Sample records for scattered light ii

  1. Evolution of protoplanetary disks from their taxonomy in scattered light: Group I vs. Group II (United States)

    Garufi, A.; Meeus, G.; Benisty, M.; Quanz, S. P.; Banzatti, A.; Kama, M.; Canovas, H.; Eiroa, C.; Schmid, H. M.; Stolker, T.; Pohl, A.; Rigliaco, E.; Ménard, F.; Meyer, M. R.; van Boekel, R.; Dominik, C.


    Context. High-resolution imaging reveals a large morphological variety of protoplanetary disks. To date, no constraints on their global evolution have been found from this census. An evolutionary classification of disks was proposed based on their IR spectral energy distribution, with the Group I sources showing a prominent cold component ascribed to an earlier stage of evolution than Group II. Aims: Disk evolution can be constrained from the comparison of disks with different properties. A first attempt at disk taxonomy is now possible thanks to the increasing number of high-resolution images of Herbig Ae/Be stars becoming available. Methods: Near-IR images of six Group II disks in scattered light were obtained with VLT/NACO in polarimetric differential imaging, which is the most efficient technique for imaging the light scattered by the disk material close to the stars. We compare the stellar/disk properties of this sample with those of well-studied Group I sources available from the literature. Results: Three Group II disks are detected. The brightness distribution in the disk of HD 163296 indicates the presence of a persistent ring-like structure with a possible connection with the CO snowline. A rather compact (<100 AU) disk is detected around HD 142666 and AK Sco. A taxonomic analysis of 17 Herbig Ae/Be sources reveals that the difference between Group I and Group II is due to the presence or absence of a large disk cavity (≳5 AU). There is no evidence supporting the evolution from Group I to Group II. Conclusions: Group II disks are not evolved versions of the Group I disks. Within the Group II disks, very different geometries exist (both self-shadowed and compact). HD 163296 could be the primordial version of a typical Group I disk. Other Group II disks, like AK Sco and HD 142666, could be smaller counterparts of Group I unable to open cavities as large as those of Group I. Based on observations collected at the European Organisation for Astronomical

  2. Circular intensity differential scattering of light by helical structures. II. Applications

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Bustamante, C.; Maestre, M.F.; Tinoco, I. Jr.


    Analysis and numerical calculations were made of the total scattering and differential scattering of circularly polarized light by helices as models of chiral structures. The differential scattering patterns are much more sensitive than the total scattering to helical parameters. For large helices the angular dependence of these patterns show lobes which alternate in sign. The number of lobes and the positions of the zeros directly measure the ratios of radius and pitch to wavelength. The signs depend on the sense of the helix. The results are compared with measured circular intensity differential scattering of membranes from the bacterium Spirillum serpens. Good qualitative agreement is obtained.

  3. Vibrational dynamics of plant light-harvesting complex LHC II investigated by quasi- and inelastic neutron scattering

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Golub Maksym


    Full Text Available Vibrational dynamics of the light-harvesting complex II (LHC II from spinach was investigated by quasi- and inelastic neutron scattering (QENS and INS at three different temperatures of 80, 160, and 285 K. QENS/INS spectra of solubilised LHC II and of the corresponding buffer solution were obtained separately and exhibit characteristic inelastic features. After subtraction of the buffer contribution, the INS spectrum of LHC II reveals a distinct Boson peak at ∼ 2.5 meV at 80 K that shifts towards lower energies if the temperature is increased to 285 K. This effect is interpreted in terms of a “softening” of the protein matrix along with the dynamical transition at ∼ 240 K. Our findings indicate that INS is a valuable method to obtain the density of vibrational states not only at cryogenic, but also at physiological temperatures.

  4. Density of vibrational States of the light-harvesting complex II of green plants studied by inelastic neutron scattering

    CERN Document Server

    Pieper, J K; Renger, G; Lechner, R E


    Results of inelastic neutron scattering (INS) experiments are reported for the solubilized trimeric light-harvesting complex of photosystem II (LHC II) in the temperature range from 5 to 100 K. Two incident neutron wavelengths of 2.0 ( similar to 20 meV) and 5.1 A ( similar to 3.2 meV) corresponding to elastic energy resolutions of DeltaE = 0.920 meV and DeltaE = 0.093 meV, respectively, are employed to study INS spectra of LHC II for both neutron energy loss and gain. Solubilized LHC II and D//2O-containing buffer solution are investigated separately in order to properly subtract the contribution of the solvent. The inelastic part of the scattering function S(Q, omega) derived for the LHC II protein resembles the well-known "Boson-peak" and is characterized by a maximum at about 2.5 meV and a strongly asymmetric line shape with a slight tailing toward higher energy transfers. Analysis of the momentum transfer dependence of S(Q, omega) reveals that both the elastic and inelastic contributions to S(Q, omega) e...

  5. Light scattering reviews 8 radiative transfer and light scattering

    CERN Document Server

    Kokhanovsky, Alexander A


    Light scattering review (vol 8) is aimed at the presentation of recent advances in radiative transfer and light scattering optics. The topics to be covered include: scattering of light by irregularly shaped particles suspended in atmosphere (dust, ice crystals), light scattering by particles much larger as compared the wavelength of incident radiation, atmospheric radiative forcing, astrophysical radiative transfer, radiative transfer and optical imaging in biological media, radiative transfer of polarized light, numerical aspects of radiative transfer.

  6. Determination of metallothioneins by fluorescence and resonance light scattering strategies based on ciprofloxacin–Cu(II) system

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Liu, Lu [College of Public Health, University of South China, Hengyang 421001 (China); Wang, Yong-Sheng, E-mail: [College of Public Health, University of South China, Hengyang 421001 (China); Xue, Jin-Hua; Yang, Hui-Xian; Li, Qiu; Zhou, Bin; Wang, Jia-Cheng; Yin, Ji-Cheng; Wang, Yong-Song [College of Public Health, University of South China, Hengyang 421001 (China); Xiao, Xi-Lin [College of Chemistry and Chemical Engineering, University of South China, Hengyang 421001 (China)


    Based on ciprofloxacin (CIP)–Cu(II) system, the novel methods for the detection of metallothioneins (MTs) have been developed by fluorescence (FL) and resonance light scattering (RLS) strategies. The FL strategy avoids the label and derivatization steps in common methods, while the RLS strategy can be applied for determining bio-macromolecules and small molecules without native fluorescence. The response signals linearly correlated with the concentration of MTs over the ranges of 1.03×10{sup −8}–1.23×10{sup −6} mol L{sup −1} for FL, and of 2.56×10{sup −7}–1.54×10{sup −6} mol L{sup −1} for RLS. The limits of detection (LOD) are 3.1×10{sup −9} mol L{sup −1} for FL and 7.68×10{sup −8} mol L{sup −1} for RLS. This study represents the comparison of these two methods using the same CIP–Cu{sup 2+}–MTs system. They not only allow practical application for MTs detection but also serve as a potential choice for the operators according to their concrete needs. In addition, the mechanisms for FL and RLS enhancement of the system were also discussed. -- Highlights: ► Determination of MTs was developed based on CIP–Cu(II) system by FL and RLS strategies. ► FL strategy provides lower limit of detection and wider linear range, and avoids the label and derivatization steps. ► RLS strategy can be applied for determining bio-macromolecules and small molecules. ► The mechanism of interaction of MTs with CIP–Cu(II) chelate was discussed.

  7. Light scattering by small particles

    CERN Document Server

    Hulst, H C van de


    ""A must for researchers using the techniques of light scattering."" ? S. C. Snowdon, Journal of the Franklin InstituteThe measurement of light scattering of independent, homogeneous particles has many useful applications in physical chemistry, meteorology and astronomy. There is, however, a sizeable gap between the abstract formulae related to electromagnetic-wave-scattering phenomena, and the computation of reliable figures and curves. Dr. van de Hulst's book enables researchers to bridge that gap. The product of twelve years of work, it is an exhaustive study of light-scattering properties

  8. Contribution of LHC II complex to the electric properties of thylakoid membranes: an electric light scattering study of Chl b-less barley mutant. (United States)

    Dobrikova, A G; Ivanov, A G; Morgan, R; Petkanchin, I B; Taneva, S G


    Electric light scattering measurements demonstrate a strong decline in the permanent electric dipole moment and electric polarizability of both thylakoid membranes and photosystem II-enriched particles of the Chlorina f2 mutant which has severely reduced levels of light-harvesting chlorophyll a/b-binding proteins compared to the wild type barley chloroplasts. The shift in the electric polarizability relaxation to higher frequencies in thylakoids and photosystem II particles from Chlorina f2 reflects higher mobility of the interfacial charges of the mutant than that of the wild type membranes. The experimental data strongly suggest that the major light-harvesting complex of photosystem II directly contribute to the electric properties of thylakoid membranes.

  9. Light scattering reviews 9 light scattering and radiative transfer

    CERN Document Server

    Kokhanovsky, Alexander A


    This book details modern methods of the radiative transfer theory. It presents recent advances in light scattering (measurements and theory) and highlights the newest developments in remote sensing of aerosol and cloud properties.

  10. Synthetic Fourier transform light scattering. (United States)

    Lee, Kyeoreh; Kim, Hyeon-Don; Kim, Kyoohyun; Kim, Youngchan; Hillman, Timothy R; Min, Bumki; Park, Yongkeun


    We present synthetic Fourier transform light scattering, a method for measuring extended angle-resolved light scattering (ARLS) from individual microscopic samples. By measuring the light fields scattered from the sample plane and numerically synthesizing them in Fourier space, the angle range of the ARLS patterns is extended up to twice the numerical aperture of the imaging system with unprecedented sensitivity and precision. Extended ARLS patterns of individual microscopic polystyrene beads, healthy human red blood cells (RBCs), and Plasmodium falciparum-parasitized RBCs are presented.

  11. Scattering of light by crystals

    CERN Document Server

    Hayes, William


    This authoritative graduate-level text describes inelastic light scattering by crystals and its use in the investigation of solid-state excitation, with experimental techniques common to all types of excitation. 1978 edition.

  12. Light Scattering at Various Angles (United States)

    Latimer, Paul; Pyle, B. E.


    The Mie theory of scattering is used to provide new information on how changes in particle volume, with no change in dry weight, should influence light scattering for various scattering angles and particle sizes. Many biological cells (e.g., algal cells, erythrocytes) and large subcellular structures (e.g., chloroplasts, mitochondria) in suspension undergo this type of reversible volume change, a change which is related to changes in the rates of cellular processes. A previous study examined the effects of such volume changes on total scattering. In this paper scattering at 10° is found to follow total scattering closely, but scattering at 45°, 90°, 135°, and 170° behaves differently. Small volume changes can cause very large observable changes in large angle scattering if the sample particles are uniform in size; however, the natural particle size heterogeneity of most samples would mask this effect. For heterogeneous samples of most particle size ranges, particle shrink-age is found to increase large angle scattering. PMID:4556610

  13. Scattered light characterization of FORTIS (United States)

    McCandliss, Stephan R.; Carter, Anna; Redwine, Keith; Teste, Stephane; Pelton, Russell; Hagopian, John; Kutyrev, Alexander; Li, Mary J.; Moseley, S. Harvey


    We describe our efforts to build a Wide-Field Lyman alpha Geocoronal simulator (WFLaGs) for characterizing the end-to-end sensitivity of FORTIS (Far-UV Off Rowland-circle Telescope for Imaging and Spectroscopy) to scattered Lyman α emission from outside of the nominal (1/2 degree)2 field-of-view. WFLaGs is a 50 mm diameter F/1 aluminum parabolic collimator fed by a hollow cathode discharge lamp with a 80 mm clear MgF2 window housed in a vacuum skin. It creates emission over a 10 degree FOV. WFLaGS will allow us to validate and refine a recently developed scattered light model and verify our scatter light mitigation strategies, which will incorporate low scatter baffle materials, and possibly 3-d printed light traps, covering exposed scatter centers. We present measurements of scattering intensity of Lyman alpha as a function of angle with respect to the specular reflectance direction for several candidate baffle materials. Initial testing of WFLaGs will be described.

  14. Gold nanoparticle-based simple colorimetric and ultrasensitive dynamic light scattering assay for the selective detection of Pb(II) from paints, plastics, and water samples. (United States)

    Beqa, Lule; Singh, Anant Kumar; Khan, Sadia Afrin; Senapati, Dulal; Arumugam, Sri Ranjini; Ray, Paresh Chandra


    Pb (II) is a common water pollutant with high toxicity. According to the CDC, about 310,000 U.S. children of ages 1-5 have high levels of lead in their blood that it is due to the exposure to lead from plastic toys and other products. As a result, the development of ultrasensitive assays for the real-time detection of Pb(II) from plastic toys and paints is very important for water controlling, clinical toxicology and industrial processes. Driven by the need to detect trace amounts of Pb(II) from water samples, we report a label-free, highly selective and ultra sensitive glutathione modified gold nanoparticle based dynamic light scattering (DLS) probe for Pb(II) recognition in 100 ppt level from aqueous solution with excellent discrimination against other heavy metals. The sensitivity of our assay to detect Pb(II) level in water is almost 2 orders of magnitude higher than the EPA standard limit. We have also demonstrated that our DLS assay is capable of measuring the amount of Pb(II) in paint, plastic toys, and water from MS river. A possible mechanism and operating principles of our DLS assay have been discussed. Ultimately, this nanotechnology driven assay could have enormous potential applications in rapid, on-site monitoring of Pb(II) from day-to-day sample.

  15. Laser light scattering basic principles and practice

    CERN Document Server

    Chu, Benjamin


    Geared toward upper-level undergraduate and graduate students, this text introduces the interdisciplinary area of laser light scattering, focusing chiefly on theoretical concepts of quasielastic laser scattering.

  16. The embedded young stars in the Taurus-Auriga molecular cloud. II - Models for scattered light images (United States)

    Kenyon, Scott J.; Whitney, Barbara A.; Gomez, Mercedes; Hartmann, Lee


    We describe NIR imaging observations of embedded young stars in the Taurus-Auriga molecular cloud. We find a large range in J-K and H-K colors for these class I sources. The bluest objects have colors similar to the reddest T Tauri stars in the cloud; redder objects lie slightly above the reddening line for standard ISM dust and have apparent K extinctions of up to 5 mag. Most of these sources also show extended NIR emission on scales of 10-20 arcsec which corresponds to linear sizes of 1500-3000 AU. The NIR colors and nebular morphologies for this sample and the magnitude of linear polarization in several sources suggest scattered light produces most of the NIR emission in these objects. We present modeling results that suggest mass infall rates that agree with predictions for cold clouds and are generally consistent with rates estimated from radiative equilibrium models. For reasonable dust grain parameters, the range of colors and extinctions require flattened density distributions with polar cavities evacuated by bipolar outflows. These results support the idea that infall and outflow occur simultaneously in deeply embedded bipolar outflow sources. The data also indicate fairly large centrifugal radii and large inclinations to the rotational axis for a typical source.

  17. Light scattering near phase transitions

    CERN Document Server

    Cummins, HZ


    Since the development of the laser in the early 1960's, light scattering has played an increasingly crucial role in the investigation of many types of phase transitions and the published work in this field is now widely dispersed in a large number of books and journals.A comprehensive overview of contemporary theoretical and experimental research in this field is presented here. The reviews are written by authors who have actively contributed to the developments that have taken place in both Eastern and Western countries.

  18. Scattering of light and other electromagnetic radiation

    CERN Document Server

    Kerker, Milton


    The Scattering of Light and Other Electromagnetic Radiation discusses the theory of electromagnetic scattering and describes some practical applications. The book reviews electromagnetic waves, optics, the interrelationships of main physical quantities and the physical concepts of optics, including Maxwell's equations, polarization, geometrical optics, interference, and diffraction. The text explains the Rayleigh2 theory of scattering by small dielectric spheres, the Bessel functions, and the Legendre functions. The author also explains how the scattering functions for a homogenous sphere chan

  19. Radiofrequency encoded angular-resolved light scattering

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Buckley, Brandon W.; Akbari, Najva; Diebold, Eric D.


    The sensitive, specific, and label-free classification of microscopic cells and organisms is one of the outstanding problems in biology. Today, instruments such as the flow cytometer use a combination of light scatter measurements at two distinct angles to infer the size and internal complexity...... of cells at rates of more than 10,000 per second. However, by examining the entire angular light scattering spectrum it is possible to classify cells with higher resolution and specificity. Current approaches to performing these angular spectrum measurements all have significant throughput limitations...... Encoded Angular-resolved Light Scattering (REALS), this technique multiplexes angular light scattering in the radiofrequency domain, such that a single photodetector captures the entire scattering spectrum from a particle over approximately 100 discrete incident angles on a single shot basis. As a proof...

  20. Light-scattering theory of diffraction. (United States)

    Guo, Wei


    Since diffraction is a scattering process in principle, light propagation through one aperture in a screen is discussed in the light-scattering theory. Through specific calculation, the expression of the electric field observed at an observation point is obtained and is used not only to explain why Kirchhoff's diffraction theory is a good approximation when the screen is both opaque and sufficiently thin but also to demonstrate that the mathematical and physical problems faced by Kirchhoff's theory are avoided in the light-scattering theory.

  1. Microscope spectrometer for light scattering investigations. (United States)

    Barbara, Aude; Lopez-Rios, Tomas; Dumont, Sylvain; Gay, Frédéric; Quémerais, Pascal


    We describe a setup including a microscope to study volumes of a few mum(3) by static and dynamic light scattering (DLS) in a backscattering configuration. Light scattered by individual objects of micrometric size can be analyzed in the 400-800?nm spectral range. This setup can also be employed to study both diluted and concentrated colloidal solutions by DLS measurements. For diluted solutions we found evidence of the fluctuations of the number of particles in a confocal volume. We discuss their contribution to the autocorrelation function of the scattered intensity measured as a function of time.

  2. Ultrasonic trap for light scattering measurement (United States)

    Barton, Petr; Pavlu, Jiri


    Light scattering is complex phenomenon occurring widely in space environments, including the dense dusty clouds, nebulas or even the upper atmosphere of the Earth. However, when the size of the dust (or of other scattering center) is close to the incident light wavelength, theoretical determination is difficult. In such case, Mie theory is to be used but there is a lack of the material constants for most space-related materials. For experimental measurement of light scattering, we designed unique apparatus, based on ultrasonic trap. Using acoustic levitation we are able to capture the dust grain in midair, irradiate it with laser, and observe scattering directly with goniometer-mounted photodiode. Advantage of this approach is ability to measure directly in the air (thus, no need for the carrier medium) and possibility to study non-spherical particles. Since the trap development is nearly finished and initial experiments are carried out, the paper presents first tests on water droplets.

  3. Entanglement degradation in depolarizing light scattering

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Aiello, A.; Woerdman, J.P.


    Full text: In the classical regime, when a beam of light is scattered by a medium, it may emerge partially or completely depolarized depending on the optical properties of the medium. Correspondingly, in the quantum regime, when an entangled two-photon pair is scattered, the classical depolarization may result in an entanglement degradation. Here, relations between photon scattering, entanglement and multi-mode detection are investigated. We establish a general framework in which one- and two-photon elastic scattering processes can be discussed, and we focus on the study of the intrinsic entanglement degradation caused by a multi-mode detection. We show that any multi-mode scattered state cannot maximally violate the Bell-CHSH inequality because of the momentum spread. The results presented here have general validity and can be applied to both deterministic and random scattering processes. (author)

  4. Shear Brillouin light scattering microscope. (United States)

    Kim, Moonseok; Besner, Sebastien; Ramier, Antoine; Kwok, Sheldon J J; An, Jeesoo; Scarcelli, Giuliano; Yun, Seok Hyun


    Brillouin spectroscopy has been used to characterize shear acoustic phonons in materials. However, conventional instruments had slow acquisition times over 10 min per 1 mW of input optical power, and they required two objective lenses to form a 90° scattering geometry necessary for polarization coupling by shear phonons. Here, we demonstrate a confocal Brillouin microscope capable of detecting both shear and longitudinal phonons with improved speeds and with a single objective lens. Brillouin scattering spectra were measured from polycarbonate, fused quartz, and borosilicate in 1-10 s at an optical power level of 10 mW. The elastic constants, phonon mean free path and the ratio of the Pockels coefficients were determined at microscopic resolution.

  5. High-Energy Compton Scattering Light Sources

    CERN Document Server

    Hartemann, Fred V; Barty, C; Crane, John; Gibson, David J; Hartouni, E P; Tremaine, Aaron M


    No monochromatic, high-brightness, tunable light sources currently exist above 100 keV. Important applications that would benefit from such new hard x-ray sources include: nuclear resonance fluorescence spectroscopy, time-resolved positron annihilation spectroscopy, and MeV flash radiography. The peak brightness of Compton scattering light sources is derived for head-on collisions and found to scale with the electron beam brightness and the drive laser pulse energy. This gamma 2

  6. Light scattering from diatomaceous earth aerosol (United States)

    Alexander, Jennifer M.; Meland, B.; Laskina, Olga; Young, M. A.; Grassian, V. H.; Kleiber, P. D.


    The light scattering and extinction properties of mineral aerosol are strongly affected by dust particle shape. In this work, scattering phase function and polarization profiles of diatomaceous earth aerosol are measured at a wavelength of 550 nm, and the results are compared to T-matrix theory based simulations using uniform spheroid models for the particle shape. The particle shape distribution is determined by spectral fitting of the experimental infrared (IR) extinction spectral line profile for diatomaceous earth dust. It is found that a particle shape model that peaks toward both extreme rod-like and disk-like shapes results in the best fits to the IR spectral data. This particle shape model is then used as a basis for modeling the visible light scattering properties. While the visible simulations show only modestly good agreement with the data, the fits are generally better than those obtained using more commonly invoked particle shape distributions.

  7. Expressive Single Scattering for Light Shaft Stylization

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Kol, T.R.; Klehm, O.; Seidel, Hans-Peter; Eisemann, E.


    Light scattering in participating media is a natural phenomenon that is increasingly featured in movies and games, as it is visually pleasing and lends realism to a scene. In art, it may further be used to express a certain mood or emphasize objects. Here, artists often rely on stylization when

  8. Protoplanetary disks and exoplanets in scattered light

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Stolker, T.


    High-contrast imaging facilitates the direct detection of protoplanetary disks in scattered light and self-luminous exoplanets on long-period orbits. The combined power of extreme adaptive optics and differential imaging techniques delivers high spatial resolution images of disk morphologies down to

  9. Aerosol light-scattering in the Netherlands

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Brink, H.M. ten; Veefkind, J.P.; Waijers-IJpelaan, A.; Hage, J.C. van der


    The relation between the (midday) aerosol light-scattering and the concentrations of nitrate and sulfate has been assessed at a site near the coast of the North Sea in The Netherlands. Midday was selected for the measurements because this is the time at which the aerosol is most effective in the

  10. Quasi-Elastic Light Scattering in Ophthalmology (United States)

    Ansari, Rafat R.

    The eye is not just a "window to the soul"; it can also be a "window to the human body." The eye is built like a camera. Light which travels from the cornea to the retina traverses through tissues that are representative of nearly every tissue type and fluid type in the human body. Therefore, it is possible to diagnose ocular and systemic diseases through the eye. Quasi-elastic light scattering (QELS) also known as dynamic light scattering (DLS) is a laboratory technique routinely used in the characterization of macromolecular dispersions. QELS instrumentation has now become more compact, sensitive, flexible, and easy to use. These developments have made QELS/DLS an important tool in ophthalmic research where disease can be detected early and noninvasively before the clinical symptoms appear.

  11. Light Scattering By Voids In Polycrystalline Fibers (United States)

    Butvina, L. N.; Vojtsekhovsky, V. V.; Dianov, E. M.; Prokhorov, A. M.


    The mechanisms of light scattering losses ~s in fibers fabricated by plastic deformation of silver and thallium halide crystals have been analysed. It was found that the power index 7 in the loss dependence on wavelenght λ(~s~λ-7) continuosly changes in the range -0.5phisical reason which determines the scattering losses in polycrystalline fibers. The crossection of scattering and η(λ) is calculated for inclusions and voids with the relative refractive index 0.2<= m <=0.2. We explain the behaviour of ~s and η by evolution of the micropores distribution and by exsistence of vacancy excess in fibers. The average diameter D of effective micropores and their concentration N are determined from the spectra We observed these micropores in KRS-5 and KRS-13 polycrystalline fibers.

  12. Light scattering study of irradiated lipid bilayer. (United States)

    Monem, A S; Blott, B H; Khalil, W A


    Vesicular phospholipid bilayer membranes in the form of giant unilamellar vesicles (GUVs) of dipalmitoylphosphatidylcholine (DPPC) were irradiated with fast neutron fluences ranging from 10(4) to 10(7) n cm-2. The phase behaviour of both non-irradiated and irradiated GUVs was investigated using an angular light scattering technique. A model independent size distribution of the samples and their optical anisotropy (delta) were determined using a maximum entropy technique and the theory of light scattering from spherical shells composed of anisotropic cylindrical molecules arranged radially in the shells. The structural changes in the lipid bilayer exposed to fission neutrons are discussed on the basis of the damaging mechanisms of fast neutrons to both the hydrophobic and hydrophilic regions of the lipid bilayer.

  13. Zeno: Critical Fluid Light Scattering Experiment (United States)

    Gammon, Robert W.; Shaumeyer, J. N.; Briggs, Matthew E.; Boukari, Hacene; Gent, David A.; Wilkinson, R. Allen


    The Zeno (Critical Fluid Light Scattering) experiment is the culmination of a long history of critical fluid light scattering in liquid-vapor systems. The major limitation to making accurate measurements closer to the critical point was the density stratification which occurs in these extremely compressible fluids. Zeno was to determine the critical density fluctuation decay rates at a pair of supplementary angles in the temperature range 100 mK to 100 (mu)K from T(sub c) in a sample of xenon accurately loaded to the critical density. This paper gives some highlights from operating the instrument on two flights March, 1994 on STS-62 and February, 1996 on STS-75. More detail of the experiment Science Requirements, the personnel, apparatus, and results are displayed on the Web homepage at

  14. Light scattering measurement of sodium polyacrylate products (United States)

    Lama, Nisha; Norwood, David; Boone, Steven; Massie-Boyer, Valerie


    In the presentation, we will describe the use of a multi-detector HPLC incorporating the DAWN EOS multi-angle laser light scattering (MALLS) detector to measure the properties such as molecular weight, RMS radius, contour and persistence length and polydispersity of sodium polyacrylate products. The samples of sodium polyacrylate are used in various industries as thickening agents, coating dispersants, artificial snow, laundry detergent and disposable diapers. Data and results obtained from the experiment will be presented.

  15. ATLAS Event Display: Light-by-Light Scattering

    CERN Multimedia

    ATLAS Collaboration


    An event display of light-by-light scattering in ultra-peripheral lead+lead collisions at 5.02 TeV with the ATLAS detector at the LHC. The event 461251458 from run 287931 recorded on 13 December 2015 at 09:51:07 is shown. Two back-to-back photons with an invariant mass of 24 GeV with no additional activity in the detector are presented. All calorimeter cells with E>500 MeV are shown.

  16. Size exclusion chromatography with evaporative light scattering detection as a method for speciation analysis of polydimethylsiloxanes. II. Validation of the method for analysis of pharmaceutical formulations. (United States)

    Mojsiewicz-Pieńkowska, Krystyna


    The aim of this study was to demonstrate the usefulness of the size exclusion chromatography with evaporative light scattering detection (SEC-ELSD) method in the identification and quantitative analysis of polydimethylsiloxanes (PDMS). The process of validation for the method was conducted, and the values obtained were compared with the acceptance criteria. Particularly important was the conclusion that SEC-ELSD method showed a high specificity for PDMS. PDMS is an organosilicon polymer and for this reason, it does not exist as a concrete chemical species. Depending on the length of the chain, PDMS can be toxic for organism. So far, the SEC-ELSD method has not been applied for the control of pharmaceutical products containing such PDMS as dimeticone or simeticone. The safety of use and effectiveness of such pharmaceutical products relies on the control of their quality. Therefore, the analytical methods and procedures that meet acceptance criteria for qualitative and quantitative analysis of the PDMS should be used. In the case of the analysis of pharmaceutical products, the acceptance criteria are established and recommended by, for example, the Pharmacopoeias, the U.S. Food and Drug Administration (FDA), the International Conference on Harmonisation (ICH) and the World Health Organization (WHO). The progress of knowledge, however, requires the development of new analytical tools which are able to solve incoming problems. In the case of pharmaceutical formulations containing PDMS, which are used not only by adults but also by children, it is necessary to use analytical methods which are characterized by a high specificity. Copyright © 2011 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  17. Light scattering of thin azobenzene side-chain polyester layers

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Kerekes, Á.; Lörincz, E.; Ramanujam, P.S.


    Light scattering properties of liquid crystalline and amorphous azobenzene side-chain polyester layers used for optical data storage were examined by means of transmissive scatterometry. Comparative experiments show that the amorphous polyester has significantly lower light scattering characteris...... for the domain size in thin liquid crystalline polyester layers being responsible for the dominant light scattering. The characteristic domain Sizes obtained from the Fourier transformation of polarization microscopic Pictures confirm these values.......Light scattering properties of liquid crystalline and amorphous azobenzene side-chain polyester layers used for optical data storage were examined by means of transmissive scatterometry. Comparative experiments show that the amorphous polyester has significantly lower light scattering...... characteristics than the liquid crystalline polyester. The amorphous samples have negligible polarization part orthogonal to the incident beam. the liquid crystalline samples have relative high orthogonal polarization part in light scattering, The light scattering results can be used to give a lower limit...

  18. Time Dependence of Aerosol Light Scattering Downwind of Forest Fires (United States)

    Kleinman, L. I.; Sedlacek, A. J., III; Wang, J.; Lewis, E. R.; Springston, S. R.; Chand, D.; Shilling, J.; Arnott, W. P.; Freedman, A.; Onasch, T. B.; Fortner, E.; Zhang, Q.; Yokelson, R. J.; Adachi, K.; Buseck, P. R.


    In the first phase of BBOP (Biomass Burn Observation Project), a Department of Energy (DOE) sponsored study, wildland fires in the Pacific Northwest were sampled from the G-1 aircraft via sequences of transects that encountered emission whose age (time since emission) ranged from approximately 15 minutes to four hours. Comparisons between transects allowed us to determine the near-field time evolution of trace gases, aerosol particles, and optical properties. The fractional increase in aerosol concentration with plume age was typically less than a third of the fractional increase in light scattering. In some fires the increase in light scattering exceeded a factor of two. Two possible causes for the discrepancy between scattering and aerosol mass are i) the downwind formation of refractory tar balls that are not detected by the AMS and therefore contribute to scattering but not to aerosol mass and ii) changes to the aerosol size distribution. Both possibilities are considered. Our information on tar balls comes from an analysis of TEM grids. A direct determination of size changes is complicated by extremely high aerosol number concentrations that caused coincidence problems for the PCASP and UHSAS probes. We instead construct a set of plausible log normal size distributions and for each member of the set do Mie calculations to determine mass scattering efficiency (MSE), angstrom exponents, and backscatter ratios. Best fit size distributions are selected by comparison with observed data derived from multi-wavelength scattering measurements, an extrapolated FIMS size distribution, and mass measurements from an SP-AMS. MSE at 550 nm varies from a typical near source value of 2-3 to about 4 in aged air.

  19. Fourier transform light scattering angular spectroscopy using digital inline holography. (United States)

    Kim, Kyoohyun; Park, YongKeun


    A simple and practical method for measuring the angle-resolved light scattering (ARLS) from individual objects is reported. Employing the principle of inline holography and a Fourier transform light scattering technique, both the static and dynamic scattering patterns from individual micrometer-sized objects can be effectively and quantitatively obtained. First, the light scattering measurements were performed on individual polystyrene beads, from which the refractive index and diameter of each bead were retrieved. Also, the measurements of the static and dynamic light scattering from intact human red blood cells are demonstrated. Using the present method, an existing microscope can be directly transformed into a precise instrument for ARLS measurements.

  20. Magneto-optical light scattering from ferromagnetic surfaces

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Gonzalez, M.U.; Armelles, G.; Martinez Boubeta, C.; Cebollada, A.


    We have studied the optical and magneto-optical components of the light scattered by the surface of several Fe films with different morphologies. We present a method, based on the ratio between the optical and magneto-optical components of the scattered intensity, to discern the physical origin, either structural or magnetic corrugation, of the light scattered by these ferromagnetic surfaces. Surface versus bulk magnetic information can be separated by magneto-optical light scattering measurements, the scattered light being more sensitive to magnetization differences between surface and bulk than the reflected one

  1. Looking for Dust-Scattering Light Echoes (United States)

    Mills, Brianna; Heinz, Sebastian; Corrales, Lia


    Galactic X-ray transient sources such as neutron stars or black holes sometimes undergo an outburst in X-rays. Ring structures have been observed around three such sources, produced by the X-ray photons being scattered by interstellar dust grains along our line of sight. These dust-scattering light echoes have proven to be a useful tool for measuring and constraining Galactic distances, mapping the dust structure of the Milky Way, and determining the dust composition in the clouds producing the echo. Detectable light echoes require a sufficient quantity of dust along our line of sight, as well as bright, short-lived Galactic X-ray flares. Using data from the Monitor of All-Sky X-ray Image (MAXI) on-board the International Space Station, we ran a peak finding algorithm in Python to look for characteristic flare events. Each flare was characterized by its fluence, the integrated flux of the flare over time. We measured the distribution of flare fluences to show how many observably bright flares were recorded by MAXI. This work provides a parent set for dust echo searches in archival X-ray data and will inform observing strategies with current and future X-ray missions such as Athena and Lynx.

  2. Fourier-transform light scattering of individual colloidal clusters. (United States)

    Yu, HyeonSeung; Park, HyunJoo; Kim, Youngchan; Kim, Mahn Won; Park, YongKeun


    We present measurements of the scalar-field light scattering of individual dimer, trimer, and tetrahedron shapes among colloidal clusters. By measuring the electric field with quantitative phase imaging at the sample plane and then numerically propagating to the far-field scattering plane, the two-dimensional light-scattering patterns from individual colloidal clusters are effectively and precisely retrieved. The measured scattering patterns are consistent with simulated patterns calculated from the generalized multiparticle Mie solution.

  3. Modeling of light scattering by icy bodies (United States)

    Kolokolova, L.; Mackowski, D.; Pitman, K.; Verbiscer, A.; Buratti, B.; Momary, T.


    As a result of ground-based, space-based, and in-situ spacecraft mission observations, a great amount of photometric, polarimetric, and spectroscopic data of icy bodies (satellites of giant planets, Kuiper Belt objects, comet nuclei, and icy particles in cometary comae and rings) has been accumulated. These data have revealed fascinating light-scattering phenomena, such as the opposition surge resulting from coherent backscattering and shadow hiding and the negative polarization associated with them. Near-infrared (NIR) spectra of these bodies are especially informative as the depth, width, and shape of the absorption bands of ice are sensitive not only to the ice abundance but also to the size of icy grains. Numerous NIR spectra obtained by Cassini's Visual and Infrared Mapping Spectrometer (VIMS) have been used to map the microcharacteristics of the icy satellites [1] and rings of Saturn [2]. VIMS data have also permitted a study of the opposition surge for icy satellites of Saturn [3], showing that coherent backscattering affects not only brightness and polarization of icy bodies but also their spectra [4]. To study all of the light-scattering phenomena that affect the photopolarimetric and spectroscopic characteristics of icy bodies, including coherent backscattering, requires computer modeling that rigorously considers light scattering by a large number of densely packed small particles that form either layers (in the case of regolith) or big clusters (ring and comet particles) . Such opportunity has appeared recently with a development of a new version MSTM4 of the Multi-Sphere T-Matrix code [5]. Simulations of reflectance and absorbance spectra of a ''target'' (particle layer or cluster) require that the dimensions of the target be significantly larger than the wavelength, sphere radius, and layer thickness. For wavelength-sized spheres and packing fractions typical of regolith, targets can contain dozens of thousands of spheres that, with the original MSTM

  4. How to distinguish elastically scattered light from Stokes shifted light for solid-state lighting?

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Meretska, Maryna; Lagendijk, Aart; Thyrrestrup Nielsen, Henri; Mosk, Allard; IJzerman, W.L.; Vos, Willem L.


    We have studied the transport of light through phosphor diffuser plates that are used in commercial solid-state lighting modules (Fortimo). These polymer plates contain YAG:Ce+3phosphor particles that both elastically scatter and Stokes shift light in the visible wavelength range (400–700 nm). We

  5. Light-by-light scattering and muon's anomalous magnetic moment

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Pauk, Vladyslav


    A study of hadron production by photons opens unique ways to address a number of fundamental problems in strong interaction physics as well as fundamental questions in Quantum Field Theory. In particular, an understanding of two-photon processes is of crucial importance for constraining the hadronic uncertainties in precision measurements and in searches for new physics. The process of γ * γ * fusion (by quasi-real photons γ or virtual photons γ * ) into leptons and hadrons has been observed and studied in detail at nearly all high-energy colliders. From the theoretical point of view two-photon processes are very complicated. One of approaches which may be efficiently used to study non-perturbative features of two-photon production is based on a dispersion theory. Using general properties of relativistic quantum field theory we relate in this work the forward light-by-light scattering to energy weighted integrals of the γ * γ fusion cross sections. The first type of new relations derived in this work have the form of exact super-convergence sum rules. The second type involves the effective constants of the low-energy photon-photon interaction and allow to define them in terms of two-photon production cross sections. We subsequently test and verify these sum rules exactly at tree and one-loop level in scalar and spinor QED. Furthermore, we test the criterium of the tree-level unitarity imposed by the sum rules on the example of the massive spin-1 QED. Next, we apply the sum rules for the forward light-by-light scattering process within the context of the φ 4 quantum field theory. Within this theory, we present a stringent causality criterion and apply it to a particular non-perturbative resummation of graphs. Applied to the γ * γ production of mesons, the superconvergence sum rules lead to intricate relations between theγγ decay widths and the γ * γ transition form factors for (pseudo-) scalar, axial-vector and tensor mesons. We discuss the

  6. Angle-resolved light scattering of individual rod-shaped bacteria based on Fourier transform light scattering. (United States)

    Jo, YoungJu; Jung, JaeHwang; Lee, Jee Woong; Shin, Della; Park, HyunJoo; Nam, Ki Tae; Park, Ji-Ho; Park, YongKeun


    Two-dimensional angle-resolved light scattering maps of individual rod-shaped bacteria are measured at the single-cell level. Using quantitative phase imaging and Fourier transform light scattering techniques, the light scattering patterns of individual bacteria in four rod-shaped species (Bacillus subtilis, Lactobacillus casei, Synechococcus elongatus, and Escherichia coli) are measured with unprecedented sensitivity in a broad angular range from -70° to 70°. The measured light scattering patterns are analyzed along the two principal axes of rod-shaped bacteria in order to systematically investigate the species-specific characteristics of anisotropic light scattering. In addition, the cellular dry mass of individual bacteria is calculated and used to demonstrate that the cell-to-cell variations in light scattering within bacterial species is related to the cellular dry mass and growth.

  7. Optical fibre probes in the measurement of scattered light ...

    Indian Academy of Sciences (India)


    Jan 8, 2014 ... Home; Journals; Pramana – Journal of Physics; Volume 82; Issue 1. Optical fibre probes in the measurement of scattered light: Application for sensing turbidity ... Here we present our work on the design and realization of optrodes for the measurement of scattered light from liquid samples. Optical properties ...

  8. Controlling the propagation of light in disordered scattering media

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Vellekoop, Ivo Micha


    In this thesis, we explored the use of wavefront shaping to steer light through strongly scattering materials. We found that scattering does not irreversibly scramble the incidentwave. By shaping the incident wavefront, an opaque object can formany desired wavefront and focus light as sharply as an

  9. Laser Light Scattering with Multiple Scattering Suppression Used to Measure Particle Sizes (United States)

    Meyer, William V.; Tin, Padetha; Lock, James A.; Cannell, David S.; Smart, Anthony E.; Taylor, Thomas W.


    Laser light scattering is the technique of choice for noninvasively sizing particles in a fluid. The members of the Advanced Technology Development (ATD) project in laser light scattering at the NASA Lewis Research Center have invented, tested, and recently enhanced a simple and elegant way to extend the concentration range of this standard laboratory particle-sizing technique by several orders of magnitude. With this technique, particles from 3 nm to 3 mm can be measured in a solution. Recently, laser light scattering evolved to successfully size particles in both clear solutions and concentrated milky-white solutions. The enhanced technique uses the property of light that causes it to form tall interference patterns at right angles to the scattering plane (perpendicular to the laser beam) when it is scattered from a narrow laser beam. Such multiple-scattered light forms a broad fuzzy halo around the focused beam, which, in turn, forms short interference patterns. By placing two fiber optics on top of each other and perpendicular to the laser beam (see the drawing), and then cross-correlating the signals they produce, only the tall interference patterns formed by singly scattered light are detected. To restate this, unless the two fiber optics see the same interference pattern, the scattered light is not incorporated into the signal. With this technique, only singly scattered light is seen (multiple-scattered light is rejected) because only singly scattered light has an interference pattern tall enough to span both of the fiber-optic pickups. This technique is simple to use, easy to align, and works at any angle. Placing a vertical slit in front of the signal collection fibers enhanced this approach. The slit serves as an optical mask, and it significantly shortens the time needed to collect good data by selectively masking out much of the unwanted light before cross-correlation is applied.

  10. Positron Production in Multiphoton Light-by-Light Scattering

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Koffas, Thomas


    We present the results of an experimental study on e{sup +}e{sup -} pair production during the collision of a low emittance 46.6 GeV electron beam with terawatt laser pulses from a Nd:glass laser at 527 nm wavelength and with linear polarization. The experiment was conducted at the Final Focus Test Beam facility in the Stanford Linear Accelerator Center. Results with a 49.1 GeV electron beam are also included. A signal of 106 {+-} 14 positrons for the 46.6 GeV electron beam case and of 22 {+-} 10 positrons for the 49.1 GcV case above background, has been detected. We interpret the positrons as the products of a two-step process during which laser photons are backscattered to high energy gamma photons that absorb in their turn several laser photons in order to produce a e{sup +}e{sup -} pair. The data compare well with the existing theoretical models. This is the first observation in the laboratory of inelastic Light-by-Light scattering with only real photons. Alternatively, the data are interpreted as a manifestation of the spontaneous breakdown of the vacuum under the influence of an intense external alternating electric field.

  11. Evaluation of aggregate stability of Haplic Stagnosols using dynamic light scattering, phase analysis light scattering and color coordinates

    Czech Academy of Sciences Publication Activity Database

    Artemyeva, Z.; Žigová, Anna; Kirillova, N.; Šťastný, Martin; Holubík, O.; Podrázský, V.


    Roč. 63, č. 13 (2017), s. 1838-1851 ISSN 0365-0340 Institutional support: RVO:67985831 Keywords : land use * aggregate stability * organo-clay complexes * dynamic light scattering * phase analysis light scattering * color coordinates Subject RIV: DF - Soil Science OBOR OECD: Soil science Impact factor: 2.137, year: 2016

  12. Light scattering in Baltic crude oil - seawater emulsion

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Adam Stelmaszewski


    Full Text Available The paper discusses the scattering of radiation by a Baltic crude oil - seawater emulsion. The scattering spectrum calculated using the Mie solution in the spectral range from 380 nm to 730 nm is compared with the measured spectrum of light scattered through a right angle. Spectra in the wavelength range from 210 nm to 730 nm were measured using a spectrofluorimeter for fresh and stored samples of the Baltic crude oil emulsion. Scattering increases with wavelength in the UV range and then decreases slightly with the wavelength of visible light. The result of the calculation is similar to the measured spectra. Both the calculated and measured spectra display numerous relative extremes throughout the spectral area. Light scattering in the emulsion decreases during storage as the oil concentration in the medium diminishes. The results also demonstrate that the single scattering model describes the phenomenon correctly.

  13. Light scattering by nonspherical particles theory, measurements, and applications

    CERN Document Server

    Mishchenko, Michael I; Travis, Larry D


    There is hardly a field of science or engineering that does not have some interest in light scattering by small particles. For example, this subject is important to climatology because the energy budget for the Earth's atmosphere is strongly affected by scattering of solar radiation by cloud and aerosol particles, and the whole discipline of remote sensing relies largely on analyzing the parameters of radiation scattered by aerosols, clouds, and precipitation. The scattering of light by spherical particles can be easily computed using the conventional Mie theory. However, most small solid part

  14. Absorption and scattering of light by small particles

    CERN Document Server

    Bohren, Craig F


    Absorption and Scattering of Light by Small Particles. Treating absorption and scattering in equal measure, this self-contained, interdisciplinary study examines and illustrates how small particles absorb and scatter light. The authors emphasize that any discussion of the optical behavior of small particles is inseparable from a full understanding of the optical behavior of the parent material-bulk matter. To divorce one concept from the other is to render any study on scattering theory seriously incomplete. Special features and important topics covered in this book include:. * Classical theor

  15. Inelastic light scattering of semiconductor nanostructures fundamentals and recent advances

    CERN Document Server

    Schüller, Christian


    Semiconductor nanostructures are a field of enormous and still-growing research interest. On one hand, they are already realized in mass products, e.g., in high-electron-mobility field-effect transistors and quantum-well lasers. On the other hand, they allow, in specially tailored systems, the investigation of fundamental properties, such as many-particle interactions of electrons in reduced dimensions. This book attempts to fill the gap between general semiconductor textbooks and research articles. It provides (i) an introduction into the basic concepts of inelastic light scattering on semiconductor nanostructures and into their fabrication and basic properties, and, (ii) a description of the most striking recent advances in this field. Each chapter is as self-contained as possible. The monograph should interest researchers, experimentalists as well as theorists, and research students working in the field. It should also be interesting for graduate students with knowledge in solid-state physics and quantum m...

  16. Small Angle Light Scattering by Biological Objects

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Berdzenishvili, L.; Melikishvili, Z.


    In this paper the small angle laser radiation scattering by the particles of different shape and size is analyzed. Experimental results and theoretical calculations show that after ejection from bacteriophage DNA forms the scattering medium consisted of quasi-spherical elements with radius of R⁓10λ 0 . (author)

  17. Light scattering by particles in water theoretical and experimental foundations

    CERN Document Server

    Jonasz, Miroslaw


    Light scattering-based methods are used to characterize small particles suspended in water in a wide range of disciplines ranging from oceanography, through medicine, to industry. The scope and accuracy of these methods steadily increases with the progress in light scattering research. This book focuses on the theoretical and experimental foundations of the study and modeling of light scattering by particles in water and critically evaluates the key constraints of light scattering models. It begins with a brief review of the relevant theoretical fundamentals of the interaction of light with condensed matter, followed by an extended discussion of the basic optical properties of pure water and seawater and the physical principles that explain them. The book continues with a discussion of key optical features of the pure water/seawater and the most common components of natural waters. In order to clarify and put in focus some of the basic physical principles and most important features of the experimental data o...

  18. Measurements of polarization-dependent angle-resolved light scattering from individual microscopic samples using Fourier transform light scattering (United States)

    Jung, JaeHwang; Kim, Jinhyung; Seo, Min-Kyo; Park, YongKeun


    We present a method to measure the vector-field light scattering of individual microscopic objects. The polarization-dependent optical field images are measured with quantitative phase imaging at the sample plane, and then numerically propagated to the far-field plane. This approach allows the two-dimensional polarization-dependent angle-resolved light scattered patterns from individual object to be obtained with high precision and sensitivity. Using this method, we present the measurements of the polarization-dependent light scattering of a liquid crystal droplet and individual silver nanowires over scattering angles of 50{\\deg}. In addition, the spectroscopic extension of the polarization-dependent angle-resolved light scattering is demonstrated using wavelength-scanning illumination.

  19. Light Scattering by Optically Soft Particles Theory and Applications

    CERN Document Server

    Sharma, Subodh K


    The present monograph deals with a particular class of approximation methods in the context of light scattering by small particles. This class of approximations has been termed as eikonal or soft particle approximations. The eikonal approximation was studied extensively in the potential scattering and then adopted in optical scattering problems. In this context, the eikonal and other soft particle approximations pertain to scatterers whose relative refractive index compared to surrounding medium is close to unity. The study of these approximations is very important because soft particles occur abundantly in nature. For example, the particles that occur in ocean optics, biomedical optics, atmospheric optics and in many industrial applications can be classified as soft particles. This book was written in recognition of the long-standing and current interest in the field of scattering approximations for soft particles. It should prove to be a useful addition for researchers in the field of light scattering.

  20. Locally-enhanced light scattering by a monocrystalline silicon wafer

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Li Ma


    Full Text Available We study the optical properties of light scattering by a monocrystalline silicon wafer, by using transparent material to replicate its surface structure and illuminating a fabricated sample with a laser source. The experimental results show that the scattering field contains four spots of concentrated intensity with high local energy, and these spots are distributed at the four vertices of a square with lines of intensity linking adjacent spots. After discussing simulations of and theory about the formation of this light scattering, we conclude that the scattering field is formed by the effects of both geometrical optics and physical optics. Moreover, we calculate the central angle of the spots in the light field, and the result indicates that the locally-enhanced intensity spots have a definite scattering angle. These results may possibly provide a method for improving energy efficiency within mono-Si based solar cells.

  1. Light scattering from polymer solutions and nanoparticle dispersions

    CERN Document Server

    Schärtl, Wolfgang; Janca, Josef


    Light scattering is a very powerful method to characterize the structure of polymers and nanoparticles in solution. Recent technical developments have strongly enhanced the possible applications of this technique, overcoming previous limitations like sample turbidity or insufficient experimental time scales. However, despite their importance, these new developments have not yet been presented in a comprehensive form. In addition, and maybe even more important to the broad audience, there lacks a simple-to-read textbook for students and non-experts interested in the basic principles and fundamental techniques of light scattering. As part of the Springer Laboratory series, this book tries not only to provide such a simple-to-read and illustrative textbook about the seemingly very complicated topic of light scattering from polymers and nanoparticles in dilute solution, but also intends to cover some of the newest technical developments in experimental light scattering.

  2. Light Scattering Spectroscopies of Semiconductor Nanocrystals (Quantum Dots)

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Yu, Peter Y; Gardner, Grat; Nozaki, Shinji; Berbezier, Isabelle


    We review the study of nanocrystals or quantum dots using inelastic light scattering spectroscopies. In particular recent calculations of the phonon density of states and low frequency Raman spectra in Ge nanocrystals are presented for comparison with experimental results

  3. Efficient light propagation for multiple anisotropic volume scattering

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Max, N. [Lawrence Livermore National Lab., CA (United States)]|[California Univ., Davis, CA (United States)


    Realistic rendering of participating media like clouds requires multiple anisotropic light scattering. This paper presents a propagation approximation for light scattered into M direction bins, which reduces the ``ray effect`` problem in the traditional ``discrete ordinates`` method. For a volume of n{sup 3} elements, it takes O(M n{sup 3} log n + M{sup 2} n{sup 3}) time and O(M n{sup 3}) space.

  4. Intermediate energy proton and light-ion scattering

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Moss, J.M.


    A review is presented of recent (1979-81) developments in the field of intermediate-energy proton and light-ion scattering from nuclei. New theoretical and calculational techniques of particular interest to experimentalists are discussed. Emphasis is placed on topics in nuclear structure physics - giant resonances, pion-condensation precursor phenomena, and polarization transfer (spin-flip) experiments - where intermediate energy proton and light-ion scattering has made new and unique contributions

  5. Synthesis of aerogel tiles with high light scattering length

    CERN Document Server

    Danilyuk, A F; Okunev, A G; Onuchin, A P; Shaurman, S A


    The possibility of aerogel tiles production for RICH detectors is described. Monolithic blocks of silica aerogel were synthesized by two-step sol-gel processing of tetraethoxysilane Si(OEt) sub 4 followed by high temperature supercritical drying with organic solvent. The important characteristic of aerogel is the light scattering length. In the wide range of refraction indexes the light scattering length exceeds 4 cm at 400 nm.

  6. Iterative noise removal from temperature and density profiles in the TJ-II Thomson scattering

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Farias, G.; Dormido-Canto, S.; Vega, J.; Santos, M.; Pastor, I.; Fingerhuth, S.; Ascencio, J.


    TJ-II Thomson Scattering diagnostic provides temperature and density profiles of plasma. The CCD camera acquires images that are corrupted with some kind of noise called stray-light. This noise degrades both image contrast and measurement accuracy, which could produce unreliable profiles of the diagnostic. So far, several approaches have been applied in order to decrease the noise in the TJ-II Thomson scattering images. Since the presence of the noise is not global but located in some particular regions of the image, advanced processing techniques are needed. However such methods require of manual fine-tuning of parameters to reach a good performance. In this contribution, an iterative image processing approach is applied in order to reduce the stray light effects in the images of the TJ-II Thomson scattering diagnostic. The proposed solution describes how the noise can be iteratively reduced in the images when a key parameter is automatically adjusted during the iterative process

  7. Iterative noise removal from temperature and density profiles in the TJ-II Thomson scattering

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Farias, G., E-mail: [Pontificia Universidad Católica de Valparaíso, Av. Brasil 2147, Valparaíso (Chile); Dormido-Canto, S., E-mail: [Departamento de Informática y Automática, UNED, 28040 Madrid (Spain); Vega, J., E-mail: [Asociación EURATOM/CIEMAT para Fusión, Avd. Complutense 22, 28040 Madrid (Spain); Santos, M., E-mail: [Departamento de Arquitectura de Computadores y Automática, Universidad Complutense de Madrid, 28040 Madrid (Spain); Pastor, I., E-mail: [Asociación EURATOM/CIEMAT para Fusión, Avd. Complutense 22, 28040 Madrid (Spain); Fingerhuth, S., E-mail: [Pontificia Universidad Católica de Valparaíso, Av. Brasil 2147, Valparaíso (Chile); Ascencio, J., E-mail: [Pontificia Universidad Católica de Valparaíso, Av. Brasil 2147, Valparaíso (Chile)


    TJ-II Thomson Scattering diagnostic provides temperature and density profiles of plasma. The CCD camera acquires images that are corrupted with some kind of noise called stray-light. This noise degrades both image contrast and measurement accuracy, which could produce unreliable profiles of the diagnostic. So far, several approaches have been applied in order to decrease the noise in the TJ-II Thomson scattering images. Since the presence of the noise is not global but located in some particular regions of the image, advanced processing techniques are needed. However such methods require of manual fine-tuning of parameters to reach a good performance. In this contribution, an iterative image processing approach is applied in order to reduce the stray light effects in the images of the TJ-II Thomson scattering diagnostic. The proposed solution describes how the noise can be iteratively reduced in the images when a key parameter is automatically adjusted during the iterative process.

  8. Molecular origin of background light in Thomson scattering measurements

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    McNeill, D.H.


    The plasma background light in Thomson scattering measurements is often far higher than expected for a pure hydrogen plasma. The spectral distribution of light from three plasmas (duration: 1 ms to steady state; electron density: below 10 12 to over 10 14 cm -3 ; temperature: below 20 to over 1000 eV) and signal-to-noise and intensity data from the Thomson scattering systems used on them are compared with analytic estimates to show that in two of these plasmas molecular light dominates the spectrum, while in the other, molecular light is present, but bremsstrahlung is usually more intense. Knowledge of the mechanism for background light can aid in designing detection systems for Thomson scattering and provide information on the neutral species composition and effective charge of the plasma

  9. Application of light scattering to coatings a user's guide

    CERN Document Server

    Diebold, Michael P


    The book begins with the fundamentals of light scattering, first by individual particles, then by small groups of particles, and finally by the trillions of particles present in a real-life paint film. From there, Dr. Diebold focuses on application of these fundamentals to paint formulation. The scope includes both theory and practice with an emphasis on application (from both performance and cost standpoints). The book gives a clear understanding of light scattering principles and application of these principles to paint formulation (with a focus on TiO2 - the strongest scattering material a

  10. Methods and instruments for ensemble particle sizing by light scattering

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Bayvel, L.P.


    The instruments for ensemble analysis are based on two methods. The first method involves the approximation of the relationship between intensity scattered or transmitted by a particle and its size. This method enables one to compute the number or volume particle size distributions by finding a solution to a Fredholm integral if the scattering patern is measured. An alternative method is by expressing the angle dependent intensity of scattered light, the particle size distribution and the scattering coefficients for individual particles in a matrix equation. This method exploits the Mie scattering theory. All the instruments are based on the Fraunhofer diffraction theory. The solid particle is normally illuminated by a beam from a low-power helium-neon laser. A variation of detector assemblies is used to detect the scattered light. Instruments which are used for particle size measurements measure the extinction coefficients for different wavelenghts and scattering at 90 degrees by recording light intensity in two orthogonal planes of polarisation for each of three wavelenghts. Correction factors to take multiple scattering in account are also discussed

  11. The Light Scattering and Fast Mie Algorithm


    Gliwa, Pawel


    The main topics of this paper is to shown a Fast Mie Algorithm FMA as the best way to use the Mie scattering theory for cross section calculation. This fast algorithm used recursion for summing a long timed sum of cylindrical functions.


    Gotterer, Gerald S.; Thompson, Thomas E.; Lehninger, Albert L.


    Angular light-scattering studies have been carried out on suspensions of isolated rat liver mitochondria. The angular scatter pattern has a large forward component, typical of large particles. Changes in dissymmetry and in the intensity of light scattered at 90° have been correlated with changes in optical density during the course of mitochondrial swelling and contraction. Such changes can be measured at mitochondrial concentrations much below those required for optical density measurements. Changes in mitochondrial geometry caused by factors "leaking" from mitochondria, not detectable by optical density measurements, have been demonstrated by measuring changes in dissymmetry. Angular light-scattering measurements therefore offer the advantages of increased sensitivity and of added indices of changes in mitochondrial conformation. PMID:19866589

  13. Single particle analysis with a 3600 light scattering photometer

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Bartholdi, M.F.


    Light scattering by single spherical homogeneous particles in the diameter range 1 to 20 μm and relative refractive index 1.20 is measured. Particle size of narrowly dispersed populations is determined and a multi-modal dispersion of five components is completely analyzed. A 360 0 light scattering photometer for analysis of single particles has been designed and developed. A fluid stream containing single particles intersects a focused laser beam at the primary focal point of an ellipsoidal reflector ring. The light scattered at angles theta = 2.5 0 to 177.5 0 at phi = 0 0 and 180 0 is reflected onto a circular array of photodiodes. The ellipsoidal reflector is situated in a chamber filled with fluid matching that of the stream to minimize refracting and reflecting interfaces. The detector array consists of 60 photodiodes each subtending 3 0 in scattering angle on 6 0 centers around 360 0 . 32 measurements on individual particles can be acquired at rates of 500 particles per second. The intensity and angular distribution of light scattered by spherical particles are indicative of size and relative refractive index. Calculations, using Lorenz--Mie theory, of differential scattering patterns integrated over angle corresponding to the detector geometry determined the instrument response to particle size. From this the expected resolution and experimental procedures are determined.Ultimately, the photometer will be utilized for identification and discrimination of biological cells based on the sensitivity of light scattering to size, shape, refractive index differences, internal granularity, and other internal morphology. This study has demonstrated the utility of the photometer and indicates potential for application to light scattering studies of biological cells

  14. Optical fibre probes in the measurement of scattered light

    Indian Academy of Sciences (India)


    Jan 8, 2014 ... An optrode usually comprises a bundle of multimode fibres, out of which one or more fibres are used for irradiating the sample, and the remaining fibres are used to collect the light reflected/scattered/fluoresced from the sample containing the measurand(s). The so-collected light carries the characteristic ...

  15. Light scattering in optical CT scanning of Presage dosimeters

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Xu, Y; Adamovics, J; Cheeseborough, J C; Chao, K S; Wuu, C S, E-mail: yx2010@columbia.ed


    The intensity of the scattered light from the Presage dosimeters was measured using a Thorlabs PM100D optical power meter (Thorlabs Inc, Newton, NJ) with an optical sensor of 1 mm diameter sensitive area. Five Presage dosimeters were made as cylinders of 15.2 cm, 10 cm, 4 cm diameters and irradiated with 6 MV photons using a Varian Clinac 2100EX. Each dosimeter was put into the scanning tank of an OCTOPUS' optical CT scanner (MGS Research Inc, Madison, CT) filled with a refractive index matching liquid. A laser diode was positioned at one side of the water tank to generate a stationary laser beam of 0.8 mm width. On the other side of the tank, an in-house manufactured positioning system was used to move the optical sensor in the direction perpendicular to the outgoing laser beam from the dosimeters at an increment of 1 mm. The amount of scattered photons was found to be more than 1% of the primary light signal within 2 mm from the laser beam but decreases sharply with increasing off-axis distance. The intensity of the scattered light increases with increasing light attenuations and/or absorptions in the dosimeters. The scattered light at the same off-axis distance was weaker for dosimeters of larger diameters and for larger detector-to-dosimeter distances. Methods for minimizing the effect of the light scattering in different types of optical CT scanners are discussed.

  16. Elastic and quasielastic scattering of light nuclei in the theory of multiple scattering

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Ismatov, E.I.; Kuterbekov, K.A.; Dzhuraev, Sh.Kh.; Ehsaniyazov, Sh.P.; Zholdasova, S.M.


    In the work the calculation method for diffraction scattering amplitudes of light nuclei by heavy nuclei is developed. For A 1 A 2 -scattering effects of pair-, three-fold, and four-fold screenings are estimated. It is shown, that in amplitude calculations for A 1 A 2 elastic scattering it is enough come to nothing more than accounting of total screenings in the first order. Analysis of nucleus-nucleus scattering sensitive characteristics to choice of single-particle nuclear densities parametrization is carried out

  17. Mie scattering by soft core-shell particles and its applications to ellipsometric light scattering. (United States)

    Ross, Daniel J; Sigel, Reinhard


    Through the use of Mie theory generalized to multiple spheres, the derivatives of the scattering matrix elements and ellipsometric scattering variables are found as a function of shell thickness and nonconcentricity for core-shell particles. In particular, for the case of a core-shell sphere system where the centers are not concentric, the derivatives are taken with respect to the line segment describing the distance between spherical centers. The derivatives of the scattering matrix elements can be used to calculate the changes in ellipsometric light scattering, allowing for sensitivity and precision in quantitative models of fluctuations in core-shell systems. Computed results giving model contrast for a variety of sizes and fluctuation modes are used to design and guide novel light-scattering experiments currently underway.

  18. Relevance of the proximity potential to light-ion scattering

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Tabor, S.L.; Goldberg, D.A.; Hurizenga, J.R.


    Because optical-model potentials are relatively well determined by light-ion elastic scattering, we have compared such potentials with the proximity potential, which was developed for heavy-ion reactions. After the real, nuclear potentials determined by p, d, 3 He, and α scattering at 30--35 MeV/amu are transformed into the universal proximity form they are rather similar to each other and are in rough agreement with a theoretical proximity potential

  19. Investigation of ferrofluid nanostructure by laser light scattering: medical applications (United States)

    Nepomnyashchaya, E. K.; Velichko, E. N.; Pleshakov, I. V.; Aksenov, E. T.; Savchenko, E. A.


    Investigation of ferrofluids nanostructure by the laser light scattering technique is presented. Experimental studies involved measurements of the intensity of the laser radiation scattered by ferrofluid particles in interaction with albumin and under the influence of magnetic field. The effects of the magnitude and duration of the applied magnetic field on the formation of aggregates of magnetic nanoparticles and also the influence of magnetic fluids of different concentrations on blood proteins are considered. The findings may be useful for medical applications.

  20. A Theory of Exoplanet Transits with Light Scattering

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Robinson, Tyler D., E-mail: [Department of Astronomy and Astrophysics, University of California, Santa Cruz, CA 95064 (United States)


    Exoplanet transit spectroscopy enables the characterization of distant worlds, and will yield key results for NASA's James Webb Space Telescope . However, transit spectra models are often simplified, omitting potentially important processes like refraction and multiple scattering. While the former process has seen recent development, the effects of light multiple scattering on exoplanet transit spectra have received little attention. Here, we develop a detailed theory of exoplanet transit spectroscopy that extends to the full refracting and multiple scattering case. We explore the importance of scattering for planet-wide cloud layers, where the relevant parameters are the slant scattering optical depth, the scattering asymmetry parameter, and the angular size of the host star. The latter determines the size of the “target” for a photon that is back-mapped from an observer. We provide results that straightforwardly indicate the potential importance of multiple scattering for transit spectra. When the orbital distance is smaller than 10–20 times the stellar radius, multiple scattering effects for aerosols with asymmetry parameters larger than 0.8–0.9 can become significant. We provide examples of the impacts of cloud/haze multiple scattering on transit spectra of a hot Jupiter-like exoplanet. For cases with a forward and conservatively scattering cloud/haze, differences due to multiple scattering effects can exceed 200 ppm, but shrink to zero at wavelength ranges corresponding to strong gas absorption or when the slant optical depth of the cloud exceeds several tens. We conclude with a discussion of types of aerosols for which multiple scattering in transit spectra may be important.

  1. Macrovoids formation and light scattering of PMMA

    Indian Academy of Sciences (India)

    . On the other hand, if the hydrolysis temperature is higher, the macrovoids are likely to be open-type. Due to the formation of macrovoids, smaller than visible wavelengths, the light will disperse, and therefore, reduces the transmittance of the ...

  2. Light and neutron scattering study of strongly interacting ionic micelles

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Degiorgio, V.; Corti, M.; Piazza, R.


    Dilute solutions of ionic micelles formed by biological glycolipids (gangliosides) have been investigated at various ionic strengths by static and dynamic light scaterring and by small-angle neutron scattering. The size and shape of the micelle is not appreciably affected by the added salt concentration in the range 0-100 mM NaCL. From the measured intensity of scattered light we derive the electric charge Z of the micelle by fitting the data to a theoretical calculation which uses a screened Coulomb potential for the intermicellar interaction, and the hypernetted chain approximation for the calculation of the radial distribution function. The correlation function derived from dynamic light scattering shows the long time contribution typical of concentrated polydisperse systems (author). 15 refs.; 6 figs

  3. Diabetic retinopathy assessed by dynamic light scattering and corneal autofluorescence (United States)

    Rovati, Luigi; Fankhauser, Franz; Docchio, Franco; Van Best, Jaap A.


    Autofluorescence of the cornea within specific wavelength region and dynamic light scattering measurements of ocular tissue have both been used for early-stage detection of the presence of diabetic retinopathy. In the present study, autofluorescence of the cornea and dynamic light scattering in the cornea and vitreous have been measured and compared using two innovative research instruments in twenty-two insulin-dependent diabetes mellitus patients, for the diagnosis of diabetic retinopathy. Corneal autofluorescence mean values in each diabetic retinopathy grade significantly correlated with dynamic light scattering measurements in the vitreous, and in the cornea, thus confirming that changes in the natural fluorescence is strictly correlated with molecular changes of ocular tissues.

  4. Dynamic light scattering with applications to chemistry, biology, and physics

    CERN Document Server

    Berne, Bruce J


    Lasers play an increasingly important role in a variety of detection techniques, making inelastic light scattering a tool of growing value in the investigation of dynamic and structural problems in chemistry, biology, and physics. Until the initial publication of this work, however, no monograph treated the principles behind current developments in the field.This volume presents a comprehensive introduction to the principles underlying laser light scattering, focusing on the time dependence of fluctuations in fluid systems; it also serves as an introduction to the theory of time correlation f

  5. Light scattering and light transmittance of cadaver eye-explanted intraocular lenses of different materials. (United States)

    Morris, Caleb; Werner, Liliana; Barra, Daniel; Liu, Erica; Stallings, Shannon; Floyd, Anne


    To evaluate light scattering and light transmittance in cadaver eye-explanted intraocular lenses (IOLs) manufactured from different materials. John A. Moran Eye Center, University of Utah, Salt Lake City, Utah, USA. Experimental study. Forty-nine pseudophakic cadaver eyes were selected according to IOL material/type and implantation duration, and the IOLs were explanted. Hydrophobic acrylic, hydrophilic acrylic, poly(methyl methacrylate) (PMMA), and silicone IOLs were included. Gross and light microscopy was performed for all IOLs. Light scattering was measured with an EAS 1000 Scheimpflug camera, and light transmittance was assessed using a Lambda 35 UV/Vis spectrophotometer (single-beam configuration with an RSA PE-20 integrating sphere). Analyses were performed at room temperature in the hydrated state and compared with analyses of controls. The highest levels of surface light scattering were measured for 3-piece hydrophobic acrylic, which was also the IOL type with the longest implantation duration among the Acrysof hydrophobic acrylic IOLs. Hydrophilic acrylic, PMMA, and silicone IOLs exhibited relatively low light-scattering levels. The lowest light-scattering levels were observed with PMMA IOLs (1-piece looped and 3-piece) and plate silicone IOLs, which represent the IOL types with the longest implantation duration in this series. Light transmittance values measured for all IOL types appeared to be similar to the values of the corresponding control IOLs. The phenomenon of surface light scattering (nanoglistenings) is more particularly related to hydrophobic acrylic IOLs and increases with implantation time. No significant effect of surface light scattering on IOL light transmittance was found. Copyright © 2013 ASCRS and ESCRS. Published by Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  6. How to distinguish scattered and absorbed light from re-emitted light for white LEDs?

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Meretska, Maryna; Lagendijk, Aart; Thyrrestrup Nielsen, Henri; Mosk, Allard; IJzerman, Wilbert; Vos, Willem L.


    We have studied the light transport through phosphor diffuser plates that are used in commercial solid-state lighting modules (Fortimo). These polymer plates contain YAG:Ce+3 phosphor particles that scatter, absorb and re-emit incident light in the visible wavelength range (400-700 nm). To

  7. Visible light scatter as quantitative information source on milk constituents

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Melentieva, Anastasiya; Kucheryavskiy, Sergey; Bogomolov, Andrey


    at the data analysis stage. The region of visible (Vis) light (400-800 nm) is economically attractive, because it offers a range of inexpensive light sources, optics and detectors. At present, however, it is commonly considered useless, because of the light scatter by fat globules (1-10 μm) and protein......VISIBLE LIGHT SCATTER AS A QUANTITATIVE INFORMATION SOURCE ON MILK CONSTITUENTS A. Melenteva 1, S. Kucheryavski 2, A. Bogomolov 1,31Samara State Technical University, Molodogvardeyskaya Street 244, 443100 Samara, Russia. 2Aalborg University, campus Esbjerg, Niels Bohrs vej 8, 6700 Esbjerg, Denmark....... 3J&M Analytik AG, Willy-Messerschmitt-Strasse 8, 73457 Essingen, Germany. Fat and protein are two major milk nutrients that are routinely analyzed in the dairy industry. Growing food quality requirements promote the dissemination of spectroscopic analysis, enabling real...

  8. Light Scatter in Optical Materials: Advanced Haze Modeling (United States)


    backside light from the bulb back toward the bowl. The center of the bowl has a clear aperture cut through it, allowing the eye an unobstructed...AFRL-RH-FS-TR-2017-0022 Light Scatter in Optical Materials: Advanced Haze Modeling Michael A. Guevara William R. Brockmeier Thomas K. Kuyk...other person or corporation; or convey any rights or permission to manufacture, use, or sell any patented invention that may relate to them. Qualified

  9. Design of light scattering in nanowire materials for photovoltaic applications. (United States)

    Muskens, Otto L; Rivas, Jaime Gómez; Algra, Rienk E; Bakkers, Erik P A M; Lagendijk, Ad


    We experimentally investigate the optical properties of layers of InP, Si, and GaP nanowires, relevant for applications in solar cells. The nanowires are strongly photonic, resulting in a significant coupling mismatch with incident light due to multiple scattering. We identify a design principle for the effective suppression of reflective losses, based on the ratio of the nondiffusive absorption and diffusive scattering lengths. Using this principle, we demonstrate successful suppression of the hemispherical diffuse reflectance of InP nanowires to below that of the corresponding transparent effective medium. The design of light scattering in nanowire materials is of large importance for optimization of the external efficiency of nanowire-based photovoltaic devices.

  10. On dynamic light scattering from vesicle-like droplets (United States)

    Lisy, V.; Brutovsky, B.; Miskovsky, P.


