Sample records for scattering amplitudes

  1. Scattering amplitudes in gauge theories

    CERN Document Server

    Henn, Johannes M


    At the fundamental level, the interactions of elementary particles are described by quantum gauge field theory. The quantitative implications of these interactions are captured by scattering amplitudes, traditionally computed using Feynman diagrams. In the past decade tremendous progress has been made in our understanding of and computational abilities with regard to scattering amplitudes in gauge theories, going beyond the traditional textbook approach. These advances build upon on-shell methods that focus on the analytic structure of the amplitudes, as well as on their recently discovered hidden symmetries. In fact, when expressed in suitable variables the amplitudes are much simpler than anticipated and hidden patterns emerge.   These modern methods are of increasing importance in phenomenological applications arising from the need for high-precision predictions for the experiments carried out at the Large Hadron Collider, as well as in foundational mathematical physics studies on the S-matrix in quantum ...

  2. Scattering amplitudes in gauge theories

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Henn, Johannes M. [Institute for Advanced Study, Princeton, NJ (United States). School of Natural Sciences; Plefka, Jan C. [Humboldt-Universitaet, Berlin (Germany). Inst. fuer Physik


    First monographical text on this fundamental topic. Course-tested, pedagogical and self-contained exposition. Includes exercises and solutions. At the fundamental level, the interactions of elementary particles are described by quantum gauge field theory. The quantitative implications of these interactions are captured by scattering amplitudes, traditionally computed using Feynman diagrams. In the past decade tremendous progress has been made in our understanding of and computational abilities with regard to scattering amplitudes in gauge theories, going beyond the traditional textbook approach. These advances build upon on-shell methods that focus on the analytic structure of the amplitudes, as well as on their recently discovered hidden symmetries. In fact, when expressed in suitable variables the amplitudes are much simpler than anticipated and hidden patterns emerge. These modern methods are of increasing importance in phenomenological applications arising from the need for high-precision predictions for the experiments carried out at the Large Hadron Collider, as well as in foundational mathematical physics studies on the S-matrix in quantum field theory. Bridging the gap between introductory courses on quantum field theory and state-of-the-art research, these concise yet self-contained and course-tested lecture notes are well-suited for a one-semester graduate level course or as a self-study guide for anyone interested in fundamental aspects of quantum field theory and its applications. The numerous exercises and solutions included will help readers to embrace and apply the material presented in the main text.

  3. Grassmannian geometry of scattering amplitudes

    CERN Document Server

    Arkani-Hamed, Nima; Cachazo, Freddy; Goncharov, Alexander; Postnikov, Alexander; Trnka, Jaroslav


    Outlining a revolutionary reformulation of the foundations of perturbative quantum field theory, this book is a self-contained and authoritative analysis of the application of this new formulation to the case of planar, maximally supersymmetric Yang–Mills theory. The book begins by deriving connections between scattering amplitudes and Grassmannian geometry from first principles before introducing novel physical and mathematical ideas in a systematic manner accessible to both physicists and mathematicians. The principle players in this process are on-shell functions which are closely related to certain sub-strata of Grassmannian manifolds called positroids - in terms of which the classification of on-shell functions and their relations becomes combinatorially manifest. This is an essential introduction to the geometry and combinatorics of the positroid stratification of the Grassmannian and an ideal text for advanced students and researchers working in the areas of field theory, high energy physics, and the...

  4. Scattering Amplitudes via Algebraic Geometry Methods

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Søgaard, Mads

    Feynman diagrams. The study of multiloop scattering amplitudes is crucial for the new era of precision phenomenology at the Large Hadron Collider (LHC) at CERN. Loop-level scattering amplitudes can be reduced to a basis of linearly independent integrals whose coefficients are extracted from generalized...

  5. Semiclassical scattering amplitudes of dressed gravitons


    Kang, Kyungsik; Kondrashuk, Igor


    We consider effective action for the Einstein gravity and show that dressed mean fields are actual variables of the effective action. Kernels of this effective action expressed in terms of dressed effective fields are constituent parts of scattering amplitudes for gravitons. Possible applications to the graviton scattering and black hole formation are discussed at the semiclassical level. In particular, we consider graviton scattering in four dimensions based on the Lipatov effective action f...

  6. Scattering Amplitudes and Worldsheet Models of QFTs

    CERN Multimedia

    CERN. Geneva


    I will describe recent progress on the study of scattering amplitudes via ambitwistor strings and the scattering equations. Ambitwistor strings are worldsheet models of quantum field theories, inspired by string theory. They naturally lead to a representation of amplitudes based on the scattering equations. While worldsheet models and related ideas have had a wide-ranging impact on the modern study of amplitudes, their direct application at loop level is a very recent success. I will show how a major difficulty in the loop-level story, the technicalities of higher-genus Riemann surfaces, can be avoided by turning the higher-genus surface into a nodal Riemann sphere, with the nodes representing the loop momenta. I will present new formulas for the one-loop integrands of gauge theory and gravity, with or without supersymmetry, and also some two-loop results.

  7. Holographic corrections to meson scattering amplitudes

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Armoni, Adi; Ireson, Edwin, E-mail:


    We compute meson scattering amplitudes using the holographic duality between confining gauge theories and string theory, in order to consider holographic corrections to the Veneziano amplitude and associated higher-point functions. The generic nature of such computations is explained, thanks to the well-understood nature of confining string backgrounds, and two different examples of the calculation in given backgrounds are used to illustrate the details. The effect we discover, whilst only qualitative, is re-obtainable in many such examples, in four-point but also higher point amplitudes.

  8. Scattering amplitudes in open superstring theory

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Schlotterer, Oliver


    The present thesis deals with the theme field of the scattering amplitudes in theories of open superstrings. Especially two different formalisms for the handling of superstrings are introduced and applied for the calaculation of tree-level amplitudes - the Ramond- Neveu-Schwarz (RNS) and the Pure-Spinor (PS) formalism. The RNS approach is proved as flexible in order to describe compactification of the initially ten flat space-time dimensions to four dimensions. We solve the technical problems, which result from the interacting basing world-sheet theory with conformal symmetry. This is used to calculate phenomenologically relevant scattering amplitudes of gluons and quarks as well as production rates of massive harmonic vibrations, which were already identified as virtual exchange particles on the massless level. In the case of a low string mass scale in the range of some Tev the string-specific signatures in parton collisions can be observed in the near future in the LHC experiment at CERN and indicated as first experimental proof of the string theory. THose string effects occur universally for a wide class of string ground states respectively internal geometries and represent an elegant way to avoid the so-called landscape problem of the string theory. A further theme complex in this thesis is based on the PS formalism, which allows a manifestly supersymmetric treatment of scattering amplitudes in ten space-time dimension with sixteen supercharges. We introduce a family of superfields, which occur in massless amplitudes of the open string and can be naturally identified with diagrams of three-valued knots. Thereby we reach not only a compact superspace representation of the n-point field-theory amplitude but can also write the complete superstring n-point amplitude as minimal linear combination of partial amplitudes of the field theory as well as hypergeometric functions. The latter carry the string effects and are analyzed from different perspectives, above all

  9. Integrable spin chains and scattering amplitudes

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Bartels, J.; Prygarin, A. [Hamburg Univ. (Germany). 2. Inst. fuer Theoretische Physik; Lipatov, L.N. [Hamburg Univ. (Germany). 2. Inst. fuer Theoretische Physik; Petersburg Nuclear Physics Institute (Russian Federation); Sankt-Peterburgskij Univ., St. Petersburg (Russian Federation)


    In this review we show that the multi-particle scattering amplitudes in N=4 SYM at large N{sub c} and in the multi-Regge kinematics for some physical regions have the high energy behavior appearing from the contribution of the Mandelstam cuts in the complex angular momentum plane of the corresponding t-channel partial waves. These Mandelstam cuts or Regge cuts are resulting from gluon composite states in the adjoint representation of the gauge group SU(N{sub c}). In the leading logarithmic approximation (LLA) their contribution to the six point amplitude is in full agreement with the known two-loop result. The Hamiltonian for the Mandelstam states constructed from n gluons in LLA coincides with the local Hamiltonian of an integrable open spin chain. We construct the corresponding wave functions using the integrals of motion and the Baxter-Sklyanin approach. (orig.)

  10. Miracles in Scattering Amplitudes: from QCD to Gravity

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Volovich, Anastasia [Brown Univ., Providence, RI (United States)


    The goal of my research project "Miracles in Scattering Amplitudes: from QCD to Gravity" involves deepening our understanding of gauge and gravity theories by exploring hidden structures in scattering amplitudes and using these rich structures as much as possible to aid practical calculations.

  11. Singularity Structure of Maximally Supersymmetric Scattering Amplitudes

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Arkani-Hamed, Nima; Bourjaily, Jacob L.; Cachazo, Freddy


    We present evidence that loop amplitudes in maximally supersymmetric (N=4) Yang-Mills theory (SYM) beyond the planar limit share some of the remarkable structures of the planar theory. In particular, we show that through two loops, the four-particle amplitude in full N=4 SYM has only logarithmic ...

  12. Scattering amplitudes in gauge theories: progress and outlook Scattering amplitudes in gauge theories: progress and outlook (United States)

    Roiban, Radu; Spradlin, Marcus; Volovich, Anastasia


    This issue aims to serve as an introduction to our current understanding of the structure of scattering amplitudes in gauge theory, an area which has seen particularly rapid advances in recent years following decades of steady progress. The articles contained herein provide a snapshot of the latest developments which we hope will serve as a valuable resource for graduate students and other scientists wishing to learn about the current state of the field, even if our continually evolving understanding of the subject might soon render this compilation incomplete. Why the fascination with scattering amplitudes, which have attracted the imagination and dedicated effort of so many physicists? Part of it stems from the belief, supported now by numerous examples, that unexpected simplifications of otherwise apparently complicated calculations do not happen by accident. Instead they provide a strong motivation to seek out an underlying explanation. The insight thereby gained can subsequently be used to make the next class of seemingly impossible calculations not only possible, but in some cases even trivial. This two-pronged strategy of exploring and exploiting the structure of gauge theory amplitudes appeals to a wide audience from formal theorists interested in mathematical structure for the sake of its own beauty to more phenomenologically-minded physicists eager to speed up the next generation of analysis software. Understandably it is the maximally supersymmetric 𝒩 = 4 Yang-Mills theory (SYM) which has the simplest structure and has correspondingly received the most attention. Rarely in theoretical physics are we fortunate enough to encounter a toy model which is simple enough to be solved completely yet rich enough to possess interesting non-trivial structure while simultaneously, and most importantly, being applicable (even if only as a good approximation) to a wide range of 'real' systems. The canonical example in quantum mechanics is of course the harmonic

  13. String scattering amplitudes and deformed cubic string field theory (United States)

    Lai, Sheng-Hong; Lee, Jen-Chi; Lee, Taejin; Yang, Yi


    We study string scattering amplitudes by using the deformed cubic string field theory which is equivalent to the string field theory in the proper-time gauge. The four-string scattering amplitudes with three tachyons and an arbitrary string state are calculated. The string field theory yields the string scattering amplitudes evaluated on the world sheet of string scattering whereas the conventional method, based on the first quantized theory brings us the string scattering amplitudes defined on the upper half plane. For the highest spin states, generated by the primary operators, both calculations are in perfect agreement. In this case, the string scattering amplitudes are invariant under the conformal transformation, which maps the string world sheet onto the upper half plane. If the external string states are general massive states, generated by non-primary field operators, we need to take into account carefully the conformal transformation between the world sheet and the upper half plane. We show by an explicit calculation that the string scattering amplitudes calculated by using the deformed cubic string field theory transform into those of the first quantized theory on the upper half plane by the conformal transformation, generated by the Schwarz-Christoffel mapping.

  14. Scattering Amplitudes via Algebraic Geometry Methods

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Søgaard, Mads

    unitarity cuts. We take advantage of principles from algebraic geometry in order to extend the notion of maximal cuts to a large class of two- and three-loop integrals. This allows us to derive unique and surprisingly compact formulae for the coefficients of the basis integrals. Our results are expressed...... in terms of certain linear combinations of multivariate residues and elliptic integrals computed from products of tree-level amplitudes. Several explicit examples are provided...

  15. High energy asymptotics of the scattering amplitude for the ...

    Indian Academy of Sciences (India)

    R. Narasimhan (Krishtel eMaging) 1461 1996 Oct 15 13:05:22

    High energy asymptotics of the scattering amplitude for the. Schrödinger equation. D YAFAEV. Department of Mathematics, University Rennes-1, Campus Beaulieu, 35042 Rennes,. France. Abstract. We find an explicit function approximating at high energies the kernel of the scattering matrix with arbitrary accuracy.

  16. Towards satisfactory scattering amplitudes for dual fermions

    CERN Document Server

    Olive, D


    The authors find the modified Lorentz invariant propagator which, when used on Neveu-Schwarz meson lines joining fermion lines, guarantees the coupling of just the ghost-free transverse spectrum of meson states. The modification is necessary to take account of the new form of reflected Ward identity valid for such lines. Thus they can write down dual amplitudes for processes involving four external fermions which possess a high degree of inner consistency, no-ghost theorems and Lorentz invariance, but they have not yet been able to evaluate them. (13 refs).

  17. Scattering Amplitudes: The Most Perfect Microscopic Structures in the Universe

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Dixon, Lance J.; /CERN /SLAC


    This article gives an overview of many of the recent developments in understanding the structure of relativistic scattering amplitudes in gauge theories ranging from QCD to N = 4 super-Yang-Mills theory, as well as (super)gravity. I also provide a pedagogical introduction to some of the basic tools used to organize and illuminate the color and kinematic structure of amplitudes. This article is an invited review introducing a special issue of Journal of Physics A devoted to 'Scattering Amplitudes in Gauge Theories'.

  18. EPR = ER, scattering amplitude and entanglement entropy change

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Seki, Shigenori, E-mail: [Research Institute for Natural Science, Hanyang University, Seoul 133-791 (Korea, Republic of); Sin, Sang-Jin, E-mail: [Department of Physics, Hanyang University, Seoul 133-791 (Korea, Republic of)


    We study the causal structure of the minimal surface of the four-gluon scattering, and find a world-sheet wormhole parametrized by Mandelstam variables, thereby demonstrate the EPR = ER relation for gluon scattering. We also propose that scattering amplitude is the change of the entanglement entropy by generalizing the holographic entanglement entropy of Ryu–Takayanagi to the case where two regions are divided in space–time.

  19. Effective Field Theories from Soft Limits of Scattering Amplitudes. (United States)

    Cheung, Clifford; Kampf, Karol; Novotny, Jiri; Trnka, Jaroslav


    We derive scalar effective field theories-Lagrangians, symmetries, and all-from on-shell scattering amplitudes constructed purely from Lorentz invariance, factorization, a fixed power counting order in derivatives, and a fixed order at which amplitudes vanish in the soft limit. These constraints leave free parameters in the amplitude which are the coupling constants of well-known theories: Nambu-Goldstone bosons, Dirac-Born-Infeld scalars, and Galilean internal shift symmetries. Moreover, soft limits imply conditions on the Noether current which can then be inverted to derive Lagrangians for each theory. We propose a natural classification of all scalar effective field theories according to two numbers which encode the derivative power counting and soft behavior of the corresponding amplitudes. In those cases where there is no consistent amplitude, the corresponding theory does not exist.

  20. Conformal higher spin scattering amplitudes from twistor space

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Adamo, Tim [Blackett Laboratory, Imperial College, London, SW7 2AZ (United Kingdom); Hähnel, Philipp; McLoughlin, Tristan [School of Mathematics, Trinity College Dublin, College Green, Dublin 2 (Ireland)


    We use the formulation of conformal higher spin (CHS) theories in twistor space to study their tree-level scattering amplitudes, finding expressions for all three-point (MHV)-bar amplitudes and all MHV amplitudes involving positive helicity conformal gravity particles and two negative helicity higher spins. This provides the on-shell analogue for the covariant coupling of CHS fields to a conformal gravity background. We discuss the restriction of the theory to a ghost-free unitary subsector, analogous to restricting conformal gravity to general relativity with a cosmological constant. We study the flat-space limit and show that the restricted amplitudes vanish, supporting the conjecture that in the unitary sector the S-matrix of CHS theories is trivial. However, by appropriately rescaling the amplitudes we find non-vanishing results which we compare with chiral flat-space higher spin theories.

  1. Conformal higher spin scattering amplitudes from twistor space (United States)

    Adamo, Tim; Hähnel, Philipp; McLoughlin, Tristan


    We use the formulation of conformal higher spin (CHS) theories in twistor space to study their tree-level scattering amplitudes, finding expressions for all three-point \\overline{MHV} amplitudes and all MHV amplitudes involving positive helicity conformal gravity particles and two negative helicity higher spins. This provides the on-shell analogue for the covariant coupling of CHS fields to a conformal gravity background. We discuss the restriction of the theory to a ghost-free unitary subsector, analogous to restricting conformal gravity to general relativity with a cosmological constant. We study the flat-space limit and show that the restricted amplitudes vanish, supporting the conjecture that in the unitary sector the S-matrix of CHS theories is trivial. However, by appropriately rescaling the amplitudes we find non-vanishing results which we compare with chiral flat-space higher spin theories.

  2. Are scattering amplitudes dual to super Wilson loops?

    CERN Document Server

    Belitsky, A V; Sokatchev, E


    The MHV scattering amplitudes in planar N=4 SYM are dual to bosonic light-like Wilson loops. We explore various proposals for extending this duality to generic non-MHV amplitudes. The corresponding dual object should have the same symmetries as the scattering amplitudes and be invariant to all loops under the chiral half of the N=4 superconformal symmetry. We analyze the recently introduced supersymmetric extensions of the light-like Wilson loop (formulated in Minkowski space-time) and demonstrate that they have the required symmetry properties at the classical level only, up to terms proportional to field equations of motion. At the quantum level, due to the specific light-cone singularities of the Wilson loop, the equations of motion produce a nontrivial finite contribution which breaks some of the classical symmetries. As a result, the quantum corrections violate the chiral supersymmetry already at one loop, thus invalidating the conjectured duality between Wilson loops and non-MHV scattering amplitudes. W...

  3. Infrared singularities of scattering amplitudes in perturbative QCD

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Becher, Thomas [Fermi National Accelerator Laboratory (FNAL), Batavia, IL (United States); Neubert, Matthias [Johannes Gutenberg-Universitaet Mainz, Mainz (Germany)


    An exact formula is derived for the infrared singularities of dimensionally regularized scattering amplitudes in massless QCD with an arbitrary number of legs, valid at any number of loops. It is based on the conjecture that the anomalous-dimension matrix of n-jet operators in soft-collinear effective theory contains only a single non-trivial color structure, whose coefficient is the cusp anomalous dimension of Wilson loops with light-like segments. Its color-diagonal part is characterized by two anomalous dimensions, which are extracted to three-loop order from known perturbative results for the quark and gluon form factors. This allows us to predict the three-loop coefficients of all 1/epsilon^k poles for an arbitrary n-parton scattering amplitudes, generalizing existing two-loop results.

  4. Harmonic R Matrices for Scattering Amplitudes and Spectral Regularization (United States)

    Ferro, Livia; Łukowski, Tomasz; Meneghelli, Carlo; Plefka, Jan; Staudacher, Matthias


    Planar N=4 supersymmetric Yang-Mills theory appears to be integrable. While this allows one to find this theory’s exact spectrum, integrability has hitherto been of no direct use for scattering amplitudes. To remedy this, we deform all scattering amplitudes by a spectral parameter. The deformed tree-level four-point function turns out to be essentially the one-loop R matrix of the integrable N=4 spin chain satisfying the Yang-Baxter equation. Deformed on-shell three-point functions yield novel three-leg R matrices satisfying bootstrap equations. Finally, we supply initial evidence that the spectral parameter might find its use as a novel symmetry-respecting regulator replacing dimensional regularization. Its physical meaning is a local deformation of particle helicity, a fact which might be useful for a much larger class of nonintegrable four-dimensional field theories.

  5. Advanced methods for scattering amplitudes in gauge theories

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Peraro, Tiziano


    We present new techniques for the evaluation of multi-loop scattering amplitudes and their application to gauge theories, with relevance to the Standard Model phenomenology. We define a mathematical framework for the multi-loop integrand reduction of arbitrary diagrams, and elaborate algebraic approaches, such as the Laurent expansion method, implemented in the software Ninja, and the multivariate polynomial division technique by means of Groebner bases.

  6. M5-brane and D-brane scattering amplitudes (United States)

    Heydeman, Matthew; Schwarz, John H.; Wen, Congkao


    We present tree-level n-particle on-shell scattering amplitudes of various brane theories with 16 conserved supercharges. These include the world-volume theory of a probe D3-brane or D5-brane in 10D Minkowski spacetime as well as a probe M5-brane in 11D Minkowski spacetime, which describes self interactions of an abelian tensor supermultiplet with 6D (2, 0) supersymmetry. Twistor-string-like formulas are proposed for tree-level scattering amplitudes of all multiplicities for each of these theories. The R symmetry of the D3-brane theory is shown to be SU(4) × U(1), and the U(1) factor implies that its amplitudes are helicity conserving. Each of 6D theories (D5-brane and M5-brane) reduces to the D3-brane theory by dimensional reduction. As special cases of the general M5-brane amplitudes, we present compact formulas for examples involving only the self-dual B field with n = 4, 6, 8.

  7. Two-Loop Scattering Amplitudes from the Riemann Sphere

    CERN Document Server

    Geyer, Yvonne; Monteiro, Ricardo; Tourkine, Piotr


    The scattering equations give striking formulae for massless scattering amplitudes at tree level and, as shown recently, at one loop. The progress at loop level was based on ambitwistor string theory, which naturally yields the scattering equations. We proposed that, for ambitwistor strings, the standard loop expansion in terms of the genus of the worldsheet is equivalent to an expansion in terms of nodes of a Riemann sphere, with the nodes carrying the loop momenta. In this paper, we show how to obtain two-loop scattering equations with the correct factorization properties. We adapt genus-two integrands from the ambitwistor string to the nodal Riemann sphere and show that these yield correct answers, by matching standard results for the four-point two-loop amplitudes of maximal supergravity and super-Yang-Mills theory. In the Yang-Mills case, this requires the loop analogue of the Parke-Taylor factor carrying the colour dependence, which includes non-planar contributions.

  8. Long-distance singularities in multi-leg scattering amplitudes

    CERN Document Server

    Gardi, Einan; Duhr, Claude


    We report on the recent completion of the three-loop calculation of the soft anomalous dimension in massless gauge-theory scattering amplitudes. This brings the state-of-the-art knowledge of long-distance singularities in multi-leg QCD amplitudes with any number of massless particles to three loops. The result displays some novel features: this is the first time non-dipole corrections appear, which directly correlate the colour and kinematic degrees of freedom of four coloured partons. We find that non-dipole corrections appear at three loops also for three coloured partons, but these are independent of the kinematics. The final result is remarkably simple when expressed in terms of single-valued harmonic polylogarithms, and it satisfies several non-trivial constraints. In particular, it is consistent with the high-energy limit behaviour and it satisfies the expected factorization properties in two-particle collinear limits.

  9. On the Uniqueness and Consistency of Scattering Amplitudes (United States)

    Rodina, Laurentiu

    In this dissertation, we study constraints imposed by locality, unitarity, gauge invariance, the Adler zero, and constructability (scaling under BCFW shifts). In the first part we study scattering amplitudes as the unique mathematical objects which can satisfy various combinations of such principles. In all cases we find that locality and unitarity may be derived from gauge invariance (for Yang-Mills and General Relativity) or from the Adler zero (for the non-linear sigma model and the Dirac-Born-Infeld model), together with mild assumptions on the singularity structure and mass dimension. We also conjecture that constructability and locality together imply gauge invariance, hence also unitarity. All claims are proved through a soft expansion, and in the process we end re-deriving the well-known leading soft theorems for all four theories. Unlike other proofs of these theorems, we do not assume any form of factorization (unitarity). In the second part we show how tensions arising between gauge invariance (as encoded by spinor helicity variables in four dimensions), locality, unitarity and constructability give rise to various physical properties. These include high-spin no-go theorems, the equivalence principle, and the emergence of supersymmetry from spin 3/2 particles. We also complete the fully on-shell constructability proof of gravity amplitudes, by showing that the improved "bonus'' behavior of gravity under BCFW shifts is a simple consequence of Bose symmetry.

  10. Evaluation of the forward Compton scattering off protons: II. Spin-dependent amplitude and observables


    Gryniuk, Oleksii; Hagelstein, Franziska; Pascalutsa, Vladimir


    The forward Compton scattering off the proton is determined by substituting the empirical total photoabsorption cross sections into dispersive sum rules. In addition to the spin-independent amplitude evaluated previously [Phys. Rev. D 92, 074031 (2015)], we obtain the spin-dependent amplitude over a broad energy range. The two amplitudes contain all the information about this process, and we, hence, can reconstruct the nonvanishing observables of the proton Compton scattering in the forward k...

  11. Limitations in EXAFS Amplitude Transferability For Low-Z Scatterers.

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Koningsberger, D.C.; Pandya, K.I.


    We have studied the transferability of EXAFS amplitudes between carbon and oxygen as backscattering atoms. EXAFS data were collected on model compounds of known structure. The empirical phase and amplitude functions derived from an oxygen coordination shell were used as references to analyze a

  12. Salient features of scattering amplitudes in intermediate energy nucleon-nucleus scattering

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Susan, P.; Shastry, C.S. (Physics Department, North Eastern Hill University, Shillong-793 003 (India)); Gambhir, Y.K. (Physics Department, Indian Institute of Technology, Powai, Bombay-400 076 (India))


    Phenomenological relativistic optical models for scattering of nucleons from a spin-0 nucleus mainly use two different approaches. In the first, one essentially uses the Schroedinger equation incorporating appropriate relativistic kinematical terms. In the second approach, which is superior especially in reproducing spin observables, one starts with the Dirac equation and obtains an equivalent Schroedinger equation which forms a convenient basis for the calculation of experimental observables. Adopting a mathematical procedure developed earlier within the framework of potential scattering, we calculate the regionwise contribution to the reaction cross section for spin-1/2--spin-0 systems using both these types of relativistic optical models. The relative importance of different regions of intermediate energy optical potential in generating the total reaction cross section is examined using the method of regionwise absorption and it is found that reaction process is surface dominant. These findings are further elaborated by depicting the general features of [ital S] matrix and scattering amplitudes as a function of angular momentum.

  13. Unitarity methods and on-shell particles in scattering amplitudes

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Rietkerk, R.J.


    The Standard Model of particle physics describes all known elementary particles and their interactions. Important tests of this theory are performed with high-energy particle scattering experiments, for instance at the Large Hadron Collider. Such scattering processes are impressively well described

  14. Double-Cut of Scattering Amplitudes and Stokes' Theorem

    CERN Document Server

    Mastrolia, Pierpaolo


    We show how Stokes' Theorem, in the fashion of the Generalised Cauchy Formula, can be applied for computing double-cut integrals of one-loop amplitudes analytically. It implies the evaluation of phase-space integrals of rational functions in two complex-conjugated variables, which are simply computed by an indefinite integration in a single variable, followed by Cauchy's Residue integration in the conjugated one. The method is suitable for the cut-construction of the coefficients of 2-point functions entering the decomposition of one-loop amplitudes in terms of scalar master integrals.

  15. Scattering of gravitational radiation - Second order moments of the wave amplitude

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Macquart, JP

    Gravitational radiation that propagates through an inhomogeneous mass distribution is subject to random gravitational tensing, or scattering, causing variations in the wave amplitude and temporal smearing of the signal. A statistical theory is constructed to treat these effects. The statistical

  16. Ward Identity and Scattering Amplitudes for Nonlinear Sigma Models. (United States)

    Low, Ian; Yin, Zhewei


    We present a Ward identity for nonlinear sigma models using generalized nonlinear shift symmetries, without introducing current algebra or coset space. The Ward identity constrains correlation functions of the sigma model such that the Adler's zero is guaranteed for S-matrix elements, and gives rise to a subleading single soft theorem that is valid at the quantum level and to all orders in the Goldstone decay constant. For tree amplitudes, the Ward identity leads to a novel Berends-Giele recursion relation as well as an explicit form of the subleading single soft factor. Furthermore, interactions of the cubic biadjoint scalar theory associated with the single soft limit, which was previously discovered using the Cachazo-He-Yuan representation of tree amplitudes, can be seen to emerge from matrix elements of conserved currents corresponding to the generalized shift symmetry.

  17. Generalized tree-level scattering amplitude in a magnetized medium (United States)

    Kuznetsov, A. V.; Rumyantsev, D. A.; Shlenev, D. M.


    Tree-level two-point jf → j' f' transitions amplitudes in a constant uniform magnetic field of an arbitrary strength and in charged fermion plasma, for different combinations of scalar, pseudoscalar, vector, and axial-vector vertices are calculated. The obtained results are applied to analysis of the neutrino photoproduction process, γe → ev\\bar v, taking account of a possible resonance on the virtual electron in the conditions of dense strongly magentized plasma.

  18. Topics in Nonsupersymmetric Scattering Amplitudes in Gauge and Gravity Theories (United States)

    Nohle, Joshua David

    In Chapters 1 and 2, we introduce and review the duality between color and kinematics in Yang-Mills theory uncovered by Bern, Carrasco and Johansson (BCJ). In Chapter 3, we provide evidence in favor of the conjectured duality between color and kinematics for the case of nonsupersymmetric pure Yang-Mills amplitudes by constructing a form of the one-loop four-point amplitude of this theory that makes the duality manifest. Our construction is valid in any dimension. We also describe a duality-satisfying representation for the two-loop four-point amplitude with identical four-dimensional external helicities. We use these results to obtain corresponding gravity integrands for a theory containing a graviton, dilaton, and antisymmetric tensor, simply by replacing color factors with specified diagram numerators. Using this, we give explicit forms of ultraviolet divergences at one loop in four, six, and eight dimensions, and at two loops in four dimensions. In Chapter 4, we extend the four-point one-loop nonsupersymmetric pure Yang-Mills discussion of Chapter 3 to include fermions and scalars circulating in the loop with all external gluons. This gives another nontrivial loop-level example showing that the duality between color and kinematics holds in nonsupersymmetric gauge theory. The construction is valid in any spacetime dimension and written in terms of formal polarization vectors. We also convert these expressions into a four-dimensional form with explicit external helicity states. Using this, we compare our results to one-loop duality-satisfying amplitudes that are already present in literature. In Chapter 5, we switch from the topic of color-kinematics duality to discuss the recently renewed interest in the soft behavior of gravitons and gluons. Specifically, we discuss the subleading low-energy behavior. Cachazo and Strominger recently proposed an extension of the soft-graviton theorem found by Weinberg. In addition, they proved the validity of their extension at

  19. High-Energy String Scattering Amplitudes and Signless Stirling Number Identity

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Jen-Chi Lee


    Full Text Available We give a complete proof of a set of identities (7 proposed recently from calculation of high-energy string scattering amplitudes. These identities allow one to extract ratios among high-energy string scattering amplitudes in the fixed angle regime from high-energy amplitudes in the Regge regime. The proof is based on a signless Stirling number identity in combinatorial theory. The results are valid for arbitrary real values L rather than only for L=0,1 proved previously. The identities for non-integer real value L were recently shown to be realized in high-energy compactified string scattering amplitudes [He S., Lee J.C., Yang Y., arXiv:1012.3158]. The parameter L is related to the mass level of an excited string state and can take non-integer values for Kaluza-Klein modes.

  20. N=4 Scattering Amplitudes and the Deformed Graßmannian

    CERN Document Server

    Ferro, Livia; Staudacher, Matthias


    Some time ago the general tree-level scattering amplitudes of N=4 Super Yang-Mills theory were expressed as certain Grassmannian contour integrals. These remarkable formulas allow to clearly expose the super-conformal, dual super-conformal, and Yangian symmetries of the amplitudes. Using ideas from integrability it was recently shown that the building blocks of the amplitudes permit a natural multi-parameter deformation. However, this approach had been criticized by the observation that it seemed impossible to reassemble the building blocks into Yangian-invariant deformed non-MHV amplitudes. In this note we demonstrate that the deformations may be succinctly summarized by a simple modification of the measure of the Grassmannian integrals, leading to a Yangian-invariant deformation of the general tree-level amplitudes. Interestingly, the deformed building-blocks appear as residues of poles in the spectral parameter planes. Given that the contour integrals also contain information on the amplitudes at loop-leve...

  1. Exact and approximate multiple diffraction calculations. [Fixed-scatterer model, three-body problem, two-body amplitudes

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Alexander, Y.; Wallace, S.J.; Sparrow, D.A.


    A three-body potential scattering problem is solved in the fixed scatterer model exactly and approximately to test the validity of commonly used assumptions of multiple scattering calculations. The model problem involves two-body amplitudes that show diffraction-like differential scattering similar to high energy hadron-nucleon amplitudes. The exact fixed scatterer calculations are compared to Glauber approximation, eikonal-expansion results and a noneikonal approximation.

  2. Non-Perturbative, Unitary Quantum-Particle Scattering Amplitudes from Three-Particle Equations

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Lindesay, James V


    We here use our non-perturbative, cluster decomposable relativistic scattering formalism to calculate photon-spinor scattering, including the related particle-antiparticle annihilation amplitude. We start from a three-body system in which the unitary pair interactions contain the kinematic possibility of single quantum exchange and the symmetry properties needed to identify and substitute antiparticles for particles. We extract from it unitary two-particle amplitude for quantum-particle scattering. We verify that we have done this correctly by showing that our calculated photon-spinor amplitude reduces in the weak coupling limit to the usual lowest order, manifestly covariant (QED) result with the correct normalization. That we are able to successfully do this directly demonstrates that renormalizability need not be a fundamental requirement for all physically viable models.

  3. Unitarity corrections to a low-energy pion-nucleon scattering amplitude

    CERN Document Server

    Sá-Borges, J


    A method is present to unitarize a low energy pion-nucleon scattering amplitude. Starting from a soft-pion result, we have used unitarity directly as a dynamical constraint and constructed amplitudes from their first-order discontinuities. There is no commitment to the existence of resonances, but they can be derived from the general structure of the model. Working with two parameters we determine low energy pi N amplitudes. We have fixed the two parameters of the model by fitting the experimental P sub 3 sub 3 phase shifts near 90 deg. . Five S- and P-wave phase shifts are then shown to agree qualitatively with experimental data.

  4. Construction of Non-Perturbative, Unitary Particle-Antiparticle Amplitudes for Finite Particle Number Scattering Formalisms

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Lindesay, James V


    Starting from a unitary, Lorentz invariant two-particle scattering amplitude, we show how to use an identification and replacement process to construct a unique, unitary particle-antiparticle amplitude. This process differs from conventional on-shell Mandelstam s,t,u crossing in that the input and constructed amplitudes can be off-diagonal and off-energy shell. Further, amplitudes are constructed using the invariant parameters which are appropriate to use as driving terms in the multi-particle, multichannel nonperturbative, cluster decomposable, relativistic scattering equations of the Faddeev-type integral equations recently presented by Alfred, Kwizera, Lindesay and Noyes. It is therefore anticipated that when so employed, the resulting multi-channel solutions will also be unitary. The process preserves the usual particle-antiparticle symmetries. To illustrate this process, we construct a J=0 scattering length model chosen for simplicity. We also exhibit a class of physical models which contain a finite quantum mass parameter and are Lorentz invariant. These are constructed to reduce in the appropriate limits, and with the proper choice of value and sign of the interaction parameter, to the asymptotic solution of the nonrelativistic Coulomb problem, including the forward scattering singularity , the essential singularity in the phase, and the Bohr bound-state spectrum.

  5. On the loop-loop scattering amplitudes in Abelian and non-Abelian gauge theories

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Meggiolaro, Enrico [Dipartimento di Fisica, Universita di Pisa, Largo Pontecorvo 3, I-56127 Pisa (Italy)]. E-mail:


    The high-energy elastic scattering amplitude of two colour-singlet qq-bar pairs is governed by the correlation function of two Wilson loops, which follow the classical straight lines for quark (antiquark) trajectories. This quantity is expected to be free of IR divergences, differently from what happens for the parton-parton elastic scattering amplitude, described, in the high-energy limit, by the expectation value of two Wilson lines. We shall explicitly test this IR finiteness by a direct non-perturbative computation of the loop-loop scattering amplitudes in the (pedagogic, but surely physically interesting) case of quenched QED. The results obtained for the Abelian case will be generalized to the case of a non-Abelian gauge theory with Nc colours, but stopping to the order O(g4) in perturbation theory. In connection with the above-mentioned IR finiteness, we shall also discuss some analytic properties of the loop-loop scattering amplitudes in both Abelian and non-Abelian gauge theories, when going from Minkowskian to Euclidean theory, which can be relevant to the still unsolved problem of the s-dependence of hadron-hadron total cross-sections.

  6. Extracting hadron-neutron scattering amplitudes from hadron-proton and hadron-deuteron measurements (United States)

    Franco, V.


    A method is presented for extracting hadron-neutron scattering amplitudes from hadron-proton and hadron-deuteron measurements within the framework of the Glauber approximation. This method, which involves the solution of a linear integral equation, is applied to pn collisions between 15 and 275 GeV/c. Effects arising from inelastic intermediate states are estimated.

  7. Positivity Constraints on Chiral Perturbation Theory Pion-Pion Scattering Amplitudes

    CERN Document Server

    Dita, P


    We test the positivity property of the chiral perturbation theory (ChPT) pion-pion scattering amplitudes within the Mandelstam triangle. In the one-loop approximation, ${\\cal O}(p^4)$, the positivity constrains only the coefficients $b_3$ and $b_4$, namely one obtains that $b_4$ and the linear combination $b_3+3 b_4$ are positive quantities. The two-loops approximation gives inequalities involving all the six arbitrary parameters entering ChPT amplitude, but the corrections to the one-loop approximation results are small. ChPT amplitudes pass unexpectedly well all the positivity tests giving strong support to the idea that ChPT is the good theory of the low energy pion-pion scattering.

  8. Scattering AMplitudes from Unitarity-based Reduction Algorithm at the Integrand-level

    CERN Document Server

    Mastrolia, P; Reiter, T; Tramontano, F


    SAMURAI is a tool for the automated numerical evaluation of one-loop corrections to any scattering amplitudes within the dimensional-regularization scheme. It is based on the decomposition of the integrand according to the OPP-approach, extended to accommodate an implementation of the generalized d-dimensional unitarity-cuts technique, and uses a polynomial interpolation exploiting the Discrete Fourier Transform. SAMURAI can process integrands written either as numerator of Feynman diagrams or as product of tree-level amplitudes. We discuss some applications, among which the 6- and 8-photon scattering in QED, and the 6-quark scattering in QCD. SAMURAI has been implemented as a Fortran90 library, publicly available, and it could be a useful module for the systematic evaluation of the virtual corrections oriented towards automating next-to-leading order calculations relevant for the LHC phenomenology.

  9. Form factors and scattering amplitudes in N=4 SYM in dimensional and massive regularizations

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Henn, Johannes M. [Humboldt-Universitaet, Berlin (Germany). Inst. fuer Physik; California Univ., Santa Barbara, CA (United States). Kavli Inst. for Theoretical Physics; Moch, Sven [California Univ., Santa Barbara, CA (United States). Kavli Inst. for Theoretical Physics; Deutsches Elektronen-Synchrotron (DESY), Zeuthen (Germany); Naculich, Stephen G. [California Univ., Santa Barbara, CA (United States). Kavli Inst. for Theoretical Physics; Bowdoin College, Brunswick, ME (United States). Dept. of Physics


    The IR-divergent scattering amplitudes of N=4 supersymmetric Yang-Mills theory can be regulated in a variety of ways, including dimensional regularization and massive (or Higgs) regularization. The IR-finite part of an amplitude in different regularizations generally differs by an additive constant at each loop order, due to the ambiguity in separating finite and divergent contributions. We give a prescription for defining an unambiguous, regulator-independent finite part of the amplitude by factoring off a product of IR-divergent ''wedge'' functions. For the cases of dimensional regularization and the common-mass Higgs regulator, we define the wedge function in terms of a form factor, and demonstrate the regularization independence of the n-point amplitude through two loops. We also deduce the form of the wedge function for the more general differential-mass Higgs regulator, although we lack an explicit operator definition in this case. Finally, using extended dual conformal symmetry, we demonstrate the link between the differential-mass wedge function and the anomalous dual conformal Ward identity for the finite part of the scattering amplitude. (orig.)

  10. Off-energy-shell behavior of scattering amplitude and the structure of NN potentials

    CERN Document Server

    Almaliev, A N; Shikhalev, M A


    For two rather distinct types of NN potentials - with forbidden states and common ones with short-range repulsion - an extensive investigation into off-shell behavior of the scattering amplitudes and associated pp -> pp gamma Bremsstrahlung observables are undertaken. The emphasis is on the action of the shape and deepness of the central part of the potentials on the mentioned quantities. The necessity of taking into consideration the meson-exchange sector of the NN interaction is also stressed. It is shown that, provided one uses potentials which give a good description of phase shifts as well as low off-shell momentum-transfer behavior of the scattering amplitudes, the reaction pp -> pp gamma cannot allow to make a choice between the potentials, at least up to the energy of protons about 400 MeV in laboratory frame

  11. Gravitational Scattering Amplitudes and Closed String Field Theory in the Proper-Time Gauge (United States)

    Lee, Taejin


    We construct a covariant closed string field theory by extending recent works on the covariant open string field theory in the proper-time gauge. Rewriting the string scattering amplitudes generated by the closed string field theory in terms of the Polyakov string path integrals, we identify the Fock space representations of the closed string vertices. We show that the Fock space representations of the closed string field theory may be completely factorized into those of the open string field theory. It implies that the well known Kawai-Lewellen-Tye (KLT) relations of the first quantized string theory may be promoted to the second quantized closed string theory. We explicitly calculate the scattering amplitudes of three gravitons by using the closed string field theory in the proper-time gauge.

  12. Evaluation of the forward Compton scattering off protons: I. Spin-independent amplitude


    Gryniuk, Oleksii; Hagelstein, Franziska; Pascalutsa, Vladimir


    We evaluate the forward Compton scattering off the proton, based on Kramers-Kronig kind of relations which express the Compton amplitudes in terms of integrals of total photoabsorption cross sections. We obtain two distinct fits to the world data on the unpolarized total photoabsorption cross section, and evaluate the various spin-independent sum rules using these fits. For the sum of proton electric and magnetic dipole polarizabilities, governed by the Baldin sum rule, we obtain the followin...

  13. Gravitational Scattering Amplitudes and Closed String Field Theory in the Proper-Time Gauge


    Lee, Taejin


    We construct a covariant closed string field theory by extending recent works on the covariant open string field theory in the proper-time gauge. Rewriting the string scattering amplitudes generated by the closed string field theory in terms of the Polyakov string path integrals, we identify the Fock space representations of the closed string vertices. We show that the Fock space representations of the closed string field theory may be completely factorized into those of the open string field...

  14. Grassmannians for scattering amplitudes in 4d N=4 SYM and 3d ABJM

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Elvang, Henriette [Michigan Center for Theoretical Physics and Randall Laboratory of Physics,Department of Physics, University of Michigan,450 Church St, Ann Arbor, MI 48109 (United States); Huang, Yu-tin [Department of Physics and Astronomy, National Taiwan University,Taipei 10617, Taiwan, R.O.C. (China); Keeler, Cynthia [Michigan Center for Theoretical Physics and Randall Laboratory of Physics,Department of Physics, University of Michigan,450 Church St, Ann Arbor, MI 48109 (United States); Lam, Thomas [Department of Mathematics, University of Michigan,530 Church St, Ann Arbor, MI 48109 (United States); Olson, Timothy M.; Roland, Samuel B. [Michigan Center for Theoretical Physics and Randall Laboratory of Physics,Department of Physics, University of Michigan,450 Church St, Ann Arbor, MI 48109 (United States); Speyer, David E. [Department of Mathematics, University of Michigan,530 Church St, Ann Arbor, MI 48109 (United States)


    Scattering amplitudes in 4d N=4 super Yang-Mills theory (SYM) can be described by Grassmannian contour integrals whose form depends on whether the external data is encoded in momentum space, twistor space, or momentum twistor space. After a pedagogical review, we present a new, streamlined proof of the equivalence of the three integral formulations. A similar strategy allows us to derive a new Grassmannian integral for 3d N=6 ABJM theory amplitudes in momentum twistor space: it is a contour integral in an orthogonal Grassmannian with the novel property that the internal metric depends on the external data. The result can be viewed as a central step towards developing an amplituhedron formulation for ABJM amplitudes. Various properties of Grassmannian integrals are examined, including boundary properties, pole structure, and a homological interpretation of the global residue theorems for N=4 SYM.

  15. Nonplanar on-shell diagrams and leading singularities of scattering amplitudes

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Chen, Baoyi; Cheung, Yeuk-Kwan E.; Li, Yunxuan; Xie, Ruofei; Xin, Yuan [Nanjing University, Department of Physics, Nanjing (China); Chen, Gang [Zhejiang Normal University, Department of Physics, Jinhua, Zhejiang (China); Nanjing University, Department of Physics, Nanjing (China)


    Bipartite on-shell diagrams are the latest tool in constructing scattering amplitudes. In this paper we prove that a Britto-Cachazo-Feng-Witten (BCFW) decomposable on-shell diagram process a rational top form if and only if the algebraic ideal comprised the geometrical constraints are shifted linearly during successive BCFW integrations. With a proper geometric interpretation of the constraints in the Grassmannian manifold, the rational top form integration contours can thus be obtained, and understood, in a straightforward way. All rational top form integrands of arbitrary higher loops leading singularities can therefore be derived recursively, as long as the corresponding on-shell diagram is BCFW decomposable. (orig.)

  16. The pole structure of the unitary, crossing symmetric low energy $\\pi\\pi$ scattering amplitudes


    Zhou, Z. Y.; Qin, G. Y.; Zhang, P.; Xiao, Z. G.; Zheng, H. Q.; Wu, N.


    The pole structure of the low energy $\\pi\\pi$ scattering amplitudes is studied using a proper chiral unitarization method combined with crossing symmetry and the low energy phase shift data. It is found that the $\\sigma$ pole position is at $M_\\sigma=470\\pm 50MeV$, $\\Gamma_\\sigma=570\\pm 50MeV$. The existence of the virtual state pole in the IJ=20 channel is reconfirmed. Various threshold parameters are estimated and are found in general in good agreement with the results obtained from the Roy...

  17. Wave-amplitude synthesis applied to Gaussian-beam scattering by an off-axis sphere. (United States)

    Chrissoulidis, Dimitrios P; Richalot, Elodie


    Electromagnetic scattering of a Gaussian beam by an off-axis dielectric sphere is treated by the sum-of-waves formulation, which is inherent in Lorenz-Mie theory. Each "wave" is a spherical eigenvector, defined in the natural frame of the scatterer, and the coefficient of that wave is the "wave amplitude." Decomposition of the beam into homogeneous plane waves lays the ground for a synthesis of the wave amplitudes, which is done by an integration over the polar angle that defines the direction of propagation of the plane-wave constituents of the beam. Concise analytical results are developed for (a) the electric-field intensity in every part of space, (b) the bistatic and monostatic radar cross sections of the scatterer, and (c) the power extracted from the beam by scattering and absorption. Numerical calculations are made for a spherical glycerol droplet of radius 1.5 μm that is excited by an adjacent, infrared, Gaussian beam of wavelength 1.1424 μm and spot size 2 μm. The numerical application manifests (a) how the beam is coupled with the droplet and (b) the effect of the droplet on the power intercepted by a receiver-end fiber placed on the beam axis, beyond the focal plane. Comparisons to numerical results obtained by a finite-element method software (a) validate the sum-of-waves theory, (b) evaluate the performance of the code implementing that theory, and, succinctly, (c) manifest the limits of the plane-wave decomposition of the beam.

  18. Focusing light through strongly scattering media by controlling binary amplitude optimization using genetic algorithm (United States)

    Liu, Zhipeng; Zhang, Bin; Feng, Qi; Chen, Zhaoyang; Lin, Chengyou; Ding, Yingchun


    Focusing light through strongly scattering media plays an important role in biomedical imaging and therapy. Here, we experimentally demonstrate light focusing through ZnO sample by controlling binary amplitude optimization using genetic algorithm. In the experiment, we use a Micro Electro-Mechanical System (MEMS)-based digital micromirror device (DMD) which is in amplitude-only modulation mode. The DMD consists of 1920×1080 square mirrors that can be independently controlled to reflect light to a desired position. We control only 160 thousand mirrors which are divided into 400 segments to modulate light focusing through the scattering media using advanced genetic algorithm. Light intensity at the target position is enhanced up to 50+/-5 times the average speckle intensity. The diameters of focusing spot can be changed ranging from 7 μm to 70 μm at arbitrary positions and multiple foci are obtained simultaneously. The spatial arrangement of multiple foci can be flexibly controlled. The advantage of DMDs lies in their switching speed up to 30 kHz, which has the potential to generate a focus in an ultra-short period of time. Our work provides a reference for the study of high speed wavefront shaping that is required in vivo tissues imaging.

  19. Scattering amplitudes in N=2 Maxwell-Einstein and Yang-Mills/Einstein supergravity

    CERN Document Server

    Chiodaroli, Marco; Johansson, Henrik; Roiban, Radu


    We expose a double-copy structure in the scattering amplitudes of the generic Jordan family of N=2 Maxwell-Einstein and Yang-Mills/Einstein supergravity theories in four and five dimensions. The Maxwell-Einstein supergravity amplitudes are obtained through the color/kinematics duality as a product of two gauge-theory factors; one originating from pure N=2 super-Yang-Mills theory and the other from the dimensional reduction of a bosonic higher-dimensional pure Yang-Mills theory. We identify a specific symplectic frame in four dimensions for which the on-shell fields and amplitudes from the double-copy construction can be identified with the ones obtained from the supergravity Lagrangian and Feynman-rule computations. The Yang-Mills/Einstein supergravity theories are obtained by gauging a compact subgroup of the isometry group of their Maxwell-Einstein counterparts. For the generic Jordan family this process is identified with the introduction of cubic scalar couplings on the bosonic gauge-theory side, which th...

  20. Thomson-Scattering Measurements of Ion-Acoustic Wave Amplitudes Driven by the Two-Plasmon-Decay Instability (United States)

    Follett, R. K.; Michel, D. T.; Myatt, J. F.; Hu, S. X.; Yaakobi, B.; Froula, D. H.


    Thomson scattering was used to measure enhanced ion-acoustic waves (IAW's) driven by the two-plasmon-decay (TPD) instability. The IAW amplitude scales with the 3/2φ emission (a TPD signature). Up to 20 beams with 860-μm-diam laser spots generated by 2-ns-long pulses of 3φ (0.351-μm) light with overlapped intensities up to 4 x 10^14 W/cm^2 were used to produce ˜300-μm density-scale lengths. The IAW amplitudes were measured using 4φ Thomson scattering near 3φ quarter-critical densities. Time-resolved 3/2φ spectroscopy was used to compare the amplitude of 3/2φ emission to the IAW amplitude. QZAKfootnotetext K. Y. Sanbonmatsu et al., Phys. Rev. Lett. 82, 932 (1999).^,footnotetext K. Y. Sanbonmatsu et al., Phys. Plasmas 7, 2824 (2000). modeling shows a similar onset threshold and wave amplitude as the experiments. The model suggests that the source of the IAW growth is from the beating of electron-plasma waves, which drive density perturbations through the ponderomotive force. This conclusion is supported by the experimental geometry. This process is shown to be a saturation mechanism for TPD from simulations.footnotetext R. Yan et al., Phys. Rev. Lett. 103, 175002 (2009). This work was supported by the U.S. Department of Energy Office of Inertial Confinement Fusion under Cooperative Agreement No. DE-FC52-08NA28302.

  1. Why the Real Part of the Proton-Proton Forward Scattering Amplitude Should be Measured at the LHC

    CERN Document Server

    Bourrely, C.; Martin, Andre; Soffer, Jacques; Wu, Tai Tsun


    For the energy of 14 TeV, to be reached at the Large Hadron Collider (LHC), we have had for some time accurate predictions for both the real and imaginary parts of the forward proton-proton elastic scattering amplitude. LHC is now scheduled to start operating in two years, and it is timely to discuss some of the important consequences of the measurements of both the total cross-section and the ratio of the real to the imaginary part. We stress the importance of measuring the real part of the proton-proton forward scattering amplitude at LHC, because a deviation from existing theoretical predictions could be a strong sign for new physics.

  2. The Analytic Structure of Scattering Amplitudes in N = 4 Super-Yang-Mills Theory (United States)

    Litsey, Sean Christopher

    We begin the dissertation in Chapter 1 with a discussion of tree-level amplitudes in Yang-. Mills theories. The DDM and BCJ decompositions of the amplitudes are described and. related to one another by the introduction of a transformation matrix. This is related to the. Kleiss-Kuijf and BCJ amplitude identities, and we conjecture a connection to the existence. of a BCJ representation via a condition on the generalized inverse of that matrix. Under. two widely-believed assumptions, this relationship is proved. Switching gears somewhat, we introduce the RSVW formulation of the amplitude, and the extension of BCJ-like features to residues of the RSVW integrand is proposed. Using the previously proven connection of BCJ representations to the generalized inverse condition, this extension is validated, including a version of gravitational double copy. The remainder of the dissertation involves an analysis of the analytic properties of loop. amplitudes in N = 4 super-Yang-Mills theory. Chapter 2 contains a review of the planar case, including an exposition of dual variables and momentum twistors, dual conformal symmetry, and their implications for the amplitude. After defining the integrand and on-shell diagrams, we explain the crucial properties that the amplitude has no poles at infinite momentum and that its leading singularities are dual-conformally-invariant cross ratios, and can therefore be normalized to unity. We define the concept of a dlog form, and show that it is a feature of the planar integrand as well. This leads to the definition of a pure integrand basis. The proceeding setup is connected to the amplituhedron formulation, and we put forward the hypothesis that the amplitude is determined by zero conditions. Chapter 3 contains the primary computations of the dissertation. This chapter treats. amplitudes in fully nonplanar N = 4 super-Yang-Mills, analyzing the conjecture that they. follow the pattern of having no poles at infinity, can be written in dlog

  3. Elastic I=3 /2 p -wave nucleon-pion scattering amplitude and the Δ (1232) resonance from Nf=2+1 lattice QCD

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Andersen, Christian Walther; Bulava, John; Hörz, Ben


    We present the first direct determination of meson-baryon resonance parameters from a scattering amplitude calculated using lattice QCD. In particular, we calculate the elastic I=3/2, p-wave nucleon-pion amplitude on a single ensemble of Nf=2+1 Wilson-clover fermions with mπ=280 MeV and mK=460 Me...

  4. Surface plasmon transmission through discontinuous conducting surfaces: Plasmon amplitude modulation by grazing scattered fields

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    L. A. Mayoral-Astorga


    Full Text Available We have studied numerically the diffraction of a surface plasmon polariton (SPP when it encounters a wide multi-wavelength slit in conducting films. As a jump process a SPP is excited beyond the slit by wave scattering at the second slit edge. The exciting radiation is produced when the incident SPP collapses at the first slit edge. We have found that the transmitted SPP supports inherent and unavoidable interference with grazing scattered radiation; the spatial modulation extends to the fields in the diffraction region where a series of low intensity spots arises. We demonstrate that the SPP generated on the second slab depends on the frequency but not on the wave vector of the collapsed SPP; a SPP is transmitted even when the two metals forming the slit are different. The numerical results were obtained using the Finite Difference Time Domain (FDTD method with a grid size λ/100.

