides of the table, using the symmetry of the setup, RAO (Right Anterior Oblique) measurements were not necessary. The Geant4-Monte Carlo simulation agreed within 3% with the measured data, which is within the accuracy of measurement and simulation. The ray casting approximation has been compared to TLD measurements and the achieved percentage difference was -7% for data from tube angulations 45°-90° and -29% from tube angulations 0°-45° on the side of the x-ray source, whereas on the opposite side of the x-ray source, the difference was -83.8% and -75%, respectively. Ray casting approximation for only LAO 90° was compared to a Monte Carlo simulation, where the percentage differences were between 0.5-3% on the side of the x-ray source where the highest dose

  19. Method of characteristics - Based sensitivity calculations for international PWR benchmark

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Suslov, I. R.; Tormyshev, I. V.; Komlev, O. G.

    2013-01-01

    Method to calculate sensitivity of fractional-linear neutron flux functionals to transport equation coefficients is proposed. Implementation of the method on the basis of MOC code MCCG3D is developed. Sensitivity calculations for fission intensity for international PWR benchmark are performed. (authors)

  20. Development of a practical image-based scatter correction method for brain perfusion SPECT: comparison with the TEW method

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Shidahara, Miho; Kato, Takashi; Kawatsu, Shoji; Yoshimura, Kumiko; Ito, Kengo; Watabe, Hiroshi; Kim, Kyeong Min; Iida, Hidehiro; Kato, Rikio

    2005-01-01

    An image-based scatter correction (IBSC) method was developed to convert scatter-uncorrected into scatter-corrected SPECT images. The purpose of this study was to validate this method by means of phantom simulations and human studies with 99m Tc-labeled tracers, based on comparison with the conventional triple energy window (TEW) method. The IBSC method corrects scatter on the reconstructed image I AC μb with Chang's attenuation correction factor. The scatter component image is estimated by convolving I AC μb with a scatter function followed by multiplication with an image-based scatter fraction function. The IBSC method was evaluated with Monte Carlo simulations and 99m Tc-ethyl cysteinate dimer SPECT human brain perfusion studies obtained from five volunteers. The image counts and contrast of the scatter-corrected images obtained by the IBSC and TEW methods were compared. Using data obtained from the simulations, the image counts and contrast of the scatter-corrected images obtained by the IBSC and TEW methods were found to be nearly identical for both gray and white matter. In human brain images, no significant differences in image contrast were observed between the IBSC and TEW methods. The IBSC method is a simple scatter correction technique feasible for use in clinical routine. (orig.)

  1. Development of a practical image-based scatter correction method for brain perfusion SPECT: comparison with the TEW method

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Shidahara, Miho; Kato, Takashi; Kawatsu, Shoji; Yoshimura, Kumiko; Ito, Kengo [National Center for Geriatrics and Gerontology Research Institute, Department of Brain Science and Molecular Imaging, Obu, Aichi (Japan); Watabe, Hiroshi; Kim, Kyeong Min; Iida, Hidehiro [National Cardiovascular Center Research Institute, Department of Investigative Radiology, Suita (Japan); Kato, Rikio [National Center for Geriatrics and Gerontology, Department of Radiology, Obu (Japan)

    2005-10-01

    An image-based scatter correction (IBSC) method was developed to convert scatter-uncorrected into scatter-corrected SPECT images. The purpose of this study was to validate this method by means of phantom simulations and human studies with {sup 99m}Tc-labeled tracers, based on comparison with the conventional triple energy window (TEW) method. The IBSC method corrects scatter on the reconstructed image I{sub AC}{sup {mu}}{sup b} with Chang's attenuation correction factor. The scatter component image is estimated by convolving I{sub AC}{sup {mu}}{sup b} with a scatter function followed by multiplication with an image-based scatter fraction function. The IBSC method was evaluated with Monte Carlo simulations and {sup 99m}Tc-ethyl cysteinate dimer SPECT human brain perfusion studies obtained from five volunteers. The image counts and contrast of the scatter-corrected images obtained by the IBSC and TEW methods were compared. Using data obtained from the simulations, the image counts and contrast of the scatter-corrected images obtained by the IBSC and TEW methods were found to be nearly identical for both gray and white matter. In human brain images, no significant differences in image contrast were observed between the IBSC and TEW methods. The IBSC method is a simple scatter correction technique feasible for use in clinical routine. (orig.)

  2. Development of a practical image-based scatter correction method for brain perfusion SPECT: comparison with the TEW method.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Shidahara, Miho; Watabe, Hiroshi; Kim, Kyeong Min; Kato, Takashi; Kawatsu, Shoji; Kato, Rikio; Yoshimura, Kumiko; Iida, Hidehiro; Ito, Kengo

    2005-10-01

    An image-based scatter correction (IBSC) method was developed to convert scatter-uncorrected into scatter-corrected SPECT images. The purpose of this study was to validate this method by means of phantom simulations and human studies with 99mTc-labeled tracers, based on comparison with the conventional triple energy window (TEW) method. The IBSC method corrects scatter on the reconstructed image I(mub)AC with Chang's attenuation correction factor. The scatter component image is estimated by convolving I(mub)AC with a scatter function followed by multiplication with an image-based scatter fraction function. The IBSC method was evaluated with Monte Carlo simulations and 99mTc-ethyl cysteinate dimer SPECT human brain perfusion studies obtained from five volunteers. The image counts and contrast of the scatter-corrected images obtained by the IBSC and TEW methods were compared. Using data obtained from the simulations, the image counts and contrast of the scatter-corrected images obtained by the IBSC and TEW methods were found to be nearly identical for both gray and white matter. In human brain images, no significant differences in image contrast were observed between the IBSC and TEW methods. The IBSC method is a simple scatter correction technique feasible for use in clinical routine.

  3. Re-evaluation of model-based light-scattering spectroscopy for tissue spectroscopy

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lau, Condon; Šćepanović, Obrad; Mirkovic, Jelena; McGee, Sasha; Yu, Chung-Chieh; Fulghum, Stephen; Wallace, Michael; Tunnell, James; Bechtel, Kate; Feld, Michael

    2009-01-01

    Model-based light scattering spectroscopy (LSS) seemed a promising technique for in-vivo diagnosis of dysplasia in multiple organs. In the studies, the residual spectrum, the difference between the observed and modeled diffuse reflectance spectra, was attributed to single elastic light scattering from epithelial nuclei, and diagnostic information due to nuclear changes was extracted from it. We show that this picture is incorrect. The actual single scattering signal arising from epithelial nuclei is much smaller than the previously computed residual spectrum, and does not have the wavelength dependence characteristic of Mie scattering. Rather, the residual spectrum largely arises from assuming a uniform hemoglobin distribution. In fact, hemoglobin is packaged in blood vessels, which alters the reflectance. When we include vessel packaging, which accounts for an inhomogeneous hemoglobin distribution, in the diffuse reflectance model, the reflectance is modeled more accurately, greatly reducing the amplitude of the residual spectrum. These findings are verified via numerical estimates based on light propagation and Mie theory, tissue phantom experiments, and analysis of published data measured from Barrett’s esophagus. In future studies, vessel packaging should be included in the model of diffuse reflectance and use of model-based LSS should be discontinued. PMID:19405760

  4. Calculating Quenching Weights

    CERN Document Server

    Salgado, C A; Salgado, Carlos A.; Wiedemann, Urs Achim

    2003-01-01

    We calculate the probability (``quenching weight'') that a hard parton radiates an additional energy fraction due to scattering in spatially extended QCD matter. This study is based on an exact treatment of finite in-medium path length, it includes the case of a dynamically expanding medium, and it extends to the angular dependence of the medium-induced gluon radiation pattern. All calculations are done in the multiple soft scattering approximation (Baier-Dokshitzer-Mueller-Peign\\'e-Schiff--Zakharov ``BDMPS-Z''-formalism) and in the single hard scattering approximation (N=1 opacity approximation). By comparison, we establish a simple relation between transport coefficient, Debye screening mass and opacity, for which both approximations lead to comparable results. Together with this paper, a CPU-inexpensive numerical subroutine for calculating quenching weights is provided electronically. To illustrate its applications, we discuss the suppression of hadronic transverse momentum spectra in nucleus-nucleus colli...

  5. Lattice dynamics at high pressure: application of inelastic X-ray scattering and ab-initio calculations -MgO at 35 GPa

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Ghose, Subrata

    2006-01-01

    Full text: Until recently, inelastic neutron scattering (INS) has been extensively used to study the phonon dispersion throughout the Brillouin zone and phonon density of states in crystalline materials. The weak interaction of neutrons with matter and the typical size of the neutron beams require the use of cm-size single crystals that puts an upper limit to the measurement of phonon dispersion at high pressure to about 10-15 Gpa by INS. Inelastic X-ray scattering (IXS) using third generation synchrotron sources now makes it possible to measure the phonon dispersion at high pressures up to 50 GP A in crystals tens of microns in size mounted in a diamond-anvil cell, usually using He as the pressure transmitting medium. We have used this technique to measure the longitudinal acoustic and optic phonon branches of MgO along the Γ-X direction at 35 Gpa. The experimentally observed phonon-branches are in remarkable agreement with ab-initio quantum mechanical calculations using the density-functional perturbation theory. The derived thermodynamic properties, such as specific heat and the entropy are in very good agreement with values obtained from a thermodynamically assessed data set

  6. Adjoint Monte-Carlo method with fictitious scattering in deep penetration and long-distance detector calculations

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Andreucci, N.

    1985-04-01

    Deep penetration transport problems in complex systems joint to heterogeneous source (Q) sampling give rise to some difficulties in evaluating leakage and fluxes on a detector point. To overcome these difficulties we have solved both the adjoint Boltzmann flux (phi*) equation and following scalar-dual equation: ∫Qphi* dP - ∫Q*phi dP = ∫phiphi* Ω . n dΣ dΩ dE dt + ∫ [phiphi*]sub(0)sup(T)/v dr dΩ dE D = (phase space). With a suitable choice for the domain D, for Q* and for the boundary conditions, an adjoint flux calculation allows us to obtain simultaneously the Q-source contribution and the detection (or leakage) spectrum. Compared to direct methods with importance sampling, the adjoint methods give very low-cost and faithful results

  7. Hindered rotational energy barriers of BH4- tetrahedra in β-Mg(BH4)2 from quasielastic neutron scattering and DFT calculations

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Blanchard, Didier; Maronsson, Jon Bergmann; Riktor, M.D.

    2012-01-01

    , around the 2-fold (C2) and 3-fold (C3) axes were observed at temperatures from 120 to 440 K. The experimentally obtained activation energies (EaC2 = 39 and 76 meV and EaC3 = 214 meV) and mean residence times between reorientational jumps are comparable with the energy barriers obtained from DFT......In this work, hindered rotations of the BH4- tetrahedra in Mg(BH4)2 were studied by quasielastic neutron scattering, using two instruments with different energy resolution, in combination with density functional theory (DFT) calculations. Two thermally activated reorientations of the BH4- units...... calculations. A linear dependency of the energy barriers for rotations around the C2 axis parallel to the Mg-Mg axis with the distance between these two axes was revealed by the DFT calculations. At the lowest temperature (120 K) only 15% of the BH4- units undergo rotational motion and from comparison with DFT...

  8. Calculation of the RPA response function of nuclei to quasi-elastic electron scattering with a density-dependent NN interaction

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Caillon, J-C.; Labarsouque, J.

    1997-01-01

    So far, the non-relativistic longitudinal and transverse functions in electron quasi-elastic scattering on the nuclei failed in reproducing satisfactorily the existent experimental data. The calculations including relativistic RPA correlations utilize until now the relativistic Hartree approximation to describe the nuclear matter. But, this provides an incompressibility module two times higher than its experimental value what is an important drawback for the calculation of realistic relativistic RPA correlations. Hence, we have determined the RPA response functions of nuclei by utilising a description of the relativistic nuclear matter leading to an incompressibility module in agreement with the empirical value. To do that we have utilized an interaction in the relativistic Hartree approximation in which we have determined the coupling constants σ-N and ω-N as a function of the density in order to reproduce the saturation curve obtained by a Dirac-Brueckner calculation. The results which we have obtained show that the longitudinal response function and the Coulomb sum generally overestimated when one utilizes the pure relativistic Hartree approximation, are here in good agreement with the experimental data for several nuclei

  9. The dc electrical conductivity calculation purely from the dissipative component of the ac conductivity II. formula for conductors with static scatterers

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Milinski, Nikola; Milinski, Eduard

    2001-01-01

    While the first part of this work was devoted to the conceptual and most crucial questions of the dc electrical conductivity σ, the present second part is devoted to the technical questions of the theory, to elaboration of the concept to the particular systems. The conducting system to be investigated has been defined here by five suppositions (postulates), rather general to include the systems of practical interest, like metals in solid and liquid phase are, and the amorphous conductors, like the alloys and conducting glasses are. A formula for dc conductivity calculation has been derived, which gives σ in terms of the matrix elements / k +g/F/Ψ k >/ 2 , where F is scattering force, and Ψ k +g, Ψ k , are the Bloch functions. For the case when Bloch functions are approximated by plane waves, an approximate formula for σ has been obtained in a more tractable form. Specific to our concept is the inclusion of an equation constitutive to σ calculation, which also has been elaborated for the considered system, to the stage suitable for practical application, σ calculation in conjunction with the mentioned constitutive equation is the most important innovative element of our concept, and we expect it will lead to substantial advance in research of this subject. (authors)

  10. Oxygen-metal bonding in Ti-bearing compounds from O 1s spectra and ab initio full multiple-scattering calculations

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Ziyu Wu; Paris, E.; Langenhorst, F.; Seifert, F.

    2002-01-01

    The O K-edge spectra of a series of Ti-bearing compounds with Ti in diffrent structural and chemical environments have been measured using electron energy-loss spectroscopy and analyzed using ab initio full multiple-scattering (MS) calculations. The near-edge structures arise mainly from covalency by direct and/or indirect interaction between O and metal atoms and between O and Si atoms. The coordination number of the cation and the site symmetry also influence the spectral shape and structures. Using different size clusters around the excited atom in the full MS simulation, it is possible to interpret and assign the features present in the spectra of each compund to its specific atomic arrangement and electronic structure. (au)

  11. Transport dynamics calculated under the full Mie scattering theory for micron and submicron lunar ejecta in selenocentric, cislunar, and geocentric space

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hyde, T. W.; Alexander, W. M.

    1989-01-01

    In 1967, Lunar Explorer 35 was launched from the earth and placed into a stable orbit around the moon. The data from the dust particle experiment on this spacecraft were essentially continuous over a 5-yr period from the time of insertion in lunar orbit. Analysis of this data has been interpreted to show that micron-sized lunar ejecta leave the moon and traverse through selenocentric and cislunar space and obtain either interplanetary/heliocentric orbits or intercept the earth's magnetosphere and move into geocentric orbits. Extensive studies of the orbital trajectories of lunar particles in this size range have now been conducted that include a calculation of the solar radiation force using the full Mie scattering theory. A significant flux of particles with radii less than 0.1 micron are found to intercept the earth's magnetopause surface. This flux is shown to be strongly dependent upon both the particle's density and its index of refraction.

  12. Brillouin Scattering Spectrum Analysis Based on Auto-Regressive Spectral Estimation

    Science.gov (United States)

    Huang, Mengyun; Li, Wei; Liu, Zhangyun; Cheng, Linghao; Guan, Bai-Ou

    2018-06-01

    Auto-regressive (AR) spectral estimation technology is proposed to analyze the Brillouin scattering spectrum in Brillouin optical time-domain refelectometry. It shows that AR based method can reliably estimate the Brillouin frequency shift with an accuracy much better than fast Fourier transform (FFT) based methods provided the data length is not too short. It enables about 3 times improvement over FFT at a moderate spatial resolution.

  13. Brillouin Scattering Spectrum Analysis Based on Auto-Regressive Spectral Estimation

    Science.gov (United States)

    Huang, Mengyun; Li, Wei; Liu, Zhangyun; Cheng, Linghao; Guan, Bai-Ou

    2018-03-01

    Auto-regressive (AR) spectral estimation technology is proposed to analyze the Brillouin scattering spectrum in Brillouin optical time-domain refelectometry. It shows that AR based method can reliably estimate the Brillouin frequency shift with an accuracy much better than fast Fourier transform (FFT) based methods provided the data length is not too short. It enables about 3 times improvement over FFT at a moderate spatial resolution.

  14. Kowledge-based dynamic network safety calculations. Wissensbasierte dynamische Netzsicherheitsberechnungen

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Kulicke, B [Inst. fuer Hochspannungstechnik und Starkstromanlagen, Berlin (Germany); Schlegel, S [Inst. fuer Hochspannungstechnik und Starkstromanlagen, Berlin (Germany)

    1993-06-28

    An important part of network operation management is the estimation and maintenance of the security of supply. So far the control personnel has only been supported by static network analyses and safety calculations. The authors describe an expert system, which is coupled to a real time simulation program on a transputer basis, for dynamic network safety calculations. They also introduce the system concept and the most important functions of the expert system. (orig.)

  15. Hybrid Electric Vehicle Control Strategy Based on Power Loss Calculations

    OpenAIRE

    Boyd, Steven J

    2006-01-01

    Defining an operation strategy for a Split Parallel Architecture (SPA) Hybrid Electric Vehicle (HEV) is accomplished through calculating powertrain component losses. The results of these calculations define how the vehicle can decrease fuel consumption while maintaining low vehicle emissions. For a HEV, simply operating the vehicle's engine in its regions of high efficiency does not guarantee the most efficient vehicle operation. The results presented are meant only to define a literal str...

  16. A model-based radiography restoration method based on simple scatter-degradation scheme for improving image visibility

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kim, K.; Kang, S.; Cho, H.; Kang, W.; Seo, C.; Park, C.; Lee, D.; Lim, H.; Lee, H.; Kim, G.; Park, S.; Park, J.; Kim, W.; Jeon, D.; Woo, T.; Oh, J.