    We develop the theory of dynamic light scattering from vesicle-like droplets - the fluid particles with flexible interfaces immersed in another fluid. The scattering cross section is calculated assuming that the thermal fluctuations of the droplet shape can be accompanied with density changes in the surface membrane. The obtained scattering function generalizes previous expressions from the literature and corrects them in the limiting case of incompressible membrane. Its constant part, in addition to the term given by the scattering on a non-fluctuating double-layered particle, contains contributions reflecting the droplet fluctuations in shape. The time-dependent part reflects both the shape and density fluctuations of the membrane. The frequencies of the fluctuations, calculated using the Helfrich's concept of interfacial elasticity, essentially differ from those used so far in the interpretation of experimental data. The theory well describes the diffusing-wave spectroscopy experiment on emulsions by Gang et al. [Phys. Rev. E 52 (1995) 6289].

  11. Dynamic light scattering study of peanut agglutinin: Size, shape and ...

    Indian Academy of Sciences (India)


    The generation of two species is evident from the profile of hydrodynamic radii. This study also .... radii (figure 3) shows generation of intermediate species along with denatured state from 2 M urea onwards .... Quasi-elastic light scattering from human alpha-lactalbumin: comparison of molecular dimensions in native and ...

  12. Insulin association in neutral solutions studied by light scattering

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Hvidt, S.


    Molecular weights and weight distributions of sulfated, Zn-free, and 2Zn insulins have been measured at pH 7.3 as a function of concentration from 0.1 to 2 mg/ml by use of a combination of light scattering, refractometry, and size-exclusion chromatography. Results show that sulfated insulin...

  13. Quasi-elastic laser light scattering study of polyacrylamide hydrogel ...

    Indian Academy of Sciences (India)

    Quasi-elastic laser light scattering study of polyacrylamide hydrogel immersed in water and salt solutions. M Sivanantham B V R Tata. Conributed Papers Volume 75 Issue 6 December 2010 pp 1209-1214 ... The value of the plateau was found to depend on NaCl concentration and was higher than that of water. Collective ...

  14. Light scattering by photonic crystals with a dirac spectrum

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Sepkhanov, Ruslan


    In this thesis we consider several effects of a Dirac spectrum in photonic crystals on the scattering and propagation of light. We calculate the effect of a Dirac point (a conical singularity in the band structure) on the transmission of radiation through a photonic crystal. We find that the

  15. Using Light Scattering to Track, Characterize and Manipulate Colloids

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    van Oostrum, P.D.J.


    A new technique is developed to analyze in-line Digital Holographic Microscopy images, making it possible to characterize, and track colloidal particles in three dimensions at unprecedented accuracy. We took digital snapshots of the interference pattern between the light scattered by micrometer

  16. Simulating elastic light scattering using high performance computing methods

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Hoekstra, A.G.; Sloot, P.M.A.; Verbraeck, A.; Kerckhoffs, E.J.H.


    The Coupled Dipole method, as originally formulated byPurcell and Pennypacker, is a very powerful method tosimulate the Elastic Light Scattering from arbitraryparticles. This method, which is a particle simulationmodel for Computational Electromagnetics, has one majordrawback: if the size of the

  17. Light scattering by an array of electric and magnetic nanoparticles. (United States)

    García-Cámara, Braulio; Moreno, Fernando; González, Francisco; Martin, Olivier J F


    Light scattering by an array of alternating electric and magnetic nanoparticles is analyzed in detailed. Specific geometrical conditions are derived, where such an array behaves like double-negative particles, leading to a suppression of the backscattered intensity. This effect is very robust and could be used to produce double-negative metamaterials using single-negative components. (c) 2010 Optical Society of America.

  18. HeNe-laser light scattering by human dental enamel

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Zijp, [No Value; tenBosch, JJ; Groenhuis, RAJ


    Knowledge of the optical properties of tooth enamel and an understanding of the origin of these properties are necessary for the development of new optical methods for caries diagnosis and the measurement of tooth color. We measured the scattering intensity functions for HeNe-laser light of 80- to

  19. Circularly symmetric frozen waves: Vector approach for light scattering calculations (United States)

    Ambrosio, Leonardo André


    This work introduces particular classes of vector wave fields for light scattering calculations, viz. structured light fields composed of specific superpositions of circularly symmetric Bessel beams of arbitrary order. Also known as generalized frozen waves, such beams carry all the non-diffracting properties of their constituents with the additional feature of allowing for an arbitrary design of the longitudinal intensity pattern along the surface of several cylinders of fixed radius, simultaneously. This feature makes the generalized frozen waves especially suitable for optical confinement and manipulation and atom guiding and selection. In the framework of the generalized Lorenz-Mie theory, the beam shape coefficients which describe such beams are evaluated in exact and analytic form, the resulting expressions being then applied in light scattering problems. Particular frozen waves are considered beyond the paraxial approximation, optical forces being calculated for specific dielectric Rayleigh particles.

  20. Extraction of shape and roughness using scattering light (United States)

    Seewig, J.; Beichert, G.; Brodmann, R.; Bodschwinna, H.; Wendel, M.


    The extraction of 3D shape and roughness by optical measurement techniques become more and more import in industrial applications. Optical systems are measuring fast with high accuracy and give reliable information about the workpiece form or surface roughness. The classical systems based on triangulation, white light, confocal, shadow or fringe projection techniques and are applied with a great success in recent years. In future there will be a growing interest in robust inline measurement techniques to monitor the manufacturing process. E. g. some automotive manufactures are using confocal systems to characterize the surface of cylinder liners inline. But there is another robust and powerful technique suitable for inline measurement purposes: scattered light sensors. In this paper, a special type of a scattered light sensor based on the former Rodenstock RM 400 sensor is considered. The sensor enables the user to measure form and roughness in a robust manner. The properties of the sensor are analyzed system-theoretically.

  1. Depolarization of light by rough surface of scattering phantoms (United States)

    Tchvialeva, Lioudmila; Markhvida, Igor; Lee, Tim K.; Doronin, Alexander; Meglinski, Igor


    The growing interest in biomedical optics to the polarimetric methods push researchers to better understand of light depolarization during scattering in and on the surface of biological tissues. Here we study the depolarization of light propagated in silicone phantoms. The phantoms with variety of surface roughness and bulk optical properties are designed to imitate human skin. Free-space speckle patterns in parallel (III) and perpendicular (I⊥) direction in respect to incident polarization are used to get the depolarization ratio of backscattered light DR = (III - I⊥)/( III + I⊥). The Monte Carlo model developed in house is also applied to compare simulated DR with experimentally measured. DR dependence on roughness, concentration and size of scattering particles is analysed. A weak depolarization and negligible response to scattering of the medium are observed for phantoms with smooth surfaces, whereas for the surface roughness in order to the mean free path the depolarization ratio decreases and reveals dependence on the bulk scattering coefficient. In is shown that the surface roughness could be a key factor triggering the ability of tissues' characterization by depolarization ratio.

  2. Electron scattering and correlation structure of light nuclei

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Lodhi, M.A.K.


    It has been known for some time that the short-range correlations due to the repulsive part of the nuclear interaction is exhibited in the nuclear form factors as obtained from high energy electron scattering. In this work the harmonic oscillator basis functions are used. The nuclear form factors as obtained from elastic electron scattering are calculated, with Jastrow's technique by means of the cluster expansion of Iwamoto Yamada, in the Born approximation. The correlated wave function is given. The results for nuclear form factors calculated with the wave function are presented for some light nuclei. (Auth.)

  3. Quantum Interference and Entanglement Induced by Multiple Scattering of Light

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Ott, Johan Raunkjær; Mortensen, Asger; Lodahl, Peter


    We report on the effects of quantum interference induced by the transmission of an arbitrary number of optical quantum states through a multiple-scattering medium. We identify the role of quantum interference on the photon correlations and the degree of continuous variable entanglement between two...... output modes. It is shown that quantum interference survives averaging over all ensembles of disorder and manifests itself as increased photon correlations due to photon antibunching. Furthermore, the existence of continuous variable entanglement correlations in a volume speckle pattern is predicted. Our...... results suggest that multiple scattering provides a promising way of coherently interfering many independent quantum states of light of potential use in quantum information processing....

  4. General theory of intensity correlation on light scattering

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Villaeys, A.A.


    A general theory for spatio-temporal intensity correlations measurements for a scattered beam is developed. A completely quantum mechanical description for both excitation and detection set up is used. This description is essentially valid for weak incident light beams and single photon absorption processes. From a unified point of view both, stationary as well as, time resolved experiments are described. The interest for such experiments in the study of processes like resonance raman scattering and resonance fluorescence is emphasized. Also an observable coherent contribution associated to different final levels of the target-atoms or molecules is obtained a result which cannot be reached by intensity measurements

  5. Dust grain characterization — Direct measurement of light scattering (United States)

    BartoÅ, P.; Pavlů, J.


    Dust grains play a key role in dusty plasma since they interact with the plasma we can use them to study plasma itself. The grains are illuminated by visible light (e.g., a laser sheet) and the situation is captured with camera. Despite of simplicity, light scattering on similar-to-wavelength sized grains is complex phenomenon. Interaction of the electromagnetic wave with material has to be computed with respect to Maxwell equations — analytic solution is nowadays available only for several selected shapes like sphere, coated sphere, or infinite cylinder. Moreover, material constants needed for computations are usually unknown. For computation result verification and material constant determination, we designed and developed a device directly measur­ing light scattering profiles. Single dust grains are trapped in the ultrasonic field (so called "acoustic levitation") and illuminated by the laser beam. Scattered light is then measured by a photodiode mounted on rotating platform. Synchronous detection is employed for a noise reduction. This setup brings several benefits against conventional methods: (1) it works in the free air, (2) the measured grain is captured for a long time, and (3) the grain could be of arbitrary shape.

  6. Scaling of light scattered from fractal aggregates at resonance (United States)

    Ortiz, Guillermo P.; Mochán, W. Luis


    Due to the scale invariance of fractal aggregates, light scattered from them often decays as a power of the scattering wave vector. The exponent in this power law has been usually interpreted as the geometrical fractal dimension. However, the validity of this interpretation is questionable for frequencies close to the resonances of the system, for which multiple scattering becomes important. In this work we calculate the dipole moments optically induced in fractal aggregates and the corresponding self-consistent field, as well as the electromagnetic normal modes. To this end, we develop a multiresolution hierarchical representation of the aggregate that allows the study of large systems taking fully into account the long range of the interactions. We analyze the scaling properties of the dynamically induced dipolar distribution. We find that under resonant conditions, scaling with the geometric fractal dimension is only observed for systems much larger than a length scale that is related to the linewidth of each individual resonance. The relevance to this result for the interpretation of light scattering experiments is discussed.

  7. Characterization of thermal plasmas by laser light scattering

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Snyder, S.C.; Lassahn, G.D.; Reynolds, L.D.; Fincke, J.R.


    Characterization of an atmospheric pressure free-burning arc discharge and a plasma jet by lineshape analysis of scattered laser light is described. Unlike emission spectroscopy, this technique provides direct measurement of plasma gas temperature, electron temperature and electron density without the assumption of local thermodynamic equilibrium (LTE). Plasma gas velocity can also be determined from the Doppler shift of the scattered laser light. Radial gas temperature, electron temperature and electron density profiles are presented for an atmospheric pressure argon free-burning arc discharge. These results show a significant departure from LTE in the arc column, contradicting results obtained from emission spectroscopy. Radial gas temperature and gas velocity profiles in the exit plane of a subsonic atmospheric pressure argon plasma jet are also presented. In this case, the results show the plasma jet is close to LTE in the center, but not in the fringes. The velocity profile is parabolic

  8. Dynamic light scattering on bioconjugated laser generated gold nanoparticles.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Massimo Zimbone

    Full Text Available Gold nanoparticles (AuNPs conjugated to DNA are widely used for biomedical targeting and sensing applications. DNA functionalization is easily reached on laser generated gold nanoparticles because of their unique surface chemistry, not reproducible by other methods. In this context, we present an extensive investigation concerning the attachment of DNA to the surface of laser generated nanoparticles using Dynamic Light Scattering and UV-Vis spectroscopy. The DNA conjugation is highlighted by the increase of the hydrodynamic radius and by the UV-Vis spectra behavior. Our investigation indicates that Dynamic Light Scattering is a suitable analytical tool to evidence, directly and qualitatively, the binding between a DNA molecule and a gold nanoparticle, therefore it is ideal to monitor changes in the conjugation process when experimental conditions are varied.

  9. Parhelic-like circle from light scattering in Plateau borders

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Tufaile, A., E-mail:; Tufaile, A.P.B.


    We are reporting a new simple optical element to generate halos. We have observed interesting patterns of light scattering in Plateau borders in foams. In analogy to the atmospheric phenomena known as parhelic circle, sun dogs, and sun pillars, we have named the features of the patterns observed as parlaseric circle, laser dogs, and laser pillars. The triangular symmetry of the Plateau borders is analogous to the hexagonal symmetry of ice crystals which produce these atmospheric phenomena. Working with one Plateau border at a time, we have observed wave optics phenomena that are not perceived in the atmospheric phenomena, such as diffraction and interference. - Highlights: • We obtained halo formation from light scattering in a Plateau border using an experiment. • We explained halo formation using geometrical theory of diffraction. • An optical element based on a Plateau border is proposed. • We compared some aspects of the parhelic circle with the parlaseric circle.

  10. Multiple scattering of polarized light in a turbid medium

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Gorodnichev, E. E.; Kuzovlev, A. I.; Rogozkin, D. B.


    It is shown that multiple scattering of polarized light in a turbid medium can be represented as independent propagation of three basic modes: intensity and linearly and circularly polarized modes. Weak interaction between the basic modes can be described by perturbation theory and gives rise to 'overtones' (additional polarization modes). Transport equations for the basic and additional modes are derived from a vector radiative transfer equation. Analytical solutions to these equations are found in the practically important cases of diffusive light propagation and small-angle multiple scattering. The results obtained are in good agreement with experimental and numerical results and provide an explanation for the experimentally observed difference in depolarization between linearly and circularly polarized waves


    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Dopita, Michael A.; Nicholls, David C.; Sutherland, Ralph S.; Kewley, Lisa J.; Groves, Brent A., E-mail: [Research School of Astronomy and Astrophysics, Australian National University, Canberra, ACT 2611 (Australia)


    We report here on the discovery of faint extended wings of H α observed out to an apparent velocity of ∼7600 km s{sup −1} in the Orion Nebula (M42) and in five H ii regions in the Large and the Small Magellanic Clouds. We show that these wings are caused by Raman scattering of both the O i and Si ii resonance lines and stellar continuum UV photons with H i followed by radiative decay to the H i n = 2 level. The broad wings also seen in H β and in H γ result from Raman scattering of the UV continuum in the H i n = 4 and n = 5 levels, respectively. The Raman scattering fluorescence is correlated with the intensity of the narrow permitted lines of O i and Si ii. In the case of Si ii, this is explained by radiative pumping of the same 1023.7 Å resonance line involved in the Raman scattering by the Ly β radiation field. The subsequent radiative cascade produces enhanced Si ii λλ 5978.9, 6347.1, and 6371.4 Å permitted transitions. Finally, we show that in O i, radiative pumping of the 1025.76 Å resonance line by the Lyman series radiation field is also the cause of the enhancement in the permitted lines of this species lying near H α in wavelength, but here the process is a little more complex. We argue that all these processes are active in the zone of the H ii region near the ionization front.

  12. Light scattering measurements supporting helical structures for chromatin in solution. (United States)

    Campbell, A M; Cotter, R I; Pardon, J F


    Laser light scattering measurements have been made on a series of polynucleosomes containing from 50 to 150 nucleosomes. Radii of gyration have been determined as a function of polynucleosome length for different ionic strength solutions. The results suggest that at low ionic strength the chromatin adopts a loosely helical structure rather than a random coil. The helix becomes more regular on increasing the ionic strength, the dimension resembling those proposed by Finch and Klug for their solenoid model.

  13. Quantum correlations induced by multiple scattering of quadrature squeezed light

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Lodahl, Peter


    Propagating quadrature squeezed light through a multiple scattering random medium is found to induce pronounced spatial quantum correlations that have no classical analogue. The correlations are revealed in the number of photons transported through the sample that can be measured from the intensity...... fluctuations of the total transmission or reflection. In contrast, no pronounced spatial quantum correlations appear in the quadrature amplitudes where excess noise above the shot noise level is found....

  14. Light scattering and reflectance of optically heterogeneous oriented polymers

    Czech Academy of Sciences Publication Activity Database

    Holoubek, Jaroslav


    Roč. 170, - (2001), s. 321-328 ISSN 1022-1360. [Property Tailoring of Thermoplastics-Based Blends and Composites. Bratislava, 01.10.2000-04.10.2000] R&D Projects: GA ČR GA203/99/0573; GA AV ČR IAA4050902; GA AV ČR KSK2050602 Institutional research plan: CEZ:AV0Z4050913 Keywords : oriented polymers * light reflectance * light scattering Subject RIV: CD - Macromolecular Chemistry Impact factor: 0.634, year: 2001

  15. Light scattering studies of solids and atomic vapors

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Chiang, T.C.


    The general technique of light scattering and luminescence was used to study the properties of a number of material systems. First, multi-phonon resonant Raman scattering up to four phonons in GaSe and one- and two-phonon resonant Raman scattering in the mixed GaS/sub x/Se/sub 1-x/ crystals with x < or = 0.23 were investigated. Second, the observation of one-phonon resonant Raman scattering in HfS/sub 2/ is reported. The result is used to determine the position of the direct gap of HfS/sub 2/. Third, the first observation of the ..pi..-polarized one-magnon luminescence sideband of the /sup 4/T/sub lg/ (/sup 4/G) ..-->.. /sup 6/A/sub lg/(/sup 6/S) excitonic transition in antiferromagnetic MnF/sub 2/ is presented. An effective temperature of the crystal is deduced from the simultaneously observed anti-Stokes sideband emission. Multi-magnon (< or = 7) excitonic luminescence sidebands were also observed in MnF/sub 2/, KMnF/sub 2/, and RbMnF/sub 3/ using pulsed excitation and detection. A simple model based on two-ion local exchange is proposed to explain the results qualitatively. Fourth, the first observation of two-magnon resonant Raman scattering in MnF/sub 2/ around the magnon sidebands is reported. A simple theoretical description explains the experimental observations. Fifth, a detailed theory of exciton-exciton interaction in MnF/sub 2/ is developed to explain and to predict the experimental results on two-exciton absorption, high level excitation, and exciton--exciton scattering. Sixth, Brillouin scattering was used to obtain the five independent elastic constants of the layered compound GaSe. The results show clear elastic anisotropy of the crystal. Resonant Brillouin scattering near the absorption edge was also studied, but no resonant enhancement was found. Seventh, two-photon parametric scattering in sodium vapor was studied. Phase matching angles and scattering cross sections are calculated for a given set of experimental conditions.

  16. Circular dichroism of luminous energy, induced by the dissipation in light scattering by aligned atoms

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Agre, M.Ya.


    A compact expression for the cross section of light scattering by aligned atomic systems is derived. It is shown that in above-threshold or resonant scattering, when the channel of luminous energy dissipation is open, circular dichroism effects can be observed in the angular distribution and the degree of polarization of the scattered light. In such cases circular polarization of the scattered light is also induced when the incident light has no circular polarization

  17. Efficient Light Extraction from Organic Light-Emitting Diodes Using Plasmonic Scattering Layers

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Rothberg, Lewis


    Our project addressed the DOE MYPP 2020 goal to improve light extraction from organic light-emitting diodes (OLEDs) to 75% (Core task 6.3). As noted in the 2010 MYPP, “the greatest opportunity for improvement is in the extraction of light from [OLED] panels”. There are many approaches to avoiding waveguiding limitations intrinsic to the planar OLED structure including use of textured substrates, microcavity designs and incorporating scattering layers into the device structure. We have chosen to pursue scattering layers since it addresses the largest source of loss which is waveguiding in the OLED itself. Scattering layers also have the potential to be relatively robust to color, polarization and angular distributions. We note that this can be combined with textured or microlens decorated substrates to achieve additional enhancement.

  18. Light scattering and light transmittance in intraocular lenses explanted because of optic opacification. (United States)

    Michelson, Jennifer; Werner, Liliana; Ollerton, Andrew; Leishman, Lisa; Bodnar, Zachary


    To assess light scattering and light transmittance in intraocular lenses (IOLs) explanted because of optic opacification. John A. Moran Eye Center, University of Utah, Salt Lake City, Utah, USA. Experimental study. Poly(methyl methacrylate) (PMMA) IOLs with snowflake degeneration, hydrophilic acrylic IOLs with different calcification patterns, and 1 calcified silicone IOL explanted from an eye with asteroid hyalosis were studied with gross and light microscopy. Light scattering was measured with an EAS-1000 Scheimpflug camera. Light transmittance was measured with a Lambda 35 UV/Vis spectrophotometer (single-beam configuration with RSA-PE-20 integrating sphere). Analyses were performed at room temperature in the hydrated state and compared with controls. The study evaluated 8 PMMA IOLs, 22 hydrophilic acrylic IOLs, and 1 silicone IOL. Light scattering was as follows: 208 to 223 computer-compatible tapes (CCTs) for PMMA IOLs with snowflake degeneration (control = 9 CCTs); 90 to 227 CCTs for calcified hydrophilic acrylic IOLs (controls = 12 to 23 CCTs); 223 CCTs for the calcified silicone IOL (control = 5 CCTs). The mean light transmittance in the visible light spectrum was 81.08% to 97.10% for PMMA IOLs (control = 98.80%); 78.94% to 97.32% for hydrophilic acrylic IOLs (controls = 97.32% to 98.66%); 94.68% for the silicone IOL (control = 97.74%). Intraocular lens opacification led to very high levels of light scattering and a potential for decreased light transmittance, which play a role in the development of symptoms such as glare and halos, decreased contrast sensitivity, and eventually decreased visual acuity. No author has a financial or proprietary interest in any material or method mentioned. Copyright © 2012 ASCRS and ESCRS. Published by Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  19. Static and dynamic light scattering of healthy and malaria-parasite invaded red blood cells (United States)

    Park, Yongkeun; Diez-Silva, Monica; Fu, Dan; Popescu, Gabriel; Choi, Wonshik; Barman, Ishan; Suresh, Subra; Feld, Michael S.


    We present the light scattering of individual Plasmodium falciparum-parasitized human red blood cells (Pf-RBCs), and demonstrate progressive alterations to the scattering signal arising from the development of malaria-inducing parasites. By selectively imaging the electric fields using quantitative phase microscopy and a Fourier transform light scattering technique, we calculate the light scattering maps of individual Pf-RBCs. We show that the onset and progression of pathological states of the Pf-RBCs can be clearly identified by the static scattering maps. Progressive changes to the biophysical properties of the Pf-RBC membrane are captured from dynamic light scattering.

  20. Discovery of polarized light scattered by dust around Alpha Orionis (United States)

    Mcmillan, R. S.; Tapia, S.


    Following the suggestion by Jura and Jacoby (1976), linearly polarized blue continuum starlight scattered by the dust shell around the M2 Iab star Alpha Orionis (Betelgeuse) has been discovered. The polarization has been traced in the NE, NW, SE, and SW directions and has positive (tangential) orientation. Some asymmetry of the optical depth in the shell exists 15 and 30 arcsec from the star. In the NE direction the polarization was measured as far as 90 arcsec (17,000 AU) from the star. The dependence of the average intensity of the scattered light from the nebula on angular distance from the star is more consistent with an inverse-square density law than with inverse 1.5 or inverse-cube laws. Assuming that the density is proportional to the inverse square of distance from the star, the scattering optical depth in blue light along a radius of 0.03 arcsec is no more than 0.15 + or - 0.05. Future observations of the wavelength dependence of polarization will allow a determination of grain size.

  1. Ultraviolet refractometry using field-based light scattering spectroscopy (United States)

    Fu, Dan; Choi, Wonshik; Sung, Yongjin; Oh, Seungeun; Yaqoob, Zahid; Park, YongKeun; Dasari, Ramachandra R.; Feld, Michael S.


    Accurate refractive index measurement in the deep ultraviolet (UV) range is important for the separate quantification of biomolecules such as proteins and DNA in biology. This task is demanding and has not been fully exploited so far. Here we report a new method of measuring refractive index using field-based light scattering spectroscopy, which is applicable to any wavelength range and suitable for both solutions and homogenous objects with well-defined shape such as microspheres. The angular scattering distribution of single microspheres immersed in homogeneous media is measured over the wavelength range 260 to 315 nm using quantitative phase microscopy. By least square fitting the observed scattering distribution with Mie scattering theory, the refractive index of either the sphere or the immersion medium can be determined provided that one is known a priori. Using this method, we have measured the refractive index dispersion of SiO2 spheres and bovine serum albumin (BSA) solutions in the deep UV region. Specific refractive index increments of BSA are also extracted. Typical accuracy of the present refractive index technique is ≤0.003. The precision of refractive index measurements is ≤0.002 and that of specific refractive index increment determination is ≤0.01 mL/g. PMID:20372622

  2. Resonant depolarized dynamic light scattering of silver nanoplatelets

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Zimbone, M., E-mail: [CNR-IMM (Italy); Messina, E. [IPCF-CNR Istituto per i Processi Chimico-Fisici (Italy); Compagnini, G.; Fragalà, M. E. [Dipartimento di Scienze Chimiche (Italy); Calcagno, L. [Dipartimento di Fisica ed Astronomia (Italy)


    Polarized and depolarized dynamic light scattering (DDLS) methodology was carried out on silver nanoplatelets showing strong plasmon-enhanced scattering. The hydrodynamic properties of the nanoparticles were determined by measuring the translation diffusion coefficient for “out resonant” condition and the rotational diffusion coefficient for “in resonant” condition. The results have been interpreted by applying an oblate ellipsoidal model, which allows a direct evaluation of nanoplatelets’ size and shape in agreement with scanning electron microscopy. The characterised nanoplatelets reveal a transversal size of 20 nm and a longitudinal length in the range 65–92 nm. Our investigation shows that DDLS in resonant condition is a simple and powerful technique to determine the size and shape of plasmonic nanoparticles and it can be successfully applied to characterise the dynamics of metallic nanoplatelets.

  3. Neutron and light scattering studies of polymers adsorbed on laponite

    CERN Document Server

    Nelson, A R J


    The adsorption of poly(ethylene oxide) (PEO) and various poly(ethylene oxide)-poly(propylene oxide)-poly(ethylene oxide) (Pluronic) copolymers onto the synthetic clay Laponite, was investigated using Small Angle Neutron Scattering (SANS) and Dynamic Light Scattering (DLS). The Laponite particles are anisotropic, with a relatively high aspect ratio; but are the same order of magnitude in size as the polymer radius of gyration. Consequently, the particles present a radically different adsorption geometry compared to a locally planar interface, that is assumed by the majority of adsorption studies. The PEO homo-polymer formed thin layers, with the layer thickness being much smaller on the face than on the edge of the particle. Furthermore, the face thickness remained constant with increasing molecular weight, unlike the edge thickness, which grew with a small power law dependence on the molecular weight. Although the hydrodynamic thicknesses (DLS) were larger than those observed with SANS, the layer thicknesses ...

  4. Light scattering application for bacterial cell monitoring during cultivation process (United States)

    Kotsyumbas, Igor Ya.; Kushnir, Igor M.; Bilyy, Rostyslav O.; Yarynovska, Ivanna H.; Getman, Vasyl'B.; Bilyi, Alexander I.


    Monitoring of bacterial cell numbers is of great importance not only in microbiological industry but also for control of liquids contamination in the food and pharmaceutical industries. Here we describe a novel low-cost and highly efficient technology for bacterial cell monitoring during cultivation process. The technology incorporates previously developed monitoring device and algorithm of its action. The devise analyses light scattered by suspended bacterial cells. Current stage utilizes monochromatic coherent light and detects amplitudes and durations of scattered light impulses, it does not require any labeling of bacterial cell. The system is calibrated using highly purificated bacteria-free water as standard. Liquid medial are diluted and analyzed by the proposed technology to determine presence of bacteria. Detection is done for a range of particle size from 0.1 to 10 μm, and thus particles size distribution is determined. We analyzed a set of different bacterial suspensions and also their changes in quantity and size distribution during cultivation. Based on the obtained results we conclude that proposed technology can be very effective for bacteria monitoring during cultivation process, providing benefits of low simplicity and low cost of analysis with simultaneous high detection precision.

  5. Dynamic light scattering in veterinary medicine: refinement of diagnostic criteria (United States)

    Dubin, Stephen; Zietz, Stanley; Gabriel, Karl L.; Gabriel, David; DellaVecchia, Michael A.; Ansari, Rafat R.


    In dynamic light scattering (DLS), the structure or material of interest, suspended in a fluid, is illuminated by a beam of laser light and the scattered light is interpreted in terms of diffusion coefficient, particle size or its distribution. DLS has shown clear promise as a non-invasive, objective and precise diagnostic modality for investigation of lens opacity (cataract) and other medical and toxicological problems. The clinical potential of LDS has been demonstrated in several species both in vivo and in vitro. In many clinical cases, discernment between normal and diseased patients is possible by simple inspection of the particle size distribution. However a more rigorous and sensitive classification scheme is needed, particularly for evaluation of therapy and estimation of tissue injury. The data supplied by DLS investigation is inherently multivariate and its most efficient interpretation requires a multivariate approach which includes the variability among specimens as well as any correlation among the variables (e.g. across the particle size distribution). We present a brief review of DLS methodology, illustrative data and our efforts toward a diagnostic classification scheme. In particular we will describe application of the Mahalanobis distance and related statistical methods to DLS data.

  6. Population of collective modes in light scattering by many atoms (United States)

    Guerin, William; Kaiser, Robin


    The interaction of light with an atomic sample containing a large number of particles gives rise to many collective (or cooperative) effects, such as multiple scattering, superradiance, and subradiance, even if the atomic density is low and the incident optical intensity weak (linear optics regime). Tracing over the degrees of freedom of the light field, the system can be well described by an effective atomic Hamiltonian, which contains the light-mediated dipole-dipole interaction between atoms. This long-range interaction is at the origin of the various collective effects, or of collective excitation modes of the system. Even though an analysis of the eigenvalues and eigenfunctions of these collective modes does allow distinguishing superradiant modes, for instance, from other collective modes, this is not sufficient to understand the dynamics of a driven system, as not all collective modes are significantly populated. Here, we study how the excitation parameters, i.e., the driving field, determines the population of the collective modes. We investigate in particular the role of the laser detuning from the atomic transition, and demonstrate a simple relation between the detuning and the steady-state population of the modes. This relation allows understanding several properties of cooperative scattering, such as why superradiance and subradiance become independent of the detuning at large enough detuning without vanishing, and why superradiance, but not subradiance, is suppressed near resonance. We also show that the spatial properties of the collective modes allow distinguishing diffusive modes, responsible for radiation trapping, from subradiant modes.

  7. Predicted light scattering from particles observed in human age-related nuclear cataracts using mie scattering theory. (United States)

    Costello, M Joseph; Johnsen, Sönke; Gilliland, Kurt O; Freel, Christopher D; Fowler, W Craig


    To employ Mie scattering theory to predict the light-scattering from micrometer-sized particles surrounded by lipid shells, called multilamellar bodies (MLBs), reported in human age-related nuclear cataracts. Mie scattering theory is applicable to randomly distributed spherical and globular particles separated by distances much greater than the wavelength of incident light. With an assumed refractive index of 1.40 for nuclear cytoplasm, particle refractive indices from 1.33 to 1.58 were used to calculate scattering efficiencies for particle radii 0.05 to 3 microm and incident light with wavelengths (in vacuo) of 400, 550, and 700 nm. Surface plots of scattering efficiency versus particle radius and refractive index were calculated for coated spherical particles. Pronounced peaks and valleys identified combinations of particle parameters that produce high and low scattering efficiencies. Small particles (scattering efficiency over a wide range of particle refractive indices. Particles with radii 0.6 to 3 microm and refractive indices 0.08 to 0.10 greater (or less) than the surrounding cytoplasm had very high scattering efficiencies. This size range corresponds well to MLBs in cataractous nuclei (average MLB radius, 1.4 microm) and, at an estimated 4000 particles/mm(3) of tissue, up to 18% of the incident light was scattered primarily within a 20 degrees forward cone. The calculated size of spherical particles that scatter efficiently was close to the observed dimensions of MLBs in cataractous nuclei. Particle refractive indices only 0.02 units different from the surrounding cytoplasm scatter a significant amount of light. These results suggest that the MLBs observed in human age-related nuclear cataracts may be major sources of forward light scattering that reduces contrast of fine details, particularly under dim light.

  8. Experimental study of Rayleigh scattering with a ruby laser beam: relative variation of scattered light with the number of scattering center and the gases nature

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Bayer, Charles


    The experimental variation of the scattered light with the number of scattering centers and with the refraction index of gases is in agreement with the theoretical Rayleigh scattering. A direct calibration System gives the absolute value of the Rayleigh ratio. The experimental value appears to be half of the theoretical one. (author) [fr

  9. Ultrafast image-based dynamic light scattering for nanoparticle sizing

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Zhou, Wu; Zhang, Jie; Liu, Lili; Cai, Xiaoshu, E-mail: [Institute of Particle and Two-Phase Flow Measurement, Shanghai Key Laboratory of Multiphase Flow and Heat Transfer in Power Engineering, University of Shanghai for Science and Technology, 516 Jungong Road, Shanghai 200093 (China)


    An ultrafast sizing method for nanoparticles is proposed, called as UIDLS (Ultrafast Image-based Dynamic Light Scattering). This method makes use of the intensity fluctuation of scattered light from nanoparticles in Brownian motion, which is similar to the conventional DLS method. The difference in the experimental system is that the scattered light by nanoparticles is received by an image sensor instead of a photomultiplier tube. A novel data processing algorithm is proposed to directly get correlation coefficient between two images at a certain time interval (from microseconds to milliseconds) by employing a two-dimensional image correlation algorithm. This coefficient has been proved to be a monotonic function of the particle diameter. Samples of standard latex particles (79/100/352/482/948 nm) were measured for validation of the proposed method. The measurement accuracy of higher than 90% was found with standard deviations less than 3%. A sample of nanosilver particle with nominal size of 20 ± 2 nm and a sample of polymethyl methacrylate emulsion with unknown size were also tested using UIDLS method. The measured results were 23.2 ± 3.0 nm and 246.1 ± 6.3 nm, respectively, which is substantially consistent with the transmission electron microscope results. Since the time for acquisition of two successive images has been reduced to less than 1 ms and the data processing time in about 10 ms, the total measuring time can be dramatically reduced from hundreds seconds to tens of milliseconds, which provides the potential for real-time and in situ nanoparticle sizing.

  10. A preview of a microgravity laser light scattering instrument (United States)

    Meyer, W. V.; Ansari, R. R.


    The development of a versatile, miniature, modular light scattering instrument to be used in microgravity is described. The instrument will measure microscopic particles in the size range of thirty angstroms to above three microns. This modular instrument permits several configurations, each optimized for a particular experiment. In particular, a multiangle instrument will probably be mounted in a rack in the Space Shuttle and on the Space Station. It is possible that a Space Shuttle glove-box and a lap-top computer containing a correlator card can be used to perform a number of experiments and to demonstrate the technology needed for more elaborate investigations.

  11. Computation of bessel functions in light scattering studies. (United States)

    Ross, W D


    Computations of light scattering require finding Bessel functions of a series of orders. These are found most easily by recurrence, but excessive rounding errors may accumulate. Satisfactory procedures for cylinder and sphere functions are described. If argument z is real, find Y(n)(z) by recurrence to high orders. From two high orders of Y(n)(z) estimate J(n)(z). Use backward recurrence to maximum J(n)(z). Correct by forward recurrence to maximum. If z is complex, estimate high orders of J(n)(z) without Y(n)(z) and use backward recurrence.

  12. Light-scattering models applied to circumstellar dust properties

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Koehler, Melanie; Mann, Ingrid


    Radiation pressure force, Poynting-Robertson effect, and collisions are important to determine the size distribution of dust in circumstellar debris disks with the two former parameters depending on the light-scattering properties of grains. We here present Mie and discrete-dipole approximation (DDA) calculations to describe the optical properties of dust particles around β Pictoris, Vega, and Fomalhaut in order to study the influence of the radiation pressure force. We find that the differences between Mie and DDA calculations are lower than 30% for all porosities. Therefore, Mie calculations can be used to determine the cut-off limits which contribute to the size distribution for the different systems

  13. Wide-field imaging through scattering media by scattered light fluorescence microscopy (United States)

    Zhou, Yulan; Li, Xun


    To obtain images through scattering media, scattered light fluorescence (SLF) microscopy that utilizes the optical memory effect has been developed. However, the small field of view (FOV) of SLF microscopy limits its application. In this paper, we have introduced a re-modulation method to achieve wide-field imaging through scattering media by SLF microscopy. In the re-modulation method, to raster scan the focus across the object plane, the incident wavefront is re-modulated via a spatial light modulator (SLM) in the updated phase compensation calculated using the optimized iterative algorithm. Compared with the conventional optical memory effect method, the re-modulation method can greatly increase the FOV of a SLF microscope. With the phase compensation theoretically calculated, the process of updating the phase compensation of a high speed SLM is fast. The re-modulation method does not increase the imaging time. The re-modulation method is, therefore, expected to make SLF microscopy have much wider applications in biology, medicine and physiology.

  14. Enhanced light emission in blue light-emitting diodes by multiple Mie scattering from embedded silica nanosphere stacking layers. (United States)

    Park, Young Jae; Kang, Ji Hye; Kim, Hee Yun; Lysak, Volodymyr V; Chandramohan, S; Ryu, Jae Hyoung; Kim, Hyun Kyu; Han, Nam; Jeong, Hyun; Jeong, Mun Seok; Hong, Chang-Hee


    We demonstrate enhanced light emission in blue light-emitting diodes (LEDs) by multiple Mie scattering from embedded silica nanosphere stacking layers (SNSL). A honeycomb cone structure is introduced in the GaN epilayer to confine a maximum number of silica nanospheres (SNs). We found that the light is predominantly directed vertically by scattering and geometrical effect in SNSL embedded LEDs. Consequently, the light output power is enhanced by 2.7 times, which we attribute to the improvement in light extraction efficiency due to the multiple Mie scattering of light from the embedded SNSL. The experimental results are verified by simulation using finite difference time domain method (FDTD).

  15. Assessment of Coulomb shifts in nucleon scattering resonances on light nuclei at low energies

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Takibaev, N.Zh.; Uzakova, Zh.; Abdanova, L.


    The assessments of the Coulomb forces contribution to position and width of the resonances at nucleons scattering on light nuclei within low energy field are given. In particular the shifts of resonances in amplitudes arising in the processes protons scattering on light nuclei relatively neutrons scattering resonance characteristics on these nuclei are considered

  16. Fining of Red Wine Monitored by Multiple Light Scattering. (United States)

    Ferrentino, Giovanna; Ramezani, Mohsen; Morozova, Ksenia; Hafner, Daniela; Pedri, Ulrich; Pixner, Konrad; Scampicchio, Matteo


    This work describes a new approach based on multiple light scattering to study red wine clarification processes. The whole spectral signal (1933 backscattering points along the length of each sample vial) were fitted by a multivariate kinetic model that was built with a three-step mechanism, implying (1) adsorption of wine colloids to fining agents, (2) aggregation into larger particles, and (3) sedimentation. Each step is characterized by a reaction rate constant. According to the first reaction, the results showed that gelatin was the most efficient fining agent, concerning the main objective, which was the clarification of the wine, and consequently the increase in its limpidity. Such a trend was also discussed in relation to the results achieved by nephelometry, total phenols, ζ-potential, color, sensory, and electronic nose analyses. Also, higher concentrations of the fining agent (from 5 to 30 g/100 L) or higher temperatures (from 10 to 20 °C) sped up the process. Finally, the advantage of using the whole spectral signal vs classical univariate approaches was demonstrated by comparing the uncertainty associated with the rate constants of the proposed kinetic model. Overall, multiple light scattering technique showed a great potential for studying fining processes compared to classical univariate approaches.

  17. Flow speed measurement using two-point collective light scattering

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Heinemeier, N.P.


    Measurements of turbulence in plasmas and fluids using the technique of collective light scattering have always been plagued by very poor spatial resolution. In 1994, a novel two-point collective light scattering system for the measurement of transport in a fusion plasma was proposed. This diagnostic method was design for a great improvement of the spatial resolution, without sacrificing accuracy in the velocity measurement. The system was installed at the W7-AS steallartor in Garching, Germany, in 1996, and has been operating since. This master thesis is an investigation of the possible application of this new method to the measurement of flow speeds in normal fluids, in particular air, although the results presented in this work have significance for the plasma measurements as well. The main goal of the project was the experimental verification of previous theoretical predictions. However, the theoretical considerations presented in the thesis show that the method can only be hoped to work for flows that are almost laminar and shearless, which makes it of very small practical interest. Furthermore, this result also implies that the diagnostic at W7-AS cannot be expected to give the results originally hoped for. (au)


    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Birnstiel, Tilman; Andrews, Sean M. [Harvard-Smithsonian Center for Astrophysics, 60 Garden Street, Cambridge, MA 02138 (United States); Pinilla, Paola; Kama, Mihkel, E-mail:, E-mail:, E-mail:, E-mail: [Leiden Observatory, P.O. Box 9513, 2300 RA, Leiden (Netherlands)


    Recent imaging of protoplanetary disks with high resolution and contrast have revealed a striking variety of substructure. Of particular interest are cases where near-infrared scattered light images show evidence for low-intensity annular “gaps.” The origins of such structures are still uncertain, but the interaction of the gas disk with planets is a common interpretation. We study the impact that the evolution of the solid material can have on the observable properties of disks in a simple scenario without any gravitational or hydrodynamical disturbances to the gas disk structure. Even with a smooth and continuous gas density profile, we find that the scattered light emission produced by small dust grains can exhibit ring-like depressions similar to those presented in recent observations. The physical mechanisms responsible for these features rely on the inefficient fragmentation of dust particles. The occurrence and position of the proposed “gap” features depend most strongly on the dust-to-gas ratio, the fragmentation threshold velocity, the strength of the turbulence, and the age of the disk, and should be generic (at some radius) for typically adopted disk parameters. The same physical processes can affect the thermal emission at optically thin wavelengths (∼1 mm), although the behavior can be more complex; unlike for disk–planet interactions, a “gap” should not be present at these longer wavelengths.

  19. Modelling Elastic Scattering and Light Transport in 3D Collagen Gel Constructs

    National Research Council Canada - National Science Library

    Bixio, L


    A model of elastic scattering and light propagation is presented, which can be used to obtain the scattering coefficient, the index of refraction and the distribution of the collagen fibrils in a gel...

  20. Reducing light scattering in high-reflection coatings through destructive interference at fully correlated interfaces. (United States)

    Zhang, Jinlong; Wu, Han; Jiao, Hongfei; Schröder, Sven; Trost, Marcus; Wang, Zhanshan; Cheng, Xinbin


    Light scattering in quarter-wave high-reflection (QWHR) coatings with fully correlated interfaces was reduced by adding Fabry-Perot (FP) cavity structures on top of the multilayer. The properly designed FP cavity can induce destructive interference for fully correlated interfaces and reduce the scattering loss. Compared to QWHR coatings, adding one FP cavity could decrease the scattering at the near specular angles, and two FP cavities have the potential to reduce light scattering in a broad angular range. A low-scattering HR (LSHR) coating using two FP cavities has been realized to suppress light scattering. The numerical scattering calculation illustrated that the total scattering loss of the LSHR was about 30% less than that of the QWHR coatings. The measured angle-resolved scattering of the LSHR coating showed a good correspondence to the numerical calculation, although a small deviation exists in a limited angular range.

  1. Study on the Light Scattering from Random Rough Surfaces by Kirrhoff Approximation

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Keding Yan


    Full Text Available In order to study the space distribution characteristics of light scattering from random rough surfaces, the linear filtering method is used to generate a series of Gaussian randomly rough surfaces, and the Kirchhoff Approximation is used to calculate the scattered light intensity distribution from random metal and dielectric rough surfaces. The three characteristics of the scattered light intensity distribution peak, the intensity distribution width and the position of peak are reviewed. Numerical calculation results show that significant differences between scattering characteristics of metal surfaces and the dielectric surfaces exist. The light scattering characteristics are jointly influenced by the slope distribution and reflectance of surface element. The scattered light intensity distribution is affected by common influence of surface local slope distribution and surface local reflectivity. The results can provide a basis theory for the research to lidar target surface scattering characteristics.

  2. Spatial quantum correlations induced by random multiple scattering of quadrature squeezed light

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Lodahl, Peter


    The authors demonstrates that spatial quantum correlations are induced by multiple scattering of quadrature squeezed light through a random medium. As a consequence, light scattered along two different directions by the random medium will not be independent, but be correlated to an extent that can...... only be described by a quantum mechanical theory for multiple scattering. The spatial quantum correlation is revealed in the fluctuations of the total intensity transmission or reflection through the multiple scattering medium....

  3. Characterization of aniosotropic nano-particles by using depolarized dynamic light scattering in the near field

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Brogioli, D.; Salerno, D.; Cassina, V.; Sacanna, S.; Philipse, A.P.; Croccolo, F.; Mantegazza, F.


    Light scattering techniques are widely used in many fields of condensed and soft matter physics. Usually these methods are based on the study of the scattered light in the far field. Recently, a new family of near field detection schemes has been developed, mainly for the study of small angle light

  4. Image processing methods for noise reduction in the TJ-II Thomson Scattering diagnostic

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Dormido-Canto, S., E-mail: [Departamento de Informatica y Automatica, UNED, Madrid 28040 (Spain); Farias, G. [Pontificia Universidad Catolica de Valparaiso, Valparaiso (Chile); Vega, J.; Pastor, I. [Asociacion EURATOM/CIEMAT para Fusion, Madrid 28040 (Spain)


    Highlights: Black-Right-Pointing-Pointer We describe an approach in order to reduce or mitigate the stray-light on the images and show the exceptional results. Black-Right-Pointing-Pointer We analyze the parameters to take account in the proposed process. Black-Right-Pointing-Pointer We report a simplified exampled in order to explain the proposed process. - Abstract: The Thomsom Scattering diagnostic of the TJ-II stellarator provides temperature and density profiles. The CCD camera acquires images corrupted with noise that, in some cases, can produce unreliable profiles. The main source of noise is the so-called stray-light. In this paper we describe an approach that allows mitigation of the effects that stray-light has on the images: extraction regions with connected-components. In addition, the robustness and effectiveness of the noise reduction technique is validated in two ways: (1) supervised classification and (2) comparison of electron temperature profiles.

  5. Light wavelength effects in submicrometer phosphor materials using Mie scattering and Monte Carlo simulation. (United States)

    Liaparinos, P F


    Phosphor materials provide challenges to both fundamental research and breakthrough development of technologies in research areas. In recent years, with the development of science and technology in the field of materials, a number of physical or chemical synthesis methods have been developed and successfully used for the preparation of submicrometer-sized phosphors. The present paper provides a rigorous analysis of light diffusion capabilities of phosphor materials in submicrometer-scale investigating the effect of light wavelength. Mie scattering theory and Monte Carlo simulation techniques were used for the optical diffusion performance providing numerical calculations. The Monte Carlo model included: (i) phosphor layers composed of different thickness (200, 500, 1000 μm) and (ii) different light wavelength values (420, 545, 610 nm) corresponding to different types of activators, such as Ce, Tb, and Eu activators, respectively. Based on Mie calculations, it was found that for low values of refractive index (e.g., 1.4) and for particle radius from 250 up to 500 nm no significant variations occurred on optical parameters. Monte Carlo simulations showed that the resolution increases as light wavelength decreases, respectively, however, this increase is more obvious at lower thickness values (i.e., at 200 μm). In particular, as light wavelength decreases from 610 down to 545 and 420 nm, the resolution increases 4.4% and 13.9%, respectively (at 200 μm layer thickness). In addition, as layer thickness increases from 200 up to 500 μm the resolution decreases 50.2% while an increase up to 1000 μm causes a decrease of 70.2% (at 420 nm light wavelength). The goal of the author's study was to investigate the optical diffusion characteristics of submicrometer phosphor materials using Mie scattering theory and Monte Carlo simulation. The present investigation indicated that a key parameter on resolution improvement was the amount of light loss which depends on the choice

  6. Light Scattering By Nonspherical Particles: Current Status and Challenging Issues (United States)

    Mishchenko, Michael; Hansen, James E. (Technical Monitor)


    Quantitative analyses of remote sensing measurements of aerosols, clouds, precipitation, and particulate surfaces as well as computations of the Earth's radiation balance require detailed understanding of the interaction of small particles with light and other electromagnetic radiation. The convenient availability of the Lorenz-Mie theory has led to a widespread practice of treating all particles as if they were spheres. However, many natural and anthropogenic particles have nonspherical shapes, and the accumulated knowledge suggests that their scattering and radiative properties can be dramatically different from those of equivalent spheres. This presentation will summarize the recent significant progress achieved in the area of electromagnetic scattering by nonspherical particles and outline major problems that still await solution. The talk will cover the following specific topics: (1) comparison of most widely used exact and approximate theoretical techniques; (2) outline of laboratory and field measurement techniques; (3) compare theory and experiment; (4) need for a statistical approach in dealing with natural particles; (5) remote sensing and radiative transfer applications; and (6) major unsolved problems.

  7. Brillouin light scattering spectroscopy for tissue engineering application (United States)

    Akilbekova, Dana; Yakupov, Talgat; Ogay, Vyacheslav; Umbayev, Bauyrzhan; Yakovlev, Vladislav V.; Utegulov, Zhandos N.


    Biomechanical properties of mammalian bones, such as strength, toughness and plasticity, are essential for understanding how microscopic scale mechanical features can link to macroscale bones' strength and fracture resistance. We employ Brillouin light scattering (BLS) micro-spectroscopy for local assessment of elastic properties of bones under compression and the efficacy of the tissue engineering approach based on heparin-conjugated fibrin (HCF) hydrogels, bone morphogenic proteins (BMPs) and osteogenic stem cells in the regeneration of the bone tissues. BLS is noninvasive and label-free imaging modality for probing mechanical properties of hard tissues that can give information on structure-function properties of normal and pathological tissues. Results showed that HCF gels containing combination of all factors had the best effect with complete defect regeneration at week 9 and that the bones with fully consolidated fractures have higher values of elastic moduli compared to the bones with defects.

  8. Investigation into Cherenkov light scattering and refraction on aerogel surface (United States)

    Barnyakov, A. Yu.; Barnyakov, M. Yu.; Bobrovnikov, V. S.; Buzykaev, A. R.; Danilyuk, A. F.; Katcin, A. A.; Kirilenko, P. S.; Kononov, S. A.; Korda, D. V.; Kravchenko, E. A.; Kudryavtsev, V. N.; Kuyanov, I. A.; Onuchin, A. P.; Ovtin, I. V.; Podgornov, N. A.; Predein, A. Yu.; Prisekin, V. G.; Protsenko, R. S.; Shekhtman, L. I.


    The work concerns the development of aerogel radiators for RICH detectors. Aerogel tiles with a refractive index of 1.05 were tested with a RICH prototype on the electron beam on the VEPP-4M collider. It has been shown that polishing with silk tissue yields good surface quality, the amount of light loss at this surface being about 5-7%. The Cherenkov angle resolution was measured for a tile in two conditions: with a clean exit face and with a polished exit face. The number of photons detected was 13.3 and 12.7 for the clean and polished surfaces, respectively. The Cherenkov angle resolution for the polished surface is 55% worse, which can be explained with the forward scattering on the polished surface. A tile with a crack inside was also tested. The experimental data show that the Cherenkov angle resolution is the same for tracks crossing the crack area and in a crack-free area.

  9. Development of a versatile laser light scattering instrument (United States)

    Meyer, William V.; Ansari, Rafat R.


    A versatile laser light scattering (LLS) instrument is developed for use in microgravity to measure microscopic particles of 30 A to above 3 microns. Since it is an optical technique, LLS does not affect the sample being studied. A LLS instrument built from modules allows several configurations, each optimized for a particular experiment. The multiangle LLS instrument can be mounted in the rack in the Space Shuttle and on Space Station Freedom. It is possible that a Space Shuttle glove-box and a lap-top computer containing a correlator card can be used to perform a number of experiments and to demonstrate the technology needed for more elaborate investigations. This offers simple means of flying a great number of experiments without the additional requirements of full-scale flight hardware experiments.

  10. The generalized multipole technique for light scattering recent developments

    CERN Document Server

    Eremin, Yuri


    This book presents the Generalized Multipole Technique as a fast and powerful theoretical and computation tool to simulate light scattering by nonspherical particles. It also demonstrates the considerable potential of the method. In recent years, the concept has been applied in new fields, such as simulation of electron energy loss spectroscopy and has been used to extend other methods, like the null-field method, making it more widely applicable. The authors discuss particular implementations of the GMT methods, such as the Discrete Sources Method (DSM), Multiple Multipole Program (MMP), the Method of Auxiliary Sources (MAS), the Filamentary Current Method (FCM), the Method of Fictitious Sources (MFS) and the Null-Field Method with Discrete Sources (NFM-DS). The Generalized Multipole Technique is a surface-based method to find the solution of a boundary-value problem for a given differential equation by expanding the fields in terms of fundamental or other singular solutions of this equation. The amplitudes ...

  11. Investigating surface and subsurface physical properties of small bodies from light scattering observations and simulations (United States)

    Levasseur-Regourd, A. C.; Hadamcik, E.; Lasue, J.; Renard, J. B.

    Investigating surface and subsurface physical properties of small bodies from light scattering observations and simulations A.C. Levasseur-Regourd (1), E. Hadamcik (1), J. Lasue (1), J.B. Renard (2) (1) Université Pierre et Marie Curie-Paris6, UMR 7620, Aéronomie, BP-3, Verrières, 91371 France, (2) LPCE-CNRS, 3A av. Recherche Scientifique, Orléans, F-45071 France Investigating surface and subsurface physical properties of asteroids and comet nuclei is of major interest to i) assess future space missions and ii) constrain formation and evolution models. Our purpose is to infer such properties from the properties of solar light scattered by such media. We will first summarize recent remote polarimetric observations of small bodies, which confirm the main characteristics of the variation of the linear polarization of solar scattered light in the visible domain with the scattering geometry and the wavelength (1). To interpret such characteristics in terms of physical properties of the regoliths (e.g. albedo, size distribution, complex refractive index, porosity), experimental and numerical simulations on various types of particles and aggregates are mandatory, together with some comparisons between experimental and numerical simulations (2,3). We will thus present recent results of such simulations (for dust around bright comets, for core-mantle particles, for loose deposited transparent and dark materials), and point out the trends already suggested by this approach. Finally, we will mention future key observations and elaborate simulations, which could solve open questions about surface and subsurface properties of small bodies. References 1. Levasseur-Regourd et al., ASR 37, 161, 2006. 2. Hadamcik et al., JQSRT 100, 143, 2006. 3. Lasue et al., JQSRT 100, 220, 2006.

  12. High-energy scaling of Compton scattering light sources

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    F. V. Hartemann


    Full Text Available No monochromatic (Δω_{x}/ω_{x}10^{20}   photons/(mm^{2}×mrad^{2}×s×0.1%   bandwidth], tunable light sources currently exist above 100 keV. Important applications that would benefit from such new hard x-ray and γ-ray sources include the following: nuclear resonance fluorescence spectroscopy and isotopic imaging, time-resolved positron annihilation spectroscopy, and MeV flash radiography. In this paper, the peak brightness of Compton scattering light sources is derived for head-on collisions and found to scale quadratically with the normalized energy, γ; inversely with the electron beam duration, Δτ, and the square of its normalized emittance, ε; and linearly with the bunch charge, eN_{e}, and the number of photons in the laser pulse, N_{γ}:   B[over ^]_{x}∝γ^{2}N_{e}N_{γ}/ε^{2}Δτ. This γ^{2} scaling shows that for low normalized emittance electron beams (1 nC, 1  mm·mrad, 100  MeV, and tabletop laser systems (1–10   J, 5 ps the x-ray peak brightness can exceed 10^{23}   photons/(mm^{2}×mrad^{2}×s×0.1%   bandwidth near ℏω_{x}=1   MeV; this is confirmed by three-dimensional codes that have been benchmarked against Compton scattering experiments performed at Lawrence Livermore National Laboratory. The interaction geometry under consideration is head-on collisions, where the x-ray flash duration is shown to be equal to that of the electron bunch, and which produce the highest peak brightness for compressed electron beams. Important nonlinear effects, including spectral broadening, are also taken into account in our analysis; they show that there is an optimum laser pulse duration in this geometry, of the order of a few picoseconds, in sharp contrast with the initial approach to laser-driven Compton scattering sources where femtosecond laser systems were thought to be mandatory. The analytical expression for the peak on-axis brightness derived here is a powerful tool to

  13. Angular scattering of an Airy beam light sheet by a concentric sphere (United States)

    Cao, Zhaolou; Zhai, Chunjie


    Angular distribution of scattered light by a particle reveals information of its topology and refractive index, which has been proved to be an effective method to identify and characterize the particle. In this paper, numerical study on angular scattering of a polarized one-dimensional Airy beam light sheet by concentric spheres is presented. Plane-wave spectrum method is adopted to simplify the problem into classic Mie scattering problem, which significantly improves computational efficiency. The effects of size parameters, refractive index and position of concentric spheres and Airy beam radius on the angular distribution of scattered light are investigated. This paper provides theoretical results for light scattering measurement where Airy beam light sheet is employed for reducing effects of multiple scattering.

  14. Multiple scattering contribution to the diffuse light of a night sky: A model which embraces all orders of scattering (United States)

    Kocifaj, Miroslav


    The mechanism in which multiple scattering influences the radiance of a night sky has been poorly quantified until recently, or even completely unknown from the theoretical point of view. In this paper, the relative contribution of higher-scattering radiances to the total sky radiance is treated analytically for all orders of scattering, showing that a fast and accurate numerical solution to the problem exists. Unlike a class of ray tracing codes in which CPU requirements increase tremendously with each new scattering mode, the solution developed here requires the same processor time for each scattering mode. This allows for rapid estimation of higher-scattering radiances and residual error that is otherwise unknown if these radiances remain undetermined. Such convergence testing is necessary to guarantee accuracy and the stability of the numerical predictions. The performance of the method developed here is demonstrated in a set of numerical experiments aiming to uncover the relative importance of higher-scattering radiances at different distances from a light source. We have shown, that multiple scattering effects are generally low if distance to the light source is below 30 km. At large distances the multiple scattering can become important at the dark sky elements situated opposite to the light source. However, the brightness at this part of sky is several orders of magnitude smaller than that of a glowing dome of light over a city, so we do not expect that a partial increase or even doubling the radiance of otherwise dark sky elements can noticeably affect astronomical observations or living organisms (including humans). Single scattering is an appropriate approximation to the sky radiance of a night sky in the vast majority of cases.

  15. Hadronic light-by-light scattering contribution to the muon g-2

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Nyffeler, A.


    We review recent developments concerning the hadronic light-by-light scattering contribution to the anomalous magnetic moment of the muon. We first discuss why fully off-shell hadronic form factors should be used for the evaluation of this contribution to the g-2. We then reevaluate the numerically dominant pion-exchange contribution in the framework of large-N C QCD, using an off-shell pion-photon-photon form factor which fulfills all QCD short-distance constraints,in particular, a new short-distance constraint on the off-shell form factor at the external vertex in g-2, which relates the form factor to the quark condensate magnetic susceptibility in QCD. Combined with available evaluations of the other contributions to hadronic light-by-light scattering this leads to the new result α μ LbyL;had =(116 ± 40) x 10 -11 , with a conservative error estimate in view of the many still unsolved problems. Some potential ways for further improvements are briefly discussed as well. For the electron we obtain the new estimate α e LbyL;had =(3.9 ± 1.3) x 10 -14 . (author)

  16. Neutron and light scattering studies of polymers adsorbed on laponite

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Nelson, Andrew Robert John


    The adsorption of poly(ethylene oxide) (PEO) and various poly(ethylene oxide)-poly(propylene oxide)-poly(ethylene oxide) (Pluronic) copolymers onto the synthetic clay Laponite, was investigated using Small Angle Neutron Scattering (SANS) and Dynamic Light Scattering (DLS). The Laponite particles are anisotropic, with a relatively high aspect ratio; but are the same order of magnitude in size as the polymer radius of gyration. Consequently, the particles present a radically different adsorption geometry compared to a locally planar interface, that is assumed by the majority of adsorption studies. The PEO homo-polymer formed thin layers, with the layer thickness being much smaller on the face than on the edge of the particle. Furthermore, the face thickness remained constant with increasing molecular weight, unlike the edge thickness, which grew with a small power law dependence on the molecular weight. Although the hydrodynamic thicknesses (DLS) were larger than those observed with SANS, the layer thicknesses were much smaller than that expected for polymer adsorption on spherical particles. Experimentally determined inter-particle structure factors suggested that the adsorbed PEO layers provided a steric repulsion term to the inter-particle interactions. The autocorrelation functions for aggregating Laponite dispersions were followed with DLS. It was found that the stabilisation provided by the adsorbed layer reduced the aggregation rate, with lower molecular weights being most effective. SANS and DLS measurements on Laponite/Pluronic systems revealed that the thickness of the Pluronic layer was the same on the edge and face of the particle. As the Pluronic anchor fraction decreased, and the PEO block molecular weight increased, a growth in the layer size and adsorbed amount was observed. The low anchor fraction Pluronics had higher adsorbed amounts and thicker layers, than the highest M w homo-polymers, demonstrating the importance of the PPO block in the

  17. Multiple scattering of polarized light: comparison of Maxwell theory and radiative transfer theory. (United States)

    Voit, Florian; Hohmann, Ansgar; Schäfer, Jan; Kienle, Alwin


    For many research areas in biomedical optics, information about scattering of polarized light in turbid media is of increasing importance. Scattering simulations within this field are mainly performed on the basis of radiative transfer theory. In this study a polarization sensitive Monte Carlo solution of radiative transfer theory is compared to exact Maxwell solutions for all elements of the scattering Müller matrix. Different scatterer volume concentrations are modeled as a multitude of monodisperse nonabsorbing spheres randomly positioned in a cubic simulation volume which is irradiated with monochromatic incident light. For all Müller matrix elements effects due to dependent scattering and multiple scattering are analysed. The results are in overall good agreement between the two methods with deviations related to dependent scattering being prominent for high volume concentrations and high scattering angles.

  18. A rotational diffusion coefficient of the 70s ribosome determined by depolarized laser light scattering

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Bruining, J.; Fijnaut, H.M.

    We have obtained a rotational diffusion coefficient of the 70S ribosome isolated from Escherichia-coli (MRE-600), from the depolarized light scattering spectrum measured by photon correlation spectroscopy. The intensity correlation function of depolarized scattered light contains contributions due

  19. Scattering of light by a periodic structure in the presence of ...

    Indian Academy of Sciences (India)

    Home; Journals; Pramana – Journal of Physics; Volume 65; Issue 3. Scattering of light by a periodic structure in the presence of randomness IV. Limit of detection by curve ... In the context of scattering of light, we determine the extent of randomness within which a hidden periodic part can still be detected. The detection is ...

  20. Measurements of strong correlations in the transport of light through strongly scattering materials

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Akbulut, D.


    In this thesis, we study light transport through multiple scattering random photonic materials. Light incident on such materials undergoes many scattering events before exiting the material. The relation between the incident and the transmitted fields is determined by the optical transmission matrix

  1. Structure of phase matrices of light scattering particles derived from symmetry considerations

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    J. W. Hovenier


    Full Text Available Symmetry considerations are used to deduce equations from which the main structure of the phase matrix of one or more light scattering particles is derived for special directions of incident and scattered light. For this purpose we use symmetry relations with a wide range of validity, as well as rotational symmetry about a vertical axis in a three dimensional coordinate system.

  2. Field-based dynamic light scattering microscopy: theory and numerical analysis

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Joo, C.; de Boer, J.F.


    We present a theoretical framework for field-based dynamic light scattering microscopy based on a spectral-domain optical coherence phase microscopy (SD-OCPM) platform. SD-OCPM is an interferometric microscope capable of quantitative measurement of amplitude and phase of scattered light with high

  3. Progress on the HIT--II Multi-Point Thomson Scattering Diagnostic (United States)

    Hamp, W. T.; Jarboe, T. R.; Smith, R. J.; Nelson, B. A.; Rogers, J. A.; Leblanc, B. P.; Phillips, P. E.


    The Helicity Injected Torus (HIT--II) multi-point Thomson scattering diagnostic (MPTS) has been designed and built to determine electron temperature and density at 11 radial positions at one time during the plasma discharge. The system includes collection optics and a Littrow mount spectrometer on loan from Princeton, and a 1 GW laser and multi-anode microchannel plate detector (MCP) from the University of Texas. The MPTS is currently operational at 6 spatial positions, indicating electron temperatures greater than 100 eV in transformer driven plasmas. The remaining 5 spatial positions are overloaded by stray laser light. Light reemerging from the beam dump is the primary suspect for stray light. A new beam dump has been constructed in an effort to reduce the stray light and increase the number of operational channels. A new diffraction grating has been constructed to increase the dispersion of the spectrometer to counteract the excessively broad frequency response of the MCP. Plans for MPTS operation include the characterization of density and temperature evolution across reconnection events in CHI driven plasmas, as well as temperature and density characterizations of optimized CHI and transformer driven plasmas in the HIT--II device.

  4. Angular-dependent light scattering from cancer cells in different phases of the cell cycle. (United States)

    Lin, Xiaogang; Wan, Nan; Weng, Lingdong; Zhou, Yong


    Cancer cells in different phases of the cell cycle result in significant differences in light scattering properties. In order to harvest cancer cells in particular phases of the cell cycle, we cultured cancer cells through the process of synchronization. Flow cytometric analysis was applied to check the results of cell synchronization and prepare for light scattering measurements. Angular-dependent light scattering measurements of cancer cells arrested in the G1, S, and G2 phases have been performed. Based on integral calculations for scattering intensities from 5° to 10° and from 110° to 150°, conclusions have been reached. Clearly, the sizes of the cancer cells in different phases of the cell cycle dominated the forward scatter. Accompanying the increase of cell size with the progression of the cell cycle, the forward scattering intensity also increased. Meanwhile, the DNA content of cancer cells in every phase of the cell cycle is responsible for light scattering at large scatter angles. The higher the DNA content of cancer cells was, the greater the positive effect on the high-scattering intensity. As expected, understanding the relationships between the light scattering from cancer cells and cell cycles will aid in the development of cancer diagnoses. Also, it may assist in the guidance of antineoplastic drugs clinically.

  5. Brillouin light scattering from surface acoustic waves in a subwavelength-diameter optical fibre. (United States)

    Beugnot, Jean-Charles; Lebrun, Sylvie; Pauliat, Gilles; Maillotte, Hervé; Laude, Vincent; Sylvestre, Thibaut


    Brillouin scattering in optical fibres is a fundamental interaction between light and sound with important implications ranging from optical sensors to slow and fast light. In usual optical fibres, light both excites and feels shear and longitudinal bulk elastic waves, giving rise to forward-guided acoustic wave Brillouin scattering and backward-stimulated Brillouin scattering. In a subwavelength-diameter optical fibre, the situation changes dramatically, as we here report with the first experimental observation of Brillouin light scattering from surface acoustic waves. These Rayleigh-type surface waves travel the wire surface at a specific velocity of 3,400 m s(-1) and backscatter the light with a Doppler shift of about 6 GHz. As these acoustic resonances are sensitive to surface defects or features, surface acoustic wave Brillouin scattering opens new opportunities for various sensing applications, but also in other domains such as microwave photonics and nonlinear plasmonics.

  6. Physiological and pathological clinical conditions and light scattering in brain (United States)

    Kurata, Tsuyoshi; Iwata, Sachiko; Tsuda, Kennosuke; Kinoshita, Masahiro; Saikusa, Mamoru; Hara, Naoko; Oda, Motoki; Ohmae, Etsuko; Araki, Yuko; Sugioka, Takashi; Takashima, Sachio; Iwata, Osuke


    MRI of preterm infants at term commonly reveals subtle brain lesions such as diffuse white matter injury, which are linked with later cognitive impairments. The timing and mechanism of such injury remains unclear. The reduced scattering coefficient of near-infrared light (μs’) has been shown to correlate linearly with gestational age in neonates. To identify clinical variables associated with brain μs’, 60 preterm and full-term infants were studied within 7 days of birth. Dependence of μs’ obtained from the frontal head on clinical variables was assessed. In the univariate analysis, smaller μs’ was associated with antenatal glucocorticoid, emergency Caesarean section, requirement for mechanical ventilation, smaller gestational age, smaller body sizes, low 1- and 5-minute Apgar scores, higher cord blood pH and PO2, and higher blood HCO3- at the time of study. Multivariate analysis revealed that smaller gestational age, requirement for mechanical ventilation, and higher HCO3- at the time of study were correlated with smaller μs’. Brain μs’ depended on variables associated with physiological maturation and pathological conditions of the brain. Further longitudinal studies may help identify pathological events and clinical conditions responsible for subtle brain injury and subsequent cognitive impairments following preterm birth.

  7. Portable bacterial identification system based on elastic light scatter patterns

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Bae Euiwon


    Full Text Available Abstract Background Conventional diagnosis and identification of bacteria requires shipment of samples to a laboratory for genetic and biochemical analysis. This process can take days and imposes significant delay to action in situations where timely intervention can save lives and reduce associated costs. To enable faster response to an outbreak, a low-cost, small-footprint, portable microbial-identification instrument using forward scatterometry has been developed. Results This device, weighing 9 lb and measuring 12 × 6 × 10.5 in., utilizes elastic light scatter (ELS patterns to accurately capture bacterial colony characteristics and delivers the classification results via wireless access. The overall system consists of two CCD cameras, one rotational and one translational stage, and a 635-nm laser diode. Various software algorithms such as Hough transform, 2-D geometric moments, and the traveling salesman problem (TSP have been implemented to provide colony count and circularity, centering process, and minimized travel time among colonies. Conclusions Experiments were conducted with four bacteria genera using pure and mixed plate and as proof of principle a field test was conducted in four different locations where the average classification rate ranged between 95 and 100%.

  8. Listening to light scattering in turbid media: quantitative optical scattering imaging using photoacoustic measurements with one-wavelength illumination

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Yuan, Zhen; Li, Xiaoqi; Xi, Lei


    Biomedical photoacoustic tomography (PAT), as a potential imaging modality, can visualize tissue structure and function with high spatial resolution and excellent optical contrast. It is widely recognized that the ability of quantitatively imaging optical absorption and scattering coefficients from photoacoustic measurements is essential before PAT can become a powerful imaging modality. Existing quantitative PAT (qPAT), while successful, has been focused on recovering absorption coefficient only by assuming scattering coefficient a constant. An effective method for photoacoustically recovering optical scattering coefficient is presently not available. Here we propose and experimentally validate such a method for quantitative scattering coefficient imaging using photoacoustic data from one-wavelength illumination. The reconstruction method developed combines conventional PAT with the photon diffusion equation in a novel way to realize the recovery of scattering coefficient. We demonstrate the method using various objects having scattering contrast only or both absorption and scattering contrasts embedded in turbid media. The listening-to-light-scattering method described will be able to provide high resolution scattering imaging for various biomedical applications ranging from breast to brain imaging. (papers)

  9. High-definition imaging system based on spatial light modulators with light-scattering mode (United States)

    Kikuchi, Hiroshi; Fujii, Takanori; Kawakita, Masahiro; Hirano, Yoshiyuki; Fujikake, Hideo; Sato, Fumio; Takizawa, Kuniharu


    We have developed a prototype high-definition imaging system using polymer-dispersed liquid-crystal (PDLC) light valves, which can modulate unpolarized light with high spatial resolution and exhibit a high optical efficiency, based on the light-scattering effect. We fabricated high-definition light valves with a fine polymer-matrix structure in a PDLC film by controlling the curing conditions used during the photopolymerization-induced phase separation and formation process. This device has excellent characteristics, such as a high resolution, with 50 lp/mm for a limiting resolution and greater than 20 lp/mm at the 50% modulation transfer function point, and a reflectivity of greater than 60%. An optically addressable full-color projection display was designed, consisting of three PDLC light valves, a schlieren optical system based on shift-decentralization optics with a xenon lamp illumination and input-image sources with 1.5 million pixels, including electrical image compensation of the gamma characteristics. We succeeded in displaying pictures on a 110-inch screen with a resolution of 810 TV lines and a luminous flux of 1900-2100 American National Standards Institute lumens.