  5. Surface plasmon transmission through discontinuous conducting surfaces: Plasmon amplitude modulation by grazing scattered fields

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Mayoral-Astorga, L. A.; Gaspar-Armenta, J. A.; Ramos-Mendieta, F. [Departamento de Investigación en Física, Universidad de Sonora, Apartado Postal 5-088, Hermosillo, Sonora, 83190 México (Mexico)


    We have studied numerically the diffraction of a surface plasmon polariton (SPP) when it encounters a wide multi-wavelength slit in conducting films. As a jump process a SPP is excited beyond the slit by wave scattering at the second slit edge. The exciting radiation is produced when the incident SPP collapses at the first slit edge. We have found that the transmitted SPP supports inherent and unavoidable interference with grazing scattered radiation; the spatial modulation extends to the fields in the diffraction region where a series of low intensity spots arises. We demonstrate that the SPP generated on the second slab depends on the frequency but not on the wave vector of the collapsed SPP; a SPP is transmitted even when the two metals forming the slit are different. The numerical results were obtained using the Finite Difference Time Domain (FDTD) method with a grid size λ/100.

  6. Quasielastic neutron scattering study of large amplitude motions in molecular systems

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Bee, M. [Univ. J. Fourier - Grenoble 1, Lab. de Spectrometrie Physique, Saint-Martin d`Heres (France)


    This lecture aims at giving some illustrations of the use of Incoherent Quasielastic Neutron Scattering in the investigation of motions of atoms or molecules in phases with dynamical disorder. The general incoherent scattering function is first recalled. Then the Elastic Incoherent Structure Factor is introduced. It is shown how its determination permits to deduce a particular dynamical model. Long-range translational diffusion is illustrated by some experiments carried out with liquids or with different chemical species intercalated in porous media. Examples of rotational motions are provided by solid phases where an orientational disorder of the molecules exists. The jump model is the most commonly used and yields simple scattering laws which can be easily handled. Highly disordered crystals require a description in terms of the isotropic rotational diffusion model. Many of the present studies are concerned with rather complicated systems. Considerable help is obtained either by using selectively deuterated samples or by carrying out measurements with semi-oriented samples. (author) 5 figs., 14 refs.

  7. Analytic amplitudes for hadronic forward scattering and the Heisenberg ln{sup 2} s behaviour of total cross sections

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Nicolescu, Basarab [LPNHE, Unite de Recherche des Universites Paris 6 et Paris 7, associee au CNRS, Theory Group, Universite Pierre et Marie Curie, 4 Place Jussieu, 75252 Paris Cedex 05 (France)


    We consider several classes of analytic parametrizations of hadronic scattering amplitudes (the COMPETE analysis), and compare their predictions to all available forward data (pp, {pi}p, Kp, {gamma}p, {gamma}{gamma}, {sigma}p). Although these parametrizations are very close for {radical}s {>=} 9 GeV, it turns out that they differ markedly at low energy, where a universal Pomeron term {approx} ln{sup 2} s enables one to extend the fit down to {radical}s = 4 GeV. We present predictions on the total cross sections and on the ratio of the real part to the imaginary part of the elastic amplitude ({rho} parameter) for present and future pp colliders, and on total cross sections for {gamma}p {yields} hadrons at cosmic-ray energies and for it{gamma}{gamma} {yields} hadrons up to {radical}s = 1 TeV. The ln{sup 2} s behaviour of total cross sections, first obtained by Heisenberg 50 years ago, receives now increased interest both on phenomenological and theoretical levels. We present a modification of the Heisenberg's model in connection with the presence of glueballs and we show that it leads to a realistic description of all existing hadron total cross-sections data, in agreement with the COMPETE analysis.

  8. Analytic structure of the n=7 scattering amplitude in N=4 SYM theory at multi-Regge kinematics. Conformal Regge pole contribution

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Bartels, Jochen; Kormilitzin, Andrey [Hamburg Univ. (Germany). II. Inst. fuer Theoretische Physik; Lipatov, Lev [Hamburg Univ. (Germany). II. Inst. fuer Theoretische Physik; St. Petersburg Nuclear Physics Institute, St. Petersburg (Russian Federation)


    We investigate the analytic structure of the 2 {yields} 5 scattering amplitude in the planar limit of N=4 SYM in multi-Regge kinematics in all physical regions. We demonstrate the close connection between Regge pole and Regge cut contributions: in a selected class of kinematic regions (Mandelstam regions) the usual factorizing Regge pole formula develops unphysical singularities which have to be absorbed and compensated by Regge cut contributions. This leads, in the corrections to the BDS formula, to conformal invariant 'renormalized' Regge pole expressions in the remainder function. We compute these renormalized Regge poles for the 2 {yields} 5 scattering amplitude.

  9. Elastic I =3 /2 p -wave nucleon-pion scattering amplitude and the Δ (1232 ) resonance from Nf=2 +1 lattice QCD (United States)

    Andersen, Christian Walther; Bulava, John; Hörz, Ben; Morningstar, Colin


    We present the first direct determination of meson-baryon resonance parameters from a scattering amplitude calculated using lattice QCD. In particular, we calculate the elastic I =3 /2 , p -wave nucleon-pion amplitude on a single ensemble of Nf=2 +1 Wilson-clover fermions with mπ=280 MeV and mK=460 MeV . At these quark masses, the Δ (1232 ) resonance pole is found close to the N -π threshold and a Breit-Wigner fit to the amplitude gives gΔN π BW=19.0 (4.7 ) in agreement with phenomenological determinations.

  10. Application of a folding-model optical potential to analyzing inelastic pion–nucleus scattering and the in-medium effect on a pion–nucleon amplitude

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Lukyanov, V. K., E-mail:; Zemlyanaya, E. V.; Lukyanov, K. V. [Joint Institute for Nuclear Research (Russian Federation); Abdul-Magead, I. A. M. [Cairo University (Egypt)


    The folding-model optical potential is generalized in such a way as to apply it to calculating the cross sections for inelastic scattering of π{sup ±}-mesons on {sup 28}Si, {sup 40}Ca, {sup 58}Ni, and {sup 208}Pb nuclei at the energies of 162, 180, 226, and 291 MeV leading to the excitation of the 2{sup +} and 3{sup −} collective states. In doing this, use is made of known nucleon-density distributions in nuclei and the pion–nucleon scattering amplitude whose parameters were obtained previously by fitting the elastic scattering cross sections for the same nuclei. Thus, the values of quadrupole (β{sub 2}) and octupole (β{sub 3}) deformations of nuclei appear here as the only adjustable parameters. The scattering cross section is calculated by solving the relativistic wave equation, whereby effects of relativization and distortion in the entrance and exit scattering channels are taken exactly into account. The cross sections calculated in this way for inelastic scattering are in good agreement with respective experimental data. The importance of the inclusion of in-medium effects in choosing parameters of the pion–nucleon amplitude is emphasized.

  11. Phase-shift effect of amplitude spread function on spectrum and image formation in coherent Raman scattering microspectroscopy. (United States)

    Fukutake, Naoki


    Coherent Raman scattering microspectroscopy, which includes coherent anti-Stokes Raman scattering (CARS) and stimulated Raman scattering (SRS) microspectroscopy, permits label-free hyperspectral imaging. We report the theoretical study of the phase-shift effect of the impulse response function on the spectral and image-forming properties of coherent Raman scattering microspectroscopy. We show that the spectrum and image are influenced by not only the NA of objective for excitation (NA(ex)) but also that for signal collection (NA(col)), in association with the phase-shift effect. We discuss that, under the condition NA(ex)≠NA(col), both the spectrum and the image become deformed by the phase-shift effect, which can be applied to the direct measurement of the imaginary part of the nonlinear susceptibility in CARS spectroscopy. We point out that, even in SRS microscopy, the nonresonant background can contribute to the image formation and cause the artifact in the image.

  12. Rigorous lower bounds on the imaginary parts of the scattering amplitudes and the positions of their zeros

    CERN Document Server

    Uchiyama, T


    Rigorous lower bounds are derived from axiomatic field theory, by invoking analyticity and unitarity of the S-matrix. The bounds are expressed in terms of the total cross section and the slope parameter, and are found to be compatible with CERN experimental pp scattering data. It is also shown that the calculated lower-bound values imply non-existence of zeros for -t

  13. Study of elastic pion scattering from /sup 9/Be, /sup 28/Si, /sup 58/Ni, and /sup 208/Pb at 162 MeV. [Total and differential cross sections, scattering yields, scattering amplitudes

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Devereux, M.J.


    Elastic pion scattering from /sup 9/Be, /sup 28/Si, /sup 58/Ni, and /sup 208/Pb at 162 MeV is analyzed and compared with an optical model theory which incorporates a pion--nucleon range. Excellent fits to the data are obtained in all but one case. The fitted values of the pion--nucleon range, as well as other fitted values are listed. 108 references.

  14. Nonsinglet pentagons and NMHV amplitudes

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    A.V. Belitsky


    Full Text Available Scattering amplitudes in maximally supersymmetric gauge theory receive a dual description in terms of the expectation value of the super Wilson loop stretched on a null polygonal contour. This makes the analysis amenable to nonperturbative techniques. Presently, we elaborate on a refined form of the operator product expansion in terms of pentagon transitions to compute twist-two contributions to NMHV amplitudes. To start with, we provide a novel derivation of scattering matrices starting from Baxter equations for flux-tube excitations propagating on magnon background. We propose bootstrap equations obeyed by pentagon form factors with nonsinglet quantum numbers with respect to the R-symmetry group and provide solutions to them to all orders in 't Hooft coupling. These are then successfully confronted against available perturbative calculations for NMHV amplitudes to four-loop order.

  15. Positive amplitudes in the amplituhedron

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Arkani-Hamed, Nima [School of Natural Sciences, Institute for Advanced Study,Princeton, NJ 08540 (United States); Hodges, Andrew [Wadham College, University of Oxford,Oxford OX1 3PN (United Kingdom); Trnka, Jaroslav [Walter Burke Institute for Theoretical Physics, California Institute of Technology,Pasadena, CA 91125 (United States)


    The all-loop integrand for scattering amplitudes in planar N=4 SYM is determined by an “amplitude form' with logarithmic singularities on the boundary of the amplituhedron. In this note we provide strong evidence for a new striking property of the superamplitude, which we conjecture to be true to all loop orders: the amplitude form is positive when evaluated inside the amplituhedron. The statement is sensibly formulated thanks to the natural “bosonization' of the superamplitude associated with the amplituhedron geometry. However this positivity is not manifest in any of the current approaches to scattering amplitudes, and in particular not in the cellulations of the amplituhedron related to on-shell diagrams and the positive grassmannian. The surprising positivity of the form suggests the existence of a “dual amplituhedron' formulation where this feature would be made obvious. We also suggest that the positivity is associated with an extended picture of amplituhedron geometry, with the amplituhedron sitting inside a co-dimension one surface separating “legal' and “illegal' local singularities of the amplitude. We illustrate this in several simple examples, obtaining new expressions for amplitudes not associated with any triangulations, but following in a more invariant manner from a global view of the positive geometry.

  16. Lectures in scattering theory

    CERN Document Server

    Sitenko, A G


    Lectures in Scattering Theory discusses problems in quantum mechanics and the principles of the non-relativistic theory of potential scattering. This book describes in detail the properties of the scattering matrix and its connection with physically observable quantities. This text presents a stationary formulation of the scattering problem and the wave functions of a particle found in an external field. This book also examines the analytic properties of the scattering matrix, dispersion relations, complex angular moments, as well as the separable representation of the scattering amplitude. Th

  17. Gravitational Bhabha scattering (United States)

    Santos, A. F.; Khanna, Faqir C.


    Gravitoelectromagnetism (GEM) as a theory for gravity has been developed similar to the electromagnetic field theory. A weak field approximation of Einstein theory of relativity is similar to GEM. This theory has been quantized. Traditional Bhabha scattering, electron-positron scattering, is based on quantized electrodynamics theory. Usually the amplitude is written in terms of one photon exchange process. With the development of quantized GEM theory, the scattering amplitude will have an additional component based on an exchange of one graviton at the lowest order of perturbation theory. An analysis will provide the relative importance of the two amplitudes for Bhabha scattering. This will allow an analysis of the relative importance of the two amplitudes as the energy of the exchanged particles increases.

  18. Projectivity of planar zeros in field and string theory amplitudes (United States)

    Jiménez, Diego Medrano; Vera, Agustín Sabio; Vázquez-Mozo, Miguel Á.


    We study the projective properties of planar zeros of tree-level scattering amplitudes in various theories. Whereas for pure scalar field theories we find that the planar zeros of the five-point amplitude do not enjoy projective invariance, coupling scalars to gauge fields gives rise to tree-level amplitudes whose planar zeros are determined by homogeneous polynomials in the stereographic coordinates labelling the direction of flight of the outgoing particles. In the case of pure gauge theories, this projective structure is generically destroyed if string corrections are taken into account. Scattering amplitudes of two scalars with graviton emission vanish exactly in the planar limit, whereas planar graviton amplitudes are zero for helicity violating configurations. These results are corrected by string effects, computed using the single-valued projection, which render the planar amplitude nonzero. Finally, we discuss how the structure of planar zeros can be derived from the soft limit behavior of the scattering amplitudes.

  19. Multiphoton amplitude in a constant background field (United States)

    Ahmad, Aftab; Ahmadiniaz, Naser; Corradini, Olindo; Kim, Sang Pyo; Schubert, Christian


    In this contribution, we present our recent compact master formulas for the multiphoton amplitudes of a scalar propagator in a constant background field using the worldline fomulation of quantum field theory. The constant field has been included nonperturbatively, which is crucial for strong external fields. A possible application is the scattering of photons by electrons in a strong magnetic field, a process that has been a subject of great interest since the discovery of astrophysical objects like radio pulsars, which provide evidence that magnetic fields of the order of 1012G are present in nature. The presence of a strong external field leads to a strong deviation from the classical scattering amplitudes. We explicitly work out the Compton scattering amplitude in a magnetic field, which is a process of potential relevance for astrophysics. Our final result is compact and suitable for numerical integration.

  20. Spin amplitudes for NN → N Δ (United States)

    Silbar, Richard R.; Lombard, R. J.; Kloet, W. M.


    The scattering amplitude for NN → N Δ is decomposed into sixteen independent spin-space operators Oi, where the corresponding coefficients Ai only depend on scattering angle, incoming energy, and the Δ -mass. In addition to the commonly used vector spin-transition matrix, it is necessary to also employ a tensor spin-transition matrix. The Oi can be chosen in two ways, either to facilitate discussion of underlying dynamical mechanisms or to simplify the antisymmetrization with respect to the initial nucleons. Relations between the Ai(θ) and the ( LSJ) partial-wave amplitudes are given. We evaluate the Ai using partial-wave amplitudes calculated elsewhere in a unitary three-body model with one-pion-exchange driving terms. Many amplitudes are of competing importance after antisymmetrization, and they are strongly dependent upon incident energy and Δ invariant mass.

  1. Spin amplitudes for NN. -->. N. delta

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Silbar, R.R. (Paris-11 Univ., 91 - Orsay (France). Div. de Physique Theorique; Los Alamos National Lab., NM (USA). Theoretical Div.); Lombard, R.J. (Paris-11 Univ., 91 - Orsay (France). Div. de Physique Theorique); Kloet, W.M. (Rutgers - the State Univ., New Brunswick, NJ (USA). Dept. of Physics and Astronomy)


    The scattering amplitude for NN..--> is decomposed into sixteen independent spin-space operators Osub(i), where the corresponding coefficients Asub(i) only depend on scattering angle, incoming energy, and the In addition to the commonly used vector spin-transition matrix, it is necessary to also employ a tensor spin-transition matrix. The Osub(i) can be chosen in two ways, either to facilitate discussion of underlying dynamical mechanisms or to simplify the antisymmetrization with respect to the initial nucleons. Relations between the Asub(i) (THETA) and the (LSJ) partial-wave amplitudes are given. We evaluate the Asub(i) using partial-wave amplitudes calculated elsewhere in a unitary three-body model with one-pion-exchange driving terms. Many amplitudes are of competing importance after antisymmetrization, and they are strongly dependent upon incident energy and invariant mass.

  2. Gluon Amplitudes as 2d Conformal Correlators


    Pasterski, Sabrina; Shao, Shu-Heng; Strominger, Andrew


    Recently, spin-one wavefunctions in four dimensions that are conformal primaries of the Lorentz group SL(2,C) were constructed. We compute low-point, tree-level gluon scattering amplitudes in the space of these conformal primary wavefunctions. The answers have the same conformal covariance as correlators of spin-one primaries in a 2d CFT. The BCFW recursion relation between three- and four-point gluon amplitudes is recast into this conformal basis.

  3. Towards NMHV amplitudes at strong coupling

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Belitsky, A.V., E-mail:


    Pentagon Operator Product Expansion provides a non-perturbative framework for analysis of scattering amplitudes in planar maximally supersymmetric gauge theory building up on their duality to null polygonal superWilson loop and integrability. In this paper, we construct a systematic expansion for the main ingredients of the formalism, i.e., pentagons, at large 't Hooft coupling as a power series in its inverse value. The calculations are tested against relations provided by the so-called Descent Equation which mixes transitions at different perturbative orders. We use leading order results to have a first glimpse into the structure of scattering amplitude at NMHV level at strong coupling.

  4. Superlinear Amplitude Amplification


    Grover, Lov K.


    Quantum search/amplitude amplification algorithms are designed to be able to amplify the amplitude in the target state linearly with the number of operations. Since the probability is the square of the amplitude, this results in the success probability rising quadratically with the number of operations. This paper presents a new kind of quantum search algorithm in which the amplitude of the target state, itself increases quadratically with the number of operations. However, the domain of appl...

  5. Tree-level gluon amplitudes on the celestial sphere


    Schreiber, Anders; Volovich, Anastasia; Zlotnikov, Michael


    Pasterski, Shao and Strominger have recently proposed that massless scattering amplitudes can be mapped to correlators on the celestial sphere at infinity via a Mellin transform. We apply this prescription to arbitrary $n$-point tree-level gluon amplitudes. The Mellin transforms of MHV amplitudes are given by generalized hypergeometric functions on the Grassmannian $Gr(4,n)$, while generic non-MHV amplitudes are given by more complicated Gelfand $A$-hypergeometric functions.

  6. Finite Amplitude Ocean Waves

    Indian Academy of Sciences (India)

    IAS Admin

    (2). Hence, small amplitude waves are also called linear waves. Most of the aspects of the ocean waves can be explained by the small amplitude wave theory. Let us now see the water particle motion due to waves. While wave energy is carried by the wave as it progresses forward, the water particles oscillate up and down.

  7. Amplitudes, acquisition and imaging

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Bloor, Robert


    Accurate seismic amplitude information is important for the successful evaluation of many prospects and the importance of such amplitude information is increasing with the advent of time lapse seismic techniques. It is now widely accepted that the proper treatment of amplitudes requires seismic imaging in the form of either time or depth migration. A key factor in seismic imaging is the spatial sampling of the data and its relationship to the imaging algorithms. This presentation demonstrates that acquisition caused spatial sampling irregularity can affect the seismic imaging and perturb amplitudes. Equalization helps to balance the amplitudes, and the dealing strategy improves the imaging further when there are azimuth variations. Equalization and dealiasing can also help with the acquisition irregularities caused by shot and receiver dislocation or missing traces. 2 refs., 2 figs.

  8. Amplitudes and Ultraviolet Behavior of N=8 Supergravity

    CERN Document Server

    Bern, Zvi; Dixon, Lance; Johansson, Henrik; Roiban, Radu


    In this contribution we describe computational tools that permit the evaluation of multi-loop scattering amplitudes in N=8 supergravity, in terms of amplitudes in N=4 super-Yang-Mills theory. We also discuss the remarkable ultraviolet behavior of N=8 supergravity, which follows from these amplitudes, and is as good as that of N=4 super-Yang-Mills theory through at least four loops.

  9. Ambitwistor strings and reggeon amplitudes in N=4 SYM

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    L.V. Bork


    Full Text Available We consider the description of reggeon amplitudes (Wilson lines form factors in N=4 SYM within the framework of four dimensional ambitwistor string theory. The latter is used to derive scattering equations representation for reggeon amplitudes with multiple reggeized gluons present. It is shown, that corresponding tree-level string correlation function correctly reproduces previously obtained Grassmannian integral representation of reggeon amplitudes in N=4 SYM.

  10. Amplitudes and Ultraviolet Behavior of N = 8 Supergravity

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Bern, Zvi; /UCLA; Carrasco, John Joseph; /Stanford U., Phys. Dept.; Dixon, Lance J.; /SLAC /CERN; Johansson, Henrik; /Saclay, SPhT; Roiban, Radu; /Penn State U.


    In this contribution we describe computational tools that permit the evaluation of multi-loop scattering amplitudes in N = 8 supergravity, in terms of amplitudes in N = 4 super-Yang-Mills theory. We also discuss the remarkable ultraviolet behavior of N = 8 supergravity, which follows from these amplitudes, and is as good as that of N = 4 super-Yang-Mills theory through at least four loops.

  11. Ambitwistor strings and reggeon amplitudes in N = 4 SYM (United States)

    Bork, L. V.; Onishchenko, A. I.


    We consider the description of reggeon amplitudes (Wilson lines form factors) in N = 4 SYM within the framework of four dimensional ambitwistor string theory. The latter is used to derive scattering equations representation for reggeon amplitudes with multiple reggeized gluons present. It is shown, that corresponding tree-level string correlation function correctly reproduces previously obtained Grassmannian integral representation of reggeon amplitudes in N = 4 SYM.

  12. Real topological string amplitudes

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Narain, K.S. [The Abdus Salam International Centre for Theoretical Physics (ICTP),Strada Costiera 11, Trieste, 34151 (Italy); Piazzalunga, N. [Simons Center for Geometry and Physics, State University of New York,Stony Brook, NY, 11794-3636 (United States); International School for Advanced Studies (SISSA) and INFN, Sez. di Trieste,via Bonomea 265, Trieste, 34136 (Italy); Tanzini, A. [International School for Advanced Studies (SISSA) and INFN, Sez. di Trieste,via Bonomea 265, Trieste, 34136 (Italy)


    We discuss the physical superstring correlation functions in type I theory (or equivalently type II with orientifold) that compute real topological string amplitudes. We consider the correlator corresponding to holomorphic derivative of the real topological amplitude G{sub χ}, at fixed worldsheet Euler characteristic χ. This corresponds in the low-energy effective action to N=2 Weyl multiplet, appropriately reduced to the orientifold invariant part, and raised to the power g{sup ′}=−χ+1. We show that the physical string correlator gives precisely the holomorphic derivative of topological amplitude. Finally, we apply this method to the standard closed oriented case as well, and prove a similar statement for the topological amplitude F{sub g}.

  13. Amplitude Models for Discrimination and Yield Estimation

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Phillips, William Scott [Los Alamos National Lab. (LANL), Los Alamos, NM (United States)


    This seminar presentation describes amplitude models and yield estimations that look at the data in order to inform legislation. The following points were brought forth in the summary: global models that will predict three-component amplitudes (R-T-Z) were produced; Q models match regional geology; corrected source spectra can be used for discrimination and yield estimation; three-component data increase coverage and reduce scatter in source spectral estimates; three-component efforts must include distance-dependent effects; a community effort on instrument calibration is needed.

  14. On the inverse problem in high-energy elastic hadron scattering and the applicability of a representation for the real part of the amplitude;Um estudo sobre o problema inverso do espalhamento elastico de hadrons em altas energias e a aplicabilidade de uma representacao para a parte real da amplitude

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Fagundes, Daniel Almeida


    The theoretical description of high-energy elastic hadron scattering constitutes an open problem in both, the underlying quantum field theory of strong interactions (QCD) and the phenomenological context. In this work the inverse problem in elastic hadron scattering is discussed in the impact parameter and eikonal frameworks, specifically a study on the empirical extraction of the profile, the inelastic overlap and the eikonal functions, from the experimental data and some principles and high-energy theorems (model independent). The analysis is limited to elastic proton-proton scattering in the center of momentum energy interval 19.4 - 62.5 GeV. In particular, a novel representation for the Martin's Real Part Formula is introduced but without the scaling property and suitable for empirical analysis. By means of this representation, and two other parametrizations previously introduced (constrained and unconstrained), several properties of the inelastic overlap function and the imaginary part of the eikonal (opacity) in the momentum transfer space are determined, in special: (1) evidence of a peripheral effect (tail) in the inelastic overlap function in the parameter impact space above 2 fm; (2) development of analytical parametrizations for this function leading to three gaussian components with centers at 0.0, {approx}0.7 and {approx}1.3 fm; (3) evidence of a finite zero (change of sign) in the opacity function in the momentum transfer space; (4) development of empirical parametrization for this function consistent with form factors as a product of two monopoles with constrained masses (not a dipole type) and a term with zero; (5) detailed discussion on the determination of the opacity function in the momentum transfer space through the semi-analytical approach. The applicability of these empirical results in the development of eikonal models (mainly those inspired in QCD) is also discussed. (author)

  15. Purely bianisotropic scatterers (United States)

    Albooyeh, M.; Asadchy, V. S.; Alaee, R.; Hashemi, S. M.; Yazdi, M.; Mirmoosa, M. S.; Rockstuhl, C.; Simovski, C. R.; Tretyakov, S. A.


    The polarization response of molecules or meta-atoms to external electric and magnetic fields, which defines the electromagnetic properties of materials, can either be direct (electric field induces electric moment and magnetic field induces magnetic moment) or indirect (magnetoelectric coupling in bianisotropic scatterers). Earlier studies suggest that there is a fundamental bound on the indirect response of all passive scatterers: It is believed to be always weaker than the direct one. In this paper, we prove that there exist scatterers which overcome this bound substantially. Moreover, we show that the amplitudes of electric and magnetic polarizabilities can be negligibly small as compared to the magnetoelectric coupling coefficients. However, we prove that if at least one of the direct-excitation coefficients vanishes, magnetoelectric coupling effects in passive scatterers cannot exist. Our findings open a way to a new class of electromagnetic scatterers and composite materials.

  16. Λ scattering equations

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Gomez, Humberto [Instituto de Fisica - Universidade de São Paulo,Caixa Postal 66318, 05315-970 São Paulo, SP (Brazil); Facultad de Ciencias Basicas, Universidad Santiago de Cali,Calle 5 62-00 Barrio Pampalinda, Cali, Valle (Colombia)


    The CHY representation of scattering amplitudes is based on integrals over the moduli space of a punctured sphere. We replace the punctured sphere by a double-cover version. The resulting scattering equations depend on a parameter Λ controlling the opening of a branch cut. The new representation of scattering amplitudes possesses an enhanced redundancy which can be used to fix, modulo branches, the location of four punctures while promoting Λ to a variable. Via residue theorems we show how CHY formulas break up into sums of products of smaller (off-shell) ones times a propagator. This leads to a powerful way of evaluating CHY integrals of generic rational functions, which we call the Λ algorithm.

  17. Ramped-amplitude NOVEL (United States)

    Can, T. V.; Weber, R. T.; Walish, J. J.; Swager, T. M.; Griffin, R. G.


    We present a pulsed dynamic nuclear polarization (DNP) study using a ramped-amplitude nuclear orientation via electron spin locking (RA-NOVEL) sequence that utilizes a fast arbitrary waveform generator (AWG) to modulate the microwave pulses together with samples doped with narrow-line radicals such as 1,3-bisdiphenylene-2-phenylallyl (BDPA), sulfonated-BDPA (SA-BDPA), and trityl-OX063. Similar to ramped-amplitude cross polarization in solid-state nuclear magnetic resonance, RA-NOVEL improves the DNP efficiency by a factor of up to 1.6 compared to constant-amplitude NOVEL (CA-NOVEL) but requires a longer mixing time. For example, at τmix = 8 μs, the DNP efficiency reaches a plateau at a ramp amplitude of ˜20 MHz for both SA-BDPA and trityl-OX063, regardless of the ramp profile (linear vs. tangent). At shorter mixing times (τmix = 0.8 μs), we found that the tangent ramp is superior to its linear counterpart and in both cases there exists an optimum ramp size and therefore ramp rate. Our results suggest that RA-NOVEL should be used instead of CA-NOVEL as long as the electronic spin lattice relaxation T1e is sufficiently long and/or the duty cycle of the microwave amplifier is not exceeded. To the best of our knowledge, this is the first example of a time domain DNP experiment that utilizes modulated microwave pulses. Our results also suggest that a precise modulation of the microwave pulses can play an important role in optimizing the efficiency of pulsed DNP experiments and an AWG is an elegant instrumental solution for this purpose.

  18. A class of amplitude modulating and invisible inhomogeneous media

    CERN Document Server

    Vial, Benjamin; Horsley, Simon A R; Philbin, Thomas G; Hao, Yang


    We propose a general method to arbitrarily manipulate the amplitude of an electromagnetic wave propagating in a two-dimensional medium, without introducing any scattering. This leads to a whole class of isotropic spatially varying permittivity and permeability profiles that are invisible while shaping the field magnitude. In addition, we propose a metamaterial structure working in the infrared that demonstrates deep sub-wavelength control of the electric field amplitude and strong reduction of the scattering. This work offers an alternative strategy to achieve invisibility with isotropic materials and paves the way for tailoring the propagation of light at the nanoscale.

  19. Particle Distribution Modification by Low Amplitude Modes

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    White, R. B.; Gorelenkov, N.; Heidbrink, W. W.; Van Zeeland, M. A.


    Modification of a high energy particle distribution by a spectrum of low amplitude modes is investigated using a guiding center code. Only through resonance are modes effective in modifying the distribution. Diagnostics are used to illustrate the mode-particle interaction and to find which effects are relevant in producing significant resonance, including kinetic Poincare plots and plots showing those orbits with time averaged mode-particle energy transfer. Effects of pitch angle scattering and drag are studied, as well as plasma rotation and time dependence of the equilibrium and mode frequencies. A specific example of changes observed in a DIII-D deuterium beam distribution in the presence of low amplitude experimentally validated Toroidal Alfven (TAE) eigenmodes and Reversed Shear Alfven (RSAE) eigenmodes is examined in detail. Comparison with experimental data shows that multiple low amplitude modes can account for significant modification of high energy beam particle distributions. It is found that there is a stochastic threshold for beam profile modification, and that the experimental amplitudes are only slightly above this threshold.

  20. Variable Amplitude Fatigue (United States)

    Ranganathan, Narayanaswami; Joly, Damien; Leroy, René

    Fatigue crack growth behavior of selected aluminum alloys under variable amplitude loading is discussed in this study, based principally on experimental observations. The tests include single overloads tests in different environments, block load tests and tests using an aircraft wing loading spectrum. It is shown that conditions favoring a planar slip behavior lead to very high delays as opposed to conditions leading to multiple slip behavior. The Aluminium Liithium alloy studied here, has the best fatigue crack growth resistance in almost all test conditions studied here as compared to other conventional alloys. Under the spectrum loading studied here, the same alloy exhibits a change in micromechanism leading to a four fould acceleration of growth rates. Acceptable life predictions can be made, by taking into account this crack acceleration effect.

  1. Scalar scattering via conformal higher spin exchange

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Joung, Euihun [School of Physics and Astronomy,Seoul National University, Seoul 151-747 (Korea, Republic of); Gauge, Gravity & Strings, Center for Theoretical Physics of the Universe,Institute for Basic Sciences, Daejeon 34047 (Korea, Republic of); Nakach, Simon; Tseytlin, Arkady A. [Theoretical physics group, Blackett Laboratory,Imperial College London, SW7 2AZ (United Kingdom)


    Theories containing infinite number of higher spin fields require a particular definition of summation over spins consistent with their underlying symmetries. We consider a model of massless scalars interacting (via bilinear conserved currents) with conformal higher spin fields in flat space. We compute the tree-level four-scalar scattering amplitude using a natural prescription for summation over an infinite set of conformal higher spin exchanges and find that it vanishes. Independently, we show that the vanishing of the scalar scattering amplitude is, in fact, implied by the global conformal higher spin symmetry of this model. We also discuss one-loop corrections to the four-scalar scattering amplitude.

  2. Color dual form for gauge-theory amplitudes. (United States)

    Bern, Z; Dennen, T


    Recently a duality between color and kinematics has been proposed, exposing a new unexpected structure in gauge theory and gravity scattering amplitudes. Here we propose that the relation goes deeper, allowing us to reorganize amplitudes into a form reminiscent of the standard color decomposition in terms of traces over generators, but with the role of color and kinematics swapped. By imposing additional conditions similar to Kleiss-Kuijf relations between partial amplitudes, the relationship between the earlier form satisfying the duality and the current one is invertible. We comment on extensions to loop level. © 2011 American Physical Society

  3. K sup + - scattering

    CERN Document Server

    Farhan, A M


    A prescription is given to construct an effective interaction that may describe the scattering of K sup + by spin-zero nuclei in a more reliable way. This prescription is based on the Lorentz invariant representation of the meson-nucleon amplitude and the use of the Klein-Gordon equation of motion. Good results for K sup + - sup 1 sup 2 C as well as K sup + - D total cross sections at various energies have been obtained. (author)

  4. Hadron scattering and resonances in QCD

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Dudek, Jozef J. [Old Dominion Univ., Norfolk, VA (United States)


    I describe how hadron-hadron scattering amplitudes are related to the eigenstates of QCD in a finite cubic volume. The discrete spectrum of such eigenstates can be determined from correlation functions computed using lattice QCD, and the corresponding scattering amplitudes extracted. I review results from the Hadron Spectrum Collaboration who have used these finite volume methods to study pi pi elastic scattering, including the rho resonance, as well as coupled-channel pi K, eta K scattering. Ongoing calculations are advertised and the outlook for finite volume approaches is presented.

  5. Helicity Selection Rules and Non-Interference for BSM Amplitudes

    CERN Document Server

    Azatov, Aleksandr; Machado, Camila S.; Riva, Francesco


    Precision studies of scattering processes at colliders provide powerful indirect constraints on new physics. We study the helicity structure of scattering amplitudes in the SM and in the context of an effective Lagrangian description of BSM dynamics. Our analysis reveals a novel set of helicity selection rules according to which, in the majority of 2 to 2 scattering processes at high energy, the SM and the leading BSM effects do not interfere. In such situations, the naive expectation that dimension-6 operators represent the leading BSM contribution is compromised, as corrections from dimension-8 operators can become equally (if not more) important well within the validity of the effective field theory approach.

  6. Integration rules for scattering equations

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Baadsgaard, Christian; Bjerrum-Bohr, N.E.J.; Bourjaily, Jacob L.; Damgaard, Poul H. [Niels Bohr International Academy and Discovery Center,Niels Bohr Institute, University of Copenhagen,Blegdamsvej 17, DK-2100 Copenhagen Ø (Denmark)


    As described by Cachazo, He and Yuan, scattering amplitudes in many quantum field theories can be represented as integrals that are fully localized on solutions to the so-called scattering equations. Because the number of solutions to the scattering equations grows quite rapidly, the contour of integration involves contributions from many isolated components. In this paper, we provide a simple, combinatorial rule that immediately provides the result of integration against the scattering equation constraints for any Möbius-invariant integrand involving only simple poles. These rules have a simple diagrammatic interpretation that makes the evaluation of any such integrand immediate. Finally, we explain how these rules are related to the computation of amplitudes in the field theory limit of string theory.

  7. Journeys through the Precision Frontier: Amplitudes for Colliders

    CERN Document Server


    This volume is a compilation of the lectures at TASI 2014. The coverage focuses on modern calculational techniques for scattering amplitudes, and on the phenomenology of QCD in hadronic collisions. Introductions to flavor physics, dark matter, and physics beyond the Standard Model are also provided. The lectures are accessible to graduate students at the initial stages of their research careers.

  8. MHV Rules for Higgs Plus Multi-Gluon Amplitudes

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Dixon, L.


    We use tree-level perturbation theory to show how non-supersymmetric one-loop scattering amplitudes for a Higgs boson plus an arbitrary number of partons can be constructed, in the limit of a heavy top quark, from a generalization of the scalar graph approach of Cachazo, Svrcek and Witten. The Higgs boson couples to gluons through a top quark loop which generates, for large top mass, a dimension-5 operator H tr G{sup 2}. This effective interaction leads to amplitudes which cannot be described by the standard MHV rules; for example, amplitudes where all of the gluons have positive helicity. We split the effective interaction into the sum of two terms, one holomorphic (selfdual) and one anti-holomorphic (anti-selfdual). The holomorphic interactions give a new set of MHV vertices--identical in form to those of pure gauge theory, except for momentum conservation--that can be combined with pure gauge theory MHV vertices to produce a tower of amplitudes with more than two negative helicities. Similarly, the anti-holomorphic interactions give anti-MHV vertices that can be combined with pure gauge theory anti-MHV vertices to produce a tower of amplitudes with more than two positive helicities. A Higgs boson amplitude is the sum of one MHV-tower amplitude and one anti-MHV-tower amplitude. We present all MHV-tower amplitudes with up to four negative-helicity gluons and any number of positive-helicity gluons (NNMHV). These rules reproduce all of the available analytic formulae for Higgs + n-gluon scattering (n {le} 5) at tree level, in some cases yielding considerably shorter expressions.

  9. Graviton amplitudes from collinear limits of gauge amplitudes

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Stephan Stieberger


    Full Text Available We express all tree-level graviton amplitudes in Einstein's gravity as the collinear limits of a linear combination of pure Yang–Mills amplitudes in which each graviton is represented by two gauge bosons, each of them carrying exactly one half of graviton's momentum and helicity.

  10. Measurement of the light-field amplitude-correlation function through joint photon-count distributions. (United States)

    Furcinitti, P.; Kuppenheimer, J. D.; Narducci, L. M.; Tuft , R. A.


    When an amplitude-stabilized He-Ne laser beam is scattered by a rotating ground glass with small surface inhomogeneities, the probability density of the instantaneous scattered-wave amplitude is Gaussian. In this paper, we suggest the use of the joint photon-count probability distribution to measure the absolute value of the electric-field amplitude-correlation function for random Gaussian light fields, and report the results of an experiment in which the Gaussian field is produced by scattering a light beam through a rotating ground glass. This procedure offers an alternative to other conventional methods, such as self-beating spectroscopy and irradiance-correlation techniques. The correlation time of the scattered-field amplitude in the present experiment has been measured with an accuracy of approximately 0.8%.

  11. Separable potential analyses of coupled NN-NΔ scattering (United States)

    Kloet, W. M.; Tjon, J. A.


    The apparent differences between two analyses of the 1D2 and 3F3 nucleon-nucleon amplitudes by VerWest and the present authors are resolved. In both analyses dynamical poles are present in the scattering amplitude. These poles are associated with fixed left hand singularities. NUCLEAR REACTIONS Intermediate energy NN. Scattering theory. NN-NΔ coupled separable potentials.

  12. Diffuse scattering

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Kostorz, G. [Eidgenoessische Technische Hochschule, Angewandte Physik, Zurich (Switzerland)


    While Bragg scattering is characteristic for the average structure of crystals, static local deviations from the average lattice lead to diffuse elastic scattering around and between Bragg peaks. This scattering thus contains information on the occupation of lattice sites by different atomic species and on static local displacements, even in a macroscopically homogeneous crystalline sample. The various diffuse scattering effects, including those around the incident beam (small-angle scattering), are introduced and illustrated by typical results obtained for some Ni alloys. (author) 7 figs., 41 refs.

  13. N >= 4 Supergravity Amplitudes from Gauge Theory at Two Loops

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Boucher-Veronneau, C.; Dixon, L.J.; /SLAC


    We present the full two-loop four-graviton amplitudes in N = 4, 5, 6 supergravity. These results were obtained using the double-copy structure of gravity, which follows from the recently conjectured color-kinematics duality in gauge theory. The two-loop four-gluon scattering amplitudes in N = 0, 1, 2 supersymmetric gauge theory are a second essential ingredient. The gravity amplitudes have the expected infrared behavior: the two-loop divergences are given in terms of the squares of the corresponding one-loop amplitudes. The finite remainders are presented in a compact form. The finite remainder for N = 8 supergravity is also presented, in a form that utilizes a pure function with a very simple symbol.

  14. Gauge and Gravity Amplitudes from Trees to Loops

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Huang, Rijun

    This thesis describes two subjects that I mainly work on during my PhD study. They are both about scattering amplitudes, covering gravity and gauge theories, tree and loop level, with or without supersymmetry. The rst subject is Kawai-Lewellen-Tye(KLT) relation in field theory, which mysteriously...... a special type of two-loop and three-loop diagrams where equations of maximal unitarity cut de ne complex curve. Geometry genus of complex curve is a topological invariant, and characterizes the property of curve. We compute the genus of complex curve for some two-loop and three-loop diagrams from...... for vanishing identities of Yang-Mills amplitudes as violation of linear symmetry groups based on KLT relation argument. The second subject is integrand reduction of multi-loop amplitude. The recent methods based on computational algebraic geometry make it possible to systematically study multi-loop amplitude...

  15. Some tree-level string amplitudes in the NSR formalism

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Becker, Katrin; Becker, Melanie [George P. and Cynthia W. Mitchell Institute for Fundamental Physics and Astronomy,Texas A& M University,4242 TAMU, College Station, TX 77843 (United States); Melnikov, Ilarion V. [Department of Mathematics, Harvard University,One Oxford Street, Cambridge, MA 02138 (United States); Robbins, Daniel; Royston, Andrew B. [George P. and Cynthia W. Mitchell Institute for Fundamental Physics and Astronomy,Texas A& M University,4242 TAMU, College Station, TX 77843 (United States)


    We calculate tree level scattering amplitudes for open strings using the NSR formalism. We present a streamlined symmetry-based and pedagogical approach to the computations, which we first develop by checking two-, three-, and four-point functions involving bosons and fermions. We calculate the five-point amplitude for massless gluons and find agreement with an earlier result by Brandt, Machado and Medina. We then compute the five-point amplitudes involving two and four fermions respectively, the general form of which has not been previously obtained in the NSR formalism. The results nicely confirm expectations from the supersymmetric F{sup 4} effective action. Finally we use the prescription of Kawai, Lewellen and Tye (KLT) to compute the amplitudes for the closed string sector.

  16. Gauge and Gravity Amplitudes from Trees to Loops

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Huang, Rijun

    This thesis describes two subjects that I mainly work on during my PhD study. They are both about scattering amplitudes, covering gravity and gauge theories, tree and loop level, with or without supersymmetry. The rst subject is Kawai-Lewellen-Tye(KLT) relation in field theory, which mysteriously...... for vanishing identities of Yang-Mills amplitudes as violation of linear symmetry groups based on KLT relation argument. The second subject is integrand reduction of multi-loop amplitude. The recent methods based on computational algebraic geometry make it possible to systematically study multi-loop amplitude...... with generalized unitarity cut. Using Grobner basis and primary decomposition, we thoroughly study integrand basis and solution space of equations from maximal unitarity cut for all 4-dimensional two-loop topologies. Algorithm and examples of this computation are illustrated in this thesis. We also study...

  17. Dispersion Relations in Scattering and Antenna Problems


    Sohl, Christian


    This dissertation deals with physical bounds on scattering and absorption of acoustic and electromagnetic waves. A general dispersion relation or sum rule for the extinction cross section of such waves is derived from the holomorphic properties of the scattering amplitude in the forward direction. The derivation is based on the forward scattering theorem via certain Herglotz functions and their asymptotic expansions in the low-frequency and high-frequency regimes. The result states that, for ...

  18. Conformal basis for flat space amplitudes (United States)

    Pasterski, Sabrina; Shao, Shu-Heng


    We study solutions of the Klein-Gordon, Maxwell, and linearized Einstein equations in R1 ,d +1 that transform as d -dimensional conformal primaries under the Lorentz group S O (1 ,d +1 ). Such solutions, called conformal primary wavefunctions, are labeled by a conformal dimension Δ and a point in Rd, rather than an on-shell (d +2 )-dimensional momentum. We show that the continuum of scalar conformal primary wavefunctions on the principal continuous series Δ ∈d/2 +i R of S O (1 ,d +1 ) spans a complete set of normalizable solutions to the wave equation. In the massless case, with or without spin, the transition from momentum space to conformal primary wavefunctions is implemented by a Mellin transform. As a consequence of this construction, scattering amplitudes in this basis transform covariantly under S O (1 ,d +1 ) as d -dimensional conformal correlators.

  19. Strings 2017 Amplitudes Review Talk


    Carrasco, John Joseph


    Amplitudes review talk I gave at Strings 2017 in Tel Aviv. Broad audience, introducing color-kinematics/double copy, geometric picture, playful constructions (Z-theory), and applications to classical gravity solutions.2 files. PDF and Apple Keynote source.

  20. Amplitude damping of vortex modes

    CSIR Research Space (South Africa)

    Dudley, Angela L


    Full Text Available An interferometer, mimicking an amplitude damping channel for vortex modes, is presented. Experimentally the action of the channel is in good agreement with that predicted theoretically. Since we can characterize the action of the channel on orbital...

  1. Superstring amplitudes and the associator

    National Research Council Canada - National Science Library

    Drummond, J M; Ragoucy, E


    We investigate a pattern in the α′ expansion of tree-level open superstring amplitudes which correlates the appearance of higher depth multiple zeta values with that of simple zeta values in a particular way...

  2. Tempo and amplitude in growth. (United States)

    Hermanussen, Michael


    Growth is defined as an increase of size over time with time usually defined as physical time. Yet, the rigid metric of physical time is not directly relevant to the internal dynamics of growth. Growth is linked to maturation. Children and adolescents differ in the tempo at which they mature. One calendar year differs in its meaning in a fast maturing, and in a slow maturing child. The slow child needs more calendar years for completing the same stage of maturity. Many characteristics in the human growth curve are tempo characteristics. Tempo - being fast or slow maturing - has to be carefully separated from amplitude - being tall or short. Several characteristic phenomena such as catch-up growth after periods of illness and starvation are largely tempo phenomena, and do usually not affect the amplitude component of growth. Applying Functional Data Analysis and Principal Component Analysis, the two main sources of height variance: tempo and amplitude can statistically be separate and quantified. Tempo appears to be more sensitive than amplitude to nutrition, health and environmental stress. An appropriate analysis of growth requires disentangling its two major components: amplitude and tempo. The assessment of the developmental tempo thus is an integral part of assessing child and adolescent growth. Though an Internet portal is currently available to process small amounts of height data ( for separately determining amplitude and tempo in growth, there is urgent need of better and practical solutions for analyzing individual growth.

  3. Zero energy scattering calculation in Euclidean space

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Carbonell, J. [Institut de Physique Nucléaire, Université Paris-Sud, IN2P3-CNRS, 91406 Orsay Cedex (France); Karmanov, V.A., E-mail: [Lebedev Physical Institute, Leninsky Prospekt 53, 119991 Moscow (Russian Federation)


    We show that the Bethe–Salpeter equation for the scattering amplitude in the limit of zero incident energy can be transformed into a purely Euclidean form, as it is the case for the bound states. The decoupling between Euclidean and Minkowski amplitudes is only possible for zero energy scattering observables and allows determining the scattering length from the Euclidean Bethe–Salpeter amplitude. Such a possibility strongly simplifies the numerical solution of the Bethe–Salpeter equation and suggests an alternative way to compute the scattering length in Lattice Euclidean calculations without using the Luscher formalism. The derivations contained in this work were performed for scalar particles and one-boson exchange kernel. They can be generalized to the fermion case and more involved interactions.

  4. Thomson Scattering

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Donne, A. J. H.


    Thomson scattering is a very powerful diagnostic which is applied at nearly every magnetic confinement device. Depending on the experimental conditions different plasma parameters can be diagnosed. When the wave vector is much larger than the plasma Debye length, the total scattered power is

  5. On Fine Structure of Strings: The Universal Correction to the Veneziano Amplitude

    CERN Multimedia

    CERN. Geneva


    We consider theories of weakly interacting higher spin particles in flat spacetime. We focus on the four-point scattering amplitude at high energies and imaginary scattering angles. The leading asymptotic of the amplitude in this regime is universal and equal to the corresponding limit of the Veneziano amplitude. In this paper, we find that the first sub-leading correction to this asymptotic is universal as well. We compute the correction using a model of relativistic strings with massive endpoints. We argue that it is unique using holography, effective theory of long strings and bootstrap techniques.

  6. Closed String Amplitudes from Gauge Fixed String Field Theory


    Drukker, Nadav


    Closed string diagrams are derived from cubic open string field theory using a gauge fixed kinetic operator. The basic idea is to use a string propagator that does not generate a boundary to the world sheet. Using this propagator and the closed string vertex, the moduli space of closed string surfaces is covered, so closed string scattering amplitudes should be reproduced. This kinetic operator could be a gauge fixed form of the string field theory action around the closed string vacuum.

  7. On amplitude zeros at threshold

    CERN Document Server

    Argyres, E N; Kleiss, R H


    The occurrence of zeros of 2 to n amplitudes at threshold in scalar theories is studied. We find a differential equation for the scalar potential, which incorporates all known cases where the 2 to n amplitudes at threshold vanish for all sufficiently large $n$, in all space-time dimensions, $d\\ge 1$. This equation is related to the reflectionless potentials of Quantum Mechanics and to integrable theories in 1+1 dimensions. As an application, we find that the sine-Gordon potential and its hyperbolic version, the sinh-Gordon potential, also have amplitude zeros at threshold, ${\\cal A}(2\\to n)=0$, for $n\\ge 4$ and $d\\ge 2$, independently of the mass and the coupling constant.

  8. Shape of Pion Distribution Amplitude

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Radyushkin, Anatoly


    A scenario is investigated in which the leading-twist pion distribution amplitude $\\varphi_\\pi (x)$ is approximated by the pion decay constant $f_\\pi$ for all essential values of the light-cone fraction $x$. A model for the light-front wave function $\\Psi (x, k_\\perp)$ is proposed that produces such a distribution amplitude and has a rapidly decreasing (exponential for definiteness) dependence on the light-front energy combination $ k_\\perp^2/x(1-x)$. It is shown that this model easily reproduces the fit of recent large-$Q^2$ BaBar data on the photon-pion transition form factor. Some aspects of scenario with flat pion distribution amplitude are discussed.

  9. Large amplitude oscillatory elongation flow

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Rasmussen, Henrik K.; Laillé, Philippe; Yu, Kaijia


    with a molecular weight of 145 kg/ mol was subjected to the oscillative flow. The onset of the steady periodic regime is reached at the same Hencky strain as the onset of the steady elongational viscosity ( Lambda = 0). The integral molecular stress function formulation within the 'interchain pressure' concept......A filament stretching rheometer (FSR) was used for measuring the elongation flow with a large amplitude oscillative elongation imposed upon the flow. The large amplitude oscillation imposed upon the elongational flow as a function of the time t was defined as epsilon(t) =(epsilon) over dot(0)t...... + Lambda[1 - cos( 2 pi Omega(epsilon) over dot(0)t)] where epsilon is the Hencky strain, (epsilon) over dot(0) is a constant elongational rate for the base elongational flow, Lambda the strain amplitude ( Lambda >= 0), and Omega the strain frequency. A narrow molecular mass distribution linear polystyrene...

  10. Einstein-Yang-Mills from pure Yang-Mills amplitudes

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Nandan, Dhritiman; Plefka, Jan [Institut für Physik and IRIS Adlershof, Humboldt-Universität zu Berlin,Zum Großen Windkanal 6, D-12489 Berlin (Germany); Schlotterer, Oliver [Max-Planck-Institut für Gravitationsphysik, Albert-Einstein-Institut,Am Mühlenberg 1, D-14476 Potsdam (Germany); Wen, Congkao [I.N.F.N. Sezione di Roma Tor Vergata,Via della Ricerca Scientifica, 00133 Roma (Italy)


    We present new relations for scattering amplitudes of color ordered gluons and gravitons in Einstein-Yang-Mills theory. Tree-level amplitudes of arbitrary multiplicities and polarizations involving up to three gravitons and up to two color traces are reduced to partial amplitudes of pure Yang-Mills theory. In fact, the double-trace identities apply to Einstein-Yang-Mills extended by a dilaton and a B-field. Our results generalize recent work of Stieberger and Taylor for the single graviton case with a single color trace. As the derivation is made in the dimension-agnostic Cachazo-He-Yuan formalism, our results are valid for external bosons in any number of spacetime dimensions. Moreover, they generalize to the superamplitudes in theories with 16 supercharges.

  11. String amplitudes: from field theories to number theory

    CERN Multimedia

    CERN. Geneva


    In a variety of recent developments, scattering amplitudes hint at new symmetries of and unexpected connections between physical theories which are otherwise invisible in their conventional description via Feynman diagrams or Lagrangians. Yet, many of these hidden structures are conveniently accessible to string theory where gauge interactions and gravity arise as the low-energy excitations of open and closed strings. In this talk, I will give an intuitive picture of gravity as a double copy of gauge interactions and extend the web of relations to scalar field theories including chiral Lagrangians for Goldstone bosons. The string corrections to gauge and gravity amplitudes beyond their point-particle limit exhibit elegant mathematical structures and offer a convenient laboratory to explore modern number-theoretic concepts in a simple context. As a common theme with Feynman integrals, string amplitudes introduce a variety of periods and special functions including multiple zeta values and polylogarithms, orga...

  12. Improvement of Closed Crack Selectivity in Nonlinear Ultrasonic Imaging Using Fundamental Wave Amplitude Difference (United States)

    Ikeuchi, Masako; Jinno, Kentaro; Ohara, Yoshikazu; Yamanaka, Kazushi


    To realize the high selectivity of closed cracks, we propose a fundamental wave amplitude difference (FAD) method based on the threshold behavior of fundamental waves caused by the contact vibration of closed cracks. This is realized by the subtraction of a fundamental array (FA) image at a small input amplitude multiplied by the amplification factor from that at a large input amplitude. The formulation clarified that FAD can selectively image closed cracks while eliminating other linear scatterers, which cannot be completely eliminated by the subharmonic wave amplitude difference (SAD) method. Furthermore, FAD was experimentally verified in a closed fatigue crack specimen using the closed-crack-imaging method of subharmonic phased array for crack evaluation (SPACE). Thus, we demonstrated that FAD is useful for achieving the higher selectivity of closed cracks against other linear scatterers than previous amplitude difference methods without filtering out the subharmonic or superharmonic waves.

  13. Charmed Meson Scattering from Lattice QCD

    CERN Document Server

    Moir, Graham


    State-of-the-art lattice QCD calculations of scattering amplitudes in coupled-channel $D\\pi$, $D\\eta$ and $D_{s}\\bar{K}$ scattering, as well elastic $DK$ scattering are discussed. The methodology employed allows a determination of the relevant poles in the scattering matrix, while also providing a measure of the coupling of each channel to a given pole. By investigating $S$, $P$ and $D$ wave interactions, the nature of states with $J^{P} = 0^{+}$, relevant for the $D^{*}_{0}(2400)$ and $D^{*}_{s0}(2317)$, as well as states with $J^{P} = 1^{-}, 2^{+}$ are discussed.

