WorldWideScience

Sample records for scattered x-ray pulse

  1. X-Ray Scattering Applications Using Pulsed X-Ray Sources

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Larson, B.C.

    1999-05-23

    Pulsed x-ray sources have been used in transient structural phenomena investigations for over fifty years; however, until the advent of synchrotrons sources and the development of table-top picosecond lasers, general access to ligh temporal resolution x-ray diffraction was relatively limited. Advances in diffraction techniques, sample excitation schemes, and detector systems, in addition to IncEased access to pulsed sources, have ld tO what is now a diverse and growing array of pulsed-source measurement applications. A survey of time-resolved investigations using pulsed x-ray sources is presented and research opportunities using both present and planned pulsed x-ray sources are discussed.

  2. Ultrashort hard x-ray pulses generated by 90 degrees Thomson scattering

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Chin, A.H.; Schoenlein, R.W.; Glover, T.E.

    1997-01-01

    Ultrashort x-ray pulses permit observation of fast structural dynamics in a variety of condensed matter systems. The authors have generated 300 femtosecond, 30 keV x-ray pulses by 90 degrees Thomson scattering between femtosecond laser pulses and relativistic electrons. The x-ray and laser pulses are synchronized on a femtosecond time scale, an important prerequisite for ultrafast pump-probe spectroscopy. Analysis of the x-ray beam properties also allows for electron bunch characterization on a femtosecond time scale

  3. XUV and x-ray elastic scattering of attosecond electromagnetic pulses on atoms

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rosmej, F. B.; Astapenko, V. A.; Lisitsa, V. S.

    2017-12-01

    Elastic scattering of electromagnetic pulses on atoms in XUV and soft x-ray ranges is considered for ultra-short pulses. The inclusion of the retardation term, non-dipole interaction and an efficient scattering tensor approximation allowed studying the scattering probability in dependence of the pulse duration for different carrier frequencies. Numerical calculations carried out for Mg, Al and Fe atoms demonstrate that the scattering probability is a highly nonlinear function of the pulse duration and has extrema for pulse carrier frequencies in the vicinity of the resonance-like features of the polarization charge spectrum. Closed expressions for the non-dipole correction and the angular dependence of the scattered radiation are obtained.

  4. Revisiting Bragg's X-ray microscope: Scatter based optical transient grating detection of pulsed ionising radiation

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Fullagar, Wilfred K.; Paganin, David M.; Hall, Chris J.

    2011-01-01

    Transient optical gratings for detecting ultrafast signals are routine for temporally resolved photochemical investigations. Many processes can contribute to the formation of such gratings; we indicate use of optically scattering centres that can be formed with highly variable latencies in different materials and devices using ionising radiation. Coherent light scattered by these centres can form the short-wavelength-to-optical-wavelength, incoherent-to-coherent basis of a Bragg X-ray microscope, with inherent scope for optical phasing. Depending on the dynamics of the medium chosen, the way is open to both ultrafast pulsed and integrating measurements. For experiments employing brief pulses, we discuss high-dynamic-range short-wavelength diffraction measurements with real-time optical reconstructions. Applications to optical real-time X-ray phase-retrieval are considered. -- Research highlights: → It is timely that the concept of Bragg's X-ray microscope be revisited. → Transient gratings can be used for X-ray all-optical information processing. → Applications to optical real-time X-ray phase-retrieval are considered.

  5. Revisiting Bragg's X-ray microscope: scatter based optical transient grating detection of pulsed ionising radiation.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Fullagar, Wilfred K; Paganin, David M; Hall, Chris J

    2011-06-01

    Transient optical gratings for detecting ultrafast signals are routine for temporally resolved photochemical investigations. Many processes can contribute to the formation of such gratings; we indicate use of optically scattering centres that can be formed with highly variable latencies in different materials and devices using ionising radiation. Coherent light scattered by these centres can form the short-wavelength-to-optical-wavelength, incoherent-to-coherent basis of a Bragg X-ray microscope, with inherent scope for optical phasing. Depending on the dynamics of the medium chosen, the way is open to both ultrafast pulsed and integrating measurements. For experiments employing brief pulses, we discuss high-dynamic-range short-wavelength diffraction measurements with real-time optical reconstructions. Applications to optical real-time X-ray phase-retrieval are considered. Copyright © 2010 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  6. Generation of Attosecond X-Ray Pulse through Coherent Relativistic Nonlinear Thomson Scattering

    CERN Document Server

    Lee, K; Jeong, Y U; Lee, B C; Park, S H

    2005-01-01

    In contrast to some recent experimental results, which state that the Nonlinear Thomson Scattered (NTS) radiation is incoherent, a coherent condition under which the scattered radiation of an incident laser pulse by a bunch of electrons can be coherently superposed has been investigated. The Coherent Relativistic Nonlinear Thomson Scattered (C-RNTS) radiation makes it possible utilizing the ultra-short pulse nature of NTS radiation with a bunch of electrons, such as plasma or electron beams. A numerical simulation shows that a 25 attosecond X-ray pulse can be generated by irradiating an ultra-intense laser pulse of 4x10(19) W/cm2 on an ultra-thin solid target of 50 nm thickness, which is commercially available. The coherent condition can be easily extended to an electron beam from accelerators. Different from the solid target, much narrower electron beam is required for the generation of an attosecond pulse. Instead, this condition could be applied for the generation of intense Compton scattered X-rays with a...

  7. Propagation and scattering of high-intensity X-ray pulses in dense atomic gases and plasmas

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Weninger, Clemens

    2015-10-01

    Nonlinear spectroscopy in the X-ray domain is a promising technique to explore the dynamics of elementary excitations in matter. X-rays provide an element specificity that allows them to target individual chemical elements, making them a great tool to study complex molecules. The recent advancement of X-ray free electron lasers (XFELs) allows to investigate non-linear processes in the X-ray domain for the first time. XFELs provide short femtosecond X-ray pulses with peak powers that exceed previous generation synchrotron X-ray sources by more than nine orders of magnitude. This thesis focuses on the theoretical description of stimulated emission processes in the X-ray regime in atomic gases. These processes form the basis for more complex schemes in molecules and provide a proof of principle for nonlinear X-ray spectroscopy. The thesis also includes results from two experimental campaigns at the Linac Coherent Light Source and presents the first experimental demonstration of stimulated X-ray Raman scattering. Focusing an X-ray free electron laser beam into an elongated neon gas target generates an intense stimulated X-ray emission beam in forward direction. If the incoming X-rays have a photon energy above the neon K edge, they can efficiently photo-ionize 1s electrons and generate short-lived core excited states. The core-excited states decay mostly via Auger decay but have a small probability to emit a spontaneous X-ray photon. The spontaneous emission emitted in forward direction can stimulate X-ray emission along the medium and generate a highly directional and intense X-ray laser pulse. If the photon energy of the incoming X-rays however is below the ionization edge in the region of the pre-edge resonance the incoming X-rays can be inelastically scattered. This spontaneous X-ray Raman scattering process has a very low probability, but the spontaneously scattered photons in the beginning of the medium can stimulate Raman scattering along the medium. The

  8. Generation of Attosecond x-ray pulse using Coherent Relativistic Nonlinear Thomson Scattering

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Lee, Ki Tae; Park, Seong Hee; Cha, Yong Ho; Jeong, Young Uk; Lee, Byung Cheol [Korea Atomic Energy Research Institute, Daejeon (Korea, Republic of)

    2005-07-01

    Relativistic plasma, a new regime in physics, has been opened due to the development in ultra-intense laser technology during the past decade. Not only the fundamental aspect of relativistic plasma are attractive but also its potential application seems to be significant especially in the area of the generation of high energy particles such as electrons, ions, positrons, and {gamma}-rays. The generation of x-ray radiation with a pulse width of sub-femtoseconds presently draws much attention because such a radiation allows one to explore ultra-fast dynamics of electrons and nucleons. Several schemes have been proposed and/or demonstrated to generate an ultra-short x-ray pulse: the relativistic Doppler shift of a backscattered laser pulse by a relativistic electron beam, the harmonic frequency upshift of a laser pulse by relativistic nonlinear motion of electrons, high order harmonic generation in the interaction of intense laser pulse with noble gases and solids The train of a few 100 attosecond pulses has been observed in the case of laser-noble gas interaction. When a low-intensity laser pulse is irradiated on an electron, the electron undergoes a harmonic oscillatory motion and generates a dipole radiation with the same frequency as the incident laser pulse, which is called Thomson scattering. As the laser intensity increases, the oscillatory motion of the electron becomes relativistically nonlinear, which leads to the generation of harmonic radiations, referred to as Relativistic Nonlinear Thomson Scattered (RNTS) radiation. The motion of the electron begins to be relativistic as the following normalized vector potential approaches to unity: a{sub 0}=8.5 x 10{sup -10} {lambda}{iota}{sup 1/2} , (1) where {lambda} is the laser wavelength in {mu}m and I the laser intensity in W/cm{sup 2} The RNTS radiation has been investigated in analytical ways. Recently, indebted to the development of the ultra-intense laser pulse, experiments on RNTS radiation have been carried

  9. Ultrashort X-ray pulse science

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Chin, Alan Hap [Univ. of California, Berkeley, CA (US). Dept. of Physics; Lawrence Berkeley National Lab. (LBNL), Berkeley, CA (United States)

    1998-05-01

    A variety of phenomena involves atomic motion on the femtosecond time-scale. These phenomena have been studied using ultrashort optical pulses, which indirectly probe atomic positions through changes in optical properties. Because x-rays can more directly probe atomic positions, ultrashort x-ray pulses are better suited for the study of ultrafast structural dynamics. One approach towards generating ultrashort x-ray pulses is by 90° Thomson scattering between terawatt laser pulses and relativistic electrons. Using this technique, the author generated ~ 300 fs, 30 keV (0.4 Å) x-ray pulses. These x-ray pulses are absolutely synchronized with ultrashort laser pulses, allowing femtosecond optical pump/x-ray probe experiments to be performed. Using the right-angle Thomson scattering x-ray source, the author performed time-resolved x-ray diffraction studies of laser-perturbated InSb. These experiments revealed a delayed onset of lattice expansion. This delay is due to the energy relaxation from a dense electron-hole plasma to the lattice. The dense electron-hole plasma first undergoes Auger recombination, which reduces the carrier concentration while maintaining energy content. Longitudinal-optic (LO) phonon emission then couples energy to the lattice. LO phonon decay into acoustic phonons, and acoustic phonon propagation then causes the growth of a thermally expanded layer. Source characterization is instrumental in utilizing ultrashort x-ray pulses in time-resolved x-ray spectroscopies. By measurement of the electron beam diameter at the generation point, the pulse duration of the Thomson scattered x-rays is determined. Analysis of the Thomson scattered x-ray beam properties also provides a novel means of electron bunch characterization. Although the pulse duration is inferred for the Thomson scattering x-ray source, direct measurement is required for other x-ray pulse sources. A method based on the laser-assisted photoelectric effect (LAPE) has been demonstrated as a

  10. Ultrashort X-ray pulse science

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Chin, A.H.; Lawrence Berkeley National Lab., CA

    1998-01-01

    A variety of phenomena involves atomic motion on the femtosecond time-scale. These phenomena have been studied using ultrashort optical pulses, which indirectly probe atomic positions through changes in optical properties. Because x-rays can more directly probe atomic positions, ultrashort x-ray pulses are better suited for the study of ultrafast structural dynamics. One approach towards generating ultrashort x-ray pulses is by 90 o Thomson scattering between terawatt laser pulses and relativistic electrons. Using this technique, the author generated ∼ 300 fs, 30 keV (0.4 (angstrom)) x-ray pulses. These x-ray pulses are absolutely synchronized with ultrashort laser pulses, allowing femtosecond optical pump/x-ray probe experiments to be performed. Using the right-angle Thomson scattering x-ray source, the author performed time-resolved x-ray diffraction studies of laser-perturbated InSb. These experiments revealed a delayed onset of lattice expansion. This delay is due to the energy relaxation from a dense electron-hole plasma to the lattice. The dense electron-hole plasma first undergoes Auger recombination, which reduces the carrier concentration while maintaining energy content. Longitudinal-optic (LO) phonon emission then couples energy to the lattice. LO phonon decay into acoustic phonons, and acoustic phonon propagation then causes the growth of a thermally expanded layer. Source characterization is instrumental in utilizing ultrashort x-ray pulses in time-resolved x-ray spectroscopies. By measurement of the electron beam diameter at the generation point, the pulse duration of the Thomson scattered x-rays is determined. Analysis of the Thomson scattered x-ray beam properties also provides a novel means of electron bunch characterization. Although the pulse duration is inferred for the Thomson scattering x-ray source, direct measurement is required for other x-ray pulse sources. A method based on the laser-assisted photoelectric effect (LAPE) has been

  11. First observation of multi-pulse X-ray train via multi-collision laser Compton scattering

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Kuroda, R.; Toyokawa, H.; Yasumoto, M.; Ikeura-Sekiguchi, H.; Koike, M.; Yamada, K.; Yanagida, T.; Nakajyo, T.; Sakai, F.

    2009-01-01

    A compact hard X-ray source via laser Compton scattering (LCS) has been developed for biological and medical applications at the National Institute of Advanced Industrial Science and Technology (AIST) in Japan. The multi-collision LCS has been investigated in order to enhance the X-ray yields. The first observation of multi-pulse X-ray train with 6 pulses via the multi-collision LCS has been successfully demonstrated between the multi-bunch electron train with 6 bunches and the multi-pulse Ti:Sa laser train with 6 pulses. The 32 MeV electron train was generated from a Cs 2 Te photocathode rf gun with a multi-pulse UV laser and the S-band linac. The Ti:Sa laser train was obtained with the chirp pulse amplification (CPA) including the modified regenerative amplifier. The X-ray train with 6 pulses with 12.6 ns spacing was observed with the micro-channel plate (MCP). The maximum energy of the X-ray is analytically estimated to be about 24 keV and the total number of generated photons was calculated to be about 1.8x10 6 photons/train.

  12. Short Pulse High Brightness X-ray Production with the PLEIADES Thomson Scattering Source

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Anderson, S.G.; Barty, C.P.J.; Betts, S.M.; Brown, W.J.; Crane, J.K.; Cross, R.R.; Fittinghoff, D.N.; Gibson, D.J.; Hartemann, F.V.; Kuba, J.; LaSage, G.P.; Rosenzweig, J.B.; Slaughter, D.R.; Springer, P.T.; Tremaine, A.M.

    2003-01-01

    We describe PLEIADES, a compact, tunable, high-brightness, ultra-short pulse, Thomson x-ray source. The peak brightness of the source is expected to exceed 10 20 photons/s/0.1% bandwidth/mm 2 /mrad 2 . Initial results are reported and compared to theoretical calculations

  13. A portable high-field pulsed-magnet system for single-crystal x-ray scattering studies

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Islam, Zahirul; Lang, Jonathan C.; Ruff, Jacob P. C.; Ross, Kathryn A.; Gaulin, Bruce D.; Nojiri, Hiroyuki; Matsuda, Yasuhiro H.; Qu Zhe

    2009-01-01

    We present a portable pulsed-magnet system for x-ray studies of materials in high magnetic fields (up to 30 T). The apparatus consists of a split-pair of minicoils cooled on a closed-cycle cryostat, which is used for x-ray diffraction studies with applied field normal to the scattering plane. A second independent closed-cycle cryostat is used for cooling the sample to near liquid helium temperatures. Pulsed magnetic fields (∼1 ms in total duration) are generated by discharging a configurable capacitor bank into the magnet coils. Time-resolved scattering data are collected using a combination of a fast single-photon counting detector, a multichannel scaler, and a high-resolution digital storage oscilloscope. The capabilities of this instrument are used to study a geometrically frustrated system revealing strong magnetostrictive effects in the spin-liquid state.

  14. Ultrashort x-ray pulse generation by nonlinear Thomson scattering of a relativistic electron with an intense circularly polarized laser pulse

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    F. Liu

    2012-07-01

    Full Text Available The nonlinear Thomson scattering of a relativistic electron with an intense laser pulse is calculated numerically. The results show that an ultrashort x-ray pulse can be generated by an electron with an initial energy of 5 MeV propagating across a circularly polarized laser pulse with a duration of 8 femtosecond and an intensity of about 1.1×10^{21}  W/cm^{2}, when the detection direction is perpendicular to the propagation directions of both the electron and the laser beam. The optimal values of the carrier-envelop phase and the intensity of the laser pulse for the generation of a single ultrashort x-ray pulse are obtained and verified by our calculations of the radiation characteristics.

  15. Anomalous x-ray scattering

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Wendin, G.

    1979-01-01

    The availability of tunable synchrotron radiation has made it possible systematically to perform x-ray diffraction studies in regions of anomalous scattering near absorption edges, e.g. in order to derive phase information for crystal structure determination. An overview is given of recent experimental and theoretical work and discuss the properties of the anomalous atomic scattering factor, with emphasis on threshold resonances and damping effects. The results are applied to a discussion of the very strong anomalous dispersion recently observed near the L 3 edge in a cesium complex. Also given is an overview of elements and levels where similar behavior can be expected. Finally, the influence of solid state and chemical effects on the absorption edge structure is discussed. 64 references

  16. Scattered X-ray beam nondestructive testing

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Harding, G.; Kosanetzky, J.

    1988-01-01

    X-ray scatter interactions generally dominate the linear attenuation coefficient at the photon energies typical of medical and industrial radiography. Specific advantages of X-ray scatter imaging, including a flexible choice of measurement geometry, direct 3D-imaging capability (tomography) and improved information for material characterization, are illustrated with results from Compton and coherent scatter devices. Applications of a Compton backscatter scanner (ComScan) in the aerospace industry and coherent scatter imaging in security screening are briefly considered [pt

  17. Quantum effets in nonresonant X-ray scattering

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Slowik, Jan Malte

    2015-11-15

    Due to their versatile properties, X rays are a unique tool to investigate the structure and dynamics of matter. X-ray scattering is the fundamental principle of many imaging techniques. Examples are X-ray crystallography, which recently celebrated one hundred years and is currently the leading method in structure determination of proteins, as well as X-ray phase contrast imaging (PCI), which is an imaging technique with countless applications in biology, medicine, etc. The technological development of X-ray free electron lasers (XFEL) has brought X-ray imaging at the edge of a new scientific revolution. XFELs offer ultrashort X-ray pulses with unprecedented high X-ray fluence and excellent spatial coherence properties. These properties make them an outstanding radiation source for X-ray scattering experiments, providing ultrafast temporal resolution as well as atomic spatial resolution. However, the radiation-matter interaction in XFEL experiments also advances into a novel regime. This demands a sound theoretical fundament to describe and explore the new experimental possibilities. This dissertation is dedicated to the theoretical study of nonresonant X-ray scattering. As the first topic, I consider the near-field imaging by propagation based X-ray phase contrast imaging (PCI). I devise a novel theory of PCI, in which radiation and matter are quantized. Remarkably, the crucial interference term automatically excludes contributions from inelastic scattering. This explains the success of the classical description thus far. The second topic of the thesis is the X-ray imaging of coherent electronic motion, where quantum effects become particularly apparent. The electron density of coherent electronic wave packets - important in charge transfer and bond breaking - varies in time, typically on femto- or attosecond time scales. In the near future, XFELs are envisaged to provide attosecond X-ray pulses, opening the possibility for time-resolved ultrafast X-ray scattering

  18. Quantum effets in nonresonant X-ray scattering

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Slowik, Jan Malte

    2015-11-01

    Due to their versatile properties, X rays are a unique tool to investigate the structure and dynamics of matter. X-ray scattering is the fundamental principle of many imaging techniques. Examples are X-ray crystallography, which recently celebrated one hundred years and is currently the leading method in structure determination of proteins, as well as X-ray phase contrast imaging (PCI), which is an imaging technique with countless applications in biology, medicine, etc. The technological development of X-ray free electron lasers (XFEL) has brought X-ray imaging at the edge of a new scientific revolution. XFELs offer ultrashort X-ray pulses with unprecedented high X-ray fluence and excellent spatial coherence properties. These properties make them an outstanding radiation source for X-ray scattering experiments, providing ultrafast temporal resolution as well as atomic spatial resolution. However, the radiation-matter interaction in XFEL experiments also advances into a novel regime. This demands a sound theoretical fundament to describe and explore the new experimental possibilities. This dissertation is dedicated to the theoretical study of nonresonant X-ray scattering. As the first topic, I consider the near-field imaging by propagation based X-ray phase contrast imaging (PCI). I devise a novel theory of PCI, in which radiation and matter are quantized. Remarkably, the crucial interference term automatically excludes contributions from inelastic scattering. This explains the success of the classical description thus far. The second topic of the thesis is the X-ray imaging of coherent electronic motion, where quantum effects become particularly apparent. The electron density of coherent electronic wave packets - important in charge transfer and bond breaking - varies in time, typically on femto- or attosecond time scales. In the near future, XFELs are envisaged to provide attosecond X-ray pulses, opening the possibility for time-resolved ultrafast X-ray scattering

  19. X-ray scattering by interstellar dust

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Rolf, D.

    1980-10-01

    This thesis reports work carried out to make a first observation of x-rays scattered by interstellar dust grains. Data about the dust, obtained at wavelengths ranging from the infrared to ultra-violet spectral regions, are discussed in order to establish a useful description of the grains themselves. This is then used to estimate the magnitude and form of the expected x-ray scattering effect which is shown to manifest itself as a diffuse halo accompanying the image of a celestial x-ray source. Two x-ray imaging experiments are then discussed. The first, specifically proposed to look for this effect surrounding a point x-ray source, was the Skylark 1611 project, and comprised an imaging proportional counter coupled to an x-ray mirror. This is described up to its final calibration when the basis for a concise model of its point response function was established. The experiment was not carried out but its objective and the experience gained during its testing were transferred to the second of the x-ray imaging experiments, the Einstein Observatory. The new instrumental characteristics are described and a model for its point response function is developed. Using this, image data for the point x-ray source GX339-4 is shown to exhibit the sought after scattering phenomenon. (author)

  20. Repeated pulsed x-ray emission equipment

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Terauchi, Hikaru; Iida, Satoshi

    1982-01-01

    X-ray diffraction technique has been applied to determine the spatial positions of atoms which compose a material, and it is needless to say that the technique is a fundamental means regardless of the fields of research. However, the application of X-ray diffraction to the research on physical properties has been so far limited to know the spatial positions of atoms or molecules under thermal equilibrium condition. The addition of time element to the conventional technique, that is, the analysis of material structure including the time-varying processes under non-equilibrium conditions, is considered to approach the elucidation of the essence of materials. The authors call this dynamic structural analysis. The authors have planned to analyze X-ray diffraction intensity which has the resolution of about 10 -8 s in the real time which is conjugate with energy. However, present pulsed X-ray sources are not suitable for diffraction experiment because the pulse width is too long or X-ray wavelength is too short. Accordingly, the authors have made for trial a pulsed X-ray source for diffraction experiment. Its specifications are: diode voltage (X-ray tube voltage) from 200 to 300 kV, diode current from 2 to 5 kA, pulse width of about 30ns, maximum repetition frequency 10 pps, and X-ray focus size of 2 mm diameter. One of the features of this source is the repeated generation of pulsed X-ray. This is the first trial in the world, and is indispensable to the dynamic structural analysis described above. The quality of the emitted X-ray is also written. (Wakatsuki, Y.)

  1. Ultrafast x-ray scattering on nanoparticle dynamics

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Plech, A; Ibrahimkutty, S; Issenmann, D; Kotaidis, V; Siems, A

    2013-01-01

    Pulsed X-ray scattering is used for the determination of structural dynamics of laser-irradiated gold particles. By combining several scattering methods such as powder scattering, small angle scattering and diffuse wide angle scattering it is possible to reconstruct the kinetics of structure evolution on several lengths scales and derive complementary information on the particles and their local environment. A generic structural phase diagram for the reaction as function of delay time after laser excitation and laser fluence can be constructed.

  2. Method for spatially modulating X-ray pulses using MEMS-based X-ray optics

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lopez, Daniel; Shenoy, Gopal; Wang, Jin; Walko, Donald A.; Jung, Il-Woong; Mukhopadhyay, Deepkishore

    2015-03-10

    A method and apparatus are provided for spatially modulating X-rays or X-ray pulses using microelectromechanical systems (MEMS) based X-ray optics. A torsionally-oscillating MEMS micromirror and a method of leveraging the grazing-angle reflection property are provided to modulate X-ray pulses with a high-degree of controllability.

  3. Small Angle X-Ray Scattering Detector

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Hessler, Jan P.

    2004-06-15

    A detector for time-resolved small-angle x-ray scattering includes a nearly constant diameter, evacuated linear tube having an end plate detector with a first fluorescent screen and concentric rings of first fiber optic bundles for low angle scattering detection and an annular detector having a second fluorescent screen and second fiber optic bundles concentrically disposed about the tube for higher angle scattering detection. With the scattering source, i.e., the specimen under investigation, located outside of the evacuated tube on the tube's longitudinal axis, scattered x-rays are detected by the fiber optic bundles, to each of which is coupled a respective photodetector, to provide a measurement resolution, i.e., dq/q, where q is the momentum transferred from an incident x-ray to an x-ray scattering specimen, of 2% over two (2) orders of magnitude in reciprocal space, i.e., qmax/qmin approx=lO0.

  4. X-ray scattering of soft matter

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Stribeck, N.

    2007-01-01

    This coherently written volume summarizes the analytical power of modern X-ray scattering in the field of soft matter. Applications of X-ray scattering to soft matter have advanced considerably within recent years, both conceptually and technically. There are now mature high-power X-ray sources, synchrotrons and rotating anodes, as well as high-speed detectors, which have become readily available and which make the whole process more viable. High-quality time-resolved experiments on polymer structure can now be performed with ease, a major advancement due to the genuine power of the scattering method. This manual is a detailed description of simple tools that can elucidate the mechanisms of structure evolution in the studied materials. It is also a step-by-step guide to more advanced methods of the latest X-ray scattering techniques, and breaks down these methods. Data analysis based on clear, unequivocal results is rendered simple and straightforward - with a stress on the careful planning of experiments and adequate recording of all required data. This book, then, serves as a useful ready-reference guide. It has been written for the modern scientist who is a generalist and needs a concise reference, and demonstrates typical errors in data evaluation. (orig.)

  5. X-ray scatter removal by deconvolution

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Seibert, J.A.; Boone, J.M.

    1988-01-01

    The distribution of scattered x rays detected in a two-dimensional projection radiograph at diagnostic x-ray energies is measured as a function of field size and object thickness at a fixed x-ray potential and air gap. An image intensifier-TV based imaging system is used for image acquisition, manipulation, and analysis. A scatter point spread function (PSF) with an assumed linear, spatially invariant response is modeled as a modified Gaussian distribution, and is characterized by two parameters describing the width of the distribution and the fraction of scattered events detected. The PSF parameters are determined from analysis of images obtained with radio-opaque lead disks centrally placed on the source side of a homogeneous phantom. Analytical methods are used to convert the PSF into the frequency domain. Numerical inversion provides an inverse filter that operates on frequency transformed, scatter degraded images. Resultant inverse transformed images demonstrate the nonarbitrary removal of scatter, increased radiographic contrast, and improved quantitative accuracy. The use of the deconvolution method appears to be clinically applicable to a variety of digital projection images

  6. SLAC pulsed X-ray facility

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ipe, N. E.; McCall, R. C.; Baker, E. D.

    1986-05-01

    The Stanford Linear Accelerator Center (SLAC) operates a high energy (up to 33 GeV) linear accelerator delivering pulses up to a few microseconds wide. The pulsed nature of the electron beam creates problems in the detection and measurement of radiation both from the accelerator beam and the klystrons that provide the RF power for the accelerator. Hence, a pulsed X-ray facility has been built at SLAC mainly for the purpose of testing the response of different radiation detection instruments to pulsed radiation fields. The X-ray tube consists of an electron gun with a control grid. This provides a stream of pulsed electrons that can be accelerated towards a confined target-window. The window is made up of aluminum 0.051 cm (20 mils) thick, plated on the vacuum side with a layer of gold 0.0006 cm (1/4 mil) thick. The frequency of electron pulses can be varied by an internal pulser from 60 to 360 pulses per second with pulse widths of 360 ns to 5 ms. The pulse amplitude can be varied over a wide range of currents. An external pulser can be used to obtain other frequencies or special pulse shapes. The voltage across the gun can be varied from 0 to 100 kV. The major part of the X-ray tube is enclosed in a large walk-in-cabinet made of 1.9 cm (3/4 in) plywood and lined with 0.32 cm (1/8 in) lead to make a very versatile facility.

  7. SLAC pulsed x-ray facility

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Ipe, N.E.; McCall, R.C.; Baker, E.D.

    1986-05-01

    The Stanford Linear Accelerator Center (SLAC) operates a high energy (up to 33 GeV) linear accelerator delivering pulses up to a few microseconds wide. The pulsed nature of the electron beam creates problems in the detection and measurement of radiation both from the accelerator beam and the klystrons that provide the rf power for the accelerator. Hence, a pulsed x-ray facility has been built at SLAC mainly for the purpose of testing the response of different radiation detection instruments to pulsed radiation fields. The x-ray tube consists of an electron gun with a control grid. This provides a stream of pulsed electrons that can be accelerated towards a confined target-window. The window is made up of aluminium 0.051 cm (20 mils) thick, plated on the vacuum side with a layer of gold 0.0006 cm (1/4 mil) thick. The frequency of electron pulses can be varied by an internal pulser from 60 to 360 pulses per second with pulse widths of 360 ns to 5 μs. The pulse amplitude can be varied over a wide range of currents. An external pulser can be used to obtain other frequencies or special pulse shapes. The voltage across the gun can be varied from 0 to 100 kV. The major part of the x-ray tube is enclosed in a large walk-in-cabinet made of 1.9 cm (3/4 in) plywood and lined with 0.32 cm (1/8 in) lead to make a very versatile facility. 3 refs., 5 figs

  8. Healing X-ray scattering images

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Jiliang Liu

    2017-07-01

    Full Text Available X-ray scattering images contain numerous gaps and defects arising from detector limitations and experimental configuration. We present a method to heal X-ray scattering images, filling gaps in the data and removing defects in a physically meaningful manner. Unlike generic inpainting methods, this method is closely tuned to the expected structure of reciprocal-space data. In particular, we exploit statistical tests and symmetry analysis to identify the structure of an image; we then copy, average and interpolate measured data into gaps in a way that respects the identified structure and symmetry. Importantly, the underlying analysis methods provide useful characterization of structures present in the image, including the identification of diffuse versus sharp features, anisotropy and symmetry. The presented method leverages known characteristics of reciprocal space, enabling physically reasonable reconstruction even with large image gaps. The method will correspondingly fail for images that violate these underlying assumptions. The method assumes point symmetry and is thus applicable to small-angle X-ray scattering (SAXS data, but only to a subset of wide-angle data. Our method succeeds in filling gaps and healing defects in experimental images, including extending data beyond the original detector borders.

  9. Resonant x-ray Raman scattering from atoms and molecules

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Cowan, P.L.

    1992-01-01

    Inelastic x-ray scattering and elastic x-ray scattering are fundamentally related processes. When the x-ray photon energy is near the ionization threshold for an inner shell, the inelastic channel is dominated by resonant x-ray Raman scattering. Studies of this emission not only illuminate the resonant scattering process in general, they also point to new opportunities for spectral studies of electronic structure using x-rays. Atoms in the form of a free gas provide an ideal target for testing the current theoretical understanding of resonant x-ray Raman scattering. In addition, x-ray scattering from molecular gases demonstrates the effect of bonding symmetry on the polarization and angular distribution of the scattered x-rays. Comparisons of experimental data with theory demonstrate both the successes and limitations of simple, single-electron interpretations of the scattering process

  10. Coherent methods in X-ray scattering

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Gorobtsov, Oleg

    2017-05-01

    X-ray radiation has been used to study structural properties of materials for more than a hundred years. Construction of extremely coherent and bright X-ray radiation sources such as free electron lasers (FELs) and latest generationstorage rings led to rapid development of experimental methods relying on high radiation coherence. These methods allow to perform revolutionary studies in a wide range of fields from solid state physics to biology. In this thesis I focus on several important problems connected with the coherent methods. The first part considers applications of dynamical diffraction theory on crystals to studies with coherent X-ray radiation. It presents the design of a high-resolution spectrometer for free electron lasers that should allow to resolve spectral structure of individual FEL pulses. The spectrometer is based on the principle of dynamical diffraction focusing. The knowledge of individual FEL pulse spectra is necessary for understanding FEL longitudinal coherence. In the same part I present quasi-kinematical approximation to dynamical theory which allows to treat analytically phase effects observed in X-ray coherent imaging on nanocrystals. These effects may play a big role when methods such as ptychography are used to study crystalline samples. The second part deals with measurements of FEL coherence properties using intensity - intensity interferometry. Results of several experiments performed at FELs FLASH and LCLS are revealed in this section. I have developed models and theories to explain the behavior observed in experiments on FLASH. These models allowed to extract information about external positional jitter of FEL pulses and secondary beams present in FEL radiation. In the LCLS experiment the Hanbury Brown and Twiss type interferometry was performed on Bragg peaks from colloidal crystal. This did not require additional measurements without the sample and information was extracted directly from diffraction patterns. Therefore intensity

  11. Coherent methods in X-ray scattering

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Gorobtsov, Oleg

    2017-05-15

    X-ray radiation has been used to study structural properties of materials for more than a hundred years. Construction of extremely coherent and bright X-ray radiation sources such as free electron lasers (FELs) and latest generationstorage rings led to rapid development of experimental methods relying on high radiation coherence. These methods allow to perform revolutionary studies in a wide range of fields from solid state physics to biology. In this thesis I focus on several important problems connected with the coherent methods. The first part considers applications of dynamical diffraction theory on crystals to studies with coherent X-ray radiation. It presents the design of a high-resolution spectrometer for free electron lasers that should allow to resolve spectral structure of individual FEL pulses. The spectrometer is based on the principle of dynamical diffraction focusing. The knowledge of individual FEL pulse spectra is necessary for understanding FEL longitudinal coherence. In the same part I present quasi-kinematical approximation to dynamical theory which allows to treat analytically phase effects observed in X-ray coherent imaging on nanocrystals. These effects may play a big role when methods such as ptychography are used to study crystalline samples. The second part deals with measurements of FEL coherence properties using intensity - intensity interferometry. Results of several experiments performed at FELs FLASH and LCLS are revealed in this section. I have developed models and theories to explain the behavior observed in experiments on FLASH. These models allowed to extract information about external positional jitter of FEL pulses and secondary beams present in FEL radiation. In the LCLS experiment the Hanbury Brown and Twiss type interferometry was performed on Bragg peaks from colloidal crystal. This did not require additional measurements without the sample and information was extracted directly from diffraction patterns. Therefore intensity

  12. Chemical crystallography with pulsed neutrons and synchrotron x-rays

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Carrondo, M.A.; Jeffrey, G.A.

    1988-01-01

    Solid-state chemists and physicists, crystallographers and molecular biologists who are using or who plan to use the special properties of pulsed neutron spallation and synchrotron X-ray sources will find this book invaluable. Those scientists who have not yet gained experience in working with such sources will find the basic physics of the radiations, their production and their scattering properties explained, together with descriptions of the different types of diffraction experiments which use them

  13. Observing Solvation Dynamics with Simultaneous Femtosecond X-ray Emission Spectroscopy and X-ray Scattering

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Haldrup, Kristoffer; Gawelda, Wojciech; Abela, Rafael

    2016-01-01

    and structural changes, and local solvent structural changes are desired. We have studied the intra- and intermolecular dynamics of a model chromophore, aqueous [Fe(bpy)3]2+, with complementary X-ray tools in a single experiment exploiting intense XFEL radiation as a probe. We monitored the ultrafast structural...... rearrangement of the solute with X-ray emission spectroscopy, thus establishing time zero for the ensuing X-ray diffuse scattering analysis. The simultaneously recorded X-ray diffuse scattering atterns reveal slower subpicosecond dynamics triggered by the intramolecular structural dynamics of the photoexcited...

  14. Forge: a short pulse x-ray diagnostic development facility

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Stradling, G.L.; Hurry, T.R.; Denbow, E.R.; Selph, M.M.; Ameduri, F.P.

    1985-01-01

    A new short pulse x-ray calibration facility has been brought on line at Los Alamos. This facility is being used for the development, testing and calibration of fast x-ray diagnostic systems. The x-ray source consists of a moderate size, sub-nanosecond laser focused at high intensity on an appropriate target material to generate short pulses of x-ray emission from the resulting plasma. Dynamic performance parameters of fast x-ray diagnostic instruments, such as x-ray streak cameras, can be conveniently measured using this facility

  15. Resonant x-ray scattering in correlated systems

    CERN Document Server

    Ishihara, Sumio

    2017-01-01

    The research and its outcomes presented here is devoted to the use of x-ray scattering to study correlated electron systems and magnetism. Different x-ray based methods are provided to analyze three dimensional electron systems and the structure of transition-metal oxides. Finally the observation of multipole orderings with x-ray diffraction is shown.

  16. Resonant X-ray scattering in correlated systems

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Murakami, Youichi [High Energy Accelerator Research Organization, Tsukuba, Ibaraki (Japan). Inst. of Materials Structure Science; Ishihara, Sumio (ed.) [Tohoku Univ., Sendai, Miyagi (Japan). Dept. of Physics

    2017-03-01

    The research and its outcomes presented here is devoted to the use of X-ray scattering to study correlated electron systems and magnetism. Different X-ray based methods are provided to analyze three dimensional electron systems and the structure of transition-metal oxides. Finally the observation of multipole orderings with X-ray diffraction is shown.

  17. Resonant inelastic x-ray scattering studies of elementary excitations

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Ament, Lucas Johannes Peter (Luuk)

    2010-01-01

    Resonant Inelastic X-ray Scattering (RIXS) is an X-ray in, X-ray out technique that enables one to study the dispersion of excitations in solids. In this thesis, we investigated how various elementary excitations of transition metal oxides show up in RIXS spectra.

  18. Anisotropy enhanced X-ray scattering from solvated transition metal complexes

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Biasin, Elisa; van Driel, Tim B.; Levi, Gianluca

    2018-01-01

    Time-resolved X-ray scattering patterns from photoexcited molecules in solution are in many cases anisotropic at the ultrafast time scales accessible at X-ray free-electron lasers (XFELs). This anisotropy arises from the interaction of a linearly polarized UV-Vis pump laser pulse with the sample......, which induces anisotropic structural changes that can be captured by femtosecond X-ray pulses. In this work, a method for quantitative analysis of the anisotropic scattering signal arising from an ensemble of molecules is described, and it is demonstrated how its use can enhance the structural...... sensitivity of the time-resolved X-ray scattering experiment. This method is applied on time-resolved X-ray scattering patterns measured upon photoexcitation of a solvated di-platinum complex at an XFEL, and the key parameters involved are explored. It is shown that a combined analysis of the anisotropic...

  19. Search for photon–photon elastic scattering in the X-ray region

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Inada, T.; Yamaji, T.; Adachi, S.; Namba, T.; Asai, S.; Kobayashi, T.; Tamasaku, K.; Tanaka, Y.; Inubushi, Y.; Sawada, K.; Yabashi, M.; Ishikawa, T.

    2014-01-01

    We report the first results of a search for real photon–photon scattering using X rays. A novel system is developed to split and collide X-ray pulses by applying interferometric techniques. A total of 6.5×10 5 pulses (each containing about 10 11 photons) from an X-ray Free-Electron Laser are injected into the system. No scattered events are observed, and an upper limit of 1.7×10 −24  m 2 (95% C.L.) is obtained on the photon–photon elastic scattering cross section at 6.5 keV

  20. Polarized X-ray excitation for scatter reduction in X-ray fluorescence computed tomography.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Vernekohl, Don; Tzoumas, Stratis; Zhao, Wei; Xing, Lei

    2018-05-25

    X-ray fluorescence computer tomography (XFCT) is a new molecular imaging modality which uses X-ray excitation to stimulate the emission of fluorescent photons in high atomic number contrast agents. Scatter contamination is one of the main challenges in XFCT imaging which limits the molecular sensitivity. When polarized X-rays are used, it is possible to reduce the scatter contamination significantly by placing detectors perpendicular to the polarization direction. This study quantifies scatter contamination for polarized and unpolarized X-ray excitation and determines the advantages of scatter reduction. The amount of scatter in preclinical XFCT is quantified in Monte Carlo simulations. The fluorescent X-rays are emitted isotropically, while scattered X-rays propagate in polarization direction. The magnitude of scatter contamination is studied in XFCT simulations of a mouse phantom. In this study, the contrast agent gold is examined as an example but a scatter reduction from polarized excitation is also expected for other elements. The scatter reduction capability is examined for different polarization intensities with a monoenergetic X-ray excitation energy of 82 keV. The study evaluates two different geometrical shapes of CZT detectors which are modeled with an energy resolution of 1 keV FWHM at an X-ray energy of 80 keV. Benefits of a detector placement perpendicular to the polarization direction are shown in iterative and analytic image reconstruction including scatter correction. The contrast to noise ratio (CNR) and the normalized mean square error (NMSE) are analyzed and compared for the reconstructed images. A substantial scatter reduction for common detector sizes was achieved for 100% and 80% linear polarization while lower polarization intensities provide a decreased scatter reduction. By placing the detector perpendicular to the polarization direction, a scatter reduction by factor up to 5.5 can be achieved for common detector sizes. The image

  1. VPD residue search by monitoring scattered x-rays

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Mori, Y.; Yamagami, M.; Yamada, T.

    2000-01-01

    Recently, VPD-TXRF has come into wide use for semiconductor analysis. In VPD-TXRF technique, adjusting the mechanical measuring point to the center of dried residue is of importance for accurate determination. Until now, the following searching methods have been used: monitoring light scattering under bright illumination, using laser scattering particle mapper, applying internal standard as a marker. However, each method has individual disadvantage. For example, interference of Kβ line (ex. Sc-Kβ to Ti-Kα) occurs in the internal standard method. We propose a new searching method 'scattered x-ray search' which utilizes x-ray scattering form the dried residue as a marker. Since the line profile of x-ray scattering agrees with that of fluorescent x-rays, scattered x-ray can be used as an alternative marker instead of internal standard. According to our experimental results, this search method shows the same accuracy as internal standard method. The merits are as follows: 1) no need to add internal standard, 2) rapid search because of high intensity of scattered x-rays, 3) searching software for internal standard can be applied without any modification. In this method, diffraction of incident x-rays by substrate causes irregular change over the detected scattering x-rays. Therefore, this method works better under x-y controlled stage than r-Θ one. (author)

  2. Magnetic X-Ray Scattering with Synchrotron Radiation

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Moncton, D. E.; Gibbs, D.; Bohr, Jakob

    1986-01-01

    With the availability of high-brilliance synchrotron radiation from multiple wigglers, magnetic X-ray scattering has become a powerful new probe of magnetic structure and phase transitions. Similar to the well-established magnetic neutron scattering technique, magnetic X-ray scattering methods have...... many complementary advantages. A brief review is presented of the history of magnetic X-ray scattering as well as recent results obtained in studies of the rare-earth magnet holmium with emphasis on instrumentational aspects. In particular, the development of a simple polarization analyzer...... to distinguish charge and magnetic scattering is described....

  3. Self-propelled pulse X-ray apparatus Sirena-1

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Danil'chenko, N.T.; Ershov, L.S.; Il'chenko, A.V.; Krasil'nikov, S.B.; Kristalinskij, A.L.; Lozovoj, L.N.; Markov, S.N.; Morgovskij, L.Ya.

    1984-01-01

    The structure and specifications of a self-propelled pulse X-ray apparatus ''Sirena-1'' for testing oilt and gas pipelines welded joints are described. The apparatus is designed on the base of pulse X-ray apparatus MIRA. Apparatus control is realized by means of the 137 Cs source or manual control desk. The apparatus ensures perfect control sensitivity

  4. Creation of X-Ray Transparency of Matter by Stimulated Elastic Forward Scattering.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Stöhr, J; Scherz, A

    2015-09-04

    X-ray absorption by matter has long been described by the famous Beer-Lambert law. Here, we show how this fundamental law needs to be modified for high-intensity coherent x-ray pulses, now available at x-ray free electron lasers, due to the onset of stimulated elastic forward scattering. We present an analytical expression for the modified polarization-dependent Beer-Lambert law for the case of resonant core-to-valence electronic transitions and incident transform limited x-ray pulses. Upon transmission through a solid, the resonant absorption and dichroic contrasts are found to vanish with increasing x-ray intensity, with the stimulation threshold lowered by orders of magnitude through a resonant superradiantlike effect. Our results have broad implications for the study of matter with x-ray lasers.

  5. Scattering of x rays from low-Z materials

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Gaines, J.L.; Kissel, L.D.; Catron, H.C.; Hansen, R.A.

    1980-01-01

    X rays incident on thin beryllium, boron, carbon, and other low-Z materials undergo both elastic and inelastic scattering as well as diffraction from the crystalline or crystalline-like structure of the material. Unpolarized monoenergetic x rays in the 1.5 to 8.0-keV energy range were used to determine the absolute scattering efficiency of thin beryllium, carbon, and boron foils. These measurements are compared to calculated scattering efficiencies predicted by single-atom theories. In addition, the relative scattering efficiency versus x-ray energy was measured for other low-Z foils using unpolarized bremsstrahlung x rays. In all the low-Z foils examined, we observed Bragg-like x-ray diffraction due to the ordered structure of the materials

  6. Towards attosecond X-ray pulses from the FEL

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Zholents, Alexander A.; Fawley, William M.

    2004-01-01

    The ability to study ultrafast phenomena has been recently advanced by the demonstrated production and measurement of a single, 650-attosecond (10 18 sec), VUV x-ray pulse[1] and, latter, a 250-attosecond pulse[2]. The next frontier is a production of the x-ray pulses with shorter wavelengths and in a broader spectral range. Several techniques for a generation of an isolated, attosecond duration, short-wavelength x-ray pulse based upon the ponderomotive laser acceleration [3], SASE and harmonic cascade FELs ([4] - [6]) had been already proposed. In this paper we briefly review a technique proposed in [5] and present some new results

  7. X-Ray-Scattering Measurements Of Strain In PEEK

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cebe, Peggy; Lowry, Lynn E.; Chung, Shirley Y.; Yavrouian, Andre H.; Gupta, Amitava

    1988-01-01

    Internal stress relieved by heating above glass-transition temperature. Report describes wide-angle x-ray scattering and differential scanning calorimetry of specimens of poly(etheretherketone) having undergone various thermal treatments. Wide-angle x-ray scattering particularly useful in determining distances between atoms, crystallinity, and related microstructurally generated phenomena, as thermal expansion and strain. Calorimetric measurements aid interpretation of scattering measurements by enabling correlation with thermal effects.

  8. X-ray scatter data for diagnostic radiology

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Dick, C.E.; Soares, C.G.; Motz, J.W.

    1978-01-01

    The ratio of the scattered to the total X-ray fluence (scatter fraction) at the centre of the image plane for X-rays transmitted through polystyrene phantoms has been measured for X-ray energies of 32 and 69 keV, X-ray beam diameters from 4 to 40 cm, phantom thicknesses from 5 to 30 cm and phantom-to-image-plane separations from 0.3 to 40 cm. The experimental values for this ratio have less than a 10% variation for these two X-ray energies and the experimental data show good agreement with Monte Carlo calculations and available experimental results for low atomic number materials. Based on these results, simple curves are generated which give estimates (+ - 10%) of the scatter fraction for all combinations of the geometric parameters encountered in diagnostic radiology. (author)

  9. X-ray generator based on Compton scattering

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Androsov, V.P.; Agafonov, A.V.; Botman, J.I.M.; Bulyak, E.V.; Drebot, I.; Gladkikh, P.I.; Grevtsev, V.; Ivashchenko, V.; Karnaukhov, I.M.; Lapshin, V.I.

    2005-01-01

    Nowadays, the sources of the X-rays based on a storage ring with low beam energy and Compton scattering of intense laser beam are under development in several laboratories. In the paper the state-of-art in development and construction of cooperative project of a Kharkov advanced X-ray source NESTOR

  10. Improvements in or relating to pulsed X-ray units

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Bichenkov, E.I.; Klypin, V.V.; Palchikov, E.I.

    1983-01-01

    A pulsed X-ray unit comprises a pulsed X-ray tube connected to a discharge capacitor. The discharge capacitor comprises two coaxially arranged cylinders. One cylinder of the discharge capacitor is connected to the X-ray tube and to the high-voltage end of the secondary winding of the pulsed transformer which is shaped as a truncated cone, and is arranged internally of this winding coaxially therewith. The other cylinder of the discharge capacitor is also connected to the X-ray tube and to the low-voltage end of the secondary winding of the pulsed transformer, and is arranged intermediate this winding and the primary winding of the pulsed transformer which is shaped as a hollow cylinder, and connected to the charging device. The cylinders of the discharge capacitor have ports made therein for the passage therethrough of the magnetic flux produced by the windings of the pulsed transformer. (author)

  11. X-ray scattering measurements from thin-foil x-ray mirrors

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Christensen, Finn Erland; BYRNAK, BP; Hornstrup, Allan

    1992-01-01

    Thin foil X-ray mirrors are to be used as the reflecting elements in the telescopes of the X-ray satellites Spectrum-X-Gamma (SRG) and ASTRO-D. High resolution X-ray scattering measurements from the Au coated and dip-lacquered Al foils are presented. These were obtained from SRG mirrors positioned...... in a test quadrant of the telescope structure and from ASTRO-D foils held in a simple fixture. The X-ray data is compared with laser data and other surface structure data such as STM, atomic force microscopy (AFM), TEM, and electron micrography. The data obtained at Cu K-alpha(1), (8.05 keV) from all...

  12. Kharkov X-ray Generator Based On Compton Scattering

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Shcherbakov, A.; Zelinsky, A.; Mytsykov, A.; Gladkikh, P.; Karnaukhov, I.; Lapshin, V.; Telegin, Y.; Androsov, V.; Bulyak, E.; Botman, J.I.M.; Tatchyn, R.; Lebedev, A.

    2004-01-01

    Nowadays X-ray sources based on storage rings with low beam energy and Compton scattering of intense laser beams are under development in several laboratories. An international cooperative project of an advanced X-ray source of this type at the Kharkov Institute of Physics and Technology (KIPT) is described. The status of the project is reviewed. The design lattice of the storage ring and calculated X-ray beam parameters are presented. The results of numerical simulation carried out for proposed facility show a peak spectral X-ray intensity of about 1014 can be produced

  13. Analytical Approximation of Spectrum for Pulse X-ray Tubes

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Vavilov, S; Fofanof, O; Koshkin, G; Udod, V

    2016-01-01

    Among the main characteristics of the pulsed X-ray apparatuses the spectral energy characteristics are the most important ones: the spectral distribution of the photon energy, effective and maximum energy of quanta. Knowing the spectral characteristics of the radiation of pulse sources is very important for the practical use of them in non-destructive testing. We have attempted on the analytical approximation of the pulsed X-ray apparatuses spectra obtained in the different experimental papers. The results of the analytical approximation of energy spectrum for pulse X-ray tube are presented. Obtained formulas are adequate to experimental data and can be used by designing pulsed X-ray apparatuses. (paper)

  14. Electron Dynamics by Inelastic X-Ray Scattering

    CERN Document Server

    Schülke, Winfried

    2007-01-01

    The book offers the first comprehensive review of experimental methods, theory, and successful applications of synchrotron radiation based inelastic X-ray scattering (IXS) spectroscopy, which enables the investigation of electron dynamics in condensed matter (correlated motion and excitation).

  15. LIGHT SOURCE: A simulation study of Tsinghua Thomson scattering X-ray source

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tang, Chuan-Xiang; Li, Ren-Kai; Huang, Wen-Hui; Chen, Huai-Bi; Du, Ying-Chao; Du, Qiang; Du, Tai-Bin; He, Xiao-Zhong; Hua, Jian-Fei; Lin, Yu-Zhen; Qian, Hou-Jun; Shi, Jia-Ru; Xiang, Dao; Yan, Li-Xin; Yu, Pei-Cheng

    2009-06-01

    Thomson scattering X-ray sources are compact and affordable facilities that produce short duration, high brightness X-ray pulses enabling new experimental capacities in ultra-fast science studies, and also medical and industrial applications. Such a facility has been built at the Accelerator Laboratory of Tsinghua University, and upgrade is in progress. In this paper, we present a proposed layout of the upgrade with design parameters by simulation, aiming at high X-ray pulses flux and brightness, and also enabling advanced dynamics studies and applications of the electron beam. Design and construction status of main subsystems are also presented.

  16. Multiple scattering approach to X-ray absorption spectroscopy

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Benfatto, M.; Wu Ziyu

    2003-01-01

    In this paper authors present the state of the art of the theoretical background needed for analyzing X-ray absorption spectra in the whole energy range. The multiple-scattering (MS) theory is presented in detail with some applications on real systems. Authors also describe recent progress in performing geometrical fitting of the XANES (X-ray absorption near-edge structure) energy region and beyond using a full multiple-scattering approach

  17. X-ray scattering studies of surfaces and interfaces

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Sanyal, M.K.

    1998-01-01

    Here we shall briefly review the basics and some applications of x-ray specular reflectivity and diffuse scattering techniques. These x-ray scattering techniques are uniquely suited to study of the structure of surfaces and interfaces at atomic resolutions as they are nondestructive and can probe even interfaces which are buried. The study of structure of surfaces and interfaces is not only required in understanding physics in reduced dimensions but is also essential in developing technologically important materials

  18. Sources of the X-rays Based on Compton Scattering

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Androsov, V.; Bulyak, E.; Gladkikh, P.; Karnaukhov, I.; Mytsykov, A.; Telegin, Yu.; Shcherbakov, A.; Zelinsky, A.

    2007-01-01

    The principles of the intense X-rays generation by laser beam scattering on a relativistic electron beam are described and description of facilities assigned to produce the X-rays based on Compton scattering is presented. The possibilities of various types of such facilities are estimated and discussed. The source of the X-rays based on a storage ring with low beam energy is described in details and advantages of the sources of such type are discussed.The results of calculation and numerical simulation carried out for laser electron storage ring NESTOR that is under development in NSC KIPT show wide prospects of the accelerator facility of such type

  19. Depth distribution of multiple order X-ray scatter

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Yao Weiguang; Leszczynski, Konrad

    2008-01-01

    Scatter can significantly affect quality of projectional X-ray radiographs and tomographic reconstructions. With this in mind, we examined some of the physical properties of multiple orders of scatter of X-ray photons traversing through a layer of scattering media such as water. Using Monte Carlo techniques, we investigated depth distributions of interactions between incident X-ray photons and water before the resulting scattered photons reach the detector plane. Effects of factors such as radiation field size, air gap, thickness of the layer of scattering medium and X-ray energy, on the scatter were included in the scope of this study. The following scatter characteristics were observed: (1) for a layer of scattering material corresponding to the typical subject thickness in medical imaging, frequency distribution of locations of the last scattering interaction increases approximately exponentially with depth, and the higher the order of scatter or the energy of the incident photon, the narrower is the distribution; (2) for the second order scatter, the distribution of locations of the first interaction is more uniform than that of the last interaction and is dependent on the energy of the primary photons. Theoretical proofs for some of these properties are given. These properties are important to better understanding of effects of scatter on the radiographic and tomographic imaging process and to developing effective methods for scatter correction

  20. Time dependence of X-ray polarizability of a crystal induced by an intense femtosecond X-ray pulse

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    A. Leonov

    2014-11-01

    Full Text Available The time evolution of the electron density and the resulting time dependence of Fourier components of the X-ray polarizability of a crystal irradiated by highly intense femtosecond pulses of an X-ray free-electron laser (XFEL is investigated theoretically on the basis of rate equations for bound electrons and the Boltzmann equation for the kinetics of the unbound electron gas. The photoionization, Auger process, electron-impact ionization, electron–electron scattering and three-body recombination have been implemented in the system of rate equations. An algorithm for the numerical solution of the rate equations was simplified by incorporating analytical expressions for the cross sections of all the electron configurations in ions within the framework of the effective charge model. Using this approach, the time dependence of the inner shell populations during the time of XFEL pulse propagation through the crystal was evaluated for photon energies between 4 and 12 keV and a pulse width of 40 fs considering a flux of 1012 photons pulse−1 (focusing on a spot size of ∼1 µm. This flux corresponds to a fluence ranging between 0.8 and 2.4 mJ µm−2. The time evolution of the X-ray polarizability caused by the change of the atomic scattering factor during the pulse propagation is numerically analyzed for the case of a silicon crystal. The time-integrated polarizability drops dramatically if the fluence of the X-ray pulse exceeds 1.6 mJ µm−2.

  1. X-ray scattering from periodic arrays of quantum dots

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Holy, V; Stangl, J; Lechner, R T; Springholz, G

    2008-01-01

    Three-dimensional periodic arrays of self-organized quantum dots in semiconductor multilayers are investigated by high-resolution x-ray scattering. We demonstrate that the statistical parameters of the dot array can be determined directly from the scattering data without performing a numerical simulation of the scattered intensity.

  2. Femtosecond profiling of shaped x-ray pulses

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hoffmann, M. C.; Grguraš, I.; Behrens, C.; Bostedt, C.; Bozek, J.; Bromberger, H.; Coffee, R.; Costello, J. T.; DiMauro, L. F.; Ding, Y.; Doumy, G.; Helml, W.; Ilchen, M.; Kienberger, R.; Lee, S.; Maier, A. R.; Mazza, T.; Meyer, M.; Messerschmidt, M.; Schorb, S.; Schweinberger, W.; Zhang, K.; Cavalieri, A. L.

    2018-03-01

    Arbitrary manipulation of the temporal and spectral properties of x-ray pulses at free-electron lasers would revolutionize many experimental applications. At the Linac Coherent Light Source at Stanford National Accelerator Laboratory, the momentum phase-space of the free-electron laser driving electron bunch can be tuned to emit a pair of x-ray pulses with independently variable photon energy and femtosecond delay. However, while accelerator parameters can easily be adjusted to tune the electron bunch phase-space, the final impact of these actuators on the x-ray pulse cannot be predicted with sufficient precision. Furthermore, shot-to-shot instabilities that distort the pulse shape unpredictably cannot be fully suppressed. Therefore, the ability to directly characterize the x-rays is essential to ensure precise and consistent control. In this work, we have generated x-ray pulse pairs via electron bunch shaping and characterized them on a single-shot basis with femtosecond resolution through time-resolved photoelectron streaking spectroscopy. This achievement completes an important step toward future x-ray pulse shaping techniques.

  3. X-ray Thomson Scattering from Spherically Imploded ICF Ablators

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kritcher, Andrea; Doeppner, Tilo; Landen, Otto; Glenzer, Siegfried

    2010-11-01

    Time-resolved X-ray Thomson scattering measurements from spherically imploded inertial fusion capsules-type targets have been obtained for the first time at the Omega OMEGA laser facility to characterize the in-flight properties of ICF ablators. In these experiments, the non-collective, or microscopic particle behavior, of imploding CH and Be shells, was probed using a 9 keV Zn He-alpha x-ray source at scattering angles of 113^o and 135^o. for two drive pulse shapes.As an example, the analysis of In-flight scattering measurements from one set of directly-driven compressed 8600 μm-diameter, 40-μm thick Be shells taken (4.2 ns after the start of the compression beamswhen compressed a factor of 4.83x) yielded electron densities of ˜ 1.2±0.23x10^24cm-3, temperatures of ˜13±32 eV, and an ionization state of Be(+2), with uncertainties in the temperature and density of about 40% and 20%. These conditions resulting in an inferred adiabat (ratio of plasma pressure to Fermi degenerate pressure) of 1.797 +0.3/-.5 with an error of about 30%. The high signal-to-noise and high signal-to-background ratio of data obtained in these experiments provides a platform for studying the adiabat of other indirect-drive ICF ablators such as CH and High Density Carbon (HDC) ablators and demonstrates the viability of using this diagnostic to study the in-flight properties adiabat of implosion targets at the National Ignition Facility (NIF).

  4. Workshop report on new directions in x-ray scattering

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Brown, G.; Del Grande, N.K.; Fuoss, P.; Mallett, J.H.; Pratt, R.; Templeton, D.

    1987-01-01

    This report is a summary of the Workshop on New Directions in X-Ray Scattering held at the Asilomar Conference Center, Pacific Grove, California, April 2-5, 1985. The report primarily consists of the edited transcript of the final review session of the workshop, in which members of a panel summarized the proceedings. It is clear that we are close to achieving an accurate theory of scattering in independent particle approximation, but for edge regions, there is need to go beyond this approach. Much of what is experimentally interesting in scattering is occurring between the photoabsorption edge and the photoelectric threshold. Applications in condensed matter and biological and chemical material studies are expanding, exploiting higher intensity sources and faster time resolution as in magnetic scattering and surface studies. Storage rings are now conventional sources, and new high-intensity beam lines are under development; the free electron laser is one of the more speculative sources. Recent work in x-ray scattering has led to advances in x-ray optics, and conversely, advances in x-ray optics have benefitted our understanding of x-ray scattering

  5. Resonance magnetic x-ray scattering study of erbium

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Sanyal, M.K.; Gibbs, D.; Bohr, J.

    1994-01-01

    The magnetic phases of erbium have been studied by resonance x-ray-scattering techniques. When the incident x-ray energy is tuned near the L(III) absorption edge, large resonant enhancements of the magnetic scattering are observed above 18 K. We have measured the energy and polarization dependence...... of this magnetic scattering and analyzed it using a simple model based on electric dipole and quadrupole transitions among atomic orbitals. The line shapes can be fitted to a magnetic structure combining both c-axis-modulated and basal-plane components. Below 18 K, we have observed unusual behavior of the magnetic...

  6. X-ray pulse wavefront metrology using speckle tracking

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Berujon, Sebastien; Ziegler, Eric; Cloetens, Peter

    2015-01-01

    The theoretical description and experimental implementation of a speckle-tracking-based instrument which permits the characterisation of X-ray pulse wavefronts. An instrument allowing the quantitative analysis of X-ray pulsed wavefronts is presented and its processing method explained. The system relies on the X-ray speckle tracking principle to accurately measure the phase gradient of the X-ray beam from which beam optical aberrations can be deduced. The key component of this instrument, a semi-transparent scintillator emitting visible light while transmitting X-rays, allows simultaneous recording of two speckle images at two different propagation distances from the X-ray source. The speckle tracking procedure for a reference-less metrology mode is described with a detailed account on the advanced processing schemes used. A method to characterize and compensate for the imaging detector distortion, whose principle is also based on speckle, is included. The presented instrument is expected to find interest at synchrotrons and at the new X-ray free-electron laser sources under development worldwide where successful exploitation of beams relies on the availability of an accurate wavefront metrology

  7. Resonant diffuse X-ray scattering from magnetic multilayers

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Spezzani, Carlo; Torelli, Piero; Delaunay, Renaud; Hague, C.F.; Petroff, Frederic; Scholl, Andreas; Gullikson, E.M.; Sacchi, Maurizio

    2004-01-01

    We have measured field-dependent resonant diffuse scattering from a magnetoresistive Co/Cu multilayer. We have observed that the magnetic domain size in zero field depends on the magnetic history of the sample. The results of the X-ray scattering analysis have been compared to PEEM images of the magnetic domains

  8. Small angle X-ray scattering from hydrating tricalcium silicate

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Vollet, D.

    1983-01-01

    The small-angle X-ray scattering technique was used to study the structural evolution of hydrated tricalcium silicate at room temperature. The changes in specific area of the associated porosity and the evolution of density fluctuations in the solid hydrated phase were deduced from the scattering data. A correlation of these variations with the hydration mechanism is tried. (Author) [pt

  9. Single shot diffraction of picosecond 8.7-keV x-ray pulses

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    F. H. O’Shea

    2012-02-01

    Full Text Available We demonstrate multiphoton, single shot diffraction images of x rays produced by inverse Compton scattering a high-power CO_{2} laser from a relativistic electron beam, creating a pulse of 8.7 keV x rays. The tightly focused, relatively high peak brightness electron beam and high photon density from the 2 J CO_{2} laser yielded 6×10^{7} x-ray photons over the full opening angle in a single shot. Single shot x-ray diffraction is performed by passing the x rays though a vertical slit and on to a flat silicon (111 crystal. 10^{2} diffracted photons were detected. The spectrum of the detected x rays is compared to simulation. The diffraction and detection of 10^{2} x rays is a key step to a more efficient time resolved diagnostic in which the number of observed x rays might reach 10^{4}; enabling a unique, flexible x-ray source as a sub-ps resolution diagnostic for studying the evolution of chemical reactions, lattice deformation and melting, and magnetism.

  10. X-ray scattering signatures of β-thalassemia

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Desouky, Omar S.; Elshemey, Wael M.; Selim, Nabila S.