  10. The spectrometer of the High-Resolution Multi position Thomson Scattering Diagnostic for TJ-II

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Herranz, J.; Barth, C.J.; Castejon, F.; Lopez-Sanchez, A.; Mirones, E.; Pastor, I.; Perez, D.; Rodriguez, C.


    Since 1998, a high-resolution multiposition thompson scattering system is in operation at the stellarator TJ-II, combining high accuracy and excellent spatial resolution. A description of the diagnostic spectrometer is presented. The main characteristics of the spectrometer that allow YJ-II Thomson scattering diagnostic to have high spatial and spectral resolution are described in this paper. (Author)

  11. The spectrometer of the High-Resolution Multi position Thomson Scattering Diagnostic for TJ-II

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Herranz, J.; Barth, C. J.; Castejon, F.; Lopez-Sanchez, A.; Mirones, E.; Pastor, I.; Perez, D.; Rodriguez, C.


    Since 1998, a high-resolution multiposition thompson scattering system is in operation at the stellarator TJ-II, combining high accuracy and excellent spatial resolution. A description of the diagnostic spectrometer is presented. The main characteristics of the spectrometer that allow YJ-II Thomson scattering diagnostic to have high spatial and spectral resolution are described in this paper. (Author)

  12. Light-by-Light Scattering Constraint on Born-Infeld Theory. (United States)

    Ellis, John; Mavromatos, Nick E; You, Tevong


    The recent measurement by ATLAS of light-by-light scattering in LHC Pb-Pb collisions is the first direct evidence for this basic process. We find that it excludes a range of the mass scale of a nonlinear Born-Infeld extension of QED that is ≲100  GeV, a much stronger constraint than those derived previously. In the case of a Born-Infeld extension of the standard model in which the U(1)_{Y} hypercharge gauge symmetry is realized nonlinearly, the limit on the corresponding mass reach is ∼90  GeV, which, in turn, imposes a lower limit of ≳11  TeV on the magnetic monopole mass in such a U(1)_{Y} Born-Infeld theory.

  13. Chiral symmetry and dispersion relations: from $\\pi \\pi$ scattering to hadronic light-by-light.

    CERN Multimedia

    CERN. Geneva


    Chiral symmetry provides strong constraints on hadronic matrix elements at low energy, which are most efficiently derived with chiral perturbation theory. As an effective quantum field theory the latter also accounts for rescattering or unitarity effects, albeit only perturbatively, via the loop expansion. In cases where rescattering effects are important it becomes necessary to go beyond the perturbative expansion, e.g. by using dispersion relations. A matching between the chiral and the dispersive representation provides in several cases results of high precision. I will discuss this approach with the help of a few examples, like $\\pi \\pi$ scattering (which has been tested successfully by CERN experiments like NA48/2 and DIRAC), $\\eta \\to 3 \\pi$ and the hadronic light-by-light contribution to $(g-2)_\\mu$. For the latter quantity the implementation of the dispersive approach has opened up the way to a model-independent calculation and the concrete possibility to significantly reduce the theoretical uncertain...

  14. Light Conversion and Scattering in UV Protective Textiles

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Grancarić Ana Marija


    Full Text Available The primary cause of skin cancer is believed to be a long exposure to solar ultraviolet radiation (UV-R crossed with the amount of skin pigmentation in the population. It is believed that in childhood and adolescence 80% of UV-R gets absorbed, whilst in the remaining 20% gets absorbed later in the lifetime. This suggests that proper and early photoprotection may reduce the risk of subsequent occurrence of skin cancer. Textile and clothing are the most suitable interface between environment and human body. It can show UV protection, but in most cases it does not provide full sun screening properties. UV protection ability highly depends on large number of factors such as type of fibre, fabric surface and construction, type and concentration of dyestuff, fluorescent whitening agent (FWA, UV-B protective agents, as well as nanoparticles, if applied. Based on electronically excited state by energy of UV-R (usually 340-370 nm, the molecules of FWAs show the phenomenon of fluorescence giving to white textiles high whiteness of outstanding brightness by reemitting the energy at the blue region (typically 420-470 nm of the spectrum. By absorbing UV-A radiation, optical brightened fabrics transform this radiation into blue fluorescence, which leads to better UV protection. Natural zeolites are rock-forming, microporous silicate minerals. Applied as nanoparticles to textile surface, it scatters the UV-R resulting in lower UV-A and UV-B transmission. If applied with other UV absorbing agents, e.g. FWAs, synergistic effect occurs. Silicones are inert, synthetic compounds with a variety of forms and uses. It provides a unique soft touch, is very resistant to washing and improves the property of fabric to protect against UV radiation. Therefore, the UV protective properties of cotton fabric achieved by light conversion and scattering was researched in this paper. For that purpose, the stilbene-derived FWAs were applied on cotton fabric in wide concentration

  15. The effect of scattered light sensor orientation on roughness measurement of curved polished surfaces

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Pilny, Lukas; Bissacco, Giuliano; De Chiffre, Leonardo

    with crossed surface lay to document the robustness of the method. The instrument area-integrating measuring principle (figure 1) is based on a non-coherent light beam of ∅ 0.9 mm and 670 nm wavelength illuminating the measured surface, reflection of the incident light from the surface slopes in spatial......The effect of angular orientation of a scattered light sensor with respect to main curvature and surface lay on roughness measurements is evaluated. A commercial scattered light sensor OS 500-32 from Optosurf GmbH was used. The investigation was performed on polished cylindrical surfaces...... directions, and its acquisition within ± 16º angular range with a linear detector array. From the distribution of the acquired scattered light intensity, a number of statistical parameters describing the surface texture are calculated, where the Aq parameter (variance of the scattered light distribution...

  16. Light transmittance of 1-piece hydrophobic acrylic intraocular lenses with surface light scattering removed from cadaver eyes. (United States)

    Werner, Liliana; Morris, Caleb; Liu, Erica; Stallings, Shannon; Floyd, Anne; Ollerton, Andrew; Leishman, Lisa; Bodnar, Zachary


    To assess the potential effect of surface light scattering on light transmittance of 1-piece hydrophobic acrylic intraocular lenses (IOLs) with or without a blue-light filter. John A. Moran Eye Center, University of Utah, Salt Lake City, Utah, USA. Experimental study. Intraocular lenses were obtained from human cadavers (49 IOLs total; 36 with blue-light filter) and from finished-goods inventory (controls). The IOLs were removed from cadaver eyes and the power and model matched to unused controls. After surface proteins were removed, the IOLs were hydrated for 24 hours at room temperature. Surface light scattering was measured with a Scheimpflug camera (EAS-1000 Anterior Segment Analysis System). Light transmittance was measured with a Lambda 35 UV/Vis spectrophotometer (single-beam configuration; RSA-PE-20 integrating sphere). Hydrated scatter values ranged from 4.8 to 202.5 computer-compatible tape (CCT) units for explanted IOLs with blue-light filter and 1.5 to 11.8 CCT units for controls; values ranged from 6.0 to 137.5 CCT units for explanted IOLs without a blue-light filter and 3.5 to 9.6 CCT units for controls. In both groups, there was a tendency toward increasing scatter values with increasing postoperative time. No differences in light transmittance were observed between explanted IOLs and controls in both groups (IOLs with blue-light filter: P=.407; IOL with no blue-light filter: P=.487; both paired t test). Although surface light scattering of explanted IOLs was significantly higher than that of controls and appeared to increase with time, no effect was observed on light transmittance of 1-piece hydrophobic acrylic IOLs with or without a blue-light filter. Copyright © 2013 ASCRS and ESCRS. Published by Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  17. Experimental Light Scattering Matrices Relevant to Cosmic Dust (United States)

    Muñoz, O.; Volten, H.; Hovenier, J. W.

    A brief overview is given of experimental scattering matrices of natural particles that seem to be most relevant to ensembles of cosmic dust particles. The matrices have been obtained by letting laser radiation at 441.6 nm and 632.8 nm be scattered by collections of small, randomly oriented particles over angles from about 5circ - 173circ. The samples considered include feldspar, red clay, quartz, loess, Pinatubo and Lokon volcanic ashes, Sahara sand, olivine, Allende meteorite and fly ash. The elements of the scattering matrices as functions of the scattering angle show a number of interesting similarities and differences. These are briefly discussed, especially in relation to particle shape.

  18. Intraocular light scatter, reflections, fluorescence and absorption: what we see in the slit lamp. (United States)

    van den Berg, Thomas J T P


    Much knowledge has been collected over the past 20 years about light scattering in the eye- in particular in the eye lens- and its visual effect, called straylight. It is the purpose of this review to discuss how these insights can be applied to understanding the slit lamp image. The slit lamp image mainly results from back scattering, whereas the effects on vision result mainly from forward scatter. Forward scatter originates from particles of about wavelength size distributed throughout the lens. Most of the slit lamp image originates from small particle scatter (Rayleigh scatter). For a population of middle aged lenses it will be shown that both these scatter components remove around 10% of the light from the direct beam. For slit lamp observation close to the reflection angles, zones of discontinuity (Wasserspalten) at anterior and posterior parts of the lens show up as rough surface reflections. All these light scatter effects increase with age, but the correlations with age, and also between the different components, are weak. For retro-illumination imaging it will be argued that the density or opacity seen in areas of cortical or posterior subcapsular cataract show up because of light scattering, not because of light loss. NOTES: (1) Light scatter must not be confused with aberrations. Light penetrating the eye is divided into two parts: a relatively small part is scattered, and removed from the direct beam. Most of the light is not scattered, but continues as the direct beam. This non-scattered part is the basis for functional imaging, but its quality is under the control of aberrations. Aberrations deflect light mainly over small angles (light scatter is important because of the straylight effects over large angles (>1°), causing problems like glare and hazy vision. (2) The slit lamp image in older lenses and nuclear cataract is strongly influenced by absorption. However, this effect is greatly exaggerated by the light path lengths concerned. This

  19. Hadronic light-by-light scattering contribution to the muon anomalous magnetic moment from lattice QCD. (United States)

    Blum, Thomas; Chowdhury, Saumitra; Hayakawa, Masashi; Izubuchi, Taku


    The most compelling possibility for a new law of nature beyond the four fundamental forces comprising the standard model of high-energy physics is the discrepancy between measurements and calculations of the muon anomalous magnetic moment. Until now a key part of the calculation, the hadronic light-by-light contribution, has only been accessible from models of QCD, the quantum description of the strong force, whose accuracy at the required level may be questioned. A first principles calculation with systematically improvable errors is needed, along with the upcoming experiments, to decisively settle the matter. For the first time, the form factor that yields the light-by-light scattering contribution to the muon anomalous magnetic moment is computed in such a framework, lattice QCD+QED and QED. A nonperturbative treatment of QED is used and checked against perturbation theory. The hadronic contribution is calculated for unphysical quark and muon masses, and only the diagram with a single quark loop is computed for which statistically significant signals are obtained. Initial results are promising, and the prospect for a complete calculation with physical masses and controlled errors is discussed.

  20. Characterization of single particle aerosols by elastic light scattering at multiple wavelengths (United States)

    Lane, P. A.; Hart, M. B.; Jain, V.; Tucker, J. E.; Eversole, J. D.


    We describe a system to characterize individual aerosol particles using stable and repeatable measurement of elastic light scattering. The method employs a linear electrodynamic quadrupole (LEQ) particle trap. Charged particles, continuously injected by electrospray into this system, are confined to move vertically along the stability line in the center of the LEQ past a point where they are optically interrogated. Light scattered in the near forward direction was measured at three different wavelengths using time-division multiplexed collinear laser beams. We validated our method by comparing measured silica microsphere data for four selected diameters (0.7, 1.0, 1.5 and 2.0 μm) to a model of collected scattered light intensities based upon Lorenz-Mie scattering theory. Scattered light measurements at the different wavelengths are correlated, allowing us to distinguish and classify inhomogeneous particles.

  1. Viscosity of aqueous DNA solutions determined using dynamic light scattering. (United States)

    Gilroy, Emma L; Hicks, Matthew R; Smith, David J; Rodger, Alison


    Viscosity is a key parameter for characterising the behaviour of liquids and their flow. It is, however, difficult to measure precisely, reproducibly and accurately for aqueous solutions on a micro-litre volume scale, which is what is usually needed for biological samples. We report the development of a new method for measuring dynamic viscosity by measuring dynamic light scattering (DLS) data for a range of particles of well-defined size. Most applications of DLS involve determining particle size for samples of known viscosity. We inverted the usual protocol and endeavoured to determine viscosity for samples of known particle size. Viscosity measurements for water and aqueous solutions of calf thymus DNA made using DLS were compared with those from a U-tube viscometer. The styrene particles, frequently used as particle size standards, gave unsatisfactory results for our DNA samples as did C-6 derivatized silica and positively charged amino polystyrene microspheres. However, negatively charged carboxylate polystyrene microspheres particles readily gave accurate viscosity measurements over a range of temperatures (0-100 °C). The sample volume required depends on the cuvette used to measure DLS, but can be performed with samples sizes ranging from 40 to 3000 μL. The sample can then be recovered for subsequent experiments. The DLS method is simple to perform at different temperatures and provides data of accuracy significantly above that of a U-tube viscometer. Our results also indicate a way forward to account accurately for solution viscosity in the normal applications of DLS to particle size determination by including the appropriate non-interacting particles as an internal standard.

  2. Automated measurement of the static light scattering of macromolecular solutions over a broad range of concentrations. (United States)

    Fernández, Cristina; Minton, Allen P


    A method and apparatus for automated measurement of the concentration dependence of static light scattering of protein solutions over a broad range of concentrations is described. The gradient of protein concentrations is created by successive dilutions of an initially concentrated solution contained within the scattering measurement cell, which is maintained at constant total volume. The method is validated by measurement of the concentration dependence of light scattering of bovine serum albumin, ovalbumin, and ovomucoid at concentrations up to 130 g/L. The experimentally obtained concentration dependence of scattering obtained from all three proteins is quantitatively consistent with the assumption that no significant self-association occurs over the measured range of concentrations.

  3. Application of the weighted total field-scattering field technique to 3D-PSTD light scattering model (United States)

    Hu, Shuai; Gao, Taichang; Liu, Lei; Li, Hao; Chen, Ming; Yang, Bo


    PSTD (Pseudo Spectral Time Domain) is an excellent model for the light scattering simulation of nonspherical aerosol particles. However, due to the particularity of its discretization form of the Maxwell's equations, the traditional Total Field/Scattering Field (TF/SF) technique for FDTD (Finite Differential Time Domain) is not applicable to PSTD, and the time-consuming pure scattering field technique is mainly applied to introduce the incident wave. To this end, the weighted TF/SF technique proposed by X. Gao is generalized and applied to the 3D-PSTD scattering model. Using this technique, the incident light can be effectively introduced by modifying the electromagnetic components in an inserted connecting region between the total field and the scattering field region with incident terms, where the incident terms are obtained by weighting the incident field by a window function. To optimally determine the thickness of connection region and the window function type for PSTD calculations, their influence on the modeling accuracy is firstly analyzed. To further verify the effectiveness and advantages of the weighted TF/SF technique, the improved PSTD model is validated against the PSTD model equipped with pure scattering field technique in both calculation accuracy and efficiency. The results show that, the performance of PSTD seems to be not sensitive to variation of window functions. The number of the connection layer required decreases with the increasing of spatial resolution, where for spatial resolution of 24 grids per wavelength, a 6-layer region is thick enough. The scattering phase matrices and integral scattering parameters obtained by the improved PSTD show an excellent consistency with those well-tested models for spherical and nonspherical particles, illustrating that the weighted TF/SF technique can introduce the incident precisely. The weighted TF/SF technique shows higher computational efficiency than pure scattering technique.

  4. Laboratory measurements of single light scattering by ensembles of randomly oriented small irregular particles in air. A review

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Muñoz, O.; Hovenier, J.W.


    In this paper we present an overview of light scattering experiments devoted to measure one or more elements of the scattering matrix as functions of the scattering angle of ensembles of randomly oriented small irregular particles in air. A summary of the most important findings in light scattering

  5. Critical behavior of 2,6-dimethylpyridine-water: Measurements of specific heat, dynamic light scattering, and shear viscosity

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Mirzaev, S. Z.; Behrends, R.; Heimburg, Thomas Rainer


    2,6-dimethylpyridine-water, specific heat, dynamic light scattering, shear viscosity Udgivelsesdato: 14 April......2,6-dimethylpyridine-water, specific heat, dynamic light scattering, shear viscosity Udgivelsesdato: 14 April...

  6. Supercontinuum Light Sources for Hyperspectral Subsurface Laser Scattering

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Nielsen, Otto Højager Attermann; Dahl, Anders Lindbjerg; Larsen, Rasmus


    A materials structural and chemical composition influences its optical scattering properties. In this paper we investigate the use of subsurface laser scattering (SLS) for inferring structural and chemical information of food products. We have constructed a computer vision system based on a super...

  7. Nucleon–nucleon scattering in the light of supersymmetric quantum ...

    Indian Academy of Sciences (India)


    May 2, 2014 ... interest to generate supersymmetric partners of the latter and study their partner poten- tials, related physical observables etc., which have important applications in quantum scattering theory. Arnold and Mackellar [5] parametrized Hulthen potential to fit the deuteron binding energy and S-wave scattering ...

  8. Retinal image degradation by optical aberrations and light scatter in normal and albino chick eyes (United States)

    Tian, Yibin; Shieh, Kevin; Wildsoet, Christine F.


    Comprehensive evaluation of retinal image quality requires that light scatter as well as optical aberrations be considered. In investigating how retinal image degradation affects eye growth in the chick model of myopia, we developed a simple method based on Shack-Hartmann images for evaluating the effects of both monochromatic aberrations and light scatter on retinal image quality. We further evaluated our method in the current study by applying it to data collected from both normal chick eyes and albino eyes that were expected to show increased intraocular light scatter. To analyze light scatter in our method, each Shack-Hartmann dot is treated as a local point spread function (PSF) that is the convolution of a local scatter PSF and a lenslet diffraction PSF. The local scatter PSF is obtained by de-convolution, and is fitted with a circularly symmetric Gaussian function using nonlinear regressions. A whole-eye scatter PSF also can be derived from the local scatter PSFs for the analyzed pupil. Aberrations are analyzed using OSA standard Zernike polynomials, and aberration-related PSF calculated from reconstructed wavefront using fast Fourier transform. Modulation transfer functions (MTFs) are computed separately for aberration and scatter PSFs, and a whole-eye MTF is derived as the product of the two. This method was applied to 4 normal and 4 albino eyes. Compared to normal eyes, albino eyes were more aberrated and showed greater light scatter. As a result, overall retinal image degradation was much greater in albino eyes than in normal eyes, with the relative contribution to retinal image degradation of light scatter compared to aberrations also being greater for albino eyes.

  9. Contribution to the study of the molecular scattering of light. Use of a laser as light source (1963)

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Slama, L.


    The experiments of the molecular scattering of light have been repeated using a ruby laser as a light source. The angular distribution of the scattered light intensity has been measured when the electric vector of the incident beam is either in the plane of observation or perpendicular to that plane. In the first case a good agreement with the Rayleigh theory has been found but this is not true in the second case. The differential cross sections for scattering have been measured for various gases. The values found are two or three times larger than the ones deduced from the classical theory. The possible effect of a variation of the beam intensity upon the linearity of the scattering process has been looked for. (author) [fr

  10. Hydrodynamic fluctuations and light scattering in hot electron gas of semiconductors

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Zakhleniuk, N.A.; Kochelap, V.A.


    Hydrodynamical fluctuations of the electron gas are the low-frequency and long-range stochastic excitations over steady state of the system. These fluctuations are responsible for the set of the physical phenomena which occur for both equilibrium and nonequilibrium conditions (for example, the current noises, the light scattering, etc.). We investigate the hot electron plasma that can be characterized by two time parameters - the electric charge decay time τ M and the electron energy relaxation time τ T . Our consideration is based on the Boltzmann-Langevin kinetic equation for the fluctuations of the electron distribution function δF. The solution of this equation is found under typical criteria for the hot electron plasma: τ p much less than τ ee much less than τ e , where τ p , τ e are the times of relaxation of the momentum and energy of the electrons, τ ee is the electron-electron scattering time. It is shown that the fluctuation δF can be expressed via the two fluctuating parameters: δn(ω, q), δT(ω, q) and via the initial steady state distribution function. The fluctuating parameters δn and δT mean the fluctuations of the magnitudes of the electron density and temperature. For them the hydrodynamic equations are deduced and as a result, the following correlation functions are calculated: ω,q, ω,q , ω,q . The analysis of these correlators shows the next features of the general results which are not restricted by above criteria: i. There are cross-over correlations of δn and δT, that mean the mutual influence of the electron density fluctuations and their temperature. ii. The time and space dependences of the fluctuations strongly differ from that under the above mentioned limits. The above results are applied to the calculation of the light scattering by the electron plasma fluctuations. It is shown that the cross-correlation effect gives the essential contribution into the cross-section of the light scattering. 20 refs, 3 figs

  11. Validation of in-line surface characterization by light scattering in Robot Assisted Polishing

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Pilny, Lukas; Bissacco, Giuliano; De Chiffre, Leonardo


    sensor on the machine in a shop floor environment. Scattered light roughness measurements of the whole surfaces were performed to investigate the measurement method suitability for 100% quality control. For comparison, the surfaces were measured with reference optical instruments in laboratory conditions....... Comparison of the scattered light measurements results taken on the machine with the reference optical roughness measurements taken in laboratory demonstrate the capability of the scattered light sensor for robust in-line surface characterization. This allows for the RAP process control by proper process...

  12. Analytical modeling of light transport in scattering materials with strong absorption

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Meretska, M. L.; Uppu, R.; Vissenberg, Gilles; Lagendijk, A.; Ijzerman, W. L.; Vos, W. L.


    We have investigated the transport of light through slabs that both scatter and strongly absorb, a situation that occurs in diverse application fields ranging from biomedical optics, powder technology, to solid-state lighting. In particular, we study the transport of light in the visible wavelength

  13. Interactive directional subsurface scattering and transport of emergent light

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Dal Corso, Alessandro; Frisvad, Jeppe Revall; Mosegaard, Jesper


    Existing techniques for interactive rendering of deformable translucent objects can accurately compute diffuse but not directional subsurface scattering effects. It is currently a common practice to gain efficiency by storing maps of transmitted irradiance. This is, however, not efficient if we....... To build our maps of scattered radiosity, we progressively render the model from different directions using an importance sampling pattern based on the optical properties of the material. We obtain interactive frame rates, our subsurface scattering results are close to ground truth, and our technique...

  14. Polarized light scattering as a probe for changes in chromosome structure

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Shapiro, Daniel Benjamin [Univ. of California, Berkeley, CA (United States)


    Measurements and calculations of polarized light scattering are applied to chromosomes. Calculations of the Mueller matrix, which completely describes how the polarization state of light is altered upon scattering, are developed for helical structures related to that of chromosomes. Measurements of the Mueller matrix are presented for octopus sperm heads, and dinoflagellates. Comparisons of theory and experiment are made. A working theory of polarized light scattering from helices is developed. The use of the first Born approximation vs the coupled dipole approximation are investigated. A comparison of continuous, calculated in this work, and discrete models is also discussed. By comparing light scattering measurements with theoretical predictions the average orientation of DNA in an octopus sperm head is determined. Calculations are made for the Mueller matrix of DNA plectonemic helices at UV, visible and X-ray wavelengths. Finally evidence is presented that the chromosomes of dinoflagellates are responsible for observed differential scattering of circularly-polarized light. This differential scattering is found to vary in a manner that is possibly correlated to the cell cycle of the dinoflagellates. It is concluded that by properly choosing the wavelength probe polarized light scattering can provide a useful tool to study chromosome structure.

  15. Use of fast scopes to enable Thomson scattering measurement in presence of fluctuating plasma light

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    McLean, H.S.; Moller, J.; Hill, D.N.


    The addition of inexpensive high-speed oscilloscopes has enabled higher T e Thomson scattering measurements on the Sustained Spheromak Physics Experiment. Along with signal correlation techniques, the scopes allow analyses based on the shape of the scattered laser pulse to discriminate against fluctuating background plasma light that often make gated-integrator measurements unreliable. A 1.4 J Nd:YAG laser at 1064 nm is the scattering source. Spatial locations are coupled by viewing optics and fibers to four-wavelength-channel filter polychrometers. Ratios between the channels determine T e while summations of the channels determine density. Typically, the channel that provides a scattered signal at higher T e is contaminated by fluctuating background light. Individual channels are correlated with either a modeled representation of the laser pulse or a noise-free scattered laser light signal to extract channel amplitudes

  16. Large-angle scattered light measurements for quantum-noise filter cavity design studies. (United States)

    Magaña-Sandoval, Fabian; Adhikari, Rana X; Frolov, Valera; Harms, Jan; Lee, Jacqueline; Sankar, Shannon; Saulson, Peter R; Smith, Joshua R


    Optical loss from scattered light could limit the performance of quantum-noise filter cavities being considered for an upgrade to the Advanced Laser Interferometer Gravitational Wave Observatory (LIGO) gravitational-wave detectors. This paper describes imaging scatterometer measurements of the large-angle scattered light from two high-quality sample optics, a high reflector and a beamsplitter. These optics are each superpolished fused silica substrates with silica:tantala dielectric coatings. They represent the current state-of-the art optical technology for use in filter cavities. We present angle-resolved scatter values and integrate these to estimate the total scatter over the measured angles. We find that the total integrated light scattered into larger angles can be as small as 4 ppm.

  17. Whole-field measurement of three-dimensional stress by scattered-light photoelasticity with unpolarized light

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Kihara T.


    Full Text Available In digital scattered-light photoelasticity with unpolarized light (DSLPUL, secondary principal stress direction ψj and total relative phase retardation ρjtot in a three-dimensional stressed model with rotation of the principal stress axes are obtained by measuring Stokes parameters of scattered light from optical slices. The present paper describes intelligibly the principle of DSLPUL, and then demonstrates that the ψj and ρjtot in a frozen stress sphere model are nondestructively measured over the entire field.

  18. Bio-inspired, colorful, flexible, defrostable light-scattering hybrid films for the effective distribution of LED light. (United States)

    An, Seongpil; Jo, Hong Seok; Kim, Yong Il; Song, Kyo Yong; Kim, Min-Woo; Lee, Kyu Bum; Yarin, Alexander L; Yoon, Sam S


    Bioluminescent jellyfish has a unique structure derived from fiber/polymer interfaces that is advantageous for effective light scattering in the dark, deep sea water. Herein, we demonstrate the fabrication of bio-inspired hybrid films by mimicry of the jellyfish's structure, leading to excellent light-scattering performance and defrosting capability. A haze value reaching 59.3% and a heating temperature of up to 292 °C were achieved with the films. Accordingly, the developed surface constitutes an attractive optical device for lighting applications, especially for street or vehicle luminaries for freezing Arctic-climate countries. The morphological details of the hybrid films were revealed by scanning electron microscopy. The light-scattering properties of these films were examined by ultraviolet-visible-infrared spectrophotometry and anti-glare effect analyses. The defrosting performance of the hybrid films was evaluated via heating tests and infra-red observations.

  19. Basic lecture on imaging processing II. Scatter correction

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Motomura, Nobutoku


    Basic knowledge of scattered radiation, method of scatter correction and the triple energy window (TEW) method are reviewed. Introduction contains Compton scattering of γ-ray and scattered radiations of single and multiple energy γ-rays which affect on images. Methods of correction involve those of convolution subtraction, scatter line spread function, transmission dependent convolution subtraction, dual energy window subtraction, dual photopeak window and TEW. The TEW estimates scattering radiations from sub-windows set at both sides of the major photoelectric peak window and its setting procedure is described. Evaluation of the TEW method is also described on 3 phantoms of different shapes and on clinical 123 I-IMP SPECT data of the head. Use of Butterworth filter is recommended to reduce the statistic noise in the sub-windows. (K.H.)

  20. Effects of absorption on coherence domain path length resolved dynamic light scattering in the diffuse regime

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Petoukhova, A. L.; Steenbergen, W.; van Leeuwen, T. G.; de Mul, F. F. M.


    A low coherence Mach-Zehnder interferometer is developed for path length resolved dynamic light scattering in highly turbid media. The path length distribution of multiply scattered photons in Intralipid is changed by the addition of absorbing dyes. Path length distributions obtained for various

  1. Experimental demonstration of singular-optical colouring of regularly scattered white light

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Angelsky, O.V.; Hanson, Steen Grüner; Maksimyak, P.P.


    Experimental interference modelling of the effects of colouring of a beam traversing a light-scattering medium is presented. It is shown that the result of colouring of the beam at the output of the medium depends on the magnitudes of the phase delays of the singly forward scattered partial signa...

  2. Size distribution of mineral aerosol: using light-scattering models in laser particle sizing.

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Veihelmann, B.; Konert, M.; van der Zande, W.J.


    The size distribution of semitransparent irregularly shaped mineral dust aerosol samples is determined using a commonly used laser particle-sizing technique. The size distribution is derived from intensity measurements of singly scattered light at various scattering angles close to the

  3. Size distribution of mineral aerosol: using light-scattering models in laser particle sizing

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Veihelmann, B.; Konert, M.; Zande, W.J. van der


    The size distribution of semitransparent irregularly shaped mineral dust aerosol,samples is determined using a commonly used laser particle-sizing technique. The size distribution is derived from intensity measurements of singly scattered light at various scattering angles close to the

  4. Coherence-vortex lattice formed via Mie scattering of partially coherent light by several dielectric nanospheres. (United States)

    Marasinghe, Madara L; Paganin, David M; Premaratne, Malin


    We previously demonstrated that Mie scattering of stationary partially coherent light by dielectric spheres generates coherence vortices. In this Letter, we demonstrate that a lattice of coherence vortices can be generated by Mie scattering of partially coherent electromagnetic waves by a system of three coplanar dielectric spheres. Spontaneous coherence-vortex creation and destruction is observed in our computer modeling of this system.

  5. Electron density and temperature determination in a Tokamak plasma using light scattering

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Perez-Navarro Gomerz, A.; Zurro Hernandez, B.


    A theoretical foundation review for light scattering by plasmas is presented. Furthermore, we have included a review of the experimental methods for electron density and temperature measurements, with spatial and time resolution, in a Tokamak plasma using spectral analysis of the scattered radiation. (Author) 13 refs

  6. Electron density and temperature determination in a Tokamak plasma using light scattering

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Perez-Navarro Gomez, A.; Zurro Hernandez, B.


    A theoretical foundation review for light scattering by plasmas is presented. Furthemore, a review of the experimental methods for electron density and temperature measurements, with spatial and time resolution, is included in a Tokamak plasma using spectral analysis of the scattered radiation. (author) [es

  7. Scattering of light by a periodic structure in the presence of ...

    Indian Academy of Sciences (India)

    In the method developed till now, the detection of periodic structures involves the detection of the central peak, first peak and second peak in the scattered intensity of light, located at scattering wave vectors = 0, , 2, respectively, where = 2/, their distinct identities being obfuscated by the fact that the peaks have ...

  8. Spontaneous Rayleigh-Brillouin scattering of ultraviolet light in nitrogen, dry and moist air

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Witschas, B.; Vieitez, M.O.; van Duijn, E.-J.; Reitebuch, O.; Van de Water, W.; Ubachs, W.M.G.


    Atmospheric lidar techniques for the measurement of wind, temperature, and optical properties of aerosols rely on the exact knowledge of the spectral line shape of the scattered laser light on molecules. We report on spontaneous Rayleigh-Brillouin scattering measurements in the ultraviolet at a

  9. Fast data preprocessing with Graphics Processing Units for inverse problem solving in light-scattering measurements (United States)

    Derkachov, G.; Jakubczyk, T.; Jakubczyk, D.; Archer, J.; Woźniak, M.


    Utilising Compute Unified Device Architecture (CUDA) platform for Graphics Processing Units (GPUs) enables significant reduction of computation time at a moderate cost, by means of parallel computing. In the paper [Jakubczyk et al., Opto-Electron. Rev., 2016] we reported using GPU for Mie scattering inverse problem solving (up to 800-fold speed-up). Here we report the development of two subroutines utilising GPU at data preprocessing stages for the inversion procedure: (i) A subroutine, based on ray tracing, for finding spherical aberration correction function. (ii) A subroutine performing the conversion of an image to a 1D distribution of light intensity versus azimuth angle (i.e. scattering diagram), fed from a movie-reading CPU subroutine running in parallel. All subroutines are incorporated in PikeReader application, which we make available on GitHub repository. PikeReader returns a sequence of intensity distributions versus a common azimuth angle vector, corresponding to the recorded movie. We obtained an overall ∼ 400 -fold speed-up of calculations at data preprocessing stages using CUDA codes running on GPU in comparison to single thread MATLAB-only code running on CPU.

  10. Light scattering reviews 7 radiative transfer and optical properties of atmosphere and underlying surface

    CERN Document Server

    Kokhanovsky, Alexander A


    This book describes modern advances in radiative transfer and light scattering. Coverage includes fast radiative transfer techniques, use of polarization in remote sensing and recent developments in remote sensing of snow properties from space observations.

  11. Microchip Flow Cytometer with Integrated Polymer Optical Elements for Measurement of Scattered Light

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Wang, Zhenyu; El-Ali, Jamil; Perch-Nielsen, Ivan Ryberg


    Flow cytometry is a very powerful method for biophysical measurement of microparticles, such as cells and bacteria. In this paper, we report an innovative microsystem, in which several different optical elements (waveguides, lenses and fiber-to-waveguide couplers) are integrated with microfluidic...... processes can be finished in one day. Polystyrene beads were measured in the microchip flow cytometer, and three signals (forward scattering, large angle scattering and extinction) were measured simultaneously for each bead. The average intensities of the forward Scattered light and the incident light...... extinction showed excellent linear relationship with the sizes of the beads. To our knowledge this is the first time forward scattered light and incident light extinction were measured in a microsystem using integrated optics. The microsystem can be applied for analyzing different kinds of particles...

  12. Neutron and photon (light) scattering on solitons in the quasi-one-dimensional magnetics

    CERN Document Server

    Abdulloev, K O


    The general expression we have found earlier for the dynamics form-factor is used to analyse experiments on the neutron and photon (light) scattering by the gas of solitons in quasi-one-dimensional magnetics (Authors)

  13. Cancer detection using NIR elastic light scattering and tissue fluorescence imaging

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Demos, S G; Staggs, M; Radousky, H B; Gandour-Edwards, R; deVere White, R


    Near infrared imaging using elastic light scattering and tissue fluorescence under long-wavelength laser excitation are explored for cancer detection. Various types of normal and malignant human tissue samples were utilized in this investigation.

  14. The effect of scattered light sensor orientation on roughness measurement of curved polished surfaces

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Pilny, Lukas; Bissacco, Giuliano; De Chiffre, Leonardo


    Light scattering is a method for surface roughness measurements well suitable for use in a production environment thanks to its fast measurement rate, insensitivity to vibrations and to small misalignments. The method is however affected by several other factors. In this paper, the effect of angu...... of angular orientation of a commercial scattered light sensor on roughness measurements of polished cylindrical surfaces with crossed surface lay is investigated to document the robustness of the method....

  15. Infrared phenomena in quantum electrodynamics : II. Bremsstrahlung and compton scattering

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Haeringen, W. van

    The infrared aspects of quantum electrodynamics are discussed by treating two examples of scattering processes, bremsstrahlung and Compton scattering. As in the previous paper one uses a non-covariant diagram technique which gives very clear insight in the cancelling of infrared divergences between

  16. Experimental light scattering by positionally-controlled small particles — Implications for Planetary Science (United States)

    Gritsevich, M.; Penttilä, A.; Maconi, G.; Kassamakov, I.; Martikainen, J.; Markkanen, J.; Vaisanen, T.; Helander, P.; Puranen, T.; Salmi, A.; Hæggström, E.; Muinonen, K.


    Electromagnetic scattering is a fundamental physical process that allows inferring characteristics of an object studied remotely. This possibility is enhanced by obtaining the light-scattering response at multiple wavelengths and viewing geometries, i.e., by considering a wider range of the phase angle (the angle between the incident light and the light reflected from the object) in the experiment. Within the ERC Advanced Grant project SAEMPL ( we have assembled an interdisciplinary group of scientists to develop a fully automated, 3D scatterometer that can measure scattered light at different wavelengths from small particulate samples. The setup comprises: (a) the PXI Express platform to synchronously record data from several photomultiplier tubes (PMTs); (b) a motorized rotation stage to precisely control the azimuthal angle of the PMTs around 360°; and (c) a versatile light source, whose wavelength, polarization, intensity, and beam shape can be precisely controlled. An acoustic levitator is used to hold the sample without touching it. The device is the first of its kind, since it measures controlled spectral angular scattering including all polarization effects, for an arbitrary object in the µm-cm size scale. It permits a nondestructive, disturbance-free measurement with control of the orientation and location of the scattering object. To demonstrate our approach we performed detailed measurements of light scattered by a Chelyabinsk LL5 chondrite particle, derived from the light-colored lithology sample of the meteorite. These measurements are cross-validated against the modeled light-scattering characteristics of the sample, i.e., the intensity and the degree of linear polarization of the reflected light, calculated with state-of-the-art electromagnetic techniques (see Muinonen et al., this meeting). We demonstrate a unique non-destructive approach to derive the optical properties of small grain samples

  17. Scattered light evidence for short density scale heights near critical density in laser-irradiated plasmas

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Phillion, D.W.; Lerche, R.A.; Rupert, V.C.; Haas, R.A.; Boyle, M.J.


    Experimental evidence is presented of a steepened electron density profile near critical density obtained from studying the time-integrated scattered light from targets illuminated by linearly polarized, 1.06 μ light. Both 10 μ thick disks and DT-filled glass microshells were irradiated by light focused by f/1 or f/2.5 lenses in one and two-beam experiments, respectively. From the dependence of the asymmetry of the scattered light about the beam axis upon the scattering angle, we infer scale lengths on the order of one micron. Scale lengths have also been deduced from measurements on the polarization state of the reflected light. Both analytic and numerical results are presented to show how the polarization state varies with the incidence angle and the scale length

  18. Scattered light evidence for short density scale heights near critical density in laser-irradiated plasmas

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Phillion, D.W.; Lerche, R.A.; Rupert, V.C.; Haas, R.A.; Boyle, M.J.


    Experimental evidence is presented of a steepened electron density profile near critical density obtained from studying the time-integrated scattered light from targets illuminated by linearly polarized, 1.06 light. Both 10 thick disks and DT-filled glass microshells were irradiated by light focused by f/1 or f/2.5 lenses in one and two-beam experiments, respectively. From the dependence of the asymmetry of the scattered light about the beam axis upon the scattering angle, we infer scale lengths on the order of one micron. Scale lengths have also been deduced from measurements on the polarization state of the reflected light. Both analytic and numerical results are presented to show how the polarization state varies with the incidence angle and the scale length.

  19. Dynamic light scattering microscope: accessing opaque samples with high spatial resolution. (United States)

    Hiroi, Takashi; Shibayama, Mitsuhiro


    We developed a new technique that conducts dynamic light scattering (DLS) under a microscope with high spatial resolution. This technique dramatically extends the range of DLS application from transparent to opaque samples. The total scattered electric field contains both electric field generated from the samples and time-independent reflected electric field. These two components are decomposed by applying a partial heterodyne method. By using this technique, we successfully calculate the characteristic size distribution of both multiple-scattering samples and strong light-absorbing samples. This is the first study to observe the collective motion of particles in a highly concentrated solution by using DLS.

  20. Double scattering of light from Biophotonic Nanostructures with short-range order

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Noh, Heeso; Liew, Seng Fatt; Saranathan, Vinodkumar; Prum, Richard O.; Mochrie, Simon G.J.; Dufresne, Eric R.; Cao, Hui (Yale)


    We investigate the physical mechanism for color production by isotropic nanostructures with short-range order in bird feather barbs. While the primary peak in optical scattering spectra results from constructive interference of singly-scattered light, many species exhibit secondary peaks with distinct characteristic. Our experimental and numerical studies show that these secondary peaks result from double scattering of light by the correlated structures. Without an analog in periodic or random structures, such a phenomenon is unique for short-range ordered structures, and has been widely used by nature for non-iridescent structural coloration.

  1. Observation of spatial quantum correlations induced by multiple scattering of nonclassical light

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Smolka, Stephan; Huck, Alexander; Andersen, Ulrik Lund


    and negative spatial quantum correlations are observed when varying the quantum state incident to the multiple scattering medium, and the strength of the correlations is controlled by the number of photons. The experimental results are in excellent agreement with recent theoretical proposals by implementing......We present the experimental realization of spatial quantum correlations of photons that are induced by multiple scattering of squeezed light. The quantum correlation relates photons propagating along two different light paths through the random medium and is infinite in range. Both positive...... the full quantum model of multiple scattering....

  2. Spectrum of an electromagnetic light wave on scattering from an anisotropic semisoft boundary medium. (United States)

    Wang, Tao; Jiang, Zhenfei; Ji, Xiaoling; Zhao, Daomu


    Spectral shifts and spectral switches of a polychromatic electromagnetic light wave on scattering from an anisotropic semisoft boundary medium are discussed. It is shown that both the property of the incident field and the character of the scattering medium play roles in the change of the spectrum of the far-zone scattered field. It is also shown that the distribution of the far-zone scattered spectrum, including the magnitude of the spectral shift and the direction at which the spectral switch occurs, is rotationally nonsymmetric.

  3. Elastic scattering and reactions of light exotic beams (United States)

    Keeley, N.; Alamanos, N.; Kemper, K. W.; Rusek, K.


    The present work provides a literature survey of elastic scattering of exotic nuclei from 6He to 17F. It presents a set of definitions that allow different analyses to be put into a common language. A calculational approach is proposed that yields consistent results across different beams and targets so that conclusions concerning the influence of virtual and real breakup as well as transfer couplings on the elastic scattering may be drawn. Calculations of elastic scattering around the Coulomb barrier are emphasised, employing a Pb target whose large Z allows the interplay between nuclear and Coulomb forces to be exploited to maximise possible effects arising from proton or neutron haloes or skins. A series of test calculations is performed and where possible compared to data, demonstrating that there are instances where coupling to transfer channels can have a large effect on the elastic scattering angular distributions. By careful choice of target/beam combination, different aspects of the coupling effects may be emphasised.

  4. Nucleon–nucleon scattering in the light of supersymmetric quantum ...

    Indian Academy of Sciences (India)


    May 2, 2014 ... J Bhoi, U Laha and K C Panda interest to generate supersymmetric partners of the latter and study their partner poten- tials, related physical observables etc., which have important applications in quantum scattering theory. Arnold and Mackellar [5] parametrized Hulthen potential to fit the deuteron binding.

  5. [Light scattering extinction properties of atmospheric particle and pollution characteristics in hazy weather in Hangzhou]. (United States)

    Xu, Chang; Ye, Hui; Shen, Jian-Dong; Sun, Hong-Liang; Hong, Sheng-Mao; Jiao, Li; Huang, Kan


    In order to evaluate the influence of particle scattering on visibility, light scattering coefficient, particle concentrations and meteorological factor were simultaneously monitored from July 2011 to June 2012 in Hangzhou. Daily scattering coefficients ranged from 108.4 to 1 098.1 Mm(-1), with an annual average concentration of 428.6 Mm(-1) ± 200.2 Mm(-1). Seasonal variation of scattering coefficients was significant, with the highest concentrations observed in autumn and winter and the lowest in summer. It was found there were two peaks for the average diurnal variations of the scattering coefficient, which could be observed at 08:00 and 21:00. The scattering efficiencies of PM2.5 and PM10 were 7.6 m2 x g(-1) and 4.4 m2 x g(-1), respectively. The particle scattering was about 90.2 percent of the total light extinction. The scattering coefficients were 684.4 Mm(-1) ± 218.1 Mm(-1) and 1 095.4 Mm(-1) ± 397.7 Mm(-1) in hazy and heavy hazy days, respectively, which were 2.6 and 4.2 times as high as in non-hazy weather, indicating that particle scattering is the main factor for visibility degradation and the occurrence of hazy weather in Hangzhou.

  6. Correlation transfer and diffusion of ultrasound-modulated multiply scattered light. (United States)

    Sakadzić, Sava; Wang, Lihong V


    We develop a temporal correlation transfer equation (CTE) and a temporal correlation diffusion equation (CDE) for ultrasound-modulated multiply scattered light. These equations can be applied to an optically scattering medium with embedded optically scattering and absorbing objects to calculate the power spectrum of light modulated by a nonuniform ultrasound field. We present an analytical solution based on the CDE and Monte Carlo simulation results for light modulated by a cylinder of ultrasound in an optically scattering slab. We further validate with experimental measurements the numerical calculations for an actual ultrasound field. The CTE and CDE are valid for moderate ultrasound pressures and on a length scale comparable with the optical transport mean-free path. These equations should be applicable to a wide spectrum of conditions for ultrasound-modulated optical tomography of soft biological tissues.

  7. Label-free identification of individual bacteria using Fourier transform light scattering. (United States)

    Jo, YoungJu; Jung, JaeHwang; Kim, Min-Hyeok; Park, HyunJoo; Kang, Suk-Jo; Park, YongKeun


    Rapid identification of bacterial species is crucial in medicine and food hygiene. In order to achieve rapid and label-free identification of bacterial species at the single bacterium level, we propose and experimentally demonstrate an optical method based on Fourier transform light scattering (FTLS) measurements and statistical classification. For individual rod-shaped bacteria belonging to four bacterial species (Listeria monocytogenes, Escherichia coli, Lactobacillus casei, and Bacillus subtilis), two-dimensional angle-resolved light scattering maps are precisely measured using FTLS technique. The scattering maps are then systematically analyzed, employing statistical classification in order to extract the unique fingerprint patterns for each species, so that a new unidentified bacterium can be identified by a single light scattering measurement. The single-bacterial and label-free nature of our method suggests wide applicability for rapid point-of-care bacterial diagnosis.

  8. Stray light analysis for the Thomson scattering diagnostic of the ETE Tokamak

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Berni, L. A. [Instituto Nacional de Pesquisas Espaciais (INPE), Laboratorio Associado de Sensores e Materiais (LAS), 12.227-010 Sao Jose dos Campos, SP (Brazil); Albuquerque, B. F. C. [Instituto Nacional de Pesquisas Espaciais (INPE), Engenharia e Tecnologia Espaciais, Divisao de Eletronica Aeroespacial, 12.227-010 Sao Jose dos Campos, SP (Brazil)


    Thomson scattering is a well-established diagnostic for measuring local electron temperature and density in fusion plasma, but this technique is particularly difficult to implement due to stray light that can easily mask the scattered signal from plasma. To mitigate this problem in the multipoint Thomson scattering system implemented at the ETE (Experimento Tokamak Esferico) a detailed stray light analysis was performed. The diagnostic system was simulated in ZEMAX software and scattering profiles of the mechanical parts were measured in the laboratory in order to have near realistic results. From simulation, it was possible to identify the main points that contribute to the stray signals and changes in the dump were implemented reducing the stray light signals up to 60 times.

  9. Any light particle search II. Technical Design Report

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Baehre, Robin; Doebrich, Babette; Dreyling-Eschweiler, Jan


    This document constitutes an excerpt of the Technical Design Report for the second stage of the ''Any Light Particle Search'' (ALPS-II) at DESY as submitted to the DESY PRC in August 2012 and reviewed in November 2012. ALPS-II is a ''Light Shining through a Wall'' experiment which searches for photon oscillations into weakly interacting sub-eV particles. These are often predicted by extensions of the Standard Model and motivated by astrophysical phenomena. The first phases of the ALPS-II project were approved by the DESY management on February 21st, 2013.

  10. Any light particle search II. Technical Design Report

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Baehre, Robin [Albert Einstein Institute, Hannover (Germany); Doebrich, Babette; Dreyling-Eschweiler, Jan [Deutsches Elektronen-Synchrotron, Hamburg (Germany)] [and others


    This document constitutes an excerpt of the Technical Design Report for the second stage of the ''Any Light Particle Search'' (ALPS-II) at DESY as submitted to the DESY PRC in August 2012 and reviewed in November 2012. ALPS-II is a ''Light Shining through a Wall'' experiment which searches for photon oscillations into weakly interacting sub-eV particles. These are often predicted by extensions of the Standard Model and motivated by astrophysical phenomena. The first phases of the ALPS-II project were approved by the DESY management on February 21st, 2013.

  11. Surface roughness studies with DALLAS-detector array for laser light angular scattering (United States)

    Vorburger, T. V.; Teague, E. C.; Scire, F. E.; Mclay, M. J.; Gilsinn, D. E.


    An attempt is made to develop a better mathematical description of optical scattering phenomena, in order to construct an optical scattering apparatus for reliable and routine measurements of roughness parameters without resorting to comparator standards. After a brief outline of optical scattering theory, a description is presented of an experimental instrument for measuring surface roughness which incorporates optical scattering principles. The instrument has a He-Ne laser which illuminates the test surface at a variable angle of incidence. Scattered light distribution is detected by an array of 87 fiber-optic sensors positioned in a rotating semicircular yoke. The output from the detector is digitized and analyzed in a laboratory computer. For a comparison with experimental data, theoretical distributions are calculated by substituting the roughness profiles into the operand of and integral equation for electromagnetic scattering developed by Beckmann and Spizzichino (1963). A schematic diagram of the instrument is provided and the general implications of the experimental results are discussed.

  12. Single particle analysis with a 360/sup 0/ light scattering photometer

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Bartholdi, M.F.


    Light scattering by single spherical homogeneous particles in the diameter range 1 to 20 and relative refractive index 1.20 is measured. Particle size of narrowly dispersed populations is determined and a multi-modal dispersion of five components is completely analyzed. A 360/sup 0/ light scattering photometer for analysis of single particles has been designed and developed. A fluid stream containing single particles intersects a focused laser beam at the primary focal point of an ellipsoidal reflector ring. The light scattered at angles theta = 2.5/sup 0/ to 177.5/sup 0/ at phi = 0/sup 0/ and 180/sup 0/ is reflected onto a circular array of photodiodes. The ellipsoidal reflector is situated in a chamber filled with fluid matching that of the stream to minimize refracting and reflecting interfaces. The detector array consists of 60 photodiodes each subtending 3/sup 0/ in scattering angle on 6/sup 0/ centers around 360/sup 0/. 32 measurements on individual particles can be acquired at rates of 500 particles per second. The intensity and angular distribution of light scattered by spherical particles are indicative of size and relative refractive index. Calculations, using Lorenz--Mie theory, of differential scattering patterns integrated over angle corresponding to the detector geometry determined the instrument response to particle size. From this the expected resolution and experimental procedures are determined.Ultimately, the photometer will be utilized for identification and discrimination of biological cells based on the sensitivity of light scattering to size, shape, refractive index differences, internal granularity, and other internal morphology. This study has demonstrated the utility of the photometer and indicates potential for application to light scattering studies of biological cells.

  13. Maximizing the information transfer in a quantum-limited light-scattering system

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Lading, Lars; Jørgensen, Thomas Martini


    A quantum-limited light-scattering system is considered. The spatial configuration that maximizes a given figure of merit is investigated, assuming that the emitted light has Poisson photon statistics. A specific system for measuring the velocity of a small particle is considered as an example...

  14. Mesoscopic coherence in light scattering from cold, optically dense and disordered atomic systems

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Kupriyanov, D.V., E-mail: [Department of Theoretical Physics, St.-Petersburg State Polytechnic University, 195251, St.-Petersburg (Russian Federation); Sokolov, I.M. [Department of Theoretical Physics, St.-Petersburg State Polytechnic University, 195251, St.-Petersburg (Russian Federation); Havey, M.D. [Department of Physics, Old Dominion University, Norfolk, VA 23529 (United States)


    Coherent effects manifested in light scattering from cold, optically dense and disordered atomic systems are reviewed from a primarily theoretical point of view. Development of the basic theoretical tools is then elaborated through several physical atomic physics based processes which have been at least partly explored experimentally. These include illustrations drawn from the coherent backscattering effect, random lasing in atomic gases, quantum memories and light-atoms interface assisted by the light trapping mechanism. Current understanding and challenges associated with the transition to high atomic densities and cooperativity in the scattering process are also discussed in some detail.

  15. Theoretical analysis and experiment performance of slow-light based on stimulated Brillouin scattering (SBS)

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Zhou Hongyan; Zhong Kun; Zhang Ru; Lang Peilin


    Slow light technology will play a key role in future all-optical communication. The slow-light technology based on stimulated Brillouin scattering has become a research highlight because of its additional advantages, such as compatibility of the devices with existing telecommunication systems, room-temperature operation, and tunable at arbitrary wavelengths. According to the propagation of a cw pulse through a Brillouin fiber amplifier, whose frequency is near the Stokes resonance, via three-wave coupling equations, both pump depletion and fiber losses taken into consideration, the principle of how slow-light effect based on stimulated Brillouin scattering produced and the mathematical expression of time delay are strictly deduced. A delay of 8 ns is obtained when the input Stokes pulse is 200ns and the SBS (stimulated Brillouin scattering) gain G is ∼18 in our designed experiment of SBS slow-light system. Then the extent of transformation from pump waves to Stokes waves is measured using MATLAB numerical simulation according to the experiment dates, based on the relation between output pump light power and input pump light power and also the relation between output Stokes light power and input pump light power. And the relation between the input light power and propagation distance is discussed as well. Finally the relation between slow light pulse delay and SBS gain is also obtained.

  16. Polarized scattered light from self-luminous exoplanets : Three-dimensional scattering radiative transfer with ARTES

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Stolker, T.; Min, M.; Stam, D.M.; Mollière, P.; Dominik, C.; Waters, L. B.F.M.


    Context. Direct imaging has paved the way for atmospheric characterization of young and self-luminous gas giants. Scattering in a horizontally-inhomogeneous atmosphere causes the disk-integrated polarization of the thermal radiation to be linearly polarized, possibly detectable with the newest

  17. Enhancing Localized Evaporation through Separated Light Absorbing Centers and Scattering Centers. (United States)

    Zhao, Dengwu; Duan, Haoze; Yu, Shengtao; Zhang, Yao; He, Jiaqing; Quan, Xiaojun; Tao, Peng; Shang, Wen; Wu, Jianbo; Song, Chengyi; Deng, Tao


    This report investigates the enhancement of localized evaporation via separated light absorbing particles (plasmonic absorbers) and scattering particles (polystyrene nanoparticles). Evaporation has been considered as one of the most important phase-change processes in modern industries. To improve the efficiency of evaporation, one of the most feasible methods is to localize heat at the top water layer rather than heating the bulk water. In this work, the mixture of purely light absorptive plasmonic nanostructures such as gold nanoparticles and purely scattering particles (polystyrene nanoparticles) are employed to confine the incident light at the top of the solution and convert light to heat. Different concentrations of both the light absorbing centers and the light scattering centers were evaluated and the evaporation performance can be largely enhanced with the balance between absorbing centers and scattering centers. The findings in this study not only provide a new way to improve evaporation efficiency in plasmonic particle-based solution, but also shed lights on the design of new solar-driven localized evaporation systems.

  18. Reflection Matrix Method for Controlling Light After Reflection From a Diffuse Scattering Surface (United States)


    of Philosophy Kenneth W. Burgi, BS, MS Major, USAF 22 December 2016 DISTRIBUTION STATEMENT A APPROVED FOR PUBLIC RELEASE; DISTRIBUTION UNLIMITED. AFIT...refocusing light through thin films of a turbid medium. When coherent light is trans- mitted through a stationary diffuser (i.e. a turbid medium), a fine...resultant light scatter [14, 15, 21, 23]. Transmission matrices were measured with microscopic objectives and thin films of turbid media, resulting in

  19. Quantum theory of dynamic multiple light scattering in fluctuating disordered media

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Skipetrov, S. E.


    We formulate a quantum theory of dynamic multiple light scattering in fluctuating disordered media and calculate the fluctuation and the autocorrelation function of the photon number operator for light transmitted through a disordered slab. The effect of disorder on the information capacity of a quantum communication channel operating in a disordered environment is estimated, and the use of squeezed light in diffusing-wave spectroscopy is discussed

  20. Inverse scattering transform method and soliton solutions for Davey-Stewartson II equation

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Arkadiev, V.A.; Pogrebkov, A.K.; Polivanov, M.C.


    The inverse scattering method for Davey-Stewartson II (DS-II) equation including both soliton and continuous spectrum solutions is developed. The explicit formulae for N-soliton solutions are given. Note that our solitons decrease as |z| -2 with z tending to infinity. (author). 8 refs

  1. Neutron scattering-instrumentation at the upgraded research reactor BER II

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)


    The Berlin Neutron Scattering Centre (BENSC) is a newly created special department of the Hahn-Meitner-Institut, in the framework of which the BER II neutron beam reactor is made available to external users. BENSC is devoted to development, continuous modernisation and maintenance of the scientific instrumets at the BER II and to the support of their users. (orig./HSI)

  2. Fabry-Perot spectrometer for high resolution light scattering investigations

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Deniz, K.U.; Parvathanathan, P.S.; Paranjpe, A.S.


    A Fabry-Perot spectrometer designed specially for carrying out Brillouin scattering experiment is described in detail. The instrument has free spectral range in the domain of frequencies 1 - 10 GHz and resolution widths in the range of 30 MHz - 3 GHz. The signal to noise ratio has been improved by a factor of about 10 3 by : (1) cooling the photomultiplier detector and (2) the use of magnetic defocussing techniques. With the use of a single frequency laser source, accurate determination of Brillouin frequency shifts and of Brillouin line shapes can be made with this spectrometer. Some preliminary results obtained with a few simple liquids, are discussed. (author)

  3. Light-scattering study of the glass transition in lubricants (United States)

    Alsaad, M. A.; Winer, W. O.; Medina, F. D.; Oshea, D. C.


    The sound velocity of four lubricants has been measured as a function of temperature and pressure using Brillouin scattering. A change in slope of the velocity as a function of temperature or pressure allowed the determination of the glass transition temperature and pressure. The glass transition data were used to construct a phase diagram for each lubricant. The data indicate that the glass transition temperature increased with pressure at a rate which ranged from 120 to 200 C/GPa. The maximum pressure attained was 0.69 GPa and the temperature range was from 25 to 100 C.

  4. Isotropic collision-induced light scattering by gaseous CF4

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Elliasmine, A.; Godet, J.L.; Le Duff, Y.; Bancewicz, T.


    The binary isotropic collision-induced scattering spectra of the gaseous tetrafluoromethane has been measured in absolute units in the 50 - 150cm -1 frequency range. Corresponding theoretical intensities taking into account multipolar polarizabilities have been calculated in a semiclassical way. From a comparison with experiment, the independent components of dipole-quadrupole and dipole-octupole polarizability tensors have been estimated. They have been compared with those previously deduced from depolarized spectrum and with recent theoretical ab initio calculations. copyright 1997 The American Physical Society

  5. Simulations of the Light Scattering Properties of Metal/Oxide Core/Shell Nanospheres

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    F. Ruffino


    Full Text Available Given the importance of the optical properties of metal/dielectric core/shell nanoparticles, in this work we focus our attention on the light scattering properties, within the Mie framework, of some specific categories of these noteworthy nanostructures. In particular, we report theoretical results of angle-dependent light scattering intensity and scattering efficiency for Ag/Ag2O, Al/Al2O2, Cu/Cu2O, Pd/PdO, and Ti/TiO2 core/shell nanoparticles as a function of the core radius/shell thickness ratio and on a relative comparison. The results highlight the light scattering characteristics of these systems as a function of the radius/shell thickness ratio, helping in the choice of the more suitable materials and sizes for specific applications (i.e., dynamic light scattering for biological and molecular recognition, increasing light trapping in thin-film silicon, organic solar cells for achieving a higher photocurrent.

  6. Janus magneto-electric nanosphere dimers exhibiting unidirectional visible light scattering and strong electromagnetic field enhancement. (United States)

    Wang, Hao; Liu, Pu; Ke, Yanlin; Su, Yunkun; Zhang, Lei; Xu, Ningsheng; Deng, Shaozhi; Chen, Huanjun


    Steering incident light into specific directions at the nanoscale is very important for future nanophotonics applications of signal transmission and detection. A prerequisite for such a purpose is the development of nanostructures with high-efficiency unidirectional light scattering properties. Here, from both theoretical and experimental sides, we conceived and demonstrated the unidirectional visible light scattering behaviors of a heterostructure, Janus dimer composed of gold and silicon nanospheres. By carefully adjusting the sizes and spacings of the two nanospheres, the Janus dimer can support both electric and magnetic dipole modes with spectral overlaps and comparable strengths. The interference of these two modes gives rise to the narrow-band unidirectional scattering behaviors with enhanced forward scattering and suppressed backward scattering. The directionality can further be improved by arranging the dimers into one-dimensional chain structures. In addition, the dimers also show remarkable electromagnetic field enhancements. These results will be important not only for applications of light emitting devices, solar cells, optical filters, and various surface enhanced spectroscopies but also for furthering our understanding on the light-matter interactions at the nanoscale.

  7. A simple student laboratory practice for the study of light scattering by cylindrical bodies (United States)

    Mabiala Masiala, Toto; Phuku Phuati, Edmond; Kazadi Mukenga, B. Albert


    The study of light scattering by cylindrical bodies is of great importance in many aspects, but most of the time; it is studied in a very theoretical manner. In that work, we present a simple manner to study scattering of light by cylindrical bodies. The method combines the use of a simple experimental set-up using a He-Ne laser as a source, a circular paper screen, and the use of a simple code for simulation using the Lorentz-Mie formalism. In that way, the student can compare the experimental results with the simulation. They can qualitatively notice the difference of the behavior of scattering by a low-loss dielectric cylinder, a metallic cylinder, and an absorbing cylinder. Simulation can help students to follow the evolution of the scattering regime when the relative diameter of the cylinder, with respect to the incident wavelength, changes. A focus is stressed especially when the radius becomes far below the wavelength.

  8. Measuring spatially- and directionally-varying light scattering from biological material. (United States)

    Harvey, Todd Alan; Bostwick, Kimberly S; Marschner, Steve


    Light interacts with an organism's integument on a variety of spatial scales. For example in an iridescent bird: nano-scale structures produce color; the milli-scale structure of barbs and barbules largely determines the directional pattern of reflected light; and through the macro-scale spatial structure of overlapping, curved feathers, these directional effects create the visual texture. Milli-scale and macro-scale effects determine where on the organism's body, and from what viewpoints and under what illumination, the iridescent colors are seen. Thus, the highly directional flash of brilliant color from the iridescent throat of a hummingbird is inadequately explained by its nano-scale structure alone and questions remain. From a given observation point, which milli-scale elements of the feather are oriented to reflect strongly? Do some species produce broader "windows" for observation of iridescence than others? These and similar questions may be asked about any organisms that have evolved a particular surface appearance for signaling, camouflage, or other reasons. In order to study the directional patterns of light scattering from feathers, and their relationship to the bird's milli-scale morphology, we developed a protocol for measuring light scattered from biological materials using many high-resolution photographs taken with varying illumination and viewing directions. Since we measure scattered light as a function of direction, we can observe the characteristic features in the directional distribution of light scattered from that particular feather, and because barbs and barbules are resolved in our images, we can clearly attribute the directional features to these different milli-scale structures. Keeping the specimen intact preserves the gross-scale scattering behavior seen in nature. The method described here presents a generalized protocol for analyzing spatially- and directionally-varying light scattering from complex biological materials at multiple

  9. New singularities in nonrelativistic coupled channel scattering. II. Fourth order

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Khuri, N.N.; Tsun Wu, T.


    We consider a two-channel nonrelativistic potential scattering problem, and study perturbation theory in fourth order for the forward amplitude. The main result is that the new singularity demonstrated in second order in the preceding paper I also occurs at the same point in fourth order. Its strength is again that of a pole. copyright 1997 The American Physical Society



    Belton, Daniel; Austerberry, James


    The problem of protein aggregation is widely studied across a number of disciplines, where understanding the behaviour of the protein monomer, and its behaviour with co-solutes is imperative in order to devise solutions to the problem. Here we present a method for measuring the kinetics of protein aggregation based on ultra violet light scattering spectroscopy (UVLSS) across a range of NaCl conditions. Through measurement of wavelength dependant scattering and using the model protein β-lactog...

  11. Taking apart the enhanced backscattering cone: Interference fringes from reciprocal paths in multiple light scattering

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Bret, Boris P. J.; Ferreira, Flavio P.; Nunes-Pereira, Eduardo J.; Belsley, Michael


    We report the decomposition of the enhanced backscattering cone into its constitutive interference fringes. These fringes are due to the constructive interference between reciprocal paths of any multiply scattered wave after ensemble averaging. An optical setup combining a two-point continuous-wave illumination and matching detection allows the observation of the fringes and, therefore, the quantitative characterization of the Green's function for light propagation between the two points in a multiple-scattering media.

  12. Electron Scattering from a Bound Nucleon on the Light-Front (United States)

    Vera, Frank; Sargsian, Misak


    We calculate the cross section of the electron scattering from a bound nucleon within light-front approximation. The advantage of this approximation is the possibility of systematic account for the off-shell effects which become essential in high energy electro-nuclear processes aimed at probing the nuclear structure at small distances. The derived cross section is compared with the results of other approaches treating the off-shell effects in electron-nucleon scattering. US Department of Energy.

  13. Characterization of the angular memory effect of scattered light in biological tissues. (United States)

    Schott, Sam; Bertolotti, Jacopo; Léger, Jean-Francois; Bourdieu, Laurent; Gigan, Sylvain


    High resolution optical microscopy is essential in neuroscience but suffers from scattering in biological tissues and therefore grants access to superficial brain layers only. Recently developed techniques use scattered photons for imaging by exploiting angular correlations in transmitted light and could potentially increase imaging depths. But those correlations ('angular memory effect') are of a very short range and should theoretically be only present behind and not inside scattering media. From measurements on neural tissues and complementary simulations, we find that strong forward scattering in biological tissues can enhance the memory effect range and thus the possible field-of-view by more than an order of magnitude compared to isotropic scattering for ∼1 mm thick tissue layers.

  14. Plasmon-modulated light scattering from gold nanocrystal-decorated hollow mesoporous silica microspheres. (United States)

    Xiao, Manda; Chen, Huanjun; Ming, Tian; Shao, Lei; Wang, Jianfang


    Localized surface plasmon resonances of noble metal nanocrystals are powerful in enhancing a variety of linear and nonlinear optical signals and photorelated processes. Here we demonstrate the plasmonic enhancement of the light scattering from hollow mesoporous silica microspheres by attaching a dense layer of gold nanocrystals onto the outer surface of the microspheres. The attachment of gold nanocrystals induces both the shift and intensity increase in the resonant scattering peaks of the microspheres. The spectral region of the resonant scattering enhancement can be controlled by using gold nanocrystals with different plasmon resonance wavelengths. The spectral region of the enhancement is independent of the microsphere diameter. The scattering enhancement factor ranges from 20 to 130, depending on the plasmonic properties and surface coverage of the attached gold nanocrystals. The systematic evolution of the scattering spectra of the individual microspheres is also revealed by chemically etching away the attached gold nanocrystals gradually.

  15. Optical fibre probes in the measurement of scattered light ...

    Indian Academy of Sciences (India)


    Jan 8, 2014 ... absorption of light from the sample solution. Details of the experiments and results are presented here. Keywords. Fibre optic sensors; optical fibre probes; turbidity sensor; optical properties. PACS Nos 42.81.−I; 42.81.Pa; 78.15.+e. 1. Introduction. Apart from being the transmission medium in optical fibre ...

  16. A new dump system design for stray light reduction of Thomson scattering diagnostic system on EAST

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Xiao, Shumei; Zang, Qing, E-mail:; Han, Xiaofeng; Wang, Tengfei; Zhao, Junyu [Institute of Plasma Physics, Chinese Academy of Sciences, P.O. Box 1126, Hefei, Anhui 230031 (China); Yu, Jin [Academy of Opto-Electronics, Chinese Academy of Sciences, Beijing 100094 (China)


    Thomson scattering (TS) diagnostic is an important diagnostic for measuring electron temperature and density during plasma discharge. However, the measurement of Thomson scattering signal is disturbed by the stray light easily. The stray light sources in the Experimental Advanced Superconducting Tokamak (EAST) TS diagnostic system were analyzed by a simulation model of the diagnostic system, and simulation results show that the dump system is the primary stray light source. Based on the optics theory and the simulation analysis, a novel dump system including an improved beam trap was proposed and installed. The measurement results indicate that the new dump system can reduce more than 60% of the stray light for the diagnostic system, and the influence of stray light on the error of measured density decreases.

  17. Light focusing through a multiple scattering medium: ab initio computer simulation (United States)

    Danko, Oleksandr; Danko, Volodymyr; Kovalenko, Andrey


    The present study considers ab initio computer simulation of the light focusing through a complex scattering medium. The focusing is performed by shaping the incident light beam in order to obtain a small focused spot on the opposite side of the scattering layer. MSTM software (Auburn University) is used to simulate the propagation of an arbitrary monochromatic Gaussian beam and obtain 2D distribution of the optical field in the selected plane of the investigated volume. Based on the set of incident and scattered fields, the pair of right and left eigen bases and corresponding singular values were calculated. The pair of right and left eigen modes together with the corresponding singular value constitute the transmittance eigen channel of the disordered media. Thus, the scattering process is described in three steps: 1) initial field decomposition in the right eigen basis; 2) scaling of decomposition coefficients for the corresponding singular values; 3) assembling of the scattered field as the composition of the weighted left eigen modes. Basis fields are represented as a linear combination of the original Gaussian beams and scattered fields. It was demonstrated that 60 independent control channels provide focusing the light into a spot with the minimal radius of approximately 0.4 μm at half maximum. The intensity enhancement in the focal plane was equal to 68 that coincided with theoretical prediction.

  18. On a theory of light scattering from a Bose-Einstein condensate

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Ezhova, V M; Gerasimov, L V; Kupriyanov, D V


    We consider a quantum theory of elastic light scattering from a macroscopic atomic sample existing in the Bose-Einstein condensate (BEC) phase. Following the second quantized formalism we introduce a set of coupled and closed diagram equations for the polariton propagator contributing to the T -matrix and scattering amplitude. Our approach allows us to follow important density corrections to the quasi-energy structure caused by static interaction and radiation losses associated with incoherent scattering in the case of near resonance excitation. (paper)

  19. Optical Imaging of Cells with Gold Nanoparticle Clusters as Light Scattering Contrast Agents

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Tanev, Stoyan


    This chapter has two main objectives. First, to review a number of examples illustrating the application of the FDTD approach to the modeling of some typical light scattering configurations that could be associated with flow cytometry. Second, to provide a thorough discussion of these new...... developments in advanced cytometry research by pointing out potential new research directions. A brief description of the FDTD method focusing on the features associated with its application to modeling of light scattering and OPCM cell imaging experiments is provided. The examples include light scattering...... from OPCM imaging of single biological cells in conditions of controlled refractive index matching (RIM) and labeling by diffused and clustered gold NPs. The chapter concludes with a discussion and suggestions for future research....

  20. Field-based dynamic light scattering microscopy: theory and numerical analysis. (United States)

    Joo, Chulmin; de Boer, Johannes F


    We present a theoretical framework for field-based dynamic light scattering microscopy based on a spectral-domain optical coherence phase microscopy (SD-OCPM) platform. SD-OCPM is an interferometric microscope capable of quantitative measurement of amplitude and phase of scattered light with high phase stability. Field-based dynamic light scattering (F-DLS) analysis allows for direct evaluation of complex-valued field autocorrelation function and measurement of localized diffusive and directional dynamic properties of biological and material samples with high spatial resolution. In order to gain insight into the information provided by F-DLS microscopy, theoretical and numerical analyses are performed to evaluate the effect of numerical aperture of the imaging optics. We demonstrate that sharp focusing of fields affects the measured diffusive and transport velocity, which leads to smaller values for the dynamic properties in the sample. An approach for accurately determining the dynamic properties of the samples is discussed.