    2018-02-01

    In conventional planar radiography, image visibility is often limited mainly due to the superimposition of the object structure under investigation and the artifacts caused by scattered x-rays and noise. Several methods, including computed tomography (CT) as a multiplanar imaging modality, air-gap and grid techniques for the reduction of scatters, phase-contrast imaging as another image-contrast modality, etc., have extensively been investigated in attempt to overcome these difficulties. However, those methods typically require higher x-ray doses or special equipment. In this work, as another approach, we propose a new model-based radiography restoration method based on simple scatter-degradation scheme where the intensity of scattered x-rays and the transmission function of a given object are estimated from a single x-ray image to restore the original degraded image. We implemented the proposed algorithm and performed an experiment to demonstrate its viability. Our results indicate that the degradation of image characteristics by scattered x-rays and noise was effectively recovered by using the proposed method, which improves the image visibility in radiography considerably.

  17. Sensitivity Analysis of the Scattering-Based SARBM3D Despeckling Algorithm.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Di Simone, Alessio

    2016-06-25

    Synthetic Aperture Radar (SAR) imagery greatly suffers from multiplicative speckle noise, typical of coherent image acquisition sensors, such as SAR systems. Therefore, a proper and accurate despeckling preprocessing step is almost mandatory to aid the interpretation and processing of SAR data by human users and computer algorithms, respectively. Very recently, a scattering-oriented version of the popular SAR Block-Matching 3D (SARBM3D) despeckling filter, named Scattering-Based (SB)-SARBM3D, was proposed. The new filter is based on the a priori knowledge of the local topography of the scene. In this paper, an experimental sensitivity analysis of the above-mentioned despeckling algorithm is carried out, and the main results are shown and discussed. In particular, the role of both electromagnetic and geometrical parameters of the surface and the impact of its scattering behavior are investigated. Furthermore, a comprehensive sensitivity analysis of the SB-SARBM3D filter against the Digital Elevation Model (DEM) resolution and the SAR image-DEM coregistration step is also provided. The sensitivity analysis shows a significant robustness of the algorithm against most of the surface parameters, while the DEM resolution plays a key role in the despeckling process. Furthermore, the SB-SARBM3D algorithm outperforms the original SARBM3D in the presence of the most realistic scattering behaviors of the surface. An actual scenario is also presented to assess the DEM role in real-life conditions.

  18. Application of γ field theory based calculation method to the monitoring of mine nuclear radiation environment

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Du Yanjun; Liu Qingcheng; Liu Hongzhang; Qin Guoxiu

    2009-01-01

    In order to find the feasibility of calculating mine radiation dose based on γ field theory, this paper calculates the γ radiation dose of a mine by means of γ field theory based calculation method. The results show that the calculated radiation dose is of small error and can be used to monitor mine environment of nuclear radiation. (authors)

  19. Efficient Fixed-Offset GPR Scattering Analysis

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Meincke, Peter; Chen, Xianyao

    2004-01-01

    The electromagnetic scattering by buried three-dimensional penetrable objects, as involved in the analysis of ground penetrating radar systems, is calculated using the extended Born approximation. The involved scattering tensor is calculated using fast Fourier transforms (FFT's). We incorporate...... in the scattering calculation the correct radiation patterns of the ground penetrating radar antennas by using their plane-wave transmitting and receiving spectra. Finally, we derive an efficient FFT-based method to analyze a fixed-offset configuration in which the location of the transmitting antenna is different...

  20. New calculations of cross-sections and charge asymmetries for lepton pair production and wide angle Bhabha scattering in e+e- collisions near the Z-peak

    Science.gov (United States)

    Field, J. H.

    1994-03-01

    A new event generator for lepton pair production and wide angle Bhabha scattering, BHAGENE3, is presented. Both electroweak and higher order (beyond O(α) QED corrections are included. Comparisons are made with results from the programs, based on the structure function formalism, ALIBABA, TOPAZ0 and ZFITTER. For the case of the final states l+l-γγ ( l = e, μ, τ) BHAGENE3 results are compared with those of Monte Carlo generators that use the exact O( α2) amplitudes.

  1. The fortran programme for the calculation of the absorption and double scattering corrections in cross-section measurements with fast neutrons using the monte Carlo method (1963); Programme fortran pour le calcul des corrections d'absorption et de double diffusion dans les mesures de sections efficaces pour les neutrons rapides par la methode de monte-carlo (1963)

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Fernandez, B [Commissariat a l' Energie Atomique, Saclay (France). Centre d' Etudes Nucleaires

    1963-07-01

    A calculation for double scattering and absorption corrections in fast neutron scattering experiments using Monte-Carlo method is given. Application to cylindrical target is presented in FORTRAN symbolic language. (author) [French] Un calcul des corrections de double diffusion et d'absorption dans les experiences de diffusion de neutrons rapides par la methode de Monte-Carlo est presente. L'application au cas d'une cible cylindrique est traitee en langage symbolique FORTRAN. (auteur)

  2. Model-based calculations of off-axis ratio of conic beams for a dedicated 6 MV radiosurgery unit

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Yang, J. N.; Ding, X.; Du, W.; Pino, R. [Department of Radiation Physics, University of Texas MD Anderson Cancer Center, Houston, Texas 77030 (United States); Department of Radiation Oncology, Methodist Hospital, Houston, Texas 77030 (United States)

    2010-10-15

    Purpose: Because the small-radius photon beams shaped by cones in stereotactic radiosurgery (SRS) lack lateral electronic equilibrium and a detector's finite cross section, direct experimental measurement of dosimetric data for these beams can be subject to large uncertainties. As the dose calculation accuracy of a treatment planning system largely depends on how well the dosimetric data are measured during the machine's commissioning, there is a critical need for an independent method to validate measured results. Therefore, the authors studied the model-based calculation as an approach to validate measured off-axis ratios (OARs). Methods: The authors previously used a two-component analytical model to calculate central axis dose and associated dosimetric data (e.g., scatter factors and tissue-maximum ratio) in a water phantom and found excellent agreement between the calculated and the measured central axis doses for small 6 MV SRS conic beams. The model was based on that of Nizin and Mooij [''An approximation of central-axis absorbed dose in narrow photon beams,'' Med. Phys. 24, 1775-1780 (1997)] but was extended to account for apparent attenuation, spectral differences between broad and narrow beams, and the need for stricter scatter dose calculations for clinical beams. In this study, the authors applied Clarkson integration to this model to calculate OARs for conic beams. OARs were calculated for selected cones with radii from 0.2 to 1.0 cm. To allow comparisons, the authors also directly measured OARs using stereotactic diode (SFD), microchamber, and film dosimetry techniques. The calculated results were machine-specific and independent of direct measurement data for these beams. Results: For these conic beams, the calculated OARs were in excellent agreement with the data measured using an SFD. The discrepancies in radii and in 80%-20% penumbra were within 0.01 cm, respectively. Using SFD-measured OARs as the reference data, the

  3. Scattering of photons from atomic electrons

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Pratt, R.H.; Zhou, B.; Bergstrom, P.M. Jr.; Pisk, K.; Suric, T.

    1990-01-01

    Validity of simpler approaches for elastic and inelastic photon scattering by atoms and ions is assessed by comparison with second-order S-matrix predictions. A simple scheme for elastic scattering based on angle-independent anomalous scattering factors has been found to give useful predictions near and below photoeffect thresholds. In inelastic scattering, major deviations are found from A 2 -based calculations. Extension of free-atom and free-ion cross sections to the dense plasma regime is discussed. 20 refs., 6 figs

  4. Independent calculation-based verification of IMRT plans using a 3D dose-calculation engine

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Arumugam, Sankar; Xing, Aitang; Goozee, Gary; Holloway, Lois

    2013-01-01

    Independent monitor unit verification of intensity-modulated radiation therapy (IMRT) plans requires detailed 3-dimensional (3D) dose verification. The aim of this study was to investigate using a 3D dose engine in a second commercial treatment planning system (TPS) for this task, facilitated by in-house software. Our department has XiO and Pinnacle TPSs, both with IMRT planning capability and modeled for an Elekta-Synergy 6 MV photon beam. These systems allow the transfer of computed tomography (CT) data and RT structures between them but do not allow IMRT plans to be transferred. To provide this connectivity, an in-house computer programme was developed to convert radiation therapy prescription (RTP) files as generated by many planning systems into either XiO or Pinnacle IMRT file formats. Utilization of the technique and software was assessed by transferring 14 IMRT plans from XiO and Pinnacle onto the other system and performing 3D dose verification. The accuracy of the conversion process was checked by comparing the 3D dose matrices and dose volume histograms (DVHs) of structures for the recalculated plan on the same system. The developed software successfully transferred IMRT plans generated by 1 planning system into the other. Comparison of planning target volume (TV) DVHs for the original and recalculated plans showed good agreement; a maximum difference of 2% in mean dose, − 2.5% in D95, and 2.9% in V95 was observed. Similarly, a DVH comparison of organs at risk showed a maximum difference of +7.7% between the original and recalculated plans for structures in both high- and medium-dose regions. However, for structures in low-dose regions (less than 15% of prescription dose) a difference in mean dose up to +21.1% was observed between XiO and Pinnacle calculations. A dose matrix comparison of original and recalculated plans in XiO and Pinnacle TPSs was performed using gamma analysis with 3%/3 mm criteria. The mean and standard deviation of pixels passing

  5. Electric field calculations in brain stimulation based on finite elements

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Windhoff, Mirko; Opitz, Alexander; Thielscher, Axel

    2013-01-01

    The need for realistic electric field calculations in human noninvasive brain stimulation is undisputed to more accurately determine the affected brain areas. However, using numerical techniques such as the finite element method (FEM) is methodologically complex, starting with the creation...... of accurate head models to the integration of the models in the numerical calculations. These problems substantially limit a more widespread application of numerical methods in brain stimulation up to now. We introduce an optimized processing pipeline allowing for the automatic generation of individualized...... the successful usage of the pipeline in six subjects, including field calculations for transcranial magnetic stimulation and transcranial direct current stimulation. The quality of the head volume meshes is validated both in terms of capturing the underlying anatomy and of the well-shapedness of the mesh...

  6. Optical diagnostics based on elastic scattering: Recent clinical demonstrations with the Los Alamos Optical Biopsy System

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Bigio, I.J.; Loree, T.R.; Mourant, J.; Shimada, T. [Los Alamos National Lab., NM (United States); Story-Held, K.; Glickman, R.D. [Texas Univ. Health Science Center, San Antonio, TX (United States). Dept. of Ophthalmology; Conn, R. [Lovelace Medical Center, Albuquerque, NM (United States). Dept. of Urology

    1993-08-01

    A non-invasive diagnostic tool that could identify malignancy in situ and in real time would have a major impact on the detection and treatment of cancer. We have developed and are testing early prototypes of an optical biopsy system (OBS) for detection of cancer and other tissue pathologies. The OBS invokes a unique approach to optical diagnosis of tissue pathologies based on the elastic scattering properties, over a wide range of wavelengths, of the microscopic structure of the tissue. The use of elastic scattering as the key to optical tissue diagnostics in the OBS is based on the fact that many tissue pathologies, including a majority of cancer forms, manifest significant architectural changes at the cellular and sub-cellular level. Since the cellular components that cause elastic scattering have dimensions typically on the order of visible to near-IR wavelengths, the elastic (Mie) scattering properties will be strongly wavelength dependent. Thus, morphology and size changes can be expected to cause significant changes in an optical signature that is derived from the wavelength dependence of elastic scattering. The data acquisition and storage/display time with the OBS instrument is {approximately}1 second. Thus, in addition to the reduced invasiveness of this technique compared with current state-of-the-art methods (surgical biopsy and pathology analysis), the OBS offers the possibility of impressively faster diagnostic assessment. The OBS employs a small fiber-optic probe that is amenable to use with any endoscope, catheter or hypodermic, or to direct surface examination (e.g. as in skin cancer or cervical cancer). It has been tested in vitro on animal and human tissue samples, and clinical testing in vivo is currently in progress.

  7. Application of CFD based wave loads in aeroelastic calculations

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Schløer, Signe; Paulsen, Bo Terp; Bredmose, Henrik

    2014-01-01

    Two fully nonlinear irregular wave realizations with different significant wave heights are considered. The wave realizations are both calculated in the potential flow solver Ocean-Wave3D and in a coupled domain decomposed potential-flow CFD solver. The surface elevations of the calculated wave...... domain decomposed potentialflow CFD solver result in different dynamic forces in the tower and monopile, despite that the static forces on a fixed monopile are similar. The changes are due to differences in the force profiles and wave steepness in the two solvers. The results indicate that an accurate...

  8. Cell light scattering characteristic numerical simulation research based on FDTD algorithm

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lin, Xiaogang; Wan, Nan; Zhu, Hao; Weng, Lingdong

    2017-01-01

    In this study, finite-difference time-domain (FDTD) algorithm has been used to work out the cell light scattering problem. Before beginning to do the simulation contrast, finding out the changes or the differences between normal cells and abnormal cells which may be cancerous or maldevelopment is necessary. The preparation of simulation are building up the simple cell model of cell which consists of organelles, nucleus and cytoplasm and setting up the suitable precision of mesh. Meanwhile, setting up the total field scattering field source as the excitation source and far field projection analysis group is also important. Every step need to be explained by the principles of mathematic such as the numerical dispersion, perfect matched layer boundary condition and near-far field extrapolation. The consequences of simulation indicated that the position of nucleus changed will increase the back scattering intensity and the significant difference on the peak value of scattering intensity may result from the changes of the size of cytoplasm. The study may help us find out the regulations based on the simulation consequences and the regulations can be meaningful for early diagnosis of cancers.

  9. Inverse boundary element calculations based on structural modes

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Juhl, Peter Møller

    2007-01-01

    The inverse problem of calculating the flexural velocity of a radiating structure of a general shape from measurements in the field is often solved by combining a Boundary Element Method with the Singular Value Decomposition and a regularization technique. In their standard form these methods sol...

  10. Study of a new approach to diagnose breast cancer based on synchrotron radiation scattering properties

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Conceicao, A.L.C.; Poletti, M.E.

    2012-01-01

    Full text: Breast cancer is the most frequently occurring cancer in women accounting for about 20% of all cancer deaths. This scenario is, among other factors, due to inherent limitations of the current clinical methods of diagnosis based on x-ray absorption. Meanwhile, recent researches have shown that the scattered radiation can provide information about the structures that compose a biological tissue, like breast tissue. Then, the information provided by x-ray scattering techniques can be used to identify breast cancer. In this work, we developed a classification model based on discriminant analysis of scattering profiles of 106 human breast samples histopathologically classified as normal tissue, benign and malignant lesion, at wide (WAXS) and small angle x-ray scattering (SAXS) regions. WAXS and SAXS experiments were carried out at the D12A-XRD1 and D02-SAXS2 beam lines in the National Synchrotron Light Laboratory (LNLS) in Campinas. For WAXS experiment, was used an x-ray beam energy of 11keV allowing to record the momentum transfer interval of 0.7nm -1 ≤(q=4π.sin(θ/2)/λ)≤70.5nm -1 on the NaI(Tl) detector. While for SAXS experiment was used an x-ray wavelength of 1.488 Angstrom, a two-dimensional detector and several sample-detector distances, allowing to get the range of 0.07nm -1 ≤q≤4.20nm -1 . The scattering profiles at both regions, for each sample were used to build the diagnosis model based on discriminant analysis. From WAXS data, differences related to position and intensity of the peaks of the molecular structures were found, when compared normal and pathological breast tissues. While for SAXS these differences were observed in supramolecular structures. The diagnostic model combining the information at WAXS and SAXS yield two linear functions which, allow to correlate changes at molecular scale with those at supramolecular level as well as, to classify correctly all samples analyzed in this study[1]. Finally, the results achieved in this

  11. UAV remote sensing atmospheric degradation image restoration based on multiple scattering APSF estimation

    Science.gov (United States)

    Qiu, Xiang; Dai, Ming; Yin, Chuan-li

    2017-09-01

    Unmanned aerial vehicle (UAV) remote imaging is affected by the bad weather, and the obtained images have the disadvantages of low contrast, complex texture and blurring. In this paper, we propose a blind deconvolution model based on multiple scattering atmosphere point spread function (APSF) estimation to recovery the remote sensing image. According to Narasimhan analytical theory, a new multiple scattering restoration model is established based on the improved dichromatic model. Then using the L0 norm sparse priors of gradient and dark channel to estimate APSF blur kernel, the fast Fourier transform is used to recover the original clear image by Wiener filtering. By comparing with other state-of-the-art methods, the proposed method can correctly estimate blur kernel, effectively remove the atmospheric degradation phenomena, preserve image detail information and increase the quality evaluation indexes.

  12. Resonance scattering and low-temperature electron mobility in HgTe-based gapless solid solutions

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Raikh, M.Eh.; Ehfros, A.L.

    1986-01-01

    Low-temperature electron mobility in a gapless semiconductor conditioned by electron resonance scattering on neutral acceptors, the levels of which are located in narrow vicinity near the Fermi level, is calculated. Mobility turns to be inverse proportional to density of acceptor states at the Fermi level. If donor concentration is rather high, then presence of a Coulomb gap at the Fermi level in the density of acceptor states conditioned by long-range character of Coulomb interaction should be taken into account for calculation of mobility. The Fermi level is placed in the tail of the acceptor state density at rather low donor concentration, and the Coulomb gap is absent at the Fermi level. A case of high acceptor concentration, when the acceptor states are delocalized at the Fermi level, is also considered

  13. Coherent anti-Stokes Raman scattering spectroscope/microscope based on a widely tunable laser source

    Science.gov (United States)

    Dementjev, A.; Gulbinas, V.; Serbenta, A.; Kaucikas, M.; Niaura, G.