  14. Critical scattering

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Stirling, W.G. [Liverpool Univ., Dep. of Physics, Liverpool (United Kingdom); Perry, S.C. [Keele Univ. (United Kingdom). Dept. of Physics


    We outline the theoretical and experimental background to neutron scattering studies of critical phenomena at magnetic and structural phase transitions. The displacive phase transition of SrTiO{sub 3} is discussed, along with examples from recent work on magnetic materials from the rare-earth (Ho, Dy) and actinide (NpAs, NpSb, USb) classes. The impact of synchrotron X-ray scattering is discussed in conclusion. (author) 13 figs., 18 refs.

  15. Scattering of sound waves by a compressible vortex (United States)

    Colonius, Tim; Lele, Sanjiva K.; Moin, Parviz


    Scattering of plane sound waves by a compressible vortex is investigated by direct computation of the two-dimensional Navier-Stokes equations. Nonreflecting boundary conditions are utilized, and their accuracy is established by comparing results on different sized domains. Scattered waves are directly measured from the computations. The resulting amplitude and directivity pattern of the scattered waves is discussed, and compared to various theoretical predictions. For compact vortices (zero circulation), the scattered waves directly computed are in good agreement with predictions based on an acoustic analogy. Strong scattering at about + or - 30 degrees from the direction of incident wave propagation is observed. Back scattering is an order of magnitude smaller than forward scattering. For vortices with finite circulation refraction of the sound by the mean flow field outside the vortex core is found to be important in determining the amplitude and directivity of the scattered wave field.

  16. Pulse amplitude modulated chlorophyll fluorometer

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Greenbaum, Elias; Wu, Jie


    Chlorophyll fluorometry may be used for detecting toxins in a sample because of changes in micro algae. A portable lab on a chip ("LOAC") based chlorophyll fluorometer may be used for toxin detection and environmental monitoring. In particular, the system may include a microfluidic pulse amplitude modulated ("PAM") chlorophyll fluorometer. The LOAC PAM chlorophyll fluorometer may analyze microalgae and cyanobacteria that grow naturally in source drinking water.

  17. On the scattering over the GKP vacuum

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Fioravanti, Davide, E-mail: [Sezione INFN di Bologna, Dipartimento di Fisica e Astronomia, Università di Bologna, Via Irnerio 46, Bologna (Italy); Piscaglia, Simone, E-mail: [Sezione INFN di Bologna, Dipartimento di Fisica e Astronomia, Università di Bologna, Via Irnerio 46, Bologna (Italy); Centro de Física do Porto and Departamento de Física e Astronomia, Universidade do Porto, Rua do Campo Alegre 687, Porto (Portugal); Rossi, Marco, E-mail: [Dipartimento di Fisica dell' Università della Calabria and INFN, Gruppo Collegato di Cosenza, Arcavacata di Rende, Cosenza (Italy)


    By converting the asymptotic Bethe Ansatz (ABA) of N=4 SYM into non-linear integral equations, we find 2D scattering amplitudes of excitations on top of the GKP vacuum. We prove that this is a suitable and powerful set-up for the understanding and computation of the whole S-matrix. We show that all the amplitudes depend on the fundamental scalar–scalar one.

  18. Compton scattering

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Botto, D.J.; Pratt, R.H.


    The current status of Compton scattering, both experimental observations and the theoretical predictions, is examined. Classes of experiments are distinguished and the results obtained are summarized. The validity of the incoherent scattering function approximation and the impulse approximation is discussed. These simple theoretical approaches are compared with predictions of the nonrelativistic dipole formula of Gavrila and with the relativistic results of Whittingham. It is noted that the A/sup -2/ based approximations fail to predict resonances and an infrared divergence, both of which have been observed. It appears that at present the various available theoretical approaches differ significantly in their predictions and that further and more systematic work is required.

  19. Resonances in pi-K scattering

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Wilson, David J. [Old Dominion University, Norfolk, VA


    We have obtained clear signals of resonances in coupled-channel pi K - eta K scattering. Using distillation and a large basis of operators we are able to extract a precise spectrum of energy levels using the variational method. These energies are analysed using inelastic extensions of the Luescher method to obtain scattering amplitudes that clearly describe S, P and D wave resonances, corresponding to the physical K_0^*(1430), the K^*(892) and the K_2^*(1430).

  20. Little string amplitudes (and the unreasonable effectiveness of 6D SYM)

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Chang, Chi-Ming; Lin, Ying-Hsuan; Shao, Shu-Heng [Jefferson Physical Laboratory, Harvard University,17 Oxford Street, Cambridge, MA 02138 (United States); Wang, Yifan [Center for Theoretical Physics, Massachusetts Institute of Technology,77 Massachusetts Avenue, Cambridge, MA 02139 (United States); Yin, Xi [Jefferson Physical Laboratory, Harvard University,17 Oxford Street, Cambridge, MA 02138 (United States)


    We study tree level scattering amplitudes of four massless states in the double scaled little string theory, and compare them to perturbative loop amplitudes in six-dimensional super-Yang-Mills theory. The little string amplitudes are computed from correlators in the cigar coset CFT and in N=2 minimal models. The results are expressed in terms of integrals of conformal blocks and evaluated numerically in the α{sup ′} expansion. We find striking agreements with up to 2-loop scattering amplitudes of massless gluons in 6D SU(k) SYM at a ℤ{sub k} invariant point on the Coulomb branch. We comment on the issue of UV divergence at higher loop orders in the gauge theory and discuss the implication of our results.

  1. Elliptic scattering equations

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Cardona, Carlos [Physics Division, National Center for Theoretical Sciences, National Tsing-Hua University,Hsinchu, Taiwan 30013 (China); Gomez, Humberto [Instituto de Fisica - Universidade de São Paulo,Caixa Postal 66318, 05315-970 São Paulo, SP (Brazil); Facultad de Ciencias Basicas, Universidad Santiago de Cali,Calle 5 62-00 Barrio Pampalinda, Cali, Valle (Colombia)


    Recently the CHY approach has been extended to one loop level using elliptic functions and modular forms over a Jacobian variety. Due to the difficulty in manipulating these kind of functions, we propose an alternative prescription that is totally algebraic. This new proposal is based on an elliptic algebraic curve embedded in a ℂP{sup 2} space. We show that for the simplest integrand, namely the n−gon, our proposal indeed reproduces the expected result. By using the recently formulated Λ−algorithm, we found a novel recurrence relation expansion in terms of tree level off-shell amplitudes. Our results connect nicely with recent results on the one-loop formulation of the scattering equations. In addition, this new proposal can be easily stretched out to hyperelliptic curves in order to compute higher genus.

  2. Scattering on plane waves and the double copy (United States)

    Adamo, Tim; Casali, Eduardo; Mason, Lionel; Nekovar, Stefan


    Perturbatively around flat space, the scattering amplitudes of gravity are related to those of Yang–Mills by colour-kinematic duality, under which gravitational amplitudes are obtained as the ‘double copy’ of the corresponding gauge theory amplitudes. We consider the question of how to extend this relationship to curved scattering backgrounds, focusing on certain ‘sandwich’ plane waves. We calculate the 3-point amplitudes on these backgrounds and find that a notion of double copy remains in the presence of background curvature: graviton amplitudes on a gravitational plane wave are the double copy of gluon amplitudes on a gauge field plane wave. This is non-trivial in that it requires a non-local replacement rule for the background fields and the momenta and polarization vectors of the fields scattering on the backgrounds. It must also account for new ‘tail’ terms arising from scattering off the background. These encode a memory effect in the scattering amplitudes, which naturally double copies as well.

  3. Monodromy relations in higher-loop string amplitudes

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    S. Hohenegger


    Full Text Available New monodromy relations of loop amplitudes are derived in open string theory. We particularly study N-point (planar and non-planar one-loop amplitudes described by a world-sheet cylinder and derive a set of relations between subamplitudes of different color orderings. Various consistency checks are performed by matching α′-expansions of planar and non-planar amplitudes involving elliptic iterated integrals with the resulting periods giving rise to two sets of multiple elliptic zeta values. The latter refer to the two homology cycles on the once-punctured complex elliptic curve and the monodromy equations provide relations between these two sets of multiple elliptic zeta values. Furthermore, our monodromy relations involve new objects for which we present a tentative interpretation in terms of open string scattering amplitudes in the presence of a non-trivial gauge field flux. Finally, we provide an outlook on how to generalize the new monodromy relations to the non-oriented case and beyond the one-loop level. Comparing a subset of our results with recent findings in the literature we find therein several serious issues related to the structure and significance of monodromy phases and the relevance of missed contributions from contour integrations.

  4. Remote identification of the vibration amplitude of ship hull

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    A. N. Pinchuk


    Full Text Available The aim is to develop the methodological support to determine vibration amplitude of the ship hull remotely using a coherent radar centimeter range based on the variation of the Doppler signal spectrum reflected from a vibrating surface.The paper presents a synthesized mathematical model of the radio signal reflected from the vibrating surface. It is the signal of coherent radar of continuous radiation with a known carrier frequency and the amplitude of the radiated signal. In the synthesis it was believed that the displacement in the radial direction with respect to the vibrating surface radar was sinusoidal.The dependences of the vibration amplitude on the value of the normalized Doppler radio signal spectrum at the second harmonic frequency are obtained. Cycle results of field experiments to study the variability of the sea surface, determining the level of its roughness, allows us to establish that the energy of surface waves of gravitational-capillary range has a high correlation with the wind speed. It is proved that the ratio of the spectral density levels at vibration frequency and its multiple frequencies is specified by the index of phase modulation linearly related to the amplitude of vibration of the ship hull.The results are significant for radar (radar detection of water targets using the coherent radar of centimeter range, ensuring the correct records of noise generated by the scattering of radio waves from the water surface.

  5. Scattering theory

    CERN Document Server

    Friedrich, Harald


    This corrected and updated second edition of "Scattering Theory" presents a concise and modern coverage of the subject. In the present treatment, special attention is given to the role played by the long-range behaviour of the projectile-target interaction, and a theory is developed, which is well suited to describe near-threshold bound and continuum states in realistic binary systems such as diatomic molecules or molecular ions. It is motivated by the fact that experimental advances have shifted and broadened the scope of applications where concepts from scattering theory are used, e.g. to the field of ultracold atoms and molecules, which has been experiencing enormous growth in recent years, largely triggered by the successful realization of Bose-Einstein condensates of dilute atomic gases in 1995. The book contains sections on special topics such as near-threshold quantization, quantum reflection, Feshbach resonances and the quantum description of scattering in two dimensions. The level of abstraction is k...

  6. Separable potential analyses of coupled NN-N. delta. scattering

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Kloet, W.M.; Tjon, J.A.


    The apparent differences between two analyses of the /sup 1/D/sub 2/ and /sup 3/F/sub 3/ nucleon-nucleon amplitudes by Verwest and the present authors are resolved. In both analyses dynamical poles are present in the scattering amplitude. These poles are associated with fixed left hand singularities.

  7. Amplitude distribution in the right ventricle. (United States)

    Ham, H R; Amir, R; Lenaers, A; Vandevivere, J


    Amplitude distribution in the right ventricle obtained from ECG-gated ventriculography has been reviewed and six amplitude distribution patterns were identified. Homogeneous distribution was rarely observed even in patients without any cardiac or pulmonary diseases. Furthermore, there was no difference in frequency distribution of the amplitude distribution patterns between the control group, patients with coronary diseases, and those with recent inferior myocardial infarction. It was concluded that amplitude distribution could not be used to detect hypokinetic areas in the right ventricle.

  8. Amplitude distribution in the right ventricle

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Ham, H.R.; Amir, R.; Lenaers, A.; Vandevivere, J.


    Amplitude distribution in the right ventricle obtained from ECG-gated ventriculography has been reviewed and six amplitude distribution patterns were identified. Homogeneous distribution was rarely observed even in patients without any cardiac or pulmonary diseases. Furthermore, there was not difference in frequency distribution of the amplitude distribution patterns between the control group, patients with coronary diseases, and those with recent inferior myocardial infarction. It was concluded that amplitude distribution could not be used to detect hypokinetic areas in the right ventricle.

  9. Twist-4 photon helicity-flip amplitude in DVCS on a nucleon in the Wandzura-Wilczek approximation (United States)

    Kivel, N.; Mankiewicz, L.


    We computed the twist-4 part of the photon spin-flip amplitude in deeply virtual Compton scattering on a nucleon in the Wandzura Wilczek approximation. We found a factorizable contribution, which arises from photon scattering on quarks with non-zero angular momentum along the collision axis. As the genuine twist-2 amplitude arises at the NLO, for moderate virtualities of the hard photon, Q^2 le 10 GeV^2, a kinematical twist-4 correction can give a numerically important contribution to the photon helicity-flip amplitude.

  10. Vladimir Sudakov and double-logarithmic asymptotics of amplitudes in QED, QCD and gravity

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Lipatov L. N.


    Full Text Available We review the Sudakov results on the double logarithmic asymptotics of the electron form-factor which were based on his parametrization of the virtual particle momenta in the Feynman diagrams. The high energy amplitudes for various QED and QCD processes in the double-logarithmic approximation are obtained by using the Bethe-Salpeter approach and the evolution equations. The ultraviolet divergency of the graviton Regge trajectory allows to derive the infrared evolution equation for the graviton-graviton scattering amplitude with a double-logarithmic accuracy. The asymptotic behavior of this amplitude depends essentially on the rank N of the super-symmetry.

  11. X-ray resonant Raman scattering in the rare earths

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    van Veenendaal, M.A.; Carra, P.; Thole, B.T


    This paper develops a theory of resonant Raman scattering within the framework of a localized model. Expressions for the scattering amplitude and cross section are derived by employing the methods of spherical-tensor analysis. a simple factorization is obtained for the geometrical (angular

  12. Anomalous scattering factors of some rare earth elements evaluated ...

    Indian Academy of Sciences (India)

    The real and imaginary parts, '() and ''() of the dispersion corrections to the forward Rayleigh scattering amplitude (also called anomalous scattering factors) for the elements La, Ce, Pr, Nd, Sm, Gd, Dy, Ho and Er, have been determined by a numerical evaluation of the dispersion integral that relates them through the ...

  13. Parity-Violating in e - e + Scattering at Finite Temperature (United States)

    Chekerker, M.; Santos, A. F.; Khanna, Faqir C.; Ladrem, M.


    Parity violation implies that physics laws are not invariant under spatial coordinate reversal. Electron-positron scattering is a process that displays parity violation. Using the Thermo Field Dynamics formalism this scattering at finite temperature is analyzed. The transition amplitude is calculated as a function of temperature. The parity violation at very high temperatures tend to go to zero.

  14. K correlations and facet models in diffuse scattering

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Hoenders, B.J.; Jakeman, E.; Baltes, H.P.; Steinle, B.


    The angular intensity distribution of radiation scattered by a wide range of random media can be accounted for by assuming effective source amplitude correlations involving modified Bessel functions Kv. We investigate how such correlations can be derived from physical models of stochastic scattering

  15. Heterodyne x-ray diffuse scattering from coherent phonons. (United States)

    Kozina, M; Trigo, M; Chollet, M; Clark, J N; Glownia, J M; Gossard, A C; Henighan, T; Jiang, M P; Lu, H; Majumdar, A; Zhu, D; Reis, D A


    Here, we report Fourier-transform inelastic x-ray scattering measurements of photoexcited GaAs with embedded ErAs nanoparticles. We observe temporal oscillations in the x-ray scattering intensity, which we attribute to inelastic scattering from coherent acoustic phonons. Unlike in thermal equilibrium, where inelastic x-ray scattering is proportional to the phonon occupation, we show that the scattering is proportional to the phonon amplitude for coherent states. The wavevectors of the observed phonons extend beyond the excitation wavevector. The nanoparticles break the discrete translational symmetry of the lattice, enabling the generation of large wavevector coherent phonons. Elastic scattering of x-ray photons from the nanoparticles provides a reference for heterodyne mixing, yielding signals proportional to the phonon amplitude.

  16. Light-like scattering in quantum gravity

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Bjerrum-Bohr, N.E.J. [Niels Bohr International Academy & Discovery Center, Niels Bohr Institute,University of Copenhagen, Blegdamsvej 17, Copenhagen Ø, DK-2100 (Denmark); Donoghue, John F. [Department of Physics-LGRT, University of Massachusetts,Amherst, MA, 01003 (United States); Holstein, Barry R. [Department of Physics-LGRT, University of Massachusetts,Amherst, MA, 01003 (United States); Kavli Institute for Theoretical Physics, University of California,Santa Barbara, CA, 93016 (United States); Planté, Ludovic; Vanhove, Pierre [CEA, DSM, Institut de Physique Théorique, IPhT, CNRS MPPU, URA2306,Saclay, Gif-sur-Yvette, F-91191 (France)


    We consider scattering in quantum gravity and derive long-range classical and quantum contributions to the scattering of light-like bosons and fermions (spin-0, spin-(1/2), spin-1) from an external massive scalar field, such as the Sun or a black hole. This is achieved by treating general relativity as an effective field theory and identifying the non-analytic pieces of the one-loop gravitational scattering amplitude. It is emphasized throughout the paper how modern amplitude techniques, involving spinor-helicity variables, unitarity, and squaring relations in gravity enable much simplified computations. We directly verify, as predicted by general relativity, that all classical effects in our computation are universal (in the context of matter type and statistics). Using an eikonal procedure we confirm the post-Newtonian general relativity correction for light-like bending around large stellar objects. We also comment on treating effects from quantum ℏ dependent terms using the same eikonal method.

  17. Sensing Molecular Adsorption Through Interfacial Electron Scattering in Atom-Scale Junctions (United States)


    of the junction with probability amplitude t, and the diffusive medium reflects part of the wave back into the same mode with probability amplitude a...1). Upon reaching the junction, this back-scattered partial wave is reflected again with probability amplitude r. The original transmitted

  18. Meson-meson scattering from U(3) chiral perturbation theory

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Guo Zhihui, E-mail: zhguo@ugr.e [CAFPE and Departamento de Fisica Teorica y del Cosmos, Universidad de Granada, Campus de Fuente Nueva, E-18002 Granada (Spain); Prades, Joaquim [CAFPE and Departamento de Fisica Teorica y del Cosmos, Universidad de Granada, Campus de Fuente Nueva, E-18002 Granada (Spain); Oller, Jose Antonio, E-mail: oller@um.e [Departamento de Fisica, Universidad de Murcia, E-30071 Murcia (Spain)


    A complete one loop calculation of all the meson-meson scattering amplitudes in the framework of U(3) chiral perturbation theory with explicit resonance states is presented in this article. By performing the unitarization of the perturbative scattering amplitudes using a variant of the N/D method, we show that the approach can describe well the various scattering data. In the end, we use the parameters from the fit to determine the masses, widths and the corresponding residue of the relevant resonances.

  19. Implications of vector boson scattering unitarity in composite Higgs models (United States)

    Buarque Franzosi, Diogo; Ferrarese, Piero


    The strong nature of composite Higgs models manifests at high energies through the growing behavior of the scattering amplitudes of longitudinally polarized weak bosons that leads to the formation of composite resonances as well as nonresonant strong effects. In this work the unitarity of these scattering amplitudes is used as a tool to assess the profile of the composite spectrum of the theory, including nonresonant enhancements, vector resonances and the C P -even scalar excitation. These three signatures are then studied in realistic scattering processes at hadron colliders, aiming to estimate the potential to exclude dynamically motivated scenarios of composite Higgs models.

  20. Mechanism of nuclear rainbow scattering

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Ohkubo, S. [Department of Applied Science and Environment, Kochi Women University, Kochi 780-8515 (Japan)


    Full text: Nuclear rainbow phenomenon has been widely observed in light heavy ion scattering such as {sup 16} 0 + {sup 16} 0, {sup 16} 0 + {sup 12} C and {sup 12} C + {sup 12} C and great progress has been made experimentally and theoretically especially in the nineties. The nuclear rainbow has been understood quite often in analogy to meteorological rainbow caused by scattering of light from water droplets, because they are both considered to be a refractive phenomenon. Traditionally nuclear rain- bow has been explained by the far side component of the scattering amplitudes in the presence of a strong attractive force: The observed Airy structure in the angular distributions has been understood by the interference between it's two sub amplitudes in analogy to the interference of two refractive waves in meteorological rainbow, although it was not easy to theoretically extract its components separately. By studying the {sup 16} 0 + {sup 16} 0 scattering measured at Strasbourg, we have theoretically succeeded in extracting the sub amplitudes of the far side scattering in a rigorous but easy way: the sub amplitudes are obtained by decomposing the calculated scattering amplitude into its internal wave and barrier wave components. It is found that the Airy structure observed in the angular distributions in the E L = 75-145 MeV is caused by the interference between the far side internal-wave and far side barrier-wave. The minima in the 90-excitation function, which has been interpreted to be the passage of the Airy elephants, can also be explained as the interference between the far side internal- wave and barrier-wave. It is noted that although the internal wave is a refracted wave the barrier wave is a reflected wave, which does not feel the attractive potential in the very internal region. This means that the nuclear Airy structure is caused by the interference between the refractive wave and reflective wave. This finding is very different from the traditional

  1. The complex null string, Galilean conformal algebra and scattering equations (United States)

    Casali, Eduardo; Herfray, Yannick; Tourkine, Piotr


    The scattering equation formalism for scattering amplitudes, and its stringy incarnation, the ambitwistor string, remains a mysterious construction. In this paper, we pursue the study a gauged-unfixed version of the ambitwistor string known as the null string. We explore the following three aspects in detail; its complexification, gauge fixing, and amplitudes. We first study the complexification of the string; the associated symmetries and moduli, and connection to the ambitwistor string. We then look in more details at the leftover symmetry algebra of the string, called Galilean conformal algebra; we study its local and global action and gauge-fixing. We finish by presenting an operator formalism, that we use to compute tree-level scattering amplitudes based on the scattering equations and a one-loop partition function. These results hopefully will open the way to understand conceptual questions related to the loop expansion in these twistor-like string models.

  2. Compton scattering on $^{208}$Pb

    CERN Document Server

    Alberico, W M


    The authors briefly review the formalism of the nuclear Compton scattering in the frame of the low-energy theorems (LET). They treat the resonant terms of the amplitude, having collective intermediate nuclear states, as a superposition of Lorentz lines with energy, width and strength fixed by the photo-absorption experiments. The gauge terms are evaluated starting from a simple, but realistic, nuclear Hamiltonian. Dynamical nucleon-nucleon correlations are consistently taken into account, beyond those imposed by the Pauli principle. The comparison of the theoretical predictions with the data of elastic diffusion of photons from /sup 208/Pb shows that LET are insufficient to account for the experiment.

  3. Hadron scattering, resonances, and QCD

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Briceno, Raul [Thomas Jefferson National Accelerator Facility (TJNAF), Newport News, VA (United States)


    The non-perturbative nature of quantum chromodynamics (QCD) has historically left a gap in our understanding of the connection between the fundamental theory of the strong interactions and the rich structure of experimentally observed phenomena. For the simplest properties of stable hadrons, this is now circumvented with the use of lattice QCD (LQCD). In this talk I discuss a path towards a rigorous determination of few-hadron observables from LQCD. I illustrate the power of the methodology by presenting recently determined scattering amplitudes in the light-meson sector and their resonance content.

  4. Polynomial reduction and evaluation of tree- and loop-level CHY amplitudes (United States)

    Zlotnikov, Michael


    We develop a polynomial reduction procedure that transforms any gauge fixed CHY amplitude integrand for n scattering particles into a σ-moduli multivariate polynomial of what we call the standard form. We show that a standard form polynomial must have a specific ladder type monomial structure, which has finite size at any n, with highest multivariate degree given by ( n - 3)( n - 4) /2. This set of monomials spans a complete basis for polynomials with rational coefficients in kinematic data on the support of scattering equations. Subsequently, at tree and one-loop level, we employ the global residue theorem to derive a prescription that evaluates any CHY amplitude by means of collecting simple residues at infinity only. The prescription is then applied explicitly to some tree and one-loop amplitude examples.

  5. Polynomial reduction and evaluation of tree- and loop-level CHY amplitudes

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Zlotnikov, Michael [Department of Physics, Brown University,182 Hope St, Providence, RI, 02912 (United States)


    We develop a polynomial reduction procedure that transforms any gauge fixed CHY amplitude integrand for n scattering particles into a σ-moduli multivariate polynomial of what we call the standard form. We show that a standard form polynomial must have a specific ladder type monomial structure, which has finite size at any n, with highest multivariate degree given by (n−3)(n−4)/2. This set of monomials spans a complete basis for polynomials with rational coefficients in kinematic data on the support of scattering equations. Subsequently, at tree and one-loop level, we employ the global residue theorem to derive a prescription that evaluates any CHY amplitude by means of collecting simple residues at infinity only. The prescription is then applied explicitly to some tree and one-loop amplitude examples.

  6. Type I/heterotic duality and M-theory amplitudes

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Green, Michael B. [Department of Applied Mathematics and Theoretical Physics,Wilberforce Road, Cambridge CB3 0WA (United Kingdom); Rudra, Arnab [Department of Applied Mathematics and Theoretical Physics,Wilberforce Road, Cambridge CB3 0WA (United Kingdom); Center for Quantum Mathematics and Physics (QMAP),Department of Physics, University of California,One Shields Avenue, Davis, CA 95616 (United States)


    This paper investigates relationships between low-energy four-particle scattering amplitudes with external gauge particles and gravitons in the E{sub 8}×E{sub 8} and SO(32) heterotic string theories and the type I and type IA superstring theories by considering a variety of tree level and one-loop Feynman diagrams describing such amplitudes in eleven-dimensional supergravity in a Ho?rava-Witten background compactified on a circle. This accounts for a number of perturbative and non-perturbative aspects of low order higher derivative terms in the low-energy expansion of string theory amplitudes, which are expected to be protected by half maximal supersymmetry from receiving corrections beyond one or two loops. It also suggests the manner in which type I/heterotic duality may be realised for certain higher derivative interactions that are not so obviously protected. For example, our considerations suggest that R{sup 4} interactions (where R is the Riemann curvature) might receive no perturbative corrections beyond one loop by virtue of a conspiracy involving contributions from (non-BPS) ℤ{sub 2} D-instantons in the type I and heterotic SO(32) theories.

  7. On the singularities of massive superstring amplitudes

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Foda, O.


    Superstring one-loop amplitudes with massive external states are shown to be in general ill-defined due to internal on-shell propagators. However, we argue that since any massive string state (in the uncompactified theory) has a finite lifetime to decay into massless particles, such amplitudes are not terms in the perturbative expansion of physical S-matrix elements: These can be defined only with massless external states. Consistent massive amplitudes repuire an off-shell formalism.

  8. Finite Element Modeling of Scattering from Underwater Proud and Buried Military Munitions (United States)


    FINAL REPORT Finite Element Modeling of Scattering from Underwater Proud and Buried Military Munitions SERDP Project MR-2408 JULY 2017...solution and the red dash-dot line repre- sents the coupled finite -boundary element solution. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 11 3 The line represents the coupled finite -boundary element solution. . . . . . . . 11 i 4 The scattering amplitude as a function of the receiver angle for

  9. Simple model for molecular scattering (United States)

    Mehta, Nirav; Ticknor, Christopher; Hazzard, Kaden


    The collisions of ultracold molecules are qualitatively different from the collisions of ultracold atoms due to the high density of bimolecular resonances near the collision energy. We present results from a simple N-channel scattering model with square-well channel potentials and constant channel couplings (inside the well) designed to reproduce essential features of chaotic molecular scattering. The potential depths and channel splittings are tuned to reproduce the appropriate density of states for the short-range bimolecular collision complex (BCC), which affords a direct comparison of the resulting level-spacing distribution to that expected from random matrix theory (RMT), namely the so-called Wigner surmise. The density of states also sets the scale for the rate of dissociation from the BCC to free molecules, as approximated by transition state theory (TST). Our model affords a semi-analytic solution for the scattering amplitude in the open channel, and a determinantal equation for the eigenenergies of the short-ranged BCC. It is likely the simplest finite-ranged scattering model that can be compared to expectations from the approximations of RMT, and TST. The validity of these approximations has implications for the many-channel Hubbard model recently developed. This research was funded in part by the National Science Foundation under Grant No. NSF PHY-1125915.

  10. One-loop amplitudes on the Riemann sphere

    CERN Document Server

    Geyer, Yvonne; Monteiro, Ricardo; Tourkine, Piotr


    The scattering equations provide a powerful framework for the study of scattering amplitudes in a variety of theories. Their derivation from ambitwistor string theory led to proposals for formulae at one loop on a torus for 10 dimensional supergravity, and we recently showed how these can be reduced to the Riemann sphere and checked in simple cases. We also proposed analogous formulae for other theories including maximal super-Yang-Mills theory and supergravity in other dimensions at one loop. We give further details of these results and extend them in two directions. Firstly, we propose new formulae for the one-loop integrands of Yang-Mills theory and gravity in the absence of supersymmetry. These follow from the identification of the states running in the loop as expressed in the ambitwistor-string correlator. Secondly, we give a systematic proof of the non-supersymmetric formulae using the worldsheet factorisation properties of the nodal Riemann sphere underlying the scattering equations at one loop. Our f...

  11. Secondary threshold amplitudes for sinuous streak breakdown (United States)

    Cossu, Carlo; Brandt, Luca; Bagheri, Shervin; Henningson, Dan S.


    The nonlinear stability of laminar sinuously bent streaks is studied for the plane Couette flow at Re = 500 in a nearly minimal box and for the Blasius boundary layer at Reδ*=700. The initial perturbations are nonlinearly saturated streamwise streaks of amplitude AU perturbed with sinuous perturbations of amplitude AW. The local boundary of the basin of attraction of the linearly stable laminar flow is computed by bisection and projected in the AU - AW plane providing a well defined critical curve. Different streak transition scenarios are seen to correspond to different regions of the critical curve. The modal instability of the streaks is responsible for transition for AU = 25%-27% for the considered flows, where sinuous perturbations of amplitude below AW ≈ 1%-2% are sufficient to counteract the streak viscous dissipation and induce breakdown. The critical amplitude of the sinuous perturbations increases when the streamwise streak amplitude is decreased. With secondary perturbations amplitude AW ≈ 4%, breakdown is induced on stable streamwise streaks with AU ≈ 13%, following the secondary transient growth scenario first examined by Schoppa and Hussain [J. Fluid Mech. 453, 57 (2002)]. A cross-over, where the critical amplitude of the sinuous perturbation becomes larger than the amplitude of streamwise streaks, is observed for streaks of small amplitude AU < 5%-6%. In this case, the transition is induced by an initial transient amplification of streamwise vortices, forced by the decaying sinuous mode. This is followed by the growth of the streaks and final breakdown. The shape of the critical AU - AW curve is very similar for Couette and boundary layer flows and seems to be relatively insensitive to the nature of the edge states on the basin boundary. The shape of this critical curve indicates that the stability of streamwise streaks should always be assessed in terms of both the streak amplitude and the amplitude of spanwise velocity perturbations.

  12. Conformal bootstrap, universality and gravitational scattering

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Steven Jackson


    Full Text Available We use the conformal bootstrap equations to study the non-perturbative gravitational scattering between infalling and outgoing particles in the vicinity of a black hole horizon in AdS. We focus on irrational 2D CFTs with large c and only Virasoro symmetry. The scattering process is described by the matrix element of two light operators (particles between two heavy states (BTZ black holes. We find that the operator algebra in this regime is (i universal and identical to that of Liouville CFT, and (ii takes the form of an exchange algebra, specified by an R-matrix that exactly matches the scattering amplitude of 2+1 gravity. The R-matrix is given by a quantum 6j-symbol and the scattering phase by the volume of a hyperbolic tetrahedron. We comment on the relevance of our results to scrambling and the holographic reconstruction of the bulk physics near black hole horizons.

  13. On scattered subword complexity

    CERN Document Server

    Kása, Zoltán


    Special scattered subwords, in which the gaps are of length from a given set, are defined. The scattered subword complexity, which is the number of such scattered subwords, is computed for rainbow words.

  14. Four-gluon scattering at three loops, infrared structure and Regge limit

    CERN Document Server

    Henn, Johannes M.


    We compute the three-loop four-gluon scattering amplitude in maximally supersymmetric Yang-Mills theory, including its full color dependence. Our result is the first complete computation of a non-planar four-particle scattering amplitude to three loops in four-dimensional gauge theory and consequently provides highly non-trivial data for the study of non-planar scattering amplitudes. We present the amplitude as a Laurent expansion in the dimensional regulator to finite order, with coefficients composed of harmonic poly-logarithms of uniform transcendental weight, and simple rational prefactors. Our computation provides an independent check of a recent result for three-loop corrections to the soft anomalous dimension matrix that predicts the general infrared singularity structure of massless gauge theory scattering amplitudes. Taking the Regge limit of our result, we determine the three-loop gluon Regge trajectory. We also find agreement with very recent predictions for sub-leading logarithms.

  15. Theory of amplitude quantization of random signals


    Knyshev, I. P.


    Conditions of ideal amplitude quantization of random signal with exact restoration of two-dimension probability density distribution function are defined. Interrelation of time discretization interval and amplitude quantization is shown. As an example transformation of normal random process is considered.

  16. On the singularities of massive superstring amplitudes

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Foda, O.


    Superstring one-loop amplitudes with massive external states are shown to be in general ill-defined due to internal on-shell propagators. However, we argue that since any massive string state (in the uncompactified theory) has a finite lifetime to decay into massless particles, such amplitudes are

  17. Analyticity and unitarity as constraints to obtain scattering phase shifts and applications to e-He scattering

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Huber, H.; Lun, D.R.; Allen, L.J.; Amos, K.


    The requirements that the scattering functions for quantal scattering at energies below the first inelastic threshold be unitary and analytic have been used to establish a process that gives the complex scattering amplitudes from differential cross sections. From those amplitudes scattering phase shifts have been deduced by Legendre integration. The effects of the natural ambiguity of the phase of the scattering phase shifts have been deduced by Legendre integration. The effects of the natural ambiguity of the phase of the scattering amplitude, under conditions for which uniqueness and (numerical) stability of solutions are not assured, also have been developed to specify the scattering phase shifts can give stable nonspurious results. The scattering of electrons from He atoms for incident energies ranging from 1.5 to 19 eV are considered as an example of the procedure. Phase shift analyses of that data have been made with a variety of other techniques to allow a comparative study of these results and of sets with which are associated fits to cross sections that are statistically significant. 18 refs., 2 tabs., 8 figs.

  18. Amplitude image processing by diffractive optics. (United States)

    Cagigal, Manuel P; Valle, Pedro J; Canales, V F


    In contrast to the standard digital image processing, which operates over the detected image intensity, we propose to perform amplitude image processing. Amplitude processing, like low pass or high pass filtering, is carried out using diffractive optics elements (DOE) since it allows to operate over the field complex amplitude before it has been detected. We show the procedure for designing the DOE that corresponds to each operation. Furthermore, we accomplish an analysis of amplitude image processing performances. In particular, a DOE Laplacian filter is applied to simulated astronomical images for detecting two stars one Airy ring apart. We also check by numerical simulations that the use of a Laplacian amplitude filter produces less noisy images than the standard digital image processing.

  19. Wilson lines, Grassmannians and gauge invariant off-shell amplitudes in N=4 SYM

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Bork, L.V. [Institute for Theoretical and Experimental Physics,Moscow (Russian Federation); The Center for Fundamental and Applied Research,All-Russia Research Institute of Automatics, Moscow (Russian Federation); Onishchenko, A.I. [Bogoliubov Laboratory of Theoretical Physics,Joint Institute for Nuclear Research, Dubna (Russian Federation); Moscow Institute of Physics and Technology State University,Dolgoprudny (Russian Federation); Skobeltsyn Institute of Nuclear Physics, Moscow State University,Moscow (Russian Federation)


    In this paper we consider tree-level gauge invariant off-shell amplitudes (Wilson line form factors) in N=4 SYM. For the off-shell amplitudes with one leg off-shell we present a conjecture for their Grassmannian integral representation in spinor helicity, twistor and momentum twistor parameterizations. The presented conjecture is successfully checked against BCFW results for MHV{sub n}, NMHV{sub 4} and NMHV{sub 5} off-shell amplitudes. We have also verified that our Grassmannian integral representation correctly reproduces soft (on-shell) limit for the off-shell gluon momentum. It is shown that the (deformed) off-shell amplitude expressions could be also obtained using quantum inverse scattering method for auxiliary gl(4|4) super spin chain.

  20. Bidirectional optical scattering facility (United States)

    Federal Laboratory Consortium — Goniometric optical scatter instrument (GOSI)The bidirectional reflectance distribution function (BRDF) quantifies the angular distribution of light scattered from a...

  1. Scaling in light scattering by sharp conical metal tips

    CERN Document Server

    Pors, Anders; Bozhevolnyi, Sergey I


    Using the electrostatic approximation, we analyze electromagnetic fields scattered by sharp conical metal tips, which are illuminated with light polarized along the tip axis. We establish scaling relations for the scattered field amplitude and phase, whose validity is verified with numerical simulations. Analytic expressions for the wavelength, at which the scattered field near the tip changes its direction, and field decay near the tip extremity are obtained, relating these characteristics to the cone angle and metal permittivity. The results obtained have important implications to various tip-enhanced phenomena, ranging from Raman and scattering near-field imaging to photoemission spectroscopy and nano-optical trapping.

  2. RNS derivation of N-point disk amplitudes from the revisited S-matrix approach

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Barreiro, Luiz Antonio, E-mail: [Departamento de Física, UNESP, Rio Claro, São Paulo (Brazil); Instituto de Matemática e Computação, Universidade Federal de Itajubá, Itajubá, Minas Gerais (Brazil); Medina, Ricardo, E-mail: [Instituto de Matemática e Computação, Universidade Federal de Itajubá, Itajubá, Minas Gerais (Brazil)


    Recently, in [7] we proposed a revisited S-matrix approach to efficiently find the bosonic terms of the open superstring low energy effective lagrangian (OSLEEL). This approach allows to compute the α{sup ′N} terms of the OSLEEL using open superstring n-point amplitudes in which n is considerably lower than (N+2) (which is the order of the required amplitude to obtain those α{sup ′N} terms by means of the conventional S-matrix approach). In this work we use our revisited S-matrix approach to examine the structure of the scattering amplitudes, arriving at a closed form for them. This is a RNS derivation of the formula first found by Mafra, Schlotterer and Stieberger [21], using the pure spinor formalism. We have succeeded doing this for the 5, 6 and 7-point amplitudes. In order to achieve these results we have done a careful analysis of the kinematical structure of the amplitudes, finding as a by-product a purely kinematical derivation of the BCJ relations (for N=4,5,6 and 7). Also, following the spirit of the revisited S-matrix approach, we have found the α{sup ′} expansions for these amplitudes up to α{sup ′6} order in some cases, by only using the well known open superstring 4-point amplitude, cyclic symmetry and tree level unitarity: we have not needed to compute any numerical series or any integral involving polylogarithms, at any moment.

  3. Speech production in amplitude-modulated noise

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Macdonald, Ewen N; Raufer, Stefan


    the consequences of temporally fluctuating noise. In the present study, 20 talkers produced speech in a variety of noise conditions, including both steady-state and amplitude-modulated white noise. While listening to noise over headphones, talkers produced randomly generated five word sentences. Similar...... to previous studies, talkers raised the level of their voice in steady-state noise. While talkers also increased the level of their voice in amplitude-modulated noise, the increase was not as large as that observed in steady-state noise. Importantly, for the 2 and 4 Hz amplitude-modulated noise conditions...

  4. Stress-dependent ultrasonic scattering in polycrystalline materials. (United States)

    Kube, Christopher M; Turner, Joseph A


    Stress-dependent elastic moduli of polycrystalline materials are used in a statistically based model for the scattering of ultrasonic waves from randomly oriented grains that are members of a stressed polycrystal. The stress is assumed to be homogeneous and can be either residual or generated from external loads. The stress-dependent elastic properties are incorporated into the definition of the differential scattering cross-section, which defines how strongly an incident wave is scattered into various directions. Nine stress-dependent differential scattering cross-sections or scattering coefficients are defined to include all possibilities of incident and scattered waves, which can be either longitudinal or (two) transverse wave types. The evaluation of the scattering coefficients considers polycrystalline aluminum that is uniaxially stressed. An analysis of the influence of incident wave propagation direction, scattering direction, frequency, and grain size on the stress-dependency of the scattering coefficients follows. Scattering coefficients for aluminum indicate that ultrasonic scattering is much more sensitive to a uniaxial stress than ultrasonic phase velocities. By developing the stress-dependent scattering properties of polycrystals, the influence of acoustoelasticity on the amplitudes of waves propagating in stressed polycrystalline materials can be better understood. This work supports the ongoing development of a technique for monitoring and measuring stresses in metallic materials.

  5. Neutron scattering. Lectures

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Brueckel, Thomas; Heger, Gernot; Richter, Dieter; Roth, Georg; Zorn, Reiner (eds.)


    The following topics are dealt with: Neutron sources, symmetry of crystals, diffraction, nanostructures investigated by small-angle neutron scattering, the structure of macromolecules, spin dependent and magnetic scattering, structural analysis, neutron reflectometry, magnetic nanostructures, inelastic scattering, strongly correlated electrons, dynamics of macromolecules, applications of neutron scattering. (HSI)

  6. High energy scattering in gravity and supergravity

    CERN Document Server

    Giddings, Steven B; Andersen, Jeppe R


    We investigate features of perturbative gravity and supergravity by studying scattering in the ultraplanckian limit, and sharpen arguments that the dynamics is governed by long-distance physics. A simple example capturing aspects of the eikonal resummation suggests why short distance phenomena and in particular divergences or nonrenormalizability do not necessarily play a central role in this regime. A more profound problem is apparently unitarity. These considerations can be illustrated by showing that known gravity and supergravity amplitudes have the same long-distance behavior, despite the extra light states of supergravity, and this serves as an important check on long-range dynamics in a context where perturbative amplitudes are finite. We also argue that these considerations have other important implications: they obstruct probing the conjectured phenomenon of asymptotic safety through a physical scattering process, and gravity appears not to reggeize. These arguments sharpen the need to find a nonpert...

  7. Collinear limits beyond the leading order from the scattering equations

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Nandan, Dhritiman; Plefka, Jan; Wormsbecher, Wadim [Institut für Physik and IRIS Adlershof, Humboldt-Universität zu Berlin,Zum Großen Windkanal 6, D-12489 Berlin (Germany)


    The structure of tree-level scattering amplitudes for collinear massless bosons is studied beyond their leading splitting function behavior. These near-collinear limits at sub-leading order are best studied using the Cachazo-He-Yuan (CHY) formulation of the S-matrix based on the scattering equations. We compute the collinear limits for gluons, gravitons and scalars. It is shown that the CHY integrand for an n-particle gluon scattering amplitude in the collinear limit at sub-leading order is expressed as a convolution of an (n−1)-particle gluon integrand and a collinear kernel integrand, which is universal. Our representation is shown to obey recently proposed amplitude relations in which the collinear gluons of same helicity are replaced by a single graviton. Finally, we extend our analysis to effective field theories and study the collinear limit of the non-linear sigma model, Einstein-Maxwell-Scalar and Yang-Mills-Scalar theory.

  8. Hedgehog bases for A{sub n} cluster polylogarithms and an application to six-point amplitudes

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Parker, Daniel E.; Scherlis, Adam; Spradlin, Marcus; Volovich, Anastasia [Department of Physics, Brown University, Providence RI 02912 (United States)


    Multi-loop scattering amplitudes in N=4 Yang-Mills theory possess cluster algebra structure. In order to develop a computational framework which exploits this connection, we show how to construct bases of Goncharov polylogarithm functions, at any weight, whose symbol alphabet consists of cluster coordinates on the A{sub n} cluster algebra. Using such a basis we present a new expression for the 2-loop 6-particle NMHV amplitude which makes some of its cluster structure manifest.

  9. Narrowband Compton Scattering Yield Enhancement (United States)

    Rykovanov, Sergey; Seipt, Daniel; Kharin, Vasily


    Compton Scattering (CS) of laser light off high-energy electrons is a well-established source of X- and gamma-rays for applications in medicine, biology, nuclear and material sciences. Main advantage of CS photon sources is the possibility to generate narrow spectra as opposed to a broad continuum obtained when utilizing Bremsstrahlung. However, due to the low cross-section of the linear process, the total photon yield is quite low. The most straightforward way to increase the number of photon-electron beam scattering events is to increase the laser pulse intensity at the interaction point by harder focusing. This leads to an unfortunate consequence. Increase in the laser pulse normalized amplitude a0, leads to additional ponderomotive spectrum broadening of the scattered radiation. The ponderomotive broadening is caused by the v × B force, which slows the electron down near the peak of the laser pulse where the intensity is high, and can be neglected near the wings of the pulse, where the intensity is low. We show that laser pulse chirping, both nonlinear (laser pulse frequency ''following'' the envelope of the pulse) and linear, leads to compensation of the ponderomotive broadening and considerably enhances the yield of the nonlinear Compton sources. Work supported by the Helmholtz Association via Helmholtz Young Investigators Grant (VH-NG-1037).

  10. Amplitude-Integrated EEG in the Newborn

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    J Gordon Millichap


    Full Text Available Th value of amplitude-integrated electroencephalography (aEEG in the newborn is explored by researchers at Washington University, St Louis; Wilhelmina Children’s Hospital, Utrecht, Netherlands; and Uppsala University Hospital, Sweden.

  11. Including Delbrück scattering in GEANT4 (United States)

    Omer, Mohamed; Hajima, Ryoichi


    Elastic scattering of γ-rays is a significant interaction among γ-ray interactions with matter. Therefore, the planning of experiments involving measurements of γ-rays using Monte Carlo simulations usually includes elastic scattering. However, current simulation tools do not provide a complete picture of elastic scattering. The majority of these tools assume Rayleigh scattering is the primary contributor to elastic scattering and neglect other elastic scattering processes, such as nuclear Thomson and Delbrück scattering. Here, we develop a tabulation-based method to simulate elastic scattering in one of the most common open-source Monte Carlo simulation toolkits, GEANT4. We collectively include three processes, Rayleigh scattering, nuclear Thomson scattering, and Delbrück scattering. Our simulation more appropriately uses differential cross sections based on the second-order scattering matrix instead of current data, which are based on the form factor approximation. Moreover, the superposition of these processes is carefully taken into account emphasizing the complex nature of the scattering amplitudes. The simulation covers an energy range of 0.01 MeV ≤ E ≤ 3 MeV and all elements with atomic numbers of 1 ≤ Z ≤ 99. In addition, we validated our simulation by comparing the differential cross sections measured in earlier experiments with those extracted from the simulations. We find that the simulations are in good agreement with the experimental measurements. Differences between the experiments and the simulations are 21% for uranium, 24% for lead, 3% for tantalum, and 8% for cerium at 2.754 MeV. Coulomb corrections to the Delbrück amplitudes may account for the relatively large differences that appear at higher Z values.

  12. [Role of ocular pulse amplitude in glaucoma]. (United States)

    Stürmer, J P E; Kniestedt, C


    The ocular pulse amplitude is defined as the difference between diastolic and systolic intraocular pressure. The ocular pulse is generated by the pulsatile ocular blood flow in the choroid. It is dependent on the dynamics of the cardiovascular system, the rigidity of the ocular vessels on one side and the biomechanical properties of the eye on the other side. In addition the influence of outflow facility of the aqueous humor, the level of the intraocular pressure itself and last but not least the rigidity of the sclera on the ocular pulse amplitude is until now not clear. Dynamic contour tonometry (Pascal®) does not only measure intraocular pressure almost independent of corneal thickness and curvature but also allows easy and fast measurement of ocular pulse amplitude on the slit lamp. The ocular pulse amplitude in healthy subjects is between 1.2 and 4 mmHg. If the ocular pulse amplitude is larger than 1.2 mmHg spontaneous pulsations of the central retinal vein are visible on fundoscopy. In patients with ocular hypertension the ocular pulse amplitude is larger than in normal subjects but this is mainly due to higher IOP levels. In patients with manifest open-angle glaucoma the ocular pulse amplitude stays initially within the normal range. In more advanced stages of the disease and especially in patients with ocular perfusion pressure dependent optic neuropathy the ocular pulse amplitude is gradually reduced. Due to the various factors influencing ocular pulse amplitude a direct correlation between reduced ocular pulse amplitude and reduced ocular perfusion pressure has not been established as yet. New approaches investigating the variations of the ocular pressure Fourier spectral analysis are promising, especially when simultaneous analysis of the arterial blood pressure is performed. These techniques may allow a fast and easy discrimination between healthy and glaucomatous patients in the near future. If ocular pulse amplitude exhibits a massive inter

  13. SAR Polarimetric Scattering from Natural Terrains (United States)


    calculate the polarimetric speckle statistics (amplitude and phase difference), followed by a comparison with theoretical distributions . For fully developed...AFRL-AFOSR-JP-TR-2017-0013 SAR Polarimetric Scattering from Natural Terrains Kun-Shan Chen National Central University Final Report 02/17/2017... DISTRIBUTION A: Distribution approved for public release. AF Office Of Scientific Research (AFOSR)/ IOA Arlington, Virginia 22203 Air Force Research

  14. Direct manipulation of wave amplitude and phase through inverse design of isotropic media (United States)

    Liu, Y.; Vial, B.; Horsley, S. A. R.; Philbin, T. G.; Hao, Y.


    In this article we propose a new design methodology allowing us to control both amplitude and phase of electromagnetic waves from a cylindrical incident wave. This results in isotropic materials and does not resort to transformation optics or its quasi-conformal approximations. Our method leads to two-dimensional isotropic, inhomogeneous material profiles of permittivity and permeability, to which a general class of scattering-free wave solutions arise. Our design is based on the separation of the complex wave solution into amplitude and phase. We give two types of examples to validate our methodology.

  15. Topological Open String Amplitudes On Orientifolds

    CERN Document Server

    Bouchard, Vincent; Marino, M; Bouchard, Vincent; Florea, Bogdan; Marino, Marcos


    We study topological open string amplitudes on orientifolds without fixed planes. We determine the contributions of the untwisted and twisted sectors as well as the BPS structure of the amplitudes. We illustrate our general results in various examples involving D-branes in toric orientifolds. We perform the computations by using both the topological vertex and unoriented localization. We also present an application of our results to the BPS structure of the coloured Kauffman polynomial of knots.

  16. Effective gluon interactions from superstring disk amplitudes

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Oprisa, D.


    In this thesis an efficient method for the calculation of the N-point tree-level string amplitudes is presented. Furthermore it is shown that the six-gluon open-superstring disk amplitude can be expressed by a basis of six triple hypergeometric functions, which encode the full {alpha}' dependence. In this connection material for obtaining the {alpha}' expansion of these functions is derived. Hereby many Euler-Zagier sums are calculated including multiple harmonic series. (HSI)

  17. Nucleon distribution amplitudes from lattice QCD

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Goeckeler, M. [Regensburg Univ. (Germany). Inst. fuer Theoretische Physik; Horsley, R. [Edinburgh Univ. (United Kingdom). School of Physics; Kaltenbrunner, T. [Deutsches Elektronen-Synchrotron (DESY), Zeuthen (DE). John von Neumann-Inst. fuer Computing NIC] (and others)


    We calculate low moments of the leading-twist and next-to-leading twist nucleon distribution amplitudes on the lattice using two flavors of clover fermions. The results are presented in the MS scheme at a scale of 2 GeV and can be immediately applied in phenomenological studies. We find that the deviation of the leading-twist nucleon distribution amplitude from its asymptotic form is less pronounced than sometimes claimed in the literature. (orig.)

  18. Neutron scattering. Lectures

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Brueckel, Thomas; Heger, Gernot; Richter, Dieter; Roth, Georg; Zorn, Reiner (eds.)


    The following topics are dealt with: Neutron sources, neutron properties and elastic scattering, correlation functions measured by scattering experiments, symmetry of crystals, applications of neutron scattering, polarized-neutron scattering and polarization analysis, structural analysis, magnetic and lattice excitation studied by inelastic neutron scattering, macromolecules and self-assembly, dynamics of macromolecules, correlated electrons in complex transition-metal oxides, surfaces, interfaces, and thin films investigated by neutron reflectometry, nanomagnetism. (HSI)

  19. Stimulated Brillouin scattering in the field of a two-dimensionally localized pumping wave

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Solikhov, D. K., E-mail: [Tajik National University, Faculty of Physics (Tajikistan); Dvinin, S. A., E-mail: [Moscow State University, Faculty of Physics (Russian Federation)


    Stimulated Brillouin scattering of electromagnetic waves in the field of a two-dimensionally localized pump wave at arbitrary scattering angles in the regime of forward scattering is analyzed. Spatial variations in the amplitudes of interacting waves are studied for different values of the pump field and different dimensions of the pump wave localization region. The intensity of scattered radiation is determined as a function of the scattering angle and the dimensions of the pump wave localization region. It is shown that the intensity increases with increasing scattering angle.

  20. Rankin-Selberg methods for closed string amplitudes

    CERN Document Server

    Pioline, Boris


    After integrating over supermoduli and vertex operator positions, scattering amplitudes in superstring theory at genus $h\\leq 3$ are reduced to an integral of a Siegel modular function of degree $h$ on a fundamental domain of the Siegel upper half plane. A direct computation is in general unwieldy, but becomes feasible if the integrand can be expressed as a sum over images under a suitable subgroup of the Siegel modular group: if so, the integration domain can be extended to a simpler domain at the expense of keeping a single term in each orbit -- a technique known as the Rankin-Selberg method. Motivated by applications to BPS-saturated amplitudes, Angelantonj, Florakis and I have applied this technique to one-loop modular integrals where the integrand is the product of a Siegel-Narain theta function times a weakly, almost holomorphic modular form. I survey our main results, and take some steps in extending this method to genus greater than one.

  1. Multichannel 1 → 2 transition amplitudes in a finite volume

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Briceno, Raul A. [Thomas Jefferson National Accelerator Facility, Newport News, VA (United States); Hansen, Maxwell T. [Univ. of Washington, Seattle, WA (United States); Walker-Loud, Andre [Thomas Jefferson National Accelerator Facility, Newport News, VA (United States); College of William and Mary, Williamsburg, VA (United States)


    We perform a model-independent, non-perturbative investigation of two-point and three-point finite-volume correlation functions in the energy regime where two-particle states can go on-shell. We study three-point functions involving a single incoming particle and an outgoing two-particle state, relevant, for example, for studies of meson decays (e.g., B⁰ → K*l⁺l⁻) or meson photo production (e.g., πγ* → ππ). We observe that, while the spectrum solely depends upon the on-shell scattering amplitude, the correlation functions also depend upon off-shell amplitudes. The main result of this work is a non-perturbative generalization of the Lellouch-Luscher formula relating matrix elements of currents in finite and infinite spatial volumes. We extend that work by considering a theory with multiple, strongly-coupled channels and by accommodating external currents which inject arbitrary four-momentum as well as arbitrary angular-momentum. The result is exact up to exponentially suppressed corrections governed by the pion mass times the box size. We also apply our master equation to various examples, including two processes mentioned above as well as examples where the final state is an admixture of two open channels.

  2. Double soft limit of the graviton amplitude from the Cachazo-He-Yuan formalism (United States)

    Saha, Arnab Priya


    We present a complete analysis for double soft limit of graviton scattering amplitude using the formalism proposed by Cachazo, He, and Yuan. Our results agree with that obtained via Britto-Cachazo-Feng-Witten (BCFW) recursion relations in [T. Klose, T. McLoughlin, D. Nandan, J. Plefka, and G. Travaglini, Double-soft limits of gluons and gravitons, J. High Energy Phys. 07 (2015) 135., 10.1007/JHEP07(2015)135]. In addition we find precise relations between degenerate and nondegenerate solutions of scattering equations with local and nonlocal terms in the soft factor.