  1. Theoretical Studies of Light Scattering from Solids, Films and Surfaces (United States)


    hybridization and spin-splitting in InAs/ AlSb /GaSb type II and broken-gap quantum wells………………………………………….……...7 2.1.9 Signatures...of carrier multiplication in polariton fluorescence spectra…….9 2.1.10 IR modes in 2DEHGS magneto-infrared modes in InAs/ AlSb /GaSb... AlSb /InAs/ AlSb /GaSb/ AlSb type II and broken-gap quantum well……………………………………………………………………………………..8 10 The energy spectrum, En(k||), for electrons

  2. Detection of internal structure by scattered light intensity: Application to kidney cell sorting (United States)

    Goolsby, C. L.; Kunze, M. E.


    Scattered light measurements in flow cytometry were sucessfully used to distinguish cells on the basis of differing morphology and internal structure. Differences in scattered light patterns due to changes in internal structure would be expected to occur at large scattering angles. Practically, the results of these calculations suggest that in experimental situations an array of detectors would be useful. Although in general the detection of the scattered light intensity at several intervals within the 10 to 60 region would be sufficient, there are many examples where increased sensitivity could be acheived at other angles. The ability to measure at many different angular intervals would allow the experimenter to empirically select the optimum intervals for the varying conditions of cell size, N/C ratio, granule size and internal structure from sample to sample. The feasibility of making scattered light measurements at many different intervals in flow cytometry was demonstrated. The implementation of simplified versions of these techniques in conjunction with independant measurements of cell size could potentially improve the usefulness of flow cytometry in the study of the internal structure of cells.

  3. Mathematical methods for restricted domain ternary liquid mixture free energy determination using light scattering. (United States)

    Wahle, Chris W; Ross, David S; Thurston, George M


    We extend methods of solution of a light scattering partial differential equation for the free energy of mixing to apply to connected, isotropic ternary liquid composition domains that do not touch all three binary axes. To do so we mathematically analyze the problem of inferring needed Dirichlet boundary data, and solving for the free energy, with use of hypothetical static light scattering measurements that correspond to dielectric composition gradient vectors that have distinct directions. The physical idea behind the technique is that contrasting absorption properties of mixture components can result in such distinctly directed dielectric composition gradient vectors, due to their differing wavelength dependences of dielectric response. At suitably chosen wavelengths, contrasting light scattering efficiency patterns in the ternary composition triangle can then correspond to the same underlying free energy, and enlarge the scope of available information about the free energy, as shown here. We show how to use distinctly directed dielectric gradients to measure the free energy on both straight lines and curves within the ternary composition triangle, so as to provide needed Dirichlet conditions for light scattering partial differential equation solution. With use of Monte Carlo simulations of noisy light scattering data, we provide estimates of the overall system measurement time and sample spacing needed to determine the free energy to a desired degree of accuracy, for various angles between the assumed dielectric gradient vectors, and indicate how the measurement time depends on instrumental throughput parameters. The present analysis methods provide a way to use static light scattering to measure, directly, mixing free energies of many systems that contain such restricted liquid domains, including aqueous solutions of biological macromolecules, micellar mixtures and microemulsions, and many small molecule systems that are important in separation technology.

  4. Real-time measurement of platelet shape change by light scattering under riboflavin and ultraviolet light treatment. (United States)

    Terada, Chikahiro; Shiba, Masayuki; Satake, Masahiro; Tadokoro, Kenji


    The adoption of pathogen reduction technologies (PRTs) is considered for the implementation of safer platelet (PLT) transfusion. However, the effects of PRT treatment including irradiation with ultraviolet (UV) light on PLT shape have not yet been fully clarified. Leukoreduced PLT concentrates (PCs) were treated with riboflavin and UV light (Mirasol PRT, TerumoBCT). PLT shape and adenosine diphosphate (ADP)-induced shape change were evaluated by a light scattering method where the amplitude of the scattered signal intensity was measured as the indicator of the proportion of discoid PLTs. Using a modified fluorometer, the real-time effects of different wavelengths of UV light on PLT shape were examined over the range of 300 to 360 nm at the same dose. The proportion of discoid PLTs in the Mirasol PRT-treated PCs decreased immediately after treatment. The difference in the proportion between PRT-treated and untreated PLTs became larger with storage. Although this modification correlated significantly with the pH decrease and P-selectin expression, the Mirasol PRT-treated PLTs retained sufficient ability to undergo an ADP-induced shape change. In the study using the modified fluorometer, the proportion of discoid PLTs significantly decreased with the wavelength (light. Mirasol PRT treatment of PCs decreases the proportion of discoid PLTs, which seemed to be caused by the irradiation with UV light of short wavelengths (light wavelength may improve the quality of PRT-treated PCs. © 2015 AABB.

  5. Cosmological Parameter Uncertainties from SALT-II Type Ia Supernova Light Curve Models

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Mosher, J. [Pennsylvania U.; Guy, J. [LBL, Berkeley; Kessler, R. [Chicago U., KICP; Astier, P. [Paris U., VI-VII; Marriner, J. [Fermilab; Betoule, M. [Paris U., VI-VII; Sako, M. [Pennsylvania U.; El-Hage, P. [Paris U., VI-VII; Biswas, R. [Argonne; Pain, R. [Paris U., VI-VII; Kuhlmann, S. [Argonne; Regnault, N. [Paris U., VI-VII; Frieman, J. A. [Fermilab; Schneider, D. P. [Penn State U.


    We use simulated type Ia supernova (SN Ia) samples, including both photometry and spectra, to perform the first direct validation of cosmology analysis using the SALT-II light curve model. This validation includes residuals from the light curve training process, systematic biases in SN Ia distance measurements, and a bias on the dark energy equation of state parameter w. Using the SN-analysis package SNANA, we simulate and analyze realistic samples corresponding to the data samples used in the SNLS3 analysis: ~120 low-redshift (z < 0.1) SNe Ia, ~255 Sloan Digital Sky Survey SNe Ia (z < 0.4), and ~290 SNLS SNe Ia (z ≤ 1). To probe systematic uncertainties in detail, we vary the input spectral model, the model of intrinsic scatter, and the smoothing (i.e., regularization) parameters used during the SALT-II model training. Using realistic intrinsic scatter models results in a slight bias in the ultraviolet portion of the trained SALT-II model, and w biases (w (input) – w (recovered)) ranging from –0.005 ± 0.012 to –0.024 ± 0.010. These biases are indistinguishable from each other within the uncertainty, the average bias on w is –0.014 ± 0.007.

  6. Structure of insoluble immune complexes as studied by spectroturbidimetry and dynamic light scattering (United States)

    Khlebtsov, Boris N.; Burygin, Gennadii L.; Matora, Larisa Y.; Shchyogolev, Sergei Y.; Khlebtsov, Nikolai G.


    We describe two variants of a method for determining the average composition of insoluble immune complex particles (IICP). The first variant is based on measuring the specific turbidity (the turbidity per unit mass concentration of the dispersed substance) and the average size of IICP determined from dynamic light scattering (DLS). In the second variant, the wavelength exponent (i.e., the slope of the logarithmic turbidity spectrum) is used in combination with specific turbidity measurements. Both variants allow the average biopolymer volume fraction to be determined in terms of the average refractive index of IICP. The method is exemplified by two experimental antigen+antibody systems: (i) lipopolysaccharide-protein complex (LPPC) of Azospirillum brasilense Sp245+rabbit anti-LPPC; and (ii) human IgG (hIgG)+sheep anti-hIgG. Our measurements by the two methods for both types of systems gave, on the average, the same result: the volume fraction of the IICP biopolymers is about 30%; accordingly, the volume fraction of buffer solvent is 70%.

  7. A light-scattering study of the nonlinear dynamics of electrorheological fluids in oscillatory shear

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Martin, J.E.; Odinek, J.


    We report a real time, two-dimensional light-scattering study of the nonlinear dynamics of field-induced structures in an electrorheological (ER) fluid subjected to oscillatory shear. We have developed a simple kinetic chain model of the observed dynamics by considering the response of a fragmenting/aggregating particle chain to the prevailing hydrodynamic and electrostatic forces. This theory of the dynamics is then used to describe the nonlinear rheology of ER fluids, and it is concluded that light scattering allows one to indirectly probe the stress in an ER fluid. copyright 1995 Society of Rheology

  8. Total internal reflection resonance light scattering at solid/liquid interfaces. (United States)

    Tang, Yao-Ji; Chen, Ying; Yao, Min-Na; Li, Yao-Qun


    Total internal reflection (TIR) technique is an interface-specific tool and resonance light scattering (RLS) is of high sensitivity. The combination of both approaches is introduced into the solid/liquid interface for the first time. The behaviors of mixture of TPPS and BSA at the interface have been studied with total internal reflection resonance light scattering (TIR-RLS). The preliminary experimental results indicate that TIR-RLS is a good approach to study the interaction and distinguish the states of macromolecules at the solid/liquid interface.

  9. Studying aerosol light scattering based on aspect ratio distribution observed by fluorescence microscope. (United States)

    Li, Li; Zheng, Xu; Li, Zhengqiang; Li, Zhanhua; Dubovik, Oleg; Chen, Xingfeng; Wendisch, Manfred


    Particle shape is crucial to the properties of light scattered by atmospheric aerosol particles. A method of fluorescence microscopy direct observation was introduced to determine the aspect ratio distribution of aerosol particles. The result is comparable with that of the electron microscopic analysis. The measured aspect ratio distribution has been successfully applied in modeling light scattering and further in simulation of polarization measurements of the sun/sky radiometer. These efforts are expected to improve shape retrieval from skylight polarization by using directly measured aspect ratio distribution.

  10. Neutron-scattering. Instrumentation at the research reactor BER II

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Robertson, T.; Graf, H.A.; Michaelsen, R.; Vorderwisch


    The BER II research reactor, cold source and neutron guides - the instruments of BENSC - an overview; Instrument sites in experiment hall and neutron guide hall - description of the diffractometers. (orig./HP)

  11. Banking Risk Management in the Light of Basel II

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Vasile DEDU


    Full Text Available This study presents a summary of what is the meaning of risk management in light of the Basel II Agreement. The study is structured in three parts, namely: credit risk management, significant credit risk management and credit risk management under Basel II Agreement. Thus, in the first part it refers to how developed the credit risk management over time and which are current phenomena that generate these risks, continuing in the second part with a summary of the reasons for which one wishes management of such credit risks, following the third party to talk about the shippings of Basel II in terms of credit risk management.

  12. Time-dependent scattering of incident light of various wavelengths in ferrofluids under external magnetic field (United States)

    Jin, Jingyu; Song, Dongxing; Geng, Jiafeng; Jing, Dengwei


    Ferrofluids can exhibit the anisotropic thermodynamic properties under magnetic fields. The dynamic optical properties of ferrofluids in the presence of magnetic fields are of particular interest due to their potential application as various optical devices. Although time-dependent light scattering by ferrofluids have been extensively studied, the effect of wavelength of incident light have been rarely considered. Here, for the first time, we investigated both the time- and wavelength-dependent light scattering in water based ferrofluids containing Fe3O4 nanoparticles under an external magnetic field. The field-induced response behavior of the prepared ferrofluid samples was determined and verified first by thermal conductivity measurement and numerical simulation. Double-beam UV-Vis spectrophotometer was employed to record the temporal evolution of transmitted intensity of incident light of various wavelengths passing through the ferrofluid sample and propagating parallel to the applied field. As expected, the light intensity decreases to a certain value right after the field is turned on due to the thermal fluctuation induced disorder inside the flexible particle chains. Then the light intensity further decreases with time until the appearance of a minimum at time τ0 followed by an inversed increase before finally reaches equilibrium at a particular time. More importantly, the characteristic inversion time τ0 was found to follow a power law increase with the wavelength of incident light (τ0 ∼ λα, where α = 2.07). A quantitative explanation for the wavelength dependence of characteristic time was proposed based on the finite-difference time-domain (FDTD) method. The simulation results are in good agreement with our experimental observations. The time-dependent light scattering in ferrofluids under different incident wavelengths was rationalized by considering both the coarsening process of the particle chains and the occurrence of resonance within the

  13. Noninvasive monitoring of the thermal stress in RPE using light scattering spectroscopy (United States)

    Schule, Georg; Huie, Philip; Vankov, Alexander B.; Vitkin, Edward; Fang, Hui; Hanlon, Eugene B.; Perelman, Lev T.; Palanker, Daniel V.


    Introduction: Light Scattering Spectroscopy has been a recently developed as a non-invasive technique capable of sizing the cellular organelles. With this technique, we monitor the heat-induced sub-cellular structural transformations in a human RPE cell culture. Material and Methods: A single layer of human RPE cells (ATCC) was grown on a glass slide. Cells are illuminated with light from a fiber-coupled broadband tungsten lamp. The backscattered (180 degree) light spectra are measured with an optical multichannel analyzer (OMA). Spectra are measured during heating of the sample. Results: We reconstructed the size distribution of sub-micron organelles in the RPE cells and observed temperature-related changes in the scattering density of the organelles in the 200-300nm range (which might be peroxisomes, microsomes or lysosomes). The sizes of the organelles did not vary with temperature, so the change in scattering is most probably due to the change in the refractive indexes. As opposed to strong spectral variation with temperature, the total intensity of the backscattered light did not significantly change in the temperature range of 32-49 °C. Conclusion: We demonstrate that Light Scattering Spectroscopy is a powerful tool for monitoring the temperature-induced sub-cellular transformations. This technique providing an insight into the temperature-induced cellular processes and can play an important role in quantitative assessment of the laser-induced thermal effects during retinal laser treatments, such as Transpupillary Thermal Therapy (TTT), photocoagulation, and Photodynamic Therapy (PDT).

  14. Research Update: A minimal region of squid reflectin for vapor-induced light scattering (United States)

    Dennis, Patrick B.; Singh, Kristi M.; Vasudev, Milana C.; Naik, Rajesh R.; Crookes-Goodson, Wendy J.


    Reflectins are a family of proteins found in the light manipulating cells of cephalopods. These proteins are made up of a series of conserved repeats that contain highly represented amino acids thought to be important for function. Previous studies demonstrated that recombinant reflectins cast into thin films produced structural colors that could be dynamically modulated via changing environmental conditions. In this study, we demonstrate light scattering from reflectin films following exposure to a series of water vapor pulses. Analysis of film surface topography shows that the induction of light scatter is accompanied by self-assembly of reflectins into micro- and nanoscale features. Using a reductionist strategy, we determine which reflectin repeats and sub-repeats are necessary for these events following water vapor pulsing. With this approach, we identify a singly represented, 23-amino acid region in reflectins as being sufficient to recapitulate the light scattering properties observed in thin films of the full-length protein. Finally, the aqueous stability of reflectin films is leveraged to show that pre-exposure to buffers of varying pH can modulate the ability of water vapor pulses to induce light scatter and protein self-assembly.

  15. Scattered-Light Echoes from the Historical Galactic Supernovae Cassiopeia A and Tycho (SN 1572)

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Rest, A; Welch, D L; Suntzeff, N B; Oaster, L; Lanning, H; Olsen, K; Smith, R C; Becker, A C; Bergmann, M; Challis, P; Clocchiatti, A; Cook, K H; Damke, G; Garg, A; Huber, M E; Matheson, T; Minniti, D; Prieto, J L; Wood-Vasey, W M


    We report the discovery of an extensive system of scattered light echo arclets associated with the recent supernovae in the local neighborhood of the Milky Way: Tycho (SN 1572) and Cassiopeia A. Existing work suggests that the Tycho SN was a thermonuclear explosion while the Cas A supernova was a core collapse explosion. Precise classifications according to modern nomenclature require spectra of the outburst light. In the case of ancient SNe, this can only be done with spectroscopy of their light echo, where the discovery of the light echoes from the outburst light is the first step. Adjacent light echo positions suggest that Cas A and Tycho may share common scattering dust structures. If so, it is possible to measure precise distances between historical Galactic supernovae. On-going surveys that alert on the development of bright scattered-light echo features have the potential to reveal detailed spectroscopic information for many recent Galactic supernovae, both directly visible and obscured by dust in the Galactic plane.

  16. Crossing statistics of laser light scattered through a nanofluid. (United States)

    Arshadi Pirlar, M; Movahed, S M S; Razzaghi, D; Karimzadeh, R


    In this paper, we investigate the crossing statistics of speckle patterns formed in the Fresnel diffraction region by a laser beam scattering through a nanofluid. We extend zero-crossing statistics to assess the dynamical properties of the nanofluid. According to the joint probability density function of laser beam fluctuation and its time derivative, the theoretical frameworks for Gaussian and non-Gaussian regimes are revisited. We count the number of crossings not only at zero level but also for all available thresholds to determine the average speed of moving particles. Using a probabilistic framework in determining crossing statistics, a priori Gaussianity is not essentially considered; therefore, even in the presence of deviation from Gaussian fluctuation, this modified approach is capable of computing relevant quantities, such as mean value of speed, more precisely. Generalized total crossing, which represents the weighted summation of crossings for all thresholds to quantify small deviation from Gaussian statistics, is introduced. This criterion can also manipulate the contribution of noises and trends to infer reliable physical quantities. The characteristic time scale for having successive crossings at a given threshold is defined. In our experimental setup, we find that increasing sample temperature leads to more consistency between Gaussian and perturbative non-Gaussian predictions. The maximum number of crossings does not necessarily occur at mean level, indicating that we should take into account other levels in addition to zero level to achieve more accurate assessments.

  17. Light scattering at small angles by atmospheric irregular particles: modelling and laboratory measurements (United States)

    Lurton, T.; Renard, J.-B.; Vignelles, D.; Jeannot, M.; Akiki, R.; Mineau, J.-L.; Tonnelier, T.


    We have investigated the behaviour of light scattering by particulates of various sizes (0.1 μm to 100 μm) at a small scattering angle (below 20°). It has been previously shown that, for a small angle, the scattered intensities are weakly dependent upon the particulates' composition (Renard et al., 2010). Particles found in the atmosphere exhibit roughness that leads to large discrepancies with the classical Mie solution in terms of scattered intensities in the low angular set-up. This article focuses on building an effective theoretical tool to predict the behaviour of light scattering by real particulates at a small scattering angle. We present both the classical Mie theory and its adaptation to the case of rough particulates with a fairly simple roughness parameterisation. An experimental device was built, corresponding to the angular set-up of interest (low scattering angle and therefore low angular aperture). Measurements are presented that confirm the theoretical results with good agreement. It was found that differences between the classical Mie solution and actual measurements - especially for large particulates - can be attributed to the particulate roughness. It was also found that, in this low angular set-up, saturation of the scattered intensities occurs for relatively small values of the roughness parameter. This confirms the low variability in the scattered intensities observed for atmospheric particulates of different kinds. A direct interest of this study is a broadening of the dynamic range of optical counters: using a small angle of aperture for measurements allows greater dynamics in terms of particle size. Thus it allows a single device to observe a broad range of particle sizes whilst utilising the same electronics.

  18. Light absorption by isolated chloroplasts and leaves: effects of scattering and 'packing'. (United States)

    Merzlyak, Mark N; Chivkunova, Olga B; Zhigalova, Tatiana V; Naqvi, K Razi


    Light absorption was quantified in the following systems: isolated chloroplasts and leaves of spinach (Spinacea oleracea L.), a mutant of geranium (Pelargonium zonale L.) widely differing in pigment content, and coleus (Coleus blumei Benth.) at different stages of leaf ontogenesis. For these species and pea (Pisum sativum L.), scattering-compensated absorption spectra of chloroplast suspensions are presented. Comparison of leaf and chloroplast spectra showed considerable changes in the extent of the 'package' effect and the lengthening of the effective optical path in a leaf. The difference between leaf and isolated chloroplast absorption could be quantitatively described by adapting Duysens's treatment of flattening. It was found that the accumulation of chlorophyll in leaves is accompanied by a monotonous enhancement of the package effect. The results are discussed with special reference to the role of light scattering in leaf optics, light utilization in photosynthesis and wavelength-dependent light gradients in a leaf.

  19. Inelastic Scattering of Neutrons. Vol. II. Proceedings of the Symposium on Inelastic Scattering of Neutrons

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)


    The general technique of using neutron interactions - and in particular the inelastic scattering of neutrons - to study the dynamics of matter, and the interatomic forces which determine dynamics, is now well established. This area of physics research is of increasing interest to developing countries as well as to many advanced research centres of the world. Three international symposia have already been devoted to the subject of neutron inelastic scattering: the first was held in Stockholm in 1957; the second and third were convened by the IAEA in Vienna in October 1960, and in Chalk River, Canada, in September 1962. In view of continuing and expanding activity in this field, the IAEA convened the present Symposium at Bombay from 15 to 19 December 1964 on the invitation of the Government of India and the Indian Atomic Energy Commission. A total of 66 papers representing 15 countries and 1 international organization were presented at Bombay. The meeting concentrated on experimental results and interpretation rather than on equipment and techniques; thus neutron inelastic scattering has ''come of age'' and is indeed now fully established as a versatile and powerful research tool. Gratitude is expressed to authors of papers, chairmen of sessions, and discussion participants for their contributions to the success of the Bombay Symposium

  20. Rayleigh-Brillouin light scattering spectroscopy of nitrous oxide (N2O) (United States)

    Wang, Y.; Liang, K.; van de Water, W.; Marques, W.; Ubachs, W.


    High signal-to-noise and high-resolution light scattering spectra are measured for nitrous oxide (N2O) gas at an incident wavelength of 403.00 nm, at 90° scattering, at room temperature and at gas pressures in the range 0.5 - 4 bar. The resulting Rayleigh-Brillouin light scattering spectra are compared to a number of models describing in an approximate manner the collisional dynamics and energy transfer in this gaseous medium of this polyatomic molecular species. The Tenti-S6 model, based on macroscopic gas transport coefficients, reproduces the scattering profiles in the entire pressure range at less than 2% deviation at a similar level as does the alternative kinetic Grad's 6-moment model, which is based on the internal collisional relaxation as a decisive parameter. A hydrodynamic model fails to reproduce experimental spectra for the low pressures of 0.5-1 bar, but yields very good agreement ( viscosity of ηb ∼(6 ± 2) ×10-5 Pa · s. A 'rough-sphere' model, previously shown to be effective to describe light scattering in SF6 gas, is not found to be suitable, likely in view of the non-sphericity and asymmetry of the N-N-O structured linear polyatomic molecule.


    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Galbany, Lluis; Hamuy, Mario; Jaeger, Thomas de; Moraga, Tania; González-Gaitán, Santiago; Gutiérrez, Claudia P.; Phillips, Mark M.; Morrell, Nidia I.; Thomas-Osip, Joanna; Suntzeff, Nicholas B.; Maza, José; González, Luis; Antezana, Roberto; Wishnjewski, Marina; Krisciunas, Kevin; Krzeminski, Wojtek; McCarthy, Patrick; Anderson, Joseph P.; Stritzinger, Maximilian; Folatelli, Gastón


    We present a compilation of UBVRIz light curves of 51 type II supernovae discovered during the course of four different surveys during 1986–2003: the Cerro Tololo Supernova Survey, the Calán/Tololo Supernova Program (C and T), the Supernova Optical and Infrared Survey (SOIRS), and the Carnegie Type II Supernova Survey (CATS). The photometry is based on template-subtracted images to eliminate any potential host galaxy light contamination, and calibrated from foreground stars. This work presents these photometric data, studies the color evolution using different bands, and explores the relation between the magnitude at maximum brightness and the brightness decline parameter (s) from maximum light through the end of the recombination phase. This parameter is found to be shallower for redder bands and appears to have the best correlation in the B band. In addition, it also correlates with the plateau duration, being shorter (longer) for larger (smaller) s values


    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Galbany, Lluis; Hamuy, Mario; Jaeger, Thomas de; Moraga, Tania; González-Gaitán, Santiago; Gutiérrez, Claudia P. [Millennium Institute of Astrophysics, Universidad de Chile (Chile); Phillips, Mark M.; Morrell, Nidia I.; Thomas-Osip, Joanna [Carnegie Observatories, Las Campanas Observatory, Casilla 60, La Serena (Chile); Suntzeff, Nicholas B. [Department of Physics and Astronomy, Texas A and M University, College Station, TX 77843 (United States); Maza, José; González, Luis; Antezana, Roberto; Wishnjewski, Marina [Departamento de Astronomía, Universidad de Chile, Camino El Observatorio 1515, Las Condes, Santiago (Chile); Krisciunas, Kevin [George P. and Cynthia Woods Mitchell Institute for Fundamental Physics and Astronomy, Texas A. and M. University, Department of Physics and Astronomy, 4242 TAMU, College Station, TX 77843 (United States); Krzeminski, Wojtek [N. Copernicus Astronomical Center, ul. Bartycka 18, 00-716 Warszawa (Poland); McCarthy, Patrick [The Observatories of the Carnegie Institution for Science, 813 Santa Barbara Street, Pasadena, CA 91101 (United States); Anderson, Joseph P. [European Southern Observatory, Alonso de Cordova 3107, Vitacura, Casilla 19001, Santiago (Chile); Stritzinger, Maximilian [Department of Physics and Astronomy, Aarhus University (Denmark); Folatelli, Gastón, E-mail: [Instituto de Astrofísica de La Plata (IALP, CONICET) (Argentina); and others


    We present a compilation of UBVRIz light curves of 51 type II supernovae discovered during the course of four different surveys during 1986–2003: the Cerro Tololo Supernova Survey, the Calán/Tololo Supernova Program (C and T), the Supernova Optical and Infrared Survey (SOIRS), and the Carnegie Type II Supernova Survey (CATS). The photometry is based on template-subtracted images to eliminate any potential host galaxy light contamination, and calibrated from foreground stars. This work presents these photometric data, studies the color evolution using different bands, and explores the relation between the magnitude at maximum brightness and the brightness decline parameter (s) from maximum light through the end of the recombination phase. This parameter is found to be shallower for redder bands and appears to have the best correlation in the B band. In addition, it also correlates with the plateau duration, being shorter (longer) for larger (smaller) s values.

  3. White light photothermal lens spectrophotometer for the determination of absorption in scattering samples. (United States)

    Marcano, Aristides; Alvarado, Salvador; Meng, Junwei; Caballero, Daniel; Moares, Ernesto Marín; Edziah, Raymond


    We developed a pump-probe photothermal lens spectrophotometer that uses a broadband arc-lamp and a set of interference filters to provide tunable, nearly monochromatic radiation between 370 and 730 nm as the pump light source. This light is focused onto an absorbing sample, generating a photothermal lens of millimeter dimensions. A highly collimated monochromatic probe light from a low-power He-Ne laser interrogates the generated lens, yielding a photothermal signal proportional to the absorption of light. We measure the absorption spectra of scattering dye solutions using the device. We show that the spectra are not affected by the presence of scattering, confirming that the method only measures the absorption of light that results in generation of heat. By comparing the photothermal spectra with the usual absorption spectra determined using commercial transmission spectrophotometers, we estimate the quantum yield of scattering of the sample. We discuss applications of the device for spectroscopic characterization of samples such as blood and gold nanoparticles that exhibit a complex behavior upon interaction with light.

  4. A high-power spatial filter for Thomson scattering stray light reduction (United States)

    Levesque, J. P.; Litzner, K. D.; Mauel, M. E.; Maurer, D. A.; Navratil, G. A.; Pedersen, T. S.


    The Thomson scattering diagnostic on the High Beta Tokamak-Extended Pulse (HBT-EP) is routinely used to measure electron temperature and density during plasma discharges. Avalanche photodiodes in a five-channel interference filter polychromator measure scattered light from a 6 ns, 800 mJ, 1064 nm Nd:YAG laser pulse. A low cost, high-power spatial filter was designed, tested, and added to the laser beamline in order to reduce stray laser light to levels which are acceptable for accurate Rayleigh calibration. A detailed analysis of the spatial filter design and performance is given. The spatial filter can be easily implemented in an existing Thomson scattering system without the need to disturb the vacuum chamber or significantly change the beamline. Although apertures in the spatial filter suffer substantial damage from the focused beam, with proper design they can last long enough to permit absolute calibration.

  5. Multiple scattering of polarized light in birefringent slab media: experimental verifications and simulations. (United States)

    Otsuki, Soichi


    The effective scattering Mueller matrices were measured for backward and forward scattering by applying a narrow polarized light on a polyacrylamide slab gel, which was strained vertically to generate birefringence inside. Monte Carlo simulations were performed in conditions that were the same as possible. The measured and simulated matrices were simplified to the reduced ones. They agreed well in both original and reduced forms. While they approximately take reciprocal forms for backward scattering, they approximately satisfy matrix forms that correspond to a reciprocal position of the mirror image for forward scattering. The reduced matrices were factorized by the Lu-Chipman polar decomposition to obtain the polarization parameters. The polarization parameters were in good agreement between the measurement and simulation and showed characteristic features of anisotropic slab media with a birefringence axis parallel to the slab surface.

  6. High Precision Stokes Polarimetry for Scattering Light using Wide Dynamic Range Intensity Detector

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Shibata Shuhei


    Full Text Available This paper proposes a Stokes polarimetry for scattering light from a sample surface. To achieve a high accuracy measurement two approaches of an intensity detector and analysis algorism of a Stokes parameter were proposed. The dynamic range of this detector can achieve up to 1010 by combination of change of neutral-density (ND filters having different density and photon counting units. Stokes parameters can be measured by dual rotating of a retarder and an analyzer. The algorism of dual rotating polarimeter can be calibrated small linear diattenuation and linear retardance error of the retarder. This system can measured Stokes parameters from −20° to 70° of its scattering angle. It is possible to measure Stokes parameters of scattering of dust and scratch of optical device with high precision. This paper shows accuracy of this system, checking the polarization change of scattering angle and influence of beam size.

  7. A dynamic light scattering study of fast relaxations in polymer solutions

    Czech Academy of Sciences Publication Activity Database

    Štěpánek, Petr; Tuzar, Zdeněk; Kadlec, Petr; Kříž, Jaroslav


    Roč. 40, č. 6 (2007), s. 2165-2171 ISSN 0024-9297 R&D Projects: GA AV ČR IAA4050403 Institutional research plan: CEZ:AV0Z40500505 Keywords : dynamic light scattering * block copolymers Subject RIV: CD - Macromolecular Chemistry Impact factor: 4.411, year: 2007

  8. Finite-difference time domain solution of light scattering by arbitrarily shaped particles and surfaces

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Tanev, Stoyan; Sun, Wenbo


    This chapter reviews the fundamental methods and some of the applications of the three-dimensional (3D) finite-difference time-domain (FDTD) technique for the modeling of light scattering by arbitrarily shaped dielectric particles and surfaces. The emphasis is on the details of the FDTD algorithm...

  9. Small-angle neutron and dynamic light scattering study of gelatin ...

    Indian Academy of Sciences (India)

    The state of intermolecular aggregates and that of folded gelatin molecules could be characterized by dynamic laser light and small-angle neutron scattering ... School of Physical Sciences, Jawaharlal Nehru University, New Delhi 110 067, India; Solid State Physics Division, Bhabha Atomic Research Centre, Mumbai 400 ...

  10. Scattering of light by a periodic structure in the presence of ...

    Indian Academy of Sciences (India)

    Detection of periodic structures, hidden in random surfaces has been addressed by us for some time and the `extended matched filter' method, developed by us, has been shown to be effective in detecting the hidden periodic part from the light scattering data in circumstances where conventional data analysis methods ...


    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    ZIJP, [No Value; TENBOSCH, JJ


    The scattering phase functions for HeNe-laser light of dentine sections 10-20-mu-m thick were measured. The functions perpendicular to the tubules had first-order maxima at angles of 4-degrees for bovine dentine and 5-degrees for human dentine; those parallel to the tubules showed no first-order

  12. Scattering of light by a periodic structure in the presence of ...

    Indian Academy of Sciences (India)

    Scattering of light by a periodic structure. Table 1. Basic statistical parameters and parameters of the Kolmogorov–. Smirnov test. H12 refers to the null hypothesis when data 1 and 2 are com- pared. H13 refers to the null hypothesis when data 1 and 3 are compared. A = 328 × 10−8. Range. H12. H13 r0/Λ. Mean. Median.

  13. Wavelength dependence of light diffusion in strongly scattering macroporous gallium phosphide

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Peeters, W.H.; Vellekoop, Ivo Micha; Mosk, Allard; Lagendijk, Aart


    We present time-resolved measurements of light transport through strongly scattering macroporous gallium phosphide at various vacuum wavelengths between 705 nm and 855 nm. Within this range the transport mean free path is strongly wavelength dependent, whereas the observed energy velocity is shown

  14. Continuous-wave spatial quantum correlations of light induced by multiple scattering

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Smolka, Stephan; Ott, Johan Raunkjær; Huck, Alexander


    We present theoretical and experimental results on spatial quantum correlations induced by multiple scattering of nonclassical light. A continuous-mode quantum theory is derived that enables determining the spatial quantum correlation function from the fluctuations of the total transmittance and ...

  15. Effects of absorption on coherence domain path length resolved dynamic light scattering in the diffuse regime

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Petoukhova, Anna; Steenbergen, Wiendelt; van Leeuwen, Ton; de Mul, F.F.M.


    A low coherence Mach–Zehnder interferometer is developed for path length resolved dynamic light scattering in highly turbid media. The path length distribution of multiply scatteredphotons in Intralipid is changed by the addition of absorbing dyes. Path length distributions obtained for various

  16. Laser Light Scattering, from an Advanced Technology Development Program to Experiments in a Reduced Gravity Environment (United States)

    Meyer, William V.; Tscharnuter, Walther W.; Macgregor, Andrew D.; Dautet, Henri; Deschamps, Pierre; Boucher, Francois; Zuh, Jixiang; Tin, Padetha; Rogers, Richard B.; Ansari, Rafat R.


    Recent advancements in laser light scattering hardware are described. These include intelligent single card correlators; active quench/active reset avalanche photodiodes; laser diodes; and fiber optics which were used by or developed for a NASA advanced technology development program. A space shuttle experiment which will employ aspects of these hardware developments is previewed.

  17. Fine Particle Sensor Based on Multi-Angle Light Scattering and Data Fusion

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Wenjia Shao


    Full Text Available Meteorological parameters such as relative humidity have a significant impact on the precision of PM2.5 measurement instruments based on light scattering. Instead of adding meteorological sensors or dehumidification devices used widely in commercial PM2.5 measurement instruments, a novel particle sensor based on multi-angle light scattering and data fusion is proposed to eliminate the effect of meteorological factors. Three photodiodes are employed to collect the scattered light flux at three distinct angles. Weather index is defined as the ratio of scattered light fluxes collected at the 40° and 55° angles, which can be used to distinguish the mass median diameter variation caused by different meteorological parameters. Simulations based on Lorenz-Mie theory and field experiments establish the feasibility of this scheme. Experimental results indicate that mass median diameter has less effect on the photodiode at the 55° angle in comparison with photodiodes at the 40° angle and 140° angle. After correction using the weather index, the photodiode at the 40° angle yielded the best results followed by photodiodes at the 55° angle and the 140° angle.

  18. Light scattering evidence of selective protein fouling on biocompatible block copolymer micelles

    Czech Academy of Sciences Publication Activity Database

    Giacomelli, F. C.; Štěpánek, Petr; Schmidt, V.; Jäger, Eliezer; Jäger, Alessandro; Giacomelli, C.


    Roč. 4, č. 15 (2012), s. 4504-4514 ISSN 2040-3364 R&D Projects: GA ČR GAP208/10/1600 Institutional research plan: CEZ:AV0Z40500505 Keywords : copolymer micelles * protein fouling * light scattering Subject RIV: CF - Physical ; Theoretical Chemistry Impact factor: 6.233, year: 2012

  19. Scattering of light by a periodic structure in the presence of ...

    Indian Academy of Sciences (India)

    E-mail:;; MS received 22 November 2004; revised 18 April 2005; accepted 23 May 2005. Abstract. In the context of scattering of light, we determine the extent of randomness within which a hidden periodic part can still be detected. The detection is carried out.

  20. Light Scattering of TiO2 Nanoparticles Embedded in Polyurethane

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Gudla, Visweswara Chakravarthy; Canulescu, Stela; Johansen, Villads Egede

    A new approach of enhancing light scattering in polyurethane polymer through the effect of TiO2 nanoparticles (NP) is explored. The TiO2 NP with sizes of 360 nm, 410 nm and 500 nm were dispersed in polyurethane polymer in concentrations ranging from 0.25 wt% up to 2 wt%. Reflectivity and UV-visible...

  1. Light scattering changes follow evoked potentials from hippocampal Schaeffer collateral stimulation

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Rector, D M; Poe, G R; Kristensen, Morten Pilgaard


    We assessed relationships of evoked electrical and light scattering changes from cat dorsal hippocampus following Schaeffer collateral stimulation. Under anesthesia, eight stimulating electrodes were placed in the left hippocampal CA field and an optic probe, coupled to a photodiode or a charge...

  2. Interaction between Humic Acid and Lysozyme, Studied by Dynamic Light Scattering and Isothermal Titration Calorimetry

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Tan, Wen Feng; Koopal, Luuk K.; Norde, Willem


    Interactions of purified Aldrich humic acid (PAHA) with the protein lysozyme (LSZ) are studied with dynamic light scattering and isothermal titration calorimetry by mixing LSZ and PAHA at various mass ratios. In solution LSZ is positive and PAHA is negative at the investigated pH values. Up to

  3. Small-angle light scattering calculations and evaluation: application to phase separation and phase dissolution processes

    Czech Academy of Sciences Publication Activity Database

    Holoubek, Jaroslav


    Roč. 162, - (2000), s. 307-322 ISSN 1022-1360. [Data Evaluation in Light Scattering of Polymers. Bad-Schandau, 06.10.1999-08.10.1999] R&D Projects: GA ČR GA203/99/0573; GA AV ČR IAA4050902 Subject RIV: CF - Physical ; Theoretical Chemistry Impact factor: 0.406, year: 2000

  4. Comparison Of Light Scattering From Rough Surfaces With Optical And Mechanical Profilometry (United States)

    Brodmann, Rainer; Allgaeuer, Michael


    Light scattering and non-contact sensing of rough surfaces with a laser focus are two optical methods which recently have also become available as commercial instruments. Optical measurements are compared with mechanical stylus measurements and the results are discussed under consideration of the physics of the different measuring principles.


    NARCIS (Netherlands)



    The reduced scattering cross section per unit of volume SIGMA(s)' = SIGMA(s)(1 - g) is an important parameter to describe light propagation in media with scattering and absorption. Mie calculations of the asymmetry factor g for nonabsorbing spheres and Q(sca), the ratio of the scattering cross

  6. Light-Induced Structural Flexibility of Thylakoid Membranes - Investigated using Small-Angle X-ray and Neutron Scattering


    Aagaard, Thomas Helverskov


    Using small-angle x-ray and neutron scattering the light-induced structural changes in pea thylakoids have been investigated. It is shown that light-induced shinkage in the thylakoids is connected to photosynthetic electron transduction. Using small-angle x-ray and neutron scattering the light-induced structural changes in pea thylakoids have been investigated. It is shown that light-induced shinkage in the thylakoids is connected to photosynthetic electron transduction.

  7. Exploratory studies for the position-space approach to hadronic light-by-light scattering in the muon g - 2 (United States)

    Asmussen, Nils; Gérardin, Antoine; Meyer, Harvey B.; Nyffeler, Andreas


    The well-known discrepancy in the muon g - 2 between experiment and theory demands further theory investigations in view of the upcoming new experiments. One of the leading uncertainties lies in the hadronic light-by-light scattering contribution (HLbL), that we address with our position-space approach. We focus on exploratory studies of the pion-pole contribution in a simple model and the fermion loop without gluon exchanges in the continuum and in infinite volume. These studies provide us with useful information for our planned computation of HLbL in the muon g - 2 using full QCD.

  8. Development of High Spectral Resolution Technique for Registration Quasielastic Light Scattering Spectra Including Rayleigh and Brillouin Scattering as a Diagnostic Tool in Materials Characterization

    National Research Council Canada - National Science Library

    Bairamov, Bakhysh


    ...: As detailed in an on-line proposal the contractor will: 1) develop and build an optical device, fitted to a Fabry-Perot interferometer, to perform high-resolution quasieleastic light scattering spectroscopy; 2...

  9. Mathematical and computational aspects of quaternary liquid mixing free energy measurement using light scattering. (United States)

    Wahle, Chris W; Ross, David S; Thurston, George M


    We provide a mathematical and computational analysis of light scattering measurement of mixing free energies of quaternary isotropic liquids. In previous work, we analyzed mathematical and experimental design considerations for the ternary mixture case [D. Ross, G. Thurston, and C. Lutzer, J. Chem. Phys. 129, 064106 (2008); C. Wahle, D. Ross, and G. Thurston, J. Chem. Phys. 137, 034201 (2012)]. Here, we review and introduce dimension-free general formulations of the fully nonlinear partial differential equation (PDE) and its linearization, a basis for applying the method to composition spaces of any dimension, in principle. With numerical analysis of the PDE as applied to the light scattering implied by a test free energy and dielectric gradient combination, we show that values of the Rayleigh ratio within the quaternary composition tetrahedron can be used to correctly reconstruct the composition dependence of the free energy. We then extend the analysis to the case of a finite number of data points, measured with noise. In this context the linearized PDE describes the relevant diffusion of information from light scattering noise to the free energy. The fully nonlinear PDE creates a special set of curves in the composition tetrahedron, collections of which form characteristics of the nonlinear and linear PDEs, and we show that the information diffusion has a time-like direction along the positive normals to these curves. With use of Monte Carlo simulations of light scattering experiments, we find that for a modest laboratory light scattering setup, about 100-200 samples and 100 s of measurement time are enough to be able to measure the mixing free energy over the entire quaternary composition tetrahedron, to within an L(2) error norm of 10(-3). The present method can help quantify thermodynamics of quaternary isotropic liquid mixtures.

  10. Study of the scattering of the light in aqueous samples collagen in the presence of nanoparticles and curcuma pigment (United States)

    Silva, F. M. L.; Alencar, L. D. S.; Bernardi, M. I. B.; Lima, F. W. S.; Melo, C. A. S.


    In this work we investigate the scattering of light in means turbid in the presence or not of pigment and nanoparticles. For this we initially using a sample of collagen from means turbid with and without the presence of curcuma pigments and nanoparticles. Our results show that the light scattering is more intense in the samples with nanoparticles and curcuma pigment.

  11. Near-field imaging of out-of-plane light scattering in photonic crystal slabs

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Volkov, Valentyn; Bozhevolnyi, Sergey; Taillaert, Dirk


    A collection scanning near-field optical microscope (SNOM) is used to image the propagating of light at telecommunication wavelengths (1520-1570 nm) along photonic crystal (PC) slabs, which combine slab waveguides with in-plane PCs consisting of one- and two-dimensional gratings. The efficient out......-of-plane light scattering is directly observed for both 1D and 2D gratings (period 590 nm) fabricated on silicon-on-insulator wafers and the corresponding SNOM images are presented. Using the obtained SNOM images, we analyze light intensity distributions along PC gratings measured at different wavelengths and...

  12. Stimulated-emission-depletion microscopy with a multicolor stimulated-Raman-scattering light source. (United States)

    Rankin, Brian R; Kellner, Robert R; Hell, Stefan W


    We describe a subdiffraction-resolution far-field fluorescence microscope employing stimulated emission depletion (STED) with a light source consisting of a microchip laser coupled into a standard single-mode fiber, which, via stimulated Raman scattering (SRS), yields a comb-like spectrum of seven discrete peaks extending from the fundamental wavelength at 532 nm to 620 nm. Each of the spectral peaks can be used as STED light for overcoming the diffraction barrier. This SRS light source enables the simple implementation of multicolor STED and provides a spectral output with multiple available wavelengths from green to red with potential for further expansion.

  13. Light comfort zones of mesopelagic acoustic scattering layers in two contrasting optical environments

    KAUST Repository

    Røstad, Anders


    We make a comparison of the mesopelagic sound scattering layers (SLs) in two contrasting optical environments; the clear Red Sea and in murkier coastal waters of Norway (Masfjorden). The depth distributions of the SL in Masfjorden are shallower and narrower than those of the Red Sea. This difference in depth distribution is consistent with the hypothesis that the organisms of the SL distribute according to similar light comfort zones (LCZ) in the two environments. Our study suggest that surface and underwater light measurements ranging more than10 orders of magnitude is required to assess the controlling effects of light on SL structure and dynamics.

  14. Archean Earth Atmosphere Fractal Haze Aggregates: Light Scattering Calculations and the Faint Young Sun Paradox (United States)

    Boness, D. A.; Terrell-Martinez, B.


    As part of an ongoing undergraduate research project of light scattering calculations involving fractal carbonaceous soot aggregates relevant to current anthropogenic and natural sources in Earth's atmosphere, we have read with interest a recent paper [E.T. Wolf and O.B Toon,Science 328, 1266 (2010)] claiming that the Faint Young Sun paradox discussed four decades ago by Carl Sagan and others can be resolved without invoking heavy CO2 concentrations as a greenhouse gas warming the early Earth enough to sustain liquid water and hence allow the origin of life. Wolf and Toon report that a Titan-like Archean Earth haze, with a fractal haze aggregate nature due to nitrogen-methane photochemistry at high altitudes, should block enough UV light to protect the warming greenhouse gas NH3 while allowing enough visible light to reach the surface of the Earth. To test this hypothesis, we have employed a rigorous T-Matrix arbitrary-particle light scattering technique, to avoid the simplifications inherent in Mie-sphere scattering, on haze fractal aggregates at UV and visible wavelenths of incident light. We generate these model aggregates using diffusion-limited cluster aggregation (DLCA) algorithms, which much more closely fit actual haze fractal aggregates than do diffusion-limited aggregation (DLA) algorithms.

  15. High-definition projection screen based on multiple light scattering technique (United States)

    Suzuki, Hiromasa; Okumura, Takamitsu; Tagaya, Akihiro; Higuchi, Eizaburo; Koike, Yasuhiro


    A novel rear projection screen (Blue Ocean screen, Nitto Jyushi Kogyo, Co., Ltd.) has been developed. Blue Ocean screen is a single polymer plate requiring no lens element. The projected image is formed on the screen surface by the multiple light scattering. An image light is multiply scattered and is converted into homogeneous light distribution efficiently due to the internal particles of micron order dispersed in the acrylic polymer matrix. An ambient light is reduced by the dye molecules doped in the polymer and the anti-reflective coating on the screen surface. The condition of the particles and the concentration of the dye molecules have been optimized by the ray tracing simulation program based on Mie scattering theory using a Monte Carlo method. The screen containing the particles of optimum condition exhibits the wide viewing angle, the well-controlled color balance, and the high sharpness level at the same time. The contrast level of the projected image in ambient light is improved by controlling the concentration of the dye molecules. This paper describes the optimization obtained theoretically and experimentally, and demonstrates the advantage of Blue Ocean screen.

  16. Exothermic dark matter with light mediator after LUX and PandaX-II in 2016 (United States)

    Geng, Chao-Qiang; Huang, Da; Lee, Chun-Hao


    Dark matter (DM) direct detections are investigated for models with the following properties: isospin-violating couplings, exothermic scatterings, and/or a light mediator, with the aim to reduce the tension between the CDMS-Si positive signals and other negative searches. In particular, we focus on the non-standard effective operators which could lead to the spin-independent DM-nucleus scatterings with non-trivial dependences on the transfer momentum or DM velocity. As a result, such effective operator choices have the very mild effects on the final fittings. Furthermore, by including the latest constraints from LUX, PandaX-II, XENON1T and PICO-60, we find that, for almost all the considered models, the predicted CDMS-Si signal regions are either severely constrained or completely excluded by the LUX, PandaX-II, XENON1T and PICO-60 data, including the most promising Xe-phobic exothermic DM models with/without a light mediator. Therefore, we conclude that it is very difficult for the present DM framework to explain the CDMS-Si excess.

  17. Interpretation of static and dynamic neutron and light scattering from microemulsion droplets: Effects of shape fluctuations (United States)

    Lisy, V.; Brutovsky, B.


    The theory of static and dynamic scattering of neutrons and light on microemulsion droplets is developed. The droplets are modeled by double-layered fluid spheres immersed in another fluid. The surface layer of arbitrary thickness thermally fluctuates in the shape. The scattering functions are consistently calculated up to the second order of the fluctuations. The bulk fluids and the layer are characterized by different scattering length densities (or dielectric constants). Involving the Helfrich's concept of interfacial elasticity, the theory is applied for the description of small-angle neutron scattering (SANS), neutron spin echo (NSE), and dynamic light scattering (DLS) experiments on dilute microemulsions. From the fits to the experimental data the bending elasticity and the Gaussian modulus are extracted. Due to the corrected account for the fluctuations, their values differ markedly from those obtained in the original works. The theory well describes the SANS experiments. In the case of DLS, we had to assume the shell of the solvent molecules to be built of several layers. Previous theories were in a sharp disagreement with the NSE experiments. A better agreement with these experiments is obtained if the dissipation in the surface layer is included into the consideration. From the experiments, the viscosity of the layer is estimated for a concrete microemulsion system.

  18. The spectral energy distribution of the scattered light from dark clouds (United States)

    Mattila, Kalevi; Schnur, G. F. O.


    A dark cloud is exposed to the ambient radiation field of integrated starlight in the Galaxy. Scattering of starlight by the dust particles gives rise to a diffuse surface brightness of the dark nebula. The intensity and the spectrum of this diffuse radiation can be used to investigate, e.g., the scattering parameters of the dust, the optical thickness of the cloud, and as a probe of the ambient radiation field at the location of the cloud. An understanding of the scattering process is also a prerequisite for the isolation of broad spectral features due to fluorescence or to any other non-scattering origin of the diffuse light. Model calculations are presented for multiple scattering in a spherical cloud. These calculations show that the different spectral shapes of the observed diffuse light can be reproduced with standard dust parameters. The possibility to use the observed spectrum as a diagnostic tool for analyzing the thickness of the cloud and the dust particle is discussed.

  19. Light Scattering Studies of Organic Field Effect Transistors (United States)

    Adil, Danish

    Organic semiconductors hold a great promise of enabling new technology based on low cost and flexible electronic devices. While much work has been done in the field of organic semiconductors, the field is still quite immature when compared to that of traditional inorganic based devices. More work is required before the full potential of organic field effect transistors (OFETs), organic light emitting diodes (OLEDs), and organic photovoltaics (OPVs) is realized. Among such work, a further development of diagnostic tools that characterize charge transport and device robustness more efficiently is required. Charge transport in organic semiconductors is limited by the nature of the metal-semiconductor interfaces where charge is injected into the semiconductor film and the semiconductor-dielectric interface where the charge is accumulated and transported. This, combined with that fact that organic semiconductors are especially susceptible to having structural defects induced via oxidation, charge transport induced damage, and metallization results in a situation where a semiconductor film's ability to conduct charge can degrade over time. This degradation manifests itself in the electrical device characteristics of organic based electronic devices. OFETs, for example, may display changes in threshold voltage, lowering of charge carrier mobilities, or a decrease in the On/Off ratio. All these effects sum together to result in degradation in device performance. The work begins with a study where matrix assisted pulsed laser deposition (MAPLE), an alternative organic semiconductor thin film deposition method, is used to fabricate OFETs with improved semiconductor-dielectric interfaces. MAPLE allows for the controlled layer-by-layer growth of the semiconductor film. Devices fabricated using this technique are shown to exhibit desirable characteristics that are otherwise only achievable with additional surface treatments. MAPLE is shown to be viable alternative to other

  20. Diagnostic features in two-dimensional light scattering patterns of normal and dysplastic cervical cell nuclei (United States)

    Arifler, Dizem; MacAulay, Calum; Follen, Michele; Guillaud, Martial


    Dysplastic progression in epithelial tissues is linked to changes in morphology and internal structure of cell nuclei. These changes lead to alterations in nuclear light scattering profiles that can potentially be monitored for diagnostic purposes. Numerical tools allow for simulation of complex nuclear models and are particularly useful for quantifying the optical response of cell nuclei as dysplasia progresses. In this study, we first analyze a set of quantitative histopathology images from twenty cervical biopsy sections stained with Feulgen-thionin. Since Feulgen-thionin is stoichiometric for DNA, the images enable us to obtain detailed information on size, shape, and chromatin content of all the segmented nuclei. We use this extensive data set to construct realistic three-dimensional computational models of cervical cell nuclei that are representative of four diagnostic categories, namely normal or negative for dysplasia, mild dysplasia, moderate dysplasia, and severe dysplasia or carcinoma in situ (CIS). We then carry out finite-difference time-domain simulations to compute the light scattering response of the constructed models as a function of the polar scattering angle and the azimuthal scattering angle. The results show that these two-dimensional scattering patterns exhibit characteristic intensity ridges that change form with progression of dysplasia; pattern processing reveals that Haralick features can be used to distinguish moderately and severely dysplastic or CIS nuclei from normal and mildly dysplastic nuclei. Our numerical study also suggests that different angular ranges need to be considered separately to fully exploit the diagnostic potential of two-dimensional light scattering measurements.

  1. Polarized angular dependent light scattering from plasmonic nanoparticles: Modeling, measurements, and biomedical applications (United States)

    Fu, Kun

    Several significant applications have been realized for light scattering in biomedical imaging. In order to improve imaging results with light scattering-based techniques, a variety of nanoparticles have been investigated as contrast agents, including gold nanoshells. As a method for studying the optical properties of plasmonic gold nanoparticles used as contrast agents for molecular imaging, we developed an automated goniometer instrumentation system. This system, which allows us to specifically study polarized angular-dependent light scattering of plasmonic nanoparticles, allowed us to perform a series of theoretical and experimental step-wise studies. The basic optical properties of the following gold nanoparticles were progressively investigated: (1) bare nanoshells at multipolar plasmonic resonances, (2) nanoshells with PEG modifications, (3) surface-textured nanoshells and (4) immunotargeted nanoshells (nanoshell-antibody bioconjugates) for cancer imaging. Based on the results from these studies, a new technique was developed to quantitatively measure the number of immunotargeted nanoparticles that bind to HER2-positive SKBR3 human breast cancer cells. Preliminary studies of determining the minimal incubation time of immunotargeted nanoshells with SKBR3 cells were also carried out to evaluate the potential clinical application of using gold nanoshells intraoperatively. We, therefore, anticipate that our findings will provide the theoretical groundwork required for further studies aimed at optimizing the application of plasmonic nanoparticles in scattering-based optical imaging techniques.

  2. Resonant Rayleigh light scattering of single Au nanoparticles with different sizes and shapes. (United States)

    Truong, Phuoc Long; Ma, Xingyi; Sim, Sang Jun


    Scientific interest in nanotechnology is driven by the unique and novel properties of nanometer-sized metallic materials such as the strong interaction between the conductive electrons of the nanoparticles and the incident light, caused by localized surface plasmon resonances (LSPRs). In this article, we analysed the relationship of the Rayleigh scattering properties of a single Au nanoparticle with its size, shape, and local dielectric environment. We also provided a detailed study on the refractive index sensitivity of three types of differently shaped Au nanoparticles, which were nanospheres, oval-shaped nanoparticles and nanorods. This study helps one to differentiate the Rayleigh light scattering from individual nanoparticles of different sizes and/or shapes and precisely obtain quantitative data as well as the correlated optical spectra of single gold nanoparticles from the inherently inhomogeneous solution of nanoparticles. These results suggest that the shape, size and aspect ratio of Au nanoparticles are important structural factors in determining the resonant Rayleigh light scattering properties of a single Au nanoparticle such as its spectral peak position, scattering-cross-section and refractive index sensitivity, which gives a handle for the choice of gold nanoparticles for the design and fabrication of single nanosensors.

  3. Re-evaluation of model-based light-scattering spectroscopy for tissue spectroscopy (United States)

    Lau, Condon; Šćepanović, Obrad; Mirkovic, Jelena; McGee, Sasha; Yu, Chung-Chieh; Fulghum, Stephen; Wallace, Michael; Tunnell, James; Bechtel, Kate; Feld, Michael


    Model-based light scattering spectroscopy (LSS) seemed a promising technique for in-vivo diagnosis of dysplasia in multiple organs. In the studies, the residual spectrum, the difference between the observed and modeled diffuse reflectance spectra, was attributed to single elastic light scattering from epithelial nuclei, and diagnostic information due to nuclear changes was extracted from it. We show that this picture is incorrect. The actual single scattering signal arising from epithelial nuclei is much smaller than the previously computed residual spectrum, and does not have the wavelength dependence characteristic of Mie scattering. Rather, the residual spectrum largely arises from assuming a uniform hemoglobin distribution. In fact, hemoglobin is packaged in blood vessels, which alters the reflectance. When we include vessel packaging, which accounts for an inhomogeneous hemoglobin distribution, in the diffuse reflectance model, the reflectance is modeled more accurately, greatly reducing the amplitude of the residual spectrum. These findings are verified via numerical estimates based on light propagation and Mie theory, tissue phantom experiments, and analysis of published data measured from Barrett’s esophagus. In future studies, vessel packaging should be included in the model of diffuse reflectance and use of model-based LSS should be discontinued. PMID:19405760

  4. Light scattering optimization of chitin random network in ultrawhite beetle scales (United States)

    Utel, Francesco; Cortese, Lorenzo; Pattelli, Lorenzo; Burresi, Matteo; Vignolini, Silvia; Wiersma, Diederik


    Among the natural white colored photonics structures, a bio-system has become of great interest in the field of disordered optical media: the scale of the white beetle Chyphochilus. Despite its low thickness, on average 7 μm, and low refractive index, this beetle exhibits extreme high brightness and unique whiteness. These properties arise from the interaction of light with a complex network of chitin nano filaments embedded in the interior of the scales. As it's been recently claimed, this could be a consequence of the peculiar morphology of the filaments network that, by means of high filling fraction (0.61) and structural anisotropy, optimizes the multiple scattering of light. We therefore performed a numerical analysis on the structural properties of the chitin network in order to understand their role in the enhancement of the scale scattering intensity. Modeling the filaments as interconnected rod shaped scattering centers, we numerically generated the spatial coordinates of the network components. Controlling the quantities that are claimed to play a fundamental role in the brightness and whiteness properties of the investigated system (filling fraction and average rods orientation, i.e. the anisotropy of the ensemble of scattering centers), we obtained a set of customized random networks. FDTD simulations of light transport have been performed on these systems, observing high reflectance for all the visible frequencies and proving the implemented algorithm to numerically generate the structures is suitable to investigate the dependence of reflectance by anisotropy.

  5. Silver nanoparticles on nanopatterned LiF(110) surface studied by extreme ultraviolet light scattering

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Giglia, Angelo, E-mail:; Nannarone, Stefano [Istituto Officina dei Materiali - Consiglio Nazionale delle Ricerche, Laboratorio Tecnologie Avanzate e NanoSCienza, Area Science Park Basovizza, S.S. 14 Km 163.5, 34149 Trieste (Italy); Miotti, Paolo [Istituto di Fotonica e Nanotecnologie - Consiglio Nazionale delle Ricerche, Via Trasea 7, 35131 Padova (Italy); Parisse, Pietro [Sincrotrone Trieste S.C.p.A., S.S. 14 km 163.5, 34149 Basovizza, Trieste (Italy)


    A LiF(110) surface featuring a ridge-and-valley nanopatterned structure periodic along the [−1,1,0] direction (period and height of the order of 30 nm and 10 nm, respectively) formed by [001] macrosteps exposing (100) and (010) facets was functionalized by rows of Ag nanoparticles and studied by elastic light scattering in the energy range 50–100 eV. Families of diffraction efficiencies curves were taken at grazing incidence angle and fixed photon energy as a function of scattering angle, and elastic scattering curves were taken at fixed scattering angle as a function of energy. The scattering curves presented well-defined features ascribable to the periodicities of the surface, or equivalently to the reciprocal q{sub X} vectors correlated with the power spectral density features of topological images of atomic force microscopy. Other characteristics of the functionalized surface, including the height of ridge-valley profile, the Ag nanoparticle dimensions, and the material distribution in the scattering plane, were obtained by fitting the experimental zero and first order efficiency curves to simulation results of a parameterized model. The simulations were carried out adapting an in-house code based on the electromagnetic differential method, and the different material properties were taken into account by a space dependent complex dielectric constant. Information along the direction perpendicular to the scattering plane was not accessible but morphological insights were obtained combining light diffraction with atomic force microscopy. The results indicate nanoparticles with a quasi-ellipsoidal shape prolate along the ridge direction with minor and major axes of ∼12 nm and ∼21 nm, respectively.

  6. Measurement of subcellular morphology by light scatter filtering with a digital micromirror device (United States)

    Pasternack, Robert M.; Qian, Zhen; Zheng, Jing-Yi; Boustany, Nada N.


    Light scattering methods for assessing structural properties of cells and tissues quantitatively measure morphometric parameters directly without the need for staining. We demonstrate an optical scattering filtering method used in a biological setting that is sensitive to quantifying object orientation and aspect ratio. These parameters are measured in cells both sensitive to and resistant to mitochondrial-mediated apoptosis, the latter having been demonstrated to have shorter mitochondria than apoptosis competent cells. The implementation of the digital micromirror device (DMD) allows for robust filtering of the scatter data, which we implement with Gabor-like filters chosen for their ability to intelligently confine the filter response both in the image and in the scatter regimes. By strategically applying Gabor-like filters to the specific frequencies and orientations in the scatter data, relative changes in object size, orientation and aspect ratio may be derived. Furthermore, using a DMD and filtering the optical scatter data in analog allows us to decouple image resolution from frequency resolution and measure these parameters with high sensitivity for objects within the resolution of the optical system despite an undersampled, lower resolution digital image. As a result, this measurement may be made at lower magnifications with higher throughput and ultimately on a larger population of living and unstained cells imaged simultaneously.