    2009-01-01

    X-ray scattering from lyophilized proteins or protein-rich samples is characterized by the presence of two characteristic broad peaks at scattering angles equivalent to momentum transfer values of 0.27 and 0.6 nm -1 , respectively. These peaks arise from the interference of coherently scattered photons. Once the conformation of a protein is changed, these two peaks reflect such change with considerable sensitivity. The present work examines the possibility of characterizing the most common cause of hemolytic anaemia in Egypt and many Mediterranean countries; β-thalassemia, from its X-ray scattering profile. This disease emerges from a genetic defect causing reduced rate in the synthesis of one of the globin chains that make up hemoglobin. As a result, structurally abnormal hemoglobin molecules are formed. In order to detect such molecular disorder, hemoglobin samples of β-thalassemia patients are collected, lyophilized and measured using a conventional X-ray diffractometer. Results show significant differences in the X-ray scattering profiles of most of the diseased samples compared to control. The shape of the first scattering peak at 0.27 nm -1 , in addition to the relative intensity of the first to the second scattering peaks, provides the most reliable signs of abnormality in diseased samples. The results are interpreted and confirmed with the aid of Fourier Transform Infrared (FTIR) spectroscopy of normal and thalassemia samples.

  11. X-ray scattering signatures of β-thalassemia

    Science.gov (United States)

    Desouky, Omar S.; Elshemey, Wael M.; Selim, Nabila S.

    2009-08-01

    X-ray scattering from lyophilized proteins or protein-rich samples is characterized by the presence of two characteristic broad peaks at scattering angles equivalent to momentum transfer values of 0.27 and 0.6 nm -1, respectively. These peaks arise from the interference of coherently scattered photons. Once the conformation of a protein is changed, these two peaks reflect such change with considerable sensitivity. The present work examines the possibility of characterizing the most common cause of hemolytic anaemia in Egypt and many Mediterranean countries; β-thalassemia, from its X-ray scattering profile. This disease emerges from a genetic defect causing reduced rate in the synthesis of one of the globin chains that make up hemoglobin. As a result, structurally abnormal hemoglobin molecules are formed. In order to detect such molecular disorder, hemoglobin samples of β-thalassemia patients are collected, lyophilized and measured using a conventional X-ray diffractometer. Results show significant differences in the X-ray scattering profiles of most of the diseased samples compared to control. The shape of the first scattering peak at 0.27 nm -1, in addition to the relative intensity of the first to the second scattering peaks, provides the most reliable signs of abnormality in diseased samples. The results are interpreted and confirmed with the aid of Fourier Transform Infrared (FTIR) spectroscopy of normal and thalassemia samples.

  12. X-ray scattering signatures of {beta}-thalassemia

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Desouky, Omar S. [Radiation Physics Department, National Center for Radiation Research and Technology (NCRRT) (Egypt); Elshemey, Wael M. [Biophysics Department, Faculty of Science, Cairo University (Egypt)], E-mail: waelelshemey@yahoo.com; Selim, Nabila S. [Radiation Physics Department, National Center for Radiation Research and Technology (NCRRT) (Egypt)

    2009-08-11

    X-ray scattering from lyophilized proteins or protein-rich samples is characterized by the presence of two characteristic broad peaks at scattering angles equivalent to momentum transfer values of 0.27 and 0.6 nm{sup -1}, respectively. These peaks arise from the interference of coherently scattered photons. Once the conformation of a protein is changed, these two peaks reflect such change with considerable sensitivity. The present work examines the possibility of characterizing the most common cause of hemolytic anaemia in Egypt and many Mediterranean countries; {beta}-thalassemia, from its X-ray scattering profile. This disease emerges from a genetic defect causing reduced rate in the synthesis of one of the globin chains that make up hemoglobin. As a result, structurally abnormal hemoglobin molecules are formed. In order to detect such molecular disorder, hemoglobin samples of {beta}-thalassemia patients are collected, lyophilized and measured using a conventional X-ray diffractometer. Results show significant differences in the X-ray scattering profiles of most of the diseased samples compared to control. The shape of the first scattering peak at 0.27 nm{sup -1}, in addition to the relative intensity of the first to the second scattering peaks, provides the most reliable signs of abnormality in diseased samples. The results are interpreted and confirmed with the aid of Fourier Transform Infrared (FTIR) spectroscopy of normal and thalassemia samples.

  13. Radio search for pulsed emission from X-ray pulsars

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    delli Santi, F S; Delpino, F [Bologna Univ. (Italy). Ist. di Astronomia; Inzani, P; Sironi, G [Consiglio Nazionale delle Ricerche, Milan (Italy). Lab. di Fisica Cosmica e Tecnologie Relative; Mandolesi, N; Morigi, G [Consiglio Nazionale delle Ricerche, Bologna (Italy). Lab. TESRE

    1981-05-01

    An experiment has been performed at 325 MHz, with a 10 m tracking dish, for the search of pulsed radio emission associated with X-ray pulsars. No evidence of radio pulses has been found in the four sources investigated, although the radio pulsar PSR 0329 + 54, used a testing object, has been detected successfully.

  14. X-ray holography with an atomic scatterer

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Mityureva, A.A.; Smirnov, V.V., E-mail: valery_smirnov@mail.ru

    2016-08-15

    X-ray holography scheme with reference scatterer consisting of heavy atom as reference center and its link to an object consisting of several light atoms and using controlled variation of the alignment is represented. The scheme can reproduce an object in three dimensions with atomic resolution. The distorting factors of reconstruction are considered. - Highlights: • X-ray holography scheme with a reference wave formed by atomic scatterer. • 3D object reconstruction with atomic resolution from the set of holograms. • Simple formula for the distorting factor in reconstruction.

  15. Preliminary Examination of X-ray Scattering from Human Tissues

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Desouky, O.S.; Wilkinson, S.; Hall, C.; Rogers, K.; Round, A.

    2008-01-01

    Small Angle x-ray scattering (SAXS) and wide angle x-ray scattering (WAXS) patterns have been recorded from different human soft tissues using x-ray synchrotron radiation.Pathological breast, normal kidney and lung tissues show SAXS peaks at q-values equal to 0.291 nm -1 and 0.481 nm -1 (d 21.6 nm and d =13. nm) which are the 3 r d and 5 t h order of the well known axial D-spacing of collagen fibrils. The diffraction is particularly intense in the meridional direction indicating some febrile alignment. In contrast, the normal tissue of brain, liver and heart shows diffuse scatter.The wide-angle coherent scattering from normal human tissues of brain, liver, heart, lung, and kidney is typical of that for amorphous materials. The scatter of the healthy adipose breast tissue shows a sharp peak at momentum transfer 1.24 nm -1 (d= 0.417 nm). The data of the other tissues appears to consist of a broad scattering peak. The two scattering regimes succeed in differentiating between the two major components of breast tissue, collagen and adipose tissue. The results of this study suggest that the soft tissues may have scattering patterns that are characteristics for the particular tissue types and tissue disease state. These results indicate that it may be possible use the coherent scattering as a diagnostic tool

  16. Techniques for synchronization of X-Ray pulses to the pump laser in an ultrafast X-Ray facility

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Corlett, J.N.; Doolittle, L.; Schoenlein, R.; Staples, J.; Wilcox, R.; Zholents, A.

    2003-01-01

    Accurate timing of ultrafast x-ray probe pulses emitted from a synchrotron radiation source with respect to the signal initiating a process in the sample under study is critical for the investigation of structural dynamics in the femtosecond regime. We describe schemes for achieving accurate timing of femtosecond x-ray synchrotron radiation pulses relative to a pump laser, where x-rays pulses of <100 fs duration are generated from the proposed LUX source based on a recirculating superconducting linac. We present a description of the timing signal generation and distribution systems to minimize timing jitter of the x-rays relative to the experimental lasers

  17. A kilohertz picosecond x-ray pulse generation scheme

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Guo, W.; Borland, M.; Harkay, K. C.; Wang, C.-X.; Yang, B.

    2007-01-01

    The duration of the x-ray pulse generated at a synchrotron light source is typically tens of picoseconds. Shorter pulses are highly desired by the users. In electron storage rings, the vertical beam size is usually orders of magnitude less than the bunch length due to radiation damping; therefore, a shorter pulse can be obtained by slitting the vertically tilted bunch. Zholents proposed tilting the bunch using rf deflection. We found that tilted bunches can also be generated by a dipole magnet kick. A vertical tilt is developed after the kick in the presence of nonzero chromaticity. The tilt was successfully observed and a 4.2-ps pulse was obtained from a 27-ps electron bunch at the Advanced Photon Source. Based on this principle we propose a short-pulse generation scheme that produces picosecond x-ray pulses at a repetition rate of 1 utilde2 kHz, which can be used for pump-probe experiments

  18. Inelastic X-ray scattering activities in Europe

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Dorner, B.

    1984-01-01

    Inelastic X-ray scattering requires an energy determination before and after the scattering process together with a technique to vary at least one energy continuously in a controlled way. Sufficiently monochromatic beams can only be produced by Bragg reflection from single crystals. Stationary X-ray monochromators are standard equipment of conventional X-ray generators to select a particular characteristic line. Quite often they are curved to focus on the sample or the detector. Devices with variable Bragg angle have been and are used as analyzers in Compton scattering which is inelastic X-ray scattering with moderate resolution. With the rapidly increasing availability of synchrotron radiation (SR) monochromators and analyzers became more and more sophisticated improving momentum (Q) resolution and only somewhat the energy resolution ΔE which stays in the order of eV. Very high energy resolution can only be obtained with Bragg angles Theta near to 90 0 . This field is the topic of the present paper

  19. Basic X-ray scattering for soft matter

    CERN Document Server

    De Jeu, Wim H

    2016-01-01

    X-ray scattering is a well-established technique in materials science. Several excellent textbooks exist in the field, typically written by physicists who use mathematics to make things clear. Often these books do not reach students and scientists in the field of soft matter (polymers, liquid crystals, colloids, and self-assembled organic systems), who usually have a chemical-oriented background with limited mathematics. Moreover, often these people like to know more about x-ray scattering as a technique to be used, but do not necessarily intend to become an expert. This volume is unique in trying to accommodate both points. The aim of the book is to explain basic principles and applications of x-ray scattering in a simple way. The intention is a paperback of limited size that people will like to have on hand rather than on a shelf. Second, it includes a large variety of examples of x-ray scattering of soft matter with, at the end of each chapter, a more elaborate case study. Third, the book contains a separa...

  20. Small angle X-ray scattering from protein in solution

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Souza, C.F. de; Torriani, I.L.

    1988-01-01

    In this work we report experiments performed with giant respiratory proteins from annelids. X-ray scattering data were obtained both by the use of conventional rotating anod source and synchotron radiation. Data from solutions with several protein concentrations were analyzed. (A.C.A.S.) [pt

  1. X-ray scattering from surfaces of organic crystals

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Gidalevitz, D.; Feidenhans'l, R.; Smilgies, D.-M.

    1997-01-01

    X-ray scattering experiments have been performed on the surfaces of organic crystals. The (010) cleavage planes of beta-alanine and alpha-glycine were investigated, and both specular and off-specular crystal truncation rods were measured. This allowed a determination of the molecular layering...

  2. Diffuse X-Ray Scattering from Several Platinum Chain Compounds

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Braude, A.; Lindegaard-Andersen, Asger; Carneiro, K.

    1980-01-01

    Values of the Fermi wavevector for several platinum based one-dimensional conductors were determined from diffuse X-ray scattering measurements. The values were compared with those expected from the chemical compositions. The importance of conclusive values of this parameter is stressed and the c...

  3. Defect properties from X-ray scattering experiments

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Peisl, H.

    1976-01-01

    Lattice distortions due to defects in crystals can be studied most directly by elastic X-ray or neutron scattering experiments. The 'size' of the defects can be determined from the shift of the Bragg reflections. Defect induced diffuse scattering intensity close to and between Bragg reflections gives information on the strength and symmetry of the distortion fields and yields the atomic structure of point defects (interstitials, vacancies, small aggregates). Diffuse scattering is a very sensitive method to decide whether defects are present as isolated point defects or have formed aggregates. X-ray scattering has been used to study defects produced in various ionic crystals by γ- and neutron irradiation. After an introduction to the principles of the method the experimental results will be reviewed and discussed in some detail. (orig.) [de

  4. A photodiode amplifier system for pulse-by-pulse intensity measurement of an x-ray free electron laser.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kudo, Togo; Tono, Kensuke; Yabashi, Makina; Togashi, Tadashi; Sato, Takahiro; Inubushi, Yuichi; Omodani, Motohiko; Kirihara, Yoichi; Matsushita, Tomohiro; Kobayashi, Kazuo; Yamaga, Mitsuhiro; Uchiyama, Sadayuki; Hatsui, Takaki

    2012-04-01

    We have developed a single-shot intensity-measurement system using a silicon positive-intrinsic-negative (PIN) photodiode for x-ray pulses from an x-ray free electron laser. A wide dynamic range (10(3)-10(11) photons/pulse) and long distance signal transmission (>100 m) were required for this measurement system. For this purpose, we developed charge-sensitive and shaping amplifiers, which can process charge pulses with a wide dynamic range and variable durations (ns-μs) and charge levels (pC-μC). Output signals from the amplifiers were transmitted to a data acquisition system through a long cable in the form of a differential signal. The x-ray pulse intensities were calculated from the peak values of the signals by a waveform fitting procedure. This system can measure 10(3)-10(9) photons/pulse of ~10 keV x-rays by direct irradiation of a silicon PIN photodiode, and from 10(7)-10(11) photons/pulse by detecting the x-rays scattered by a diamond film using the silicon PIN photodiode. This system gives a relative accuracy of ~10(-3) with a proper gain setting of the amplifiers for each measurement. Using this system, we succeeded in detecting weak light at the developmental phase of the light source, as well as intense light during lasing of the x-ray free electron laser. © 2012 American Institute of Physics

  5. Determination of X-ray anomalous scattering in silicon

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Cusatis, C.

    1987-01-01

    The linear attenuation coeficient for X-ray in silicon was measured with approximately 0,1% accuracy, for 6 diferent wavelenghts of caracteristic radiation. From these result the imaginary parts of the atomic scattering factors, for silicon and for those wavelenghts, were obtained with the same accuracy. The results are compared with the most recent published values. The proposed method to avoid Rayleigh scattering can be used for any type of ''perfect'' crystal. (author) [pt

  6. Small-angle X-ray scattering of solutions

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Koch, M.H.J.; Stuhrmann, H.B.; Vachette, P.; Tardieu, A.

    1982-01-01

    The use of synchrotron radiation in small-angle X-ray scattering (SAXS) techniques in biological structural studies is described. The main features of the monochromatic radiation systems and the white radiation systems are considered. The detectors, data acquisition and experimental procedures are briefly described. Experimental results are presented for 1) measurements on dilute solutions and weak scatterers, 2) measurement of conformational transitions, 3) contrast variation experiments, 4) time-resolved measurements and 5) complex contrast variation. (U.K.)

  7. Temporal characteristic analysis of laser-modulated pulsed X-ray source for space X-ray communication

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hang, Shuang; Liu, Yunpeng; Li, Huan; Tang, Xiaobin; Chen, Da

    2018-04-01

    X-ray communication (XCOM) is a new communication type and is expected to realize high-speed data transmission in some special communication scenarios, such as deep space communication and blackout communication. This study proposes a high-speed modulated X-ray source scheme based on the laser-to-X-ray conversion. The temporal characteristics of the essential components of the proposed laser-modulated pulsed X-ray source (LMPXS) were analyzed to evaluate its pulse emission performance. Results show that the LMPXS can provide a maximum modulation rate up to 100 Mbps which is expected to significantly improve the data rate of XCOM.

  8. Development of general X-ray scattering model

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Gray, Joe; Wendt, Scott

    2015-01-01

    X-ray scattering is a complex process made difficult to describe due to the effects of a complex energy spectrum interacting with a wide range of material types in complex geometry. The scattering is further complicated by the volume of material illuminated and the experimental configuration of the data acquisition. The importance of accounting for the key physics in scattering modeling is critical to the viability of the model. For example, scattering in the detector and the speed of the detector, as measured by the absorbed dose needed to produce a signal, are important in capturing undercut effects. Another example is the noise properties of the detectors are dependent on photon energy. We report on a semi-empirical treatment of x-ray scattering that includes a full energy treatment for a wide range of material types. We also include complex geometry effects that the part shape introduces. The treatment is based on experimental measurements using an energy dispersive germanium detector over energies from treatment is showing good results with experimental measurements of the scattering component agreeing with the model results to the 10% level over the range of x-ray energies and materials typical in industrial applications. Computation times for this model are in the 20 keV to 320 keV. Detector stripping routines for detector artifacts were developed. The computation time is in the range of a few minutes on a typical PC

  9. Crystal defect studies using x-ray diffuse scattering

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Larson, B.C.

    1980-01-01

    Microscopic lattice defects such as point (single atom) defects, dislocation loops, and solute precipitates are characterized by local electronic density changes at the defect sites and by distortions of the lattice structure surrounding the defects. The effect of these interruptions of the crystal lattice on the scattering of x-rays is considered in this paper, and examples are presented of the use of the diffuse scattering to study the defects. X-ray studies of self-interstitials in electron irradiated aluminum and copper are discussed in terms of the identification of the interstitial configuration. Methods for detecting the onset of point defect aggregation into dislocation loops are considered and new techniques for the determination of separate size distributions for vacancy loops and interstitial loops are presented. Direct comparisons of dislocation loop measurements by x-rays with existing electron microscopy studies of dislocation loops indicate agreement for larger size loops, but x-ray measurements report higher concentrations in the smaller loop range. Methods for distinguishing between loops and three-dimensional precipitates are discussed and possibilities for detailed studies considered. A comparison of dislocation loop size distributions obtained from integral diffuse scattering measurements with those from TEM show a discrepancy in the smaller sizes similar to that described above

  10. Crystal defect studies using x-ray diffuse scattering

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Larson, B.C.

    1980-01-01

    Microscopic lattice defects such as point (single atom) defects, dislocation loops, and solute precipitates are characterized by local electronic density changes at the defect sites and by distortions of the lattice structure surrounding the defects. The effect of these interruptions of the crystal lattice on the scattering of x-rays is considered in this paper, and examples are presented of the use of the diffuse scattering to study the defects. X-ray studies of self-interstitials in electron irradiated aluminum and copper are discussed in terms of the identification of the interstitial configuration. Methods for detecting the onset of point defect aggregation into dislocation loops are considered and new techniques for the determination of separate size distributions for vacancy loops and interstitial loops are presented. Direct comparisons of dislocation loop measurements by x-rays with existing electron microscopy studies of dislocation loops indicate agreement for larger size loops, but x-ray measurements report higher concentrations in the smaller loop range. Methods for distinguishing between loops and three-dimensional precipitates are discussed and possibilities for detailed studies considered. A comparison of dislocation loop size distributions obtained from integral diffuse scattering measurements with those from TEM show a discrepancy in the smaller sizes similar to that described above.

  11. Theory of inelastic scattering and absorption of X-rays

    CERN Document Server

    Veenendaal, Michel van

    2015-01-01

    This comprehensive, self-contained guide to X-ray spectroscopy will equip you with everything you need to begin extracting the maximum amount of information available from X-ray spectra. Key topics such as the interaction between X-rays and matter, the basic theory of spectroscopy, and selection and sum rules, are introduced from the ground up, providing a solid theoretical grounding. The book also introduces core underlying concepts such as atomic structure, solid-state effects, the fundamentals of tensor algebra and group theory, many-body interactions, scattering theory, and response functions, placing spectroscopy within a broader conceptual framework, and encouraging a deep understanding of this essential theoretical background. Suitable for graduate students, researchers, materials scientists and optical engineers, this is the definitive guide to the theory behind this powerful and widely used technique.

  12. X-ray scatter signatures for enhanced breast imaging

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Kidane, Ghirmay; Speller, Robert; Royle, Gary [Medical Physics and Bioengineering Department, University College Landon, 11-20 Capper Street, London WC1E 6JA (United Kingdom)

    1999-12-31

    Conventional mammographic imaging suffers from a low specificity. The main cause is the small difference in the x-ray attenuation properties of healthy and diseased tissue leading to poor contrast in the image. It has been observed that additional information on breast tissue type can be obtained from x-ray diffraction effects. A study of excised normal and neoplastic breast tissue samples using x-ray diffraction apparatus has been observed that significant differences exist in the measured spectra between carcinoma and healthy tissue adjacent to the carcinoma. Such a difference allows tissue type to be characterised according to is diseased state. Furthermore the information can be applied to improve diagnosis. It is proposed that collection and analysis of the scattered x-rays present during a mammographic procedure can supply the additional information and be used to improve the image contrast. The ultimate aim of the project is to improve the specificity of x-ray mammography. (authors) 10 refs., 3 figs.

  13. Scattering of x-ray from crystal surfaces

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Andrews, S.R.; Cowley, R.A.

    1985-01-01

    X-ray measurements performed on a variety of materials demonstrate that it is possible to observe diffuse scattering that originates in the abrupt change of density at a crystal surface. Such a discontinuity gives rise, in general, to rods of scattering in reciprocal space which are most intense close to the Bragg peaks tau and are well defined for sufficiently smooth surfaces. For wave-vector transfer Q=tau+q the q-dependence of the intensity of scattering gives information on the topographic structure of the crystal surface. Experimental results on crystals of GaAs and KTaO 3 , with surfaces prepared in various ways, were obtained using conventional x-ray techniques with a rotating anode source and can be described by a continuum model of the surface. There are discrepancies between the predictions of the models and the experimental results and the suggest that further experiments are needed to achieve a more complete understanding. (author)

  14. X-ray scattering at liquid surfaces and interfaces

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Daillant, Jean

    2000-01-01

    X-ray and neutron reflectivity techniques have become quite popular for the analysis of surfaces and interfaces over the last ten years. In this review, we discuss the specific aspects of both specular and diffuse x-ray reflectivity at liquid interfaces. We start from a model liquid surface for which the scattering cross-section can be calculated in terms of thermally excited capillary and acoustic waves, and we examine in detail the experimental consequences of the large bulk scattering and of the low q divergence of the surface scattering. Deviations from the simple calculated behaviour point to interesting phenomena which can be studied in detail, like the appearance of a bending stiffness. The method is illustrated through the discussion of representative studies of liquid surfaces, of surfactant monolayers, of liquid-liquid interfaces and of microemulsions. (author)

  15. X-ray scattering in X-ray fluorescence spectra with X-ray tube excitation - Modelling, experiment, and Monte-Carlo simulation

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Hodoroaba, V.-D.; Radtke, M.; Vincze, L.; Rackwitz, V.; Reuter, D.

    2010-01-01

    X-ray scattering may contribute significantly to the spectral background of X-ray fluorescence (XRF) spectra. Based on metrological measurements carried out with a scanning electron microscope (SEM) having attached a well characterised X-ray source (polychromatic X-ray tube) and a calibrated energy dispersive X-ray spectrometer (EDS) the accuracy of a physical model for X-ray scattering is systematically evaluated for representative samples. The knowledge of the X-ray spectrometer efficiency, but also of the spectrometer response functions makes it possible to define a physical spectral background of XRF spectra. Background subtraction relying on purely mathematical procedures is state-of-the-art. The results produced by the analytical model are at least as reliable as those obtained by Monte-Carlo simulations, even without considering the very challenging contribution of multiple scattering. Special attention has been paid to Compton broadening. Relevant applications of the implementation of the analytical model presented in this paper are the prediction of the limits of detection for particular cases or the determination of the transmission of X-ray polycapillary lenses.

  16. Erratum: Creation of X-Ray Transparency of Matter by Stimulated Elastic Forward Scattering [Phys. Rev. Lett. 115 , 107402 (2015)

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Stöhr, J.; Scherz, A.

    2016-01-06

    X-ray absorption by matter has long been described by the famous Beer-Lambert law. Here we show how this fundamental law needs to be modified for high-intensity coherent x-ray pulses, now available at x-ray free electron lasers, due to the onset of stimulated elastic forward scattering. We present an analytical expression for the modified polarization-dependent Beer-Lambert law for the case of resonant core-to-valence electronic transitions and incident transform limited x-ray pulses. Upon transmission through a solid, the absorption and dichroic contrasts are found to vanish with increasing x-ray intensity, with the stimulation threshold lowered by orders of magnitude through a super-radiative coherent effect. Our results have broad implications for the study of matter with x-ray lasers.

  17. Resonant magnetic scattering of polarized soft x rays

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Sacchi, M. [Centre Universitaire Paris-Sud, Orsay (France); Hague, C.F. [Universite Pierre et Marie Curie, Paris (France); Gullikson, E.M.; Underwood, J. [Ernest Orlando Lawrence Berkeley National Lab., CA (United States)

    1997-04-01

    Magnetic effects on X-ray scattering (Bragg diffraction, specular reflectivity or diffuse scattering) are a well known phenomenon, and they also represent a powerful tool for investigating magnetic materials since it was shown that they are strongly enhanced when the photon energy is tuned across an absorption edge (resonant process). The resonant enhancement of the magnetic scattering has mainly been investigated at high photon energies, in order to match the Bragg law for the typical lattice spacings of crystals. In the soft X-ray range, even larger effects are expected, working for instance at the 2p edges of transition metals of the first row or at the 3d edges of rare earths (300-1500 eV), but the corresponding long wavelengths prevent the use of single crystals. Two approaches have been recently adopted in this energy range: (i) the study of the Bragg diffraction from artificial structures of appropriate 2d spacing; (ii) the analysis of the specular reflectivity, which contains analogous information but has no constraints related to the lattice spacing. Both approaches have their own specific advantages: for instance, working under Bragg conditions provides information about the (magnetic) periodicity in ordered structures, while resonant reflectivity can easily be related to electronic properties and absorption spectra. An important aspect common to all the resonant X-ray scattering techniques is the element selectivity inherent to the fact of working at a specific absorption edge: under these conditions, X-ray scattering becomes in fact a spectroscopy. Results are presented for films of iron and cobalt.

  18. Small angle x-ray scattering from proteins in solution

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    de Souza, C.F.; Torriani, I.L.; Bonafe, C.F.S.; Merrelles, N.C.; Vachette, P.

    1989-01-01

    In this work the authors report experiments performed with giant respiratory proteins from annelids (erythrocruorins), known to have a molecular weight in the order of four million Daltons. Preliminary x-ray scattering data was obtained using a conventional rotating anode source. High resolution small angle scattering curves were obtained with synchrotron radiation from the DCI storage ring at LURE. Data from solutions with several protein concentrations were analyzed in order to determine low resolution dimensional parameters, using Guinier plots from the smeared scattering curves and the inverse transformation method

  19. Imaging Molecular Motion: Femtosecond X-Ray Scattering of an Electrocyclic Chemical Reaction

    Science.gov (United States)

    Minitti, M. P.; Budarz, J. M.; Kirrander, A.; Robinson, J. S.; Ratner, D.; Lane, T. J.; Zhu, D.; Glownia, J. M.; Kozina, M.; Lemke, H. T.; Sikorski, M.; Feng, Y.; Nelson, S.; Saita, K.; Stankus, B.; Northey, T.; Hastings, J. B.; Weber, P. M.

    2015-06-01

    Structural rearrangements within single molecules occur on ultrafast time scales. Many aspects of molecular dynamics, such as the energy flow through excited states, have been studied using spectroscopic techniques, yet the goal to watch molecules evolve their geometrical structure in real time remains challenging. By mapping nuclear motions using femtosecond x-ray pulses, we have created real-space representations of the evolving dynamics during a well-known chemical reaction and show a series of time-sorted structural snapshots produced by ultrafast time-resolved hard x-ray scattering. A computational analysis optimally matches the series of scattering patterns produced by the x rays to a multitude of potential reaction paths. In so doing, we have made a critical step toward the goal of viewing chemical reactions on femtosecond time scales, opening a new direction in studies of ultrafast chemical reactions in the gas phase.

  20. Diffuse scattering of neutrons and X-rays

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Novion, C.H. de

    1978-01-01

    Diffuse scattering is used to study defect concentrations of about 10 -4 in the case of X-rays and 10 -3 in the case of neutrons. The foundations of diffuse scattering formalism are given, some experimental devices described and a few applications discussed: study by diffraction on powders of defects in CeOsub(2-x); short-range order study by X-rays on Cusub(0.75) Ausub(0.25); short-range order study by neutrons on Cusub(0.435)Nisub(0.565); short-range order study by electrons TiOx; study of irradiation-induced self-interstitials in Al; study of holes created by neutrons in Al [fr

  1. Soft X-ray resonant scattering from magnetic heterostructures

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Grabis, J.

    2005-01-01

    Heterogenous magnetic multilayers are of great interest both because of their relevance for technological applications and since they provide model systems to understand magnetic behavior and interactions. Soft x-ray resonant magnetic scattering (XRMS) allows to determine element-specific and depth-resolving information of the local magnetic order of such systems. Within the framework of the present thesis the diffractometer ALICE for soft XRMS has been constructed. XRMS measurements of two different physical systems are presented in this thesis: The antiferromagnetic and ferromagnetic order in interlayer exchange-coupled Fe/Cr(001) superlattices are studied as a function of the applied field by measuring the reflected intensity at different positions in reciprocal space. Thin films and multilayers of the Heusler compound Co 2 MnGe are studied by means of soft x-ray absorption spectroscopy, magnetic circular dichroism and resonant magnetic scattering

  2. Revealing inner shell dynamics with inelastic X-ray scattering

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Franck, C.

    1990-01-01

    One of the many opportunities provided by the Advanced Photon Source (APS) is to extend the study of intra-atomic dynamics. As a means of testing dynamic response, inelastic x-ray scattering is particularly promising since it allows us to independently vary the period of the exciting field in both space and time. As an example of this type of work, the author presents experiments performed at the Cornell High Energy Synchrotron Source (CHESS) laboratory, a prototype for the APS. This was inner shell inelastic scattering with a twist: in order to explore a new distance scale an x-ray fluorescence trigger was employed. Aside for the atomic insight gained, the experiment taught them the importance of the time structure of the synchrotron beam for coincidence experiments which are dominated by accidental events

  3. X-ray generation by femtosecond laser pulses and its application to soft X-ray imaging microscope

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Ikeda, Kenichi; Kotaki, Hideyuki; Nakajima, Kazuhisa

    2002-01-01

    We have developed laser-produced plasma X-ray sources using femtosecond laser pulses at 10Hz repetition rate in a table-top size in order to investigate basic mechanism of X-ray emission from laser-matter interactions and its application to a X-ray microscope. In a soft X-ray region over 5 nm wavelength, laser-plasma X-ray emission from a solid target achieved an intense flux of photons of the order of 1011 photons/rad per pulse with duration of a few 100 ps, which is intense enough to make a clear imaging in a short time exposure. As an application of laser-produced plasma X-ray source, we have developed a soft X-ray imaging microscope operating in the wavelength range around 14 nm. The microscope consists of a cylindrically ellipsoidal condenser mirror and a Schwarzshird objective mirror with highly-reflective multilayers. We report preliminary results of performance tests of the soft X-ray imaging microscope with a compact laser-produced plasma X-ray source

  4. X-ray diffuse scattering holography of a centrosymmetric sample

    Czech Academy of Sciences Publication Activity Database

    Kopecký, Miloš; Fábry, Jan; Kub, Jiří; Bussetto, E.; Lausi, A.

    2005-01-01

    Roč. 87, č. 23 (2005), 231914/1-231914/3 ISSN 0003-6951 R&D Projects: GA AV ČR IAA100100529 Grant - others:EU(XE) HPRI-CT-1999-00033 Institutional research plan: CEZ:AV0Z10100520 Keywords : x-ray holography * diffuse scattering Subject RIV: BM - Solid Matter Physics ; Magnetism Impact factor: 4.127, year: 2005

  5. Synchronization of x-ray pulses to the pump laser in an ultrafast x-ray facility

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Corlett, J.N.; Barry, W.; Byrd, J.M.; Schoenlein, R.; Zholents, A.

    2002-01-01

    Accurate timing of ultrafast x-ray probe pulses emitted from a synchrotron radiation source with respect to a pump laser exciting processes in the sample under study is critical for the investigation of structural dynamics in the femtosecond regime. We describe a scheme for synchronizing femtosecond x-ray pulses relative to a pump laser. X-ray pulses of <100 fs duration are generated from a proposed source based on a recirculating superconducting linac [1,2,3]. Short x-ray pulses are obtained by a process of electron pulse compression, followed by transverse temporal correlation of the electrons, and ultimately x-ray pulse compression. Timing of the arrival of the x-ray pulse with respect to the pump laser is found to be dominated by the operation of the deflecting cavities which provide the transverse temporal correlation of the electrons. The deflecting cavities are driven from a highly stable RF signal derived from a modelocked laser oscillator which is also the origin of the pump l aser pulses

  6. CHEMICAL APPLICATIONS OF INELASTIC X-RAY SCATTERING

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    HAYASHI,H.; UDAGAWA,Y.; GILLET,J.M.; CALIEBE,W.A.; KAO,C.C.

    2001-08-01

    Inelastic x-ray scattering (IXS), complementary to other more established inelastic scattering probes, such as light scattering, electron scattering, and neutron scattering, is becoming an important experimental technique in the study of elementary excitations in condensed matters. Over the past decade, IXS with total energy resolution of few meV has been achieved, and is being used routinely in the study of phonon dispersions in solids and liquids as well as dynamics in disordered and biological systems. In the study of electronic excitations, IXS with total energy resolution on the order of 100 meV to 1 eV is gaining wider applications also. For example, IXS has been used to study collective excitations of valence electrons, single electron excitations of valence electrons, as well as core electron excitations. In comparison with the alternative scattering techniques mentioned above, IXS has several advantages. First, IXS probes the full momentum transfer range of the dielectric response of the sample, whereas light scattering is limited to very small momentum transfers, and electron scattering suffers the effects of multiple scattering at large momentum transfers. Second, since IXS measures the bulk properties of the sample it is not surface sensitive, therefore it does not require special preparation of the sample. The greater flexibility in sample conditions and environments makes IXS an ideal probe in the study of liquids and samples under extreme temperature, pressure, and magnetic field. Third, the tunability of synchrotron radiation sources enables IXS to exploit element specificity and resonant enhancement of scattering cross sections. Fourth, IXS is unique in the study of dynamics of liquids and amorphous solids because it can probe the particular region of energy-momentum transfer phase space, which is inaccessible to inelastic neutron scattering. On the other hand, the main disadvantages of IXS are the small cross sections and the strong absorption of

  7. Development of short pulse laser pumped x-ray lasers

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Dunn, J; Osterheld, A L; Hunter, J R; Shlyaptsev, V N

    2000-01-01

    X-ray lasers have been extensively studied around the world since the first laboratory demonstration on the Novette laser at LLNL in 1984 [l]. The characteristic properties of short wavelength, high monochromaticity, collimation and coherence make x-ray lasers useful for various applications. These include demonstrations of biological imaging within the water window, interferometry of laser plasmas and radiography of laser-heated surfaces. One of the critical issues has been the high power pump required to produce the inversion. The power scaling as a function of x-ray laser wavelength follows a -k4 to law. The shortest x-ray laser wavelength of ∼ 35 (angstrom) demonstrated for Ni-like All was at the limit of Nova laser capabilities. By requiring large, high power lasers such as Nova, the shot rate and total number of shots available have limited the rapid development of x-ray lasers and applications. In fact over the last fifteen years the main thrust has been to develop more efficient, higher repetition rate x-ray lasers that can be readily scaled to shorter wavelengths. The recent state of progress in the field can be found in references. The objective of the project was to develop a soft x-ray laser (XRL) pumped by a short pulse laser of a few joules. In effect to demonstrate a robust, worlung tabletop x-ray laser at LLNL for the first time. The transient collisional scheme as proposed by Shlyaptsev et al [8, 9] was the candidate x-ray laser for study. The successful endeavour of any scientific investigation is often based upon prudent early decisions and the choice of this scheme was both sound and fruitful. It had been demonstrated very recently for Ne-like Ti at 326 A using a small tabletop laser [10] but had not yet reached its full potential. We chose this scheme for several reasons: (a) it was a collisional-type x-ray laser which has been historically the most robust; (b) it had the promise of high efficiency and low energy threshold for lasing; (c) the

  8. Development and characterization of a tunable ultrafast X-ray source via inverse-Compton-scattering

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Jochmann, Axel

    2014-01-01

    Ultrashort, nearly monochromatic hard X-ray pulses enrich the understanding of the dynamics and function of matter, e.g., the motion of atomic structures associated with ultrafast phase transitions, structural dynamics and (bio)chemical reactions. Inverse Compton backscattering of intense laser pulses from relativistic electrons not only allows for the generation of bright X-ray pulses which can be used in a pump-probe experiment, but also for the investigation of the electron beam dynamics at the interaction point. The focus of this PhD work lies on the detailed understanding of the kinematics during the interaction of the relativistic electron bunch and the laser pulse in order to quantify the influence of various experiment parameters on the emitted X-ray radiation. The experiment was conducted at the ELBE center for high power radiation sources using the ELBE superconducting linear accelerator and the DRACO Ti:sapphire laser system. The combination of both these state-of-the-art apparatuses guaranteed the control and stability of the interacting beam parameters throughout the measurement. The emitted X-ray spectra were detected with a pixelated detector of 1024 by 256 elements (each 26μm by 26μm) to achieve an unprecedented spatial and energy resolution for a full characterization of the emitted spectrum to reveal parameter influences and correlations of both interacting beams. In this work the influence of the electron beam energy, electron beam emittance, the laser bandwidth and the energy-anglecorrelation on the spectra of the backscattered X-rays is quantified. A rigorous statistical analysis comparing experimental data to ab-initio 3D simulations enabled, e.g., the extraction of the angular distribution of electrons with 1.5% accuracy and, in total, provides predictive capability for the future high brightness hard X-ray source PHOENIX (Photon electron collider for Narrow bandwidth Intense X-rays) and potential all optical gamma-ray sources. The results

  9. Building a Unified Computational Model for the Resonant X-Ray Scattering of Strongly Correlated Materials

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Bansil, Arun

    2016-01-01

    Basic-Energy Sciences of the Department of Energy (BES/DOE) has made large investments in x-ray sources in the U.S. (NSLS-II, LCLS, NGLS, ALS, APS) as powerful enabling tools for opening up unprecedented new opportunities for exploring properties of matter at various length and time scales. The coming online of the pulsed photon source literally allows us to see and follow the dynamics of processes in materials at their natural timescales. There is an urgent need therefore to develop theoretical methodologies and computational models for understanding how x-rays interact with matter and the related spectroscopies of materials. The present project addressed aspects of this grand challenge of X-ray science. In particular, our Collaborative Research Team (CRT) focused on understanding and modeling of elastic and inelastic resonant X-ray scattering processes. We worked to unify the three different computational approaches currently used for modeling X-ray scattering-density functional theory, dynamical mean-field theory, and small-cluster exact diagonalization-to achieve a more realistic material-specific picture of the interaction between X-rays and complex matter. To achieve a convergence in the interpretation and to maximize complementary aspects of different theoretical methods, we concentrated on the cuprates, where most experiments have been performed. Our team included both US and international researchers, and it fostered new collaborations between researchers currently working with different approaches. In addition, we developed close relationships with experimental groups working in the area at various synchrotron facilities in the US. Our CRT thus helped toward enabling the US to assume a leadership role in the theoretical development of the field, and to create a global network and community of scholars dedicated to X-ray scattering research.

  10. Multiple scattering theory of X-ray absorption. A review

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Fonda, L.

    1991-11-01

    We review the basic elements of the theory of X-ray absorption using the tools provided by the theory of multiple scattering. A momentum space approach of clear physical insight is used where the final formulas expressing EXAFS and XANES, i.e. the structures appearing in the absorption coefficient above the edge of a deep core level threshold, are given in terms of eigenstates of the photoelectron momentum. A simple graphic representation is given for the multiple scattering function. (author). 38 refs, 4 figs, 1 tab

  11. A compact X-ray source based on Compton scattering

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Bulyak, E.; Gladkikh, P.; Grigor' ev, Yu.; Guk, I.; Karnaukhov, I.; Khodyachikh, A.; Kononenko, S.; Mocheshnikov, N.; Mytsykov, A.; Shcherbakov, A. E-mail: shcherbakov@kipt.kharkov.ua; Tarasenko, A.; Telegin, Yu.; Zelinsky, A

    2001-07-21

    The main parameters of Kharkov electron storage ring N-100 with a beam energy range from 70 to 150 MeV are presented. The main results that were obtained in experimental researches are briefly described. The future of the N-100 upgrade to the development of the X-ray generator based on Compton back-scattering are presented. The electron beam energy range will be extended up to 250 MeV and the circumference of the storage ring will be 13.72 m. The lattice, parameters of the electron beam and the Compton back-scattering photons flux are described.

  12. A compact X-ray source based on Compton scattering

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Bulyak, E.; Gladkikh, P.; Grigor'ev, Yu.; Guk, I.; Karnaukhov, I.; Khodyachikh, A.; Kononenko, S.; Mocheshnikov, N.; Mytsykov, A.; Shcherbakov, A.; Tarasenko, A.; Telegin, Yu.; Zelinsky, A.

    2001-01-01

    The main parameters of Kharkov electron storage ring N-100 with a beam energy range from 70 to 150 MeV are presented. The main results that were obtained in experimental researches are briefly described. The future of the N-100 upgrade to the development of the X-ray generator based on Compton back-scattering are presented. The electron beam energy range will be extended up to 250 MeV and the circumference of the storage ring will be 13.72 m. The lattice, parameters of the electron beam and the Compton back-scattering photons flux are described

  13. X-ray scattering from thin organic films and multilayer

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Pietsch, U.; Barberka, T. A.; Geue, Th.; Stoemmer, R.

    1997-01-01

    The real structure of LB-multilayers prepared with fatty-acid salts is dominated by finite-sized scattering aggregates. Their different length scales become visible using AFM. It shows that not the whole substrate is wetted by the film. The molecular order is restricted into domains. These micrometer domains are not homogeneous. They contain mesoscopic subdomains of different heights which vary in steps of double layers. Finally high-resolution AFM-maps display a nearly hexagonal arrangement of molecules within subgrains with a diameter of several 10 nm. This domain structure has to be taken into account when interpreting X-ray diffraction data. The size of the crystalline aggregates is obtained by means of X-ray grazing incidence diffraction. On the mesoscopic scale the domain size is determined by X-ray diffuse scattering experiments. Because Sinha's model fails for the present kind of multilayers, they used another approach for data analysis. The lateral correlation length caused by height fluctuations is estimated without knowledge of a definite correlation function. Additionally the mosaicity of the domain orientation can be taken into account

  14. Imaging Macromolecules with X-ray laser pulses

    CERN Multimedia

    CERN. Geneva

    2017-01-01

    The short wavelength of X-rays allows us to resolve atoms, but in practise for biological materials the achievable resolution is limited by the destruction of the sample by the radiation that forms the image.  For over 100 years, the workaround to this problem of radiation damage has been to average signals from repeating copies of the object arranged in a large crystal.  It is now possible to overcome damage limits by using intense X-ray pulses that vaporise the sample, but which are short enough in duration to freeze any motion of the sample on the atomic scale.  With the advent of X-ray FELs we have been able to confirm this principle, and are now applying it to overcoming a major bottleneck for protein crystallography, which is the need for large well-diffracting crystals.  The intense pulses also open up opportunities to help solve the crystallographic phase problem.  In particular we have found that commonly-occurring disordered crystals that are usually not ...

  15. Soft X-ray radiation damage in EM-CCDs used for Resonant Inelastic X-ray Scattering

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gopinath, D.; Soman, M.; Holland, A.; Keelan, J.; Hall, D.; Holland, K.; Colebrook, D.

    2018-02-01

    Advancement in synchrotron and free electron laser facilities means that X-ray beams with higher intensity than ever before are being created. The high brilliance of the X-ray beam, as well as the ability to use a range of X-ray energies, means that they can be used in a wide range of applications. One such application is Resonant Inelastic X-ray Scattering (RIXS). RIXS uses the intense and tuneable X-ray beams in order to investigate the electronic structure of materials. The photons are focused onto a sample material and the scattered X-ray beam is diffracted off a high resolution grating to disperse the X-ray energies onto a position sensitive detector. Whilst several factors affect the total system energy resolution, the performance of RIXS experiments can be limited by the spatial resolution of the detector used. Electron-Multiplying CCDs (EM-CCDs) at high gain in combination with centroiding of the photon charge cloud across several detector pixels can lead to sub-pixel spatial resolution of 2-3 μm. X-ray radiation can cause damage to CCDs through ionisation damage resulting in increases in dark current and/or a shift in flat band voltage. Understanding the effect of radiation damage on EM-CCDs is important in order to predict lifetime as well as the change in performance over time. Two CCD-97s were taken to PTB at BESSY II and irradiated with large doses of soft X-rays in order to probe the front and back surfaces of the device. The dark current was shown to decay over time with two different exponential components to it. This paper will discuss the use of EM-CCDs for readout of RIXS spectrometers, and limitations on spatial resolution, together with any limitations on instrument use which may arise from X-ray-induced radiation damage.

  16. Building a Unified Computational Model for the Resonant X-Ray Scattering of Strongly Correlated Materials

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Bansil, Arun [Northeastern Univ., Boston, MA (United States)

    2016-12-01

    Basic-Energy Sciences of the Department of Energy (BES/DOE) has made large investments in x-ray sources in the U.S. (NSLS-II, LCLS, NGLS, ALS, APS) as powerful enabling tools for opening up unprecedented new opportunities for exploring properties of matter at various length and time scales. The coming online of the pulsed photon source literally allows us to see and follow the dynamics of processes in materials at their natural timescales. There is an urgent need therefore to develop theoretical methodologies and computational models for understanding how x-rays interact with matter and the related spectroscopies of materials. The present project addressed aspects of this grand challenge of X-ray science. In particular, our Collaborative Research Team (CRT) focused on understanding and modeling of elastic and inelastic resonant X-ray scattering processes. We worked to unify the three different computational approaches currently used for modeling X-ray scattering—density functional theory, dynamical mean-field theory, and small-cluster exact diagonalization—to achieve a more realistic material-specific picture of the interaction between X-rays and complex matter. To achieve a convergence in the interpretation and to maximize complementary aspects of different theoretical methods, we concentrated on the cuprates, where most experiments have been performed. Our team included both US and international researchers, and it fostered new collaborations between researchers currently working with different approaches. In addition, we developed close relationships with experimental groups working in the area at various synchrotron facilities in the US. Our CRT thus helped toward enabling the US to assume a leadership role in the theoretical development of the field, and to create a global network and community of scholars dedicated to X-ray scattering research.

  17. Communication: The electronic structure of matter probed with a single femtosecond hard x-ray pulse

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    J. Szlachetko

    2014-03-01

    Full Text Available Physical, biological, and chemical transformations are initiated by changes in the electronic configuration of the species involved. These electronic changes occur on the timescales of attoseconds (10−18 s to femtoseconds (10−15 s and drive all subsequent electronic reorganization as the system moves to a new equilibrium or quasi-equilibrium state. The ability to detect the dynamics of these electronic changes is crucial for understanding the potential energy surfaces upon which chemical and biological reactions take place. Here, we report on the determination of the electronic structure of matter using a single self-seeded femtosecond x-ray pulse from the Linac Coherent Light Source hard x-ray free electron laser. By measuring the high energy resolution off-resonant spectrum (HEROS, we were able to obtain information about the electronic density of states with a single femtosecond x-ray pulse. We show that the unoccupied electronic states of the scattering atom may be determined on a shot-to-shot basis and that the measured spectral shape is independent of the large intensity fluctuations of the incoming x-ray beam. Moreover, we demonstrate the chemical sensitivity and single-shot capability and limitations of HEROS, which enables the technique to track the electronic structural dynamics in matter on femtosecond time scales, making it an ideal probe technique for time-resolved X-ray experiments.

  18. Anomalous scattering and isomorphous replacement in X-ray diffuse scattering holography

    Czech Academy of Sciences Publication Activity Database

    Kopecký, Miloš; Kub, Jiří; Busetto, E.; Lausi, A.; Fábry, Jan; Šourek, Zbyněk

    2007-01-01

    Roč. 204, č. 8 (2007), s. 2572-2577 ISSN 1862-6300 R&D Projects: GA AV ČR IAA100100529; GA MŠk LA 287 Institutional research plan: CEZ:AV0Z10100523; CEZ:AV0Z10100520 Keywords : x-ray difuse scattering * x-ray holography Subject RIV: BM - Solid Matter Physics ; Magnetism

  19. The fluid dynamics of microjet explosions caused by extremely intense X-ray pulses

    Science.gov (United States)

    Stan, Claudiu; Laksmono, Hartawan; Sierra, Raymond; Milathianaki, Despina; Koglin, Jason; Messerschmidt, Marc; Williams, Garth; Demirci, Hasan; Botha, Sabine; Nass, Karol; Stone, Howard; Schlichting, Ilme; Shoeman, Robert; Boutet, Sebastien

    2014-11-01

    Femtosecond X-ray scattering experiments at free-electron laser facilities typically requires liquid jet delivery methods to bring samples to the region of interaction with X-rays. We have imaged optically the damage process in water microjets due to intense hard X-ray pulses at the Linac Coherent Light Source (LCLS), using time-resolved imaging techniques to record movies at rates up to half a billion frames per second. For pulse energies larger than a few percent of the maximum pulse energy available at LCLS, the X-rays deposit energies much larger than the latent heat of vaporization in water, and induce a phase explosion that opens a gap in the jet. The LCLS pulses last a few tens of femtoseconds, but the full evolution of the broken jet is orders of magnitude slower - typically in the microsecond range - due to complex fluid dynamics processes triggered by the phase explosion. Although the explosion results in a complex sequence of phenomena, they lead to an approximately self-similar flow of the liquid in the jet.

  20. Resonant inelastic scattering at intermediate X-ray energies

    CERN Document Server

    Hague, C F; Journel, L; Gallet, J J; Rogalev, A; Krill, G; Kappler, J P

    2000-01-01

    We describe resonant inelastic X-ray scattering (RIXS) experiments and magnetic circular dichroism (MCD) in X-ray fluorescence performed in the 3-5 keV range. The examples chosen are X-ray fluorescence MCD of FeRh and RIXS experiments performed at the L/sub 3/ edge of Ce. Fe Rh is antiferromagnetic at room temperature but has a transition to the ferromagnetic state above 400 K. The Rh MCD signal is compared with an augmented spherical wave calculation. The experiment confirms the predicted spin polarization of the Rh 4d valence states. The RIXS measurements on Ce compounds and intermetallics address the problem of mixed valency especially in systems where degeneracy with the Fermi level remains small. Examples are taken from the 2p to (4f5d) /sup +1/ followed by 3d to 2p RIXS for a highly ionic compound CeF /sub 3/ and for almost gamma -like CeCuSi. (38 refs).

  1. Dynamical X-ray scattering from the relaxed structures

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Benediktovitch, A.; Feranchuk, I.; Ulyanenkov, A.

    2009-01-01

    High-resolution X-ray diffraction is now widely used analytical tool for investigation of nano scale multilayered structures in semiconductor and optical technologies. The HRXRD method delivers unique information on the crystallographic lattice of the samples, concentration of solid solutions, lattice mismatches, layer thicknesses, defect distribution, and relaxation degree of the epitaxial layers. The evaluation of the experimental results, however, requires a robust and precise theory due to complex dynamical scattering of X-rays from near perfect crystallographic structure of the samples. Usually, the Takagi-Taupin approach [1] or the recurrent matrix methods [2] are used for the simulation of the X-ray diffraction profiles from the epitaxial multilayered structures. The use of these theories, however, becomes essentially difficult, when the lateral lattice mismatches are present in multilayers, for example, in the case of partially or fully relaxed epitaxially grown samples. In the present work, the general solution of this problem is found analytically. The angular divergence of the incident beam is also considered and the algorithm for the diffracted profile mapping in the reciprocal space is developed. The experimental reciprocal space mapping of typical AlGaN/GaN/AlN samples with partially relaxed layers is compared to the simulated maps, which describe well the location and character of the diffraction spots caused by different layers. (author)

  2. X-ray scattering in giant magneto-resistive multilayers

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Fulthorpe, B.D.

    1999-01-01

    The scattering mechanisms responsible for Giant Magneto-Resistance (GMR) in magnetic multilayers are believed to be related to many aspects of the multilayer structure. X-ray scattering techniques provide a powerful method with which to study the bulk and interface morphology in these systems, and are therefore crucial in developing an understanding of the dominant factors influencing the magnitude of the GMR. Reflectivity measurements performed on a series of Co/Cu multilayers, sputter deposited onto etched silicon, reveal no variation in the interface roughness with etching voltage, the thickness of the individual layers also remaining constant. The observed decrease in the GMR cannot, therefore, be attributed to variations in spacer thickness or interfacial spin-independent scattering. Electron and X-ray Diffraction measurements suggest the reduction in GMR is due to a loss of antiferromagnetic coupling associated with a transformation of the texture from a randomly oriented to well oriented (111) polycrystalline texture, and subsequent reduction in the volume fraction of (100) oriented grains. Interfaces within Co/Cu are found to propagate with a high degree of conformality with increasing bilayer number, with an out-of-plane correlation length well in excess of 300A. In contrast, the Co/Pt system exhibits a limiting out-of-plane correlation length of the order of 350A arising from a columnar growth mode. X-ray Reflectivity and Diffraction measurements provide' no structural interpretation for the 3-fold enhancement in the rate of increase of the saturation conductivity, as a function of spacer thickness, in Fe/Au (100) compared to Fe/Au (111), or why large oscillations in the GMR occur for the (100) orientation only. Such observations are, however, consistent with the existence of a channelling mechanism in Fe/Au (100). Grazing Incidence Fluorescence data indicates that Nb acts as a surfactant in Fe/Au (111) growth on sapphire. The influence of different

  3. Testing ion structure models with x-ray Thomson scattering

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Wünsch K.

    2013-11-01

    Full Text Available We investigate the influence of various ionic structure models on the interpretation of the X-ray Thomson scattering signal. For the calculation of the ion structure, classical hypernetted chain equations are used applying different effective inter-particle potentials. It is shown that the different models lead to significant discrepancies in the theoretically predicted weight of the Rayleigh peak, in particular for small k-values where correlation effects are important. Here, we propose conditions which might allow for an experimental verification of the theories under consideration of experimental constraints of k-vector blurring.

  4. Neutron and x-ray scattering studies of premartensitic phenomena

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Shapiro, S.M.

    1987-01-01

    This paper discusses neutron and x-ray investigations of some metallic alloys which are known to exhibit martensitic transformations. It is shown that precursor effects are usually present in the diffuse scattering and in the phonon dispersion curves, but the transition cannot be described in terms of the soft mode picture used in the Landau and Devonshire theory to describe structural phase transitions. In addition, it is noted that it is inappropriate to look at these microstructures as incommensurate systems, but more correctly as a coherent coexistence of two phases

  5. Time Resolved X-Ray Scattering of molecules in Solution

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Brandt van Driel, Tim

    The dissertation describes the use of Time-Resolved X-ray Diffuse Scattering (TR-XDS) to study photo-induced structural changes in molecules in solution. The application of the technique is exemplified with experiments on two bimetallic molecules. The main focus is on the data-flow and process......)42+ obtained at European Synchrotron Radiation Facility (ESRF) are presented to exemplify TR-XDS at synchrotrons. Similarly, measurements on Ir2(dimen)42+ are used to show the XFEL data-flow and how it deviates from the prior. A method to identify and account for systematic fluctuations...

  6. Dichroism in resonant inelastic soft X-ray scattering

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Braicovich, L.

    2004-01-01

    Full text: The dichroism (and in particular the magnetic dichroism) has emerged in the last decade as a key method in the study of electronic states in solids. This has been largely due to the exploitation of the modern sources of Synchrotron Radiation. This approach has been extensively used in X ray Absorption Spectroscopy i.e. in a first order process giving a straightforward access, trough sum rules, to the ground state properties of the sample. On the other hand the studies of dichroism in second order processes as the photon scattering experiments has been up to now relatively limited probably due to experimental difficulties. This is too bad because, at least in principle, the scattering experiments offer unique opportunities typical of second order processes, beyond the possibilities offered by absorption spectroscopy. This requires specific scattering experiments able to give information that cannot be obtained in the absorption mode. A typical example is the circular magnetic dichroism in resonant inelastic scattering in perpendicular geometry i.e. with the light incident perpendicular to the magnetisation. In this case the circular dichroism in absorption is zero by symmetry while the detection of the scattered photons at an angle breaks the left-right symmetry and allows a dichroism to be observed. The aim of the present talk is to review critically the dichroism in resonant X-ray scattering and to show the potential of this approach. In particular it will be shown how to recover, in magnetic samples, the ground state information up to the moments of order four. In this connection original results will be presented including the demonstration of a new experimental approach. The perspectives of the field will be also discussed

  7. Low-angle X-ray scattering from spices

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Desouky, O.S.; Ashour, Ahmed H.; Abdullah, Mohamed I.; Elshemey, Wael M.

    2002-01-01

    Low-angle scattering of X-rays is characterized by the presence of one or more peaks in the forward direction of scattering. These peaks are due to the interference of photons coherently scattered from the molecules of the medium. Thus these patterns are closely linked to the molecular structure of the investigated medium. In this work, low-angle X-ray scattering (LAXS) profiles of five spices; pimpinella anisum (anise), coriandrum sativum (coriander), cuminum cyminum (cumin), foenculum vulgare (fennel) and nigella sativa (nigella or black cumin) are presented after extensive measurements. It is found that all spices exhibit one characteristic peak at a scattering angle around 10 deg. This is equivalent to a value x=0.0565 A -1 , where x=sin(θ/2)/λ. The full width at half maximum (FWHM) of this peak is found to be characteristic for each type of the investigated spices. The possibility to detect the irradiation of these spices from their LAXS profiles is also examined after 10, 20, 30 and 40 kGy doses of gamma radiation. Except for anise, coriander and cumin at 40 kGy, there are no detectable deviations from the control samples in the scattering profiles of irradiated samples. These results comply with the recommendations of the FDA (US Food and Drug Administration) which defines 30 kGy as the maximum dose for irradiation of spices. The present technique could be used to detect over-irradiation, which causes damage to the molecular structure of some spices

  8. Reflection of attosecond x-ray free electron laser pulses

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Hau-Riege, Stefan P.; Chapman, Henry N.

    2007-01-01

    In order to utilize hard x-ray free electron lasers (XFEL's) when they are extended to attosecond pulse lengths, it is necessary to choose optical elements with minimal response time. Specular grazing-incidence optics made of low-Z materials are popular candidates for reflectors since they are likely to withstand x-ray damage and provide sufficiently large reflectivities. Using linear-optics reflection theory, we calculated the transient reflectivity of a delta-function electric pulse from a homogenous semi-infinite medium as a function of angle of incidence for s- and p-polarized light. We specifically considered the pulse response of beryllium, diamond, silicon carbide, and silicon, all of which are of relevance to the XFEL's that are currently being built. We found that the media emit energy in a damped oscillatory way, and that the impulse-response times are shorter than 0.3 fs for normal incidence. For grazing incidence, the impulse-response time is substantially shorter, making grazing-incidence mirrors a good choice for deep subfemtosecond reflective optics

  9. Femtosecond X-ray scattering in condensed matter

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Korff Schmising, Clemens von

    2008-11-24

    This thesis investigates the manifold couplings between electronic and structural properties in crystalline Perovskite oxides and a polar molecular crystal. Ultrashort optical excitation changes the electronic structure and the dynamics of the connected reversible lattice rearrangement is imaged in real time by femtosecond X-ray scattering experiments. An epitaxially grown superlattice consisting of alternating nanolayers of metallic and ferromagnetic strontium ruthenate (SRO) and dielectric strontium titanate serves as a model system to study optically generated stress. In the ferromagnetic phase, phonon-mediated and magnetostrictive stress in SRO display similar sub-picosecond dynamics, similar strengths but opposite sign and different excitation spectra. The amplitude of the magnetic component follows the temperature dependent magnetization square, whereas the strength of phononic stress is determined by the amount of deposited energy only. The ultrafast, phonon-mediated stress in SRO compresses ferroelectric nanolayers of lead zirconate titanate in a further superlattice system. This change of tetragonal distortion of the ferroelectric layer reaches up to 2 percent within 1.5 picoseconds and couples to the ferroelectric soft mode, or ion displacement within the unit cell. As a result, the macroscopic polarization is reduced by up to 100 percent with a 500 femtosecond delay that is due to final elongation time of the two anharmonically coupled modes. Femtosecond photoexcitation of organic chromophores in a molecular, polar crystal induces strong changes of the electronic dipole moment via intramolecular charge transfer. Ultrafast changes of transmitted X-ray intensity evidence an angular rotation of molecules around excited dipoles following the 10 picosecond kinetics of the charge transfer reaction. Transient X-ray scattering is governed by solvation, masking changes of the chromophore's molecular structure. (orig.)

  10. Femtosecond X-ray scattering in condensed matter

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Korff Schmising, Clemens von

    2008-01-01

    This thesis investigates the manifold couplings between electronic and structural properties in crystalline Perovskite oxides and a polar molecular crystal. Ultrashort optical excitation changes the electronic structure and the dynamics of the connected reversible lattice rearrangement is imaged in real time by femtosecond X-ray scattering experiments. An epitaxially grown superlattice consisting of alternating nanolayers of metallic and ferromagnetic strontium ruthenate (SRO) and dielectric strontium titanate serves as a model system to study optically generated stress. In the ferromagnetic phase, phonon-mediated and magnetostrictive stress in SRO display similar sub-picosecond dynamics, similar strengths but opposite sign and different excitation spectra. The amplitude of the magnetic component follows the temperature dependent magnetization square, whereas the strength of phononic stress is determined by the amount of deposited energy only. The ultrafast, phonon-mediated stress in SRO compresses ferroelectric nanolayers of lead zirconate titanate in a further superlattice system. This change of tetragonal distortion of the ferroelectric layer reaches up to 2 percent within 1.5 picoseconds and couples to the ferroelectric soft mode, or ion displacement within the unit cell. As a result, the macroscopic polarization is reduced by up to 100 percent with a 500 femtosecond delay that is due to final elongation time of the two anharmonically coupled modes. Femtosecond photoexcitation of organic chromophores in a molecular, polar crystal induces strong changes of the electronic dipole moment via intramolecular charge transfer. Ultrafast changes of transmitted X-ray intensity evidence an angular rotation of molecules around excited dipoles following the 10 picosecond kinetics of the charge transfer reaction. Transient X-ray scattering is governed by solvation, masking changes of the chromophore's molecular structure. (orig.)

  11. Bone composition measured by x-ray scattering

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Newton, M.; Hukins, D.W.L.

    1992-01-01

    Ten composite samples consisting of cortical bone and adipose tissue, in known proportions, were made. The intensity of monochromatic x-rays (energy 8 keV) scattered by these samples was determined as a function of the modulus of the scattering vector, K. The ratio of the heights of peaks at K values of around 134 and 22 nm -1 provided a measure of the ratio of adipose tissue to bone mineral in these samples. This method was then used to determine the ratio of adipose tissue to mineral in samples of trabecular bone from 16 vertebral bodies. The results were correlated with measurements of the bone composition determined by ashing (r = 0.66) and histomorphometry (r = 0.66). Furthermore, the ashing and histomorphometry results were correlated with each other (r = 0.68). The feasibility of using higher energy x-rays (35-80 keV) for obtaining the same information from bone within the body is briefly discussed. (author)

  12. Possibility of single biomolecule imaging with coherent amplification of weak scattering x-ray photons.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Shintake, Tsumoru

    2008-10-01

    The number of photons produced by coherent x-ray scattering from a single biomolecule is very small because of its extremely small elastic-scattering cross section and low damage threshold. Even with a high x-ray flux of 3 x 10;{12} photons per 100-nm -diameter spot and an ultrashort pulse of 10 fs driven by a future x-ray free electron laser (x-ray FEL), it has been predicted that only a few 100 photons will be produced from the scattering of a single lysozyme molecule. In observations of scattered x rays on a detector, the transfer of energy from wave to matter is accompanied by the quantization of the photon energy. Unfortunately, x rays have a high photon energy of 12 keV at wavelengths of 1A , which is required for atomic resolution imaging. Therefore, the number of photoionization events is small, which limits the resolution of imaging of a single biomolecule. In this paper, I propose a method: instead of directly observing the photons scattered from the sample, we amplify the scattered waves by superimposing an intense coherent reference pump wave on it and record the resulting interference pattern on a planar x-ray detector. Using a nanosized gold particle as a reference pump wave source, we can collect 10;{4}-10;{5} photons in single shot imaging where the signal from a single biomolecule is amplified and recorded as two-dimensional diffraction intensity data. An iterative phase retrieval technique can be used to recover the phase information and reconstruct the image of the single biomolecule and the gold particle at the same time. In order to precisely reconstruct a faint image of the single biomolecule in Angstrom resolution, whose intensity is much lower than that of the bright gold particle, I propose a technique that combines iterative phase retrieval on the reference pump wave and the digital Fourier transform holography on the sample. By using a large number of holography data, the three-dimensional electron density map can be assembled.

  13. Evolution of elastic x-ray scattering in laser-shocked warm dense lithium.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kugland, N L; Gregori, G; Bandyopadhyay, S; Brenner, C M; Brown, C R D; Constantin, C; Glenzer, S H; Khattak, F Y; Kritcher, A L; Niemann, C; Otten, A; Pasley, J; Pelka, A; Roth, M; Spindloe, C; Riley, D

    2009-12-01

    We have studied the dynamics of warm dense Li with near-elastic x-ray scattering. Li foils were heated and compressed using shock waves driven by 4-ns-long laser pulses. Separate 1-ns-long laser pulses were used to generate a bright source of 2.96 keV Cl Ly- alpha photons for x-ray scattering, and the spectrum of scattered photons was recorded at a scattering angle of 120 degrees using a highly oriented pyrolytic graphite crystal operated in the von Hamos geometry. A variable delay between the heater and backlighter laser beams measured the scattering time evolution. Comparison with radiation-hydrodynamics simulations shows that the plasma is highly coupled during the first several nanoseconds, then relaxes to a moderate coupling state at later times. Near-elastic scattering amplitudes have been successfully simulated using the screened one-component plasma model. Our main finding is that the near-elastic scattering amplitudes are quite sensitive to the mean ionization state Z[over ] and by extension to the choice of ionization model in the radiation-hydrodynamics simulations used to predict plasma properties within the shocked Li.