    2010-03-01

    We present a coherent anti-Stokes Raman scattering (CARS) microscope based on a robust and simple laser source. A picosecond laser operating in a cavity dumping regime at the 1 MHz repetition rate was used to pump a traveling wave optical parametric generator, which serves as a two-color excitation light source for the CARS microscope. We demonstrate the ability of the presented CARS microscope to measure CARS spectra and images by using several detection schemes.

  14. Diffuse reflectance relations based on diffusion dipole theory for large absorption and reduced scattering.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bremmer, Rolf H; van Gemert, Martin J C; Faber, Dirk J; van Leeuwen, Ton G; Aalders, Maurice C G

    2013-08-01

    Diffuse reflectance spectra are used to determine the optical properties of biological samples. In medicine and forensic science, the turbid objects under study often possess large absorption and/or scattering properties. However, data analysis is frequently based on the diffusion approximation to the radiative transfer equation, implying that it is limited to tissues where the reduced scattering coefficient dominates over the absorption coefficient. Nevertheless, up to absorption coefficients of 20  mm-1 at reduced scattering coefficients of 1 and 11.5  mm-1, we observed excellent agreement (r2=0.994) between reflectance measurements of phantoms and the diffuse reflectance equation proposed by Zonios et al. [Appl. Opt.38, 6628-6637 (1999)], derived as an approximation to one of the diffusion dipole equations of Farrell et al. [Med. Phys.19, 879-888 (1992)]. However, two parameters were fitted to all phantom experiments, including strongly absorbing samples, implying that the reflectance equation differs from diffusion theory. Yet, the exact diffusion dipole approximation at high reduced scattering and absorption also showed agreement with the phantom measurements. The mathematical structure of the diffuse reflectance relation used, derived by Zonios et al. [Appl. Opt.38, 6628-6637 (1999)], explains this observation. In conclusion, diffuse reflectance relations derived as an approximation to the diffusion dipole theory of Farrell et al. can analyze reflectance ratios accurately, even for much larger absorption than reduced scattering coefficients. This allows calibration of fiber-probe set-ups so that the object's diffuse reflectance can be related to its absorption even when large. These findings will greatly expand the application of diffuse reflection spectroscopy. In medicine, it may allow the use of blue/green wavelengths and measurements on whole blood, and in forensic science, it may allow inclusion of objects such as blood stains and cloth at crime

  15. Analyzing asteroid reflectance spectra with numerical tools based on scattering simulations

    Science.gov (United States)

    Penttilä, Antti; Väisänen, Timo; Markkanen, Johannes; Martikainen, Julia; Gritsevich, Maria; Muinonen, Karri

    2017-04-01

    We are developing a set of numerical tools that can be used in analyzing the reflectance spectra of granular materials such as the regolith surface of atmosphereless Solar system objects. Our goal is to be able to explain, with realistic numerical scattering models, the spectral features arising when materials are intimately mixed together. We include the space-weathering -type effects in our simulations, i.e., mixing host mineral locally with small inclusions of another material in small proportions. Our motivation for this study comes from the present lack of such tools. The current common practice is to apply a semi-physical approximate model such as some variation of Hapke models [e.g., 1] or the Shkuratov model [2]. These models are expressed in a closed form so that they are relatively fast to apply. They are based on simplifications on the radiative transfer theory. The problem is that the validity of the model is not always guaranteed, and the derived physical properties related to particle scattering properties can be unrealistic [3]. We base our numerical tool into a chain of scattering simulations. Scattering properties of small inclusions inside an absorbing host matrix can be derived using exact methods solving the Maxwell equations of the system. The next step, scattering by a single regolith grain, is solved using a geometrical optics method accounting for surface reflections, internal absorption, and possibly the internal diffuse scattering. The third step involves the radiative transfer simulations of these regolith grains in a macroscopic planar element. The chain can be continued next with shadowing simulation over the target surface elements, and finally by integrating the bidirectional reflectance distribution function over the object's shape. Most of the tools in the proposed chain already exist, and one practical task for us is to tie these together into an easy-to-use toolchain that can be publicly distributed. We plan to open the

  16. Calculation laboratory: game based learning in exact discipline

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    André Felipe de Almeida Xavier

    2017-12-01

    Full Text Available The Calculation Laboratory appeared with the need to give meaning to the learning of students entering the courses of Engineering, in the discipline of Differential Calculus, in the semester 1/2016. After obtaining good results, the activity was also extended to the classes of Analytical Geometry and Linear Algebra (GAAL and Integral Calculus, so that these incoming students could continue the process. Historically, students present some difficulty in these contents, and it is necessary to give meaning to their learning. Given the table presented, the Calculation Laboratory aims to give meaning to the contents worked, giving students autonomy, having the teacher as the tutor, as intermediary between the student and the knowledge, creating various practical, playful and innovative activities to assist in this process. Through this article, it is intended to report a little about the activities created to facilitate this process of execution of the Calculation Laboratory, in addition to demonstrating the results obtained and measured after its application. Through these proposed activities, it is noticed that the student is gradually gaining autonomy in the search for knowledge.

  17. Calculation of crack stress density of cement base materials

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Chun-e Sui

    2018-01-01

    Full Text Available In this paper, the fracture load of cement paste with different water cement ratio, different mineral admixtures, including fly ash, silica fume and slag, is obtained through experiments. the three-dimensional fracture surface is reconstructed and the three-dimensional effective area of the fracture surface is calculated. the effective fracture stress density of different cement paste is obtained. The results show that the polynomial function can accurately describe the relationship between the three-dimensional total area and the tensile strength

  18. Scattering Fields Control by Metamaterial Device Based on Ultra-Broadband Polarization Converters

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Si-Jia Li

    2016-12-01

    Full Text Available We proposed a novel ultra-broadband meta¬material screen with controlling the electromagnetic scat¬tering fields based on the three layers wideband polariza¬tion converter (TLW-PC. The unit cell of TLW-PC was composed of a three layers substrate loaded with double metallic split-rings structure and a metal ground plane. We observed that the polarization converter primarily per¬formed ultra-broadband cross polarization conversion from 5.71 GHz to 14.91 GHz. Furthermore, a metamaterial screen, which contributed to the low scattering charac¬teristics, had been exploited with the orthogonal array based on TLW-PC. The near scattering electronic fields are controlled due to the change of phase and amplitude for incident wave. The metamaterial screen significantly exhibited low scattering characteristics from 5.81 GHz to 15.06 GHz. To demonstrate design, a metamaterial device easily implemented by the common printed circuit board method has been fabricated and measured. Experimental results agreed well with the simulated results.

  19. Rapid Mapping and Deformation Analysis over Cultural Heritage and Rural Sites Based on Persistent Scatterer Interferometry

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    D. Tapete

    2012-01-01

    Full Text Available We propose an easy-to-use procedure of “PSI-based rapid mapping and deformation analysis,” to effectively exploit Persistent Scatterer Interferometry (PSI for multispatial/temporal hazard assessment of cultural heritage and rural sites, update the condition report at the scale of entire site and single building, and address the conservation strategies. Advantages and drawbacks of the methodology are critically discussed based on feasibility tests performed over Pitigliano and Bivigliano, respectively, located in Southern and Northern Tuscany, Italy, and representative of hilltop historic towns and countryside settlements chronically affected by natural hazards. We radar-interpreted ERS-1/2 (1992–2000 and ENVISAT (2003–2010 datasets, already processed, respectively with the Permanent Scatterers (PSs and Persistent Scatterers Pairs (PSPs techniques, and assigned the levels of conservation criticality for both the sites. The PSI analysis allowed the zoning of the most unstable sectors of Pitigliano and showed a good agreement with the most updated hazard assessment of the cliff. The reconstruction of past/recent deformation patterns over Bivigliano confirmed the criticality for the Church of San Romolo, supporting the hypothesis of a correlation with local landslide phenomena, as also perceived from the annual motions observed over the entire site, where several landslide bodies are mapped.

  20. Studies of oxide-based thin-layered heterostructures by X-ray scattering methods

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Durand, O. [Thales Research and Technology France, Route Departementale 128, F-91767 Palaiseau Cedex (France)]. E-mail: olivier.durand@thalesgroup.com; Rogers, D. [Nanovation SARL, 103 bis rue de Versailles 91400 Orsay (France); Universite de Technologie de Troyes, 10-12 rue Marie Curie, 10010 (France); Teherani, F. Hosseini [Nanovation SARL, 103 bis rue de Versailles 91400 Orsay (France); Andrieux, M. [LEMHE, ICMMOCNRS-UMR 8182, Universite d' Orsay, Batiment 410, 91410 Orsay (France); Modreanu, M. [Tyndall National Institute, Lee Maltings, Prospect Row, Cork (Ireland)

    2007-06-04

    Some X-ray scattering methods (X-ray reflectometry and Diffractometry) dedicated to the study of thin-layered heterostructures are presented with a particular focus, for practical purposes, on the description of fast, accurate and robust techniques. The use of X-ray scattering metrology as a routinely working non-destructive testing method, particularly by using procedures simplifying the data-evaluation, is emphasized. The model-independent Fourier-inversion method applied to a reflectivity curve allows a fast determination of the individual layer thicknesses. We demonstrate the capability of this method by reporting X-ray reflectometry study on multilayered oxide structures, even when the number of the layers constitutive of the stack is not known a-priori. Fast Fourier transform-based procedure has also been employed successfully on high resolution X-ray diffraction profiles. A study of the reliability of the integral-breadth methods in diffraction line-broadening analysis applied to thin layers, in order to determine coherent domain sizes, is also reported. Examples from studies of oxides-based thin-layers heterostructures will illustrate these methods. In particular, X-ray scattering studies performed on high-k HfO{sub 2} and SrZrO{sub 3} thin-layers, a (GaAs/AlOx) waveguide, and a ZnO thin-layer are reported.

  1. Optical switching based on the manipulation of microparticles in a colloidal liquid using strong scattering force

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Liu Jin; Liu Zheng-Qi; Feng Tian-Hua; Dai Qiao-Feng; Wu Li-Jun; Lan Sheng

    2010-01-01

    This paper demonstrates the realization of an optical switch by optically manipulating a large number of polystyrene spheres contained in a capillary. The strong scattering force exerted on polystyrene spheres with a large diameter of 4.3 μm is employed to realize the switching operation. A transparent window is opened for the signal light when the polystyrene spheres originally located at the beam centre are driven out of the beam region by the strong scattering force induced by the control light. The switching dynamics under different incident powers is investigated and compared with that observed in the optical switch based on the formation of optical matter. It is found that a large extinction ratio of ∼ 30 dB and fast switching-on and switching-off times can be achieved in this type of switch. (classical areas of phenomenology)

  2. A domain derivative-based method for solving elastodynamic inverse obstacle scattering problems

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Le Louër, Frédérique

    2015-01-01

    The present work is concerned with the shape reconstruction problem of isotropic elastic inclusions from far-field data obtained by the scattering of a finite number of time-harmonic incident plane waves. This paper aims at completing the theoretical framework which is necessary for the application of geometric optimization tools to the inverse transmission problem in elastodynamics. The forward problem is reduced to systems of boundary integral equations following the direct and indirect methods initially developed for solving acoustic transmission problems. We establish the Fréchet differentiability of the boundary to far-field operator and give a characterization of the first Fréchet derivative and its adjoint operator. Using these results we propose an inverse scattering algorithm based on the iteratively regularized Gauß–Newton method and show numerical experiments in the special case of star-shaped obstacles. (paper)

  3. Freeway travel speed calculation model based on ETC transaction data.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Weng, Jiancheng; Yuan, Rongliang; Wang, Ru; Wang, Chang

    2014-01-01

    Real-time traffic flow operation condition of freeway gradually becomes the critical information for the freeway users and managers. In fact, electronic toll collection (ETC) transaction data effectively records operational information of vehicles on freeway, which provides a new method to estimate the travel speed of freeway. First, the paper analyzed the structure of ETC transaction data and presented the data preprocess procedure. Then, a dual-level travel speed calculation model was established under different levels of sample sizes. In order to ensure a sufficient sample size, ETC data of different enter-leave toll plazas pairs which contain more than one road segment were used to calculate the travel speed of every road segment. The reduction coefficient α and reliable weight θ for sample vehicle speed were introduced in the model. Finally, the model was verified by the special designed field experiments which were conducted on several freeways in Beijing at different time periods. The experiments results demonstrated that the average relative error was about 6.5% which means that the freeway travel speed could be estimated by the proposed model accurately. The proposed model is helpful to promote the level of the freeway operation monitoring and the freeway management, as well as to provide useful information for the freeway travelers.

  4. Scattering Correction For Image Reconstruction In Flash Radiography

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Cao, Liangzhi; Wang, Mengqi; Wu, Hongchun; Liu, Zhouyu; Cheng, Yuxiong; Zhang, Hongbo

    2013-01-01

    Scattered photons cause blurring and distortions in flash radiography, reducing the accuracy of image reconstruction significantly. The effect of the scattered photons is taken into account and an iterative deduction of the scattered photons is proposed to amend the scattering effect for image restoration. In order to deduct the scattering contribution, the flux of scattered photons is estimated as the sum of two components. The single scattered component is calculated accurately together with the uncollided flux along the characteristic ray, while the multiple scattered component is evaluated using correction coefficients pre-obtained from Monte Carlo simulations.The arbitrary geometry pretreatment and ray tracing are carried out based on the customization of AutoCAD. With the above model, an Iterative Procedure for image restORation code, IPOR, is developed. Numerical results demonstrate that the IPOR code is much more accurate than the direct reconstruction solution without scattering correction and it has a very high computational efficiency

  5. Scattering Correction For Image Reconstruction In Flash Radiography

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Cao, Liangzhi; Wang, Mengqi; Wu, Hongchun; Liu, Zhouyu; Cheng, Yuxiong; Zhang, Hongbo [Xi' an Jiaotong Univ., Xi' an (China)

    2013-08-15

    Scattered photons cause blurring and distortions in flash radiography, reducing the accuracy of image reconstruction significantly. The effect of the scattered photons is taken into account and an iterative deduction of the scattered photons is proposed to amend the scattering effect for image restoration. In order to deduct the scattering contribution, the flux of scattered photons is estimated as the sum of two components. The single scattered component is calculated accurately together with the uncollided flux along the characteristic ray, while the multiple scattered component is evaluated using correction coefficients pre-obtained from Monte Carlo simulations.The arbitrary geometry pretreatment and ray tracing are carried out based on the customization of AutoCAD. With the above model, an Iterative Procedure for image restORation code, IPOR, is developed. Numerical results demonstrate that the IPOR code is much more accurate than the direct reconstruction solution without scattering correction and it has a very high computational efficiency.

  6. TH-A-19A-06: Site-Specific Comparison of Analytical and Monte Carlo Based Dose Calculations

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Schuemann, J; Grassberger, C; Paganetti, H; Dowdell, S

    2014-01-01

    Purpose: To investigate the impact of complex patient geometries on the capability of analytical dose calculation algorithms to accurately predict dose distributions and to verify currently used uncertainty margins in proton therapy. Methods: Dose distributions predicted by an analytical pencilbeam algorithm were compared with Monte Carlo simulations (MCS) using TOPAS. 79 complete patient treatment plans were investigated for 7 disease sites (liver, prostate, breast, medulloblastoma spine and whole brain, lung and head and neck). A total of 508 individual passively scattered treatment fields were analyzed for field specific properties. Comparisons based on target coverage indices (EUD, D95, D90 and D50) were performed. Range differences were estimated for the distal position of the 90% dose level (R90) and the 50% dose level (R50). Two-dimensional distal dose surfaces were calculated and the root mean square differences (RMSD), average range difference (ARD) and average distal dose degradation (ADD), the distance between the distal position of the 80% and 20% dose levels (R80- R20), were analyzed. Results: We found target coverage indices calculated by TOPAS to generally be around 1–2% lower than predicted by the analytical algorithm. Differences in R90 predicted by TOPAS and the planning system can be larger than currently applied range margins in proton therapy for small regions distal to the target volume. We estimate new site-specific range margins (R90) for analytical dose calculations considering total range uncertainties and uncertainties from dose calculation alone based on the RMSD. Our results demonstrate that a reduction of currently used uncertainty margins is feasible for liver, prostate and whole brain fields even without introducing MC dose calculations. Conclusion: Analytical dose calculation algorithms predict dose distributions within clinical limits for more homogeneous patients sites (liver, prostate, whole brain). However, we recommend

  7. TH-A-19A-06: Site-Specific Comparison of Analytical and Monte Carlo Based Dose Calculations

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Schuemann, J; Grassberger, C; Paganetti, H [Massachusetts General Hospital and Harvard Medical School, Boston, MA (United States); Dowdell, S [Illawarra Shoalhaven Local Health District, Wollongong (Australia)

    2014-06-15

    Purpose: To investigate the impact of complex patient geometries on the capability of analytical dose calculation algorithms to accurately predict dose distributions and to verify currently used uncertainty margins in proton therapy. Methods: Dose distributions predicted by an analytical pencilbeam algorithm were compared with Monte Carlo simulations (MCS) using TOPAS. 79 complete patient treatment plans were investigated for 7 disease sites (liver, prostate, breast, medulloblastoma spine and whole brain, lung and head and neck). A total of 508 individual passively scattered treatment fields were analyzed for field specific properties. Comparisons based on target coverage indices (EUD, D95, D90 and D50) were performed. Range differences were estimated for the distal position of the 90% dose level (R90) and the 50% dose level (R50). Two-dimensional distal dose surfaces were calculated and the root mean square differences (RMSD), average range difference (ARD) and average distal dose degradation (ADD), the distance between the distal position of the 80% and 20% dose levels (R80- R20), were analyzed. Results: We found target coverage indices calculated by TOPAS to generally be around 1–2% lower than predicted by the analytical algorithm. Differences in R90 predicted by TOPAS and the planning system can be larger than currently applied range margins in proton therapy for small regions distal to the target volume. We estimate new site-specific range margins (R90) for analytical dose calculations considering total range uncertainties and uncertainties from dose calculation alone based on the RMSD. Our results demonstrate that a reduction of currently used uncertainty margins is feasible for liver, prostate and whole brain fields even without introducing MC dose calculations. Conclusion: Analytical dose calculation algorithms predict dose distributions within clinical limits for more homogeneous patients sites (liver, prostate, whole brain). However, we recommend

  8. Wide-Field Vibrational Phase Contrast Imaging Based on Coherent Anti-Stokes Raman Scattering Holography

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Lv Yong-Gang; Ji Zi-Heng; Dong Da-Shan; Gong Qi-Huang; Shi Ke-Bin

    2015-01-01

    We propose and implement a wide-field vibrational phase contrast detection to obtain imaging of imaginary components of third-order nonlinear susceptibility in a coherent anti-Stokes Raman scattering (CARS) microscope with full suppression of the non-resonant background. This technique is based on the unique ability of recovering the phase of the generated CARS signal based on holographic recording. By capturing the phase distributions of the generated CARS field from the sample and from the environment under resonant illumination, we demonstrate the retrieval of imaginary components in the CARS microscope and achieve background free coherent Raman imaging. (paper)

  9. Many-body calculations with deuteron based single-particle bases and their associated natural orbits

    Science.gov (United States)

    Puddu, G.