  7. Evidence for light-by-light scattering in heavy-ion collisions with the ATLAS detector at the LHC (United States)

    Aaboud, M.; Aad, G.; Abbott, B.; Abdallah, J.; Abdinov, O.; Abeloos, B.; Abidi, S. H.; Abouzeid, O. S.; Abraham, N. L.; Abramowicz, H.; Abreu, H.; Abreu, R.; Abulaiti, Y.; Acharya, B. S.; Adachi, S.; Adamczyk, L.; Adelman, J.; Adersberger, M.; Adye, T.; Affolder, A. A.; Agatonovic-Jovin, T.; Agheorghiesei, C.; Aguilar-Saavedra, J. A.; Ahlen, S. P.; Ahmadov, F.; Aielli, G.; Akatsuka, S.; Akerstedt, H.; Åkesson, T. P. A.; Akimov, A. V.; Alberghi, G. L.; Albert, J.; Alconada Verzini, M. J.; Aleksa, M.; Aleksandrov, I. N.; Alexa, C.; Alexander, G.; Alexopoulos, T.; Alhroob, M.; Ali, B.; Aliev, M.; Alimonti, G.; Alison, J.; Alkire, S. P.; Allbrooke, B. M. M.; Allen, B. W.; Allport, P. P.; Aloisio, A.; Alonso, A.; Alonso, F.; Alpigiani, C.; Alshehri, A. A.; Alstaty, M.; Alvarez Gonzalez, B.; Álvarez Piqueras, D.; Alviggi, M. G.; Amadio, B. T.; Amaral Coutinho, Y.; Amelung, C.; Amidei, D.; Amor Dos Santos, S. P.; Amorim, A.; Amoroso, S.; Amundsen, G.; Anastopoulos, C.; Ancu, L. S.; Andari, N.; Andeen, T.; Anders, C. F.; Anders, J. K.; Anderson, K. J.; Andreazza, A.; Andrei, V.; Angelidakis, S.; Angelozzi, I.; Angerami, A.; Anghinolfi, F.; Anisenkov, A. V.; Anjos, N.; Annovi, A.; Antel, C.; Antonelli, M.; Antonov, A.; Antrim, D. J.; Anulli, F.; Aoki, M.; Aperio Bella, L.; Arabidze, G.; Arai, Y.; Araque, J. P.; Araujo Ferraz, V.; Arce, A. T. H.; Ardell, R. E.; Arduh, F. A.; Arguin, J.-F.; Argyropoulos, S.; Arik, M.; Armbruster, A. J.; Armitage, L. J.; Arnaez, O.; Arnold, H.; Arratia, M.; Arslan, O.; Artamonov, A.; Artoni, G.; Artz, S.; Asai, S.; Asbah, N.; Ashkenazi, A.; Asquith, L.; Assamagan, K.; Astalos, R.; Atkinson, M.; Atlay, N. B.; Augsten, K.; Avolio, G.; Axen, B.; Ayoub, M. K.; Azuelos, G.; Baas, A. E.; Baca, M. J.; Bachacou, H.; Bachas, K.; Backes, M.; Backhaus, M.; Bagiacchi, P.; Bagnaia, P.; Baines, J. T.; Bajic, M.; Baker, O. K.; Baldin, E. M.; Balek, P.; Balestri, T.; Balli, F.; Balunas, W. K.; Banas, E.; Banerjee, Sw.; Bannoura, A. A. E.; Barak, L.; Barberio, E. L.; Barberis, D.; Barbero, M.; Barillari, T.; Barisits, M.-S.; Barklow, T.; Barlow, N.; Barnes, S. L.; Barnett, B. M.; Barnett, R. M.; Barnovska-Blenessy, Z.; Baroncelli, A.; Barone, G.; Barr, A. J.; Barranco Navarro, L.; Barreiro, F.; Barreiro Guimarães da Costa, J.; Bartoldus, R.; Barton, A. E.; Bartos, P.; Basalaev, A.; Bassalat, A.; Bates, R. L.; Batista, S. J.; Batley, J. R.; Battaglia, M.; Bauce, M.; Bauer, F.; Bawa, H. S.; Beacham, J. B.; Beattie, M. D.; Beau, T.; Beauchemin, P. H.; Bechtle, P.; Beck, H. P.; Becker, K.; Becker, M.; Beckingham, M.; Becot, C.; Beddall, A. J.; Beddall, A.; Bednyakov, V. A.; Bedognetti, M.; Bee, C. P.; Beermann, T. A.; Begalli, M.; Begel, M.; Behr, J. K.; Bell, A. S.; Bella, G.; Bellagamba, L.; Bellerive, A.; Bellomo, M.; Belotskiy, K.; Beltramello, O.; Belyaev, N. L.; Benary, O.; Benchekroun, D.; Bender, M.; Bendtz, K.; Benekos, N.; Benhammou, Y.; Benhar Noccioli, E.; Benitez, J.; Benjamin, D. P.; Benoit, M.; Bensinger, J. R.; Bentvelsen, S.; Beresford, L.; Beretta, M.; Berge, D.; Bergeaas Kuutmann, E.; Berger, N.; Beringer, J.; Berlendis, S.; Bernard, N. R.; Bernardi, G.; Bernius, C.; Bernlochner, F. U.; Berry, T.; Berta, P.; Bertella, C.; Bertoli, G.; Bertolucci, F.; Bertram, I. A.; Bertsche, C.; Bertsche, D.; Besjes, G. J.; Bessidskaia Bylund, O.; Bessner, M.; Besson, N.; Betancourt, C.; Bethani, A.; Bethke, S.; Bevan, A. J.; Bianchi, R. M.; Bianco, M.; Biebel, O.; Biedermann, D.; Bielski, R.; Biesuz, N. V.; Biglietti, M.; Bilbao de Mendizabal, J.; Billoud, T. R. V.; Bilokon, H.; Bindi, M.; Bingul, A.; Bini, C.; Biondi, S.; Bisanz, T.; Bittrich, C.; Bjergaard, D. M.; Black, C. W.; Black, J. E.; Black, K. M.; Blackburn, D.; Blair, R. E.; Blazek, T.; Bloch, I.; Blocker, C.; Blue, A.; Blum, W.; Blumenschein, U.; Blunier, S.; Bobbink, G. J.; Bobrovnikov, V. S.; Bocchetta, S. S.; Bocci, A.; Bock, C.; Boehler, M.; Boerner, D.; Bogavac, D.; Bogdanchikov, A. G.; Bohm, C.; Boisvert, V.; Bokan, P.; Bold, T.; Boldyrev, A. S.; Bomben, M.; Bona, M.; Boonekamp, M.; Borisov, A.; Borissov, G.; Bortfeldt, J.; Bortoletto, D.; Bortolotto, V.; Bos, K.; Boscherini, D.; Bosman, M.; Bossio Sola, J. D.; Boudreau, J.; Bouffard, J.; Bouhova-Thacker, E. V.; Boumediene, D.; Bourdarios, C.; Boutle, S. K.; Boveia, A.; Boyd, J.; Boyko, I. R.; Bracinik, J.; Brandt, A.; Brandt, G.; Brandt, O.; Bratzler, U.; Brau, B.; Brau, J. E.; Breaden Madden, W. D.; Brendlinger, K.; Brennan, A. J.; Brenner, L.; Brenner, R.; Bressler, S.; Briglin, D. L.; Bristow, T. M.; Britton, D.; Britzger, D.; Brochu, F. M.; Brock, I.; Brock, R.; Brooijmans, G.; Brooks, T.; Brooks, W. K.; Brosamer, J.; Brost, E.; Broughton, J. H.; Bruckman de Renstrom, P. A.; Bruncko, D.; Bruni, A.; Bruni, G.; Bruni, L. S.; Brunt, B. H.; Bruschi, M.; Bruscino, N.; Bryant, P.; Bryngemark, L.; Buanes, T.; Buat, Q.; Buchholz, P.; Buckley, A. G.; Budagov, I. A.; Buehrer, F.; Bugge, M. K.; Bulekov, O.; Bullock, D.; Burckhart, H.; Burdin, S.; Burgard, C. D.; Burger, A. M.; Burghgrave, B.; Burka, K.; Burke, S.; Burmeister, I.; Burr, J. T. P.; Busato, E.; Büscher, D.; Büscher, V.; Bussey, P.; Butler, J. M.; Buttar, C. M.; Butterworth, J. M.; Butti, P.; Buttinger, W.; Buzatu, A.; Buzykaev, A. R.; Cabrera Urbán, S.; Caforio, D.; Cairo, V. M.; Cakir, O.; Calace, N.; Calafiura, P.; Calandri, A.; Calderini, G.; Calfayan, P.; Callea, G.; Caloba, L. P.; Calvente Lopez, S.; Calvet, D.; Calvet, S.; Calvet, T. P.; Camacho Toro, R.; Camarda, S.; Camarri, P.; Cameron, D.; Caminal Armadans, R.; Camincher, C.; Campana, S.; Campanelli, M.; Camplani, A.; Campoverde, A.; Canale, V.; Cano Bret, M.; Cantero, J.; Cao, T.; Capeans Garrido, M. D. M.; Caprini, I.; Caprini, M.; Capua, M.; Carbone, R. M.; Cardarelli, R.; Cardillo, F.; Carli, I.; Carli, T.; Carlino, G.; Carlson, B. T.; Carminati, L.; Carney, R. M. D.; Caron, S.; Carquin, E.; Carrillo-Montoya, G. D.; Carvalho, J.; Casadei, D.; Casado, M. P.; Casolino, M.; Casper, D. W.; Castelijn, R.; Castelli, A.; Castillo Gimenez, V.; Castro, N. F.; Catinaccio, A.; Catmore, J. R.; Cattai, A.; Caudron, J.; Cavaliere, V.; Cavallaro, E.; Cavalli, D.; Cavalli-Sforza, M.; Cavasinni, V.; Celebi, E.; Ceradini, F.; Cerda Alberich, L.; Cerqueira, A. S.; Cerri, A.; Cerrito, L.; Cerutti, F.; Cervelli, A.; Cetin, S. A.; Chafaq, A.; Chakraborty, D.; Chan, S. K.; Chan, W. S.; Chan, Y. L.; Chang, P.; Chapman, J. D.; Charlton, D. G.; Chatterjee, A.; Chau, C. C.; Chavez Barajas, C. A.; Che, S.; Cheatham, S.; Chegwidden, A.; Chekanov, S.; Chekulaev, S. V.; Chelkov, G. A.; Chelstowska, M. A.; Chen, C.; Chen, H.; Chen, S.; Chen, S.; Chen, X.; Chen, Y.; Cheng, H. C.; Cheng, H. J.; Cheng, Y.; Cheplakov, A.; Cheremushkina, E.; Cherkaoui El Moursli, R.; Chernyatin, V.; Cheu, E.; Chevalier, L.; Chiarella, V.; Chiarelli, G.; Chiodini, G.; Chisholm, A. S.; Chitan, A.; Chiu, Y. H.; Chizhov, M. V.; Choi, K.; Chomont, A. R.; Chouridou, S.; Chow, B. K. B.; Christodoulou, V.; Chromek-Burckhart, D.; Chu, M. C.; Chudoba, J.; Chuinard, A. J.; Chwastowski, J. J.; Chytka, L.; Ciftci, A. K.; Cinca, D.; Cindro, V.; Cioara, I. A.; Ciocca, C.; Ciocio, A.; Cirotto, F.; Citron, Z. H.; Citterio, M.; Ciubancan, M.; Clark, A.; Clark, B. L.; Clark, M. R.; Clark, P. J.; Clarke, R. N.; Clement, C.; Coadou, Y.; Cobal, M.; Coccaro, A.; Cochran, J.; Colasurdo, L.; Cole, B.; Colijn, A. P.; Collot, J.; Colombo, T.; Conde Muiño, P.; Coniavitis, E.; Connell, S. H.; Connelly, I. A.; Consorti, V.; Constantinescu, S.; Conti, G.; Conventi, F.; Cooke, M.; Cooper, B. D.; Cooper-Sarkar, A. M.; Cormier, F.; Cormier, K. J. R.; Cornelissen, T.; Corradi, M.; Corriveau, F.; Cortes-Gonzalez, A.; Cortiana, G.; Costa, G.; Costa, M. J.; Costanzo, D.; Cottin, G.; Cowan, G.; Cox, B. E.; Cranmer, K.; Crawley, S. J.; Creager, R. A.; Cree, G.; Crépé-Renaudin, S.; Crescioli, F.; Cribbs, W. A.; Crispin Ortuzar, M.; Cristinziani, M.; Croft, V.; Crosetti, G.; Cueto, A.; Cuhadar Donszelmann, T.; Cummings, J.; Curatolo, M.; Cúth, J.; Czirr, H.; Czodrowski, P.; D'Amen, G.; D'Auria, S.; D'Onofrio, M.; da Cunha Sargedas de Sousa, M. J.; da Via, C.; Dabrowski, W.; Dado, T.; Dai, T.; Dale, O.; Dallaire, F.; Dallapiccola, C.; Dam, M.; Dandoy, J. R.; Dang, N. P.; Daniells, A. C.; Dann, N. S.; Danninger, M.; Dano Hoffmann, M.; Dao, V.; Darbo, G.; Darmora, S.; Dassoulas, J.; Dattagupta, A.; Daubney, T.; Davey, W.; David, C.; Davidek, T.; Davies, M.; Davison, P.; Dawe, E.; Dawson, I.; de, K.; de Asmundis, R.; de Benedetti, A.; de Castro, S.; de Cecco, S.; de Groot, N.; de Jong, P.; de la Torre, H.; de Lorenzi, F.; de Maria, A.; de Pedis, D.; de Salvo, A.; de Sanctis, U.; de Santo, A.; de Vasconcelos Corga, K.; de Vivie de Regie, J. B.; Dearnaley, W. J.; Debbe, R.; Debenedetti, C.; Dedovich, D. V.; Dehghanian, N.; Deigaard, I.; Del Gaudio, M.; Del Peso, J.; Del Prete, T.; Delgove, D.; Deliot, F.; Delitzsch, C. M.; Dell'Acqua, A.; Dell'Asta, L.; Dell'Orso, M.; Della Pietra, M.; Della Volpe, D.; Delmastro, M.; Delporte, C.; Delsart, P. A.; Demarco, D. A.; Demers, S.; Demichev, M.; Demilly, A.; Denisov, S. P.; Denysiuk, D.; Derendarz, D.; Derkaoui, J. E.; Derue, F.; Dervan, P.; Desch, K.; Deterre, C.; Dette, K.; Deviveiros, P. O.; Dewhurst, A.; Dhaliwal, S.; di Ciaccio, A.; di Ciaccio, L.; di Clemente, W. K.; di Donato, C.; di Girolamo, A.; di Girolamo, B.; di Micco, B.; di Nardo, R.; di Petrillo, K. F.; di Simone, A.; di Sipio, R.; di Valentino, D.; Diaconu, C.; Diamond, M.; Dias, F. A.; Diaz, M. A.; Diehl, E. B.; Dietrich, J.; Díez Cornell, S.; Dimitrievska, A.; Dingfelder, J.; Dita, P.; Dita, S.; Dittus, F.; Djama, F.; Djobava, T.; Djuvsland, J. I.; Do Vale, M. A. B.; Dobos, D.; Dobre, M.; Doglioni, C.; Dolejsi, J.; Dolezal, Z.; Donadelli, M.; Donati, S.; Dondero, P.; Donini, J.; Dopke, J.; Doria, A.; Dova, M. T.; Doyle, A. T.; Drechsler, E.; Dris, M.; Du, Y.; Duarte-Campderros, J.; Duchovni, E.; Duckeck, G.; Ducourthial, A.; Ducu, O. A.; Duda, D.; Dudarev, A.; Dudder, A. Chr.; Duffield, E. M.; Duflot, L.; Dührssen, M.; Dumancic, M.; Dumitriu, A. E.; Duncan, A. K.; Dunford, M.; Duran Yildiz, H.; Düren, M.; Durglishvili, A.; Duschinger, D.; Dutta, B.; Dyndal, M.; Eckardt, C.; Ecker, K. M.; Edgar, R. C.; Eifert, T.; Eigen, G.; Einsweiler, K.; Ekelof, T.; El Kacimi, M.; El Kosseifi, R.; Ellajosyula, V.; Ellert, M.; Elles, S.; Ellinghaus, F.; Elliot, A. A.; Ellis, N.; Elmsheuser, J.; Elsing, M.; Emeliyanov, D.; Enari, Y.; Endner, O. C.; Ennis, J. S.; Erdmann, J.; Ereditato, A.; Ernis, G.; Ernst, M.; Errede, S.; Ertel, E.; Escalier, M.; Esch, H.; Escobar, C.; Esposito, B.; Etienvre, A. I.; Etzion, E.; Evans, H.; Ezhilov, A.; Fabbri, F.; Fabbri, L.; Facini, G.; Fakhrutdinov, R. M.; Falciano, S.; Falla, R. J.; Faltova, J.; Fang, Y.; Fanti, M.; Farbin, A.; Farilla, A.; Farina, C.; Farina, E. M.; Farooque, T.; Farrell, S.; Farrington, S. M.; Farthouat, P.; Fassi, F.; Fassnacht, P.; Fassouliotis, D.; Faucci Giannelli, M.; Favareto, A.; Fawcett, W. J.; Fayard, L.; Fedin, O. L.; Fedorko, W.; Feigl, S.; Feligioni, L.; Feng, C.; Feng, E. J.; Feng, H.; Fenyuk, A. B.; Feremenga, L.; Fernandez Martinez, P.; Fernandez Perez, S.; Ferrando, J.; Ferrari, A.; Ferrari, P.; Ferrari, R.; Ferreira de Lima, D. E.; Ferrer, A.; Ferrere, D.; Ferretti, C.; Fiedler, F.; Filipčič, A.; Filipuzzi, M.; Filthaut, F.; Fincke-Keeler, M.; Finelli, K. D.; Fiolhais, M. C. N.; Fiorini, L.; Fischer, A.; Fischer, C.; Fischer, J.; Fisher, W. C.; Flaschel, N.; Fleck, I.; Fleischmann, P.; Fletcher, R. R. M.; Flick, T.; Flierl, B. M.; Flores Castillo, L. R.; Flowerdew, M. J.; Forcolin, G. T.; Formica, A.; Forti, A.; Foster, A. G.; Fournier, D.; Fox, H.; Fracchia, S.; Francavilla, P.; Franchini, M.; Franchino, S.; Francis, D.; Franconi, L.; Franklin, M.; Frate, M.; Fraternali, M.; Freeborn, D.; Fressard-Batraneanu, S. M.; Freund, B.; Froidevaux, D.; Frost, J. A.; Fukunaga, C.; Fullana Torregrosa, E.; Fusayasu, T.; Fuster, J.; Gabaldon, C.; Gabizon, O.; Gabrielli, A.; Gabrielli, A.; Gach, G. P.; Gadatsch, S.; Gadomski, S.; Gagliardi, G.; Gagnon, L. G.; Gagnon, P.; Galea, C.; Galhardo, B.; Gallas, E. J.; Gallop, B. J.; Gallus, P.; Galster, G.; Gan, K. K.; Ganguly, S.; Gao, J.; Gao, Y.; Gao, Y. S.; Garay Walls, F. M.; García, C.; García Navarro, J. E.; Garcia-Sciveres, M.; Gardner, R. W.; Garelli, N.; Garonne, V.; Gascon Bravo, A.; Gasnikova, K.; Gatti, C.; Gaudiello, A.; Gaudio, G.; Gavrilenko, I. L.; Gay, C.; Gaycken, G.; Gazis, E. N.; Gee, C. N. P.; Geisen, M.; Geisler, M. P.; Gellerstedt, K.; Gemme, C.; Genest, M. H.; Geng, C.; Gentile, S.; Gentsos, C.; George, S.; Gerbaudo, D.; Gershon, A.; Ghasemi, S.; Ghneimat, M.; Giacobbe, B.; Giagu, S.; Giannetti, P.; Gibson, S. M.; Gignac, M.; Gilchriese, M.; Gillberg, D.; Gilles, G.; Gingrich, D. M.; Giokaris, N.; Giordani, M. P.; Giorgi, F. M.; Giraud, P. F.; Giromini, P.; Giugni, D.; Giuli, F.; Giuliani, C.; Giulini, M.; Gjelsten, B. K.; Gkaitatzis, S.; Gkialas, I.; Gkougkousis, E. L.; Gladilin, L. K.; Glasman, C.; Glatzer, J.; Glaysher, P. C. F.; Glazov, A.; Goblirsch-Kolb, M.; Godlewski, J.; Goldfarb, S.; Golling, T.; Golubkov, D.; Gomes, A.; Gonçalo, R.; Goncalves Gama, R.; Goncalves Pinto Firmino da Costa, J.; Gonella, G.; Gonella, L.; Gongadze, A.; González de La Hoz, S.; Gonzalez-Sevilla, S.; Goossens, L.; Gorbounov, P. A.; Gordon, H. A.; Gorelov, I.; Gorini, B.; Gorini, E.; Gorišek, A.; Goshaw, A. T.; Gössling, C.; Gostkin, M. I.; Goudet, C. R.; Goujdami, D.; Goussiou, A. G.; Govender, N.; Gozani, E.; Graber, L.; Grabowska-Bold, I.; Gradin, P. 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R.; Pauly, T.; Pearce, J.; Pearson, B.; Pedersen, L. E.; Pedraza Lopez, S.; Pedro, R.; Peleganchuk, S. V.; Penc, O.; Peng, C.; Peng, H.; Penwell, J.; Peralva, B. S.; Perego, M. M.; Perepelitsa, D. V.; Perini, L.; Pernegger, H.; Perrella, S.; Peschke, R.; Peshekhonov, V. D.; Peters, K.; Peters, R. F. Y.; Petersen, B. A.; Petersen, T. C.; Petit, E.; Petridis, A.; Petridou, C.; Petroff, P.; Petrolo, E.; Petrov, M.; Petrucci, F.; Pettersson, N. E.; Peyaud, A.; Pezoa, R.; Phillips, P. W.; Piacquadio, G.; Pianori, E.; Picazio, A.; Piccaro, E.; Pickering, M. A.; Piegaia, R.; Pilcher, J. E.; Pilkington, A. D.; Pin, A. W. J.; Pinamonti, M.; Pinfold, J. L.; Pirumov, H.; Pitt, M.; Plazak, L.; Pleier, M.-A.; Pleskot, V.; Plotnikova, E.; Pluth, D.; Podberezko, P.; Poettgen, R.; Poggioli, L.; Pohl, D.; Polesello, G.; Poley, A.; Policicchio, A.; Polifka, R.; Polini, A.; Pollard, C. S.; Polychronakos, V.; Pommès, K.; Ponomarenko, D.; Pontecorvo, L.; Pope, B. G.; Popeneciu, G. A.; Poppleton, A.; Pospisil, S.; Potamianos, K.; Potrap, I. N.; Potter, C. J.; Potter, C. T.; Poulard, G.; Poveda, J.; Pozo Astigarraga, M. E.; Pralavorio, P.; Pranko, A.; Prell, S.; Price, D.; Price, L. E.; Primavera, M.; Prince, S.; Proklova, N.; Prokofiev, K.; Prokoshin, F.; Protopopescu, S.; Proudfoot, J.; Przybycien, M.; Puddu, D.; Puri, A.; Puzo, P.; Qian, J.; Qin, G.; Qin, Y.; Quadt, A.; Quayle, W. B.; Queitsch-Maitland, M.; Quilty, D.; Raddum, S.; Radeka, V.; Radescu, V.; Radhakrishnan, S. K.; Radloff, P.; Rados, P.; Ragusa, F.; Rahal, G.; Raine, J. A.; Rajagopalan, S.; Rangel-Smith, C.; Ratti, M. G.; Rauch, D. M.; Rauscher, F.; Rave, S.; Ravenscroft, T.; Ravinovich, I.; Rawling, J. H.; Raymond, M.; Read, A. L.; Readioff, N. P.; Reale, M.; Rebuzzi, D. M.; Redelbach, A.; Redlinger, G.; Reece, R.; Reed, R. G.; Reeves, K.; Rehnisch, L.; Reichert, J.; Reiss, A.; Rembser, C.; Ren, H.; Rescigno, M.; Resconi, S.; Resseguie, E. D.; Rettie, S.; Reynolds, E.; Rezanova, O. L.; Reznicek, P.; Rezvani, R.; Richter, R.; Richter, S.; Richter-Was, E.; Ricken, O.; Ridel, M.; Rieck, P.; Riegel, C. J.; Rieger, J.; Rifki, O.; Rijssenbeek, M.; Rimoldi, A.; Rimoldi, M.; Rinaldi, L.; Ristić, B.; Ritsch, E.; Riu, I.; Rizatdinova, F.; Rizvi, E.; Rizzi, C.; Roberts, R. T.; Robertson, S. H.; Robichaud-Veronneau, A.; Robinson, D.; Robinson, J. E. M.; Robson, A.; Roda, C.; Rodina, Y.; Rodriguez Perez, A.; Rodriguez Rodriguez, D.; Roe, S.; Rogan, C. S.; Røhne, O.; Roloff, J.; Romaniouk, A.; Romano, M.; Romano Saez, S. M.; Romero Adam, E.; Rompotis, N.; Ronzani, M.; Roos, L.; Rosati, S.; Rosbach, K.; Rose, P.; Rosien, N.-A.; Rossetti, V.; Rossi, E.; Rossi, L. P.; Rosten, J. H. N.; Rosten, R.; Rotaru, M.; Roth, I.; Rothberg, J.; Rousseau, D.; Rozanov, A.; Rozen, Y.; Ruan, X.; Rubbo, F.; Rühr, F.; Ruiz-Martinez, A.; Rurikova, Z.; Rusakovich, N. A.; Ruschke, A.; Russell, H. L.; Rutherfoord, J. P.; Ruthmann, N.; Ryabov, Y. F.; Rybar, M.; Rybkin, G.; Ryu, S.; Ryzhov, A.; Rzehorz, G. F.; Saavedra, A. F.; Sabato, G.; Sacerdoti, S.; Sadrozinski, H. F.-W.; Sadykov, R.; Safai Tehrani, F.; Saha, P.; Sahinsoy, M.; Saimpert, M.; Saito, M.; Saito, T.; Sakamoto, H.; Sakurai, Y.; Salamanna, G.; Salazar Loyola, J. E.; Salek, D.; Sales de Bruin, P. H.; Salihagic, D.; Salnikov, A.; Salt, J.; Salvatore, D.; Salvatore, F.; Salvucci, A.; Salzburger, A.; Sammel, D.; Sampsonidis, D.; Sánchez, J.; Sanchez Martinez, V.; Sanchez Pineda, A.; Sandaker, H.; Sandbach, R. L.; Sander, C. O.; Sandhoff, M.; Sandoval, C.; Sankey, D. P. C.; Sannino, M.; Sansoni, A.; Santoni, C.; Santonico, R.; Santos, H.; Santoyo Castillo, I.; Sapp, K.; Sapronov, A.; Saraiva, J. G.; Sarrazin, B.; Sasaki, O.; Sato, K.; Sauvan, E.; Savage, G.; Savard, P.; Savic, N.; Sawyer, C.; Sawyer, L.; Saxon, J.; Sbarra, C.; Sbrizzi, A.; Scanlon, T.; Scannicchio, D. A.; Scarcella, M.; Scarfone, V.; Schaarschmidt, J.; Schacht, P.; Schachtner, B. M.; Schaefer, D.; Schaefer, L.; Schaefer, R.; Schaeffer, J.; Schaepe, S.; Schaetzel, S.; Schäfer, U.; Schaffer, A. C.; Schaile, D.; Schamberger, R. D.; Scharf, V.; Schegelsky, V. A.; Scheirich, D.; Schernau, M.; Schiavi, C.; Schier, S.; Schildgen, L. K.; Schillo, C.; Schioppa, M.; Schlenker, S.; Schmidt-Sommerfeld, K. R.; Schmieden, K.; Schmitt, C.; Schmitt, S.; Schmitz, S.; Schnoor, U.; Schoeffel, L.; Schoening, A.; Schoenrock, B. D.; Schopf, E.; Schott, M.; Schouwenberg, J. F. P.; Schovancova, J.; Schramm, S.; Schuh, N.; Schulte, A.; Schultens, M. J.; Schultz-Coulon, H.-C.; Schulz, H.; Schumacher, M.; Schumm, B. A.; Schune, Ph.; Schwartzman, A.; Schwarz, T. A.; Schweiger, H.; Schwemling, Ph.; Schwienhorst, R.; Schwindling, J.; Schwindt, T.; Sciandra, A.; Sciolla, G.; Scuri, F.; Scutti, F.; Searcy, J.; Seema, P.; Seidel, S. C.; Seiden, A.; Seixas, J. M.; Sekhniaidze, G.; Sekhon, K.; Sekula, S. 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J.; Stelzer-Chilton, O.; Stenzel, H.; Stewart, G. A.; Stillings, J. A.; Stockton, M. C.; Stoebe, M.; Stoicea, G.; Stolte, P.; Stonjek, S.; Stradling, A. R.; Straessner, A.; Stramaglia, M. E.; Strandberg, J.; Strandberg, S.; Strandlie, A.; Strauss, M.; Strizenec, P.; Ströhmer, R.; Strom, D. M.; Stroynowski, R.; Strubig, A.; Stucci, S. A.; Stugu, B.; Styles, N. A.; Su, D.; Su, J.; Suchek, S.; Sugaya, Y.; Suk, M.; Sulin, V. V.; Sultansoy, S.; Sumida, T.; Sun, S.; Sun, X.; Suruliz, K.; Suster, C. J. E.; Sutton, M. R.; Suzuki, S.; Svatos, M.; Swiatlowski, M.; Swift, S. P.; Sydorenko, A.; Sykora, I.; Sykora, T.; Ta, D.; Tackmann, K.; Taenzer, J.; Taffard, A.; Tafirout, R.; Taiblum, N.; Takai, H.; Takashima, R.; Takeshita, T.; Takubo, Y.; Talby, M.; Talyshev, A. A.; Tanaka, J.; Tanaka, M.; Tanaka, R.; Tanaka, S.; Tanioka, R.; Tannenwald, B. B.; Tapia Araya, S.; Tapprogge, S.; Tarem, S.; Tartarelli, G. F.; Tas, P.; Tasevsky, M.; Tashiro, T.; Tassi, E.; Tavares Delgado, A.; Tayalati, Y.; Taylor, A. C.; Taylor, G. N.; Taylor, P. T. E.; Taylor, W.; Teixeira-Dias, P.; Temple, D.; Ten Kate, H.; Teng, P. K.; Teoh, J. J.; Tepel, F.; Terada, S.; Terashi, K.; Terron, J.; Terzo, S.; Testa, M.; Teuscher, R. J.; Theveneaux-Pelzer, T.; Thomas, J. P.; Thomas-Wilsker, J.; Thompson, P. D.; Thompson, A. S.; Thomsen, L. A.; Thomson, E.; Tibbetts, M. J.; Ticse Torres, R. E.; Tikhomirov, V. O.; Tikhonov, Yu. A.; Timoshenko, S.; Tipton, P.; Tisserant, S.; Todome, K.; Todorova-Nova, S.; Tojo, J.; Tokár, S.; Tokushuku, K.; Tolley, E.; Tomlinson, L.; Tomoto, M.; Tompkins, L.; Toms, K.; Tong, B.; Tornambe, P.; Torrence, E.; Torres, H.; Torró Pastor, E.; Toth, J.; Touchard, F.; Tovey, D. R.; Treado, C. J.; Trefzger, T.; Tricoli, A.; Trigger, I. M.; Trincaz-Duvoid, S.; Tripiana, M. F.; Trischuk, W.; Trocmé, B.; Trofymov, A.; Troncon, C.; Trottier-McDonald, M.; Trovatelli, M.; Truong, L.; Trzebinski, M.; Trzupek, A.; Tsang, K. W.; Tseng, J. C.-L.; Tsiareshka, P. V.; Tsipolitis, G.; Tsirintanis, N.; Tsiskaridze, S.; Tsiskaridze, V.; Tskhadadze, E. G.; Tsui, K. M.; Tsukerman, I. I.; Tsulaia, V.; Tsuno, S.; Tsybychev, D.; Tu, Y.; Tudorache, A.; Tudorache, V.; Tulbure, T. T.; Tuna, A. N.; Tupputi, S. A.; Turchikhin, S.; Turgeman, D.; Turk Cakir, I.; Turra, R.; Tuts, P. M.; Ucchielli, G.; Ueda, I.; Ughetto, M.; Ukegawa, F.; Unal, G.; Undrus, A.; Unel, G.; Ungaro, F. C.; Unno, Y.; Unverdorben, C.; Urban, J.; Urquijo, P.; Urrejola, P.; Usai, G.; Usui, J.; Vacavant, L.; Vacek, V.; Vachon, B.; Valderanis, C.; Valdes Santurio, E.; Valencic, N.; Valentinetti, S.; Valero, A.; Valéry, L.; Valkar, S.; Vallier, A.; Valls Ferrer, J. A.; van den Wollenberg, W.; van der Graaf, H.; van Eldik, N.; van Gemmeren, P.; van Nieuwkoop, J.; van Vulpen, I.; van Woerden, M. C.; Vanadia, M.; Vandelli, W.; Vanguri, R.; Vaniachine, A.; Vankov, P.; Vardanyan, G.; Vari, R.; Varnes, E. W.; Varni, C.; Varol, T.; Varouchas, D.; Vartapetian, A.; Varvell, K. E.; Vasquez, J. G.; Vasquez, G. A.; Vazeille, F.; Vazquez Schroeder, T.; Veatch, J.; Veeraraghavan, V.; Veloce, L. M.; Veloso, F.; Veneziano, S.; Ventura, A.; Venturi, M.; Venturi, N.; Venturini, A.; Vercesi, V.; Verducci, M.; Verkerke, W.; Vermeulen, J. C.; Vetterli, M. C.; Viaux Maira, N.; Viazlo, O.; Vichou, I.; Vickey, T.; Vickey Boeriu, O. E.; Viehhauser, G. H. A.; Viel, S.; Vigani, L.; Villa, M.; Villaplana Perez, M.; Vilucchi, E.; Vincter, M. G.; Vinogradov, V. B.; Vishwakarma, A.; Vittori, C.; Vivarelli, I.; Vlachos, S.; Vlasak, M.; Vogel, M.; Vokac, P.; Volpi, G.; Volpi, M.; von der Schmitt, H.; von Toerne, E.; Vorobel, V.; Vorobev, K.; Vos, M.; Voss, R.; Vossebeld, J. H.; Vranjes, N.; Vranjes Milosavljevic, M.; Vrba, V.; Vreeswijk, M.; Vuillermet, R.; Vukotic, I.; Wagner, P.; Wagner, W.; Wahlberg, H.; Wahrmund, S.; Wakabayashi, J.; Walder, J.; Walker, R.; Walkowiak, W.; Wallangen, V.; Wang, C.; Wang, C.; Wang, F.; Wang, H.; Wang, H.; Wang, J.; Wang, J.; Wang, Q.; Wang, R.; Wang, S. M.; Wang, T.; Wang, W.; Wang, W.; Wang, Z.; Wanotayaroj, C.; Warburton, A.; Ward, C. P.; Wardrope, D. R.; Washbrook, A.; Watkins, P. M.; Watson, A. T.; Watson, M. F.; Watts, G.; Watts, S.; Waugh, B. M.; Webb, A. F.; Webb, S.; Weber, M. S.; Weber, S. W.; Weber, S. A.; Webster, J. S.; Weidberg, A. R.; Weinert, B.; Weingarten, J.; Weiser, C.; Weits, H.; Wells, P. S.; Wenaus, T.; Wengler, T.; Wenig, S.; Wermes, N.; Werner, M. D.; Werner, P.; Wessels, M.; Whalen, K.; Whallon, N. L.; Wharton, A. M.; White, A.; White, M. J.; White, R.; Whiteson, D.; Wickens, F. J.; Wiedenmann, W.; Wielers, M.; Wiglesworth, C.; Wiik-Fuchs, L. A. M.; Wildauer, A.; Wilk, F.; Wilkens, H. G.; Williams, H. H.; Williams, S.; Willis, C.; Willocq, S.; Wilson, J. A.; Wingerter-Seez, I.; Winklmeier, F.; Winston, O. J.; Winter, B. T.; Wittgen, M.; Wobisch, M.; Wolf, T. M. H.; Wolff, R.; Wolter, M. W.; Wolters, H.; Worm, S. D.; Wosiek, B. K.; Wotschack, J.; Woudstra, M. J.; Wozniak, K. W.; Wu, M.; Wu, S. L.; Wu, X.; Wu, Y.; Wyatt, T. R.; Wynne, B. M.; Xella, S.; Xi, Z.; Xia, L.; Xu, D.; Xu, L.; Yabsley, B.; Yacoob, S.; Yamaguchi, D.; Yamaguchi, Y.; Yamamoto, A.; Yamamoto, S.; Yamanaka, T.; Yamauchi, K.; Yamazaki, Y.; Yan, Z.; Yang, H.; Yang, H.; Yang, Y.; Yang, Z.; Yao, W.-M.; Yap, Y. C.; Yasu, Y.; Yatsenko, E.; Yau Wong, K. H.; Ye, J.; Ye, S.; Yeletskikh, I.; Yigitbasi, E.; Yildirim, E.; Yorita, K.; Yoshihara, K.; Young, C.; Young, C. J. S.; Youssef, S.; Yu, D. R.; Yu, J.; Yu, J.; Yuan, L.; Yuen, S. P. Y.; Yusuff, I.; Zabinski, B.; Zacharis, G.; Zaidan, R.; Zaitsev, A. M.; Zakharchuk, N.; Zalieckas, J.; Zaman, A.; Zambito, S.; Zanzi, D.; Zeitnitz, C.; Zeman, M.; Zemla, A.; Zeng, J. C.; Zeng, Q.; Zenin, O.; Ženiš, T.; Zerwas, D.; Zhang, D.; Zhang, F.; Zhang, G.; Zhang, H.; Zhang, J.; Zhang, L.; Zhang, L.; Zhang, M.; Zhang, R.; Zhang, R.; Zhang, X.; Zhang, Y.; Zhang, Z.; Zhao, X.; Zhao, Y.; Zhao, Z.; Zhemchugov, A.; Zhong, J.; Zhou, B.; Zhou, C.; Zhou, L.; Zhou, M.; Zhou, M.; Zhou, N.; Zhu, C. G.; Zhu, H.; Zhu, J.; Zhu, Y.; Zhuang, X.; Zhukov, K.; Zibell, A.; Zieminska, D.; Zimine, N. I.; Zimmermann, C.; Zimmermann, S.; Zinonos, Z.; Zinser, M.; Ziolkowski, M.; Živković, L.; Zobernig, G.; Zoccoli, A.; Zou, R.; Zur Nedden, M.; Zwalinski, L.


    Light-by-light scattering (γγ --> γγ) is a quantum-mechanical process that is forbidden in the classical theory of electrodynamics. This reaction is accessible at the Large Hadron Collider thanks to the large electromagnetic field strengths generated by ultra-relativistic colliding lead ions. Using 480 μb-1 of lead-lead collision data recorded at a centre-of-mass energy per nucleon pair of 5.02 TeV by the ATLAS detector, here we report evidence for light-by-light scattering. A total of 13 candidate events were observed with an expected background of 2.6 +/- 0.7 events. After background subtraction and analysis corrections, the fiducial cross-section of the process Pb + Pb (γγ) --> Pb(*) + Pb(*)γγ, for photon transverse energy ET > 3 GeV, photon absolute pseudorapidity |η| < 2.4, diphoton invariant mass greater than 6 GeV, diphoton transverse momentum lower than 2 GeV and diphoton acoplanarity below 0.01, is measured to be 70 +/- 24 (stat.) +/- 17 (syst.) nb, which is in agreement with the standard model predictions.

  8. Probing helium interfaces with light scattering: from fluid mechanics to statistical physics. (United States)

    Wolf, P E; Bonnet, F; Guyon, L; Lambert, T; Perraud, S; Puech, L; Rousset, B; Thibault, P


    We have investigated the formation of helium droplets in two physical situations. In the first one, droplets are atomised from superfluid or normal liquid by a fast helium vapour flow. In the second, droplets of normal liquid are formed inside porous glasses during the process of helium condensation. The context, aims, and results of these experiments are reviewed, with focus on the specificity of light scattering by helium. In particular, we discuss how, for different reasons, the closeness to unity of the index of refraction of helium allows in both cases to minimise the problem of multiple scattering and obtain results which it would not be possible to get using other fluids.

  9. Light scattering by multiple spheres: comparison between Maxwell theory and radiative-transfer-theory calculations. (United States)

    Voit, Florian; Schäfer, Jan; Kienle, Alwin


    We present a methodology to compare results of classical radiative transfer theory against exact solutions of Maxwell theory for a high number of spheres. We calculated light propagation in a cubic scattering region (20 x 20 x 20 microm(3)) consisting of different concentrations of polystyrene spheres in water (diameter 2 microm) by an analytical solution of Maxwell theory and by a numerical solution of radiative transfer theory. The relative deviation of differential as well as total scattering cross sections obtained by both approaches was evaluated for each sphere concentration. For the considered case, we found that deviations due to radiative transfer theory remain small, even for concentrations up to ca. 20 vol. %.

  10. Measuring the light scattering and orientation of a spheroidal particle using in-line holography. (United States)

    Seo, Kyung Won; Byeon, Hyeok Jun; Lee, Sang Joon


    The light scattering properties of a horizontally and vertically oriented spheroidal particle under laser illumination are experimentally investigated using digital in-line holography. The reconstructed wave field shows the bright singular points as a result of the condensed beam formed by a transparent spheroidal particle acting as a lens. The in-plane (θ) and out-of-plane (ϕ) rotating angles of an arbitrarily oriented spheroidal particle are measured by using these scattering properties. As a feasibility test, the 3D orientation of a transparent spheroidal particle suspended in a microscale pipe flow is successfully reconstructed by adapting the proposed method.

  11. [Particle Size and Number Density Online Analysis for Particle Suspension with Polarization-Differentiation Elastic Light Scattering Spectroscopy]. (United States)

    Chen, Wei-kang; Fang, Hui


    The basic principle of polarization-differentiation elastic light scattering spectroscopy based techniques is that under the linear polarized light incidence, the singlely scattered light from the superficial biological tissue and diffusively scattered light from the deep tissue can be separated according to the difference of polarization characteristics. The novel point of the paper is to apply this method to the detection of particle suspension and, to realize the simultaneous measurement of its particle size and number density in its natural status. We design and build a coaxial cage optical system, and measure the backscatter signal at a specified angle from a polystyrene microsphere suspension. By controlling the polarization direction of incident light with a linear polarizer and adjusting the polarization direction of collected light with another linear polarizer, we obtain the parallel polarized elastic light scattering spectrum and cross polarized elastic light scattering spectrum. The difference between the two is the differential polarized elastic light scattering spectrum which include only the single scattering information of the particles. We thus compare this spectrum to the Mie scattering calculation and extract the particle size. We then also analyze the cross polarized elastic light scattering spectrum by applying the particle size already extracted. The analysis is based on the approximate expressions taking account of light diffusing, from which we are able to obtain the number density of the particle suspension. We compare our experimental outcomes with the manufacturer-provided values and further analyze the influence of the particle diameter standard deviation on the number density extraction, by which we finally verify the experimental method. The potential applications of the method include the on-line particle quality monitoring for particle manufacture as well as the fat and protein density detection of milk products.

  12. The influence of simulated light scattering on automated perimetric threshold measurements. (United States)

    Heuer, D K; Anderson, D R; Knighton, R W; Feuer, W J; Gressel, M G


    The effect of light scattering by ocular media opacities on OCTOPUS and Humphrey perimeter threshold measurements was simulated with randomly ordered sequences of six ground-glass diffusers in the right eyes of five subjects. Threshold measurements were performed at 0 degrees, 5 degrees, 10 degrees, 15 degrees, 20 degrees, and 25 degrees nasally along the 180 degrees meridian with the F4 program on an OCTOPUS perimeter, and with twice-repeated profiles on a Humphrey perimeter. The reduction in differential light sensitivity correlated well with the 2.7-dB to 16.7-dB reduction in stimulus intensity caused by the 46% to 98% scattering of incident light by the diffusers. Contrast sensitivity in the presence of a glare source (Miller-Nadler glare test) was also affected by the diffusers, such that a 75% contrast target was not visible through the strongest diffuser whereas a 5% contrast target was visible without a diffuser. Conversely, the diffusers had very little effect on visual acuity measurements that were performed with projected high-contrast targets in a darkened room. Our data suggest that even minimal light scattering, such as might be caused by a cataract that has a relatively insignificant effect on visual acuity, may influence threshold measurements.

  13. Characterization of nanoparticles of lidocaine in w/o microemulsions using small-angle neutron scattering and dynamic light scattering

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Shukla, A.; Kiselev, M.A.; Hoell, A.; Neubert, R.H.H.


    Microemulsions (MEs) are of special interest because a variety of reactants can be introduced into the nanometer-sized aqueous domains, leading to materials with controlled size and shape. In the past few years, significant research has been conducted in the reverse ME-mediated synthesis of organic nanoparticles. In this study, a w/o ME medium was employed for the synthesis of lidocaine by direct precipitation in w/o microemulsion systems: water/isopropylpalmitat/Tween80/Span80. The particle size as well as the location of nanoparticles in the ME droplet were characterized by means of dynamic light scattering (DLS) and small angle neutron scattering (SANS). It is observed that lidocaine precipitated in the aqueous cores because of its insolubility in water. Hydrodynamic radius and gyration radius of microemulsion droplets were estimated as ∼15 nm and ∼4.50 nm from DLS and SANS respectively. Furthermore, different size parameters obtained by DLS and SANS experiments were compared. (author)

  14. Scattered-Field FDTD and PSTD Algorithms with CPML Absorbing Boundary Conditions for Light Scattering by Aerosols (United States)


    ORGANIZATION NAME(S) AND ADDRESS(ES) U.S. Army Research Laboratory ATTN: RDRL-CIE-S 2800 Powder Mill Road Adelphi, MD 20783-1197 8. PERFORMING ORGANIZATION...article.)bu ¼ eΔtððsu=εoκuÞþðau=ε0ÞÞ; ð6aÞ cu ¼ ðbu1Þsu suκu þ κ2uau ð6bÞ The CPML properties (ax,κx,sx), (ay,κy,sy), and (az,κz,sz) are scaled tensor ...House; 1995. [12] Yang P, Liou KN. Finite-difference time domain method for light scattering by small ice crystals in three-dimensional space. J Opt Soc

  15. Architecture and function of plant light-harvesting complexes II. (United States)

    Pan, Xiaowei; Liu, Zhenfeng; Li, Mei; Chang, Wenrui


    The antenna system associated with plant photosystem II (PSII) comprises a series of light-harvesting complexes II (LHCIIs) which are supramolecular assemblies of chlorophylls, carotenoids, lipids and integral membrane proteins. These complexes not only function in capturing and transmitting light energy, but also have pivotal roles in photoprotection under high-light conditions through a mechanism known as non-photochemical quenching process. Among them, the most abundant major species (majLHCII) is located at the periphery of PSII and forms homo/hetero-trimers. Besides, three minor species, named CP29, CP26 and CP24, are adjacent to the PSII core, exist in monomeric form and bridge the majLHCII trimers with the core complex. Structural studies on majLHCII and CP29 have revealed the overall architecture of plant LHC family, the binding sites of pigment molecules and the distribution pattern of chromophores in three-dimensional space. The high-resolution structural data of LHCIIs serve as fundamental bases for an improved understanding on the mechanisms of light harvesting, energy transfer and photoprotection processes in plants. Copyright © 2013 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  16. Size distribution and radial density profile of synaptic vesicles by SAXS and light scattering

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Castorph, Simon; Salditt, Tim [Institute for X-ray Physics, Goettingen (Germany); Holt, Matthew; Jahn, Reinhard [Max Plank Institute for Biophysical Chemistry, Goettingen (Germany); Sztucki, Michael [European Synchrotron Radiation Facility, Grenoble (France)


    Synaptic vesicles are small membraneous organelles within the nerve terminal, encapsulating neurotransmitters by a lipid bilayer. The transport of the neurotransmitter, the fusion at the plasma membrane, and the release of the stored neurotransmitters into the synaptic cleft are since long know as essential step in nerve conduction of the chemical synapse. A detailed structural view of these molecular mechanisms is still lacking, not withstanding the enormous progress in the field during recent years. From measurements and quantitative fitting of small angle X-ray scattering curves and dynamic light scattering the averaged structural properties of synaptic vesicles can be determined. We present SAXS measurements and fits revealing the width of the size distribution function and details of the radial scattering length profile of synaptic vesicles from rat brain. Representative values for the inner and outer radius and the size polydispersity as well as the density and width of the outer protein layer are obtained.

  17. Roughness characterization of EUV multilayer coatings and ultra-smooth surfaces by light scattering (United States)

    Trost, M.; Schröder, S.; Lin, C. C.; Duparré, A.; Tünnermann, A.


    Optical components for the extreme ultraviolet (EUV) face stringent requirements for surface finish, because even small amounts of surface and interface roughness can cause significant scattering losses and impair image quality. In this paper, we investigate the roughness evolution of Mo/Si multilayers by analyzing the scattering behavior at a wavelength of 13.5 nm as well as taking atomic force microscopy (AFM) measurements before and after coating. Furthermore, a new approach to measure substrate roughness is presented, which is based on light scattering measurements at 405 nm. The high robustness and sensitivity to roughness of this method are illustrated using an EUV mask blank with a highspatial frequency roughness of as low as 0.04 nm.

  18. Influence of water uptake on the aerosol particle light scattering coefficients of the Central European aerosol

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Paul Zieger


    Full Text Available The influence of aerosol water uptake on the aerosol particle light scattering was examined at the regional continental research site Melpitz, Germany. The scattering enhancement factor f(RH, defined as the aerosol particle scattering coefficient at a certain relative humidity (RH divided by its dry value, was measured using a humidified nephelometer. The chemical composition and other microphysical properties were measured in parallel. f(RH showed a strong variation, e.g. with values between 1.2 and 3.6 at RH=85% and λ=550 nm. The chemical composition was found to be the main factor determining the magnitude of f(RH, since the magnitude of f(RH clearly correlated with the inorganic mass fraction measured by an aerosol mass spectrometer (AMS. Hysteresis within the recorded humidograms was observed and explained by long-range transported sea salt. A closure study using Mie theory showed the consistency of the measured parameters.

  19. Measured and predicted aerosol light scattering enhancement factors at the high alpine site Jungfraujoch

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    R. Fierz-Schmidhauser


    Full Text Available Ambient relative humidity (RH determines the water content of atmospheric aerosol particles and thus has an important influence on the amount of visible light scattered by particles. The RH dependence of the particle light scattering coefficient (σsp is therefore an important variable for climate forcing calculations. We used a humidification system for a nephelometer which allows for the measurement of σsp at a defined RH in the range of 20–95%. In this paper we present measurements of light scattering enhancement factors f(RH=σsp(RH/σsp(dry from a 1-month campaign (May 2008 at the high alpine site Jungfraujoch (3580 m a.s.l., Switzerland. Measurements at the Jungfraujoch are representative for the lower free troposphere above Central Europe. For this aerosol type hardly any information about the f(RH is available so far. At this site, f(RH=85% varied between 1.2 and 3.3. Measured f(RH agreed well with f(RH calculated with Mie theory using measurements of the size distribution, chemical composition and hygroscopic diameter growth factors as input. Good f(RH predictions at RH<85% were also obtained with a simplified model, which uses the Ångström exponent of σsp(dry as input. RH influences further intensive optical aerosol properties. The backscatter fraction decreased by about 30% from 0.128 to 0.089, and the single scattering albedo increased on average by 0.05 at 85% RH compared to dry conditions. These changes in σsp, backscatter fraction and single scattering albedo have a distinct impact on the radiative forcing of the Jungfraujoch aerosol.

  20. Pushing nanoparticles with light — A femtonewton resolved measurement of optical scattering forces

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    C. Zensen


    Full Text Available Optomechanical manipulation of plasmonic nanoparticles is an area of current interest, both fundamental and applied. However, no experimental method is available to determine the forward-directed scattering force that dominates for incident light of a wavelength close to the plasmon resonance. Here, we demonstrate how the scattering force acting on a single gold nanoparticle in solution can be measured. An optically trapped 80 nm particle was repetitively pushed from the side with laser light resonant to the particle plasmon frequency. A lock-in analysis of the particle movement provides a measured value for the scattering force. We obtain a resolution of less than 3 femtonewtons which is an order of magnitude smaller than any measurement of switchable forces performed on nanoparticles in solution with single beam optical tweezers to date. We compared the results of the force measurement with Mie simulations of the optical scattering force on a gold nanoparticle and found good agreement between experiment and theory within a few fN.

  1. Light scattering by low-frequency excitations in quasi-periodic n-alkane/urea adducts (United States)

    Ollivier, J.; Ecolivet, C.; Beaufils, S.; Guillaume, F.; Breczewski, T.


    High-resolution light scattering spectroscopy has been performed on a series of n-alkane CnH2n + 2/urea inclusion compounds with n = 12,14,17 - 19. The elastic constants of these incommensurate composite crystals have been determined and found to be independent of the chain length of the guest molecules. In addition, no extraneous acoustic-like mode appeared in all spectra. However, quasi-elastic components with different widths are observed for different polarizations. In one of them the characteristics of the scattered light suggest that the quasi-elastic broadening could be generated by a sliding mode, whereas the other detected component is assigned to the reorientational motions of the n-alkane chains about their long axis.

  2. Optimizing scintillation light collection in the CENNS-10 liquid argon neutrino-nucleus scattering detector (United States)

    Del Valle Coello, Maria; Tayloe, Rex; Coherent Collaboration


    The CENNS-10 detector is a liquid argon chamber currently running at the SNS at ORNL to observe nuclear recoils from Coherent Elastic Neutrino-Nucleus Scattering (CEvNS) and is one of several technologies implemented by the COHERENT collaboration to measure the CEvNS process' dependence on nuclear size. The observation and measurement of CEvNS is vital to understanding energy propagation in supernovae, a test for physics beyond the standard model, an irreducible background for dark matter direct detection, and a probe into nuclear structure. The functioning of the detector depends on its ability to see light from the neutrino-nuclear scattering, which produces extreme UV radiation. To attain optimum light yield in the detector, several optical measurements and changes were necessary. This poster will discuss these measurements, as well as the future expansion of the liquid argon system.

  3. Characterization of spherical core–shell particles by static light scattering. Estimation of the core- and particle-size distributions

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Clementi, Luis A.; Vega, Jorge R.; Gugliotta, Luis M.; Quirantes, Arturo


    A numerical method is proposed for the characterization of core–shell spherical particles from static light scattering (SLS) measurements. The method is able to estimate the core size distribution (CSD) and the particle size distribution (PSD), through the following two-step procedure: (i) the estimation of the bivariate core–particle size distribution (C–PSD), by solving a linear ill-conditioned inverse problem through a generalized Tikhonov regularization strategy, and (ii) the calculation of the CSD and the PSD from the estimated C–PSD. First, the method was evaluated on the basis of several simulated examples, with polystyrene–poly(methyl methacrylate) core–shell particles of different CSDs and PSDs. Then, two samples of hematite–Yttrium basic carbonate core–shell particles were successfully characterized. In all analyzed examples, acceptable estimates of the PSD and the average diameter of the CSD were obtained. Based on the single-scattering Mie theory, the proposed method is an effective tool for characterizing core–shell colloidal particles larger than their Rayleigh limits without requiring any a-priori assumption on the shapes of the size distributions. Under such conditions, the PSDs can always be adequately estimated, while acceptable CSD estimates are obtained when the core/shell particles exhibit either a high optical contrast, or a moderate optical contrast but with a high ‘average core diameter’/‘average particle diameter’ ratio. -- Highlights: ► Particles with core–shell morphology are characterized by static light scattering. ► Core size distribution and particle size distribution are successfully estimated. ► Simulated and experimental examples are used to validate the numerical method. ► The positive effect of a large core/shell optical contrast is investigated. ► No a-priori assumption on the shapes of the size distributions is required.

  4. Quantitative and Isolated Measurement of Far-Field Light Scattering by a Single Nanostructure (United States)

    Kim, Donghyeong; Jeong, Kwang-Yong; Kim, Jinhyung; Ee, Ho-Seok; Kang, Ju-Hyung; Park, Hong-Gyu; Seo, Min-Kyo


    Light scattering by nanostructures has facilitated research on various optical phenomena and applications by interfacing the near fields and free-propagating radiation. However, direct quantitative measurement of far-field scattering by a single nanostructure on the wavelength scale or less is highly challenging. Conventional back-focal-plane imaging covers only a limited solid angle determined by the numerical aperture of the objectives and suffers from optical aberration and distortion. Here, we present a quantitative measurement of the differential far-field scattering cross section of a single nanostructure over the full hemisphere. In goniometer-based far-field scanning with a high signal-to-noise ratio of approximately 27.4 dB, weak scattering signals are efficiently isolated and detected under total-internal-reflection illumination. Systematic measurements reveal that the total and differential scattering cross sections of a Au nanorod are determined by the plasmonic Fabry-Perot resonances and the phase-matching conditions to the free-propagating radiation, respectively. We believe that our angle-resolved far-field measurement scheme provides a way to investigate and evaluate the physical properties and performance of nano-optical materials and phenomena.

  5. Fast internal dynamics in polyelectrolyte gels measured by dynamic light scattering

    Czech Academy of Sciences Publication Activity Database

    Rasmark, P. J.; Koňák, Čestmír; Štěpánek, Petr; Elvingson, C.


    Roč. 54, 4-5 (2005), s. 335-342 ISSN 0170-0839 R&D Projects: GA AV ČR IAA4050306; GA ČR GESON/03/E001 Institutional research plan: CEZ:AV0Z40500505 Keywords : polyelectrolyte gel * dynamic light scattering * poly(acrylic acid) Subject RIV: CD - Macromolecular Chemistry Impact factor: 0.904, year: 2005

  6. Simultaneous determination of size and refractive index of red blood cells by light scattering measurements

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Ghosh, N.; Buddhiwant, P.; Uppal, A.; Majumder, S.K.; Patel, H.S.; Gupta, P.K.


    We present a fast and accurate approach for simultaneous determination of both the mean diameter and refractive index of a collection of red blood cells (RBCs). The approach uses the peak frequency of the power spectrum and the corresponding phase angle obtained by performing Fourier transform on the measured angular distribution of scattered light to determine these parameters. Results on the measurement of two important clinical parameters, the mean cell volume and mean cell hemoglobin concentration of a collection of RBCs, are presented

  7. Taking account of the recoil effect under a light particle scattering on two heavy particles

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Peresypkin, V.V.


    Proceeding from the Faddeev equations the derivation of the Bruekner formula describing a light particle scattering by a system of two fixed force centers is presented. Using the zero-range two-particle potential and assuming the ratio of the incident particle mass to the heavy particle mass to be a small perturbation parameter the correction to the Bruekner formula is obtained taking into account the heavy particle recoil

  8. Elasticity and Viscosity of a Lyotropic Chromonic Nematic Studied with Dynamic Light Scattering


    Nastishin, Yu. A.; Neupane, K.; Baldwin, A. R.; Lavrentovich, O. D.; Sprunt, S.


    Using dynamic light scattering, we measure for the first time the temperature-dependent elastic moduli and associated orientational viscosity coefficients of the nematic phase in a self-assembled lyotropic chromonic liquid crystal. The bend K3 and splay K1 moduli are an order of magnitude higher than the twist K2 constant. The ratio K3/K1 shows an anomalous increase with temperature; we attribute this to the shortening of the aggregates as temperature increases. The viscosity coefficients als...

  9. Determination of size distribution of barley starch granules using low angle laser light scattering

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Psota, V.; Bohacenko, I.; Pytela, J.; Vydrova, H.; Chmelik, J.


    LALLS method (Low Angle Laser Light Scattering) was used to determine the size distribution of starch granules in caryopses of two varieties of malting barley (Hordeum vulgare). Two size fractions of granules were proved similarly to results obtained by other methods. The variety Kompakt contained significantly more large starch granules than the variety Novum. The LALLS method could be used as an accurate, reproducible and quick method for determination of starch granule size distribution

  10. Energy spectra and charge states of light atoms scattered by solid surface

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Parilis, E.S.; Verleger, V.K.


    The theories of backscattering and charge state formation of light atoms (H, D, and He) for the energy range 1 keV 0 0 and theta. The dependence of epsilonsub(max) on theta determines the mean effective range for the scattering at the angle theta. The appearance of surface peaks in the energy spectra of neutrals below energy E 0 + , Hsup(*), and H - . (orig.)

  11. Multiphase polymer systems: morphology and optical properties by light scattering methods

    Czech Academy of Sciences Publication Activity Database

    Holoubek, Jaroslav


    Roč. 18, 5-6 (2002), s. 286-292 ISSN 0934-0866 R&D Projects: GA ČR GA203/99/0573; GA AV ČR IAA4050902 Institutional research plan: CEZ:AV0Z4050913 Keywords : time-resolved light scattering * diffuse reflectance * phase dissolution Subject RIV: CD - Macromolecular Chemistry Impact factor: 0.633, year: 2002

  12. Scattering of Light in Defocusing Media upon Linear Substrate Analysis of Formal Solutions

    CERN Document Server

    Ochirbat, G


    An analysis of formal solutions to the system of Maxwell equations has been performed for a scattering problem of stationary TM light waves in defocusing matter on a linear substrate. Bruster waves have been observed. A nontrivial plane wave has been found for which relation between a refraction constant and an intensity-dependent dielectric constant has been found. An asymptotic plane TM wave has been obtained, and a procedure of its finding has been elaborated.

  13. Comparison of particle size measurements of some aqueous suspensions by laser polarimetry and dynamic light scattering

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Chirikov, S N


    The results of the size distributions measurements of the particles of aqueous suspensions of ZnO, CuO, TiO 2 , and BaTiO 3 by methods of laser polarimetry and dynamic light scattering are considered. These measurements are compared with the results obtained by electron microscopy. It is shown that a laser polarimetry method gives more accurate results for size parameter values more than 1-2. (paper)

  14. Three-dimensional analysis of dynamic light scattering data: Application to self-organized polymer solutions

    Czech Academy of Sciences Publication Activity Database

    Štěpánek, Petr; Tuzar, Zdeněk; Kadlec, Petr; Černoch, Peter; Kříž, Jaroslav


    Roč. 12, č. 1 (2007), s. 3-12 ISSN 1023-666X R&D Projects: GA AV ČR IAA4050403; GA ČR GA203/04/0490 Institutional research plan: CEZ:AV0Z40500505 Keywords : block copolymers * cooperative diffusion * dynamic light scattering Subject RIV: CD - Macromolecular Chemistry Impact factor: 0.386, year: 2007

  15. Structure of light mass (exotic) nuclei as evidenced by scattering from hydrogen

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Amos, K.; Dortmans, P.J.


    Microscopic optical model potentials generated by full folding of realistic two-nucleon (n/N) interactions with nuclear structure specified by large basis shell model calculations have been constructed. With those (nonlocal) optical potentials, predictions of light mass nuclei-hydrogen scattering were obtained at intermediate energies (65 to 800 MeV) that agree well with observations of cross sections and analyzing powers

  16. Noise from scattered light in Virgo's second science run data

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Accadia, T; Belletoile, A [Laboratoire d' Annecy-le-Vieux de Physique des Particules (LAPP), IN2P3/CNRS, Universite de Savoie, F-74941 Annecy-le-Vieux (France); Acernese, F; Barone, F [INFN, Sezione di Napoli, Universita di Napoli ' Federico II' , Complesso Universitario di Monte S Angelo, I-80126 Napoli, Universita di Salerno, Fisciano, I-84084 Salerno (Italy); Antonucci, F; Astone, P [INFN, Sezione di Roma, Universita ' La Sapienza' , I-00185 Roma (Italy); Ballardin, G [European Gravitational Observatory (EGO), I-56021 Cascina (PI) (Italy); Barsuglia, M; Bouhou, B [AstroParticule et Cosmologie (APC), CNRS: UMR7164-IN2P3-Observatoire de Paris-Universite Denis Diderot-Paris 7 - CEA : DSM/IRFU (France); Bauer, Th S; Beker, M G; Blom, M [Nikhef, National Institute for Subatomic Physics, PO Box 41882, 1009 DB Amsterdam, VU University Amsterdam, De Boelelaan 1081, 1081 HV Amsterdam (Netherlands); Birindelli, S; Bondu, F [Universite Nice-Sophia-Antipolis, CNRS, Observatoire de la Cote d' Azur, F-06304 Nice, Institut de Physique de Rennes, CNRS, Universite de Rennes 1, 35042 Rennes (France); Bitossi, M; Bonelli, L; Boschi, V [INFN, Sezione di Pisa, Universita di Pisa, I-56127 Pisa, Universita di Siena, I-53100 Siena (Italy); Bizouard, M A [LAL, Universite Paris-Sud, IN2P3/CNRS, F-91898 Orsay, ESPCI, CNRS, F-75005 Paris (France); Bonnand, R [Laboratoire des Materiaux Avances (LMA), IN2P3/CNRS, F-69622 Villeurbanne, Lyon (France); Bosi, L, E-mail: irene.fiori@ego-gw.i [INFN, Sezione di Perugia, Universita di Perugia, I-06123 Perugia (Italy)


    Virgo is one of the large, ground-based interferometers aimed at detecting gravitational waves. One of the technical problems limiting its sensitivity is caused by light in the output beams which is backscattered by seismically excited surfaces and couples back into the main beam of the interferometer. The resulting noise was thoroughly studied, measured and mitigated before Virgo's second science run (VSR2). The residual noise during VSR2, which increases in periods with a large microseism activity, is accurately predicted by the theoretical model. The scattered light has been associated with transient events in the gravitational-wave signal of the interferometer.

  17. Heat generation and light scattering of green fluorescent protein-like pigments in coral tissue (United States)

    Lyndby, Niclas H.; Kühl, Michael; Wangpraseurt, Daniel


    Green fluorescent protein (GFP)-like pigments have been proposed to have beneficial effects on coral photobiology. Here, we investigated the relationships between green fluorescence, coral heating and tissue optics for the massive coral Dipsastraea sp. (previously Favia sp.). We used microsensors to measure tissue scalar irradiance and temperature along with hyperspectral imaging and combined imaging of variable chlorophyll fluorescence and green fluorescence. Green fluorescence correlated positively with coral heating and scalar irradiance enhancement at the tissue surface. Coral tissue heating saturated for maximal levels of green fluorescence. The action spectrum of coral surface heating revealed that heating was highest under red (peaking at 680 nm) irradiance. Scalar irradiance enhancement in coral tissue was highest when illuminated with blue light, but up to 62% (for the case of highest green fluorescence) of this photon enhancement was due to green fluorescence emission. We suggest that GFP-like pigments scatter the incident radiation, which enhances light absorption and heating of the coral. However, heating saturates, because intense light scattering reduces the vertical penetration depth through the tissue eventually leading to reduced light absorption at high fluorescent pigment density. We conclude that fluorescent pigments can have a central role in modulating coral light absorption and heating.

  18. Black phosphorous photodetectors for detecting light scattering properties in silicon waveguides (United States)

    Wang, Tianjiao; Hu, Shuren; Chamlagain, Bhim; Hong, Tu; Zhou, Zhixian; Weiss, Sharon; Xu, Yaqiong

    By integrating a black phosphorus (BP) photodetector on top of a patterned silicon nanobeam waveguide, we investigate the light scattering properties of the waveguide through wavelength- and polarization-dependent scanning photocurrent measurements. The photocurrent distribution detected in the waveguide area exhibits similar pattern as the light intensity distribution calculated by the finite-difference time-domain simulation, indicating that the light scattering properties of the waveguide can be detected as photocurrent signals by the BP photodetector. Interestingly, we found that no photocurrent signals are observed when the incident photon energy goes below the bandgap of silicon, suggesting that the photo-excited electron-hole pairs in the silicon waveguide can be injected into the BP and then contribute to the photocurrent generation. From those results, we found that by utilizing photocurrent mapping, two-dimensional (2D) material based photodetectors can be an effective probe to learn the light-matter interactions of photonic structures. Those studies not only open avenues for understanding light manipulation properties of photonic structures but also provide further capacity for engineering high performance optoelectronics.

  19. A Co(II)-Ru(II) dyad relevant to light-driven water oxidation catalysis. (United States)

    López, Alejandro Montellano; Natali, Mirco; Pizzolato, Erica; Chiorboli, Claudio; Bonchio, Marcella; Sartorel, Andrea; Scandola, Franco


    Artificial photosynthesis aims at efficient water splitting into hydrogen and oxygen, by exploiting solar light. As a priority requirement, this process entails the integration of suitable multi-electron catalysts with light absorbing units, where charge separation is generated in order to drive the catalytic routines. The final goal could be the transposition of such an asset into a photoelectrocatalytic cell, where the two half-reactions, proton reduction to hydrogen and water oxidation to oxygen, take place at two appropriately engineered photoelectrodes. We herein report a covalent approach to anchor a Co(II) water oxidation catalyst to a Ru(II) polypyridine photosensitizer unit; photophysical characterisation and the catalytic activity of such a dyad in a light activated cycle are reported, and implications for the development of regenerative systems are discussed.

  20. Physical properties of cometary dust, as derived from light scattering observations and simulations (United States)

    Levasseur-Regourd, A. C.; Hadamcik, E.; Lasue, J.; Renard, J. B.

    Physical properties of cometary dust, as derived from light scattering observations and simulations A.C. Levasseur-Regourd (1), E. Hadamcik (1), J. Lasue (1), J.B. Renard (2) (1) Université Pierre et Marie Curie-Paris6, UMR 7620, Aéronomie, BP-3, Verrières, 91371 France, (2) LPCE-CNRS, 3A av. Recherche Scientifique, Orléans, F-45071 France Physical properties of dust released from comets nuclei can be inferred from observations of solar light scattered by cometary comae. We will first summarize the main trends noticed in the polarimetric properties of dust comae, with emphasis on recent observations of 9P/Tempel 1 and 73P/Schwassmann 3. We will then compare them to the polarimetric properties of tentatively realistic cometary particles analogues, as deduced from experimental simulations on levitating particles. We will finally present results from light scattering numerical simulations (with core- mantle spheroids and fractal aggregates, with appropriate size distributions), and infer some key physical parameters (e.g. size distribution, albedo) retrieved for comet Hale-Bopp and for other active comets. The significance of these parameters will be discussed in terms of origin and evolution of cometary dust.

  1. Collision-induced light scattering in a thin xenon layer between graphite slabs - MD study. (United States)

    Dawid, A; Górny, K; Wojcieszyk, D; Dendzik, Z; Gburski, Z


    The collision-induced light scattering many-body correlation functions and their spectra in thin xenon layer located between two parallel graphite slabs have been investigated by molecular dynamics computer simulations. The results have been obtained at three different distances (densities) between graphite slabs. Our simulations show the increased intensity of the interaction-induced light scattering spectra at low frequencies for xenon atoms in confined space, in comparison to the bulk xenon sample. Moreover, we show substantial dependence of the interaction-induced light scattering correlation functions of xenon on the distances between graphite slabs. The dynamics of xenon atoms in a confined space was also investigated by calculating the mean square displacement functions and related diffusion coefficients. The structural property of confined xenon layer was studied by calculating the density profile, perpendicular to the graphite slabs. Building of a fluid phase of xenon in the innermost part of the slot was observed. The nonlinear dependence of xenon diffusion coefficient on the separation distance between graphite slabs has been found. Copyright © 2014. Published by Elsevier B.V.

  2. Quantitative analysis of gold and carbon nanoparticles in mammalian cells by flow cytometry light scattering

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Zhou, Gang [Nanjing University, State Key Laboratory of Pharmaceutical Biotechnology, School of Life Sciences (China); Liu, Naicheng; Wang, Zhenheng [Nanjing University, Department of Orthopedics, Jinling Hospital, School of Medicine (China); Shi, Tongguo; Gan, Jingjing; Wang, Zhenzhen; Zhang, Junfeng, E-mail: [Nanjing University, State Key Laboratory of Pharmaceutical Biotechnology, School of Life Sciences (China)


    Nanoparticle-based applications for diagnostics and therapeutics have been extensively studied. These applications require a profound understanding of the fate of nanoparticles (NPs) in cellular environments. However, until now, few analytical methods are available and most of them rely on fluorescent properties or special elements of NPs; therefore, for NPs without observable optical properties or special elements, the existing methods are hardly applicable. In this study, we introduce a flow cytometry light scattering (FCLS)-based approach that quantifies in situ NPs accurately in mammalian cells. Continuous cells of heterogeneous human epithelial colorectal adenocarcinoma (Caco-2 cells), mouse peritoneal macrophages (MPM), and human adenocarcinomic alveolar basal epithelia (A549 cells) were cultured with NPs with certain concentrations and size. The intensity of the flow cytometric side scattered light, which indicates the quantity of NPs in the cells, was analyzed. The result shows an accurate size- and dose-dependent uptake of Au NPs (5, 30, 250 nm) in Caco-2 cells. The size- and dose- dependence of Au NPs (5, 30, 250 nm) and carbon NPs (50, 500 nm) in cells was validated by transmission electron microscope (TEM). This paper demonstrates the great potential of flow cytometry light scattering in the quantitative study of the size and dose effect on in situ metallic or non-metallic NPs in mammalian cells.

  3. Interfacing whispering-gallery microresonators and free space light with cavity enhanced Rayleigh scattering (United States)

    Zhu, Jiangang; Özdemir, Şahin K.; Yilmaz, Huzeyfe; Peng, Bo; Dong, Mark; Tomes, Matthew; Carmon, Tal; Yang, Lan


    Whispering gallery mode resonators (WGMRs) take advantage of strong light confinement and long photon lifetime for applications in sensing, optomechanics, microlasers and quantum optics. However, their rotational symmetry and low radiation loss impede energy exchange between WGMs and the surrounding. As a result, free-space coupling of light into and from WGMRs is very challenging. In previous schemes, resonators are intentionally deformed to break circular symmetry to enable free-space coupling of carefully aligned focused light, which comes with bulky size and alignment issues that hinder the realization of compact WGMR applications. Here, we report a new class of nanocouplers based on cavity enhanced Rayleigh scattering from nano-scatterer(s) on resonator surface, and demonstrate whispering gallery microlaser by free-space optical pumping of an Ytterbium doped silica microtoroid via the scatterers. This new scheme will not only expand the range of applications enabled by WGMRs, but also provide a possible route to integrate them into solar powered green photonics. PMID:25227918

  4. Improvements in in-situ filter test methods using a total light-scattering detector

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Marshall, M.; Stevens, D.C.


    This paper presents research aimed at providing useful data on a commonly used technique; a DOP (di-2-ethylhexyl phthalate) aerosol and a total light-scattering photometer. Methods of increasing the sensitivity of this technique are described. Alternative methods of in-situ filter testing are also considered. The sensitivity of a typical, modern, total light-scattering photometer, as a function of particle diameter, has a broad maximum in mass terms between 0.1 and 0.4 um. At its maximum usable sensitivity the instrument can detect approx. 1 particle/cm 3 . This response can be explained by light scattering theory and particle loss in the instrument inlet. The mass median diameter of the aerosols produced by various DOP generators varies from 0.2 to 1.0μm. Experiments with good quality HEPA filters indicate a maximum penetration for particles of 0.15 - 0.2μm. Details of the studies are given and the consequences discussed. It is shown that filter penetration of -3 % can be measured in-situ with existing equipment. Methods of extending the sensitivity to measure a penetration of approx.10 -5 % are described. (author)

  5. First results from light scattering enhancement factor over central Indian Himalayas during GVAX campaign. (United States)

    Dumka, U C; Kaskaoutis, D G; Sagar, Ram; Chen, Jianmin; Singh, Narendra; Tiwari, Suresh


    The present work examines the influence of relative humidity (RH), physical and optical aerosol properties on the light-scattering enhancement factor [f(RH=85%)] over central Indian Himalayas during the Ganges Valley Aerosol Experiment (GVAX). The aerosol hygroscopic properties were measured by means of DoE/ARM (US Department of Energy, Atmospheric Radiation Measurement) mobile facility focusing on periods with the regular instrumental operation (November-December 2011). The measured optical properties include aerosol light-scattering (σ sp ) and absorption (σ ap ) coefficients and the intensive parameters i.e., single scattering albedo (SSA), scattering Ångström exponent (SAE), absorption Ångström exponent (AAE) and light scattering enhancement factor (f(RH)=σ sp (RH, λ)/σ sp (RH dry , λ)). The measurements were separated for sub-micron (RH) and enhancement rate (γ). The particle size affects the aerosol hygroscopicity since mean f(RH=85%) of 1.27±0.12 and 1.32±0.14 are found for D 10μm and D 1μm , respectively. These f(RH) values are relatively low suggesting the enhanced presence of soot and carbonaceous particles from biomass burning activities, which is verified via backward air-mass trajectories. Similarly, the light-scattering enhancement rates are ~0.20 and 0.17 for the D 1μm and D 10μm particles, respectively. However, a general tendency for increasing f(RH) and γ is shown for higher σ sp and σ ap values indicating the presence of rather aged smoke plumes, coated with industrial aerosols over northern India, with mean SSA, SAE and AAE values of 0.92, 1.00 and 1.15 respectively. On the other hand, a moderate-to-small dependence of f(RH) and γ on SAE, AAE, and SSA was observed for both particle sizes. Furthermore, f(RH) exhibits an increasing tendency with the number of cloud condensation nuclei (N CCN ) indicating larger particle hygroscopicity but without significant dependence on the activation ratio. Copyright © 2017 Elsevier B

  6. New evaluation of thermal neutron scattering libraries for light and heavy water

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Marquez Damian Jose Ignacio


    Full Text Available In order to improve the design and safety of thermal nuclear reactors and for verification of criticality safety conditions on systems with significant amount of fissile materials and water, it is necessary to perform high-precision neutron transport calculations and estimate uncertainties of the results. These calculations are based on neutron interaction data distributed in evaluated nuclear data libraries. To improve the evaluations of thermal scattering sub-libraries, we developed a set of thermal neutron scattering cross sections (scattering kernels for hydrogen bound in light water, and deuterium and oxygen bound in heavy water, in the ENDF-6 format from room temperature up to the critical temperatures of molecular liquids. The new evaluations were generated and processable with NJOY99 and also with NJOY-2012 with minor modifications (updates, and with the new version of NJOY-2016. The new TSL libraries are based on molecular dynamics simulations with GROMACS and recent experimental data, and result in an improvement of the calculation of single neutron scattering quantities. In this work, we discuss the importance of taking into account self-diffusion in liquids to accurately describe the neutron scattering at low neutron energies (quasi-elastic peak problem. To improve modeling of heavy water, it is important to take into account temperature-dependent static structure factors and apply Sköld approximation to the coherent inelastic components of the scattering matrix. The usage of the new set of scattering matrices and cross-sections improves the calculation of thermal critical systems moderated and/or reflected with light/heavy water obtained from the International Criticality Safety Benchmark Evaluation Project (ICSBEP handbook. For example, the use of the new thermal scattering library for heavy water, combined with the ROSFOND-2010 evaluation of the cross sections for deuterium, results in an improvement of the C/E ratio in 48 out of

  7. New evaluation of thermal neutron scattering libraries for light and heavy water (United States)

    Marquez Damian, Jose Ignacio; Granada, Jose Rolando; Cantargi, Florencia; Roubtsov, Danila


    In order to improve the design and safety of thermal nuclear reactors and for verification of criticality safety conditions on systems with significant amount of fissile materials and water, it is necessary to perform high-precision neutron transport calculations and estimate uncertainties of the results. These calculations are based on neutron interaction data distributed in evaluated nuclear data libraries. To improve the evaluations of thermal scattering sub-libraries, we developed a set of thermal neutron scattering cross sections (scattering kernels) for hydrogen bound in light water, and deuterium and oxygen bound in heavy water, in the ENDF-6 format from room temperature up to the critical temperatures of molecular liquids. The new evaluations were generated and processable with NJOY99 and also with NJOY-2012 with minor modifications (updates), and with the new version of NJOY-2016. The new TSL libraries are based on molecular dynamics simulations with GROMACS and recent experimental data, and result in an improvement of the calculation of single neutron scattering quantities. In this work, we discuss the importance of taking into account self-diffusion in liquids to accurately describe the neutron scattering at low neutron energies (quasi-elastic peak problem). To improve modeling of heavy water, it is important to take into account temperature-dependent static structure factors and apply Sköld approximation to the coherent inelastic components of the scattering matrix. The usage of the new set of scattering matrices and cross-sections improves the calculation of thermal critical systems moderated and/or reflected with light/heavy water obtained from the International Criticality Safety Benchmark Evaluation Project (ICSBEP) handbook. For example, the use of the new thermal scattering library for heavy water, combined with the ROSFOND-2010 evaluation of the cross sections for deuterium, results in an improvement of the C/E ratio in 48 out of 65

  8. Hadronic light-by-light scattering and the muon g −2

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Stoffer, P.; Colangelo, G.; Hoferichter, M.; Procura, M.


    The largest uncertainties in the Standard Model calculation of the anomalous magnetic moment of the muon (g − 2) μ come from hadronic contributions. In particular, it can be expected that in a few years the sub leading hadronic light-by-light (HLbL) contribution will dominate the theory uncertainty. We present a dispersive description of the HLbL tensor, which is based on unitarity, analyticity, crossing symmetry, and gauge invariance. Such a model-independent approach opens up an avenue towards a data-driven determination of the HLbL contribution to the (g − 2) μ .

  9. Experimental measurements of lower-hybrid wave propagation in the Versator II tokamak using microwave scattering

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Rohatgi, R.; Chen, K.; Bekefi, G.; Bonoli, P.; Luckhardt, S.C.; Mayberry, M.; Porkolab, M.; Villasenor, J.


    A series of 139 GHz microwave scattering experiments has been performed on the Versator II tokamak (B. Richards, Ph.D. thesis, Massachusetts Institute of Technology, 1981) to study the propagation of externally launched 0.8 GHz lower-hybrid waves. During lower-hybrid current drive, the launched waves are found to follow a highly directional resonance cone in the outer portion of the plasma. Wave power is also detected near the center of the plasma, and evidence of wave absorption is seen. Scattering of lower-hybrid waves in k space by density fluctuations appears to be a weak effect, although measurable frequency broadening by density fluctuations is found, Δω/ω=3x10 -4 . In the detectable range (2.5 parallel parallel spectra inferred from the scattering measurements are quite similar above and below the current drive density limit. Numerical modeling of these experiments using ray tracing is also presented


    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Broome, J.