  14. Evolution of elastic x-ray scattering in laser-shocked warm dense lithium

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Kugland, N. L.; Niemann, C.; Gregori, G.; Bandyopadhyay, S.; Spindloe, C.; Brenner, C. M.; Brown, C. R. D.; Constantin, C.; Glenzer, S. H.; Khattak, F. Y.; Kritcher, A. L.; Otten, A.; Pelka, A.; Roth, M.; Pasley, J.; Riley, D.

    2009-01-01

    We have studied the dynamics of warm dense Li with near-elastic x-ray scattering. Li foils were heated and compressed using shock waves driven by 4-ns-long laser pulses. Separate 1-ns-long laser pulses were used to generate a bright source of 2.96 keV Cl Ly-α photons for x-ray scattering, and the spectrum of scattered photons was recorded at a scattering angle of 120 deg. using a highly oriented pyrolytic graphite crystal operated in the von Hamos geometry. A variable delay between the heater and backlighter laser beams measured the scattering time evolution. Comparison with radiation-hydrodynamics simulations shows that the plasma is highly coupled during the first several nanoseconds, then relaxes to a moderate coupling state at later times. Near-elastic scattering amplitudes have been successfully simulated using the screened one-component plasma model. Our main finding is that the near-elastic scattering amplitudes are quite sensitive to the mean ionization state Z and by extension to the choice of ionization model in the radiation-hydrodynamics simulations used to predict plasma properties within the shocked Li.

  15. Low angle X-ray scattering in biological tissues

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Lemos, Carla; Braz, Delson; Pinto, Nivia G.V.; Lima, Joao C.; Castro, Carlos R.F.; Filgueiras, R.A.; Mendonca, Leonardo; Lopes, Ricardo T.; Barroso, Regina C.

    2007-01-01

    Low-angle x-ray scatter (LAXS) for tissue characterization is based on the differences which result from the interference of photons coherently scattered from molecules of each sample. Biological samples (bone, blood and blood components) have been studied in recent years in our laboratory using powder diffractometer. The scattering information was obtained using a Shimadzu DRX 6000 diffractometer at the Nuclear Instrumentation Laboratory, Rio de Janeiro, Brazil. Unpolarized monoenergetic Kα radiation from Cu provided 8.04 keV photons. The measurements were made in reflection mode (θ-2θ geometry), with the sample stationary on a goniometer which rotates the sample and detector about an axis lying in the plane of the top of the sample holder. LAXS profiles from whole blood, plasma and formed elements were measured to investigate the nature of scattering from such lyophilized samples. The statistical analysis shows that the variation found for the characterization parameters is significant for whole blood considering the age. Gender was positively associated with the variation of the second peak position for the profiles obtained for formed elements. The correlation of the measured relative coherent intensity with the mineral content in the bone samples was investigated. These results suggest that the measurement of bone mineral content within trabecular bone can be performed by using quantitative coherent scattering information. (author)

  16. X-band RF gun and linac for medical Compton scattering X-ray source

    Science.gov (United States)

    Dobashi, Katsuhito; Uesaka, Mitsuru; Fukasawa, Atsushi; Sakamoto, Fumito; Ebina, Futaro; Ogino, Haruyuki; Urakawa, Junji; Higo, Toshiyasu; Akemoto, Mitsuo; Hayano, Hitoshi; Nakagawa, Keiichi

    2004-12-01

    Compton scattering hard X-ray source for 10-80 keV are under construction using the X-band (11.424 GHz) electron linear accelerator and YAG laser at Nuclear Engineering Research laboratory, University of Tokyo. This work is a part of the national project on the development of advanced compact medical accelerators in Japan. National Institute for Radiological Science is the host institute and U.Tokyo and KEK are working for the X-ray source. Main advantage is to produce tunable monochromatic hard (10-80 keV) X-rays with the intensities of 108-1010 photons/s (at several stages) and the table-top size. Second important aspect is to reduce noise radiation at a beam dump by adopting the deceleration of electrons after the Compton scattering. This realizes one beamline of a 3rd generation SR source at small facilities without heavy shielding. The final goal is that the linac and laser are installed on the moving gantry. We have designed the X-band (11.424 GHz) traveling-wave-type linac for the purpose. Numerical consideration by CAIN code and luminosity calculation are performed to estimate the X-ray yield. X-band thermionic-cathode RF-gun and RDS(Round Detuned Structure)-type X-band accelerating structure are applied to generate 50 MeV electron beam with 20 pC microbunches (104) for 1 microsecond RF macro-pulse. The X-ray yield by the electron beam and Q-switch Nd:YAG laser of 2 J/10 ns is 107 photons/RF-pulse (108 photons/sec at 10 pps). We design to adopt a technique of laser circulation to increase the X-ray yield up to 109 photons/pulse (1010 photons/s). 50 MW X-band klystron and compact modulator have been constructed and now under tuning. The construction of the whole system has started. X-ray generation and medical application will be performed in the early next year.

  17. X-band RF gun and linac for medical Compton scattering X-ray source

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Dobashi, Katsuhito; Uesaka, Mitsuru; Fukasawa, Atsushi; Sakamoto, Fumito; Ebina, Futaro; Ogino, Haruyuki; Urakawa, Junji; Higo, Toshiyasu; Akemoto, Mitsuo; Hayano, Hitoshi; Nakagawa, Keiichi

    2004-01-01

    Compton scattering hard X-ray source for 10-80 keV are under construction using the X-band (11.424 GHz) electron linear accelerator and YAG laser at Nuclear Engineering Research laboratory, University of Tokyo. This work is a part of the national project on the development of advanced compact medical accelerators in Japan. National Institute for Radiological Science is the host institute and U.Tokyo and KEK are working for the X-ray source. Main advantage is to produce tunable monochromatic hard (10-80 keV) X-rays with the intensities of 108-1010 photons/s (at several stages) and the table-top size. Second important aspect is to reduce noise radiation at a beam dump by adopting the deceleration of electrons after the Compton scattering. This realizes one beamline of a 3rd generation SR source at small facilities without heavy shielding. The final goal is that the linac and laser are installed on the moving gantry. We have designed the X-band (11.424 GHz) traveling-wave-type linac for the purpose. Numerical consideration by CAIN code and luminosity calculation are performed to estimate the X-ray yield. X-band thermionic-cathode RF-gun and RDS(Round Detuned Structure)-type X-band accelerating structure are applied to generate 50 MeV electron beam with 20 pC microbunches (104) for 1 microsecond RF macro-pulse. The X-ray yield by the electron beam and Q-switch Nd:YAG laser of 2 J/10 ns is 107 photons/RF-pulse (108 photons/sec at 10 pps). We design to adopt a technique of laser circulation to increase the X-ray yield up to 109 photons/pulse (1010 photons/s). 50 MW X-band klystron and compact modulator have been constructed and now under tuning. The construction of the whole system has started. X-ray generation and medical application will be performed in the early next year

  18. Nearly copropagating sheared laser pulse FEL undulator for soft x-rays

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Lawler, J E; Yavuz, D; Bisognano, J; Bosch, R A; Chiang, T C; Green, M A; Jacobs, K; Miller, T; Wehlitz, R; York, R C

    2013-01-01

    A conceptual design for a soft x-ray free-electron laser (FEL) using a short-pulsed, high energy near infrared laser undulator and a low-emittance modest-energy (∼170 MeV) electron beam is described. This low-cost design uses the laser undulator beam in a nearly copropagating fashion with respect to the electron beam, instead of the traditional ‘head-on’ fashion. The nearly copropagating geometry reduces the Doppler shift of scattered radiation to yield soft, rather than hard x-rays. To increase the FEL gain a sheared laser pulse from a Ti : sapphire or other broadband laser is used to extend the otherwise short interaction time of the nearly copropagating laser undulator beam with a relativistic electron beam. (paper)

  19. Storage of laser pulses in a Fabry-Perot optical cavity for high flux x-ray

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Takezawa, K.; Honda, Y.; Sasao, N.; Araki, S.; Higashi, Y.; Taniguchi, T.; Urakawa, J.; Nomura, M.; Sakai, H.

    2004-01-01

    We have a plan to produce a high flux x-ray for medical use by using a Fabry-Perot optical cavity in which the lower pulses from a mode-locked laser are stored and enhanced. In this plan, the X-ray is produced from the Compton scattering of electrons in a storage ring with the laser light in the optical cavity. In order to increase X-ray flux, high power laser light is necessary. We show the enhancement of the laser power from the model locked laser with a Fabry-Perot optical cavity. (author)

  20. X-ray small angle scattering of polymer solutions

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Koyama, Ryuzo

    1975-01-01

    In recent papers, the calculated results were reported on the angular dependence of the intensity of scattered light or X-ray by chain polymers, on the basis of a stiff chain model. As the results, the curves of S 2 P (theta) corresponding to Kratky plot, for different molecular expansion, showed a plateau, and the height of the plateau was proportional to the inverse of molecular expansion coefficient α 2 . But as seen later, there is some possibility that the assumption made in the calculation overestimated the expansion of small segments which theoretically determines scattering curves at large scattering angles, such as the plateau. Accordingly, modified calculation was carried out by adopting the stiff chain polymer model as the previous case. When the contour length of a chain segment is very long, it can be treated approximately as a Gaussian coil, thus the equation for a chain segment expansion coefficient α (t) was obtained. Then the mean square distance of chain segments of polymer molecules was able to be determined, and the equation for a particle scattering factor P(theta) was obtained. The numerical calculation of P(theta) showed that this modified assumption considerably decreased the effect of molecular expansion on P(theta), and the curves of S 2 P(theta) increased monotonously without showing the plateau. The result of this calculation was compared with the experimental curves of polystyrene-toluene solution, and the agreement better than before was obtained. (Kako, I.)

  1. Probing warm dense lithium by inelastic X-ray scattering

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Garcia Saiz, E; Riley, D [School of Mathematics and Physics, Queen' s University of Belfast, Belfast (United Kingdom); Gregori, G [Clarendon Laboratory, University of Oxford, Parks Road, Oxford (United Kingdom); Gregori, G; Clarke, R J; Neely, D; Notley, M M; Spindloe, C [Central Laser Facility, Rutherford Appleton Laboratory, Chilton, Didcot, OX (United Kingdom); Gericke, D O; Vorberger, J; Wunsch, K [Centre for Fusion, Space and Astrophysics, Department of Physics, University of Warwick, Coventry (United Kingdom); Barbrel, B; Koenig, M [Laboratoire pour l' Utilisation des Laser Intenses, Ecole Polytechnique - Universite Paris-6, 91 - Palaiseau (France); Freeman, R R; Weber, R L; Van Woerkom, L [Department of Physics, The Ohio State University, Columbus, Ohio (United States); Glenzer, S H; Landen, O L; Neumayer, P; Price, D [Lawrence Livermore National Laboratory, Livermore, California (United States); Khattak, F Y [Department of Physics, Kohat University of Science and Technology, Kohat-26000, NWFP (Pakistan); Pelka, A; Roth, M; Schollmeier, M [Institut fur Kernphysik, Technische Universitat Darmstadt (Germany)

    2008-10-15

    One of the grand challenges of contemporary physics is understanding strongly interacting quantum systems comprising such diverse examples as ultracold atoms in traps, electrons in high-temperature superconductors and nuclear matter. Warm dense matter, defined by temperatures of a few electron volts and densities comparable with solids, is a complex state of such interacting matter. Moreover, the study of warm dense matter states has practical applications for controlled thermonuclear fusion, where it is encountered during the implosion phase, and it also represents laboratory analogues of astrophysical environments found in the core of planets and the crusts of old stars. Here we demonstrate how warm dense matter states can be diagnosed and structural properties can be obtained by inelastic X-ray scattering measurements on a compressed lithium sample. Combining experiments and ab initio simulations enables us to determine its microscopic state and to evaluate more approximate theoretical models for the ionic structure. (authors)

  2. Anomalous x-ray scattering studies of functional disordered materials

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Kohara, S; Tajiri, H; Song, C H; Ohara, K; Temleitner, L; Sugimito, K; Fujiwara, A; Pusztai, L; Usuki, T; Hosokawa, S; Benino, Y; Kitamura, N; Fukumi, K

    2014-01-01

    We have developed anomalous x-ray scattering (AXS) spectrometers, that employ intrinsic Ge detectors and crystal analyzers, at SPring-8. The use of LiF analyzer crystal provides us with an energy resolution of ∼ 12 eV. Furthermore, it has been established that the use of AXS technique is essential to reveal the relationship between the atomic structure and its function of a fast phase-change material, Ge 2 Sb 2 Te 5 . We were able to address the issue of why the amorphous phase of fast phase change materials is stable at room temperature for a long time despite the fact that it can rapidly transform to the crystalline phase by using a combination of AXS and large scale density functional theory-based molecular dynamics simulations.

  3. Small angle X-ray scattering on concentrated hemoglobin solutions

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Zinke, M.; Damaschun, G.; Mueller, J.J.; Ruckpaul, K.

    1978-01-01

    The small-angle X-ray scattering technique was used to determine the intermolecular structure and interaction potentials in oxi-and deoxi-hemoglobin solutions. The pair correlation function obtained by the ZERNICKE-PRINS equation characterizes the intermolecular structure of the hemoglobin molecules. The intermolecular structure is concentration dependent. The hemoglobin molecules have a 'short range order structure' with a range of about 4 molecule diameters at 324 g/l. The potential functions of the hemoglobin-hemoglobin interaction have been determined on the basis of fluid theories. Except for the deoxi-hemoglobin solution having the concentration 370 g/l, the pair interaction consists in a short repulsion and a weak short-range attraction against kT. The potential minimum is between 1.2 - 1.5 nm above the greatest hemoglobin diameter. (author)

  4. Inelastic x-ray scattering from polycrystalline materials

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Fischer, I.

    2008-09-01

    Inelastic X-ray scattering (IXS) is a tool to determine the phonon dispersion along high symmetry directions in single crystals. However, novel materials and crystals under extreme conditions are often only available in form of polycrystalline samples. Thus the investigation is limited to orientation-averaged properties. To overcome these limitations, a methodology to extract the single crystal phonon dispersion from polycrystalline materials was developed. The approach consists of recording IXS spectra over a large momentum transfer region and confront them with a Born - von Karman model calculation. A least-square refinement of the model IXS spectra then provides the single crystal dispersion scheme. In this work the method is developed on the test case Be. Further studies were performed on more and more complex systems, in order to explore the limitations. This novel application of IXS promises to be a valuable tool in cases where single crystalline materials are not available. (author)

  5. Pulsed x-ray generation from a plasma focus device

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Zambra, M; Bruzzone, H; Sidelnikov, Y; Kies, W; Moreno, C; Sylvester, G; Silva, P; Moreno, J; Soto, L

    2003-01-01

    Dynamical pinches coupled to electrodes like the dense Z-pinch or the dense plasma focus have been intensively studied in the last four decades for their high fusion efficiency and their application potential. Though the expectations of the eighties of the last century, scaling these pinches up to fusion reactors, did not come true, the development of fast and powerful experiments resulted in new insights in pinch physics and paved the way for developing compact dynamical pinches as pulsed neutron and X-radiation sources for many applications. There is a permanent and growing interest in the research community for understanding and determining the generation properties of X-rays, neutrons and charged particles emitted from a high-temperature high-density plasmas, especially in the plasma focus configuration. The Plasma Physics and Plasma Technology Group of the CCHEN has developed the SPEED4 fast-plasma focus device, in collaboration with the Plasma Physics Group of the Dusseldorf University, in order to perform experimental studies such as X-ray and neutron emission, and electron and ion beam characterization (author)

  6. Ultra-high-resolution inelastic X-ray scattering at high-repetition-rate self-seeded X-ray free-electron lasers

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Chubar, Oleg [Brookhaven National Laboratory, Upton, NY 11973 (United States); Geloni, Gianluca [European X-ray Free-Electron Laser, Albert-Einstein-Ring 19, 22761 Hamburg (Germany); Kocharyan, Vitali [Deutsches Elektronen-Synchrotron, 22761 Hamburg (Germany); Madsen, Anders [European X-ray Free-Electron Laser, Albert-Einstein-Ring 19, 22761 Hamburg (Germany); Saldin, Evgeni; Serkez, Svitozar [Deutsches Elektronen-Synchrotron, 22761 Hamburg (Germany); Shvyd’ko, Yuri, E-mail: shvydko@aps.anl.gov [Argonne National Laboratory, Argonne, IL 60439 (United States); Sutter, John [Diamond Light Source Ltd, Didcot OX11 0DE (United Kingdom)

    2016-02-12

    This article explores novel opportunities for ultra-high-resolution inelastic X-ray scattering (IXS) at high-repetition-rate self-seeded XFELs. These next-generation light sources are promising a more than three orders of magnitude increase in average spectral flux compared with what is possible with storage-ring-based radiation sources. In combination with the advanced IXS spectrometer described here, this may become a real game-changer for ultra-high-resolution X-ray spectroscopies, and hence for the studies of dynamics in condensed matter systems. Inelastic X-ray scattering (IXS) is an important tool for studies of equilibrium dynamics in condensed matter. A new spectrometer recently proposed for ultra-high-resolution IXS (UHRIX) has achieved 0.6 meV and 0.25 nm{sup −1} spectral and momentum-transfer resolutions, respectively. However, further improvements down to 0.1 meV and 0.02 nm{sup −1} are required to close the gap in energy–momentum space between high- and low-frequency probes. It is shown that this goal can be achieved by further optimizing the X-ray optics and by increasing the spectral flux of the incident X-ray pulses. UHRIX performs best at energies from 5 to 10 keV, where a combination of self-seeding and undulator tapering at the SASE-2 beamline of the European XFEL promises up to a 100-fold increase in average spectral flux compared with nominal SASE pulses at saturation, or three orders of magnitude more than what is possible with storage-ring-based radiation sources. Wave-optics calculations show that about 7 × 10{sup 12} photons s{sup −1} in a 90 µeV bandwidth can be achieved on the sample. This will provide unique new possibilities for dynamics studies by IXS.

  7. Small angle neutron scattering and small angle X-ray scattering ...

    Indian Academy of Sciences (India)

    Abstract. The morphology of carbon nanofoam samples comprising platinum nanopar- ticles dispersed in the matrix was characterized by small angle neutron scattering (SANS) and small angle X-ray scattering (SAXS) techniques. Results show that the structure of pores of carbon matrix exhibits a mass (pore) fractal nature ...

  8. Resonant inelastic X-ray scattering of liquid water

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Nilsson, Anders; Tokushima, Takashi; Horikawa, Yuka; Harada, Yoshihisa; Ljungberg, Mathias P.; Shin, Shik; Pettersson, Lars G.M.

    2013-01-01

    Highlights: ► Two peaks are observed in the lone pair region of the XES spectrum of water assigned to tetrahedral and distorted hydrogen bonding configurations. ► The isotope effect observed as different relative peak heights is due to spectral line shape differences. ► The two different hydrogen bonding environments can be related to local structures mimicking either low density water or high density water. -- Abstract: We review recent studies using resonant inelastic X-ray scattering (RIXS) or also here denoted X-ray emission spectroscopy (XES) on liquid water and the assignment of the two sharp peaks in the lone-pair region. Using the excitation energy dependence we connect the two peaks to specific features in the X-ray absorption (XAS) spectrum which have independently been assigned to molecules in tetrahedral or distorted configurations. The polarization dependence shows that both peaks are of 1b 1 origin supporting an interpretation in terms of two structural species, tetrahedral or disordered, which is furthermore consistent with the temperature-dependence of the two peaks. We discuss effects of life-time vibrational interference and how this affects the two components differently and also leads to differences in the relative peak heights for H 2 O and D 2 O. We show furthermore that the inherent structure in molecular dynamics simulations contain the structural bimodality suggested by XES, but this is smeared out in the real structure when temperature is included. We present a discussion around alternative interpretations suggesting that the origin of the two peaks is related to ultrafast dissociation and show evidence that such a model is inconsistent with several experimental observations and theoretical concepts. We conclude that the peaks reflect a temperature-dependent balance in fluctuations between tetrahedral and disordered structures in the liquid. This is well-aligned with theories of water under supercooled conditions and higher pressures

  9. Resonant inelastic X-ray scattering of liquid water

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Nilsson, Anders, E-mail: nilsson@slac.stanford.edu [SUNCAT Ctr Interface Sci and Catalysis, SLAC National Accelerator Laboratory, 2575 Sand Hill Road, Menlo Park, CA 94025 (United States); Stanford Synchrotron Radiation Lightsource, SLAC National Accelerator Laboratory, 2575 Sand Hill Road, Menlo Park, CA 94025 (United States); Department of Physics, AlbaNova University Center, Stockholm University, SE-10691 (Sweden); Tokushima, Takashi [RIKEN/Spring-8, Sayo-cho, Sayo, Hyogo 679-5148 (Japan); Horikawa, Yuka [RIKEN/Spring-8, Sayo-cho, Sayo, Hyogo 679-5148 (Japan); Institute for Solid State Physics (ISSP), The University of Tokyo, Kashiwanoha, Kashiwa, Chiba 277-8581 (Japan); Harada, Yoshihisa [RIKEN/Spring-8, Sayo-cho, Sayo, Hyogo 679-5148 (Japan); Institute for Solid State Physics (ISSP), The University of Tokyo, Kashiwanoha, Kashiwa, Chiba 277-8581 (Japan); Synchrotron Radiation Research Organization, The University of Tokyo, Sayo-cho, Sayo, Hyogo 679-5165 (Japan); Ljungberg, Mathias P. [Department of Physics, AlbaNova University Center, Stockholm University, SE-10691 (Sweden); Institut de Ciencia de Materials de Barcelona (ICMAB-CSIC), Campus UAB, E-08193 Bellaterra (Spain); Shin, Shik [RIKEN/Spring-8, Sayo-cho, Sayo, Hyogo 679-5148 (Japan); Institute for Solid State Physics (ISSP), The University of Tokyo, Kashiwanoha, Kashiwa, Chiba 277-8581 (Japan); Synchrotron Radiation Research Organization, The University of Tokyo, Sayo-cho, Sayo, Hyogo 679-5165 (Japan); Pettersson, Lars G.M. [Department of Physics, AlbaNova University Center, Stockholm University, SE-10691 (Sweden)

    2013-06-15

    Highlights: ► Two peaks are observed in the lone pair region of the XES spectrum of water assigned to tetrahedral and distorted hydrogen bonding configurations. ► The isotope effect observed as different relative peak heights is due to spectral line shape differences. ► The two different hydrogen bonding environments can be related to local structures mimicking either low density water or high density water. -- Abstract: We review recent studies using resonant inelastic X-ray scattering (RIXS) or also here denoted X-ray emission spectroscopy (XES) on liquid water and the assignment of the two sharp peaks in the lone-pair region. Using the excitation energy dependence we connect the two peaks to specific features in the X-ray absorption (XAS) spectrum which have independently been assigned to molecules in tetrahedral or distorted configurations. The polarization dependence shows that both peaks are of 1b{sub 1} origin supporting an interpretation in terms of two structural species, tetrahedral or disordered, which is furthermore consistent with the temperature-dependence of the two peaks. We discuss effects of life-time vibrational interference and how this affects the two components differently and also leads to differences in the relative peak heights for H{sub 2}O and D{sub 2}O. We show furthermore that the inherent structure in molecular dynamics simulations contain the structural bimodality suggested by XES, but this is smeared out in the real structure when temperature is included. We present a discussion around alternative interpretations suggesting that the origin of the two peaks is related to ultrafast dissociation and show evidence that such a model is inconsistent with several experimental observations and theoretical concepts. We conclude that the peaks reflect a temperature-dependent balance in fluctuations between tetrahedral and disordered structures in the liquid. This is well-aligned with theories of water under supercooled conditions and

  10. Structural studies using X-ray absorption and scattering techniques

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Ericson, Agneta.

    1989-01-01

    The thesis presents extended X-ray absorption fine structure, EXAFS, and large angle X-ray scattering, LAXS, techniques; instrumentation, data collection and reduction, and applications. These techniques have been used to determine the structures of magnesium halides and organomagnesium halides in diethyl ether and tetrahydrofuran solution. The iodides were used for the LAXS measurements and Br K edge EXAFS data were collected for the corresponding bromides. Two different complexes are present in the diethyl ether solution of magnesium iodide; a polymeric chain-type structure where magnesium is tetrahedrally coordinated, as well as dimeric complex with octahedrally coordinated magnesium. Solvated MgI + is the dominating species in tetrahydrofuran solution. The organomagnesium halides are present in diethyl ether solution as both solvated monomeric and dimeric complexes. Magnesium coordinates a halide ion, an alkyl or aryl group and four solvent molecules octahedrally in the monomeric complex. In the dimeric complex magnesium is octahedrally coordinated by two bridging halide ions, an alkyl or aryl group and three solvent molecules. The distribution of monomeric and dimeric complexes in various solutions are given by a dimerisation constant, K dl . The results indicate that the Schlenk equilibrium is present in these solutions, however, in an extended form. In diethyl ether solution, where MgX 2 does not dissociate, no MgX 2 complex and thereby no Schlenk equilibrium has been observed. In tetrahydrofuran solution MgI 2 has dissociated into mainly MgI + and I - . This indicates that the concentration of MgI 2 is low and that the Schlenk equilibrium should be expanded even further to include the dissociation equilibrium of the magnesium halide. In the thesis Fe K edge EXAFS data collected for the semireduced form of protein A of methane monooxygenase from Methylococcus capsulatus, are also presented. (139 refs.)

  11. On the response of electronic personal dosimeters in constant potential and pulsed X-ray beams

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Guimaraes, Margarete C.; Silva, Teogenes; Silva, Claudete R.E., E-mail: margaretecristinag@gmail.com [Centro de Desenvolvimento da Tecnologia Nuclear (CDTN/CNEN-MG), Belo Horizonte, MG (Brazil); Oliveira, Paulo Marcio C. de [Universidade Federal de Minas Gerais (UFMG), Belo Horizonte, MG (Brazil). Departamento de Anatomia e Imagem

    2015-07-01

    Electronic personal dosimeters (EPDs) based on solid state detectors have widely been used but some deficiencies in their response in pulsed radiation beams have been reported. Nowadays, there is not an international standard for pulsed X-ray beams for calibration or type testing of dosimeters. Irradiation conditions for testing the response of EPDs in both the constant potential and pulsed X-ray beams were established in CDTN. Three different types of EPDs were tested in different conditions in similar ISO and IEC X-ray qualities. Results stressed the need of performing additional checks before using EPDs in constant potential or pulsed X-rays. (author)

  12. Intensity of diffracted X-rays from biomolecules with radiation damage caused by strong X-ray pulses

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Kai, Takeshi; Tokuhisa, Atsushi; Moribayashi, Kengo; Fukuda, Yuji; Kono, Hidetoshi; Go, Nobuhiro

    2014-01-01

    In order to realize the coherent X-ray diffractive imaging of single biomolecules, the diffraction intensities, per effective pixel of a single biomolecule with radiation damage, caused by irradiation using a strong coherent X-ray pulse, were examined. A parameter survey was carried out for various experimental conditions, using a developed simulation program that considers the effect of electric field ionization, which was slightly reported on in previous studies. The two simple relationships among the parameters were identified as follows: (1) the diffraction intensity of a biomolecule slightly increases with the incident X-ray energy; and that (2) the diffraction intensity is approximately proportional to the target radius, when the radius is longer than 400 Å, since the upper limit of the incident intensity for damage to the biomolecules marginally changes with respect to the target radius. (author)

  13. X-ray crystal structure and small-angle X-ray scattering of sheep liver sorbitol dehydrogenase

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Yennawar, Hemant [Pennsylvania State University, 8 Althouse Laboratory, University Park, PA 16802 (United States); Møller, Magda [Cornell High Energy Synchrotron Source, Ithaca, NY 14853 (United States); University of Copenhagen, DK-2100 Copenhagen (Denmark); Gillilan, Richard [Cornell High Energy Synchrotron Source, Ithaca, NY 14853 (United States); Yennawar, Neela, E-mail: nhy1@psu.edu [Pennsylvania State University, 8 Althouse Laboratory, University Park, PA 16802 (United States)

    2011-05-01

    The X-ray crystal structure and a small-angle X-ray scattering solution structure of sheep liver sorbitol dehydrogenase have been determined. The details of the interactions that enable the tetramer scaffold to be the functional biological unit have been analyzed. The X-ray crystal structure of sheep liver sorbitol dehydrogenase (slSDH) has been determined using the crystal structure of human sorbitol dehydrogenase (hSDH) as a molecular-replacement model. slSDH crystallized in space group I222 with one monomer in the asymmetric unit. A conserved tetramer that superposes well with that seen in hSDH (despite belonging to a different space group) and obeying the 222 crystal symmetry is seen in slSDH. An acetate molecule is bound in the active site, coordinating to the active-site zinc through a water molecule. Glycerol, a substrate of slSDH, also occupies the substrate-binding pocket together with the acetate designed by nature to fit large polyol substrates. The substrate-binding pocket is seen to be in close proximity to the tetramer interface, which explains the need for the structural integrity of the tetramer for enzyme activity. Small-angle X-ray scattering was also used to identify the quaternary structure of the tetramer of slSDH in solution.

  14. A synchrotron radiation camera and data acquisition system for time resolved x-ray scattering studies

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Bordas, J.; Koch, M.H.J.; Clout, P.N.; Dorrington, E.; Boulin, C.; Gabriel, A.

    1980-01-01

    Until recently, time resolved measurements of x-ray scattering patterns have not been feasible because laboratory x-ray sources were too weak and detectors unavailable. Recent developments in both these fields have changed the situation, and it is now possible to follow changes in x-ray scattering patterns with a time resolution of a few ms. The apparatus used to achieve this is described and some examples from recent biological experiments are given. (author)

  15. X-ray atomic scattering factors of low-Z ions with a core hole

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Hau-Riege, Stefan P.

    2007-01-01

    Short and intense x-ray pulses may be used for atomic-resolution diffraction imaging of single biological molecules. One of the dominant damage mechanisms is atomic ionization, resulting in a large fraction of atoms with core holes. We calculated the atomic scattering factor of atoms with atomic charge numbers between 3 and 10 in different ionization states with and without a core hole. Our results show that orbital occupation and the change of the orbitals upon core ionization (core relaxation) have a significant impact on the diffraction pattern

  16. Experimental studies on pulse soft X-ray generator

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Li Chengrong; Yang Qinchi; Luo Chengmu; Han Min

    1990-01-01

    Emission sources of soft x rays (2 keV < hv < 6 keV) from hot plasmas have been studied in a small gas-puff Z-pinch. The emission sources are a group of uncontinuous hot spots. The output of soft x rays from the hot spots have been measured and the effect of the initial gas density on the yield of soft x rays has been investigated

  17. Discovery of Hard Nonthermal Pulsed X-Ray Emission from the Anomalous X-Ray Pulsar 1E 1841-045

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Kuiper, L.; Hermsen, W.; Méndez, R.M.

    2004-01-01

    We report the discovery of nonthermal pulsed X-ray/soft gamma-ray emission up to ~150 keV from the anomalous 11.8 s X-ray pulsar AXP 1E 1841-045 located near the center of supernova remnant Kes 73 using Rossi X-Ray Timing Explorer (RXTE) Proportional Counter Array and High Energy X-Ray Timing

  18. On-axis microscopes for the inelastic x-ray scattering beamline at NSLS-II

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Gofron, K. J., E-mail: kgofron@bnl.gov; Cai, Y. Q.; Coburn, D. S.; Antonelli, S.; Suvorov, A. [National Synchrotron Light Source II, Brookhaven National Laboratory, Upton, NY 11973 (United States); Flores, J. [Department of Physics and Astronomy, Stony Brook University, NY 11794 (United States)

    2016-07-27

    A novel on-axis X-ray microscope with 3 µm resolution, 3x magnification, and a working distance of 600 mm for in-situ sample alignment and X-ray beam visualization for the Inelastic X-ray Scattering (IXS) beamline at NSLS-II is presented. The microscope uses reflective optics, which minimizes dispersion, and allows imaging from Ultraviolet (UV) to Infrared (IR) with specifically chosen objective components (coatings, etc.). Additionally, a portable high resolution X-ray microscope for KB mirror alignment and X-ray beam characterization was developed.

  19. X-Ray Thomson Scattering Without the Chihara Decomposition

    Science.gov (United States)

    Magyar, Rudolph; Baczewski, Andrew; Shulenburger, Luke; Hansen, Stephanie B.; Desjarlais, Michael P.; Sandia National Laboratories Collaboration

    X-Ray Thomson Scattering is an important experimental technique used in dynamic compression experiments to measure the properties of warm dense matter. The fundamental property probed in these experiments is the electronic dynamic structure factor that is typically modeled using an empirical three-term decomposition (Chihara, J. Phys. F, 1987). One of the crucial assumptions of this decomposition is that the system's electrons can be either classified as bound to ions or free. This decomposition may not be accurate for materials in the warm dense regime. We present unambiguous first principles calculations of the dynamic structure factor independent of the Chihara decomposition that can be used to benchmark these assumptions. Results are generated using a finite-temperature real-time time-dependent density functional theory applied for the first time in these conditions. Sandia National Laboratories is a multi-program laboratory managed and operated by Sandia Corporation, a wholly owned subsidiary of Lockheed Martin Corporation, for the U.S. Department of Energy's National Security Administration under contract DE-AC04-94AL85000.

  20. A study on the measurement of effective energy of scattering X-rays

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Oogama, Noboru; Fujimoto, Nobuhisa; Nishitani, Motohiro; Yamada, Katsuhiko

    1995-01-01

    Only a few studies have been reported on the measurement and evaluation of the effective energy of scattering X-rays using an ionization chamber. The reason for this is due to the difficulty in accurately measuring attenuation curve in scattering X-rays lacking any directional properties. We could come up with a new method for calculating the effective energy of scattering X-rays by utilizing their spectra data. First, for analysing the accuracy of our calculation method with using primary X-rays, a comparison was made of calculated values of the effective energy obtained by our calculation method with the measurement values obtained using an ionization chamber. The results gave the calculated values agreeing with the measurement values within a maximum error of 2%, and this method was very helpful in measuring the effective energy of the scattering X-rays. Consequently, this method was capable of measuring the effective energy of scattering X-rays in the following parameters: X-ray tube voltage, scattering angle and size of scatterer. In conclusion, it is considered that our method could solve the present difficulty regarding the measurement of effective energy of the scattering X-rays, and provided a useful procedure concerning the study of radiation protection. (author)

  1. Single-pulse x-ray diffraction using polycapillary optics for in situ dynamic diffraction

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Maddox, B. R., E-mail: maddox3@llnl.gov; Akin, M. C., E-mail: akin1@llnl.gov; Teruya, A.; Hunt, D.; Hahn, D.; Cradick, J. [Lawrence Livermore National Laboratory, Livermore, California 94550 (United States); Morgan, D. V. [National Security Technologies LLC, Los Alamos, New Mexico 87544 (United States)

    2016-08-15

    Diagnostic use of single-pulse x-ray diffraction (XRD) at pulsed power facilities can be challenging due to factors such as the high flux and brightness requirements for diffraction and the geometric constraints of experimental platforms. By necessity, the x-ray source is usually positioned very close, within a few inches of the sample. On dynamic compression platforms, this puts the x-ray source in the debris field. We coupled x-ray polycapillary optics to a single-shot needle-and-washer x-ray diode source using a laser-based alignment scheme to obtain high-quality x-ray diffraction using a single 16 ns x-ray pulse with the source >1 m from the sample. The system was tested on a Mo sample in reflection geometry using 17 keV x-rays from a Mo anode. We also identified an anode conditioning effect that increased the x-ray intensity by 180%. Quantitative measurements of the x-ray focal spot produced by the polycapillary yielded a total x-ray flux on the sample of 3.3 ± 0.5 × 10{sup 7} molybdenum Kα photons.

  2. Impact of intense x-ray pulses on a NaI(Tl)-based gamma camera

    Science.gov (United States)

    Koppert, W. J. C.; van der Velden, S.; Steenbergen, J. H. L.; de Jong, H. W. A. M.

    2018-03-01

    In SPECT/CT systems x-ray and γ-ray imaging is performed sequentially. Simultaneous acquisition may have advantages, for instance in interventional settings. However, this may expose a gamma camera to relatively high x-ray doses and deteriorate its functioning. We studied the NaI(Tl) response to x-ray pulses with a photodiode, PMT and gamma camera, respectively. First, we exposed a NaI(Tl)-photodiode assembly to x-ray pulses to investigate potential crystal afterglow. Next, we exposed a NaI(Tl)-PMT assembly to 10 ms LED pulses (mimicking x-ray pulses) and measured the response to flashing LED probe-pulses (mimicking γ-pulses). We then exposed the assembly to x-ray pulses, with detector entrance doses of up to 9 nGy/pulse, and analysed the response for γ-pulse variations. Finally, we studied the response of a Siemens Diacam gamma camera to γ-rays while exposed to x-ray pulses. X-ray exposure of the crystal, read out with a photodiode, revealed 15% afterglow fraction after 3 ms. The NaI(Tl)-PMT assembly showed disturbances up to 10 ms after 10 ms LED exposure. After x-ray exposure however, responses showed elevated baselines, with 60 ms decay-time. Both for x-ray and LED exposure and after baseline subtraction, probe-pulse analysis revealed disturbed pulse height measurements shortly after exposure. X-ray exposure of the Diacam corroborated the elementary experiments. Up to 50 ms after an x-ray pulse, no events are registered, followed by apparent energy elevations up to 100 ms after exposure. Limiting the dose to 0.02 nGy/pulse prevents detrimental effects. Conventional gamma cameras exhibit substantial dead-time and mis-registration of photon energies up to 100 ms after intense x-ray pulses. This is due PMT limitations and due to afterglow in the crystal. Using PMTs with modified circuitry, we show that deteriorative afterglow effects can be reduced without noticeable effects on the PMT performance, up to x-ray pulse doses of 1 nGy.

  3. Scanning small angle X-ray scattering investigations of bone

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Rinnerthaler, S.

    1998-06-01

    An important characteristic of bone is its strength, which is determined by bone mass, architecture and material quality. From a physical point of view bone is a composite material consisting of an organic matrix (collagen) and of inlets of mineral crystals (hydroxyapatite). These components build up a hierarchical, heterogeneous structure. The size of the mineral crystals lies in the nano-meter range and can be investigated by positionsensitive Small-Angle X-ray Scattering (Scanning-SAXS) in a non-destructive way. The average thickness, the degree and direction of the predominant orientation, as well as some information about shape and arrangement of the mineral crystals were determined in bones of humans, mice, and baboons by Scanning-SAXS with respect to age, bone diseases (osteogenesis imperfecta, pycnodysostosis) or medical treatments (fluoride or alendronate) of osteoporosis. The crystal thickness and the degree of orientation is much smaller in young individuals than in adults and the predominant orientation of the mineral crystals is different in a mixture of bone and mineralized cartilage compared to bone. Further, because position-resolved measurements are now possible, results from Scanning-SAXS measurements could be compared with the results of other position resolved methods. Due to this new feature it was possible, for the first time, to correlate directly 'mottled' bone visible in back-scattered electron imaging with small η-parameters evaluated from SAXS-patterns and the course of the collagen fibers with the predominant orientation of the mineral crystals. Scanning-SAXS proved to be a powerful tool to characterize bone nano-structure. (author)

  4. Characterization of a pulsed x-ray source for fluorescent lifetime measurements

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Blankespoor, S.C.; Derenzo, S.E.; Moses, W.W.; Rossington, C.S.; Ito, M.; Oba, K.

    1994-01-01

    To search for new, fast, inorganic scintillators, the authors have developed a bench-top pulsed x-ray source for determining fluorescent lifetimes and wavelengths of compounds in crystal or powdered form. This source uses a light-excited x-ray tube which produces x-rays when light from a laser diode strikes its photocathode. The x-ray tube has a tungsten anode, a beryllium exit window, a 30 kV maximum tube bias, and a 50 μA maximum average cathode current. The laser produces 3 x 10 7 photons at 650 nm per ∼100 ps pulse, with up to 10 7 pulses/sec. The time spread for the laser diode, x-ray tube, and a microchannel plate photomultiplier tube is less than 120 ps fwhm. The mean x-ray energy at tube biases of 20, 25, and 30 kV is 9.4, 10.3, and 11.1 keV, respectively. The authors measured 140, 230, and 330 x-ray photons per laser diode pulse per steradian, at tube biases of 20, 25, and 30 kV, respectively. Background x-rays due to dark current occur at a rate of 1 x 10 6 and 3 x 10 6 photons/sec/steradian at biases of 25 and 30 kV, respectively. Data characterizing the x-ray output with an aluminum filter in the x-ray beam are also presented

  5. The complex ion structure of warm dense carbon measured by spectrally resolved x-ray scattering

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Kraus, D.; Barbrel, B.; Falcone, R. W. [Department of Physics, University of California, Berkeley, California 94720 (United States); Vorberger, J. [Max-Planck-Institut für Physik komplexer Systeme, Nöthnitzer Straße 38, 01187 Dresden (Germany); Helfrich, J.; Frydrych, S.; Ortner, A.; Otten, A.; Roth, F.; Schaumann, G.; Schumacher, D.; Siegenthaler, K.; Wagner, F.; Roth, M. [Institut für Kernphysik, Technische Universität Darmstadt, Schlossgartenstraße 9, 64289 Darmstadt (Germany); Gericke, D. O.; Wünsch, K. [Centre for Fusion, Space and Astrophysics, Department of Physics, University of Warwick, Coventry CV4 7AL (United Kingdom); Bachmann, B.; Döppner, T. [Lawrence Livermore National Laboratory, Livermore, California 94550 (United States); Bagnoud, V.; Blažević, A. [GSI Helmholtzzentrum für Schwerionenforschung GmbH, Planckstraße 1, 64291 Darmstadt (Germany); and others

    2015-05-15

    We present measurements of the complex ion structure of warm dense carbon close to the melting line at pressures around 100 GPa. High-pressure samples were created by laser-driven shock compression of graphite and probed by intense laser-generated x-ray sources with photon energies of 4.75 keV and 4.95 keV. High-efficiency crystal spectrometers allow for spectrally resolving the scattered radiation. Comparing the ratio of elastically and inelastically scattered radiation, we find evidence for a complex bonded liquid that is predicted by ab-initio quantum simulations showing the influence of chemical bonds under these conditions. Using graphite samples of different initial densities we demonstrate the capability of spectrally resolved x-ray scattering to monitor the carbon solid-liquid transition at relatively constant pressure of 150 GPa. Showing first single-pulse scattering spectra from cold graphite of unprecedented quality recorded at the Linac Coherent Light Source, we demonstrate the outstanding possibilities for future high-precision measurements at 4th Generation Light Sources.

  6. Portable pulsed X-ray digital radiographic system based on network transmission

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Tang Le; Li Yuanjing; Wang Yi; Cheng Jianping

    2004-01-01

    Network communication technology of TCP/IP protocol serves as application in pulse X-ray digital radiography system. The system radiographs synchronously with pulse X-ray and converts image signals to digital data, which are transmitted to computer for displaying and processing in network. The system composing structures are present and portable and other characteristics are introduced. (authors)

  7. Development of a compact x-ray source via laser compton scattering at KEK-LUCX

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Sakaue, Kazuyuki; Washio, Masakazu; Aryshev, Alexander; Araki, Sakae; Urakawa, Junji; Terunuma, Nobuhiro; Fukuda, Masafumi; Miyoshi, Toshinobu; Takeda, Ayaki

    2013-01-01

    The compact X-ray source based on Laser-Compton scattering (LCS) has been developed at LUCX (Laser Undulator Compact X-ray source) facility in KEK. The multi-bunch high quality electron beam produced by a standing wave 3.6 cell RF Gun and accelerated by the followed S-band normal conducting 12 cells standing wave 'Booster' linear accelerator is scattered off the laser beam stored in the optical cavity. The 4-mirror planar optical cavity with finesse 335 is used. The MCP (Micro-Channer Plate) detector as well as SOI (Silicon-On-Insulator) pixel sensor was used for scattered X-ray detection. The SOI pixel sensor has been used for LCS X-ray detection for the first time and has demonstrated high spatial resolution and high SN ratio X-ray detection that in turn lead to clearest X-ray images achieved by LCS X-ray. We have also achieved generation of 6.38x10 6 ph./sec., which is more than 30 times larger LCS X-ray flux in comparison with our previous results. The complete details of LUCX LCS X-ray source, specifications of both electron and laser beams, and the results of LCS X-ray generation experiments are reported in this paper. (author)

  8. Computational time-resolved and resonant x-ray scattering of strongly correlated materials

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Bansil, Arun [Northeastern Univ., Boston, MA (United States)

    2016-11-09

    Basic-Energy Sciences of the Department of Energy (BES/DOE) has made large investments in x-ray sources in the U.S. (NSLS-II, LCLS, NGLS, ALS, APS) as powerful enabling tools for opening up unprecedented new opportunities for exploring properties of matter at various length and time scales. The coming online of the pulsed photon source, literally allows us to see and follow the dynamics of processes in materials at their natural timescales. There is an urgent need therefore to develop theoretical methodologies and computational models for understanding how x-rays interact with matter and the related spectroscopies of materials. The present project addressed aspects of this grand challenge of x-ray science. In particular, our Collaborative Research Team (CRT) focused on developing viable computational schemes for modeling x-ray scattering and photoemission spectra of strongly correlated materials in the time-domain. The vast arsenal of formal/numerical techniques and approaches encompassed by the members of our CRT were brought to bear through appropriate generalizations and extensions to model the pumped state and the dynamics of this non-equilibrium state, and how it can be probed via x-ray absorption (XAS), emission (XES), resonant and non-resonant x-ray scattering, and photoemission processes. We explored the conceptual connections between the time-domain problems and other second-order spectroscopies, such as resonant inelastic x-ray scattering (RIXS) because RIXS may be effectively thought of as a pump-probe experiment in which the incoming photon acts as the pump, and the fluorescent decay is the probe. Alternatively, when the core-valence interactions are strong, one can view K-edge RIXS for example, as the dynamic response of the material to the transient presence of a strong core-hole potential. Unlike an actual pump-probe experiment, here there is no mechanism for adjusting the time-delay between the pump and the probe. However, the core hole

  9. Pulse-to-pulse variations in accreting X-ray pulsars

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Kretschmar Peter

    2014-01-01

    Full Text Available In most accreting X-ray pulsars, the periodic signal is very clear and easily shows up as soon as data covering sufficient pulse periods (a few ten are available. The mean pulse profile is often quite typical for a given source and with minor variations repeated and recognisable across observations done years or even decades apart. At the time scale of individual pulses, significant pulse-to-pulse variations are commonly observed. While at low energies some of these variations might be explained by absorption, in the hard X-rays they will reflect changes in the accretion and subsequent emission. The amount of these variations appears to be quite different between sources and contains information about the surrounding material as well ass possibly interactions at the magnetosphere. We investigate such variations for a sample of well-known sources.

  10. Novel opportunities for sub-meV inelastic X-ray scattering at high-repetition rate self-seeded X-ray free-electron lasers

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Chubar, Oleg [Brookhaven National Laboratory, Upton, NY (United States). National Synchrotron Light Source II; Geloni, Gianluca; Madsen, Anders [European XFEL GmbH, Hamburg (Germany); Kocharyan, Vitali; Saldin, Evgeni; Serkez, Svitozar [Deutsches Elektronen-Synchrotron (DESY), Hamburg (Germany); Shvyd' ko, Yuri [Argonne National Laboratory, IL (United States). Advanced Photon Source; Sutter, John [Diamond Light Source Ltd., Didcot (United Kingdom)

    2015-08-15

    Inelastic X-ray scattering (IXS) is an important tool for studies of equilibrium dynamics in condensed matter. A new spectrometer recently proposed for ultra-high-resolution IXS (UHRIX) has achieved 0.6 meV and 0.25 nm{sup -1} spectral and momentum transfer resolutions, respectively. However, further improvements down to 0.1 meV and 0.02 nm{sup -1} are required to close the gap in energy-momentum space between high and low frequency probes. We show that this goal can be achieved by further optimizing the X-ray optics and by increasing the spectral flux of the incident X-ray pulses. UHRIX performs best at energies from 5 to 10 keV, where a combination of self-seeding and undulator tapering at the SASE-2 beamline of the European XFEL promises up to a hundred-fold increase in average spectral flux compared with nominal SASE pulses at saturation, or three orders of magnitude more than possible with storage-ring based radiation sources. Wave-optics propagation shows that about 7 x 10{sup 12} ph/s in a 90-μeV bandwidth can be achieved on the sample. This will provide unique new possibilities for dynamics studies by IXS.

  11. Novel opportunities for sub-meV inelastic X-ray scattering at high-repetition rate self-seeded X-ray free-electron lasers

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Chubar, Oleg; Kocharyan, Vitali; Saldin, Evgeni; Serkez, Svitozar; Shvyd'ko, Yuri

    2015-08-01

    Inelastic X-ray scattering (IXS) is an important tool for studies of equilibrium dynamics in condensed matter. A new spectrometer recently proposed for ultra-high-resolution IXS (UHRIX) has achieved 0.6 meV and 0.25 nm -1 spectral and momentum transfer resolutions, respectively. However, further improvements down to 0.1 meV and 0.02 nm -1 are required to close the gap in energy-momentum space between high and low frequency probes. We show that this goal can be achieved by further optimizing the X-ray optics and by increasing the spectral flux of the incident X-ray pulses. UHRIX performs best at energies from 5 to 10 keV, where a combination of self-seeding and undulator tapering at the SASE-2 beamline of the European XFEL promises up to a hundred-fold increase in average spectral flux compared with nominal SASE pulses at saturation, or three orders of magnitude more than possible with storage-ring based radiation sources. Wave-optics propagation shows that about 7 x 10 12 ph/s in a 90-μeV bandwidth can be achieved on the sample. This will provide unique new possibilities for dynamics studies by IXS.

  12. Attosecond time-energy structure of X-ray free-electron laser pulses

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hartmann, N.; Hartmann, G.; Heider, R.; Wagner, M. S.; Ilchen, M.; Buck, J.; Lindahl, A. O.; Benko, C.; Grünert, J.; Krzywinski, J.; Liu, J.; Lutman, A. A.; Marinelli, A.; Maxwell, T.; Miahnahri, A. A.; Moeller, S. P.; Planas, M.; Robinson, J.; Kazansky, A. K.; Kabachnik, N. M.; Viefhaus, J.; Feurer, T.; Kienberger, R.; Coffee, R. N.; Helml, W.

    2018-04-01

    The time-energy information of ultrashort X-ray free-electron laser pulses generated by the Linac Coherent Light Source is measured with attosecond resolution via angular streaking of neon 1s photoelectrons. The X-ray pulses promote electrons from the neon core level into an ionization continuum, where they are dressed with the electric field of a circularly polarized infrared laser. This induces characteristic modulations of the resulting photoelectron energy and angular distribution. From these modulations we recover the single-shot attosecond intensity structure and chirp of arbitrary X-ray pulses based on self-amplified spontaneous emission, which have eluded direct measurement so far. We characterize individual attosecond pulses, including their instantaneous frequency, and identify double pulses with well-defined delays and spectral properties, thus paving the way for X-ray pump/X-ray probe attosecond free-electron laser science.

  13. X-ray, neutron, and electron scattering. Report of a materials sciences workshop

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    1977-08-01

    The ERDA Workshop on X-ray, Neutron, and Electron Scattering to assess needs and establish priorities for energy-related basic research on materials. The general goals of the Workshop were: (1) to review various energy technologies where x-ray, neutron, and electron scattering techniques might make significant contributions, (2) to identify present and future materials problems in the energy technologies and translate these problems into requirements for basic research by x-ray, neutron, and electron scattering techniques, (3) to recommend research areas utilizing these three scattering techniques that should be supported by the DPR Materials Sciences Program, and (4) to assign priorities to these research areas

  14. Measurement of scattered and transmitted X-rays from intra-oral and panoramic dental X-ray equipment.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Holroyd, John Richard

    2018-04-10

    To quantify the levels of transmitted radiation arising from the use of intra-oral dental X-ray equipment and scattered radiation arising from the use of both intra-oral and panoramic X-ray equipment. Methods: Levels of scattered radiation were measured at 1 m from a phantom, using an 1800 cc ion chamber. Transmitted radiation was measured using both: i) a phantom and Dose Area Product (DAP) meter, ii) a patient and an 1800 cc ion chamber. Results: For intra-oral radiography the patient study gave a maximum transmission of 1.80% (range 0.04% to 1.80%, mean 0.26%) and the phantom study gave a maximum transmission of 6% (range 2% to 6%, mean 5%). The maximum scattered radiation, per unit DAP, was 5.5 nGy (mGy cm2)-1 at 70 kVp and a distance of 1 m. For panoramic radiography the maximum scattered radiation was 9.3 nGy (mGy cm2)-1 at 80 kVp and a distance of 1 m. Conclusions: Typical doses from scattered and transmitted radiation in modern dental practice have been measured and values are presented to enable the calculation of adequate protection measures for dental radiography rooms. Advances in knowledge: Previous studies have used a phantom and measured radiation doses at 1 m from the phantom to determine the radiation dose transmitted through a patient, whereas this study uses both patient and phantom measurements together with a large area dose meter, positioned to capture the entire X-ray beam, to ensure more realistic dose measurements can be made. © 2018 IOP Publishing Ltd.

  15. Degradation of periodic multilayers as seen by small-angle x-ray scattering and x-ray diffraction

    CERN Document Server

    Rafaja, D; Simek, D; Zdeborova, L; Valvoda, V

    2002-01-01

    The capabilities of small-angle x-ray scattering (SAXS) and wide-angle x-ray diffraction (XRD) to recognize structural changes in periodic multilayers were compared on Fe/Au multilayers with different degrees of structural degradation. Experimental results have shown that both methods are equally sensitive to the multilayer degradation, i.e., to the occurrence of non-continuous interfaces, to short-circuits in the multilayer structure and to the multilayer precipitation. XRD yielded additional information on the multilayer crystallinity, whilst SAXS could better recognize fragments of a long-range periodicity (remnants of the original multilayer structure). Changes in the multilayer structure were initiated by successive annealing at 200 and 300 deg. C. Experimental data were complemented by numerical simulations performed using a combination of optical theory and the distorted wave Born approximation for SAXS or the kinematical Born approximation for XRD.

  16. Time-resolved X-ray scattering by electronic wave packets: analytic solutions to the hydrogen atom

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Simmermacher, Mats; Henriksen, Niels Engholm; Møller, Klaus Braagaard

    2017-01-01

    Modern pulsed X-ray sources permit time-dependent measurements of dynamical changes in atoms and molecules via non-resonant scattering. The planning, analysis, and interpretation of such experiments, however, require a firm and elaborated theoretical framework. This paper provides a detailed...... description of time-resolved X-ray scattering by non-stationary electronic wave packets in atomic systems. A consistent application of the Waller-Hartree approximation is discussed and different contributions to the total differential scattering signal are identified and interpreted. Moreover......, it is demonstrated how the scattering signal of wave packets in the hydrogen atom can be expressed analytically. This permits simulations without numerical integration and establishes a benchmark for both efficiency and accuracy. Based on that, scattering patterns of an exemplary wave packet in the hydrogen atom...

  17. Detectors for X-ray diffraction and scattering: a user's overview

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Bruegemann, Lutz; Gerndt, E.K.E.

    2004-01-01

    An overview of the applications of X-ray detectors to material research is given. Four experimental techniques and their specific detector requirements are described. Detector types are classified and critical parameters described in the framework of X-ray diffraction and X-ray scattering experiments. The article aims at building a bridge between detector end-users and detector developers. It gives limits of critical detector parameters, like angular resolution, energy resolution, dynamic range, and active area

  18. Magnetic nanoparticles studied by small angle X-ray scattering

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Oliveira, Cristiano Luis Pinto; Antonel, Soledad; Negri, Martin

    2011-01-01

    because they exhibit magnetic (ferromagnetic) and electrical properties in the same material. Then, the nickel nanoparticles could be used for the development of electroelastic materials. In this case, the electrical conductivity of the material can be strongly dependent on the applied magnetic field, for example the case of nickel metal nanoparticles dispersed in a polymer, resulting in an anisotropic material with combined piezomagnetic and piezoelectric properties. In order to investigate the structural characteristics of cobalt-iron oxides and nickel nanoparticles, powder samples of those magnetic materials were studied by Small-Angle X-Ray Scattering. As will be shown, from the analysis and modeling of the scattering data, structural information could be obtained, enabling a detailed description of the structural properties of the studied samples which could be directly correlated to the magnetic properties. (author)

  19. Magnetic nanoparticles studied by small angle X-ray scattering

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Oliveira, Cristiano Luis Pinto [Universidade de Sao Paulo (IF/USP), SP (Brazil). Inst. de Fisica. Grupo de Fluidos Complexos; Antonel, Soledad; Negri, Martin [Universidad de Buenos Aires (UBA) (Argentina). Facultad de Ciencias Exactas y Naturales. Dept. de Quimica Inorganica, Analitica y Quimica Fisica

    2011-07-01

    nanoparticles are very interesting because they exhibit magnetic (ferromagnetic) and electrical properties in the same material. Then, the nickel nanoparticles could be used for the development of electroelastic materials. In this case, the electrical conductivity of the material can be strongly dependent on the applied magnetic field, for example the case of nickel metal nanoparticles dispersed in a polymer, resulting in an anisotropic material with combined piezomagnetic and piezoelectric properties. In order to investigate the structural characteristics of cobalt-iron oxides and nickel nanoparticles, powder samples of those magnetic materials were studied by Small-Angle X-Ray Scattering. As will be shown, from the analysis and modeling of the scattering data, structural information could be obtained, enabling a detailed description of the structural properties of the studied samples which could be directly correlated to the magnetic properties. (author)

  20. Dynamics of a multiple-pulse-driven x-ray laser plasma

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Wan, A.S.; Da Silva, L.B.; Moreno, J.C.; Cauble, R.; Celliers, P.; Dalhed, H.E. Jr.; Koch, J.A.; Nilsen, J.

    1996-01-01

    In this paper we describe experimental and computational studies of multiple-pulse-driven laser plasma, which is the gain medium for a neon-like yttrium x-ray laser. Near-field emission profiles have been measured both with and without reinjection of the x-ray laser photons to couple with the amplifying medium created by later pulses using an external multilayer mirror. From the temporal and spatial evolution of the near-field emission profiles we can examine the pulse-to-pulse variation of the x-ray laser plasma due to changes in the hydrodynamics, laser deposition, and the injecting of x-ray laser photons back into an amplifying x-ray laser plasma. Using a combination of radiation hydrodynamics, atomic kinetics, and ray propagation codes, reasonable agreement has been obtained between simulations and the experimental results. copyright 1996 American Institute of Physics

  1. Leakage and scattered radiation from hand-held dental x-ray unit

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Kim, Eun Kyung [Dankook Univ. School of Dentistry, Seoul (Korea, Republic of)

    2007-06-15

    To compare the leakage and scattered radiation from hand-held dental X-ray unit with radiation from fixed dental X-ray unit. For evaluation we used one hand-held dental X-ray unit and Oramatic 558 (Trophy Radiologie, France), a fixed dental X-ray unit. Doses were measured with Unfors Multi-O-Meter 512L at the right and left hand levels of X-ray tube head part for the scattered and leakage radiation when human skull DXTTR {iota}{iota}{iota} was exposed to both dental X-ray units. And for the leakage radiation only, doses were measured at the immediately right, left, superior and posterior side of the tube head part when air was exposed. Exposure parameters of hand-held dental X-ray unit were 70 kVp, 3 mA , 0.1 second, and of fixed X-ray unit 70 kVp, 8 mA, 0.45 second. The mean dose at the hand level when human skull DXTTR {iota}{iota}{iota} was exposed with portable X-ray unit 6.39 {mu}Gy, and the mean dose with fixed X-ray unit 3.03 {mu}Gy (p<0.001). The mean dose at the immediate side of the tube head part when air was exposed with portable X-ray unit was 2.97 {mu}Gy and with fixed X-ray unit the mean dose was 0.68 {mu}Gy (p<0.01). The leakage and scattered radiation from hand-held dental radiography was greater than from fixed dental radiography.

  2. Leakage and scattered radiation from hand-held dental x-ray unit

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Kim, Eun Kyung

    2007-01-01

    To compare the leakage and scattered radiation from hand-held dental X-ray unit with radiation from fixed dental X-ray unit. For evaluation we used one hand-held dental X-ray unit and Oramatic 558 (Trophy Radiologie, France), a fixed dental X-ray unit. Doses were measured with Unfors Multi-O-Meter 512L at the right and left hand levels of X-ray tube head part for the scattered and leakage radiation when human skull DXTTR ΙΙΙ was exposed to both dental X-ray units. And for the leakage radiation only, doses were measured at the immediately right, left, superior and posterior side of the tube head part when air was exposed. Exposure parameters of hand-held dental X-ray unit were 70 kVp, 3 mA , 0.1 second, and of fixed X-ray unit 70 kVp, 8 mA, 0.45 second. The mean dose at the hand level when human skull DXTTR ΙΙΙ was exposed with portable X-ray unit 6.39 μGy, and the mean dose with fixed X-ray unit 3.03 μGy (p<0.001). The mean dose at the immediate side of the tube head part when air was exposed with portable X-ray unit was 2.97 μGy and with fixed X-ray unit the mean dose was 0.68 μGy (p<0.01). The leakage and scattered radiation from hand-held dental radiography was greater than from fixed dental radiography

  3. Status of Kharkov X-ray Generator based on Compton Scattering NESTOR

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Zelinsky, A.; Androsov, V.P.; Bulyak, E.V.; Drebot, I.; Gladkikh, P.I.; Grevtsev, V.; Botman, J.I.M.; Ivashchenko, V.; Karnaukhov, I.M.; Lapshin, V.I.; Markov, V.; Mocheshnikov, N.; Mytsykov, A.; Peev, F.A.; Rezaev, A.; Shcherbakov, A.; Skomorkohov, V.; Skyrda, V.; Telegin, Y.; Trotsenko, V.; Tatchyn, R.; Lebedev, B.; Agafonov, A.V.

    2004-01-01

    Nowadays the sources of the X-rays based on a storage ring with low beam energy and Compton scattering of intense laser beam are under development in several laboratories. In the paper the state-of-art in development and construction of cooperative project of a Kharkov advanced X-ray source NESTOR

  4. Measuring scatter radiation in diagnostic x rays for radiation protection purposes

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Panayiotakis, George; Vlachos, Ioannis; Delis, Harry; Tsantilas, Xenophon; Kalyvas, Nektarios; Kandarakis, Ioannis

    2015-01-01

    During the last decades, radiation protection and dosimetry in medical X-ray imaging practice has been extensively studied. The purpose of this study was to measure secondary radiation in a conventional radiographic room, in terms of ambient dose rate equivalent H*(10) and its dependence on the radiographic exposure parameters such as X-ray tube voltage, tube current and distance. With some exceptions, the results indicated that the scattered radiation was uniform in the space around the water cylindrical phantom. The results also showed that the tube voltage and filtration affect the dose rate due to the scatter radiation. Finally, the scattered X-ray energy distribution was experimentally calculated. (authors)

  5. Study on the influences of X Ray Scattering on radioscopic inspection

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Wozniak, M.; Torrent, J.; Bancelin, A. [SNECMA NDE Dept. Laboratory, France, Evry Corbeil, 91 - Evry (France)

    2007-07-01

    This study issued from European project 'Verdict' (Virtual Evaluation and Robust Detection for engine Components non destructive Testing), aimed at developing and evaluating X Ray Non Destructive Method simulation. An qualitative appreciation and quantification for X Ray scattering for modelling (SINDBAD software) was identified. The effect of such radiation on radiogram results in a disturbing blur for interpretation of indications. The method and the results described are innovative in the analysis of X Ray scattering because for aeronautic field, the configurations used with this energy range are breakthrough. The approach followed consists in an experimental and practical method for evaluating scattered radiation on final image issued from the inspection. Experimental tests results confirmed that the influence of scattering radiation are linked to density variation, geometry of parts in the axis of direct radiation and spatial area. This study performed in industrial configurations contributed to improve X Ray scattering understanding. (authors)

  6. A sample cell to study hydrate formation with x-ray scattering

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Conrad, Heiko; Lehmkuehler, Felix; Sternemann, Christian; Feroughi, Omid; Tolan, Metin; Simonelli, Laura; Huotari, Simo

    2009-01-01

    We present a new sample cell for measuring nonresonant inelastic x-ray scattering spectra of a tetrahydrofuran (THF)-water liquid mixture and THF hydrate. The hydrate is formed inside the cell after nucleation seeds have been offered by a special magnetic stirring mechanism. Hydrate formation was verified by wide angle x-ray scattering and nonresonant x-ray Raman scattering spectra at the oxygen K-edge. A broad range of scattering angles can be studied with this cell which is necessary for momentum transfer dependent inelastic x-ray scattering. This cell is ideal to examine other liquid hydrate formers or other liquid samples, which have to be mixed in situ during the measurements.