    2018-06-01

    We use the recently introduced single-particle states obtained from localized deuteron wave-functions as a basis for nuclear many-body calculations. We show that energies can be substantially lowered if the natural orbits (NOs) obtained from this basis are used. We use this modified basis for {}10{{B}}, {}16{{O}} and {}24{{Mg}} employing the bare NNLOopt nucleon–nucleon interaction. The lowering of the energies increases with the mass. Although in principle NOs require a full scale preliminary many-body calculation, we found that an approximate preliminary many-body calculation, with a marginal increase in the computational cost, is sufficient. The use of natural orbits based on an harmonic oscillator basis leads to a much smaller lowering of the energies for a comparable computational cost.

  10. 3D local structure around copper site of rabbit prion-related protein: Quantitative determination by XANES spectroscopy combined with multiple-scattering calculations

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Cui, P.X.; Lian, F.L.; Wang, Y.; Wen, Yi; Chu, W.S.; Zhao, H.F.; Zhang, S.; Li, J.; Lin, D.H.; Wu, Z.Y.

    2014-01-01

    Prion-related protein (PrP), a cell-surface copper-binding glycoprotein, is considered to be responsible for a number of transmissible spongiform encephalopathies (TSEs). The structural conversion of PrP from the normal cellular isoform (PrP C ) to the post-translationally modified form (PrP Sc ) is thought to be relevant to Cu 2+ binding to histidine residues. Rabbits are one of the few mammalian species that appear to be resistant to TSEs, because of the structural characteristics of the rabbit prion protein (RaPrP C ) itself. Here we determined the three-dimensional local structure around the C-terminal high-affinity copper-binding sites using X-ray absorption near-edge structure combined with ab initio calculations in the framework of the multiple-scattering (MS) theory. Result shows that two amino acid resides, Gln97 and Met108, and two histidine residues, His95 and His110, are involved in binding this copper(II) ion. It might help us understand the roles of copper in prion conformation conversions, and the molecular mechanisms of prion-involved diseases. - Highlights: ► The first structure of the metal ion binding site in RaPrP fifth copper-binding site. ► Quantitative determination by XANES spectroscopy combined with ab initio calculations. ► Provide a proof of the roles of copper in prion conformation conversions. ► Provide a proof of the molecular mechanisms of prion-involved diseases

  11. Phonon spectra in the parent superconducting iron-tuned telluride F e1 +xTe from inelastic neutron scattering and ab initio calculations

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zbiri, Mohamed; Viennois, Romain

    2017-10-01

    We report inelastic neutron scattering measurements of phonon spectra in the parent superconductor iron-tuned chalcogenide F e1 +xTe for two different x contents (x ≤0.11 ) using neutron time-of-flight technique. Thermal neutron spectroscopy allowed the collection of the low-temperature Stokes spectra over an extended Q range at 2, 40, and 120 K, hence covering both the magnetic monoclinic and the paramagnetic tetragonal phases, whereas cold neutrons allowed the measurement of high-resolution anti-Stokes spectra at 140, 220, and 300 K, thus covering the tetragonal phase. Our results evidence a spin-phonon coupling behavior towards the observed noticeable temperature-dependent change of the Stokes spectra across the transition temperatures. On the other hand, the anti-Stokes spectra reveal a pronounced hardening of the low-energy, acoustic region of the phonon spectrum upon heating, indicating a strong anharmonicity and a subtle dependence of phonons on structural evolution within the tetragonal phase. Experimental results are accompanied by ab initio calculations of phonon spectra of the tetragonal stoichiometric phase for a comparison with the high-resolution anti-Stokes spectra. Calculations included different density functional methods. Spin polarization and van der Waals interaction were either considered or neglected, individually or concomitantly, in order to study their respective effect on lattice dynamics description. Our results suggest that including van der Waals interaction has only a slight effect on phonon dynamics; however, phonon spectra are better described when spin polarization is included in a cooperative way with van der Waals interactions.

  12. New Insight into the Local Structure of Hydrous Ferric Arsenate Using Full-Potential Multiple Scattering Analysis, Density Functional Theory Calculations, and Vibrational Spectroscopy.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wang, Shaofeng; Ma, Xu; Zhang, Guoqing; Jia, Yongfeng; Hatada, Keisuke

    2016-11-15

    Hydrous ferric arsenate (HFA) is an important arsenic-bearing precipitate in the mining-impacted environment and hydrometallurgical tailings. However, there is no agreement on its local atomic structure. The local structure of HFA was reprobed by employing a full-potential multiple scattering (FPMS) analysis, density functional theory (DFT) calculations, and vibrational spectroscopy. The FPMS simulations indicated that the coordination number of the As-Fe, Fe-As, or both in HFA was approximately two. The DFT calculations constructed a structure of HFA with the formula of Fe(HAsO 4 ) x (H 2 AsO 4 ) 1-x (OH) y ·zH 2 O. The presence of protonated arsenate in HFA was also evidenced by vibrational spectroscopy. The As and Fe K-edge X-ray absorption near-edge structure spectra of HFA were accurately reproduced by FPMS simulations using the chain structure, which was also a reasonable model for extended X-Ray absorption fine structure fitting. The FPMS refinements indicated that the interatomic Fe-Fe distance was approximately 5.2 Å, consistent with that obtained by Mikutta et al. (Environ. Sci. Technol. 2013, 47 (7), 3122-3131) using wavelet analysis. All of the results suggested that HFA was more likely to occur as a chain with AsO 4 tetrahedra and FeO 6 octahedra connecting alternately in an isolated bidentate-type fashion. This finding is of significance for understanding the fate of arsenic and the formation of ferric arsenate minerals in an acidic environment.

  13. 3D local structure around copper site of rabbit prion-related protein: Quantitative determination by XANES spectroscopy combined with multiple-scattering calculations

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cui, P. X.; Lian, F. L.; Wang, Y.; Wen, Yi; Chu, W. S.; Zhao, H. F.; Zhang, S.; Li, J.; Lin, D. H.; Wu, Z. Y.

    2014-02-01

    Prion-related protein (PrP), a cell-surface copper-binding glycoprotein, is considered to be responsible for a number of transmissible spongiform encephalopathies (TSEs). The structural conversion of PrP from the normal cellular isoform (PrPC) to the post-translationally modified form (PrPSc) is thought to be relevant to Cu2+ binding to histidine residues. Rabbits are one of the few mammalian species that appear to be resistant to TSEs, because of the structural characteristics of the rabbit prion protein (RaPrPC) itself. Here we determined the three-dimensional local structure around the C-terminal high-affinity copper-binding sites using X-ray absorption near-edge structure combined with ab initio calculations in the framework of the multiple-scattering (MS) theory. Result shows that two amino acid resides, Gln97 and Met108, and two histidine residues, His95 and His110, are involved in binding this copper(II) ion. It might help us understand the roles of copper in prion conformation conversions, and the molecular mechanisms of prion-involved diseases.

  14. Self-assembled monolayer of ammonium pyrrolidine dithiocarbamate on copper detected using electrochemical methods, surface enhanced Raman scattering and quantum chemistry calculations

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Liao, Q.-Q., E-mail: liaoqq1971@yahoo.com.cn [Key Lab of Shanghai Colleges and Universities for Electric Power Corrosion Control and Applied Electrochemistry, Shanghai Engineering Research Center of Energy-Saving in Heat Exchange Systems, Shanghai University of Electric Power, Shanghai 200090 (China); Yue, Z.-W.; Yang, D. [Key Lab of Shanghai Colleges and Universities for Electric Power Corrosion Control and Applied Electrochemistry, Shanghai Engineering Research Center of Energy-Saving in Heat Exchange Systems, Shanghai University of Electric Power, Shanghai 200090 (China); Wang, Z.-H. [Department of Chemistry, Tongji University, Shanghai 200092 (China); Li, Z.-H. [Department of Chemistry, Fudan University, Shanghai 200433 (China); Ge, H.-H. [Key Lab of Shanghai Colleges and Universities for Electric Power Corrosion Control and Applied Electrochemistry, Shanghai Engineering Research Center of Energy-Saving in Heat Exchange Systems, Shanghai University of Electric Power, Shanghai 200090 (China); Li, Y.-J. [Department of Chemistry, Tongji University, Shanghai 200092 (China)

    2011-07-29

    Ammonium pyrrolidine dithiocarbamate (APDTC) monolayer was self-assembled on fresh copper surface obtained after oxidation-reduction cycle treatment in 0.1 mol L{sup -1} potassium chloride solution at ambient temperature. The APDTC self-assembled monolayer (SAM) on copper surface was investigated by surface enhanced Raman scattering spectroscopy and the results show that APDTC SAM is chemisorbed on copper surface by its sulfur atoms with perpendicular orientation. The optimum immersing period for SAM formation is 4 h at 0.01 mol L{sup -1} concentration of APDTC. The impedance results indicate that APDTC SAM has good corrosion inhibition effects for copper in 0.5 mol L{sup -1} hydrochloric acid solution and its maximum inhibition efficiency could reach 95%. Quantum chemical calculations show that APDTC has relatively small {Delta}E between the highest occupied molecular orbital and the lowest unoccupied molecular orbital and large negative charge in its two sulfur atoms, which facilitate formation of an insulating Cu/APDTC film on copper surface.

  15. Direct visual evidence of end-on adsorption geometry of pyridine on silver surface investigated by surface enhanced Raman scattering and density functional theory calculations.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bhunia, Snehasis; Forster, Stefan; Vyas, Nidhi; Schmitt, Hans-Christian; Ojha, Animesh K

    2015-12-05

    Fourier transform Raman (FT-Raman) spectra of neat pyridine (Py) and surface enhanced Raman scattering (SERS) spectra of Py with silver nanoparticles (AgNPs) solution at different molar concentrations (X=1.5M, 1.0M, 0.50 M, 0.25 M, and 0.125 M) were recorded using 1064 nm excitation wavelength. The intensity of Raman bands at ∼1003 (ν11) and ∼1035 (ν21) cm(-1) of Py is enhanced in the SERS spectra. Two new Raman bands were observed at ∼1009 (ν12) and ∼1038 (ν22) cm(-1) in the SERS spectra. These bands correspond to the ring breathing vibrations of Py molecules adsorbed at the AgNPs surface. The value of intensity ratios (I12/I11) and (I21/I22) is increased with dilution and attains a maximum value at X=0.5M and upon further dilution (0.25 and 0.125 M) it drops gradually. The theoretically calculated Raman spectra were found to be in good agreement with experimentally observed Raman spectra. Both, experimental and theoretical investigations have confirmed that the Py interacts with AgNPs via the end-on geometry. Copyright © 2015 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  16. Calculation of neutron shielding using an unidimensional model of transportation in formulation of discrete ordinates with scattering linearly anisotropic and a speed

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Libotte, Rafael Barbosa; Alves Filho, Hermes; Oliva, Amaury Muñoz

    2017-01-01

    The physical phenomenon of transport of neutral particles in a host environment is of interest in various scientific applications, e.g., nuclear reactors, shielding calculations, radiological protection, nuclear medicine, agronomy, materials science, oil prospecting, etc. In all these areas there is a need for an accurate description of the transport of the particles in the host medium. In this class of applications are the neutron shielding problems, also referred to as 'fixed-source' problems, where the interaction of the particles with the medium does not produce new neutrons, i.e., non-multiplicative medium. In this context, the development of tools that model these problems is relevant and of a beneficial return to society. In this work, we propose the development of deterministic mathematical and computational modeling of neutron transport using the linearized equation of Boltzmann applied to neutron shielding problems. Here we present also the development of a spectro-nodal method (coarse mesh) considering the scattering phenomenon as being linearly anisotropic. We show the results using a computational application, developed in Java language, version 1.8.0 9 1

  17. Integrated Power Flow and Short Circuit Calculation Method for Distribution Network with Inverter Based Distributed Generation

    OpenAIRE

    Yang, Shan; Tong, Xiangqian

    2016-01-01

    Power flow calculation and short circuit calculation are the basis of theoretical research for distribution network with inverter based distributed generation. The similarity of equivalent model for inverter based distributed generation during normal and fault conditions of distribution network and the differences between power flow and short circuit calculation are analyzed in this paper. Then an integrated power flow and short circuit calculation method for distribution network with inverte...

  18. Full waveform inversion based on scattering angle enrichment with application to real dataset

    KAUST Repository

    Wu, Zedong

    2015-08-19

    Reflected waveform inversion (RWI) provides a method to reduce the nonlinearity of the standard full waveform inversion (FWI). However, the drawback of the existing RWI methods is inability to utilize diving waves and the extra sensitivity to the migrated image. We propose a combined FWI and RWI optimization problem through dividing the velocity into the background and perturbed components. We optimize both the background and perturbed components, as independent parameters. The new objective function is quadratic with respect to the perturbed component, which will reduce the nonlinearity of the optimization problem. Solving this optimization provides a true amplitude image and utilizes the diving waves to update the velocity of the shallow parts. To insure a proper wavenumber continuation, we use an efficient scattering angle filter to direct the inversion at the early stages to direct energy corresponding to large (smooth velocity) scattering angles to the background velocity update and the small (high wavenumber) scattering angles to the perturbed velocity update. This efficient implementation of the filter is fast and requires less memory than the conventional approach based on extended images. Thus, the new FWI procedure updates the background velocity mainly along the wavepath for both diving and reflected waves in the initial stages. At the same time, it updates the perturbation with mainly reflections (filtering out the diving waves). To demonstrate the capability of this method, we apply it to a real 2D marine dataset.

  19. Optical characterization of thin female breast biopsies based on the reduced scattering coefficient

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Garofalakis, A; Zacharakis, G; Filippidis, G; Sanidas, E; Tsiftsis, D D; Stathopoulos, E; Kafousi, M; Ripoll, J; Papazoglou, T G

    2005-01-01

    One of the main goals in optical characterization of biopsies is to discern between tissue types. Usually, the theory used for deriving the optical properties of such highly scattering media is based on the diffusion approximation. However, biopsies are usually small in size compared to the transport mean free path and thus cannot be treated with standard diffusion theory. To account for this, an improved theory was developed, by the authors, that can correctly describe light propagation in small geometries (Garofalakis et al 2004 J. Opt. A: Pure Appl. Opt. 6 725-35). The theory's limit was validated by both Monte Carlo simulations and experiments performed on tissue-like phantoms, and was found to be two transport mean free paths. With the aid of this theory, we have characterized 59 samples of breast tissue including cancerous samples by retrieving their reduced scattering coefficients from time-resolved transmission data. The mean values for the reduced scattering coefficients of the normal and the tumour tissue were measured to be 9.7 ± 2.2 cm -1 and 10.8 ± 1.8 cm -1 , respectively. The correlation with age was also investigated

  20. Analysis on Target Detection and Classification in LTE Based Passive Forward Scattering Radar

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Raja Syamsul Azmir Raja Abdullah

    2016-09-01

    Full Text Available The passive bistatic radar (PBR system can utilize the illuminator of opportunity to enhance radar capability. By utilizing the forward scattering technique and procedure into the specific mode of PBR can provide an improvement in target detection and classification. The system is known as passive Forward Scattering Radar (FSR. The passive FSR system can exploit the peculiar advantage of the enhancement in forward scatter radar cross section (FSRCS for target detection. Thus, the aim of this paper is to show the feasibility of passive FSR for moving target detection and classification by experimental analysis and results. The signal source is coming from the latest technology of 4G Long-Term Evolution (LTE base station. A detailed explanation on the passive FSR receiver circuit, the detection scheme and the classification algorithm are given. In addition, the proposed passive FSR circuit employs the self-mixing technique at the receiver; hence the synchronization signal from the transmitter is not required. The experimental results confirm the passive FSR system’s capability for ground target detection and classification. Furthermore, this paper illustrates the first classification result in the passive FSR system. The great potential in the passive FSR system provides a new research area in passive radar that can be used for diverse remote monitoring applications.

  1. Trajectory-based understanding of the quantum-classical transition for barrier scattering

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chou, Chia-Chun

    2018-06-01

    The quantum-classical transition of wave packet barrier scattering is investigated using a hydrodynamic description in the framework of a nonlinear Schrödinger equation. The nonlinear equation provides a continuous description for the quantum-classical transition of physical systems by introducing a degree of quantumness. Based on the transition equation, the transition trajectory formalism is developed to establish the connection between classical and quantum trajectories. The quantum-classical transition is then analyzed for the scattering of a Gaussian wave packet from an Eckart barrier and the decay of a metastable state. Computational results for the evolution of the wave packet and the transmission probabilities indicate that classical results are recovered when the degree of quantumness tends to zero. Classical trajectories are in excellent agreement with the transition trajectories in the classical limit, except in some regions where transition trajectories cannot cross because of the single-valuedness of the transition wave function. As the computational results demonstrate, the process that the Planck constant tends to zero is equivalent to the gradual removal of quantum effects originating from the quantum potential. This study provides an insightful trajectory interpretation for the quantum-classical transition of wave packet barrier scattering.