    The programme SCATTER is a KDF9 programme in the Egtran dialect of Fortran to generate normalized angular distributions for elastically scattered neutrons from data input as the coefficients of a Legendre polynomial series, or from differential cross-section data. Also, differential cross-section data may be analysed to produce Legendre polynomial coefficients. Output on cards punched in the format of the U.K. A. E. A. Nuclear Data Library is optional. (author)

  11. Role of minerogenic particles in light scattering in lakes and a river in central New York. (United States)

    Peng, Feng; Effler, Steven W; O'Donnell, David; Perkins, Mary Gail; Weidemann, Alan


    The role of minerogenic particles in light scattering in several lakes and a river (total of ten sites) in central New York, which represent a robust range of scattering conditions, was evaluated based on an individual particle analysis technique of scanning electron microscopy interfaced with automated x-ray microanalysis and image analysis (SAX), in situ bulk measurements of particle scattering and backscattering coefficients (bp and bbp), and laboratory analyses of common indicators of scattering. SAX provided characterizations of the elemental x-ray composition, number concentration, particle size distribution (PSD), shape, and projected area concentration of minerogenic particles (PAVm) of sizes>0.4 microm. Mie theory was applied to calculate the minerogenic components of bp (bm) and bbp (bb,m) with SAX data. Differences in PAVm, associated primarily with clay minerals and CaCO3, were responsible for most of the measured differences in both bp and bbp across the study sites. Contributions of the specified minerogenic particle classes to bm were found to correspond approximately to their contributions to PAVm. The estimates of bm represented substantial fractions of bp, whereas those of bb,m were the dominant component of bbp. The representativeness of the estimates of bm and bb,m was supported by their consistency with the bulk measurements. Greater uncertainty prevails for the bb,m estimates than those for bm, associated primarily with reported deviations in particle shapes from sphericity. The PSDs were well represented by the "B" component of the two-component model or a three parameter generalized gamma distribution [Deep-Sea Res. Part I 40, 1459 (1993)]. The widely applied Junge (hyperbolic) function performed poorly in representing the PSDs and the size dependency of light scattering in these systems, by overrepresenting the concentrations of submicrometer particles especially. Submicrometer particles were not important contributors to bm or bb,m.

  12. In Vivo Identification of Photosystem II Light Harvesting Complexes Interacting with PHOTOSYSTEM II SUBUNIT S. (United States)

    Gerotto, Caterina; Franchin, Cinzia; Arrigoni, Giorgio; Morosinotto, Tomas


    Light is the primary energy source for photosynthetic organisms, but in excess, it can generate reactive oxygen species and lead to cell damage. Plants evolved multiple mechanisms to modulate light use efficiency depending on illumination intensity to thrive in a highly dynamic natural environment. One of the main mechanisms for protection from intense illumination is the dissipation of excess excitation energy as heat, a process called nonphotochemical quenching. In plants, nonphotochemical quenching induction depends on the generation of a pH gradient across thylakoid membranes and on the presence of a protein called PHOTOSYSTEM II SUBUNIT S (PSBS). Here, we generated Physcomitrella patens lines expressing histidine-tagged PSBS that were exploited to purify the native protein by affinity chromatography. The mild conditions used in the purification allowed copurifying PSBS with its interactors, which were identified by mass spectrometry analysis to be mainly photosystem II antenna proteins, such as LIGHT-HARVESTING COMPLEX B (LHCB). PSBS interaction with other proteins appears to be promiscuous and not exclusive, although the major proteins copurified with PSBS were components of the LHCII trimers (LHCB3 and LHCBM). These results provide evidence of a physical interaction between specific photosystem II light-harvesting complexes and PSBS in the thylakoids, suggesting that these subunits are major players in heat dissipation of excess energy. © 2015 American Society of Plant Biologists. All Rights Reserved.

  13. Portable dynamic light scattering instrument and method for the measurement of blood platelet suspensions

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Maurer-Spurej, Elisabeth; Brown, Keddie; Labrie, Audrey; Marziali, Andre; Glatter, Otto


    No routine test exists to determine the quality of blood platelet transfusions although every year millions of patients require platelet transfusions to survive cancer chemotherapy, surgery or trauma. A new, portable dynamic light scattering instrument is described that is suitable for the measurement of turbid solutions of large particles under temperature-controlled conditions. The challenges of small sample size, short light path through the sample and accurate temperature control have been solved with a specially designed temperature-controlled sample holder for small diameter, disposable capillaries. Efficient heating and cooling is achieved with Peltier elements in direct contact with the sample capillary. Focusing optical fibres are used for light delivery and collection of scattered light. The practical use of this new technique was shown by the reproducible measurement of latex microspheres and the temperature-induced morphological changes of human blood platelets. The measured parameters for platelet transfusions are platelet size, number of platelet-derived microparticles and the response of platelets to temperature changes. This three-dimensional analysis provides a high degree of confidence for the determination of platelet quality. The experimental data are compared to a matrix and facilitate automated, unbiased quality testing

  14. Enhanced light absorption and scattering by carbon soot aerosol internally mixed with sulfuric acid. (United States)

    Khalizov, Alexei F; Xue, Huaxin; Wang, Lin; Zheng, Jun; Zhang, Renyi


    Light absorption by carbon soot increases when the particles are internally mixed with nonabsorbing materials, leading to increased radiative forcing, but the magnitude of this enhancement is a subject of great uncertainty. We have performed laboratory experiments of the optical properties of fresh and internally mixed carbon soot aerosols with a known particle size, morphology, and the mixing state. Flame-generated soot aerosol is size-selected with a double-differential mobility analyzer (DMA) setup to eliminate multiply charged particle modes and then exposed to gaseous sulfuric acid (10(9)-10(10) molecule cm(-3)) and water vapor (5-80% relative humidity, RH). Light extinction and scattering by fresh and internally mixed soot aerosol are measured at 532 nm wavelength using a cavity ring-down spectrometer and an integrating nephelometer, respectively, and the absorption is derived as the difference between extinction and scattering. The optical properties of fresh soot are independent of RH, whereas soot internally mixed with sulfuric acid exhibits significant enhancement in light absorption and scattering, increasing with the mass fraction of sulfuric acid coating and relative humidity. For soot particles with an initial mobility diameter of 320 nm and a 40% H(2)SO(4) mass coating fraction, absorption and scattering are increased by 1.4- and 13-fold at 80% RH, respectively. Also, the single scattering albedo of soot aerosol increases from 0.1 to 0.5 after coating and humidification. Additional measurements with soot particles that are first coated with sulfuric acid and then heated to remove the coating show that both scattering and absorption are enhanced by irreversible restructuring of soot aggregates to more compact globules. Depending on the initial size and density of soot aggregates, restructuring acts to increase or decrease the absorption cross-section, but the combination of restructuring and encapsulation always results in an increased absorption for

  15. A study into light scattering and absorption by aluminum nanoparticles in PETN (United States)

    Aduev, B.; Nurmukhametov, D.; Zvekov, A.; Nikitin, A.


    The paper is devoted to experimental and theoretical research into nanopartides' optic properties in pentaerythritol tetranitrate (petn) matrix. A photometric sphere was applied for the transmittance and sum of transmittance and reflectance measurement of petn pressed pellets containing aluminum nanoparticles at the light wavelength 643 nm. The theory of light propagation in terms of spherical harmonics solution of radiative transfer equation in the slab geometry with Fresnel boundary conditions was developed. The properties of aluminum nanoparticles were evaluated in terms of Mie theory. The absorbed energy distribution inside the sample was calculated. It was shown that the Beer's type law is applicable approximately. The apparent light absorption cross section determined, which takes into account both scattering and absorption, is bigger than the geometrical one. The aluminum refractive index value, estimated during comparison of theory with the experimental data, agrees well with the handbook's data.

  16. TURBISCAN MA 2000: multiple light scattering measurement for concentrated emulsion and suspension instability analysis. (United States)

    Mengual, O; Meunier, G; Cayré, I; Puech, K; Snabre, P


    Emulsion or suspension destabilisation often results from coalescence or particle aggregation (flocculation) leading to particle migration (creaming or sedimentation). Creaming and sedimentation are often considered as reversible, while coalescence and flocculation spell disaster for the formulator. Thus, it is of prime importance to detect coalescence or cluster formation at an early stage to shorten the ageing tests and to improve the formulations. This work mainly concerns the independent and anisotropic scattering of light from an emulsion or suspension in a cylindrical glass measurement cell, in relation with the optical analyser TURBISCAN MA 2000. The propagation of light through a concentrated dispersion can be used to characterise the system physico-chemical stability. Indeed, photons undergo many scattering events in an optically thick dispersion before escaping the medium and entering a receiver aperture. Multiple scattering thus contributes significantly to the transmitted and backscattered flux measured by TURBISCAN MA 2000. We present statistical models and numerical simulations for the radiative transfer in a suspension (plane or cylindrical measurement cells) only involving the photon mean path length, the asymmetry factor and the geometry of the light receivers. We further have developed an imaging method with high grey level resolution for the visualisation and the analysis of the surface flux in the backscattered spot light. We compare the results from physical models and numerical simulations with the experiments performed with the imaging method and the optical analyser TURBISCAN MA 2000 for latex beads suspensions (variable size and particle volume fraction). We then present a few examples of concentrated emulsion and suspension instability analysis with TURBISCAN 2000. It is shown that the instrument is able to characterise particle or aggregate size variation and particle/aggregate migration and to detect these phenomena much more earlier

  17. Area densitometry using rotating Scheimpflug photography for posterior capsule opacification and surface light scattering analyses. (United States)

    Minami, Keiichiro; Honbo, Masato; Mori, Yosai; Kataoka, Yasushi; Miyata, Kazunori


    To compare area densitometry analysis using rotating Scheimpflug photography in quantifications of posterior capsule opacification (PCO) and surface light scattering with previous anterior-segment analyzer measurement. Miyata Eye Hospital, Miyazaki, Japan. Prospective observational case series. Scheimpflug images of eyes with foldable intraocular lenses (IOLs) were obtained using rotating and fixed Scheimpflug photography. Area densitometry on the posterior and anterior surfaces was conducted for PCO and surface light scattering analyses, respectively, with an identical area size. Correlation between two measurements was analyzed using linear regression. The study included 105 eyes of 74 patients who received IOLs 1 to 18 years (mean, 4.9 ± 4.5 years) postoperatively. In the PCO analysis on the posterior IOL surface, there was a significant correlation between the two measurements (P photography exhibited saturation due to intensive scatterings. Area densitometry combined with a rotating Scheimpflug photography was exchangeable to previously established densitometry measurement, and allowed successive evaluation in longer-term observations. Copyright © 2015 ASCRS and ESCRS. Published by Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  18. Modeling light scattering in the shadow region behind thin cylinders for diameter analysis (United States)

    Blohm, Werner


    In this paper, the scattered light intensities resulting in the shadow region at an observation plane behind monochromatically illuminated circular cylinders are modeled by sinusoidal sequences having a squared dependence on spatial position in the observation plane. Whereas two sinusoidal components appear to be sufficient for modeling the light distribution behind intransparent cylinders, at least three sinusoidal components are necessary for transparent cylinders. Based on this model, a novel evaluation algorithm for a very fast retrieval of the diameter of thin cylindrical products like metallic wires and transparent fibers is presented. This algorithm was tested in a cylinder diameter range typical for these products (d ≈ 70 … 150 μm; n ≈ 1.5). Numerical examples are given to illustrate its application by using both synthetic and experimental scattering data. Diameter accuracies below 0.05 μm could be achieved for intransparent cylinders in the tested diameter range. However, scattering effects due to morphological-dependent resonances (MDRs) are problematical in the diameter analysis of transparent products. In order to incorporate these effects into the model, further investigations are needed.

  19. Small-angle neutron and dynamic light scattering study of gelatin coacervates

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Mohanty, B; Bohidar, H.B.; Aswal, V.K.; Goyal, P.S.


    The state of intermolecular aggregates and that of folded gelatin molecules could be characterized by dynamic laser light and small-angle neutron scattering experiments, which implied spontaneous segregation of particle sizes preceding coacervation, which is a liquid-liquid phase transition phenomenon. Dynamic light scattering (DLS) data analysis revealed two particle sizes until precipitation was reached. The smaller particles having a diameter of ∼50 nm (stable nanoparticles prepared by coacervation method) were detected in the supernatant, whereas the inter-molecular aggregates having a diameter of ∼400 nm gave rise to coacervation. Small-angle neutron scattering (SANS) experiments revealed that typical mesh size of the networks exist in polymer dense phase (coacervates). Analysis of the SANS structure factor showed the presence of two length scales associated with this system that were identified as the correlation length or mesh size, ξ = 10.6 A of the network and the other is the size of inhomogeneities = 21.4 A. Observations were discussed based on the results obtained from SANS experiments performed in 5% (w/v) gelatin solution at 60 degC (ξ = 50 A, ζ = 113 A) and 5% (w/v) gel at 28 degC (ξ = 47 A, ζ = 115 A) in aqueous phase indicating smaller length scales in coacervate as compared to sol and gel. (author)

  20. Transient magnetic birefringence for determining magnetic nanoparticle diameters in dense, highly light scattering media (United States)

    Köber, Mariana; Moros, Maria; Grazú, Valeria; de la Fuente, Jesus M.; Luna, Mónica; Briones, Fernando


    The increasing use of biofunctionalized magnetic nanoparticles in biomedical applications calls for further development of characterization tools that allow for determining the interactions of the nanoparticles with the biological medium in situ. In cell-incubating conditions, for example, nanoparticles may aggregate and serum proteins adsorb on the particles, altering the nanoparticles’ performance and their interaction with cell membranes. In this work we show that the aggregation of spherical magnetite nanoparticles can be detected with high sensitivity in dense, highly light scattering media by making use of magnetically induced birefringence. Moreover, the hydrodynamic particle diameter distribution of anisometric nanoparticle aggregates can be determined directly in these media by monitoring the relaxation time of the magnetically induced birefringence. As a proof of concept, we performed measurements on nanoparticles included in an agarose gel, which scatters light in a similar way as a more complex biological medium but where particle-matrix interactions are weak. Magnetite nanoparticles were separated by agarose gel electrophoresis and the hydrodynamic diameter distribution was determined in situ. For the different particle functionalizations and agarose concentrations tested, we could show that gel electrophoresis did not yield a complete separation of monomers and small aggregates, and that the electrophoretic mobility of the aggregates decreased linearly with the hydrodynamic diameter. Furthermore, the rotational particle diffusion was not clearly affected by nanoparticle-gel interactions. The possibility to detect nanoparticle aggregates and their hydrodynamic diameters in complex scattering media like cell tissue makes transient magnetic birefringence an interesting technique for biological applications.


    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Rapson, Valerie A.; Kastner, Joel H. [School of Physics and Astronomy, Rochester Institute of Technology, 1 Lomb Memorial Drive, Rochester, NY 14623-5603 (United States); Andrews, Sean M. [Harvard-Smithsonian Center for Astrophysics, 60 Garden Street, Cambridge, MA 02138 (United States); Hines, Dean C. [Space Telescope Science Institute, Baltimore, MD (United States); Macintosh, Bruce [Physics Department, Stanford University, Stanford, CA 94305 (United States); Millar-Blanchaer, Max [Department of Astronomy and Astrophysics, University of Toronto, ON, M5S 3H4 (Canada); Tamura, Motohide, E-mail: [National Astronomical Observatory of Japan, Mitaka, Tokyo 181-8588 (Japan)


    We report the presence of scattered light from dust grains located in the giant planet formation region of the circumbinary disk orbiting the ∼20 Myr old close (∼0.045 AU separation) binary system V4046 Sgr AB based on observations with the new Gemini Planet Imager (GPI) instrument. These GPI images probe to within ∼7 AU of the central binary with a linear spatial resolution of ∼3 AU, and are therefore capable of revealing the dust disk structure within a region corresponding to the giant planets in our solar system. GPI imaging reveals a relatively narrow (FWHM ∼ 10 AU) ring of polarized near-infrared flux whose brightness peaks at ∼14 AU. This ∼14 AU radius ring is surrounded by a fainter outer halo of scattered light extending to ∼45 AU, which coincides with previously detected millimeter-wave thermal dust emission. The presence of small grains that efficiently scatter starlight well inside the millimeter-wavelength disk cavity supports current models of planet formation which suggest that planet–disk interactions can generate pressure traps that impose strong radial variations in the particle size distribution throughout the disk.

  2. On stimulated scattering of laser light in inertial fusion energy targets

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Nikolic, Lj [National Inst. for Fusion Science, The Graduate Univ. for Advanced Studies, Toki, Gifu (Japan); Skoric, M.M. [Vinca Inst. of Nuclear Sciences, Belgrade (Yugoslavia); Ishiguro, S. [National Inst. for Fusion Science, Theory and Computer Simulation Center, Toki, Gifu (Japan); Sato, T. [JAMSTEC, Earth Simulator Center, Yokohama, Kanagawa (Japan)


    Propagation of a laser light through regions of an underdense plasma is an active research topic in laser fusion. In particular, a large effort has been invested in studies of stimulated Raman scattering (SRS) and stimulated Brillouin scattering (SBS) which can reflect laser energy and produce energetic particles to preheat a fusion energy target. Experiments, theory and simulations agree on a complex interplay between various laser-plasma instabilities. By particle-in-cell simulations of an underdense electron-plasma, we have found, apart from the standard SRS, a strong backscattering near the electron plasma frequency at densities beyond the quarter critical. This novel instability, recognized in recent experiments as stimulated laser scattering on a trapped electron-acoustic mode (SEAS), is absent from a classical theory of laser-parametric instabilities. A parametric excitation of SEAS instability, is explained by a three-wave resonant decay of the incident laser light into a standing backscattered wave and a slow trapped electron acoustic wave ({omega} < {omega}{sub p}). Large SEAS pulsations, eventually suppressed by relativistic heating of electrons, are observed in our simulations. This phenomenon seems relevant to future hohlraum target and fast ignition experiments. (author)

  3. Gold nanoparticle-polydimethylsiloxane films reflect light internally by optical diffraction and Mie scattering (United States)

    Dunklin, Jeremy R.; Forcherio, Gregory T.; Roper, D. Keith


    Optical properties of polymer films embedded with plasmonic nanoparticles (NPs) are important in many implementations. In this work, optical extinction by polydimethylsiloxane (PDMS) films containing gold (Au) NPs was enhanced at resonance compared to AuNPs in suspensions, Beer-Lambert law, or Mie theory by internal reflection due to optical diffraction in 16 nm AuNP-PDMS films and Mie scattering in 76 nm AuNP-PDMS films. Resonant extinction per AuNP for 16 nm AuNPs with negligible resonant Mie scattering was enhanced up to 1.5-fold at interparticle separation (i.e., Wigner-Seitz radii) comparable to incident wavelength. It was attributable to diffraction through apertures formed by overlapping electric fields of adjacent, resonantly excited AuNPs at Wigner-Seitz radii equal to or less than incident wavelengths. Resonant extinction per AuNP for strongly Mie scattering 76 nm AuNPs was enhanced up to 1.3-fold at Wigner-Seitz radii four or more times greater than incident wavelength. Enhanced light trapping from diffraction and/or scattering is relevant to optoelectronic, biomedical, and catalytic activity of substrates embedded with NPs.

  4. Characterization of Nanocellulose Using Small-Angle Neutron, X-ray, and Dynamic Light Scattering Techniques. (United States)

    Mao, Yimin; Liu, Kai; Zhan, Chengbo; Geng, Lihong; Chu, Benjamin; Hsiao, Benjamin S


    Nanocellulose extracted from wood pulps using TEMPO (2,2,6,6-tetramethylpiperidine-1-oxyl radical)-mediated oxidation and sulfuric acid hydrolysis methods was characterized by small-angle neutron scattering (SANS), small-angle X-ray scattering (SAXS), and dynamic light scattering (DLS) techniques. The dimensions of this nanocellulose (TEMPO-oxidized cellulose nanofiber (TOCN) and sulfuric acid hydrolyzed cellulose nanocrystal (SACN)) revealed by the different scattering methods were compared with those characterized by transmission electron microscopy (TEM). The SANS and SAXS data were analyzed using a parallelepiped-based form factor. The width and thickness of the nanocellulose cross section were ∼8 and ∼2 nm for TOCN and ∼20 and ∼3 nm for SACN, respectively, where the fitting results from SANS and SAXS profiles were consistent with each other. DLS was carried out under both the V V mode with the polarizer and analyzer parallel to each other and the H V mode having them perpendicular to each other. Using rotational and translational diffusion coefficients obtained under the H V mode yielded a nanocellulose length qualitatively consistent with that observed by TEM, whereas the length derived by the translational diffusion coefficient under the V V mode appeared to be overestimated.

  5. Spectra Aerosol Light Scattering and Absorption for Laboratory and Urban Aerosol (United States)

    Gyawali, Madhu S.

    Atmospheric aerosols considerably influence the climate, reduce visibility, and cause problems in human health. Aerosol light absorption and scattering are the important factors in the radiation transfer models. However, these properties are associated with large uncertainties in climate modeling. In addition, atmospheric aerosols widely vary in composition and size; their optical properties are highly wavelength dependent. This work presents the spectral dependence of aerosol light absorption and scattering throughout the ultraviolet to near-infrared regions. Data were collected in Reno, NV from 2008 to 2010. Also presented in this study are the aerosol optical and physical properties during carbonaceous aerosols and radiative effects study (CARES) conducted in Sacramento area during 2010. Measurements were made using photoacoustic instruments (PA), including a novel UV 355 nm PA of our design and manufacture. Comparative analyses are presented for three main categories: (1) aerosols produced by wildfires and traffic emissions, (2) laboratory-generated and wintertime ambient urban aerosols, and (3) urban plume and biogenic emissions. In these categories, key questions regarding the light absorption by secondary organic aerosols (SOA), so-called brown carbon (BrC), and black carbon (BC) will be discussed. An effort is made to model the emission and aging of urban and biomass burning aerosol by applying shell-core calculations. Multispectral PA measurements of aerosols light absorption and scattering coefficients were used to calculate the Angstrom exponent of absorption (AEA) and single scattering albedo (SSA). The AEA and SSA values were analyzed to differentiate the aerosol sources. The California wildfire aerosols exhibited strong wavelength dependence of aerosol light absorption with AEA as lambda -1 for 405 and 870 nm, in contrast to the relatively weak wavelength dependence of traffic emissions aerosols for which AEA varied approximately as lambda-1. By using

  6. Advances in recording scattered light changes in crustacean nerve with electrical activation

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Carter, K. M. (Kathleen M.); Rector, D. M. (David M.); Martinez, A. T. (Anne T.); Guerra, F. M. (Francisco M.); George, J. S. (John S.)


    We investigated optical changes associated with crustacean nerve stimulation using birefringent and large angle scattered light. Improved detection schemes disclosed high temporal structure of the optical signals and allowed further investigations of biophysical mechanisms responsible for such changes. Most studies of physiological activity in neuronal tissue use techniques that measure the electrical behavior or ionic permeability of the nerve, such as voltage or ion sensitive dyes injected into cells, or invasive electric recording apparatus. While these techniques provide high resolution, they are detrimental to tissue and do not easily lend themselves to clinical applications in humans. Electrical and chemical components of neural excitation evoke physical responses observed through changes in scattered and absorbed light. This method is suited for in-vivo applications. Intrinsic optical changes have shown themselves to be multifaceted in nature and point to several different physiological processes that occur with different time courses during neural excitation. Fast changes occur concomitantly with electrical events, and slow changes parallel metabolic events including changes in blood flow and oxygenation. Previous experiments with isolated crustacean nerves have been used to study the biophysical mechanisms of fast optical changes. However, they have been confounded by multiple superimposed action potentials which make it difficult to discriminate the temporal signatures of individual optical responses. Often many averages were needed to adequately resolve the signal. More recently, optical signals have been observed in single trials. Initially large angle scattering measurements were used to record these events with much of the signal coming from cellular swelling associated with water influx during activation. By exploiting the birefringent properties derived from the molecular stiucture of nerve membranes, signals appear larger with a greater contrast

  7. Energy-dependent microscopic optical potential for scattering of nucleons on light nuclei

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Farag, M.Y.H.; Esmael, E.H. [Cairo University, Physics Department, Faculty of Science, Giza (Egypt); Maridi, H.M. [Cairo University, Physics Department, Faculty of Science, Giza (Egypt); Taiz University, Physics Department, Faculty of Applied Science, Taiz (Yemen)


    We present an energy-dependent microscopic optical model potential for elastic scattering of nucleons on light nuclei. The single-folding model is used for the real part of the optical potential (OP), while the imaginary part is derived within the high-energy approximation theory. The energy dependence of the OP is determined from the parameterization of the volume integrals those calculated from the best-fit OP that fit the experimental data of the cross sections and analyzing powers. This energy-dependent OP is successfully applied to analyze the proton elastic scattering of {sup 4,6,i8}He, {sup 6,7}Li, and {sup 9,10}Be nuclei at low and intermediate incident energies up to 200MeV/nucleon. (orig.)

  8. Effects of relative humidity on aerosol light scattering in the Arctic

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    P. Zieger


    Full Text Available Aerosol particles experience hygroscopic growth in the ambient atmosphere. Their optical properties – especially the aerosol light scattering – are therefore strongly dependent on the ambient relative humidity (RH. In-situ light scattering measurements of long-term observations are usually performed under dry conditions (RH>30–40%. The knowledge of this RH effect is of eminent importance for climate forcing calculations or for the comparison of remote sensing with in-situ measurements. This study combines measurements and model calculations to describe the RH effect on aerosol light scattering for the first time for aerosol particles present in summer and fall in the high Arctic. For this purpose, a field campaign was carried out from July to October 2008 at the Zeppelin station in Ny-Ålesund, Svalbard. The aerosol light scattering coefficient σsp(λ was measured at three distinct wavelengths (λ=450, 550, and 700 nm at dry and at various, predefined RH conditions between 20% and 95% with a recently developed humidified nephelometer (WetNeph and with a second nephelometer measuring at dry conditions with an average RH<10% (DryNeph. In addition, the aerosol size distribution and the aerosol absorption coefficient were measured. The scattering enhancement factor f(RH, λ is the key parameter to describe the RH effect on σsp(λ and is defined as the RH dependent σsp(RH, λ divided by the corresponding dry σsp(RHdry, λ. During our campaign the average f(RH=85%, λ=550 nm was 3.24±0.63 (mean ± standard deviation, and no clear wavelength dependence of f(RH, λ was observed. This means that the ambient scattering coefficients at RH=85% were on average about three times higher than the dry measured in-situ scattering coefficients. The RH dependency of the recorded f(RH, λ can be well described by an empirical one-parameter equation. We used a simplified

  9. Investigation of magneto-optical properties of ferrofluids by laser light scattering techniques (United States)

    Nepomnyashchaya, E. K.; Prokofiev, A. V.; Velichko, E. N.; Pleshakov, I. V.; Kuzmin, Yu I.


    Investigation of magnetooptical characteristics of ferrofluids is an important task aimed at the development of novel optoelectronic systems. This article reports on the results obtained in the experimental studies of the factors that affect the intensity and spatial distribution of the laser radiation scattered by magnetic particles and their agglomerates in a magnetic field. Laser correlation spectroscopy and direct measurements of laser radiation scattering for studies of the interactions and magnetooptical properties of magnetic particles in solutions were employed. The objects were samples of nanodispersed magnetite (Fe3O4) suspended in kerosene and in water. Our studies revealed some new behavior of magnetic particles in external magnetic and light fields, which make ferrofluids promising candidates for optical devices.

  10. Light scattering from liquid crystal director fluctuations in steady magnetic fields up to 25 tesla. (United States)

    Challa, Pavan K; Curtiss, O; Williams, J C; Twieg, R; Toth, J; McGill, S; Jákli, A; Gleeson, J T; Sprunt, S N


    We report on homodyne dynamic light scattering measurements of orientational fluctuation modes in both calamitic and bent-core nematic liquid crystals, carried out in the new split-helix resistive magnet at the National High Magnetic Field Laboratory. The relaxation rate and inverse scattered intensity of director fluctuations exhibit a linear dependence on field-squared up to 25 tesla, which is consistent with strictly lowest order coupling of the tensor order parameter Q to field (Q(αβ)B(α)B(β)) in the nematic free energy. However, we also observe evidence of field dependence of certain nematic material parameters, an effect which may be expected from the mean field scaling of these quantities with the magnitude of Q and the predicted variation of Q with field.

  11. Dynamic light scattering study of the effect of Mg2+ and ATP on synthetic myosin filaments (United States)

    Fujime, Satoru; Takayama, Sei-ichi


    The dynamic light scattering (DLS) method provides us with information about the apparent diffusion coefficient, Dapp, as well as the static scattering intensity, Is. For long but thin rods with length L and diameter d (i.e., KL >> 1 but Kd different from that of Is. By means of DLS were studied synthetic myosin filaments of vertebrate skeletal muscle in solution at pH 8.3. It appeared that Mg2+ ions induced lengthening and thickening of the filaments whereas ATP (and ADP) induced shortening (depolymerization) of the filaments. When ATP was added to the filament preparation in the presence of Mg2+ ions, thinning of the filaments (or splitting into subfilaments) occurred prior to shortening (depolymerization).

  12. Elastic constants and dimensions of imprinted polymeric nanolines determined from Brillouin light scattering

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Johnson, W L; Kim, S A; Geiss, R; Flannery, C M; Soles, C L; Wang, C; Stafford, C M; Wu, W-L; Torres, J M; Vogt, B D; Heyliger, P R


    Elastic constants and cross-sectional dimensions of imprinted nanolines of poly(methyl methacrylate) (PMMA) on silicon substrates are determined nondestructively from finite-element inversion analysis of dispersion curves of hypersonic acoustic modes of these nanolines measured with Brillouin light scattering. The results for the cross-sectional dimensions, under the simplifying assumption of vertical sides and a semicircular top, are found to be consistent with dimensions determined from critical-dimension small-angle x-ray scattering measurements. The elastic constants C 11 and C 44 are found to be, respectively, 11.6% and 3.1% lower than their corresponding values for bulk PMMA. This result is consistent with the dimensional dependence of the quasi-static Young's modulus determined from buckling measurements on PMMA films with lower molecular weights. This study provides the first evidence of size-dependent effects on hypersonic elastic properties of polymers.

  13. A New Code SORD for Simulation of Polarized Light Scattering in the Earth Atmosphere (United States)

    Korkin, Sergey; Lyapustin, Alexei; Sinyuk, Aliaksandr; Holben, Brent


    We report a new publicly available radiative transfer (RT) code for numerical simulation of polarized light scattering in plane-parallel atmosphere of the Earth. Using 44 benchmark tests, we prove high accuracy of the new RT code, SORD (Successive ORDers of scattering). We describe capabilities of SORD and show run time for each test on two different machines. At present, SORD is supposed to work as part of the Aerosol Robotic NETwork (AERONET) inversion algorithm. For natural integration with the AERONET software, SORD is coded in Fortran 90/95. The code is available by email request from the corresponding (first) author or from

  14. Purcell effect for active tuning of light scattering from semiconductor optical antennas (United States)

    Holsteen, Aaron L.; Raza, Søren; Fan, Pengyu; Kik, Pieter G.; Brongersma, Mark L.


    Subwavelength, high–refractive index semiconductor nanostructures support optical resonances that endow them with valuable antenna functions. Control over the intrinsic properties, including their complex refractive index, size, and geometry, has been used to manipulate fundamental light absorption, scattering, and emission processes in nanostructured optoelectronic devices. In this study, we harness the electric and magnetic resonances of such antennas to achieve a very strong dependence of the optical properties on the external environment. Specifically, we illustrate how the resonant scattering wavelength of single silicon nanowires is tunable across the entire visible spectrum by simply moving the height of the nanowires above a metallic mirror. We apply this concept by using a nanoelectromechanical platform to demonstrate active tuning.

  15. Microscopic coupled-channels study of scattering and breakup of light heavy-ions

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Sakuragi, Yukinori; Yahiro, Masanobu; Kamimura, Masayasu.


    The elastic and inelastic scattering and the breakup reactions of light heavy-ions, particularly 6 Li, 7 Li and 12 C, are investigated on the basis of a microscopic coupled-channels method. The bound states and resonant and non-resonant continuum states of the projectile nucleus are taken into account. The wave functions of those states are given by a microscopic cluster model assuming α-d, α-t and 3α for the three projectile nuclei, respectively. The unbound continuum states are approximately treated with the method of coupled discretized continuum channels (CDCC). The real parts of all the diagonal and coupling potentials are given by doubly folding the M3Y effective nucleon-nucleon interaction into the nucleon transition densities of the projectile nucleus and the ground-state density of the target nucleus. The microscopic CDCC method is successfully applied to the analyses of the scattering and the breakup of 6,7 Li and 12 C in a wide range of the target mass and the bombarding energy. The effect of the projectile virtual breakup on the elastic scattering is strikingly large and absolutely important to reproduce the observed cross sections. The dynamical polarization (DP) potentials induced by the breakup of the 6,7 Li and 12 C projectiles are found to be strongly repulsive and, for 6 Li, very weakly absorptive, which is quite different from what has been known for DP potentials induced by the excitation of usual collective states. Unified understanding is presented for various types of possible DP potentials due to weak-coupling channels through strong-coupling channels. Further discussions are made on the roles of the coupling between the breakup channels and that between the elastic channel and the breakup channels in the scattering and breakup reactions of the light heavy-ions. (author)

  16. Diffusing-wave spectroscopy in a standard dynamic light scattering setup (United States)

    Fahimi, Zahra; Aangenendt, Frank J.; Voudouris, Panayiotis; Mattsson, Johan; Wyss, Hans M.


    Diffusing-wave spectroscopy (DWS) extends dynamic light scattering measurements to samples with strong multiple scattering. DWS treats the transport of photons through turbid samples as a diffusion process, thereby making it possible to extract the dynamics of scatterers from measured correlation functions. The analysis of DWS data requires knowledge of the path length distribution of photons traveling through the sample. While for flat sample cells this path length distribution can be readily calculated and expressed in analytical form; no such expression is available for cylindrical sample cells. DWS measurements have therefore typically relied on dedicated setups that use flat sample cells. Here we show how DWS measurements, in particular DWS-based microrheology measurements, can be performed in standard dynamic light scattering setups that use cylindrical sample cells. To do so we perform simple random-walk simulations that yield numerical predictions of the path length distribution as a function of both the transport mean free path and the detection angle. This information is used in experiments to extract the mean-square displacement of tracer particles in the material, as well as the corresponding frequency-dependent viscoelastic response. An important advantage of our approach is that by performing measurements at different detection angles, the average path length through the sample can be varied. For measurements performed on a single sample cell, this gives access to a wider range of length and time scales than obtained in a conventional DWS setup. Such angle-dependent measurements also offer an important consistency check, as for all detection angles the DWS analysis should yield the same tracer dynamics, even though the respective path length distributions are very different. We validate our approach by performing measurements both on aqueous suspensions of tracer particles and on solidlike gelatin samples, for which we find our DWS-based microrheology

  17. Counting bacteria using functionalized gold nanoparticles as the light-scattering reporter. (United States)

    Xu, Xiao; Chen, Yang; Wei, Hejia; Xia, Bin; Liu, Feng; Li, Na


    A simple and rapid bacterial counting method was developed based on dark-field light-scattering imaging of bacteria and gold nanoparticle (AuNP) reporter simultaneously. Commercially available DH5α E. coli strain was used as the model bacterium to demonstrate the feasibility of the proposed method. With antibody-conjugated AuNPs, the simple sample treatment and target E. coli strain recognition can be finished within 15-30 min, with a detection limit of 2-6 × 10(4) colony forming unit per milliliter (CFU/mL). By using 90 nm AuNPs as the light-scattering signal reporter, the bacterial recognition and counting can be easily performed with low-cost instrumentation such as an entry-level dark-field microscope setup and a common tungsten lamp as the light source. An automatic image analysis algorithm was also developed to facilitate robust and fast bacterial counting. The preliminary results of water, milk, and fruit juice sample analysis showed that this simple, fast, and cost-effective method can be easily adopted for routine bacterial detection.

  18. Relativistic two-and three-particle scattering equations using instant and light-front dynamics

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Adhikari, S.K.; Tomio, L.; Frederico, T.


    Starting from the Bethe-Salpeter equation for two particles in the ladder approximation and integrating over the time component of momentum we derive three dimensional scattering integral equations satisfying constraints of unitarity and relativity, both employing the light-front and instant-form variables. The equations we arrive at are those first derived by Weinberg and by Blankenbecler and Sugar, and are shown to be related by a transformation of variables. Hence we show how to perform and relate identical dynamical calculation using these two equations. We extends this procedure to the case of three particles interacting via two-particle separable potentials. Using light-front and instant form variables we suggest a couple of three dimensional three-particle scattering equations satisfying constraints of two and three-particle unitarity and relativity. The three-particle light-front equation is shown to be approximately related by a transformation of variables to one of the instant-form three-particle equations. (author)

  19. DaMaSCUS: the impact of underground scatterings on direct detection of light dark matter

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Emken, Timon; Kouvaris, Chris, E-mail:, E-mail: [CP3-Origins, University of Southern Denmark, Campusvej 55, DK-5230 Odense (Denmark)


    Conventional dark matter direct detection experiments set stringent constraints on dark matter by looking for elastic scattering events between dark matter particles and nuclei in underground detectors. However these constraints weaken significantly in the sub-GeV mass region, simply because light dark matter does not have enough energy to trigger detectors regardless of the dark matter-nucleon scattering cross section. Even if future experiments lower their energy thresholds, they will still be blind to parameter space where dark matter particles interact with nuclei strongly enough that they lose enough energy and become unable to cause a signal above the experimental threshold by the time they reach the underground detector. Therefore in case dark matter is in the sub-GeV region and strongly interacting, possible underground scatterings of dark matter with terrestrial nuclei must be taken into account because they affect significantly the recoil spectra and event rates, regardless of whether the experiment probes DM via DM-nucleus or DM-electron interaction. To quantify this effect we present the publicly available Dark Matter Simulation Code for Underground Scatterings (DaMaSCUS), a Monte Carlo simulator of DM trajectories through the Earth taking underground scatterings into account. Our simulation allows the precise calculation of the density and velocity distribution of dark matter at any detector of given depth and location on Earth. The simulation can also provide the accurate recoil spectrum in underground detectors as well as the phase and amplitude of the diurnal modulation caused by this shadowing effect of the Earth, ultimately relating the modulations expected in different detectors, which is important to decisively conclude if a diurnal modulation is due to dark matter or an irrelevant background.

  20. DaMaSCUS: the impact of underground scatterings on direct detection of light dark matter

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Emken, Timon; Kouvaris, Chris


    Conventional dark matter direct detection experiments set stringent constraints on dark matter by looking for elastic scattering events between dark matter particles and nuclei in underground detectors. However these constraints weaken significantly in the sub-GeV mass region, simply because light dark matter does not have enough energy to trigger detectors regardless of the dark matter-nucleon scattering cross section. Even if future experiments lower their energy thresholds, they will still be blind to parameter space where dark matter particles interact with nuclei strongly enough that they lose enough energy and become unable to cause a signal above the experimental threshold by the time they reach the underground detector. Therefore in case dark matter is in the sub-GeV region and strongly interacting, possible underground scatterings of dark matter with terrestrial nuclei must be taken into account because they affect significantly the recoil spectra and event rates, regardless of whether the experiment probes DM via DM-nucleus or DM-electron interaction. To quantify this effect we present the publicly available Dark Matter Simulation Code for Underground Scatterings (DaMaSCUS), a Monte Carlo simulator of DM trajectories through the Earth taking underground scatterings into account. Our simulation allows the precise calculation of the density and velocity distribution of dark matter at any detector of given depth and location on Earth. The simulation can also provide the accurate recoil spectrum in underground detectors as well as the phase and amplitude of the diurnal modulation caused by this shadowing effect of the Earth, ultimately relating the modulations expected in different detectors, which is important to decisively conclude if a diurnal modulation is due to dark matter or an irrelevant background.

  1. Dispersion relations for hadronic light-by-light scattering and the muon g - 2 (United States)

    Procura, Massimiliano; Colangelo, Gilberto; Hoferichter, Martin; Stoffer, Peter


    The largest uncertainties in the Standard Model calculation of the anomalous magnetic moment of the muon (g - 2)μ come from hadronic effects, and in a few years the subleading hadronic light-by-light (HLbL) contribution might dominate the theory error. We present a dispersive description of the HLbL tensor, which is based on unitarity, analyticity, crossing symmetry, and gauge invariance. This opens up the possibility of a data-driven determination of the HLbL contribution to (g - 2)μ with the aim of reducing model dependence and achieving a reliable error estimate. Our dispersive approach defines unambiguously the pion-pole and the pion-box contribution to the HLbL tensor. Using Mandelstam double-spectral representation, we have proven that the pion-box contribution coincides exactly with the one-loop scalar-QED amplitude, multiplied by the appropriate pion vector form factors. Using dispersive fits to high-statistics data for the pion vector form factor, we obtain . A first model-independent calculation of effects of ππ intermediate states that go beyond the scalar-QED pion loop is also presented. We combine our dispersive description of the HLbL tensor with a partial-wave expansion and demonstrate that the known scalar-QED result is recovered after partial-wave resummation. After constructing suitable input for the γ*γ* → ππ helicity partial waves based on a pion-pole left-hand cut (LHC), we find that for the dominant charged-pion contribution this representation is consistent with the two-loop chiral prediction and the COMPASS measurement for the pion polarizability. This allows us to reliably estimate S-wave rescattering effects to the full pion box and leads to .

  2. Measurement of the time-resolved reflection matrix for enhancing light energy delivery into a scattering medium. (United States)

    Choi, Youngwoon; Hillman, Timothy R; Choi, Wonjun; Lue, Niyom; Dasari, Ramachandra R; So, Peter T C; Choi, Wonshik; Yaqoob, Zahid


    Multiple scatterings occurring in a turbid medium attenuate the intensity of propagating waves. Here, we propose a method to efficiently deliver light energy to the desired target depth in a scattering medium. We measure the time-resolved reflection matrix of a scattering medium using coherent time-gated detection. From this matrix, we derive and experimentally implement an incident wave pattern that optimizes the detected signal corresponding to a specific arrival time. This leads to enhanced light delivery at the target depth. The proposed method will lay a foundation for efficient phototherapy and deep-tissue in vivo imaging in the near future.

  3. Does Brillouin light scattering probe the primary glass transition process at temperatures well above glass transition? (United States)

    Voudouris, P; Gomopoulos, N; Le Grand, A; Hadjichristidis, N; Floudas, G; Ediger, M D; Fytas, G


    The primary alpha-relaxation time (tau(alpha)) for molecular and polymeric glass formers probed by dielectric spectroscopy and two light scattering techniques (depolarized light scattering and photon correlation spectroscopy) relates to the decay of the torsional autocorrelation function computed by molecular dynamics simulation. It is well known that Brillouin light scattering spectroscopy (BLS) operating in gigahertz frequencies probes a fast (10-100 ps) relaxation of the longitudinal modulus M*. The characteristic relaxation time, irrespective of the fitting procedure, is faster than the alpha-relaxation which obeys the non-Arrhenius Vogel-Fulcher-Tammann equation. Albeit, this has been noticed, it remains a puzzling finding in glass forming systems. The available knowledge is based only on temperature dependent BLS experiments performed, however, at a single wave vector (frequency). Using a new BLS spectrometer, we studied the phonon dispersion at gigahertz frequencies in molecular [o-terphenyl (OTP)] and polymeric [polyisoprene (PI) and polypropylene (PP)] glass formers. We found that the hypersonic dispersion does relate to the glass transition dynamics but the disparity between the BLS-relaxation times and tau(alpha) is system dependent. In PI and PP, the former is more than one order of magnitude faster than tau(alpha), whereas the two relaxation times become comparable in the case of OTP. The difference between the two relaxation times appears to relate to the "breadth" of the relaxation time distribution function. In OTP the alpha-relaxation process assumes a virtually single exponential decay at high temperatures well above the glass transition temperature, in clear contrast with the case of the amorphous bulk polymers.

  4. Efficiency Enhancement of Gallium Arsenide Photovoltaics Using Solution-Processed Zinc Oxide Nanoparticle Light Scattering Layers

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Yangsen Kang


    Full Text Available We demonstrate a high-throughput, solution-based process for subwavelength surface texturing of a III-V compound solar cell. A zinc oxide (ZnO nanoparticle ink is spray-coated directly on top of a gallium arsenide (GaAs solar cell. The nanostructured ZnO films have demonstrated antireflection and light scattering properties over the visible/near-infrared (NIR spectrum. The results show a broadband spectral enhancement of the solar cell external quantum efficiency (EQE, a 16% enhancement of short circuit current, and a 10% increase in photovoltaic efficiency.

  5. Efficiency Enhancement of Gallium Arsenide Photovoltaic Using Solution-Processed Zinc Oxide Nanoparticle Light Scattering Layers

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Kang, Y.; Huo, Y.; Chen, Y.; Christoforo, M. G.; Harris, J.S.; Liang, D.; Mehra, S.; Salleo, A.; Harris, J.S.; Harris, J.S.


    We demonstrate a high-throughput, solution-based process for sub wavelength surface texturing of a III-V compound solar cell. A zinc oxide (ZnO) nanoparticle ink is spray-coated directly on top of a gallium arsenide (GaAs) solar cell. The nano structured ZnO films have demonstrated antireflection and light scattering properties over the visible/near-infrared (NIR) spectrum. The results show a broadband spectral enhancement of the solar cell external quantum efficiency (EQE), a 16% enhancement of short circuit current, and a 10% increase in photovoltaic efficiency

  6. Elastic properties of boron carbide films via surface acoustic waves measured by Brillouin light scattering

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Salas, E.; Jimenez-Villacorta, F.; Jimenez Rioboo, R.J.; Prieto, C. [Instituto de Ciencia de Materiales de Madrid, Consejo Superior de Investigaciones Cientificas, Cantoblanco, 28049 Madrid (Spain); Sanchez-Marcos, J. [Instituto de Ciencia de Materiales de Madrid, Consejo Superior de Investigaciones Cientificas, Cantoblanco, 28049 Madrid (Spain); Departamento de Quimica-Fisica Aplicada, Universidad Autonoma de Madrid, Cantoblanco, 28049 Madrid (Spain); Munoz-Martin, A.; Prieto, J.E.; Joco, V. [Centro de Microanalisis de Materiales, Universidad Autonoma de Madrid, Cantoblanco, 28049 Madrid (Spain)


    Surface acoustic wave (SAW) velocity has been determined by high resolution Brillouin light scattering to study the mechano-elastic properties of boron carbide films prepared by radio frequency (RF) sputtering. The comparison of experimentally observed elastic behaviour with simulations made by considering film composition obtained from elastic recoil detection analysis-time of flight (ERDA-ToF) spectroscopy allows establishing that elastic properties are determined by that of crystalline boron carbide with a lessening of the SAW velocity values due to surface oxidation. (Copyright copyright 2013 WILEY-VCH Verlag GmbH and Co. KGaA, Weinheim)

  7. Multi-channel normal speed gated integrator in the measurement of the laser scattering light energy

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Yang Dong; Yu Xiaoqi; Hu Yuanfeng


    With the method of integration in a limited time, a Multi-channel normal speed gated integrator based on VXI system has been developed for measuring the signals with changeable pulse width in laser scattering light experiment. It has been tested with signal sources in ICF experiment. In tests, the integral nonlinearity between the integral results of the gated integrator and that of an oscilloscope is less than 1%. In the ICF experiments the maximum error between the integral results of the gated integrator and that of oscilloscope is less than 3% of the full scale range of the gated integrator. (authors)

  8. The effect of pressure, isotopic (H/D) substitution, and other variables on miscibility in polymer-solvent systems. The nature of the demixing process; dynamic light scattering and small angle neutron scattering studies. Final report

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Van Hook, W.A.


    A research program examining the effects of pressure, isotope substitution and other variables on miscibility in polymer solvent systems is described. The techniques employed included phase equilibrium measurements and dynamic light scattering and small angle neutron scattering

  9. Determination of lead at nanogram level in water samples by resonance light scattering technique using tetrabutyl ammonium bromide as a molecular probe

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Yanru Yun


    Full Text Available A novel method of chemistry applicable to the determination of trace lead in water samples based on the resonance light scattering (RLS technique has been developed. In dilute phosphoric acid medium, in the presence of a large excess of I-, Pb(II can form [PbI4]2-, which further reacts with tetrabutyl ammonium bromide (TBAB to form an ion-association compound. This results in significant enhancement of RLS intensity and the appearance of the corresponding RLS spectral characteristics. The maximum scattering peak of the system exists at 402 nm. Under optimum conditions, there is a linear relationship between the relative intensity of RLS and concentration of Pb(II in the range of 0.04–1.8 μg/mL for the system with a low detection limit of 0.74 ng/mL for Pb(II. Based on this fact, a simple, rapid, and sensitive method has been developed for the determination of Pb(II at nanogram level by RLS technique using a common spectrofluorimeter. This analytical system was successfully applied to determining trace amounts of Pb(II in water samples that agree well with the results by atomic absorbance spectrometry (AAS.DOI:

  10. Feasibility Study of an Optical Caustic Plasmonic Light Scattering Sensor for Human Serum Anti-Dengue Protein E Antibody Detection. (United States)

    García, Antonio A; Franco, Lina S; Pirez-Gomez, Miguel A; Pech-Pacheco, José L; Mendez-Galvan, Jorge F; Machain-Williams, Carlos; Talavera-Aguilar, Lourdes; Espinosa-Carrillo, José H; Duarte-Villaseñor, Miriam M; Be-Ortiz, Christian; Espinosa-de Los Monteros, Luz E; Castillo-Pacheco, Ariel; Garcina-Rejon, Julian E


    Antibody detection and accurate diagnosis of tropical diseases is essential to help prevent the spread of disease. However, most detection methods lack cost-effectiveness and field portability, which are essential features for achieving diagnosis in a timely manner. To address this, 3D-printed oblate spheroid sample chambers were fabricated to measure green light scattering of gold nanoparticles using an optical caustic focus to detect antibodies. Scattering signals of 20-200 nm gold nanoparticles using a green laser were compared to green light emitting diode (LED) light source signals and to Mie theory. The change in signal from 60 to 120 nm decreased in the order of Mie Theory > optical caustic scattering > 90° scattering. These results suggested that conjugating 60 nm gold nanoparticles and using an optical caustic system to detect plasmonic light scattering, would result in a sensitive test for detecting human antibodies in serum. Therefore, we studied the light scattering response of conjugated gold nanoparticles exposed to different concentrations of anti-protein E antibody, and a feasibility study of 10 human serum samples using dot blot and a handheld optical caustic-based sensor device. The overall agreement between detection methods suggests that the new sensor concept shows promise to detect gold nanoparticle aggregation in a homogeneous assay. Further testing and protocol optimization is needed to draw conclusions on the positive and negative predictive values for this new testing system.

  11. Light scattering of rectangular slot antennas: parallel magnetic vector vs perpendicular electric vector. (United States)

    Lee, Dukhyung; Kim, Dai-Sik


    We study light scattering off rectangular slot nano antennas on a metal film varying incident polarization and incident angle, to examine which field vector of light is more important: electric vector perpendicular to, versus magnetic vector parallel to the long axis of the rectangle. While vector Babinet's principle would prefer magnetic field along the long axis for optimizing slot antenna function, convention and intuition most often refer to the electric field perpendicular to it. Here, we demonstrate experimentally that in accordance with vector Babinet's principle, the incident magnetic vector parallel to the long axis is the dominant component, with the perpendicular incident electric field making a small contribution of the factor of 1/|ε|, the reciprocal of the absolute value of the dielectric constant of the metal, owing to the non-perfectness of metals at optical frequencies.

  12. The use of lasers as sources for Raman spectrometry, resonance Raman spectrometry, and light scattering

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Capitini, R.; Ceccaldi, M.; Leicknam, J.P.; Plus, R.


    The activity of the laboratory is principally centred on the determination of molecular structures and the study of molecular interactions in solution by infrared and Raman spectrometry. With the development of work on relatively large molecules, particularly biological molecules, it became necessary to complete information on the molecular weight and on the intra and intermolecular geometry and interactions of these bodies. In order to obtain these informations Rayleigh scattering and resonance Raman spectrometry were used. The advantages of using vibrational spectrometry, particularly Raman, in conjunction with the diffusion of light for these structural and molecular interaction studies is emphasized. It is shown that these two techniques could not have developed as they have done in the last few years without the use of lasers as light source [fr

  13. Dynamic light scattering: A fast and reliable method to analyze bacterial growth during the lag phase. (United States)

    Vargas, Susana; Millán-Chiu, Blanca E; Arvizu-Medrano, Sofía M; Loske, Achim M; Rodríguez, Rogelio


    A comparison between plate counting (PC) and dynamic light scattering (DLS) is reported. PC is the standard technique to determine bacterial population as a function of time; however, this method has drawbacks, such as the cumbersome preparation and handling of samples, as well as the long time required to obtain results. Alternative methods based on optical density are faster, but do not distinguish viable from non-viable cells. These inconveniences are overcome by using DLS. Two different bacteria strains were considered: Escherichia coli and Staphylococcus aureus. DLS was performed at two different illuminating conditions: continuous and intermittent. By the increment of particle size as a function of time, it was possible to observe cell division and the formation of aggregates containing very few bacteria. The scattered intensity profiles showed the lag phase and the transition to the exponential phase of growth, providing a quantity proportional to viable bacteria concentration. The results revealed a clear and linear correlation in both lag and exponential phase, between the Log 10 (colony-forming units/mL) from PC and the Log 10 of the scattered intensity I s from DLS. These correlations provide a good support to use DLS as an alternative technique to determine bacterial population. Copyright © 2017 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  14. Structural characterization of amphiphilic homopolymer micelles using light scattering, SANS, and cryo-TEM. (United States)

    Patterson, Joseph P; Kelley, Elizabeth G; Murphy, Ryan P; Moughton, Adam O; Robin, Mathew; Lu, Annhelen; Colombani, Olivier; Chassenieux, Christophe; Cheung, David; Sullivan, Millicent O; Epps, Thomas H; O'Reilly, Rachel K


    We report the aqueous solution self-assembly of a series of poly(N-isopropylacrylamide) (PNIPAM) polymers end-functionalized with a hydrophobic sulfur-carbon-sulfur (SCS) pincer ligand. Although the hydrophobic ligand accounted for structural details were investigated using light scattering, cryogenic transmission electron microscopy (cryo-TEM), and small angle neutron scattering (SANS). Radial density profiles extracted from the cryo-TEM micrographs suggested that the PNIPAM chains formed a diffuse corona with a radially decreasing corona density profile and provided valuable a priori information about the micelle structure for SANS data modeling. SANS analysis indicated a similar profile in which the corona surrounded a small hydrophobic core containing the pincer ligand. The similarity between the SANS and cryo-TEM results demonstrated that detailed information about the micelle density profile can be obtained directly from cryo-TEM and highlighted the complementary use of scattering and cryo-TEM in the structural characterization of solution-assemblies, such as the SCS pincer-functionalized homopolymers described here.

  15. Light scattering by ultrasonically-controlled small particles: system design, calibration, and measurement results (United States)

    Kassamakov, Ivan; Maconi, Göran; Penttilä, Antti; Helander, Petteri; Gritsevich, Maria; Puranen, Tuomas; Salmi, Ari; Hæggström, Edward; Muinonen, Karri


    We present the design of a novel scatterometer for precise measurement of the angular Mueller matrix profile of a mm- to µm-sized sample held in place by sound. The scatterometer comprises a tunable multimode Argon-krypton laser (with possibility to set 1 of the 12 wavelengths in visible range), linear polarizers, a reference photomultiplier tube (PMT) for monitoring the beam intensity, and a micro-PMT module mounted radially towards the sample at an adjustable radius. The measurement angle is controlled by a motor-driven rotation stage with an accuracy of 15'. The system is fully automated using LabVIEW, including the FPGA-based data acquisition and the instrument's user interface. The calibration protocol ensures accurate measurements by using a control sphere sample (diameter 3 mm, refractive index of 1.5) fixed first on a static holder followed by accurate multi-wavelength measurements of the same sample levitated ultrasonically. To demonstrate performance of the scatterometer, we conducted detailed measurements of light scattered by a particle derived from the Chelyabinsk meteorite, as well as planetary analogue materials. The measurements are the first of this kind, since they are obtained using controlled spectral angular scattering including linear polarization effects, for arbitrary shaped objects. Thus, our novel approach permits a non-destructive, disturbance-free measurement with control of the orientation and location of the scattering object.

  16. Small-angle light scattering studies of dense AOT-water-decane microemulsions

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Micali, N.; Trusso, S.; Mallamace, F.; Chen, S.H.


    It is performed extensive studies of a three-component microemulsion system composed of AOT-water-decane using small-angle light scattering (SALS). The small-angle scattering intensities are measured in the angular interval 0.001-0.1 radians, corresponding to a Bragg wave number range of 0.14 μm -1 -1 . The measurements were made by changing temperature and volume fraction φ of the dispersed phase in the range 0.65< φ < 0.75. All samples have a fixed water-to-AOT molar ratio, w [water[/[AOT[ = 40.8, in order to keep the same average droplet size in the stable one-phase region. With the SALS technique it is observed all the phase boundaries of a very complex phase diagram with a percolation line and many structural organizations within it. It is observed at the percolation transition threshold, a scaling behavior of the intensity data. In addition it is described in detail a structural transition from a droplet microemulsion to a bi continuous one a suggested by a recent small-angle neutron scattering experiment. From the data analysis it is show that both the percolation phenomenon and this novel structural transition are described from a large-scale aggregation between microemulsion droplets

  17. Light Scattering Tests of Fundamental Theories of Transport Properties in the Critical Region (United States)

    Gammon, R. W.; Moldover, M. R.


    The objective of this program is to measure the decay rates of critical density fluctuations in a simple fluid (xenon) very near its liquid-vapor critical point using laser light scattering and photon correlation spectroscopy. Such experiments have been severely limited on Earth by the presence of gravity which causes large density gradients in the sample when the compressibility diverges approaching the critical point. The goal is to measure decay rates deep in the critical region where the scaled wavevector is the order of 1000. This will require loading the sample to 0.01% of the critical density and taking data as close as 3 microKelvin to the critical temperature (Tc = 289.72 K). Other technical problems have to be addressed such as multiple scattering and the effect of wetting layers. The ability to avoid multiple scattering by using a thin sample (100 microns) was demonstrated, as well as a temperature history which can avoid wetting layers satisfactory temperature control and measurement, and accurate sample loading. Thus the questions of experimental art are solved leaving the important engineering tasks of mounting the experiment to maintain alignment during flight and automating the state-of-the-art temperature bridges for microcomputer control of the experiment.

  18. Device reflectivity as a simple rule for predicting the suitability of scattering foils for improved OLED light extraction

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Levell, J.W.; Harkema, S.; Pendyala, R.K.; Rensing, P.A.; Senes, A.; Bollen, D.; MacKerron, D.; Wilson, J.S.


    A general challenge in Organic Light Emitting Diodes (OLEDs) is to extract the light efficiently from waveguided modes within the device structure. This can be accomplished by applying an additional scattering layer to the substrate which results in outcoupling increases between 0% to <100% in

  19. Stray light in cone beam optical computed tomography: II. Reduction using a convergent light source. (United States)

    Dekker, Kurtis H; Battista, Jerry J; Jordan, Kevin J


    Optical cone beam computed tomography (CBCT) using a broad beam and CCD camera is a fast method for densitometry of 3D optical gel dosimeters. However, diffuse light sources introduce considerable stray light into the imaging system, leading to underestimation of attenuation coefficients and non-uniformities in CT images unless corrections are applied to each projection image. In this study, the light source of a commercial optical CT scanner is replaced with a convergent cone beam source consisting of almost exclusively image forming primary rays. The convergent source is achieved using a small isotropic source and a Fresnel lens. To characterize stray light effects, full-field cone beam CT imaging is compared to fan beam CT (FBCT) using a 1 cm high fan beam aperture centered on the optic axis of the system. Attenuating liquids are scanned within a large 96 mm diameter uniform phantom and in a small 13.5 mm diameter finger phantom. For the uniform phantom, cone and fan beam CT attenuation coefficients agree within a maximum deviation of (1  ±  2)% between mean values over a wide range from 0.036 to 0.43 cm(-1). For the finger phantom, agreement is found with a maximum deviation of (4  ±  2)% between mean values over a range of 0.1-0.47 cm(-1). With the convergent source, artifacts associated with refractive index mismatch and vessel optical features are more pronounced. Further optimization of the source size to achieve a balance between quantitative accuracy and artifact reduction should enable practical, accurate 3D dosimetry, avoiding time consuming 3D scatter measurements.

  20. Evolution of radius and light scattering properties of single drying microdroplets of colloidal suspension (United States)

    Archer, J.; Kolwas, M.; Jakubczyk, D.; Derkachov, G.; Woźniak, M.; Kolwas, K.


    We report on observation of well-pronounced characteristic features of elastic light scattering of evaporating solution and suspension microdroplet of the anionic surfactant sodium dodecyl sulfate (SDS) and colloidal silica (SiO2) nanospheres in diethylene glycol (DEG) during SDS surface layer and structure formation (crystallization). For pure DEG/SDS solution droplet evaporation process, characteristic evaporation transitions manifested in the evolution of the droplet radius, a(t) for all the SDS concentrations (C = 20 mM, 40 mM and 100 mM) studied as well as well-pronounced intensity signals characterizing SDS soft gel-solid transitions for initial SDS concentrations, C > 40 mM. In the case of microdroplets composed of DEG/SDS with controlled addition of colloidal silica, the intensity fluctuations were enhanced and had profiles dependent on the initial composition of the suspension. Exemplary wet droplets at the initial evaporation stages and final dry aggregates of SDS and SDS/SiO2 were deposited on a substrate and observed with Scanning Electron Microscopy (SEM). Features of the deposited structures correlate well with the elastic scattered light measurements characterizing the drying processes.

  1. Estimating the shell parameters of SonoVue microbubbles using light scattering. (United States)

    Tu, Juan; Guan, Jingfeng; Qiu, Yuanyuan; Matula, Thomas J


    Experiments were performed to measure the dynamical response of individual SonoVue microbubbles subjected to pulsed ultrasound. Three commonly used bubble dynamic models (i.e., Hoff's, Sarkar's, and linearized Marmottant's models) were compared to determine the most appropriate model for fitting to the experimental data. The models were evaluated against published optical microscopy data. The comparison suggests that it is difficult to rank these models for lipid-shelled microbubbles undergoing small-amplitude oscillations, because under these conditions the shell parameters in these models are closely related. A linearized version of the Marmottant model was used to estimate the shell parameters (i.e., shear modulus and shear viscosity) of SonoVue microbubbles from the experimental light scattering data, as a function of ambient microbubble radius. The SonoVue microbubble shell elasticity and dilatational viscosity increase with ambient bubble radius, in agreement with previously published data. The results suggest that light scattering, used in conjunction with one of several popular bubble dynamics models, is effective at characterizing microbubble response and evaluating shell parameters.

  2. Focusing light through strongly scattering media using genetic algorithm with SBR discriminant (United States)

    Zhang, Bin; Zhang, Zhenfeng; Feng, Qi; Liu, Zhipeng; Lin, Chengyou; Ding, Yingchun


    In this paper, we have experimentally demonstrated light focusing through strongly scattering media by performing binary amplitude optimization with a genetic algorithm. In the experiments, we control 160 000 mirrors of digital micromirror device to modulate and optimize the light transmission paths in the strongly scattering media. We replace the universal target-position-intensity (TPI) discriminant with signal-to-background ratio (SBR) discriminant in genetic algorithm. With 400 incident segments, a relative enhancement value of 17.5% with a ground glass diffuser is achieved, which is higher than the theoretical value of 1/(2π )≈ 15.9 % for binary amplitude optimization. According to our repetitive experiments, we conclude that, with the same segment number, the enhancement for the SBR discriminant is always higher than that for the TPI discriminant, which results from the background-weakening effect of SBR discriminant. In addition, with the SBR discriminant, the diameters of the focus can be changed ranging from 7 to 70 μm at arbitrary positions. Besides, multiple foci with high enhancement are obtained. Our work provides a meaningful reference for the study of binary amplitude optimization in the wavefront shaping field.

  3. Coupling of light into the fundamental diffusion mode of a scattering medium (Conference Presentation) (United States)

    Ojambati, Oluwafemi S.; Yılmaz, Hasan; Lagendijk, Ad; Mosk, Allard P.; Vos, Willem L.


    Diffusion equation describes the energy density inside a scattering medium such as biological tissues and paint [1]. The solution of the diffusion equation is a sum over a complete set of eigensolutions that shows a characteristic linear decrease with depth in the medium. It is of particular interest if one could launch energy in the fundamental eigensolution, as this opens the opportunity to achieve a much greater internal energy density. For applications in optics, an enhanced energy density is vital for solid-state lighting, light harvesting in solar cells, low-threshold random lasers, and biomedical optics. Here we demonstrate the first ever selective coupling of optical energy into a diffusion eigensolution of a scattering medium of zinc oxide (ZnO) paint. To this end, we exploit wavefront shaping to selectively couple energy into the fundamental diffusion mode, employing fluorescence of nanoparticles randomly positioned inside the medium as a probe of the energy density. We observe an enhanced fluorescence in case of optimized incident wavefronts, and the enhancement increases with sample thickness, a typical mesoscopic control parameter. We interpret successfully our result by invoking the fundamental eigensolution of the diffusion equation, and we obtain excellent agreement with our observations, even in absence of adjustable parameters [2]. References [1] R. Pierrat, P. Ambichl, S. Gigan, A. Haber, R. Carminati, and R. Rotter, Proc. Natl. Acad. Sci. U.S.A. 111, 17765 (2014). [2] O. S. Ojambati, H. Yilmaz, A. Lagendijk, A. P. Mosk, and W. L. Vos, arXiv:1505.08103.

  4. Quantifying the Solubility of Boron Nitride Nanotubes and Sheets with Static Light Scattering and Refractometry

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Mutz, M [The University of Tennessee; Eastwood, Eric Allen [ORNL; Dadmun, Mark D [ORNL


    The dissolution of nanoparticles, particularly those containing boron, is an important area of interest for polymer nanocomposite formation and material development. In this work, the solubility of boron nitride nanotubes (BNNT), functionalized boron nitride nanotubes (FBNNT), and boron nitride sheets (BNZG) is quantified in toluene and THF with static light scattering, refractometry, UV vis spectroscopy, and physical observations. UV vis spectroscopy provides a method to determine the concentration and solubility limits of the solutions tested. Using light scattering, the second virial coefficient, A2, is determined and used to calculate , the solute solvent interaction parameter. The Hildebrand solubility parameter, , is then extracted from this data using the Hildebrand Scatchard Solution Theory. A list of potential good solvents based on the estimated value is provided for each nanoparticle. Single-walled carbon nanotubes (SWNTs) and prepolymers (EN4 and EN8) used to synthesize polyurethanes were also tested, because the published and molar attraction constants of these materials provided a selfconsistent check. The dn/dc of SWNTs and boron-containing particles was measured for the first time in this work. A solvent screen for BN-ZG provides additional information that supports the obtained and . Three systems were found to have values below 0.5 and were thermodynamically soluble: BNNT in THF, EN8 in THF, and EN8 in toluene.

  5. Dynamic light scattering and atomic force microscopy techniques for size determination of polyurethane nanoparticles

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Giehl Zanetti-Ramos, Betina [Laboratorio de Bioenergetica e Bioquimica de Macromoleculas, Departamento de Ciencias Farmaceuticas (Brazil)], E-mail:; Beddin Fritzen-Garcia, Mauricia [Laboratorio de Bioenergetica e Bioquimica de Macromoleculas, Departamento de Ciencias Farmaceuticas (Brazil); Schweitzer de Oliveira, Cristian; Avelino Pasa, Andre [Laboratorio de Filmes Finos e Superficie, Departamento de Fisica (Brazil); Soldi, Valdir [Grupo de Estudos em Materiais Polimericos, Departamento de Quimica, Universidade Federal de Santa Catarina, 88040-900, Florianopolis, SC (Brazil); Borsali, Redouane [Centre de Recherche sur les Macromolecules Vegetales CERMAV/CNRS, 38041 - Grenoble (France); Creczynski-Pasa, Tania Beatriz [Laboratorio de Bioenergetica e Bioquimica de Macromoleculas, Departamento de Ciencias Farmaceuticas (Brazil)


    Nanoparticles have applications in various industrial fields principally in drug delivery. Nowadays, there are several processes for manufacturing colloidal polymeric systems and methods of preparation as well as of characterization. In this work, Dynamic Light Scattering and Atomic Force Microscopy techniques were used to characterize polyurethane nanoparticles. The nanoparticles were prepared by miniemulsion technique. The lipophilic monomers, isophorone diisocyanate (IPDI) and natural triol, were emulsified in water containing surfactant. In some formulations the poly(ethylene glycol) was used as co-monomer to obtain the hydrophilic and pegylated nanoparticles. Polyurethane nanoparticles observed by atomic force microscopy (AFM) were spherical with diameter around 209 nm for nanoparticles prepared without PEG. From AFM imaging two populations of nanoparticles were observed in the formulation prepared with PEG (218 and 127 nm) while dynamic light scattering (DLS) measurements showed a monodisperse size distribution around 250 nm of diameters for both formulations. The polydispersity index of the formulations and the experimental procedures could influence the particle size determination with these techniques.

  6. Dynamic light scattering study of inhibition of nucleation and growth of hydroxyapatite crystals by osteopontin.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    John R de Bruyn

    Full Text Available We study the effect of isoforms of osteopontin (OPN on the nucleation and growth of crystals from a supersaturated solution of calcium and phosphate ions. Dynamic light scattering is used to monitor the size of the precipitating particles and to provide information about their concentration. At the ion concentrations studied, immediate precipitation was observed in control experiments with no osteopontin in the solution, and the size of the precipitating particles increased steadily with time. The precipitate was identified as hydroxyapatite by X-ray diffraction. Addition of native osteopontin (nOPN extracted from rat bone caused a delay in the onset of precipitation and reduced the number of particles that formed, but the few particles that did form grew to a larger size than in the absence of the protein. Recombinant osteopontin (rOPN, which lacks phosphorylation, caused no delay in initial calcium phosphate precipitation but severely slowed crystal growth, suggesting that rOPN inhibits growth but not nucleation. rOPN treated with protein kinase CK2 to phosphorylate the molecule (p-rOPN produced an effect similar to that of nOPN, but at higher protein concentrations and to a lesser extent. These results suggest that phosphorylations are critical to OPN's ability to inhibit nucleation, whereas the growth of the hydroxyapatite crystals is effectively controlled by the highly acidic OPN polypeptide. This work also demonstrates that dynamic light scattering can be a powerful tool for delineating the mechanism of protein modulation of mineral formation.

  7. Protection against UV and X-ray cataracts using dynamic light scattering (United States)

    Giblin, Frank J.


    Static and dynamic light scattering (SLS and DLS) analysis was used to investigate the aggregation of lens proteins in a hyperbaric oxygen (HBO)/guinea pig in vivo model for nuclear cataract. Nuclear cataract, an opacity which occurs in the center of the lens, is a major type of human maturity-onset cataract for which the cause is not well-understood. HBO is commonly used in major hospitals for treating complications such as poor wound healing due to impaired blood circulation. It is known that treatment of human patients with HBO for extended periods of time can produce nuclear cataract. Guinea pigs, initially 18 months old, were treated with HBO (2.5 atm of 100% O2 for 2.5 hr) 3x per week for 7 months to increase tie level of lens nuclear light scattering. Age-matched animals were used for controls. The eyes of the animals were analyzed in vivo using an integrated static and DLS fiber optic probe in collaboration with the NASA group. DLS in vivo was used to measure the size of lens proteins at 50 different locations across the optical axis of the guinea pig lens.