  7. X-ray emission as a potential hazard during ultrashort pulse laser material processing

    Science.gov (United States)

    Legall, Herbert; Schwanke, Christoph; Pentzien, Simone; Dittmar, Günter; Bonse, Jörn; Krüger, Jörg

    2018-06-01

    In laser machining with ultrashort laser pulses unwanted X-ray radiation in the keV range can be generated when a critical laser intensity is exceeded. Even if the emitted X-ray dose per pulse is low, high laser repetition rates can lead to an accumulation of X-ray doses beyond exposure safety limits. For 925 fs pulse duration at a center wavelength of 1030 nm, the X-ray emission was investigated up to an intensity of 2.6 × 1014 W/cm2. The experiments were performed in air with a thin disk laser at a repetition rate of 400 kHz. X-ray spectra and doses were measured for various planar target materials covering a wide range of the periodic table from aluminum to tungsten. Without radiation shielding, the measured radiation doses at this high repetition rate clearly exceed the regulatory limits. Estimations for an adequate radiation shielding are provided.

  8. New X-ray beam position monitors with submicron resolution utilizing imaging of scattered X-rays at CHESS

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Revesz, Peter; Temnykh, Alexander B.; Pauling, Alan K.

    2011-01-01

    At CHESS' A, F and G wiggler beam lines three new video beam position monitors (VBPMs) have been commissioned. These new VBPMs utilize X-rays scattered from the graphite filter (A and F line) or from a beryllium window (G-line) as the white wiggler beam passes through them. As the X-rays scatter in all directions from the scattering medium, a slit camera creates an image of the beam's footprint on a fluorescent screen. This image is then viewed by a CCD camera and analyzed using a computer program to calculate the intensity centroid, the beam profile and integrated intensity. These data are delivered to the CHESS signal archiving system for storage and display. The new systems employ digital cameras. These cameras are free of the noise inherent to the analog systems with long video signal connections. As a result, the beam position data delivered by the new systems are more reliable and accurate as shown by beam position traces using different beam position monitors on the same beam line.

  9. New X-ray beam position monitors with submicron resolution utilizing imaging of scattered X-rays at CHESS

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Revesz, Peter, E-mail: pr20@cornell.edu [Cornell University, Cornell High Energy Synchrotron Source, Ithaca 14850, NY (United States); Temnykh, Alexander B. [Cornell University, Laboratory for Elem-Particle Physics, Ithaca 14850, NY (United States); Pauling, Alan K. [Cornell University, Cornell High Energy Synchrotron Source, Ithaca 14850, NY (United States)

    2011-09-01

    At CHESS' A, F and G wiggler beam lines three new video beam position monitors (VBPMs) have been commissioned. These new VBPMs utilize X-rays scattered from the graphite filter (A and F line) or from a beryllium window (G-line) as the white wiggler beam passes through them. As the X-rays scatter in all directions from the scattering medium, a slit camera creates an image of the beam's footprint on a fluorescent screen. This image is then viewed by a CCD camera and analyzed using a computer program to calculate the intensity centroid, the beam profile and integrated intensity. These data are delivered to the CHESS signal archiving system for storage and display. The new systems employ digital cameras. These cameras are free of the noise inherent to the analog systems with long video signal connections. As a result, the beam position data delivered by the new systems are more reliable and accurate as shown by beam position traces using different beam position monitors on the same beam line.

  10. Investigations of time resolved x-ray wide-angle scattering and x-ray small-angle scattering at DESY

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Zachmann, H.G.; Gehrke, R.; Prieske, W.; Riekel, C.

    1985-01-01

    Instrumentation is described for the simultaneous wide-angle and small-angle x-ray scattering. The method was applied to the study of the isothermal crystallization of polyethylene terephthalates. In agreement with the classical theories of crystallization, the data showed that the density difference between the crystals and the non-crystalline regions does not change with time. The mechanisms of melting, recrystallization, and crystal thickening were investigated by small-angle x-ray scattering with stepwise changes and continuous changes of temperature using polyethylene terephthalate

  11. Grazing Incidence X-ray Scattering and Diffraction

    Indian Academy of Sciences (India)

    IAS Admin

    several materials as a function of angle of incidence, αi with X-rays of wavelength ..... are several advantages of using this formulation for the description of surface ..... print of the surface (as shown at the botton of Figure. 5). A Soller collimator ...

  12. X-ray scattering studies of lanthanides magnetism

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    McMorrow, D.; Bohr, Jakob; Gibbs, D.

    1999-01-01

    Interest in the applications of X-ray synchrotron radiation has grown rapidly during the last decade. At the present time, intense, ultra-bright synchrotron radiation is available on a routine basis from third-generation sources located in Europe (ESRF), North America (APS) and Japan (Spring8). T...

  13. Recurrent pulse trains in the solar hard X-ray flare of 1980 June 7

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Kiplinger, A.L.; Dennis, B.R.; Frost, K.J.; Orwig, L.E.

    1983-01-01

    This study presents a detailed examination of the solar hard X-ray and γ-ray flare of 1980 June 7 as seen by the Hard X-Ray Burst Spectrometer on SMM. The hard X-ray profile is most unusual in that it is characterized by an initial pulse train of seven intense hard X-ray spikes. However, the event is unique among the 6300 events observed by HXRBS in that the temporal signature of this pulse train recurs twice during the flare. Such signatures of temporal stability in impulsive solar flares have not been observed before. Examinations of the hard X-ray data in conjunction with radio and γ-ray observations show that the 28--480 keV X-ray emission is simultaneous with the 17 GHz microwave fluxes within 128 ms and that the 3.5--6.5 MeV prompt γ-ray line emission is coincident with secondary maxima of the microwave and X-ray fluxes. Studies of the temporal and spectral properties of the pulses indicate that the pulses are not produced by purely reversible processes, and that if the source is oscillatory, it is not a high quality oscillator. Although the absence of spatially resolved hard X-ray observations leaves other possibilities open, a parameterization of the event as a set of seven sequentially firing loops is presented that offers many satisfying explanations of the observations

  14. Production of transform-limited X-ray pulses through self-seeding at the European X-ray FEL

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Geloni, Gianluca [European XFEL GmbH, Hamburg (Germany); Kocharyan, Vitali; Saldin, Evgeni [Deutsches Elektronen-Synchrotron (DESY), Hamburg (Germany)

    2011-09-15

    An important goal for any advanced X-ray FEL is an option for providing Fourier-limited X-ray pulses. In this way, no monochromator is needed in the experimental hall. Self-seeding is a promising approach to significantly narrow the SASE bandwidth to produce nearly transform-limited pulses. These are important for many experiments including 3D diffraction imaging.We discuss the implementation of a single-crystal self-seeding scheme in the hard X-ray lines of the European XFEL. For this facility, transform-limited pulses are particularly valuable since they naturally support the extraction of more FEL power than at saturation by exploiting tapering in the tunable-gap baseline undulators. Tapering consists of a stepwise change of the undulator gap from segment to segment. Based on start-to-end simulations dealing with the up-to-date parameters of the European XFEL, we show that the FEL power reaches about 400 GW, or one order of magnitude higher power than the SASE saturation level (20 GW). This analysis indicates that our self-seeding scheme is not significantly affected by non-ideal electron phase-space distribution, and yields about the same performance as in the case for an electron beam with ideal parameters. The self-seeding scheme with a single crystal monochromator is extremely compact (about 5 m long), and cost estimations are low enough to consider adding it to the European XFEL capabilities from the very beginning of the operation phase. (orig.)

  15. Production of transform-limited X-ray pulses through self-seeding at the European X-ray FEL

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Geloni, Gianluca; Kocharyan, Vitali; Saldin, Evgeni

    2011-09-01

    An important goal for any advanced X-ray FEL is an option for providing Fourier-limited X-ray pulses. In this way, no monochromator is needed in the experimental hall. Self-seeding is a promising approach to significantly narrow the SASE bandwidth to produce nearly transform-limited pulses. These are important for many experiments including 3D diffraction imaging.We discuss the implementation of a single-crystal self-seeding scheme in the hard X-ray lines of the European XFEL. For this facility, transform-limited pulses are particularly valuable since they naturally support the extraction of more FEL power than at saturation by exploiting tapering in the tunable-gap baseline undulators. Tapering consists of a stepwise change of the undulator gap from segment to segment. Based on start-to-end simulations dealing with the up-to-date parameters of the European XFEL, we show that the FEL power reaches about 400 GW, or one order of magnitude higher power than the SASE saturation level (20 GW). This analysis indicates that our self-seeding scheme is not significantly affected by non-ideal electron phase-space distribution, and yields about the same performance as in the case for an electron beam with ideal parameters. The self-seeding scheme with a single crystal monochromator is extremely compact (about 5 m long), and cost estimations are low enough to consider adding it to the European XFEL capabilities from the very beginning of the operation phase. (orig.)

  16. Scattered hard X-ray and γ-ray generation from a chromatic electron beam

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Coleman, J. E. [Los Alamos National Laboratory, Los Alamos, New Mexico 87545 (United States); Welch, D. R.; Miller, C. L. [Voss Scientific, Albuquerque, New Mexico 87108 (United States)

    2015-11-14

    An array of photon diagnostics has been deployed on a high power relativistic electron beam diode. Electrons are extracted through a 17.8 cm diode from the surface discharge of a carbon fiber velvet cathode with a nominal diode voltage of 3.8 MV. <10% of the 100 ns electron pulse is composed of off energy electrons (1–3 MeV) accelerated during the rise and fall of the pulse that impact the stainless steel beam pipe and generate a Bremsstrahlung spectrum of 0.1–3 MeV photons with a total count of 10{sup 11}. The principal objective of these experiments is to quantify the electron beam dynamics and spatial dynamics of the hard X-ray and γ-ray flux generated in the diode region. A qualitative comparison of experimental and calculated results are presented, including time and energy resolved electron beam propagation and scattered photon measurements with X-ray PIN diodes and a photomultiplier tube indicating a dose dependence on the diode voltage >V{sup 4} and detected photon counts of nearly 10{sup 6} at a radial distance of 1 m which corresponds to dose ∼40 μrad at 1 m.

  17. Application of thermoluminescence dosimeter on the measurement of hard X-ray pulse energy spectrum

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Song Zhaohui; Wang Baohui; Wang Kuilu; Hei Dongwei; Sun Fengrong; Li Gang

    2003-01-01

    This paper introduces the application of thermoluminescence dosimeter (TLD) which composed by TLD-3500 reader and GR-100 M chips on the measurement of hard X-ray pulse energy spectrum. The idea using Filter Fluorescence Method (FFM) and TLD to measure hard X-ray pulse energy spectrum (from 10 keV to 100 keV) is discussed in details. Considering all the factors of the measuring surrounding, the measurement system of hard X-ray pulse has been devised. The calibration technique of absolute energy response of TLD is established. This method has been applied successfully on the radiation parameters measurement of the huge pulse radiation device-high-power pulser I. Hard X-ray pulse energy spectrum data of the pulser are acquired

  18. The application of thermoluminescence dosimeter on the measurement of hard X-ray pulse energy spectrum

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Song Zhaohui; Wang Baohui; Wang Kuilu; Hei Dongwei; Sun Fengrong; Li Gang

    2001-01-01

    This paper introduce the application of thermoluminescence dosimeter (TLD) which composed by TLD-3500 Reader and TLD-100M chips on the measurement of hard X-ray pulse energy spectrum. The idea, using Filter Fluorescence Method (FFM) and TLD to measure hard X-ray pulse energy spectrum (from 10 keV to 100 keV), is discussed in details. Considering all the factors of the measuring surroundings, the measurement system of hard X-ray pulse has been devised. The calibration technique of absolute energy response of TLD is established. This method has been applied successfully on the radiation parameters measurement of the huge pulse radiation device -high-power pulser I. Hard X-ray pulse energy spectrum data of the pulser are acquired

  19. Macrophage and tumor cell responses to repetitive pulsed X-ray radiation

    Science.gov (United States)

    Buldakov, M. A.; Tretyakova, M. S.; Ryabov, V. B.; Klimov, I. A.; Kutenkov, O. P.; Kzhyshkowska, J.; Bol'shakov, M. A.; Rostov, V. V.; Cherdyntseva, N. V.

    2017-05-01

    To study a response of tumor cells and macrophages to the repetitive pulsed low-dose X-ray radiation. Methods. Tumor growth and lung metastasis of mice with an injected Lewis lung carcinoma were analysed, using C57Bl6. Monocytes were isolated from a human blood, using CD14+ magnetic beads. IL6, IL1-betta, and TNF-alpha were determined by ELISA. For macrophage phenotyping, a confocal microscopy was applied. “Sinus-150” was used for the generation of pulsed X-ray radiation (the absorbed dose was below 0.1 Gy, the pulse repetition frequency was 10 pulse/sec). The irradiation of mice by 0.1 Gy pulsed X-rays significantly inhibited the growth of primary tumor and reduced the number of metastatic colonies in the lung. Furthermore, the changes in macrophage phenotype and cytokine secretion were observed after repetitive pulsed X-ray radiation. Conclusion. Macrophages and tumor cells had a different response to a low-dose pulsed X-ray radiation. An activation of the immune system through changes of a macrophage phenotype can result in a significant antitumor effect of the low-dose repetitive pulsed X-ray radiation.

  20. Small angle X-ray scattering experiments with three-dimensional imaging gas detectors

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    La Monaca, A.; Iannuzzi, M.; Messi, R.

    1985-01-01

    Measurements of small angle X-ray scattering of lupolen - R, dry collagen and dry cornea are presented. The experiments have been performed with synchrotron radiation and a new three-dimensional imaging drif-chamber gas detector

  1. Filming Femtosecond Molecular Movies with X-ray Pulses

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Kjær, Kasper Skov

    of molecular species in solution, describing the interplay between electronic and structural dynamics, as well as the role of the solvent. This will be followed by an introduction of the three X-ray techniques used in this work, and it will be shown how the application of these techniques in a laser pump / X...

  2. Fourier-limited seeded soft x-ray laser pulse

    Czech Academy of Sciences Publication Activity Database

    Guilbaud, O.; Tissandier, F.; Goddet, J-P.; Ribière, M.; Sebban, S.; Gautier, J.; Joyeux, D.; Ros, D.; Cassou, K.; Kazamias, S.; Klisnick, A.; Habib, J.; Zeitoun, P.; Benredjem, D.; Mocek, Tomáš; Nejdl, Jaroslav; De Rossi, S.; Maynard, G.; Cros, B.; Boudaa, A.; Calisti, A.

    2010-01-01

    Roč. 35, č. 9 (2010), s. 1326-1328 ISSN 0146-9592 Grant - others:AVČR(CZ) M100100911 Institutional research plan: CEZ:AV0Z10100523 Keywords : lasers and laser optics * UV * EUV * x-ray lasers * spectroscopy Subject RIV: BH - Optics, Masers, Lasers Impact factor: 3.316, year: 2010

  3. Rayleigh scatter in kilovoltage x-ray imaging: is the independent atom approximation good enough?

    OpenAIRE

    Poludniowski, G; Evans, PM; Webb, S

    2009-01-01

    Monte Carlo simulation is the gold standard method for modelling scattering processes in medical x-ray imaging. General-purpose Monte Carlo codes, however, typically use the independent atom approximation (IAA). This is known to be inaccurate for Rayleigh scattering, for many materials, in the forward direction. This work addresses whether the IAA is sufficient for the typical modelling tasks in medical kilovoltage x-ray imaging. As a means of comparison, we incorporate a more realistic 'inte...

  4. X-ray scattering studies of non-equilibrium ordering processes

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Nagler, S.E.

    1990-01-01

    We report on the progress of our project entitled ''X-ray Scattering of Non-Equilibrium Ordering Processes.'' During the past year we have made the first synchrotron measurements of ordering in Cu 3 Au have revealed the presence of an intermediate, non-equilibrium ordered state. Preliminary work involving x-ray magnetic scattering has been carried out. Work is continuing in these areas as well as on related problems. 5 refs

  5. Terahertz pulsed imaging for the monitoring of dental caries: a comparison with x-ray imaging

    Science.gov (United States)

    Karagoz, Burcu; Kamburoglu, Kıvanc; Altan, Hakan

    2017-07-01

    Dental caries in sliced samples are investigated using terahertz pulsed imaging. Frequency domain terahertz response of these structures consistent with X-ray imaging results show the potential of this technique in the detection of early caries.

  6. Calibration method of the pulsed X-ray relative sensitivity for ST401 plastic scintillators

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Xie Hongwei; Song Guzhou; Wang Kuilu

    2011-01-01

    The relative sensitivity calibration method of the pulsed X-ray in ST401 plastic scintillator is presented. Experimental relative sensitivity calibrations of the plastic scintillators of different thicknesses from 1 mm to 50 mm are accomplished on the 'Chenguang' pulsed X-ray source and a Co radioactive source, The uncertainty of the calibration data is evaluated, which can be treated as the experimental evidence for the relative sensitivity conversion of ST401 plastic scintillator. (authors)

  7. Testing of quality of welded joints using heavy-current pulse X-ray apparatuses

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Gusev, E.A.; Firstov, V.G.

    1988-01-01

    The possibilities of carrying out of radiographic and electroradiographic testing of quality of welded joints using heavy-current pulse X-ray apparatuses under the mode of single pulses are shown. Basic quantitative characteristics of radiographic testing permitting to detect the focus distance, sensitivity behaviour and optical density of image are presented. Peculiarities of electroradiographic image formation under the mode of single pulses of nanosecond range are analysed. The outlook of heavy-current pulse X-ray apparatus application under the mode of single pulses in industry is estimated

  8. A preliminary study of breast cancer diagnosis using laboratory based small angle x-ray scattering

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Round, A R [Daresbury Laboratories, Warrington, WA4 4AD (United Kingdom); Wilkinson, S J [Daresbury Laboratories, Warrington, WA4 4AD (United Kingdom); Hall, C J [Daresbury Laboratories, Warrington, WA4 4AD (United Kingdom); Rogers, K D [Department of Materials and Medical Sciences, Cranfield University, Swindon, SN6 8LA (United Kingdom); Glatter, O [Department of Chemistry, University of Graz (Austria); Wess, T [School of Optometry and Vision Sciences, Cardiff University, Cardiff CF10 3NB, Wales (United Kingdom); Ellis, I O [Nottingham City Hospital, Nottingham (United Kingdom)

    2005-09-07

    Breast tissue collected from tumour samples and normal tissue from bi-lateral mastectomy procedures were examined using small angle x-ray scattering. Previous work has indicated that breast tissue disease diagnosis could be performed using small angle x-ray scattering (SAXS) from a synchrotron radiation source. The technique would be more useful to health services if it could be made to work using a conventional x-ray source. Consistent and reliable differences in x-ray scatter distributions were observed between samples from normal and tumour tissue samples using the laboratory based 'SAXSess' system. Albeit from a small number of samples, a sensitivity of 100% was obtained. This result encourages us to pursue the implementation of SAXS as a laboratory based diagnosis technique.

  9. A preliminary study of breast cancer diagnosis using laboratory based small angle x-ray scattering

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Round, A R; Wilkinson, S J; Hall, C J; Rogers, K D; Glatter, O; Wess, T; Ellis, I O

    2005-01-01

    Breast tissue collected from tumour samples and normal tissue from bi-lateral mastectomy procedures were examined using small angle x-ray scattering. Previous work has indicated that breast tissue disease diagnosis could be performed using small angle x-ray scattering (SAXS) from a synchrotron radiation source. The technique would be more useful to health services if it could be made to work using a conventional x-ray source. Consistent and reliable differences in x-ray scatter distributions were observed between samples from normal and tumour tissue samples using the laboratory based 'SAXSess' system. Albeit from a small number of samples, a sensitivity of 100% was obtained. This result encourages us to pursue the implementation of SAXS as a laboratory based diagnosis technique

  10. A preliminary study of breast cancer diagnosis using laboratory based small angle x-ray scattering

    Science.gov (United States)

    Round, A. R.; Wilkinson, S. J.; Hall, C. J.; Rogers, K. D.; Glatter, O.; Wess, T.; Ellis, I. O.

    2005-09-01

    Breast tissue collected from tumour samples and normal tissue from bi-lateral mastectomy procedures were examined using small angle x-ray scattering. Previous work has indicated that breast tissue disease diagnosis could be performed using small angle x-ray scattering (SAXS) from a synchrotron radiation source. The technique would be more useful to health services if it could be made to work using a conventional x-ray source. Consistent and reliable differences in x-ray scatter distributions were observed between samples from normal and tumour tissue samples using the laboratory based 'SAXSess' system. Albeit from a small number of samples, a sensitivity of 100% was obtained. This result encourages us to pursue the implementation of SAXS as a laboratory based diagnosis technique.

  11. Small-angle X-ray scattering studies of thermally-induced globular protein gels

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Clark, A.H.; Tuffnell, C.D.

    1980-01-01

    Small-angle X-ray scattering has been applied to gels formed by heating globular proteins, in aqueous solution, above their unfolding temperatures. A number of BSA gels, previously characterised by electron microscopy, have been studied, and by setting up theoretical models for the scattering process, the X-ray data have been shown to be consistent with the microscope conclusions regarding network structure. It is concluded that the networks form by a linearly-directed aggregation of unfolded, disc-like, protein molecules, three-dimensional geometry being achieved by occasional branching, and/or cross-linking. Long-range inhomogeneities in network structure, easily observed by electron microscopy, and correlated with variations in pH or ionic strength, have an effect on X-ray scattering, and hence the X-ray method is sensitive not only to different network strand thicknesses, but to different degrees of uniformity as well. (author)

  12. Three-dimensional reciprocal space x-ray coherent scattering tomography of two-dimensional object.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zhu, Zheyuan; Pang, Shuo

    2018-04-01

    X-ray coherent scattering tomography is a powerful tool in discriminating biological tissues and bio-compatible materials. Conventional x-ray scattering tomography framework can only resolve isotropic scattering profile under the assumption that the material is amorphous or in powder form, which is not true especially for biological samples with orientation-dependent structure. Previous tomography schemes based on x-ray coherent scattering failed to preserve the scattering pattern from samples with preferred orientations, or required elaborated data acquisition scheme, which could limit its application in practical settings. Here, we demonstrate a simple imaging modality to preserve the anisotropic scattering signal in three-dimensional reciprocal (momentum transfer) space of a two-dimensional sample layer. By incorporating detector movement along the direction of x-ray beam, combined with a tomographic data acquisition scheme, we match the five dimensions of the measurements with the five dimensions (three in momentum transfer domain, and two in spatial domain) of the object. We employed a collimated pencil beam of a table-top copper-anode x-ray tube, along with a panel detector to investigate the feasibility of our method. We have demonstrated x-ray coherent scattering tomographic imaging at a spatial resolution ~2 mm and momentum transfer resolution 0.01 Å -1 for the rotation-invariant scattering direction. For any arbitrary, non-rotation-invariant direction, the same spatial and momentum transfer resolution can be achieved based on the spatial information from the rotation-invariant direction. The reconstructed scattering profile of each pixel from the experiment is consistent with the x-ray diffraction profile of each material. The three-dimensional scattering pattern recovered from the measurement reveals the partially ordered molecular structure of Teflon wrap in our sample. We extend the applicability of conventional x-ray coherent scattering tomography to

  13. Incoherent-scatter computed tomography with monochromatic synchrotron x ray: feasibility of multi-CT imaging system for simultaneous measurement-of fluorescent and incoherent scatter x rays

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yuasa, T.; Akiba, M.; Takeda, T.; Kazama, M.; Hoshino, A.; Watanabe, Y.; Hyodo, K.; Dilmanian, F. A.; Akatsuka, T.; Itai, Y.

    1997-10-01

    We describe a new system of incoherent scatter computed tomography (ISCT) using monochromatic synchrotron X rays, and we discuss its potential to be used in in vivo imaging for medical use. The system operates on the basis of computed tomography (CT) of the first generation. The reconstruction method for ISCT uses the least squares method with singular value decomposition. The research was carried out at the BLNE-5A bending magnet beam line of the Tristan Accumulation Ring in KEK, Japan. An acrylic cylindrical phantom of 20-mm diameter containing a cross-shaped channel was imaged. The channel was filled with a diluted iodine solution with a concentration of 200 /spl mu/gI/ml. Spectra obtained with the system's high purity germanium (HPGe) detector separated the incoherent X-ray line from the other notable peaks, i.e., the iK/sub /spl alpha// and K/sub /spl beta/1/ X-ray fluorescent lines and the coherent scattering peak. CT images were reconstructed from projections generated by integrating the counts In the energy window centering around the incoherent scattering peak and whose width was approximately 2 keV. The reconstruction routine employed an X-ray attenuation correction algorithm. The resulting image showed more homogeneity than one without the attenuation correction.

  14. A filter based analyzer for studies of X-ray Raman scattering

    CERN Document Server

    Seidler, G T

    2001-01-01

    Non-resonant X-ray Raman scattering (XRS) with hard X-rays holds the potential for measuring local structure and local electronic properties around low-Z atoms in environments where traditional soft X-ray techniques are inapplicable. However, the small cross-section for XRS requires that experiments must simultaneously achieve high detection efficiency, large collection solid angles, and good energy resolution. We report here that a simple X-ray analyzer consisting of an absorber and a point-focusing spatial filter can be used to study some X-ray Raman near-edge features. This apparatus has greater than 10% detection efficiency, has an energy resolution of 8 eV, and can be readily extended to collection angles of more than 1 sr. We present preliminary measurements of the XRS from the nitrogen 1 s shell in pyrolitic boron nitride.

  15. Generation of attosecond soft X-ray pulses in a longitudinal space charge amplifier

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Dohlus, M.; Schneidmiller, E.A.; Yurkov, M.V. [Deutsches Elektronen-Synchrotron (DESY), Hamburg (Germany)

    2011-03-15

    A longitudinal space charge amplifier (LSCA), operating in soft X-ray regime, was recently proposed. Such an amplifier consists of a few amplification cascades (focusing channel and chicane) and a short radiator undulator in the end. Broadband nature of LSCA supports generation of few-cycle pulses as well as wavelength compression. In this paper we consider an application of these properties of LSCA for generation of attosecond X-ray pulses. It is shown that a compact and cheap addition to the soft X-ray free electron laser facility FLASH would allow to generate 60 attosecond (FWHM) long X-ray pulses with the peak power at 100 MW level and a contrast above 98%. (orig.)

  16. Generation of attosecond soft X-ray pulses in a longitudinal space charge amplifier

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Dohlus, M.; Schneidmiller, E.A.; Yurkov, M.V.

    2011-03-01

    A longitudinal space charge amplifier (LSCA), operating in soft X-ray regime, was recently proposed. Such an amplifier consists of a few amplification cascades (focusing channel and chicane) and a short radiator undulator in the end. Broadband nature of LSCA supports generation of few-cycle pulses as well as wavelength compression. In this paper we consider an application of these properties of LSCA for generation of attosecond X-ray pulses. It is shown that a compact and cheap addition to the soft X-ray free electron laser facility FLASH would allow to generate 60 attosecond (FWHM) long X-ray pulses with the peak power at 100 MW level and a contrast above 98%. (orig.)

  17. Generation of attosecond soft x-ray pulses in a longitudinal space charge amplifier

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    M. Dohlus

    2011-09-01

    Full Text Available A longitudinal space charge amplifier (LSCA, operating in soft x-ray regime, was recently proposed. Such an amplifier consists of a few amplification cascades (focusing channel and chicane and a short radiator undulator in the end. The broadband nature of LSCA supports generation of few-cycle pulses as well as wavelength compression. In this paper we consider an application of these properties of LSCA for generation of attosecond x-ray pulses. It is shown that a compact and cheap addition to the soft x-ray free-electron laser facility FLASH would allow one to generate 60 attosecond (FWHM long x-ray pulses with the peak power at the 100 MW level and a contrast above 98%.

  18. Interference between magnetism and surface roughness in coherent soft X-ray scattering

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Rahmim, A.; Tixier, S.; Tiedje, T.; Eisebitt, S.; Lorgen, M.; Scherer, R.; Eberhardt, W.; Luning, J.; Scholl, A.

    2002-01-01

    In coherent soft x-ray scattering from magnetically ordered surfaces there are contributions to the scattering from the magnetic domains, from the surface roughness, and from the diffraction associated with the pinhole aperture used as a coherence filter. In the present work, we explore the interplay between these contributions by analyzing speckle patterns in diffusely scattered x rays from the surface of magnetic thin films. Magnetic contrast from the surface of anti ferro magnetically ordered LaFeO3 films is caused by magnetic linear dichroism in resonant x-ray scattering. The samples studied possess two types of domains with their magnetic orientations perpendicular to each other. By tuning the x-ray energy from one of the two Fe-L3 resonant absorption peaks to the other, the relative amplitudes of the x-ray scattering from the two domains is inverted which results in speckle pattern changes. A theoretical expression is derived for the intensity correlation between the speckle patterns with the magnetic contrast inverted and not inverted. The model is found to be in good agreement with the x-ray-scattering observations and independent measurements of the surface roughness. An analytical expression for the correlation function gives an explicit relation between the change in the speckle pattern and the roughness, and magnetic and aperture scattering. Changes in the speckle pattern are shown to arise from beating of magnetic scattering with the roughness scattering and diffraction from the aperture. The largest effect is found when the surface roughness scatter is comparable in intensity to the magnetic scatter

  19. Trial fabrication of a secondary x-ray spectrometer with high energy resolution for use in x-ray resonant inelastic scattering experiments

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Iwazumi, Toshiaki

    2004-01-01

    An instrument was fabricated for use of x-ray resonant inelastic scattering with high-energy resolution in expectation of finding new physical phenomena in strongly correlated electron systems. In the scattering x-ray spectrometer, an asymmetric Johanson crystal spectrometer, which was deployed in an asymmetric Rowland configuration, was designed, fabricated and assessed. The performance expected theoretically for the Johanson spectrometer was recognized from experiments by use of synchrotron radiation. (Y. Kazumata)

  20. Use of x-ray scattering in absorption corrections for x-ray fluorescence analysis of aerosol loaded filters

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Nielson, K.K.; Garcia, S.R.

    1976-09-01

    Two methods are described for computing multielement x-ray absorption corrections for aerosol samples collected in IPC-1478 and Whatman 41 filters. The first relies on scatter peak intensities and scattering cross sections to estimate the mass of light elements (Z less than 14) in the sample. This mass is used with the measured heavy element (Z greater than or equal to 14) masses to iteratively compute sample absorption corrections. The second method utilizes a linear function of ln(μ) vs ln(E) determined from the scatter peak ratios and estimates sample mass from the scatter peak intensities. Both methods assume a homogeneous depth distribution of aerosol in a fraction of the front of the filters, and the assumption is evaluated with respect to an exponential aerosol depth distribution. Penetration depths for various real, synthethic and liquid aerosols were measured. Aerosol penetration appeared constant over a 1.1 mg/cm 2 range of sample loading for IPC filters, while absorption corrections for Si and S varied by a factor of two over the same loading range. Corrections computed by the two methods were compared with measured absorption corrections and with atomic absorption analyses of the same samples

  1. PLEIADES: A picosecond Compton scattering x-ray source for advanced backlighting and time-resolved material studies

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Gibson, David J.; Anderson, Scott G.; Barty, Christopher P.J.; Betts, Shawn M.; Booth, Rex; Brown, Winthrop J.; Crane, John K.; Cross, Robert R.; Fittinghoff, David N.; Hartemann, Fred V.; Kuba, Jaroslav; Le Sage, Gregory P.; Slaughter, Dennis R.; Tremaine, Aaron M.; Wootton, Alan J.; Hartouni, Edward P.; Springer, Paul T.; Rosenzweig, James B.

    2004-01-01

    The PLEIADES (Picosecond Laser-Electron Inter-Action for the Dynamical Evaluation of Structures) facility has produced first light at 70 keV. This milestone offers a new opportunity to develop laser-driven, compact, tunable x-ray sources for critical applications such as diagnostics for the National Ignition Facility and time-resolved material studies. The electron beam was focused to 50 μm rms, at 57 MeV, with 260 pC of charge, a relative energy spread of 0.2%, and a normalized emittance of 5 mm mrad horizontally and 13 mm mrad vertically. The scattered 820 nm laser pulse had an energy of 180 mJ and a duration of 54 fs. Initial x rays were captured with a cooled charge-coupled device using a cesium iodide scintillator; the peak photon energy was approximately 78 keV, with a total x-ray flux of 1.3x10 6 photons/shot, and the observed angular distribution found to agree very well with three-dimensional codes. Simple K-edge radiography of a tantalum foil showed good agreement with the theoretical divergence-angle dependence of the x-ray energy. Optimization of the x-ray dose is currently under way, with the goal of reaching 10 8 photons/shot and a peak brightness approaching 10 20 photons/mm 2 /mrad 2 /s/0.1% bandwidth

  2. X-ray coherent scattering tomography of textured material (Conference Presentation)

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zhu, Zheyuan; Pang, Shuo

    2017-05-01

    Small-angle X-ray scattering (SAXS) measures the signature of angular-dependent coherently scattered X-rays, which contains richer information in material composition and structure compared to conventional absorption-based computed tomography. SAXS image reconstruction method of a 2 or 3 dimensional object based on computed tomography, termed as coherent scattering computed tomography (CSCT), enables the detection of spatially-resolved, material-specific isotropic scattering signature inside an extended object, and provides improved contrast for medical diagnosis, security screening, and material characterization applications. However, traditional CSCT methods assumes materials are fine powders or amorphous, and possess isotropic scattering profiles, which is not generally true for all materials. Anisotropic scatters cannot be captured using conventional CSCT method and result in reconstruction errors. To obtain correct information from the sample, we designed new imaging strategy which incorporates extra degree of detector motion into X-ray scattering tomography for the detection of anisotropic scattered photons from a series of two-dimensional intensity measurements. Using a table-top, narrow-band X-ray source and a panel detector, we demonstrate the anisotropic scattering profile captured from an extended object and the reconstruction of a three-dimensional object. For materials possessing a well-organized crystalline structure with certain symmetry, the scatter texture is more predictable. We will also discuss the compressive schemes and implementation of data acquisition to improve the collection efficiency and accelerate the imaging process.

  3. X-ray emission from stainless steel foils irradiated by femtosecond petawatt laser pulses

    Science.gov (United States)

    Alkhimova, M. A.; Faenov, A. Ya; Pikuz, T. A.; Skobelev, I. Yu; Pikuz, S. A.; Nishiuchi, M.; Sakaki, H.; Pirozhkov, A. S.; Sagisaka, S.; Dover, N. P.; Kondo, Ko; Ogura, K.; Fukuda, Y.; Kiriyama, H.; Esirkepov, T.; Bulanov, S. V.; Andreev, A.; Kando, M.; Zhidkov, A.; Nishitani, K.; Miyahara, T.; Watanabe, Y.; Kodama, R.; Kondo, K.

    2018-01-01

    We report about nonlinear growth of x-ray emission intensity emitted from plasma generated by femtosecond petawatt laser pulses irradiating stainless steel foils. X-ray emission intensity increases as ˜ I 4.5 with laser intensity I on a target. High spectrally resolved x-ray emission from front and rear surfaces of 5 μm thickness stainless steel targets were obtained at the wavelength range 1.7-2.1 Å, for the first time in experiments at femtosecond petawatt laser facility J-KAREN-P. Total intensity of front x-ray spectra three times dominates to rear side spectra for maximum laser intensity I ≈ 3.2×1021 W/cm2. Growth of x-ray emission is mostly determined by contribution of bremsstrahlung radiation that allowed estimating bulk electron plasma temperature for various magnitude of laser intensity on target.

  4. Modeling X-Ray Scattering Process and Applications of the Scattering Model

    Science.gov (United States)

    Al-Jundi, Taher Lutfi

    1995-01-01

    Computer modeling of nondestructive inspections with x-rays is proving to be a very useful tool for enhancing the performance of these techniques. Two x-ray based inspection techniques are considered in this study. The first is "Radiographic Inspection", where an existing simulation model has been improved to account for scattered radiation effects. The second technique is "Inspection with Compton backscattering", where a new simulation model has been developed. The effect of scattered radiation on a simulated radiographic image can be insignificant, equally important, or more important than the effect of the uncollided flux. Techniques to account for the scattered radiation effects include Monte Carlo techniques, and solving the particle transport equation for photons. However, these two techniques although accurate, are computationally expensive and hence inappropriate for use in computer simulation of radiography. A less accurate approach but computationally efficient is the principle of buildup factors. Traditionally, buildup factors are defined for monoenergetic photons of energies typical of a nuclear reactor. In this work I have expanded the definition of buildup factors to include a bremsstrahlung spectrum of photons with energies typically used in radiography (keV's instead of MeV's). This expansion of the definition relies on an intensive experimental work to measure buildup factors for a white spectrum of x-rays. I have also developed a monte carlo code to reproduce the measured buildup factors. The code was then converted to a parallel code and distributed on a network of workstations to reduce the execution time. The second inspection technique is based on Compton backscattering, where photons are scattered at large angles, more than 90 degrees. The importance of this technique arises when the inspected object is very large, or when access is limited to only one side of the specimen. The downside of detecting photons from backscattering is the low

  5. First result from x-ray pulse height analyzer with radial scanning system for LHD

    Science.gov (United States)

    Muto, Sadatsugu; Morita, Shigeru

    2001-01-01

    Radial profiles of x-ray spectrum have been successfully obtained using an assembly of x-ray pulse height analyzer in large helical device. The observed profile is obtained from plasma heated by ICRF and neutral beam injection (NBI). As a detector, Si(Li) semiconductor is used with a histogramming memory and analog-to-digital converter (ADC) basically working at high counting rate up to 500 kcps. In routine operation a count rate of 62 kcps has been normally obtained with energy resolution better than 400 eV at iron Kα line. The assembly is equipped with four detectors and a radial scanning system which modulates sight lines of the detectors in major radius direction. The profiles of electron temperature and the intensity of metallic impurities have been obtained with a spatial resolution of a few centimeters. Measured electron temperature is in good agreement with that from Thomson scattering. The system is applicable to steady-state discharge. The design philosophy of the assembly and recent results on the performance tests are also presented.

  6. In situ microfluidic dialysis for biological small-angle X-ray scattering

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Skou, Magda; Skou, Soren; Jensen, Thomas Glasdam

    2014-01-01

    Owing to the demand for low sample consumption and automated sample changing capabilities at synchrotron small-angle X-ray (solution) scattering (SAXS) beamlines, X-ray microfluidics is receiving continuously increasing attention. Here, a remote-controlled microfluidic device is presented for sim...... in incidental sample purification. Hence, this versatile microfluidic device enables investigation of experimentally induced structural changes under dynamically controllable sample conditions. (C) 2014 International Union of Crystallography......Owing to the demand for low sample consumption and automated sample changing capabilities at synchrotron small-angle X-ray (solution) scattering (SAXS) beamlines, X-ray microfluidics is receiving continuously increasing attention. Here, a remote-controlled microfluidic device is presented...

  7. Soft X-ray production by photon scattering in pulsating binary neutron star sources

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Bussard, R.W.; Meszaros, P.; Alexander, S.

    1985-01-01

    A new mechanism is proposed as a source of soft (less than 1 keV) radiation in binary pulsating X-ray sources, in the form of photon scattering which leaves the electron in an excited Landau level. In a plasma with parameters typical of such sources, the low-energy X-ray emissivity of this mechanism far exceeds that of bremsstrahlung. This copious source of soft photons is quite adequate to provide the seed photons needed to explain the power-law hard X-ray spectrum by inverse Comptonization on the hot electrons at the base of the accretion column. 13 references

  8. Resonant X-ray Raman scattering for Al, Si and their oxides

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Szlachetko, J.; Berset, M.; Dousse, J.-Cl.; Fennane, K.; Szlachetko, M.; Barrett, R.; Hoszowska, J.; Kubala-Kukus, A.; Pajek, M.

    2005-01-01

    High-resolution measurements of the resonant X-ray Raman scattering (RRS) of Al and Si and their oxides were performed at the European Synchrotron Radiation Facility (ESRF) in Grenoble, France, using a von Hamos Bragg-type curved crystal spectrometer. To probe the influence of chemical effects on the RRS X-ray spectra, Al 2 O 3 and SiO 2 samples were also investigated. The X-ray RRS spectra were measured at different photon beam energies tuned below the K-absorption edge. The measured spectra are compared to results of RRS calculations based on the second-order perturbation theory within the Kramers-Heisenberg approach

  9. Multiple X-ray tomography using transmitted, scattered and fluorescent radiation

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Cesareo, R.; Brunetti, A.; Golosio, B.; Lopes, R.T.; Barroso, R.C.; Donativi, M.; Castellano, A.; Quarta, S.

    2003-01-01

    A multiple CT-scanner is described, which contemporaneously uses transmitted, scattered and fluorescent X-rays for Imaging. The scanner is characterized by a small size X-ray tube and by four detectors: a ''pencil'' X-ray NaI(Tl) for transmitted tomography, a larger size NaI(Tl) for 90 C o Compton tomography, a thermoelectrically cooled Si-PIN or CdZnTe for fluorescent imaging and a CdZnTe for Rayleigh (or diffraction) tomography. Examples of applications are shown

  10. Resonant Inelastic X-ray Scattering: From band mapping to inter-orbital excitations

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Luning, J.; Hague, C.F.

    2008-01-01

    Resonant inelastic X-ray scattering (also known as resonant X-ray Raman spectroscopy when only valence and conduction states are involved in the final state excitation) has developed into a major tool for understanding the electronic properties of complex materials. Presently it provides access to electron excitations in the few hundred meV range with element and bulk selectivity. Recent progress in X-ray optics and synchrotron radiation engineering have opened up new perspectives for this powerful technique to improve resolving power and efficiency. We briefly present the basics of the method and illustrate its potential with examples chosen from the literature. (authors)

  11. Inverse Compton scattering X-ray source yield optimization with a laser path folding system inserted in a pre-existent RF linac

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Chaleil, A.; Le Flanchec, V.; Binet, A.; Nègre, J.P.; Devaux, J.F.; Jacob, V.; Millerioux, M.; Bayle, A.; Balleyguier, P. [CEA DAM DIF, F-91297 Arpajon (France); Prazeres, R. [CLIO/LCP, Bâtiment 201, Université Paris-Sud, F-91450 Orsay (France)

    2016-12-21

    An inverse Compton scattering source is under development at the ELSA linac of CEA, Bruyères-le-Châtel. Ultra-short X-ray pulses are produced by inverse Compton scattering of 30 ps-laser pulses by relativistic electron bunches. The source will be able to operate in single shot mode as well as in recurrent mode with 72.2 MHz pulse trains. Within this framework, an optical multipass system that multiplies the number of emitted X-ray photons in both regimes has been designed in 2014, then implemented and tested on ELSA facility in the course of 2015. The device is described from both geometrical and timing viewpoints. It is based on the idea of folding the laser optical path to pile-up laser pulses at the interaction point, thus increasing the interaction probability. The X-ray output gain measurements obtained using this system are presented and compared with calculated expectations.

  12. Focusing polycapillary to reduce parasitic scattering for inelastic x-ray measurements at high pressure

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Chow, P.; Xiao, Y. M.; Rod, E.; Bai, L. G.; Shen, G. Y.; Sinogeikin, S.; Gao, N.; Ding, Y.; Mao, H.-K.

    2015-01-01

    The double-differential scattering cross-section for the inelastic scattering of x-ray photons from electrons is typically orders of magnitude smaller than that of elastic scattering. With samples 10-100 μm size in a diamond anvil cell at high pressure, the inelastic x-ray scattering signals from samples are obscured by scattering from the cell gasket and diamonds. One major experimental challenge is to measure a clean inelastic signal from the sample in a diamond anvil cell. Among the many strategies for doing this, we have used a focusing polycapillary as a post-sample optic, which allows essentially only scattered photons within its input field of view to be refocused and transmitted to the backscattering energy analyzer of the spectrometer. We describe the modified inelastic x-ray spectrometer and its alignment. With a focused incident beam which matches the sample size and the field of view of polycapillary, at relatively large scattering angles, the polycapillary effectively reduces parasitic scattering from the diamond anvil cell gasket and diamonds. Raw data collected from the helium exciton measured by x-ray inelastic scattering at high pressure using the polycapillary method are compared with those using conventional post-sample slit collimation

  13. Ion chamber area monitor for low level scattered x-rays

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Fergus, R.W.; Robinet, M.J.

    1978-01-01

    An economical, high confidence instrument was developed for laboratories using low energy x-rays. The instrument detects increases in background caused by scattered radiation. Exposure rates close to the open part of the x-ray tubes are of the order of 10 3 to 10 6 R/min. A few meters away the background is a few tenths of a mR/hr

  14. Superhydrophobic surfaces allow probing of exosome self organization using X-ray scattering

    KAUST Repository

    Accardo, Angelo; Tirinato, Luca; Altamura, Davide; Sibillano, Teresa; Giannini, Cinzia; Riekel, Christian; Di Fabrizio, Enzo M.

    2013-01-01

    Drops of exosome dispersions from healthy epithelial colon cell line and colorectal cancer cells were dried on a superhydrophobic PMMA substrate. The residues were studied by small- and wide-angle X-ray scattering using both a synchrotron radiation micrometric beam and a high-flux table-top X-ray source. Structural differences between healthy and cancerous cells were detected in the lamellar lattices of the exosome macro-aggregates. © 2013 The Royal Society of Chemistry.

  15. Application of small-angle X-ray scattering for differentiation among breast tumors

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Changizi, V.; Kheradmand, A. Arab; Oghabian, M.A.

    2008-01-01

    Small-angle X-ray scattering (SAXS) is an X-ray diffraction-based technique where a narrow collimated beam of X-rays is focused onto a sample and the scattered X-rays recorded by a detector. The pattern of the scattered X-rays carries information on the molecular structure of the material. As breast cancer is the most widespread cancer in women and differentiation among its tumors is important, this project compared the results of coherent X-ray scattering measurements obtained from benign and malignant breast tissues. The energy-dispersive method with a setup including X-ray tube, primary collimator, sample holder, secondary collimator and high-purity germanium (HpGe) detector was used. One hundred thirty-one breast-tissue samples, including normal, fibrocystic changes and carcinoma, were studied at the 6 deg scattering angle. Diffraction profiles (corrected scattered intensity versus momentum transfer) of normal, fibrocystic changes and carcinoma were obtained. These profiles showed a few peak positions for adipose (1.15 ± 0.06 nm -1 ), mixed normal (1.15 ± 0.06 nm -1 and 1.4 ± 0.04 nm -1 ), fibrocystic changes (1.46 ± 0.05 nm -1 and 1.74 ± 0.04 nm -1 ) and carcinoma (1.55 ± 0.04 nm -1 , 1.73 ± 0.06 nm -1 , 1.85 ± 0.05 nm -1 ). We were able to differentiate between normal, fibrocystic changes (benign) and carcinoma (malignant) breast tissues by SAXS. However, we were unable to differentiate between different types of carcinoma. (author)

  16. Application of small-angle X-ray scattering for differentiation among breast tumors

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Changizi V

    2008-01-01

    Full Text Available Small-angle X-ray scattering (SAXS is an X-ray diffraction-based technique where a narrow collimated beam of X-rays is focused onto a sample and the scattered X-rays recorded by a detector. The pattern of the scattered X-rays carries information on the molecular structure of the material. As breast cancer is the most widespread cancer in women and differentiation among its tumors is important, this project compared the results of coherent X-ray scattering measurements obtained from benign and malignant breast tissues. The energy-dispersive method with a setup including X-ray tube, primary collimator, sample holder, secondary collimator and high-purity germanium (HpGe detector was used. One hundred thirty-one breast-tissue samples, including normal, fibrocystic changes and carcinoma, were studied at the 6° scattering angle. Diffraction profiles (corrected scattered intensity versus momentum transfer of normal, fibrocystic changes and carcinoma were obtained. These profiles showed a few peak positions for adipose (1.15 ± 0.06 nm -1 , mixed normal (1.15 ± 0.06 nm -1 and 1.4 ± 0.04 nm -1 , fibrocystic changes (1.46 ± 0.05 nm -1 and 1.74 ± 0.04 nm -1 and carcinoma (1.55 ± 0.04 nm -1 , 1.73 ± 0.06 nm -1 , 1.85 ± 0.05 nm -1 . We were able to differentiate between normal, fibrocystic changes (benign and carcinoma (malignant breast tissues by SAXS. However, we were unable to differentiate between different types of carcinoma.

  17. Magnetism in heterogeneous thin film systems: Resonant X-ray scattering studies

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Kortright, J.B.; Jiang, J.S.; Bader, S.D.; Hellwig, O.; Marguiles, D.T.; Fullerton, E.E.

    2002-01-01

    Magnetic and chemical heterogeneity are common in a broad range of magnetic thin film systems. Emerging resonant soft x-ray scattering techniques are well suited to resolve such heterogeneity at relevant length scales. Resonant x-ray magneto-optical Kerr effect measurements laterally average over heterogeneity but can provide depth resolution in different ways, as illustrated in measurements resolving reversible and irreversible changes in different layers of exchange-spring heterostructures. Resonant small-angle scattering measures in-plane heterogeneity and can resolve magnetic and chemical scattering sources in different ways, as illustrated in measurements of granular alloy recording media

  18. The 7th Japan-Taiwan joint meeting on neutron and X-ray scattering. Proceedings

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    2016-03-01

    The 7th Japan-Taiwan joint meeting on neutron and X-ray scattering in Kumatori is held bilaterally in Japan and Taiwan. This meeting provides the recent outstanding results in the fields of fundamental polymer and biological sciences and their applications as well. In the fields of the X-ray and/or neutron scattering, the methodological progress expands the research fields and gives us new scientific insights. This meeting invites the researchers developing new methodologies, such as dynamics measurement utilizing nuclear Bragg resonance, subunit-kinetics measurement with deuteration-assisted small-angle neutron scattering and so on. (J.P.N.)

  19. Toroidal silicon polarization analyzer for resonant inelastic x-ray scattering

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Gao, Xuan [Department of Physics, Western Michigan University, Kalamazoo, Michigan 49008-5252 (United States); Key Laboratory of Multi-scale Manufacturing Technology, Chongqing Institute of Green and Intelligent Technology, Chinese Academy of Sciences, Chongqing 400714 (China); Casa, Diego; Kim, Jungho; Gog, Thomas [Advanced Photon Source, Argonne National Laboratory, Argonne, Illinois 60439 (United States); Li, Chengyang [Department of Physics, Western Michigan University, Kalamazoo, Michigan 49008-5252 (United States); Department of Physics, South University of Science and Technology of China, Shenzhen 518055 (China); Burns, Clement [Department of Physics, Western Michigan University, Kalamazoo, Michigan 49008-5252 (United States)

    2016-08-15

    Resonant Inelastic X-ray Scattering (RIXS) is a powerful probe for studying electronic excitations in materials. Standard high energy RIXS measurements do not measure the polarization of the scattered x-rays, which is unfortunate since it carries information about the nature and symmetry of the excitations involved in the scattering process. Here we report the fabrication of thin Si-based polarization analyzers with a double-concave toroidal surface, useful for L-edge RIXS studies in heavier atoms such as the 5-d transition metals.

  20. Measurements of ionic structure in shock compressed lithium hydride from ultrafast x-ray Thomson scattering.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kritcher, A L; Neumayer, P; Brown, C R D; Davis, P; Döppner, T; Falcone, R W; Gericke, D O; Gregori, G; Holst, B; Landen, O L; Lee, H J; Morse, E C; Pelka, A; Redmer, R; Roth, M; Vorberger, J; Wünsch, K; Glenzer, S H

    2009-12-11

    We present the first ultrafast temporally, spectrally, and angularly resolved x-ray scattering measurements from shock-compressed matter. The experimental spectra yield the absolute elastic and inelastic scattering intensities from the measured density of free electrons. Laser-compressed lithium-hydride samples are well characterized by inelastic Compton and plasmon scattering of a K-alpha x-ray probe providing independent measurements of temperature and density. The data show excellent agreement with the total intensity and structure when using the two-species form factor and accounting for the screening of ion-ion interactions.

  1. Studies of oxide-based thin-layered heterostructures by X-ray scattering methods

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Durand, O. [Thales Research and Technology France, Route Departementale 128, F-91767 Palaiseau Cedex (France)]. E-mail: olivier.durand@thalesgroup.com; Rogers, D. [Nanovation SARL, 103 bis rue de Versailles 91400 Orsay (France); Universite de Technologie de Troyes, 10-12 rue Marie Curie, 10010 (France); Teherani, F. Hosseini [Nanovation SARL, 103 bis rue de Versailles 91400 Orsay (France); Andrieux, M. [LEMHE, ICMMOCNRS-UMR 8182, Universite d' Orsay, Batiment 410, 91410 Orsay (France); Modreanu, M. [Tyndall National Institute, Lee Maltings, Prospect Row, Cork (Ireland)

    2007-06-04

    Some X-ray scattering methods (X-ray reflectometry and Diffractometry) dedicated to the study of thin-layered heterostructures are presented with a particular focus, for practical purposes, on the description of fast, accurate and robust techniques. The use of X-ray scattering metrology as a routinely working non-destructive testing method, particularly by using procedures simplifying the data-evaluation, is emphasized. The model-independent Fourier-inversion method applied to a reflectivity curve allows a fast determination of the individual layer thicknesses. We demonstrate the capability of this method by reporting X-ray reflectometry study on multilayered oxide structures, even when the number of the layers constitutive of the stack is not known a-priori. Fast Fourier transform-based procedure has also been employed successfully on high resolution X-ray diffraction profiles. A study of the reliability of the integral-breadth methods in diffraction line-broadening analysis applied to thin layers, in order to determine coherent domain sizes, is also reported. Examples from studies of oxides-based thin-layers heterostructures will illustrate these methods. In particular, X-ray scattering studies performed on high-k HfO{sub 2} and SrZrO{sub 3} thin-layers, a (GaAs/AlOx) waveguide, and a ZnO thin-layer are reported.

  2. Two electron response to an intense x-ray free electron laser pulse

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Moore, L R; Parker, J S; Meharg, K J; Armstrong, G S J; Taylor, K T

    2009-01-01

    New x-ray free electron lasers (FELs) promise an ultra-fast ultra-intense regime in which new physical phenomena, such as double core hole formation in at atom, should become directly observable. Ahead of x-ray FEL experiments, an initial key task is to theoretically explore such fundamental laser-atom interactions and processes. To study the response of a two-electron positive ion to an intense x-ray FEL pulse, our theoretical approach is a direct numerical integration, incorporating non-dipole Hamiltonian terms, of the full six-dimensional time-dependent Schroedinger equation. We present probabilities of double K-shell ionization in the two-electron positive ions Ne 8+ and Ar 16+ exposed to x-ray FEL pulses with frequencies in the range 50 au to 300 au and intensities in the range 10 17 to 10 22 W/cm 2 .

  3. Two electron response to an intense x-ray free electron laser pulse

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Moore, L R; Parker, J S; Meharg, K J; Armstrong, G S J; Taylor, K T, E-mail: l.moore@qub.ac.u [DAMTP, David Bates Building, Queen' s University Belfast, Belfast, BT7 1NN (United Kingdom)

    2009-11-01

    New x-ray free electron lasers (FELs) promise an ultra-fast ultra-intense regime in which new physical phenomena, such as double core hole formation in at atom, should become directly observable. Ahead of x-ray FEL experiments, an initial key task is to theoretically explore such fundamental laser-atom interactions and processes. To study the response of a two-electron positive ion to an intense x-ray FEL pulse, our theoretical approach is a direct numerical integration, incorporating non-dipole Hamiltonian terms, of the full six-dimensional time-dependent Schroedinger equation. We present probabilities of double K-shell ionization in the two-electron positive ions Ne{sup 8+} and Ar{sup 16+} exposed to x-ray FEL pulses with frequencies in the range 50 au to 300 au and intensities in the range 10{sup 17} to 10{sup 22} W/cm{sup 2}.

  4. Influence of Xe and Kr impurities on x-ray yield from debris-free plasma x-ray sources with an Ar supersonic gas jet irradiated by femtosecond near-infrared-wavelength laser pulses

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kantsyrev, V. L.; Schultz, K. A.; Shlyaptseva, V. V.; Petrov, G. M.; Safronova, A. S.; Petkov, E. E.; Moschella, J. J.; Shrestha, I.; Cline, W.; Wiewior, P.; Chalyy, O.

    2016-11-01

    Many aspects of physical phenomena occurring when an intense laser pulse with subpicosecond duration and an intensity of 1018-1019W /cm2 heats an underdense plasma in a supersonic clustered gas jet are studied to determine the relative contribution of thermal and nonthermal processes to soft- and hard-x-ray emission from debris-free plasmas. Experiments were performed at the University of Nevada, Reno (UNR) Leopard laser operated with a 15-J, 350-fs pulse and different pulse contrasts (107 or 105). The supersonic linear (elongated) nozzle generated Xe cluster-monomer gas jets as well as jets with Kr-Ar or Xe-Kr-Ar mixtures with densities of 1018-1019cm-3 . Prior to laser heating experiments, all jets were probed with optical interferometry and Rayleigh scattering to measure jet density and cluster distribution parameters. The supersonic linear jet provides the capability to study the anisotropy of x-ray yield from laser plasma and also laser beam self-focusing in plasma, which leads to efficient x-ray generation. Plasma diagnostics included x-ray diodes, pinhole cameras, and spectrometers. Jet signatures of x-ray emission from pure Xe gas, as well as from a mixture with Ar and Kr, was found to be very different. The most intense x-ray emission in the 1-9 KeV spectral region was observed from gas mixtures rather than pure Xe. Also, this x-ray emission was strongly anisotropic with respect to the direction of laser beam polarization. Non-local thermodynamic equilibrium (Non-LTE) models have been implemented to analyze the x-ray spectra to determine the plasma temperature and election density. Evidence of electron beam generation in the supersonic jet plasma was found. The influence of the subpicosecond laser pulse contrast (a ratio between the laser peak intensity and pedestal pulse intensity) on the jets' x-ray emission characteristics is discussed. Surprisingly, it was found that the x-ray yield was not sensitive to the prepulse contrast ratio.

  5. Femtosecond X-ray Pulses from a Spatially Chirped Electron Bunch in a SASE FEL

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Emma, P.

    2003-01-14

    We propose a simple method to produce short x-ray pulses using a spatially chirped electron bunch in a SASE FEL. The spatial chirp is generated using an rf deflector which produces a transverse offset (in y and/or y') correlated with the longitudinal bunch position. Since the FEL gain is very sensitive to an initial offset in the transverse phase space at the entrance of the undulator, only a small portion of the electron bunch with relatively small transverse offset will interact significantly with the radiation, resulting in an x-ray pulse length much shorter than the electron bunch length. The x-ray pulse is also naturally phase locked to the rf deflector and so allows high precision timing synchronization. We discuss the generation and transport of such a spatially chirped electron beam and show that tens of femtosecond long pulse can be generated for the linac coherent light source (LCLS).

  6. Deconvolving the temporal response of photoelectric x-ray detectors for the diagnosis of pulsed radiations

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Zou, Shiyang; Song, Peng; Pei, Wenbing; Guo, Liang

    2013-01-01

    Based on the conjugate gradient method, a simple algorithm is presented for deconvolving the temporal response of photoelectric x-ray detectors (XRDs) to reconstruct the resolved time-dependent x-ray fluxes. With this algorithm, we have studied the impact of temporal response of XRD on the radiation diagnosis of hohlraum heated by a short intense laser pulse. It is found that the limiting temporal response of XRD not only postpones the rising edge and peak position of x-ray pulses but also smoothes the possible fluctuations of radiation fluxes. Without a proper consideration of the temporal response of XRD, the measured radiation flux can be largely misinterpreted for radiation pulses of a hohlraum heated by short or shaped laser pulses

  7. Spectral encoding method for measuring the relative arrival time between x-ray/optical pulses

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Bionta, M. R.; Hartmann, N.; Weaver, M.; French, D.; Glownia, J. M.; Bostedt, C.; Chollet, M.; Ding, Y.; Fritz, D. M.; Fry, A. R.; Krzywinski, J.; Lemke, H. T.; Messerschmidt, M.; Schorb, S.; Zhu, D.; White, W. E.; Nicholson, D. J.; Cryan, J. P.; Baker, K.; Kane, D. J.

    2014-01-01

    The advent of few femtosecond x-ray light sources brings promise of x-ray/optical pump-probe experiments that can measure chemical and structural changes in the 10–100 fs time regime. Widely distributed timing systems used at x-ray Free-Electron Laser facilities are typically limited to above 50 fs fwhm jitter in active x-ray/optical synchronization. The approach of single-shot timing measurements is used to sort results in the event processing stage. This has seen wide use to accommodate the insufficient precision of active stabilization schemes. In this article, we review the current technique for “measure-and-sort” at the Linac Coherent Light Source at the SLAC National Accelerator Laboratory. The relative arrival time between an x-ray pulse and an optical pulse is measured near the experimental interaction region as a spectrally encoded cross-correlation signal. The cross-correlation provides a time-stamp for filter-and-sort algorithms used for real-time sorting. Sub-10 fs rms resolution is common in this technique, placing timing precision at the same scale as the duration of the shortest achievable x-ray pulses

  8. X-ray Pulse Length Characterization using the Surface Magneto Optic Kerr Effect

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Krejcik, P.; SLAC

    2006-01-01

    It will be challenging to measure the temporal profile of the hard X-ray SASE beam independently from the electron beam in the LCLS and other 4th generation light sources. A fast interaction mechanism is needed that can be probed by an ultrafast laser pulse in a pump-probe experiment. It is proposed to exploit the rotation in polarization of light reflected from a thin magnetized film, known as the surface magneto optic Kerr effect (SMOKE), to witness the absorption of the x-ray pulse in the thin film. The change in spin orbit coupling induced by the x-ray pulse occurs on the subfemtosecond time scale and changes the polarization of the probe beam. The limitation to the technique lies with the bandwidth of the probe laser pulse and how short the optical pulse can be made. The SMOKE mechanism will be described and the choices of materials for use with 1.5 (angstrom) x-rays. A schematic description of the pump-probe geometry for x-ray diagnosis is also described

  9. Experimental elucidation: microscopic mechanism of resonant X-ray scattering in manganite films

    CERN Document Server

    Ohsumi, H; Kiyama, T

    2003-01-01

    Resonant X-ray scattering experiments have been performed on perovskite manganite La sub 0 sub . sub 5 Sr sub 0 sub . sub 5 MnO sub 3 thin films, which are grown on three distinct perovskite with a coherent epitaxial strain and have a forced ferro-type orbital ordering of Mn 3d orbitals. Using an interference technique, we have successfully observed the resonant X-ray scattering signal from the system having the ferro-type orbital ordering and also revealed the energy scheme of Mn 4p bands. For the forced ferro-type orbital ordering system, the present results evidence that the resonant X-ray scattering signal originates from the band structure effect due to the Jahn-Teller distortion of a MnO sub 6 octahedron, and not from the Coulomb interaction between 3d and 4p electrons. (author)

  10. Methods for reduction of scattered x-ray in measuring MTF with the square chart

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Hatagawa, Masakatsu; Yoshida, Rie

    1982-01-01

    A square wave chart has been used to measure the MTF of a screen-film system. The problem is that the scattered X-ray from the chart may give rise to measurement errors. In this paper, the authors proposed two methods to reduce the scattered X-ray: the first method is the use of a Pb mask and second is to provide for an air gap between the chart and the screen-film system. In these methods, the scattered X-ray from the chart was reduced. MTFs were measured by both of the new methods and the conventional method, and MTF values of the new methods were in good agreement while that of the conventional method was not. It was concluded that these new methods are able to reduce errors in the measurement of MTF. (author)

  11. Thin film growth studies using time-resolved x-ray scattering

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kowarik, Stefan

    2017-02-01

    Thin-film growth is important for novel functional materials and new generations of devices. The non-equilibrium growth physics involved is very challenging, because the energy landscape for atomic scale processes is determined by many parameters, such as the diffusion and Ehrlich-Schwoebel barriers. We review the in situ real-time techniques of x-ray diffraction (XRD), x-ray growth oscillations and diffuse x-ray scattering (GISAXS) for the determination of structure and morphology on length scales from Å to µm. We give examples of time resolved growth experiments mainly from molecular thin film growth, but also highlight growth of inorganic materials using molecular beam epitaxy (MBE) and electrochemical deposition from liquids. We discuss how scaling parameters of rate equation models and fundamental energy barriers in kinetic Monte Carlo methods can be determined from fits of the real-time x-ray data.

  12. Experiment and application of soft x-ray grazing incidence optical scattering phenomena

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chen, Shuyan; Li, Cheng; Zhang, Yang; Su, Liping; Geng, Tao; Li, Kun

    2017-08-01

    For short wavelength imaging systems,surface scattering effects is one of important factors degrading imaging performance. Study of non-intuitive surface scatter effects resulting from practical optical fabrication tolerances is a necessary work for optical performance evaluation of high resolution short wavelength imaging systems. In this paper, Soft X-ray optical scattering distribution is measured by a soft X-ray reflectometer installed by my lab, for different sample mirrors、wavelength and grazing angle. Then aim at space solar telescope, combining these scattered light distributions, and surface scattering numerical model of grazing incidence imaging system, PSF and encircled energy of optical system of space solar telescope are computed. We can conclude that surface scattering severely degrade imaging performance of grazing incidence systems through analysis and computation.