  3. Effects of finite laser coherence in quasielastic multiple scattering (United States)

    Bellini, T.; Glaser, M. A.; Clark, N. A.; Degiorgio, V.


    We have studied the amplitude and temporal correlations of intensity fluctuations of multiply scattered light transmitted through a colloidal suspension. When the coherence length lc of the incident light becomes comparable to the width of the probability distribution of photon-path lengths, both the amplitude and dynamics of intensity fluctuations become functions of lc. In this article we present a simple theory that relates these coherence effects to the photon path-length distribution P(L). We have tested this theory using P(L) calculated from computer simulations and from the diffusion approximation, and find that our theory qualitatively accounts for the observed dependences on coherence length. Our results indicate when the effects of finite laser coherence must be taken into account in quasielastic multiple scattering. In the few-scattering regime of quasielastic multiple scattering, we find that the intensity autocorrelation function generally has a stretched-exponential form, and we discuss the origin of this behavior.

  4. Realizing total reciprocity violation in the phase for photon scattering. (United States)

    Deák, László; Bottyán, László; Fülöp, Tamás; Merkel, Dániel Géza; Nagy, Dénes Lajos; Sajti, Szilárd; Schulze, Kai Sven; Spiering, Hartmut; Uschmann, Ingo; Wille, Hans-Christian


    Reciprocity is when wave or quantum scattering satisfies a symmetry property, connecting a scattering process with the reversed one. While reciprocity involves the interchange of source and detector, it is fundamentally different from rotational invariance, and is a generalization of time reversal invariance, occurring in absorptive media as well. Due to its presence at diverse areas of physics, it admits a wide variety of applications. For polarization dependent scatterings, reciprocity is often violated, but violation in the phase of the scattering amplitude is much harder to experimentally observe than violation in magnitude. Enabled by the advantageous properties of nuclear resonance scattering of synchrotron radiation, we have measured maximal, i.e., 180-degree, reciprocity violation in the phase. For accessing phase information, we introduced a new version of stroboscopic detection. The scattering setting was devised based on a generalized reciprocity theorem that opens the way to construct new types of reciprocity related devices.

  5. Virtual Singular Scattering of Electromagnetic Waves in Transformation Media Concept

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    M. Y. Barabanenkov


    Full Text Available If a scatterer and an observation point (receive both approach the so-called near field zone of a source of electromagnetic waves, the scattering process becomes singular one which is mathematically attributed to the spatial singularity of the free space Green function at the origin. Starting from less well known property of left-handed material slab to transfer the singularity of the free space Green function by implementing coordinate transformation, we present a phenomenon of virtual singular scattering of electromagnetic wave on an inhomogeneity located in the volume of left – handed material slab. Virtual singular scattering means that a scatterer is situated only virtually in the near field zone of a source, being, in fact, positioned in the far field zone. Such a situation is realized if a scatterer is embedded into a flat Veselago’s lens and approaches the lens’s inner focus because a slab of Veselago medium produces virtual sources inside and behind the slab and virtual scatterer (as a source of secondary waves from both slab sides. Considering a line-like dielectric scatterer we demonstrate that the scattering efficiency is proportional to product of singular quasistatic parts of two empty space Green functions that means a multiplicative quasistatic singularity of the Green function for a slab of inhomogeneous Veselago medium. We calculate a resonance value of the scattering amplitude in the regime similar to the known Mie resonance scattering.

  6. Scattering of ultrarelativistic electrons in ultrathin crystals

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Shul' ga, N.F., E-mail: [National Science Center “Kharkov Institute of Physics and Technology”, 1, Akademichna str., Kharkiv, 61108 (Ukraine); Karazin Kharkiv National University, 4, Svobody sq., Kharkiv, 61000 (Ukraine); Shulga, S.N. [National Science Center “Kharkov Institute of Physics and Technology”, 1, Akademichna str., Kharkiv, 61108 (Ukraine); Karazin Kharkiv National University, 4, Svobody sq., Kharkiv, 61000 (Ukraine)


    Quantum theory is proposed of high energy electrons scattering in ultrathin crystals. This theory is based upon a special representation of the scattering amplitude in the form of an integral over the surface surrounding the crystal, and on the spectral method of determination of the wave function. The comparison is performed of quantum and classical differential scattering cross-sections in the transitional range of crystal thicknesses, from those at which the channeling phenomenon is not developed up to those at which it is established. It is shown that in this thickness range the quantum scattering cross-section, unlike the classical one, contains sharp peaks corresponding to some specific scattering angles, that is connected with the diffraction of the incident plane wave onto the periodically distributed crystal atomic strings. It is shown that the value of the scattering cross-section in the peaks varies periodically with the change of the target thickness. We note that this must lead to a new interference effect in radiation that is connected with the rearrangement of incident wave packet in transitional area of crystal thicknesses.

  7. Scattering of ultrarelativistic electrons in ultrathin crystals

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    N.F. Shul'ga


    Full Text Available Quantum theory is proposed of high energy electrons scattering in ultrathin crystals. This theory is based upon a special representation of the scattering amplitude in the form of an integral over the surface surrounding the crystal, and on the spectral method of determination of the wave function. The comparison is performed of quantum and classical differential scattering cross-sections in the transitional range of crystal thicknesses, from those at which the channeling phenomenon is not developed up to those at which it is established. It is shown that in this thickness range the quantum scattering cross-section, unlike the classical one, contains sharp peaks corresponding to some specific scattering angles, that is connected with the diffraction of the incident plane wave onto the periodically distributed crystal atomic strings. It is shown that the value of the scattering cross-section in the peaks varies periodically with the change of the target thickness. We note that this must lead to a new interference effect in radiation that is connected with the rearrangement of incident wave packet in transitional area of crystal thicknesses.

  8. Longitudinal and Hall resistance induced by large-amplitude magnetic barriers (United States)

    Kubrak, V.; Neumann, A. C.; Gallagher, B. L.; Main, P. C.; Henini, M.; Marrows, C. H.; Howson, M. A.


    We study the longitudinal and Hall resistances of a two-dimensional electron gas subjected to a magnetic barrier generated by a ferromagnetic element on the surface of the device. The barrier amplitude is varied by applying an in-plane external field, allowing us to investigate the two regimes in which the transmission through the magnetic barrier is either classically allowed or forbidden in the absence of scattering. We compare how the longitudinal and the Hall resistance depend on the barrier amplitude. The temperature dependence of the longitudinal resistance is qualitatively different in the allowed and forbidden regimes, indicating a change-over from ballistic to scattering-assisted transmission through the barrier.

  9. Photon-Photon Scattering at the Photon Linear Collider


    Jikia, G.; Tkabladze, A.


    Photon-photon scattering at the Photon Linear Collider is considered. Explicit formulas for helicity amplitudes due to $W$ boson loops are presented. It is shown that photon-photon scattering should be easily observable at PLC and separation of the $W$ loop contribution (which dominates at high energies) will be possible at $e^+e^-$ c.m. energy of 500~GeV or higher.

  10. Photoacoustic Doppler flow measurement in optically scattering media


    Fang, Hui; Maslov, Konstantin; Wang, Lihong V.


    We recently observed the photoacoustic Doppler effect from flowing small light-absorbing particles. Here, we apply the effect to measure blood-mimicking fluid flow in an optically scattering medium. The light scattering in the medium decreases the amplitude of the photoacoustic Doppler signal but does not affect either the magnitude or the directional discrimination of the photoacoustic Doppler shift. This technology may hold promise for a new Doppler method for measuring blood flow in microc...

  11. Electromagnetic wave scattering from some vegetation samples (United States)

    Karam, Mostafa A.; Fung, Adrian K.; Antar, Yahia M.


    For an incident plane wave, the field inside a thin scatterer (disk and needle) is estimated by the generalized Rayleigh-Gans (GRG) approximation. This leads to a scattering amplitude tensor equal to that obtained via the Rayleigh approximation (dipole term) with a modifying function. For a finite-length cylinder the inner field is estimated by the corresponding field for the same cylinder of infinite lenght. The effects of different approaches in estimating the field inside the scatterer on the backscattering cross section are illustrated numerically for a circular disk, a needle, and a finite-length cylinder as a function of the wave number and the incidence angle. Finally, the modeling predictions are compared with measurements.

  12. High energy scattering in gravity and supergravity

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    B. Giddings, Steven; Schmidt-Sommerfeld, Maximilian; Andersen, Jeppe Rosenkrantz


    We investigate features of perturbative gravity and supergravity by studying scattering in the ultraplanckian limit, and sharpen arguments that the dynamics is governed by long-distance physics. A simple example capturing aspects of the eikonal resummation suggests why short distance phenomena...... and in particular divergences or nonrenormalizability do not necessarily play a central role in this regime. A more profound problem is apparently unitarity. These considerations can be illustrated by showing that known gravity and supergravity amplitudes have the same long-distance behavior, despite the extra...... a physical scattering process, and ultraplanckian scattering exhibiting Regge behavior. These arguments sharpen the need to find a nonperturbative completion of gravity with mechanisms which restore unitarity in the strong gravity regime....

  13. Direct amplitude detuning measurement with ac dipole (United States)

    White, S.; Maclean, E.; Tomás, R.


    In circular machines, nonlinear dynamics can impact parameters such as beam lifetime and could result in limitations on the performance reach of the accelerator. Assessing and understanding these effects in experiments is essential to confirm the accuracy of the magnetic model and improve the machine performance. A direct measurement of the machine nonlinearities can be obtained by characterizing the dependency of the tune as a function of the amplitude of oscillations (usually defined as amplitude detuning). The conventional technique is to excite the beam to large amplitudes with a single kick and derive the tune from turn-by-turn data acquired with beam position monitors. Although this provides a very precise tune measurement it has the significant disadvantage of being destructive. An alternative, nondestructive way of exciting large amplitude oscillations is to use an ac dipole. The perturbation Hamiltonian in the presence of an ac dipole excitation shows a distinct behavior compared to the free oscillations which should be correctly taken into account in the interpretation of experimental data. The use of an ac dipole for direct amplitude detuning measurement requires careful data processing allowing one to observe the natural tune of the machine; the feasibility of such a measurement is demonstrated using experimental data from the Large Hadron Collider. An experimental proof of the theoretical derivations based on measurements performed at injection energy is provided as well as an application of this technique at top energy using a large number of excitations on the same beam.

  14. Color-Kinematics Duality for QCD Amplitudes

    CERN Document Server

    Johansson, Henrik


    We show that color-kinematics duality is present in tree-level amplitudes of quantum chromodynamics with massive flavored quarks. Starting with the color structure of QCD, we work out a new color decomposition for n-point tree amplitudes in a reduced basis of primitive amplitudes. These primitives, with k quark-antiquark pairs and (n-2k) gluons, are taken in the (n-2)!/k! Melia basis, and are independent under the color-algebra Kleiss-Kuijf relations. This generalizes the color decomposition of Del Duca, Dixon, and Maltoni to an arbitrary number of quarks. The color coefficients in the new decomposition are given by compact expressions valid for arbitrary gauge group and representation. Considering the kinematic structure, we show through explicit calculations that color-kinematics duality holds for amplitudes with general configurations of gluons and massive quarks. The new (massive) amplitude relations that follow from the duality can be mapped to a well-defined subset of the familiar BCJ relations for gluo...

  15. Measuring Body Wave Amplitudes of Shallow Earthquakes (United States)

    Sigloch, K.; Nolet, G.


    We present and evaluate a method to measure body wave amplitudes of shallow earthquakes. Compared to deep events the measurement is complicated by crustal echoes and more complex source time functions, but the effort of processing this data is very worthwhile since shallow events are far more abundant than deep ones. We use a linear model that inverts for source time function, moment tensor and amplitudes in an iterative least squares procedure. The waveform fitting is tested on digital broadband seismograms from the temporary PASSCAL line array LA RISTRA and on global GSN data. We find that robust and reproducible amplitude measurements can be obtained. Signal-to-noise ratios are adequate for fitting waveforms of shallow earthquakes with magnitude of 5.9 and higher. Waveform fits to seismograms from the same event routinely achieve a coherence of 90%-98%. Observed amplitude anomalies are on the order of ± 20%, with outliers being as large as ± 60%. The accuracy is estimated from a limited set of doublet eartquakes and was ± 3% in the best case, for time series lowpassed at 16 second period. Along the 1000-km-long RISTRA array we find several smooth amplitude trends on the scale of hundreds of kilometers. At least one of these trends changes sign depending on the event azimuth, which may indicate that the effect is caused by refraction in the mantle.

  16. Direct amplitude detuning measurement with ac dipole

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    S. White


    Full Text Available In circular machines, nonlinear dynamics can impact parameters such as beam lifetime and could result in limitations on the performance reach of the accelerator. Assessing and understanding these effects in experiments is essential to confirm the accuracy of the magnetic model and improve the machine performance. A direct measurement of the machine nonlinearities can be obtained by characterizing the dependency of the tune as a function of the amplitude of oscillations (usually defined as amplitude detuning. The conventional technique is to excite the beam to large amplitudes with a single kick and derive the tune from turn-by-turn data acquired with beam position monitors. Although this provides a very precise tune measurement it has the significant disadvantage of being destructive. An alternative, nondestructive way of exciting large amplitude oscillations is to use an ac dipole. The perturbation Hamiltonian in the presence of an ac dipole excitation shows a distinct behavior compared to the free oscillations which should be correctly taken into account in the interpretation of experimental data. The use of an ac dipole for direct amplitude detuning measurement requires careful data processing allowing one to observe the natural tune of the machine; the feasibility of such a measurement is demonstrated using experimental data from the Large Hadron Collider. An experimental proof of the theoretical derivations based on measurements performed at injection energy is provided as well as an application of this technique at top energy using a large number of excitations on the same beam.

  17. A new SERS: scattering enhanced Raman scattering (United States)

    Bixler, Joel N.; Yakovlev, Vladislav V.


    Raman spectroscopy is a powerful technique that can be used to obtain detailed chemical information about a system without the need for chemical markers. It has been widely used for a variety of applications such as cancer diagnosis and material characterization. However, Raman scattering is a highly inefficient process, where only one in 1011 scattered photons carry the needed information. Several methods have been developed to enhance this inherently weak effect, including surface enhanced Raman scattering and coherent anti-Stokes Raman scattering. These techniques suffer from drawbacks limiting their commercial use, such as the need for spatial localization of target molecules to a `hot spot', or the need for complex laser systems. Here, we present a simple instrument to enhance spontaneous Raman scattering using elastic light scattering. Elastic scattering is used to substantially increase the interaction volume. Provided that the scattering medium exhibits very low absorption in the spectral range of interest, a large enhancement factor can be attained in a simple and inexpensive setting. In our experiments, we demonstrate an enhancement of 107 in Raman signal intensity. The proposed novel device is equally applicable for analyzing solids, liquids, and gases.

  18. Explicit formulae for Yang-Mills-Einstein amplitudes from the double copy (United States)

    Chiodaroli, Marco; Günaydin, Murat; Johansson, Henrik; Roiban, Radu


    Using the double-copy construction of Yang-Mills-Einstein theories formulated in our earlier work, we obtain compact presentations for single-trace Yang-Mills-Einstein tree amplitudes with up to five external gravitons and an arbitrary number of gluons. These are written as linear combinations of color-ordered Yang-Mills trees, where the coefficients are given by color/kinematics-satisfying numerators in a Yang-Mills + ϕ 3 theory. The construction outlined in this paper holds in general dimension and extends straightforwardly to supergravity theories. For one, two, and three external gravitons, our expressions give identical or simpler presentations of amplitudes already constructed through string-theory considerations or the scattering equations formalism. Our results are based on color/kinematics duality and gauge invariance, and strongly hint at a recursive structure underlying the single-trace amplitudes with an arbitrary number of gravitons. We also present explicit expressions for all-loop single-graviton Einstein-Yang-Mills amplitudes in terms of Yang-Mills amplitudes and, through gauge invariance, derive new all-loop amplitude relations for Yang-Mills theory.

  19. Phase-shift ambiguities for analytic amplitudes

    CERN Document Server

    Itzykson, C


    Ambiguities in reconstructing a unitary elastic amplitude at fixed energy are investigated given the differential cross-section when one assumes analyticity in the cos theta plane. Strong hints are given that not more than a twofold nontrivial ambiguity is present. This is demonstrated for genuine entire functions of finite order. Moreover it is found that within a class of amplitudes which includes polynomials as well as entire functions of order zero, (i) the difference between the two amplitudes with the same cross-section must be a polynomial, (ii) if the cross-section is smaller than 1.38 (4 pi /k/sup 2/) there is no ambiguity. Indications are given on directions for future work. (10 refs).

  20. Amplitude-modulated fiber-ring laser

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Caputo, J. G.; Clausen, Carl A. Balslev; Sørensen, Mads Peter


    Soliton pulses generated by a fiber-ring laser are investigated by numerical simulation and perturbation methods. The mathematical modeling is based on the nonlinear Schrödinger equation with perturbative terms. We show that active mode locking with an amplitude modulator leads to a self-starting......Soliton pulses generated by a fiber-ring laser are investigated by numerical simulation and perturbation methods. The mathematical modeling is based on the nonlinear Schrödinger equation with perturbative terms. We show that active mode locking with an amplitude modulator leads to a self......-starting of stable solitonic pulses from small random noise, provided the modulation depth is small. The perturbative analysis leads to a nonlinear coupled return map for the amplitude, phase, and position of the soliton pulses circulating in the fiber-ring laser. We established the validity of this approach...

  1. Measurement of the amplitude of a spinodal (United States)

    Hetherington, M. G.; Hyde, J. M.; Miller, M. K.; Smith, G. D. W.


    One of the strengths of the atom-probe is its ability to measure the amplitude of composition fluctuations on a very fine scale. In previous papers, calculation of the amplitude of a spinodal using a sinusoidal composition distribution has been reported. In this paper, a comparison is made between the fit of experimental data from the atom-probe to a sinusoidal distribution and also to the amplitude of the composition variations expected from non-linear theories of the spinodal decomposition. It is shown that, in general, the Langer, Bar-on and Miller (LBM) non-linear theory provides better fits to the data. In particular, the non-linear theory is able to describe the asymmetry of the distribution functions for mean compositions far from the critical composition.

  2. Nonlinear (super)symmetries and amplitudes

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Kallosh, Renata [Physics Department, Stanford University,382 Via Pueblo Mall, Stanford, CA 94305-4060 (United States)


    There is an increasing interest in nonlinear supersymmetries in cosmological model building. Independently, elegant expressions for the all-tree amplitudes in models with nonlinear symmetries, like D3 brane Dirac-Born-Infeld-Volkov-Akulov theory, were recently discovered. Using the generalized background field method we show how, in general, nonlinear symmetries of the action, bosonic and fermionic, constrain amplitudes beyond soft limits. The same identities control, for example, bosonic E{sub 7(7)} scalar sector symmetries as well as the fermionic goldstino symmetries. We present a universal derivation of the vanishing amplitudes in the single (bosonic or fermionic) soft limit. We explain why, universally, the double-soft limit probes the coset space algebra. We also provide identities describing the multiple-soft limit. We discuss loop corrections to N≥5 supergravity, to the D3 brane, and the UV completion of constrained multiplets in string theory.

  3. Spinfoam cosmology with the proper vertex amplitude (United States)

    Vilensky, Ilya


    The proper vertex amplitude is derived from the Engle-Pereira-Rovelli-Livine vertex by restricting to a single gravitational sector in order to achieve the correct semi-classical behaviour. We apply the proper vertex to calculate a cosmological transition amplitude that can be viewed as the Hartle-Hawking wavefunction. To perform this calculation we deduce the integral form of the proper vertex and use extended stationary phase methods to estimate the large-volume limit. We show that the resulting amplitude satisfies an operator constraint whose classical analogue is the Hamiltonian constraint of the Friedmann-Robertson-Walker cosmology. We find that the constraint dynamically selects the relevant family of coherent states and demonstrate a similar dynamic selection in standard quantum mechanics. We investigate the effects of dynamical selection on long-range correlations.

  4. Secondary threshold amplitudes for sinuous streak breakdown


    Cossu, Carlo; Brandt, Luca; Bagheri, Shervin; Henningson, Dan S.


    The nonlinear stability of laminar sinuously bent streaks is studied for the plane Couette flow at Re=500 in a nearly minimal box and for the Blasius boundary layer at Re_d*= 700. The initial perturbations are nonlinearly saturated streamwise streaks of amplitude AU perturbed with sinuous perturbations of amplitude AW. The local boundary of the basin of attraction of the linearly stable laminar flow is computed by bisection and projected in the AU – AW plane providing a well defined critical ...

  5. QCD amplitudes with 2 initial spacelike legs via generalised BCFW recursion

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Kutak, Krzysztof; Hameren, Andreas van; Serino, Mirko [The H. Niewodniczański Institute of Nuclear Physics, Polish Academy of Sciences, ul. Radzikowskiego 152, 31-342, Cracow (Poland)


    We complete the generalisation of the BCFW recursion relation to the off-shell case, allowing for the computation of tree level scattering amplitudes for full High Energy Factorisation (HEF), i.e. with both incoming partons having a non-vanishing transverse momentum. We provide explicit results for color-ordered amplitudes with two off-shell legs in massless QCD up to 4 point, continuing the program begun in two previous papers. For the 4-fermion amplitudes, which are not BCFW-recursible, we perform a diagrammatic computation, so as to offer a complete set of expressions. We explicitly show and discuss some plots of the squared 2→2 matrix elements as functions of the differences in rapidity and azimuthal angle of the final state particles.

  6. The new HERA data and the determination of the infrared behaviour of the BFKL amplitude

    CERN Document Server

    Kowalski, H; Ross, D A; Lipatov, L N


    I this talk I discuss the new HERA data on the structure function F(2) obtained from a combination of HI and ZEUS results. Their high precision allows to determine the infrared behaviour of the BFKL., forward amplitude for gluon-gluon scattering. This amplitude leads to an excellent description of the new data at low values of x (< 0.01) and at the same time determines the unintegrated gluon density inside the proton, for squared transverse momenta of the gluon less than 100 GeV(2). The phases of this amplitude are sensitive to the non-perturbative gluonic dynamics and to the presence of Beyond-the-Standard-Model particles at very high energies. (C) 2010 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  7. Manifest Ultraviolet Behavior in the Three-Loop Four-Point Amplitude of N=8 Supergravity

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Bern, Z.; Carrasco, J.J.M.; /UCLA; Dixon, L.J.; /SLAC; Johansson, H.; /UCLA; Roiban, R.; /Penn State U.


    Using the method of maximal cuts, we obtain a form of the three-loop four-point scattering amplitude of N = 8 supergravity in which all ultraviolet cancellations are made manifest. The Feynman loop integrals that appear have a graphical representation with only cubic vertices, and numerator factors that are quadratic in the loop momenta, rather than quartic as in the previous form. This quadratic behavior reflects cancellations beyond those required for finiteness, and matches the quadratic behavior of the three-loop four-point scattering amplitude in N = 4 super-Yang-Mills theory. By direct integration we confirm that no additional cancellations remain in the N = 8 supergravity amplitude, thus demonstrating that the critical dimension in which the first ultraviolet divergence occurs at three loops is D{sub c} = 6. We also give the values of the three-loop divergences in D = 7, 9, 11. In addition, we present the explicitly color-dressed three-loop four-point amplitude of N = 4 super-Yang-Mills theory.

  8. Amplitude ratios in ρ0 leptoproductions and GPDs

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Goloskokov S.V.


    Using the model results we calculate the ratio of different helicity amplitudes for a transversely polarized proton target to the leading twist longitudinal amplitude. Our results are close to the amplitude ratios measured by HERMES.

  9. The effects of amplitude normalization and EMG targets on cVEMP interaural amplitude asymmetry. (United States)

    McCaslin, Devin L; Jacobson, Gary P; Hatton, Kelsey; Fowler, Andrea P; DeLong, Andrew P


    The purpose of this investigation was to determine whether the use of visual feedback of tonic electromyographic (EMG) activity, or the use of amplitude normalization techniques would reduce significantly the variability in cervical vestibular evoked myogenic potential (cVEMP) P13-N23 interaural amplitude asymmetry data in otologically and neurologically intact children and adults. There were 97 subjects, both pediatric and adult, from whom the authors recorded cVEMPs with and without the use of an EMG target and amplitude normalization techniques. The four conditions were: (1) conventional recording (condition 1), (2) conventional recording with an EMG target (condition 2), (3) same as condition 1, with the addition of postacquisition amplitude normalization techniques, and (4) same as condition 2, with the addition of postacquisition amplitude normalization techniques. The absolute peak to peak amplitude of positive-negative response (P13-N23), absolute latency of P13, and the left or right amplitude asymmetry of P13-N23 were measured. Neither P13-N23 amplitudes nor latencies, neither mean root mean square (RMS) of the full wave rectified EMG activity, nor the standard deviation of the RMS EMG activity differed significantly when subjects were, and were not, asked to ensure their tonic EMG activity exceeded a visual target (i.e., representing >50 µV RMS EMG). Amplitude normalization of the cVEMP waveforms failed to reduce significantly the variability in the amplitude asymmetry data. Activating the sternocleidomastoid muscle with the patient in a semirecumbent position, with head turned away from the stimulated ear and head elevated (i.e., an optimal activation technique) was sufficient to produce the highest amplitude cVEMPs with an acceptable amount of variability in subjects of all ages. Group data suggested that the use of visual targets and amplitude normalization routines did not reduce significantly the variability in cVEMP interaural amplitude asymmetry

  10. Scattered P'P' waves observed at short distances (United States)

    Earle, Paul S.; Rost, Sebastian; Shearer, Peter M.; Thomas, Christine


    We detect previously unreported 1 Hz scattered waves at epicentral distances between 30° and 50° and at times between 2300 and 2450 s after the earthquake origin. These waves likely result from off-azimuth scattering of PKPbc to PKPbc in the upper mantle and crust and provide a new tool for mapping variations in fine-scale (10 km) mantle heterogeneity. Array beams from the Large Aperture Seismic Array (LASA) clearly image the scattered energy gradually emerging from the noise and reaching its peak amplitude about 80 s later, and returning to the noise level after 150 s. Stacks of transverse versus radial slowness (ρt, ρr) show two peaks at about (2, -2) and (-2,-2) s/°, indicating the waves arrive along the major arc path (180° to 360°) and significantly off azimuth. We propose a mantle and surface PKPbc to PKPbc scattering mechanism for these observations because (1) it agrees with the initiation time and distinctive slowness signature of the scattered waves and (2) it follows a scattering path analogous to previously observed deep-mantle PK•KP scattering (Chang and Cleary, 1981). The observed upper-mantle scattered waves and PK•KP waves fit into a broader set of scattered waves that we call P′•d•P′, which can scatter from any depth, d, in the mantle.

  11. Amplitude damping channel for orbital angular momentum

    CSIR Research Space (South Africa)

    Dudley, Angela L


    Full Text Available of a previously reported OAM sorting device. A Mech-Zehnder interferometer with a Dove prism in each arm is used to sort OAM states according to their parity. The authors extend this concept to implement an amplitude damping channel, and prove its...

  12. Fatigue Reliability under Multiple-Amplitude Loads

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Talreja, R.


    A method to determine the fatigue of structures subjected to multiple-amplitude loads is presented. Unlike the more common cumulative damage methods, which are usually based on fatigue life data, the proposed method is based on tensile strength data. Assuming the Weibull distribution for the init...

  13. Connected formulas for amplitudes in standard model

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    He, Song [CAS Key Laboratory of Theoretical Physics,Institute of Theoretical Physics, Chinese Academy of Sciences,Beijing 100190 (China); School of Physical Sciences, University of Chinese Academy of Sciences,No. 19A Yuquan Road, Beijing 100049 (China); Zhang, Yong [Department of Physics, Beijing Normal University,Beijing 100875 (China); CAS Key Laboratory of Theoretical Physics,Institute of Theoretical Physics, Chinese Academy of Sciences,Beijing 100190 (China)


    Witten’s twistor string theory has led to new representations of S-matrix in massless QFT as a single object, including Cachazo-He-Yuan formulas in general and connected formulas in four dimensions. As a first step towards more realistic processes of the standard model, we extend the construction to QCD tree amplitudes with massless quarks and those with a Higgs boson. For both cases, we find connected formulas in four dimensions for all multiplicities which are very similar to the one for Yang-Mills amplitudes. The formula for quark-gluon color-ordered amplitudes differs from the pure-gluon case only by a Jacobian factor that depends on flavors and orderings of the quarks. In the formula for Higgs plus multi-parton amplitudes, the massive Higgs boson is effectively described by two additional massless legs which do not appear in the Parke-Taylor factor. The latter also represents the first twistor-string/connected formula for form factors.

  14. Audio steganography by amplitude or phase modification (United States)

    Gopalan, Kaliappan; Wenndt, Stanley J.; Adams, Scott F.; Haddad, Darren M.


    This paper presents the results of embedding short covert message utterances on a host, or cover, utterance by modifying the phase or amplitude of perceptually masked or significant regions of the host. In the first method, the absolute phase at selected, perceptually masked frequency indices was changed to fixed, covert data-dependent values. Embedded bits were retrieved at the receiver from the phase at the selected frequency indices. Tests on embedding a GSM-coded covert utterance on clean and noisy host utterances showed no noticeable difference in the stego compared to the hosts in speech quality or spectrogram. A bit error rate of 2 out of 2800 was observed for a clean host utterance while no error occurred for a noisy host. In the second method, the absolute phase of 10 or fewer perceptually significant points in the host was set in accordance with covert data. This resulted in a stego with successful data retrieval and a slightly noticeable degradation in speech quality. Modifying the amplitude of perceptually significant points caused perceptible differences in the stego even with small changes of amplitude made at five points per frame. Finally, the stego obtained by altering the amplitude at perceptually masked points showed barely noticeable differences and excellent data recovery.

  15. Autocorrelation function of scattered light for a binary fluid near the critical mixing point (United States)

    Bendjaballah, C.


    A time-to-amplitude conversion technique was applied to measure the second-order autocorrelation function of light scattering by a binary fluid from concentration fluctuations of the fluid very close to the critical point. The experimental setup included two photomultipliers, a time-to-amplitude converter, and a pulse height analyzer.

  16. Scattering of stringy states in compactified closed bosonic string

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Jnanadeva Maharana


    Full Text Available We present scattering of stringy states of closed bosonic string compactified on torus Td. We focus our attention on scattering of moduli and gauge bosons. These states appear when massless excitations such as graviton and antisymmetric tensor field of the uncompactified theory are dimensionally reduced to lower dimension. The toroidally compactified theory is endowed with the T-duality symmetry, O(d,d. Therefore, it is expected that the amplitude for scattering of such states will be T-duality invariant. The formalism of Kawai–Lewellen–Tye is adopted and appropriately tailored to construct the vertex operators of moduli and gauge bosons. It is shown, in our approach, that N-point amplitude is T-duality invariant. We present illustrative examples for the four point amplitude to explicitly demonstrate the economy of our formalism when three spatial dimensions are compactified on T3. It is also shown that if we construct an amplitude with a set of ‘initial’ backgrounds, the T-duality operation transforms it to an amplitude associated with another set backgrounds. We propose a modified version of KLT approach to construct vertex operators for nonabelian massless gauge bosons which appear in certain compactification schemes.

  17. The neutron-deuteron scattering problem in the framework of the Faddeev formalism (United States)

    Belov, P. A.; Yakovlev, S. L.


    The three-body Faddeev equations in the configuration space are solved numerically for study of the neutron-deuteron scattering process above the breakup threshold. The amplitudes for the binary scattering process and breakup are obtained by the developed asymptotic approach.

  18. Modified pi pi amplitude with sigma pole

    Czech Academy of Sciences Publication Activity Database

    Bydžovský, Petr; Kaminski, R.; Nazari, V.


    Roč. 90, č. 11 (2014), s. 116005 ISSN 1550-7998 R&D Projects: GA ČR(CZ) GAP203/12/2126 Institutional support: RVO:61389005 Keywords : scattering data * equation * phase-shifts Subject RIV: BE - Theoretical Physics Impact factor: 4.643, year: 2014

  19. Nonlinear Generation of Electromagnetic Waves through Induced Scattering by Thermal Plasma. (United States)

    Tejero, E M; Crabtree, C; Blackwell, D D; Amatucci, W E; Mithaiwala, M; Ganguli, G; Rudakov, L


    We demonstrate the conversion of electrostatic pump waves into electromagnetic waves through nonlinear induced scattering by thermal particles in a laboratory plasma. Electrostatic waves in the whistler branch are launched that propagate near the resonance cone. When the amplitude exceeds a threshold ~5 × 10(-6) times the background magnetic field, wave power is scattered below the pump frequency with wave normal angles (~59°), where the scattered wavelength reaches the limits of the plasma column. The scattered wave has a perpendicular wavelength that is an order of magnitude larger than the pump wave and longer than the electron skin depth. The amplitude threshold, scattered frequency spectrum, and scattered wave normal angles are in good agreement with theory. The results may affect the analysis and interpretation of space observations and lead to a comprehensive understanding of the nature of the Earth's plasma environment.

  20. Refraction and scattering of sound by a shear layer (United States)

    Schlinker, R. H.; Amiet, R. K.


    The angle and amplitude changes for acoustic waves refracted by a circular open jet shear layer were determined. The generalized refraction theory was assessed experimentally for on axis and off axis acoustic source locations as source frequency varied from 1 kHz to 10 kHz and free stream Mach number varied from 0.1 to 0.4. Angle and amplitude changes across the shear layer show good agreement with theory. Experiments confirm that the refraction theory is independent of shear layer thickness, acoustic source frequency, and source type. A generalized theory is, thus, available for correcting far field noise data acquired in open jet test facilities. The effect of discrete tone scattering by the open jet turbulent shear layer was also studied. Scattering effects were investigated over the same Mach number range as frequency varied from 5 kHz to 15 kHz. Attenuation of discrete tone amplitude and tone broadening were measured as a function of acoustic source position and radiation angle. Scattering was found to be stronger at angles close to the open jet axis than at 90 deg, and becomes stronger as the acoustic source position shifts downstream. A scattering analysis provided an estimate of the onset of discrete tone scattering.

  1. Differential equations, associators, and recurrences for amplitudes

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Georg Puhlfürst


    Full Text Available We provide new methods to straightforwardly obtain compact and analytic expressions for ϵ-expansions of functions appearing in both field and string theory amplitudes. An algebraic method is presented to explicitly solve for recurrence relations connecting different ϵ-orders of a power series solution in ϵ of a differential equation. This strategy generalizes the usual iteration by Picard's method. Our tools are demonstrated for generalized hypergeometric functions. Furthermore, we match the ϵ-expansion of specific generalized hypergeometric functions with the underlying Drinfeld associator with proper Lie algebra and monodromy representations. We also apply our tools for computing ϵ-expansions for solutions to generic first-order Fuchsian equations (Schlesinger system. Finally, we set up our methods to systematically get compact and explicit α′-expansions of tree-level superstring amplitudes to any order in α′.

  2. Amplitude modulation reflectometry for density profile measurements

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Zhuravlev, V.; Sanchez, J.; Luna, E. de la; Estrada, T.; Branas, B.; Frances, M. [Association EURATOM/CIEMAT, Madrid (Spain); Hirsch, M.; Geist, T.; Hartfuss, H.J. [Max Plank Institut fuer Plasmaphysik, Euratom-Ass, 85748 Garching (Germany); Hanson, G.R.; Wilgen, J.B. [Oak Ridge National Laboratory, Oak Ridge, TN 37831-8072 (United States); Kaita, R. [Princeton Plasma Physics Laboratory, Princeton, NJ 08543 (United States)


    Amplitude modulation (AM) reflectometry is a technique for density profile measurements in magnetic fusion plasmas based on the measurement of the phase delay of the modulation in the amplitude of a microwave beam launched and reflected at the plasma. Results from AM experiments in the PBX-M tokamak and the W7-AS stellarator are presented. A general analysis of the capabilities of the technique is performed, particularly centered in the effects of spatial turbulence. Simulations of the effects of two-dimensional turbulence have been performed for medium size (W7-AS) and large devices (LHD stellarator, ITER), showing the capability of the AM technique to operate in turbulent plasmas. Finally, possible solutions to the problem of parasitic reflections in AM systems are presented as development options. (orig.) 4 refs.

  3. Amplitude dependent shift of betatron oscillation center

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Yoshihiko Shoji


    Full Text Available We have analytically calculated and measured the amplitude-dependent shift of the betatron oscillation center at the electron storage ring, NewSUBARU. The shift is due to nonzero average horizontal deflections at the normal sextupole magnets. The shifted center forms a displaced closed orbit and is measured by a closed orbit distortion measurement system, although no single electron runs on this orbit. The measured shifts by betatron oscillations agreed with the theoretical calculation except the variation of data points, which did not obey the ring symmetry. Additional measurements, whose results included the effect of the circumference shift, experimentally proved the amplitude dependent circumference shift for the first time. We also discuss some applications of the shift, which has never been previously analyzed.

  4. Large amplitude free vibrations of tapered beams (United States)

    Raju, L. S.; Raju, K. K.; Rao, G. V.


    The Galerkin method is used to investigate the large-amplitude free vibrations of simply supported and clamped tapered beams of rectangular cross-section which are frequently encountered in practical structures. Two types of linear tapers are considered: breadth and depth tapers. Two solutions are obtained for each type of taper, using trigonometric and polynomial displacement distributions. Frequency-amplitude relationships are obtained for all these cases for the fundamental flexural mode. The results indicate good agreement between trigonometric and polynomial solutions for all cases. The nonlinearity is noted to be always of the hardening type and, as expected, it is severe for beams with depth taper as compared with beams with breadth taper.

  5. Is DAMAs modulation amplitude changing with time? (United States)

    Kelso, Chris


    If dark matter is composed of weakly interacting particles, Earth's orbital motion induces a small annual variation in the rate at which these particles interact in a terrestrial detector. The DAMA collaboration has identified at a 9.3σ confidence level (CL) such an annual modulation in their event rate over two detector iterations, DAMA/NaI and DAMA/LIBRA, each with about 7 years of observations. We examine the nature of this modulation signal and find the modulation amplitude for the two detectors is inconsistent at the 3σ CL over 2-6 keVee. Such a time-dependence in the modulation amplitude is unexpected behavior for a dark matter signal, at least for dark matter halo morphologies consistent with the DAMA signal. We also find unusual behavior over the 5-6 keVee energy range that might indicate problems with the data.

  6. A brief introduction to modern amplitude methods

    CERN Document Server

    Dixon, Lance J.


    I provide a basic introduction to modern helicity amplitude methods, including color organization, the spinor helicity formalism, and factorization properties. I also describe the BCFW (on-shell) recursion relation at tree level, and explain how similar ideas - unitarity and on-shell methods - work at the loop level. These notes are based on lectures delivered at the 2012 CERN Summer School and at TASI 2013.

  7. Cascaded Amplitude Modulations in Sound Texture Perception

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Richard McWalter


    Full Text Available Sound textures, such as crackling fire or chirping crickets, represent a broad class of sounds defined by their homogeneous temporal structure. It has been suggested that the perception of texture is mediated by time-averaged summary statistics measured from early auditory representations. In this study, we investigated the perception of sound textures that contain rhythmic structure, specifically second-order amplitude modulations that arise from the interaction of different modulation rates, previously described as “beating” in the envelope-frequency domain. We developed an auditory texture model that utilizes a cascade of modulation filterbanks that capture the structure of simple rhythmic patterns. The model was examined in a series of psychophysical listening experiments using synthetic sound textures—stimuli generated using time-averaged statistics measured from real-world textures. In a texture identification task, our results indicated that second-order amplitude modulation sensitivity enhanced recognition. Next, we examined the contribution of the second-order modulation analysis in a preference task, where the proposed auditory texture model was preferred over a range of model deviants that lacked second-order modulation rate sensitivity. Lastly, the discriminability of textures that included second-order amplitude modulations appeared to be perceived using a time-averaging process. Overall, our results demonstrate that the inclusion of second-order modulation analysis generates improvements in the perceived quality of synthetic textures compared to the first-order modulation analysis considered in previous approaches.

  8. Coding stimulus amplitude by correlated neural activity. (United States)

    Metzen, Michael G; Ávila-Åkerberg, Oscar; Chacron, Maurice J


    While correlated activity is observed ubiquitously in the brain, its role in neural coding has remained controversial. Recent experimental results have demonstrated that correlated but not single-neuron activity can encode the detailed time course of the instantaneous amplitude (i.e., envelope) of a stimulus. These have furthermore demonstrated that such coding required and was optimal for a nonzero level of neural variability. However, a theoretical understanding of these results is still lacking. Here we provide a comprehensive theoretical framework explaining these experimental findings. Specifically, we use linear response theory to derive an expression relating the correlation coefficient to the instantaneous stimulus amplitude, which takes into account key single-neuron properties such as firing rate and variability as quantified by the coefficient of variation. The theoretical prediction was in excellent agreement with numerical simulations of various integrate-and-fire type neuron models for various parameter values. Further, we demonstrate a form of stochastic resonance as optimal coding of stimulus variance by correlated activity occurs for a nonzero value of noise intensity. Thus, our results provide a theoretical explanation of the phenomenon by which correlated but not single-neuron activity can code for stimulus amplitude and how key single-neuron properties such as firing rate and variability influence such coding. Correlation coding by correlated but not single-neuron activity is thus predicted to be a ubiquitous feature of sensory processing for neurons responding to weak input.

  9. Amplitude analysis for hypercharge exchange reactions

    CERN Document Server

    Barger, V


    The s channel helicity non-flip amplitudes for the line reversed reactions pi N to K( Sigma , Lambda ) and KN to pi ( Sigma , Lambda ) are determined directly from cross-section and polarization data at 4 GeV/c. Rigorous bounds are obtained on the magnitudes of the flip amplitudes, whose phases are assumed to be given by an exchange degenerate K*-K** Regge trajectory. The solution for the non-flip amplitude is unique and shows the following characteristics: (i) Im K* ( Delta lambda =0) has a 'cross-over' zero at t approximately=-0.15 in both Sigma and Lambda reactions, (ii) Im K** ( Delta lambda =0) has an approximate double zero near t approximately=-0.6 in Sigma reactions and a positive minimum there in Lambda reactions, (iii) Re K* ( Delta lambda =0) and Re K** ( Delta lambda =0) are less peripheral in character than their imaginary counter-part and have similar behaviour at alpha =0 to simple Regge poles. (12 refs).

  10. High-energy anomalous scattering: Is it semiclassical

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Mattis, M.P. (Theoretical Division T-8, Los Alamos National Laboratory, Los Alamos, New Mexico 87545 (United States)); McLerran, L. (Department of Physics, University of Minnesota, Minneapolis, MI (United States)); Yaffe, L.G. (Department of Physics, University of Washington, Seattle, Washington 98195 (United States))


    We discuss the possibility of a semiclassical evaluation of baryon-number-nonconserving scattering amplitudes at nonperturbative'' energies of order {ital M}{sub {ital W}}/{alpha}{sub {ital W}}. Semiclassical expansions around standard instanton configurations are known {ital not} to be valid at these energies: multiloop radiative corrections are not suppressed relative to tree-graph contributions. Despite this pathology, we present a conjecture showing how anomalous scattering at such nonperturbative energies may nevertheless remain semiclassically calculable, and discuss partial results supporting this conjecture. To determine the correct weak-coupling behavior of high-energy anomalous scattering amplitudes, we argue that one must solve a modified set of classical field equations, or equivalently sum suitably modified tree graphs.

  11. Wilson Loops and Scattering Amplitudes in Supersymmetric Field and String Theories


    Marmiroli, Daniele


    The long-standing problem of finding weak-strong coupling interpolating observables for supersymmetric Chern-Simons theories in three dimensions is analysed from the point of view of BPS Wilson loop operators. Analizziamo l'annoso problema della determinazione di funzioni interpolanti tra i regimi di accoppiamento debole e accoppiamento forte in teorie di Chern-Simons supersimmetriche in tre dimensioni dal punto di vista di operatori di Wilson BPS.

  12. Scattering Amplitudes Interpolating Between Instant Form and Front Form of Relativistic Dynamics

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Ji, C.R.; Bakker, B.L.G.; Li, Z.


    Among the three forms of relativistic Hamiltonian dynamics proposed by Dirac in 1949, the front form has the largest number of kinematic generators. This distinction provides useful consequences in the analysis of physical observables in hadron physics. Using the method of interpolation between the

  13. Scattering anomaly in optics

    CERN Document Server

    Silveirinha, Mario G


    In time-reversal invariant electronic systems the scattering matrix is anti-symmetric. This property enables an effect, designated here as "scattering anomaly", such that the electron transport does not suffer from back reflections, independent of the specific geometry of the propagation path or the presence of time-reversal invariant defects. In contrast, for a generic time-reversal invariant photonic system the scattering matrix is symmetric and there is no similar anomaly. Here, it is theoretically proven that despite these fundamental differences there is a wide class of photonic platforms - in some cases formed only by time-reversal invariant media - in which the scattering anomaly can occur. It is shown that an optical system invariant under the action of the composition of the time-reversal, parity and duality operators is characterized by an anti-symmetric scattering matrix. Specific examples of photonic platforms wherein the scattering anomaly occurs are given, and it is demonstrated with full wave n...

  14. Scattering of Skyrmions

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    David Foster


    Full Text Available In this paper, we present a detailed study of Skyrmion–Skyrmion scattering for two B=1 Skyrmions in the attractive channel where we observe two different scattering regimes. For large separation, the scattering can be approximated as interacting dipoles. We give a qualitative estimate when this approximation breaks down. For small separations we observe an additional short-range repulsion which is qualitatively similar to monopole scattering. We also observe the interesting effect of “rotation without rotating” whereby two Skyrmions, whose orientations remain constant while well-separated, change their orientation after scattering. We can explain this effect by following preimages through the scattering process, thereby measuring which part of an in-coming Skyrmion forms part of an out-going Skyrmion. This leads to a new way of visualising Skyrmions. Furthermore, we consider spinning Skyrmions and find interesting trajectories.

  15. Introduction to neutron scattering

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Fischer, W.E. [Paul Scherrer Inst. (PSI), Villigen (Switzerland)


    We give here an introduction to the theoretical principles of neutron scattering. The relationship between scattering- and correlation-functions is particularly emphasized. Within the framework of linear response theory (justified by the weakness of the basic interaction) the relation between fluctuation and dissipation is discussed. This general framework explains the particular power of neutron scattering as an experimental method. (author) 4 figs., 4 refs.

  16. Investigating the amplitude of interactive footstep sounds and soundscape reproduction

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Turchet, Luca; Serafin, Stefania


    In this paper, we study the perception of amplitude of soundscapes and interactively generated footstep sounds provided both through headphones and a surround sound system. In particular, we investigate whether there exists a value for the amplitude of soundscapes and footstep sounds which...... of soundscapes does not significantly affect the selected amplitude of footstep sounds. Similarly, the perception of the soundscapes amplitude is not significantly affected by the selected amplitude of footstep sounds....

  17. The initial value problem, scattering and inverse scattering, for Schroedinger equations with a potential and a non-local nonlinearity

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Romero, MarIa de los Angeles Sandoval; Weder, Ricardo [Instituto de Investigaciones en Matematicas Aplicadas y en Sistemas, Universidad Nacional Autonoma de Mexico, Apartado Postal 20-726, Mexico DF 01000 (Mexico)


    We consider nonlinear Schroedinger equations with a potential, and non-local nonlinearities, that are models in mesoscopic physics, for example of a quantum capacitor, and that are also models of molecular structure. We study in detail the initial value problem for these equations, in particular, existence and uniqueness of local and global solutions, continuous dependence on the initial data and regularity. We allow for a large class of unbounded potentials. We have no restriction on the growth at infinity of the positive part of the potential. We also construct the scattering operator in the case of potentials that go to zero at infinity. Furthermore, we give a method for the unique reconstruction of the potential from the small amplitude limit of the scattering operator. In the case of the quantum capacitor, our method allows us to uniquely reconstruct all the physical parameters from the small amplitude limit of the scattering operator.

  18. Recursion relations for multi-gluon off-shell amplitudes on the light-front and Wilson lines

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    C. Cruz-Santiago


    Full Text Available We analyze the off-shell scattering amplitudes in the framework of the light-front perturbation theory. It is shown that the previously derived recursion relation between tree level off-shell amplitudes in this formalism actually resums whole classes of graphs into a Wilson line. More precisely, we establish a correspondence between the light-front methods for the computation of the off-shell amplitudes and the approach which makes use of the matrix elements of straight infinite Wilson lines, which are manifestly gauge invariant objects. Furthermore, since it is needed to explicitly verify the gauge invariance of light-front amplitudes, it is demonstrated that the Ward identities in this framework need additional instantaneous terms in the light-front graphs.

  19. Elastic scattering phenomenology

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Mackintosh, R.S. [The Open University, School of Physical Sciences, Milton Keynes (United Kingdom)


    We argue that, in many situations, fits to elastic scattering data that were historically, and frequently still are, considered ''good'', are not justifiably so describable. Information about the dynamics of nucleon-nucleus and nucleus-nucleus scattering is lost when elastic scattering phenomenology is insufficiently ambitious. It is argued that in many situations, an alternative approach is appropriate for the phenomenology of nuclear elastic scattering of nucleons and other light nuclei. The approach affords an appropriate means of evaluating folding models, one that fully exploits available empirical data. It is particularly applicable for nucleons and other light ions. (orig.)

  20. BCFW recursion for TMD parton scattering

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Hameren, Andreas van; Serino, Mirko [The H. Niewodniczański Institute of Nuclear Physics, Polisch Academy of Sciences,Radzikowskiego 152, 31-342, Cracow (Poland)


    We investigate the application of the BCFW recursion relation to scattering amplitudes with one off-shell particle in a Yang-Mills theory with fermions. We provide a set of conditions of applicability of the BCFW recursion, stressing some important differences with respect to the pure on-shell case. We show how the formulas for Maximally-Helicity-Violating (MHV) configurations with any number of partons, which are well known in the fully on-shell case, are generalized to this kinematic regime. We also derive analytic expressions for all the helicity configurations of the 5-point color-stripped tree-level amplitudes for any of the partons being off the mass shell.

  1. Large Amplitude Whistler Waves and Electron Acceleration in the Earth's Radiation Belts: A Review of STEREO and Wind Observations (United States)

    Cattell, Cynthia; Breneman, A.; Goetz, K.; Kellogg, P.; Kersten, K.; Wygant, J.; Wilson, L. B., III; Looper, Mark D.; Blake, J. Bernard; Roth, I.


    One of the critical problems for understanding the dynamics of Earth's radiation belts is determining the physical processes that energize and scatter relativistic electrons. We review measurements from the Wind/Waves and STEREO S/Waves waveform capture instruments of large amplitude whistler-mode waves. These observations have provided strong evidence that large amplitude (100s mV/m) whistler-mode waves are common during magnetically active periods. The large amplitude whistlers have characteristics that are different from typical chorus. They are usually nondispersive and obliquely propagating, with a large longitudinal electric field and significant parallel electric field. We will also review comparisons of STEREO and Wind wave observations with SAMPEX observations of electron microbursts. Simulations show that the waves can result in energization by many MeV and/or scattering by large angles during a single wave packet encounter due to coherent, nonlinear processes including trapping. The experimental observations combined with simulations suggest that quasilinear theoretical models of electron energization and scattering via small-amplitude waves, with timescales of hours to days, may be inadequate for understanding radiation belt dynamics.

  2. Deeply Virtual Compton Scattering off the neutron

    CERN Document Server

    Mazouz, M; Ferdi, C; Gavalian, G; Kuchina, E; Amarian, M; Aniol, K A; Beaumel, M; Benaoum, H; Bertin, P; Brossard, M; Chen, J P; Chudakov, E; Craver, B; Cusanno, F; De Jager, C W; Deur, A; Feuerbach, R; Fieschi, J M; Frullani, S; Garçon, M; Garibaldi, F; Gayou, O; Gilman, R; Gómez, J; Gueye, P; Guichon, P A M; Guillon, B; Hansen, O; Hayes, D; Higinbotham, D; Holmstrom, T; Hyde, C E; Ibrahim, H; Igarashi, R; Jiang, X; Jo, H S; Kaufman, L J; Kelleher, A; Kolarkar, A; Kumbartzki, G; Laveissière, G; Le Rose, J J; Lindgren, R; Liyanage, N; Lu, H J; Margaziotis, D J; Meziani, Z E; McCormick, K; Michaels, R; Michel, B; Moffit, B; Monaghan, P; Nanda, S; Nelyubin, V; Potokar, M; Qiang, Y; Ransome, R D; Real, J S; Reitz, B; Roblin, Y; Roche, J; Sabatie, F; Saha, A; Sirca, S; Slifer, K; Solvignon, P; Subedi, R; Sulkosky, V; Ulmer, P E; Voutier, E; Wang, K; Weinstein, L B; Wojtsekhowski, B; Zheng, X; Zhu, L


    The present experiment exploits the interference between the Deeply Virtual Compton Scattering (DVCS) and the Bethe-Heitler processes to extract the imaginary part of DVCS amplitudes on the neutron and on the deuteron from the helicity-dependent D$({\\vec e},e'\\gamma)X$ cross section measured at $Q^2$=1.9 GeV$^2$ and $x_B$=0.36. We extract a linear combination of generalized parton distributions (GPDs) particularly sensitive to $E_q$, the least constrained GPD. A model dependent constraint on the contribution of the up and down quarks to the nucleon spin is deduced.

  3. Systematics of meson-Skyrmion scattering

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Mattis, M.P.


    The S-matrix characterizing the scattering of pions from nucleons is calculated in the context of skyrmion models of the nucleon. These are models in which the nucleon is considered a soliton in the field of pions. The spectrum of nucleon and delta resonances in the Skyrme model is calculated and found to be in overall good agreement with Nature. Model-independent sum rules between amplitudes in the same partial wave are derived and examined. An extension of the formalism to the case of three light flavors is presented. 31 refs., 26 figs., 6 tabs.

  4. Optical twists in phase and amplitude

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Daria, Vincent R.; Palima, Darwin; Glückstad, Jesper


    beams, the far field projection of the twisted optical beam maintains a high photon concentration even at higher values of topological charge. Optical twisters have therefore profound applications to fundamental studies of light and atoms such as in quantum entanglement of the OAM, toroidal traps......Light beams with helical phase profile correspond to photons having orbital angular momentum (OAM). A Laguerre-Gaussian (LG) beam is an example where its helical phase sets a phase-singularity at the optical axis and forms a ring-shaped transverse amplitude profile. Here, we describe a unique beam...

  5. Fatigue crack growth under variable amplitude loading (United States)

    Sidawi, Jihad A.


    Fatigue crack growth tests were conducted on an Fe 510 E C-Mn steel and a submerged arc welded joint from the same material under constant, variable, and random loading amplitudes. Paris-Erdogan's crack growth rate law was tested for the evaluation of m and C using the stress intensity factor K, the J-integral, the effective stress intensity factor K(sub eff), and the root mean square stress intensity factor K(sub rms) fracture mechanics concepts. The effect of retardation and residual stresses resulting from welding was also considered. It was found that all concepts gave good life predictions in all cases.