  2. Analysis on Target Detection and Classification in LTE Based Passive Forward Scattering Radar.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Raja Abdullah, Raja Syamsul Azmir; Abdul Aziz, Noor Hafizah; Abdul Rashid, Nur Emileen; Ahmad Salah, Asem; Hashim, Fazirulhisyam

    2016-09-29

    The passive bistatic radar (PBR) system can utilize the illuminator of opportunity to enhance radar capability. By utilizing the forward scattering technique and procedure into the specific mode of PBR can provide an improvement in target detection and classification. The system is known as passive Forward Scattering Radar (FSR). The passive FSR system can exploit the peculiar advantage of the enhancement in forward scatter radar cross section (FSRCS) for target detection. Thus, the aim of this paper is to show the feasibility of passive FSR for moving target detection and classification by experimental analysis and results. The signal source is coming from the latest technology of 4G Long-Term Evolution (LTE) base station. A detailed explanation on the passive FSR receiver circuit, the detection scheme and the classification algorithm are given. In addition, the proposed passive FSR circuit employs the self-mixing technique at the receiver; hence the synchronization signal from the transmitter is not required. The experimental results confirm the passive FSR system's capability for ground target detection and classification. Furthermore, this paper illustrates the first classification result in the passive FSR system. The great potential in the passive FSR system provides a new research area in passive radar that can be used for diverse remote monitoring applications.

  3. Prediction of e± elastic scattering cross-section ratio based on phenomenological two-photon exchange corrections

    Science.gov (United States)

    Qattan, I. A.

    2017-06-01

    I present a prediction of the e± elastic scattering cross-section ratio, Re+e-, as determined using a new parametrization of the two-photon exchange (TPE) corrections to electron-proton elastic scattering cross section σR. The extracted ratio is compared to several previous phenomenological extractions, TPE hadronic calculations, and direct measurements from the comparison of electron and positron scattering. The TPE corrections and the ratio Re+e- show a clear change of sign at low Q2, which is necessary to explain the high-Q2 form factors discrepancy while being consistent with the known Q2→0 limit. While my predictions are in generally good agreement with previous extractions, TPE hadronic calculations, and existing world data including the recent two measurements from the CLAS and VEPP-3 Novosibirsk experiments, they are larger than the new OLYMPUS measurements at larger Q2 values.

  4. GPIB based instrumentation and control system for ADITYA Thomson Scattering Diagnostic

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Patel, Kiran, E-mail: kkpatel@ipr.res.in; Pillai, Vishal; Singh, Neha; Chaudhary, Vishnu; Thomas, Jinto; Kumar, Ajai

    2016-11-15

    The ADITYA Thomson Scattering Diagnostic is a single point Ruby laser based system with a spectrometer for spectral dispersion and photomultiplier tubes for the detection of scattered light. The system uses CAMAC (Computer Automated Measurement And Control) based control and data acquisition system, which synchronizes the Ruby laser, detectors and the digitizer. Previously used serial based CAMAC controller is upgraded to GPIB (General Purpose Interface Bus) based CAMAC controller for configuration and data transfer. The communication protocols for different instruments are converted to a single GPIB based for better interface. The entire control and data acquisition program is developed on LabVIEW platform for versatile operation of diagnostics with improved user friendly GUI (Graphical User Interfaces) and allows user to remotely update the laser firing time with respect to the plasma shot. The software is in handshake with the Tokamak main control program through network to minimize manual interventions for the operation of the diagnostics. The upgraded system improved the performance of the diagnostics in comparison to earlier in terms of better data transmission rate, easy to maintain and program is upgradable.

  5. GPIB based instrumentation and control system for ADITYA Thomson Scattering Diagnostic

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Patel, Kiran; Pillai, Vishal; Singh, Neha; Chaudhary, Vishnu; Thomas, Jinto; Kumar, Ajai

    2016-01-01

    The ADITYA Thomson Scattering Diagnostic is a single point Ruby laser based system with a spectrometer for spectral dispersion and photomultiplier tubes for the detection of scattered light. The system uses CAMAC (Computer Automated Measurement And Control) based control and data acquisition system, which synchronizes the Ruby laser, detectors and the digitizer. Previously used serial based CAMAC controller is upgraded to GPIB (General Purpose Interface Bus) based CAMAC controller for configuration and data transfer. The communication protocols for different instruments are converted to a single GPIB based for better interface. The entire control and data acquisition program is developed on LabVIEW platform for versatile operation of diagnostics with improved user friendly GUI (Graphical User Interfaces) and allows user to remotely update the laser firing time with respect to the plasma shot. The software is in handshake with the Tokamak main control program through network to minimize manual interventions for the operation of the diagnostics. The upgraded system improved the performance of the diagnostics in comparison to earlier in terms of better data transmission rate, easy to maintain and program is upgradable.

  6. QED Based Calculation of the Fine Structure Constant

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Lestone, John Paul [Los Alamos National Lab. (LANL), Los Alamos, NM (United States)

    2016-10-13

    Quantum electrodynamics is complex and its associated mathematics can appear overwhelming for those not trained in this field. Here, semi-classical approaches are used to obtain a more intuitive feel for what causes electrostatics, and the anomalous magnetic moment of the electron. These intuitive arguments lead to a possible answer to the question of the nature of charge. Virtual photons, with a reduced wavelength of λ, are assumed to interact with isolated electrons with a cross section of πλ2. This interaction is assumed to generate time-reversed virtual photons that are capable of seeking out and interacting with other electrons. This exchange of virtual photons between particles is assumed to generate and define the strength of electromagnetism. With the inclusion of near-field effects the model presented here gives a fine structure constant of ~1/137 and an anomalous magnetic moment of the electron of ~0.00116. These calculations support the possibility that near-field corrections are the key to understanding the numerical value of the dimensionless fine structure constant.

  7. Grid-based electronic structure calculations: The tensor decomposition approach

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Rakhuba, M.V., E-mail: rakhuba.m@gmail.com [Skolkovo Institute of Science and Technology, Novaya St. 100, 143025 Skolkovo, Moscow Region (Russian Federation); Oseledets, I.V., E-mail: i.oseledets@skoltech.ru [Skolkovo Institute of Science and Technology, Novaya St. 100, 143025 Skolkovo, Moscow Region (Russian Federation); Institute of Numerical Mathematics, Russian Academy of Sciences, Gubkina St. 8, 119333 Moscow (Russian Federation)

    2016-05-01

    We present a fully grid-based approach for solving Hartree–Fock and all-electron Kohn–Sham equations based on low-rank approximation of three-dimensional electron orbitals. Due to the low-rank structure the total complexity of the algorithm depends linearly with respect to the one-dimensional grid size. Linear complexity allows for the usage of fine grids, e.g. 8192{sup 3} and, thus, cheap extrapolation procedure. We test the proposed approach on closed-shell atoms up to the argon, several molecules and clusters of hydrogen atoms. All tests show systematical convergence with the required accuracy.

  8. A model-based approach of scatter dose contributions and efficiency of apron shielding for radiation protection in CT.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Weber, N; Monnin, P; Elandoy, C; Ding, S

    2015-12-01

    Given the contribution of scattered radiations to patient dose in CT, apron shielding is often used for radiation protection. In this study the efficiency of apron was assessed with a model-based approach of the contributions of the four scatter sources in CT, i.e. external scattered radiations from the tube and table, internal scatter from the patient and backscatter from the shielding. For this purpose, CTDI phantoms filled with thermoluminescent dosimeters were scanned without apron, and then with an apron at 0, 2.5 and 5 cm from the primary field. Scatter from the tube was measured separately in air. The scatter contributions were separated and mathematically modelled. The protective efficiency of the apron was low, only 1.5% in scatter dose reduction on average. The apron at 0 cm from the beam lowered the dose by 7.5% at the phantom bottom but increased the dose by 2% at the top (backscatter) and did not affect the centre. When the apron was placed at 2.5 or 5 cm, the results were intermediate to the one obtained with the shielding at 0 cm and without shielding. The apron effectiveness is finally limited to the small fraction of external scattered radiation. Copyright © 2015 Associazione Italiana di Fisica Medica. Published by Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  9. Nuclear resonance scattering study of iridates, iridium and antimony based pyrochlores

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Alexeev, P.

    2017-04-01

    This thesis shows the first synchrotron-based Moessbauer spectroscopy studies on iridium containing compounds and first vibrational spectroscopy on Sb containing compounds carried out at the P01 beamline of PETRA III. In this context, two types of X-ray monochromators have been developed: a monochromator for 73 keV photons with medium energy resolution, and a high-resolution backscattering monochromator based on a sapphire crystal. The monochromator for 73 keV X-rays is the key instrument for hyperfine spectroscopy on Iridium compounds, while the sapphire backscattering monochromator is purposed to vibrational spectroscopy on any Moessbauer resonances with the transition energies in the 20-50 keV range. Additionally, the signal detection for nuclear resonance scattering experiments at the beamline was significantly improved during this work, inspired by the high energies and low lifetimes of the employed resonances. The first synchrotron-based hyperfine spectroscopy on Iridium-containing compounds was demonstrated by NRS on 73 keV resonance in "1"9"3Ir. The results can be interpreted by dynamical theory of nuclear resonance scattering. In this work, special emphasis is set onto the electronic and magnetic properties of Ir nuclei in IrO_2 and in Ruddlesden-Popper (RP) phases of strontium iridates Sr_n_+_1Ir_nO_3_n_+_1 (n=0,1). These systems are well-suited for studies with X-ray scattering techniques, since the scattered signal contains vast information about the widely tunable crystallographic and electronic structure of these systems; furthermore, studies with X-rays are less limited by absorption from iridium as it is the case for neutron scattering experiments. The hyperfine parameters in IrO_2, SrIrO_3 and Sr_2IrO_4 have been measured via Nuclear Forward Scattering for the first time. Using the dynamical theory of NRS, the temperature and magnetic field dependence of the electric field gradient and magnetic hyperfine field on Ir nucleus have been determined for

  10. Nuclear resonance scattering study of iridates, iridium and antimony based pyrochlores

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Alexeev, P.

    2017-04-15

    This thesis shows the first synchrotron-based Moessbauer spectroscopy studies on iridium containing compounds and first vibrational spectroscopy on Sb containing compounds carried out at the P01 beamline of PETRA III. In this context, two types of X-ray monochromators have been developed: a monochromator for 73 keV photons with medium energy resolution, and a high-resolution backscattering monochromator based on a sapphire crystal. The monochromator for 73 keV X-rays is the key instrument for hyperfine spectroscopy on Iridium compounds, while the sapphire backscattering monochromator is purposed to vibrational spectroscopy on any Moessbauer resonances with the transition energies in the 20-50 keV range. Additionally, the signal detection for nuclear resonance scattering experiments at the beamline was significantly improved during this work, inspired by the high energies and low lifetimes of the employed resonances. The first synchrotron-based hyperfine spectroscopy on Iridium-containing compounds was demonstrated by NRS on 73 keV resonance in {sup 193}Ir. The results can be interpreted by dynamical theory of nuclear resonance scattering. In this work, special emphasis is set onto the electronic and magnetic properties of Ir nuclei in IrO{sub 2} and in Ruddlesden-Popper (RP) phases of strontium iridates Sr{sub n+1}Ir{sub n}O{sub 3n+1} (n=0,1). These systems are well-suited for studies with X-ray scattering techniques, since the scattered signal contains vast information about the widely tunable crystallographic and electronic structure of these systems; furthermore, studies with X-rays are less limited by absorption from iridium as it is the case for neutron scattering experiments. The hyperfine parameters in IrO{sub 2}, SrIrO{sub 3} and Sr{sub 2}IrO{sub 4} have been measured via Nuclear Forward Scattering for the first time. Using the dynamical theory of NRS, the temperature and magnetic field dependence of the electric field gradient and magnetic hyperfine field

  11. Acoustic inverse scattering using topological derivative of far-field measurements-based L2 cost functionals

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Bellis, Cédric; Bonnet, Marc; Cakoni, Fioralba

    2013-01-01

    Originally formulated in the context of topology optimization, the concept of topological derivative has also proved effective as a qualitative inversion tool for a wave-based identification of finite-sized objects. This approach remains, however, largely based on a heuristic interpretation of the topological derivative, whereas most other qualitative approaches to inverse scattering are backed by a mathematical justification. As an effort toward bridging this gap, this study focuses on a topological derivative approach applied to the L 2 -norm of the misfit between far-field measurements. Either an inhomogeneous medium or a finite number of point-like scatterers are considered, using either the Born approximation or a full-scattering model. Topological derivative-based imaging functionals are analyzed using a suitable factorization of the far-field operator, for each of the considered cases, in order to characterize their behavior and assess their ability to reconstruct the unknown scatterer(s). Results include the justification of the usual sign heuristic underpinning the method for (i) the Born approximation and (ii) full-scattering models limited to moderately strong scatterers. Semi-analytical and numerical examples are presented. Within the chosen framework, the topological derivative approach is finally discussed and compared to other well-known qualitative methods. (paper)

  12. Evaluation of the light scattering and the turbidity microtiter plate-based methods for the detection of the excipient-mediated drug precipitation inhibition.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Petruševska, Marija; Urleb, Uroš; Peternel, Luka

    2013-11-01

    The excipient-mediated precipitation inhibition is classically determined by the quantification of the dissolved compound in the solution. In this study, two alternative approaches were evaluated, one is the light scattering (nephelometer) and other is the turbidity (plate reader) microtiter plate-based methods which are based on the quantification of the compound precipitate. Following the optimization of the nephelometer settings (beam focus, laser gain) and the experimental conditions, the screening of 23 excipients on the precipitation inhibition of poorly soluble fenofibrate and dipyridamole was performed. The light scattering method resulted in excellent correlation (r>0.91) between the calculated precipitation inhibitor parameters (PIPs) and the precipitation inhibition index (PI(classical)) obtained by the classical approach for fenofibrate and dipyridamole. Among the evaluated PIPs AUC100 (nephelometer) resulted in only four false positives and lack of false negatives. In the case of the turbidity-based method a good correlation of the PI(classical) was obtained for the PIP maximal optical density (OD(max), r=0.91), however, only for fenofibrate. In the case of the OD(max) (plate reader) five false positives and two false negatives were identified. In conclusion, the light scattering-based method outperformed the turbidity-based one and could be reliably used for identification of novel precipitation inhibitors. Copyright © 2013 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  13. Monte Carlo-based dose reconstruction in a rat model for scattered ionizing radiation investigations.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kirkby, Charles; Ghasroddashti, Esmaeel; Kovalchuk, Anna; Kolb, Bryan; Kovalchuk, Olga

    2013-09-01

    In radiation biology, rats are often irradiated, but the precise dose distributions are often lacking, particularly in areas that receive scatter radiation. We used a non-dedicated set of resources to calculate detailed dose distributions, including doses to peripheral organs well outside of the primary field, in common rat exposure settings. We conducted a detailed dose reconstruction in a rat through an analog to the conventional human treatment planning process. The process consisted of: (i) Characterizing source properties of an X-ray irradiator system, (ii) acquiring a computed tomography (CT) scan of a rat model, and (iii) using a Monte Carlo (MC) dose calculation engine to generate the dose distribution within the rat model. We considered cranial and liver irradiation scenarios where the rest of the body was protected by a lead shield. Organs of interest were the brain, liver and gonads. The study also included paired scenarios where the dose to adjacent, shielded rats was determined as a potential control for analysis of bystander effects. We established the precise doses and dose distributions delivered to the peripheral organs in single and paired rats. Mean doses to non-targeted organs in irradiated rats ranged from 0.03-0.1% of the reference platform dose. Mean doses to the adjacent rat peripheral organs were consistent to within 10% those of the directly irradiated rat. This work provided details of dose distributions in rat models under common irradiation conditions and established an effective scenario for delivering only scattered radiation consistent with that in a directly irradiated rat.

  14. UAV-based NDVI calculation over grassland: An alternative approach

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mejia-Aguilar, Abraham; Tomelleri, Enrico; Asam, Sarah; Zebisch, Marc

    2016-04-01

    The Normalised Difference Vegetation Index (NDVI) is one of the most widely used indicators for monitoring and assessing vegetation in remote sensing. The index relies on the reflectance difference between the near infrared (NIR) and red light and is thus able to track variations of structural, phenological, and biophysical parameters for seasonal and long-term monitoring. Conventionally, NDVI is inferred from space-borne spectroradiometers, such as MODIS, with moderate resolution up to 250 m ground resolution. In recent years, a new generation of miniaturized radiometers and integrated hyperspectral sensors with high resolution became available. Such small and light instruments are particularly adequate to be mounted on airborne unmanned aerial vehicles (UAV) used for monitoring services reaching ground sampling resolution in the order of centimetres. Nevertheless, such miniaturized radiometers and hyperspectral sensors are still very expensive and require high upfront capital costs. Therefore, we propose an alternative, mainly cheaper method to calculate NDVI using a camera constellation consisting of two conventional consumer-grade cameras: (i) a Ricoh GR modified camera that acquires the NIR spectrum by removing the internal infrared filter. A mounted optical filter additionally obstructs all wavelengths below 700 nm. (ii) A Ricoh GR in RGB configuration using two optical filters for blocking wavelengths below 600 nm as well as NIR and ultraviolet (UV) light. To assess the merit of the proposed method, we carry out two comparisons: First, reflectance maps generated by the consumer-grade camera constellation are compared to reflectance maps produced with a hyperspectral camera (Rikola). All imaging data and reflectance maps are processed using the PIX4D software. In the second test, the NDVI at specific points of interest (POI) generated by the consumer-grade camera constellation is compared to NDVI values obtained by ground spectral measurements using a

  15. A program for monitor unit calculation for high energy photon beams in isocentric condition based on measured data

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Gesheva-Atanasova, N.