  13. X-ray and neutron scattering from amorphous diamondlike carbon and hydrocarbon films

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Findeisen, E.

    1994-10-01

    In this report amorphous, diamondlike, carbon and hydrocarbon films are investigated by two different methods, namely, X-ray scattering and a combination of X-ray and neutron reflectivity. As specular reflectivity probes the scattering length density profile of a sample perpendicular to its surface, the combination of X-ray and neutron reflectivity reveals the nuclei density of both carbon and hydrogen separately. This allows to calculate the concentration of hydrogen in the films, which varies in the presented experiments between 0 and 36 atomic %. This method is a new and nondestructive technique to determine the concentration of hydrogen within an error of about ±1 at. % in samples with sharp interfaces. It is well suited for thin diamondlike carbon films. X-ray scattering is used to obtain structural information on the atomic scale, especially the average carbon-carbon distance and the average coordination number of the carbon atoms. As grazing incidence diffraction experiments were not successful, free-standing films are used for the scattering experiments with synchrotron light. However, the scattered intensity for large scattering vectors is, in spite of the intense primary beam, very weak, and therefore the accuracy of the obtained structural parameter is not sufficient to prove the diamondlike properties also on the atomic scale. (au) (10 tabs., 76 ills., 102 refs.)

  14. Observations of non-collective x-ray scattering in warm dense carbon plasma

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Bao Lihua; Zhang Jiyan; Zhao Yang; Ding Yongkun; Zhang Xiaoding

    2012-01-01

    An experiment for observing the spectrally resolved non-collective x-ray scattering in warm dense carbon plasma is presented in this paper. The experiment used Ta M-band x-rays to heat a foamed carbon cylinder sample isochorically and measured the scattering spectrum with a HOPG crystal spectrometer. The spectrum was compared with the calculation results using a Born-Mermin-approximation model. The best fitting was found at an electron temperature of T e =34 eV and an electron density of n e =1.6×10 23 cm −3 .

  15. High energy resolution inelastic x-ray scattering at the SRI-CAT

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Macrander, A.T.

    1996-08-01

    This report is a combination of vugraphs and two papers. The vugraphs give information on the beamline at the APS for IXS and the science addressable by IXS. They also cover the 10 milli-eV resolution spectrometer and the 200 milli-eV resolution spectrometer. The first paper covers the performance of the focusing Ge(444) backscattering analyzers for the inelastic x-ray scattering. The second paper discusses inelastic x-ray scattering from TiC and Ti single crystals

  16. International workshop on resonant X-ray scattering in electrically-ordered systems

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Collins, S.P.; Pettifer, R.F.; Laundy, D.; Ishida, K.; Kokubun, J.; Giles, C.; Yokaichiya, F.; Song, C.; Lee, K.B.; Ji, S.; Koo, J.; Park, Y.J.; Kim, J.Y.; Park, J.H.; Shin, H.J.; Rhyee, J.S.; Oh, B.H.; Cho, B.K.; Wilkins Stuart, B.; Paixao, J.A.; Caciuffo, R.; Javorsky, P.; Wastin, F.; Rebizant, J.; Detlefs, C.; Bernheoft, N.; Lander, G.H.; Bombardi, A.; Bergevin, F. de; Matteo, S. di; Paolasini, L.; Rodriguez-Carvajal, J.; Carretta, P.; Millet, P.; Caciuffo, R.; Goff, J.P.; Deen, P.P.; Lee, S.; Stunault, A.; Brown, S.; Mannix, D.; McIntyre, G.J.; Ward, R.C.C.; Wells, M.R.; Lorenzo, J.E.; Joly, Y.; Nazarenko, E.; Staub, U.; Srajer, G.; Haskel, D.; Choi, Y.; Lee, D.R.; Lang, J.C.; Meersschaut, J.; Jiang, J.S.; Bader, S.D.; Bouchenoire, L.; Brown, S.D.; Beesley, A.; Herring, A.; Thomas, M.; Thompson, P.; Langridge, S.; Stirling, W.G.; Mirone, A.; Lander, G.; Wilkins, S.; Ward, R.C.C.; Wells, M.R.; Zochowski, S.W.; Garcia, J.; Subias, G.; Blasco, J.; Sanchez, M.C.; Proietti, M.G.; Lovesey, S.W.; Dmitrienko, V.E.; Ovchinnikova, E.N.; Ishida, K.; Kokubun, J.; Kirfel, A.; Collins, S.P.; Laundy, D.; Oreshko, A.P.; Strange, P.; Horne, M.; Arola, E.; Winter, H.; Szotek, Z.; Temmerman, W.M.; Igarashi, J.; Usuda, M.; Takahashi, M.; Matteo, S. di; Bernhoeft, N.; Hill, J.P.; Lang, J.C.; McWhan, D.; Lee, D.R.; Haskel, D.; Srajer, G.; Hatton Peter, D.; Katsumata, K.; Braithwaite, D

    2004-07-01

    The research field of Resonant X-ray Scattering (RXS) has achieved tremendous progress in the last years. Nowadays RXS is rapidly becoming the crucial technique for investigating the subtleties of microscopic magnetism in systems where the ground state properties reflect a delicate balance between several different correlated processes. The aim of this workshop is to discuss present and future possibilities for RXS investigations of electronic order, including studies of charge, magnetic, and multipolar ordered states. The sessions will cover experimental and theoretical aspects of hard and soft X-ray resonant scattering from single crystals and thin films. This document gathers the summaries of the presentations.

  17. International workshop on resonant X-ray scattering in electrically-ordered systems

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Collins, S.P.; Pettifer, R.F.; Laundy, D.; Ishida, K.; Kokubun, J.; Giles, C.; Yokaichiya, F.; Song, C.; Lee, K.B.; Ji, S.; Koo, J.; Park, Y.J.; Kim, J.Y.; Park, J.H.; Shin, H.J.; Rhyee, J.S.; Oh, B.H.; Cho, B.K.; Wilkins Stuart, B.; Paixao, J.A.; Caciuffo, R.; Javorsky, P.; Wastin, F.; Rebizant, J.; Detlefs, C.; Bernheoft, N.; Lander, G.H.; Bombardi, A.; Bergevin, F. de; Matteo, S. di; Paolasini, L.; Rodriguez-Carvajal, J.; Carretta, P.; Millet, P.; Caciuffo, R.; Goff, J.P.; Deen, P.P.; Lee, S.; Stunault, A.; Brown, S.; Mannix, D.; McIntyre, G.J.; Ward, R.C.C.; Wells, M.R.; Lorenzo, J.E.; Joly, Y.; Nazarenko, E.; Staub, U.; Srajer, G.; Haskel, D.; Choi, Y.; Lee, D.R.; Lang, J.C.; Meersschaut, J.; Jiang, J.S.; Bader, S.D.; Bouchenoire, L.; Brown, S.D.; Beesley, A.; Herring, A.; Thomas, M.; Thompson, P.; Langridge, S.; Stirling, W.G.; Mirone, A.; Lander, G.; Wilkins, S.; Ward, R.C.C.; Wells, M.R.; Zochowski, S.W.; Garcia, J.; Subias, G.; Blasco, J.; Sanchez, M.C.; Proietti, M.G.; Lovesey, S.W.; Dmitrienko, V.E.; Ovchinnikova, E.N.; Ishida, K.; Kokubun, J.; Kirfel, A.; Collins, S.P.; Laundy, D.; Oreshko, A.P.; Strange, P.; Horne, M.; Arola, E.; Winter, H.; Szotek, Z.; Temmerman, W.M.; Igarashi, J.; Usuda, M.; Takahashi, M.; Matteo, S. di; Bernhoeft, N.; Hill, J.P.; Lang, J.C.; McWhan, D.; Lee, D.R.; Haskel, D.; Srajer, G.; Hatton Peter, D.; Katsumata, K.; Braithwaite, D.

    2004-01-01

    The research field of Resonant X-ray Scattering (RXS) has achieved tremendous progress in the last years. Nowadays RXS is rapidly becoming the crucial technique for investigating the subtleties of microscopic magnetism in systems where the ground state properties reflect a delicate balance between several different correlated processes. The aim of this workshop is to discuss present and future possibilities for RXS investigations of electronic order, including studies of charge, magnetic, and multipolar ordered states. The sessions will cover experimental and theoretical aspects of hard and soft X-ray resonant scattering from single crystals and thin films. This document gathers the summaries of the presentations

  18. Obtaining attosecond x-ray pulses using a self-amplified spontaneous emission free electron laser

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    A. A. Zholents

    2005-05-01

    Full Text Available We describe a technique for the generation of a solitary attosecond x-ray pulse in a free-electron laser (FEL, via a process of self-amplified spontaneous emission. In this method, electrons experience an energy modulation upon interacting with laser pulses having a duration of a few cycles within single-period wiggler magnets. Two consecutive modulation sections, followed by compression in a dispersive section, are used to obtain a single, subfemtosecond spike in the electron peak current. This region of the electron beam experiences an enhanced growth rate for FEL amplification. After propagation through a long undulator, this current spike emits a ∼250   attosecond x-ray pulse whose intensity dominates the x-ray emission from the rest of the electron bunch.

  19. Feasibility analysis for attosecond X-ray pulses at FERMI@ELETTRA free electron laser

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Zholents, Alexander

    2004-09-01

    We present preliminary analysis for the feasibility of the attosecond x-ray pulses at a proposed FERMI@ELETTRA free electron laser (FEL) [1]. In part 1 we restrict ourselves to minimal modifications to the proposed FEL and consider a scheme for attosecond x-ray production which can be qualified as a small add-on to a primary facility. We demonstrate that at 5-nm wavelength our scheme is capable for production of pulses with an approximate duration of 100 attoseconds at approximately 2 MW peak power and with an absolute temporal synchronization to a pump laser pulse. In part 2 we propose to use an FEL amplifier seeded by a VUV signal and to follow it by the scheme for attosecond x-ray production described in part 1.

  20. Hard synchrotron radiation scattering from a nonideal surface grating from multilayer X-ray mirrors

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Punegov, V.I.; Nesterets, Ya.I.; Mytnichenko, S.V.; Kovalenko, N.V.; Chernov, V.A.

    2003-01-01

    The hard synchrotron radiation scattering from a multilayer surface grating is theoretically and experimentally investigated. The numerical calculations of angular distribution of scattering intensity from X-ray mirror Ni/C are executed with use of recurrence formulae and statistical dynamical theory of diffraction. It is shown, that the essential role in formation of a diffraction pattern plays a diffuse scattering caused by structure imperfection of a multilayer grating [ru

  1. Fingerprints of orbital physics in magnetic resonant inelastic X-ray scattering

    Science.gov (United States)

    Marra, Pasquale

    2012-09-01

    Orbital degrees of freedom play a major role in the physics of many strongly correlated transition metal compounds. However, they are still very difficult to access experimentally, in particular by neutron scattering. We propose here how to reveal orbital occupancies of the system ground state by magnetic resonant inelastic x-ray scattering (RIXS). This is possible because, unlike in neutron scattering, the intensity of the magnetic excitations in RIXS depends essentially on the symmetry of the orbitals where the spins are in.

  2. Specific features of thermocouple calorimeter application for measurements of pulsed X-ray emission from plasma

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Gavrilov, V. V.; Fasakhov, I. K.

    2012-01-01

    It is shown that the accuracy of time-integrated measurements of pulsed X-ray emission from hot plasma with calibrated thermocouple calorimeters is mainly determined by two factors. The first and the most important factor is heating of the filter by the absorbed X-rays; as a result, the calorimeter measures the thermal radiation of the filter, which causes appreciable distortion of the temporal profile and amplitude of the recorded signal. The second factor is the dependence of the effective depth of X-ray absorption in the dielectric that covers the entrance window of the calorimeter on the energy of X-ray photons, i.e., on the recorded radiation spectrum. The results of model calculations of the calorimeter signal are compared with the experimental data.

  3. High-voltage transistor converter for pulsed x-ray sources

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Krasil'nikov, S.B.; Kristalinskii, A.L.; Lozovoi, L.N.; Markov, S.N.; Sindalovskii, E.I.

    1986-01-01

    A 24-V/12-kV converter for MIRA-2D and NORA pulsed x-ray sources is described. When the low-voltage supply varies within 20-26 V, the frequency stability of the x-ray pulses is higher by a factor of 3 ≅ 3 than when the PRIMA converter is used. For 14-24 V, the average output power of the converter is independent of the load impedance and increases linearly with an increase in supply voltage. The efficiency of the converter reaches 60%. The converter operates in the temperature range of -40 to +60 0 C

  4. Development and application of sub-nanosecond pulse-repeatable hard X-ray source

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Quan Lin; Fan Yajun; Tu Jing

    2013-01-01

    A multipurpose X-ray source was developed to meet the needs of multitask application such as radiation detection, radiation imaging and so on. The multipurpose X-ray source has characteristic of adjustable width and energy, pulse-repetition operation, ultra-short pulse and fine stability. Its rising time is close to 98.6 ps, the operation voltage reaches 425 kV, and the peak fluence rate exceeds 2.07 × 10 18 cm -2 · s -1 at 10 cm, which provides an ideal radiation environment for relevant application. (authors)

  5. Discovery of X-Ray Emission from the Crab Pulsar at Pulse Minimum

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tennant, Allyn F.; Becker, Werner; Juda, Michael; Elsner, Ronald F.; Kolodziejczak, Jeffery J.; Murray, Stephen S.; ODell, Stephen L.; Paerels, Frits; Swartz, Douglas A.

    2001-01-01

    The Chandra X-Ray Observatory observed the Crab pulsar using the Low-Energy Transmission Grating with the High-Resolution Camera. Time-resolved zeroth-order images reveal that the pulsar emits X-rays at all pulse phases. Analysis of the flux at minimum - most likely non-thermal in origin - places an upper limit (T(sub infinity) < 2.1 MK) on the surface temperature of the underlying neutron star. In addition, analysis of the pulse profile establishes that the error in the Chandra-determined absolute time is quite small, -0.2 +/- 0.1 ms.

  6. Resonant Soft X-ray Scattering of Cellulose Microstructure in Plant Primary Cell Walls

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ye, Dan; Kiemle, Sarah N.; Wang, Cheng; Cosgrove, Daniel J.; Gomez, Esther W.; Gomez, Enrique D.

    Cellulosic biomass is the most abundant raw material available for the production of renewable and sustainable biofuels. Breaking down cellulose is the rate-limiting step in economical biofuel production; therefore, a detailed understanding of the microscopic structure of plant cell walls is required to develop efficient biofuel conversion methods. Primary cell walls are key determinants of plant growth and mechanics. Their structure is complex and heterogeneous, making it difficult to elucidate how various components such as pectin, hemicellulose, and cellulose contribute to the overall structure. The electron density of these wall components is similar; such that conventional hard X-ray scattering does not generate enough contrast to resolve the different elements of the polysaccharide network. The chemical specificity of resonant soft X-ray scattering allows contrast to be generated based on differences in chemistry of the different polysaccharides. By varying incident X-ray energies, we have achieved increased scattering contrast between cellulose and other polysaccharides from primary cell walls of onions. By performing scattering at certain energies, features of the network structure of the cell wall are resolved. From the soft X-ray scattering results, we obtained the packing distance of cellulose microfibrils embedded in the polysaccharide network.

  7. X-ray and neutron scattering studies of complex confined fluids

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Sinha, S. K.

    1999-01-01

    We review recent X-ray and neutron scattering studies of the structure and dynamics of confined complex fluids. This includes the study of polymer conformations and binary fluid phase transitions in porous media using Small Angle Neutron scattering, and the use of synchrotrons radiation to study ordering and fluctuation phenomena at solid/liquid and liquid/air interfaces. Ordering of liquids near a solid surface or in confinement will be discussed, and the study, via specular and off-specular X-ray reflectivity, of capillary wave fluctuations on liquid polymer films. Finally, we shall discuss the use of high-brilliance beams from X-ray synchrotrons to study via photon correlation spectroscopy the slow dynamics of soft condensed matter systems

  8. X-ray spectral determination by detection of radiation scattered at different angles

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Barrea, Raul; Mainardi, R.T.

    1987-01-01

    A precise knowledge of the spectral content of an X-ray beam is of fundamental importance in areas such as X-ray fluorescence analysis by absolute methods, radiodiagnosis, radiotherapy, computed tomography, etc. A simple practical method was developed to determine X-ray spectra emitted by X-ray tubes. It is based on the scattering of the beam on a solid target and detection of this radiation at different angles. This methodology can easily be adapted to the successive attenuation of the beam procedure. Numerical parameter values of a proposed analytical function for the energy spectrum are found measuring the radiation intensity with a suitable detector (ionization chamber or plastic scintillation detector) and equating it with the convolution integral of the proposed spectrum with the incoherent scattering function. This procedure of spectra determination is enclosed in the same group of those generically referred as successive modifications of the irradiation set up used in absolute methods of X-ray fluorescence analysis. (Author) [es

  9. Reflection of femtosecond pulses from soft X-ray free-electron laser by periodical multilayers

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Ksenzov, D.; Grigorian, S.; Pietsch, U. [Faculty of Physics, University of Siegen (Germany); Hendel, S.; Bienert, F.; Sacher, M.D.; Heinzmann, U. [Faculty of Physics, University of Bielefeld (Germany)

    2009-08-15

    Recent experiments on a soft X-ray free-electron laser (FEL) source (FLASH in Hamburg) have shown that multilayers (MLs) can be used as optical elements for highly intense X-ray irradiation. An effort to find most appropriate MLs has to consider the femtosecond time structure and the particular photon energy of the FEL. In this paper we have analysed the time response of 'low absorbing' MLs (e.g. such as La/B{sub 4}C) as a function of the number of periods. Interaction of a pulse train of Gaussian shaped sub-pulses using a realistic ML grown by electron-beam evaporation technique has been analysed in the soft-X-ray range. The structural parameters of the MLs were obtained by reflectivity measurements at BESSY II and subsequent profile fittings. (Abstract Copyright [2009], Wiley Periodicals, Inc.)

  10. Solvation dynamics monitored by combined X-ray spectroscopies and scattering: photoinduced spin transition in aqueous [Fe(bpy)3]2+

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Bressler, C.; Gawelda, W.; Galler, A.

    2014-01-01

    We have studied the photoinduced low spin (LS) to high spin (HS) conversion of aqueous Fe(bpy)3 with pulse-limited time resolution. In a combined setup permitting simultaneous X-ray diffuse scattering (XDS) and spectroscopic measurements at a MHz repetition rate we have unraveled the interplay be...

  11. Oil classification using X-ray scattering and principal component analysis

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Almeida, Danielle S.; Souza, Amanda S.; Lopes, Ricardo T., E-mail: dani.almeida84@gmail.com, E-mail: ricardo@lin.ufrj.br, E-mail: amandass@bioqmed.ufrj.br [Universidade Federal do Rio de Janeiro (UFRJ), Rio de Janeiro, RJ (Brazil); Oliveira, Davi F.; Anjos, Marcelino J., E-mail: davi.oliveira@uerj.br, E-mail: marcelin@uerj.br [Universidade do Estado do Rio de Janeiro (UERJ), Rio de Janeiro, RJ (Brazil). Inst. de Fisica Armando Dias Tavares

    2015-07-01

    X-ray scattering techniques have been considered promising for the classification and characterization of many types of samples. This study employed this technique combined with chemical analysis and multivariate analysis to characterize 54 vegetable oil samples (being 25 olive oils)with different properties obtained in commercial establishments in Rio de Janeiro city. The samples were chemically analyzed using the following indexes: iodine, acidity, saponification and peroxide. In order to obtain the X-ray scattering spectrum, an X-ray tube with a silver anode operating at 40kV and 50 μA was used. The results showed that oils cab ne divided in tow large groups: olive oils and non-olive oils. Additionally, in a multivariate analysis (Principal Component Analysis - PCA), two components were obtained and accounted for more than 80% of the variance. One component was associated with chemical parameters and the other with scattering profiles of each sample. Results showed that use of X-ray scattering spectra combined with chemical analysis and PCA can be a fast, cheap and efficient method for vegetable oil characterization. (author)

  12. Diffuse X-ray scattering near the Bragg reflection of P-doped Czochralski silicon

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Stojanoff, V.; Pimentel, C.A.F.

    1983-01-01

    Bragg line profile and high resolution diffuse X-ray scattering measurements around the (400) reciprocal lattice point of dislocation-free Czochralski Si single crystals P-doped have shown defects of interstitial nature with typical size about 1000 A. (Author) [pt

  13. The scattering problem in X-ray adsorptiometry using an MWPC; and its solution

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Bateman, J.E.

    1978-03-01

    It is shown that a large aperture imaging X-ray absorptiometric system (in this case a xenon filled MWPC) suffers very badly from scattering in the water bath and soft tissue components of the imaged system in the bone mass measuring case. Applications of a fine focused collimator provides a satisfactory solution to the problem. (author)

  14. Data Analysis Of Small Angle X-Ray Solution Scattering And Its ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Small Angle X-ray Scattering analysis was used for the study of the protein, Human Tumour Necrosis Factor (TNF) homogeneously dispersed in solution. The experiment consisted in sending a well collimated beam of synchrotron radiation of wavelength, λ through the sample and measuring the variation of the intensity as a ...

  15. Resonant soft x-ray scattering and charge density waves in correlated systems

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Rusydi, Andrivo

    2006-01-01

    Summary This work describes results obtained on the study of charge density waves (CDW) in strongly correlated systems with a new experimental method: resonant soft x-ray scattering (RSXS). The basic motivation is the 1986 discovery by Bednorz and Müler of a new type of superconductor, based on Cu

  16. Soft X-ray magnetic scattering study of rotational magnetisation processes in cobalt/copper multilayers

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Hase, T.P.A.; Fulthorpe, B.D.; Wilkins, S.B.; Tanner, B.K.; Marrows, C.H.; Hickey, B.J.

    2001-01-01

    We report the observation of magnetic viscosity in the intensity of resonant magnetic soft X-ray scattering during rotational magnetisation processes in antiferromagnetically coupled Co/Cu multilayers. The hysteretic time-dependent component of the signal can be fitted to a single-exponential function that varies as a function of magnetising field

  17. Investigation of nanoscale structures by small-angle X-ray scattering in a radiochromic dosimeter

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Skyt, Peter Sandegaard; Jensen, Grethe Vestergaard; Wahlstedt, Isak Hannes

    2014-01-01

    This study examines the nanoscale structures in a radiochromic dosimeter that was based on leuco-malachite-green dye and the surfactant sodium dodecyl sulfate (SDS) suspended in a gelatin matrix. Small-angle X-ray scattering was used to investigate the structures of a range of compositions...

  18. Oil classification using X-ray scattering and principal component analysis

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Almeida, Danielle S.; Souza, Amanda S.; Lopes, Ricardo T.; Oliveira, Davi F.; Anjos, Marcelino J.

    2015-01-01

    X-ray scattering techniques have been considered promising for the classification and characterization of many types of samples. This study employed this technique combined with chemical analysis and multivariate analysis to characterize 54 vegetable oil samples (being 25 olive oils)with different properties obtained in commercial establishments in Rio de Janeiro city. The samples were chemically analyzed using the following indexes: iodine, acidity, saponification and peroxide. In order to obtain the X-ray scattering spectrum, an X-ray tube with a silver anode operating at 40kV and 50 μA was used. The results showed that oils cab ne divided in tow large groups: olive oils and non-olive oils. Additionally, in a multivariate analysis (Principal Component Analysis - PCA), two components were obtained and accounted for more than 80% of the variance. One component was associated with chemical parameters and the other with scattering profiles of each sample. Results showed that use of X-ray scattering spectra combined with chemical analysis and PCA can be a fast, cheap and efficient method for vegetable oil characterization. (author)

  19. Anomalous X-ray scattering studies of short-, intermediate- and extended-range order in glasses

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Price, D.L.; Saboungi, M.L.; Armand, P.; Cox, D.E.

    1998-01-01

    The authors present the formalism of anomalous x-ray scattering as applied to partial structure analysis of disordered materials, and give an example of how the technique has been applied, together with that of neutron diffraction, to investigate short-, intermediate- and extended-range order in vitreous germania and rubidium germanate

  20. Surface x-ray scattering and scanning tunneling microscopy studies at the Au(111) electrode

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Ocko, B.M.; Magnussen, O.M.; Wang, J.X.; Adzic, R.R.

    1993-01-01

    This chapter reviews Surface X-ray Scattering and Scanning Tunneling Microscopy results carried out at the Au(111) surface under electrochemical conditions. Results are presented for the reconstructed surface, and for bromide and thallium monolayers. These examples are used to illustrate the complementary nature of the techniques

  1. Diffuse X-ray scattering and far infrared absorption of barium and lead β" aluminas

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Hayes, W.; Kjær, Kristian; Pratt, F. L.

    1985-01-01

    The authors have carried out high-momentum-resolution studies in diffuse X-ray scattering of barium and lead B" aluminas in the temperature range 20-700 degrees C. They have also measured the vibrational spectra of these compounds between 2K and 300K in the energy range 10-100 cm-1. The results...

  2. Resonant X-ray Scattering of carbonyl sulfide at the sulfur K edge

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Journel, Loïc; Marchenko, Tatiana; Guillemin, Renaud; Kawerk, Elie; Simon, Marc; Kavčič, Matjaž; Žit-nik, Matjaž; Bučar, Klemen; Bohinc, Rok

    2015-01-01

    New results on free OCS molecules have been obtained using Resonant X-ray Inelastic Scattering spectroscopy. A deconvolution algorithm has been applied to improve the energy resolution spectra of which we can extract detailed information on nuclear dynamics in the system. (paper)

  3. Resonant X-ray Scattering of carbonyl sulfide at the sulfur K edge

    OpenAIRE

    Journel , Loïc; Marchenko , Tatiana; Guillemin , Renaud; Kawerk , Elie; Kavčič , Matjaž; Žit-nik , Matjaž; Bučar , Klemen; Bohinc , Rok; Simon , Marc

    2015-01-01

    International audience; New results on free OCS molecules have been obtained using Resonant X-ray Inelastic Scattering spectroscopy. A deconvolution algorithm has been applied to improve the energy resolution spectra of which we can extract detailed information on nuclear dynamics in the system.

  4. A Monte Carlo simulation of scattering reduction in spectral x-ray computed tomography

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Busi, Matteo; Olsen, Ulrik Lund; Bergbäck Knudsen, Erik

    2017-01-01

    In X-ray computed tomography (CT), scattered radiation plays an important role in the accurate reconstruction of the inspected object, leading to a loss of contrast between the different materials in the reconstruction volume and cupping artifacts in the images. We present a Monte Carlo simulation...

  5. On the calculation of x-ray scattering signals from pairwise radial distribution functions

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Dohn, Asmus Ougaard; Biasin, Elisa; Haldrup, Kristoffer

    2015-01-01

    We derive a formulation for evaluating (time-resolved) x-ray scattering signals of solvated chemical systems, based on pairwise radial distribution functions, with the aim of this formulation to accompany molecular dynamics simulations. The derivation is described in detail to eliminate any possi...

  6. RESONANT MAGNETIC-X-RAY SCATTERING FROM MIXED-VALENCE TMSE

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    MCWHAN, DB; ISAACS, ED; CARRA, P; SHAPIRO, SM; THOLE, BT; HOSHINO, S

    1993-01-01

    The mixed-valent compound TmSe has been studied in its antiferromagnetic state (T x-ray scattering. The (003) magnetic reflection shows two peaks as a function of incident energy corresponding to the L(III) absorption edges of its Tm2+ and Tm2+ configurations. This

  7. X-ray imaging with amorphous selenium: Pulse height measurements of avalanche gain fluctuations

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Lui, Brian J. M.; Hunt, D. C.; Reznik, A.; Tanioka, K.; Rowlands, J. A.

    2006-01-01

    Avalanche multiplication in amorphous selenium (a-Se) can provide a large, adjustable gain for active matrix flat panel imagers (AMFPI), enabling quantum noise limited x-ray imaging during both radiography and fluoroscopy. In the case of direct conversion AMFPI, the multiplication factor for each x ray is a function of its depth of interaction, and the resulting variations in gain can reduce the detective quantum efficiency (DQE) of the system. An experimental method was developed to measure gain fluctuations by analyzing images of individual x rays that were obtained using a video camera with an a-Se target operated in avalanche mode. Pulse height spectra (PHS) of the charge produced per x ray were recorded for monoenergetic 30.9, 49.4, and 73.8 keV x-ray sources. The rapid initial decay and long tail of each PHS can be explained by a model in which positive charge dominates the initiation of avalanche. The Swank information factor quantifies the effect of gain fluctuation on DQE and was calculated from the PHS. The information factor was found to be 0.5 for a 25 μm a-Se layer with a maximum gain of ∼300. Changing the energy of the incident x ray influenced the range of the primary photoelectron and noticeably affected the tail of the experimental PHS, but did not significantly change the avalanche Swank factor

  8. Rayleigh scatter in kilovoltage x-ray imaging: is the independent atom approximation good enough?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Poludniowski, G.; Evans, P. M.; Webb, S.

    2009-11-01

    Monte Carlo simulation is the gold standard method for modelling scattering processes in medical x-ray imaging. General-purpose Monte Carlo codes, however, typically use the independent atom approximation (IAA). This is known to be inaccurate for Rayleigh scattering, for many materials, in the forward direction. This work addresses whether the IAA is sufficient for the typical modelling tasks in medical kilovoltage x-ray imaging. As a means of comparison, we incorporate a more realistic 'interference function' model into a custom-written Monte Carlo code. First, we conduct simulations of scatter from isolated voxels of soft tissue, adipose, cortical bone and spongiosa. Then, we simulate scatter profiles from a cylinder of water and from phantoms of a patient's head, thorax and pelvis, constructed from diagnostic-quality CT data sets. Lastly, we reconstruct CT numbers from simulated sets of projection images and investigate the quantitative effects of the approximation. We show that the IAA can produce errors of several per cent of the total scatter, across a projection image, for typical x-ray beams and patients. The errors in reconstructed CT number, however, for the phantoms simulated, were small (typically < 10 HU). The IAA can therefore be considered sufficient for the modelling of scatter correction in CT imaging. Where accurate quantitative estimates of scatter in individual projection images are required, however, the appropriate interference functions should be included.

  9. Coherent scattering X-ray imaging at the Brazilian National Synchrotron Laboratory: Preliminary breast images

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Castro, C.R.F. [Nuclear Instrumentation Laboratory-COPPE/UFRJ, P.O. Box 68509, Rio de Janeiro 21945-970 (Brazil); Barroso, R.C. [Physics Institute-University of Rio de Janeiro State, Rio de Janeiro 20559-900 (Brazil)]. E-mail: cely@uerij.br; Oliveira, L.F. de [Physics Institute-University of Rio de Janeiro State, Rio de Janeiro 20559-900 (Brazil); Lopes, R.T. [Nuclear Instrumentation Laboratory-COPPE/UFRJ, P.O. Box 68509, Rio de Janeiro 21945-970 (Brazil)

    2005-08-11

    The angular distribution of coherent scatter (low-momentum transfer) carries information about atomic structures, resulting in a pattern, which can be used to reconstruct a series of images. Coherent-scatter computed tomography is a novel imaging method developed to produce cross-sectional images based on the X-ray diffraction properties of an object. A different approach to coherent X-ray imaging is possible by fixing the detector at a given scatter angle {theta}, which produces an interference peak and then, carried out a tomography in the standard way. The cross-sectional images obtained allow determining the spatial dependence of coherent scatter cross-section of selected volume elements of inhomogeneous, extend objects for a single predetermined value of {theta} of interest, leading to a simplification of the data processing and the complexity of the apparatus. This work presents preliminary coherent scattering images carried out at the X-ray Diffraction beamline of the National Synchrotron Light Laboratory in Campinas, Brazil. The specimens were excised human breast tissues fixed in formaline. No frozen procedure was used in order to minimize preferred orientation during sample preparation. About 1mm thick slices cut from each of the fresh samples were mounted in frames without windows and placed on a translator to allow acquisition of scattering spectra. Cylinders containing healthy and cancerous (infiltrating ductal carcinoma) breast tissues were imagined at the characteristic angle for adipose tissue. Transmission and coherent scatter images are compared.

  10. Novel X-ray imaging diagnostics of high energy nanosecond pulse accelerators

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Smith, Graham W.; Gallegos, Roque Rosauro; Hohlfelder, Robert James; Beutler, David Eric; Dudley, John; Seymour, Calvin L.G.; Bell, John D.

    2004-01-01

    Pioneering x-ray imaging has been undertaken on a number of AWE's and Sandia National Laboratories radiation effects x-ray simulators. These simulators typically yield a single very short (<50ns) pulse of high-energy (MeV endpoint energy bremsstrahlung) x-ray radiation with doses in the kilorad (krad(Si)) region. X-ray source targets vary in size from 2 to 25cm diameter, dependent upon the particular simulator. Electronic imaging of the source x-ray emission under dynamic conditions yields valuable information upon how the simulator is performing. The resultant images are of interest to the simulator designer who may configure new x-ray source converter targets and diode designs. The images can provide quantitative information about machine performance during radiation effects testing of components under active conditions. The effects testing program is a valuable interface for validation of high performance computer codes and models for the radiation effects community. A novel high-energy x-ray imaging spectrometer is described whereby the spectral energy (0.1 to 2.5MeV) profile may be discerned from the digitally recorded and viewable images via a pinhole/scintillator/CCD imaging system and knowledge of the filtration parameters. Unique images, analysis and a preliminary evaluation of the capability of the spectrometer are presented. Further, a novel time resolved imaging system is described that captures a sequence of high spatial resolution temporal images, with zero interframe time, in the nanosecond timeframe, of our source x-rays.

  11. Small-angle x-ray scattering from the early growth stages of zeolite A

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Singh, P.; White, J.

    1999-01-01

    Full text: The work presented here with the use of SAXS (Small-Angle X-ray Scattering) is in attempt to identify a different paradigm to the organic template induced crystallization of zeolites, in particular zeolite 'A'. The reactions have been followed by small angle X-ray scattering from the time of first mixing of the constituents until the final separation of zeolite A crystals. The processes happening during the growth are expected to follow successive transformation of intermediate metastable phases until the formation of thermodynamically most stable phase and scattering signatures from these developments may be useful for extracting interesting information about the processes in situ. The scattering functions from a synthesis system of zeolite 'A' at the initial and final stage of reaction are presented.The different growth processes of zeolite 'A' from different silicate and aluminium sources are found. The differences are attributed to different rate limiting steps in the syntheses

  12. Low-angle polarized neutron and X-ray scattering from magnetic nanolayers and nanostructures

    CERN Document Server

    Paul, Amitesh

    2017-01-01

    This research monograph presents the latest results related to the characterization of low dimensional systems. Low-angle polarized neutron scattering and X-ray scattering at grazing incidence are used as the two main techniques to explore various physical phenomena of these systems. Special focus is put on systems like thin film transition metal and rare-earth layers, oxide heterostructures, hybrid systems, self-assembled nanostructures and self-diffusion.  Readers will gain in-depth knowledge about the usage of specular scattering and off-specular scattering techniques. Investigation of in-plane and out-of-plane structures and magnetism with vector magnetometric information is illustrated comprehensively. The book caters to a wide audience working in the field of nano-dimensional magnetic systems and the neutron and X-ray reflectometry community in particular.

  13. Fast scattering simulation tool for multi-energy x-ray imaging

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Sossin, A., E-mail: artur.sossin@cea.fr [CEA-LETI MINATEC Grenoble, F-38054 Grenoble (France); Tabary, J.; Rebuffel, V. [CEA-LETI MINATEC Grenoble, F-38054 Grenoble (France); Létang, J.M.; Freud, N. [Université de Lyon, CREATIS, CNRS UMR5220, Inserm U1044, INSA-Lyon, Université Claude Bernard Lyon 1, Centre Léon Bérard (France); Verger, L. [CEA-LETI MINATEC Grenoble, F-38054 Grenoble (France)

    2015-12-01

    A combination of Monte Carlo (MC) and deterministic approaches was employed as a means of creating a simulation tool capable of providing energy resolved x-ray primary and scatter images within a reasonable time interval. Libraries of Sindbad, a previously developed x-ray simulation software, were used in the development. The scatter simulation capabilities of the tool were validated through simulation with the aid of GATE and through experimentation by using a spectrometric CdTe detector. A simple cylindrical phantom with cavities and an aluminum insert was used. Cross-validation with GATE showed good agreement with a global spatial error of 1.5% and a maximum scatter spectrum error of around 6%. Experimental validation also supported the accuracy of the simulations obtained from the developed software with a global spatial error of 1.8% and a maximum error of around 8.5% in the scatter spectra.

  14. Precise tests of x-ray scattering theories in the Compton regime

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Dunford, R. W.; Gemmell, D. S.; Kanter, E. P.; Kraessig, B.; Southworth, S. H.; Young, L.

    1999-01-01

    The authors report two experiments intended to test the accuracy of state-of-the-art theoretical predictions for x-ray scattering from low-Z atoms. The first one deals with the differential x-ray scattering cross sections in Ne and He from 11-22 keV and the Ne Compton-to-Rayleigh scattering ratio in this energy range. It was found that, in order to be consistent with the experimental results, an accurate description at low Z must include nonlocal exchange, electron correlation, and dynamic effects. The second experiment concerns the ratio of helium double-to-single ionization for Compton scattering in the 8-28 keV energy range where published experimental and theoretical results so far fail to give a consistent picture. The progress of the experiment and the data analysis is reported

  15. FDTD parallel computational analysis of grid-type scattering filter characteristics for medical X-ray image diagnosis

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Takahashi, Koichi; Miyazaki, Yasumitsu; Goto, Nobuo

    2007-01-01

    X-ray diagnosis depends on the intensity of transmitted and scattered waves in X-ray propagation in biomedical media. X-ray is scattered and absorbed by tissues, such as fat, bone and internal organs. However, image processing for medical diagnosis, based on the scattering and absorption characteristics of these tissues in X-ray spectrum is not so much studied. To obtain precise information of tissues in a living body, the accurate characteristics of scattering and absorption are required. In this paper, X-ray scattering and absorption in biomedical media are studied using 2-dimensional finite difference time domain (FDTD) method. In FDTD method, the size of analysis space is very limited by the performance of available computers. To overcome this limitation, parallel and successive FDTD method is introduced. As a result of computer simulation, the amplitude of transmitted and scattered waves are presented numerically. The fundamental filtering characteristics of grid-type filter are also shown numerically. (author)

  16. Measurement and Interpretation of Diffuse Scattering in X-Ray Diffraction for Macromolecular Crystallography

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Wall, Michael E. [Los Alamos National Lab. (LANL), Los Alamos, NM (United States)

    2017-10-16

    X-ray diffraction from macromolecular crystals includes both sharply peaked Bragg reflections and diffuse intensity between the peaks. The information in Bragg scattering reflects the mean electron density in the unit cells of the crystal. The diffuse scattering arises from correlations in the variations of electron density that may occur from one unit cell to another, and therefore contains information about collective motions in proteins.

  17. Quantitative analysis of thermal diffuse X-ray scattering on single crystals. Communication 2. FCC metals

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Najsh, V.E.; Novoselova, T.V.; Sagaradze, I.V.; Kvyatkovskij, B.E.; Fedorov, V.I.; Chernenkov, Yu.P.

    1994-01-01

    With the use of X-ray diffractometer a study was made into the intensity of diffuse scattering in Ni crystals with FCC lattice. Earlier accomplished quantitative analysis for BCC crystals was extended to FCC lattices. Comparative evaluation was made for cooperative thermal oscillation patterns and corresponding diffuse scattering in crystals of various structures. Measurements on FCC crystals were carried out at room temperature using AgK a lpha-radiation in 96 points of Ni crystal. 8 refs., 4 figs

  18. A new procedure for static RAM evaluation under x-ray pulses

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Marec, R.; Gaillard, R.; Mary, P.; Fairbank, X.; Ferrant, R.; Palau, J.M.; Gasiot, J.

    1994-01-01

    An original method, to identify the initial patterns that are the most favorable to obtain upsets under X-ray pulses, has been developed on Static RAMs in the standby mode. The results obtained with these initial patterns are interesting in order to analyze the radiation induced failures

  19. Design of a scattering polarimeter for hard X-ray astronomy

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Costa, E.; Cinti, M.N.; Feroci, M.; Matt, G.; Rapisarda, M.

    1995-01-01

    The design of a new hard X-ray Compton scattering polarimeter based on scintillating fibre technology is presented and studied in detail by means of Monte Carlo calculations. Several different configurations and materials have been tested in order to optimise the sensitivity in the medium/high energy X-ray band. A high sensitivity over the energy band 20-200 keV is obtained for a two material configuration. The advantages deriving from employing a new scintillating material, the YAP (YAlO 3 ), are also discussed. (orig.)

  20. Magnetic x-ray scattering studies of holmium using synchro- tron radiation

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Gibbs, D.; Moncton, D.E.; D'Amico, K.L.; Bohr, J.; Grier, B.H.

    1985-01-01

    We present the results of magnetic x-ray scattering experiments on the rare-earth metal holmium using synchrotron radiation. Direct high-resolution measurements of the nominally incommensurate magnetic satellite reflections reveal new lock-in behavior which we explain within a simple spin-discommensuration model. As a result of magnetoelastic coupling, the spin-discommensuration array produces additional x-ray diffraction satellites. Their observation further substantiates the model and demonstrates additional advantages of synchrotron radiation for magnetic-structure studies

  1. X-Band Linac Beam-Line for Medical Compton Scattering X-Ray Source

    CERN Document Server

    Dobashi, Katsuhiro; Ebina, Futaro; Fukasawa, Atsushi; Hayano, Hitoshi; Higo, Toshiyasu; Kaneyasu, Tatsuo; Ogino, Haruyuki; Sakamoto, Fumito; Uesaka, Mitsuru; Urakawa, Junji; Yamamoto, Tomohiko

    2005-01-01

    Compton scattering hard X-ray source for 10~80 keV are under construction using the X-band (11.424 GHz) electron linear accelerator and YAG laser at Nuclear Engineering Research laboratory, University of Tokyo. This work is a part of the national project on the development of advanced compact medical accelerators in Japan. National Institute for Radiological Science is the host institute and U. Tokyo and KEK are working for the X-ray source. Main advantage is to produce tunable monochromatic hard ( 10-80

  2. Electrochemically adsorbed Pb on Ag (111) studied with grazing- incidence x-ray scattering

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Kortright, J.B.; Ross, P.N.; Melroy, O.R.; Toney, M.F.; Borges, G.L.; Samant, M.G.

    1989-04-01

    Grazing-incidence x-ray scattering studies of the evolution of electrochemically deposited layers of lead on silver (111) as a function of applied electrochemical potential are presented. Measurements were made with the adsorbed layers in contact with solution in a specially designed sample cell. The observed lead structures are a function of the applied potential and range from an incommensurate monolayer, resulting from underpotential deposition, to randomly oriented polycrystalline bulk lead, resulting from lower deposition potentials. These early experiments demonstrate the ability of in situ x-ray diffraction measurements to determine structures associated with electrochemical deposition. 6 refs., 4 figs

  3. Simbol-X Mirror Module Thermal Shields: II-Small Angle X-Ray Scattering Measurements

    Science.gov (United States)

    Barbera, M.; Ayers, T.; Collura, A.; Nasillo, G.; Pareschi, G.; Tagliaferri, G.

    2009-05-01

    The formation flight configuration of the Simbol-X mission implies that the X-ray mirror module will be open to Space on both ends. In order to reduce the power required to maintain the thermal stability and, therefore, the high angular resolution of the shell optics, a thin foil thermal shield will cover the mirror module. Different options are presently being studied for the foil material of these shields. We report results of an experimental investigation conducted to verify that the scattering of X-rays, by interaction with the thin foil material of the thermal shield, will not significantly affect the performances of the telescope.

  4. Simbol-X Mirror Module Thermal Shields: II-Small Angle X-Ray Scattering Measurements

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Barbera, M.; Ayers, T.; Collura, A.; Nasillo, G.; Pareschi, G.; Tagliaferri, G.

    2009-01-01

    The formation flight configuration of the Simbol-X mission implies that the X-ray mirror module will be open to Space on both ends. In order to reduce the power required to maintain the thermal stability and, therefore, the high angular resolution of the shell optics, a thin foil thermal shield will cover the mirror module. Different options are presently being studied for the foil material of these shields. We report results of an experimental investigation conducted to verify that the scattering of X-rays, by interaction with the thin foil material of the thermal shield, will not significantly affect the performances of the telescope.

  5. A high-resolution multiwire area detector for X-ray scattering

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Faruqi, A R; Andrews, H [Medical Research Council, Cambridge (UK). Lab. of Molecular Biology

    1989-11-10

    A high-resolution multiwire area detector has been developed for recording X-ray scattering from biological specimens. The detector is 100x100 mm{sup 2} and, under the present operating conditions, has a spatial resolution of about 250 {mu}m in both directions. The detector is set up on a double-mirror focusing camera on a rotating anode X-ray generator and has been used in a number of small-angle experiments, two of which are described in this paper. (orig.).

  6. Source of X-ray radiation based on back compton scattering

    CERN Document Server

    Bulyak, E V; Karnaukhov, I M; Kononenko, S G; Lapshin, V G; Mytsykov, A O; Telegin, Yu P; Shcherbakov, A A; Zelinsky, Andrey Yurij

    2000-01-01

    Applicability was studied and previous estimation was done of power X-ray beams generation by backward Compton scattering of a laser photon beam on a cooled down electron beam. The few MeV electron beam circulating in a compact storage ring can be cooled down by interaction of that beam with powerful laser radiation of micrometer wavelength to achieve normalized emittance of 10 sup - sup 7 m. A tunable X-ray source of photons of energy ranging from few keV up to a hundred keV could result from the interaction of the laser beam with a dense electron beam.

  7. Source of X-ray radiation based on back compton scattering

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Bulyak, E.V.; Gladkikh, P.I.; Karnaukhov, I.M.; Kononenko, S.G.; Lapshin, V.I.; Mytsykov, A.O.; Telegin, Yu.N.; Shcherbakov, A.A. E-mail: shcherbakov@kipt.kharkov.ua; Zelinsky, A.Yu

    2000-06-21

    Applicability was studied and previous estimation was done of power X-ray beams generation by backward Compton scattering of a laser photon beam on a cooled down electron beam. The few MeV electron beam circulating in a compact storage ring can be cooled down by interaction of that beam with powerful laser radiation of micrometer wavelength to achieve normalized emittance of 10{sup -7} m. A tunable X-ray source of photons of energy ranging from few keV up to a hundred keV could result from the interaction of the laser beam with a dense electron beam.

  8. Source of X-ray radiation based on back compton scattering

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Bulyak, E.V.; Gladkikh, P.I.; Karnaukhov, I.M.; Kononenko, S.G.; Lapshin, V.I.; Mytsykov, A.O.; Telegin, Yu.N.; Shcherbakov, A.A.; Zelinsky, A.Yu.

    2000-01-01

    Applicability was studied and previous estimation was done of power X-ray beams generation by backward Compton scattering of a laser photon beam on a cooled down electron beam. The few MeV electron beam circulating in a compact storage ring can be cooled down by interaction of that beam with powerful laser radiation of micrometer wavelength to achieve normalized emittance of 10 -7 m. A tunable X-ray source of photons of energy ranging from few keV up to a hundred keV could result from the interaction of the laser beam with a dense electron beam

  9. An x ray scatter approach for non-destructive chemical analysis of low atomic numbered elements

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ross, H. Richard

    1993-01-01

    A non-destructive x-ray scatter (XRS) approach has been developed, along with a rapid atomic scatter algorithm for the detection and analysis of low atomic-numbered elements in solids, powders, and liquids. The present method of energy dispersive x-ray fluorescence spectroscopy (EDXRF) makes the analysis of light elements (i.e., less than sodium; less than 11) extremely difficult. Detection and measurement become progressively worse as atomic numbers become smaller, due to a competing process called 'Auger Emission', which reduces fluorescent intensity, coupled with the high mass absorption coefficients exhibited by low energy x-rays, the detection and determination of low atomic-numbered elements by x-ray spectrometry is limited. However, an indirect approach based on the intensity ratio of Compton and Rayleigh scattered has been used to define light element components in alloys, plastics and other materials. This XRS technique provides qualitative and quantitative information about the overall constituents of a variety of samples.

  10. Radiation-Induced Chemical Dynamics in Ar Clusters Exposed to Strong X-Ray Pulses

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kumagai, Yoshiaki; Jurek, Zoltan; Xu, Weiqing; Fukuzawa, Hironobu; Motomura, Koji; Iablonskyi, Denys; Nagaya, Kiyonobu; Wada, Shin-ichi; Mondal, Subhendu; Tachibana, Tetsuya; Ito, Yuta; Sakai, Tsukasa; Matsunami, Kenji; Nishiyama, Toshiyuki; Umemoto, Takayuki; Nicolas, Christophe; Miron, Catalin; Togashi, Tadashi; Ogawa, Kanade; Owada, Shigeki; Tono, Kensuke; Yabashi, Makina; Son, Sang-Kil; Ziaja, Beata; Santra, Robin; Ueda, Kiyoshi

    2018-06-01

    We show that electron and ion spectroscopy reveals the details of the oligomer formation in Ar clusters exposed to an x-ray free electron laser (XFEL) pulse, i.e., chemical dynamics triggered by x rays. With guidance from a dedicated molecular dynamics simulation tool, we find that van der Waals bonding, the oligomer formation mechanism, and charge transfer among the cluster constituents significantly affect ionization dynamics induced by an XFEL pulse of moderate fluence. Our results clearly demonstrate that XFEL pulses can be used not only to "damage and destroy" molecular assemblies but also to modify and transform their molecular structure. The accuracy of the predictions obtained makes it possible to apply the cluster spectroscopy, in connection with the respective simulations, for estimation of the XFEL pulse fluence in the fluence regime below single-atom multiple-photon absorption, which is hardly accessible with other diagnostic tools.

  11. A Non-thermal Pulsed X-Ray Emission of AR Scorpii

    Science.gov (United States)

    Takata, J.; Hu, C.-P.; Lin, L. C. C.; Tam, P. H. T.; Pal, P. S.; Hui, C. Y.; Kong, A. K. H.; Cheng, K. S.

    2018-02-01

    We report the analysis result of UV/X-ray emission from AR Scorpii, which is an intermediate polar (IP) composed of a magnetic white dwarf and an M-type star, with the XMM-Newton data. The X-ray/UV emission clearly shows a large variation over the orbit, and their intensity maximum (or minimum) is located at the superior conjunction (or inferior conjunction) of the M star orbit. The hardness ratio of the X-ray emission shows a small variation over the orbital phase and shows no indication of the absorption by an accretion column. These properties are naturally explained by the emission from the M star surface rather than that from the accretion column on the white dwarf’s (WD) star, which is similar to usual IPs. Additionally, the observed X-ray emission also modulates with the WD’s spin with a pulse fraction of ∼14%. The peak position is aligned in the optical/UV/X-ray band. This supports the hypothesis that the electrons in AR Scorpii are accelerated to a relativistic speed and emit non-thermal photons via the synchrotron radiation. In the X-ray bands, evidence of the power-law spectrum is found in the pulsed component, although the observed emission is dominated by the optically thin thermal plasma emissions with several different temperatures. It is considered that the magnetic dissipation/reconnection process on the M star surface heats up the plasma to a temperature of several keV and also accelerates the electrons to the relativistic speed. The relativistic electrons are trapped in the WD’s closed magnetic field lines by the magnetic mirror effect. In this model, the observed pulsed component is explained by the emissions from the first magnetic mirror point.

  12. Temperature- and density-dependent x-ray scattering in a low-Z plasma

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Brown, R.T.

    1976-06-01

    A computer program is described which calculates temperature- and density-dependent differential and total coherent and incoherent x-ray scattering cross sections for a low-Z scattering medium. Temperature and density are arbitrary within the limitations of the validity of local thermodynamic equilbrium, since ionic populations are calculated under this assumption. Scattering cross sections are calculated in the form factor approximation. The scattering medium may consist of any mixure of elements with Z less than or equal to 8, with this limitation imposed by the availability of atomic data

  13. Inelastic X-ray scattering experiments at extreme conditions: high temperatures and high pressures

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    S.Hosokawa

    2008-03-01

    Full Text Available In this article, we review the present status of experimental techniques under extreme conditions of high temperature and high pressure used for inelastic X-ray scattering (IXS experiments of liquid metals, semiconductors, molten salts, molecular liquids, and supercritical water and methanol. For high temperature experiments, some types of single-crystal sapphire cells were designed depending on the temperature of interest and the sample thickness for the X-ray transmission. Single-crystal diamond X-ray windows attached to the externally heated high-pressure vessel were used for the IXS experiment of supercritical water and methanol. Some typical experimental results are also given, and the perspective of IXS technique under extreme conditions is discussed.

  14. Predicting X-ray diffuse scattering from translation–libration–screw structural ensembles

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Van Benschoten, Andrew H.; Afonine, Pavel V.; Terwilliger, Thomas C.; Wall, Michael E.; Jackson, Colin J.; Sauter, Nicholas K.; Adams, Paul D.; Urzhumtsev, Alexandre; Fraser, James S.

    2015-01-01

    A method of simulating X-ray diffuse scattering from multi-model PDB files is presented. Despite similar agreement with Bragg data, different translation–libration–screw refinement strategies produce unique diffuse intensity patterns. Identifying the intramolecular motions of proteins and nucleic acids is a major challenge in macromolecular X-ray crystallography. Because Bragg diffraction describes the average positional distribution of crystalline atoms with imperfect precision, the resulting electron density can be compatible with multiple models of motion. Diffuse X-ray scattering can reduce this degeneracy by reporting on correlated atomic displacements. Although recent technological advances are increasing the potential to accurately measure diffuse scattering, computational modeling and validation tools are still needed to quantify the agreement between experimental data and different parameterizations of crystalline disorder. A new tool, phenix.diffuse, addresses this need by employing Guinier’s equation to calculate diffuse scattering from Protein Data Bank (PDB)-formatted structural ensembles. As an example case, phenix.diffuse is applied to translation–libration–screw (TLS) refinement, which models rigid-body displacement for segments of the macromolecule. To enable the calculation of diffuse scattering from TLS-refined structures, phenix.tls-as-xyz builds multi-model PDB files that sample the underlying T, L and S tensors. In the glycerophosphodiesterase GpdQ, alternative TLS-group partitioning and different motional correlations between groups yield markedly dissimilar diffuse scattering maps with distinct implications for molecular mechanism and allostery. These methods demonstrate how, in principle, X-ray diffuse scattering could extend macromolecular structural refinement, validation and analysis

  15. Predicting X-ray diffuse scattering from translation–libration–screw structural ensembles

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Van Benschoten, Andrew H. [University of California San Francisco, San Francisco, CA 94158 (United States); Afonine, Pavel V. [Lawrence Berkeley National Laboratory, Berkeley, CA 94720 (United States); Terwilliger, Thomas C.; Wall, Michael E. [Los Alamos National Laboratory, Los Alamos, NM 87545 (United States); Jackson, Colin J. [Australian National University, Canberra, ACT 2601 (Australia); Sauter, Nicholas K. [Lawrence Berkeley National Laboratory, Berkeley, CA 94720 (United States); Adams, Paul D. [Lawrence Berkeley National Laboratory, Berkeley, CA 94720 (United States); University of California Berkeley, Berkeley, CA 94720 (United States); Urzhumtsev, Alexandre [Institut de Génétique et de Biologie Moléculaire et Cellulaire, CNRS–INSERM–UdS, 1 Rue Laurent Fries, BP 10142, 67404 Illkirch (France); Université de Lorraine, BP 239, 54506 Vandoeuvre-les-Nancy (France); Fraser, James S., E-mail: james.fraser@ucsf.edu [University of California San Francisco, San Francisco, CA 94158 (United States)

    2015-07-28

    A method of simulating X-ray diffuse scattering from multi-model PDB files is presented. Despite similar agreement with Bragg data, different translation–libration–screw refinement strategies produce unique diffuse intensity patterns. Identifying the intramolecular motions of proteins and nucleic acids is a major challenge in macromolecular X-ray crystallography. Because Bragg diffraction describes the average positional distribution of crystalline atoms with imperfect precision, the resulting electron density can be compatible with multiple models of motion. Diffuse X-ray scattering can reduce this degeneracy by reporting on correlated atomic displacements. Although recent technological advances are increasing the potential to accurately measure diffuse scattering, computational modeling and validation tools are still needed to quantify the agreement between experimental data and different parameterizations of crystalline disorder. A new tool, phenix.diffuse, addresses this need by employing Guinier’s equation to calculate diffuse scattering from Protein Data Bank (PDB)-formatted structural ensembles. As an example case, phenix.diffuse is applied to translation–libration–screw (TLS) refinement, which models rigid-body displacement for segments of the macromolecule. To enable the calculation of diffuse scattering from TLS-refined structures, phenix.tls-as-xyz builds multi-model PDB files that sample the underlying T, L and S tensors. In the glycerophosphodiesterase GpdQ, alternative TLS-group partitioning and different motional correlations between groups yield markedly dissimilar diffuse scattering maps with distinct implications for molecular mechanism and allostery. These methods demonstrate how, in principle, X-ray diffuse scattering could extend macromolecular structural refinement, validation and analysis.

  16. Influence of pulsed electric field on defectoscopic characteristics of electro- x-ray radiography

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Gusev, E.A.; Lomonosov, V.V.; Sosnin, F.R.

    1988-01-01

    A new method to increase electric resistance of semiconductor plates in the process of electro-X-ray radiography, which is based on influence of a pulsed electric field on the plate semiconductor layer is suggested. The effect of a pulsed field with the intensity E=10 6 V/cm, frequency of 50 Hz and front length of 1 ns has increased electric resistance of the semiconductor layer and improved flaw detection in the process of electroradiography

  17. Femtosecond and Subfemtosecond X-Ray Pulses from a SASE Based Free-Electron Laser

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Emma, P

    2004-03-10

    We propose a novel method to generate femtosecond and sub-femtosecond photon pulses in a free electron laser by selectively spoiling the transverse emittance of the electron beam. Its merits are simplicity and ease of implementation. When the system is applied to the Linac Coherent Light Source, it can provide x-ray pulses the order of 1 femtosecond in duration containing about 1010 transversely coherent photons.

  18. A simple, semi-quantitative method for measuring pulsed soft x-rays

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Takahama, Y.; Du, J.; Yanagidaira, T.; Hirano, K.

    1993-01-01

    A simple semi-quantitative measurement and image processing system for pulsed soft X-rays with a time and spatial resolution is proposed. Performance of the system is examined using a cylindrical soft X-ray source generated with a plasma device. The system consists of commercial facilities which are easily obtained such as a microchannel plate-phosphor screen combination, a CCD camera, an image memory board and a personal computer. To make a quantitative measurement possible, the image processing and observation of the phosphor screen current are used in conjunction. (author)

  19. Detection methods of pulsed X-rays for transmission tomography with a linear accelerator

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Glasser, F.

    1988-07-01

    Appropriate detection methods are studied for the development of a high energy tomograph using a linear accelerator for nondestructive testing of bulky objects. The aim is the selection of detectors adapted to a pulsed X-ray source and with a good behavior under X-ray radiations of several MeV. Performance of semiconductors (HgI 2 , Cl doped CdTe, GaAs, Bi 12 Ge0 20 ) and a scintillator (Bi 4 Ge 3 0 12 ) are examined. A prototype tomograph gave images that show the validity of detectors for analysis of medium size equipment such as a concrete drum of 60 cm in diameter [fr

  20. Design of a 4.8-m ring for inverse Compton scattering x-ray source

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    H. S. Xu

    2014-07-01

    Full Text Available In this paper we present the design of a 50 MeV compact electron storage ring with 4.8-meter circumference for the Tsinghua Thomson scattering x-ray source. The ring consists of four dipole magnets with properly adjusted bending radii and edge angles for both horizontal and vertical focusing, and a pair of quadrupole magnets used to adjust the horizontal damping partition number. We find that the dynamic aperture of compact storage rings depends essentially on the intrinsic nonlinearity of the dipole magnets with small bending radius. Hamiltonian dynamics is found to agree well with results from numerical particle tracking. We develop a self-consistent method to estimate the equilibrium beam parameters in the presence of the intrabeam scattering, synchrotron radiation damping, quantum excitation, and residual gas scattering. We also optimize the rf parameters for achieving a maximum x-ray flux.

  1. Interpretation and Utility of the Moments of Small-Angle X-Ray Scattering Distributions.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Modregger, Peter; Kagias, Matias; Irvine, Sarah C; Brönnimann, Rolf; Jefimovs, Konstantins; Endrizzi, Marco; Olivo, Alessandro

    2017-06-30

    Small angle x-ray scattering has been proven to be a valuable method for accessing structural information below the spatial resolution limit implied by direct imaging. Here, we theoretically derive the relation that links the subpixel differential phase signal provided by the sample to the moments of scattering distributions accessible by refraction sensitive x-ray imaging techniques. As an important special case we explain the scatter or dark-field contrast in terms of the sample's phase signal. Further, we establish that, for binary phase objects, the nth moment scales with the difference of the refractive index decrement to the power of n. Finally, we experimentally demonstrate the utility of the moments by quantitatively determining the particle sizes of a range of powders with a laboratory-based setup.

  2. Ultra-High Field Magnets for X-Ray and Neutron Scattering using High Temperature Superconductors

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Winn, Barry L. [Oak Ridge National Lab. (ORNL), Oak Ridge, TN (United States); Broholm, C. [Johns Hopkins Univ., Baltimore, MD (United States); Bird, M. [Florida State Univ., Tallahassee, FL (United States). National High Magnetic Field Lab. (MagLab); Breneman, Bruce C. [General Atomics, San Diego, CA (United States); Coffey, Michael [Cryomagnetics, Oak Ridge, TN (United States); Cutler, Roy I. [Oak Ridge National Lab. (ORNL), Oak Ridge, TN (United States); Duckworth, Robert C. [Oak Ridge National Lab. (ORNL), Oak Ridge, TN (United States); Erwin, R. [National Inst. of Standards and Technology (NIST), Gaithersburg, MD (United States); Hahn, Seungyong [Florida State Univ., Tallahassee, FL (United States). National High Magnetic Field Lab. (MagLab); Hernandez, Yamali [National Inst. of Standards and Technology (NIST), Gaithersburg, MD (United States); Herwig, Kenneth W. [Oak Ridge National Lab. (ORNL), Oak Ridge, TN (United States); Holland, Leo D. [General Atomics, San Diego, CA (United States); Lonergan, Kevin M. [Oxford Instruments, Abingdon (United Kingdom); Melhem, Ziad [Oxford Instruments, Abingdon (United Kingdom); Minter, Stephen J. [Cryomagnetics, Oak Ridge, TN (United States); Nelson, C. [Brookhaven National Lab. (BNL), Upton, NY (United States); Paranthaman, M. Parans [Oak Ridge National Lab. (ORNL), Oak Ridge, TN (United States); Pierce, Josh [Oak Ridge National Lab. (ORNL), Oak Ridge, TN (United States); Ruff, Jacob [Cornell Univ., Ithaca, NY (United States); Shen, Tengming [Lawrence Berkeley National Lab. (LBNL), Berkeley, CA (United States); Sherline, Todd E. [Oak Ridge National Lab. (ORNL), Oak Ridge, TN (United States); Smeibidl, Peter G. [Helmholtz-Zentrum Berlin (HZB), (Germany); Tennant, David [Oak Ridge National Lab. (ORNL), Oak Ridge, TN (United States); van der Laan, Danko [Advanced Conductor Technologies, LLC, Boulder, CO (United States); Wahle, Robert J. [Helmholtz-Zentrum Berlin (HZB), (Germany); Zhang, Yifei [SuperPower, Inc., Schenectady, NY (United States)

    2017-01-01

    X-ray and neutron scattering techniques are capable of acquiring information about the structure and dynamics of quantum matter. However, the high-field magnet systems currently available at x-ray and neutron scattering facilities in the United States are limited to fields of 16 tesla (T) at maximum, which precludes applications that require and/or study ultra-high field states of matter. This gap in capability—and the need to address it—is a central conclusion of the 2005 National Academy of Sciences report by the Committee on Opportunities in High Magnetic Field Science. To address this gap, we propose a magnet development program that would more than double the field range accessible to scattering experiments. With the development and use of new ultra-high field–magnets, the program would bring into view new worlds of quantum matter with profound impacts on our understanding of advanced electronic materials.

  3. Taking snapshots of photoexcited molecules in disordered media using pulsed synchrotron x-rays

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Chen, L.X.

    2004-01-01

    Photoexcited molecules are quintessential reactants in photochemistry. Structures of these photoexcited molecules in disordered media in which a majority of photochemical reactions take place remained elusive for decades owing to a lack of suitable X-ray sources, despite their importance in understanding fundamental aspects in photochemistry. As new pulsed X-ray sources become available, short-lived excited-state molecular structures in disordered media can now be captured by using laser-pulse pump, X-ray pulse-probe techniques of third-generation synchrotron sources with time resolutions of 30-100 ps, as demonstrated by examples in this review. These studies provide unprecedented information on structural origins of molecular properties in the excited states. By using other ultrafast X-ray facilities that will be completed in the near future, time-resolution for the excited-state structure measurements should reach the femtosecond timescales, which will make 'molecular movies' of bond breaking or formation, and vibrational relaxation, a reality.