  6. Quantum information reclaiming after amplitude damping

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Memarzadeh, Laleh; Cafaro, Carlo; Mancini, Stefano, E-mail:, E-mail:, E-mail: [School of Science and Technology, University of Camerino, I-62032 Camerino (Italy)


    We design an effective method to investigate the quantum information reclaim from the environment after amplitude damping has occurred. In particular, we address the question of optimal measurement on the environment to perform the best possible correction on two- and three-dimensional quantum systems. While for qubits we show that the entanglement fidelity is the same for all possible measurements, for qutirits we find that different measurements give rise to different values of the entanglement fidelity. By searching over all possible measurements on the environment we uncover the optimal one leading to the maximum entanglement fidelity.

  7. Neutron scattering from fractals

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Kjems, Jørgen; Freltoft, T.; Richter, D.


    -angle neutron scattering studies of the variation with aggregation rate are presented. These results allow a very detailed comparison to be made with the theoretical scattering curves. Preliminary incoherent inelastic data on the low-frequency dynamics of hydroxylated silica particle aggregates show a clear...

  8. Incoherent Thomson scattering

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Donne, A. J. H.


    Thomson scattering is a very powerful diagnostic which is applied at nearly every magnetic confinement device. Depending on the experimental conditions different plasma parameters can be diagnosed. When the wave vector is much larger than the plasma Debye length, the total scattered power is

  9. Amplitude modulation reflectometry for large fusion devices

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Sanchez, J.; Zhuravlev, V.; Luna, E. de la; Estrada, T.; Branas, B. [Centro de Investigaciones Energeticas, Medioambientales y Tecnologicas (CIEMAT), Madrid (Spain)


    One of the main problems which has been present in most reflectometers during the last years is the need for a coherent tracking of the phase delay: fast density fluctuations and strong modulation on the amplitude of the reflected signal usually produce ``fringe jumps`` in the phase signal. In such a situation the ``history`` of the phase evolution is lost and big errors can arise in the determination of the density profile. This problem will become more severe in large fusion devices, operating at high densities with high magnetic field: the cutoff wavelength becomes shorter and the phase delays involved become larger as well as the effect of the broadband fluctuations. Amplitude modulation reflectometry performs a time delay measurement by the determination of the phase delay of the modulating envelope of a millimeter wave beam reflected at the plasma. The phase delays involved are in the range <2{pi} and the measurement is not negatively affected by the broadband fluctuations. The phase readout can be directly obtained without complicated fringe counters: the method provides a promising possibility for real time determination of the plasma position and density profile, which will be very important for the next step devices (ITER-NET). (author) 2 refs., 3 figs.

  10. The Construction of Spin Foam Vertex Amplitudes

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Eugenio Bianchi


    Full Text Available Spin foam vertex amplitudes are the key ingredient of spin foam models for quantum gravity. These fall into the realm of discretized path integral, and can be seen as generalized lattice gauge theories. They can be seen as an attempt at a 4-dimensional generalization of the Ponzano-Regge model for 3d quantum gravity. We motivate and review the construction of the vertex amplitudes of recent spin foam models, giving two different and complementary perspectives of this construction. The first proceeds by extracting geometric configurations from a topological theory of the BF type, and can be seen to be in the tradition of the work of Barrett, Crane, Freidel and Krasnov. The second keeps closer contact to the structure of Loop Quantum Gravity and tries to identify an appropriate set of constraints to define a Lorentz-invariant interaction of its quanta of space. This approach is in the tradition of the work of Smolin, Markopoulous, Engle, Pereira, Rovelli and Livine.

  11. Open-closed superstring amplitudes using vertex operators in AdS{sub 5}×S{sup 5}

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Azevedo, Thales; Berkovits, Nathan [ICTP South American Institute for Fundamental Research,Instituto de Física Teórica, UNESP - University Estadual Paulista,Rua Dr. Bento T. Ferraz 271, 01140-070, São Paulo, SP (Brazil)


    Using the pure spinor formalism, a particular superstring scattering amplitude involving one closed string and N open string vertex operators in AdS{sub 5}×S{sup 5} is studied. It is shown that the tree-level amplitude containing one supergravity state and N super-Yang-Mills states located on D3-branes near the AdS{sub 5} boundary can be expressed as a d=4N=4 harmonic superspace integral in terms of the supergravity and super-Yang-Mills superfields.

  12. Subleading terms in the collinear limit of Yang–Mills amplitudes

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Stephan Stieberger


    Full Text Available For two massless particles i and j, the collinear limit is a special kinematic configuration in which the particles propagate with parallel four-momentum vectors, with the total momentum P distributed as pi=xP and pj=(1−xP, so that sij≡(pi+pj2=P2=0. In Yang–Mills theory, if i and j are among N gauge bosons participating in a scattering process, it is well known that the partial amplitudes associated to the (single trace group factors with adjacent i and j are singular in the collinear limit and factorize at the leading order into (N−1-particle amplitudes times the universal, x-dependent Altarelli–Parisi factors. We give a precise definition of the collinear limit and show that at the tree level, the subleading, non-singular terms are related to the amplitudes with a single graviton inserted instead of two collinear gauge bosons. To that end, we argue that in one-graviton Einstein–Yang–Mills amplitudes, the graviton with momentum P can be replaced by a pair of collinear gauge bosons carrying arbitrary momentum fractions xP and (1−xP.

  13. Focusing through a turbid medium by amplitude modulation with genetic algorithm (United States)

    Dai, Weijia; Peng, Ligen; Shao, Xiaopeng


    Multiple scattering of light in opaque materials such as white paint and human tissue forms a volume speckle field, will greatly reduce the imaging depth and degrade the imaging quality. A novel approach is proposed to focus light through a turbid medium using amplitude modulation with genetic algorithm (GA) from speckle patterns. Compared with phase modulation method, amplitude modulation approach, in which the each element of spatial light modulator (SLM) is either zero or one, is much easier to achieve. Theoretical and experimental results show that, the advantage of GA is more suitable for low the signal to noise ratio (SNR) environments in comparison to the existing amplitude control algorithms such as binary amplitude modulation. The circular Gaussian distribution model and Rayleigh Sommerfeld diffraction theory are employed in our simulations to describe the turbid medium and light propagation between optical devices, respectively. It is demonstrated that the GA technique can achieve a higher overall enhancement, and converge much faster than others, and outperform all algorithms at high noise. Focusing through a turbid medium has potential in the observation of cells and protein molecules in biological tissues and other structures in micro/nano scale.

  14. Unified treatment: analyticity, Regge trajectories, Veneziano amplitude, fundamental regions and Moebius transformations

    CERN Document Server

    Choudhury, A R


    In this paper we present a unified treatment that combines the analyticity properties of the scattering amplitudes, the threshold and asymptotic behaviors, the invariance group of Moebius transformations, the automorphic functions defined over this invariance group, the fundamental region in (Poincare) geometry, and the generators of the invariance group as they relate to the fundamental region. Using these concepts and techniques, we provide a theoretical basis for Veneziano type amplitudes with the ghost elimination condition built in, related the Regge trajectory functions to the generators of the invariance group, constrained the values of the Regge trajectories to take only inverse integer values at the threshold, used the threshold behavior in the forward direction to deduce the Pomeranchuk trajectory as well as other relations. The enabling tool for this unified treatment came from the multi-sheet conformal mapping techniques that map the physical sheet to a fundamental region which in turn defines a R...

  15. Learning from the scatter in type ia supernovae

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Dodelson, Scott; /Fermilab /Chicago U., Astron. Astrophys. Ctr.; Vallinotto, Alberto; /Fermilab /Chicago U.


    Type Ia Supernovae are standard candles so their mean apparent magnitude has been exploited to learn about the redshift-distance relationship. Besides intrinsic scatter in this standard candle, additional scatter is caused by gravitational magnification by large scale structure. Here they probe the dependence of this dispersion on cosmological parameters and show that information about the amplitude of clustering, {sigma}{sub s}, is contained in the scatter. In principle, it will be possible to constrain {sigma}{sub s} to within 5% with observations of 2000 Type Ia Supernovae. They identify three sources of systematic error--evolution of intrinsic scatter, baryon contributions to lensing, and non-Gaussianity of lensing--which will make this measurement difficult.

  16. Nonreciprocal wave scattering on nonlinear string-coupled oscillators

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Lepri, Stefano, E-mail: [Consiglio Nazionale delle Ricerche, Istituto dei Sistemi Complessi, via Madonna del Piano 10, I-50019 Sesto Fiorentino (Italy); Istituto Nazionale di Fisica Nucleare, Sezione di Firenze, via G. Sansone 1, I-50019 Sesto Fiorentino (Italy); Pikovsky, Arkady [Department of Physics and Astronomy, University of Potsdam, Karl-Liebknecht-Str 24/25, Potsdam (Germany); Department of Control Theory, Nizhni Novgorod State University, Gagarin Av. 23, 606950, Nizhni Novgorod (Russian Federation)


    We study scattering of a periodic wave in a string on two lumped oscillators attached to it. The equations can be represented as a driven (by the incident wave) dissipative (due to radiation losses) system of delay differential equations of neutral type. Nonlinearity of oscillators makes the scattering non-reciprocal: The same wave is transmitted differently in two directions. Periodic regimes of scattering are analyzed approximately, using amplitude equation approach. We show that this setup can act as a nonreciprocal modulator via Hopf bifurcations of the steady solutions. Numerical simulations of the full system reveal nontrivial regimes of quasiperiodic and chaotic scattering. Moreover, a regime of a “chaotic diode,” where transmission is periodic in one direction and chaotic in the opposite one, is reported.

  17. Scattering of Gaussian Beams by Disordered Particulate Media (United States)

    Mishchenko, Michael I.; Dlugach, Janna M.


    A frequently observed characteristic of electromagnetic scattering by a disordered particulate medium is the absence of pronounced speckles in angular patterns of the scattered light. It is known that such diffuse speckle-free scattering patterns can be caused by averaging over randomly changing particle positions and/or over a finite spectral range. To get further insight into the possible physical causes of the absence of speckles, we use the numerically exact superposition T-matrix solver of the Maxwell equations and analyze the scattering of plane-wave and Gaussian beams by representative multi-sphere groups. We show that phase and amplitude variations across an incident Gaussian beam do not serve to extinguish the pronounced speckle pattern typical of plane-wave illumination of a fixed multi-particle group. Averaging over random particle positions and/or over a finite spectral range is still required to generate the classical diffuse speckle-free regime.

  18. Progress in three-particle scattering from LQCD

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Briceño Raúl A.


    Full Text Available We present the status of our formalism for extracting three-particle scattering observables from lattice QCD (LQCD. The method relies on relating the discrete finitevolume energy spectrum of a quantum field theory with its scattering amplitudes. As the finite-volume spectrum can be directly determined in LQCD, this provides a method for determining scattering observables, and associated resonance properties, from the underlying theory. In a pair of papers published over the last two years, two of us have extended this approach to apply to relativistic three-particle scattering states. In this talk we summarize recent progress in checking and further extending this result. We describe an extension of the formalism to include systems in which two-to-three transitions can occur. We then present a check of the previously published formalism, in which we reproduce the known finite-volume energy shift of a three-particle bound state.

  19. Manipulating scattering features by metamaterials

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Lu Cui


    Full Text Available We present a review on manipulations of electromagnetic scattering features by using metamaterials or metasurfaces. Several approaches in controlling the scattered fields of objects are presented, including invisibility cloaks and radar illusions based on transformation optics, carpet cloak using gradient metamaterials, dc cloaks, mantle cloaks based on scattering cancellation, “skin” cloaks using phase compensation, scattering controls with coding/programmable metasurfaces, and scattering reductions by multilayered structures. Finally, the future development of metamaterials on scattering manipulation is predicted.

  20. Modelling Hyperboloid Sound Scattering

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Burry, Jane; Davis, Daniel; Peters, Brady


    The Responsive Acoustic Surfaces workshop project described here sought new understandings about the interaction between geometry and sound in the arena of sound scattering. This paper reports on the challenges associated with modelling, simulating, fabricating and measuring this phenomenon using...... both physical and digital models at three distinct scales. The results suggest hyperboloid geometry, while difficult to fabricate, facilitates sound scattering.......The Responsive Acoustic Surfaces workshop project described here sought new understandings about the interaction between geometry and sound in the arena of sound scattering. This paper reports on the challenges associated with modelling, simulating, fabricating and measuring this phenomenon using...

  1. Virtual neutron scattering experiments

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Overgaard, Julie Hougaard; Bruun, Jesper; May, Michael


    We describe how virtual experiments can be utilized in a learning design that prepares students for hands-on experiments at large-scale facilities. We illustrate the design by showing how virtual experiments are used at the Niels Bohr Institute in a master level course on neutron scattering....... In the last week of the course, students travel to a large-scale neutron scattering facility to perform real neutron scattering experiments. Through student interviews and survey answers, we argue, that the virtual training prepares the students to engage more fruitfully with experiments by letting them focus...

  2. Amplitude determinant coupled cluster with pairwise doubles

    CERN Document Server

    Zhao, Luning


    Recently developed pair coupled cluster doubles (pCCD) theory successfully reproduces doubly occupied configuration interaction (DOCI) with mean field cost. However, the projective nature of pCCD makes the method non-variational and thus hard to improve systematically. As a variational alternative, we explore the idea of coupled-cluster-like expansions based on amplitude determinants and develop a specific theory similar to pCCD based on determinants of pairwise doubles. The new ansatz admits a variational treatment through Monte Carlo methods while remaining size-consistent and, crucially, polynomial cost. In the dissociations of LiH, HF, H2O and N2, the method performs very similarly to pCCD and DOCI, suggesting that coupled-cluster-like ansatzes and variational evaluation may not be mutually exclusive.

  3. Nonlinear amplitude dynamics in flagellar beating

    CERN Document Server

    Oriola, David; Casademunt, Jaume


    The physical basis of flagellar and ciliary beating is a major problem in biology which is still far from completely understood. The fundamental cytoskeleton structure of cilia and flagella is the axoneme, a cylindrical array of microtubule doublets connected by passive crosslinkers and dynein motor proteins. The complex interplay of these elements leads to the generation of self-organized bending waves. Although many mathematical models have been proposed to understand this process, few attempts have been made to assess the role of dyneins on the nonlinear nature of the axoneme. Here, we investigate the nonlinear dynamics of flagella by considering an axonemal sliding control mechanism for dynein activity. This approach unveils the nonlinear selection of the oscillation amplitudes, which are typically either missed or prescribed in mathematical models. The explicit set of nonlinear equations are derived and solved numerically. Our analysis reveals the spatiotemporal dynamics of dynein populations and flagell...

  4. Cascaded Amplitude Modulations in Sound Texture Perception

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    McWalter, Richard Ian; Dau, Torsten


    Sound textures, such as crackling fire or chirping crickets, represent a broad class of sounds defined by their homogeneous temporal structure. It has been suggested that the perception of texture is mediated by time-averaged summary statistics measured from early auditory representations....... In this study, we investigated the perception of sound textures that contain rhythmic structure, specifically second-order amplitude modulations that arise from the interaction of different modulation rates, previously described as "beating" in the envelope-frequency domain. We developed an auditory texture...... model that utilizes a cascade of modulation filterbanks that capture the structure of simple rhythmic patterns. The model was examined in a series of psychophysical listening experiments using synthetic sound textures-stimuli generated using time-averaged statistics measured from real-world textures...

  5. Subleading soft graviton theorem for loop amplitudes (United States)

    Sen, Ashoke


    Superstring field theory gives expressions for heterotic and type II string loop amplitudes that are free from ultraviolet and infrared divergences when the number of non-compact space-time dimensions is five or more. We prove the subleading soft graviton theorem in these theories to all orders in perturbation theory for S-matrix elements of arbitrary number of finite energy external states but only one external soft graviton. We also prove the leading soft graviton theorem for arbitrary number of finite energy external states and arbitrary number of soft gravitons. Since our analysis is based on general properties of one particle irreducible effective action, the results are valid in any theory of quantum gravity that gives finite result for the S-matrix order by order in perturbation theory without violating general coordinate invariance.

  6. Scattering from randomly oriented scatterers with strong permittivity fluctuations (United States)

    Yueh, S. H.; Kong, J. A.; Shin, R. T.


    Strong permittivity fluctuation theory is used to solve the problem of scattering from a medium composed of completely randomly oriented scatterers under a low frequency limit. Gaussian statistics are not assumed for the renormalized scattering sources. Numerical results on effective permittivity are illustrated for oblate and prolate spheroidal scatterers and compared with the results for spherical scatterers. The results are consistent with discrete scatterer theory. The effective permittivity of a random medium embedded with nonspherical scatterers shows a higher imaginary part than the spherical scatterer case with equal correlation volume. Under the distorted Born approximation, the polarimetric covariance matrix for the backscattered electric field is calculated for half-space randomly oriented scatterers. The nonspherical geometry of the scatterers shows significant effects on the cross-polarized backscattering returns, and the correlation coefficient between HH and VV returns. The polarimetric backscattering coefficients can provide useful information in distinguishing the geometry of scatterers.

  7. Subleading Terms in the Collinear Limit of Yang-Mills Amplitudes


    Stieberger, Stephan; Taylor, Tomasz R.


    For two massless particles i and j, the collinear limit is a special kinematic configuration in which the particles propagate with parallel four-momentum vectors, with the total momentum P distributed as p_i=xP and p_j=(1-x)P, so that s_{ij}=(p_i+p_j)^2=P^2=0. In Yang-Mills theory, if i and j are among N gauge bosons participating in a scattering process, it is well known that the partial amplitudes associated to the (single trace) group factors with adjacent i and j are singular in the colli...

  8. Complete N-point superstring disk amplitude II. Amplitude and hypergeometric function structure (United States)

    Mafra, Carlos R.; Schlotterer, Oliver; Stieberger, Stephan


    Using the pure spinor formalism in part I (Mafra et al., preprint [1]) we compute the complete tree-level amplitude of N massless open strings and find a striking simple and compact form in terms of minimal building blocks: the full N-point amplitude is expressed by a sum over (N-3)! Yang-Mills partial subamplitudes each multiplying a multiple Gaussian hypergeometric function. While the former capture the space-time kinematics of the amplitude the latter encode the string effects. This result disguises a lot of structure linking aspects of gauge amplitudes as color and kinematics with properties of generalized Euler integrals. In this part II the structure of the multiple hypergeometric functions is analyzed in detail: their relations to monodromy equations, their minimal basis structure, and methods to determine their poles and transcendentality properties are proposed. Finally, a Gröbner basis analysis provides independent sets of rational functions in the Euler integrals. In contrast to [1] here we use momenta redefined by a factor of i. As a consequence the signs of the kinematic invariants are flipped, e.g. |→|.

  9. GPR amplitude reflection coefficient estimates from reflected amplitude obtained from Common Mid-Point surveys (United States)

    Kana, A. A.; West, J. L.; Clark, R.


    Ground penetrating radar offers the potential to image individual rock fractures, and can potentially provide much-needed information on fracture aperture and hence permeability. However, estimation of fracture properties from radar requires determination of the reflection co-efficient (R) of individual fractures. The reflected amplitude measured at the receiver is related to reflection coefficient, but it is also affected by other factors including transmitter power and coupling with the ground, the antenna radiation pattern, incident angle, geometric spreading and intrinsic attenuation within the rock matrix (and hence the ray path length). Hence, obtaining absolute R values for fractures is a non-trivial exercise. Here we present an approach for the estimation of bedding plane fracture R based on the variation in reflection amplitude with incident angle and polarization determined in CMP (Common Mid-Point) surveys. A 500MHz radar Common Offset (CO) profile was acquired on Carboniferous Limestone in West Yorkshire, United Kingdom. CMP data were acquired at specific points along the profile using both broadside (TE) and endfire (TM) acquisition modes. Attenuation characteristics for the limestone and antenna radiation pattern in this lithology were estimated from transillumination surveys. The variation in reflected amplitude with incident angle was determined for bedding plane fractures identified in the CMP data. After correcting these reflected amplitudes for attenuation, radiation pattern and geometric spreading, reflection amplitude versus incident angle curves were compared with theoretical predictions expected for thin water-filled parallel-sided fractures. Preliminary analysis indicate that TE and TM mode responses match theoretical predictions which suggests this approach can be used to obtain R values from CMP surveys.

  10. Scattering state solutions of the Duffin-Kemmer-Petiau equation with the Varshni potential model

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Oluwadare, O.J. [Federal University Oye-Ekiti, Department of Physics, Oye-Ekiti, Ekiti State (Nigeria); Oyewumi, K.J. [Federal University of Technology, Department of Physics, Minna, Niger State (Nigeria)


    The scattering state of the Duffin-Kemmer-Petiau equation with the Varshni potential was studied. The asymptotic wave function, the scattering phase shift and normalization constant were obtained for any J states by dealing with the centrifugal term using a suitable approximation. The analytical properties of the scattering amplitude and the bound state energy were obtained and discussed. Our numerical and graphical results indicate that the scattering phase shift depends largely on total angular momentum J, screening parameter β and potential strengths a and b. (orig.)

  11. Applied electromagnetic scattering theory

    CERN Document Server

    Osipov, Andrey A


    Besides classical applications (radar and stealth, antennas, microwave engineering), scattering and diffraction are enabling phenomena for some emerging research fields (artificial electromagnetic materials or metamaterials, terahertz technologies, electromagnetic aspects of nano-science). This book is a tutorial for advanced students who need to study diffraction theory. The textbook gives fundamental knowledge about scattering and diffraction of electromagnetic waves and provides some working examples of solutions for practical high-frequency scattering and diffraction problems. The book focuses on the most important diffraction effects and mechanisms influencing the scattering process and describes efficient and physically justified simulation methods - physical optics (PO) and the physical theory of diffraction (PTD) - applicable in typical remote sensing scenarios. The material is presented in a comprehensible and logical form, which relates the presented results to the basic principles of electromag...

  12. Leaf-shape effects in electromagnetic wave scattering from vegetation (United States)

    Karam, Mostafa A.; Fung, Adrian K.


    A vegetation medium is modeled as a half-space of randomly distributed and oriented leaves of arbitrary shape. In accordance with the first-order radiative transfer theory, the backscattering coefficient for such a half-space is expressed in terms of the scattering amplitudes. For disc- or needle-shaped leaves, the generalized Rayleigh-Gans approximation is used to calculate the scattering amplitudes. This approach is valid for leaf dimensions up to the size of the incident wavelength. To examine the leaf-shape effect, elliptic discs are used to model deciduous leaves, and needles are used to model coniferous leaves. The differences between the scattering characteristics of leaves of different shapes are illustrated numerically for various orientations, frequencies, and incidence angles. It is found that the scattering characteristics of elliptic disc-shaped leaves are sensitive to the three angles of orientation and disc ellipticity. In general, both like and cross polarizations may be needed to differentiate the difference in scattering due to the shapes of the leaves.

  13. Neutron scattering in dimers

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Gudel, H. U.; Furrer, A.; Kjems, Jørgen


    Insulating compounds containing dimers of transition metal and rare earth ions have been studied by inelastic neutron scattering (INS). Energy splittings can be directly determined, and the corresponding parameters are easily extracted from the experimental data. The intensities of dimer excitati......Insulating compounds containing dimers of transition metal and rare earth ions have been studied by inelastic neutron scattering (INS). Energy splittings can be directly determined, and the corresponding parameters are easily extracted from the experimental data. The intensities of dimer...

  14. Parity-nonconserving asymmetry in n-d scattering

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Kloet, W.M.; Gibson, B.F.; Stephenson, G.J. Jr.; Henley, E.M.


    The weak parity-nonconserving asymmetry in the total cross section for the scattering of longitudinally polarized neutrons from deuterons at 14.4 MeV is estimated using strong n-d scattering amplitudes from an s-wave, separable-potential Faddeev calculation. The weak force is parametrized in terms of rho,, and ..pi.. exchange and treated perturbatively. We find that A/sub n d/ = 0.8 x 10/sup -7/ when A/sub p p/ = 2.6 x 10/sup -7/.

  15. Feed-forward digital phase and amplitude correction system (United States)

    Yu, David U. L.; Conway, Patrick H.


    Phase and amplitude modifications in repeatable RF pulses at the output of a high power pulsed microwave amplifier are made utilizing a digital feed-forward correction system. A controlled amount of the output power is coupled to a correction system for processing of phase and amplitude information. The correction system comprises circuitry to compare the detected phase and amplitude with the desired phase and amplitude, respectively, and a digitally programmable phase shifter and attenuator and digital logic circuitry to control the phase shifter and attenuator. The Phase and amplitude of subsequent are modified by output signals from the correction system.

  16. The Influence of Radiation Damping on Through-Resonance Variation in the Scattering Cross-Section of Gas Bubbles

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Ainslie, M.A.; Leighton, T.G.


    When a gas bubble in water undergoes forced pulsations, sound is radiated at the forcing frequency, and the scattering cross-section exhibits a resonance peak when the forcing frequency passes through the bubble’s natural frequency. At resonance, the amplitude of the scattered spherical wave is

  17. Diffusive scattering of electrons by electron holes around injection fronts (United States)

    Vasko, I. Y.; Agapitov, O. V.; Mozer, F. S.; Artemyev, A. V.; Krasnoselskikh, V. V.; Bonnell, J. W.


    Van Allen Probes have detected nonlinear electrostatic spikes around injection fronts in the outer radiation belt. These spikes include electron holes (EH), double layers, and more complicated solitary waves. We show that EHs can efficiently scatter electrons due to their substantial transverse electric fields. Although the electron scattering driven by EHs is diffusive, it cannot be evaluated via the standard quasi-linear theory. We derive analytical formulas describing local electron scattering by a single EH and verify them via test particle simulations. We show that the most efficiently scattered are gyroresonant electrons (crossing EH on a time scale comparable to the local electron gyroperiod). We compute bounce-averaged diffusion coefficients and demonstrate their dependence on the EH spatial distribution (latitudinal extent and spatial filling factor) and individual EH parameters (amplitude of electrostatic potential, velocity, and spatial scales). We show that EHs can drive pitch angle scattering of ≲5 keV electrons at rates 10-2-10-4 s-1 and, hence, can contribute to electron losses and conjugated diffuse aurora brightenings. The momentum and pitch angle scattering rates can be comparable, so that EHs can also provide efficient electron heating. The scattering rates driven by EHs at L shells L ˜ 5-8 are comparable to those due to chorus waves and may exceed those due to electron cyclotron harmonics.

  18. Constraints imposed by the data above 1 GeV on the low energy $\\pi\\pi$ amplitudes

    CERN Document Server

    Bonnier, B


    The authors study the influence of the region above 1 GeV on low- energy pi pi amplitudes by using minimum subtracted dispersion relations, in addition to the twice subtracted ones. When the results are compared with the recent phase-shift analysis below 1 GeV, they find that the S-wave isospin-zero scattering length has to lie between 0.5 and 0.8. (17 refs).

  19. Effects of amplitude modulation on perception of wind turbine noise

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Yoon, Ki Seop; Lee, Soo Gab; Gwak, Doo Young [Dept. of Mechanical and Aerospace Engineering, Seoul National University, Seoul (Korea, Republic of); Seong, Yeol Wan [Ammunition Engineering Team, Defense Agency for Technology and Quality, Daejeon (Korea, Republic of); Lee, Seung Hoon [Aerodynamics Research Team, Korea Aerospace Research Institute, Daejeon (Korea, Republic of); Hong, Ji Young [Transportation Environmental Research Team, Green Transport and Logistics Institute, Korea Railroad Research Institute, Uiwang (Korea, Republic of)


    Wind turbine noise is considered to be easily detectable and highly annoying at relatively lower sound levels than other noise sources. Many previous studies attributed this characteristic to amplitude modulation. However, it is unclear whether amplitude modulation is the main cause of these properties of wind turbine noise. Therefore, the aim of the current study is to identify the relationship between amplitude modulation and these two properties of wind turbine noise. For this investigation, two experiments were conducted. In the first experiment, 12 participants determined the detection thresholds of six target sounds in the presence of background noise. In the second experiment, 12 participants matched the loudness of modified sounds without amplitude modulation to that of target sounds with amplitude modulation. The results showed that the detection threshold was lowered as the modulation depth increased; additionally, sounds with amplitude modulation had higher subjective loudness than those without amplitude modulation.

  20. Gearbox Vibration Signal Amplitude and Frequency Modulation

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Fakher Chaari


    Full Text Available Gearboxes usually run under fluctuating load conditions during service, however most of papers available in the literature describe models of gearboxes under stationary load conditions. Main task of published papers is fault modeling for their detection. Considering real situation from industry, the assumption of stationarity of load conditions cannot be longer kept. Vibration signals issued from monitoring in maintenance operations differ from mentioned models (due to load non-stationarity and may be difficult to analyze which lead to erroneous diagnosis of the system. The objective of this paper is to study the influence of time varying load conditions on a gearbox dynamic behavior. To investigate this, a simple spur gear system without defects is modeled. It is subjected to a time varying load. The speed-torque characteristic of the driving motor is considered. The load variation induces speed variation, which causes a variation in the gearmesh stiffness period. Computer simulation shows deep amplitude modulations with sidebands that don't differ from those obtained when there is a defective tooth. In order to put in evidence the time varying load effects, Short Time Fourier Transform and then Smoothed Wigner-Ville distribution are used. Results show that the last one is well suited for the studied case.

  1. Nonlinear amplitude dynamics in flagellar beating (United States)

    Oriola, David; Gadêlha, Hermes; Casademunt, Jaume


    The physical basis of flagellar and ciliary beating is a major problem in biology which is still far from completely understood. The fundamental cytoskeleton structure of cilia and flagella is the axoneme, a cylindrical array of microtubule doublets connected by passive cross-linkers and dynein motor proteins. The complex interplay of these elements leads to the generation of self-organized bending waves. Although many mathematical models have been proposed to understand this process, few attempts have been made to assess the role of dyneins on the nonlinear nature of the axoneme. Here, we investigate the nonlinear dynamics of flagella by considering an axonemal sliding control mechanism for dynein activity. This approach unveils the nonlinear selection of the oscillation amplitudes, which are typically either missed or prescribed in mathematical models. The explicit set of nonlinear equations are derived and solved numerically. Our analysis reveals the spatio-temporal dynamics of dynein populations and flagellum shape for different regimes of motor activity, medium viscosity and flagellum elasticity. Unstable modes saturate via the coupling of dynein kinetics and flagellum shape without the need of invoking a nonlinear axonemal response. Hence, our work reveals a novel mechanism for the saturation of unstable modes in axonemal beating.

  2. An amplitude modulated radio frequency plasma generator (United States)

    Lei, Fan; Li, Xiaoping; Liu, Yanming; Liu, Donglin; Yang, Min; Xie, Kai; Yao, Bo


    A glow discharge plasma generator and diagnostic system has been developed to study the effects of rapidly variable plasmas on electromagnetic wave propagation, mimicking the plasma sheath conditions encountered in space vehicle reentry. The plasma chamber is 400 mm in diameter and 240 mm in length, with a 300-mm-diameter unobstructed clear aperture. Electron densities produced are in the mid 1010 electrons/cm3. An 800 W radio frequency (RF) generator is capacitively coupled through an RF matcher to an internally cooled stainless steel electrode to form the plasma. The RF power is amplitude modulated by a waveform generator that operates at different frequencies. The resulting plasma contains electron density modulations caused by the varying power levels. A 10 GHz microwave horn antenna pair situated on opposite sides of the chamber serves as the source and detector of probe radiation. The microwave power feed to the source horn is split and one portion is sent directly to a high-speed recording oscilloscope. On mixing this with the signal from the pickup horn antenna, the plasma-induced phase shift between the two signals gives the path-integrated electron density with its complete time dependent variation. Care is taken to avoid microwave reflections and extensive shielding is in place to minimize electronic pickup. Data clearly show the low frequency modulation of the electron density as well as higher harmonics and plasma fluctuations.

  3. Open string topological amplitudes and gaugino masses

    CERN Document Server

    Antoniadis, Ignatios; Taylor, T R


    We show that the genus zero topological partition function $F^{(0,h)}$, on a world-sheet with $h$ boundaries, computes the moduli-dependent couplings of the higher derivative F-terms $(\\Tr W^2)^{h-1}$, where $W$ is the gauge N=1 chiral superfield. By string duality, these terms are also related to heterotic topological amplitudes studied in the past, with the topological twist applied only in the left-moving supersymmetric sector of the internal $N=(2,0)$ superconformal field theory. The holomorphic anomaly of these couplings relates them to terms of the form $\\Pi^n({\\rm Tr}W^2)^{h-2}$, where $\\Pi$'s represent chiral projections of non-holomorphic functions of chiral superfields. An important property of these couplings is that they violate R-symmetry for $h\\ge 3$. As a result, once supersymmetry is broken by D-term expectation values, $(\\Tr W^2)^2$ generates gaugino masses that can be hierarchically smaller than the scalar masses, behaving as $m_{1/2}\\sim m_0^4$ in string units. Similarly, $\\Pi{\\rm Tr}W^2$ g...

  4. Digital automatic regulator of seismic signal amplitudes

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Spirin, V.V.; Kazanin, G.S.; Remizov, V.Ya.; Slutskovskiy, A.I.


    A digital automatic regulator of seismic signal amplitudes is suggested. It contains parallel connected chains consisting of a source of input information, control assembly, outlet recorder, as well as first shift and arithmetic recorders, summator, second and third shift recorders connected in series, and recorder for the order code also connected in series. In order to improve the quality of regulation and for fast response, the device has an additional transformer of the code for the stages of momentary automatic amplification regulator and frequency circuit. In this case the input information source is connected to the inlet of the shift recorder and through the transformer of the stage code to the inlet of the arithmetic recorder, and through the frequency circuit to the inlet of the control assembly. The summator outlet is connected to the second inlet of the latter. The outlet of the control assembly is connected to the inlets of the outlet recorder, as well as the second and third shift recorders, and by the recorder of the order code through the first shift and arithmetic recorders to the first inlet of the summator. Its second inlet is connected to the outlet of the second shift recorder. Its two inlets are connected to the outlets of the third shift recorder and the recorder of the order code.

  5. Casimir amplitudes in topological quantum phase transitions (United States)

    Griffith, M. A.; Continentino, M. A.


    Topological phase transitions constitute a new class of quantum critical phenomena. They cannot be described within the usual framework of the Landau theory since, in general, the different phases cannot be distinguished by an order parameter, neither can they be related to different symmetries. In most cases, however, one can identify a diverging length at these topological transitions. This allows us to describe them using a scaling approach and to introduce a set of critical exponents that characterize their universality class. Here we consider some relevant models of quantum topological transitions associated with well-defined critical exponents that are related by a quantum hyperscaling relation. We extend to these models a finite-size scaling approach based on techniques for calculating the Casimir force in electromagnetism. This procedure allows us to obtain universal Casimir amplitudes at their quantum critical points. Our results verify the validity of finite-size scaling in these systems and confirm the values of the critical exponents obtained previously.

  6. Effective anisotropy through traveltime and amplitude matching

    KAUST Repository

    Wang, Hui


    Introducing anisotropy to seismic wave propagation reveals more realistic physics of our Earth\\'s subsurface as compared to the isotropic assumption. However wavefield modeling, the engine of seismic inverse problems, in anisotropic media still suffers from computational burdens, in particular with complex anisotropy such as transversely isotropic (TI) and Orthorhombic anisotropy. We develop effective isotropic velocity and density models to package the effects of anisotropy such that the wave propagation behavior using these effective models approximate those of the original anisotropic model. We build these effective models through the high frequency asymptotic approximation based on the eikonal and transport equations. We match the geometrical behavior of the wave-fields, given by traveltimes, from the anisotropic and isotropic eikonal equations. This matching yields the effective isotropic velocity that approximates the kinematics of the anisotropic wavefield. Equivalently, we calculate the effective densities by equating the anisotropic and isotropic transport equations. The effective velocities and densities are then fed into the isotropic acoustic variable density wave equation to obtain cheaper anisotropic wavefields. We justify our approach by testing it on an elliptical anisotropic model. The numerical results demonstrate a good matching of both traveltime and amplitude between anisotropic and effective isotropic wavefields.

  7. Parity-Violating Electron Scattering: New Results and Future Prospects

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Krishna S. Kumar


    We discuss the status and prospects of an experimental program of parity-violating asymmetry measurements in the scattering of longitudinally polarized electrons off unpolarized fixed targets. One thrust is the measurements of nucleon neutral weak form factors at intermediate four-momentum transfer (0.1 < Q2 < 1) (GeV/c)2 which provide information about the role of virtual strange quarks on the charge and current distributions inside nucleons. A new topic is the elastic neutral weak amplitude from scattering off a heavy spinless nucleus, which is sensitive to the presence of a neutron skin. Finally, we discuss the neutral current elastic amplitude at very low Q2, which allows precision measurements of the weak mixing angle at low energy and is thus sensitive to new physics at the TeV scale. The physics implications of recent results, potential measurements from experiments under construction as well as new ideas at future facilities are discussed.

  8. Transversity Amplitudes in Hypercharge Exchange Processes; Amplitudes de transversidad en procesos de intercambio de hipercarga

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Aguilar Benitez de Lugo, M.


    In this work we present several techniques developed for the extraction of the. Transversity amplitudes governing quasi two-body meson baryon reactions with hypercharge exchange. We review the methods used In processes having a pure spin configuration, as well as the more relevant results obtained with data from K{sup p} and Tp interactions at intermediate energies. The predictions of the additive quark model and the ones following from exchange degeneracy and etoxicity are discussed. We present a formalism for amplitude analysis developed for reactions with mixed spin configurations and discuss the methods of parametric estimation of the moduli and phases of.the amplitudes, as well as the various tests employed to check the goodness of the fits. The calculation of the generalized joint density matrices is given and we propose a method based on the generalization of the idea of multipole moments, which allows to investigate the structure of the decay angular correlations and establishes the quality of the fits and the validity of the simplifying assumptions currently used in this type of studies. (Author) 43 refs.

  9. Scattering unitarity with effective dimension-6 operators (United States)

    Ghosh, Swagata; Islam, Rashidul; Kundu, Anirban


    The effects of physics beyond the Standard Model (SM) may be parametrized by a set of higher-dimensional operators leading to an effective theory. The introduction of these operators makes the theory nonrenormalizable, and one may reasonably expect a violation of unitarity in 2\\to 2 scattering processes, depending on the values of the Wilson coefficients (WC) of the higher dimensional operators. Bounds on these coefficients may be obtained from demanding that there be no such unitarity violation below the scale of the effective theory. We show, at the lowest level, how the new operators affect the scattering amplitudes with longitudinal gauge bosons, scalars, and t\\overline{t} in the final state, and find that one may expect a violation of unitarity even at the LHC energies with small values of some of the new WC. For most of the others, such a violation needs large coefficients, indicating nonperturbative physics for the ultraviolet-complete theory, although a proper treatment necessitates the inclusion of even higher-dimensional operators. However, deviations from the SM expectations may be observed with even smaller values for these coefficients. We find that {WW}\\to {WW}, {WW}\\to {ZZ}, and {ZZ}\\to {hh} scatterings are the best possible channels to probe unitarity violations.

  10. Deep Inelastic Scattering in Conformal QCD

    CERN Document Server

    Cornalba, Lorenzo; Penedones, Joao


    We consider the Regge limit of a CFT correlation function of two vector and two scalar operators, as appropriate to study small-x deep inelastic scattering in N=4 SYM or in QCD assuming approximate conformal symmetry. After clarifying the nature of the Regge limit for a CFT correlator, we use its conformal partial wave expansion to obtain an impact parameter representation encoding the exchange of a spin j Reggeon for any value of the coupling constant. The CFT impact parameter space is the three-dimensional hyperbolic space H3, which is the impact parameter space for high energy scattering in the dual AdS space. We determine the small-x structure functions associated to the exchange of a Reggeon. We discuss unitarization from the point of view of scattering in AdS and comment on the validity of the eikonal approximation. We then focus on the weak coupling limit of the theory where the amplitude is dominated by the exchange of the BFKL pomeron. Conformal invariance fixes the form of the vector impact factor a...

  11. The first dedicated virtual Compton Scattering Experiment at MAMI

    CERN Document Server

    Friedrich, J M; Baumann, D; Berthot, J; Bertin, P Y; Breton, V; Böglin, W; Böhm, R; D'Hose, N; Caprano, T; Derber, S; Degrande, N; Ding, M; Distler, M O; Ducret, J E; Edelhoff, R; Ewald, I; Fonvieille, H; Friedrich, J; Geiges, R; Gousset, T; Guichon, P A M; Holvoet, H; Hyde-Wright, C E; Jennewein, P; Kahrau, M; Kerhoas, S; Korn, M; Kramer, H; Krygier, K W; Kunde, V; Lannoy, B; Lhuillier, D; Liesenfeld, A; Marchand, C; Marchand, D; Martino, J; Merkel, H; Merle, K; Merle, P; De Meyer, G; Mougey, J; Neuhausen, R; Offermann, E; Pospischil, T; Quéméner, G; Ravel, O; Roblin, Y; Roche, J; Rohe, D; Rosner, G; Ryckbosch, D; Sauer, P U; Schmieden, H; Schardt, S; Tamas, G; Tytgat, M; Vanderhaeghen, M; Hoorebeke, L V; Vyver, R V D; Wiele, J V D; Vernin, P; Wagner, A; Walcher, T


    We measured the absolute cross sections for photon electro-production off the proton, ep -> ep gamma, with the high resolution spectrometers at MAMI at momentum transfer q = 600 MeV/c and photon polarization epsilon=0.62. We covered the momentum range for the outgoing real photon q' = 33/111 MeV/c. >From the extracted Virtual Compton Scattering amplitude we deduce values for two structure functions related to the generalized polarizabilities of the proton.

  12. Pseudo resonance behavior in nucleon-nucleon scattering (United States)

    Kloet, W. M.; Tjon, J. A.; Silbar, Richard R.


    In a relativistic unitary model for intermediate energy nucleon-nucleon scattering there are strong indications that the resonance-like looping behavior of the 3F 3 and 1D 2 amplitudes is not due to a resonance pole but to the coupling with the inelastic NNπ channel. In its most simple form the looping behavior is caused by a square root branch cut.

  13. Deeply virtual compton scattering at 6 GeV

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Berthot, J. [Universite Blaise Pascal, Clermont-Ferrand II, Lab. de Physique Corpusculaire (CNRS), 63 - Aubiere (France); Chen, J.P.; Chudakov, E. [National Accelerator Facility, Newport News, Virginia (United States)] [and others


    We propose a measurement of the Deep Virtual Compton Scattering process (DVCS) ep {yields} ep{gamma} in Hall A at Jefferson Lab with a 6 GeV beam. We are able to explore the onset of Q{sup 2} scaling, by measuring a beam helicity asymmetry for Q{sup 2} ranging from 1.5 to 2.5 GeV{sup 2} at x{sub B}{approx}0.35. At this kinematics, the asymmetry is dominated by the DVCS - Bethe-Heitler (BH) interference, which is proportional to the imaginary part of the DVCS amplitude amplified by the full magnitude of the BH amplitude. The imaginary part of the DVCS amplitude is expected to scale early. Indeed, the imaginary part of the forward Compton amplitude measured in deep inelastic scattering (via the optical theorem) scales at Q{sup 2} as low as 1 GeV{sup 2}. If the scaling regime is reached, we will make an 8% measurement of the skewed parton distributions (SPD) contributing to the DVCS amplitude. Also, this experiment allows us to separately estimate the size of the higher-twist effects, since they are only suppressed by an additional factor 1/Q compared to the leading-twist term, and have a different angular dependence. We use a polarized electron beam and detect the scattered electron in the HRSe, the real photon in an electromagnetic calorimeter (under construction) and the recoil proton in a shielded scintillator array (to be constructed). This allows as to determine the difference in cross-sections for electrons of opposite helicities. This observable is directly linked to the SPD's. We estimate that 25 days of beam (600 hours) are needed to achieve this goal. (authors)

  14. Evolution of the Rayleigh scattering from mixed Ar/Kr clusters during their saturation with krypton atoms (United States)

    Zhvaniya, I. A.; Dzhidzhoev, M. S.; Balakin, A. V.; Kuzechkin, N. A.; Shkurinov, A. P.; Gordienko, V. M.


    The evolution of the Rayleigh scattering signal from mixed Ar/Kr clusters with variation in the partial Kr concentration in the initial gas mixture is investigated. An addition of krypton in small amounts to argon is found to cause an anomalously rapid increase in the Rayleigh scattering signal amplitude, which is due to a sharp increase in the size of clusters as a result of their saturation with krypton atoms. At a partial krypton concentration above 25% in the initial mixture, the scattering signal amplitude is stabilised because of the condensation saturation during the cluster formation.

  15. Virtual neutron scattering experiments

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Overgaard, Julie Hougaard; Bruun, Jesper; May, Michael


    . In the last week of the course, students travel to a large-scale neutron scattering facility to perform real neutron scattering experiments. Through student interviews and survey answers, we argue, that the virtual training prepares the students to engage more fruitfully with experiments by letting them focus......We describe how virtual experiments can be utilized in a learning design that prepares students for hands-on experiments at large-scale facilities. We illustrate the design by showing how virtual experiments are used at the Niels Bohr Institute in a master level course on neutron scattering...... on physics and data rather than the overwhelming instrumentation. We argue that this is because they can transfer their virtual experimental experience to the real-life situation. However, we also find that learning is still situated in the sense that only knowledge of particular experiments is transferred...

  16. Electromagnetic scattering theory (United States)

    Bird, J. F.; Farrell, R. A.


    Electromagnetic scattering theory is discussed with emphasis on the general stochastic variational principle (SVP) and its applications. The stochastic version of the Schwinger-type variational principle is presented, and explicit expressions for its integrals are considered. Results are summarized for scalar wave scattering from a classic rough-surface model and for vector wave scattering from a random dielectric-body model. Also considered are the selection of trial functions and the variational improvement of the Kirchhoff short-wave approximation appropriate to large size-parameters. Other applications of vector field theory discussed include a general vision theory and the analysis of hydromagnetism induced by ocean motion across the geomagnetic field. Levitational force-torque in the magnetic suspension of the disturbance compensation system (DISCOS), now deployed in NOVA satellites, is also analyzed using the developed theory.

  17. Quantum Optical Multiple Scattering

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Ott, Johan Raunkjær

    . In the first part we use a scattering-matrix formalism combined with results from random-matrix theory to investigate the interference of quantum optical states on a multiple scattering medium. We investigate a single realization of a scattering medium thereby showing that it is possible to create entangled...... states by interference of squeezed beams. Mixing photon states on the single realization also shows that quantum interference naturally arises by interfering quantum states. We further investigate the ensemble averaged transmission properties of the quantized light and see that the induced quantum...... interference survives even after disorder averaging. The quantum interference manifests itself through increased photon correlations. Furthermore, the theoretical description of a measurement procedure is presented. In this work we relate the noise power spectrum of the total transmitted or reflected light...

  18. Virtual neutron scattering experiments

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Overgaard, Julie Hougaard; Bruun, Jesper; May, Michael


    We describe how virtual experiments can be utilized in a learning design that prepares students for hands-on experiments at large-scale facilities. We illustrate the design by showing how virtual experiments are used at the Niels Bohr Institute in a master level course on neutron scattering....... In the last week of the course, students travel to a large-scale neutron scattering facility to perform real neutron scattering experiments. Through student interviews and survey answers, we argue, that the virtual training prepares the students to engage more fruitfully with experiments by letting them focus...... on physics and data rather than the overwhelming instrumentation. We argue that this is because they can transfer their virtual experimental experience to the real-life situation. However, we also find that learning is still situated in the sense that only knowledge of particular experiments is transferred...


    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)



    Much of our understanding of the atomic-scale magnetic structure and the dynamical properties of solids and liquids was gained from neutron-scattering studies. Elastic and inelastic neutron spectroscopy provided physicists with an unprecedented, detailed access to spin structures, magnetic-excitation spectra, soft-modes and critical dynamics at magnetic-phase transitions, which is unrivaled by other experimental techniques. Because the neutron has no electric charge, it is an ideal weakly interacting and highly penetrating probe of matter's inner structure and dynamics. Unlike techniques using photon electric fields or charged particles (e.g., electrons, muons) that significantly modify the local electronic environment, neutron spectroscopy allows determination of a material's intrinsic, unperturbed physical properties. The method is not sensitive to extraneous charges, electric fields, and the imperfection of surface layers. Because the neutron is a highly penetrating and non-destructive probe, neutron spectroscopy can probe the microscopic properties of bulk materials (not just their surface layers) and study samples embedded in complex environments, such as cryostats, magnets, and pressure cells, which are essential for understanding the physical origins of magnetic phenomena. Neutron scattering is arguably the most powerful and versatile experimental tool for studying the microscopic properties of the magnetic materials. The magnitude of the cross-section of the neutron magnetic scattering is similar to the cross-section of nuclear scattering by short-range nuclear forces, and is large enough to provide measurable scattering by the ordered magnetic structures and electron spin fluctuations. In the half-a-century or so that has passed since neutron beams with sufficient intensity for scattering applications became available with the advent of the nuclear reactors, they have became indispensable tools for studying a variety of important areas of modern

  20. Neutron scattering. Experiment manuals

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Brueckel, Thomas; Heger, Gernot; Richter, Dieter; Roth, Georg; Zorn, Reiner (eds.)


    The following topics are dealt with: The thermal triple axis spectrometer PUMA, the high-resolution powder diffractometer SPODI, the hot single-crystal diffractometer HEiDi for structure analysis with neutrons, the backscattering spectrometer SPHERES, neutron polarization analysis with tht time-of-flight spectrometer DNS, the neutron spin-echo spectrometer J-NSE, small-angle neutron scattering with the KWS-1 and KWS-2 diffractometers, the very-small-angle neutron scattering diffractrometer with focusing mirror KWS-3, the resonance spin-echo spectrometer RESEDA, the reflectometer TREFF, the time-of-flight spectrometer TOFTOF. (HSI)

  1. Scattering of unstable particles in a finite volume: the case of pi rho scattering and the a1(1260) resonance

    CERN Document Server

    Roca, L


    We present a way to evaluate the scattering of unstable particles quantized in a finite volume with the aim of extracting physical observables for infinite volume from lattice data. We illustrate the method with the $\\pi\\rho$ scattering which generates dynamically the axial-vector $a_1(1260)$ resonance. Energy levels in a finite box are evaluated both considering the $\\rho$ as a stable and unstable resonance and we find significant differences between both cases. We discuss how to solve the problem to get the physical scattering amplitudes in the infinite volume, and hence phase shifts, from possible lattice results on energy levels quantized inside a finite box.

  2. Kapitza-Dirac scattering of electrons from a bichromatic standing laser wave

    CERN Document Server

    Dellweg, Matthias M


    Coherent scattering of an electron beam by the Kapitza-Dirac effect from a standing laser wave which comprises two frequency components is studied. To this end, the Schr\\"odinger equation is solved numerically with a suitable ponderomotive potential. Besides, an analytical solution for electron diffraction in the asymptotic domain of large field amplitudes is obtained and a mathematical model in reduced dimensionality for the scattering amplitude in the Bragg regime is presented. We demonstrate distinct interference signatures and relative phase effects when the standing wave contains a fundamental frequency and its second harmonic. The influence of the relative field intensities on the Rabi oscillation dynamics is also discussed.

  3. Light scattering by a nematic liquid crystal droplet: Wentzel–Kramers–Brillouin approximation

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Loiko, V. A., E-mail:; Konkolovich, A. V.; Miskevich, A. A. [National Academy of Science of Belarus, Stepanov Institute of Physics (Belarus)


    Light scattering by an optically anisotropic liquid crystal (LC) droplet of a nematic in an isotropic polymer matrix is considered in the Wentzel–Kramers–Brillouin (WKB) approximation. General relations are obtained for elements of the amplitude matrix of light scattering by a droplet of arbitrary shape and for the structure of the director field. Analytic expressions for the amplitude matrices are derived for spherical LC droplets with a uniformly oriented structure of local optical axes for strictly forward and strictly backward scattering. The efficiency factors of extinction and backward scattering for a spherical nonabsorbing LC droplet depending on the LC optical anisotropy, refractive index of the polymer, illumination conditions, and orientation of the optical axis of the droplet are analyzed. Verification of the obtained solutions has been performed.

  4. Resonance estimates for single spin asymmetries in elastic electron-nucleon scattering

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Barbara Pasquini; Marc Vanderhaeghen


    We discuss the target and beam normal spin asymmetries in elastic electron-nucleon scattering which depend on the imaginary part of two-photon exchange processes between electron and nucleon. We express this imaginary part as a phase space integral over the doubly virtual Compton scattering tensor on the nucleon. We use unitarity to model the doubly virtual Compton scattering tensor in the resonance region in terms of {gamma}* N {yields} {pi} N electroabsorption amplitudes. Taking those amplitudes from a phenomenological analysis of pion electroproduction observables, we present results for beam and target normal single spin asymmetries for elastic electron-nucleon scattering for beam energies below 1 GeV and in the 1-3 GeV region, where several experiments are performed or are in progress.

  5. Strong SH-to-Love wave scattering off the Southern California Continental Borderland (United States)

    Yu, Chunquan; Zhan, Zhongwen; Hauksson, Egill; Cochran, Elizabeth S.


    Seismic scattering is commonly observed and results from wave propagation in heterogeneous medium. Yet, deterministic characterization of scatterers associated with lateral heterogeneities remains challenging. In this study, we analyze broadband waveforms recorded by the Southern California Seismic Network and observe strongly scattered Love waves following the arrival of teleseismic SH wave. These scattered Love waves travel approximately in the same (azimuthal) direction as the incident SH wave at a dominant period of ~10 s but at an apparent velocity of ~3.6 km/s as compared to the ~11 km/s for the SH wave. Back-projection suggests that this strong scattering is associated with pronounced bathymetric relief in the Southern California Continental Borderland, in particular the Patton Escarpment. Finite-difference simulations using a simplified 2-D bathymetric and crustal model are able to predict the arrival times and amplitudes of major scatterers. The modeling suggests a relatively low shear wave velocity in the Continental Borderland.

  6. Strong SH-to-Love Wave Scattering off the Southern California Continental Borderland (United States)

    Yu, Chunquan; Zhan, Zhongwen; Hauksson, Egill; Cochran, Elizabeth S.


    Seismic scattering is commonly observed and results from wave propagation in heterogeneous medium. Yet deterministic characterization of scatterers associated with lateral heterogeneities remains challenging. In this study, we analyze broadband waveforms recorded by the Southern California Seismic Network and observe strongly scattered Love waves following the arrival of teleseismic SH wave. These scattered Love waves travel approximately in the same (azimuthal) direction as the incident SH wave at a dominant period of 10 s but at an apparent velocity of 3.6 km/s as compared to the 11 km/s for the SH wave. Back projection suggests that this strong scattering is associated with pronounced bathymetric relief in the Southern California Continental Borderland, in particular the Patton Escarpment. Finite-difference simulations using a simplified 2-D bathymetric and crustal model are able to predict the arrival times and amplitudes of major scatterers. The modeling suggests a relatively low shear wave velocity in the Continental Borderland.