    2008-01-01

    The aim of this study is: 1) to propose a procedure and a program for monitor unit calculation for radiation therapy with high energy photon beams, based on data measured by author; 2) to compare this data with published one and 3) to evaluate the precision of the monitor unit calculation program. From this study it could be concluded that, we reproduced with a good agreement the published data, except the TPR values for dept up to 5 cm. The measured relative weight of upper and lower jaws - parameter A was dramatically different from the published data, but perfectly described the collimator exchange effect for our treatment machine. No difference was found between the head scatter ratios, measured in a mini phantom and those measured with a proper brass buildup cap. Our monitor unit calculation program was found to be reliable and it can be applied for check up of the patient's plans for irradiation with high energy photon beams and for some fast calculations. Because of the identity in the construction, design and characteristics of the Siemens accelerators, and the agreement with the published data for the same beam qualities, we hope that most of our experimental data and this program can be used after verification in other hospitals

  16. Hybrid radiosity-SP3 equation based bioluminescence tomography reconstruction for turbid medium with low- and non-scattering regions

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chen, Xueli; Zhang, Qitan; Yang, Defu; Liang, Jimin

    2014-01-01

    To provide an ideal solution for a specific problem of gastric cancer detection in which low-scattering regions simultaneously existed with both the non- and high-scattering regions, a novel hybrid radiosity-SP3 equation based reconstruction algorithm for bioluminescence tomography was proposed in this paper. In the algorithm, the third-order simplified spherical harmonics approximation (SP3) was combined with the radiosity equation to describe the bioluminescent light propagation in tissues, which provided acceptable accuracy for the turbid medium with both low- and non-scattering regions. The performance of the algorithm was evaluated with digital mouse based simulations and a gastric cancer-bearing mouse based in situ experiment. Primary results demonstrated the feasibility and superiority of the proposed algorithm for the turbid medium with low- and non-scattering regions.

  17. Hybrid radiosity-SP3 equation based bioluminescence tomography reconstruction for turbid medium with low- and non-scattering regions

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Chen, Xueli; Zhang, Qitan; Yang, Defu; Liang, Jimin

    2014-01-01

    To provide an ideal solution for a specific problem of gastric cancer detection in which low-scattering regions simultaneously existed with both the non- and high-scattering regions, a novel hybrid radiosity-SP 3 equation based reconstruction algorithm for bioluminescence tomography was proposed in this paper. In the algorithm, the third-order simplified spherical harmonics approximation (SP 3 ) was combined with the radiosity equation to describe the bioluminescent light propagation in tissues, which provided acceptable accuracy for the turbid medium with both low- and non-scattering regions. The performance of the algorithm was evaluated with digital mouse based simulations and a gastric cancer-bearing mouse based in situ experiment. Primary results demonstrated the feasibility and superiority of the proposed algorithm for the turbid medium with low- and non-scattering regions

  18. Raman Scattering as a Probe of the Magnetic State of BEDT-TTF Based Mott Insulators

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Nora Hassan

    2018-05-01

    Full Text Available Quasi-two-dimensional Mott insulators based on BEDT-TTF molecules have recently demonstrated a variety of exotic states, which originate from electron–electron correlations and geometrical frustration of the lattice. Among those states are a triangular S = 1/2 spin liquid and quantum dipole liquid. In this article, we show the power of Raman scattering technique to characterize magnetic and electronic excitations of these states. Our results demonstrate a distinction between a spectrum of magnetic excitations in a simple Mott insulator with antiferromagnetic interactions, and a spectrum of an insulator with an additional on-site charge degree of freedom.

  19. Model-based design evaluation of a compact, high-efficiency neutron scatter camera

    Science.gov (United States)

    Weinfurther, Kyle; Mattingly, John; Brubaker, Erik; Steele, John

    2018-03-01

    This paper presents the model-based design and evaluation of an instrument that estimates incident neutron direction using the kinematics of neutron scattering by hydrogen-1 nuclei in an organic scintillator. The instrument design uses a single, nearly contiguous volume of organic scintillator that is internally subdivided only as necessary to create optically isolated pillars, i.e., long, narrow parallelepipeds of organic scintillator. Scintillation light emitted in a given pillar is confined to that pillar by a combination of total internal reflection and a specular reflector applied to the four sides of the pillar transverse to its long axis. The scintillation light is collected at each end of the pillar using a photodetector, e.g., a microchannel plate photomultiplier (MCP-PM) or a silicon photomultiplier (SiPM). In this optically segmented design, the (x , y) position of scintillation light emission (where the x and y coordinates are transverse to the long axis of the pillars) is estimated as the pillar's (x , y) position in the scintillator "block", and the z-position (the position along the pillar's long axis) is estimated from the amplitude and relative timing of the signals produced by the photodetectors at each end of the pillar. The neutron's incident direction and energy is estimated from the (x , y , z) -positions of two sequential neutron-proton scattering interactions in the scintillator block using elastic scatter kinematics. For proton recoils greater than 1 MeV, we show that the (x , y , z) -position of neutron-proton scattering can be estimated with < 1 cm root-mean-squared [RMS] error and the proton recoil energy can be estimated with < 50 keV RMS error by fitting the photodetectors' response time history to models of optical photon transport within the scintillator pillars. Finally, we evaluate several alternative designs of this proposed single-volume scatter camera made of pillars of plastic scintillator (SVSC-PiPS), studying the effect of

  20. Effects of internal and external scatter on the build-up characteristics of Monte Carlo calculated absorbed dose for electron irradiation

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Lin, H.; Wu, DS.; Wu, AD.

    2005-01-01

    The effects of internal and external scatter on surface, build-up and depth dose characteristics simulated by Monte Carlo code EGSnrc for varying field size and SSD for a 10 MeV monoenergetic electron beam with and without an accelerator model are extensively studied in this paper. In particular, sub-millimetre surface PDD was investigated. The percentage depth doses affected significantly by the external scatter show a larger build-up dose. A forward shifted Dmax depth and a sharper fall-off region compared to PDDs with only internal scatter considered. The surface dose with both internal and external scatter shows a marked decrease at 110 cm SSD, and then slight further changes with the increasing SSD since few external scattered particles from accelerator model can reach the phantom for large SSDs. The sharp PDD increase for the 5 cm x 5 cm field compared to other fields seen when only internal scatter is considered is significantly less when external scatter is also present. The effect of external scatter on surface PDD is more pronounced for large fields than small fields (5 cm x 5 cm field)

  1. TU-F-CAMPUS-T-05: A Cloud-Based Monte Carlo Dose Calculation for Electron Cutout Factors

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Mitchell, T; Bush, K [Stanford School of Medicine, Stanford, CA (United States)

    2015-06-15

    Purpose: For electron cutouts of smaller sizes, it is necessary to verify electron cutout factors due to perturbations in electron scattering. Often, this requires a physical measurement using a small ion chamber, diode, or film. The purpose of this study is to develop a fast Monte Carlo based dose calculation framework that requires only a smart phone photograph of the cutout and specification of the SSD and energy to determine the electron cutout factor, with the ultimate goal of making this cloud-based calculation widely available to the medical physics community. Methods: The algorithm uses a pattern recognition technique to identify the corners of the cutout in the photograph as shown in Figure 1. It then corrects for variations in perspective, scaling, and translation of the photograph introduced by the user’s positioning of the camera. Blob detection is used to identify the portions of the cutout which comprise the aperture and the portions which are cutout material. This information is then used define physical densities of the voxels used in the Monte Carlo dose calculation algorithm as shown in Figure 2, and select a particle source from a pre-computed library of phase-spaces scored above the cutout. The electron cutout factor is obtained by taking a ratio of the maximum dose delivered with the cutout in place to the dose delivered under calibration/reference conditions. Results: The algorithm has been shown to successfully identify all necessary features of the electron cutout to perform the calculation. Subsequent testing will be performed to compare the Monte Carlo results with a physical measurement. Conclusion: A simple, cloud-based method of calculating electron cutout factors could eliminate the need for physical measurements and substantially reduce the time required to properly assure accurate dose delivery.

  2. Patient-specific IMRT verification using independent fluence-based dose calculation software: experimental benchmarking and initial clinical experience

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Georg, Dietmar; Stock, Markus; Kroupa, Bernhard; Olofsson, Joergen; Nyholm, Tufve; Ahnesjoe, Anders; Karlsson, Mikael

    2007-01-01

    Experimental methods are commonly used for patient-specific intensity-modulated radiotherapy (IMRT) verification. The purpose of this study was to investigate the accuracy and performance of independent dose calculation software (denoted as 'MUV' (monitor unit verification)) for patient-specific quality assurance (QA). 52 patients receiving step-and-shoot IMRT were considered. IMRT plans were recalculated by the treatment planning systems (TPS) in a dedicated QA phantom, in which an experimental 1D and 2D verification (0.3 cm 3 ionization chamber; films) was performed. Additionally, an independent dose calculation was performed. The fluence-based algorithm of MUV accounts for collimator transmission, rounded leaf ends, tongue-and-groove effect, backscatter to the monitor chamber and scatter from the flattening filter. The dose calculation utilizes a pencil beam model based on a beam quality index. DICOM RT files from patient plans, exported from the TPS, were directly used as patient-specific input data in MUV. For composite IMRT plans, average deviations in the high dose region between ionization chamber measurements and point dose calculations performed with the TPS and MUV were 1.6 ± 1.2% and 0.5 ± 1.1% (1 S.D.). The dose deviations between MUV and TPS slightly depended on the distance from the isocentre position. For individual intensity-modulated beams (total 367), an average deviation of 1.1 ± 2.9% was determined between calculations performed with the TPS and with MUV, with maximum deviations up to 14%. However, absolute dose deviations were mostly less than 3 cGy. Based on the current results, we aim to apply a confidence limit of 3% (with respect to the prescribed dose) or 6 cGy for routine IMRT verification. For off-axis points at distances larger than 5 cm and for low dose regions, we consider 5% dose deviation or 10 cGy acceptable. The time needed for an independent calculation compares very favourably with the net time for an experimental approach

  3. Simulation and analysis of main steam control system based on heat transfer calculation

    Science.gov (United States)

    Huang, Zhenqun; Li, Ruyan; Feng, Zhongbao; Wang, Songhan; Li, Wenbo; Cheng, Jiwei; Jin, Yingai

    2018-05-01

    In this paper, after thermal power plant 300MW boiler was studied, mat lab was used to write calculation program about heat transfer process between the main steam and boiler flue gas and amount of water was calculated to ensure the main steam temperature keeping in target temperature. Then heat transfer calculation program was introduced into Simulink simulation platform based on control system multiple models switching and heat transfer calculation. The results show that multiple models switching control system based on heat transfer calculation not only overcome the large inertia of main stream temperature, a large hysteresis characteristic of main stream temperature, but also adapted to the boiler load changing.

  4. The MiAge Calculator: a DNA methylation-based mitotic age calculator of human tissue types.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Youn, Ahrim; Wang, Shuang

    2018-01-01

    Cell division is important in human aging and cancer. The estimation of the number of cell divisions (mitotic age) of a given tissue type in individuals is of great interest as it allows not only the study of biological aging (using a new molecular aging target) but also the stratification of prospective cancer risk. Here, we introduce the MiAge Calculator, a mitotic age calculator based on a novel statistical framework, the MiAge model. MiAge is designed to quantitatively estimate mitotic age (total number of lifetime cell divisions) of a tissue using the stochastic replication errors accumulated in the epigenetic inheritance process during cell divisions. With the MiAge model, the MiAge Calculator was built using the training data of DNA methylation measures of 4,020 tumor and adjacent normal tissue samples from eight TCGA cancer types and was tested using the testing data of DNA methylation measures of 2,221 tumor and adjacent normal tissue samples of five other TCGA cancer types. We showed that within each of the thirteen cancer types studied, the estimated mitotic age is universally accelerated in tumor tissues compared to adjacent normal tissues. Across the thirteen cancer types, we showed that worse cancer survivals are associated with more accelerated mitotic age in tumor tissues. Importantly, we demonstrated the utility of mitotic age by showing that the integration of mitotic age and clinical information leads to improved survival prediction in six out of the thirteen cancer types studied. The MiAge Calculator is available at http://www.columbia.edu/∼sw2206/softwares.htm .

  5. Validation of KENO-based criticality calculations at Rocky Flats

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Felsher, P.D.; McKamy, J.N.; Monahan, S.P.

    1992-01-01

    In the absence of experimental data, it is necessary to rely on computer-based computational methods in evaluating the criticality condition of a nuclear system. The validity of the computer codes is established in a two-part procedure as outlined in ANSI/ANS 8.1. The first step, usually the responsibility of the code developer, involves verification that the algorithmic structure of the code is performing the intended mathematical operations correctly. The second step involves an assessment of the code's ability to realistically portray the governing physical processes in question. This is accomplished by determining the code's bias, or systematic error, through a comparison of computational results to accepted values obtained experimentally. In this paper, the authors discuss the validation process for KENO and the Hansen-Roach cross sections in use at EG and G Rocky Flats. The validation process at Rocky Flats consists of both global and local techniques. The global validation resulted in a maximum k eff limit of 0.95 for the limiting-accident scanarios of a criticality evaluation

  6. Glass viscosity calculation based on a global statistical modelling approach

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Fluegel, Alex

    2007-02-01

    A global statistical glass viscosity model was developed for predicting the complete viscosity curve, based on more than 2200 composition-property data of silicate glasses from the scientific literature, including soda-lime-silica container and float glasses, TV panel glasses, borosilicate fiber wool and E type glasses, low expansion borosilicate glasses, glasses for nuclear waste vitrification, lead crystal glasses, binary alkali silicates, and various further compositions from over half a century. It is shown that within a measurement series from a specific laboratory the reported viscosity values are often over-estimated at higher temperatures due to alkali and boron oxide evaporation during the measurement and glass preparation, including data by Lakatos et al. (1972) and the recently published High temperature glass melt property database for process modeling by Seward et al. (2005). Similarly, in the glass transition range many experimental data of borosilicate glasses are reported too high due to phase separation effects. The developed global model corrects those errors. The model standard error was 9-17°C, with R^2 = 0.985-0.989. The prediction 95% confidence interval for glass in mass production largely depends on the glass composition of interest, the composition uncertainty, and the viscosity level. New insights in the mixed-alkali effect are provided.

  7. Improving scattering layer through mixture of nanoporous spheres and nanoparticles in ZnO-based dye-sensitized solar cells.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kim, Chohui; Choi, Hongsik; Kim, Jae Ik; Lee, Sangheon; Kim, Jinhyun; Lee, Woojin; Hwang, Taehyun; Kang, Suji; Moon, Taeho; Park, Byungwoo

    2014-01-01

    A scattering layer is utilized by mixing nanoporous spheres and nanoparticles in ZnO-based dye-sensitized solar cells. Hundred-nanometer-sized ZnO spheres consisting of approximately 35-nm-sized nanoparticles provide not only effective light scattering but also a large surface area. Furthermore, ZnO nanoparticles are added to the scattering layer to facilitate charge transport and increase the surface area as filling up large voids. The mixed scattering layer of nanoparticles and nanoporous spheres on top of the nanoparticle-based electrode (bilayer geometry) improves solar cell efficiency by enhancing both the short-circuit current (J sc) and fill factor (FF), compared to the layer consisting of only nanoparticles or nanoporous spheres.

  8. Environment-based pin-power reconstruction method for homogeneous core calculations

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Leroyer, H.; Brosselard, C.; Girardi, E.

    2012-01-01

    Core calculation schemes are usually based on a classical two-step approach associated with assembly and core calculations. During the first step, infinite lattice assemblies calculations relying on a fundamental mode approach are used to generate cross-sections libraries for PWRs core calculations. This fundamental mode hypothesis may be questioned when dealing with loading patterns involving several types of assemblies (UOX, MOX), burnable poisons, control rods and burn-up gradients. This paper proposes a calculation method able to take into account the heterogeneous environment of the assemblies when using homogeneous core calculations and an appropriate pin-power reconstruction. This methodology is applied to MOX assemblies, computed within an environment of UOX assemblies. The new environment-based pin-power reconstruction is then used on various clusters of 3x3 assemblies showing burn-up gradients and UOX/MOX interfaces, and compared to reference calculations performed with APOLLO-2. The results show that UOX/MOX interfaces are much better calculated with the environment-based calculation scheme when compared to the usual pin-power reconstruction method. The power peak is always better located and calculated with the environment-based pin-power reconstruction method on every cluster configuration studied. This study shows that taking into account the environment in transport calculations can significantly improve the pin-power reconstruction so far as it is consistent with the core loading pattern. (authors)

  9. Evaluation of anemia diagnosis based on elastic light scattering (Conference Presentation)

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tong, Lieshu; Wang, Xinrui; Xie, Dengling; Chen, Xiaoya; Chu, Kaiqin; Dou, Hu; Smith, Zachary J.