  4. Soft x-ray generation in gases with an ultrashort pulse laser

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Ditmire, Todd Raymond [Univ. of California, Davis, CA (United States)

    1996-01-08

    An experimental investigation of soft x-ray production resulting from the interaction of intense near infra-red laser radiation with gases is presented in this thesis. Specifically, soft x-ray generation through high order harmonic generation or exploiting intense inverse bremsstrahlung heating is examined. Most of these studies are conducted with femtosecond, terawatt class Cr:LiSrAlF6 (LiSAF) laser, though results derived from studies with other laser systems are presented as well. The majority of this work is devoted to experimental investigations, however, theoretical and computational models are developed to interpret the data. These studies are motivated by the possibility of utilizing the physics of intense laser/matter interactions as a potential compact source of bright x-rays. Consequently, the thrust of many of the experiments conducted is aimed at characterizing the x-rays produced for possible use in applications. In general, the studies of this manuscript fall into three categories. First, a unique 130 fs, 8 TW laser that is based on chirped pulse amplification, is described, and its performance is evaluated. The generation of x-rays through high order harmonics is then discussed with emphasis on characterizing and optimizing harmonic generation. Finally, the generation of strong, incoherent x-ray radiation by the intense irradiation of large (>1,000 atom) clusters in gas jets, is explored. The physics of laser energy absorption by clusters illuminated with intensities of 1015 to 1017 W/cm2 is considered in detail. X-ray spectroscopy of the hot plasmas that result from the irradiation of the clusters is conducted, and energy transport and kinetics issues in these plasmas are discussed.

  5. Characterizing the behavior of scattered radiation in multi-energy x-ray imaging

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Sossin, Artur, E-mail: artur.sossin@gmail.com [CEA-LETI MINATEC Grenoble, F-38054 Grenoble (France); Rebuffel, V.; Tabary, J. [CEA-LETI MINATEC Grenoble, F-38054 Grenoble (France); Létang, J.M.; Freud, N. [Univ Lyon, INSA-Lyon, Université Lyon 1, UJM-Saint Etienne, CNRS, Inserm, Centre Léon Bérard, CREATIS UMR 5220 U1206, F-69373 Lyon (France); Verger, L. [CEA-LETI MINATEC Grenoble, F-38054 Grenoble (France)

    2017-04-01

    Scattered radiation results in various undesirable effects in medical diagnostics, non-destructive testing (NDT) and security x-ray imaging. Despite numerous studies characterizing this phenomenon and its effects, the knowledge of its behavior in the energy domain remains limited. The present study aims at summarizing some key insights on scattered radiation originating from the inspected object. In addition, various simulations and experiments with limited collimation on both simplified and realistic phantoms were conducted in order to study scatter behavior in multi-energy x-ray imaging. Results showed that the spectrum shape of the scatter component can be considered preserved in the first approximation across the image plane for various acquisition geometries and phantoms. The variations exhibited by the scatter spectrum were below 10% for most examined cases. Furthermore, the corresponding spectrum shape proved to be also relatively invariant for different experimental angular projections of one of the examined phantoms. The observed property of scattered radiation can potentially lead to the decoupling of spatial and energy scatter components, which can in turn enable speed ups in scatter simulations and reduce the complexity of scatter correction.

  6. Scatter fractions from linear accelerators with x-ray energies from 6 to 24 MV.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Taylor, P L; Rodgers, J E; Shobe, J

    1999-08-01

    Computation of shielding requirements for a linear accelerator must take into account the amount of radiation scattered from the patient to areas outside the primary beam. Currently, the most frequently used data are from NCRP 49 that only includes data for x-ray energies up to 6 MV and angles from 30 degrees to 135 degrees. In this work we have determined by Monte Carlo simulation the scattered fractions of dose for a wide range of energies and angles of clinical significance including 6, 10, 18, and 24 MV and scattering angles from 10 degrees to 150 degrees. Calculations were made for a 400 cm2 circular field size impinging onto a spherical phantom. Scattered fractions of dose were determined at 1 m from the phantom. Angles from 10 degrees to 30 degrees are of concern for higher energies where the scatter is primarily in the forward direction. An error in scatter fraction may result in too little secondary shielding near the junction with the primary barrier. The Monte Carlo code ITS (Version 3.0) developed at Sandia National Laboratory and NIST was used to simulate scatter from the patient to the barrier. Of significance was the variation of calculated scattered dose with depth of measurement within the barrier indicating that accurate values may be difficult to obtain. Mean energies of scatter x-ray spectra are presented.

  7. Tissue Equivalent Phantom Design for Characterization of a Coherent Scatter X-ray Imaging System

    Science.gov (United States)

    Albanese, Kathryn Elizabeth

    Scatter in medical imaging is typically cast off as image-related noise that detracts from meaningful diagnosis. It is therefore typically rejected or removed from medical images. However, it has been found that every material, including cancerous tissue, has a unique X-ray coherent scatter signature that can be used to identify the material or tissue. Such scatter-based tissue-identification provides the advantage of locating and identifying particular materials over conventional anatomical imaging through X-ray radiography. A coded aperture X-ray coherent scatter spectral imaging system has been developed in our group to classify different tissue types based on their unique scatter signatures. Previous experiments using our prototype have demonstrated that the depth-resolved coherent scatter spectral imaging system (CACSSI) can discriminate healthy and cancerous tissue present in the path of a non-destructive x-ray beam. A key to the successful optimization of CACSSI as a clinical imaging method is to obtain anatomically accurate phantoms of the human body. This thesis describes the development and fabrication of 3D printed anatomical scatter phantoms of the breast and lung. The purpose of this work is to accurately model different breast geometries using a tissue equivalent phantom, and to classify these tissues in a coherent x-ray scatter imaging system. Tissue-equivalent anatomical phantoms were designed to assess the capability of the CACSSI system to classify different types of breast tissue (adipose, fibroglandular, malignant). These phantoms were 3D printed based on DICOM data obtained from CT scans of prone breasts. The phantoms were tested through comparison of measured scatter signatures with those of adipose and fibroglandular tissue from literature. Tumors in the phantom were modeled using a variety of biological tissue including actual surgically excised benign and malignant tissue specimens. Lung based phantoms have also been printed for future

  8. Developments of compact pulsed-power system toward X-ray sources

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Miyamoto Takuya

    2013-11-01

    Full Text Available In order to generate X-rays from X-pinch, the peak current and current-rising time required are estimated to be 100 kA and 100 ns, respectively. To obtain these parameters, we developed a pulsed-power system, which consists of a parallelized pulse-forming network (PFN. The 20 PFN modules of the system were driven at a charging voltage of 20 kV by a thin copper wire of load resistance. The results showed that the current and current-rising time are 18 kA and 107 ns, respectively. The wire/plasma temperature is 6.9 eV. The pulsed-power system is expected to generate X-rays from X-pinch by the proposed system. This can be achieved by raising the voltage and increasing the number of PFN modules.

  9. Towards shorter wavelength x-ray lasers using a high power, short pulse pump laser

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Tighe, W.; Krushelnick, K.; Valeo, E.; Suckewer, S.

    1991-05-01

    A near-terawatt, KrF* laser system, focussable to power densities >10 18 W/cm 2 has been constructed for use as a pump laser in various schemes aimed at the development of x-ray lasing below 5nm. The laser system along with output characteristics such as the pulse duration, the focal spot size, and the percentage of amplified spontaneous emission (ASE) emitted along with the laser pulse will be presented. Schemes intended to lead to shorter wavelength x-ray emission will be described. The resultant requirements on the pump laser characteristics and the target design will be outlined. Results from recent solid target experiments and two-laser experiments, showing the interaction of a high-power, short pulse laser with a preformed plasma, will be presented. 13 refs., 5 figs

  10. X-ray emission from a nanosecond-pulse discharge in an inhomogeneous electric field at atmospheric pressure

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Zhang Cheng; Shao Tao; Ren Chengyan; Zhang Dongdong; Tarasenko, Victor; Kostyrya, Igor D.; Ma Hao; Yan Ping

    2012-01-01

    This paper describes experimental studies of the dependence of the X-ray intensity on the anode material in nanosecond high-voltage discharges. The discharges were generated by two nanosecond-pulse generators in atmospheric air with a highly inhomogeneous electric field by a tube-plate gap. The output pulse of the first generator (repetitive pulse generator) has a rise time of about 15 ns and a full width at half maximum of 30–40 ns. The output of the second generator (single pulse generator) has a rise time of about 0.3 ns and a full width at half maximum of 1 ns. The electrical characteristics and the X-ray emission of nanosecond-pulse discharge in atmospheric air are studied by the measurement of voltage-current waveforms, discharge images, X-ray count and dose. Our experimental results showed that the anode material rarely affects electrical characteristics, but it can significantly affect the X-ray density. Comparing the density of X-rays, it was shown that the highest x-rays density occurred in the diffuse discharge in repetitive pulse mode, then the spark discharge with a small air gap, and then the corona discharge with a large air gap, in which the X-ray density was the lowest. Therefore, it could be confirmed that the bremsstrahlung at the anode contributes to the X-ray emission from nanosecond-pulse discharges.

  11. Preliminary small-angle X-ray scattering and X-ray diffraction studies of the BTB domain of lola protein from Drosophila melanogaster

    Science.gov (United States)

    Boyko, K. M.; Nikolaeva, A. Yu.; Kachalova, G. S.; Bonchuk, A. N.; Dorovatovskii, P. V.; Popov, V. O.

    2017-11-01

    The Drosophila genome has several dozens of transcription factors (TTK group) containing BTB domains assembled into octamers. The LOLA protein belongs to this family. The purification, crystallization, and preliminary X-ray diffraction and small-angle X-ray scattering (SAXS) studies of the BTB domain of this protein are reported. The crystallization conditions were found by the vapor-diffusion technique. A very low diffraction resolution (8.7 Å resolution) of the crystals was insufficient for the determination of the threedimensional structure of the BTB domain. The SAXS study demonstrated that the BTB domain of the LOLA protein exists as an octamer in solution.

  12. Experimental validation of a multi-energy x-ray adapted scatter separation method

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sossin, A.; Rebuffel, V.; Tabary, J.; Létang, J. M.; Freud, N.; Verger, L.

    2016-12-01

    Both in radiography and computed tomography (CT), recently emerged energy-resolved x-ray photon counting detectors enable the identification and quantification of individual materials comprising the inspected object. However, the approaches used for these operations require highly accurate x-ray images. The accuracy of the images is severely compromised by the presence of scattered radiation, which leads to a loss of spatial contrast and, more importantly, a bias in radiographic material imaging and artefacts in CT. The aim of the present study was to experimentally evaluate a recently introduced partial attenuation spectral scatter separation approach (PASSSA) adapted for multi-energy imaging. For this purpose, a prototype x-ray system was used. Several radiographic acquisitions of an anthropomorphic thorax phantom were performed. Reference primary images were obtained via the beam-stop (BS) approach. The attenuation images acquired from PASSSA-corrected data showed a substantial increase in local contrast and internal structure contour visibility when compared to uncorrected images. A substantial reduction of scatter induced bias was also achieved. Quantitatively, the developed method proved to be in relatively good agreement with the BS data. The application of the proposed scatter correction technique lowered the initial normalized root-mean-square error (NRMSE) of 45% between the uncorrected total and the reference primary spectral images by a factor of 9, thus reducing it to around 5%.

  13. Pulse-periodic generation of supershort avalanche electron beams and X-ray emission

    Science.gov (United States)

    Baksht, E. Kh.; Burachenko, A. G.; Erofeev, M. V.; Tarasenko, V. F.

    2014-05-01

    Pulse-periodic generation of supershort avalanche electron beams (SAEBs) and X-ray emission in nitrogen, as well as the transition from a single-pulse mode to a pulse-periodic mode with a high repetition frequency, was studied experimentally. It is shown that, in the pulse-periodic mode, the full width at halfmaximum of the SAEB is larger and the decrease rate of the gap voltage is lower than those in the single-pulse mode. It is found that, when the front duration of the voltage pulse at a nitrogen pressure of 90 Torr decreases from 2.5 to 0.3 ns, the X-ray exposure dose in the pulse-periodic mode increases by more than one order of magnitude and the number of SAEB electrons also increases. It is shown that, in the pulse-periodic mode of a diffuse discharge, gas heating in the discharge gap results in a severalfold increase in the SAEB amplitude (the number of electrons in the beam). At a generator voltage of 25 kV, nitrogen pressure of 90 Torr, and pulse repetition frequency of 3.5 kHz, a runaway electron beam was detected behind the anode foil.

  14. Strong Three-magnon Scattering in Cuprates by Resonant X-rays

    OpenAIRE

    Ament, Luuk J. P.; Brink, Jeroen van den

    2010-01-01

    We show that Resonant Inelastic X-ray scattering (RIXS) is sensitive to three-magnon excitations in cuprates. Even if it requires three electrons to simultaneously flip their spin, the RIXS tri-magnon scattering amplitude is not small. At the Cu $L$-edge its intensity is generally larger than the bi-magnon one and at low transferred momentum even larger than the single-magnon intensity. At the copper $M$-edge the situation is yet more extreme: in this case three-magnon scattering is dominatin...

  15. Neutron, x-ray scattering and TEM studies of Ni-Ti multilayers

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Keem, J.E.; Wood, J.; Grupido, N.; Hart, K.; Nutt, S.; Reichel, D.G.; Yelon, W.B.

    1988-01-01

    The authors present an analysis of Ni-Ti multilayer neutron reflectors and supermirrors undertaken to identify the causes of the lower than expected observed scattering power and critical angle enhancement of Ni-Ti supermirrors. Results of these investigations focus attention on cusp formation in the Ni-Ti bilayers as probable cause for the reduced neutron scattering power. Grazing angle x-ray and neutron scattering, wide angle neutron diffraction and analytical cross sectional TEM have been used. The multilayers were produced by magnetron sputtering and ion-beam deposition on float glass substrates and silicon wafers

  16. Experimental time resolved measurement of fluence and energy spectra of photons emitted by a pulsed X-ray generator in the range 5-300 keV

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Vie, M.; Baboulet, J.P.

    1989-01-01

    We have developed: - A sensor to measure locally X ray fluence rate amplitude and variation versus time during X ray pulses, - A spectrometer based on ROSS method to measure absolute X ray spectrum versus time during X ray pulses. This metrology is used to characterise single shot X ray pulsed sources emitting photons in the range of 5 to 300 keV. Fluence domain is between 10 -9 and 5 10 -4 J. cm -2 with a few nanoseconds time resolution [fr

  17. Generation of plasma X-ray sources via high repetition rate femtosecond laser pulses

    Science.gov (United States)

    Baguckis, Artūras; Plukis, Artūras; Reklaitis, Jonas; Remeikis, Vidmantas; Giniūnas, Linas; Vengris, Mikas

    2017-12-01

    In this study, we present the development and characterization of Cu plasma X-ray source driven by 20 W average power high repetition rate femtosecond laser in ambient atmosphere environment. The peak Cu- Kα photon flux of 2.3 × 109 photons/s into full solid angle is demonstrated (with a process conversion efficiency of 10-7), using pulses with peak intensity of 4.65 × 1014 W/cm2. Such Cu- Kα flux is significantly larger than others found in comparable experiments, performed in air environment. The effects of resonance plasma absorption process, when optimized, are shown to increase measured flux by the factor of 2-3. The relationship between X-ray photon flux and plasma-driving pulse repetition rate is quasi-linear, suggesting that fluxes could further be increased to 1010 photons/s using even higher average powers of driving radiation. These results suggest that to fully utilize the potential of high repetition rate laser sources, novel target material delivery systems (for example, jet-based ones) are required. On the other hand, this study demonstrates that high energy lasers currently used for plasma X-ray sources can be conveniently and efficiently replaced by high average power and repetition rate laser radiation, as a way to increase the brightness of the generated X-rays.

  18. Coherence Properties of Individual Femtosecond Pulses of an X-ray Free-Electron Laser

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Vartanyants, I.A.; /DESY /Moscow Phys. Eng. Inst.; Singer, A.; Mancuso, A.P.; Yefanov, O.M.; /DESY; Sakdinawat, A.; Liu, Y.; Bang, E.; /UC, Berkeley; Williams, G.J.; /SLAC; Cadenazzi, G.; Abbey, B.; /Melbourne U.; Sinn, H.; /European XFEL, Hamburg; Attwood, D.; /UC, Berkeley; Nugent, K.A.; /Melbourne U.; Weckert, E.; /DESY; Wang, T.; Zhu, D.; Wu, B.; Graves, C.; Scherz, A.; Turner, J.J.; Schlotter, W.F.; /SLAC /LERMA, Ivry /Zurich, ETH /LBL, Berkeley /ANL, APS /Argonne /SLAC /LLNL, Livermore /Latrobe U. /SLAC /SLAC /European XFEL, Hamburg /SLAC /Hamburg U.

    2012-06-06

    Measurements of the spatial and temporal coherence of single, femtosecond x-ray pulses generated by the first hard x-ray free-electron laser, the Linac Coherent Light Source, are presented. Single-shot measurements were performed at 780 eV x-ray photon energy using apertures containing double pinholes in 'diffract-and-destroy' mode. We determined a coherence length of 17 {micro}m in the vertical direction, which is approximately the size of the focused Linac Coherent Light Source beam in the same direction. The analysis of the diffraction patterns produced by the pinholes with the largest separation yields an estimate of the temporal coherence time of 0.55 fs. We find that the total degree of transverse coherence is 56% and that the x-ray pulses are adequately described by two transverse coherent modes in each direction. This leads us to the conclusion that 78% of the total power is contained in the dominant mode.

  19. X-ray crystal structure and small-angle X-ray scattering of sheep liver sorbitol dehydrogenase

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Yennawar, Hemant; Møller, Magda; Gillilan, Richard

    2011-01-01

    The X-ray crystal structure of sheep liver sorbitol dehydrogenase (slSDH) has been determined using the crystal structure of human sorbitol dehydrogenase (hSDH) as a molecular-replacement model. slSDH crystallized in space group I222 with one monomer in the asymmetric unit. A conserved tetramer...

  20. Comparison of pulsed fluoroscopy by direct control using a grid-controlled x-ray tube with pulsed fluoroscopy by primary control

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Chida, Koichi; Zuguchi, Masayuki; Ito, Daisuke; Sato, Kunihiko; Shimura, Hirotaka; Sasaki, Masatoshi

    2001-01-01

    Interventional radiology (IVR) procedures may involve high radiation doses that are potentially harmful to the patient. In IVR procedures, pulsed fluoroscopy can greatly decrease the radiation that the physician and patient receive. There are two types of pulsed fluoroscopy: direct control and primary (indirect) control. The purpose of this study was to compare pulsed fluoroscopy by direct control, using a grid-controlled x-ray tube, with pulsed fluoroscopy using primary control. For both types of pulsed fluoroscopy, we measured the waveforms (x-ray tube voltage, x-ray tube current, and x-ray output) and the relative radiation dose. In addition, we compared the decrease in radiation during pulsed fluoroscopy using a care filter. The studies were performed using a Siemens Bicor Plus x-ray System (direct control) and a Siemens Multistar Plus x-ray System (primary control). Using primary pulse control, a 50% decrease in the x-ray output waveform took approximately 0.5-1.0 msec, or longer with a lower x-ray tube current. Using direct pulse control, a 50% decrease in the x-ray output waveform took approximately 0.1 msec, and was independent of x-ray tube current. The rate of radiation reduction with primary pulse control using the care filter with a lower x-ray tube current had a slope exceeding 10%. Pulsed fluoroscopy by direct control using a grid-controlled x-ray tube permits an optimal radiation dose. To decrease the radiation in primary pulse control, a care filter must be used, particularly with a lower x-ray tube current. (author)

  1. Power spectrum analysis of the x-ray scatter signal in mammography and breast tomosynthesis projections.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sechopoulos, Ioannis; Bliznakova, Kristina; Fei, Baowei

    2013-10-01

    To analyze the frequency domain characteristics of the signal in mammography images and breast tomosynthesis projections with patient tissue texture due to detected scattered x-rays. Acquisitions of x-ray projection images of 19 different patient breasts were simulated using previously acquired volumetric patient images. Acquisition of these images was performed with a dedicated breast CT prototype system, and the images were classified into voxels representing skin, adipose, and glandular tissue with a previously validated automated algorithm. The classified three dimensional images then underwent simulated mechanical compression representing that which is performed during acquisition of mammography and breast tomosynthesis images. The acquisition of projection images of each patient breast was simulated using Monte Carlo methods with each simulation resulting in two images: one of the primary (non-scattered) signal and one of the scatter signal. To analyze the scatter signal for both mammography and breast tomosynthesis, two projections images of each patient breast were simulated, one with the x-ray source positioned at 0° (mammography and central tomosynthesis projection) and at 30° (wide tomosynthesis projection). The noise power spectra (NPS) for both the scatter signal alone and the total signal (primary + scatter) for all images were obtained and the combined results of all patients analyzed. The total NPS was fit to the expected power-law relationship NPS(f) = k/f β and the results were compared with those previously published on the power spectrum characteristics of mammographic texture. The scatter signal alone was analyzed qualitatively and a power-law fit was also performed. The mammography and tomosynthesis projections of three patient breasts were too small to analyze, so a total of 16 patient breasts were analyzed. The values of β for the total signal of the 0° projections agreed well with previously published results. As expected, the scatter

  2. X-ray diffuse scattering effects from Coulomb-type defects in multilayered structures

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Olikhovskii, S.I.; Molodkin, V.B.; Skakunova, E.S.; Kislovskii, E.N.; Fodchuk, I.M.

    2009-01-01

    The theoretical X-ray diffraction model starting from Takagi-Taupin equation has been developed for the description of coherent and diffuse components of the rocking curve (RC) measured from the multilayered crystal structure with randomly distributed Coulomb-type defects in all the layers and substrate. The model describes both diffuse scattering (DS) intensity distribution and influence of DS on attenuation and angular redistribution of the coherent X-ray scattering intensity. By analyzing the total measured RC with using the proposed diffraction model, the chemical compositions, strains, and characteristics of dislocation loops in layers and substrate of the multilayered structure with InGaAsN/GaAs single quantum well have been determined. (Abstract Copyright [2009], Wiley Periodicals, Inc.)

  3. Nonspherical atomic ground-state densities and chemical deformation densities from x-ray scattering

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Ruedenberg, K.; Schwarz, W.H.E.

    1990-01-01

    Presuming that chemical insight can be gained from the difference between the molecular electron density and the superposition of the ground-state densities of the atoms in a molecule, it is pointed out that, for atoms with degenerate ground states, an unpromoted ''atom in a molecule'' is represented by a specific ensemble of the degenerate atomic ground-state wave functions and that this ensemble is determined by the anisotropic local surroundings. The resulting atomic density contributions are termed oriented ground state densities, and the corresponding density difference is called the chemical deformation density. The constraints implied by this conceptual approach for the atomic density contributions are formulated and a method is developed for determining them from x-ray scattering data. The electron density of the appropriate promolecule and its x-ray scattering are derived, the determination of the parameters of the promolecule is outlined, and the chemical deformation density is formulated

  4. Structural characterization of oxidized allotaxially grown CoSi2 layers by x-ray scattering

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Kaendler, I. D.; Seeck, O. H.; Schlomka, J.-P.; Tolan, M.; Press, W.; Stettner, J.; Kappius, L.; Dieker, C.; Mantl, S.

    2000-01-01

    A series of buried CoSi 2 layers prepared by a modified molecular beam epitaxy process (allotaxy) and a subsequent wet-oxidation process was investigated by x-ray scattering. The oxidation time which determines the depth in which the CoSi 2 layers are located within the Si substrates has been varied during the preparation. The electron density profiles and the structure of the interfaces were extracted from specular reflectivity and diffuse scattering measurements. Crystal truncation rod investigations yielded the structure on an atomic level (crystalline quality). It turns out that the roughness of the CoSi 2 layers increases drastically with increasing oxidation time, i.e., with increasing depth of the buried layers. Furthermore, the x-ray data reveal that the oxidation growth process is diffusion limited. (c) 2000 American Institute of Physics

  5. Structure of liposome encapsulating proteins characterized by X-ray scattering and shell-modeling

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Hirai, Mitsuhiro; Kimura, Ryota; Takeuchi, Kazuki; Hagiwara, Yoshihiko; Kawai-Hirai, Rika; Ohta, Noboru; Igarashi, Noriyuki; Shimuzu, Nobutaka

    2013-01-01

    Wide-angle X-ray scattering data using a third-generation synchrotron radiation source are presented. Lipid liposomes are promising drug delivery systems because they have superior curative effects owing to their high adaptability to a living body. Lipid liposomes encapsulating proteins were constructed and the structures examined using synchrotron radiation small- and wide-angle X-ray scattering (SR-SWAXS). The liposomes were prepared by a sequential combination of natural swelling, ultrasonic dispersion, freeze-throw, extrusion and spin-filtration. The liposomes were composed of acidic glycosphingolipid (ganglioside), cholesterol and phospholipids. By using shell-modeling methods, the asymmetric bilayer structure of the liposome and the encapsulation efficiency of proteins were determined. As well as other analytical techniques, SR-SWAXS and shell-modeling methods are shown to be a powerful tool for characterizing in situ structures of lipid liposomes as an important candidate of drug delivery systems

  6. X-ray scattering on liquid-gas interfaces; Roentgenstreuung an Fluessigkeits-Gas Grenzflaechen

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Paulus, Michael

    2006-07-01

    In the framework of this thesis two different theme-fields were studied with dhe methods of the elastic, surface sensitive X-ray scattering. In the first part of the thesis the liquid-gas interfaces water-propane and glycerol-isobutane were studied concerning the structure formation on these interfaces. The system water-propane served for the study of the gas hydrate formation on the water-gas interface. Studies on this interface could give no hints on the formation of propane hydrates or propane-hydrate fragments. However the adsorption of molecularly thin propane films on the water surface was observed. The adsorption behaviour of gases on liquid surfaces was studied by further experiments on the glycerol-isobutane interface. In the second part of the thesis the surfaces of aqueous salt solutions and water were studied. The lateralstructure of these liquid-gas interfaces was studied by the method of the diffuse X-ray scattering.

  7. X-ray scattering for the characterization of lyophilized breast tissue samples

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Elshemey, Wael M.; Mohamed, Fayrouz S.; Khater, Ibrahim M.

    2013-01-01

    This work investigates the possibility of characterizing breast cancer by measuring the X-ray scattering profiles of lyophilized excised breast tissue samples. Since X-ray scattering from water-rich tissue is dominated by scattering from water, the removal of water by lyophilization would enhance the characterization process. In the present study, X-ray scattering profiles of 22 normal, 22 malignant and 10 benign breast tissue samples are measured. The cut-offs of scatter diagrams, sensitivity, specificity and diagnostic accuracy of three characterization parameters (full width at half maximum (FWHM) for the peak at 1.1 nm −1 , area under curve (AUC), and ratio of 1st to 2nd scattering peak intensities (I 1 /I 2 %)) are calculated and compared to the data from non-lyophilized samples. Results show increased sensitivity (up to 100%) of the present data on lyophilized breast tissue samples compared to previously reported data for non-lyophilized samples while the specificity (up to 95.4%), diagnostic accuracy (up to 95.4%) and receiver operating characteristic (ROC) curve values (up to 0.9979) for both sets of data are comparable. The present study shows significant differences between normal samples and each of malignant and benign samples. Only subtle differences exist between malignant and benign lyophilized breast tissue samples where FWHM=0.7±0.1 and 0.8±0.3, AUC=1.3±0.2 and 1.4±0.2 and I 1 /I 2 %=44.9±11.0 and 52.4±7.6 for malignant and benign samples respectively. - Highlights: • X-ray scattering profiles of breast tissue samples are acquired. • Three X-ray profile characterization parameters are calculated. • The cut-offs, sensitivity, specificity and diagnostic accuracy are calculated. • They are compared to the data from non-lyophilized samples. • Results show increased sensitivity in case of lyophilized samples

  8. Simulated x-ray scattering of protein solutions using explicit-solvent models

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Park, Sanghyun; Bardhan, Jaydeep P.; Makowski, Lee; Roux, Benoit

    2009-01-01

    X-ray solution scattering shows new promise for the study of protein structures, complementing crystallography and nuclear magnetic resonance. In order to realize the full potential of solution scattering, it is necessary to not only improve experimental techniques but also develop accurate and efficient computational schemes to relate atomistic models to measurements. Previous computational methods, based on continuum models of water, have been unable to calculate scattering patterns accurately, especially in the wide-angle regime which contains most of the information on the secondary, tertiary, and quaternary structures. Here we present a novel formulation based on the atomistic description of water, in which scattering patterns are calculated from atomic coordinates of protein and water. Without any empirical adjustments, this method produces scattering patterns of unprecedented accuracy in the length scale between 5 and 100 A, as we demonstrate by comparing simulated and observed scattering patterns for myoglobin and lysozyme.

  9. High-resolution nonresonant x-ray Raman scattering study on rare earth phosphate nanoparticles

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Huotari, Simo; Suljoti, Edlira; Sahle, Christoph J.; Raedel, Stephanie; Monaco, Giulio; de Groot, Frank M. F.

    2015-01-01

    We report high-resolution x-ray Raman scattering studies of high-order multipole spectra of rare earth 4d -> 4f excitations (the N-4,N-5 absorption edge) in nanoparticles of the phosphates LaPO4, CePO4, PrPO4, and NdPO4. We also present corresponding data for La 5p -> 5d excitations (the O-2,O-3

  10. X-ray and neutron small-angle scattering studies of human serum lipoproteins

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Luzzati, V.; Tardieu, A.; Mateu, L.; Sardet, C.; Stuhrmann, H.B.; Aggerbeck, L.; Scanu, A.M.

    1976-01-01

    The paper describes an extended x-ray study of two types of human serum lipoproteins and a neutron study of one of them. The results are similar and to some extent complementary. Serum lipoproteins provide an excellent illustration of the wealth of information that can be obtained by a small-angle scattering approach to the structure of particles with non-uniform density distribution, by using solvents of variable density

  11. X-ray scattering studies of non-equilibrium ordering processes

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Nagler, S.E.

    1992-01-01

    This report summarizes the major results obtained under US DOE Grant Number FG05-90ER45280 from the dates November 1, 1989 through October 31, 1992 inclusive. The principal work includes x-ray scattering studies of phase transition kinetics in binary alloy order-disorder transitions, block co-polymer crystallization, and charge density wave solids under applied electric fields, and studies of magnetic excitations in low dimensional quantum systems

  12. Study of humic acids by small-angle X-ray and neutron scattering

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Timchenko, A.; Trubetskaya, O.; Kihara, H.

    1999-01-01

    Humic acids are an important component of natural ecological system and represent a polydisperse complex of natural biopolymers with molecular masses from several to hundreds kilodaltons. They are both a source of organic compounds and a protector against anthropogenic pollutions of biosphere. The aim of the report is to underline some possibilities of small-angle X-ray and neutron scattering to study HA and their fractions. (author)

  13. Quantitative characterization of fatty liver disease using x-ray scattering

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Elsharkawy, Wafaa B.; Elshemey, Wael M.

    2013-01-01

    Nonalcoholic fatty liver disease (NAFLD) is a dynamic condition in which fat abnormally accumulates within the hepatocytes. It is believed to be a marker of risk of later chronic liver diseases, such as liver cirrhosis and carcinoma. The fat content in liver biopsies determines its validity for liver transplantation. Transplantation of livers with severe NAFLD is associated with a high risk of primary non-function. Moreover, NAFLD is recognized as a clinically important feature that influences patient morbidity and mortality after hepatic resection. Unfortunately, there is a lack in a precise, reliable and reproducible method for quantification of NAFLD. This work suggests a method for the quantification of NAFLD. The method is based on the fact that fatty liver tissue would have a characteristic x-ray scattering profile with a relatively intense fat peak at a momentum transfer value of 1.1 nm −1 compared to a soft tissue peak at 1.6 nm −1 . The fat content in normal and fatty liver is plotted against three profile characterization parameters (ratio of peak intensities, ratio of area under peaks and ratio of area under fat peak to total profile area) for measured and Monte Carlo simulated x-ray scattering profiles. Results show a high linear dependence (R 2 >0.9) of the characterization parameters on the liver fat content with a reported high correlation coefficient (>0.9) between measured and simulated data. These results indicate that the current method probably offers reliable quantification of fatty liver disease. - Highlights: • A method for the quantification of NAFLD is suggested. • Fatty liver tissue has characteristic x-ray scattering profile. • Profile characterization parameters show differences between normal and fatty liver. • Monte Carlo simulated x-ray scattering profiles are compared to measured

  14. Image combination enhancement method for X-ray compton back-scattering security inspection body scanner

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Wang Huaiying; Zhang Yujin; Yang Lirui; Li Dong

    2011-01-01

    As for X-ray Compton Back-Scattering (CBS) body scanner, image clearness is very important for the performance of detecting the contraband hidden on the body. A new image combination enhancement method is provided based on characteristics of CBS body images and points of human vision. After processed by this method, the CBS image will be obviously improved with clear levels, distinct outline and uniform background. (authors)

  15. Inelastic X-ray Scattering Beamline Collaborative Development Team Final Report

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Burns, Clement

    2008-01-01

    This is the final report for the project to create a beam line for inelastic x-ray scattering at the Advanced Photon Source. The facility is complete and operating well, with spectrometers for both high resolution and medium resolution measurements. With the advent of third generation synchrotron sources, inelastic x-ray scattering (IXS) has become a valuable technique to probe the electronic and vibrational states of a wide variety of systems of interest in physics, chemistry, and biology. IXS is a weak probe, and experimental setups are complex and require well-optimized spectrometers which need a dedicated beamline to function efficiently. This project was the result of a proposal to provide a world-class, user friendly beamline for IXS at the Advanced Photon Source. The IXS Collaborative Development Team (IXS-CDT) was formed from groups at the national laboratories and a number of different universities. The beamline was designed from the front end to the experimental stations. Two different experimental stations were provided, one for medium resolution inelastic x-ray scattering (MERIX) and a spectrometer for high resolution inelastic x-ray scattering (HERIX). Funding for this project came from several sources as well as the DOE. The beamline is complete with both spectrometers operating well. The facility is now open to the general user community and there has been a tremendous demand to take advantage of the beamline's capabilities. A large number of different experiments have already been carried out on the beamline. A detailed description of the beamline has been given in the final design report (FDR) for the beamline from which much of the material in this report came. The first part of this report contains a general overview of the project with more technical details given later.

  16. PREFACE: Structure and dynamics determined by neutron and x-ray scattering Structure and dynamics determined by neutron and x-ray scattering

    Science.gov (United States)

    Müller-Buschbaum, Peter

    2011-06-01

    Neutron and x-ray scattering have emerged as powerful methods for the determination of structure and dynamics. Driven by emerging new, powerful neutron and synchrotron radiation sources, the continuous development of new instrumentation and novel scattering techniques gives rise to exciting possibilities. For example, in situ observations become possible via a high neutron or x-ray flux at the sample and, as a consequence, morphological transitions with small time constants can be detected. This special issue covers a broad range of different materials from soft to hard condensed matter. Hence, different material classes such as colloids, polymers, alloys, oxides and metals are addressed. The issue is dedicated to the 60th birthday of Professor Winfried Petry, scientific director of the Research Neutron Source Heinz Maier-Leibnitz (FRM-II), Germany, advisor at the physics department for the Bayerische Elite-Akademie, chair person of the Arbeitsgemeinschaft Metall- und Materialphysik of the German Physical Society (DPG) and a member of the professional council of the German Science Foundation (Deutsche Forschungsgemeinschaft, DFG). We would like to acknowledge and thank all contributors for their submissions, which made this special issue possible in the first place. Moreover, we would like to thank the staff at IOP Publishing for helping us with the administrative aspects and for coordinating the refereeing process, and Valeria Lauter for the beautiful cover artwork. Finally, to the readers, we hope that you find this special issue a valuable resource that provides insights into the present possibilities of neutron and x-ray scattering as powerful tools for the investigation of structure and dynamics. Structure and dynamics determined by neutron and x-ray scattering contents In situ studies of mass transport in liquid alloys by means of neutron radiography F Kargl, M Engelhardt, F Yang, H Weis, P Schmakat, B Schillinger, A Griesche and A Meyer Magnetic spin

  17. Density Determination of Metallic Melts from Diffuse X-Ray Scattering

    Science.gov (United States)

    Brauser, N.; Davis, A.; Greenberg, E.; Prakapenka, V. B.; Campbell, A.

    2017-12-01

    Liquids comprise several important structural components of the deep Earth, for example, the present outer core and a hypothesized magma ocean early in Earth history. However, the physical properties of the constituent materials of these structures at high pressures and temperatures are less well constrained than their crystalline counterparts. Determination of the physical properties of these liquids can inform geophysical models of the composition and structure of the Earth, but methods for studying the physical properties of liquids at high pressure and temperatures are underdeveloped. One proposed method for direct determination of density of a melt requires analysis of the diffuse scattered X-ray signal of the liquid. Among the challenges to applying this technique to high-pressure melts within a laser heated diamond anvil cell are the low signal-to-noise ratio and overlapping diffraction peaks from the crystalline components of the sample assembly interfering with the diffuse scattering from the liquid. Recent advances in instrumentation at synchrotron X-ray sources have made this method more accessible for determination of density of melted material. In this work we present the technique and report the densities of three high-pressure melts of the FCC metals iron, nickel, and gold derived from diffuse scattered X-ray spectra collected from in situ laser-heated diamond anvil cell synchrotron experiments. The results are compared to densities derived from shock wave experiments.

  18. Study of the grazing-incidence X-ray scattering of strongly disturbed fractal surfaces

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Roshchin, B. S., E-mail: ross@crys.ras.ru; Chukhovsky, F. N.; Pavlyuk, M. D.; Opolchentsev, A. M.; Asadchikov, V. E. [Russian Academy of Sciences, Shubnikov Institute of Crystallography, Federal Research Centre “Crystallography and Photonics” (Russian Federation)

    2017-03-15

    The applicability of different approaches to the description of hard X-ray scattering from rough surfaces is generally limited by a maximum surface roughness height of no more than 1 nm. Meanwhile, this value is several times larger for the surfaces of different materials subjected to treatment, especially in the initial treatment stages. To control the roughness parameters in all stages of surface treatment, a new approach has been developed, which is based on a series expansion of wavefield over the plane eigenstate-function waves describing the small-angle scattering of incident X-rays in terms of plane q-waves propagating through the interface between two media with a random function of relief heights. To determine the amplitudes of reflected and transmitted plane q-waves, a system of two linked integral equations was derived. The solutions to these equations correspond (in zero order) to the well-known Fresnel expressions for a smooth plane interface. Based on these solutions, a statistical fractal model of an isotropic rough interface is built in terms of root-mean-square roughness σ, two-point correlation length l, and fractal surface index h. The model is used to interpret X-ray scattering data for polished surfaces of single-crystal cadmium telluride samples.

  19. Au-coated X-ray Anti-scattering Grid Performance Test by MCNP

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Bae, JunWoo; Yoo, Dong Han; Kim, Hee Reyoung [Ulsan National Institute of Science and Technology, Ulsan (Korea, Republic of)

    2014-10-15

    It is required to protect individual against the dangers of ionizing radiation from medical exposure. And increasing of resolution for x-ray radiography tools can give radiation protectoral benefits. Because the image device has higher resolution in same energy source, it requires low energy level source and it can reduce individual dose. The anti-scattering grid is sub-device that is attached in front of detector (direction of source). It is square lattice shape generally. It is composed of penetration parts and shielding parts. Penetration part is generally air (the void) and in some studies it uses wood or aluminum. Shielding part is composed of various materials such as lead or copper. In this study, it is focused on the gold as one of X-ray grid materials, where gold is generally known as excellent shielding material and the performance test on the gold coated anti-scattering grid is carried out by MCNP simulation. X-ray grid was simulated by using MCNP code and its performance was investigated. It was understood that glass based and Au-coated grid could lessen the scattered photons more where the reduction was about two third. In further study, geometry optimization or material selection will be conducted by MCNP simulation for giving benefits to design proper grid for various instruments.

  20. Computer simulation tools for X-ray analysis scattering and diffraction methods

    CERN Document Server

    Morelhão, Sérgio Luiz

    2016-01-01

    The main goal of this book is to break down the huge barrier of difficulties faced by beginners from many fields (Engineering, Physics, Chemistry, Biology, Medicine, Material Science, etc.) in using X-rays as an analytical tool in their research. Besides fundamental concepts, MatLab routines are provided, showing how to test and implement the concepts. The major difficult in analyzing materials by X-ray techniques is that it strongly depends on simulation software. This book teaches the users on how to construct a library of routines to simulate scattering and diffraction by almost any kind of samples. It provides to a young student the knowledge that would take more than 20 years to acquire by working on X-rays and relying on the available textbooks. In this book, fundamental concepts in applied X-ray physics are demonstrated through available computer simulation tools. Using MatLab, more than eighty routines are developed for solving the proposed exercises, most of which can be directly used in experimental...

  1. X-ray Scatter Imaging of Hepatocellular Carcinoma in a Mouse Model Using Nanoparticle Contrast Agents

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rand, Danielle; Derdak, Zoltan; Carlson, Rolf; Wands, Jack R.; Rose-Petruck, Christoph

    2015-10-01

    Hepatocellular carcinoma (HCC) is one of the most common malignant tumors worldwide and is almost uniformly fatal. Current methods of detection include ultrasound examination and imaging by CT scan or MRI; however, these techniques are problematic in terms of sensitivity and specificity, and the detection of early tumors (<1 cm diameter) has proven elusive. Better, more specific, and more sensitive detection methods are therefore urgently needed. Here we discuss the application of a newly developed x-ray imaging technique called Spatial Frequency Heterodyne Imaging (SFHI) for the early detection of HCC. SFHI uses x-rays scattered by an object to form an image and is more sensitive than conventional absorption-based x-radiography. We show that tissues labeled in vivo with gold nanoparticle contrast agents can be detected using SFHI. We also demonstrate that directed targeting and SFHI of HCC tumors in a mouse model is possible through the use of HCC-specific antibodies. The enhanced sensitivity of SFHI relative to currently available techniques enables the x-ray imaging of tumors that are just a few millimeters in diameter and substantially reduces the amount of nanoparticle contrast agent required for intravenous injection relative to absorption-based x-ray imaging.

  2. Ion-induced nanopatterns on semiconductor surfaces investigated by grazing incidence x-ray scattering techniques

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Carbone, D; Metzger, T H [ID01, ESRF, 6 rue Jules Horowitz, F-38043 Grenoble Cedex (France); Biermanns, A; Pietsch, U [Festkoerperphysik, Universitaet Siegen, D-57068 Siegen (Germany); Ziberi, B; Frost, F [Leibniz-Institut fuer Oberflaechenmodifizierung e.V., D-04318 Leipzig (Germany); Plantevin, O [Universite Paris-Sud, Centre de Spectrometrie Nucleaire et de Spectrometrie de Masse, UMR 8609, F-91405 Orsay (France)], E-mail: gcarbone@esrf.fr

    2009-06-03

    In this review we cover and describe the application of grazing incidence x-ray scattering techniques to study and characterize nanopattern formation on semiconductor surfaces by ion beam erosion under various conditions. It is demonstrated that x-rays under grazing incidence are especially well suited to characterize (sub)surface structures on the nanoscale with high spatial and statistical accuracy. The corresponding theory and data evaluation is described in the distorted wave Born approximation. Both ex situ and in situ studies are presented, performed with the use of a specially designed sputtering chamber which allows us to follow the temporal evolution of the nanostructure formation. Corresponding results show a general stabilization of the ordering wavelength and the extension of the ordering as a function of the ion energy and fluence as predicted by theory. The in situ measurements are especially suited to study the early stages of pattern formation, which in some cases reveal a transition from dot to ripple formation. For the case of medium energy ions crystalline ripples are formed buried under a semi-amorphous thick layer with a ripple structure at the surface being conformal with the crystalline/amorphous interface. Here, the x-ray techniques are especially advantageous since they are non-destructive and bulk-sensitive by their very nature. In addition, the GI x-ray techniques described in this review are a unique tool to study the evolving strain, a topic which remains to be explored both experimentally and theoretically.

  3. Status of Kharkov X-Ray Generator Based on Compton Scattering NESTOR

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Zelinsky, A.

    2005-04-11

    Nowadays the sources of the X-rays based on a storage ring with low beam energy and Compton scattering of intense laser beam are under development in several laboratories. In the paper the state-of-art in development and construction of cooperative project of a Kharkov advanced X-ray source NESTOR based on electron storage ring with beam energy 43-225 MeV and Nd:YAG laser is described. The layout of the facility is presented and latest results are described. The designed lattice includes 4 dipole magnets with combined focusing functions, 20 quadrupole magnets and 19 sextupoles with correcting components of magnetic field. At the present time a set of quadrupole magnet is under manufacturing and bending magnet reconstruction is going on. The main parameters of developed vacuum system providing residual gas pressure in the storage ring vacuum chamber up to 10{sup -9} torr are presented. The basic parameters of the X-ray source laser and injection systems are presented. The facility is going to be in operation in the middle of 2006 and generated X-rays flux is expected to be of about 10{sup 13} phot/s.

  4. High power, short pulses ultraviolet laser for the development of a new x-ray laser

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Meixler, L.; Nam, C.H.; Robinson, J.; Tighe, W.; Krushelnick, K.; Suckewer, S.; Goldhar, J.; Seely, J.; Feldman, U.

    1989-04-01

    A high power, short pulse ultraviolet laser system (Powerful Picosecond-Laser) has been developed at the Princeton Plasma Physics Laboratory (PPPL) as part of experiments designed to generate shorter wavelength x-ray lasers. With the addition of pulse compression and a final KrF amplifier the laser output is expected to have reached 1/3-1/2 TW (10 12 watts) levels. The laser system, particularly the final amplifier, is described along with some initial soft x-ray spectra from laser-target experiments. The front end of the PP-Laser provides an output of 20--30 GW (10 9 watts) and can be focussed to intensities of /approximately/10 16 W/cm 2 . Experiments using this output to examine the effects of a prepulse on laser-target interaction are described. 19 refs., 14 figs

  5. Simultaneous, single-pulse, synchrotron x-ray imaging and diffraction under gas gun loading

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Fan, D.; Luo, S. N., E-mail: sluo@pims.ac.cn [The Peac Institute of Multiscale Sciences, Chengdu, Sichuan 610031 (China); Key Laboratory of Advanced Technologies of Materials, Ministry of Education, Southwest Jiaotong University, Chengdu, Sichuan 610031 (China); Huang, J. W.; Zeng, X. L.; Li, Y.; E, J. C.; Huang, J. Y. [The Peac Institute of Multiscale Sciences, Chengdu, Sichuan 610031 (China); Sun, T.; Fezzaa, K. [Advanced Photon Source, Argonne National Laboratory, Argonne, Illinois 60439 (United States); Wang, Z. [Physics Division P-25, Los Alamos National Laboratory, Los Alamos, New Mexico 87545 (United States)

    2016-05-15

    We develop a mini gas gun system for simultaneous, single-pulse, x-ray diffraction and imaging under high strain-rate loading at the beamline 32-ID of the Advanced Photon Source. In order to increase the reciprocal space covered by a small-area detector, a conventional target chamber is split into two chambers: a narrowed measurement chamber and a relief chamber. The gas gun impact is synchronized with synchrotron x-ray pulses and high-speed cameras. Depending on a camera’s capability, multiframe imaging and diffraction can be achieved. The proof-of-principle experiments are performed on single-crystal sapphire. The diffraction spots and images during impact are analyzed to quantify lattice deformation and fracture; fracture is dominated by splitting cracks followed by wing cracks, and diffraction peaks are broadened likely due to mosaic spread. Our results demonstrate the potential of such multiscale measurements for studying high strain-rate phenomena at dynamic extremes.

  6. Scatter and transmission doses from several pediatric X-ray examinations in a nursery

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Burrage, John W.; Rampant, Peter L.; Beeson, Brendan P.

    2003-01-01

    While several studies have investigated the dose from scattered radiation from X-ray procedures in a pediatric nursery, they examined scatter from chest procedures only, or the types of examination were not specified. The aim of this study was to collect scatter and transmission data from several types of X-ray examinations. Using a ''newborn'' anthropomorphic phantom and an ion chamber, a series of scatter and transmission dose measurements were performed using typical exposure factors for chest, chest and abdomen, skull, skeletal long bone and spine procedures. The phantom was inside a crib for all exposures. The maximum scatter dose measured at 1 m from the field center was about 0.05 μGy per exposure for lateral skulls. Transmission doses for lateral exams were around 0.1 μGy per exposure at 1 m from the isocenter. The study demonstrated that scatter dose to other patients in a neonatal unit is not significant, assuming the distance between adjacent cribs is in the order of 1 m. Transmission doses are also low provided the beam is fully intercepted by the cassette. For an average workload the dose received by imaging technologists would be small. (orig.)

  7. Time and space domain separation of pulsed X-ray beams diffracted from vibrating crystals

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Nosik, V. L., E-mail: v-nosik@yandex.ru, E-mail: nosik@ns.crys.ras.ru [Russian Academy of Sciences, Shubnikov Institute of Crystallography, Federal Scientific Research Centre “Crystallography and Photonics,” (Russian Federation)

    2016-11-15

    It is known that a set of additional reflections (satellites) may arise on rocking curves in the case of X-ray diffraction in the Bragg geometry from crystals where high-frequency ultrasonic vibrations are excited. It is shown that, under certain conditions, the pulse wave fields of the satellites and main reflection may be intersected in space (playing the role of pump and probe beams) and in time (forming interference superlattices).

  8. Characteristics of ionization chambers for intense pulsed x-rays and Co-60 #betta#-rays, (2)

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Kanazawa, Tamotsu; Okabe, Shigeru; Fukuda, Kyue; Furuta, Junichiro; Fujino, Takahiro

    1981-01-01

    Mean ionization currents and pulse figures of parallel plate ionization chambers enclosed with various gases were measured when they were exposed to intense pulsed X-rays and continuous #betta#-rays. Relation between the measured ionization current and the intensity of X-rays was obtained at the applied voltage of 1000 V. In the case of intense pulsed X-rays, ionization current was smaller in comparison with the case of continuous #betta#-rays, under the X-rays of equal intensity. Pulse figures were observed with chambers which were filled with the gases of air and O 2 and they are considered to be caused by the free electrons of these gases. In these cases, polarity effects of the electric field on the pulse figures were not recognized. Various figures and their changes were also observed from chambers filled with He, Ne, N 2 , Ar, kr, and Xe, respectively. Polarity effects were recognized on those pulse figures. (author)

  9. Resonant x-ray scattering in manganites: study of the orbital degree of freedom

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Ishihara, Sumio; Maekawa, Sadamichi

    2002-01-01

    The orbital degree of freedom of electrons and its interplay with spin, charge and lattice degrees of freedom are some of the central issues in colossal magnetoresistive manganites. The orbital degree of freedom has until recently remained hidden, since it does not couple directly to most experimental probes. Development of synchrotron light sources has changed the situation; by the resonant x-ray scattering (RXS) technique the orbital ordering has successfully been observed. In this article, we review progress in the recent studies of RXS in manganites. We start with a detailed review of the RXS experiments applied to the orbital-ordered manganites and other correlated electron systems. We derive the scattering cross section of RXS, where the tensor character of the atomic scattering factor (ASF) with respect to the x-ray polarization is stressed. Microscopic mechanisms of the anisotropic tensor character of the ASF are introduced and numerical results of the ASF and the scattering intensity are presented. The azimuthal angle scan is a unique experimental method to identify RXS from the orbital degree of freedom. A theory of the azimuthal angle and polarization dependence of the RXS intensity is presented. The theoretical results show good agreement with the experiments in manganites. Apart from the microscopic description of the ASF, a theoretical framework of RXS to relate directly to the 3d orbital is presented. The scattering cross section is represented by the correlation function of the pseudo-spin operator for the orbital degree of freedom. A theory is extended to the resonant inelastic x-ray scattering and methods to observe excitations of the orbital degree of freedom are proposed. (author)

  10. Transmission X-ray scattering as a probe for complex liquid-surface structures

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Fukuto, Masafumi; Yang, Lin; Nykypanchuk, Dmytro; Kuzmenko, Ivan

    2016-01-28

    The need for functional materials calls for increasing complexity in self-assembly systems. As a result, the ability to probe both local structure and heterogeneities, such as phase-coexistence and domain morphologies, has become increasingly important to controlling self-assembly processes, including those at liquid surfaces. The traditional X-ray scattering methods for liquid surfaces, such as specular reflectivity and grazing-incidence diffraction, are not well suited to spatially resolving lateral heterogeneities due to large illuminated footprint. A possible alternative approach is to use scanning transmission X-ray scattering to simultaneously probe local intermolecular structures and heterogeneous domain morphologies on liquid surfaces. To test the feasibility of this approach, transmission small- and wide-angle X-ray scattering (TSAXS/TWAXS) studies of Langmuir films formed on water meniscus against a vertically immersed hydrophilic Si substrate were recently carried out. First-order diffraction rings were observed in TSAXS patterns from a monolayer of hexagonally packed gold nanoparticles and in TWAXS patterns from a monolayer of fluorinated fatty acids, both as a Langmuir monolayer on water meniscus and as a Langmuir–Blodgett monolayer on the substrate. The patterns taken at multiple spots have been analyzed to extract the shape of the meniscus surface and the ordered-monolayer coverage as a function of spot position. These results, together with continual improvement in the brightness and spot size of X-ray beams available at synchrotron facilities, support the possibility of using scanning-probe TSAXS/TWAXS to characterize heterogeneous structures at liquid surfaces.

  11. 1s2p resonant inelastic x-ray scattering in a-Fe2O3

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Caliebe, W.A.; Kao, C.-C.; Hastings, J.B.; Taguchi, M.; Kotani, A.; Uozumi, T.; Groot, F.M.F. de

    1998-01-01

    We report experimental and theoretical results on the Fe K edge x-ray absorption spectrum and 1s2p resonant inelastic x-ray scattering (RIXS) spectra in a-Fe2O3 . The results are interpreted using an FeO6^9- cluster model with intra-atomic multiplet coupling and interatomic covalency

  12. Visualizing a protein quake with time-resolved X-ray scattering at a free-electron laser

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Arnlund, David; Johansson, Linda C.; Wickstrand, Cecilia

    2014-01-01

    We describe a method to measure ultrafast protein structural changes using time-resolved wide-angle X-ray scattering at an X-ray free-electron laser. We demonstrated this approach using multiphoton excitation of the Blastochloris viridis photosynthetic reaction center, observing an ultrafast glob...

  13. Influence of multiple scattering of a relativistic electron in a periodic layered medium on coherent X-ray radiation

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Blazhevich, S. V.; Kos’kova, T. V.; Noskov, A. V., E-mail: noskovbupk@mail.ru [Belgorod State National Research University (Russian Federation)

    2016-01-15

    A dynamic theory of coherent X-ray radiation generated in a periodic layered medium by a relativistic electron multiply scattered by target atoms has been developed. The expressions describing the spectral–angular characteristics of parametric X-ray radiation and diffracted transition radiation are derived. Numerical calculations based on the derived expressions have been performed.

  14. Microdefects revealed by X-ray diffusion scattering in Czochralski-growth dislocation-free silicon single crystals

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Bublik, B.T.; Zotov, N.M.

    1997-01-01

    Microdefects in the regions of Si crystals having different thermal history defined by growth conditions was studied by the X-ray diffuse scattering method on a triple crystal X-ray diffractometer. It was shown that in such crystals the microdefects with positive strength are prevalent. However, between the above indicated regions the defects with the strength of opposite sign prevail

  15. Influence of argon impurities on the elastic scattering of x-rays from imploding beryllium capsules

    Science.gov (United States)

    Saunders, A. M.; Chapman, D. A.; Kritcher, A. L.; Schoff, M.; Shuldberg, C.; Landen, O. L.; Glenzer, S. H.; Falcone, R. W.; Gericke, D. O.; Döppner, T.

    2018-03-01

    We investigate the effect of argon impurities on the elastic component of x-ray scattering spectra taken from directly driven beryllium capsule implosions at the OMEGA laser. The plasma conditions were obtained in a previous analysis [18] by fitting the inelastic scattering component. We show that the known argon impurity in the beryllium modifies the elastic scattering due to the larger number of bound electrons. We indeed find significant deviations in the elastic scattering from roughly 1 at.% argon contained in the beryllium. With knowledge of the argon impurity fraction, we use the elastic scattering component to determine the charge state of the compressed beryllium, as the fits are rather insensitive to the argon charge state. Finally, we discuss how doping small fractions of mid- or high-Z elements into low-Z materials could allow ionization balance studies in dense plasmas.

  16. K-α X-ray Thomson Scattering From Dense Plasmas

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Kritcher, Andrea L.; Neumayer, Paul; Castor, John; Doeppner, Tilo; Landen, Otto L.; Ng, Andrew; Pollaine, Steve; Price, Dwight; Glenzer, Siegfried H.; Falcone, Roger W.; Ja Lee, Hae; Lee, Richard W.; Morse, Edward C.

    2009-01-01

    Spectrally resolved Thomson scattering using ultra-fast K-α x rays has measured the compression and heating of shocked compressed matter. The evolution and coalescence of two shock waves traveling through a solid density LiH target were characterized by the elastic scattering component. The density and temperature at shock coalescence, 2.2 eV and 1.7x10 23 cm -3 , were determined from the plasmon frequency shift and the relative intensity of the elastic and inelastic scattering features in the collective scattering regime. The observation of plasmon scattering at coalescence indicates a transition to the dense metallic state in LiH. The density and temperature regimes accessed in these experiments are relevant for inertial confinement fusion experiments and for the study of planetary formation.

  17. K-(alpha) X-ray Thomson Scattering From Dense Plasmas

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Kritcher, A.L.; Neumayer, P.; Castor, J.; Doppner, T.; Falcone, R.W.; Landen, O.L.; Lee, H.J.; Lee, R.W.; Morse, E.C.; Ng, A.; Pollaine, S.; Price, D.; Glenzer, S.H.

    2009-01-01

    Spectrally resolved Thomson scattering using ultra-fast K-α x-rays has measured the compression and heating of shocked compressed matter. The evolution and coalescence of two shock waves traveling through a solid density LiH target were characterized by the elastic scattering component. The density and temperature at shock coalescence, 2.2 eV and 1.7 x 10 23 cm -3 , were determined from the plasmon frequency shift and the relative intensity of the elastic and inelastic scattering features in the collective scattering regime. The observation of plasmon scattering at coalescence indicates a transition to the dense metallic state in LiH. The density and temperature regimes accessed in these experiments are relevant for inertial confinement fusion experiments and for the study of planetary formation

  18. Modeling of finite systems irradiated by intense ultrashort hard X-ray pulses

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Jurek, Zoltan [Center for Free-Electron Laser Science, Deutsches Elektronen-Synchrotron, Notkestrasse 85, D-22607 Hamburg (Germany); Ziaja, Beata [Center for Free-Electron Laser Science, Deutsches Elektronen-Synchrotron, Notkestrasse 85, D-22607 Hamburg (Germany); Institute of Nuclear Physics, Polish Academy of Sciences, Radzikowskiego 152, 31-342 Krakow (Poland); Santra, Robin [Center for Free-Electron Laser Science, Deutsches Elektronen-Synchrotron, Notkestrasse 85, D-22607 Hamburg (Germany); Department of Physics, University of Hamburg, Jungiusstrasse 9, 20355 Hamburg (Germany)

    2013-07-01

    Large number of experiments have already been carried out at the existing hard X-Ray Free-Electron Laser facilities (LCLS, SACLA) during the recent years. Their great success generates even higher anticipation for the forthcoming X-ray sources (European XFEL). Single molecule imaging and nanoplasma formation are the challenging projects with XFELs that investigate the interaction of finite, small objects, e.g. single molecules, atomic clusters with intense X-ray radiation. Accurate modelling of the time evolution of such irradiated systems is required in order to understand the current experiments and to inspire new directions of experimental investigation. In this presentation we report on our theoretical molecular-dynamics tool able to follow non-equilibrium dynamics within finite systems irradiated by intense X-ray pulses. We introduce the relevant physical processes, present computational methods used, discuss their limitations and also the specific constraints on calculations imposed by experimental conditions. Finally, we conclude with a few simulation examples.

  19. Plasma spectroscopy diagnostics in pulsed-power X-ray radiography diode research

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Maron, Yitzhak; Oliver, Bryan Velten; Portillo, Salvador; Johnston, Mark D.; Rose, David Vincent; Hahn, Kelly Denise; Schamiloglu, Edl; Welch, Dale R.; Droemer, Darryl W.; Rovang, Dean Curtis; Maenchen, John Eric

    2005-01-01

    Spectroscopic investigations in the visible and near UV are underway to study plasmas present in X-ray radiography diodes during the time of the electron beam propagation. These studies are being performed on the RITS-3 accelerator (5.25 MV and 120 kA) at Sandia National Laboratories using several diode configurations. The proper characterization of the plasmas occurring during the time of the X-ray pulse can lead to a greater understanding of diode behavior and X-ray spot size evolution. By studying these plasmas along with the use of selective dopants, insights into such phenomena as impedance collapse, thermal and non-thermal species behavior, charge and current neutralization, anode and cathode plasma formation and propagation, and beam/foil interactions, can be obtained. Information from line and continuum emission and absorption can give key plasma parameters such as temperatures, densities, charge states, and expansion velocities. This information is important for proper modeling and future predictive capabilities for the design and improvement of flash X-ray radiography diodes. Diagnostics include a gated, intensified multichannel plate camera combined with a 1 meter Czerny-Turner monochromator with a multi-fiber spectral input, allowing for both temporal and spatial resolution. Recent results are presented.

  20. Diffuse x-ray scattering study of interfacial structure of self-assembled conjugated polymers

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Wang Jun; Park, Y.J.; Lee, K.-B.; Hong, H.; Davidov, D.

    2002-01-01

    The interfacial structures of self-assembled heterostructures through alternate deposition of conjugated and nonconjugated polymers were studied by x-ray reflectivity and nonspecular scattering. We found that the interfacial width including the effects of both interdiffusion and interfacial roughness (correlated) was mainly contributed by the latter one. The self-assembled deposition induced very small interdiffusion between layers. The lateral correlation length ξ parallel grew as a function of deposition time (or film thickness) described by a power law ξ parallel ∝t β/H and was also observed from the off-specular scattering

  1. X-ray scattering studies of non-equilibrium ordering processes

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Nagler, S.E.

    1991-01-01

    We report on the progress of the project entitled ''X-ray Scattering Studies of Non-Equilibrium Ordering Processes.'' The past year has seen continued progress in the study of kinetic effects in metallic binary alloys and polymers. In addition, work has begun on a low dimensional CDW system: blue bronze. A sample chamber has been constructed to perform small angle neutron scattering measurements on a model quantum system with phase separation: solid He3/He4. Work is continuing on magnetic systems. Planned future experiments include an investigation of crystallization in Rubidium

  2. Fractal morphology in lignite coal: a small angle x-ray scattering investigation

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Chitra, R.; Sen, D.; Mazumder, S.; Chandrasekaran, K.S.

    1999-01-01

    Small angle x-ray scattering technique has been used to study the pore morphology in lignite coal from Neyveli lignite mine (Tamilnadu, India). The sample were collected from three different locations of the same mine. SAXS profiles from all the three samples show almost identical functionality, irrespective of the locations from where the samples were collected. SAXS experiment using two different wavelengths also exhibit same functionality indicating the absence of multiple scattering. The analysis indicates the surface fractal nature of the pore morphology. The surface fractal dimension is calculated to be 2.58. (author)

  3. Performance of a micro-strip gas chamber in solution X-ray scattering

    CERN Document Server

    Toyokawa, H; Inoko, Y; Nagayoshi, T; Nishi, Y; Nishikawa, Y; Ochi, A; Suzuki, M; Tanimori, T

    2001-01-01

    The performance of a Micro-Strip Gas Chamber in solution X-ray scattering was studied at the RIKEN structural biology beamline I of the SPring-8 facility. The practical dynamic range was confirmed to be approx 1,000,000 : 1 by measuring S sup - sup 4 decay from a polystyrene latex solution. Steep troughs of scattering profile from an apoferritin solution were clearly obtained without smearing. An unfolding process of a pH jump of cytochrome c was measured. A time resolution of 500 mu s was achieved.

  4. Scheme for generation of fully-coherent, TW power level hard X-ray pulses from baseline undulators at the European X-ray FEL

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Geloni, Gianluca; Kocharyan, Vitali; Saldin, Evgeni

    2010-07-01

    The most promising way to increase the output power of an X-ray FEL (XFEL) is by tapering the magnetic field of the undulator. Also, significant increase in power is achievable by starting the FEL process from a monochromatic seed rather than from noise. This report proposes to make use of a cascade self-seeding scheme with wake monochromators in a tunable-gap baseline undulator at the European XFEL to create a source capable of delivering coherent radiation of unprecedented characteristics at hard X-ray wavelengths. Compared with SASE X-ray FEL parameters, the radiation from the new source has three truly unique aspects: complete longitudinal and transverse coherence, and a peak brightness three orders of magnitude higher than what is presently available at LCLS. Additionally, the new source will generate hard X-ray beam at extraordinary peak (TW) and average (kW) power level. The proposed source can thus revolutionize fields like single biomolecule imaging, inelastic scattering and nuclear resonant scattering. The self-seeding scheme with the wake monochromator is extremely compact, and takes almost no cost and time to be implemented. The upgrade proposed in this paper could take place during the commissioning stage of the European XFEL, opening a vast new range of applications from the very beginning of operations.We present feasibility study and examplifications for the SASE2 line of the European XFEL. (orig.)