  8. Tilted columnar thin film coatings with anisotropic light scattering properties for solar energy applications (United States)

    Sadeghi-Khosravieh, Saba

    The main goal of this thesis is to show the versatility of glancing angle deposition (GLAD) thin films in applications. This research is first focused on studying the effect of select deposition variables in GLAD thin films and secondly, to demonstrate the flexibility of GLAD films to be incorporated in two different applications: (1) as a reflective coating in low-level concentration photovoltaic systems, and (2) as an anode structure in dye-sensitized solar cells (DSSC). A particular type of microstructure composed of tilted micro-columns of titanium is fabricated by GLAD. The microstructures form elongated and fan-like tilted micro-columns that demonstrate anisotropic scattering. The thin films texture changes from fiber texture to tilted fiber texture by increasing the vapor incidence angle. At very large deposition angles, biaxial texture forms. The morphology of the thin films deposited under extreme shadowing condition and at high temperature (below recrystallization zone) shows a porous and inclined micro-columnar morphology, resulting from the dominance of shadowing over adatom surface diffusion. The anisotropic scattering behavior of the tilted Ti thin film coatings is quantified by bidirectional reflectance distribution function (BRDF) measurements and is found to be consistent with reflectance from the microstructure acting as an array of inclined micro-mirrors that redirect the incident light in a non-specular reflection. A silver-coating of the surface of the tilted-Ti micro-columns is performed to enhance the total reflectance of the Ti-thin films while keeping the anisotropic scattering behavior. By using such coating is as a booster reflector in a laboratory-scale low-level concentration photovoltaic system, the short-circuit current of the reference silicon solar cell by 25%. Finally, based on the scattering properties of the tilted microcolumnar microstructure, its scattering effect is studied as a part of titanium dioxide microstructure for the

  9. Micro-focused Brillouin light scattering: imaging spin waves at the nanoscale

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Thomas eSebastian


    Full Text Available Spin waves constitute an important part of research in the field of magnetization dynamics. Spin waves are the elementary excitations of the spin system in a magnetically ordered material state and magnons are their quasi particles. In the following article, we will discuss the optical method of Brillouin light scattering (BLS spectroscopy which is a now a well established tool for the characterization of spin waves. BLS is the inelastic scattering of light from spin waves and confers several benefits: the ability to map the spin wave intensity distribution with spatial resolution and high sensitivity as well as the potential to simultaneously measure the frequency and the wave vector and, therefore, the dispersion properties.For several decades, the field of spin waves gained huge interest by the scientific community due to its relevance regarding fundamental issues of spindynamics in the field of solid states physics. The ongoing research in recent years has put emphasis on the high potential of spin waves regarding information technology. In the emerging field of textit{magnonics}, several concepts for a spin-wave based logic have been proposed and realized. Opposed to charge-based schemes in conventional electronics and spintronics, magnons are charge-free currents of angular momentum, and, therefore, less subject to scattering processes that lead to heating and dissipation. This fact is highlighted by the possibility to utilize spin waves as information carriers in electrically insulating materials. These developments have propelled the quest for ways and mechanisms to guide and manipulate spin-wave transport. In particular, a lot of effort is put into the miniaturization of spin-wave waveguides and the excitation of spin waves in structures with sub-micrometer dimensions.For the further development of potential spin-wave-based devices, the ability to directly observe spin-wave propagation with spatial resolution is crucial. As an optical

  10. Laboratory Light Scattering Experiments on Meteorites, in Preparation for the Rosetta Mission (United States)

    Levasseur-Regourd, A. Ch.; Renard, J.; Hadamcik, E.


    Comparisons between remote observations of small solar system bodies and simulations are of major interest to estimate their properties and prepare space missions. We have developed a programme of laboratory simulations of the light scattering properties of dust, with emphasis on cometary comae and asteroidal surfaces [1]. The purpose is to interpret their linear polarization, which only depends upon the observational conditions (phase angle, wavelength) and the properties of the scattering medium. The PROGRA2 instruments allow us to measure the linear polarization (6deg. to 150deg. phase angle range, 543.5 and 632.8 nm) on layers and levitating dust particles, in the laboratory and during parabolic flight campaigns [2,3]. Measurements on Orgueil and Allegan meteorites samples have shown differences between the properties of clouds or fluffy regoliths and those of deposited layers [4]. Results derived from simulations of cometary dust observations have been confirmed by the analysis of comet Wild 2 samples [5,6]. In the context of the flyby of asteroids Steins and Lutetia in 2008-2010 by the Rosetta spacecraft, we will present results obtained on powders of an aubrite meteorite (possibly a a fragment from Steins or an other E-type asteroid) in a coordinated international programme [7]. We will also present plans for measurements on meteorites that could originate in asteroids similar to Lutetia, as well as on various types of carbonaceous meteorites. Support from CNES and ESA is acknowledged. [1] A.C. Levasseur-Regourd & E. Hadamcik, JQSRT 79, 903, 2003 [2] J.-B. Renard et al., Appl. Opt. 41, 609, 2002 [3] E. Hadamcik et al., Light scattering review 4, Springer, 31, 2009 [4] J.C. Worms et al., PSS 48, 493, 2000 [5] E. Hadamcik et al., Icarus 190, 660, 2007 [6] A.C. Levasseur-Regourd et al.,PSS 56, 1719, 2008 [7] L.A. McFadden et al., 40th LPSC, 2287, 2009

  11. In situ measurements of angular-dependent light scattering by aerosols over the contiguous United States (United States)

    Reed Espinosa, W.; Vanderlei Martins, J.; Remer, Lorraine A.; Puthukkudy, Anin; Orozco, Daniel; Dolgos, Gergely


    This work provides a synopsis of aerosol phase function (F11) and polarized phase function (F12) measurements made by the Polarized Imaging Nephelometer (PI-Neph) during the Studies of Emissions, Atmospheric Composition, Clouds and Climate Coupling by Regional Surveys (SEAC4RS) and the Deep Convection Clouds and Chemistry (DC3) field campaigns. In order to more easily explore this extensive dataset, an aerosol classification scheme is developed that identifies the different aerosol types measured during the deployments. This scheme makes use of ancillary data that include trace gases, chemical composition, aerodynamic particle size and geographic location, all independent of PI-Neph measurements. The PI-Neph measurements are then grouped according to their ancillary data classifications and the resulting scattering patterns are examined in detail. These results represent the first published airborne measurements of F11 and -F12/F11 for many common aerosol types. We then explore whether PI-Neph light-scattering measurements alone are sufficient to reconstruct the results of this ancillary data classification algorithm. Principal component analysis (PCA) is used to reduce the dimensionality of the multi-angle PI-Neph scattering data and the individual measurements are examined as a function of ancillary data classification. Clear clustering is observed in the PCA score space, corresponding to the ancillary classification results, suggesting that, indeed, a strong link exists between the angular-scattering measurements and the aerosol type or composition. Two techniques are used to quantify the degree of clustering and it is found that in most cases the results of the ancillary data classification can be predicted from PI-Neph measurements alone with better than 85 % recall. This result both emphasizes the validity of the ancillary data classification as well as the PI-Neph's ability to distinguish common aerosol types without additional information.

  12. Evidence for light-by-light scattering in heavy-ion collisions with the ATLAS detector at the LHC

    CERN Document Server

    Sydorenko, Alexander; The ATLAS collaboration


    LHCC 2017 POSTER. Light-by-light scattering ($\\gamma\\gamma\\rightarrow\\gamma\\gamma$) is a quantum-mechanical process that is forbidden in the classical theory of electrodynamics. This reaction is accessible at the Large Hadron Collider thanks to the large electromagnetic field strengths generated by ultra-relativistic colliding lead (Pb) ions. Using 480$\\mu \\text{b}^{-1}$ of Pb+Pb collision data recorded at a centre-of-mass energy per nucleon pair of $5.02$ TeV by the ATLAS detector, the ATLAS Collaboration reports evidence for the $\\gamma\\gamma\\rightarrow\\gamma\\gamma$ reaction. A total of $13$ candidate events are observed with an expected background of $2.6\\pm0.7$ events. After background subtraction and analysis corrections, the fiducial cross section of the process $\\textrm{Pb+Pb}\\,(\\gamma\\gamma)\\rightarrow \\textrm{Pb}^{(\\ast)}\\textrm{+}\\textrm{Pb}^{(\\ast)}\\,\\gamma\\gamma$, for photon transverse energy $E_{\\text{T}}>3$ GeV, photon absolute pseudorapidity $|\\eta|<2.4$, diphoton invariant mass greater than...

  13. Evidence for light-by-light scattering in heavy-ion collisions with the ATLAS detector at the LHC

    CERN Document Server

    Aaboud, Morad; Abbott, Brad; Abdallah, Jalal; Abdinov, Ovsat; Abeloos, Baptiste; Abidi, Syed Haider; AbouZeid, Ossama; Abraham, Nicola; Abramowicz, Halina; Abreu, Henso; Abreu, Ricardo; Abulaiti, Yiming; Acharya, Bobby Samir; Adachi, Shunsuke; Adamczyk, Leszek; Adelman, Jahred; Adersberger, Michael; Adye, Tim; Affolder, Tony; Agatonovic-Jovin, Tatjana; Agheorghiesei, Catalin; Aguilar-Saavedra, Juan Antonio; Ahlen, Steven; Ahmadov, Faig; Aielli, Giulio; Akatsuka, Shunichi; Akerstedt, Henrik; Åkesson, Torsten Paul Ake; Akimov, Andrei; Alberghi, Gian Luigi; Albert, Justin; Alconada Verzini, Maria Josefina; Aleksa, Martin; Aleksandrov, Igor; Alexa, Calin; Alexander, Gideon; Alexopoulos, Theodoros; Alhroob, Muhammad; Ali, Babar; Aliev, Malik; Alimonti, Gianluca; Alison, John; Alkire, Steven Patrick; Allbrooke, Benedict; Allen, Benjamin William; Allport, Phillip; Aloisio, Alberto; Alonso, Alejandro; Alonso, Francisco; Alpigiani, Cristiano; Alshehri, Azzah Aziz; Alstaty, Mahmoud; Alvarez Gonzalez, Barbara; Άlvarez Piqueras, Damián; Alviggi, Mariagrazia; Amadio, Brian Thomas; Amaral Coutinho, Yara; Amelung, Christoph; Amidei, Dante; Amor Dos Santos, Susana Patricia; Amorim, Antonio; Amoroso, Simone; Amundsen, Glenn; Anastopoulos, Christos; Ancu, Lucian Stefan; Andari, Nansi; Andeen, Timothy; Anders, Christoph Falk; Anders, John Kenneth; Anderson, Kelby; Andreazza, Attilio; Andrei, George Victor; Angelidakis, Stylianos; Angelozzi, Ivan; Angerami, Aaron; Anghinolfi, Francis; Anisenkov, Alexey; Anjos, Nuno; Annovi, Alberto; Antel, Claire; Antonelli, Mario; Antonov, Alexey; Antrim, Daniel Joseph; Anulli, Fabio; Aoki, Masato; Aperio Bella, Ludovica; Arabidze, Giorgi; Arai, Yasuo; Araque, Juan Pedro; Araujo Ferraz, Victor; Arce, Ayana; Ardell, Rose Elisabeth; Arduh, Francisco Anuar; Arguin, Jean-Francois; Argyropoulos, Spyridon; Arik, Metin; Armbruster, Aaron James; Armitage, Lewis James; Arnaez, Olivier; Arnold, Hannah; Arratia, Miguel; Arslan, Ozan; Artamonov, Andrei; Artoni, Giacomo; Artz, Sebastian; Asai, Shoji; Asbah, Nedaa; Ashkenazi, Adi; Asquith, Lily; Assamagan, Ketevi; Astalos, Robert; Atkinson, Markus; Atlay, Naim Bora; Augsten, Kamil; Avolio, Giuseppe; Axen, Bradley; Ayoub, Mohamad Kassem; Azuelos, Georges; Baas, Alessandra; Baca, Matthew John; Bachacou, Henri; Bachas, Konstantinos; Backes, Moritz; Backhaus, Malte; Bagiacchi, Paolo; Bagnaia, Paolo; Baines, John; Bajic, Milena; Baker, Oliver Keith; Baldin, Evgenii; Balek, Petr; Balestri, Thomas; Balli, Fabrice; Balunas, William Keaton; Banas, Elzbieta; Banerjee, Swagato; Bannoura, Arwa A E; Barak, Liron; Barberio, Elisabetta Luigia; Barberis, Dario; Barbero, Marlon; Barillari, Teresa; Barisits, Martin-Stefan; Barklow, Timothy; Barlow, Nick; Barnes, Sarah Louise; Barnett, Bruce; Barnett, Michael; Barnovska-Blenessy, Zuzana; Baroncelli, Antonio; Barone, Gaetano; Barr, Alan; Barranco Navarro, Laura; Barreiro, Fernando; Barreiro Guimarães da Costa, João; Bartoldus, Rainer; Barton, Adam Edward; Bartos, Pavol; Basalaev, Artem; Bassalat, Ahmed; Bates, Richard; Batista, Santiago Juan; Batley, Richard; Battaglia, Marco; Bauce, Matteo; Bauer, Florian; Bawa, Harinder Singh; Beacham, James; Beattie, Michael David; Beau, Tristan; Beauchemin, Pierre-Hugues; Bechtle, Philip; Beck, Hans~Peter; Becker, Kathrin; Becker, Maurice; Beckingham, Matthew; Becot, Cyril; Beddall, Andrew; Beddall, Ayda; Bednyakov, Vadim; Bedognetti, Matteo; Bee, Christopher; Beermann, Thomas; Begalli, Marcia; Begel, Michael; Behr, Janna Katharina; Bell, Andrew Stuart; Bella, Gideon; Bellagamba, Lorenzo; Bellerive, Alain; Bellomo, Massimiliano; Belotskiy, Konstantin; Beltramello, Olga; Belyaev, Nikita; Benary, Odette; Benchekroun, Driss; Bender, Michael; Bendtz, Katarina; Benekos, Nektarios; Benhammou, Yan; Benhar Noccioli, Eleonora; Benitez, Jose; Benjamin, Douglas; Benoit, Mathieu; Bensinger, James; Bentvelsen, Stan; Beresford, Lydia; Beretta, Matteo; Berge, David; Bergeaas Kuutmann, Elin; Berger, Nicolas; Beringer, Jürg; Berlendis, Simon; Bernard, Nathan Rogers; Bernardi, Gregorio; Bernius, Catrin; Bernlochner, Florian Urs; Berry, Tracey; Berta, Peter; Bertella, Claudia; Bertoli, Gabriele; Bertolucci, Federico; Bertram, Iain Alexander; Bertsche, Carolyn; Bertsche, David; Besjes, Geert-Jan; Bessidskaia Bylund, Olga; Bessner, Martin Florian; Besson, Nathalie; Betancourt, Christopher; Bethani, Agni; Bethke, Siegfried; Bevan, Adrian John; Bianchi, Riccardo-Maria; Bianco, Michele; Biebel, Otmar; Biedermann, Dustin; Bielski, Rafal; Biesuz, Nicolo Vladi; Biglietti, Michela; Bilbao De Mendizabal, Javier; Billoud, Thomas Remy Victor; Bilokon, Halina; Bindi, Marcello; Bingul, Ahmet; Bini, Cesare; Biondi, Silvia; Bisanz, Tobias; Bittrich, Carsten; Bjergaard, David Martin; Black, Curtis; Black, James; Black, Kevin; Blackburn, Daniel; Blair, Robert; Blazek, Tomas; Bloch, Ingo; Blocker, Craig; Blue, Andrew; Blum, Walter; Blumenschein, Ulrike; Blunier, Sylvain; Bobbink, Gerjan; Bobrovnikov, Victor; Bocchetta, Simona Serena; Bocci, Andrea; Bock, Christopher; Boehler, Michael; Boerner, Daniela; Bogavac, Danijela; Bogdanchikov, Alexander; Bohm, Christian; Boisvert, Veronique; Bokan, Petar; Bold, Tomasz; Boldyrev, Alexey; Bomben, Marco; Bona, Marcella; Boonekamp, Maarten; Borisov, Anatoly; Borissov, Guennadi; Bortfeldt, Jonathan; Bortoletto, Daniela; Bortolotto, Valerio; Bos, Kors; Boscherini, Davide; Bosman, Martine; Bossio Sola, Jonathan David; Boudreau, Joseph; Bouffard, Julian; Bouhova-Thacker, Evelina Vassileva; Boumediene, Djamel Eddine; Bourdarios, Claire; Boutle, Sarah Kate; Boveia, Antonio; Boyd, James; Boyko, Igor; Bracinik, Juraj; Brandt, Andrew; Brandt, Gerhard; Brandt, Oleg; Bratzler, Uwe; Brau, Benjamin; Brau, James; Breaden Madden, William Dmitri; Brendlinger, Kurt; Brennan, Amelia Jean; Brenner, Lydia; Brenner, Richard; Bressler, Shikma; Briglin, Daniel Lawrence; Bristow, Timothy Michael; Britton, Dave; Britzger, Daniel; Brochu, Frederic; Brock, Ian; Brock, Raymond; Brooijmans, Gustaaf; Brooks, Timothy; Brooks, William; Brosamer, Jacquelyn; Brost, Elizabeth; Broughton, James; Bruckman de Renstrom, Pawel; Bruncko, Dusan; Bruni, Alessia; Bruni, Graziano; Bruni, Lucrezia Stella; Brunt, Benjamin; Bruschi, Marco; Bruscino, Nello; Bryant, Patrick; Bryngemark, Lene; Buanes, Trygve; Buat, Quentin; Buchholz, Peter; Buckley, Andrew; Budagov, Ioulian; Buehrer, Felix; Bugge, Magnar Kopangen; Bulekov, Oleg; Bullock, Daniel; Burckhart, Helfried; Burdin, Sergey; Burgard, Carsten Daniel; Burger, Angela Maria; Burghgrave, Blake; Burka, Klaudia; Burke, Stephen; Burmeister, Ingo; Burr, Jonathan Thomas Peter; Busato, Emmanuel; Büscher, Daniel; Büscher, Volker; Bussey, Peter; Butler, John; Buttar, Craig; Butterworth, Jonathan; Butti, Pierfrancesco; Buttinger, William; Buzatu, Adrian; Buzykaev, Aleksey; Cabrera Urbán, Susana; Caforio, Davide; Cairo, Valentina; Cakir, Orhan; Calace, Noemi; Calafiura, Paolo; Calandri, Alessandro; Calderini, Giovanni; Calfayan, Philippe; Callea, Giuseppe; Caloba, Luiz; Calvente Lopez, Sergio; Calvet, David; Calvet, Samuel; Calvet, Thomas Philippe; Camacho Toro, Reina; Camarda, Stefano; Camarri, Paolo; Cameron, David; Caminal Armadans, Roger; Camincher, Clement; Campana, Simone; Campanelli, Mario; Camplani, Alessandra; Campoverde, Angel; Canale, Vincenzo; Cano Bret, Marc; Cantero, Josu; Cao, Tingting; Capeans Garrido, Maria Del Mar; Caprini, Irinel; Caprini, Mihai; Capua, Marcella; Carbone, Ryne Michael; Cardarelli, Roberto; Cardillo, Fabio; Carli, Ina; Carli, Tancredi; Carlino, Gianpaolo; Carlson, Benjamin Taylor; Carminati, Leonardo; Carney, Rebecca; Caron, Sascha; Carquin, Edson; Carrillo-Montoya, German D; Carvalho, João; Casadei, Diego; Casado, Maria Pilar; Casolino, Mirkoantonio; Casper, David William; Castelijn, Remco; Castelli, Angelantonio; Castillo Gimenez, Victoria; Castro, Nuno Filipe; Catinaccio, Andrea; Catmore, James; Cattai, Ariella; Caudron, Julien; Cavaliere, Viviana; Cavallaro, Emanuele; Cavalli, Donatella; Cavalli-Sforza, Matteo; Cavasinni, Vincenzo; Celebi, Emre; Ceradini, Filippo; Cerda Alberich, Leonor; Santiago Cerqueira, Augusto; Cerri, Alessandro; Cerrito, Lucio; Cerutti, Fabio; Cervelli, Alberto; Cetin, Serkant Ali; Chafaq, Aziz; Chakraborty, Dhiman; Chan, Stephen Kam-wah; Chan, Wing Sheung; Chan, Yat Long; Chang, Philip; Chapman, John Derek; Charlton, Dave; Chatterjee, Avishek; Chau, Chav Chhiv; Chavez Barajas, Carlos Alberto; Che, Siinn; Cheatham, Susan; Chegwidden, Andrew; Chekanov, Sergei; Chekulaev, Sergey; Chelkov, Gueorgui; Chelstowska, Magda Anna; Chen, Chunhui; Chen, Hucheng; Chen, Shenjian; Chen, Shion; Chen, Xin; Chen, Ye; Cheng, Hok Chuen; Cheng, Huajie; Cheng, Yangyang; Cheplakov, Alexander; Cheremushkina, Evgenia; Cherkaoui El Moursli, Rajaa; Chernyatin, Valeriy; Cheu, Elliott; Chevalier, Laurent; Chiarella, Vitaliano; Chiarelli, Giorgio; Chiodini, Gabriele; Chisholm, Andrew; Chitan, Adrian; Chiu, Yu Him Justin; Chizhov, Mihail; Choi, Kyungeon; Chomont, Arthur Rene; Chouridou, Sofia; Chow, Bonnie Kar Bo; Christodoulou, Valentinos; Chromek-Burckhart, Doris; Chu, Ming Chung; Chudoba, Jiri; Chuinard, Annabelle Julia; Chwastowski, Janusz; Chytka, Ladislav; Ciftci, Abbas Kenan; Cinca, Diane; Cindro, Vladimir; Cioara, Irina Antonela; Ciocca, Claudia; Ciocio, Alessandra; Cirotto, Francesco; Citron, Zvi Hirsh; Citterio, Mauro; Ciubancan, Mihai; Clark, Allan G; Clark, Brian Lee; Clark, Michael; Clark, Philip James; Clarke, Robert; Clement, Christophe; Coadou, Yann; Cobal, Marina; Coccaro, Andrea; Cochran, James H; Colasurdo, Luca; Cole, Brian; Colijn, Auke-Pieter; Collot, Johann; Colombo, Tommaso; Conde Muiño, Patricia; Coniavitis, Elias; Connell, Simon Henry; Connelly, Ian; Consorti, Valerio; Constantinescu, Serban; Conti, Geraldine; Conventi, Francesco; Cooke, Mark; Cooper, Ben; Cooper-Sarkar, Amanda; Cormier, Felix; Cormier, Kyle James Read; Cornelissen, Thijs; Corradi, Massimo; Corriveau, Francois; Cortes-Gonzalez, Arely; Cortiana, Giorgio; Costa, Giuseppe; Costa, María José; Costanzo, Davide; Cottin, Giovanna; Cowan, Glen; Cox, Brian; Cranmer, Kyle; Crawley, Samuel Joseph; Creager, Rachael; Cree, Graham; Crépé-Renaudin, Sabine; Crescioli, Francesco; Cribbs, Wayne Allen; Crispin Ortuzar, Mireia; Cristinziani, Markus; Croft, Vince; Crosetti, Giovanni; Cueto, Ana; Cuhadar Donszelmann, Tulay; Cummings, Jane; Curatolo, Maria; Cúth, Jakub; Czirr, Hendrik; Czodrowski, Patrick; D'amen, Gabriele; D'Auria, Saverio; D'Onofrio, Monica; Da Cunha Sargedas De Sousa, Mario Jose; Da Via, Cinzia; Dabrowski, Wladyslaw; Dado, Tomas; Dai, Tiesheng; Dale, Orjan; Dallaire, Frederick; Dallapiccola, Carlo; Dam, Mogens; Dandoy, Jeffrey; Dang, Nguyen Phuong; Daniells, Andrew Christopher; Dann, Nicholas Stuart; Danninger, Matthias; Dano Hoffmann, Maria; Dao, Valerio; Darbo, Giovanni; Darmora, Smita; Dassoulas, James; Dattagupta, Aparajita; Daubney, Thomas; Davey, Will; David, Claire; Davidek, Tomas; Davies, Merlin; Davison, Peter; Dawe, Edmund; Dawson, Ian; De, Kaushik; de Asmundis, Riccardo; De Benedetti, Abraham; De Castro, Stefano; De Cecco, Sandro; De Groot, Nicolo; de Jong, Paul; De la Torre, Hector; De Lorenzi, Francesco; De Maria, Antonio; De Pedis, Daniele; De Salvo, Alessandro; De Sanctis, Umberto; De Santo, Antonella; De Vasconcelos Corga, Kevin; De Vivie De Regie, Jean-Baptiste; Dearnaley, William James; Debbe, Ramiro; Debenedetti, Chiara; Dedovich, Dmitri; Dehghanian, Nooshin; Deigaard, Ingrid; Del Gaudio, Michela; Del Peso, Jose; Del Prete, Tarcisio; Delgove, David; Deliot, Frederic; Delitzsch, Chris Malena; Dell'Acqua, Andrea; Dell'Asta, Lidia; Dell'Orso, Mauro; Della Pietra, Massimo; della Volpe, Domenico; Delmastro, Marco; Delporte, Charles; Delsart, Pierre-Antoine; DeMarco, David; Demers, Sarah; Demichev, Mikhail; Demilly, Aurelien; Denisov, Sergey; Denysiuk, Denys; Derendarz, Dominik; Derkaoui, Jamal Eddine; Derue, Frederic; Dervan, Paul; Desch, Klaus Kurt; Deterre, Cecile; Dette, Karola; Deviveiros, Pier-Olivier; Dewhurst, Alastair; Dhaliwal, Saminder; Di Ciaccio, Anna; Di Ciaccio, Lucia; Di Clemente, William Kennedy; Di Donato, Camilla; Di Girolamo, Alessandro; Di Girolamo, Beniamino; Di Micco, Biagio; Di Nardo, Roberto; Di Petrillo, Karri Folan; Di Simone, Andrea; Di Sipio, Riccardo; Di Valentino, David; Diaconu, Cristinel; Diamond, Miriam; Dias, Flavia; Diaz, Marco Aurelio; Diehl, Edward; Dietrich, Janet; Díez Cornell, Sergio; Dimitrievska, Aleksandra; Dingfelder, Jochen; Dita, Petre; Dita, Sanda; Dittus, Fridolin; Djama, Fares; Djobava, Tamar; Djuvsland, Julia Isabell; Barros do Vale, Maria Aline; Dobos, Daniel; Dobre, Monica; Doglioni, Caterina; Dolejsi, Jiri; Dolezal, Zdenek; Donadelli, Marisilvia; Donati, Simone; Dondero, Paolo; Donini, Julien; Dopke, Jens; Doria, Alessandra; Dova, Maria-Teresa; Doyle, Tony; Drechsler, Eric; Dris, Manolis; Du, Yanyan; Duarte-Campderros, Jorge; Duchovni, Ehud; Duckeck, Guenter; Ducourthial, Audrey; Ducu, Otilia Anamaria; Duda, Dominik; Dudarev, Alexey; Dudder, Andreas Christian; Duffield, Emily Marie; Duflot, Laurent; Dührssen, Michael; Dumancic, Mirta; Dumitriu, Ana Elena; Duncan, Anna Kathryn; Dunford, Monica; Duran Yildiz, Hatice; Düren, Michael; Durglishvili, Archil; Duschinger, Dirk; Dutta, Baishali; Dyndal, Mateusz; Eckardt, Christoph; Ecker, Katharina Maria; Edgar, Ryan Christopher; Eifert, Till; Eigen, Gerald; Einsweiler, Kevin; Ekelof, Tord; El Kacimi, Mohamed; El Kosseifi, Rima; Ellajosyula, Venugopal; Ellert, Mattias; Elles, Sabine; Ellinghaus, Frank; Elliot, Alison; Ellis, Nicolas; Elmsheuser, Johannes; Elsing, Markus; Emeliyanov, Dmitry; Enari, Yuji; Endner, Oliver Chris; Ennis, Joseph Stanford; Erdmann, Johannes; Ereditato, Antonio; Ernis, Gunar; Ernst, Michael; Errede, Steven; Ertel, Eugen; Escalier, Marc; Esch, Hendrik; Escobar, Carlos; Esposito, Bellisario; Etienvre, Anne-Isabelle; Etzion, Erez; Evans, Hal; Ezhilov, Alexey; Fabbri, Federica; Fabbri, Laura; Facini, Gabriel; Fakhrutdinov, Rinat; Falciano, Speranza; Falla, Rebecca Jane; Faltova, Jana; Fang, Yaquan; Fanti, Marcello; Farbin, Amir; Farilla, Addolorata; Farina, Christian; Farina, Edoardo Maria; Farooque, Trisha; Farrell, Steven; Farrington, Sinead; Farthouat, Philippe; Fassi, Farida; Fassnacht, Patrick; Fassouliotis, Dimitrios; Faucci Giannelli, Michele; Favareto, Andrea; Fawcett, William James; Fayard, Louis; Fedin, Oleg; Fedorko, Wojciech; Feigl, Simon; Feligioni, Lorenzo; Feng, Cunfeng; Feng, Eric; Feng, Haolu; Fenyuk, Alexander; Feremenga, Last; Fernandez Martinez, Patricia; Fernandez Perez, Sonia; Ferrando, James; Ferrari, Arnaud; Ferrari, Pamela; Ferrari, Roberto; Ferreira de Lima, Danilo Enoque; Ferrer, Antonio; Ferrere, Didier; Ferretti, Claudio; Fiedler, Frank; Filipčič, Andrej; Filipuzzi, Marco; Filthaut, Frank; Fincke-Keeler, Margret; Finelli, Kevin Daniel; Fiolhais, Miguel; Fiorini, Luca; Fischer, Adam; Fischer, Cora; Fischer, Julia; Fisher, Wade Cameron; Flaschel, Nils; Fleck, Ivor; Fleischmann, Philipp; Fletcher, Rob Roy MacGregor; Flick, Tobias; Flierl, Bernhard Matthias; Flores Castillo, Luis; Flowerdew, Michael; Forcolin, Giulio Tiziano; Formica, Andrea; Forti, Alessandra; Foster, Andrew Geoffrey; Fournier, Daniel; Fox, Harald; Fracchia, Silvia; Francavilla, Paolo; Franchini, Matteo; Franchino, Silvia; Francis, David; Franconi, Laura; Franklin, Melissa; Frate, Meghan; Fraternali, Marco; Freeborn, David; Fressard-Batraneanu, Silvia; Freund, Benjamin; Froidevaux, Daniel; Frost, James; Fukunaga, Chikara; Fullana Torregrosa, Esteban; Fusayasu, Takahiro; Fuster, Juan; Gabaldon, Carolina; Gabizon, Ofir; Gabrielli, Alessandro; Gabrielli, Andrea; Gach, Grzegorz; Gadatsch, Stefan; Gadomski, Szymon; Gagliardi, Guido; Gagnon, Louis Guillaume; Gagnon, Pauline; Galea, Cristina; Galhardo, Bruno; Gallas, Elizabeth; Gallop, Bruce; Gallus, Petr; Galster, Gorm Aske Gram Krohn; Gan, KK; Ganguly, Sanmay; Gao, Jun; Gao, Yanyan; Gao, Yongsheng; Garay Walls, Francisca; García, Carmen; García Navarro, José Enrique; Garcia-Sciveres, Maurice; Gardner, Robert; Garelli, Nicoletta; Garonne, Vincent; Gascon Bravo, Alberto; Gasnikova, Ksenia; Gatti, Claudio; Gaudiello, Andrea; Gaudio, Gabriella; Gavrilenko, Igor; Gay, Colin; Gaycken, Goetz; Gazis, Evangelos; Gee, Norman; Geisen, Marc; Geisler, Manuel Patrice; Gellerstedt, Karl; Gemme, Claudia; Genest, Marie-Hélène; Geng, Cong; Gentile, Simonetta; Gentsos, Christos; George, Simon; Gerbaudo, Davide; Gershon, Avi; Ghasemi, Sara; Ghneimat, Mazuza; Giacobbe, Benedetto; Giagu, Stefano; Giannetti, Paola; Gibson, Stephen; Gignac, Matthew; Gilchriese, Murdock; Gillberg, Dag; Gilles, Geoffrey; Gingrich, Douglas; Giokaris, Nikos; Giordani, MarioPaolo; Giorgi, Filippo Maria; Giraud, Pierre-Francois; Giromini, Paolo; Giugni, Danilo; Giuli, Francesco; Giuliani, Claudia; Giulini, Maddalena; Gjelsten, Børge Kile; Gkaitatzis, Stamatios; Gkialas, Ioannis; Gkougkousis, Evangelos Leonidas; Gladilin, Leonid; Glasman, Claudia; Glatzer, Julian; Glaysher, Paul; Glazov, Alexandre; Goblirsch-Kolb, Maximilian; Godlewski, Jan; Goldfarb, Steven; Golling, Tobias; Golubkov, Dmitry; Gomes, Agostinho; Gonçalo, Ricardo; Goncalves Gama, Rafael; Goncalves Pinto Firmino Da Costa, Joao; Gonella, Giulia; Gonella, Laura; Gongadze, Alexi; González de la Hoz, Santiago; Gonzalez-Sevilla, Sergio; Goossens, Luc; Gorbounov, Petr Andreevich; Gordon, Howard; Gorelov, Igor; Gorini, Benedetto; Gorini, Edoardo; Gorišek, Andrej; Goshaw, Alfred; Gössling, Claus; Gostkin, Mikhail Ivanovitch; Goudet, Christophe Raymond; Goujdami, Driss; Goussiou, Anna; Govender, Nicolin; Gozani, Eitan; Graber, Lars; Grabowska-Bold, Iwona; Gradin, Per Olov Joakim; Gramling, Johanna; Gramstad, Eirik; Grancagnolo, Sergio; Gratchev, Vadim; Gravila, Paul Mircea; Gray, Heather; Greenwood, Zeno Dixon; Grefe, Christian; Gregersen, Kristian; Gregor, Ingrid-Maria; Grenier, Philippe; Grevtsov, Kirill; Griffiths, Justin; Grillo, Alexander; Grimm, Kathryn; Grinstein, Sebastian; Gris, Philippe Luc Yves; Grivaz, Jean-Francois; Groh, Sabrina; Gross, Eilam; Grosse-Knetter, Joern; Grossi, Giulio Cornelio; Grout, Zara Jane; Guan, Liang; Guan, Wen; Guenther, Jaroslav; Guescini, Francesco; Guest, Daniel; Gueta, Orel; Gui, Bin; Guido, Elisa; Guillemin, Thibault; Guindon, Stefan; Gul, Umar; Gumpert, Christian; Guo, Jun; Guo, Wen; Guo, Yicheng; Gupta, Ruchi; Gupta, Shaun; Gustavino, Giuliano; Gutierrez, Phillip; Gutierrez Ortiz, Nicolas Gilberto; Gutschow, Christian; Guyot, Claude; Guzik, Marcin Pawel; Gwenlan, Claire; Gwilliam, Carl; Haas, Andy; Haber, Carl; Hadavand, Haleh Khani; Hadef, Asma; Hageböck, Stephan; Hagihara, Mutsuto; Hakobyan, Hrachya; Haleem, Mahsana; Haley, Joseph; Halladjian, Garabed; Hallewell, Gregory David; Hamacher, Klaus; Hamal, Petr; Hamano, Kenji; Hamilton, Andrew; Hamity, Guillermo Nicolas; Hamnett, Phillip George; Han, Liang; Han, Shuo; Hanagaki, Kazunori; Hanawa, Keita; Hance, Michael; Haney, Bijan; Hanke, Paul; Hansen, Jørgen Beck; Hansen, Jorn Dines; Hansen, Maike Christina; Hansen, Peter Henrik; Hara, Kazuhiko; Hard, Andrew; Harenberg, Torsten; Hariri, Faten; Harkusha, Siarhei; Harrington, Robert; Harrison, Paul Fraser; Hartjes, Fred; Hartmann, Nikolai Marcel; Hasegawa, Makoto; Hasegawa, Yoji; Hasib, Ahmed; Hassani, Samira; Haug, Sigve; Hauser, Reiner; Hauswald, Lorenz; Havener, Laura Brittany; Havranek, Miroslav; Hawkes, Christopher; Hawkings, Richard John; Hayakawa, Daiki; Hayden, Daniel; Hays, Chris; Hays, Jonathan Michael; Hayward, Helen; Haywood, Stephen; Head, Simon; Heck, Tobias; Hedberg, Vincent; Heelan, Louise; Heidegger, Kim Katrin; Heim, Sarah; Heim, Timon; Heinemann, Beate; Heinrich, Jochen Jens; Heinrich, Lukas; Heinz, Christian; Hejbal, Jiri; Helary, Louis; Held, Alexander; Hellman, Sten; Helsens, Clement; Henderson, James; Henderson, Robert; Heng, Yang; Henkelmann, Steffen; Henriques Correia, Ana Maria; Henrot-Versille, Sophie; Herbert, Geoffrey Henry; Herde, Hannah; Herget, Verena; Hernández Jiménez, Yesenia; Herten, Gregor; Hertenberger, Ralf; Hervas, Luis; Herwig, Theodor Christian; Hesketh, Gavin Grant; Hessey, Nigel; Hetherly, Jeffrey Wayne; Higashino, Satoshi; Higón-Rodriguez, Emilio; Hill, Ewan; Hill, John; Hiller, Karl Heinz; Hillier, Stephen; Hinchliffe, Ian; Hirose, Minoru; Hirschbuehl, Dominic; Hiti, Bojan; Hladik, Ondrej; Hoad, Xanthe; Hobbs, John; Hod, Noam; Hodgkinson, Mark; Hodgson, Paul; Hoecker, Andreas; Hoeferkamp, Martin; Hoenig, Friedrich; Hohn, David; Holmes, Tova Ray; Homann, Michael; Honda, Shunsuke; Honda, Takuya; Hong, Tae Min; Hooberman, Benjamin Henry; Hopkins, Walter; Horii, Yasuyuki; Horton, Arthur James; Hostachy, Jean-Yves; Hou, Suen; Hoummada, Abdeslam; Howarth, James; Hoya, Joaquin; Hrabovsky, Miroslav; Hristova, Ivana; Hrivnac, Julius; Hryn'ova, Tetiana; Hrynevich, Aliaksei; Hsu, Pai-hsien Jennifer; Hsu, Shih-Chieh; Hu, Qipeng; Hu, Shuyang; Huang, Yanping; Hubacek, Zdenek; Hubaut, Fabrice; Huegging, Fabian; Huffman, Todd Brian; Hughes, Emlyn; Hughes, Gareth; Huhtinen, Mika; Huo, Peng; Huseynov, Nazim; Huston, Joey; Huth, John; Iacobucci, Giuseppe; Iakovidis, Georgios; Ibragimov, Iskander; Iconomidou-Fayard, Lydia; Iengo, Paolo; Igonkina, Olga; Iizawa, Tomoya; Ikegami, Yoichi; Ikeno, Masahiro; Ilchenko, Yuriy; Iliadis, Dimitrios; Ilic, Nikolina; Introzzi, Gianluca; Ioannou, Pavlos; Iodice, Mauro; Iordanidou, Kalliopi; Ippolito, Valerio; Ishijima, Naoki; Ishino, Masaya; Ishitsuka, Masaki; Issever, Cigdem; Istin, Serhat; Ito, Fumiaki; Iturbe Ponce, Julia Mariana; Iuppa, Roberto; Iwasaki, Hiroyuki; Izen, Joseph; Izzo, Vincenzo; Jabbar, Samina; Jackson, Paul; Jain, Vivek; Jakobi, Katharina Bianca; Jakobs, Karl; Jakobsen, Sune; Jakoubek, Tomas; Jamin, David Olivier; Jana, Dilip; Jansky, Roland; Janssen, Jens; Janus, Michel; Janus, Piotr Andrzej; Jarlskog, Göran; Javadov, Namig; Javůrek, Tomáš; Javurkova, Martina; Jeanneau, Fabien; Jeanty, Laura; Jejelava, Juansher; Jelinskas, Adomas; Jenni, Peter; Jeske, Carl; Jézéquel, Stéphane; Ji, Haoshuang; Jia, Jiangyong; Jiang, Hai; Jiang, Yi; Jiang, Zihao; Jiggins, Stephen; Jimenez Pena, Javier; Jin, Shan; Jinaru, Adam; Jinnouchi, Osamu; Jivan, Harshna; Johansson, Per; Johns, Kenneth; Johnson, Christian; Johnson, William Joseph; Jon-And, Kerstin; Jones, Roger; Jones, Sarah; Jones, Tim; Jongmanns, Jan; Jorge, Pedro; Jovicevic, Jelena; Ju, Xiangyang; Juste Rozas, Aurelio; Köhler, Markus Konrad; Kaczmarska, Anna; Kado, Marumi; Kagan, Harris; Kagan, Michael; Kahn, Sebastien Jonathan; Kaji, Toshiaki; Kajomovitz, Enrique; Kalderon, Charles William; Kaluza, Adam; Kama, Sami; Kamenshchikov, Andrey; Kanaya, Naoko; Kaneti, Steven; Kanjir, Luka; Kantserov, Vadim; Kanzaki, Junichi; Kaplan, Benjamin; Kaplan, Laser Seymour; Kar, Deepak; Karakostas, Konstantinos; Karastathis, Nikolaos; Kareem, Mohammad Jawad; Karentzos, Efstathios; Karpov, Sergey; Karpova, Zoya; Karthik, Krishnaiyengar; Kartvelishvili, Vakhtang; Karyukhin, Andrey; Kasahara, Kota; Kashif, Lashkar; Kass, Richard; Kastanas, Alex; Kataoka, Yousuke; Kato, Chikuma; Katre, Akshay; Katzy, Judith; Kawade, Kentaro; Kawagoe, Kiyotomo; Kawamoto, Tatsuo; Kawamura, Gen; Kay, Ellis; Kazanin, Vassili; Keeler, Richard; Kehoe, Robert; Keller, John; Kempster, Jacob Julian; Keoshkerian, Houry; Kepka, Oldrich; Kerševan, Borut Paul; Kersten, Susanne; Keyes, Robert; Khader, Mazin; Khalil-zada, Farkhad; Khanov, Alexander; Kharlamov, Alexey; Kharlamova, Tatyana; Khodinov, Alexander; Khoo, Teng Jian; Khovanskiy, Valery; Khramov, Evgeniy; Khubua, Jemal; Kido, Shogo; Kilby, Callum; Kim, Hee Yeun; Kim, Shinhong; Kim, Young-Kee; Kimura, Naoki; Kind, Oliver Maria; King, Barry; Kirchmeier, David; Kirk, Julie; Kiryunin, Andrey; Kishimoto, Tomoe; Kisielewska, Danuta; Kiuchi, Kenji; Kivernyk, Oleh; Kladiva, Eduard; Klapdor-Kleingrothaus, Thorwald; Klein, Matthew Henry; Klein, Max; Klein, Uta; Kleinknecht, Konrad; Klimek, Pawel; Klimentov, Alexei; Klingenberg, Reiner; Klingl, Tobias; Klioutchnikova, Tatiana; Kluge, Eike-Erik; Kluit, Peter; Kluth, Stefan; Knapik, Joanna; Kneringer, Emmerich; Knoops, Edith; Knue, Andrea; Kobayashi, Aine; Kobayashi, Dai; Kobayashi, Tomio; Kobel, Michael; Kocian, Martin; Kodys, Peter; Koffas, Thomas; Koffeman, Els; Köhler, Nicolas Maximilian; Koi, Tatsumi; Kolb, Mathis; Koletsou, Iro; Komar, Aston; Komori, Yuto; Kondo, Takahiko; Kondrashova, Nataliia; Köneke, Karsten; König, Adriaan; Kono, Takanori; Konoplich, Rostislav; Konstantinidis, Nikolaos; Kopeliansky, Revital; Koperny, Stefan; Kopp, Anna Katharina; Korcyl, Krzysztof; Kordas, Kostantinos; Korn, Andreas; Korol, Aleksandr; Korolkov, Ilya; Korolkova, Elena; Kortner, Oliver; Kortner, Sandra; Kosek, Tomas; Kostyukhin, Vadim; Kotwal, Ashutosh; Koulouris, Aimilianos; Kourkoumeli-Charalampidi, Athina; Kourkoumelis, Christine; Kourlitis, Evangelos; Kouskoura, Vasiliki; Kowalewska, Anna Bozena; Kowalewski, Robert Victor; Kowalski, Tadeusz; Kozakai, Chihiro; Kozanecki, Witold; Kozhin, Anatoly; Kramarenko, Viktor; Kramberger, Gregor; Krasnopevtsev, Dimitrii; Krasznahorkay, Attila; Krauss, Dominik; Kravchenko, Anton; Kremer, Jakub Andrzej; Kretz, Moritz; Kretzschmar, Jan; Kreutzfeldt, Kristof; Krieger, Peter; Krizka, Karol; Kroeninger, Kevin; Kroha, Hubert; Kroll, Joe; Kroseberg, Juergen; Krstic, Jelena; Kruchonak, Uladzimir; Krüger, Hans; Krumnack, Nils; Kruse, Mark; Kruskal, Michael; Kubota, Takashi; Kucuk, Hilal; Kuday, Sinan; Kuechler, Jan Thomas; Kuehn, Susanne; Kugel, Andreas; Kuger, Fabian; Kuhl, Thorsten; Kukhtin, Victor; Kukla, Romain; Kulchitsky, Yuri; Kuleshov, Sergey; Kulinich, Yakov Petrovich; Kuna, Marine; Kunigo, Takuto; Kupco, Alexander; Kuprash, Oleg; Kurashige, Hisaya; Kurchaninov, Leonid; Kurochkin, Yurii; Kurth, Matthew Glenn; Kus, Vlastimil; Kuwertz, Emma Sian; Kuze, Masahiro; Kvita, Jiri; Kwan, Tony; Kyriazopoulos, Dimitrios; La Rosa, Alessandro; La Rosa Navarro, Jose Luis; La Rotonda, Laura; Lacasta, Carlos; Lacava, Francesco; Lacey, James; Lacker, Heiko; Lacour, Didier; Ladygin, Evgueni; Lafaye, Remi; Laforge, Bertrand; Lagouri, Theodota; Lai, Stanley; Lammers, Sabine; Lampl, Walter; Lançon, Eric; Landgraf, Ulrich; Landon, Murrough; Lanfermann, Marie Christine; Lang, Valerie Susanne; Lange, J örn Christian; Lankford, Andrew; Lanni, Francesco; Lantzsch, Kerstin; Lanza, Agostino; Lapertosa, Alessandro; Laplace, Sandrine; Laporte, Jean-Francois; Lari, Tommaso; Lasagni Manghi, Federico; Lassnig, Mario; Laurelli, Paolo; Lavrijsen, Wim; Law, Alexander; Laycock, Paul; Lazovich, Tomo; Lazzaroni, Massimo; Le, Brian; Le Dortz, Olivier; Le Guirriec, Emmanuel; Le Quilleuc, Eloi; LeBlanc, Matthew Edgar; LeCompte, Thomas; Ledroit-Guillon, Fabienne; Lee, Claire Alexandra; Lee, Shih-Chang; Lee, Lawrence; Lefebvre, Benoit; Lefebvre, Guillaume; Lefebvre, Michel; Legger, Federica; Leggett, Charles; Lehan, Allan; Lehmann Miotto, Giovanna; Lei, Xiaowen; Leight, William Axel; Leite, Marco Aurelio Lisboa; Leitner, Rupert; Lellouch, Daniel; Lemmer, Boris; Leney, Katharine; Lenz, Tatjana; Lenzi, Bruno; Leone, Robert; Leone, Sandra; Leonidopoulos, Christos; Lerner, Giuseppe; Leroy, Claude; Lesage, Arthur; Lester, Christopher; Levchenko, Mikhail; Levêque, Jessica; Levin, Daniel; Levinson, Lorne; Levy, Mark; Lewis, Dave; Leyton, Michael; Li, Bing; Li, Changqiao; Li, Haifeng; Li, Lei; Li, Liang; Li, Qi; Li, Shu; Li, Xingguo; Li, Yichen; Liang, Zhijun; Liberti, Barbara; Liblong, Aaron; Lie, Ki; Liebal, Jessica; Liebig, Wolfgang; Limosani, Antonio; Lin, Simon; Lin, Tai-Hua; Lindquist, Brian Edward; Lionti, Anthony Eric; Lipeles, Elliot; Lipniacka, Anna; Lisovyi, Mykhailo; Liss, Tony; Lister, Alison; Litke, Alan; Liu, Bo; Liu, Hao; Liu, Hongbin; Liu, Jian; Liu, Jianbei; Liu, Kun; Liu, Lulu; Liu, Minghui; Liu, Yanlin; Liu, Yanwen; Livan, Michele; Lleres, Annick; Llorente Merino, Javier; Lloyd, Stephen; Lo, Cheuk Yee; Lo Sterzo, Francesco; Lobodzinska, Ewelina Maria; Loch, Peter; Loebinger, Fred; Loew, Kevin Michael; Loginov, Andrey; Lohse, Thomas; Lohwasser, Kristin; Lokajicek, Milos; Long, Brian Alexander; Long, Jonathan David; Long, Robin Eamonn; Longo, Luigi; Looper, Kristina Anne; Lopez, Jorge; Lopez Mateos, David; Lopez Paz, Ivan; Lopez Solis, Alvaro; Lorenz, Jeanette; Lorenzo Martinez, Narei; Losada, Marta; Lösel, Philipp Jonathan; Lou, XinChou; Lounis, Abdenour; Love, Jeremy; Love, Peter; Lu, Haonan; Lu, Nan; Lu, Yun-Ju; Lubatti, Henry; Luci, Claudio; Lucotte, Arnaud; Luedtke, Christian; Luehring, Frederick; Lukas, Wolfgang; Luminari, Lamberto; Lundberg, Olof; Lund-Jensen, Bengt; Luzi, Pierre Marc; Lynn, David; Lysak, Roman; Lytken, Else; Lyubushkin, Vladimir; Ma, Hong; Ma, Lian Liang; Ma, Yanhui; Maccarrone, Giovanni; Macchiolo, Anna; Macdonald, Calum Michael; Maček, Boštjan; Machado Miguens, Joana; Madaffari, Daniele; Madar, Romain; Maddocks, Harvey Jonathan; Mader, Wolfgang; Madsen, Alexander; Maeda, Junpei; Maeland, Steffen; Maeno, Tadashi; Maevskiy, Artem; Magradze, Erekle; Mahlstedt, Joern; Maiani, Camilla; Maidantchik, Carmen; Maier, Andreas Alexander; Maier, Thomas; Maio, Amélia; Majewski, Stephanie; Makida, Yasuhiro; Makovec, Nikola; Malaescu, Bogdan; Malecki, Pawel; Maleev, Victor; Malek, Fairouz; Mallik, Usha; Malon, David; Malone, Claire; Maltezos, Stavros; Malyukov, Sergei; Mamuzic, Judita; Mancini, Giada; Mandelli, Luciano; Mandić, Igor; Maneira, José; Manhaes de Andrade Filho, Luciano; Manjarres Ramos, Joany; Mann, Alexander; Manousos, Athanasios; Mansoulie, Bruno; Mansour, Jason Dhia; Mantifel, Rodger; Mantoani, Matteo; Manzoni, Stefano; Mapelli, Livio; Marceca, Gino; March, Luis; Marchiori, Giovanni; Marcisovsky, Michal; Marjanovic, Marija; Marley, Daniel; Marroquim, Fernando; Marsden, Stephen Philip; Marshall, Zach; Martensson, Mikael; Marti-Garcia, Salvador; Martin, Christopher Blake; Martin, Tim; Martin, Victoria Jane; Martin dit Latour, Bertrand; Martinez, Mario; Martinez Outschoorn, Verena; Martin-Haugh, Stewart; Martoiu, Victor Sorin; Martyniuk, Alex; Marzin, Antoine; Masetti, Lucia; Mashimo, Tetsuro; Mashinistov, Ruslan; Masik, Jiri; Maslennikov, Alexey; Massa, Lorenzo; Mastrandrea, Paolo; Mastroberardino, Anna; Masubuchi, Tatsuya; Mättig, Peter; Maurer, Julien; Maxfield, Stephen; Maximov, Dmitriy; Mazini, Rachid; Maznas, Ioannis; Mazza, Simone Michele; Mc Fadden, Neil Christopher; Mc Goldrick, Garrin; Mc Kee, Shawn Patrick; McCarn, Allison; McCarthy, Robert; McCarthy, Tom; McClymont, Laurie; McDonald, Emily; Mcfayden, Josh; Mchedlidze, Gvantsa; McMahon, Steve; McNamara, Peter Charles; McPherson, Robert; Meehan, Samuel; Megy, Theo Jean; Mehlhase, Sascha; Mehta, Andrew; Meideck, Thomas; Meier, Karlheinz; Meineck, Christian; Meirose, Bernhard; Melini, Davide; Mellado Garcia, Bruce Rafael; Melo, Matej; Meloni, Federico; Menary, Stephen Burns; Meng, Lingxin; Meng, Xiangting; Mengarelli, Alberto; Menke, Sven; Meoni, Evelin; Mergelmeyer, Sebastian; Mermod, Philippe; Merola, Leonardo; Meroni, Chiara; Merritt, Frank; Messina, Andrea; Metcalfe, Jessica; Mete, Alaettin Serhan; Meyer, Christopher; Meyer, Jean-Pierre; Meyer, Jochen; Meyer Zu Theenhausen, Hanno; Miano, Fabrizio; Middleton, Robin; Miglioranzi, Silvia; Mijović, Liza; Mikenberg, Giora; Mikestikova, Marcela; Mikuž, Marko; Milesi, Marco; Milic, Adriana; Miller, David; Mills, Corrinne; Milov, Alexander; Milstead, David; Minaenko, Andrey; Minami, Yuto; Minashvili, Irakli; Mincer, Allen; Mindur, Bartosz; Mineev, Mikhail; Minegishi, Yuji; Ming, Yao; Mir, Lluisa-Maria; Mistry, Khilesh; Mitani, Takashi; Mitrevski, Jovan; Mitsou, Vasiliki A; Miucci, Antonio; Miyagawa, Paul; Mizukami, Atsushi; Mjörnmark, Jan-Ulf; Mlynarikova, Michaela; Moa, Torbjoern; Mochizuki, Kazuya; Mogg, Philipp; Mohapatra, Soumya; Molander, Simon; Moles-Valls, Regina; Monden, Ryutaro; Mondragon, Matthew Craig; Mönig, Klaus; Monk, James; Monnier, Emmanuel; Montalbano, Alyssa; Montejo Berlingen, Javier; Monticelli, Fernando; Monzani, Simone; Moore, Roger; Morange, Nicolas; Moreno, Deywis; Moreno Llácer, María; Morettini, Paolo; Morgenstern, Stefanie; Mori, Daniel; Mori, Tatsuya; Morii, Masahiro; Morinaga, Masahiro; Morisbak, Vanja; Morley, Anthony Keith; Mornacchi, Giuseppe; Morris, John; Morvaj, Ljiljana; Moschovakos, Paris; Mosidze, Maia; Moss, Harry James; Moss, Josh; Motohashi, Kazuki; Mount, Richard; Mountricha, Eleni; Moyse, Edward; Muanza, Steve; Mudd, Richard; Mueller, Felix; Mueller, James; Mueller, Ralph Soeren Peter; Muenstermann, Daniel; Mullen, Paul; Mullier, Geoffrey; Munoz Sanchez, Francisca Javiela; Murray, Bill; Musheghyan, Haykuhi; Muškinja, Miha; Myagkov, Alexey; Myska, Miroslav; Nachman, Benjamin Philip; Nackenhorst, Olaf; Nagai, Koichi; Nagai, Ryo; Nagano, Kunihiro; Nagasaka, Yasushi; Nagata, Kazuki; Nagel, Martin; Nagy, Elemer; Nairz, Armin Michael; Nakahama, Yu; Nakamura, Koji; Nakamura, Tomoaki; Nakano, Itsuo; Naranjo Garcia, Roger Felipe; Narayan, Rohin; Narrias Villar, Daniel Isaac; Naryshkin, Iouri; Naumann, Thomas; Navarro, Gabriela; Nayyar, Ruchika; Neal, Homer; Nechaeva, Polina; Neep, Thomas James; Negri, Andrea; Negrini, Matteo; Nektarijevic, Snezana; Nellist, Clara; Nelson, Andrew; Nelson, Michael Edward; Nemecek, Stanislav; Nemethy, Peter; Nepomuceno, Andre Asevedo; Nessi, Marzio; Neubauer, Mark; Neumann, Manuel; Neves, Ricardo; Newman, Paul; Ng, Tsz Yu; Nguyen Manh, Tuan; Nickerson, Richard; Nicolaidou, Rosy; Nielsen, Jason; Nikolaenko, Vladimir; Nikolic-Audit, Irena; Nikolopoulos, Konstantinos; Nilsen, Jon Kerr; Nilsson, Paul; Ninomiya, Yoichi; Nisati, Aleandro; Nishu, Nishu; Nisius, Richard; Nobe, Takuya; Noguchi, Yohei; Nomachi, Masaharu; Nomidis, Ioannis; Nomura, Marcelo Ayumu; Nooney, Tamsin; Nordberg, Markus; Norjoharuddeen, Nurfikri; Novgorodova, Olga; Nowak, Sebastian; Nozaki, Mitsuaki; Nozka, Libor; Ntekas, Konstantinos; Nurse, Emily; Nuti, Francesco; O'Neil, Dugan; O'Rourke, Abigail Alexandra; O'Shea, Val; Oakham, Gerald; Oberlack, Horst; Obermann, Theresa; Ocariz, Jose; Ochi, Atsuhiko; Ochoa, Ines; Ochoa-Ricoux, Juan Pedro; Oda, Susumu; Odaka, Shigeru; Ogren, Harold; Oh, Alexander; Oh, Seog; Ohm, Christian; Ohman, Henrik; Oide, Hideyuki; Okawa, Hideki; Okumura, Yasuyuki; Okuyama, Toyonobu; Olariu, Albert; Oleiro Seabra, Luis Filipe; Olivares Pino, Sebastian Andres; Oliveira Damazio, Denis; Olszewski, Andrzej; Olszowska, Jolanta; Onofre, António; Onogi, Kouta; Onyisi, Peter; Oreglia, Mark; Oren, Yona; Orestano, Domizia; Orlando, Nicola; Orr, Robert; Osculati, Bianca; Ospanov, Rustem; Otero y Garzon, Gustavo; Otono, Hidetoshi; Ouchrif, Mohamed; Ould-Saada, Farid; Ouraou, Ahmimed; Oussoren, Koen Pieter; Ouyang, Qun; Owen, Mark; Owen, Rhys Edward; Ozcan, Veysi Erkcan; Ozturk, Nurcan; Pachal, Katherine; Pacheco Pages, Andres; Pacheco Rodriguez, Laura; Padilla Aranda, Cristobal; Pagan Griso, Simone; Paganini, Michela; Paige, Frank; Pais, Preema; Palacino, Gabriel; Palazzo, Serena; Palestini, Sandro; Palka, Marek; Pallin, Dominique; Panagiotopoulou, Evgenia; Panagoulias, Ilias; Pandini, Carlo Enrico; Panduro Vazquez, William; Pani, Priscilla; Panitkin, Sergey; Pantea, Dan; Paolozzi, Lorenzo; Papadopoulou, Theodora; Papageorgiou, Konstantinos; Paramonov, Alexander; Paredes Hernandez, Daniela; Parker, Adam Jackson; Parker, Michael Andrew; Parker, Kerry Ann; Parodi, Fabrizio; Parsons, John; Parzefall, Ulrich; Pascuzzi, Vincent; Pasner, Jacob Martin; Pasqualucci, Enrico; Passaggio, Stefano; Pastore, Francesca; Pataraia, Sophio; Pater, Joleen; Pauly, Thilo; Pearce, James; Pearson, Benjamin; Pedersen, Lars Egholm; Pedraza Lopez, Sebastian; Pedro, Rute; Peleganchuk, Sergey; Penc, Ondrej; Peng, Cong; Peng, Haiping; Penwell, John; Peralva, Bernardo; Perego, Marta Maria; Perepelitsa, Dennis; Perini, Laura; Pernegger, Heinz; Perrella, Sabrina; Peschke, Richard; Peshekhonov, Vladimir; Peters, Krisztian; Peters, Yvonne; Petersen, Brian; Petersen, Troels; Petit, Elisabeth; Petridis, Andreas; Petridou, Chariclia; Petroff, Pierre; Petrolo, Emilio; Petrov, Mariyan; Petrucci, Fabrizio; Pettersson, Nora Emilia; Peyaud, Alan; Pezoa, Raquel; Phillips, Peter William; Piacquadio, Giacinto; Pianori, Elisabetta; Picazio, Attilio; Piccaro, Elisa; Pickering, Mark Andrew; Piegaia, Ricardo; Pilcher, James; Pilkington, Andrew; Pin, Arnaud Willy J; Pinamonti, Michele; Pinfold, James; Pirumov, Hayk; Pitt, Michael; Plazak, Lukas; Pleier, Marc-Andre; Pleskot, Vojtech; Plotnikova, Elena; Pluth, Daniel; Podberezko, Pavel; Poettgen, Ruth; Poggioli, Luc; Pohl, David-leon; Polesello, Giacomo; Poley, Anne-luise; Policicchio, Antonio; Polifka, Richard; Polini, Alessandro; Pollard, Christopher Samuel; Polychronakos, Venetios; Pommès, Kathy; Ponomarenko, Daniil; Pontecorvo, Ludovico; Pope, Bernard; Popeneciu, Gabriel Alexandru; Poppleton, Alan; Pospisil, Stanislav; Potamianos, Karolos; Potrap, Igor; Potter, Christina; Potter, Christopher; Poulard, Gilbert; Poveda, Joaquin; Pozo Astigarraga, Mikel Eukeni; Pralavorio, Pascal; Pranko, Aliaksandr; Prell, Soeren; Price, Darren; Price, Lawrence; Primavera, Margherita; Prince, Sebastien; Proklova, Nadezda; Prokofiev, Kirill; Prokoshin, Fedor; Protopopescu, Serban; Proudfoot, James; Przybycien, Mariusz; Puddu, Daniele; Puri, Akshat; Puzo, Patrick; Qian, Jianming; Qin, Gang; Qin, Yang; Quadt, Arnulf; Quayle, William; Queitsch-Maitland, Michaela; Quilty, Donnchadha; Raddum, Silje; Radeka, Veljko; Radescu, Voica; Radhakrishnan, Sooraj Krishnan; Radloff, Peter; Rados, Pere; Ragusa, Francesco; Rahal, Ghita; Raine, John Andrew; Rajagopalan, Srinivasan; Rangel-Smith, Camila; Ratti, Maria Giulia; Rauch, Daniel; Rauscher, Felix; Rave, Stefan; Ravenscroft, Thomas; Ravinovich, Ilia; Rawling, Jacob Henry; Raymond, Michel; Read, Alexander Lincoln; Readioff, Nathan Peter; Reale, Marilea; Rebuzzi, Daniela; Redelbach, Andreas; Redlinger, George; Reece, Ryan; Reed, Robert; Reeves, Kendall; Rehnisch, Laura; Reichert, Joseph; Reiss, Andreas; Rembser, Christoph; Ren, Huan; Rescigno, Marco; Resconi, Silvia; Resseguie, Elodie Deborah; Rettie, Sebastien; Reynolds, Elliot; Rezanova, Olga; Reznicek, Pavel; Rezvani, Reyhaneh; Richter, Robert; Richter, Stefan; Richter-Was, Elzbieta; Ricken, Oliver; Ridel, Melissa; Rieck, Patrick; Riegel, Christian Johann; Rieger, Julia; Rifki, Othmane; Rijssenbeek, Michael; Rimoldi, Adele; Rimoldi, Marco; Rinaldi, Lorenzo; Ristić, Branislav; Ritsch, Elmar; Riu, Imma; Rizatdinova, Flera; Rizvi, Eram; Rizzi, Chiara; Roberts, Rhys Thomas; Robertson, Steven; Robichaud-Veronneau, Andree; Robinson, Dave; Robinson, James; Robson, Aidan; Roda, Chiara; Rodina, Yulia; Rodriguez Perez, Andrea; Rodriguez Rodriguez, Daniel; Roe, Shaun; Rogan, Christopher Sean; Røhne, Ole; Roloff, Jennifer; Romaniouk, Anatoli; Romano, Marino; Romano Saez, Silvestre Marino; Romero Adam, Elena; Rompotis, Nikolaos; Ronzani, Manfredi; Roos, Lydia; Rosati, Stefano; Rosbach, Kilian; Rose, Peyton; Rosien, Nils-Arne; Rossetti, Valerio; Rossi, Elvira; Rossi, Leonardo Paolo; Rosten, Jonatan; Rosten, Rachel; Rotaru, Marina; Roth, Itamar; Rothberg, Joseph; Rousseau, David; Rozanov, Alexandre; Rozen, Yoram; Ruan, Xifeng; Rubbo, Francesco; Rühr, Frederik; Ruiz-Martinez, Aranzazu; Rurikova, Zuzana; Rusakovich, Nikolai; Ruschke, Alexander; Russell, Heather; Rutherfoord, John; Ruthmann, Nils; Ryabov, Yury; Rybar, Martin; Rybkin, Grigori; Ryu, Soo; Ryzhov, Andrey; Rzehorz, Gerhard Ferdinand; Saavedra, Aldo; Sabato, Gabriele; Sacerdoti, Sabrina; Sadrozinski, Hartmut; Sadykov, Renat; Safai Tehrani, Francesco; Saha, Puja; Sahinsoy, Merve; Saimpert, Matthias; Saito, Masahiko; Saito, Tomoyuki; Sakamoto, Hiroshi; Sakurai, Yuki; Salamanna, Giuseppe; Salazar Loyola, Javier Esteban; Salek, David; Sales De Bruin, Pedro Henrique; Salihagic, Denis; Salnikov, Andrei; Salt, José; Salvatore, Daniela; Salvatore, Pasquale Fabrizio; Salvucci, Antonio; Salzburger, Andreas; Sammel, Dirk; Sampsonidis, Dimitrios; Sánchez, Javier; Sanchez Martinez, Victoria; Sanchez Pineda, Arturo Rodolfo; Sandaker, Heidi; Sandbach, Ruth Laura; Sander, Christian Oliver; Sandhoff, Marisa; Sandoval, Carlos; Sankey, Dave; Sannino, Mario; Sansoni, Andrea; Santoni, Claudio; Santonico, Rinaldo; Santos, Helena; Santoyo Castillo, Itzebelt; Sapp, Kevin; Sapronov, Andrey; Saraiva, João; Sarrazin, Bjorn; Sasaki, Osamu; Sato, Koji; Sauvan, Emmanuel; Savage, Graham; Savard, Pierre; Savic, Natascha; Sawyer, Craig; Sawyer, Lee; Saxon, James; Sbarra, Carla; Sbrizzi, Antonio; Scanlon, Tim; Scannicchio, Diana; Scarcella, Mark; Scarfone, Valerio; Schaarschmidt, Jana; Schacht, Peter; Schachtner, Balthasar Maria; Schaefer, Douglas; Schaefer, Leigh; Schaefer, Ralph; Schaeffer, Jan; Schaepe, Steffen; Schaetzel, Sebastian; Schäfer, Uli; Schaffer, Arthur; Schaile, Dorothee; Schamberger, R Dean; Scharf, Veit; Schegelsky, Valery; Scheirich, Daniel; Schernau, Michael; Schiavi, Carlo; Schier, Sheena; Schildgen, Lara Katharina; Schillo, Christian; Schioppa, Marco; Schlenker, Stefan; Schmidt-Sommerfeld, Korbinian Ralf; Schmieden, Kristof; Schmitt, Christian; Schmitt, Stefan; Schmitz, Simon; Schnoor, Ulrike; Schoeffel, Laurent; Schoening, Andre; Schoenrock, Bradley Daniel; Schopf, Elisabeth; Schott, Matthias; Schouwenberg, Jeroen; Schovancova, Jaroslava; Schramm, Steven; Schuh, Natascha; Schulte, Alexandra; Schultens, Martin Johannes; Schultz-Coulon, Hans-Christian; Schulz, Holger; Schumacher, Markus; Schumm, Bruce; Schune, Philippe; Schwartzman, Ariel; Schwarz, Thomas Andrew; Schweiger, Hansdieter; Schwemling, Philippe; Schwienhorst, Reinhard; Schwindling, Jerome; Schwindt, Thomas; Sciandra, Andrea; Sciolla, Gabriella; Scuri, Fabrizio; Scutti, Federico; Searcy, Jacob; Seema, Pienpen; Seidel, Sally; Seiden, Abraham; Seixas, José; Sekhniaidze, Givi; Sekhon, Karishma; Sekula, Stephen; Semprini-Cesari, Nicola; Serfon, Cedric; Serin, Laurent; Serkin, Leonid; Sessa, Marco; Seuster, Rolf; Severini, Horst; Sfiligoj, Tina; Sforza, Federico; Sfyrla, Anna; Shabalina, Elizaveta; Shaikh, Nabila Wahab; Shan, Lianyou; Shang, Ruo-yu; Shank, James; Shapiro, Marjorie; Shatalov, Pavel; Shaw, Kate; Shaw, Savanna Marie; Shcherbakova, Anna; Shehu, Ciwake Yusufu; Shen, Yu-Ting; Sherwood, Peter; Shi, Liaoshan; Shimizu, Shima; Shimmin, Chase Owen; Shimojima, Makoto; Shirabe, Shohei; Shiyakova, Mariya; Shlomi, Jonathan; Shmeleva, Alevtina; Shoaleh Saadi, Diane; Shochet, Mel; Shojaii, Seyed Ruhollah; Shope, David Richard; Shrestha, Suyog; Shulga, Evgeny; Shupe, Michael; Sicho, Petr; Sickles, Anne Marie; Sidebo, Per Edvin; Sideras Haddad, Elias; Sidiropoulou, Ourania; Sidorov, Dmitri; Sidoti, Antonio; Siegert, Frank; Sijacki, Djordje; Silva, José; Silverstein, Samuel; Simak, Vladislav; Simic, Ljiljana; Simion, Stefan; Simioni, Eduard; Simmons, Brinick; Simon, Manuel; Sinervo, Pekka; Sinev, Nikolai; Sioli, Maximiliano; Siragusa, Giovanni; Siral, Ismet; Sivoklokov, Serguei; Sjölin, Jörgen; Skinner, Malcolm Bruce; Skubic, Patrick; Slater, Mark; Slavicek, Tomas; Slawinska, Magdalena; Sliwa, Krzysztof; Slovak, Radim; Smakhtin, Vladimir; Smart, Ben; Smiesko, Juraj; Smirnov, Nikita; Smirnov, Sergei; Smirnov, Yury; Smirnova, Lidia; Smirnova, Oxana; Smith, Joshua Wyatt; Smith, Matthew; Smith, Russell; Smizanska, Maria; Smolek, Karel; Snesarev, Andrei; Snyder, Ian Michael; Snyder, Scott; Sobie, Randall; Socher, Felix; Soffer, Abner; Soh, Dart-yin; Sokhrannyi, Grygorii; Solans Sanchez, Carlos; Solar, Michael; Soldatov, Evgeny; Soldevila, Urmila; Solodkov, Alexander; Soloshenko, Alexei; Solovyanov, Oleg; Solovyev, Victor; Sommer, Philip; Son, Hyungsuk; Song, Hong Ye; Sopczak, Andre; Sorin, Veronica; Sosa, David; Sotiropoulou, Calliope Louisa; Soualah, Rachik; Soukharev, Andrey; South, David; Sowden, Benjamin; Spagnolo, Stefania; Spalla, Margherita; Spangenberg, Martin; Spanò, Francesco; Sperlich, Dennis; Spettel, Fabian; Spieker, Thomas Malte; Spighi, Roberto; Spigo, Giancarlo; Spiller, Laurence Anthony; Spousta, Martin; St Denis, Richard Dante; Stabile, Alberto; Stamen, Rainer; Stamm, Soren; Stanecka, Ewa; Stanek, Robert; Stanescu, Cristian; Stanitzki, Marcel Michael; Stapnes, Steinar; Starchenko, Evgeny; Stark, Giordon; Stark, Jan; Stark, Simon Holm; Staroba, Pavel; Starovoitov, Pavel; Stärz, Steffen; Staszewski, Rafal; Steinberg, Peter; Stelzer, Bernd; Stelzer, Harald Joerg; Stelzer-Chilton, Oliver; Stenzel, Hasko; Stewart, Graeme; Stillings, Jan Andre; Stockton, Mark; Stoebe, Michael; Stoicea, Gabriel; Stolte, Philipp; Stonjek, Stefan; Stradling, Alden; Straessner, Arno; Stramaglia, Maria Elena; Strandberg, Jonas; Strandberg, Sara; Strandlie, Are; Strauss, Michael; Strizenec, Pavol; Ströhmer, Raimund; Strom, David; Stroynowski, Ryszard; Strubig, Antonia; Stucci, Stefania Antonia; Stugu, Bjarne; Styles, Nicholas Adam; Su, Dong; Su, Jun; Suchek, Stanislav; Sugaya, Yorihito; Suk, Michal; Sulin, Vladimir; Sultansoy, Saleh; Sumida, Toshi; Sun, Siyuan; Sun, Xiaohu; Suruliz, Kerim; Suster, Carl; Sutton, Mark; Suzuki, Shota; Svatos, Michal; Swiatlowski, Maximilian; Swift, Stewart Patrick; Sydorenko, Alexander; Sykora, Ivan; Sykora, Tomas; Ta, Duc; Tackmann, Kerstin; Taenzer, Joe; Taffard, Anyes; Tafirout, Reda; Taiblum, Nimrod; Takai, Helio; Takashima, Ryuichi; Takeshita, Tohru; Takubo, Yosuke; Talby, Mossadek; Talyshev, Alexey; Tanaka, Junichi; Tanaka, Masahiro; Tanaka, Reisaburo; Tanaka, Shuji; Tanioka, Ryo; Tannenwald, Benjamin Bordy; Tapia Araya, Sebastian; Tapprogge, Stefan; Tarem, Shlomit; Tartarelli, Giuseppe Francesco; Tas, Petr; Tasevsky, Marek; Tashiro, Takuya; Tassi, Enrico; Tavares Delgado, Ademar; Tayalati, Yahya; Taylor, Aaron; Taylor, Geoffrey; Taylor, Pierre Thor Elliot; Taylor, Wendy; Teixeira-Dias, Pedro; Temple, Darren; Ten Kate, Herman; Teng, Ping-Kun; Teoh, Jia Jian; Tepel, Fabian-Phillipp; Terada, Susumu; Terashi, Koji; Terron, Juan; Terzo, Stefano; Testa, Marianna; Teuscher, Richard; Theveneaux-Pelzer, Timothée; Thomas, Juergen; Thomas-Wilsker, Joshuha; Thompson, Paul; Thompson, Stan; Thomsen, Lotte Ansgaard; Thomson, Evelyn; Tibbetts, Mark James; Ticse Torres, Royer Edson; Tikhomirov, Vladimir; Tikhonov, Yury; Timoshenko, Sergey; Tipton, Paul; Tisserant, Sylvain; Todome, Kazuki; Todorova-Nova, Sharka; Tojo, Junji; Tokár, Stanislav; Tokushuku, Katsuo; Tolley, Emma; Tomlinson, Lee; Tomoto, Makoto; Tompkins, Lauren; Toms, Konstantin; Tong, Baojia(Tony); Tornambe, Peter; Torrence, Eric; Torres, Heberth; Torró Pastor, Emma; Toth, Jozsef; Touchard, Francois; Tovey, Daniel; Treado, Colleen Jennifer; Trefzger, Thomas; Tricoli, Alessandro; Trigger, Isabel Marian; Trincaz-Duvoid, Sophie; Tripiana, Martin; Trischuk, William; Trocmé, Benjamin; Trofymov, Artur; Troncon, Clara; Trottier-McDonald, Michel; Trovatelli, Monica; Truong, Loan; Trzebinski, Maciej; Trzupek, Adam; Tsang, Ka Wa; Tseng, Jeffrey; Tsiareshka, Pavel; Tsipolitis, Georgios; Tsirintanis, Nikolaos; Tsiskaridze, Shota; Tsiskaridze, Vakhtang; Tskhadadze, Edisher; Tsui, Ka Ming; Tsukerman, Ilya; Tsulaia, Vakhtang; Tsuno, Soshi; Tsybychev, Dmitri; Tu, Yanjun; Tudorache, Alexandra; Tudorache, Valentina; Tulbure, Traian Tiberiu; Tuna, Alexander Naip; Tupputi, Salvatore; Turchikhin, Semen; Turgeman, Daniel; Turk Cakir, Ilkay; Turra, Ruggero; Tuts, Michael; Ucchielli, Giulia; Ueda, Ikuo; Ughetto, Michael; Ukegawa, Fumihiko; Unal, Guillaume; Undrus, Alexander; Unel, Gokhan; Ungaro, Francesca; Unno, Yoshinobu; Unverdorben, Christopher; Urban, Jozef; Urquijo, Phillip; Urrejola, Pedro; Usai, Giulio; Usui, Junya; Vacavant, Laurent; Vacek, Vaclav; Vachon, Brigitte; Valderanis, Chrysostomos; Valdes Santurio, Eduardo; Valencic, Nika; Valentinetti, Sara; Valero, Alberto; Valéry, Lo\\"ic; Valkar, Stefan; Vallier, Alexis; Valls Ferrer, Juan Antonio; Van Den Wollenberg, Wouter; van der Graaf, Harry; van Eldik, Niels; van Gemmeren, Peter; Van Nieuwkoop, Jacobus; van Vulpen, Ivo; van Woerden, Marius Cornelis; Vanadia, Marco; Vandelli, Wainer; Vanguri, Rami; Vaniachine, Alexandre; Vankov, Peter; Vardanyan, Gagik; Vari, Riccardo; Varnes, Erich; Varni, Carlo; Varol, Tulin; Varouchas, Dimitris; Vartapetian, Armen; Varvell, Kevin; Vasquez, Jared Gregory; Vasquez, Gerardo; Vazeille, Francois; Vazquez Schroeder, Tamara; Veatch, Jason; Veeraraghavan, Venkatesh; Veloce, Laurelle Maria; Veloso, Filipe; Veneziano, Stefano; Ventura, Andrea; Venturi, Manuela; Venturi, Nicola; Venturini, Alessio; Vercesi, Valerio; Verducci, Monica; Verkerke, Wouter; Vermeulen, Jos; Vetterli, Michel; Viaux Maira, Nicolas; Viazlo, Oleksandr; Vichou, Irene; Vickey, Trevor; Vickey Boeriu, Oana Elena; Viehhauser, Georg; Viel, Simon; Vigani, Luigi; Villa, Mauro; Villaplana Perez, Miguel; Vilucchi, Elisabetta; Vincter, Manuella; Vinogradov, Vladimir; Vishwakarma, Akanksha; Vittori, Camilla; Vivarelli, Iacopo; Vlachos, Sotirios; Vlasak, Michal; Vogel, Marcelo; Vokac, Petr; Volpi, Guido; Volpi, Matteo; von der Schmitt, Hans; von Toerne, Eckhard; Vorobel, Vit; Vorobev, Konstantin; Vos, Marcel; Voss, Rudiger; Vossebeld, Joost; Vranjes, Nenad; Vranjes Milosavljevic, Marija; Vrba, Vaclav; Vreeswijk, Marcel; Vuillermet, Raphael; Vukotic, Ilija; Wagner, Peter; Wagner, Wolfgang; Wahlberg, Hernan; Wahrmund, Sebastian; Wakabayashi, Jun; Walder, James; Walker, Rodney; Walkowiak, Wolfgang; Wallangen, Veronica; Wang, Chao; Wang, Chao; Wang, Fuquan; Wang, Haichen; Wang, Hulin; Wang, Jike; Wang, Jin; Wang, Qing; Wang, Rui; Wang, Song-Ming; Wang, Tingting; Wang, Wei; Wang, Wenxiao; Wang, Zirui; Wanotayaroj, Chaowaroj; Warburton, Andreas; Ward, Patricia; Wardrope, David Robert; Washbrook, Andrew; Watkins, Peter; Watson, Alan; Watson, Miriam; Watts, Gordon; Watts, Stephen; Waugh, Ben; Webb, Aaron Foley; Webb, Samuel; Weber, Michele; Weber, Stefan Wolf; Weber, Stephen; Webster, Jordan S; Weidberg, Anthony; Weinert, Benjamin; Weingarten, Jens; Weiser, Christian; Weits, Hartger; Wells, Phillippa; Wenaus, Torre; Wengler, Thorsten; Wenig, Siegfried; Wermes, Norbert; Werner, Michael David; Werner, Per; Wessels, Martin; Whalen, Kathleen; Whallon, Nikola Lazar; Wharton, Andrew Mark; White, Andrew; White, Martin; White, Ryan; Whiteson, Daniel; Wickens, Fred; Wiedenmann, Werner; Wielers, Monika; Wiglesworth, Craig; Wiik-Fuchs, Liv Antje Mari; Wildauer, Andreas; Wilk, Fabian; Wilkens, Henric George; Williams, Hugh; Williams, Sarah; Willis, Christopher; Willocq, Stephane; Wilson, John; Wingerter-Seez, Isabelle; Winklmeier, Frank; Winston, Oliver James; Winter, Benedict Tobias; Wittgen, Matthias; Wobisch, Markus; Wolf, Tim Michael Heinz; Wolff, Robert; Wolter, Marcin Wladyslaw; Wolters, Helmut; Worm, Steven; Wosiek, Barbara; Wotschack, Jorg; Woudstra, Martin; Wozniak, Krzysztof; Wu, Miles; Wu, Sau Lan; Wu, Xin; Wu, Yusheng; Wyatt, Terry Richard; Wynne, Benjamin; Xella, Stefania; Xi, Zhaoxu; Xia, Ligang; Xu, Da; Xu, Lailin; Yabsley, Bruce; Yacoob, Sahal; Yamaguchi, Daiki; Yamaguchi, Yohei; Yamamoto, Akira; Yamamoto, Shimpei; Yamanaka, Takashi; Yamauchi, Katsuya; Yamazaki, Yuji; Yan, Zhen; Yang, Haijun; Yang, Hongtao; Yang, Yi; Yang, Zongchang; Yao, Weiming; Yap, Yee Chinn; Yasu, Yoshiji; Yatsenko, Elena; Yau Wong, Kaven Henry; Ye, Jingbo; Ye, Shuwei; Yeletskikh, Ivan; Yigitbasi, Efe; Yildirim, Eda; Yorita, Kohei; Yoshihara, Keisuke; Young, Charles; Young, Christopher John; Youssef, Saul; Yu, David Ren-Hwa; Yu, Jaehoon; Yu, Jie; Yuan, Li; Yuen, Stephanie P; Yusuff, Imran; Zabinski, Bartlomiej; Zacharis, Georgios; Zaidan, Remi; Zaitsev, Alexander; Zakharchuk, Nataliia; Zalieckas, Justas; Zaman, Aungshuman; Zambito, Stefano; Zanzi, Daniele; Zeitnitz, Christian; Zeman, Martin; Zemla, Andrzej; Zeng, Jian Cong; Zeng, Qi; Zenin, Oleg; Ženiš, Tibor; Zerwas, Dirk; Zhang, Dongliang; Zhang, Fangzhou; Zhang, Guangyi; Zhang, Huijun; Zhang, Jinlong; Zhang, Lei; Zhang, Liqing; Zhang, Matt; Zhang, Rui; Zhang, Ruiqi; Zhang, Xueyao; Zhang, Yu; Zhang, Zhiqing; Zhao, Xiandong; Zhao, Yongke; Zhao, Zhengguo; Zhemchugov, Alexey; Zhong, Jiahang; Zhou, Bing; Zhou, Chen; Zhou, Li; Zhou, Maosen; Zhou, Mingliang; Zhou, Ning; Zhu, Cheng Guang; Zhu, Hongbo; Zhu, Junjie; Zhu, Yingchun; Zhuang, Xuai; Zhukov, Konstantin; Zibell, Andre; Zieminska, Daria; Zimine, Nikolai; Zimmermann, Christoph; Zimmermann, Stephanie; Zinonos, Zinonas; Zinser, Markus; Ziolkowski, Michael; Živković, Lidija; Zobernig, Georg; Zoccoli, Antonio; Zou, Rui; zur Nedden, Martin; Zwalinski, Lukasz