    2017-03-01

    Currently, one-third of humanity is still suffering from anemia. In China the most common forms of anemia are iron deficiency and Thalassemia minor. Differentiating these two is the key to effective treatment. Iron deficiency is caused by malnutrition and can be cured by iron supplementation. Thalassemia is a hereditary disease in which the hemoglobin β chain is lowered or absent. Iron therapy is not effective, and there is evidence that iron therapy may be harmful to patients with Thalassemia. Both anemias can be diagnosed using red blood cell morphology: Iron deficiency presents a smaller mean cell volume compared to normal cells, but with a wide distribution; Thalassemia, meanwhile, presents a very small cell size and tight particle size distribution. Several researchers have proposed diagnostic indices based on red cell morphology to differentiate these two diseases. However, these indices lack sensitivity and specificity and are constructed without statistical rigor. Using multivariate methods we demonstrate a new classification method based on red cell morphology that diagnoses anemia in a Chinese population with enough accuracy for its use as a screening method. We further demonstrate a low cost instrument that precisely measures red cell morphology using elastic light scattering. This instrument is combined with an automated analysis program that processes scattering data to report red cell morphology without the need for user intervention. Despite using consumer-grade components, when comparing our experimental results with gold-standard measurements, the device can still achieve the high precision required for sensing clinically significant changes in red cell morphology.

  10. Robust Automatic Target Recognition via HRRP Sequence Based on Scatterer Matching

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Yuan Jiang

    2018-02-01

    Full Text Available High resolution range profile (HRRP plays an important role in wideband radar automatic target recognition (ATR. In order to alleviate the sensitivity to clutter and target aspect, employing a sequence of HRRP is a promising approach to enhance the ATR performance. In this paper, a novel HRRP sequence-matching method based on singular value decomposition (SVD is proposed. First, the HRRP sequence is decoupled into the angle space and the range space via SVD, which correspond to the span of the left and the right singular vectors, respectively. Second, atomic norm minimization (ANM is utilized to estimate dominant scatterers in the range space and the Hausdorff distance is employed to measure the scatter similarity between the test and training data. Next, the angle space similarity between the test and training data is evaluated based on the left singular vector correlations. Finally, the range space matching result and the angle space correlation are fused with the singular values as weights. Simulation and outfield experimental results demonstrate that the proposed matching metric is a robust similarity measure for HRRP sequence recognition.

  11. A systematic approach to robust preconditioning for gradient-based inverse scattering algorithms

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Nordebo, Sven; Fhager, Andreas; Persson, Mikael; Gustafsson, Mats

    2008-01-01

    This paper presents a systematic approach to robust preconditioning for gradient-based nonlinear inverse scattering algorithms. In particular, one- and two-dimensional inverse problems are considered where the permittivity and conductivity profiles are unknown and the input data consist of the scattered field over a certain bandwidth. A time-domain least-squares formulation is employed and the inversion algorithm is based on a conjugate gradient or quasi-Newton algorithm together with an FDTD-electromagnetic solver. A Fisher information analysis is used to estimate the Hessian of the error functional. A robust preconditioner is then obtained by incorporating a parameter scaling such that the scaled Fisher information has a unit diagonal. By improving the conditioning of the Hessian, the convergence rate of the conjugate gradient or quasi-Newton methods are improved. The preconditioner is robust in the sense that the scaling, i.e. the diagonal Fisher information, is virtually invariant to the numerical resolution and the discretization model that is employed. Numerical examples of image reconstruction are included to illustrate the efficiency of the proposed technique

  12. Kerr scattering coefficients via isomonodromy

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Cunha, Bruno Carneiro da [Departamento de Física, Universidade Federal de Pernambuco,50670-901, Recife, Pernambuco (Brazil); Novaes, Fábio [International Institute of Physics, Federal University of Rio Grande do Norte,Av. Odilon Gomes de Lima 1722, Capim Macio, Natal-RN 59078-400 (Brazil)

    2015-11-23

    We study the scattering of a massless scalar field in a generic Kerr background. Using a particular gauge choice based on the current conservation of the radial equation, we give a generic formula for the scattering coefficient in terms of the composite monodromy parameter σ between the inner and the outer horizons. Using the isomonodromy flow, we calculate σ exactly in terms of the Painlevé V τ-function. We also show that the eigenvalue problem for the angular equation (spheroidal harmonics) can be calculated using the same techniques. We use recent developments relating the Painlevé V τ-function to Liouville irregular conformal blocks to claim that this scattering problem is solved in the combinatorial sense, with known expressions for the τ-function near the critical points.

  13. Design of microcomputer-based data acquisition system for the time-of-flight ion scattering spectrometer

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Lo, H; Su, C [National Tsing Hua Univ., Hsinchu (Taiwan). Inst. of Nuclear Engineering

    1981-07-15

    A microcomputer-based data aquisition system used on a time-of-flight ion scattering spectrometer is described. The flight time of 90/sup 0/-scattered ions from target atom determined directly with a 30 MHz crystal-controlled oscillator and its associated circuit. The ion intensity is detected by a channel multiplier, and its output signal pulse is converted from the analog form into digital form by an ADC. Both flight time and ion intensity are stored in the microcomputer.

  14. Design of microcomputer-based data acquisition system for the time-of-flight ion scattering spectrometer

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Lo, H.; Su, C.

    1981-01-01

    A microcomputer-based data aquisition system used on a time-of-flight ion scattering spectrometer is described. The flight time of 90 0 -scattered ions from target atom determined directly with a 30 MHz crystal-controlled oscillator and its associated circuit. The ion intensity is detected by a channel multiplier, and its output signal pulse is converted from the analog form into digital form by an ADC. Both flight time and ion intensity are stored in the microcomputer. (orig.)

  15. Convergence of the multiple scattering expansion in XAFS and XANES

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Rehr, J.J.

    1992-01-01

    The convergence of the multiple-scattering expansion of XAFS and XANES by explicit path-bypath calculations. The approach is based on the fast scattering matrix formalism of Rehr and Albers, together with an automated path finder and filters that exclude negligible paths. High-order scattering terms are found to be essential, especially at low energies. Several factors including the magnitude of curved wave scattering amplitudes, inelastic losses and multiple-scattering Debye-Waller factors control convergence of the expansion. The convergence is illustrated explicitly for the case of diatomic molecules

  16. Analytic scattering kernels for neutron thermalization studies

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Sears, V.F.

    1990-01-01

    Current plans call for the inclusion of a liquid hydrogen or deuterium cold source in the NRU replacement vessel. This report is part of an ongoing study of neutron thermalization in such a cold source. Here, we develop a simple analytical model for the scattering kernel of monatomic and diatomic liquids. We also present the results of extensive numerical calculations based on this model for liquid hydrogen, liquid deuterium, and mixtures of the two. These calculations demonstrate the dependence of the scattering kernel on the incident and scattered-neutron energies, the behavior near rotational thresholds, the dependence on the centre-of-mass pair correlations, the dependence on the ortho concentration, and the dependence on the deuterium concentration in H 2 /D 2 mixtures. The total scattering cross sections are also calculated and compared with available experimental results

  17. Blind source separation based on time-frequency morphological characteristics for rigid acoustic scattering by underwater objects

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yang, Yang; Li, Xiukun

    2016-06-01

    Separation of the components of rigid acoustic scattering by underwater objects is essential in obtaining the structural characteristics of such objects. To overcome the problem of rigid structures appearing to have the same spectral structure in the time domain, time-frequency Blind Source Separation (BSS) can be used in combination with image morphology to separate the rigid scattering components of different objects. Based on a highlight model, the separation of the rigid scattering structure of objects with time-frequency distribution is deduced. Using a morphological filter, different characteristics in a Wigner-Ville Distribution (WVD) observed for single auto term and cross terms can be simplified to remove any cross-term interference. By selecting time and frequency points of the auto terms signal, the accuracy of BSS can be improved. An experimental simulation has been used, with changes in the pulse width of the transmitted signal, the relative amplitude and the time delay parameter, in order to analyzing the feasibility of this new method. Simulation results show that the new method is not only able to separate rigid scattering components, but can also separate the components when elastic scattering and rigid scattering exist at the same time. Experimental results confirm that the new method can be used in separating the rigid scattering structure of underwater objects.

  18. Subspace-based optimization method for inverse scattering problems with an inhomogeneous background medium

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Chen, Xudong

    2010-01-01

    This paper proposes a version of the subspace-based optimization method to solve the inverse scattering problem with an inhomogeneous background medium where the known inhomogeneities are bounded in a finite domain. Although the background Green's function at each discrete point in the computational domain is not directly available in an inhomogeneous background scenario, the paper uses the finite element method to simultaneously obtain the Green's function at all discrete points. The essence of the subspace-based optimization method is that part of the contrast source is determined from the spectrum analysis without using any optimization, whereas the orthogonally complementary part is determined by solving a lower dimension optimization problem. This feature significantly speeds up the convergence of the algorithm and at the same time makes it robust against noise. Numerical simulations illustrate the efficacy of the proposed algorithm. The algorithm presented in this paper finds wide applications in nondestructive evaluation, such as through-wall imaging

  19. LabVIEW-based X-ray detection system for laser compton scattering experiment

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Luo Wen; Xu Wang; Pan Qiangyan

    2010-01-01

    A LabVIEW-based X-ray detection system has been developed for laser-Compton scattering (LCS) experiment at the 100 MeV Linac of the Shanghai Institute of Applied Physics (SINAP). It mainly consists of a Si (Li) detector, readout electronics and a LabVIEW-based Data Acquisition (DAQ), and possesses the functions of signal spectrum displaying, acquisition control and simple online data analysis and so on. The performance test shows that energy and time resolutions of the system are 184 eV at 5.9 keV and ≤ 1% respectively and system instability is found to be 0.3‰ within a week. As a result, this X-ray detection system has low-cost and high-performance features and can meet the requirements of LCS experiment. (authors)

  20. Dispersion-based stimulated Raman scattering spectroscopy, holography, and optical coherence tomography.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Robles, Francisco E; Fischer, Martin C; Warren, Warren S

    2016-01-11

    Stimulated Raman scattering (SRS) enables fast, high resolution imaging of chemical constituents important to biological structures and functional processes, both in a label-free manner and using exogenous biomarkers. While this technology has shown remarkable potential, it is currently limited to point scanning and can only probe a few Raman bands at a time (most often, only one). In this work we take a fundamentally different approach to detecting the small nonlinear signals based on dispersion effects that accompany the loss/gain processes in SRS. In this proof of concept, we demonstrate that the dispersive measurements are more robust to noise compared to amplitude-based measurements, which then permit spectral or spatial multiplexing (potentially both, simultaneously). Finally, we illustrate how this method may enable different strategies for biochemical imaging using phase microscopy and optical coherence tomography.

  1. SU-F-J-109: Generate Synthetic CT From Cone Beam CT for CBCT-Based Dose Calculation

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Wang, H; Barbee, D; Wang, W; Pennell, R; Hu, K; Osterman, K [Department of Radiation Oncology, NYU Langone Medical Center, New York, NY (United States)

    2016-06-15

    Purpose: The use of CBCT for dose calculation is limited by its HU inaccuracy from increased scatter. This study presents a method to generate synthetic CT images from CBCT data by a probabilistic classification that may be robust to CBCT noise. The feasibility of using the synthetic CT for dose calculation is evaluated in IMRT for unilateral H&N cancer. Methods: In the training phase, a fuzzy c-means classification was performed on HU vectors (CBCT, CT) of planning CT and registered day-1 CBCT image pair. Using the resulting centroid CBCT and CT values for five classified “tissue” types, a synthetic CT for a daily CBCT was created by classifying each CBCT voxel to obtain its probability belonging to each tissue class, then assigning a CT HU with a probability-weighted summation of the classes’ CT centroids. Two synthetic CTs from a CBCT were generated: s-CT using the centroids from classification of individual patient CBCT/CT data; s2-CT using the same centroids for all patients to investigate the applicability of group-based centroids. IMRT dose calculations for five patients were performed on the synthetic CTs and compared with CT-planning doses by dose-volume statistics. Results: DVH curves of PTVs and critical organs calculated on s-CT and s2-CT agree with those from planning-CT within 3%, while doses calculated with heterogeneity off or on raw CBCT show DVH differences up to 15%. The differences in PTV D95% and spinal cord max are 0.6±0.6% and 0.6±0.3% for s-CT, and 1.6±1.7% and 1.9±1.7% for s2-CT. Gamma analysis (2%/2mm) shows 97.5±1.6% and 97.6±1.6% pass rates for using s-CTs and s2-CTs compared with CT-based doses, respectively. Conclusion: CBCT-synthesized CTs using individual or group-based centroids resulted in dose calculations that are comparable to CT-planning dose for unilateral H&N cancer. The method may provide a tool for accurate dose calculation based on daily CBCT.

  2. SU-F-J-109: Generate Synthetic CT From Cone Beam CT for CBCT-Based Dose Calculation

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Wang, H; Barbee, D; Wang, W; Pennell, R; Hu, K; Osterman, K

    2016-01-01

    Purpose: The use of CBCT for dose calculation is limited by its HU inaccuracy from increased scatter. This study presents a method to generate synthetic CT images from CBCT data by a probabilistic classification that may be robust to CBCT noise. The feasibility of using the synthetic CT for dose calculation is evaluated in IMRT for unilateral H&N cancer. Methods: In the training phase, a fuzzy c-means classification was performed on HU vectors (CBCT, CT) of planning CT and registered day-1 CBCT image pair. Using the resulting centroid CBCT and CT values for five classified “tissue” types, a synthetic CT for a daily CBCT was created by classifying each CBCT voxel to obtain its probability belonging to each tissue class, then assigning a CT HU with a probability-weighted summation of the classes’ CT centroids. Two synthetic CTs from a CBCT were generated: s-CT using the centroids from classification of individual patient CBCT/CT data; s2-CT using the same centroids for all patients to investigate the applicability of group-based centroids. IMRT dose calculations for five patients were performed on the synthetic CTs and compared with CT-planning doses by dose-volume statistics. Results: DVH curves of PTVs and critical organs calculated on s-CT and s2-CT agree with those from planning-CT within 3%, while doses calculated with heterogeneity off or on raw CBCT show DVH differences up to 15%. The differences in PTV D95% and spinal cord max are 0.6±0.6% and 0.6±0.3% for s-CT, and 1.6±1.7% and 1.9±1.7% for s2-CT. Gamma analysis (2%/2mm) shows 97.5±1.6% and 97.6±1.6% pass rates for using s-CTs and s2-CTs compared with CT-based doses, respectively. Conclusion: CBCT-synthesized CTs using individual or group-based centroids resulted in dose calculations that are comparable to CT-planning dose for unilateral H&N cancer. The method may provide a tool for accurate dose calculation based on daily CBCT.

  3. Comparison of CT number calibration techniques for CBCT-based dose calculation

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Dunlop, Alex [The Royal Marsden NHS Foundation Trust, Joint Department of Physics, Institute of Cancer Research, London (United Kingdom); The Royal Marsden Hospital, Sutton, Surrey, Downs Road (United Kingdom); McQuaid, Dualta; Nill, Simeon; Hansen, Vibeke N.; Oelfke, Uwe [The Royal Marsden NHS Foundation Trust, Joint Department of Physics, Institute of Cancer Research, London (United Kingdom); Murray, Julia; Bhide, Shreerang; Harrington, Kevin [The Royal Marsden Hospital, Sutton, Surrey, Downs Road (United Kingdom); The Institute of Cancer Research, London (United Kingdom); Poludniowski, Gavin [Karolinska University Hospital, Department of Medical Physics, Stockholm (Sweden); Nutting, Christopher [The Institute of Cancer Research, London (United Kingdom); Newbold, Kate [The Royal Marsden Hospital, Sutton, Surrey, Downs Road (United Kingdom)

    2015-12-15

    The aim of this work was to compare and validate various computed tomography (CT) number calibration techniques with respect to cone beam CT (CBCT) dose calculation accuracy. CBCT dose calculation accuracy was assessed for pelvic, lung, and head and neck (H and N) treatment sites for two approaches: (1) physics-based scatter correction methods (CBCT{sub r}); (2) density override approaches including assigning water density to the entire CBCT (W), assignment of either water or bone density (WB), and assignment of either water or lung density (WL). Methods for CBCT density assignment within a commercially available treatment planning system (RS{sub auto}), where CBCT voxels are binned into six density levels, were assessed and validated. Dose-difference maps and dose-volume statistics were used to compare the CBCT dose distributions with the ground truth of a planning CT acquired the same day as the CBCT. For pelvic cases, all CTN calibration methods resulted in average dose-volume deviations below 1.5 %. RS{sub auto} provided larger than average errors for pelvic treatments for patients with large amounts of adipose tissue. For H and N cases, all CTN calibration methods resulted in average dose-volume differences below 1.0 % with CBCT{sub r} (0.5 %) and RS{sub auto} (0.6 %) performing best. For lung cases, WL and RS{sub auto} methods generated dose distributions most similar to the ground truth. The RS{sub auto} density override approach is an attractive option for CTN adjustments for a variety of anatomical sites. RS{sub auto} methods were validated, resulting in dose calculations that were consistent with those calculated on diagnostic-quality CT images, for CBCT images acquired of the lung, for patients receiving pelvic RT in cases without excess adipose tissue, and for H and N cases. (orig.) [German] Ziel dieser Arbeit ist der Vergleich und die Validierung mehrerer CT-Kalibrierungsmethoden zur Dosisberechnung auf der Grundlage von Kegelstrahlcomputertomographie

  4. Vehicle license plate recognition in dense fog based on improved atmospheric scattering model

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tang, Chunming; Lin, Jun; Chen, Chunkai; Dong, Yancheng

    2018-04-01

    An effective method based on improved atmospheric scattering model is proposed in this paper to handle the problem of the vehicle license plate location and recognition in dense fog. Dense fog detection is performed firstly by the top-hat transformation and the vertical edge detection, and the moving vehicle image is separated from the traffic video image. After the vehicle image is decomposed into two layers: structure and texture layers, the glow layer is separated from the structure layer to get the background layer. Followed by performing the mean-pooling and the bicubic interpolation algorithm, the atmospheric light map of the background layer can be predicted, meanwhile the transmission of the background layer is estimated through the grayed glow layer, whose gray value is altered by linear mapping. Then, according to the improved atmospheric scattering model, the final restored image can be obtained by fusing the restored background layer and the optimized texture layer. License plate location is performed secondly by a series of morphological operations, connected domain analysis and various validations. Characters extraction is achieved according to the projection. Finally, an offline trained pattern classifier of hybrid discriminative restricted boltzmann machines (HDRBM) is applied to recognize the characters. Experimental results on thorough data sets are reported to demonstrate that the proposed method can achieve high recognition accuracy and works robustly in the dense fog traffic environment during 24h or one day.