  7. Theoretical basis of the amplitude source location method for volcano-seismic signals (United States)

    Morioka, Hanae; Kumagai, Hiroyuki; Maeda, Takuto


    The source location method using high-frequency seismic amplitudes based on the assumption of isotropic radiation of S waves has been used successfully to locate seismic events and tremor at volcanoes. This amplitude source location (ASL) method overcomes the limitations of traditional hypocenter determination methods that use onset arrival times and has great potential to improve volcano-seismic monitoring and the investigation of source processes of volcano-seismic signals. However, theoretical justification of the basic assumption used in the ASL method has not been provided in previous studies. In this study, we tested the ASL method by using seismic waveforms simulated with a finite difference method in realistic heterogeneous volcanic structures with intrinsic attenuation and topography. Our results showed that ASL determinations were successful when using waveforms characterized by multiple scattering that can be approximated by the diffusion model. We found that the energy solution of the diffusion model provided an amplitude-distance relation that is similar to that used in the ASL method. Our results suggest that the ASL method is applicable to high-frequency seismograms in highly heterogeneous media with transport mean free paths of 103 m or smaller and strong intrinsic attenuation. These medium parameters are consistent with those estimated at various volcanoes. Our study validates the basic assumption of the ASL method and justifies its use to locate the sources of high-frequency seismic signals observed at volcanoes.

  8. Off-shell amplitudes as boundary integrals of analytically continued Wilson line slope

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Kotko, P. [Department of Physics, The Pennsylvania State University,University Park, PA 16802 (United States); Serino, M. [The Henryk Niewodniczański Institute of Nuclear Physics, Polish Academy of Sciences,Radzikowskiego 152, 31-342, Kraków (Poland); Staśto, A.M. [Department of Physics, The Pennsylvania State University,University Park, PA 16802 (United States)


    One of the methods to calculate tree-level multi-gluon scattering amplitudes is to use the Berends-Giele recursion relation involving off-shell currents or off-shell amplitudes, if working in the light cone gauge. As shown in recent works using the light-front perturbation theory, solutions to these recursions naturally collapse into gauge invariant and gauge-dependent components, at least for some helicity configurations. In this work, we show that such structure is helicity independent and emerges from analytic properties of matrix elements of Wilson line operators, where the slope of the straight gauge path is shifted in a certain complex direction. This is similar to the procedure leading to the Britto-Cachazo-Feng-Witten (BCFW) recursion, however we apply a complex shift to the Wilson line slope instead of the external momenta. While in the original BCFW procedure the boundary integrals over the complex shift vanish for certain deformations, here they are non-zero and are equal to the off-shell amplitudes. The main result can thus be summarized as follows: we derive a decomposition of a helicity-fixed off-shell current into gauge invariant component given by a matrix element of a straight Wilson line plus a reminder given by a sum of products of gauge invariant and gauge dependent quantities. We give several examples realizing this relation, including the five-point next-to-MHV helicity configuration.

  9. N >= 4 Supergravity Amplitudes from Gauge Theory at One Loop

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Bern, Z.; /UCLA; Boucher-Veronneau, C.; /SLAC; Johansson, H.; /Saclay


    We expose simple and practical relations between the integrated four- and five-point one-loop amplitudes of N {ge} 4 supergravity and the corresponding (super-)Yang-Mills amplitudes. The link between the amplitudes is simply understood using the recently uncovered duality between color and kinematics that leads to a double-copy structure for gravity. These examples provide additional direct confirmations of the duality and double-copy properties at loop level for a sample of different theories.

  10. Quantum amplitude amplification algorithm: an explanation of availability bias


    Franco, Riccardo


    In this article, I show that a recent family of quantum algorithms, based on the quantum amplitude amplification algorithm, can be used to describe a cognitive heuristic called availability bias. The amplitude amplification algorithm is used to define quantitatively the ease of a memory task, while the quantum amplitude estimation and the quantum counting algorithms to describe cognitive tasks such as estimating probability or approximate counting.

  11. Electron-molecule scattering in a strong laser field: Two-center interference effects (United States)

    Dakić, J.; Habibović, D.; Čerkić, A.; Busuladžić, M.; Milošević, D. B.


    Laser-assisted scattering of electrons on diatomic molecules is considered using the S -matrix theory within the second Born approximation. The first term of the expansion in powers of the scattering potential corresponds to the direct or single laser-assisted scattering of electrons on molecular targets, while the second term of this expansion corresponds to the laser-assisted rescattering or double scattering. The rescattered electrons may have considerably higher energies in the final state than those that scattered only once. For multicenter polyatomic molecules scattering and rescattering may happen at any center and in any order. All these cases contribute to the scattering amplitude and the interference of different contributions leads to an increase or a decrease of the differential cross section in particular electron energy regions. For diatomic molecules there are two such contributions for single scattering and four contributions for double scattering. Analyzing the spectra of the scattered electrons, we find two interesting effects. For certain molecular orientations, the plateaus in the electron energy spectrum, characteristic of laser-assisted electron-atom scattering, are replaced by a sequence of gradually declining maxima, caused by the two-center interference effects. The second effect is the appearance of symmetric U -shaped structures in the angle-resolved energy spectra, which are described very well by the analytical formulas we provide.

  12. Detection of combined frequency and amplitude modulation. (United States)

    Moore, B C; Sek, A


    This article is concerned with the detection of mixed modulation (MM), i.e., simultaneously occurring amplitude modulation (AM) and frequency modulation (FM). In experiment 1, an adaptive two-alternative forced-choice task was used to determine thresholds for detecting AM alone. Then, thresholds for detecting FM were determined for stimuli which had a fixed amount of AM in the signal interval only. The amount of AM was always less than the threshold for detecting AM alone. The FM thresholds depended significantly on the magnitude of the coexisting AM. For low modulation rates (4, 16, and 64 Hz), the FM thresholds did not depend significantly on the relative phase of modulation for the FM and AM. For a high modulation rate (256 Hz) strong effects of modulator phase were observed. These phase effects are as predicted by the model proposed by Hartmann and Hnath [Acustica 50, 297-312 (1982)], which assumes that detection of modulation at modulation frequencies higher than the critical modulation frequency is based on detection of the lower sideband in the modulated signal's spectrum. In the second experiment, psychometric functions were measured for the detection of AM alone and FM alone, using modulation rates of 4 and 16 Hz. Results showed that, for each type of modulation, d' is approximately a linear function of the square of the modulation index. Application of this finding to the results of experiment 1 suggested that, at low modulation rates, FM and AM are not detected by completely independent mechanisms. In the third experiment, psychometric functions were again measured for the detection of AM alone and FM alone, using a 10-Hz modulation rate. Detectability was then measured for combined AM and FM, with modulation depths selected so that each type of modulation would be equally detectable if presented alone. Significant effects of relative modulator phase were found when detectability was relatively high. These effects were not correctly predicted by either a

  13. Phase and amplitude control system for Stanford Linear Accelerator

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Yoo, S.J.


    The computer controlled phase and amplitude detection system measures the instantaneous phase and amplitude of a 1 micro-second 2856 MHz rf pulse at a 180 Hz rate. This will be used for phase feedback control, and also for phase and amplitude jitter measurement. The program, which was originally written by John Fox and Keith Jobe, has been modified to improve the function of the system. The software algorithms used in the measurement are described, as is the performance of the prototype phase and amplitude detector system.

  14. New relations for Einstein–Yang–Mills amplitudes

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Stieberger, Stephan, E-mail: [Max-Planck-Institut für Physik, Werner-Heisenberg-Institut, 80805 München (Germany); Taylor, Tomasz R. [Department of Physics, Northeastern University, Boston, MA 02115 (United States)


    We obtain new relations between Einstein–Yang–Mills (EYM) amplitudes involving N gauge bosons plus a single graviton and pure Yang–Mills amplitudes involving N gauge bosons plus one additional vector boson inserted in a way typical for a gauge boson of a “spectator” group commuting with the group associated to original N gauge bosons. We show that such EYM amplitudes satisfy U(1) decoupling relations similar to Kleiss–Kuijf relations for Yang–Mills amplitudes. We consider a D-brane embedding of EYM amplitudes in the framework of disk amplitudes involving open and closed strings. A new set of monodromy relations is derived for mixed open–closed amplitudes with one closed string inserted on the disk world-sheet and a number of open strings at the boundary. These relations allow expressing the latter in terms of pure open string amplitudes and, in the field-theory limit, they yield the U(1) decoupling relations for EYM amplitudes.

  15. Elastic scattering, polarization and absorption of relativistic antiprotons on nuclei (United States)

    Larionov, A. B.; Lenske, H.


    We perform Glauber model calculations of the antiproton-nucleus elastic and quasielastic scattering and absorption in the beam momentum range ∼ 0.5 ÷ 10 GeV / c. A good agreement of our calculations with available LEAR data and with earlier Glauber model studies of the p bar A elastic scattering allows us to make predictions at the beam momenta of ∼10 GeV/c, i.e. at the regime of the PANDA experiment at FAIR. The comparison with the proton-nucleus elastic scattering cross sections shows that the diffractive minima are much deeper in the p bar A case due to smaller absolute value of the ratio of the real-to-imaginary part of the elementary elastic amplitude. Significant polarization signal for p bar A elastic scattering at 10 GeV/c is expected. We have also revealed a strong dependence of the p bar A absorption cross section on the slope parameter of the transverse momentum dependence of the elementary p bar N amplitude. The p bar A optical potential is discussed.

  16. Small-angle scattering and quasiclassical approximation beyond leading order

    CERN Document Server

    Krachkov, P A; Milstein, A I


    In the present paper we examine the accuracy of the quasiclassical approach on the example of small-angle electron elastic scattering. Using the quasiclassical approach, we derive the differential cross section and the Sherman function for arbitrary localized potential at high energy. These results are exact in the atomic charge number and correspond to the leading and the next-to-leading high-energy small-angle asymptotics for the scattering amplitude. Using the small-angle expansion of the exact amplitude of electron elastic scattering in the Coulomb field, we derive the cross section and the Sherman function with a relative accuracy $\\theta^2$ and $\\theta^1$, respectively ($\\theta$ is the scattering angle). We show that the correction of relative order $\\theta^2$ to the cross section, as well as that of relative order $\\theta^1$ to the Sherman function, originates not only from the contribution of large angular momenta $l\\gg 1$, but also from that of $l\\sim 1$. This means that, in general, it is not possib...

  17. The contribution of scattering to near-surface attenuation (United States)

    Pilz, Marco; Fäh, Donat


    The rapid decrease of the acceleration spectral amplitude at high frequencies has widely been modeled by the spectral decay factor kappa (κ). Usually, the path-corrected component of κ, often called κ0, is believed to be a local and frequency-independent site characteristic, in turn representing attenuation related to waves propagating vertically through the very shallow layers beneath the study site. Despite the known relevance of κ0 in a wide range of seismological applications, most methods for its calculation do not fully consider the influence of the scattering component. To account for the scattering component, we present a summary of statistical observations of the seismic wavefield at sites of the Swiss seismic networks. The intrinsic properties of the wavefield show a clear dependency on the local shallow subsoil conditions with differences in the structural heterogeneity of the shallow subsoil layers producing different scattering regimes. Such deviations from the ballistic behavior (i.e., direct waves that sample only distinct directions) are indicative for local structural heterogeneities and the associated level of scatter. Albeit the attenuation term related to scattering depends nonlinearly on the intrinsic term, the results indicate that the commonly used explanation for the high-frequency decay spectrum might not be appropriate but involving the amount of scattering might allow better constrained estimates of κ0.

  18. Inversion assuming weak scattering

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Xenaki, Angeliki; Gerstoft, Peter; Mosegaard, Klaus


    due to the complex nature of the field. A method based on linear inversion is employed to infer information about the statistical properties of the scattering field from the obtained cross-spectral matrix. A synthetic example based on an active high-frequency sonar demonstrates that the proposed...

  19. Small Angle Neutron Scattering

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Urban, Volker S [ORNL


    Small Angle Neutron Scattering (SANS) probes structural details at the nanometer scale in a non-destructive way. This article gives an introduction to scientists who have no prior small-angle scattering knowledge, but who seek a technique that allows elucidating structural information in challenging situations that thwart approaches by other methods. SANS is applicable to a wide variety of materials including metals and alloys, ceramics, concrete, glasses, polymers, composites and biological materials. Isotope and magnetic interactions provide unique methods for labeling and contrast variation to highlight specific structural features of interest. In situ studies of a material s responses to temperature, pressure, shear, magnetic and electric fields, etc., are feasible as a result of the high penetrating power of neutrons. SANS provides statistical information on significant structural features averaged over the probed sample volume, and one can use SANS to quantify with high precision the structural details that are observed, for example, in electron microscopy. Neutron scattering is non-destructive; there is no need to cut specimens into thin sections, and neutrons penetrate deeply, providing information on the bulk material, free from surface effects. The basic principles of a SANS experiment are fairly simple, but the measurement, analysis and interpretation of small angle scattering data involves theoretical concepts that are unique to the technique and that are not widely known. This article includes a concise description of the basics, as well as practical know-how that is essential for a successful SANS experiment.

  20. Critical fluid light scattering (United States)

    Gammon, Robert W.


    The objective is to measure the decay rates of critical density fluctuations in a simple fluid (xenon) very near its liquid-vapor critical point using laser light scattering and photon correlation spectroscopy. Such experiments were severely limited on Earth by the presence of gravity which causes large density gradients in the sample when the compressibility diverges approaching the critical point. The goal is to measure fluctuation decay rates at least two decades closer to the critical point than is possible on earth, with a resolution of 3 microK. This will require loading the sample to 0.1 percent of the critical density and taking data as close as 100 microK to the critical temperature. The minimum mission time of 100 hours will allow a complete range of temperature points to be covered, limited by the thermal response of the sample. Other technical problems have to be addressed such as multiple scattering and the effect of wetting layers. The experiment entails measurement of the scattering intensity fluctuation decay rate at two angles for each temperature and simultaneously recording the scattering intensities and sample turbidity (from the transmission). The analyzed intensity and turbidity data gives the correlation length at each temperature and locates the critical temperature. The fluctuation decay rate data from these measurements will provide a severe test of the generalized hydrodynamic theories of transport coefficients in the critical regions. When compared to equivalent data from binary liquid critical mixtures they will test the universality of critical dynamics.

  1. Inelastic magnon scattering

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Robert de Mello Koch


    Full Text Available We study the worldsheet S-matrix of a string attached to a D-brane in AdS5×S5. The D-brane is either a giant graviton or a dual giant graviton. In the gauge theory, the operators we consider belong to the su(2|3 sector of the theory. Magnon excitations of open strings can exhibit both elastic (when magnons in the bulk of the string scatter and inelastic (when magnons at the endpoint of an open string participate scattering. Both of these S-matrices are determined (up to an overall phase by the su(2|22 global symmetry of the theory. In this note we study the S-matrix for inelastic scattering. We show that it exhibits poles corresponding to boundstates of bulk and boundary magnons. A crossing equation is derived for the overall phase. It reproduces the crossing equation for maximal giant gravitons, in the appropriate limit. Finally, scattering in the su(2 sector is computed to two loops. This two loop result, which determines the overall phase to two loops, will be useful when a unique solution to the crossing equation is to be selected.

  2. Inelastic magnon scattering (United States)

    de Mello Koch, Robert; van Zyl, Hendrik J. R.


    We study the worldsheet S-matrix of a string attached to a D-brane in AdS5 ×S5. The D-brane is either a giant graviton or a dual giant graviton. In the gauge theory, the operators we consider belong to the su (2 | 3) sector of the theory. Magnon excitations of open strings can exhibit both elastic (when magnons in the bulk of the string scatter) and inelastic (when magnons at the endpoint of an open string participate) scattering. Both of these S-matrices are determined (up to an overall phase) by the su(2 | 2) 2 global symmetry of the theory. In this note we study the S-matrix for inelastic scattering. We show that it exhibits poles corresponding to boundstates of bulk and boundary magnons. A crossing equation is derived for the overall phase. It reproduces the crossing equation for maximal giant gravitons, in the appropriate limit. Finally, scattering in the su (2) sector is computed to two loops. This two loop result, which determines the overall phase to two loops, will be useful when a unique solution to the crossing equation is to be selected.

  3. A Glimpse of Gluons through Deeply Virtual Compton Scattering on the Proton


    Defurne, M.; Jiménez-Argüello, A. Martì; Ahmed, Z.; H. Albataineh; Allada, K.; Aniol, K. A.; Bellini, V.; Benali, M; Boeglin, W.; Bertin, P.; M. Brossard; Camsonne, A.; Canan, M.; Chandavar, S.; Chen, C.


    The proton is composed of quarks and gluons, bound by the most elusive mechanism of strong interaction called confinement. In this work, the dynamics of quarks and gluons are investigated using deeply virtual Compton scattering (DVCS): produced by a multi-GeV electron, a highly virtual photon scatters off the proton which subsequently radiates a high energy photon. Similarly to holography, measuring not only the magnitude but also the phase of the DVCS amplitude allows to perform 3D images of...

  4. Linearized least-square imaging of internally scattered data

    KAUST Repository

    Aldawood, Ali


    Internal multiples deteriorate the quality of the migrated image obtained conventionally by imaging single scattering energy. However, imaging internal multiples properly has the potential to enhance the migrated image because they illuminate zones in the subsurface that are poorly illuminated by single-scattering energy such as nearly vertical faults. Standard migration of these multiples provide subsurface reflectivity distributions with low spatial resolution and migration artifacts due to the limited recording aperture, coarse sources and receivers sampling, and the band-limited nature of the source wavelet. Hence, we apply a linearized least-square inversion scheme to mitigate the effect of the migration artifacts, enhance the spatial resolution, and provide more accurate amplitude information when imaging internal multiples. Application to synthetic data demonstrated the effectiveness of the proposed inversion in imaging a reflector that is poorly illuminated by single-scattering energy. The least-square inversion of doublescattered data helped delineate that reflector with minimal acquisition fingerprint.

  5. Isospin Violation in Threshold Pion-Nucleon Scattering

    CERN Document Server

    Ericson, Torleif Eric Oskar


    We discuss the electromagnetic corrections to the pion-nucleon scattering lengths generated by minimal e. m. coupling from a knowledge of the low energy expansion of the pion-nucleon elastic scattering amplitude as well as from the nucleon and delta pole terms, all a consequence of purely strong interactions. We assume the heavy baryon limit; the e.m. and axial form factors and the masses are used with their empirical values, such that there is no free parameter. The different terms have a clear physical and intuitive origin. In particular, a large isospin breaking contribution to the isoscalar term appears for the elastic charged-pion scattering lengths. We attempt a comparison to the results from chiral effective field theory (EFT) with a physical interpretation of the empirical constants in that approach. The results are applied to the energy shift and width of pionic hydrogen.

  6. Long-range nonlocality in six-point string scattering: Simulation of black hole infallers (United States)

    Dodelson, Matthew; Silverstein, Eva


    We set up a tree-level six-point scattering process in which two strings are separated longitudinally such that they could only interact directly via a nonlocal spreading effect such as that predicted by light-cone gauge calculations and the Gross-Mende saddle point. One string, the "detector," is produced at a finite time with energy E by an auxiliary 2 →2 subprocess, with kinematics such that it has sufficient resolution to detect the longitudinal spreading of an additional incoming string, the "source." We test this hypothesis in a gauge-invariant S-matrix calculation convolved with an appropriate wavepacket peaked at a separation X between the central trajectories of the source and produced detector. The amplitude exhibits support for scattering at the predicted longitudinal separation X ˜α'E , in sharp contrast to the analogous quantum field theory amplitude (whose support manifestly traces out a tail of the position-space wavefunction). The effect arises in a regime in which the string amplitude is not obtained as a convergent sum of such QFT amplitudes, and has larger amplitude than similar QFT models (with the same auxiliary four-point amplitude). In a linear dilaton background, the amplitude depends on the string coupling as expected if the scattering is not simply occurring on the wavepacket tail in string theory. This manifests the scale of longitudinal spreading in a gauge-invariant S-matrix amplitude, in a calculable process with significant amplitude. It simulates a key feature of the dynamics of time-translated horizon infallers.

  7. Small angle neutron scattering

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Cousin Fabrice


    Full Text Available Small Angle Neutron Scattering (SANS is a technique that enables to probe the 3-D structure of materials on a typical size range lying from ∼ 1 nm up to ∼ a few 100 nm, the obtained information being statistically averaged on a sample whose volume is ∼ 1 cm3. This very rich technique enables to make a full structural characterization of a given object of nanometric dimensions (radius of gyration, shape, volume or mass, fractal dimension, specific area… through the determination of the form factor as well as the determination of the way objects are organized within in a continuous media, and therefore to describe interactions between them, through the determination of the structure factor. The specific properties of neutrons (possibility of tuning the scattering intensity by using the isotopic substitution, sensitivity to magnetism, negligible absorption, low energy of the incident neutrons make it particularly interesting in the fields of soft matter, biophysics, magnetic materials and metallurgy. In particular, the contrast variation methods allow to extract some informations that cannot be obtained by any other experimental techniques. This course is divided in two parts. The first one is devoted to the description of the principle of SANS: basics (formalism, coherent scattering/incoherent scattering, notion of elementary scatterer, form factor analysis (I(q→0, Guinier regime, intermediate regime, Porod regime, polydisperse system, structure factor analysis (2nd Virial coefficient, integral equations, characterization of aggregates, and contrast variation methods (how to create contrast in an homogeneous system, matching in ternary systems, extrapolation to zero concentration, Zero Averaged Contrast. It is illustrated by some representative examples. The second one describes the experimental aspects of SANS to guide user in its future experiments: description of SANS spectrometer, resolution of the spectrometer, optimization of

  8. Pion-eta scalar-isovector 3-coupled channel amplitude fitted to branching ratios and threshold plus subthreshold parameters

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Kamiński Robert


    Full Text Available The low energy (below 2 GeV πη channel interaction amplitude becomes an object of interest mainly because of the search for exotic mesons in just beginning to collect data detector GlueX in JLab. Finding and interpretation of expected weak signals from these states require a comparison with a very accurate amplitude containing standard (qq̄ states i.e. a0(980 and a0(1450. The main problem in the determination of such amplitude is a total absence of data about the phases and inelasticities in the elastic and inelastic region. In addition, it is necessary to take into account the next two coupled higher channels - KK̄ and πη′. Presented here amplitude is based on separable potential model (working very well for the scalar-isoscalar ππ interactions with only 9 free parameters. To determine such 3-coupled channel amplitude, the following information has been taken into account: experimental branching ratios and positions of both a0 resonances, theoretical couplings, scattering length from ChPT and value of squared radius of the πη form factor. Phase shifts, inelasticities and cross sections in all single and crossed channels are presented.

  9. Rayleigh's Scattering Revised (United States)

    Kolomiets, Sergey; Gorelik, Andrey

    This report is devoted to a discussion of applicability limits of Rayleigh’s scattering model. Implicitly, Rayleigh’s ideas are being used in a wide range of remote sensing applications. To begin with it must be noted that most techniques which have been developed to date for measurements by means of active instruments for remote sensing in case of the target is a set of distributed moving scatters are only hopes, to say so, on measurements per se. The problem is that almost all of such techniques use a priori information about the microstructure of the object of interest during whole measurement session. As one can find in the literature, this approach may happily be applied to systems with identical particles. However, it is not the case with respect to scattering targets that consist of particles of different kind or having a particle size distribution. It must be especially noted that the microstructure of most of such targets changes significantly with time and/or space. Therefore, the true measurement techniques designed to be applicable in such conditions must be not only adaptable in order to take into account a variety of models of an echo interpretation, but also have a well-developed set of clear-cut criteria of applicability and exact means of accuracy estimation. So such techniques will require much more parameters to be measured. In spite of the fact that there is still room for some improvements within classical models and approaches, it is multiwavelength approach that may be seen as the most promising way of development towards obtaining an adequate set of the measured parameters required for true measurement techniques. At the same time, Rayleigh’s scattering is an invariant in regard to a change of the wavelength as it follows from the point of view dominating nowadays. In the light of such an idea, the synergy between multivawelength measurements may be achieved - to a certain extent - by means of the synchronous usage of Rayleigh’s and

  10. Light scattering reviews 8 radiative transfer and light scattering

    CERN Document Server

    Kokhanovsky, Alexander A


    Light scattering review (vol 8) is aimed at the presentation of recent advances in radiative transfer and light scattering optics. The topics to be covered include: scattering of light by irregularly shaped particles suspended in atmosphere (dust, ice crystals), light scattering by particles much larger as compared the wavelength of incident radiation, atmospheric radiative forcing, astrophysical radiative transfer, radiative transfer and optical imaging in biological media, radiative transfer of polarized light, numerical aspects of radiative transfer.

  11. Source-Space Cross-Frequency Amplitude-Amplitude Coupling in Tinnitus

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Oliver Zobay


    Full Text Available The thalamocortical dysrhythmia (TCD model has been influential in the development of theoretical explanations for the neurological mechanisms of tinnitus. It asserts that thalamocortical oscillations lock a region in the auditory cortex into an ectopic slow-wave theta rhythm (4–8 Hz. The cortical area surrounding this region is hypothesized to generate abnormal gamma (>30 Hz oscillations (“edge effect” giving rise to the tinnitus percept. Consequently, the model predicts enhanced cross-frequency coherence in a broad range between theta and gamma. In this magnetoencephalography study involving tinnitus and control cohorts, we investigated this prediction. Using beamforming, cross-frequency amplitude-amplitude coupling (AAC was computed within the auditory cortices for frequencies (f1,f2 between 2 and 80 Hz. We find the AAC signal to decompose into two distinct components at low (f1,f230 Hz frequencies, respectively. Studying the correlation of AAC with several key covariates (age, hearing level (HL, tinnitus handicap and duration, and HL at tinnitus frequency, we observe a statistically significant association between age and low-frequency AAC. Contrary to the TCD predictions, however, we do not find any indication of statistical differences in AAC between tinnitus and controls and thus no evidence for the predicted enhancement of cross-frequency coupling in tinnitus.

  12. Bispectral index and lower margin amplitude of the amplitude-integrated electroencephalogram in neonates. (United States)

    Werther, Tobias; Olischar, Monika; Giordano, Vito; Czaba, Christine; Waldhoer, Thomas; Berger, Angelika; Pollak, Arnold; Deindl, Philipp


    The lower margin amplitude (LMA) of the amplitude-integrated electroencephalogram (aEEG) is suppressed in neonates during deep sedation, a feature that is attributed to the bispectral index (BIS) in adults. We compare the BIS and the LMA of the aEEG in neonates. Thirty neurologically healthy neonates between 37 and 44 weeks postmenstrual age were included in this study. Twenty patients received sedoanalgesic therapy for various reasons. BIS and aEEG recordings were performed simultaneously. The digital data were imported in the numerical software environment Matlab®. The LMA of the aEEG was computed on a 1-min time scale and synchronized with the BIS data. The correlation between the time-dependent variables BIS and LMA was estimated using the Spearman rank correlation index. The median correlation between BIS and LMA was 0.3. Inclusion of recordings of high signal quality only into analysis improved the median correlation index to 0.6. We found a light-to-moderate correlation between BIS and LMA in our study cohort and a good correlation in the subgroup with high signal quality. © 2014 S. Karger AG, Basel.

  13. FDTD scattered field formulation for scatterers in stratified dispersive media. (United States)

    Olkkonen, Juuso


    We introduce a simple scattered field (SF) technique that enables finite difference time domain (FDTD) modeling of light scattering from dispersive objects residing in stratified dispersive media. The introduced SF technique is verified against the total field scattered field (TFSF) technique. As an application example, we study surface plasmon polariton enhanced light transmission through a 100 nm wide slit in a silver film.

  14. Electromagnetic scattering from random media

    CERN Document Server

    Field, Timothy R


    - ;The book develops the dynamical theory of scattering from random media from first principles. Its key findings are to characterize the time evolution of the scattered field in terms of stochastic differential equations, and to illustrate this framework

  15. Age, Amplitude of Accommodation and Near Addition Power of Adult ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    This study was undertaken to determine the rela onship among age, amplitude of accommoda on (AA) and near addi onal add power in Nigerian adults. A cross sec onal study was undertaken in 297 adults comprising. 158 (53.3%) males and 139 (46.8%) females and aged 33 – 89 years. Amplitude of accommoda on ...

  16. Large amplitude forced vibration analysis of cross-beam system ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)


    spatially dependent ordinary differential equation, which upon solution and application of the boundary conditions yielded a closed ...... To overcome this amplitude the reaction force ( R ) is assumed to be a fraction ( )q of the amplitude of harmonic excitation applied to the structure. At the start, the correct value of q. ( exact q. ) ...

  17. Automated force controller for amplitude modulation atomic force microscopy

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Miyagi, Atsushi, E-mail:, E-mail:; Scheuring, Simon, E-mail:, E-mail: [U1006 INSERM, Université Aix-Marseille, Parc Scientifique et Technologique de Luminy, 163 Avenue de Luminy, 13009 Marseille (France)


    Atomic Force Microscopy (AFM) is widely used in physics, chemistry, and biology to analyze the topography of a sample at nanometer resolution. Controlling precisely the force applied by the AFM tip to the sample is a prerequisite for faithful and reproducible imaging. In amplitude modulation (oscillating) mode AFM, the applied force depends on the free and the setpoint amplitudes of the cantilever oscillation. Therefore, for keeping the applied force constant, not only the setpoint amplitude but also the free amplitude must be kept constant. While the AFM user defines the setpoint amplitude, the free amplitude is typically subject to uncontrollable drift, and hence, unfortunately, the real applied force is permanently drifting during an experiment. This is particularly harmful in biological sciences where increased force destroys the soft biological matter. Here, we have developed a strategy and an electronic circuit that analyzes permanently the free amplitude of oscillation and readjusts the excitation to maintain the free amplitude constant. As a consequence, the real applied force is permanently and automatically controlled with picoNewton precision. With this circuit associated to a high-speed AFM, we illustrate the power of the development through imaging over long-duration and at various forces. The development is applicable for all AFMs and will widen the applicability of AFM to a larger range of samples and to a larger range of (non-specialist) users. Furthermore, from controlled force imaging experiments, the interaction strength between biomolecules can be analyzed.

  18. Numerical evaluation of one-loop QCD amplitudes

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Badger, Simon David; Biedermann, Benedikt; Uwer, Peter


    We present the publicly available program NGluon allowing the numerical evaluation of primitive amplitudes at one-loop order in massless QCD. The program allows the computation of one-loop amplitudes for an arbitrary number of gluons. The focus of the present article is the extension to one...

  19. Forward elastic scattering above the physical threshold

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Avila, R.F. [Universidade Estadual de Campinas (UNICAMP), SP (Brazil). Inst. de Matematica, Estatistica e Computacao Cientifica; Menon, M.J. [Universidade Estadual de Campinas (UNICAMP), SP (Brazil). Inst. de Fisica Gleb Wataghin


    Making use of the 'extended derivative dispersion relations', recently introduced by Avila and Menon, we analyze forward elastic proton-proton and antiproton-proton scattering at any energy above the physical threshold ({radical}s=2m{sub p} {approx} 1,88 GeV). The analysis is based on an analytical parametrization for the total cross section with leading triple pole pomeron (high energies) and full nondegenerated secondary reggeons (intermediate and low energies). Experimental data on total cross section and the ratio r between the real and imaginary parts of the forward amplitude are simultaneously fitted with the CERN-Minuit code and energy cutoff at 4 GeV. We show that, the results are exactly the same as those obtained through standard integral dispersion relations. Physical implications of the results in the pomeron-reggeon context are also discussed. (author)

  20. High Frequency Amplitude Detector for GMI Magnetic Sensors

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Aktham Asfour


    Full Text Available A new concept of a high-frequency amplitude detector and demodulator for Giant-Magneto-Impedance (GMI sensors is presented. This concept combines a half wave rectifier, with outstanding capabilities and high speed, and a feedback approach that ensures the amplitude detection with easily adjustable gain. The developed detector is capable of measuring high-frequency and very low amplitude signals without the use of diode-based active rectifiers or analog multipliers. The performances of this detector are addressed throughout the paper. The full circuitry of the design is given, together with a comprehensive theoretical study of the concept and experimental validation. The detector has been used for the amplitude measurement of both single frequency and pulsed signals and for the demodulation of amplitude-modulated signals. It has also been successfully integrated in a GMI sensor prototype. Magnetic field and electrical current measurements in open- and closed-loop of this sensor have also been conducted.

  1. Nitinol Fatigue Life for Variable Strain Amplitude Fatigue (United States)

    Lin, Z.; Pike, K.; Schlun, M.; Zipse, A.; Draper, J.


    Nitinol fatigue testing results are presented for variable strain amplitude cycling. The results indicate that cycles smaller than the constant amplitude fatigue limit may contribute to significant fatigue damage when they occur in a repeating sequence of large and small amplitude cycles. The testing utilized two specimen types: stent-like diamond specimens and Z-shaped wire specimens. The diamond specimens were made from nitinol tubing with stent-like manufacturing processes and the Z-shaped wire specimens were made from heat set nitinol wire. The study explored the hypothesis that duty cycling can have an effect on nitinol fatigue life. Stent-like structures were subjected to different in vivo loadings in order to create more complex strain amplitudes. The main focus in this study was to determine whether a combination of small and large amplitudes causes additional damage that alters the fatigue life of a component.

  2. Simplicity in the structure of QED and gravity amplitudes

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Badger, Simon [Deutsches Elektronen-Synchrotron (DESY), Zeuthen (Germany); Bjerrum-Bohr, N.E.J. [Institute for Advanced Study, Princeton, NJ (United States). School of Natural Sciences; Vanhove, Pierre [Institut des Hautes Etudes Scientifiques IHES, Bures sur Yvette (France); CEA, IPhT, CNRS, URA, Gif-sur-Yvette, (France). Inst. de Physique Theorique


    We investigate generic properties of one-loop amplitudes in unordered gauge theories in four dimensions. For such theories the organisation of amplitudes in manifestly crossing symmetric expressions poses restrictions on their structure and results in remarkable cancellations. We show that one-loop multi-photon amplitudes in QED with at least eight external photons are given only by scalar box integral functions. This QED 'no-triangle' property is true for all helicity configurations and has similarities to the 'notriangle' property found in the case of maximal N=8 supergravity. Results are derived both via a world-line formalism as well as using on-shell unitarity methods. We show that the simple structure of the loop amplitude originates from the extremely good BCFW scaling behaviour of the QED tree-amplitude. (orig.)

  3. p{sub Up-Tack }-Broadening and production processes versus dipole/quadrupole amplitudes at next-to-leading order

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Mueller, A.H. [Department of Physics, Columbia University, New York (United States); Munier, S., E-mail: [Centre de physique theorique, Ecole Polytechnique, CNRS, Palaiseau (France)


    Through the systematic inspection of graphs in the framework of lightcone perturbation theory, we demonstrate that an identity between the evolution of p{sub Up-Tack }-broadening amplitudes with the energy and the evolution of forward scattering amplitudes of color dipoles off nuclei holds at next-to-leading order accuracy. In the general case, the relation is not a graph-by-graph correspondence, neither does it hold strictly speaking for definite values of the momenta: Instead, it relates classes of graphs of similar topologies, and in some cases, the matching requires an analytical continuation in the appropriate longitudinal momentum variable. We check that the same kind of relation is also true at next-to-leading order between amplitudes for the production of dijets and quadrupole forward amplitudes.

  4. Black hole formation and classicalization in ultra-Planckian 2→N scattering

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    G. Dvali


    Full Text Available We establish a connection between the ultra-Planckian scattering amplitudes in field and string theory and unitarization by black hole formation in these scattering processes. Using as a guideline an explicit microscopic theory in which the black hole represents a bound-state of many soft gravitons at the quantum critical point, we were able to identify and compute a set of perturbative amplitudes relevant for black hole formation. These are the tree-level N-graviton scattering S-matrix elements in a kinematical regime (called classicalization limit where the two incoming ultra-Planckian gravitons produce a large number N of soft gravitons. We compute these amplitudes by using the Kawai–Lewellen–Tye relations, as well as scattering equations and string theory techniques. We discover that this limit reveals the key features of the microscopic corpuscular black hole N-portrait. In particular, the perturbative suppression factor of a N-graviton final state, derived from the amplitude, matches the non-perturbative black hole entropy when N reaches the quantum criticality value, whereas final states with different value of N are either suppressed or excluded by non-perturbative corpuscular physics. Thus we identify the microscopic reason behind the black hole dominance over other final states including non-black hole classical object. In the parameterization of the classicalization limit the scattering equations can be solved exactly allowing us to obtain closed expressions for the high-energy limit of the open and closed superstring tree-level scattering amplitudes for a generic number N of external legs. We demonstrate matching and complementarity between the string theory and field theory in different large-s and large-N regimes.

  5. Subjective vs Objective Accommodative Amplitude: Preschool to Presbyopia (United States)

    Anderson, Heather A.; Stuebing, Karla K.


    Purpose This study compared subjective and objective accommodative amplitudes to characterize changes from preschool to presbyopia. Methods Monocular accommodative amplitude was measured with three techniques in random order (subjective push-up, objective minus lens stimulated, and objective proximal stimulated) on 236 subjects 3–64 years using a 1.5mm letter. Subjective push-up amplitudes were the dioptric distance at which the target first blurred along a near-point rod. Objective minus lens stimulated amplitudes were the greatest accommodative response obtained by Grand Seiko autorefraction as subjects viewed the stimulus at 33cm through increasing minus lens powers. Objective proximal stimulated amplitudes were the greatest accommodative response obtained by Grand Seiko autorefraction as subjects viewed the stimulus at increasing proximity from 40cm up to 3.33cm. Results In comparison with subjective push-up amplitudes, objective amplitudes were lower at all ages, with the most dramatic difference occurring in the 3–5 year group (subjective push-up = 16.00 ± 4.98D versus objective proximal stimulated = 7.94 ± 2.37D and objective lens stimulated = 6.20 ± 1.99D). Objective proximal and lens stimulated amplitudes were largest in the 6–10 year group (8.81 ± 1.24D and 8.05 ± 1.82D, respectively) and gradually decreased until the fourth decade of life when a rapid decline to presbyopia occurred. There was a significant linear relationship between objective techniques (y = 0.74 + 0.96x, R2 = 0.85, p<0.001) with greater amplitudes measured for the proximal stimulated technique (mean difference = 0.55D). Conclusions Objective measurements of accommodation demonstrate that accommodative amplitude is substantially less than that measured by the subjective push-up technique, particularly in young children. These findings have important clinical implications for the management of uncorrected hyperopia. PMID:25602235

  6. Subjective versus objective accommodative amplitude: preschool to presbyopia. (United States)

    Anderson, Heather A; Stuebing, Karla K


    This study compared subjective and objective accommodative amplitudes to characterize changes from preschool to presbyopia. Monocular accommodative amplitude was measured with three techniques in random order (subjective push-up, objective minus lens stimulated, and objective proximal stimulated) on 236 subjects aged 3 to 64 years using a 1.5-mm letter. Subjective push-up amplitudes were the dioptric distance at which the target first blurred along a near-point rod. Objective minus lens stimulated amplitudes were the greatest accommodative response obtained by Grand Seiko autorefraction as subjects viewed the stimulus at 33 cm through increasing minus lens powers. Objective proximal stimulated amplitudes were the greatest accommodative response obtained by Grand Seiko autorefraction as subjects viewed the stimulus at increasing proximity from 40 cm up to 3.33 cm. In comparison with subjective push-up amplitudes, objective amplitudes were lower at all ages, with the most dramatic difference occurring in the 3- to 5-year group (subjective push-up, 16.00 ± 4.98 diopters [D] vs. objective proximal stimulated, 7.94 ± 2.37 D, and objective lens stimulated, 6.20 ± 1.99 D). Objective proximal and lens stimulated amplitudes were largest in the 6- to 10-year group (8.81 ± 1.24 D and 8.05 ± 1.82 D, respectively) and gradually decreased until the fourth decade of life when a rapid decline to presbyopia occurred. There was a significant linear relationship between objective techniques (y = 0.74 + 0.96x, R2 = 0.85, p < 0.001) with greater amplitudes measured for the proximal stimulated technique (mean difference, 0.55 D). Objective measurements of accommodation demonstrate that accommodative amplitude is substantially less than that measured by the subjective push-up technique, particularly in young children. These findings have important clinical implications for the management of uncorrected hyperopia.

  7. Electron scattering for exotic nuclei

    Indian Academy of Sciences (India)


    Nov 4, 2014 ... A brand-new electron scattering facility, the SCRIT Electron Scattering Facility, will soon start its operation at RIKEN RI Beam Factory, Japan. This is the world's first electron scattering facility dedicated to the structure studies of short-lived nuclei. The goal of this facility is to determine the charge density ...

  8. Double parton scattering theory overview

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Diehl, Markus; Gaunt, Jonathan R.


    The dynamics of double hard scattering in proton-proton collisions is quite involved compared with the familiar case of single hard scattering. In this contribution, we review our theoretical understanding of double hard scattering and of its interplay with other reaction mechanisms.

  9. Seamount acoustic scattering (United States)

    Boehlert, George W.

    The cover of the March 1 issue of Eos showed a time series of acoustic scattering above Southeast Hancock Seamount (29°48‧N, 178°05‧E) on July 17-18, 1984. In a comment on that cover Martin Hovland (Eos, August 2, p. 760) argued that gas or “other far reaching causes” may be involved in the observed acoustic signals. He favors a hypothesis that acoustic scattering observed above a seeping pockmark in the North Sea is a combination of bubbles, stable microbubbles, and pelagic organisms and infers that this may be a more general phenomenon and indeed plays a role in the attraction of organisms to seamounts

  10. Scattering problems in elastodynamics

    CERN Document Server

    Diatta, Andre; Wegener, Martin; Guenneau, Sebastien


    In electromagnetism, acoustics, and quantum mechanics, scattering problems can routinely be solved numerically by virtue of perfectly matched layers (PMLs) at simulation domain boundaries. Unfortunately, the same has not been possible for general elastodynamic wave problems in continuum mechanics. In this paper, we introduce a corresponding scattered-field formulation for the Navier equation. We derive PMLs based on complex-valued coordinate transformations leading to Cosserat elasticity-tensor distributions not obeying the minor symmetries. These layers are shown to work in two dimensions, for all polarizations, and all directions. By adaptative choice of the decay length, the deep subwavelength PMLs can be used all the way to the quasi-static regime. As demanding examples, we study the effectiveness of cylindrical elastodynamic cloaks of the Cosserat type and approximations thereof.

  11. Molecular-beam scattering

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Vernon, M.F.


    The molecular-beam technique has been used in three different experimental arrangements to study a wide range of inter-atomic and molecular forces. Chapter 1 reports results of a low-energy (0.2 kcal/mole) elastic-scattering study of the He-Ar pair potential. The purpose of the study was to accurately characterize the shape of the potential in the well region, by scattering slow He atoms produced by expanding a mixture of He in N/sub 2/ from a cooled nozzle. Chapter 2 contains measurements of the vibrational predissociation spectra and product translational energy for clusters of water, benzene, and ammonia. The experiments show that most of the product energy remains in the internal molecular motions. Chapter 3 presents measurements of the reaction Na + HCl ..-->.. NaCl + H at collision energies of 5.38 and 19.4 kcal/mole. This is the first study to resolve both scattering angle and velocity for the reaction of a short lived (16 nsec) electronic excited state. Descriptions are given of computer programs written to analyze molecular-beam expansions to extract information characterizing their velocity distributions, and to calculate accurate laboratory elastic-scattering differential cross sections accounting for the finite apparatus resolution. Experimental results which attempted to determine the efficiency of optically pumping the Li(2/sup 2/P/sub 3/2/) and Na(3/sup 2/P/sub 3/2/) excited states are given. A simple three-level model for predicting the steady-state fraction of atoms in the excited state is included.

  12. Means on scattered compacta

    Czech Academy of Sciences Publication Activity Database

    Banakh, T.; Bonnet, R.; Kubiś, Wieslaw


    Roč. 2, č. 1 (2014), s. 5-10 ISSN 2299-3231 R&D Projects: GA ČR(CZ) GAP201/12/0290 Institutional support: RVO:67985840 Keywords : scattered compact space * mean operation Subject RIV: BA - General Mathematics xml

  13. Sound extinction by fish schools: forward scattering theory and data analysis. (United States)

    Raveau, M; Feuillade, C


    A model used previously to study collective back scattering from fish schools [Feuillade et al., J. Acoust. Soc. Am. 99(1), 196-208 (1996)], is used to analyze the forward scattering properties of these objects. There is an essential physical difference between back and forward scattering from fish schools. Strong frequency dependent interference effects, which affect the back scattered field amplitude, are absent in the forward scattering case. This is critically important for data analysis. There is interest in using back scattering and transmission data from fish schools to study their size, the species and abundance of fish, and fish behavior. Transmission data can be processed to determine the extinction of the field by a school. The extinction of sound depends on the forward scattering characteristics of the school, and data inversion to provide information about the fish should be based upon a forward scattering paradigm. Results are presented of an analysis of transmission data obtained in September 1995 during an experiment performed in the Gulf of Lion in the Mediterranean Sea [Diachok, J. Acoust. Soc. Am. 105(4), 2107-2128 (1999)]. The analysis shows that using forward scattering leads to significantly larger estimates of fish abundance than previous analysis based upon back scattering approaches.

  14. Ground Vibration Isolation of Multiple Scattering by Using Rows of Tubular Piles as Barriers

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Miao-miao Sun


    Full Text Available A new formal solution for the multiple scattering of plane harmonic waves by a group of arbitrary configuration tubular piles in an elastic total space is derived. Each order of scattering satisfies prescribed boundary conditions at the interface of tubular piles, which is delivered as the sum of incident and scattering waves. The first order performs the scattering wave by each scattered pile and the subsequent orders resulted from the excitation of each pile of first order of scattering from the remaining tubular piles. Advanced scattering orders can be regarded as the same manners. Several series of scattering coefficients are figured out with the aids of addition theorem so that the exact steady-state solution for the scattered displacement and stress is obtained. Particularly, when internal diameter of tubular piles tends to be infinitely small, it degenerates to a solid pile problem. By imposing the normalized displacement amplitudes and transmissibility indices, the influences of specific parameters such as scattering orders, internal and external diameter ratio of piles, pile material rigidity, position and distances between tubular pile and pile rows, and pile numbers are discussed. Certain recommended conclusions have been drawn as the guidelines of practical engineering design for discontinuous barrier of tubular piles.

  15. Gravity Amplitudes as Generalized Double Copies of Gauge-Theory Amplitudes (United States)

    Bern, Zvi; Carrasco, John Joseph; Chen, Wei-Ming; Johansson, Henrik; Roiban, Radu


    Whenever the integrand of a gauge-theory loop amplitude can be arranged into a form where the Bern-Carrasco-Johansson duality between color and kinematics is manifest, a corresponding gravity integrand can be obtained simply via the double-copy procedure. However, finding such gauge-theory representations can be challenging, especially at high loop orders. Here, we show that we can, instead, start from generic gauge-theory integrands, where the duality is not manifest, and apply a modified double-copy procedure to obtain gravity integrands that include contact terms generated by violations of dual Jacobi identities. We illustrate this with three-, four- and five-loop examples in N =8 supergravity.

  16. Neutron scattering in Australia

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Knott, R.B. [Australian Nuclear Science and Technology Organisation, Menai (Australia)


    Neutron scattering techniques have been part of the Australian scientific research community for the past three decades. The High Flux Australian Reactor (HIFAR) is a multi-use facility of modest performance that provides the only neutron source in the country suitable for neutron scattering. The limitations of HIFAR have been recognized and recently a Government initiated inquiry sought to evaluate the future needs of a neutron source. In essence, the inquiry suggested that a delay of several years would enable a number of key issues to be resolved, and therefore a more appropriate decision made. In the meantime, use of the present source is being optimized, and where necessary research is being undertaken at major overseas neutron facilities either on a formal or informal basis. Australia has, at present, a formal agreement with the Rutherford Appleton Laboratory (UK) for access to the spallation source ISIS. Various aspects of neutron scattering have been implemented on HIFAR, including investigations of the structure of biological relevant molecules. One aspect of these investigations will be presented. Preliminary results from a study of the interaction of the immunosuppressant drug, cyclosporin-A, with reconstituted membranes suggest that the hydrophobic drug interdigitated with lipid chains.

  17. Invariant properties and rotation transformations of the GPR scattering matrix (United States)

    Villela, Almendra; Romo, José M.


    We analyze the properties of the scattering matrix associated with the incident and scattered electric fields used in GPR. The elements of the scattering matrix provide information produced by different polarizations of the incident wave field. Rotationally invariant quantities such as trace, determinant and Frobenius norm lead to images that combine the information contained in the four elements of the scattering matrix in a mathematically simple and sound manner. The invariant quantities remove the directional properties implicit in the dipolar field used in GPR allowing the application of standard processing techniques designed for scalar fields, such as those used in seismic data processing. We illustrate the non-directional properties of the invariants using a 3D simulation of the wavefield produced by a point scatterer. The estimation of the azimuth angle of elongated targets is also explored using rotation transformations that maximize alternatively the co-polarized or the cross-polarized responses. The angle estimation is essentially an unstable process, particularly if low amplitudes or noisy data are involved. We apply the Frobenius norm ‖S‖F as a criterion for selection of the best amplitudes to use for a more stable and significant angle estimation. The performance of our formulation was tested with synthetic data produced by a 3D model of an air-filled metal pipe buried in a homogeneous halfspace. The images resulting from the invariants show a clear diffraction hyperbola suitable for a scalar wavefield migration, while the azimuth of the pipe is neatly resolved for amplitudes selected with ‖S‖F ≥ 0.4. A field experiment conducted above an aqueduct pipe illustrates the proposed methods with real data. The images obtained from the invariants are better than those from the individual elements of the scattering matrix. The azimuth estimated using our formulation is in agreement with the probable orientation of the aqueduct. Finally, a field

  18. The two-photon exchange contribution to elastic electron-nucleon scattering at large momentum transfer

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Andrei V. Afanasev; Stanley J. Brodsky; Carl E. Carlson; Yu-Chun Chen; Marc Vanderhaeghen


    We estimate the two-photon exchange contribution to elastic electron-proton scattering at large momentum transfer by using a quark-parton representation of virtual Compton scattering. We thus can relate the two-photon exchange amplitude to the generalized parton distributions which also enter in other wide angle scattering processes. We find that the interference of one- and two-photon exchange contribution is able to substantially resolve the difference between electric form factor measurements from Rosenbluth and polarization transfer experiments.

  19. Nonlinear viscoelasticity of entangled wormlike micellar fluid under large-amplitude oscillatory shear: role of elastic Taylor-Couette instability. (United States)

    Majumdar, Sayantan; Sood, A K


    The role of elastic Taylor-Couette flow instabilities in the dynamic nonlinear viscoelastic response of an entangled wormlike micellar fluid is studied by large-amplitude oscillatory shear (LAOS) rheology and in situ polarized light scattering over a wide range of strain and angular frequency values, both above and below the linear crossover point. Well inside the nonlinear regime, higher harmonic decomposition of the resulting stress signal reveals that the normalized third harmonic I_{3}/I_{1} shows a power-law behavior with strain amplitude. In addition, I_{3}/I_{1} and the elastic component of stress amplitude σ_{0}{E} show a very prominent maximum at the strain value where the number density (n_{v}) of the Taylor vortices is maximum. A subsequent increase in applied strain (γ) results in the distortions of the vortices and a concomitant decrease in n_{v}, accompanied by a sharp drop in I_{3} and σ_{0}{E}. The peak position of the spatial correlation function of the scattered intensity along the vorticity direction also captures the crossover. Lissajous plots indicate an intracycle strain hardening for the values of γ corresponding to the peak of I_{3}, similar to that observed for hard-sphere glasses.

  20. Plasma scattering of electromagnetic radiation

    CERN Document Server

    Sheffield, John


    Plasma Scattering of Electromagnetic Radiation covers the theory and experimental application of plasma scattering. The book discusses the basic properties of a plasma and of the interaction of radiation with a plasma; the relationship between the scattered power spectrum and the fluctuations in plasma density; and the incoherent scattering of low-temperature plasma. The text also describes the constraints and problems that arise in the application of scattering as a diagnostic technique; the characteristic performance of various dispersion elements, image dissectors, and detectors; and the ge

  1. Amplitude Dispersion Compensation for Damage Detection Using Ultrasonic Guided Waves

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Liang Zeng


    Full Text Available Besides the phase and group velocities, the amplitude of guided wave mode is also frequency dependent. This amplitude dispersion also influences the performance of guided wave methods in nondestructive evaluation (NDE and structural health monitoring (SHM. In this paper, the effects of amplitude dispersion to the spectrum and waveform of a propagating wave-packet are investigated. It is shown that the amplitude dispersion results in distortion in the spectrum of guided wave response, and thus influences the waveform of the wave-packet. To remove these effects, an amplitude dispersion compensation method is established on the basis of Vold–Kalman filter and Taylor series expansion. The performance of that method is then investigated by experimental examples. The results show that with the application of the amplitude dispersion compensation, the time reversibility could be preserved, which ensures the applicability of the time reversal method for damage detection. Besides, through amplitude dispersion compensation, the testing resolution of guided waves could be improved, so that the structural features located in the close proximity may be separately identified.

  2. Broadband metasurface holograms: toward complete phase and amplitude engineering. (United States)

    Wang, Qiu; Zhang, Xueqian; Xu, Yuehong; Gu, Jianqiang; Li, Yanfeng; Tian, Zhen; Singh, Ranjan; Zhang, Shuang; Han, Jiaguang; Zhang, Weili


    As a revolutionary three-dimensional imaging technique, holography has attracted wide attention for its ability to photographically record a light field. However, traditional phase-only or amplitude-only modulation holograms have limited image quality and resolution to reappear both amplitude and phase information required of the objects. Recent advances in metasurfaces have shown tremendous opportunities for using a planar design of artificial meta-atoms to shape the wave front of light by optimal control of both its phase and amplitude. Inspired by the concept of designer metasurfaces, we demonstrate a novel amplitude-phase modulation hologram with simultaneous five-level amplitude modulation and eight-level phase modulation. Such a design approach seeks to turn the perceived disadvantages of the traditional phase or amplitude holograms, and thus enable enhanced performance in resolution, homogeneity of amplitude distribution, precision, and signal-to-noise ratio. In particular, the unique holographic approach exhibits broadband characteristics. The method introduced here delivers more degrees of freedom, and allows for encoding highly complex information into designer metasurfaces, thus having the potential to drive next-generation technological breakthroughs in holography.

  3. Electromyogram amplitude estimation with adaptive smoothing window length. (United States)

    Clancy, E A


    Typical electromyogram (EMG) amplitude estimators use a fixed window length for smoothing the amplitude estimate. When the EMG amplitude is dynamic, previous research suggests that varying the smoothing length as a function of time may improve amplitude estimation. This paper develops optimal time-varying selection of the smoothing window length using a stochastic model of the EMG signal. Optimal selection is a function of the EMG amplitude and its derivatives. Simulation studies, in which EMG amplitude was changed randomly, found that the "best" adaptive filter performed as well as the "best" fixed-length filter. Experimental studies found the advantages of the adaptive processor to be situation dependent. Subjects used real-time EMG amplitude estimates to track a randomly-moving target. Perhaps due to task difficulty, no differences in adaptive versus fixed-length processors were observed when the target speed was fast. When the target speed was slow, the experimental results were consistent with the simulation predictions. When the target moved between two constant levels, the adaptive processor responded rapidly to the target level transitions and had low variance while the target dwelled on a level.