  5. Generating picosecond x-ray pulses in synchrotron light sources using dipole kickers

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    W. Guo

    2007-02-01

    Full Text Available The duration of the x-ray pulse generated at a synchrotron light source is typically tens of picoseconds. Shorter pulses are highly desired by the users. In electron storage rings, the vertical beam size is usually orders of magnitude less than the bunch length due to radiation damping; therefore, a shorter pulse can be obtained by slitting the vertically tilted bunch. Zholents proposed tilting the bunch using rf deflection. We found that tilted bunches can also be generated by a dipole magnet kick. A vertical tilt is developed after the kick in the presence of nonzero chromaticity. The tilt was successfully observed and a 4.2-ps pulse was obtained from a 27-ps electron bunch at the Advanced Photon Source. Based on this principle, we propose a short-pulse generation scheme that produces picosecond x-ray pulses at a repetition rate of 1–2 kHz, which can be used for pump-probe experiments.

  6. Precision mechanical structure of an ultra-high-resolution spectrometer for inelastic X-ray scattering instrument

    Science.gov (United States)

    Shu, Deming; Shvydko, Yuri; Stoupin, Stanislav A.; Khachatryan, Ruben; Goetze, Kurt A.; Roberts, Timothy

    2015-04-14

    A method and an ultrahigh-resolution spectrometer including a precision mechanical structure for positioning inelastic X-ray scattering optics are provided. The spectrometer includes an X-ray monochromator and an X-ray analyzer, each including X-ray optics of a collimating (C) crystal, a pair of dispersing (D) element crystals, anomalous transmission filter (F) and a wavelength (W) selector crystal. A respective precision mechanical structure is provided with the X-ray monochromator and the X-ray analyzer. The precision mechanical structure includes a base plate, such as an aluminum base plate; positioning stages for D-crystal alignment; positioning stages with an incline sensor for C/F/W-crystal alignment, and the positioning stages including flexure-based high-stiffness structure.

  7. High energy x-ray scattering studies of strongly correlated oxides

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Hatton, Peter D; Wilkins, S B; Spencer, P D; Zimmermann, M v; D'Almeida, T

    2003-01-01

    Many transition metal oxides display strongly correlated charge, spin, or orbital ordering resulting in varied phenomena such as colossal magnetoresistance, high temperature superconductivity, metal-insulator transitions etc. X-ray scattering is one of the principle techniques for probing the structural response to such effects. In this paper, we discuss and review the use of synchrotron radiation high energy x-rays (50-200 keV) for the study of transition metal oxides such as nickelates (La 2-x Sr x NiO 4 ) and manganites (La 2-2x Sr 1+2x Mn 2 O 7 ). High energy x-rays have sufficient penetration to allow us to study large flux-grown single crystals. The huge increase in sample scattering volume means that extremely weak peaks can be observed. This allows us to study very weak charge ordering. Measurements of the intensity, width and position of the charge ordering satellites as a function of temperature provide us with quantitative measures of the charge amplitude, inverse correlation length and wavevector of the charge ordering

  8. Strongly correlated electrons at high pressure: an approach by inelastic X-Ray scattering

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Rueff, J.P.

    2007-06-01

    Inelastic X-ray scattering (IXS) and associated methods has turn out to be a powerful alternative for high-pressure physics. It is an all-photon technique fully compatible with high-pressure environments and applicable to a vast range of materials. Standard focalization of X-ray in the range of 100 microns is typical of the sample size in the pressure cell. Our main aim is to provide an overview of experimental results obtained by IXS under high pressure in 2 classes of materials which have been at the origin of the renewal of condensed matter physics: strongly correlated transition metal oxides and rare-earth compounds. Under pressure, d and f-electron materials show behaviors far more complex that what would be expected from a simplistic band picture of electron delocalization. These spectroscopic studies have revealed unusual phenomena in the electronic degrees of freedom, brought up by the increased density, the changes in the charge-carrier concentration, the over-lapping between orbitals, and hybridization under high pressure conditions. Particularly we discuss about pressure induced magnetic collapse and metal-insulator transitions in 3d compounds and valence fluctuations phenomena in 4f and 5f compounds. Thanks to its superior penetration depth, chemical selectivity and resonant enhancement, resonant inelastic X-ray scattering has appeared extremely well suited to high pressure physics in strongly correlated materials. (A.C.)

  9. X-ray resonant Raman scattering cross sections of Mn, Fe, Cu and Zn

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Sanchez, Hector Jorge; Valentinuzzi, MarIa Cecilia; Perez, Carlos

    2006-01-01

    X-ray fluorescence spectra present singular characteristics produced by the different scattering processes. When atoms are irradiated with incident energy lower and close to an absorption edge, scattering peaks appear due to an inelastic process known as resonant Raman scattering. It constitutes an important contribution to the background of the fluorescent line. The resonant Raman scattering must be taken into account in the determination of low concentration contaminants, especially when the elements have proximate atomic numbers. The values of the mass attenuation coefficients experimentally obtained when materials are analysed with monochromatic x-ray beams under resonant conditions differ from the theoretical values (between 5% and 10%). This difference is due, in part, to the resonant Raman scattering. Monochromatic synchrotron radiation was used to study the Raman effect on pure samples of Mn, Fe, Cu and Zn. Energy scans were carried out in different ranges of energy near the absorption edge of the target element. As the Raman peak has a non-symmetric shape, theoretical models for the differential cross section, convoluted with the instrument function, were used to determine the RRS cross section as a function of the incident energy

  10. Short-wavelength soft-x-ray laser pumped in double-pulse single-beam non-normal incidence

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Zimmer, D.; Ros, D.; Guilbaud, O.; Habib, J.; Kazamias, S.; Zielbauer, B.; Bagnoud, V.; Ecker, B.; Aurand, B.; Kuehl, T.; Hochhaus, D. C.; Neumayer, P.

    2010-01-01

    We demonstrated a 7.36 nm Ni-like samarium soft-x-ray laser, pumped by 36 J of a neodymium:glass chirped-pulse amplification laser. Double-pulse single-beam non-normal-incidence pumping was applied for efficient soft-x-ray laser generation. In this case, the applied technique included a single-optic focusing geometry for large beam diameters, a single-pass grating compressor, traveling-wave tuning capability, and an optimized high-energy laser double pulse. This scheme has the potential for even shorter-wavelength soft-x-ray laser pumping.

  11. Measurements of accurate x-ray scattering data of protein solutions using small stationary sample cells

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hong, Xinguo; Hao, Quan

    2009-01-01

    In this paper, we report a method of precise in situ x-ray scattering measurements on protein solutions using small stationary sample cells. Although reduction in the radiation damage induced by intense synchrotron radiation sources is indispensable for the correct interpretation of scattering data, there is still a lack of effective methods to overcome radiation-induced aggregation and extract scattering profiles free from chemical or structural damage. It is found that radiation-induced aggregation mainly begins on the surface of the sample cell and grows along the beam path; the diameter of the damaged region is comparable to the x-ray beam size. Radiation-induced aggregation can be effectively avoided by using a two-dimensional scan (2D mode), with an interval as small as 1.5 times the beam size, at low temperature (e.g., 4 °C). A radiation sensitive protein, bovine hemoglobin, was used to test the method. A standard deviation of less than 5% in the small angle region was observed from a series of nine spectra recorded in 2D mode, in contrast to the intensity variation seen using the conventional stationary technique, which can exceed 100%. Wide-angle x-ray scattering data were collected at a standard macromolecular diffraction station using the same data collection protocol and showed a good signal/noise ratio (better than the reported data on the same protein using a flow cell). The results indicate that this method is an effective approach for obtaining precise measurements of protein solution scattering.

  12. Measurements of accurate x-ray scattering data of protein solutions using small stationary sample cells

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Hong Xinguo; Hao Quan

    2009-01-01

    In this paper, we report a method of precise in situ x-ray scattering measurements on protein solutions using small stationary sample cells. Although reduction in the radiation damage induced by intense synchrotron radiation sources is indispensable for the correct interpretation of scattering data, there is still a lack of effective methods to overcome radiation-induced aggregation and extract scattering profiles free from chemical or structural damage. It is found that radiation-induced aggregation mainly begins on the surface of the sample cell and grows along the beam path; the diameter of the damaged region is comparable to the x-ray beam size. Radiation-induced aggregation can be effectively avoided by using a two-dimensional scan (2D mode), with an interval as small as 1.5 times the beam size, at low temperature (e.g., 4 deg. C). A radiation sensitive protein, bovine hemoglobin, was used to test the method. A standard deviation of less than 5% in the small angle region was observed from a series of nine spectra recorded in 2D mode, in contrast to the intensity variation seen using the conventional stationary technique, which can exceed 100%. Wide-angle x-ray scattering data were collected at a standard macromolecular diffraction station using the same data collection protocol and showed a good signal/noise ratio (better than the reported data on the same protein using a flow cell). The results indicate that this method is an effective approach for obtaining precise measurements of protein solution scattering.

  13. Synchronized and configurable source of electrical pulses for x-ray pump-probe experiments

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Strachan, J. P.; Chembrolu, V.; Yu, X. W.; Tyliszczak, T.; Acremann, Y.

    2007-01-01

    A method is described for the generation of software tunable patterns of nanosecond electrical pulses. The bipolar, high repetition rate (up to 250 MHz), fast rise time (<30 ps), square pulses are suitable for applications such as the excitation sequence in dynamic pump-probe experiments. Synchronization with the time structure of a synchrotron facility is possible as well as fine control of the relative delay in steps of 10 ps. The pulse generator described here is used to excite magnetic nanostructures with current pulses. Having an excitation system which can match the high repetition rate of a synchrotron allows for utilization of the full x-ray flux and is needed in experiments which require a large photon flux. The fast rise times allow for picosecond time resolution in pump-probe experiments. All pulse pattern parameters are configurable by software

  14. Carbon Condensation during High Explosive Detonation with Time Resolved Small Angle X-ray Scattering

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hammons, Joshua; Bagge-Hansen, Michael; Nielsen, Michael; Lauderbach, Lisa; Hodgin, Ralph; Bastea, Sorin; Fried, Larry; May, Chadd; Sinclair, Nicholas; Jensen, Brian; Gustavsen, Rick; Dattelbaum, Dana; Watkins, Erik; Firestone, Millicent; Ilavsky, Jan; van Buuren, Tony; Willey, Trevor; Lawrence Livermore National Lab Collaboration; Los Alamos National Laboratory Collaboration; Washington State University/Advanced Photon Source Team

    Carbon condensation during high-energy detonations occurs under extreme conditions and on very short time scales. Understanding and manipulating soot formation, particularly detonation nanodiamond, has attracted the attention of military, academic and industrial research. An in-situ characterization of these nanoscale phases, during detonation, is highly sought after and presents a formidable challenge even with today's instruments. Using the high flux available with synchrotron X-rays, pink beam small angle X-ray scattering is able to observe the carbon phases during detonation. This experimental approach, though powerful, requires careful consideration and support from other techniques, such as post-mortem TEM, EELS and USAXS. We present a comparative survey of carbon condensation from different CHNO high explosives. This work was performed under the auspices of the US DOE by LLNL under Contract DE-AC52-07NA27344.

  15. More accurate X-ray scattering data of deeply supercooled bulk liquid water

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Neuefeind, Joerg C [ORNL; Benmore, Chris J [Argonne National Laboratory (ANL); Weber, Richard [Argonne National Laboratory (ANL); Paschek, Dietmar [Rostock University, Rostock, Germany

    2011-01-01

    Deeply supercooled water droplets held container-less in an acoustic levitator are investigated with high energy X-ray scattering. The temperature dependence X-ray structure function is found to be non-linear. Comparison with two popular computer models reveals that structural changes are predicted too abrupt by the TIP5P model, while the rate of change predicted by TIP4P is in much better agreement with experiment. The abrupt structural changes predicted by the TIP5P model to occur in the temperature range between 260-240K as water approaches the homogeneous nucleation limit are unrealistic. Both models underestimate the distance between neighbouring oxygen atoms and overestimate the sharpness of the OO distance distribution, indicating that the strength of the H-bond is overestimated in these models.

  16. Structural dissection of human metapneumovirus phosphoprotein using small angle x-ray scattering.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Renner, Max; Paesen, Guido C; Grison, Claire M; Granier, Sébastien; Grimes, Jonathan M; Leyrat, Cédric

    2017-11-01

    The phosphoprotein (P) is the main and essential cofactor of the RNA polymerase (L) of non-segmented, negative-strand RNA viruses. P positions the viral polymerase onto its nucleoprotein-RNA template and acts as a chaperone of the nucleoprotein (N), thereby preventing nonspecific encapsidation of cellular RNAs. The phosphoprotein of human metapneumovirus (HMPV) forms homotetramers composed of a stable oligomerization domain (P core ) flanked by large intrinsically disordered regions (IDRs). Here we combined x-ray crystallography of P core with small angle x-ray scattering (SAXS)-based ensemble modeling of the full-length P protein and several of its fragments to provide a structural description of P that captures its dynamic character, and highlights the presence of varyingly stable structural elements within the IDRs. We discuss the implications of the structural properties of HMPV P for the assembly and functioning of the viral transcription/replication machinery.

  17. LabVIEW-based X-ray detection system for laser compton scattering experiment

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Luo Wen; Xu Wang; Pan Qiangyan

    2010-01-01

    A LabVIEW-based X-ray detection system has been developed for laser-Compton scattering (LCS) experiment at the 100 MeV Linac of the Shanghai Institute of Applied Physics (SINAP). It mainly consists of a Si (Li) detector, readout electronics and a LabVIEW-based Data Acquisition (DAQ), and possesses the functions of signal spectrum displaying, acquisition control and simple online data analysis and so on. The performance test shows that energy and time resolutions of the system are 184 eV at 5.9 keV and ≤ 1% respectively and system instability is found to be 0.3‰ within a week. As a result, this X-ray detection system has low-cost and high-performance features and can meet the requirements of LCS experiment. (authors)

  18. Detectors for X-ray diffraction and scattering: current technology and future challenges

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Bahr, D.; Brugemann, L.; Gerndt, E.

    2003-01-01

    Full text: Detectors are crucial devices determining the quality, the reliability and the throughput of x-ray diffraction (XRD) and scattering investigations. This is of utmost importance in an industrial environment where in many cases untrained personnel or even without human intervention the experiments and data evaluations are running. The currently used technology of 0-dimensional to 2-dim XRD detectors is presented using selected examples. The application specific requirements on e.g. energy range and resolution, count rate limit, background and dynamic range, and size versus price are discussed. Due to the fact that x-ray diffraction investigations are becoming increasingly attractive in science, research and industry the advance in detector technology is pushed beyond existing limits. The discussion of the resultant market opportunities versus the cost of ownership and market entrance barrier is the final section of the presentation

  19. On the shape and variability of the X-ray pulses from Her X-1

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Bisnovatyi-Kogan, G.S.; Komberg, B.V.; Reinhardt, M.

    1975-01-01

    In the first section we compile the observed properties of the X-ray pulse profile. Then we discuss the expected radiation pattern and argue that it should be 'cup'-shaped. It is shown qualitatively that such a radiation characteristics can explain all the salient features of the pulse profile, if one allows for variations of the angular width of the radiation pattern due to changes in the accretion rate. Some of the relevant parameters are estimated. Several observational predictions are made. (orig.) [de

  20. Pulse repetition frequency effects in a high average power x-ray preionized excimer laser

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Fontaine, B.; Forestier, B.; Delaporte, P.; Canarelli, P.

    1989-01-01

    Experimental study of waves damping in a high repetition rate excimer laser is undertaken. Excitation of laser active medium in a subsonic loop is achieved by means of a classical discharge, through transfer capacitors. The discharge stability is controlled by a wire ion plasma (w.i.p.) X-rays gun. The strong acoustic waves induced by the active medium excitation may lead to a decrease, at high PRF, of the energy per pulse. First results of the influence of a damping of induced density perturbations between two successive pulses are presented

  1. Soft X-ray synchrotron radiation investigations of actinide materials systems utilizing X-ray emission spectroscopy and resonant inelastic X-ray scattering

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Shuh, D.K.; Butorin, S.M.; Guo, J.-H.; Nordgren, J.

    2004-01-01

    Synchrotron radiation (SR) methods have been utilized with increasing frequency over the past several years to study topics in actinide science, ranging from those of a fundamental nature to those that address a specifically-targeted technical need. In particular, the emergence of microspectroscopic and fluorescence-based techniques have permitted investigations of actinide materials at sources of soft x-ray SR. Spectroscopic techniques with fluorescence-based detection are useful for actinide investigations since they are sensitive to small amounts of material and the information sampling depth may be varied. These characteristics also serve to simplify both sample preparation and safety considerations. Examples of investigations using these fluorescence techniques will be described along with their results, as well as the prospects for future investigations utilizing these methodologies

  2. Alamethicin in lipid bilayers: combined use of X-ray scattering and MD simulations.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pan, Jianjun; Tieleman, D Peter; Nagle, John F; Kucerka, Norbert; Tristram-Nagle, Stephanie

    2009-06-01

    We study fully hydrated bilayers of two di-monounsaturated phospholipids diC18:1PC (DOPC) and diC22:1PC with varying amounts of alamethicin (Alm). We combine the use of X-ray diffuse scattering and molecular dynamics simulations to determine the orientation of alamethicin in model lipids. Comparison of the experimental and simulated form factors shows that Alm helices are inserted transmembrane at high humidity and high concentrations, in agreement with earlier results. The X-ray scattering data and the MD simulations agree that membrane thickness changes very little up to 1/10 Alm/DOPC. In contrast, the X-ray data indicate that the thicker diC22:1PC membrane thins with added Alm, a total decrease in thickness of 4 A at 1/10 Alm/diC22:1PC. The different effect of Alm on the thickness changes of the two bilayers is consistent with Alm having a hydrophobic thickness close to the hydrophobic thickness of 27 A for DOPC; Alm is then mismatched with the 7 A thicker diC22:1PC bilayer. The X-ray data indicate that Alm decreases the bending modulus (K(C)) by a factor of approximately 2 in DOPC and a factor of approximately 10 in diC22:1PC membranes (P/L approximately 1/10). The van der Waals and fluctuational interactions between bilayers are also evaluated through determination of the anisotropic B compressibility modulus.

  3. ORNL 10-m small-angle X-ray scattering camera

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Hendricks, R.W.

    1979-12-01

    A new small-angle x-ray scattering camera utilizing a rotating anode x-ray source, crystal monochromatization of the incident beam, pinhole collimation, and a two-dimensional position-sensitive proportional counter was developed. The sample, and the resolution element of the detector are each approximately 1 x 1 mm 2 , the camera was designed so that the focal spot-to-sample and sample-to-detector distances may each be varied in 0.5-m increments up to 5 m to provide a system resolution in the range 0.5 to 4.0 mrad. A large, general-purpose specimen chamber has been provided into which a wide variety of special-purpose specimen holders can be mounted. The detector has an active area of 200 x 200 mm and has up to 200 x 200 resolution elements. The data are recorded in the memory of a minicomputer by a high-speed interface which uses a microprocessor to map the position of an incident photon into an absolute minicomputer memory address. The data recorded in the computer memory can be processed on-line by a variety of programs designed to enhance the user's interaction with the experiment. At the highest angular resolution (0.4 mrad), the flux incident on the specimen is 1.0 x 10 6 photons/s with the x-ray source operating at 45 kV and 100 mA. SAX and its associated programs OVF and MOT are high-priority, pre-queued, nonresident foreground tasks which run under the ModComp II MAX III operating system to provide complete user control of the ORNL 10-m small-angle x-ray scattering camera

  4. A software-based x-ray scatter correction method for breast tomosynthesis

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Jia Feng, Steve Si; Sechopoulos, Ioannis

    2011-01-01

    Purpose: To develop a software-based scatter correction method for digital breast tomosynthesis (DBT) imaging and investigate its impact on the image quality of tomosynthesis reconstructions of both phantoms and patients. Methods: A Monte Carlo (MC) simulation of x-ray scatter, with geometry matching that of the cranio-caudal (CC) view of a DBT clinical prototype, was developed using the Geant4 toolkit and used to generate maps of the scatter-to-primary ratio (SPR) of a number of homogeneous standard-shaped breasts of varying sizes. Dimension-matched SPR maps were then deformed and registered to DBT acquisition projections, allowing for the estimation of the primary x-ray signal acquired by the imaging system. Noise filtering of the estimated projections was then performed to reduce the impact of the quantum noise of the x-ray scatter. Three dimensional (3D) reconstruction was then performed using the maximum likelihood-expectation maximization (MLEM) method. This process was tested on acquisitions of a heterogeneous 50/50 adipose/glandular tomosynthesis phantom with embedded masses, fibers, and microcalcifications and on acquisitions of patients. The image quality of the reconstructions of the scatter-corrected and uncorrected projections was analyzed by studying the signal-difference-to-noise ratio (SDNR), the integral of the signal in each mass lesion (integrated mass signal, IMS), and the modulation transfer function (MTF). Results: The reconstructions of the scatter-corrected projections demonstrated superior image quality. The SDNR of masses embedded in a 5 cm thick tomosynthesis phantom improved 60%-66%, while the SDNR of the smallest mass in an 8 cm thick phantom improved by 59% (p < 0.01). The IMS of the masses in the 5 cm thick phantom also improved by 15%-29%, while the IMS of the masses in the 8 cm thick phantom improved by 26%-62% (p < 0.01). Some embedded microcalcifications in the tomosynthesis phantoms were visible only in the scatter

  5. Exciplex formation of copper(II) octaethylporphyrin revealed by pulsed x-rays

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Chen, L.X.; Shaw, G.B.; Liu, T.; Jennings, G.; Attenkofer, K.

    2004-01-01

    The triplet excited structures of Cu(II) octaethylporphyrin (CuOEP) in toluene and in 1:1 mixture of toluene and tetrahydrofuran (THF) were investigated by time-domain laser pulse pump, X-ray pulse probe X-ray absorption spectroscopy (pump-probe XAS) at room temperature using X-rays from a third generation synchrotron source with 100-ps time resolution. The transient optical absorption measurements indicate a strong solvent dependency of the triplet excited state lifetime due to the presence of oxygen-containing solvent molecules. While the ground state CuOEP molecules remain square-planar in both solvents, the attenuation of a peak attributed to the 1s → 4p z transition at the Cu K-edge for the laser excited CuOEP in the THF/toluene mixture revealed the penta-coordinated exciplex formation which is responsible for the shortening of the triplet excited state lifetime. Meanwhile, the average Cu-N distance in the triplet excited state is lengthened by 0.03 (angstrom) due to ligation with a THF solvent molecule, which agrees with a domed coordination structure for copper in the penta-coordinated exciplex.

  6. DNA strand breaks induced by soft X-ray pulses from a compact laser plasma source

    Science.gov (United States)

    Adjei, Daniel; Wiechec, Anna; Wachulak, Przemyslaw; Ayele, Mesfin Getachew; Lekki, Janusz; Kwiatek, Wojciech M.; Bartnik, Andrzej; Davídková, Marie; Vyšín, Luděk; Juha, Libor; Pina, Ladislav; Fiedorowicz, Henryk

    2016-03-01

    Application of a compact laser plasma source of soft X-rays in radiobiology studies is demonstrated. The source is based on a laser produced plasma as a result of irradiation of a double-stream gas puff target with nanosecond laser pulses from a commercially available Nd:YAG laser. The source allows irradiation of samples with soft X-ray pulses in the "water window" spectral range (wavelength: 2.3-4.4 nm; photon energy: 280-560 eV) in vacuum or a helium atmosphere at very high-dose rates and doses exceeding the kGy level. Single-strand breaks (SSB) and double-strand breaks (DBS) induced in DNA plasmids pBR322 and pUC19 have been measured. The different conformations of the plasmid DNA were separated by agarose gel electrophoresis. An exponential decrease in the supercoiled form with an increase in linear and relaxed forms of the plasmids has been observed as a function of increasing photon fluence. Significant difference between SSB and DSB in case of wet and dry samples was observed that is connected with the production of free radicals in the wet sample by soft X-ray photons and subsequent affecting the plasmid DNA. Therefore, the new source was validated to be useful for radiobiology experiments.

  7. Neutron and synchrotorn x-ray small angle scattering instruments for applications in biology at the Brookhaven National Laboratory

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Schoenborn, B.P.; Wise, D.S.; Schneider, D.K.

    1983-01-01

    Facilities for small angle x-ray and neutron scattering are described, with emphasis on the characterization of the primary beam of the neutron instrument and the spectrometer control logic of the synchrotron instrument

  8. Effects of phosphonium-based ionic liquids on phospholipid membranes studied by small-angle X-ray scattering

    Czech Academy of Sciences Publication Activity Database

    Kontro, I.; Svedström, K.; Duša, Filip; Ahvenainen, P.; Ruokonen, S. K.; Witos, J.; Wiedmer, S. K.

    2016-01-01

    Roč. 201, DEC (2016), s. 59-66 ISSN 0009-3084 Institutional support: RVO:68081715 Keywords : phospholipids * x-ray scattering Subject RIV: CB - Analytical Chemistry, Separation Impact factor: 3.361, year: 2016

  9. Small-angle x-ray scattering investigation of the solution structure of troponin C

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Hubbard, S.R.; Hodgson, K.O.; Doniach, S.

    1988-01-01

    X-ray crystallographic studies of troponin C have revealed a novel protein structure consisting of two globular domains, each containing two Ca 2+ -binding sites, connected via a nine-turn alpha-helix, three turns of which are fully exposed to solvent. Since the crystals were grown at pH approximately 5, it is of interest to determine whether this structure is applicable to the protein in solution under physiological conditions. We have used small-angle x-ray scattering to examine the solution structure of troponin C at pH 6.8 and the effect of Ca 2+ on the structure. The scattering data are consistent with an elongated structure in solution with a radius of gyration of approximately 23.0 A, which is quite comparable to that computed for the crystal structure. The experimental scattering profile and the scattering profile computed from the crystal structure coordinates do, however, exhibit differences at the 40-A level. A weak Ca 2+ -facilitated dimerization of troponin C was observed. The data rule out large Ca 2+ -induced structural changes, indicating rather that the molecule with Ca 2+ bound is only slightly more compact than the Ca 2+ -free molecule

  10. Deterministic simulation of first-order scattering in virtual X-ray imaging

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Freud, N. E-mail: nicolas.freud@insa-lyon.fr; Duvauchelle, P.; Pistrui-Maximean, S.A.; Letang, J.-M.; Babot, D

    2004-07-01

    A deterministic algorithm is proposed to compute the contribution of first-order Compton- and Rayleigh-scattered radiation in X-ray imaging. This algorithm has been implemented in a simulation code named virtual X-ray imaging. The physical models chosen to account for photon scattering are the well-known form factor and incoherent scattering function approximations, which are recalled in this paper and whose limits of validity are briefly discussed. The proposed algorithm, based on a voxel discretization of the inspected object, is presented in detail, as well as its results in simple configurations, which are shown to converge when the sampling steps are chosen sufficiently small. Simple criteria for choosing correct sampling steps (voxel and pixel size) are established. The order of magnitude of the computation time necessary to simulate first-order scattering images amounts to hours with a PC architecture and can even be decreased down to minutes, if only a profile is computed (along a linear detector). Finally, the results obtained with the proposed algorithm are compared to the ones given by the Monte Carlo code Geant4 and found to be in excellent accordance, which constitutes a validation of our algorithm. The advantages and drawbacks of the proposed deterministic method versus the Monte Carlo method are briefly discussed.

  11. Effect of Cobalt Fillers on Polyurethane Segmentations Investigated by Synchrotron Small Angle X-Ray Scattering

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Krit Koyvanich

    2013-01-01

    Full Text Available The segmentation between rigid and rubbery chains in polyurethanes (PUs influences polymeric properties and implementations. Several models have successfully been proposed to visualize the configuration between the hard segment (HS and soft segment (SS. For particulate PU composites, the arrangement of HS and SS is more complicated because the fillers tend to disrupt the chain formation and segmentation. In this work, the effect of ferromagnetic cobalt (Co powders (average diameter 2 μm on PU synthesized from a reaction between polyether polyol (soft segment and diphenylmethane-4,4′-diisocyanate (hard segment was studied with varying loadings (0, 20, 40, and 60 wt.%. The 300 μm thick PU/Co samples were tape-casted and then received heat treatment at 80°C for 180 min. From synchrotron small angle X-ray scattering (SAXS, the plot of the X-ray scattering intensity (I against the scattering vector (q exhibited a typical single peak of PU whose intensity was reduced by the increase in the Co loading. Characteristic SAXS peaks in the case of 0-20 wt.% Co agreed well with the scattering by globular hard segment domains according to Zernike-Prins and Percus-Yevick models. The higher Co loadings led to larger deviations from all theoretical models.

  12. Compton scattering artifacts in electron excited X-ray spectra measured with a silicon drift detector.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ritchie, Nicholas W M; Newbury, Dale E; Lindstrom, Abigail P

    2011-12-01

    Artifacts are the nemesis of trace element analysis in electron-excited energy dispersive X-ray spectrometry. Peaks that result from nonideal behavior in the detector or sample can fool even an experienced microanalyst into believing that they have trace amounts of an element that is not present. Many artifacts, such as the Si escape peak, absorption edges, and coincidence peaks, can be traced to the detector. Others, such as secondary fluorescence peaks and scatter peaks, can be traced to the sample. We have identified a new sample-dependent artifact that we attribute to Compton scattering of energetic X-rays generated in a small feature and subsequently scattered from a low atomic number matrix. It seems likely that this artifact has not previously been reported because it only occurs under specific conditions and represents a relatively small signal. However, with the advent of silicon drift detectors and their utility for trace element analysis, we anticipate that more people will observe it and possibly misidentify it. Though small, the artifact is not inconsequential. Under some conditions, it is possible to mistakenly identify the Compton scatter artifact as approximately 1% of an element that is not present.

  13. Introducing a standard method for experimental determination of the solvent response in laser pump, x-ray probe time-resolved wide-angle x-ray scattering experiments on systems in solution

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Kjær, Kasper Skov; Brandt van Driel, Tim; Kehres, Jan

    2013-01-01

    In time-resolved laser pump, X-ray probe wide-angle X-ray scattering experiments on systems in solution the structural response of the system is accompanied by a solvent response. The solvent response is caused by reorganization of the bulk solvent following the laser pump event, and in order...... response-the solvent term-experimentally when applying laser pump, X-ray probe time-resolved wide-angle X-ray scattering. The solvent term describes difference scattering arising from the structural response of the solvent to changes in the hydrodynamic parameters: pressure, temperature and density. We...... is demonstrated to exhibit first order behaviour with respect to the amount of energy deposited in the solution. We introduce a standardized method for recording solvent responses in laser pump, X-ray probe time-resolved X-ray wide-angle scattering experiments by using dye mediated solvent heating. Furthermore...

  14. Measurement of the energy and power radiated by a pulsed blackbody x-ray source

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Chandler, Gordon Andrew; McDaniel, Dillon Heirman; Jorgenson, Roy E.; Warne, Larry Kevin; Dropinski, Steven Clark; Hanson, Donald L.; Johnson, William Arthur; York, Mathew William; Lewis, D.F.; Korde, R.; Haslett, C.L.; Wall, D.L.; Ruggles, Laurence E.; Ramirez, L.E.; Stygar, William A.; Porter, John Larry Jr.; McKenney, John Lee; Bryce, Edwin Anthony; Cuneo, Michael Edward; Torres, Jose A.; Mills, Jerry Alan; Leeper, Ramon Joe; McGurn, John Stephen; Fehl, David Lee; Spielman, R. B.; Pyle, John H.; Mazarakis, Michael Gerrassimos; Ives III, Harry Crockett; Seamen, Johann F.; Simpson, Walter W.

    2006-01-01

    We have developed a diagnostic system that measures the spectrally integrated (i.e. the total) energy and power radiated by a pulsed blackbody x-ray source. The total-energy-and-power (TEP) diagnostic system is optimized for blackbody temperatures between 50 and 350 eV. The system can view apertured sources that radiate energies and powers as high as 2 MJ and 200 TW, respectively, and has been successfully tested at 0.84 MJ and 73 TW on the Z pulsed-power accelerator. The TEP system consists of two pinhole arrays, two silicon-diode detectors, and two thin-film nickel bolometers. Each of the two pinhole arrays is paired with a single silicon diode. Each array consists of a 38 x 38 square array of 10-(micro)m-diameter pinholes in a 50-(micro)m-thick tantalum plate. The arrays achromatically attenuate the x-ray flux by a factor of ∼1800. The use of such arrays for the attenuation of soft x rays was first proposed by Turner and co-workers [Rev. Sci. Instrum. 70, 656 (1999)RSINAK0034-674810.1063/1.1149385]. The attenuated flux from each array illuminates its associated diode; the diode's output current is recorded by a data-acquisition system with 0.6-ns time resolution. The arrays and diodes are located 19 and 24 m from the source, respectively. Because the diodes are designed to have an approximately flat spectral sensitivity, the output current from each diode is proportional to the x-ray power. The nickel bolometers are fielded at a slightly different angle from the array-diode combinations, and view (without pinhole attenuation) the same x-ray source. The bolometers measure the total x-ray energy radiated by the source and--on every shot--provide an in situ calibration of the array-diode combinations. Two array-diode pairs and two bolometers are fielded to reduce random uncertainties. An analytic model (which accounts for pinhole-diffraction effects) of the sensitivity of an array-diode combination is presented

  15. X-ray magnetic scattering in SDW Cr - ab initio study

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Takahashi, M.; Igarashi, J.-I.; Hirai, K.

    2004-01-01

    Full text: Resonant x-ray scattering at the K-edge of transition metal atom has attracted much attention as a powerful tool for obtaining information on magnetic or orbital properties of 3d electrons. Recently Mannix et al. performed the x-ray magnetic scattering experiment in SDW Chromium and observed the finite scattering intensity with resonant enhancement at Cr K-edge on the SDW magnetic spot (0, 0, 1 ±δ). Applying ab-initio band structure calculation based on the local spin density approximation, we analyze the scattering spectra and elucidate the mechanism of the resonant enhancement in connection with the electronic structure. We assumed the bcc structure with the lattice constant a = 5.45a 0 and the SDW wavelength λ SDW = 20a, which are nearly equilibrium value at the spin-flip temperature T SF = 122K. The K-edge x-ray absorption and scattering spectra are calculated using Fermi's golden rule. We evaluate the non-resonant scattering amplitude within the spherical and dipolar approximations for spin and orbital moment contributions, respectively. The calculated absorption spectra are in good agreement with the experiment. This may assure the validity of the calculation. We obtained finite scattering amplitude with resonant enhancement at the K-edge. The calculated photon energy dependence of the scattering intensity shows good agreement with the experiment. The contribution of the 3d and 4p orbital moments to the non-resonant scattering amplitude is negligible in consequence of the smallness of their values, which are l max d ∼ 0.006ℎ and l max p ∼ 0.00007ℎ. On the other hand, although the 3d and 4p orbital moments are infinitesimal, they play important role on the resonant enhancement, which occurs through the 1s - 4p dipole transition and reflects the 4p orbital polarization. The 4p orbital polarization is caused by the on-site spin-orbit interaction in 4p orbital itself and the hybridization of the 4p orbital with the 3d orbital at neighboring

  16. Development study of the X-ray scattering properties of a group of optically polished flat samples

    Science.gov (United States)

    Froechtenigt, J. F.

    1973-01-01

    A group of twelve optically polished flat samples were used to study the scattering of X-rays. The X-ray beam reflected from the twelve optical flat samples was analyzed by means of a long vacuum system of special design for these tests. The scattering measurements were made at 8.34A and 0.92 deg angle of incidence. The results for ten of the samples are comparable, the two exceptions being the fire polished samples.

  17. Coherent, Short-Pulse X-ray Generation via Relativistic Flying Mirrors

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Masaki Kando

    2018-04-01

    Full Text Available Coherent, Short X-ray pulses are demanded in material science and biology for the study of micro-structures. Currently, large-sized free-electron lasers are used; however, the available beam lines are limited because of the large construction cost. Here we review a novel method to downsize the system as well as providing fully (spatially and temporally coherent pulses. The method is based on the reflection of coherent laser light by a relativistically moving mirror (flying mirror. Due to the double Doppler effect, the reflected pulses are upshifted in frequency and compressed in time. Such mirrors are formed when an intense short laser pulse excites a strongly nonlinear plasma wave in tenuous plasma. Theory, proof-of-principle, experiments, and possible applications are addressed.

  18. Study of human blood and hemocomponents irradiated by low angle x ray scattering (LAXS)

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Pinto, Nivia G. Villela; Barroso, Regina C. [Universidade do Estado do Rio de Janeiro (UERJ), RJ (Brazil). Inst. de Fisica. Dept. de Fisica Aplicada e Termodinamica], e-mail: nitatag@gmail.com; Mota, Carla L.S.; Almeida, Andre P.; Azeredo, Soraia R.; Braz, Delson [Coordenacao dos Programas de Pos-graduacao em Engenharia (COPPE/UFRJ), RJ (Brazil). Lab. de Instrumentacao Nuclear], e-mail: delson@lin.ufrj.br

    2009-07-01

    Irradiation of blood and blood components is currently practiced in developed and in a few developing countries. The main purpose of this process is the prevention of graft versus host disease in immunodeficient patients. The Food and Drug Administration recommends a dose range of 15 Gy to 25 Gy for these blood components. When x-ray photons are scattered from biological samples, their angular distribution shows one or more peaks in the forward direction of scattering. These peaks are characteristic for the investigated samples. Due to its wide range of biological and medical applications, low-angle x-ray scattering has attracted the attention of many authors. Thus in this present work was studied the possible variations in scattering profiles due to the irradiation when the gender of patients was considered. Fresh blood specimens were obtained from volunteers using vacutainer tubes containing EDTA, at the Dr. Eliel Figueiredo Laboratory, Rio de Janeiro. All the samples were lyophilized for 48 hours in a freeze drier in order to remove the water. The scattering measurements were carried out in e-2e reflection geometry using a powder diffractometer Shimadzu XRD- 6000. The measured characterization parameters for LAXS were associated with epidemiological data (gender). The mean values of the different parameters were compared using the Students's t-test for each characterization parameters. The scattering profiles from plasma and formed elements are characterized by the presence of two peaks in the forward direction of scattering. For epidemiological data (gender) analyzed was not found significant changes in the mostly of characterization parameters (p>0.05). (author)

  19. Study of human blood and hemocomponents irradiated by low angle x ray scattering (LAXS)

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Pinto, Nivia G. Villela; Barroso, Regina C.; Mota, Carla L.S.; Almeida, Andre P.; Azeredo, Soraia R.; Braz, Delson

    2009-01-01

    Irradiation of blood and blood components is currently practiced in developed and in a few developing countries. The main purpose of this process is the prevention of graft versus host disease in immunodeficient patients. The Food and Drug Administration recommends a dose range of 15 Gy to 25 Gy for these blood components. When x-ray photons are scattered from biological samples, their angular distribution shows one or more peaks in the forward direction of scattering. These peaks are characteristic for the investigated samples. Due to its wide range of biological and medical applications, low-angle x-ray scattering has attracted the attention of many authors. Thus in this present work was studied the possible variations in scattering profiles due to the irradiation when the gender of patients was considered. Fresh blood specimens were obtained from volunteers using vacutainer tubes containing EDTA, at the Dr. Eliel Figueiredo Laboratory, Rio de Janeiro. All the samples were lyophilized for 48 hours in a freeze drier in order to remove the water. The scattering measurements were carried out in e-2e reflection geometry using a powder diffractometer Shimadzu XRD- 6000. The measured characterization parameters for LAXS were associated with epidemiological data (gender). The mean values of the different parameters were compared using the Students's t-test for each characterization parameters. The scattering profiles from plasma and formed elements are characterized by the presence of two peaks in the forward direction of scattering. For epidemiological data (gender) analyzed was not found significant changes in the mostly of characterization parameters (p>0.05). (author)

  20. Progresses in the measurement and evaluation of small-angle x-ray scattering data

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Bergmann, A.

    2000-08-01

    Scattering methods are a widely used technique for determining size and shape of particles in the mesoscopic size range. This work deals on the one hand with the development of instruments in the field of Small Angle x-ray Scattering (SAXS) and on the other hand with methodical contributions concerning the interpretation of small angle scattering data. After a short introduction about Small Angle Scattering (SAS) and its application in chapter one, follows in chapter two a derivation of the theory of Small Angle x-ray scattering. Thereafter indirect transformations (Generalized Indirect Fourier Transformation [GIFT], Indirect Fourier Transformation [IFT]) are discussed and in this connection the optimization of multidimensional hyper surfaces is described. There are different possibilities for optimizing such multidimensional surfaces. The pros and contras of the different optimization methods with respect to the evaluation of small angle scattering data from interacting systems are discussed in detail. Global optimization methods are mainly used, if the hypersurface, which has to be optimized, shows many local minima. The goal of the optimization is it to find the global minimum. It is essential, that the parameters of the hyper surface are independent of each other, as it is the case in the GIFT. If someone deals with problems in only few dimensions or with many boundary conditions, mostly local optimization routines are sufficient. Therefore a number of starting parameters for the optimization is chosen, which can be obtained systematically or randomly. The best solution obtained represents the result of the optimization procedure. Chapter 3 deals with the description of instruments used in the field of Small Angle x-ray Scattering. After a description of the components (x-ray sources, monochromators, detectors) of these instruments, the different beam geometries are discussed. In chapter 4 improvements of SAXS measurements on Kratky slit systems by Goebel

  1. Identification of resonant x-ray Raman scattering using SR- and conventional TXRF

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Zhu, Q.; Burrow, B.; Baur, K.; Brennan, S.; Pianetta, P.

    2000-01-01

    Analyzing and control the surface contamination are important steps in the processing of integrated circuits. The need for using non-destructive analysis techniques either as laboratory or in-line inspection tools has increased dramatically in the past. Total reflection x-ray fluorescence (TXRF) spectroscopy is one of the best choices to fill such needs. Earlier works have established the phenomenon of resonant x-ray Raman scattering with excitation energy very close to the Si-K absorption edge (1.74 keV). In this work, similar phenomena are identified in W-silicide and GaAs substrate with the excitation of W-Lβ 9.67 keV) line, a choice of x-ray source for almost all the conventional TXRF systems nowadays. The observation of the resonant Raman peak is clearly the result of close proximity of W-L and As-K absorption edges to the excitation energy. Synchrotron TXRF measurements are performed by tuning the excitation energy. The resonant Raman peak shifts accordingly with the excitation energy, along with the drastic change of its intensity below and above the absorption edge of W-L or As-K in the respective samples. The current analysis provides new perspective for analyzing W- and As-containing samples, which suggests Raman background correction in conventional TXRF with W-Lβ excitation. (author)

  2. The accurate assessment of small-angle X-ray scattering data.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Grant, Thomas D; Luft, Joseph R; Carter, Lester G; Matsui, Tsutomu; Weiss, Thomas M; Martel, Anne; Snell, Edward H

    2015-01-01

    Small-angle X-ray scattering (SAXS) has grown in popularity in recent times with the advent of bright synchrotron X-ray sources, powerful computational resources and algorithms enabling the calculation of increasingly complex models. However, the lack of standardized data-quality metrics presents difficulties for the growing user community in accurately assessing the quality of experimental SAXS data. Here, a series of metrics to quantitatively describe SAXS data in an objective manner using statistical evaluations are defined. These metrics are applied to identify the effects of radiation damage, concentration dependence and interparticle interactions on SAXS data from a set of 27 previously described targets for which high-resolution structures have been determined via X-ray crystallography or nuclear magnetic resonance (NMR) spectroscopy. The studies show that these metrics are sufficient to characterize SAXS data quality on a small sample set with statistical rigor and sensitivity similar to or better than manual analysis. The development of data-quality analysis strategies such as these initial efforts is needed to enable the accurate and unbiased assessment of SAXS data quality.

  3. Innovative diffraction gratings for high-resolution resonant inelastic soft x-ray scattering spectroscopy

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Voronov, D.L.; Warwick, T.; Gullikson, E. M.; Salmassi, F.; Padmore, H. A.

    2016-01-01

    High-resolution Resonant Inelastic X-ray Scattering (RIXS) requires diffraction gratings with very exacting characteristics. The gratings should provide both very high dispersion and high efficiency which are conflicting requirements and extremely challenging to satisfy in the soft x-ray region for a traditional grazing incidence geometry. To achieve high dispersion one should increase the groove density of a grating; this however results in a diffraction angle beyond the critical angle range and results in drastic efficiency loss. The problem can be solved by use of multilayer coated blazed gratings (MBG). In this work we have investigated the diffraction characteristics of MBGs via numerical simulations and have developed a procedure for optimization of grating design for a multiplexed high resolution imaging spectrometer for RIXS spectroscopy to be built in sector 6 at the Advanced Light Source (ALS). We found that highest diffraction efficiency can be achieved for gratings optimized for 4"t"h or 5"t"h order operation. Fabrication of such gratings is an extremely challenging technological problem. We present a first experimental prototype of these gratings and report its performance. High order and high line density gratings have the potential to be a revolutionary new optical element that should have great impact in the area of soft x-ray RIXS.

  4. Asymptotic form of the reciprocity theorem with applications in x-ray scattering

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Caticha, Ariel

    2000-01-01

    The emission of electromagnetic waves from a source within or near a nontrivial medium (with or without boundaries, crystalline or amorphous, with inhomogeneities, absorption, and so on) is sometimes studied using the reciprocity principle which is a variation of the method of Green's functions. If one is only interested in the asymptotic radiation fields the generality of these methods may actually be a shortcoming: obtaining expressions valid for the uninteresting near fields is not just a wasted effort but may be prohibitively difficult. In this work we obtain a modified form of the reciprocity principle which gives the asymptotic radiation field directly. The method may also be used to study scattering problems. We give a few pedagogical examples and then, as more challenging applications, we calculate the specular reflection of x rays by a rough surface and by a smoothly graded surface taking polarization effects into account. In conventional treatments of reflection, x rays are treated as scalar waves; polarization effects are neglected. This is a good approximation at grazing incidence but becomes increasingly questionable for soft x rays and UV at higher incidence angles

  5. Quantitative X-ray mapping, scatter diagrams and the generation of correction maps to obtain more information about your material

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wuhrer, R.; Moran, K.

    2014-03-01

    Quantitative X-ray mapping with silicon drift detectors and multi-EDS detector systems have become an invaluable analysis technique and one of the most useful methods of X-ray microanalysis today. The time to perform an X-ray map has reduced considerably with the ability to map minor and trace elements very accurately due to the larger detector area and higher count rate detectors. Live X-ray imaging can now be performed with a significant amount of data collected in a matter of minutes. A great deal of information can be obtained from X-ray maps. This includes; elemental relationship or scatter diagram creation, elemental ratio mapping, chemical phase mapping (CPM) and quantitative X-ray maps. In obtaining quantitative x-ray maps, we are able to easily generate atomic number (Z), absorption (A), fluorescence (F), theoretical back scatter coefficient (η), and quantitative total maps from each pixel in the image. This allows us to generate an image corresponding to each factor (for each element present). These images allow the user to predict and verify where they are likely to have problems in our images, and are especially helpful to look at possible interface artefacts. The post-processing techniques to improve the quantitation of X-ray map data and the development of post processing techniques for improved characterisation are covered in this paper.

  6. Quantitative X-ray mapping, scatter diagrams and the generation of correction maps to obtain more information about your material

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Wuhrer, R; Moran, K

    2014-01-01

    Quantitative X-ray mapping with silicon drift detectors and multi-EDS detector systems have become an invaluable analysis technique and one of the most useful methods of X-ray microanalysis today. The time to perform an X-ray map has reduced considerably with the ability to map minor and trace elements very accurately due to the larger detector area and higher count rate detectors. Live X-ray imaging can now be performed with a significant amount of data collected in a matter of minutes. A great deal of information can be obtained from X-ray maps. This includes; elemental relationship or scatter diagram creation, elemental ratio mapping, chemical phase mapping (CPM) and quantitative X-ray maps. In obtaining quantitative x-ray maps, we are able to easily generate atomic number (Z), absorption (A), fluorescence (F), theoretical back scatter coefficient (η), and quantitative total maps from each pixel in the image. This allows us to generate an image corresponding to each factor (for each element present). These images allow the user to predict and verify where they are likely to have problems in our images, and are especially helpful to look at possible interface artefacts. The post-processing techniques to improve the quantitation of X-ray map data and the development of post processing techniques for improved characterisation are covered in this paper

  7. Portable pulse X-ray micro and nanosecond range apparatus for studying fast-going processes in opaque media

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Goganov, D.A.; Komyak, N.I.; Pelix, E.A.

    Pulse X-radiography (X-ray flash duration in the order of 10 -6 -10 -9 sec) is the principal method for studying fast-going processes in opaque media by serial and parallel radiographic imaging. Description is given and main features are outlined of pulse X-ray apparatus IRA-4b, 5b, 6b producing X-radiation flashes from 0.3 μsec to 10-20 nsec in duration

  8. Protein folding and protein metallocluster studies using synchrotron small angler X-ray scattering

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Eliezer, D.

    1994-06-01

    Proteins, biological macromolecules composed of amino-acid building blocks, possess unique three dimensional shapes or conformations which are intimately related to their biological function. All of the information necessary to determine this conformation is stored in a protein's amino acid sequence. The problem of understanding the process by which nature maps protein amino-acid sequences to three-dimensional conformations is known as the protein folding problem, and is one of the central unsolved problems in biophysics today. The possible applications of a solution are broad, ranging from the elucidation of thousands of protein structures to the rational modification and design of protein-based drugs. The scattering of X-rays by matter has long been useful as a tool for the characterization of physical properties of materials, including biological samples. The high photon flux available at synchrotron X-ray sources allows for the measurement of scattering cross-sections of dilute and/or disordered samples. Such measurements do not yield the detailed geometrical information available from crystalline samples, but do allow for lower resolution studies of dynamical processes not observable in the crystalline state. The main focus of the work described here has been the study of the protein folding process using time-resolved small-angle x-ray scattering measurements. The original intention was to observe the decrease in overall size which must accompany the folding of a protein from an extended conformation to its compact native state. Although this process proved too fast for the current time-resolution of the technique, upper bounds were set on the probable compaction times of several small proteins. In addition, an interesting and unexpected process was detected, in which the folding protein passes through an intermediate state which shows a tendency to associate. This state is proposed to be a kinetic molten globule folding intermediate

  9. Determination of line profiles on nano-structured surfaces using EUV and x-ray scattering

    Science.gov (United States)

    Soltwisch, Victor; Wernecke, Jan; Haase, Anton; Probst, Jürgen; Schoengen, Max; Krumrey, Michael; Scholze, Frank; Pomplun, Jan; Burger, Sven

    2014-09-01

    Non-imaging techniques like X-ray scattering are supposed to play an important role in the further development of CD metrology for the semiconductor industry. Grazing Incidence Small Angle X-ray Scattering (GISAXS) provides directly assessable information on structure roughness and long-range periodic perturbations. The disadvantage of the method is the large footprint of the X-ray beam on the sample due to the extremely shallow angle of incidence. This can be overcome by using wavelengths in the extreme ultraviolet (EUV) spectral range, EUV small angle scattering (EUVSAS), which allows for much steeper angles of incidence but preserves the range of momentum transfer that can be observed. Generally, the potentially higher momentum transfer at shorter wavelengths is counterbalanced by decreasing diffraction efficiency. This results in a practical limit of about 10 nm pitch for which it is possible to observe at least the +/- 1st diffraction orders with reasonable efficiency. At the Physikalisch-Technische Bundesanstalt (PTB), the available photon energy range extends from 50 eV up to 10 keV at two adjacent beamlines. PTB commissioned a new versatile Ellipso-Scatterometer which is capable of measuring 6" square substrates in a clean, hydrocarbon-free environment with full flexibility regarding the direction of the incident light polarization. The reconstruction of line profiles using a geometrical model with six free parameters, based on a finite element method (FEM) Maxwell solver and a particle swarm based least-squares optimization yielded consistent results for EUV-SAS and GISAXS. In this contribution we present scatterometry data for line gratings and consistent reconstruction results of the line geometry for EUV-SAS and GISAXS.

  10. Small angle neutron and x-ray scattering studies of self-assembled nano structured materials

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Choi, Sung Min

    2009-01-01

    Full text: Small angle neutron and x-ray scattering are very powerful techniques to investigate nano structured materials. In this presentation, examples of nano structured materials investigated by neutron and x-ray scattering will be presented. Part I: The unique anisotropic physical properties of columnar discotic liquid crystals (DLCs) have attracted considerable interest for their potential applications as electronic devices. For many practical applications, however, it is crucial to obtain uniaxially oriented and highly ordered columnar superstructures of DLC molecules covering macroscopic area. Here, we present a simple and straight-forward approach to fabricate uniaxially oriented and highly ordered columnar superstructures of cobalt octa(n-decylthio) porphyrazine (CoS 1 0), a discotic supra-molecule, in bulk and on substrates [1] over a macroscopic length scale, utilizing an applied magnetic field and the interaction of CoS 1 0 with an OTS-functionalized substrate. The details of the oriented and ordered columnar nano-structures are investigated by SANS and GISAXS. Part II: Self-assembly of one-dimensional (1D) nanoparticles with metallic or semiconducting properties into highly ordered superstructures using various interactions has been of great interest as a route towards materials with new functionalities. Here, we report a new phase diagram of negatively charged 1D nanoparticle (cROD) and cationic liposome (CL) complexes in water which exhibit three different highly ordered phases [2]. Small angle neutron and x-ray scattering measurements show that the cROD-CL complexes exhibit three different highly ordered phases, intercalated lamellar, doubly intercalated lamellar and centered rectangular phases, depending on particle curvature and electrostatic interactions. The new phase diagram can be used to understand and design new highly ordered self-assemblies of 1D nanoparticles in soft matter which provide new functionalities. (author)

  11. Introducing a New Capability at SSRL: Resonant Soft X-ray Scattering

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lee, Jun-Sik; Jang, Hoyoung; Lu, Donghui; Kao, Chi-Chang

    Stanford Synchrotron Radiation Lightsource (SSRL) at SLAC recently developed a setup for the resonant soft x-ray scattering (RSXS). In general, the RSXS technique uniquely probes not only structural information, but also chemical specific information. This is because this technique can explore the spatial periodicities of charge, orbital, spin, and lattice with spectroscopic aspect. Moreover, the soft x-ray range is particularly relevant for a study of soft materials as it covers the K-edge of C, N, F, and O, as well as the L-edges of transition metals and M-edges of rare-earth elements. Hence, the RSXS capability has been regarded as a very powerful technique for investigating the intrinsic properties of materials such as quantum- and energy-materials. The RSXS capability at the SSRL composes of in-vacuum 4-circle diffractometer. There are also the fully motorized sample-motion manipulations. Also, the sample can be cooled down to 25 K via the liquid helium. This capability has been installed at BL 13-3, where the photon source is from elliptically polarized undulator (EPU). Covering the photon energies is from 230 eV to 1400 eV. Furthermore, this EPU system offers more degree of freedoms for controlling x-ray polarizations (linear and circular). Using the advance of controlling x-ray polarization, we can also investigate a morphology effect of local domain/grain in materials. The detailed introduction of the RSXS end-station and several results will be touched in this poster presentation.

  12. Structure factor of dimyristoylphosphatidylcholine unilamellar vesicles: small-angle x-ray scattering study

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Kiselev, M.A.; Aksenov, V.L.; Lombardo, D.; Kisselev, A.M.; Lesieur, P.

    2003-01-01

    Small-angle X-ray scattering (SAXS) experiments have been performed on dimyristoylphosphatidylcholine (DMPC) unilamellar vesicles in 40% aqueous sucrose solution. Model of separated form factors was applied for the evaluation of SAXS curves from large unilamellar vesicles. For the first time vesicle structure factor, polydispersity, average radius and membrane thickness were calculated simultaneously from the SAXS curves at T=30 deg C for DMPC concentrations in the range from 15 to 75 mM (1-5% w/w). Structure factor correction to the scattering curve was shown to be negligibly small for the lipid concentration of 15 mM (1% w/w). It was proved to be necessary to introduce structure factor correction to the scattering curves for lipid concentrations ≥ 30 mM (2% w/w)

  13. Proteins on surfaces investigated by microbeam grazing incidence small angle X-ray scattering

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Gebhardt, Ronald; Riekel, Christian; Burghammer, Manfred [European Synchrotron Radiation Facility, B.P. 220, F-38043 Grenoble Cedex (France); Vendrely, Charlotte [Universite de Cergy-Pontoise, ERRMECE, F-95000, Cergy-Pontoise (France); Mueller-Buschbaum, Peter [TU Muenchen, Physik Department E13, Muenchen (Germany)

    2009-07-01

    Grazing incidence small angle scattering with a 1 micron x-ray beam ({mu}GISAXS) is applied to study structural ordering of casein micelles and fibroin in solution cast films. {mu}GISAXS scans provide the possibility to locate highly ordered areas and to investigate variation in the molecular packing. In the case of the casein micelles, ordered film structures have been generated by decreasing their natural size dispersion. While dynamic light scattering was used to characterize the different size fractions in solution, {mu}GISAXS and roughness are measured on the resulting casein films. GISAXS-Patterns are analyzed by simulations providing the dimension and nearest neighbor distances of casein micelles. In the case of fibroin, ordering of nano-fibers formed during the drying process is investigated. The experimental data are analyzed by simulations and compared to SEM, AFM and Raman scattering experiments.

  14. Anomalous small-angle x-ray scattering of a femtosecond irradiated germano silicate fibre preform.

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Hindle, F.; Fertein, E.; Seifert, S.; Przygodski, C.S.; Bocquet, R.; Douay, M.; Bychkov, E.; Experimental Facilities Division (APS); LPCA, CNRS; PhLAM; Univ. des Sciences et Tech. de Lille

    2005-01-01

    RADIATION is shown to induce significant mesoscopic structure. The scattering intensity for irradiated glasses is close to two orders of magnitude greater than that of unexposed material. Anomalous small-angle X-ray scattering (ASAXS) around the germanium K-edge for the silica and germanium doped silica regions of a fiber preform is used to demonstrate that identical structures are induced in both glass materials, with germanium displaying a capacity to isomorphically replace silicon in the case of the germanium doped silica. Analysis of measured scattering indicates that photo-inscribed features are produced at two distinct scales with typical radii of R {approx} 20 Angstroms and R{sub min} {approx} 200 Angstroms.

  15. Structure Factor of Dimyristoylphosphatidylcholine Unilamellar Vesicles Small-Angle X-Ray Scattering Study

    CERN Document Server

    Kiselev, M A; Kisselev, A M; Lesieur, P; Aksenov, V L

    2003-01-01

    Small-angle X-ray scattering (SAXS) experiments have been performed on dimyristoylphosphatidylcholine (DMPC) unilamellar vesicles in 40 % aqueous sucrose solution. Model of separated form factors was applied for the evaluation of SAXS curves from large unilamellar vesicles. For the first time vesicle structure factor, polydispersity, average radius and membrane thickness were calculated simultaneously from the SAXS curves at T=306{\\circ}C for DMPC concentrations in the range from 15 to 75 mM (1-5 % w/w). Structure factor correction to the scattering curve was shown to be negligibly small for the lipid concentration of 15 mM (1 % w/w). It was proved to be necessary to introduce structure factor correction to the scattering curves for lipid concentrations {\\ge}30 mM (2 % w/w).

  16. X-ray scattering evaluation of ultrastructural changes in human dental tissues with thermal treatment.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sandholzer, Michael A; Sui, Tan; Korsunsky, Alexander M; Walmsley, Anthony Damien; Lumley, Philip J; Landini, Gabriel

    2014-05-01

    Micro- and ultrastructural analysis of burned skeletal remains is crucial for obtaining a reliable estimation of cremation temperature. Earlier studies mainly focused on heat-induced changes in bone tissue, while this study extends this research to human dental tissues using a novel quantitative analytical approach. Twelve tooth sections were burned at 400-900°C (30-min exposure, increments of 100°C). Subsequent combined small- and wide-angle X-ray scattering (SAXS/WAXS) experiments were performed at the Diamond Light Source synchrotron facility, where 28 scattering patterns were collected within each tooth section. In comparison with the control sample, an increase in mean crystal thickness was found in burned dentine (2.8-fold) and enamel (1.4-fold), however at a smaller rate than reported earlier for bone tissue (5-10.7-fold). The results provide a structural reference for traditional X-ray scattering methods and emphasize the need to investigate bone and dental tissues separately to obtain a reliable estimation of cremation temperature. © 2014 American Academy of Forensic Sciences.

  17. On the possibility of using X-ray Compton scattering to study magnetoelectrical properties of crystals

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Collins, S. P., E-mail: steve.collins@diamond.ac.uk; Laundy, D.; Connolley, T.; Laan, G. van der; Fabrizi, F. [Diamond Light Source Ltd, Harwell Science and Innovation Campus, Didcot, OX11 0DE (United Kingdom); Janssen, O. [Department of Physics, New York University, New York, NY 10003 (United States); Cooper, M. J. [Department of Physics, University of Warwick, CV4 7AL (United Kingdom); Ebert, H.; Mankovsky, S. [Universität München, Department Chemie, Haus E2.033, Butenandtstrasse 5-13, D-81377 München (Germany)

    2016-02-16

    The possibility of using X-ray Compton scattering to reveal antisymmetric components of the electron momentum density, as a fingerprint of magnetoelectric sample properties, is investigated experimentally and theoretically by studying the polar ferromagnet GaFeO{sub 3}. This paper discusses the possibility of using Compton scattering – an inelastic X-ray scattering process that yields a projection of the electron momentum density – to probe magnetoelectrical properties. It is shown that an antisymmetric component of the momentum density is a unique fingerprint of such time- and parity-odd physics. It is argued that polar ferromagnets are ideal candidates to demonstrate this phenomenon and the first experimental results are shown, on a single-domain crystal of GaFeO{sub 3}. The measured antisymmetric Compton profile is very small (≃ 10{sup −5} of the symmetric part) and of the same order of magnitude as the statistical errors. Relativistic first-principles simulations of the antisymmetric Compton profile are presented and it is shown that, while the effect is indeed predicted by theory, and scales with the size of the valence spin–orbit interaction, its magnitude is significantly overestimated. The paper outlines some important constraints on the properties of the antisymmetric Compton profile arising from the underlying crystallographic symmetry of the sample.

  18. Recent developments in X-ray and neutron small-angle scattering instrumentation and data analysis

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Schelten, J.

    1978-01-01

    The developments in instrumentation and data analysis that have occurred in the field of small-angle X-ray and neutron scattering since 1973 are reviewed. For X-rays, the cone camera collimation was invented, synchrotrons and storage rings were demonstrated to be intense sources of X-radiation, and one- and two-dimensional position-sensitive detectors were interfaced to cameras with both point and line collimation. For neutrons, the collimators and detectors on the Juelich and Grenoble machines were improved, new D11-type instruments were built or are under construction at several sites, double-crystal instruments were set up, and various new machines have been proposed. Significant progress in data analysis and evaluation has been made through application of mathematical techniques such as the use of spline functions, error minimization with constraints, and linear programming. Several special experiments, unusual in respect to the anisotropy of the scattering pattern, gravitational effects, moving scatterers, and dynamic fast time slicing, are discussed. (Auth.)

  19. Determination of coal ash content by the combined x-ray fluorescence and scattering spectrum

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mikhailov, I. F.; Baturin, A. A.; Mikhailov, A. I.; Borisova, S. S.; Fomina, L. P.

    2018-02-01

    An alternative method is proposed for the determination of the inorganic constituent mass fraction (ash) in solid fuel by the ratio of Compton and Rayleigh X-ray scattering peaks IC/IR subject to the iron fluorescence intensity. An original X-ray optical scheme with a Ti/Mo (or Sc/Cu) double-layer secondary radiator allows registration of the combined fluorescence-and-scattering spectrum at the specified scattering angle. An algorithm for linear calibration of the Compton-to-Rayleigh IC/IR ratio is proposed which uses standard samples with two certified characteristics: mass fractions of ash (Ad) and iron oxide (WFe2O3). Ash mass fractions have been determined for coals of different deposits in the wide range of Ad from 9.4% to 52.7% mass and WFe2O3 from 0.3% to 4.95% mass. Due to the high penetrability of the probing radiation with energy E > 17 keV, the sample preparation procedure is rather simplified in comparison with the traditional method of Ad determination by the sum of fluorescence intensities of all constituent elements.

  20. Theoretical model of x-ray scattering as a dense matter probe.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gregori, G; Glenzer, S H; Rozmus, W; Lee, R W; Landen, O L

    2003-02-01

    We present analytical expressions for the dynamic structure factor, or form factor S(k,omega), which is the quantity describing the x-ray cross section from a dense plasma or a simple liquid. Our results, based on the random phase approximation for the treatment on the charged particle coupling, can be applied to describe scattering from either weakly coupled classical plasmas or degenerate electron liquids. Our form factor correctly reproduces the Compton energy down-shift and the known Fermi-Dirac electron velocity distribution for S(k,omega) in the case of a cold degenerate plasma. The usual concept of scattering parameter is also reinterpreted for the degenerate case in order to include the effect of the Thomas-Fermi screening. The results shown in this work can be applied to interpreting x-ray scattering in warm dense plasmas occurring in inertial confinement fusion experiments or for the modeling of solid density matter found in the interior of planets.