  5. Rapid thyroid dysfunction screening based on serum surface-enhanced Raman scattering and multivariate statistical analysis

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tian, Dayong; Lü, Guodong; Zhai, Zhengang; Du, Guoli; Mo, Jiaqing; Lü, Xiaoyi

    2018-01-01

    In this paper, serum surface-enhanced Raman scattering and multivariate statistical analysis are used to investigate a rapid screening technique for thyroid function diseases. At present, the detection of thyroid function has become increasingly important, and it is urgently necessary to develop a rapid and portable method for the detection of thyroid function. Our experimental results show that, by using the Silmeco-based enhanced Raman signal, the signal strength greatly increases and the characteristic peak appears obviously. It is also observed that the Raman spectra of normal and anomalous thyroid function human serum are significantly different. Principal component analysis (PCA) combined with linear discriminant analysis (LDA) was used to diagnose thyroid dysfunction, and the diagnostic accuracy was 87.4%. The use of serum surface-enhanced Raman scattering technology combined with PCA-LDA shows good diagnostic performance for the rapid detection of thyroid function. By means of Raman technology, it is expected that a portable device for the rapid detection of thyroid function will be developed.

  6. Gamma-gamma density and lithology tools simulation based on GEANT4 advanced low energy Compton scattering (GALECS) package

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Esmaeili-sani, Vahid; Moussavi-zarandi, Ali; Boghrati, Behzad; Afarideh, Hossein

    2012-01-01

    Geophysical bore-hole data represent the physical properties of rocks, such as density and formation lithology, as a function of depth in a well. Properties of rocks are obtained from gamma ray transport logs. Transport of gamma rays, from a 137 Cs point gamma source situated in a bore-hole tool, through rock media to detectors, has been simulated using a GEANT4 radiation transport code. The advanced Compton scattering concepts were used to gain better analyses about well formation. The simulation and understanding of advanced Compton scattering highly depends on how accurately the effects of Doppler broadening and Rayleigh scattering are taken into account. A Monte Carlo package that simulates the gamma-gamma well logging tools based on GEANT4 advanced low energy Compton scattering (GALECS).

  7. High-Frequency Guided Wave Scattering by a Partly Through-Thickness Hole Based on 3D Theory

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Zhang Hai-Yan; Xu Jian; Ma Shi-Wei

    2015-01-01

    We present a theoretical investigation of the scattering of high frequency S0 Lamb mode from a circular blind hole defect in a plate based on the 3D theory. The S0 wave is incident at the frequency above the A1 mode cut-off frequency, in which the popular approximate plate theories are inapplicable. Due to the non-symmetric blind hole defect, the scattered fields will contain higher order converted modes in addition to the fundamental S0 and A0 modes. The far-field scattering amplitudes of various propagating Lamb modes for different hole sizes are inspected. The results are compared with those of lower frequencies and some different phenomena are found. Two-dimensional Fourier transform (2DFT) results of transient scattered Lamb and SH wave signals agree well with the analytical dispersion curves, which check the validity of the solutions from another point of view. (paper)

  8. Gamma-gamma density and lithology tools simulation based on GEANT4 advanced low energy Compton scattering (GALECS) package

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Esmaeili-sani, Vahid, E-mail: vaheed_esmaeely80@yahoo.com [Department of Nuclear Engineering and Physics, Amirkabir University of Technology, P.O. Box 4155-4494, Tehran (Iran, Islamic Republic of); Moussavi-zarandi, Ali; Boghrati, Behzad; Afarideh, Hossein [Department of Nuclear Engineering and Physics, Amirkabir University of Technology, P.O. Box 4155-4494, Tehran (Iran, Islamic Republic of)

    2012-02-01

    Geophysical bore-hole data represent the physical properties of rocks, such as density and formation lithology, as a function of depth in a well. Properties of rocks are obtained from gamma ray transport logs. Transport of gamma rays, from a {sup 137}Cs point gamma source situated in a bore-hole tool, through rock media to detectors, has been simulated using a GEANT4 radiation transport code. The advanced Compton scattering concepts were used to gain better analyses about well formation. The simulation and understanding of advanced Compton scattering highly depends on how accurately the effects of Doppler broadening and Rayleigh scattering are taken into account. A Monte Carlo package that simulates the gamma-gamma well logging tools based on GEANT4 advanced low energy Compton scattering (GALECS).

  9. Compton scattering

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Botto, D.J.; Pratt, R.H.

    1979-05-01

    The current status of Compton scattering, both experimental observations and the theoretical predictions, is examined. Classes of experiments are distinguished and the results obtained are summarized. The validity of the incoherent scattering function approximation and the impulse approximation is discussed. These simple theoretical approaches are compared with predictions of the nonrelativistic dipole formula of Gavrila and with the relativistic results of Whittingham. It is noted that the A -2 based approximations fail to predict resonances and an infrared divergence, both of which have been observed. It appears that at present the various available theoretical approaches differ significantly in their predictions and that further and more systematic work is required

  10. Compton scattering

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Botto, D.J.; Pratt, R.H.

    1979-05-01

    The current status of Compton scattering, both experimental observations and the theoretical predictions, is examined. Classes of experiments are distinguished and the results obtained are summarized. The validity of the incoherent scattering function approximation and the impulse approximation is discussed. These simple theoretical approaches are compared with predictions of the nonrelativistic dipole formula of Gavrila and with the relativistic results of Whittingham. It is noted that the A/sup -2/ based approximations fail to predict resonances and an infrared divergence, both of which have been observed. It appears that at present the various available theoretical approaches differ significantly in their predictions and that further and more systematic work is required.

  11. Analysis of inelastic neutron scattering results on model compounds ...

    Indian Academy of Sciences (India)

    Vibrational spectroscopy; nitrogenous bases; inelastic neutron scattering. PACS No. ... obtain good quality, high resolution results in this region. Here the .... knowledge of the character of each molecular transition as well as the calculated.

  12. Fully iterative scatter corrected digital breast tomosynthesis using GPU-based fast Monte Carlo simulation and composition ratio update

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Kim, Kyungsang; Ye, Jong Chul, E-mail: jong.ye@kaist.ac.kr [Bio Imaging and Signal Processing Laboratory, Department of Bio and Brain Engineering, KAIST 291, Daehak-ro, Yuseong-gu, Daejeon 34141 (Korea, Republic of); Lee, Taewon; Cho, Seungryong [Medical Imaging and Radiotherapeutics Laboratory, Department of Nuclear and Quantum Engineering, KAIST 291, Daehak-ro, Yuseong-gu, Daejeon 34141 (Korea, Republic of); Seong, Younghun; Lee, Jongha; Jang, Kwang Eun [Samsung Advanced Institute of Technology, Samsung Electronics, 130, Samsung-ro, Yeongtong-gu, Suwon-si, Gyeonggi-do, 443-803 (Korea, Republic of); Choi, Jaegu; Choi, Young Wook [Korea Electrotechnology Research Institute (KERI), 111, Hanggaul-ro, Sangnok-gu, Ansan-si, Gyeonggi-do, 426-170 (Korea, Republic of); Kim, Hak Hee; Shin, Hee Jung; Cha, Joo Hee [Department of Radiology and Research Institute of Radiology, Asan Medical Center, University of Ulsan College of Medicine, 88 Olympic-ro, 43-gil, Songpa-gu, Seoul, 138-736 (Korea, Republic of)

    2015-09-15

    Purpose: In digital breast tomosynthesis (DBT), scatter correction is highly desirable, as it improves image quality at low doses. Because the DBT detector panel is typically stationary during the source rotation, antiscatter grids are not generally compatible with DBT; thus, a software-based scatter correction is required. This work proposes a fully iterative scatter correction method that uses a novel fast Monte Carlo simulation (MCS) with a tissue-composition ratio estimation technique for DBT imaging. Methods: To apply MCS to scatter estimation, the material composition in each voxel should be known. To overcome the lack of prior accurate knowledge of tissue composition for DBT, a tissue-composition ratio is estimated based on the observation that the breast tissues are principally composed of adipose and glandular tissues. Using this approximation, the composition ratio can be estimated from the reconstructed attenuation coefficients, and the scatter distribution can then be estimated by MCS using the composition ratio. The scatter estimation and image reconstruction procedures can be performed iteratively until an acceptable accuracy is achieved. For practical use, (i) the authors have implemented a fast MCS using a graphics processing unit (GPU), (ii) the MCS is simplified to transport only x-rays in the energy range of 10–50 keV, modeling Rayleigh and Compton scattering and the photoelectric effect using the tissue-composition ratio of adipose and glandular tissues, and (iii) downsampling is used because the scatter distribution varies rather smoothly. Results: The authors have demonstrated that the proposed method can accurately estimate the scatter distribution, and that the contrast-to-noise ratio of the final reconstructed image is significantly improved. The authors validated the performance of the MCS by changing the tissue thickness, composition ratio, and x-ray energy. The authors confirmed that the tissue-composition ratio estimation was quite

  13. Compton scatter tomography in TOF-PET

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hemmati, Hamidreza; Kamali-Asl, Alireza; Ay, Mohammadreza; Ghafarian, Pardis

    2017-10-01

    Scatter coincidences contain hidden information about the activity distribution on the positron emission tomography (PET) imaging system. However, in conventional reconstruction, the scattered data cause the blurring of images and thus are estimated and subtracted from detected coincidences. List mode format provides a new aspect to use time of flight (TOF) and energy information of each coincidence in the reconstruction process. In this study, a novel approach is proposed to reconstruct activity distribution using the scattered data in the PET system. For each single scattering coincidence, a scattering angle can be determined by the recorded energy of the detected photons, and then possible locations of scattering can be calculated based on the scattering angle. Geometry equations show that these sites lie on two arcs in 2D mode or the surface of a prolate spheroid in 3D mode, passing through the pair of detector elements. The proposed method uses a novel and flexible technique to estimate source origin locations from the possible scattering locations, using the TOF information. Evaluations were based on a Monte-Carlo simulation of uniform and non-uniform phantoms at different resolutions of time and detector energy. The results show that although the energy uncertainties deteriorate the image spatial resolution in the proposed method, the time resolution has more impact on image quality than the energy resolution. With progress of the TOF system, the reconstruction using the scattered data can be used in a complementary manner, or to improve image quality in the next generation of PET systems.

  14. Track reconstruction for the Mu3e experiment based on a novel Multiple Scattering fit

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Kozlinskiy Alexandr

    2017-01-01

    Full Text Available The Mu3e experiment is designed to search for the lepton flavor violating decay μ+ → e+e+e−. The aim of the experiment is to reach a branching ratio sensitivity of 10−16. In a first phase the experiment will be performed at an existing beam line at the Paul-Scherrer Institute (Switzerland providing 108 muons per second, which will allow to reach a sensitivity of 2 · 10−15. The muons with a momentum of about 28 MeV/c are stopped and decay at rest on a target. The decay products (positrons and electrons with energies below 53MeV are measured by a tracking detector consisting of two double layers of 50 μm thin silicon pixel sensors. The high granularity of the pixel detector with a pixel size of 80 μm × 80 μm allows for a precise track reconstruction in the high multiplicity environment of the Mu3e experiment, reaching 100 tracks per reconstruction frame of 50 ns in the final phase of the experiment. To deal with such high rates and combinatorics, the Mu3e track reconstruction uses a novel fit algorithm that in the simplest case takes into account only the multiple scattering, which allows for a fast online tracking on a GPU based filter farm. An implementation of the 3-dimensional multiple scattering fit based on hit triplets is described. The extension of the fit that takes into account energy losses and pixel size is used for offline track reconstruction. The algorithm and performance of the offline track reconstruction based on a full Geant4 simulation of the Mu3e detector are presented.

  15. Dynamics in poly vinyl alcohol (PVA) based hydrogel: Neutron scattering study

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Prabhudesai, S. A., E-mail: swapnil@barc.gov.in; Mitra, S.; Mukhopadhyay, R. [Solid State Physics Division, Bhabha Atomic Research Centre, Mumbai 40085 (India); Lawrence, Mathias B. [Department of Physics, St. Xavier’s College, Mapusa, Goa 403507 (India); Desa, J. A. E. [Department of Physics, Goa University, Taleigao Plateau, Goa 403206 (India)

    2015-06-24

    Results of quasielastic neutron scattering measurements carried out on Poly Vinyl Alcohol (PVA) based hydrogels are reported here. PVA hydrogels are formed using Borax as a cross-linking agent in D{sub 2}O solvent. This synthetic polymer can be used for obtaining the hydrogels with potential use in the field of biomaterials. The aim of this paper is to study the dynamics of polymer chain in the hydrogel since it is known that polymer mobility influences the kinetics of loading and release of drugs. It is found that the dynamics of hydrogen atoms in the polymer chain could be described by a model where the diffusion of hydrogen atoms is limited within a spherical volume of radius 3.3 Å. Average diffusivity estimated from the behavior of quasielastic width is found to be 1.2 × 10{sup −5} cm{sup 2}/sec.

  16. High-speed all-optical logic inverter based on stimulated Raman scattering in silicon nanocrystal.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sen, Mrinal; Das, Mukul K

    2015-11-01

    In this paper, we propose a new device architecture for an all-optical logic inverter (NOT gate), which is cascadable with a similar device. The inverter is based on stimulated Raman scattering in silicon nanocrystal waveguides, which are embedded in a silicon photonic crystal structure. The Raman response function of silicon nanocrystal is evaluated to explore the transfer characteristic of the inverter. A maximum product criterion for the noise margin is taken to analyze the cascadability of the inverter. The time domain response of the inverter, which explores successful inversion operation at 100 Gb/s, is analyzed. Propagation delay of the inverter is on the order of 5 ps, which is less than the delay in most of the electronic logic families as of today. Overall dimension of the device is around 755  μm ×15  μm, which ensures integration compatibility with the matured silicon industry.

  17. Semihard interactions in nuclear collisions based on a unified approach to high energy scattering

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Drescher, H.J.; Hladik, M.; Werner, K.; Ostapchenko, S.; Centre National de la Recherche Scientifique, 44 - Nantes

    1998-01-01

    Our ultimate goal is the construction of a model for interactions of two nuclei in the energy range between several tens of GeV up to several TeV per nucleon in the centre-of-mass system. Such nuclear collisions are very complex, being composed of many components, and therefore some strategy is needed to construct a reliable model. The central point of our approach is the hypothesis, that the behavior of high energy interactions is universal (universality hypothesis). A model for nuclear interactions in a modular fashion is proposed. The individual modules, based on the universality hypothesis, are identified as building blocks for more elementary interactions (like e + e - , lepton-proton), and can therefore be studied in a much simpler context. With these building blocks under control, a quite reliable model is developed for nucleus-nucleus scattering, providing in particular very useful tests for the complicated numerical procedures using Monte Carlo techniques. (author)

  18. Identification of the heart wall and chamber based on temporal change of ultrasonic scatterer distribution

    Science.gov (United States)

    Takahashi, Kohei; Taki, Hirofumi; Kanai, Hiroshi

    2017-07-01

    In most current methods for evaluating the cardiac function by ultrasound, the heart wall area is identified manually by an examiner. To eliminate examiner dependence and to improve usability, an automatic heart wall identification method is desirable. Identification based on only echogenicity often fails because of low echogenicity of some areas of the heart wall. In the present study, to determine more essential features, we focused on the relative temporal change of ultrasonic scatterer distribution and proposed three features for identification of the heart wall and the chamber: cross-correlation of RF signals, that of envelopes, and spatial dispersion of movement vectors in small regions. In an in vivo experiment, using echogenicity and the three features, we identified the heart wall and the chamber in the left ventricular long-axis view, resulting in criteria of separability J of 1.69, 1.40, and 3.02 using these features compared with the result of 0.979 using echogenicity.

  19. Real-time biochemical sensor based on Raman scattering with CMOS contact imaging.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Muyun Cao; Yuhua Li; Yadid-Pecht, Orly

    2015-08-01

    This work presents a biochemical sensor based on Raman scattering with Complementary metal-oxide-semiconductor (CMOS) contact imaging. This biochemical optical sensor is designed for detecting the concentration of solutions. The system is built with a laser diode, an optical filter, a sample holder and a commercial CMOS sensor. The output of the system is analyzed by an image processing program. The system provides instant measurements with a resolution of 0.2 to 0.4 Mol. This low cost and easy-operated small scale system is useful in chemical, biomedical and environmental labs for quantitative bio-chemical concentration detection with results reported comparable to a highly cost commercial spectrometer.

  20. HECTOR 1.00. A program for the calculation of QED, QCD and electroweak corrections to ep and l±N deep inelastic neutral and charged current scattering

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Arbuzov, A.; Kalinovskaya, L.; Bardin, D.; Deutsches Elektronen-Synchrotron; Bluemlein, J.; Riemann, T.

    1995-11-01

    A description of the Fortran program HECTOR for a variety of semi-analytical calculations of radiative QED, QCD, and electroweak corrections to the double-differential cross sections of NC and CC deep inelastic charged lepton proton (or lepton deuteron) scattering is presented. HECTOR originates from the substantially improved and extended earlier programs HELIOS and TERAD91. It is mainly intended for applications at HERA or LEP x LHC, but may be used also for μN scattering in fixed target experiments. The QED corrections may be calculated in different sets of variables: leptonic, hadronic, mixed, Jaquet-Blondel, double angle etc. Besides the leading logarithmic approximation up to order O(α 2 ), exact O(α) corrections and inclusive soft photon exponentiation are taken into account. The photoproduction region is also covered. (orig.)