  4. Deeply virtual Compton scattering at Jefferson Laboratory

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Biselli, Angela S. [Fairfield University - Department of Physics 1073 North Benson Road, Fairfield, CT 06430, USA; Thomas Jefferson National Accelerator Facility (TJNAF), Newport News, VA (United States)


    The generalized parton distributions (GPDs) have emerged as a universal tool to describe hadrons in terms of their elementary constituents, the quarks and the gluons. Deeply virtual Compton scattering (DVCS) on a proton or neutron ($N$), $e N \\rightarrow e' N' \\gamma$, is the process more directly interpretable in terms of GPDs. The amplitudes of DVCS and Bethe-Heitler, the process where a photon is emitted by either the incident or scattered electron, can be accessed via cross-section measurements or exploiting their interference which gives rise to spin asymmetries. Spin asymmetries, cross sections and cross-section differences can be connected to different combinations of the four leading-twist GPDs (${H}$, ${E}$, ${\\tilde{H}}$, ${\\tilde{E}}$) for each quark flavors, depending on the observable and on the type of target. This paper gives an overview of recent experimental results obtained for DVCS at Jefferson Laboratory in the halls A and B. Several experiments have been done extracting DVCS observables over large kinematics regions. Multiple measurements with overlapping kinematic regions allow to perform a quasi-model independent extraction of the Compton form factors, which are GPDs integrals, revealing a 3D image of the nucleon.

  5. Gravitational scattering of electromagnetic radiation (United States)

    Brooker, J. T.; Janis, A. I.


    The scattering of electromagnetic radiation by linearized gravitational fields is studied to second order in a perturbation expansion. The incoming electromagnetic radiation can be of arbitrary multipole structure, and the gravitational fields are also taken to be advanced fields of arbitrary multipole structure. All electromagnetic multipole radiation is found to be scattered by gravitational monopole and time-varying dipole fields. No case has been found, however, in which any electromagnetic multipole radiation is scattered by gravitational fields of quadrupole or higher-order multipole structure. This lack of scattering is established for infinite classes of special cases, and is conjectured to hold in general. The results of the scattering analysis are applied to the case of electromagnetic radiation scattered by a moving mass. It is shown how the mass and velocity may be determined by a knowledge of the incident and scattered radiation.

  6. Controlling quantum interference in phase space with amplitude. (United States)

    Xue, Yinghong; Li, Tingyu; Kasai, Katsuyuki; Okada-Shudo, Yoshiko; Watanabe, Masayoshi; Zhang, Yun


    We experimentally show a quantum interference in phase space by interrogating photon number probabilities (n = 2, 3, and 4) of a displaced squeezed state, which is generated by an optical parametric amplifier and whose displacement is controlled by amplitude of injected coherent light. It is found that the probabilities exhibit oscillations of interference effect depending upon the amplitude of the controlling light field. This phenomenon is attributed to quantum interference in phase space and indicates the capability of controlling quantum interference using amplitude. This remarkably contrasts with the oscillations of interference effects being usually controlled by relative phase in classical optics.

  7. Variations of the amplitude of the Chandler wobble. (United States)

    Kolaczek, B.; Kosek, W.

    Amplitude variations of the Chandler wobble of polar motion in 1846 - 1988 were analyzed on the basis of the IERS97 C01 pole coordinate data. The Chandler wobble was filtered by the Fourier Transform Band Pass Filter. Periodic oscillations with periods of about 75, 40, 30 and 20 years were detected in amplitude variations of the Chandler wobble. The deep minimum of the Chandler wobble amplitude, similar to the minimum on turn of the decades 1920 and 1930 was predicted for the beginning of the next century.

  8. Amplitude Modulation in the δ Sct star KIC 7106205

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Bowman Dominic. M.


    Full Text Available The δ Sct star KIC 7106205 showed amplitude modulation in a single p mode, whilst all other p and g modes remained stable in amplitude and phase over 1470 d of the Kepler dataset. The data were divided into 30 time bins of equal length and a series of consecutive Fourier transforms was calculated. A fixed frequency, calculated from a least-squares fit of all data, allowed amplitude and phase for every mode in each time bin to be tracked. The missing p mode energy was not transferred to any other visible modes.

  9. Laser Light Scattering by Shock Waves (United States)

    Panda, J.; Adamovsky, G.


    Scattering of coherent light as it propagates parallel to a shock wave, formed in front of a bluff cylindrical body placed in a supersonic stream, is studied experimentally and numerically. Two incident optical fields are considered. First, a large diameter collimated beam is allowed to pass through the shock containing flow. The light intensity distribution in the resultant shadowgraph image, measured by a low light CCD camera, shows well-defined fringes upstream and downstream of the shadow cast by the shock. In the second situation, a narrow laser beam is brought to a grazing incidence on the shock and the scattered light, which appears as a diverging sheet from the point of interaction, is visualized and measured on a screen placed normal to the laser path. Experiments are conducted on shocks formed at various free-stream Mach numbers, M, and total pressures, P(sub 0). It is found that the widths of the shock shadows in a shadowgraph image become independent of M and P(sub 0) when plotted against the jump in the refractive index, (Delta)n, created across the shock. The total scattered light measured from the narrow laser beam and shock interaction also follows the same trend. In the numerical part of the study, the shock is assumed to be a 'phase object', which introduces phase difference between the upstream and downstream propagating parts of the light disturbances. For a given shape and (Delta)n of the bow shock the phase and amplitude modulations are first calculated by ray tracing. The wave front is then propagated to the screen using the Fresnet diffraction equation. The calculated intensity distribution, for both of the incident optical fields, shows good agreement with the experimental data.

  10. Optical theorem for electromagnetic field scattering by dielectric structures and energy emission from the evanescent wave. (United States)

    Gulyaev, Yu V; Barabanenkov, Yu N; Barabanenkov, M Yu; Nikitov, S A


    We present an optical theorem for evanescent (near field) electromagnetic wave scattering by a dielectric structure. The derivation is based on the formalism of angular spectrum wave amplitudes and block scattering matrix. The optical theorem shows that an energy flux is emitted in the direction of the evanescent wave decay upon scattering. The energy emission effect from an evanescent wave is illustrated in two examples of evanescent wave scattering, first, by the electrical dipole and, second, one-dimensional grating with line-like rulings. Within the latter example, we show that an emitted energy flux upon evanescent wave scattering can travel through a dielectric structure even if the structure has a forbidden gap in the transmission spectrum of incident propagating waves.

  11. Experimental demonstration of singular-optical colouring of regularly scattered white light

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Angelsky, O.V.; Hanson, Steen Grüner; Maksimyak, P.P.


    Experimental interference modelling of the effects of colouring of a beam traversing a light-scattering medium is presented. It is shown that the result of colouring of the beam at the output of the medium depends on the magnitudes of the phase delays of the singly forward scattered partial signals....... The colouring mechanism has for the first time experimentally been illustrated for a forward propagating beam through a light-scattering medium. This is showed in video-fragments of the interferograms recorded within the zero interference fringe with a gradual change of the path difference of the interfering...... polychromatic wave trains. Spectral investigation of the effects of colouring has been carried out using a solution of liquid crystal in a polymer matrix. The amplitude ratio of the non-scattered and the singly forward scattered interfering components significantly affects the colour intensity. It has further...

  12. Collinear laser spectroscopy of francium using online rubidium vapor neutralization and amplitude modulated lasers (United States)

    Sell, J. F.; Gulyuz, K.; Sprouse, G. D.


    Performing collinear laser spectroscopy on low intensity radioactive beams requires sensitive detection techniques. We explain our apparatus to detect atomic resonances in neutralized F208-210r ion beams at beam energies of 5 keV and intensities of 105 s-1. Efficient neutralization (≥80%) is accomplished by passing the beam through a dense Rb vapor. Increased detection efficiency is achieved by amplitude modulating the exciting laser to decrease the scattered light background, allowing fluorescence detection only when the laser is near its minimum in the modulation cycle. Using this technique in a collinear geometry we achieve a background reduction by a factor of 180 and a signal-to-noise increase of 2.2, with the lifetime of the atomic state playing a role in the efficiency of this process. Such laser modulation will also produce sidebands on the atomic spectra which we illustrate.

  13. Direct Amplitude-Phase Near-Field Observation of Higher-Order Anapole States. (United States)

    Zenin, Vladimir A; Evlyukhin, Andrey B; Novikov, Sergey M; Yang, Yuanqing; Malureanu, Radu; Lavrinenko, Andrei V; Chichkov, Boris N; Bozhevolnyi, Sergey I


    Anapole states associated with the resonant suppression of electric-dipole scattering exhibit minimized extinction and maximized storage of electromagnetic energy inside a particle. Using numerical simulations, optical extinction spectroscopy, and amplitude-phase near-field mapping of silicon dielectric disks, we demonstrate high-order anapole states in the near-infrared wavelength range (900-1700 nm). We develop the procedure for unambiguously identifying anapole states by monitoring the normal component of the electric near-field and experimentally detect the first two anapole states as verified by far-field extinction spectroscopy and confirmed with the numerical simulations. We demonstrate that higher-order anapole states possess stronger energy concentration and narrower resonances, a remarkable feature that is advantageous for their applications in metasurfaces and nanophotonics components, such as nonlinear higher-harmonic generators and nanoscale lasers.

  14. arXiv Beyond Amplitudes' Positivity and the Fate of Massive Gravity

    CERN Document Server

    Bellazzini, Brando; Serra, Javi; Sgarlata, Francesco

    We constrain effective field theories by going beyond the familiar positivity bounds that follow from unitarity, analyticity, and crossing symmetry of the scattering amplitudes. As interesting examples, we discuss the implications of the bounds for the Galileon and ghost-free massive gravity. The combination of our theoretical bounds with the experimental constraints on the graviton mass implies that the latter is either ruled out or unable to describe gravitational phenomena, let alone to consistently implement the Vainshtein mechanism, down to the relevant scales of fifth-force experiments, where general relativity has been successfully tested. We also show that the Galileon theory must contain symmetry-breaking terms that are at most one-loop suppressed compared to the symmetry-preserving ones. We comment as well on other interesting applications of our bounds.

  15. Scattering Solar Thermal Concentrators

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Giebink, Noel C. [Pennsylvania State Univ., State College, PA (United States)


    This program set out to explore a scattering-based approach to concentrate sunlight with the aim of improving collector field reliability and of eliminating wind loading and gross mechanical movement through the use of a stationary collection optic. The approach is based on scattering sunlight from the focal point of a fixed collection optic into the confined modes of a sliding planar waveguide, where it is transported to stationary tubular heat transfer elements located at the edges. Optical design for the first stage of solar concentration, which entails focusing sunlight within a plane over a wide range of incidence angles (>120 degree full field of view) at fixed tilt, led to the development of a new, folded-path collection optic that dramatically out-performs the current state-of-the-art in scattering concentration. Rigorous optical simulation and experimental testing of this collection optic have validated its performance. In the course of this work, we also identified an opportunity for concentrating photovoltaics involving the use of high efficiency microcells made in collaboration with partners at the University of Illinois. This opportunity exploited the same collection optic design as used for the scattering solar thermal concentrator and was therefore pursued in parallel. This system was experimentally demonstrated to achieve >200x optical concentration with >70% optical efficiency over a full day by tracking with <1 cm of lateral movement at fixed latitude tilt. The entire scattering concentrator waveguide optical system has been simulated, tested, and assembled at small scale to verify ray tracing models. These models were subsequently used to predict the full system optical performance at larger, deployment scale ranging up to >1 meter aperture width. Simulations at an aperture widths less than approximately 0.5 m with geometric gains ~100x predict an overall optical efficiency in the range 60-70% for angles up to 50 degrees from normal. However, the

  16. Higher twist effects in deeply virtual Compton scattering

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Pirnay, Bjoern Michael


    In this work we explore the effects of higher twist power corrections on the deeply virtual Compton scattering process. The calculation of the helicity amplitudes for all possible polarization combinations is performed within the framework of QCD operator product expansion. As a result the known accuracy of the amplitudes is improved to include the (kinematic) twist-4 contributions. For the most part the analysis focuses on spin-1/2 targets, the answers for scalar targets conveniently emerge as a byproduct. We investigate the analytical structure of these corrections and prove consistency with QCD factorization. We give an estimation of the numerical impact of the sub-leading twist contributions for proton targets with the help of a phenomenological model for the nonperturbative proton generalized parton distributions. We compare different twist approximations and relate predictions for physical observables to experiments performed by the Hall A, CLAS, HERMES, H1 and ZEUS collaborations. The estimate also includes a numerical study for planned COMPASS-II runs. Throughout the analysis special emphasis is put on the convention dependence induced by finite twist truncation of scattering amplitudes.

  17. Barrier distributions and scattering

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Timmers, H.; Leigh, J.R.; Dasgupta, M.; Hinde, D.J.; Mein, J.C.; Morton, C.R.; Newton, J.O. [Department of Nuclear Physics, Australian National University, Canberra, ACT 0200 (Austria); Rowley, N. [Centre de Recherches Nucleaires, 23 Rue du Loess, F-67037 Strasbourg CEDEX 2 (France); Stefanini, A.M.; Ackermann, D.; Corradi, L.; He, J.H. [INFN, Laboratori Nazionali di Legnaro, Legnaro (PD) (Italy); Beghini, S.; Montagnoli, G.; Scarlassara, F.; Segato, G.F. [Universita di Padova and INFN Sezione di Padova, Padova (Italy)


    The extraction of representations of the fusion barrier distribution from backward-angle, quasi-elastic, elastic and transfer excitation functions is discussed. Such excitation functions have been measured for {sup 16}O, {sup 32}S and {sup 40}Ca projectiles incident on a variety of targets. The results are compared with representations obtained from fusion excitation functions. Varying in their sensitivity, all representations show evidence of the barrier structure. Differences between the scattering and the fusion representations can be related to the effects of coupling to residual, weak reaction channels. (author)

  18. Wave propagation scattering theory

    CERN Document Server

    Birman, M Sh


    The papers in this collection were written primarily by members of the St. Petersburg seminar in mathematical physics. The seminar, now run by O. A. Ladyzhenskaya, was initiated in 1947 by V. I. Smirnov, to whose memory this volume is dedicated. The papers in the collection are devoted mainly to wave propagation processes, scattering theory, integrability of nonlinear equations, and related problems of spectral theory of differential and integral operators. The book is of interest to mathematicians working in mathematical physics and differential equations, as well as to physicists studying va

  19. Raman scattering in crystals

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Edwards, D.F.


    A tutorial presentation is given of Raman scattering in crystals. The physical concepts are emphasized rather than the detailed mathematical formalism. Starting with an introduction to the concepts of phonons and conservation laws, the effects of photon-phonon interactions are presented. This interaction concept is shown for a simple cubic crystal and is extended to a uniaxial crystal. The correlation table method is used for determining the number and symmetry of the Raman active modes. Finally, examples are given to illustrate the relative ease of using this group theoretical method and the predictions are compared with measured Raman spectra. 37 refs., 17 figs., 6 tabs.

  20. An amplitude suppression method based on the decibel criterion (United States)

    Kong, Xuan-Lin; Chen, Hui; Wang, Jin-Long; Hu, Zhi-quan; Xu, Dan; Li, Lu-Ming


    To suppress the strong noise in seismic data with wide range of amplitudes, commonly used methods often yield unsatisfactory denoising results owing to inappropriate thresholds and require parametric testing as well as iterations to achieve the anticipated results. To overcome these problems, a data-driven strong amplitude suppression method based on the decibel criterion in the wavelet domain (ISANA) is proposed. The method determines the denoising threshold based on the decibel criterion and statistically analyzes the amplitude index rather than the abnormally high amplitudes. The method distinguishes the frequency band distributions of the valid signals in the time-frequency domain based on the wavelet transformation and then calculates thresholds in selected time windows, eventually achieving frequency-divided noise attenuation for better denoising. Simulations based on theoretical and real-world data verify the adaptability and low dependence of the method on the size of the time window. The method suppresses noise without energy loss in the signals.

  1. Movement amplitude and tempo change in piano performance (United States)

    Palmer, Caroline


    Music performance places stringent temporal and cognitive demands on individuals that should yield large speed/accuracy tradeoffs. Skilled piano performance, however, shows consistently high accuracy across a wide variety of rates. Movement amplitude may affect the speed/accuracy tradeoff, so that high accuracy can be obtained even at very fast tempi. The contribution of movement amplitude changes in rate (tempo) is investigated with motion capture. Cameras recorded pianists with passive markers on hands and fingers, who performed on an electronic (MIDI) keyboard. Pianists performed short melodies at faster and faster tempi until they made errors (altering the speed/accuracy function). Variability of finger movements in the three motion planes indicated most change in the plane perpendicular to the keyboard across tempi. Surprisingly, peak amplitudes of motion before striking the keys increased as tempo increased. Increased movement amplitudes at faster rates may reduce or compensate for speed/accuracy tradeoffs. [Work supported by Canada Research Chairs program, HIMH R01 45764.

  2. Stora's fine notion of divergent amplitudes

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Várilly, Joseph C., E-mail: [Escuela de Matemática, Universidad de Costa Rica, San José 11501 (Costa Rica); Gracia-Bondía, José M. [Departamento de Física Teórica, Universidad de Zaragoza, Zaragoza 50009 (Spain); Departamento de Física, Universidad de Costa Rica, San Pedro 11501 (Costa Rica)


    Stora and coworkers refined the notion of divergent quantum amplitude, somewhat upsetting the standard power-counting recipe. This unexpectedly clears the way to new prototypes for free and interacting field theories of bosons of any mass and spin.

  3. Thrombelastography Early Amplitudes in bleeding and coagulopathic trauma patients

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Laursen, Thomas H; Meyer, Martin A S; Meyer, Anna Sina P


    variables in a large multicenter cohort of moderately to severely injured trauma patients admitted at three North European level 1 Trauma Centers. METHODS: Prospective observational study of 404 trauma patients with clinical suspicion of severe injury from London, UK, Copenhagen, Denmark and Oslo, Norway...... amplitude. CONCLUSIONS: We found strong associations between TEG early amplitudes A5/A10 and maximum amplitude in rapid TEG, kaolin TEG and TEG Functional Fibrinogen across trauma patients with coagulopathy and massive transfusion requirements. Introducing the use of early amplitudes can reduce time...... to diagnosis of coagulopathy and may be used in TEG-monitoring of trauma patient. Further randomized controlled trials evaluating the role of TEG in guiding hemostatic resuscitation are warranted. LEVEL OF EVIDENCE: Prognostic and diagnostic study, level III....

  4. Mimicking an amplitude damping channel for Laguerre Gaussian Modes

    CSIR Research Space (South Africa)

    Dudley, Angela L


    Full Text Available An amplitude damping channel for Laguerre-Gaussian (LG) modes is presented. Experimentally the action of the channel on LG modes is in good agreement with that predicted theoretically....

  5. OCT Amplitude and Speckle Statistics of Discrete Random Media

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Almasian, Mitra; van Leeuwen, Ton G.; Faber, Dirk J.


    Speckle, amplitude fluctuations in optical coherence tomography (OCT) images, contains information on sub-resolution structural properties of the imaged sample. Speckle statistics could therefore be utilized in the characterization of biological tissues. However, a rigorous theoretical framework

  6. High Amplitude (delta)-Scutis in the Large Magellanic Cloud

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Garg, A; Cook, K H; Nikolaev, S; Huber, M E; Rest, A; Becker, A C; Challis, P; Clocchiatti, A; Miknaitis, G; Minniti, D; Morelli, L; Olsen, K; Prieto, J L; Suntzeff, N B; Welch, D L; Wood-Vasey, W M


    The authors present 2323 High-Amplitude {delta}-Scutis (HADS) candidates discovered in the Large Magellanic Cloud (LMC) by the SuperMACHO survey (Rest et al. 2005). Frequency analyses of these candidates reveal that several are multimode pulsators, including 119 whose largest amplitude of pulsation is in the fundamental (F) mode and 19 whose largest amplitude of pulsation is in the first overtone (FO) mode. Using Fourier decomposition of the HADS light curves, they find that the period-luminosity (PL) relation defined by the FO pulsators does not show a clear separation from the PL-relation defined by the F pulsators. This differs from other instability strip pulsators such as type c RR Lyrae. They also present evidence for a larger amplitude, subluminous population of HADS similar to that observed in Fornax (Poretti et al. 2008).

  7. Amplitudes, recursion relations and unitarity in the Abelian Higgs model (United States)

    Kleiss, Ronald; Luna, Oscar Boher


    The Abelian Higgs model forms an essential part of the electroweak standard model: it is the sector containing only Z0 and Higgs bosons. We present a diagram-based proof of the tree-level unitarity of this model inside the unitary gauge, where only physical degrees of freedom occur. We derive combinatorial recursion relations for off-shell amplitudes in the massless approximation, which allows us to prove the cancellation of the first two orders in energy of unitarity-violating high-energy behaviour for any tree-level amplitude in this model. We describe a deformation of the amplitudes by extending the physical phase space to at least 7 spacetime dimensions, which leads to on-shell recursion relations à la BCFW. These lead to a simple proof that all on-shell tree amplitudes obey partial-wave unitarity.

  8. Amplitude analysis of the charmed decay D0 to KKpipi (United States)

    Skidmore, Nicola


    An amplitude analysis of the 4-body charmed decay D0 -> KKππ is presented using data collected from electron-positron collisions at the CLEO experiment. Both flavour tagged and CP tagged data are utilized in the analysis making it unique from amplitude analyses performed at other colliders and providing extra sensitivity to the phases of the amplitude components. The amplitude model is used to search for CP violation in the D0 decay by analysing D0 and D0 decays separately. The model is also crucial input for a model-dependent measurement of the CP-violating phase γ using B+/- ->D0(-> KKππ) K+/- decays, which remains one of the least constrained parameters of the Standard Model. Forum on International Physics Distinguished Student Seminar Program, and European Research Council

  9. Euclidean to Minkowski Bethe-Salpeter amplitude and observables

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Carbonell, J. [Universite Paris-Sud, IN2P3-CNRS, Institut de Physique Nucleaire, Orsay Cedex (France); Frederico, T. [Instituto Tecnologico de Aeronautica, DCTA, Sao Jose dos Campos (Brazil); Karmanov, V.A. [Lebedev Physical Institute, Moscow (Russian Federation)


    We propose a method to reconstruct the Bethe-Salpeter amplitude in Minkowski space given the Euclidean Bethe-Salpeter amplitude - or alternatively the light-front wave function - as input. The method is based on the numerical inversion of the Nakanishi integral representation and computing the corresponding weight function. This inversion procedure is, in general, rather unstable, and we propose several ways to considerably reduce the instabilities. In terms of the Nakanishi weight function, one can easily compute the BS amplitude, the LF wave function and the electromagnetic form factor. The latter ones are very stable in spite of residual instabilities in the weight function. This procedure allows both, to continue the Euclidean BS solution in the Minkowski space and to obtain a BS amplitude from a LF wave function. (orig.)

  10. High-energy scattering in gravity and supergravity (United States)

    Giddings, Steven B.; Schmidt-Sommerfeld, Maximilian; Andersen, Jeppe R.


    We investigate features of perturbative gravity and supergravity by studying scattering in the ultra-Planckian limit, and sharpen arguments that the dynamics is governed by long-distance physics. A simple example capturing aspects of the eikonal resummation suggests why short-distance phenomena and, in particular, divergences or nonrenormalizability do not necessarily play a central role in this regime. A more profound problem is apparently unitarity. These considerations can be illustrated by showing that known gravity and supergravity amplitudes have the same long-distance behavior, despite the extra light states of supergravity, and this serves as an important check on long-range dynamics in a context where perturbative amplitudes are finite. We also argue that these considerations have other important implications: they obstruct both probing the conjectured phenomenon of asymptotic safety through a physical scattering process, and ultra-Planckian scattering exhibiting Regge behavior. These arguments sharpen the need to find a nonperturbative completion of gravity with mechanisms which restore unitarity in the strong gravity regime.

  11. Rayleigh scattering and nonlinear inversion of elastic waves

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Gritto, Roland [Univ. of California, Berkeley, CA (United States)


    Rayleigh scattering of elastic waves by an inclusion is investigated and the limitations determined. In the near field of the inhomogeneity, the scattered waves are up to a factor of 300 stronger than in the far field, excluding the application of the far field Rayleigh approximation for this range. The investigation of the relative error as a function of parameter perturbation shows a range of applicability broader than previously assumed, with errors of 37% and 17% for perturbations of -100% and +100%, respectively. The validity range for the Rayleigh limit is controlled by large inequalities, and therefore, the exact limit is determined as a function of various parameter configurations, resulting in surprisingly high values of up to kpR = 0.9. The nonlinear scattering problem can be solved by inverting for equivalent source terms (moments) of the scatterer, before the elastic parameters are determined. The nonlinear dependence between the moments and the elastic parameters reveals a strong asymmetry around the origin, which will produce different results for weak scattering approximations depending on the sign of the anomaly. Numerical modeling of cross hole situations shows that near field terms are important to yield correct estimates of the inhomogeneities in the vicinity of the receivers, while a few well positioned sources and receivers considerably increase the angular coverage, and thus the model resolution of the inversion parameters. The pattern of scattered energy by an inhomogeneity is complicated and varies depending on the object, the wavelength of the incident wave, and the elastic parameters involved. Therefore, it is necessary to investigate the direction of scattered amplitudes to determine the best survey geometry.

  12. Effects of Amplitude Compression on Relative Auditory Distance Perception (United States)


    human sound localization (pp. 36-200). Cambridge, MA: The MIT Press. Carmichel, E. L., Harris, F. P., & Story, B. H. (2007). Effects of binaural ...auditory distance perception by reducing the level differences between sounds . The focus of the present study was to investigate the effect of amplitude...create stimuli. Two levels of amplitude compression were applied to the recordings through Adobe Audition sound editing software to simulate military

  13. Broadband metasurface for independent control of reflected amplitude and phase


    Sheng Li Jia; Xiang Wan; Pei Su; Yong Jiu Zhao; Tie Jun Cui


    We propose an ultra-thin metasurface to control the amplitudes and phases independently of the reflected waves by changing geometries and orientations of I-shaped metallic particles. We demonstrate that the particles can realize independent controls of reflection amplitudes and phases with a magnitude range of [0, 0.82] and a full phase range of 360° in broad frequency band. Based on such particles, two ultrathin metasurface gratings are further proposed to form anomalous reflection with pola...

  14. Positive amplitude electron acoustic solitary waves in auroral plasma (United States)

    Ghosh, S. S.; Lakhina, G. S.

    Rapidly moving positive potential pulses have been observed by FAST and POLAR satellites in downward current region of auroral plasma. They are characterized by their high velocities (> 1000 km/s) which are of the order of the electron drift velocities and are found to be associated with electron beams. Interestingly, it is observed that the width of such electron mode solitary waves increases with the amplitude [Ergun et al. (1998)]. Theoretically, they are interpreted as BGK electron phase space holes. However, Berthomier et al. (2000) have shown that a positive amplitude solitary wave may well exist for an electron acoustic mode. According to a weakly nonlinear theory, the width of such an electron acoustic solitary wave is expected to decrease with increasing amplitude which contradicts the observation. On the other hand, in our previous work, we have shown that the width of a large amplitude rarefactive ion acoustic solitary wave increases with an increasing amplitude [Ghosh et al. (2004)]. In the present work, we have extended our analysis to an electron acoustic solitary wave. A fully nonlinear solution of positive amplitude electron acoustic solitary waves (electron acoustic solitary holes) has been obtained by adopting the Sagdeev pseudopotetial technique. The plasma is assumed to be magnetized and traversed by the electron beam. The existence domain of such electron acoustic solitary holes is studied in detail. It is found that the width of electron acoustic solitary holes increases with increasing amplitude. Theoretically estimated width-amplitude variation profiles have been compared with recent satellite observations. It is proposed that a model based on electron acoustic mode may well interpret the fast moving solitary holes for an appropriate parameter space. References:Berthomier et al., Phys. Plasma, 7, 2987 (2000).Ergun et al., Phys. Rev. Lett., 81, 826, (1998).Ghosh and Lakhina,, Nonlin. Process. Geophys, (2004), (to be appeared).

  15. Three Point Tree Level Amplitude in Superstring Theory

    CERN Document Server

    Hatefi, Ehsan


    In order to check the definite amplitude and the exact zero result of the amplitude of three massless points $(CAA)$ in both string theory and field theory side for $p=n$ case and to find all gauge field couplings to R-R closed string, we investigate the disk level S-matrix element of one Ramond-Ramond field and two gauge field vertex operators in the world volume of BPS branes.

  16. Two-Loop Four-Gluon Amplitudes from Numerical Unitarity (United States)

    Abreu, S.; Cordero, F. Febres; Ita, H.; Jaquier, M.; Page, B.; Zeng, M.


    We present the first numerical computation of two-loop amplitudes based on the unitarity method. As a proof of principle, we compute the four-gluon process in the leading-color approximation. We discuss the new method, analyze its numerical properties, and apply it to reconstruct the analytic form of the amplitudes. The numerical method is universal, and can be automated to provide multiscale two-loop computations for phenomenologically relevant signatures at hadron colliders.

  17. Plane wave packet formulation of atom-plus-diatom quantum reactive scattering. (United States)

    Althorpe, Stuart C


    We recently interpreted several reactive scattering experiments using a plane wave packet (PWP) formulation of quantum scattering theory [see, e.g., S. C. Althorpe, F. Fernandez-Alonso, B. D. Bean, J. D. Ayers, A. E. Pomerantz, R. N. Zare, and E. Wrede, Nature (London) 416, 67 (2002)]. This paper presents the first derivation of this formulation for atom-plus-diatom reactive scattering, and explains its relation to conventional time-independent reactive scattering. We generalize recent results for spherical-particle scattering [S. C. Althorpe, Phys. Rev. A 69, 042702 (2004)] to atom-rigid-rotor scattering in the space-fixed frame, atom-rigid-rotor scattering in the body-fixed frame, and finally A+BC rearrangement scattering. The reactive scattering is initiated by a plane wave packet, describing the A+BC reagents in center-of-mass scattering coordinates, and is detected by projecting onto a series of AC+B (or AB+C) plane wave "probe" packets. The plane wave packets are localized at the closest distance from the scattering center at which the interaction potential can be neglected. The time evolution of the initial plane wave packet provides a clear visualization of the scattering into space of the reaction products. The projection onto the probe packets yields the time-independent, state-to-state scattering amplitude, and hence the differential cross section. We explain how best to implement the PWP approach in a numerical computation, and illustrate this with a detailed application to the H+D2 reaction. (c) 2004 American Institute of Physics

  18. Mapping Pn amplitude spreading and attenuation in Asia

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Yang, Xiaoning [Los Alamos National Laboratory; Phillips, William S [Los Alamos National Laboratory; Stead, Richard J [Los Alamos National Laboratory


    Pn travels most of its path in the mantle lid. Mapping the lateral variation of Pn amplitude attenuation sheds light on material properties and dynamics of the uppermost region of the mantle. Pn amplitude variation depends on the wavefront geometric spreading as well as material attenuation. We investigated Pn geometric spreading, which is much more complex than a traditionally assumed power-law spreading model, using both synthetic and observed amplitude data collected in Asia. We derived a new Pn spreading model based on the formulation that was proposed previously to account for the spherical shape of the Earth (Yang et. al., BSSA, 2007). New parameters derived for the spreading model provide much better correction for Pn amplitudes in terms of residual behavior. Because we used observed Pn amplitudes to construct the model, the model incorporates not only the effect of the Earth's spherical shape, but also the effect of potential upper-mantle velocity gradients in the region. Using the new spreading model, we corrected Pn amplitudes measured at 1, 2, 4 and 6 Hz and conducted attenuation tomography. The resulting Pn attenuation model correlates well with the regional geology. We see high attenuation in regions such as northern Tibetan Plateau and the western Pacific subduction zone, and low attenuation for stable blocks such as Sichuan and Tarim basins.

  19. Light Diffraction by Large Amplitude Ultrasonic Waves in Liquids (United States)

    Adler, Laszlo; Cantrell, John H.; Yost, William T.


    Light diffraction from ultrasound, which can be used to investigate nonlinear acoustic phenomena in liquids, is reported for wave amplitudes larger than that typically reported in the literature. Large amplitude waves result in waveform distortion due to the nonlinearity of the medium that generates harmonics and produces asymmetries in the light diffraction pattern. For standing waves with amplitudes above a threshold value, subharmonics are generated in addition to the harmonics and produce additional diffraction orders of the incident light. With increasing drive amplitude above the threshold a cascade of period-doubling subharmonics are generated, terminating in a region characterized by a random, incoherent (chaotic) diffraction pattern. To explain the experimental results a toy model is introduced, which is derived from traveling wave solutions of the nonlinear wave equation corresponding to the fundamental and second harmonic standing waves. The toy model reduces the nonlinear partial differential equation to a mathematically more tractable nonlinear ordinary differential equation. The model predicts the experimentally observed cascade of period-doubling subharmonics terminating in chaos that occurs with increasing drive amplitudes above the threshold value. The calculated threshold amplitude is consistent with the value estimated from the experimental data.

  20. A proposed physical analog for a quantum probability amplitude (United States)

    Boyd, Jeffrey

    What is the physical analog of a probability amplitude? All quantum mathematics, including quantum information, is built on amplitudes. Every other science uses probabilities; QM alone uses their square root. Why? This question has been asked for a century, but no one previously has proposed an answer. We will present cylindrical helices moving toward a particle source, which particles follow backwards. Consider Feynman's book QED. He speaks of amplitudes moving through space like the hand of a spinning clock. His hand is a complex vector. It traces a cylindrical helix in Cartesian space. The Theory of Elementary Waves changes direction so Feynman's clock faces move toward the particle source. Particles follow amplitudes (quantum waves) backwards. This contradicts wave particle duality. We will present empirical evidence that wave particle duality is wrong about the direction of particles versus waves. This involves a paradigm shift; which are always controversial. We believe that our model is the ONLY proposal ever made for the physical foundations of probability amplitudes. We will show that our ``probability amplitudes'' in physical nature form a Hilbert vector space with adjoints, an inner product and support both linear algebra and Dirac notation.

  1. Relative amplitude preservation processing utilizing surface consistent amplitude correction. Part 3; Surface consistent amplitude correction wo mochiita sotai shinpuku hozon shori. 3

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Saeki, T. [Japan National Oil Corporation, Tokyo (Japan). Technology Research Center


    For the seismic reflection method conducted on the ground surface, generator and geophone are set on the surface. The observed waveforms are affected by the ground surface and surface layer. Therefore, it is required for discussing physical properties of the deep underground to remove the influence of surface layer, preliminarily. For the surface consistent amplitude correction, properties of the generator and geophone were removed by assuming that the observed waveforms can be expressed by equations of convolution. This is a correction method to obtain records without affected by the surface conditions. In response to analysis and correction of waveforms, wavelet conversion was examined. Using the amplitude patterns after correction, the significant signal region, noise dominant region, and surface wave dominant region would be separated each other. Since the amplitude values after correction of values in the significant signal region have only small variation, a representative value can be given. This can be used for analyzing the surface consistent amplitude correction. Efficiency of the process can be enhanced by considering the change of frequency. 3 refs., 5 figs.

  2. Scattering of an electromagnetic plane wave by a Luneburg lens. II. Wave theory. (United States)

    Lock, James A


    The partial wave scattering and interior amplitudes for the interaction of an electromagnetic plane wave with a modified Luneburg lens are derived in terms of the exterior and interior radial functions of the scalar radiation potentials evaluated at the lens surface. A Debye series decomposition of these amplitudes is also performed and discussed. The effective potential inside the lens for the transverse electric polarization is qualitatively examined, and the approximate lens size parameters of morphology-dependent resonances are determined. Finally, the physical optics model is used to calculate wave scattering in the vicinity of the ray theory orbiting condition in order to demonstrate the smoothing of ray theory discontinuities by the diffraction of scattered waves.

  3. Elastic {pi}{pi} scattering up to 2 GeV and the meson resonance spectrum

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Kloet, W.M. [Rutgers - the State Univ., Piscataway, NJ (United States). Dept. of Physics and Astronomy; Loiseau, B. [Division de Physique Theorique, Institut de Physique Nucleaire, 91406, Orsay CEDEX (France)]|[LPTPE, Universite P. and M. Curie, 4 Place Jussieu, 75252, Paris CEDEX 05 (France)


    Elastic {pi}{pi} scattering from threshold to 2.0 GeV is predicted by a coupled channel model of {pi}{pi}, anti KK, and {rho}{rho}({omega}{omega}). As input the S-matrix of the model is required to exhibit poles for the complex energies, corresponding to the J{sup PC}(I{sup G})=0{sup ++}(0{sup +}), 1{sup --}(1{sup +}), 2{sup ++}(0{sup +}), 3{sup --}(1{sup +}) resonances of the Particle Data Group. One important aspect is that the scattering amplitude in this three-channel model, has an analytic structure in the complex energy plane with eight possible sheets. As output the model describes the S,P,D,F-wave {pi}{pi} scattering amplitudes as parametrized by phase shifts and inelasticities. (orig.). 5 refs.

  4. Diffraction Scattering in the Ericson Model for the S-Matrix

    CERN Document Server

    Shebeko, A V


    Elastic spinless charge particle scattering on nuclei has been considered by using the strong absorption model put forward by Ericson for the S-matrix in the angular momentum representation. Our analytical method for summation of the partial amplitudes is based upon an extension of the Abel-Plana formula, that enables us to account for contributions from possible singularities of the S-matrix in the right l-halfplane. A uniform asymptotics for the scattering amplitude, derived here, offers a fresh sight at origin of diffractive patterns in the elastic heavy-ion angular distributions. Special attention has been paid to the Coulomb-nuclear interference (particularly, refractive phenomena) for the scattering inside the classically - allowed region (the "illuminated" region) and the classically - forbidden region (the "shadow" region). Unlike the existing analytical results, our solutions of the diffraction problem give no reasons for drawing any deep parallels neither with the Fresnel diffraction in optics nor w...

  5. Calculation of HELAS amplitudes for QCD processes using graphics processing unit (GPU) (United States)

    Hagiwara, K.; Kanzaki, J.; Okamura, N.; Rainwater, D.; Stelzer, T.


    We use a graphics processing unit (GPU) for fast calculations of helicity amplitudes of quark and gluon scattering processes in massless QCD. New HEGET ( HELAS Evaluation with GPU Enhanced Technology) codes for gluon self-interactions are introduced, and a C++ program to convert the MadGraph generated FORTRAN codes into HEGET codes in CUDA (a C-platform for general purpose computing on GPU) is created. Because of the proliferation of the number of Feynman diagrams and the number of independent color amplitudes, the maximum number of final state jets we can evaluate on a GPU is limited to 4 for pure gluon processes ( gg→4 g), or 5 for processes with one or more quark lines such as qoverline{q}→ 5g and qq→ qq+3 g. Compared with the usual CPU-based programs, we obtain 60-100 times better performance on the GPU, except for 5-jet production processes and the gg→4 g processes for which the GPU gain over the CPU is about 20.

  6. Two-loop supersymmetric QCD and half-maximal supergravity amplitudes (United States)

    Johansson, Henrik; Kälin, Gregor; Mogull, Gustav


    Using the duality between color and kinematics, we construct two-loop four-point scattering amplitudes in N=2 super-Yang-Mills (SYM) theory coupled to N f fundamental hypermultiplets. Our results are valid in D ≤ 6 dimensions, where the upper bound corresponds to six-dimensional chiral N=(1,0) SYM theory. By exploiting a close connection with N=4 SYM theory — and, equivalently, six-dimensional N=(1,1) SYM theory — we find compact integrands with four-dimensional external vectors in both the maximally-helicity-violating (MHV) and all-chiral-vector sectors. Via the double-copy construction corresponding D-dimensional half-maximal supergravity amplitudes with external graviton multiplets are obtained in the MHV and all-chiral sectors. Appropriately tuning N f enables us to consider both pure and matter-coupled supergravity, with arbitrary numbers of vector multiplets in D = 4. As a bonus, we obtain the integrands of the genuinely six-dimensional supergravities with N=(1,1) and N=(2,0) supersymmetry. Finally, we extract the potential ultraviolet divergence of half-maximal supergravity in D = 5 - 2 ɛ and show that it non-trivially cancels out as expected.

  7. Electromagnetic Scattering and Material Characterization

    CERN Document Server

    Omar, Abbas


    Based on the author's more-than 30 years of experience, this first-of-its-kind volume presents a comprehensive and systematic analysis of electromagnetic fields and their scattering by material objects. The book considers all three categories of scattering environments commonly used for material measurements – unbounded regions, waveguides, and cavity resonators. The book covers such essential topics as electromagnetic field propagation, radiation, and scattering, containing mathematically rigorous approaches for the computation of electromagnetic fields and the explanation of their behavior.

  8. Advances in total scattering analysis

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Proffen, Thomas E [Los Alamos National Laboratory; Kim, Hyunjeong [Los Alamos National Laboratory


    In recent years the analysis of the total scattering pattern has become an invaluable tool to study disordered crystalline and nanocrystalline materials. Traditional crystallographic structure determination is based on Bragg intensities and yields the long range average atomic structure. By including diffuse scattering into the analysis, the local and medium range atomic structure can be unravelled. Here we give an overview of recent experimental advances, using X-rays as well as neutron scattering as well as current trends in modelling of total scattering data.

  9. Light scattering by small particles

    CERN Document Server

    Hulst, H C van de


    ""A must for researchers using the techniques of light scattering."" ? S. C. Snowdon, Journal of the Franklin InstituteThe measurement of light scattering of independent, homogeneous particles has many useful applications in physical chemistry, meteorology and astronomy. There is, however, a sizeable gap between the abstract formulae related to electromagnetic-wave-scattering phenomena, and the computation of reliable figures and curves. Dr. van de Hulst's book enables researchers to bridge that gap. The product of twelve years of work, it is an exhaustive study of light-scattering properties

  10. Dispersion Decay and Scattering Theory

    CERN Document Server

    Komech, Alexander


    A simplified, yet rigorous treatment of scattering theory methods and their applications Dispersion Decay and Scattering Theory provides thorough, easy-to-understand guidance on the application of scattering theory methods to modern problems in mathematics, quantum physics, and mathematical physics. Introducing spectral methods with applications to dispersion time-decay and scattering theory, this book presents, for the first time, the Agmon-Jensen-Kato spectral theory for the Schr?dinger equation, extending the theory to the Klein-Gordon equation. The dispersion decay plays a crucial role i

  11. Amplitude normalization reduces cervical vestibular evoked myogenic potential (cVEMP) amplitude asymmetries in normal subjects: proof of concept. (United States)

    McCaslin, Devin L; Fowler, Andrea; Jacobson, Gary P


    The cervical vestibular evoked myogenic potential (cVEMP) is an acoustically synchronized, signal averaged, brief inhibitory response of a contracted muscle usually resulting from an acoustic stimulus. The cVEMP is recorded from the tonically contracted sternocleidomastoid muscle (SCM). The presence and amplitude of the cVEMP is related to both the integrity of the sacculo-collic pathway and magnitude of electromyographic (EMG) activity at the time of recording. Measurement variables include the absolute latency of the primary positive going component (referred to as P13) and interaural (i.e., left versus right) latency differences. Also measured is the peak-to-peak interaural amplitude asymmetry (IAA; percent difference in amplitude, left versus right). It is known that the amplitude of the cVEMP is positively correlated with the magnitude of tonic EMG from which the evoked potential is extracted. Thus, if EMG amplitude is uncontrolled, one cannot determine whether cVEMP asymmetries are occurring due to unilateral end organ disease or asymmetric tonic EMG activity. Two methods have been suggested to control for tonic EMG activity. These include (1) patient self-monitoring of EMG activity with biofeedback and (2) mathematical correction (i.e., amplitude normalization) of the left and right cVEMP waveforms. Currently, it is unknown how effective amplitude normalization techniques are at reducing cVEMP amplitude asymmetry in the presence of varying levels of EMG. The purpose of this investigation was to determine whether the use of amplitude correction techniques would reduce significantly the P13-N23 IAA data in otologically and neurologically intact adults when the level of EMG was varied between right and left sides. A prospective, repeated measures design was used for three different investigations in which cVEMPs were recorded and then processed using amplitude correction. Subjects were 20 otologically and neurologically health young adults between 21 and 29 yr

  12. Timelike Virtual Compton Scattering from Electron-Positron Radiative Annihilation

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Afanasev, Andrei; /Hampton U. /Jefferson Lab; Brodsky, Stanley J.; /SLAC; Carlson, Carl E.; /William-Mary Coll.; Mukherjee, Asmita; /Indian Inst. Tech., Mumbai


    We propose measurements of the deeply virtual Compton amplitude (DVCS) {gamma}* {yields} H{bar H}{gamma} in the timelike t = (p{sub H} + p{sub {bar H}}){sup 2} > 0 kinematic domain which is accessible at electron-positron colliders via the radiative annihilation process e{sup +}e{sup -} {yields} H{bar H}{gamma}. These processes allow the measurement of timelike deeply virtual Compton scattering for a variety of H{bar H} hadron pairs such as {pi}{sup +}{pi}{sup -}, K{sup +}K{sup -}, and D{bar D} as well as p{bar p}. As in the conventional spacelike DVCS, there are interfering coherent amplitudes contributing to the timelike processes involving C = - form factors. The interference between the amplitudes measures the phase of the C = + timelike DVCS amplitude relative to the phase of the timelike form factors and can be isolated by considering the forward-backward e{sup +} {leftrightarrow} e{sup -} asymmetry. The J = 0 fixed pole contribution which arises from the local coupling of the two photons to the quark current plays a special role. As an example we present a simple model.

  13. Timelike Virtual Compton Scattering from Electron-Positron Radiative Annihilation

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Andrei Afanaciev,Andrei Afanasev, Stanley J. Brodsky, Carl E. Carlson, Asmita Mukherjee


    We propose measurements of the deeply virtual Compton amplitude (DVCS), gamma* to H H-bar gamma, in the timelike t = (p_{H} + p_{H-bar})^2 > 0 kinematic domain which is accessible at electron-positron colliders via the radiative annihilation process e+ e- to H H-bar gamma. These processes allow the measurement of timelike deeply virtual Compton scattering for a variety of H H-bar hadron pairs such as pi+ pi-, K+ K-, and D D-bar as well as p p-bar. As in the conventional spacelike DVCS, there are interfering coherent amplitudes contributing to the timelike processes involving C= - form factors. The interference between the amplitudes measures the phase of the C=+ timelike DVCS amplitude relative to the phase of the timelike form factors and can be isolated by considering the forward-backward e+ \\leftrightarrow e- asymmetry. The J=0 fixed pole contribution which arises from the local coupling of the two photons to the quark current plays a special role. As an example we present a simple model.

  14. Surface enhanced Raman scattering

    CERN Document Server

    Furtak, Thomas


    In the course of the development of surface science, advances have been identified with the introduction of new diagnostic probes for analytical characterization of the adsorbates and microscopic structure of surfaces and interfaces. Among the most recently de­ veloped techniques, and one around which a storm of controversy has developed, is what has now been earmarked as surface enhanced Raman scattering (SERS). Within this phenomenon, molecules adsorbed onto metal surfaces under certain conditions exhibit an anomalously large interaction cross section for the Raman effect. This makes it possible to observe the detailed vibrational signature of the adsorbate in the ambient phase with an energy resolution much higher than that which is presently available in electron energy loss spectroscopy and when the surface is in contact with a much larger amount of material than that which can be tolerated in infrared absorption experiments. The ability to perform vibrational spectroscopy under these conditions would l...

  15. General framework for multiple scattering of polarized waves including anisotropies and Berry phase. (United States)

    Rossetto, V


    We develop a framework for the multiple scattering of a polarized wave. We consider particles with spin propagating in a medium filled with scatterers. We write the amplitudes of each spin eigenstate in a local mobile frame. One of the axes is in the direction of propagation of the particle. We use this representation to define a directional Green's operator of the homogeneous medium and also to write the spin-dependent scattering amplitudes. We show that this representation reveals a Berry phase. We establish a generalized Green-Dyson equation for the multiple-scattering problem in this framework. We show that the generalized Green-Dyson equation can be solved by linear algebra if one uses a representation of the rotations based on Wigner D matrices. The properties of light scattering are retrieved if we use spin 1 particles. Our theory allows to take into account several kinds of anisotropies such as circular or linear dichroism and birefringence, Faraday effects, and Mie scattering within the same formalism. Several anisotropies can be present at the same time.

  16. Retrieving impulse response function amplitudes from the ambient seismic field (United States)

    Viens, Loïc; Denolle, Marine; Miyake, Hiroe; Sakai, Shin'ichi; Nakagawa, Shigeki


    Seismic interferometry is now widely used to retrieve the impulse response function of the Earth between two distant seismometers. The phase information has been the focus of most passive imaging studies, as conventional seismic tomography uses traveltime measurements. The amplitude information, however, is harder to interpret because it strongly depends on the distribution of ambient seismic field sources and on the multitude of processing methods. Our study focuses on the latter by comparing the amplitudes of the impulse response functions calculated between seismic stations in the Kanto sedimentary basin, Japan, using several processing techniques. This region provides a unique natural laboratory to test the reliability of the amplitudes with complex wave propagation through the basin, and dense observations from the Metropolitan Seismic Observation network. We compute the impulse response functions using the cross correlation, coherency and deconvolution techniques of the raw ambient seismic field and the cross correlation of 1-bit normalized data. To validate the amplitudes of the impulse response functions, we use a shallow Mw 5.8 earthquake that occurred on the eastern edge of Kanto Basin and close to a station that is used as the virtual source. Both S and surface waves are retrieved in the causal part of the impulse response functions computed with all the different techniques. However, the amplitudes obtained from the deconvolution method agree better with those of the earthquake. Despite the expected wave attenuation due to the soft sediments of the Kanto Basin, seismic amplification caused by the basin geometry dominates the amplitudes of S and surface waves and is captured by the ambient seismic field. To test whether or not the anticausal part of the impulse response functions from deconvolution also contains reliable amplitude information, we use another virtual source located on the western edge of the basin. We show that the surface wave amplitudes

  17. Coupling of Large Amplitude Inversion with Other States (United States)

    Pearson, John; Yu, Shanshan


    The coupling of a large amplitude motion with a small amplitude vibration remains one of the least well characterized problems in molecular physics. Molecular inversion poses a few unique and not intuitively obvious challenges to the large amplitude motion problem. In spite of several decades of theoretical work numerous challenges in calculation of transition frequencies and more importantly intensities persist. The most challenging aspect of this problem is that the inversion coordinate is a unique function of the overall vibrational state including both the large and small amplitude modes. As a result, the r-axis system and the meaning of the K-quantum number in the rotational basis set are unique to each vibrational state of large or small amplitude motion. This unfortunate reality has profound consequences to calculation of intensities and the coupling of nearly degenerate vibrational states. The case of NH3 inversion and inversion through a plane of symmetry in alcohols will be examined to find a general path forward.

  18. All Tree-level Amplitudes in Massless QCD

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Dixon, Lance J.; /CERN /SLAC; Henn, Johannes M.; Plefka, Jan; Schuster, Theodor; /Humboldt U., Berlin


    We derive compact analytical formulae for all tree-level color-ordered gauge theory amplitudes involving any number of external gluons and up to three massless quark-anti-quark pairs. A general formula is presented based on the combinatorics of paths along a rooted tree and associated determinants. Explicit expressions are displayed for the next-to-maximally helicity violating (NMHV) and next-to-next-to-maximally helicity violating (NNMHV) gauge theory amplitudes. Our results are obtained by projecting the previously-found expressions for the super-amplitudes of the maximally supersymmetric Yang-Mills theory (N = 4 SYM) onto the relevant components yielding all gluon-gluino tree amplitudes in N = 4 SYM. We show how these results carry over to the corresponding QCD amplitudes, including massless quarks of different flavors as well as a single electroweak vector boson. The public Mathematica package GGT is described, which encodes the results of this work and yields analytical formulae for all N = 4 SYM gluon-gluino trees. These in turn yield all QCD trees with up to four external arbitrary-flavored massless quark-anti-quark-pairs.

  19. Helicity conservation in gauge boson scattering at high energy. (United States)

    Gounaris, G J; Renard, F M


    We remark that the high energy gauge boson scattering processes involving two-body initial and final states satisfy certain selection rules described as helicity conservation of the gauge boson amplitudes (GBHC). These rules are valid at the Born level, as well as at the level of the leading and subleading 1-loop logarithmic corrections, in both the standard model and the minimal supersymmetric standard model (MSSM). A "fermionic equivalence" theorem is also proved, which suggests that GBHC is valid at all orders in the MSSM at sufficiently high energies, where the mass suppressed contributions are neglected.

  20. Scattered surface charge density: A tool for surface characterization

    KAUST Repository

    Naydenov, Borislav


    We demonstrate the use of nonlocal scanning tunneling spectroscopic measurements to characterize the local structure of adspecies in their states where they are significantly less perturbed by the probe, which is accomplished by mapping the amplitude and phase of the scattered surface charge density. As an example, we study single-H-atom adsorption on the n-type Si(100)-(4 × 2) surface, and demonstrate the existence of two different configurations that are distinguishable using the nonlocal approach and successfully corroborated by density functional theory. © 2011 American Physical Society.

  1. Scattering approach to dispersive atom-surface interactions

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Dalvit, Diego [Los Alamos National Laboratory; Messina, Riccardo [LAB KASTLER BROSSEL; Maia Neto, Paulo [INSTITUTO DE FISICA UFRJ; Lambrecht, Astrid [LAB KASTLER BROSSEL; Reynaud, Serge [LAB KASTLER BROSSEL


    We develop the scattering approach for the dispersive force on a ground state atom on top of a corrugated surface. We present explicit results to first order in the corrugation amplitude. A variety of analytical results are derived in different limiting cases, including the van der Waals and Casimir-Polder regimes. We compute numerically the exact first-order dispersive potential for arbitrary separation distances and corrugation wavelengths, for a Rubidium atom on top of a silicon or gold corrugated surface. We consider in detail the correction to the proximity force approximation, and present a very simple approximation algorithm for computing the potential.

  2. Light polarization oscillations induced by photon-photon scattering (United States)

    Briscese, Fabio


    We consider the Heisenberg-Euler action for an electromagnetic field in vacuum, which includes quantum corrections to the Maxwell equations induced by photon-photon scattering. We show that, in some configurations, the plane monochromatic waves become unstable, due to the appearance of secularities in the dynamical equations. These secularities can be treated using a multiscale approach, introducing a slow time variable. The amplitudes of the plane electromagnetic waves satisfy a system of ordinary differential nonlinear equations in the slow time. The analysis of this system shows that, due to the effect of photon-photon scattering, in the unstable configurations the electromagnetic waves oscillate periodically between left-hand-sided and right-hand-sided polarizations. Finally, we discuss the physical implications of this finding and the possibility of disclosing traces of this effect in optical experiments.

  3. Continuum-mediated dark matter–baryon scattering

    CERN Document Server

    Katz, Andrey; Sajjad, Aqil


    Many models of dark matter scattering with baryons may be treated either as a simple contact interaction or as the exchange of a light mediator particle. We study an alternative, in which a continuum of light mediator states may be exchanged. This could arise, for instance, from coupling to a sector which is approximately conformal at the relevant momentum transfer scale. In the non-relativistic effective theory of dark matter-baryon scattering, which is useful for parametrizing direct detection signals, the effect of such continuum mediators is to multiply the amplitude by a function of the momentum transfer q, which in the simplest case is just a power law. We develop the basic framework and study two examples: the case where the mediator is a scalar operator coupling to the Higgs portal (which turns out to be highly constrained) and the case of an antisymmetric tensor operator ${\\cal O}_{\\mu \

  4. Dynamic measurement of forward scattering

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Appel-Hansen, Jørgen; Rusch, W.