  1. RESONANT X-RAY SCATTERING AS A PROBE OF ORBITAL AND CHARGE ORDERING

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    NELSON, C.S.; HILL, J.P.; GIBBS, D.

    2002-01-01

    Resonant x-ray scattering is a powerful experimental technique for probing orbital and charge ordering. It involves tuning the incident photon energy to an absorption edge of the relevant ion and observing scattering at previously 'forbidden' Bragg peaks, and it allows high-resolution, quantitative studies of orbital and charge order--even from small samples. Further, resonant x-ray scattering from orbitally ordered systems exhibits polarization- and azimuthal-dependent properties that provide additional information about the details of the orbital order that is difficult, or impossible, to obtain with any other technique. In the manganites, the sensitivity to charge and orbital ordering is enhanced when the incident photon energy is tuned near the Mn K absorption edge (6.539 keV), which is the lowest energy at which a 1s electron can be excited into an unoccupied state. In this process, the core electron is promoted to an intermediate excited state, which decays with the emission of a photon. The sensitivity to charge ordering is believed to be due to the small difference in K absorption edges of the Mn 3+ and Mn 4+ sites. For orbital ordering, the sensitivity arises from a splitting--or difference in the weight of the density of states [239]--of the orbitals occupied by the excited electron in the intermediate state. In the absence of such a splitting, there is no resonant enhancement of the scattering intensity. In principle, other absorption edges in which the intermediate state is anisotropic could be utilized, but the strong dipole transition to the Mn 4p levels--and their convenient energies for x-ray diffraction--make the K edge well-suited to studies of manganites. The Mn 4p levels are affected by the symmetry of the orbital ordering, which makes the technique sensitive to the orbital degree of freedom. Therefore resonant x-ray scattering can be used to obtain important quantitative information concerning the details of this electronic order. Two

  2. High-temperature cuprate superconductors studied by x-ray Compton scattering and positron annihilation spectroscopies

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Barbiellini, Bernardo

    2013-01-01

    The bulk Fermi surface in an overdoped (x = 0.3) single crystal of La 2−x Sr x CuO 4 has been observed by using x-ray Compton scattering. This momentum density technique also provides a powerful tool for directly seeing what the dopant Sr atoms are doing to the electronic structure of La 2 CuO 4 . Because of wave function effects, positron annihilation spectroscopy does not yield a strong signature of the Fermi surface in extended momentum space, but it can be used to explore the role of oxygen defects in the reservoir layers for promoting high temperature superconductivity.

  3. High-temperature cuprate superconductors studied by x-ray Compton scattering and positron annihilation spectroscopies

    Science.gov (United States)

    Barbiellini, Bernardo

    2013-06-01

    The bulk Fermi surface in an overdoped (x = 0.3) single crystal of La2-xSrxCuO4 has been observed by using x-ray Compton scattering. This momentum density technique also provides a powerful tool for directly seeing what the dopant Sr atoms are doing to the electronic structure of La2CuO4. Because of wave function effects, positron annihilation spectroscopy does not yield a strong signature of the Fermi surface in extended momentum space, but it can be used to explore the role of oxygen defects in the reservoir layers for promoting high temperature superconductivity.

  4. Detection of impaired diastolic relaxation during myocardial ischemia using x-ray scatter fields

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    McInerney, J.J.; Morris, L.; Herr, M.D.; Copenhaver, G.L.

    1986-01-01

    Precise three-dimensional epicardial displacements and velocities are measured nonivasively (no cutdowns or injections) with low-energy x-rays scattered from the closed chest surface of the heart. Surface reconstructions provide direct visualization of p-wave motion of the atrial wall, isovolumic sphericalization of the heart, global thrust of the ventricle during ejection, swelling of the base during refill, and relaxation during diastole. This new imaging technique was applied to canines before and after closed chest coronary embolization. Displacement and velocity displays of ischemic hearts clearly show reduced ejection displacement amplitudes, asynchronous motion patterns during systole, and impaired relaxation patterns during diastole

  5. Nano-crystal growth in cordierite glass ceramics studied with X-ray scattering

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Bras, Wim; Clark, Simon M.; Greaves, G. N.; Kunz, Martin; van Beek, W.; Radmilovic, V.

    2009-01-16

    The development of monodisperse crystalline particles in cordierite glass doped with Cr3+ after a two-step heat treatment is elucidated by a combination of time-resolved small and wide angle x-ray scattering (SAXS/WAXS) experiments with electron microscopy. The effects of bulk and surface crystallization can clearly be distinguished, and the crystallization kinetics of the bulk phase is characterized. The internal pressure due to structural differences between the crystalline and amorphous phase is measured but the physical cause of this pressure can not unambiguously be attributed. The combined measurements comprise a nearly full characterization of the crystallization processes and the resulting sample morphology.

  6. Malnutrition and myelin structure: an X-ray scattering study of rat sciatic and optic nerves

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Vargas, V.; Vargas, R.; Marquez, G.; Vonasek, E.; Mateu, L.; Luzzati, V.; Borges, J.

    2000-01-01

    Taking advantage of the fast and accurate X-ray scattering techniques recently developed in our laboratory, we tackled the study of the structural alterations induced in myelin by malnutrition. Our work was performed on sciatic and optic nerves dissected from rats fed with either a normal or a low-protein caloric diet, as a function of age (from birth to 60 days). By way of electrophysiological controls we also measured (on the sciatic nerves) the height and velocity of the compound action potential. Malnutrition was found to decrease the amount of myelin and to impair the packing order of the membranes in the sheaths. (orig.)

  7. Theoretical and experimental study of resonant inelastic X-ray scattering for NiO

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Kotani, A.; Matsubara, M.; Uozumi, T.; Ghiringhelli, G.; Fracassi, F.; Dallera, C.; Tagliaferri, A.; Brookes, N.B.; Braicovich, L.

    2006-01-01

    Resonant inelastic X-ray scattering (RIXS) spectra for Ni 2p to 3d excitation and 3d to 2p de-excitation of NiO are studied both theoretically and experimentally. Theoretical calculations with a single impurity Anderson model (SIAM) describe the charge transfer (CT) and d-d excitations in RIXS, and detailed study is made for the CT energy. High resolution RIXS measurements reveal the precise d-d excitation structure and its polarization dependence, and they are well reproduced by the SIAM calculation

  8. Effects of crystal defects on the diffuse scattering of X-rays

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Kremser, R.

    1974-01-01

    This thesis concerns with the influence of crystal defects in germanium-drifted silicium and in α=quartz on the intensity of the diffuse X-ray scattering. The experiments were performed at low and high temperatures to show the effect of the atomic thermal motion on the intensity of the diffuse maxima. The comparison of the results for pure silicium and for the germanium-drifted crystal gives information about the relation between the frequency-spectra and the defects of the drifted silicium. For α-quarts it was not possible to relate unequivocally the observed changes in the intensity to individual defects. (C.R.)

  9. Heavy particle dynamics in liquid Se. Inelastic x-ray scattering

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Inui, Masanori; Hosokawa, Shinya; Matsuda, Kazuhiro; Tsutsui, Satoshi; Baron, A. Q. R.

    2007-01-01

    The dynamic structure factor of liquid Se was measured at 523 K using high-resolution inelastic X-ray scattering. Anomalous narrowing of the spectrum was observed at 15 nm -1 , where the static structure factor S(Q) exhibits a weak shoulder, but the elastic part of the dynamic structure factor S(Q, E=0) exhibited a strong maximum. The second frequency moment, which is estimated from only the quasielastic peak, is consistent with the motion of rigid six-atom clusters, while a formal agreement with the first-moment sum rule is preserved by the appearance of a weak intramolecular mode at 30 meV. (author)

  10. Wide-angle X-ray scattering study of heat-treated PEEK and PEEK composite

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cebe, Peggy; Lowry, Lynn; Chung, Shirley Y.; Yavrouian, Andre; Gupta, Amitava

    1987-01-01

    Samples of poly(etheretherketone) (PEEK) neat resin and APC-2 carbon fiber composite were subjected to various heat treatments, and the effect of quenching and annealing treatments was studied by wide-angle X-ray scattering. It is found that high-temperature treatments may introduce disorder into neat resin and composite PEEK when followed by rapid cooling. The disorder is metastable and can revert to ordered state when the material is heated above its glass transition temperature and then cooled slowly. The disorder may result from residual thermal stresses.

  11. Ion track annealing in quartz investigated by small angle X-ray scattering

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Schauries, D.; Afra, B.; Rodriguez, M.D. [Department of Electronic Materials Engineering, Research School of Physics and Engineering, The Australian National University, Canberra, ACT 2601 (Australia); Trautmann, C. [GSI Helmholtz Centre for Heavy Ion Research, Planckstrasse 1, 64291 Darmstadt (Germany); Technische Universität Darmstadt, 64287 Darmstadt (Germany); Hawley, A. [Australian Synchrotron, 800 Blackburn Road, Clayton, VIC 3168 (Australia); Kluth, P. [Department of Electronic Materials Engineering, Research School of Physics and Engineering, The Australian National University, Canberra, ACT 2601 (Australia)

    2015-12-15

    We report on the reduction of cross-section and length of amorphous ion tracks embedded within crystalline quartz during thermal annealing. The ion tracks were created via Au ion irradiation with an energy of 2.2 GeV. The use of synchrotron-based small angle X-ray scattering (SAXS) allowed characterization of the latent tracks, without the need for chemical etching. Temperatures between 900 and 1000 °C were required to see a notable change in track size. The shrinkage in cross-section and length was found to be comparable for tracks aligned perpendicular and parallel to the c-axis.

  12. Integrative structural modeling with small angle X-ray scattering profiles

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Schneidman-Duhovny Dina

    2012-07-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Recent technological advances enabled high-throughput collection of Small Angle X-ray Scattering (SAXS profiles of biological macromolecules. Thus, computational methods for integrating SAXS profiles into structural modeling are needed more than ever. Here, we review specifically the use of SAXS profiles for the structural modeling of proteins, nucleic acids, and their complexes. First, the approaches for computing theoretical SAXS profiles from structures are presented. Second, computational methods for predicting protein structures, dynamics of proteins in solution, and assembly structures are covered. Third, we discuss the use of SAXS profiles in integrative structure modeling approaches that depend simultaneously on several data types.

  13. X-ray and neutron scattering investigations of YCo sub 3 -H

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Benham, M J; Bennington, S M; Ross, D K [Birmingham Univ. (UK). School of Physics and Space Research; Noreus, D [Stockholm Univ. (Sweden). Dept. of Structural Chemistry; Yamaguchi, M [Yokohoma National Univ. (Japan). Dept. of Electrical and Computer Engineering

    1989-01-01

    Various structural studies of YCo{sub 3}H(D){sub x} in the {beta}-phase (0X-ray diffraction measurements determined that the expansion of the lattice is localised to components of the structure which are related to the Laves phase, YCo{sub 2}. Neutron diffraction and inelastic neutron scattering were also used in tandem, and hydrogen occupation of a single (36i) tetrahedral site was inferred for the entire concentration range. (orig.).

  14. Food structure and dynamics - what are the opportunities for x-ray and neutron scattering?

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Gilbert, Elliot Paul

    2010-01-01

    In the latter part of the 20th century, it became evident that major advances in understanding could be achieved by gathering together scientists from unique, diverse but nonetheless complementary disciplines. To what extent can this be achieved in materials science, food science, food technology and nutrition? In Australia, we have developed a programme of research in which we seek to investigate fundamental and industrial problems of national significance in food science. This presentation will illustrate some of the opportunities now available through strategic alliances with materials scientists in the application of methods such as X-ray and neutron scattering to gain a critical understanding of food microstructure, nanostructure and dynamics

  15. Study of pore growth in glassy carbon using small angle x-ray scattering

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Hoyt, J.

    1982-07-01

    Small-angle x-ray scattering was used to study the average pore size in glass-like carbon as a function of both heat-treatment time and heat-treatment temperature. A pore-growth model based on graphitization processes is presented. The simple mechanism shows that the change in the average radius of gyration with time is related to the total number of pores as a function of time, which in turn depends on the irreversible thermal-expansion phenomenon. The results of this study are inconsistent with a vacancy-migration pore-growth mechanism proposed earlier

  16. Epp: A C++ EGSnrc user code for x-ray imaging and scattering simulations

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Lippuner, Jonas; Elbakri, Idris A.; Cui Congwu; Ingleby, Harry R.

    2011-01-01

    Purpose: Easy particle propagation (Epp) is a user code for the EGSnrc code package based on the C++ class library egspp. A main feature of egspp (and Epp) is the ability to use analytical objects to construct simulation geometries. The authors developed Epp to facilitate the simulation of x-ray imaging geometries, especially in the case of scatter studies. While direct use of egspp requires knowledge of C++, Epp requires no programming experience. Methods: Epp's features include calculation of dose deposited in a voxelized phantom and photon propagation to a user-defined imaging plane. Projection images of primary, single Rayleigh scattered, single Compton scattered, and multiple scattered photons may be generated. Epp input files can be nested, allowing for the construction of complex simulation geometries from more basic components. To demonstrate the imaging features of Epp, the authors simulate 38 keV x rays from a point source propagating through a water cylinder 12 cm in diameter, using both analytical and voxelized representations of the cylinder. The simulation generates projection images of primary and scattered photons at a user-defined imaging plane. The authors also simulate dose scoring in the voxelized version of the phantom in both Epp and DOSXYZnrc and examine the accuracy of Epp using the Kawrakow-Fippel test. Results: The results of the imaging simulations with Epp using voxelized and analytical descriptions of the water cylinder agree within 1%. The results of the Kawrakow-Fippel test suggest good agreement between Epp and DOSXYZnrc. Conclusions: Epp provides the user with useful features, including the ability to build complex geometries from simpler ones and the ability to generate images of scattered and primary photons. There is no inherent computational time saving arising from Epp, except for those arising from egspp's ability to use analytical representations of simulation geometries. Epp agrees with DOSXYZnrc in dose calculation, since

  17. Monte Carlo simulation of photon scattering in x-ray absorption imaging of high-intensity discharge lamps

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Curry, J J, E-mail: jjcurry@nist.go [National Institute of Standards and Technology, Gaithersburg, MD 20899-8422 (United States)

    2010-06-16

    Coherent and incoherent scattering of x-rays during x-ray absorption imaging of high-intensity discharge lamps have been studied with Monte Carlo simulations developed specifically for this purpose. The Monte Carlo code is described and some initial results are discussed. Coherent scattering, because of its angular concentration in the forward direction, is found to be the most significant scattering mechanism. Incoherent scattering, although comparably strong, is not as significant because it results primarily in photons being scattered in the rearward direction and therefore out of the detector. Coherent scattering interferes with the detected absorption signal because the path of a scattered photon through the object to be imaged is unknown. Although scattering is usually a small effect, it can be significant in regions of high contrast. At the discharge/wall interface, as many as 50% of the detected photons are scattered photons. The effect of scattering on analysis of Hg distributions has not yet been quantified.

  18. Experimental strategies for imaging bioparticles with femtosecond hard X-ray pulses

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Benedikt J. Daurer

    2017-05-01

    Full Text Available This study explores the capabilities of the Coherent X-ray Imaging Instrument at the Linac Coherent Light Source to image small biological samples. The weak signal from small samples puts a significant demand on the experiment. Aerosolized Omono River virus particles of ∼40 nm in diameter were injected into the submicrometre X-ray focus at a reduced pressure. Diffraction patterns were recorded on two area detectors. The statistical nature of the measurements from many individual particles provided information about the intensity profile of the X-ray beam, phase variations in the wavefront and the size distribution of the injected particles. The results point to a wider than expected size distribution (from ∼35 to ∼300 nm in diameter. This is likely to be owing to nonvolatile contaminants from larger droplets during aerosolization and droplet evaporation. The results suggest that the concentration of nonvolatile contaminants and the ratio between the volumes of the initial droplet and the sample particles is critical in such studies. The maximum beam intensity in the focus was found to be 1.9 × 1012 photons per µm2 per pulse. The full-width of the focus at half-maximum was estimated to be 500 nm (assuming 20% beamline transmission, and this width is larger than expected. Under these conditions, the diffraction signal from a sample-sized particle remained above the average background to a resolution of 4.25 nm. The results suggest that reducing the size of the initial droplets during aerosolization is necessary to bring small particles into the scope of detailed structural studies with X-ray lasers.

  19. A laser driven pulsed X-ray backscatter technique for enhanced penetrative imaging.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Deas, R M; Wilson, L A; Rusby, D; Alejo, A; Allott, R; Black, P P; Black, S E; Borghesi, M; Brenner, C M; Bryant, J; Clarke, R J; Collier, J C; Edwards, B; Foster, P; Greenhalgh, J; Hernandez-Gomez, C; Kar, S; Lockley, D; Moss, R M; Najmudin, Z; Pattathil, R; Symes, D; Whittle, M D; Wood, J C; McKenna, P; Neely, D

    2015-01-01

    X-ray backscatter imaging can be used for a wide range of imaging applications, in particular for industrial inspection and portal security. Currently, the application of this imaging technique to the detection of landmines is limited due to the surrounding sand or soil strongly attenuating the 10s to 100s of keV X-rays required for backscatter imaging. Here, we introduce a new approach involving a 140 MeV short-pulse (< 100 fs) electron beam generated by laser wakefield acceleration to probe the sample, which produces Bremsstrahlung X-rays within the sample enabling greater depths to be imaged. A variety of detector and scintillator configurations are examined, with the best time response seen from an absorptive coated BaF2 scintillator with a bandpass filter to remove the slow scintillation emission components. An X-ray backscatter image of an array of different density and atomic number items is demonstrated. The use of a compact laser wakefield accelerator to generate the electron source, combined with the rapid development of more compact, efficient and higher repetition rate high power laser systems will make this system feasible for applications in the field. Content includes material subject to Dstl (c) Crown copyright (2014). Licensed under the terms of the Open Government Licence except where otherwise stated. To view this licence, visit http://www.nationalarchives.gov.uk/doc/open-government-licence/version/3 or write to the Information Policy Team, The National Archives, Kew, London TW9 4DU, or email: psi@ nationalarchives.gsi.gov.uk.

  20. Reduction of the scattered radiation during X-ray examination with screen-film systems

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Vasiliev, V N; Stavitsky, R V [Moscow Research Inst. for Roentgenology and Radiology, Moscow (Russian Federation); Oshomkov, Yu V [Mosroentgen, Moscow Region (Russian Federation)

    1993-01-01

    In diagnostic radiography, during X-ray examination, photons scattered in the patient's body are detected by the intensifying screen and decrease the image contrast. A conventional way to avoid this image degradation is to attenuate the scattered radiation by an antiscatter grid placed between the patient's body and the screen. A grid selectivity effect originates from the greater attenuation of scattered as opposed to primary radiation. Previous authors calculated the primary and scattered radiation transmission factor of photons with initial energy 30-120 keV for a number of typical grids. The primary radiation transmission factor varied from 0.34 to 0.67 and the secondary radiation factor was equal from 0.03 to 0.13. This effect results in a contrast improvement from 2 to 6, but the patient exposure increases up to a factor of 10. In this work we studied the possibility of improving the image contrast by attenuating the scattered radiation by a secondary filter placed between the patient's body and the screen and made of an appropriate material. A selectivity effect due to the secondary filter arises from two circumstances. First, tilting incidence of the scattered radiation results in the path inside the filter being greater than the primary one. Second, the average energy of the scattered radiation is less than the primary and, hence, the attenuation coefficient is greater. (author).

  1. Development of transient collisional excitation x-ray laser with ultra short-pulse laser

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Kado, Masataka; Kawachi, Tetsuya; Hasegawa, Noboru; Tanaka, Momoko; Sukegawa, Kouta; Nagashima, Keisuke; Kato, Yoshiaki

    2001-01-01

    We have observed lasing on Ne-like 3s-3p line from titanium (32.4 nm), Ni-like 4p-4d line from silver (13.9 nm) and tin (11.9 nm) with the transient collisional excitation (TCE) scheme that uses combination of a long pre-pulse (∼ns) and a short main pulse (∼ps). A gain coefficient of 23 cm -1 was measured for plasma length up to 4 mm with silver slab targets. We have also observed lasing on Ne-like and Ni-like lines with new TCE scheme that used pico-seconds laser pulse to generate plasma and observed strong improvement of x-ray laser gain coefficient. A gain coefficient of 14 cm -1 was measured for plasma length up to 6 mm with tin targets. (author)

  2. Superluminescence of cadmium sulfide crystals under pulse X-ray radiation

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Pavlovskaya, N.G.; Tarasov, M.D.; Balakin, V.A.; Varava, V.P.; Lobov, S.I.; Surskij, O.K.; Tsukerman, V.A.

    1977-01-01

    Studies were made to elucidate luminescence properties of CdS crystal radiated by short pulses of braking x-ray radiation. Such a radiation causes the appearance of superluminescence. The radiation was carried out at 295 and 170 K, the radiation dose being changed from 3600 to 1600 r/pulse. At the temperature of 295 K light luminescence was registered at the wave length of 528 nm and half-width of 15 nm. While the temperature lowers, the radiation shifts to the range of shorter wave lengths, and a decrease of the spectrum half-width is observed. With the increase of radiation dose the decrease of radiation spectrum half-width is observed. Approximate calculations show that to achieve the spectrum narrowing to 1 nm at room temperature it is necessary to increase radiation dose per pulse 5-6 times

  3. Hidden explosives detector employing pulsed neutron and x-ray interrogation

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Schultz, F.J.; Caldwell, J.T.

    1993-01-01

    Methods and systems for the detection of small amounts of modern, highly-explosive nitrogen-based explosives, such as plastic explosives, hidden in airline baggage. Several techniques are employed either individually or combined in a hybrid system. One technique employed in combination is X-ray imaging. Another technique is interrogation with a pulsed neutron source in a two-phase mode of operation to image both nitrogen and oxygen densities. Another technique employed in combination is neutron interrogation to form a hydrogen density image or three-dimensional map. In addition, deliberately-placed neutron-absorbing materials can be detected

  4. Hidden explosives detector employing pulsed neutron and x-ray interrogation

    Science.gov (United States)

    Schultz, Frederick J.; Caldwell, John T.

    1993-01-01

    Methods and systems for the detection of small amounts of modern, highly-explosive nitrogen-based explosives, such as plastic explosives, hidden in airline baggage. Several techniques are employed either individually or combined in a hybrid system. One technique employed in combination is X-ray imaging. Another technique is interrogation with a pulsed neutron source in a two-phase mode of operation to image both nitrogen and oxygen densities. Another technique employed in combination is neutron interrogation to form a hydrogen density image or three-dimensional map. In addition, deliberately-placed neutron-absorbing materials can be detected.

  5. Two-temperature equilibration in warm dense hydrogen measured with x-ray scattering from the LCLS

    Science.gov (United States)

    Fletcher, Luke; High Energy Density Sciences Collaboration

    2017-10-01

    Understanding the properties of warm dense hydrogen plasmas is critical for modeling stellar and planetary interiors, as well as for inertial confinement fusion (ICF) experiments. Of central importance are the electron-ion collision and equilibration times that determine the microscopic properties in a high energy density state. Spectrally and angularly resolved x-ray scattering measurements from fs-laser heated hydrogen have resolved the picosecond evolution and energy relaxation from a two-temperature plasma towards thermodynamic equilibrium in the warm dense matter regime. The interaction of rapidly heated cryogenic hydrogen irradiated by a 400 nm, 5x1017 W/cm2 , 70 fs-laser is visualized with ultra-bright 5.5 kev x-ray pulses from the Linac Coherent Light (LCLS) source in 1 Hz repetition rate pump-probe setting. We demonstrate that the energy relaxation is faster than many classical binary collision theories that use ad hoc cutoff parameters used in the Landau-Spitzer determination of the Coulomb logarithm. This work was supported by the DOE Office of Science, Fusion Energy Science under contract No. SF00515 and supported under FWP 100182 and DOE Office of Basic Energy Sciences, Materials Sciences and Engineering Division, contract DE-AC02-76SF00515.

  6. Pulsed x-ray imaging of high-density objects using a ten picosecond high-intensity laser driver

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rusby, D. R.; Brenner, C. M.; Armstrong, C.; Wilson, L. A.; Clarke, R.; Alejo, A.; Ahmed, H.; Butler, N. M. H.; Haddock, D.; Higginson, A.; McClymont, A.; Mirfayzi, S. R.; Murphy, C.; Notley, M.; Oliver, P.; Allott, R.; Hernandez-Gomez, C.; Kar, S.; McKenna, P.; Neely, D.

    2016-10-01

    Point-like sources of X-rays that are pulsed (sub nanosecond), high energy (up to several MeV) and bright are very promising for industrial and security applications where imaging through large and dense objects is required. Highly penetrating X-rays can be produced by electrons that have been accelerated by a high intensity laser pulse incident onto a thin solid target. We have used a pulse length of 10ps to accelerate electrons to create a bright x-ray source. The bremsstrahlung temperature was measured for a laser intensity from 8.5-12×1018 W/cm2. These x-rays have sequentially been used to image high density materials using image plate and a pixelated scintillator system.

  7. Experimental and theoretical studies of the physical processes occurring in thin plane targets irradiated by intense X-ray pulses

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Bugrov, A. E.; Burdonskii, I. N.; Gavrilov, V. V.; Gol'tsov, A. Yu.; Grabovskii, E. V.; Efremov, V. P.; Zhuzhukalo, E. V.; Zurin, M. V.; Koval'skii, N. G.; Kondrashov, V. N.; Oleinik, G. M.; Potapenko, A. I.; Samokhin, A. A.; Smirnov, V. P.; Fortov, V. E.; Frolov, I. N.

    2007-01-01

    Results are presented from experimental and theoretical studies of the interaction of intense X-ray pulses with different types of plane targets, including low-density (∼10 mg/cm 3 ) ones, in the Angara-5-1 facility. It is found experimentally that a dense low-temperature plasma forms on the target surface before the arrival of the main heating X-ray pulse. It is demonstrated that the contrast of the X-ray pulse can be increased by placing a thin organic film between the target and the discharge gap. The expansion velocity of the plasma created on the target surface irradiated by Z-pinch-produced X rays was found to be (3-4) x 10 6 cm/s. A comparison between the simulation and experimental results confirms the validity of the physical-mathematical model used

  8. X-RAYING THE DARK SIDE OF VENUS—SCATTER FROM VENUS’ MAGNETOTAIL?

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Afshari, M.; Peres, G.; Petralia, A.; Reale, F.; Jibben, P. R.; Weber, M.

    2016-01-01

    We analyze significant X-ray, EUV, and UV emission coming from the dark side of Venus observed with Hinode /XRT and Solar Dynamics Observatory /Atmospheric Imaging Assembly ( SDO /AIA) during a transit across the solar disk that occurred in 2012. As a check we have analyzed an analogous Mercury transit that occurred in 2006. We have used the latest version of the Hinode /XRT point spread function to deconvolve Venus and Mercury X-ray images, to remove instrumental scattering. After deconvolution, the flux from Venus’ shadow remains significant while that of Mercury becomes negligible. Since stray light contamination affects the XRT Ti-poly filter data we use, we performed the same analysis with XRT Al-mesh filter data, not affected by the light leak. Even the latter data show residual flux. We have also found significant EUV (304 Å, 193 Å, 335 Å) and UV (1700 Å) flux in Venus’ shadow, measured with SDO /AIA. The EUV emission from Venus’ dark side is reduced, but still significant, when deconvolution is applied. The light curves of the average flux of the shadow in the X-ray, EUV, and UV bands appear different as Venus crosses the solar disk, but in any of them the flux is, at any time, approximately proportional to the average flux in a ring surrounding Venus, and therefore proportional to that of the solar regions around Venus’ obscuring disk line of sight. The proportionality factor depends on the band. This phenomenon has no clear origin; we suggest that it may be due to scatter occurring in the very long magnetotail of Venus.

  9.  X-RAYING THE DARK SIDE OF VENUS—SCATTER FROM VENUS’ MAGNETOTAIL?

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Afshari, M.; Peres, G.; Petralia, A.; Reale, F. [Dipartimento di Fisica e Chimica, Università di Palermo, Piazza del Parlamento 1, I-90134 (Italy); Jibben, P. R.; Weber, M., E-mail: peres@astropa.unipa.it [Harvard-Smithsonian Center for Astrophysics, 60 Garden Street, Cambridge, MA 02138 (United States)

    2016-10-01

    We analyze significant X-ray, EUV, and UV emission coming from the dark side of Venus observed with Hinode /XRT and Solar Dynamics Observatory /Atmospheric Imaging Assembly ( SDO /AIA) during a transit across the solar disk that occurred in 2012. As a check we have analyzed an analogous Mercury transit that occurred in 2006. We have used the latest version of the Hinode /XRT point spread function to deconvolve Venus and Mercury X-ray images, to remove instrumental scattering. After deconvolution, the flux from Venus’ shadow remains significant while that of Mercury becomes negligible. Since stray light contamination affects the XRT Ti-poly filter data we use, we performed the same analysis with XRT Al-mesh filter data, not affected by the light leak. Even the latter data show residual flux. We have also found significant EUV (304 Å, 193 Å, 335 Å) and UV (1700 Å) flux in Venus’ shadow, measured with SDO /AIA. The EUV emission from Venus’ dark side is reduced, but still significant, when deconvolution is applied. The light curves of the average flux of the shadow in the X-ray, EUV, and UV bands appear different as Venus crosses the solar disk, but in any of them the flux is, at any time, approximately proportional to the average flux in a ring surrounding Venus, and therefore proportional to that of the solar regions around Venus’ obscuring disk line of sight. The proportionality factor depends on the band. This phenomenon has no clear origin; we suggest that it may be due to scatter occurring in the very long magnetotail of Venus.

  10. Measurement of x-ray scattering cross sections of hydrogen and helium with synchrotron radiation

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Ice, G.E.

    1977-01-01

    Total x-ray scattering is a two-electron expectation value. The prominence of the electron correlation effect was demonstrated in recent theoretical work. Only one measurement of x-ray scattering from H 2 has been reported heretofore, nearly fifty years ago. New measurements were carried out using the virtually monochromatic, intense flux of synchrotron radiation in the SSRP EXAFS line. The targets, at 1 atm pressure, were UHP He and ultrapure H 2 that had been passed through a hot Pd--Ag alloy diffusion purifier. The scattered-photon spectra were measured with a Xe-filled proportional counter and fast multichannel analyzer. The incident flux was monitored with a parallel-plate ion chamber, calibrated by direct counting of the absorber-attenuated beam. Measurements were performed at 5, 6, and 7 keV photon energy, as a function of scattering angle (60, 90, and 135 deg) and azimuthal angle (i.e., polarization). The relative total differential photon scattering cross sections for H 2 over the range 3.0 less than or equal to x = 4πsin (theta/2)lambda less than or equal to 5.6 A -1 agree to within approx. 1% with the correlated calculations of Bentley and Stewart. The ratios of measured cross sections for H 2 to those for He at x = 3.0 and 5.6 A -1 agree to within 1% with the ratios of the Bentley--Stewart H 2 cross sections to the correlated wave-function calculations of Brown for He

  11. Bond Shortening (1.4 Å) in the Singlet and Triplet Excited States of [Ir2(dimen)4]2+ in Solution Determined by Time-Resolved X-ray Scattering

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Haldrup, Martin Kristoffer; Harlang, Tobias; Christensen, Morten

    2011-01-01

    Ground- and excited-state structures of the bimetallic, ligand-bridged compound Ir2(dimen)42+ are investigated in acetonitrile by means of time-resolved X-ray scattering. Following excitation by 2 ps laser pulses at 390 nm, analysis of difference scattering patterns obtained at eight different ti...

  12. Atomic dynamics in fluids studied by inelastic x-ray scattering

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Inui, Masanori; Kajihara, Yukio; Matsuda, Kazuhiro; Ishikawa, Daisuke; Tsutsui, Satoshi; Baron, Alfred Q.

    2010-01-01

    Studies on atomic dynamics in supercritical fluids at high temperature and high pressure have remarkably been advanced by using an inelastic x-ray scattering technique that achieved a meV-energy resolution in the middle of 1990's. In this article, we describe a brief review of the theoretical background on liquid dynamics, our own high-temperature high-pressure technique and recent results of atomic dynamics in supercritical fluids. In particular, we report the results of inelastic x-ray scattering measurements for expanding fluid Hg at high temperature and high pressure, which were conduced at BL35XU/SPring-8. We found that in the metal-nonmetal transition in fluid Hg, the excitation energy of the acoustic mode disperses three times faster than the adiabatic sound velocity obtained by ultrasonic measurements. This phenomenon must be crucial to understand how a metallic state is formed during atomic condensation accurately. Finally we put a future development of this field in perspective. (author)

  13. Particle-scale structure in frozen colloidal suspensions from small-angle x-ray scattering

    KAUST Repository

    Spannuth, Melissa; Mochrie, S. G. J.; Peppin, S. S. L.; Wettlaufer, J. S.

    2011-01-01

    During directional solidification of the solvent in a colloidal suspension, the colloidal particles segregate from the growing solid, forming high-particle-density regions with structure on a hierarchy of length scales ranging from that of the particle-scale packing to the large-scale spacing between these regions. Previous work has concentrated mostly on the medium- to large-length scale structure, as it is the most accessible and thought to be more technologically relevant. However, the packing of the colloids at the particle scale is an important component not only in theoretical descriptions of the segregation process, but also to the utility of freeze-cast materials for new applications. Here we present the results of experiments in which we investigated this structure across a wide range of length scales using a combination of small-angle x-ray scattering and direct optical imaging. As expected, during freezing the particles were concentrated into regions between ice dendrites forming a microscopic pattern of high- and low-particle-density regions. X-ray scattering indicates that the particles in the high-density regions were so closely packed as to be touching. However, the arrangement of the particles does not conform to that predicted by standard interparticle pair potentials, suggesting that the particle packing induced by freezing differs from that formed during equilibrium densification processes. © 2011 American Physical Society.

  14. Dichroism and resonant diffraction in x-ray scattering by complex materials

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Collins, S P; Lovesey, S W; Balcar, E

    2007-01-01

    We survey universal concepts that influence dichroism and resonant Bragg diffraction, aiming to reach across the range of scientific disciplines that benefit from x-ray techniques, namely, chemistry, physics, life-sciences, and the science of materials. To this end, we adopt a top down discussion of the aspects of symmetry and concomitant selection rules. Starting from selection rules that can be deduced from the global condition that an observable quantity is unchanged on reversing the directions of both space and time separately, to selection rules that flow from bulk symmetry properties of electrons imposed by elements of a point group or crystal class to, finally, atomic selection rules that emerge from the details of the electronic structure. As a motivation for the latter we discuss, with a new calculation of the x-ray scattering length, E 1-M 1 absorption and scattering events that particularly interest scientists studying the chirality of life. In the main text there is modest use of mathematics, with appropriate details relegated to a few appendices. (topical review)

  15. Particle-scale structure in frozen colloidal suspensions from small-angle x-ray scattering

    KAUST Repository

    Spannuth, Melissa

    2011-02-01

    During directional solidification of the solvent in a colloidal suspension, the colloidal particles segregate from the growing solid, forming high-particle-density regions with structure on a hierarchy of length scales ranging from that of the particle-scale packing to the large-scale spacing between these regions. Previous work has concentrated mostly on the medium- to large-length scale structure, as it is the most accessible and thought to be more technologically relevant. However, the packing of the colloids at the particle scale is an important component not only in theoretical descriptions of the segregation process, but also to the utility of freeze-cast materials for new applications. Here we present the results of experiments in which we investigated this structure across a wide range of length scales using a combination of small-angle x-ray scattering and direct optical imaging. As expected, during freezing the particles were concentrated into regions between ice dendrites forming a microscopic pattern of high- and low-particle-density regions. X-ray scattering indicates that the particles in the high-density regions were so closely packed as to be touching. However, the arrangement of the particles does not conform to that predicted by standard interparticle pair potentials, suggesting that the particle packing induced by freezing differs from that formed during equilibrium densification processes. © 2011 American Physical Society.

  16. Resonant x-ray scattering study of the antiferroelectric and ferrielectric phases in liquid crystal devices

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Matkin, L. S.; Watson, S. J.; Gleeson, H. F.; Pindak, R.; Pitney, J.; Johnson, P. M.; Huang, C. C.; Barois, P.; Levelut, A.-M.; Srajer, G.

    2001-01-01

    Resonant x-ray scattering has been used to investigate the interlayer ordering of the antiferroelectric and ferrielectric smectic C * subphases in a device geometry. The liquid crystalline materials studied contain a selenium atom and the experiments were carried out at the selenium K edge allowing x-ray transmission through glass. The resonant scattering peaks associated with the antiferroelectric phase were observed in two devices containing different materials. It was observed that the electric-field-induced antiferroelectric to ferroelectric transition coincides with the chevron to bookshelf transition in one of the devices. Observation of the splitting of the antiferroelectric resonant peaks as a function of applied field also confirmed that no helical unwinding occurs at fields lower than the chevron to bookshelf threshold. Resonant features associated with the four-layer ferrielectric liquid crystal phase were observed in a device geometry. Monitoring the electric field dependence of these ferrielectric resonant peaks showed that the chevron to bookshelf transition occurs at a lower applied field than the ferrielectric to ferroelectric switching transition

  17. Evaluation of the spectral distribution of X-ray beams from measurements on the scattered radiation

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Casnati, E.; Baraldi, C.

    1980-01-01

    Most of the phenomena activated by photons with energies below 100 keV show an apparent or real dependence on the quantum energy. Therefore, knowledge of the beam energy characteristics is of primary importance for interpretation of the irradiation results. The greatest difficulty arises from the high flux density of the beams usually employed which does not allow direct measurements of the beam. A method was developed which permits evaluation of the spectral distribution of the X-ray beam from a spectrometric measurement of the radiation scattered by a thin foil of a suitable metal. This makes possible a new and more rational approach to the measurement of X-rays in the energy range where the interaction parameters show a large photon energy dependence. The corrections required by the presence of some collateral effects, among which the most important is the coexistence of the coherent and incoherent scattering, must be evaluated. The knowledge of the spectral distribution is of immediate usefulness for studies of radiation damage in biological and other materials, for the calibration of radiation measuring instruments and for the improvement of the radiological instrumentation response which contributes to reducing the patient's dose. (H.K.)

  18. Effects of electron scattering on the oscillations of an X-ray source

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Kylafis, N.D.; Klimis, G.S.

    1987-01-01

    The time variability observed at infinity due to a variable point source at the center of a spherical cloud of radius R and optical depth to electron scattering tau is analytically determined. The emissin pattern of the source and its time variability are assumed to be of the following three forms: (1) isotropic emission with intensity varying sinusoidally in time with angular frequency Omega(L), (2) emission in the form of a delta-function beam rotating with angular frequency Omega(R) about a fixed axis and with intensity constant in time, and (3) emission in the form of a delta-function beam rotating with angular frequency Omega(R) about a fixed axis and with intensity varying sinusoidally in time with angular frequency Omega(L). More complicated source emissions and variabilities are studied by superposing the above forms. The results of our calculations reveal the conditions under which quasi-periodic oscillations can be observed from X-ray sources, while periodic oscillations are completely smeared out. Furthermore, these results can be used to study the X-ray oscillations of such sources as Her X-1, Cyg X-3, and the Vela pulsar, which are believed to be embedded in scattering clouds. 35 references

  19. Quantitative spectromicroscopy from inelastically scattered photoelectrons in the hard X-ray range

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Renault, O., E-mail: olivier.renault@cea.fr; Zborowski, C.; Risterucci, P. [Univ. Grenoble Alpes, F-38000 Grenoble, France and CEA, LETI, MINATEC Campus, F-38054 Grenoble (France); Wiemann, C.; Schneider, C. M. [Peter Grünberg Institute (PGI-6) and JARA-FIT, Research Center Jülich, D-52425 Jülich (Germany); Grenet, G. [Institut des Nanotechnologies de Lyon, Ecole Centrale, 69134 Ecully Cedex (France); Tougaard, S. [Department of Physics, Chemistry and Pharmacy, University of Southern Denmark, DK-5230 Odense M (Denmark)

    2016-07-04

    We demonstrate quantitative, highly bulk-sensitive x-ray photoelectron emission microscopy by analysis of inelastically scattered photoelectrons in the hard X-ray range, enabling elemental depth distribution analysis in deeply buried layers. We show results on patterned structures used in electrical testing of high electron mobility power transistor devices with an epitaxial Al{sub 0.25}Ga{sub 0.75}N channel and a Ti/Al metal contact. From the image series taken over an energy range of up to 120 eV in the Ti 1s loss feature region and over a typical 100 μm field of view, one can accurately retrieve, using background analysis together with an optimized scattering cross-section, the Ti depth distribution from 14 nm up to 25 nm below the surface. The method paves the way to multi-elemental, bulk-sensitive 3D imaging and investigation of phenomena at deeply buried interfaces and microscopic scales by photoemission.

  20. Quantitative characterization of fatty liver disease using x-ray scattering

    Science.gov (United States)

    Elsharkawy, Wafaa B.; Elshemey, Wael M.

    2013-11-01

    Nonalcoholic fatty liver disease (NAFLD) is a dynamic condition in which fat abnormally accumulates within the hepatocytes. It is believed to be a marker of risk of later chronic liver diseases, such as liver cirrhosis and carcinoma. The fat content in liver biopsies determines its validity for liver transplantation. Transplantation of livers with severe NAFLD is associated with a high risk of primary non-function. Moreover, NAFLD is recognized as a clinically important feature that influences patient morbidity and mortality after hepatic resection. Unfortunately, there is a lack in a precise, reliable and reproducible method for quantification of NAFLD. This work suggests a method for the quantification of NAFLD. The method is based on the fact that fatty liver tissue would have a characteristic x-ray scattering profile with a relatively intense fat peak at a momentum transfer value of 1.1 nm-1 compared to a soft tissue peak at 1.6 nm-1. The fat content in normal and fatty liver is plotted against three profile characterization parameters (ratio of peak intensities, ratio of area under peaks and ratio of area under fat peak to total profile area) for measured and Monte Carlo simulated x-ray scattering profiles. Results show a high linear dependence (R2>0.9) of the characterization parameters on the liver fat content with a reported high correlation coefficient (>0.9) between measured and simulated data. These results indicate that the current method probably offers reliable quantification of fatty liver disease.

  1. The current status of small-angle x-ray scattering beamline at Diamond Light Source

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Inoue, Katsuaki; Doutch, James; Terrill, Nick

    2013-01-01

    The small-angle X-ray scattering (SAXS) covers the major disciplines of biology, chemistry and physics delivering structural and dynamic information in nanoscience, mesoscopic architectures, supramolecular structures, and nucleation/growth of crystals. SAXS is also proving to be important in archaeological, environmental, and conservation sciences, and has further indicated its ability to span wide-ranging scientific disciplines. Thus, strong needs for SAXS studies are increasing significantly in a broad range of scientific fields year by year. Based on such a background, the demand for high throughput SAXS experiments is increasing. At the synchrotron facility, Diamond Light Source, one SAXS beamline, Non-crystalline diffraction I22 is now operational and highly automated throughput small-angle X-ray scattering (HATSAXS) beamline B21 is now under construction. I22 is the Undulator beamline and wide varieties of experiments, including time-resolved experiments are attempted. Based on the concept of HATSAXS, the key feature of B21 will focuses on the automation of end-station equipment. A automated sample changer has been purchased for solution SAXS measurements on biomolecules. A robotic-arm-type automated sample changer that is capable of handling several kinds of samples in material science is also being constructed. B21 is expected to successfully provide all users highly automated throughput measurements with the highest possible reliability and accuracy. Construction of this beamline will end in the second half of 2012, and will be open for users in the early summer of 2013 after commissioning. (author)

  2. X-ray small-angle scattering of polytetrahydrofuran solution, 3

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Izumi, Yoshinobu; Fuji, Masayuki; Shinbo, Kazuyuki; Miyake, Yasuhiro

    1975-01-01

    In a previous report, the conformation of polytetrahydrofuran (PTHF) in isopropyl alcohol as a theta solvent and in n-butyl alcohol as an intermediate solvent was examined by the small angle scattering of X-ray. As the result, the experimental scattering curve at theta temperature was explained well with the calculated curve obtained by superposing, while it was impossible to apply the similar method to the analysis of the scattering curve in the intermediate solvent. Recently, as the results of the calculation by Koyama on the angular distribution of light intensity scattered by stiff chain polymers and of the studies by Edwards and de Gennes on the asymptotic behavior of scattering curves in good solvents, the direct comparison of experimental and calculated scattering curves became possible. In this report, the comparison of the scattering curves of PTHF-alcohol systems is described. The systems employed were PTHF-n-propyl alcohol, PTHF-isobutyl alcohol, PTHF-sec-butyl alcohol, and PTHF-tert-butyl alcohol in addition to the previous two systems. The Guinier plots of the cross section factors of the PTHF-alcohol systems showed that the Guinier approximation on cross sections was not satisfied in cases of PTHF-isobutyl alcohol and PTHF-sec-butyl alcohol. The light scattering data at 44.6 0 C, the theta temperature of PTHF-isopropyl alcohol, are given. From the figures comparing experimental and calculated scattering curves, it was shown that there was appreciable solvent effect on the scattering curves of PTHF-alcohol systems. The relation predicted by Edwards and de Gennes was satisfied well in case of the systems in good solvents. (Kako, I.)

  3. Application of ultra-small-angle X-ray scattering / X-ray photon correlation spectroscopy to relate equilibrium or non-equilibrium dynamics to microstructure

    Science.gov (United States)

    Allen, Andrew; Zhang, Fan; Levine, Lyle; Ilavsky, Jan

    2013-03-01

    Ultra-small-angle X-ray scattering (USAXS) can probe microstructures over the nanometer-to-micrometer scale range. Through use of a small instrument entrance slit, X-ray photon correlation spectroscopy (XPCS) exploits the partial coherence of an X-ray synchrotron undulator beam to provide unprecedented sensitivity to the dynamics of microstructural change. In USAXS/XPCS studies, the dynamics of local structures in a scale range of 100 nm to 1000 nm can be related to an overall hierarchical microstructure extending from 1 nm to more than 1000 nm. Using a point-detection scintillator mode, the equilibrium dynamics at ambient temperature of small particles (which move more slowly than nanoparticles) in aqueous suspension have been quantified directly for the first time. Using a USAXS-XPCS scanning mode for non-equilibrium dynamics incipient processes within dental composites have been elucidated, prior to effects becoming detectable using any other technique. Use of the Advanced Photon Source, an Office of Science User Facility operated for the United States Department of Energy (U.S. DOE) Office of Science by Argonne National Laboratory, was supported by the U.S. DOE under Contract No. DE-AC02-06CH11357.

  4. Direct Observation of Insulin Association Dynamics with Time-Resolved X-ray Scattering

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Rimmerman, Dolev [Department; Leshchev, Denis [Department; Hsu, Darren J. [Department; Hong, Jiyun [Department; Kosheleva, Irina [Center; Chen, Lin X. [Department; Chemical

    2017-09-05

    Biological functions frequently require protein-protein interactions that involve secondary and tertiary structural perturbation. Here we study protein-protein dissociation and reassociation dynamics in insulin, a model system for protein oligomerization. Insulin dimer dissociation into monomers was induced by a nanosecond temperature-jump (T-jump) of ~8 °C in aqueous solution, and the resulting protein and solvent dynamics were tracked by time-resolved X-ray solution scattering (TRXSS) on time scales of 10 ns to 100 ms. The protein scattering signals revealed the formation of five distinguishable transient species during the association process that deviate from simple two state kinetics. Our results show that the combination of T-jump pump coupled to TRXSS probe allows for direct tracking of structural dynamics in nonphotoactive proteins.

  5. The modular small-angle X-ray scattering data correction sequence.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pauw, B R; Smith, A J; Snow, T; Terrill, N J; Thünemann, A F

    2017-12-01

    Data correction is probably the least favourite activity amongst users experimenting with small-angle X-ray scattering: if it is not done sufficiently well, this may become evident only during the data analysis stage, necessitating the repetition of the data corrections from scratch. A recommended comprehensive sequence of elementary data correction steps is presented here to alleviate the difficulties associated with data correction, both in the laboratory and at the synchrotron. When applied in the proposed order to the raw signals, the resulting absolute scattering cross section will provide a high degree of accuracy for a very wide range of samples, with its values accompanied by uncertainty estimates. The method can be applied without modification to any pinhole-collimated instruments with photon-counting direct-detection area detectors.

  6. Anomalous X-ray scattering studies on semiconducting and metallic glasses

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Hosokawa, S.; Pilgrim, W.C.; Berar, J.F.; Kohara, S.

    2012-01-01

    In order to explore local- and intermediate-range atomic structures of several semiconducting and metallic glasses, anomalous X-ray scattering (AXS) experiments were performed using an improved detecting system suitable for third-generation synchrotron radiation facilities, and the obtained data were analyzed using reverse Monte Carlo (RMC) modelling to obtain partial structure factors and to construct three-dimensional atomic configurations of these glasses. Examples of GeSe 2 semiconducting and Pd 40 Ni 40 P 20 metallic glasses are demonstrated to exhibit the feasibility of the combination of AXS and RMC techniques. Importance of an additional combination with neutron scattering is also described for alloys containing light elements. (authors)

  7. Small angle x-ray scattering as a potential tool for cancer diagnosis

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Kitchen, M.; Siu, K.K.W.; Lewis, R.A.

    2003-01-01

    Full text: The diagnostic potential of Small Angle X-ray Scattering (SAXS) patterns has recently been investigated for malignant breast tissues. The demonstrated systematic differences in the scattering signatures of malignant, benign and normal breast tissue specimens are believed to arise from the changes in the fibrous proteins making up the extracellular matrix (ECM) with the disease progression. The technique may also have the potential to aid in the diagnosis of gliomas, a highly aggressive type of brain tumour. Although complex and difficult to interpret, SAXS data from malignant tissues may prove to be a more effective classification tool than conventional histology techniques. Here we present the methodology of the technique, as applied to breast cancer and brain tumour specimens to date, and some directions for future investigations. We also present a novel analysis method, which employs wavelet decomposition and a naive Bayesian classifier, as a potential semi-automated classification tool

  8. Scatter correction method for x-ray CT using primary modulation: Phantom studies

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Gao Hewei; Fahrig, Rebecca; Bennett, N. Robert; Sun Mingshan; Star-Lack, Josh; Zhu Lei

    2010-01-01

    Purpose: Scatter correction is a major challenge in x-ray imaging using large area detectors. Recently, the authors proposed a promising scatter correction method for x-ray computed tomography (CT) using primary modulation. Proof of concept was previously illustrated by Monte Carlo simulations and physical experiments on a small phantom with a simple geometry. In this work, the authors provide a quantitative evaluation of the primary modulation technique and demonstrate its performance in applications where scatter correction is more challenging. Methods: The authors first analyze the potential errors of the estimated scatter in the primary modulation method. On two tabletop CT systems, the method is investigated using three phantoms: A Catphan(c)600 phantom, an anthropomorphic chest phantom, and the Catphan(c)600 phantom with two annuli. Two different primary modulators are also designed to show the impact of the modulator parameters on the scatter correction efficiency. The first is an aluminum modulator with a weak modulation and a low modulation frequency, and the second is a copper modulator with a strong modulation and a high modulation frequency. Results: On the Catphan(c)600 phantom in the first study, the method reduces the error of the CT number in the selected regions of interest (ROIs) from 371.4 to 21.9 Hounsfield units (HU); the contrast to noise ratio also increases from 10.9 to 19.2. On the anthropomorphic chest phantom in the second study, which represents a more difficult case due to the high scatter signals and object heterogeneity, the method reduces the error of the CT number from 327 to 19 HU in the selected ROIs and from 31.4% to 5.7% on the overall average. The third study is to investigate the impact of object size on the efficiency of our method. The scatter-to-primary ratio estimation error on the Catphan(c)600 phantom without any annulus (20 cm in diameter) is at the level of 0.04, it rises to 0.07 and 0.1 on the phantom with an

  9. Development of a methodology for low-energy X-ray absorption correction in biological samples using radiation scattering techniques

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Pereira, Marcelo O.; Anjos, Marcelino J.; Lopes, Ricardo T.

    2009-01-01

    Non-destructive techniques with X-ray, such as tomography, radiography and X-ray fluorescence are sensitive to the attenuation coefficient and have a large field of applications in medical as well as industrial area. In the case of X-ray fluorescence analysis the knowledge of photon X-ray attenuation coefficients provides important information to obtain the elemental concentration. On the other hand, the mass attenuation coefficient values are determined by transmission methods. So, the use of X-ray scattering can be considered as an alternative to transmission methods. This work proposes a new method for obtain the X-ray absorption curve through superposition peak Rayleigh and Compton scattering of the lines L a e L β of Tungsten (Tungsten L lines of an X-ray tube with W anode). The absorption curve was obtained using standard samples with effective atomic number in the range from 6 to 16. The method were applied in certified samples of bovine liver (NIST 1577B) , milk powder and V-10. The experimental measurements were obtained using the portable system EDXRF of the Nuclear Instrumentation Laboratory (LIN-COPPE/UFRJ) with Tungsten (W) anode. (author)

  10. Interaction of femtosecond X-ray pulses with periodical multilayer structures

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Ksenzov, Dmitry

    2010-01-01

    The VUV Free Electron Laser FLASH operates in soft X-ray range and produces high-intensive pulse trains with few tens femtoseconds duration. The transversely fully coherent beam will open new experiments in solid state physics which can not be studied with present radiation sources. The study of the time dependent response of the multilayer to the X-ray pulse can provide insights into the process of interaction of highly intense FEL radiation with matter. To test the influence of electron excitation on the optical properties of boron carbide, the refractive index of B 4 C was measured near B K-edge by energy-resolved photon-in-photon-out method probing a Bragg reflection from periodical multilayers. The measured data clearly show that the variation of the fine structure of the Kabsorption edges due to the chemical nature of the absorber element. The knowledge obtained from experiments with continuous radiation was used to design the respective experiments with pulse from the FEL. In my thesis, it is proposed that the geometrical setup, where the incident pulse arrives from the FEL under the angle close to the 1st order ML Bragg peak, provides the most valuable information. Preliminary simulation considering form factors of neutral and ionized boron showed that due to ionization, pronounced changes in the reflectivity curve are expected. The proposed scheme can be the powerful tool to study the various processes within the electronic subsystem of the FEL pulse interaction with matter. This type of investigations gives a deep understanding of the nature of the electronic excitation and the recombination at the femtosecond scale. (orig.)

  11. Interaction of femtosecond X-ray pulses with periodical multilayer structures

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Ksenzov, Dmitry

    2010-07-01

    The VUV Free Electron Laser FLASH operates in soft X-ray range and produces high-intensive pulse trains with few tens femtoseconds duration. The transversely fully coherent beam will open new experiments in solid state physics which can not be studied with present radiation sources. The study of the time dependent response of the multilayer to the X-ray pulse can provide insights into the process of interaction of highly intense FEL radiation with matter. To test the influence of electron excitation on the optical properties of boron carbide, the refractive index of B{sub 4}C was measured near B K-edge by energy-resolved photon-in-photon-out method probing a Bragg reflection from periodical multilayers. The measured data clearly show that the variation of the fine structure of the Kabsorption edges due to the chemical nature of the absorber element. The knowledge obtained from experiments with continuous radiation was used to design the respective experiments with pulse from the FEL. In my thesis, it is proposed that the geometrical setup, where the incident pulse arrives from the FEL under the angle close to the 1st order ML Bragg peak, provides the most valuable information. Preliminary simulation considering form factors of neutral and ionized boron showed that due to ionization, pronounced changes in the reflectivity curve are expected. The proposed scheme can be the powerful tool to study the various processes within the electronic subsystem of the FEL pulse interaction with matter. This type of investigations gives a deep understanding of the nature of the electronic excitation and the recombination at the femtosecond scale. (orig.)

  12. Generating femtosecond X-ray pulses using an emittance-spoiling foil in free-electron lasers

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Ding, Y., E-mail: ding@slac.stanford.edu; Coffee, R.; Decker, F.-J.; Emma, P.; Field, C.; Huang, Z.; Krejcik, P.; Krzywinski, J.; Loos, H.; Lutman, A.; Marinelli, A.; Maxwell, T. J.; Turner, J. [SLAC National Accelerator Laboratory, Menlo Park, California 94025 (United States); Behrens, C. [Deutsches Elektronen-Synchrotron DESY, Notkestr. 85, 22607 Hamburg (Germany); Helml, W. [Technische Universität München, James-Franck-Straße 1, 85748 Garching (Germany)

    2015-11-09

    Generation of femtosecond to sub-femtosecond pulses is attracting much attention in X-ray free-electron laser user community. One method is to use a slotted, emittance-spoiling foil which was proposed before (P. Emma et al., Phys. Rev. Lett. 92, 074801 (2004)) and has been widely used at the Linac Coherent Light Source. Direct experimental characterization of the slotted-foil performance was previously unfeasible due to a lack of appropriate diagnostics. With a recently installed X-band radio-frequency transverse deflector, we are able to characterize the electron bunch spoiling effect and X-ray pulse when using the slotted foil. We show that few-femtosecond X-ray pulses are generated with flexible control of the single-pulse duration or double-pulse separation with comparison to the theoretical model.

  13. Guest–Host Interactions Investigated by Time-Resolved X-ray Spectroscopies and Scattering at MHz Rates

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Haldrup, Martin Kristoffer; Vanko, G.; Gawelda, W.

    2012-01-01

    We have studied the photoinduced low spin (LS) to high spin (HS) conversion of [Fe(bipy)3]2+ in aqueous solution. In a laser pump/X-ray probe synchrotron setup permitting simultaneous, time-resolved X-ray diffuse scattering (XDS) and X-ray spectroscopic measurements at a 3.26 MHz repetition rate...... lifetime, allowing the detection of an ultrafast change in bulk solvent density. An analysis approach directly utilizing the spectroscopic data in the XDS analysis effectively reduces the number of free parameters, and both combined permit extraction of information about the ultrafast structural dynamics...

  14. NATO Advanced Study Institute on Chemical Crystallography with Pulsed Neutrons and Synchrotron X-Rays

    CERN Document Server

    Jeffrey, George

    1988-01-01

    X-ray and neutron crystallography have played an increasingly impor­ tant role in the chemical and biochemical sciences over the past fifty years. The principal obstacles in this methodology, the phase problem and com­ puting, have been overcome. The former by the methods developed in the 1960's and just recognised by the 1985 Chemistry Nobel Prize award to Karle and Hauptman, the latter by the dramatic advances that have taken place in computer technology in the past twenty years. Within the last decade, two new radiation sources have been added to the crystallographer's tools. One is synchrotron X-rays and the other is spallation neutrons. Both have much more powerful fluxes than the pre­ vious sources and they are pulsed rather than continuos. New techniques are necessary to fully exploit the intense continuos radiation spectrum and its pulsed property. Both radiations are only available from particular National Laboratories on a guest-user basis for scientists outside these Na­ tional Laboratories. Hi...

  15. Snow particles extracted from X-ray computed microtomography imagery and their single-scattering properties

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ishimoto, Hiroshi; Adachi, Satoru; Yamaguchi, Satoru; Tanikawa, Tomonori; Aoki, Teruo; Masuda, Kazuhiko

    2018-04-01

    Sizes and shapes of snow particles were determined from X-ray computed microtomography (micro-CT) images, and their single-scattering properties were calculated at visible and near-infrared wavelengths using a Geometrical Optics Method (GOM). We analyzed seven snow samples including fresh and aged artificial snow and natural snow obtained from field samples. Individual snow particles were numerically extracted, and the shape of each snow particle was defined by applying a rendering method. The size distribution and specific surface area distribution were estimated from the geometrical properties of the snow particles, and an effective particle radius was derived for each snow sample. The GOM calculations at wavelengths of 0.532 and 1.242 μm revealed that the realistic snow particles had similar scattering phase functions as those of previously modeled irregular shaped particles. Furthermore, distinct dendritic particles had a characteristic scattering phase function and asymmetry factor. The single-scattering properties of particles of effective radius reff were compared with the size-averaged single-scattering properties. We found that the particles of reff could be used as representative particles for calculating the average single-scattering properties of the snow. Furthermore, the single-scattering properties of the micro-CT particles were compared to those of particle shape models using our current snow retrieval algorithm. For the single-scattering phase function, the results of the micro-CT particles were consistent with those of a conceptual two-shape model. However, the particle size dependence differed for the single-scattering albedo and asymmetry factor.

  16. Silicon Σ13(5 0 1) grain boundary interface structure determined by bicrystal Bragg rod X-ray scattering

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Howes, P.B.; Rhead, S.; Roy, M.; Nicklin, C.L.; Rawle, J.L.; Norris, C.A.

    2013-01-01

    The atomic structure of the silicon Σ13(5 0 1) symmetric tilt grain boundary interface has been determined using Bragg rod X-ray scattering. In contrast to conventional structural studies of grain boundary structure using transmission electron microscopy, this approach allows the non-destructive measurement of macroscopic samples. The interface was found to have a single structure that is fully fourfold coordinated. X-ray diffraction data were measured at Beamline I07 at the Diamond Light Source

  17. The performance test of anti-scattering x-ray grid with inclined shielding material by MCNP code simulation

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Bae, Jun Woo; Kim, Hee Reyoung [Ulsan National Institute of Science and Technology, Ulsan (Korea, Republic of)

    2016-06-15

    The scattered photons cause reduction of the contrast of radiographic image and it results in the degradation of the quality of the image. In order to acquire better quality image, an anti-scattering x-ray gird should be equipped in radiography system. The X-ray anti-scattering grid of the inclined type based on the hybrid concept for that of parallel and focused type was tested by MCNP code. The MCNPX 2.7.0 was used for the simulation based test. The geometry for the test was based on the IEC 60627 which was an international standard for diagnostic X-ray imaging equipment-Characteristics of general purpose and mammographic anti-scatter grids. The performance of grids with four inclined shielding material types was compared with that of the parallel type. The grid with completely tapered type the best performance where there were little performance difference according to the degree of inclination.

  18. Breast tissue classification using x-ray scattering measurements and multivariate data analysis

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ryan, Elaine A.; Farquharson, Michael J.

    2007-11-01

    This study utilized two radiation scatter interactions in order to differentiate malignant from non-malignant breast tissue. These two interactions were Compton scatter, used to measure the electron density of the tissues, and coherent scatter to obtain a measure of structure. Measurements of these parameters were made using a laboratory experimental set-up comprising an x-ray tube and HPGe detector. The breast tissue samples investigated comprise five different tissue classifications: adipose, malignancy, fibroadenoma, normal fibrous tissue and tissue that had undergone fibrocystic change. The coherent scatter spectra were analysed using a peak fitting routine, and a technique involving multivariate analysis was used to combine the peak fitted scatter profile spectra and the electron density values into a tissue classification model. The number of variables used in the model was refined by finding the sensitivity and specificity of each model and concentrating on differentiating between two tissues at a time. The best model that was formulated had a sensitivity of 54% and a specificity of 100%.

  19. Breast tissue classification using x-ray scattering measurements and multivariate data analysis

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Ryan, Elaine A; Farquharson, Michael J [School of Allied Health Sciences, City University, Charterhouse Square, London EC1M 6PA (United Kingdom)

    2007-11-21

    This study utilized two radiation scatter interactions in order to differentiate malignant from non-malignant breast tissue. These two interactions were Compton scatter, used to measure the electron density of the tissues, and coherent scatter to obtain a measure of structure. Measurements of these parameters were made using a laboratory experimental set-up comprising an x-ray tube and HPGe detector. The breast tissue samples investigated comprise five different tissue classifications: adipose, malignancy, fibroadenoma, normal fibrous tissue and tissue that had undergone fibrocystic change. The coherent scatter spectra were analysed using a peak fitting routine, and a technique involving multivariate analysis was used to combine the peak fitted scatter profile spectra and the electron density values into a tissue classification model. The number of variables used in the model was refined by finding the sensitivity and specificity of each model and concentrating on differentiating between two tissues at a time. The best model that was formulated had a sensitivity of 54% and a specificity of 100%.

  20. Small-angle x-ray scattering in amorphous silicon: A computational study

    Science.gov (United States)

    Paudel, Durga; Atta-Fynn, Raymond; Drabold, David A.; Elliott, Stephen R.; Biswas, Parthapratim

    2018-05-01

    We present a computational study of small-angle x-ray scattering (SAXS) in amorphous silicon (a -Si) with particular emphasis on the morphology and microstructure of voids. The relationship between the scattering intensity in SAXS and the three-dimensional structure of nanoscale inhomogeneities or voids is addressed by generating large high-quality a -Si networks with 0.1%-0.3% volume concentration of voids, as observed in experiments using SAXS and positron annihilation spectroscopy. A systematic study of the variation of the scattering intensity in the small-angle scattering region with the size, shape, number density, and the spatial distribution of the voids in the networks is presented. Our results suggest that the scattering intensity in the small-angle region is particularly sensitive to the size and the total volume fraction of the voids, but the effect of the geometry or shape of the voids is less pronounced in the intensity profiles. A comparison of the average size of the voids obtained from the simulated values of the intensity, using the Guinier approximation and Kratky plots, with that of the same from the spatial distribution of the atoms in the vicinity of void surfaces is presented.