    A dynamic method for the measurement of forward scattering in a radio anechoic chamber is described. The quantity determined is the induced-field-ratio (IFR) of conducting cylinders. The determination of the IFR is highly sensitive to 1) multiple scattering between the cylinder and the obpring...

  5. Quantum scattering at low energies

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Derezinski, Jan; Skibsted, Erik


    For a class of negative slowly decaying potentials, including V(x):=−γ|x|−μ with 0quantum mechanical scattering theory in the low-energy regime. Using appropriate modifiers of the Isozaki–Kitada type we show that scattering theory is well behaved on the whole continuous spectrum...

  6. Quantum scattering at low energies

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Derezinski, Jan; Skibsted, Erik

    For a class of negative slowly decaying potentials, including with , we study the quantum mechanical scattering theory in the low-energy regime. Using modifiers of the Isozaki--Kitada type we show that scattering theory is well behaved on the {\\it whole} continuous spectrum of the Hamiltonian...

  7. Light scattering in ophthalmic research (United States)

    Tuchin, Valery V.


    In the overview optical models of cornea, sclera, and crystalline lens humor will be presented. On the basis of these models eye tissue transmittance spectra and scattering indicatrices for the main informative elements of the mueller matrix will be analyzed. This paper will discuss some problems of eye tissue optical characteristics control, and possibilities and perspectives of elastic scattering spectroscopy in cataract diagnostics.

  8. Quantum scattering in one dimension

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Barlette, Vania E. [Centro Universitario Franciscano, Santa Maria, RS (Brazil); Leite, Marcelo M. [Departamento de Fisica, Instituto Tecnologico de Aeronautica, Centro Tecnico Aeroespacial, Sao Jose dos Campos, SP (Brazil); Adhikari, Sadhan K. [Instituto de Fisica Teorica, Universidade Estadual Paulista, Sao Paulo, SP (Brazil)


    A self-contained discussion of non-relativistic quantum scattering is presented in the case of central potentials in one space dimension, which will facilitate the understanding of the more complex scattering theory in two and three dimensions. The present discussion illustrates in a simple way the concepts of partial-wave decomposition, phase shift, optical theorem and effective-range expansion. (author)

  9. Electron scattering for exotic nuclei

    Indian Academy of Sciences (India)


    Nov 4, 2014 ... determine the charge density distributions of short-lived exotic nuclei by elastic electron scattering. The first collision ... Electron scattering of highly unstable nuclei is not easy because it is difficult to produce ... both ends form a mirror potential to keep the ions longitudinally inside the SCRIT device, and the ...

  10. Light scattering by soap films

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Vrij, A.

    A theory is constructed describing the scattering from a liquid film (e.g., a soap film) of a light beam polarized normal to the plane of incidence. This scattering is due to the small irregular corrugations caused by thermal motion. The interference of the reflected incident beam with its multiple

  11. Surface scattering from ceramic phosphors (United States)

    Lenef, Alan; Kelso, John; Peters, Christopher


    Scattering from phosphor converters and epitaxial surfaces is critical for solid state lighting device performance. Volume and surface scattering in solid state lighting devices can play a critical role in efficiency/efficacy, color points, and color angular consistency. Surface scattering in particular has not been well characterized in solid state lighting devices and can be complex to model. Because large angle scattering is important in lighting applications, surface scattering models generally require vector electromagnetic theory to avoid ambiguities often associated with scalar theory at these angles. Furthermore, surface features are often on the order of a few wavelengths, bringing ray tracing approaches into question. In this work, experimental angular scattering measurements are made on ceramic phosphor components where surface scattering dominates. The surface ceramic grain structure is responsible for the scattering. The results are compared to approximate statistical vector theory predictions that use the height autocorrelation functions as input. The autocorrelation measurements were derived from atomic-force microscopy topography measurements. Resulting predictions are in fairly good agreement with measurements.

  12. Nonrelativistic Kapitza-Dirac Scattering. (United States)


    of the electron must be characterized by a momentum pn which satisfies Pn hkBn hk(B + 2n), n 0 , ±1, ±2,.. (2.6) The probability amplitude that after...and caustic formation. Finally, in part C we analyze the effects of focusing in the classical proble on the probability amplitude . A. The...focusing leading to large localized maxima of the probability amplitude is possible. One obvious advantage of an analysis in the weak coupling regime is

  13. Generalized N=2 Topological Amplitudes and Holomorphic Anomaly Equation

    CERN Document Server

    Antoniadis, I; Narain, K S; Sokatchev, E


    In arXiv:0905.3629 we described a new class of N=2 topological amplitudes that depends both on vector and hypermultiplet moduli. Here we find that this class is actually a particular case of much more general topological amplitudes which appear at higher loops in heterotic string theory compactified on K3 x T^2. We analyze their effective field theory interpretation and derive particular (first order) differential equations as a consequence of supersymmetry Ward identities and the 1/2-BPS nature of the corresponding effective action terms. In string theory the latter get modified due to anomalous world-sheet boundary contributions, generalizing in a non-trivial way the familiar holomorphic and harmonicity anomalies studied in the past. We prove by direct computation that the subclass of topological amplitudes studied in arXiv:0905.3629 forms a closed set under these anomaly equations and that these equations are integrable.

  14. Mammalian cycles: internally defined periods and interaction-driven amplitudes (United States)

    Krebs, CJ


    The cause of mammalian cycles—the rise and fall of populations over a predictable period of time—has remained controversial since these patterns were first observed over a century ago. In spite of extensive work on observable mammalian cycles, the field has remained divided upon what the true cause is, with a majority of opinions attributing it to either predation or to intra-species mechanisms. Here we unite the eigenperiod hypothesis, which describes an internal, maternal effect-based mechanism to explain the cycles’ periods with a recent generalization explaining the amplitude of snowshoe hare cycles in northwestern North America based on initial predator abundance. By explaining the period and the amplitude of the cycle with separate mechanisms, a unified and consistent view of the causation of cycles is reached. Based on our suggested theory, we forecast the next snowshoe hare cycle (predicted peak in 2016) to be of extraordinarily low amplitude. PMID:26339557

  15. Weak measurements measure probability amplitudes (and very little else)

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Sokolovski, D., E-mail: [Departmento de Química-Física, Universidad del País Vasco, UPV/EHU, Leioa (Spain); IKERBASQUE, Basque Foundation for Science, Maria Diaz de Haro 3, 48013, Bilbao (Spain)


    Conventional quantum mechanics describes a pre- and post-selected system in terms of virtual (Feynman) paths via which the final state can be reached. In the absence of probabilities, a weak measurement (WM) determines the probability amplitudes for the paths involved. The weak values (WV) can be identified with these amplitudes, or their linear combinations. This allows us to explain the “unusual” properties of the WV, and avoid the “paradoxes” often associated with the WM. - Highlights: • Weak measurement on a pre- and post-selected system is a particular perturbative scheme. • A conventional average for the additional degree of freedom measured. • The result is proportional to the amplitudes on the virtual paths connecting two system's states. • Over-interpretation of the weak values (WV) is unwise. • “Unusual” WVs are not unusual after all.

  16. Mammalian cycles: internally defined periods and interaction-driven amplitudes

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    LR Ginzburg


    Full Text Available The cause of mammalian cycles—the rise and fall of populations over a predictable period of time—has remained controversial since these patterns were first observed over a century ago. In spite of extensive work on observable mammalian cycles, the field has remained divided upon what the true cause is, with a majority of opinions attributing it to either predation or to intra-species mechanisms. Here we unite the eigenperiod hypothesis, which describes an internal, maternal effect-based mechanism to explain the cycles’ periods with a recent generalization explaining the amplitude of snowshoe hare cycles in northwestern North America based on initial predator abundance. By explaining the period and the amplitude of the cycle with separate mechanisms, a unified and consistent view of the causation of cycles is reached. Based on our suggested theory, we forecast the next snowshoe hare cycle (predicted peak in 2016 to be of extraordinarily low amplitude.

  17. Amplitude Analysis of the B+- ->phi K*(892)+- Decay

    CERN Document Server

    Aubert, B; Boutigny, D; Karyotakis, Yu; Lees, J P; Poireau, V; Prudent, X; Tisserand, V; Zghiche, A; Garra Tico, J; Graugès-Pous, E; López, L; Palano, A; Eigen, G; Stugu, B; Sun, L; Abrams, G S; Battaglia, M; Brown, D N; Button-Shafer, J; Cahn, R N; Groysman, Y; Jacobsen, R G; Kadyk, J A; Kerth, L T; Kolomensky, Yu G; Kukartsev, G; Lopes-Pegna, D; Lynch, G; Mir, L M; Orimoto, T J; Ronan, M T; Tackmann, K; Wenzel, W A; Del Amo-Sánchez, P; Hawkes, C M; Watson, A T; Held, T; Koch, H; Lewandowski, B; Pelizaeus, M; Schröder, T; Steinke, M; Walker, D; Asgeirsson, D J; Çuhadar-Dönszelmann, T; Fulsom, B G; Hearty, C; Mattison, T S; McKenna, J A; Khan, A; Saleem, M; Teodorescu, L; Blinov, V E; Bukin, A D; Druzhinin, V P; Golubev, V B; Onuchin, A P; Serednyakov, S I; Skovpen, Yu I; Solodov, E P; Todyshev, K Yu; Bondioli, M; Curry, S; Eschrich, I; Kirkby, D; Lankford, A J; Lund, P; Mandelkern, M A; Martin, E C; Stoker, D P; Abachi, S; Buchanan, C; Foulkes, S D; Gary, J W; Liu, F; Long, O; Shen, B C; Zhang, L; Paar, H P; Rahatlou, S; Sharma, V; Berryhill, J W; Campagnari, C; Cunha, A; Dahmes, B; Hong, T M; Kovalskyi, D; Richman, J D; Beck, T W; Eisner, A M; Flacco, C J; Heusch, C A; Kroseberg, J; Lockman, W S; Schalk, T; Schumm, B A; Seiden, A; Williams, D C; Wilson, M G; Winstrom, L O; Chen, E; Cheng, C H; Fang, F; Hitlin, D G; Narsky, I; Piatenko, T; Porter, F C; Andreassen, R; Mancinelli, G; Meadows, B T; Mishra, K; Sokoloff, M D; Blanc, F; Bloom, P C; Chen, S; Ford, W T; Hirschauer, J F; Kreisel, A; Nagel, M; Nauenberg, U; Olivas, A; Smith, J G; Ulmer, K A; Wagner, S R; Zhang, J; Gabareen, A M; Soffer, A; Toki, W H; Wilson, R J; Winklmeier, F; Zeng, Q; Altenburg, D D; Feltresi, E; Hauke, A; Jasper, H; Merkel, J; Petzold, A; Spaan, B; Wacker, K; Brandt, T; Klose, V; Kobel, M J; Lacker, H M; Mader, W F; Nogowski, R; Schubert, J; Schubert, K R; Schwierz, R; Sundermann, J E; Volk, A; Bernard, D; Bonneaud, G R; Latour, E; Lombardo, V; Thiebaux, C; Verderi, M; Clark, P J; Gradl, W; Muheim, F; Playfer, S; Robertson, A I; Xie, Y; Andreotti, M; Bettoni, D; Bozzi, C; Calabrese, R; Cecchi, A; Cibinetto, G; Franchini, P; Luppi, E; Negrini, M; Petrella, A; Piemontese, L; Prencipe, E; Santoro, V; Anulli, F; Baldini-Ferroli, R; Calcaterra, A; De Sangro, R; Finocchiaro, G; Pacetti, S; Patteri, P; Peruzzi, I M; Piccolo, M; Rama, M; Zallo, A; Buzzo, A; Contri, R; Lo Vetere, M; Macri, M M; Monge, M R; Passaggio, S; Patrignani, C; Robutti, E; Santroni, A; Tosi, S; Chaisanguanthum, K S; Morii, M; Wu, J; Dubitzky, R S; Marks, J; Schenk, S; Uwer, U; Bard, D J; Dauncey, P D; Flack, R L; Nash, J A; Nikolich, M B; Panduro-Vazquez, W; Tibbetts, M; Behera, P K; Chai, X; Charles, M J; Mallik, U; Meyer, N T; Ziegler, V; Cochran, J; Crawley, H B; Dong, L; Eyges, V; Meyer, W T; Prell, S; Rosenberg, E I; Rubin, A E; Gao, Y Y; Gritsan, A V; Guo, Z J; Lae, C K; Denig, A G; Fritsch, M; Schott, G; Arnaud, N; Bequilleux, J; Davier, M; Grosdidier, G; Höcker, A; Lepeltier, V; Le Diberder, F R; Lutz, A M; Pruvot, S; Rodier, S; Roudeau, P; Schune, M H; Serrano, J; Sordini, V; Stocchi, A; Wang, W F; Wormser, G; Lange, D J; Wright, D M; Bingham, I; Chavez, C A; Forster, I J; Fry, J R; Gabathuler, E; Gamet, R; Hutchcroft, D E; Payne, D J; Schofield, K C; Touramanis, C; Bevan, A J; George, K A; Di Lodovico, F; Menges, W; Sacco, R; Cowan, G; Flächer, H U; Hopkins, D A; Paramesvaran, S; Salvatore, F; Wren, A C; Brown, D N; Davis, C L; Allison, J; Barlow, N R; Barlow, R J; Chia, Y M; Edgar, C L; Lafferty, G D; West, T J; Yi, J I; Anderson, J; Chen, C; Jawahery, A; Roberts, D A; Simi, G; Tuggle, J M; Blaylock, G; Dallapiccola, C; Hertzbach, S S; Li, X; Moore, T B; Salvati, E; Saremi, S; Cowan, R; Dujmic, D; Fisher, P H; Koeneke, K; Sciolla, G; Sekula, S J; Spitznagel, M; Taylor, F; Yamamoto, R K; Zhao, M; Zheng, Y; Mclachlin, S E; Patel, P M; Robertson, S H; Lazzaro, A; Palombo, F; Bauer, J M; Cremaldi, L; Eschenburg, V; Godang, R; Kroeger, R; Sanders, D A; Summers, D J; Zhao, H W; Brunet, S; Côté, D; Simard, M; Taras, P; Viaud, F B; Nicholson, H; De Nardo, Gallieno; Fabozzi, F; Lista, L; Monorchio, D; Sciacca, C; Baak, M A; Raven, G; Snoek, H L; Jessop, C P; LoSecco, J M; Benelli, G; Corwin, L A; Honscheid, K; Kagan, H; Kass, R; Morris, J P; Rahimi, A M; Regensburger, J J; Wong, Q K; Blount, N L; Brau, J E; Frey, R; Igonkina, O; Kolb, J A; Lu, M; Rahmat, R; Sinev, N B; Strom, D; Strube, J; Torrence, E; Gagliardi, N; Gaz, A; Margoni, M; Morandin, M; Pompili, A; Posocco, M; Rotondo, M; Simonetto, F; Stroili, R; Voci, C; Ben-Haim, E; Briand, H; Calderini, G; Chauveau, J; David, P; Del Buono, L; La Vaissière, C de; Hamon, O; Leruste, P; Malcles, J; Ocariz, J; Pérez, A; Gladney, L; Biasini, M; Covarelli, R; Manoni, E; Angelini, C; Batignani, G; Bettarini, S; Carpinelli, M; Cenci, R; Cervelli, A; Forti, F; Giorgi, M A; Lusiani, A; Marchiori, G; Mazur, M A; Morganti, M; Neri, N; Paoloni, E; Rizzo, G; Walsh, J J; Haire, M; Biesiada, J; Elmer, P; Lau, Y P; Lü, C; Olsen, J; Smith, A J S; Telnov, A V; Baracchini, E; Bellini, F; Cavoto, G; D'Orazio, A; Del Re, D; Di Marco, E; Faccini, R; Ferrarotto, F; Ferroni, F; Gaspero, M; Jackson, P D; Li Gioi, L; Mazzoni, M A; Morganti, S; Piredda, G; Polci, F; Renga, F; Voena, C; Ebert, M; Hartmann, T; Schröder, H; Waldi, R; Adye, T; Castelli, G; Franek, B; Olaiya, E O; Ricciardi, S; Röthel, W; Wilson, F F; Aleksan, R; Emery, S; Escalier, M; Gaidot, A; Ganzhur, S F; Hamel de Monchenault, G; Kozanecki, W; Vasseur, G; Yéche, C; Zito, M; Chen, X R; Liu, H; Park, W; Purohit, M V; Wilson, J R; Allen, M T; Aston, D; Bartoldus, R; Bechtle, P; Berger, N; Claus, R; Coleman, J P; Convery, M R; Dingfelder, J C; Dorfan, J; Dubois-Felsmann, G P; Dunwoodie, W; Field, R C; Glanzman, T; Gowdy, S J; Graham, M T; Grenier, P; Hast, C; Hrynóva, T; Innes, W R; Kaminski, J; Kelsey, M H; Kim, H; Kim, P; Kocian, M L; Leith, D W G S; Li, S; Luitz, S; Lüth, V; Lynch, H L; MacFarlane, D B; Marsiske, H; Messner, R; Müller, D R; O'Grady, C P; Ofte, I; Perazzo, A; Perl, M; Pulliam, T; Ratcliff, B N; Roodman, A; Salnikov, A A; Schindler, R H; Schwiening, J; Snyder, A; Stelzer, J; Su, D; Sullivan, M K; Suzuki, K; Swain, S K; Thompson, J M; Vavra, J; Van Bakel, N; Wagner, A P; Weaver, M; Wisniewski, W J; Wittgen, M; Wright, D H; Yarritu, A K; Yi, K; Young, C C; Burchat, P R; Edwards, A J; Majewski, S A; Petersen, B A; Wilden, L; Ahmed, S; Alam, M S; Bula, R; Ernst, J A; Jain, V; Pan, B; Saeed, M A; Wappler, F R; Zain, S B; Bugg, W; Krishnamurthy, M; Spanier, S M; Eckmann, R; Ritchie, J L; Ruland, A M; Schilling, C J; Schwitters, R F; Izen, J M; Lou, X C; Ye, S; Bianchi, F; Gallo, F; Gamba, D; Pelliccioni, M; Bomben, M; Bosisio, L; Cartaro, C; Cossutti, F; Della Ricca, G; Lanceri, L; Vitale, L; Azzolini, V; Lopez-March, N; Martínez-Vidal, F; Milanes, D A; Oyanguren, A; Albert, J; Banerjee, Sw; Bhuyan, B; Hamano, K; Kowalewski, R V; Nugent, I M; Roney, J M; Sobie, R J; Back, J J; Harrison, P F; Ilic, J; Latham, T E; Mohanty, G B; Pappagallo, M; Band, H R; Chen, X; Dasu, S; Flood, K T; Hollar, J J; Kutter, P E; Pan, Y; Pierini, M; Prepost, R; Wu, S L; Neal, H


    We perform an amplitude analysis of B+- -> phi(1020) K*(892)+- decay with a sample of about 384 million BBbar pairs recorded with the BABAR detector. Overall, twelve parameters are measured, including the fractions of longitudinal f_L and parity-odd transverse f_perp amplitudes, branching fraction, strong phases, and six parameters sensitive to CP-violation. We use the dependence on the Kpi invariant mass of the interference between the JP=1- and 0+ Kpi components to resolve the discrete ambiguity in the determination of the strong and weak phases. Our measurements of f_L=0.49+-0.05+-0.03, f_perp=0.21+-0.05+-0.02, and the strong phases point to the presence of a substantial helicity-plus amplitude from a presently unknown source.

  18. Anomalous Amplitude Attenuation Method to Enhance Seismic Resolution

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Muchlis .


    Full Text Available Anomalous Amplitude Attenuation (AAA is a method to process seismic data with multilevel processing (multi step flow. AAA is indicated for identifying anomalous seismic amplitude (amplitude noise such as: spike noise, noise and noised trace. AAA is a filter applied to the data in the frequency domain, range, both in CMP/CDP, offset or gather shot. Processing of the data depends on how the sensor (the geophone receives seismic waves, and then set the data back into the format demultiplex (SEG-Y and then processed according to the rules (flowchart seismic reflection processing.This method has been applied to improve the old seismic data of an exploration company in prospecting the unseen structure in prospecting the hydrocarbon trapped within sedimentary rock subsurface.

  19. One-Loop BPS amplitudes as BPS-state sums

    CERN Document Server

    Angelantonj, Carlo; Pioline, Boris


    Recently, we introduced a new procedure for computing a class of one-loop BPS-saturated amplitudes in String Theory, which expresses them as a sum of one-loop contributions of all perturbative BPS states in a manifestly T-duality invariant fashion. In this paper, we extend this procedure to all BPS-saturated amplitudes of the form \\int_F \\Gamma_{d+k,d} {\\Phi}, with {\\Phi} being a weak (almost) holomorphic modular form of weight -k/2. We use the fact that any such {\\Phi} can be expressed as a linear combination of certain absolutely convergent Poincar\\'e series, against which the fundamental domain F can be unfolded. The resulting BPS-state sum neatly exhibits the singularities of the amplitude at points of gauge symmetry enhancement, in a chamber-independent fashion. We illustrate our method with concrete examples of interest in heterotic string compactifications.

  20. Amplitude variations on the Extreme Adaptive Optics testbed

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Evans, J; Thomas, S; Dillon, D; Gavel, D; Phillion, D; Macintosh, B


    High-contrast adaptive optics systems, such as those needed to image extrasolar planets, are known to require excellent wavefront control and diffraction suppression. At the Laboratory for Adaptive Optics on the Extreme Adaptive Optics testbed, we have already demonstrated wavefront control of better than 1 nm rms within controllable spatial frequencies. Corresponding contrast measurements, however, are limited by amplitude variations, including those introduced by the micro-electrical-mechanical-systems (MEMS) deformable mirror. Results from experimental measurements and wave optic simulations of amplitude variations on the ExAO testbed are presented. We find systematic intensity variations of about 2% rms, and intensity variations with the MEMS to be 6%. Some errors are introduced by phase and amplitude mixing because the MEMS is not conjugate to the pupil, but independent measurements of MEMS reflectivity suggest that some error is introduced by small non-uniformities in the reflectivity.

  1. Amplitude Noise Reduction of Ion Lasers with Optical Feedback (United States)

    Herring, Gregory C.


    A reduction in amplitude noise on the output of a multi-mode continuous-wave Ar-ion laser was previously demonstrated when a fraction of the output power was retroreflected back into the laser cavity. This result was reproduced in the present work and a Fabry-Perot etalon was used to monitor the longitudinal mode structure of the laser. A decrease in the number of operating longitudinal cavity modes was observed simultaneously with the introduction of the optical feedback and the onset of the amplitude noise reduction. The noise reduction is a result of a reduced number of lasing modes, resulting in less mode beating and amplitude fluctuations of the laser output power.

  2. Amplitude of Accommodation and its Relation to Refractive Errors

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Abraham Lekha


    Full Text Available Aims: To evaluate the relationship between amplitude of accommodation and refractive errors in the peri-presbyopic age group. Materials and Methods: Three hundred and sixteen right eyes of 316 consecutive patients in the age group 35-50 years who attended our outpatient clinic were studied. Emmetropes, hypermetropes and myopes with best-corrected visual acuity of 6/6 J1 in both eyes were included. The amplitude of accommodation (AA was calculated by measuring the near point of accommodation (NPA. In patients with more than ± 2 diopter sphere correction for distance, the NPA was also measured using appropriate soft contact lenses. Results: There was a statistically significant difference in AA between myopes and hypermetropes ( P P P P P P >0.5. Conclusion: Our study showed higher amplitude of accommodation among myopes between 35 and 44 years compared to emmetropes and hypermetropes

  3. The level of arousal modulates P50 peak amplitude

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Griskova-Bulanova, Inga; Paskevic, Jevgenij; Dapsys, Kastytis


    We aimed to evaluate the effect of arousal level in healthy subjects on P50 potential, as the variation in the level of arousal may be a source of variance in the recordings as well as it may provide additional information about the pathology under study. Eleven healthy volunteers participated...... in the study. A standard auditory P50 potential paradigm was applied. Two stimulation conditions were selected: eyes-open, i.e., high arousal level condition and eyes-closed, i.e., low arousal level condition. P50 component amplitudes in response to both the first (S1) and second stimulus (S2) of the pair......, their ratio and difference were evaluated. P50 amplitude in response to S1 was significantly higher during the low arousal closed eyes condition as compared to high arousal open eyes condition. There was no P50 amplitude difference in response to S2 and no arousal effect on gating measures. This prompts...

  4. On the saturation amplitude of the f-mode instability

    CERN Document Server

    Kastaun, Wolfgang; Kokkotas, Kostas D


    We investigate strong nonlinear damping effects which occur during high amplitude oscillations of neutron stars, and the gravitational waves they produce. For this, we use a general relativistic nonlinear hydrodynamics code in conjunction with a fixed spacetime (Cowling approximation) and a polytropic equation of state (EOS). Gravitational waves are estimated using the quadrupole formula. Our main interest are $l=m=2$ $f$-modes subject to the CFS (Chandrasekhar, Friedman, Schutz) instability, but we also investigate axisymmetric and quasi-radial modes. We study various models to determine the influence of rotation rate and EOS. We find that axisymmetric oscillations at high amplitudes are predominantly damped by shock formation, while the non-axisymmetric $f$-modes are mainly damped by wave breaking and, for rapidly rotating models, coupling to non-axisymmetric inertial modes. From the observed nonlinear damping, we derive upper limits for the saturation amplitude of CFS-unstable $f$-modes. Finally, we estima...

  5. Directionality of A0 Lamb wave mode scattering at defects (United States)

    Fromme, P.


    Localized and distributed guided ultrasonic waves array systems offer an efficient way for the structural health monitoring for large structures. The detection sensitivity for fatigue cracks depends on the orientation of the crack relative to the location of the sensor elements. Crack-like defects have a directionality pattern of the scattered field depending on the angle of the incident wave relative to the defect orientation and on the ratio of the defect depth and length to the wavelength. From FE simulations it has been shown that for cracks and notches almost no energy is scattered in certain directions from the defect, i.e., the data processing algorithm must take into account that for some transducer combinations no change in the signal even for a significant defect will be detected. The scattered wave field directionality pattern for an incident low frequency A0 Lamb wave mode was predicted from 3D Finite Element simulations and verified from experimental measurements at machined part-through and through-thickness notches using a laser interferometer. Good agreement was found and the directionality pattern can be predicted accurately. The amplitude of the scattered wave is quantified for a systematic variation of the angle of the incident wave relative to the defect orientation, the defect depth, and the ratio of the characteristic defect size to the wavelength. Based on these results the detection sensitivity for crack-like defects in plate structures using guided wave sensors arrays can be quantified.

  6. Cross sections for inelastic meson-meson scattering (United States)

    Yang, Kai; Xu, Xiao-Ming; Weber, H. J.


    We study two kinds of inelastic meson-meson scattering. The first kind is inelastic 2-to-2 meson-meson scattering that is governed by quark interchange as well as quark-antiquark annihilation and creation. Cross-section formulas are provided to get unpolarized cross sections for π K →ρ K* for I =1 /2 , π K*→ρ K for I =1 /2 , π K*→ρ K* for I =1 /2 , and ρ K →ρ K* for I =1 /2 . Near threshold, quark interchange dominates the reactions near the critical temperature. The second kind is 2-to-1 meson-meson scattering with the process that a quark in an initial meson and an antiquark in another initial meson annihilate into a gluon and subsequently the gluon is absorbed by the other antiquark or quark. The transition potential for the process is derived. Four Feynman diagrams at tree level contribute to the 2-to-1 meson-meson scattering. Starting from the S -matrix element, the isospin-averaged unpolarized cross section with transition amplitudes is derived. The cross sections for π π →ρ and π K →K* decrease with increasing temperature.

  7. Theory of neutron scattering by electrons in magnetic materials (United States)

    Lovesey, S. W.


    A theory of neutron scattering by magnetic materials is reviewed with emphasis on the use of electronic multipoles that have universal appeal, because they are amenable to calculation and appear in theories of many other experimental techniques. The conventional theory of magnetic neutron scattering, which dates back to Schwinger (1937 Phys. Rev. 51 544) and Trammell (1953 Phys. Rev. 92 1387), yields an approximation for the scattering amplitude in terms of magnetic dipoles formed with the spin (S) and orbital angular momentum (L) of valence electrons. The so-called dipole-approximation has been widely adopted by researchers during the past few decades that has seen neutron scattering develop to its present status as the method of choice for investigations of magnetic structure and excitations. Looking beyond the dipole-approximation, however, reveals a wealth of additional information about electronic degrees of freedom conveniently encapsulated in magnetic multipoles. In this language, the dipole-approximation retains electronic axial dipoles, S and L. At the same level of approximation are polar dipoles—called anapoles or toroidal dipoles—allowed in the absence of a centre of inversion symmetry. Anapoles are examples of magneto-electric multipoles, time-odd and parity-odd irreducible tensors, that have come to the fore as signatures of electronic complexity in materials.

  8. Large-amplitude Longitudinal Oscillations in a Solar Filament (United States)

    Zhang, Q. M.; Li, T.; Zheng, R. S.; Su, Y. N.; Ji, H. S.


    In this paper, we report our multiwavelength observations of the large-amplitude longitudinal oscillations of a filament observed on 2015 May 3. Located next to active region 12335, the sigmoidal filament was observed by the ground-based Hα telescopes from the Global Oscillation Network Group and by the Atmospheric Imaging Assembly instrument on board the Solar Dynamics Observatory. The filament oscillations were most probably triggered by the magnetic reconnection in the filament channel, which is characterized by the bidirectional flows, brightenings in EUV and soft X-ray, and magnetic cancellation in the photosphere. The directions of oscillations have angles of 4°-36° with respect to the filament axis. The whole filament did not oscillate in phase as a rigid body. Meanwhile, the oscillation periods (3100-4400 s) have a spatial dependence, implying that the curvature radii (R) of the magnetic dips are different at different positions. The values of R are estimated to be 69.4-133.9 Mm, and the minimum transverse magnetic field of the dips is estimated to be 15 G. The amplitudes of S5-S8 grew with time, while the amplitudes of S9-S14 damped with time. The oscillation amplitudes range from a few to ten Mm, and the maximum velocity can reach 30 km s-1. Interestingly, the filament experienced mass drainage southward at a speed of ˜27 km s-1. The oscillations continued after the mass drainage and lasted for more than 11 hr. After the mass drainage, the oscillation phases did not change much. The periods of S5-S8 decreased, while the periods of S9-S14 increased. The amplitudes of S5-S8 damped with time, while the amplitudes of S9-S14 grew. Most of the damping (growing) ratios are between -9 and 14. We offer a schematic cartoon to explain the complex behaviors of oscillations by introducing thread-thread interaction.

  9. Shrinkage singularities of amplitudes and weak interaction cross- section asymptotic

    CERN Document Server

    Dolgov, A D; Okun, Lev Borisovich


    The so called shrinkage singularities of amplitudes caused by shrinkage of diffraction peak at asymptotically high energies are discussed given the condition that the amplitude singularities are not stronger than t/sup 2/ ln t (as is case for neutrino pair exchange diagrams) then total cross-section sigma /sub tot/ cannot increase faster at s to infinity than s/sup 1/3/. If shrinkage singularities are absent then sigma /sub tot/ cannot increase as any power of s. All the conclusions are valid, if the dispersion relations with finite number of subtractions exist at t

  10. Photoacoustic microbeam-oscillator with tunable resonance direction and amplitude (United States)

    Wu, Qingjun; Li, Fanghao; Wang, Bo; Yi, Futing; Jiang, J. Z.; Zhang, Dongxian


    We successfully design one photoacoustic microbeam-oscillator actuated by nanosecond laser, which exhibits tunable resonance direction and amplitude. The mechanism of laser induced oscillation is systematically analyzed. Both simulation and experimental results reveal that the laser induced acoustic wave propagates in a multi-reflected mode, resulting in resonance in the oscillator. This newly-fabricated micrometer-sized beam-oscillator has an excellent actuation function, i.e., by tuning the laser frequency, the direction and amplitude of actuation can be efficiently altered, which will have potential industrial applications.

  11. Universal patterns in sound amplitudes of songs and music genres (United States)

    Mendes, R. S.; Ribeiro, H. V.; Freire, F. C. M.; Tateishi, A. A.; Lenzi, E. K.


    We report a statistical analysis of more than eight thousand songs. Specifically, we investigated the probability distribution of the normalized sound amplitudes. Our findings suggest a universal form of distribution that agrees well with a one-parameter stretched Gaussian. We also argue that this parameter can give information on music complexity, and consequently it helps classify songs as well as music genres. Additionally, we present statistical evidence that correlation aspects of the songs are directly related to the non-Gaussian nature of their sound amplitude distributions.

  12. Amplitude analysis of the N¯N-->π-π+ reaction (United States)

    Kloet, W. M.; Myhrer, F.


    A simple partial wave amplitude analysis of p¯p-->π-π+ has been performed for data in the range plab= 360-1000 MeV/c, where remarkably few partial waves are required to fit the data. Furthermore, the number of required J values does not change in this energy range. However, the resulting set of partial wave amplitudes is not unique. We discuss possible measurements with polarized beam and target which will severely restrict and help resolve the present analysis ambiguities. New data from the reaction p¯p-->π0π0 alone are insufficient for that purpose.

  13. Damping and Frequency Shift of Large Amplitude Electron Plasma Waves

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Thomsen, Kenneth; Juul Rasmussen, Jens


    The initial evolution of large-amplitude one-dimensional electron waves is investigated by applying a numerical simulation. The initial wave damping is found to be strongly enhanced relative to the linear damping and it increases with increasing amplitude. The temporal evolution of the nonlinear...... damping rate γ(t) shows that it increases with time within the initial phase of propagation, t≲π/ωB (ωB is the bounce frequency), whereafter it decreases and changes sign implying a regrowth of the wave. The shift in the wave frequency δω is observed to be positive for t≲π/ωB; then δω changes sign...

  14. Finite Amplitude Electron Plasma Waves in a Cylindrical Waveguide

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Juul Rasmussen, Jens


    The nonlinear behaviour of the electron plasma wave propagating in a cylindrical plasma waveguide immersed in an infinite axial magnetic field is investigated using the Krylov-Bogoliubov-Mitropolsky perturbation method, by means of which is deduced the nonlinear Schrodinger equation governing...... the long-time slow modulation of the wave amplitude. From this equation the amplitude-dependent frequency and wavenumber shifts are calculated, and it is found that the electron waves with short wavelengths are modulationally unstable with respect to long-wavelength, low-frequency perturbations...

  15. An Amplitude Spectral Capon Estimator with a Variable Filter Length

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Nielsen, Jesper Kjær; Smaragdis, Paris; Christensen, Mads Græsbøll


    The filter bank methods have been a popular non-parametric way of computing the complex amplitude spectrum. So far, the length of the filters in these filter banks has been set to some constant value independently of the data. In this paper, we take the first step towards considering the filter...... length as an unknown parameter. Specifically, we derive a very simple and approximate way of determining the optimal filter length in a data-adaptive way. Based on this analysis, we also derive a model averaged version of the forward and the forward-backward amplitude spectral Capon estimators. Through...

  16. Closed-Form Decomposition of One-Loop Massive Amplitudes

    CERN Document Server

    Britto, Ruth; Mastrolia, Pierpaolo


    We present formulas for the coefficients of 2-, 3-, 4- and 5-point master integrals for one-loop massive amplitudes. The coefficients are derived from unitarity cuts in D dimensions. The input parameters can be read off from any unitarity-cut integrand, as assembled from tree-level expressions, after simple algebraic manipulations. The formulas presented here are suitable for analytical as well as numerical evaluation. Their validity is confirmed in two known cases of helicity amplitudes contributing to gg -> gg and gg -> gH, where the masses of the Higgs and the fermion circulating in the loop are kept as free parameters.

  17. Directional Stand-off Detection of Fast Neutrons and Gammas Using Angular Scattering Distributions

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Vanier P. e.; Dioszegi, I.; Salwen, C.; Forman, L.


    We have investigated the response of a DoubleScatter Neutron Spectrometer (DSNS) for sources at long distances (gr than 200 meters). We find that an alternative method for analyzing double scatter data avoids some uncertainties introduced by amplitude measurements in plastic scintillators.Time of flight is used to discriminate between gamma and neutron events, and the kinematic distributions of scattering angles are assumed to apply. Non-relativistic neutrons are most likely to scatter at 45°, while gammas with energies greater than 2 MeV are most likely to be forward scattered. The distribution of scattering angles of fission neutrons arriving from a distant point source generates a 45° cone, which can be back-projected to give the source direction. At the same time, the distribution of Compton-scattered gammas has a maximum in the forward direction, and can be made narrower by selecting events that deposit minimal energy in the first scattering event. We have further determined that the shape of spontaneous fission neutron spectra at ranges gr than 110 m is still significantly different from thecosmic ray background.

  18. Measurements and simulation of ionospheric scattering on VHF and UHF radar signals: Channel scattering function (United States)

    Rogers, Neil C.; Cannon, Paul S.; Groves, Keith M.


    The design and operation of transionospheric VHF and UHF radars requires knowledge of amplitude and phase scintillation due to ionospheric scattering. Phase coherence is of particular importance where long coherent integration periods and large bandwidths are required. A thin phase screen, parabolic equation based, Trans-Ionospheric Radio Propagation Simulator (TIRPS) is described. Modeled channel scattering functions (CSFs) are compared to experimental VHF and UHF data derived from the Advanced Research Projects Agency Long-range Tracking and Instrumentation Radar on Kwajalein Island (9.4°N, 166.8°E). TIRPS quantitatively reproduces the experimental results, including the quasi-parabolic profile observed in the measured CSFs under strong turbulence conditions. Variations in the simulated CSF with ionospheric phase screen parameters are also presented. Under conditions of high integrated strength of turbulence (CkL), a low phase spectral index (p = 1), indicating relatively dense small-scale irregularities, produces pronounced range spreading. Conversely, when the spectral index is high (p = 4), indicative of strong focusing/defocusing by large-scale irregularities, there is increased Doppler spreading and, when the outer scale of irregularities is large, a greater likelihood of asymmetry of the CSF about the zero Doppler axis.

  19. Scattering engineering in continuously shaped metasurface: An approach for electromagnetic illusion (United States)

    Guo, Yinghui; Yan, Lianshan; Pan, Wei; Shao, Liyang


    The control of electromagnetic waves scattering is critical in wireless communications and stealth technology. Discrete metasurfaces not only increase the design and fabrication complex but also cause difficulties in obtaining simultaneous electric and optical functionality. On the other hand, discontinuous phase profiles fostered by discrete systems inevitably introduce phase noises to the scattering fields. Here we propose the principle of a scattering-harness mechanism by utilizing continuous gradient phase stemming from the spin-orbit interaction via sinusoidal metallic strips. Furthermore, by adjusting the amplitude and period of the sinusoidal metallic strip, the scattering characteristics of the underneath object can be greatly changed and thus result in electromagnetic illusion. The proposal is validated by full-wave simulations and experiment characterization in microwave band. Our approach featured by continuous phase profile, polarization independent performance and facile implementation may find widespread applications in electromagnetic wave manipulation.

  20. Mechanism of elastic and inelastic proton scattering on a {sup 15}C nucleus in diffraction theory

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Ibraeva, E. T., E-mail: [National Nuclear Center of the Republic of Kazakhstan, Institute of Nuclear Physics (Kazakhstan); Zhusupov, M. A. [Al-Farabi Kazakh National University (Kazakhstan); Imambekov, O. [National Nuclear Center of the Republic of Kazakhstan, Institute of Nuclear Physics (Kazakhstan)


    The amplitudes for elastic and inelastic proton scattering on the neutron-rich nucleus {sup 15}C (to its J{sup {pi}} = 5/2{sup +} level in the latter case) in inverse kinematics were calculated within Glauber diffraction theory. First- and second-order terms were taken into account in the multiple-scattering operator. The {sup 15}C wave function in the multiparticle shell model was used. This made it possible to calculate not only respective differential cross sections but also the contribution of proton scattering on nucleons occurring in different shells. The differential cross sections for elastic and inelastic scattering were calculated at the energies of 0.2, 0.6, and 1 GeV per nucleon.

  1. A glimpse of gluons through deeply virtual compton scattering on the proton. (United States)

    Defurne, M; Jiménez-Argüello, A Martí; Ahmed, Z; Albataineh, H; Allada, K; Aniol, K A; Bellini, V; Benali, M; Boeglin, W; Bertin, P; Brossard, M; Camsonne, A; Canan, M; Chandavar, S; Chen, C; Chen, J-P; de Jager, C W; de Leo, R; Desnault, C; Deur, A; El Fassi, L; Ent, R; Flay, D; Friend, M; Fuchey, E; Frullani, S; Garibaldi, F; Gaskell, D; Giusa, A; Glamazdin, O; Golge, S; Gomez, J; Hansen, O; Higinbotham, D; Holmstrom, T; Horn, T; Huang, J; Huang, M; Hyde, C E; Iqbal, S; Itard, F; Kang, H; Kelleher, A; Keppel, C; Koirala, S; Korover, I; LeRose, J J; Lindgren, R; Long, E; Magne, M; Mammei, J; Margaziotis, D J; Markowitz, P; Mazouz, M; Meddi, F; Meekins, D; Michaels, R; Mihovilovic, M; Camacho, C Muñoz; Nadel-Turonski, P; Nuruzzaman, N; Paremuzyan, R; Puckett, A; Punjabi, V; Qiang, Y; Rakhman, A; Rashad, M N H; Riordan, S; Roche, J; Russo, G; Sabatié, F; Saenboonruang, K; Saha, A; Sawatzky, B; Selvy, L; Shahinyan, A; Sirca, S; Solvignon, P; Sperduto, M L; Subedi, R; Sulkosky, V; Sutera, C; Tobias, W A; Urciuoli, G M; Wang, D; Wojtsekhowski, B; Yao, H; Ye, Z; Zhan, X; Zhang, J; Zhao, B; Zhao, Z; Zheng, X; Zhu, P


    The internal structure of nucleons (protons and neutrons) remains one of the greatest outstanding problems in modern nuclear physics. By scattering high-energy electrons off a proton we are able to resolve its fundamental constituents and probe their momenta and positions. Here we investigate the dynamics of quarks and gluons inside nucleons using deeply virtual Compton scattering (DVCS)-a highly virtual photon scatters off the proton, which subsequently radiates a photon. DVCS interferes with the Bethe-Heitler (BH) process, where the photon is emitted by the electron rather than the proton. We report herein the full determination of the BH-DVCS interference by exploiting the distinct energy dependences of the DVCS and BH amplitudes. In the regime where the scattering is expected to occur off a single quark, measurements show an intriguing sensitivity to gluons, the carriers of the strong interaction.

  2. Heavy-ion nucleus scattering

    CERN Document Server

    Rahman, M A; Haque, S


    Heavy ion-nucleus scattering is an excellent laboratory to probe high spin phenomena, exotic nuclei and for the analysis of various exit channels. The Strong Absorption Model or the generalized diffraction models, which are semi-classical in nature, have been employed in the description of various heavy ion-nucleus scattering phenomena with reasonable success. But one needs to treat the deflection function (scattering angles) quantum mechanically in the Wave Mechanical picture for the appropriate description of the heavy-ion nucleus scattering phenomena. We have brought the mathematics for the cross-section of the heavy-ion nucleus scattering to an analytic expression taking account of the deflection function (scattering angles) quantum mechanically. sup 9 Be, sup 1 sup 6 O, sup 2 sup 0 Ne and sup 3 sup 2 S heavy-ion beams elastic scattering from sup 2 sup 8 Si, sup 2 sup 4 Mg and sup 4 sup 0 Ca target nuclei at various projectile energies over the range 20-151 MeV have been analysed in terms of the 2-paramet...

  3. Scattering of electromagnetic waves by obstacles

    CERN Document Server

    Kristensson, Gerhard


    The main purpose of Scattering of Electromagnetic Waves by Obstacles is to give a theoretical treatment of the scattering phenomena, and to illustrate numerical computations of some canonical scattering problems for different geometries and materials.

  4. Time-varying interaction leads to amplitude death in coupled ...

    Indian Academy of Sciences (India)

    A new form of time-varying interaction in coupled oscillators is introduced. In this interaction, each individual oscillator has always time-independent self-feedback while its interaction with other oscillators are modulated with time-varying function. This interaction gives rise to a phenomenon called amplitude death even in ...

  5. Computation of multi-leg amplitudes with NJet

    CERN Document Server

    Badger, Simon; Uwer, Peter; Yundin, Valery


    In these proceedings we report our progress in the development of the publicly available C++ library NJet for accurate calculations of high-multiplicity one-loop amplitudes. As a phenomenological application we present the first complete next-to-leading order (NLO) calculation of five jet cross section at hadron colliders.

  6. Amplitude of accommodation is reduced in pre-presbyopic diabetic ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Introduction: The prevalence of diabetes mellitus is increasing exponentially often causing an enormous public health burden due to changing lifestyles. People with diabetes ... The influence of age and duration of diabetes on amplitude of accommodation were analysed using the regression analysis. Results: The mean ...

  7. Coupled Higgs field equation and Hamiltonian amplitude equation ...

    Indian Academy of Sciences (India)

    ... involving parameters of the coupled Higgs equation and Hamiltonian amplitude equation using (′/)-expansion methodc, where = () satisfies a second-order linear ordinary differential equation (ODE). The travelling wave solutions expressed by hyperbolic, trigonometric and the rational functions are obtained.

  8. Large Amplitude Oscillatory Extension of Soft Polymeric Networks

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Bejenariu, Anca Gabriela; Rasmussen, Henrik K.; Skov, Anne Ladegaard


    sing a filament stretching rheometer (FSR) surrounded by a thermostatic chamber and equipped with a micrometric laser it is possible to measure large amplitude oscillatory elongation (LAOE) on elastomeric based networks with no base flow as in the LAOE method for polymer melts. Poly...

  9. Acute Effect of Caffeine on Amplitude of Accommodation and Near ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Caffeine is widely consumed in kola nuts and in other products in Sub-Saharan Africa. We examined the acute effect of caffeine on the amplitude of accommodation and near point of convergence of healthy Nigerians. Forty volunteers between ages of 20 and 27 years with refractive power± 0.50 DS were employed.

  10. On the amplitudes for non-critical n=2 supuerstrings

    CERN Document Server

    Abdalla, E.; Dalmazi, D.


    We compute correlation functions in $N=2$ non critical superstrings on the sphere. Our calculations are restrained to the ($s=0$) bulk amplitudes. We show that the four point function factorizes as a consequence of the non-critical kinematics, but differently from the $N=0,1$ cases no extra discrete state appears in the $\\hat c\\to 1^-$ limit.

  11. Displaced phase-amplitude variables for waves on finite background

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    van Groesen, Embrecht W.C.; Andonowati, A.; Karjanto, N.


    Wave amplification in nonlinear dispersive wave equations may be caused by nonlinear focussing of waves from a certain background. In the model of nonlinear Schrödinger equation we will introduce a transformation to displaced phase-amplitude variables with respect to a background of monochromatic

  12. Amplitude damping of Laguerre-Gaussian modes - Journal Article

    CSIR Research Space (South Africa)

    Dudley, Angela L


    Full Text Available In this article, the authors present an amplitude damping channel for Laguerre-Gaussian modes. The channel is tested experimentally for a Laguerre-Gaussian mode, having an azimuthal index l = 1, illustrating that it decays to a Gaussian mode in good...

  13. Large amplitude forced vibration analysis of cross-beam system ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Large amplitude forced vibration behaviour of cross-beam system under harmonic excitation is studied, incorporating the effect of geometric non-linearity. The forced vibration analysis is carried out in an indirect way, in which the dynamic system is assumed to satisfy the force equilibrium condition at peak load value, thus ...

  14. Fatique of Copper Polycrystals at Low Plastic Strain Amplitudes

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Rasmussen, K. V.; Pedersen, Ole Bøcker


    Single crystals and polycrystals of pure copper were fatigued in tension-compression at constant low amplitudes of plastic strain and low cycling frequencies at room temperature in air. Surface patterns of persistent slip bands were quantitatively examined by optical microscopy. Bulk dislocation...

  15. Amplitude requirements, visual information, and the spatial structure of movement. (United States)

    Slifkin, Andrew B; Eder, Jeffrey R


    Studies using a variety of experimental tasks have established that when humans repeatedly produce an action, the amount of variability in system output is distributed across a range of time scales or frequencies. A finding of particular interest is that fluctuations in the output of cognitive systems are the highest at the lowest frequencies with fluctuation magnitude (power) systematically declining as frequency increases. Such time-series structure--captured by spectral analysis--is termed pink noise. However, the appearance of pink noise seems to be limited to tasks where action is executed in the absence of external, task-related feedback. In contrast, a few studies have demonstrated that when action was executed in the presence of external, task-related feedback, power was evenly distributed across all spectral frequencies--that is, a white-noise time-series structure was revealed. Here, we sought to determine if the time-series structure of movement amplitude values would change when movement amplitude requirements increased (6.35, 12.70, 25.40, 50.80, and 101.60 mm) under conditions of full visual feedback. Given that increases in movement amplitude requirements are known to induce increased reliance on the available visual feedback, we predicted an amplitude-requirement-induced shift in time-series structure from pink to white noise. Indeed, those results were revealed. Last, the main findings were captured by a computer simulation that was based on established principles of motor control.

  16. Finite amplitude wave interaction with premixed laminar flames (United States)

    Aslani, Mohamad; Regele, Jonathan D.


    The physics underlying combustion instability is an active area of research because of its detrimental impact in many combustion devices, such as turbines, jet engines, and liquid rocket engines. Pressure waves, ranging from acoustic waves to strong shocks, are potential sources of these disturbances. Literature on flame-disturbance interactions are primarily focused on either acoustics or strong shock wave interactions, with little information about the wide spectrum of behaviors that may exist between these two extremes. For example, the interaction between a flame and a finite amplitude compression wave is not well characterized. This phenomenon is difficult to study numerically due to the wide range of scales that need to be captured, requiring powerful and efficient numerical techniques. In this work, the interaction of a perturbed laminar premixed flame with a finite amplitude compression wave is investigated using the Parallel Adaptive Wavelet Collocation Method (PAWCM). This method optimally solves the fully compressible Navier-Stokes equations while capturing the essential scales. The results show that depending on the amplitude and duration of a finite amplitude disturbance, the interaction between these waves and premixed flames can produce a broad range of responses.

  17. Reversible large amplitude planar extension of soft elastomers

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Jensen, Mette Krog; Skov, Anne Ladegaard; Rasmussen, Henrik K.

    The newly developed planar elongation fixture, designed as an add-on to the filament stretch rheometer, is used to measure reversible large amplitude planar elongation on soft elastomers. The concept of the new fixture is to elongate an annulus by keeping the perimeter constant. The deformation...

  18. The Dynamics of Large-Amplitude Motion in Energized Molecules

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Perry, David S. [Univ. of Akron, OH (United States). Dept. of Chemistry


    Chemical reactions involve large-amplitude nuclear motion along the reaction coordinate that serves to distinguish reactants from products. Some reactions, such as roaming reactions and reactions proceeding through a loose transition state, involve more than one large-amplitude degree of freedom. Because of the limitation of exact quantum nuclear dynamics to small systems, one must, in general, define the active degrees of freedom and separate them in some way from the other degrees of freedom. In this project, we use large-amplitude motion in bound model systems to investigate the coupling of large-amplitude degrees of freedom to other nuclear degrees of freedom. This approach allows us to use the precision and power of high-resolution molecular spectroscopy to probe the specific coupling mechanisms involved, and to apply the associated theoretical tools. In addition to slit-jet spectra at the University of Akron, the current project period has involved collaboration with Michel Herman and Nathalie Vaeck of the Université Libre de Bruxelles, and with Brant Billinghurst at the Canadian Light Source (CLS).

  19. Mirror symmetry, toric branes and topological string amplitudes as polynomials

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Alim, Murad


    The central theme of this thesis is the extension and application of mirror symmetry of topological string theory. The contribution of this work on the mathematical side is given by interpreting the calculated partition functions as generating functions for mathematical invariants which are extracted in various examples. Furthermore the extension of the variation of the vacuum bundle to include D-branes on compact geometries is studied. Based on previous work for non-compact geometries a system of differential equations is derived which allows to extend the mirror map to the deformation spaces of the D-Branes. Furthermore, these equations allow the computation of the full quantum corrected superpotentials which are induced by the D-branes. Based on the holomorphic anomaly equation, which describes the background dependence of topological string theory relating recursively loop amplitudes, this work generalizes a polynomial construction of the loop amplitudes, which was found for manifolds with a one dimensional space of deformations, to arbitrary target manifolds with arbitrary dimension of the deformation space. The polynomial generators are determined and it is proven that the higher loop amplitudes are polynomials of a certain degree in the generators. Furthermore, the polynomial construction is generalized to solve the extension of the holomorphic anomaly equation to D-branes without deformation space. This method is applied to calculate higher loop amplitudes in numerous examples and the mathematical invariants are extracted. (orig.)

  20. Amplitude analysis of D0->K+K-pi+pi-

    CERN Document Server

    Artuso, M; Mountain, R; Skwarnicki, T; Stone, S; Zhang, L M; Gershon, T; Bonvicini, G; Cinabro, D; Lincoln, A; Smith, M J; Zhou, P; Zhu, J; Naik, P; Rademacker, J; Asner, D M; Edwards, K W; Randrianarivony, K; Tatishvili, G; Briere, R A; Vogel, H; Onyisi, P U E; Rosner, J L; Alexander, J P; Cassel, D G; Das, S; Ehrlich, R; Gibbons, L; Gray, S W; Hartill, D L; Heltsley, B K; Kreinick, D L; Kuznetsov, V E; Patterson, J R; Peterson, D; Riley, D; Ryd, A; Sadoff, A J; Shi, X; Sun, W M; Yelton, J; Rubin, P; Lowrey, N; Mehrabyan, S; Selen, M; Wiss, J; Libby, J; Kornicer, M; Mitchell, R E; Besson, D; Pedlar, T K; Cronin-Hennessy, D; Hietala, J; Dobbs, S; Metreveli, Z; Seth, K K; Tomaradze, A; Xiao, T; Martin, L; Powell, A; Spradlin, P; Wilkinson, G; Ge, J Y; Miller, D H; Shipsey, I P J; Xin, B; Adams, G S; Napolitano, J; Ecklund, K M; Insler, J; Muramatsu, H; Park, C S; Pearson, L J; Thorndike, E H; Ricciardi, S; Thomas, C


    The first flavor-tagged amplitude analysis of the decay D0 to the self-conjugate final state K+K-pi+pi- is presented. Data from the CLEO II.V, CLEO III, and CLEO-c detectors are used, from which around 3000 signal decays are selected. The three most significant amplitudes, which contribute to the model that best fits the data, are phirho0, K1(1270)+-K-+, and non-resonant K+K-pi+pi-. Separate amplitude analyses of D0 and D0-bar candidates indicate no CP violation among the amplitudes at the level of 5% to 30% depending on the mode. In addition, the sensitivity to the CP-violating parameter gamma/phi3 of a sample of 2000 B+ -> D0-tilde(K+K-pi+pi-)K+ decays, where D0-tilde is a D0 or D0-bar, collected at LHCb or a future flavor facility, is estimated to be (11.3 +/- 0.3) degrees using the favored model.