    Light-by-light scattering ($\\gamma\\gamma\\rightarrow\\gamma\\gamma$) is a quantum-mechanical process that is forbidden in the classical theory of electrodynamics. This reaction is accessible at the Large Hadron Collider thanks to the large electromagnetic field strengths generated by ultra-relativistic colliding lead (Pb) ions. Using 480 $\\mu$b$^{-1}$ of Pb+Pb collision data recorded at a centre-of-mass energy per nucleon pair of 5.02 TeV by the ATLAS detector, the ATLAS Collaboration reports evidence for the $\\gamma\\gamma\\rightarrow\\gamma\\gamma$ reaction. A total of 13 candidate events are observed with an expected background of $2.6\\pm0.7$ events. After background subtraction and analysis corrections, the fiducial cross section of the process $\\textrm{Pb+Pb}\\,(\\gamma\\gamma)\\rightarrow \\textrm{Pb}^{(\\ast)}\\textrm{+}\\textrm{Pb}^{(\\ast)}\\,\\gamma\\gamma$, for photon transverse energy $E_{\\mathrm{T}}>3$ GeV, photon absolute pseudorapidity $|\\eta|<2.4$, diphoton invariant mass greater than 6 GeV, diphoton transver...

  14. Demonstration Assessment of Light-Emitting Diode (LED) Roadway Lighting, I-35W Bridge, Minneapolis, Minnesota, Phase II Report

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Kinzey, B. R. [Pacific Northwest National Lab. (PNNL), Richland, WA (United States); Davis, R. G. [Pacific Northwest National Lab. (PNNL), Richland, WA (United States)


    On the I-35W Bridge in Minneapolis, Minnesota, the GATEWAY program conducted a two-phase demonstration of LED roadway lighting on the main span, which is one of the country's oldest continuously operated exterior LED lighting installations. The Phase II report documents longer-term performance of the LED lighting system that was installed in 2008, and is the first report on the longer-term performance of LED lighting in the field.

  15. Optimization of a coherent soft x-ray beamline for coherent scattering experiments at NSLS-II

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Shapiro D.; Chubar, O.; Kaznatcheev, K.; Reininger, R.; Sanchez-Hanke, C.; Wang, S.


    The coherent soft x-ray and full polarization control (CSX) beamline at the National Synchrotron Light Source - II (NSLS-II) will deliver 1013 coherent photons per second in the energy range of 0.2-2 keV with a resolving power of 2000. The source, a dual elliptically polarizing undulator (EPU), and beamline optics should be optimized to deliver the highest possible coherent flux in a 10-30 {micro}m spot for use in coherent scattering experiments. Using the computer code Synchrotron Radiation Workshop (SRW), we simulate the photon source and focusing optics in order to investigate the conditions which provide the highest usable coherent intensity on the sample. In particular, we find that an intermediate phasing magnet is needed to correct for the relative phase between the two EPUs and that the optimum phase setting produces a spectrum in which the desired wavelength is slightly red-shifted thus requiring a larger aperture than originally anticipated. This setting is distinct from that which produces an on-axis spectrum similar to a single long undulator. Furthermore, partial coherence calculations, utilizing a multiple electron approach, indicate that a high degree of spatial coherence is still obtained at the sample location when such an aperture is used. The aperture size which maximizes the signal-to-noise ratio of a double-slit experiment is explored. This combination of high coherence and intensity is ideally suited for x-ray ptychography experiments which reconstruct the scattering density from micro-diffraction patterns. This technique is briefly reviewed and the effects on the image quality of proximity to the beamline focus are explored.

  16. On-axis microscopes for the inelastic x-ray scattering beamline at NSLS-II

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Gofron, K. J., E-mail:; Cai, Y. Q.; Coburn, D. S.; Antonelli, S.; Suvorov, A. [National Synchrotron Light Source II, Brookhaven National Laboratory, Upton, NY 11973 (United States); Flores, J. [Department of Physics and Astronomy, Stony Brook University, NY 11794 (United States)


    A novel on-axis X-ray microscope with 3 µm resolution, 3x magnification, and a working distance of 600 mm for in-situ sample alignment and X-ray beam visualization for the Inelastic X-ray Scattering (IXS) beamline at NSLS-II is presented. The microscope uses reflective optics, which minimizes dispersion, and allows imaging from Ultraviolet (UV) to Infrared (IR) with specifically chosen objective components (coatings, etc.). Additionally, a portable high resolution X-ray microscope for KB mirror alignment and X-ray beam characterization was developed.

  17. Structure of PEP-PEO block copolymer micelles: Exploiting the complementarity of small-angle X-ray scattering and static light scattering

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Jensen, Grethe Vestergaard; Shi, Qing; Hernansanz, María J.


    . The present work shows that the same information can be obtained by combining static light scattering (SLS) and small-angle X-ray scattering (SAXS), which provide information on, respectively, large and short length scales. Micelles of a series of block copolymers of poly(ethylene propylene)-b-poly(ethylene...... oxide) (PEP-PEO) in a 70% ethanol solution are investigated. The polymers have identical PEP blocks of 5.0 kDa and varying PEO blocks of 2.8-49 kDa. The SLS contrasts of PEP and PEO are similar, providing a homogeneous contrast, making SLS ideal for determining the overall micelle morphology. The SAXS...

  18. Structures and interactions among globular proteins above the isoelectric point in the presence of divalent ions: A small angle neutron scattering and dynamic light scattering study (United States)

    Kundu, Sarathi; Pandit, Subhankar; Abbas, Sohrab; Aswal, V. K.; Kohlbrecher, J.


    Small angle neutron scattering study reveals that at pD ≈ 7.0, above the isoelectric point of the globular protein Bovine Serum Albumin (BSA), in the presence of different divalent ions (Mg2+, Ca2+, Sr2+ and Ba2+), the short-range attractive interaction remains nearly constant and the intermediate-range repulsive interaction decreases with increasing salt concentration up to a certain concentration value but after that remains unchanged. However, for the monovalent ion (Na+), repulsive interaction decreases gradually up to 1 M salt concentration. Dynamic light scattering study shows that for all ions, diffusion coefficient of BSA decreases with increasing salt concentration and then nearly saturates.

  19. Theoretical description of light scattering by a collection of nonlinear Kerr particles (United States)

    van Wonderen, A. J.


    We theoretically study multiple scattering of monochromatic light by a collection of spheres that can freely move in a background medium. The spheres contain an optical nonlinearity of the Kerr type. Employing diagrammatic methods we construct the iterative solution of the nonlinear scalar wave equation that describes the electromagnetic radiation field inside the sacttering medium. The ensuing diagrammatic series for the amplitude of the radiation field is averaged over all possible configurations of the scatterers. Subsequently, it is proved that the average amplitude satisfies a nonlinear equation that is the counterpart of the usual Dyson equation. For the case of point scatterers that do not absorb light we obtain solutions of our nonlinear Dyson equation. They predict that as a result of auto-Kerr and backscattering effects, the system can become unstable. Furthermore, we find that it is possible to bleach the scatterers. Finally, the influence of nonlinear absorption on the average amplitude is investigated. Nous présentons une étude théorique de la diffusion multiple d'une lumière monochromatique par un ensemble de sphères qui peuvent se déplacer librement dans un certain milieu. Les sphères possèdent une nonlinéarité optique de type Kerr. En utilisant les methodes diagrammatiques, nous construisons la solution itérative de l'équation d'onde scalaire nonlinéaire qui décrit le champ de rayonnement électromagnétique dans le milieu désordonné. On moyenne la série diagrammatique pour l'amplitude du champ rayonné sur toutes les configurations possibles des diffuseurs et on montre que l'amplitude moyenne obéit à une équation nonlinéaire qui est le pendant de l'équation de Dyson ordinaire. Dans le cas où les diffuseurs sont de petite taille et n'absorbent pas la lumière, nous trouvons des solutions de notre équation de Dyson nonlinéaire. Celles-ci montrent que, à la suite des effets auto-Kerr et des effets de la rétrodiffusion, le

  20. Aerosol Light Absorption and Scattering Assessments and the Impact of City Size on Air Pollution (United States)

    Paredes-Miranda, Guadalupe

    The general problem of urban pollution and its relation to the city population is examined in this dissertation. A simple model suggests that pollutant concentrations should scale approximately with the square root of city population. This model and its experimental evaluation presented here serve as important guidelines for urban planning and attainment of air quality standards including the limits that air pollution places on city population. The model was evaluated using measurements of air pollution. Optical properties of aerosol pollutants such as light absorption and scattering plus chemical species mass concentrations were measured with a photoacoustic spectrometer, a reciprocal nephelometer, and an aerosol mass spectrometer in Mexico City in the context of the multinational project "Megacity Initiative: Local And Global Research Observations (MILAGRO)" in March 2006. Aerosol light absorption and scattering measurements were also obtained for Reno and Las Vegas, NV USA in December 2008-March 2009 and January-February 2003, respectively. In all three cities, the morning scattering peak occurs a few hours later than the absorption peak due to the formation of secondary photochemically produced aerosols. In particular, for Mexico City we determined the fraction of photochemically generated secondary aerosols to be about 75% of total aerosol mass concentration at its peak near midday. The simple 2-d box model suggests that commonly emitted primary air pollutant (e.g., black carbon) mass concentrations scale approximately as the square root of the urban population. This argument extends to the absorption coefficient, as it is approximately proportional to the black carbon mass concentration. Since urban secondary pollutants form through photochemical reactions involving primary precursors, in linear approximation their mass concentration also should scale with the square root of population. Therefore, the scattering coefficient, a proxy for particulate matter

  1. Visible light scattering properties of irregularly shaped silica microparticles using laser based laboratory simulations for remote sensing and medical applications (United States)

    Boruah, Manash J.; Ahmed, Gazi A.


    Laser based experimental light scattering studies of irregularly shaped silica microparticles have been performed at three incident wavelengths 543.5 nm, 594.5 nm and 632.8 nm supported by laboratory based computations and 3D realistic simulations, using an indigenously fabricated light scattering setup. A comparative analysis of the computational and experimentally acquired results is done and a good agreement is found in the forward scattering lobes in all cases for each of the measured scattering parameters. This study also provides an efficient way of detecting and measuring particle size distribution for irregular micro- and nanoparticles and is highly applicable in remote sensing, atmospheric, astrophysical, and medical applications and also for finding potential health hazards in the form of inhalable and respirable small particulate matter.

  2. Light Scattering by a Dielectric Sphere: Perspectives on the Mie Resonances

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Dimitrios Tzarouchis


    Full Text Available Light scattering by a small spherical particle, a central topic for electromagnetic scattering theory, is here considered. In this short review, some of the basic features of its resonant scattering behavior are covered. First, a general physical picture is described by a full electrodynamic perspective, the Lorenz–Mie theory. The resonant spectrum of a dielectric sphere reveals the existence of two distinctive types of polarization enhancement: the plasmonic and the dielectric resonances. The corresponding electrostatic (Rayleigh picture is analyzed and the polarizability of a homogeneous spherical inclusion is extracted. This description facilitates the identification of the first type of resonance, i.e., the localized surface plasmon (plasmonic resonance, as a function of the permittivity. Moreover, the electrostatic picture is linked with the plasmon hybridization model through the case of a step-inhomogeneous structure, i.e., a core–shell sphere. The connections between the electrostatic and electrodynamic models are reviewed in the small size limit and details on size-induced aspects, such as the dynamic depolarization and the radiation reaction on a small sphere are exposed through the newly introduced Mie–Padé approximative perspective. The applicability of this approximation is further expanded including the second type of resonances, i.e., the dielectric resonances. For this type of resonances, the Mie–Padé approximation reveals the main character of the two different cases of resonances of either magnetic or electric origin. A unified picture is therefore described encompassing both plasmonic and dielectric resonances, and the resonant conditions of all three different types are extracted as functions of the permittivity and the size of the sphere. Lastly, the directional scattering behavior of the first two dielectric resonances is exposed in a simple manner, namely the Kerker conditions for maximum forward and

  3. Scattering Light by а Cylindrical Capsule with Arbitrary End Caps in the Rayleigh-Gans-Debye Approximation

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    K. A. Shapovalov


    Full Text Available The paper concerns the light scattering problem of biological objects of complicated structure.It considers optically “soft” (having a refractive index close to that of a surrounding medium homogeneous cylindrical capsules, composed of three parts: central one that is cylindrical and two symmetrical rounding end caps. Such capsules can model more broad class of biological objects than the ordinary shapes of a spheroid or sphere. But, unfortunately, if a particle has other than a regular geometrical shape, then it is very difficult or impossible to solve the scattering problem analytically in its most general form that oblige us to use numerical and approximate analytical methods. The one of such approximate analytical method is the Rayleigh-Gans-Debye approximation (or the first Born approximation.So, the Rayleigh-Gans-Debye approximation is valid for different objects having size from nanometer to millimeter and depending on wave length and refractive index of an object under small phase shift of central ray.The formulas for light scattering amplitude of cylindrical capsule with arbitrary end caps in the Rayleigh-Gans-Debye approximation in scalar form are obtained. Then the light scattering phase function [or element of scattering matrix f11] for natural incident light (unpolarized or arbitrary polarized light is calculated.Numerical results for light scattering phase functions of cylindrical capsule with conical, spheroidal, paraboloidal ends in the Rayleigh-Gans-Debye approximation are compared. Also numerical results for light scattering phase function of cylindrical capsule with conical ends in the Rayleigh-Gans-Debye approximation and in the method of Purcell-Pennypacker (or Discrete Dipole method are compared. The good agreement within an application range of the RayleighGans-Debye approximation is obtained.Further continuation of the work, perhaps, is a consideration of multilayer cylindrical capsule in the Rayleigh

  4. Heavy particle transfer interpretation for anomalous scattering of α-particles from light 4n-nuclei

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Coelho, H.T.; Das, T.K.


    It is shown, by direct calculation, that the heavy-particle-transfer (HPT) model of backward elastic α-particle scattering, together with the assumption of α-cluster structure for the 4n light nuclei involved in the process, is capable of explaining the anomalous large backward peak in elastic α-scattering from 4n target nuclei. Discussions are made concerning possible higher order contributions [pt

  5. Osmotic virial coefficients for model protein and colloidal solutions: Importance of ensemble constraints in the analysis of light scattering data (United States)

    Siderius, Daniel W.; Krekelberg, William P.; Roberts, Christopher J.; Shen, Vincent K.


    Protein-protein interactions in solution may be quantified by the osmotic second virial coefficient (OSVC), which can be measured by various experimental techniques including light scattering. Analysis of Rayleigh light scattering measurements from such experiments requires identification of a scattering volume and the thermodynamic constraints imposed on that volume, i.e., the statistical mechanical ensemble in which light scattering occurs. Depending on the set of constraints imposed on the scattering volume, one can obtain either an apparent OSVC, A2,app, or the true thermodynamic OSVC, {B_{22}^{osm}}, that is rigorously defined in solution theory [M. A. Blanco, E. Sahin, Y. Li, and C. J. Roberts, J. Chem. Phys. 134, 225103 (2011), 10.1063/1.3596726]. However, it is unclear to what extent A2,app and {B_{22}^{osm}} differ, which may have implications on the physical interpretation of OSVC measurements from light scattering experiments. In this paper, we use the multicomponent hard-sphere model and a well-known equation of state to directly compare A2,app and {B_{22}^{osm}}. Our results from the hard-sphere equation of state indicate that A2,app underestimates {B_{22}^{osm}}, but in a systematic manner that may be explained using fundamental thermodynamic expressions for the two OSVCs. The difference between A2,app and {B_{22}^{osm}} may be quantitatively significant, but may also be obscured in experimental application by statistical uncertainty or non-steric interactions. Consequently, the two OSVCs that arise in the analysis of light scattering measurements do formally differ, but in a manner that may not be detectable in actual application.

  6. Interplay of valley selection and helicity exchange of light in Raman scattering for graphene and MoS2 (United States)

    Tatsumi, Yuki; Saito, Riichiro


    Raman spectra of graphene and MoS2 are calculated for incident and scattered circularly polarized light. In the case of graphene, the well known G -band Raman spectra have a not well known property that the helicity of the incident circularly polarized light changes to another helicity in the scattered light. Using the electron-photon and electron-phonon matrix elements by first-principles calculation, we calculate resonant Raman spectra of graphene and MoS2 for circularly polarized light which are compared with recent experiments. The Raman intensity for circularly polarized light is relevant to optical valley polarization in the case of MoS2. We also discuss how the helicity-selection rule can be modified by applying stress to graphene.

  7. Light scattering by clouds of cosmic dust analogues with carbonaceous compounds (PROGRA2 experiment) (United States)

    Hadamcik, Edith; Renard, Jean-Baptiste; Levasseur-Regourd, Anny-Chantal; Lasue, Jeremie

    Carbonaceous compounds are found in numerous clouds of solid particles in the Solar System (e.g. Cometary comae, Interplanetary dust, Titan's aerosols). Fluffy aggregates of submicron sized grains and more compact particles up to some tens of micrometers were present in the particles captured by the Stardust mission in the coma of comet 81P/Wild 2 [1]. Complex organic refractories were found in the particles together with silicates [2,3], while CHON particles were detected by mass spectrometer, as previously by Vega 1 and Giotto at 1P/Halley [4,5]. Titan's aerosols are complex organics (CxNyHz) and their light scattering properties can only be interpreted if they present a fluffy aggregates structure [6]. The light scattered by the dust particles is partially linearly polarized with a polarization degree depending on the physical properties of the dust and on the geometry (phase angle) and wavelength of observations [7]. Laboratory scattering measurements with the PROGRA2 experiment [8] (in A300- CNES and ESA dedicated microgravity flights or on ground for low density particles) offer an alternative to simulate the scattering properties of real particles particularly for structures too large or too complex to be handled easily by numerical simulations. Experimental simulations have been performed on numerous samples underlying the characteristics of the polarimetric phase curves such as maximum and minimum polarization as a function of the properties of the particles (grains and particles size, structure, refractive index) [9,10]. These results were used to interpret variations in polarization in cometary comae [11,12] or in the Titan's atmosphere [13]. In this presentation we emphasize the optical properties due to the presence of organics and C-bearing materials and compare them to the optical properties of more transparent materials included or not in organics. Finally we give some examples of application to the interpretation of Solar System dust observations

  8. Multiple scattering of light by densely packed random media of spherical particles: Dense media vector radiative transfer equation

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Tishkovets, Victor P.; Jockers, Klaus


    The theory of light scattering by systems of spherical particles is applied to study the light scattering by discrete random media. A microphysical approach of statistical electromagnetics is used to derive the vector radiative transfer equation for semi-infinite densely packed media composed of identical spherical particles. The equation obtained corresponds to the sum of the ladder diagrams in the diagrammatic representation of the Bethe-Salpeter equation. The new vector radiative transfer equation is compared with that for sparse media. The effective refractive index as it enters in our equation is calculated from the known generalization of the Lorentz-Lorenz equation. Some numerical results of calculations of the reflection matrix are presented and compared with those for sparse media. The differences between the theoretical description of light scattering by closely packed and sparse media are discussed in detail

  9. Passivated gel electrophoresis of charged nanospheres by light-scattering video tracking. (United States)

    Zhu, Xiaoming; Mason, Thomas G


    Gel electrophoresis (gel-EP) has been used for decades to separate charged biopolymers, such as DNA, RNA, and proteins, yet propagation of other charged colloidal objects, such as nanoparticles, during gel-EP has been studied comparatively little. Simply introducing anionic nanoparticles, such as sulfate-stabilized polystyrene nanospheres, in standard large-pore agarose gels commonly used for biomolecules does not automatically ensure propagation or size-separation because attractive interactions can exist between the gel and the nanoparticles. Whereas altering the surfaces of the nanoparticles is a possible solution, here, by contrast, we show that treating a common type I-A low-electroendoosmosis agarose gel with a passivation agent, such as poly-(ethyleneglycol), enables charged nanoparticles to propagate through large-pore passivated gels in a highly reproducible manner. Moreover, by taking advantage of the significant optical scattering from the nanoparticles, which is not easily measurable for biopolymers, relative to scattering from the gel, we perform real-time, light-scattering, video-tracking gel-EP. Continuous optical measurements of the propagation of bands of uniformly sized nanospheres in passivated gels provides the propagation distance, L, and velocity, v, as a function of time for different sphere radii, electric field strengths, gel concentrations, and passivation agent concentrations. The steady-state particle velocities vary linearly with applied electric field strength, E, for small E, but these velocities become non-linear for larger E, suggesting that strongly driven nanoparticles can become elastically trapped in the smaller pores of the gel, which act like blind holes, in a manner that thermal fluctuations cannot overcome. Based on this assumption, we introduce a simple model that fits the measured v(E) in both linear and non-linear regimes over a relevant range of applied voltages. Copyright © 2014 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  10. First Scattered-light Images of the Gas-rich Debris Disk around 49 Ceti

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Choquet, Élodie [Jet Propulsion Laboratory, California Institute of Technology, 4800 Oak Grove Drive, Pasadena, CA 91109 (United States); Milli, Julien; Wahhaj, Zahed [European Southern Observatory, Alonso de Còrdova 3107, Vitacura, Casilla 19001, Santiago (Chile); Soummer, Rémi; Chen, Christine H.; Debes, John H. [Space Telescope Science Institute, 3700 San Martin Drive, Baltimore, MD 21218 (United States); Roberge, Aki [Exoplanets and Stellar Astrophysics Laboratory, NASA Goddard Space Flight Center, Code 667, Greenbelt, MD 20771 (United States); Augereau, Jean-Charles [Univ. Grenoble Alpes, CNRS, IPAG, F-38000 Grenoble (France); Booth, Mark [Astrophysikalisches Institut und Universitätssternwarte, Friedrich-Schiller-Universität Jena, Schillergäßchen 2-3, D-07745 Jena (Germany); Absil, Olivier [Space sciences, Technologies and Astrophysics Research (STAR) Institute, Université de Liège, 19 Allée du Six Août, B-4000 Liège (Belgium); Boccaletti, Anthony [LESIA, Observatoire de Paris, PSL Research University, CNRS, Sorbonne Universités, UPMC Univ. Paris 06, Univ. Paris Diderot, Sorbonne Paris Cité, 5 place Jules Janssen, F-92195 Meudon (France); Burgo, Carlos del, E-mail: [Instituto Nacional de Astrofísica, Óptica y Electrónica, Luis Enrique Erro 1, Sta. Ma. Tonantzintla, Puebla (Mexico); and others


    We present the first scattered-light images of the debris disk around 49 Ceti, a ∼40 Myr A1 main-sequence star at 59 pc, famous for hosting two massive dust belts as well as large quantities of atomic and molecular gas. The outer disk is revealed in reprocessed archival Hubble Space Telescope NICMOS-F110W images, as well as new coronagraphic H-band images from the Very Large Telescope SPHERE instrument. The disk extends from 1.″1 (65 au) to 4.″6 (250 au) and is seen at an inclination of 73°, which refines previous measurements at lower angular resolution. We also report no companion detection larger than 3 M {sub Jup} at projected separations beyond 20 au from the star (0.″34). Comparison between the F110W and H-band images is consistent with a gray color of 49 Ceti’s dust, indicating grains larger than ≳2 μ m. Our photometric measurements indicate a scattering efficiency/infrared excess ratio of 0.2–0.4, relatively low compared to other characterized debris disks. We find that 49 Ceti presents morphological and scattering properties very similar to the gas-rich HD 131835 system. From our constraint on the disk inclination we find that the atomic gas previously detected in absorption must extend to the inner disk, and that the latter must be depleted of CO gas. Building on previous studies, we propose a schematic view of the system describing the dust and gas structure around 49 Ceti and hypothetical scenarios for the gas nature and origin.

  11. Particle size and shape analysis using light scattering, Coulter principle, and image analysis

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Xu, R.; Di Guida, A.


    Particle size and shape analyses have become important tools for research and applications in a broad spectrum of industries such as pharmaceuticals, metallurgic, ceramics, food and beverage, plastics, petrochemical, clinical, etc. Two of the most utilized technologies for sizing particulate materials are laser diffraction (LD) and electrical sensing zone (ESZ) methods. In a LD experiment, particle size distribution is retrieved from the measured scattering intensity as a function of scattering angle and light wavelength based on the assumption that all particles are spheres. In ESZ measurement, the volume of each individual particle is determined by the change in the resistance of electrolyte while particles flow through an orifice to which a voltage is applied; the particle size distribution is then deduced based on a spherical assumption. Lately, another powerful means for characterizing particles, dynamic image analysis (DIA), has been shown to be able to provide both size and shape information of particulate materials. For real industrial materials, rarely are particles spheres. The effect of non-sphericity in different technologies varies causing discrepancies in results and bias from true characteristics of the sample. Systematic studies of shape effects in particle characterization are few. In this study, samples consisting of particles of the same regular shape are studied using the three technologies (LD, ESZ, and DIA). General conclusions regarding the bias, resolution, reproducibility, and predicted discrepancies from measurements using these technologies are deduced to provide a useful guideline for practical applications of these popular technologies to non-spherical samples

  12. Evaluation of anemia diagnosis based on elastic light scattering (Conference Presentation) (United States)

    Tong, Lieshu; Wang, Xinrui; Xie, Dengling; Chen, Xiaoya; Chu, Kaiqin; Dou, Hu; Smith, Zachary J.


    Currently, one-third of humanity is still suffering from anemia. In China the most common forms of anemia are iron deficiency and Thalassemia minor. Differentiating these two is the key to effective treatment. Iron deficiency is caused by malnutrition and can be cured by iron supplementation. Thalassemia is a hereditary disease in which the hemoglobin β chain is lowered or absent. Iron therapy is not effective, and there is evidence that iron therapy may be harmful to patients with Thalassemia. Both anemias can be diagnosed using red blood cell morphology: Iron deficiency presents a smaller mean cell volume compared to normal cells, but with a wide distribution; Thalassemia, meanwhile, presents a very small cell size and tight particle size distribution. Several researchers have proposed diagnostic indices based on red cell morphology to differentiate these two diseases. However, these indices lack sensitivity and specificity and are constructed without statistical rigor. Using multivariate methods we demonstrate a new classification method based on red cell morphology that diagnoses anemia in a Chinese population with enough accuracy for its use as a screening method. We further demonstrate a low cost instrument that precisely measures red cell morphology using elastic light scattering. This instrument is combined with an automated analysis program that processes scattering data to report red cell morphology without the need for user intervention. Despite using consumer-grade components, when comparing our experimental results with gold-standard measurements, the device can still achieve the high precision required for sensing clinically significant changes in red cell morphology.

  13. Size matters: Influence of multiple scattering on CALIPSO light-extinction profiling in desert dust (United States)

    Wandinger, U.; Tesche, M.; Seifert, P.; Ansmann, A.; Müller, D.; Althausen, D.


    We investigate the discrepancies in measurements of light extinction and extinction-to-backsatter ratio (lidar ratio) of desert dust with CALIPSO and ground-based lidar systems. Multiwavelength polarization Raman lidar measurements in the Saharan dust plume performed at Praia, Cape Verde, 15.0°N, 23.5°W, during SAMUM-2 in June 2008 were analyzed and compared to results of nearby CALIPSO overflights. The particle extinction coefficients and thus the optical depth are underestimated in the CALIPSO products by about 30% compared to Raman lidar measurements. A pre-defined lidar ratio of 40 sr at 532 nm is used for mineral dust in the CALIPSO algorithms in agreement with values of 41 ± 6 sr found from constrained retrievals. However, the ground-based lidar observations show much larger values of the order of 55 ± 10 sr. The discrepancies can be explained by the influence of multiple scattering which is ignored in the CALIPSO retrievals. Based on recent observations of the size distribution of dust particles from airborne in-situ observations during SAMUM-1, our model calculations show that the multiple-scattering-related underestimation of the extinction coefficient in the CALIPSO lidar signals ranges from 10%-40%. We propose a method to overcome this underestimation.

  14. Turbulence in Wendelstein 7-AS plasmas measured by collective light scattering

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Basse, Nils Plesner


    This Ph.D. thesis contains theoretical and experimental work on plasma turbulence measurements using collective light scattering. The motivation for measuring turbulence in hot fusion plasmas is, along with the method used and results obtained, the subject of chapter 1. The theoretical part is divided into three chapters. Chapter 2 contains a full analytical derivation of the expected dependency of the detected signal on plasma parameters. Thereafter, spatial resolution of the measurements using different methods is treated in chapter 3. Finally, the spectral analysis tools used later in the thesis are described and illustrated in chapter 4. The experimental part is divided into four chapters. In chapter 5 transport concepts relevant to the thesis are outlined. Main parameters of the Wendelstein 7-AS (W7-AS) stellarator in which measurements were made are collected in chapter 6. The setup used to study fluctuations in the electron density of W7-AS plasmas is covered in chapter 7. This localised turbulence scattering (LOTUS) diagnostic is based on a CO 2 laser radiating at a wavelength of 10.59 μm. Fast, heterodyne, dual volume detection at variable wavenumbers between 14 and 62 cm -1 is performed. The central chapter of the thesis, chapter 8, contains an analysis of the measured density fluctuations before, during and after several confinement transition types. The aim was to achieve a better understanding of the connection between turbulence and the confinement quality of the plasma. Conclusions and suggestions for further work are summarised in chapter 9. (au)

  15. Brillouin Light Scattering from Magnetic Excitations in Superparamagnetic and Ferromagnetic Co-Al-O Granular Films (United States)

    Yoshihara, Akira; Maeda, Toshiteru; Kawamura, Satoshi; Nakamura, Shintaro; Nojima, Tsutomu; Takeda, Yoshihiko; Ohnuma, Shigehiro


    A systematic study of Brillouin light scattering (BLS) from superparamagnetic (SPM) and ferromagnetic (FM) Co-Al-O granular films was performed under magnetic fields of up to 4.6 kOe in the standard backscattering geometry at room temperature. The SPM and FM boundary, defined as the Co composition at which the exchange field vanishes, was found to be located at xC(Co) = 59.3 ± 1.3 at. %. From FM films we observed a pair of bulk spin-wave peaks on both the positive- and negative-frequency sides and a surface localized Damon-Eshbach peak only on the positive-frequency side under the present scattering conditions. From SPM films, a pair of broader but propagative excitation peaks with asymmetric intensity were observed on both frequency sides in a spectrum. We performed a numerical analysis of the BLS spectrum by employing the theory developed by Camley and Mills (CM) while retaining dipole and exchange couplings for FM films and only dipole coupling for SPM films. The CM theory successfully reproduced the observed spectrum for both SPM and FM films. The SPM spectrum exhibits a singlet-doublet peak structure similarly to an FM SW spectrum. The SPM peak stems from the dipole-coupled larger-amplitude precession motion of the granule magnetic moment around the external-field-induced magnetization.

  16. The current status of small-angle x-ray scattering beamline at Diamond Light Source

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Inoue, Katsuaki; Doutch, James; Terrill, Nick


    The small-angle X-ray scattering (SAXS) covers the major disciplines of biology, chemistry and physics delivering structural and dynamic information in nanoscience, mesoscopic architectures, supramolecular structures, and nucleation/growth of crystals. SAXS is also proving to be important in archaeological, environmental, and conservation sciences, and has further indicated its ability to span wide-ranging scientific disciplines. Thus, strong needs for SAXS studies are increasing significantly in a broad range of scientific fields year by year. Based on such a background, the demand for high throughput SAXS experiments is increasing. At the synchrotron facility, Diamond Light Source, one SAXS beamline, Non-crystalline diffraction I22 is now operational and highly automated throughput small-angle X-ray scattering (HATSAXS) beamline B21 is now under construction. I22 is the Undulator beamline and wide varieties of experiments, including time-resolved experiments are attempted. Based on the concept of HATSAXS, the key feature of B21 will focuses on the automation of end-station equipment. A automated sample changer has been purchased for solution SAXS measurements on biomolecules. A robotic-arm-type automated sample changer that is capable of handling several kinds of samples in material science is also being constructed. B21 is expected to successfully provide all users highly automated throughput measurements with the highest possible reliability and accuracy. Construction of this beamline will end in the second half of 2012, and will be open for users in the early summer of 2013 after commissioning. (author)

  17. Light scattering studies of lower dimensional colloidal particle and critical fluid systems

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    O'Sullivan, W.J.; Mockler, R.C.


    The authors have studied the response to compression of colloidal particle crystals in monolayers on the surface of water. The crystals deform elastically as the crystals are compressed in a Langmuir trough from a lattice spacing of ten microns to spacings less than two microns. A phase transition to a close packed triangular lattice phase occurs at very high densities, when the attractive van der Waals/steric interations between particles dominate. The authors have found that the aggregates formed, when a colloidal particle monolayer coagulates following switching off of the repulsive electric dipole-dipole interactions, show scale invariance with a fractal dimension consistent with the prediction of a theory of diffusion limited aggregation in two dimensions. The authors have made progress toward the development of a computer processed array detector-spectrometer to be used in studies of melting and crystallization of two dimensional colloidal particle films. Stable black bilipid membranes have been produced, both spherical and planar, with and without embedded microparticles. We have modified our heterodyne autocorrelation spectrometer, used for studies of the dynamic response of critical fluid films, to enable us to measure the intensity autocorrelation of light scattered at forward angles. Rayleigh linewidth data has been gathered from a 1.9 micron film of a 2,6-lutidine+water critical mixture, taken at a scattering angle of ten degrees. The preliminary results indicate that the film dynamical response remains that of an equivalent three dimensional system, in apparent disgreement with recent theoretical predictions of Calvo and Ferrell

  18. Dynamic Light Scattering Microrheology Reveals Multiscale Viscoelasticity of Polymer Gels and Precious Biological Materials (United States)


    The development of experimental techniques capable of probing the viscoelasticity of soft materials over a broad range of time scales is essential to uncovering the physics that governs their behavior. In this work, we develop a microrheology technique that requires only 12 μL of sample and is capable of resolving dynamic behavior ranging in time scales from 10–6 to 10 s. Our approach, based on dynamic light scattering in the single-scattering limit, enables the study of polymer gels and other soft materials over a vastly larger hierarchy of time scales than macrorheology measurements. Our technique captures the viscoelastic modulus of polymer hydrogels with a broad range of stiffnesses from 10 to 104 Pa. We harness these capabilities to capture hierarchical molecular relaxations in DNA and to study the rheology of precious biological materials that are impractical for macrorheology measurements, including decellularized extracellular matrices and intestinal mucus. The use of a commercially available benchtop setup that is already available to a variety of soft matter researchers renders microrheology measurements accessible to a broader range of users than existing techniques, with the potential to reveal the physics that underlies complex polymer hydrogels and biological materials. PMID:29296670

  19. Protein diffusion coefficients determined by macroscopic-gradient Rayleigh interferometry and dynamic light scattering. (United States)

    Annunziata, Onofrio; Buzatu, Daniela; Albright, John G


    Dynamic light scattering (DLS) is extensively used for measuring macromolecule diffusion coefficients. Contrary to classical techniques based on macroscopic concentration gradients, DLS probes microscopic fluctuations in concentration. DLS accuracy and its concordance with macroscopic-gradient techniques remains an outstanding important issue. We measured lysozyme diffusion coefficients in aqueous salt using both DLS and Rayleigh interferometry, a highly accurate macroscopic-gradient technique. The precision of our results is unprecedented. We find that our DLS values were systematically 2% higher than interferometry values. We believe that our interferometric measurements have produced the most accurate diffusion data ever reported for a protein, providing a new standard for quality control of DLS measurements. Furthermore, by interferometry, we have determined the whole diffusion coefficient matrix required for rigorously describing lysozyme-salt coupled diffusion. For the first time, we experimentally demonstrate that DLS does not provide the protein diffusion coefficient but one eigenvalue of the diffusion coefficient matrix.

  20. New class of aggregates in aqueous solution: an NMR, thermodynamic, and dynamic light scattering study. (United States)

    Sanna, Cecilia; La Mesa, Camillo; Mannina, Luisa; Stano, Pasquale; Viel, Stéphane; Segre, Annalaura


    We investigated the aggregation properties of two classes of aromatic and hydrophobic compounds, namely chloroacetamides and ethyl 3-phenyl-2-nitropropionates, in moderately concentrated aqueous solution (millimolar range). The identification of all species present in solution under specific experimental conditions was performed by 1D and 2D NMR, pulsed gradient spin-echo NMR, and dynamic light scattering techniques. Some physical-chemical properties (viscosity, surface tension, and colligative properties) of the aqueous solutions were also determined. Both classes of compounds behave quite similarly: in solution, three distinct species, namely a monomeric species, small and mobile aggregates, and large and stiff aggregates, are observed. The results give insight into a new class of aggregates, held together by pi-pi interactions, which show an unusual associative behavior in water.

  1. Dynamic light-scattering measurement of sieving polymer solutions for protein separation on SDS CE. (United States)

    Sumitomo, Keiko; Mayumi, Koichi; Yokoyama, Hideaki; Sakai, Yasuhiro; Minamikawa, Hiroyuki; Masuda, Mitsutoshi; Shimizu, Toshimi; Ito, Kohzo; Yamaguchi, Yoshinori


    We evaluated the mesh size and homogeneity of polymer network by dynamic light scattering and discussed the relationship between the physical properties of polymer network and the protein separation behavior by capillary polymer electrophoresis. We compared three kinds of sieving polymers in solutions with a wide range of molecular weights and concentrations: polyacrylamide and polyethylene oxide as flexible polymers, and hydroxyethyl cellulose as a semiflexible polymer. We found that the mobility of protein was dominated primarily by the mesh size xi, irrespective of the type of sieving polymers, and the peak spacing between protein peaks increased drastically in the range of xisieving polymers and their homogeneity of polymer network. We proposed that a polymer network with a homogenous mesh size of less than 10 nm is the best sieving medium for separation of the proteins in the molecular weight range 14,300-97,200 Da from the view point of the resolution in protein separation.

  2. Aggregation of Non Ionic Surfactant Igepal in Aqueous Solution: Fluorescence and Light Scattering Studies

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Subhash Ch. Bhattacharya


    Full Text Available Abstract: The association of the polyoxyethylene nonyl phenol (Igepal in aqueous solution has been studied. The results of the fluorescence quenching of 1-Anthracene sulphonate and Safranine T in nonionic micellar solution of Igepal have been presented. The quenching process was exploited to estimate the aggregation number of surfactant monomer. In the Igepal series the micellar aggregation number systematically varied. From the dynamic light scattering studies in micellar solution the polydispersity of the medium and the diameter of the micelles have been determined. The diameters of the micelles have been increased with increase in the molar mass of surfactants. A reasonable estimation of the surface area of the head group in different micelles has been attempted.

  3. Angle-resolved spin wave band diagrams of square antidot lattices studied by Brillouin light scattering

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Gubbiotti, G.; Tacchi, S. [Istituto Officina dei Materiali del Consiglio Nazionale delle Ricerche (IOM-CNR), Sede di Perugia, c/o Dipartimento di Fisica e Geologia, Via A. Pascoli, I-06123 Perugia (Italy); Montoncello, F.; Giovannini, L. [Dipartimento di Fisica e Scienze della Terra, Università di Ferrara, Via G. Saragat 1, I-44122 Ferrara (Italy); Madami, M.; Carlotti, G. [Dipartimento di Fisica e Geologia, Università di Perugia, Via A. Pascoli, I-06123 Perugia (Italy); Ding, J.; Adeyeye, A. O. [Information Storage Materials Laboratory, Department of Electrical and Computer Engineering, National University of Singapore, Singapore 117576 (Singapore)


    The Brillouin light scattering technique has been exploited to study the angle-resolved spin wave band diagrams of squared Permalloy antidot lattice. Frequency dispersion of spin waves has been measured for a set of fixed wave vector magnitudes, while varying the wave vector in-plane orientation with respect to the applied magnetic field. The magnonic band gap between the two most dispersive modes exhibits a minimum value at an angular position, which exclusively depends on the product between the selected wave vector magnitude and the lattice constant of the array. The experimental data are in very good agreement with predictions obtained by dynamical matrix method calculations. The presented results are relevant for magnonic devices where the antidot lattice, acting as a diffraction grating, is exploited to achieve multidirectional spin wave emission.

  4. Temperature dependence of Brillouin light scattering spectra of acoustic phonons in silicon

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Olsson, Kevin S.; Klimovich, Nikita; An, Kyongmo; Sullivan, Sean; Weathers, Annie; Shi, Li; Li, Xiaoqin


    Electrons, optical phonons, and acoustic phonons are often driven out of local equilibrium in electronic devices or during laser-material interaction processes. The need for a better understanding of such non-equilibrium transport processes has motivated the development of Raman spectroscopy as a local temperature sensor of optical phonons and intermediate frequency acoustic phonons, whereas Brillouin light scattering (BLS) has recently been explored as a temperature sensor of low-frequency acoustic phonons. Here, we report the measured BLS spectra of silicon at different temperatures. The origins of the observed temperature dependence of the BLS peak position, linewidth, and intensity are examined in order to evaluate their potential use as temperature sensors for acoustic phonons

  5. Detection of early carious lesions using contrast enhancement with coherent light scattering (speckle imaging) (United States)

    Deana, A. M.; Jesus, S. H. C.; Koshoji, N. H.; Bussadori, S. K.; Oliveira, M. T.


    Currently, dental caries still represent one of the chronic diseases with the highest prevalence and present in most countries. The interaction between light and teeth (absorption, scattering and fluorescence) is intrinsically connected to the constitution of the dental tissue. Decay induced mineral loss introduces a shift in the optical properties of the affected tissue; therefore, study of these properties may produce novel techniques aimed at the early diagnosis of carious lesions. Based on the optical properties of the enamel, we demonstrate the application of first-order spatial statistics in laser speckle imaging, allowing the detection of carious lesions in their early stages. A highlight of this noninvasive, non-destructive, real time and cost effective approach is that it allows a dentist to detect a lesion even in the absence of biofilm or moisture.

  6. The small-angle X-ray scattering beamline of the Brazilian Synchrotron Light Laboratory

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Kellermann, G.; Vicentin, F.; Tamura, E.; Rocha, M.; Tolentino, H.; Craievich, A.; Barbosa, A.; Torriani, I.


    This paper describes the small-angle scattering beamline built at the Brazilian synchrotron light laboratory (LNLS). Vertical focusing of the synchrotron beam is achieved by an elastically bent gold-plated cylindrical mirror. An asymmetric cut curved triangle-shaped silicon single crystal (111 reflection) is used for monochromatization and horizontal focusing. The mirror, monochromator optics and 2θ arm were designed to cover the spectral range between 1.0 and 2.0 A. Three slit sets, a secondary photon shutter, two beam monitors, filters and absorbers, a multi-sample holder, a vacuum path, a beam-stopper and a set of detectors are the basic components of the workstation. The stepping motors are equipped with specially designed encoders. All mechanical and pneumatic movements and detectors can be remotely controlled using a direct panel or a PC. (orig.)

  7. Studying protein binding to conjugated gold nanospheres; application of Mie light scattering to reaction kinetics. (United States)

    Lunt, E A M; Pitter, M C; Somekh, M G; O'Shea, P


    The study of protein interactions is an area of much interest, particularly towards obtaining more detailed information about biological processes. Current methods involve the use of complicated, specialised techniques which are beyond the scope of most laboratories. Here, we show how information about the binding of proteins to conjugated gold nanospheres can be obtained using straightforward experimental techniques. A Perkin Elmer LS 55 luminescence spectrometer was used to observe the changes in light scattering caused by the binding of complementary proteins to conjugated nanoparticles, measured by the intensity change over time. Mie theory simulations have been used to predict the expected observations and to quantify the changes in intensity as a function of surface coverage. Further kinetic studies have been carried out at 530 nm to obtain more detailed information about the processes involved in the binding reaction. Thus, we have demonstrated that the interaction of proteins can be studied using a straightforward method which provides information about surface coverage and reaction kinetics.

  8. An experimental study of asphaltene particle sizes in n-heptane-toluene mixtures by light scattering

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Rajagopal K.


    Full Text Available The particle size of asphaltene flocculates has been the subject of many recent studies because of its importance in the control of deposition in petroleum production and processing. We measured the size of asphaltene flocculates in toluene and toluene - n-heptane mixtures, using the light-scattering technique. The asphaltenes had been extracted from Brazilian oil from the Campos Basin, according to British Standards Method IP-143/82. The asphaltene concentration in solution ranged between 10-6 g/ml and 10-7 g/ml. Sizes was measured for a period of about 10000 minutes at a constant temperature of 20°C. We found that the average size of the particles remained constant with time and increase with an increase in amount of n-heptane. The correlation obtained for size with concentration will be useful in asphaltene precipitation models.

  9. Method of measuring blood oxygenation based on spectroscopy of diffusely scattered light (United States)

    Kleshnin, M. S.; Orlova, A. G.; Kirillin, M. Yu.; Golubyatnikov, G. Yu.; Turchin, I. V.


    A new approach to the measurement of blood oxygenation is developed and implemented, based on an original two-step algorithm reconstructing the relative concentration of biological chromophores (haemoglobin, water, lipids) from the measured spectra of diffusely scattered light at different distances from the radiation source. The numerical experiments and approbation of the proposed approach using a biological phantom have shown the high accuracy of the reconstruction of optical properties of the object in question, as well as the possibility of correct calculation of the haemoglobin oxygenation in the presence of additive noises without calibration of the measuring device. The results of the experimental studies in animals agree with the previously published results obtained by other research groups and demonstrate the possibility of applying the developed method to the monitoring of blood oxygenation in tumour tissues.

  10. Detection of early carious lesions using contrast enhancement with coherent light scattering (speckle imaging)

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Deana, A M; Jesus, S H C; Koshoji, N H; Bussadori, S K; Oliveira, M T


    Currently, dental caries still represent one of the chronic diseases with the highest prevalence and present in most countries. The interaction between light and teeth (absorption, scattering and fluorescence) is intrinsically connected to the constitution of the dental tissue. Decay induced mineral loss introduces a shift in the optical properties of the affected tissue; therefore, study of these properties may produce novel techniques aimed at the early diagnosis of carious lesions. Based on the optical properties of the enamel, we demonstrate the application of first-order spatial statistics in laser speckle imaging, allowing the detection of carious lesions in their early stages. A highlight of this noninvasive, non-destructive, real time and cost effective approach is that it allows a dentist to detect a lesion even in the absence of biofilm or moisture. (paper)

  11. Light scattering by sinusoidal surfaces: illumination windows and harmonics in standards. (United States)

    Marx, E; Lettieri, T R; Vorburger, T V


    Sinusoidal surfaces can be used as material standards to help calibrate instruments that measure the angular distribution of the intensity of light scattered by arbitrary surfaces, because the power in the diffraction peaks varies over several orders of magnitude. The calculated power in the higher-order diffraction peaks from sinusoidal surfaces expressed in terms of Bessel functions is much smaller than the values determined from angular distributions that are measured or computed from measured profiles, both of which are determined mainly by the harmonic contents of the profile. The finite size of the illuminated area, represented by an illumination window, gives rise to a background that is much larger than the calculated power in the higher-order peaks. For a rectangular window of a size equal to an even number of periods of the sinusoid, a computation of the power distribution produces minima at or near the location of the diffraction angles for higher-order diffraction angles.

  12. Investigation of light scattering characteristics of individual leukocytes using three-dimensional refractive index maps (United States)

    Sung, Kung-Bin; Lin, Yang-Hsien; Lin, Fong-jheng; Hsieh, Chao-Mao; Wu, Shang-Ju


    Three-dimensional (3D) refractive-index (RI) microscopy is an emerging technique suitable for live-cell imaging due to its label-free and fast 3D imaging capabilities. We have developed a common-path system to acquire 3D RI microscopic images of cells with excellent speed and stability. After obtaining 3D RI distributions of individual leukocytes, we used a 3D finite-difference time-domain tool to study light scattering properties. Backscattering spectra of lymphocytes, monocytes and neutrophils are different from each other. Backscattering spectra of lymphocytes matched well with those of homogeneous spheres as predicted by Mie theory while backscattering spectra of neutrophils are significantly more intense than those of the other two types. This suggests the possibility of classifying the three types of leukocytes based on backscattering.

  13. Elastic removal self-shielding factors for light and medium nuclides with strong-resonance scattering

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Nakagawa, Masayuki; Ishiguro, Yukio; Tokuno, Yukio.


    The self-shielding factors for elastic removal cross sections of light and medium weight nuclides were calculated for the parameter, σ 0 within the conventional concept of the group constant sets. The numerical study were performed for obtaining a simple and accurate method. The present results were compared with the exact values and the conventional ones, and shown to be remarkably improved. It became apparent that the anisotropy of the elastic scattering did not affect to the self-shielding factors though it did to the infinite dilution cross sections. With use of the present revised set, the neutron flux were calculated in an iron medium and in a prototype FBR and compared with those by the fine spectrum calculations and the conventional set. The present set showed the considerable improvement in the vicinity of the large resonance regions of sodium, iron and oxygen. (auth.)

  14. Electric light scattering from single-stranded DNA in linear polyacrylamide solutions. (United States)

    Todorov, R; Starchev, K; Stoylov, S P


    The electric light scattering (ELS) of ssDNA (calf thymus, 10 kbp, 55 micrograms/mL) in denaturing polyacrylamide (PAA) solutions was studied as a function of applied sinusoidal electric field and polymer concentration. Electric fields of strengths up to 300 V/cm and of frequencies between 100 and 5000 Hz were applied. It was found that the ELS effect increases with the field strength and decreases at high frequencies. The dependence of the ELS effect of ssDNA on polymer concentration passes through a maximum at 1% PAA. The relaxation times of decay of the ELS effect increase with increasing polymer concentrations. It was demonstrated that ELS is a useful method for investigation of ssDNA behavior in the course of pulse-field electrophoresis in polymer solutions.

  15. Dynamic light scattering for the characterization and counting of extracellular vesicles: a powerful noninvasive tool (United States)

    Palmieri, Valentina; Lucchetti, Donatella; Gatto, Ilaria; Maiorana, Alessandro; Marcantoni, Margherita; Maulucci, Giuseppe; Papi, Massimiliano; Pola, Roberto; De Spirito, Marco; Sgambato, Alessandro


    Extracellular vesicles (EVs) are cell-to-cell shuttles that have recently drawn interest both as drug delivery platforms and disease biomarkers. Despite the increasingly recognized relevance of these vesicles, their detection, and characterization still have several technical drawbacks. In this paper, we accurately assess the size distribution and concentration of EVs by using a high-throughput non-perturbative technique such as Dynamic Light Scattering (DLS). The vesicle radii distribution, as further confirmed by Atomic Force Microscopy experiments, ranges from 10 to 80 nm and appears very asymmetric towards larger radii with a main peak at roughly 30 nm. By combining DLS and Bradford assay, we also demonstrate the feasibility of recovering the concentration and its distribution of proteins contained inside vesicles. The sensitivity of our approach allows to detect protein concentrations as low as 0.01 mg/ml.

  16. Nucleation and Nanometric Inhomogeneity in Niobiogermanate Glass: In-Situ Inelastic Light Scattering and TEM Studies

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Takahashi, Y; Ihara, R; Fujiwara, T; Osada, M; Masai, H


    We performed in-situ inelastic light scattering measurement in KNbGeO 5 glass with a high nucleation ability during heating in order to elucidate nanocrystallization dynamics. The results of the in-situ measurement and TEM observation revealed that nanometric heterogeneous region (∼1-2 nm) consisting of the Nb-richer phase develops, i.e., K 3 Nb 7 O 19 , at the temperature, in which glassy-supercooled-liquid (SCL) phase-transition occurs, i.e., precursive stage of nanocrystallization. This strongly suggests that evolution of the nanometric Nb-richer phase in the SCL phase corresponds to nucleation in the KNbGeO 5 glass.

  17. Electromagnetic and Light Scattering by Nonspherical Particles XV: Celebrating 150 Years of Maxwell's Electromagnetics (United States)

    Macke, Andreas; Mishchenko, Michael I.


    The 15th Electromagnetic and Light Scattering Conference (ELS-XV) was held in Leipzig, Germany from 21 to 26 of June 2015. This conference built on the great success of the previous meetings held in Amsterdam (1995), Helsinki(1997) [2], New York City(1998) [3], Vigo (1999),Halifax (2000), Gainesville (2002), Bremen (2003), Salobreña (2005), St. Petersburg (2006), Bodrum (2007), Hatfield (2008), Helsinki (2010), Taormina (2011), and Lille as well as the workshops held in Bremen (1996,1998) and Moscow (1997). As usual, the main objective of this conference was to bring together scientists, engineers, and PhD students studying various aspects of electromagnetic scattering and to provide a relaxed atmosphere for in-depth discussion of theory, measurements, and applications. Furthermore, ELS-XV supported the United Nations "Year of Light" and celebrated the150th anniversary of Maxwell's electromagnetics. Maxwell's paper on "A Dynamical Theory of the Electromagnetic Field" was published in1865 and has widely been acknowledged as one of the supreme achievements in the history of science. The conference was attended by136 scientists from 22 countries. The scientific program included two plenary lectures, 16 invited reviews, 88 contributed oral talks, and 70 poster presentations. The program and the abstracts of conference presentations are available at the conference website Following the well-established ELS practice and with Elsevier's encouragement, we solicited full-size papers for a topical issue of the Journal of Quantitative Spectroscopy and Radiative Transfer (JQSRT). The result of this collective effort is now in the reader's hands. As always, every invited review and regular paper included in this topical issue has undergone the same rigorous peer review process as any other manuscript published in the JQSRT.

  18. Flow cytometry with gold nanoparticlesand their clusters as scattering contrast agents: FDTD simulation of light-cell interaction

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Tanev, Stoyan; Sun, Wenbo; Pond, James


    refractive index matching conditions and by cells labeled by gold nanoparticles. The optical schematics including phase contrast (OPCM) microscopy as a prospective modality for in vivo flow cytometry is also analyzed. The validation of the FDTD approach for the simulation of flow cytometry may open a new......The formulation of the Finite-Difference Time-Domain (FDTD) approach is presented in the framework of its potential applications to in vivo flow cytometry based on light scattering. The consideration is focused on comparison of light scattering by a single biological cell alone in controlled...

  19. Gold nanoparticle based plasmon resonance light-scattering method as a new approach for glycogen-biomacromolecule interactions. (United States)

    Xiang, Minghui; Xu, Xiao; Liu, Feng; Li, Na; Li, Ke-An


    A model was developed for the interactions between glycogen and biomacromolecules by gold nanoparticle plasmon resonance light-scattering method. The interactions between glycogen and biomacromolecules can alter the aggregation status of gold nanoparticles, which produced intensity changes in plasmon resonance light-scattering. This is a sensitive method to study the interactions between glycogen and biomacromolecules from nano- to micromolar level. And it is also a simple method that measurement can be carried out with a common fluorospectrometer using label-free gold nanoparticles as the transducer.

  20. Depolarized light scattering from prolate anisotropic particles: The influence of the particle shape on the field autocorrelation function. (United States)

    Passow, Christopher; ten Hagen, Borge; Löwen, Hartmut; Wagner, Joachim


    We provide a theoretical analysis for the intermediate scattering function typically measured in depolarized dynamic light scattering experiments. We calculate the field autocorrelation function g1(VH)(Q,t) in dependence on the wave vector Q and the time t explicitly in a vertical-horizontal scattering geometry for differently shaped solids of revolution. The shape of prolate cylinders, spherocylinders, spindles, and double cones with variable aspect ratio is expanded in rotational invariants flm(r). By Fourier transform of these expansion coefficients, a formal multipole expansion of the scattering function is obtained, which is used to calculate the weighting coefficients appearing in the depolarized scattering function. In addition to translational and rotational diffusion, especially the translational-rotational coupling of shape-anisotropic objects is considered. From the short-time behavior of the intermediate scattering function, the first cumulants Γ(Q) are calculated. In a depolarized scattering experiment, they deviate from the simple proportionality to Q(2). The coefficients flm(Q) strongly depend on the geometry and aspect ratio of the particles. The time dependence, in addition, is governed by the translational and rotational diffusion tensors, which are calculated by means of bead models for differently shaped particles in dependence on their aspect ratio. Therefore, our analysis shows how details of the particle shape--beyond their aspect ratio--can be determined by a precise scattering experiment. This is of high relevance in understanding smart materials which involve suspensions of anisotropic colloidal particles.

  1. Quasifree (p ,p N ) scattering of light neutron-rich nuclei near N =14 (United States)

    Díaz Fernández, P.; Alvarez-Pol, H.; Crespo, R.; Cravo, E.; Atar, L.; Deltuva, A.; Aumann, T.; Avdeichikov, V.; Beceiro-Novo, S.; Bemmerer, D.; Benlliure, J.; Bertulani, C. A.; Boillos, J. M.; Boretzky, K.; Borge, M. J. G.; Caamaño, M.; Cabanelas, P.; Caesar, C.; Casarejos, E.; Catford, W.; Cederkäll, J.; Chartier, M.; Chulkov, L. V.; Cortina-Gil, D.; Datta Pramanik, U.; Dillmann, I.; Elekes, Z.; Enders, J.; Ershova, O.; Estradé, A.; Farinon, F.; Fernández-Domínguez, B.; Fraile, L. M.; Freer, M.; Galaviz, D.; Geissel, H.; Gernhäuser, R.; Golubev, P.; Göbel, K.; Hagdahl, J.; Heftrich, T.; Heil, M.; Heine, M.; Heinz, A.; Henriques, A.; Holl, M.; Hufnagel, A.; Ignatov, A.; Johansson, H. T.; Jonson, B.; Jurčiukonis, D.; Kalantar-Nayestanaki, N.; Kanungo, R.; Kelic-Heil, A.; Knyazev, A.; Kröll, T.; Kurz, N.; Labiche, M.; Langer, C.; Le Bleis, T.; Lemmon, R.; Lindberg, S.; Machado, J.; Marganiec, J.; Moro, A. M.; Movsesyan, A.; Nacher, E.; Najafi, A.; Nikolskii, E.; Nilsson, T.; Nociforo, C.; Panin, V.; Paschalis, S.; Perea, A.; Petri, M.; Pietras, B.; Pietri, S.; Plag, R.; Reifarth, R.; Ribeiro, G.; Rigollet, C.; Rossi, D.; Röder, M.; Savran, D.; Scheit, H.; Simon, H.; Sorlin, O.; Syndikus, I.; Taylor, J. T.; Tengblad, O.; Thies, R.; Togano, Y.; Vandebrouck, M.; Velho, P.; Volkov, V.; Wagner, A.; Wamers, F.; Weick, H.; Wheldon, C.; Wilson, G.; Winfield, J. S.; Woods, P.; Yakorev, D.; Zhukov, M.; Zilges, A.; Zuber, K.; R3B Collaboration


    Background: For many years, quasifree scattering reactions in direct kinematics have been extensively used to study the structure of stable nuclei, demonstrating the potential of this approach. The R 3B collaboration has performed a pilot experiment to study quasifree scattering reactions in inverse kinematics for a stable 12C beam. The results from that experiment constitute the first quasifree scattering results in inverse and complete kinematics. This technique has lately been extended to exotic beams to investigate the evolution of shell structure, which has attracted much interest due to changes in shell structure if the number of protons or neutrons is varied. Purpose: In this work we investigate for the first time the quasifree scattering reactions (p ,p n ) and (p ,2 p ) simultaneously for the same projectile in inverse and complete kinematics for radioactive beams with the aim to study the evolution of single-particle properties from N =14 to N =15 . Method: The structure of the projectiles 23O, 22O, and 21N has been studied simultaneously via (p ,p n ) and (p ,2 p ) quasifree knockout reactions in complete inverse kinematics, allowing the investigation of proton and neutron structure at the same time. The experimental data were collected at the R3B -LAND setup at GSI at beam energies of around 400 MeV/u. Two key observables have been studied to shed light on the structure of those nuclei: the inclusive cross sections and the corresponding momentum distributions. Conclusions: The knockout reactions (p ,p n ) and (p ,2 p ) with radioactive beams in inverse kinematics have provided important and complementary information for the study of shell evolution and structure. For the (p ,p n ) channels, indications of a change in the structure of these nuclei moving from N =14 to N =15 have been observed, i.e., from the 0 d5 /2 shell to the 1 s1 /2 . This supports previous observations of a subshell closure at N =14 for neutron-rich oxygen isotopes and its weakening

  2. Electric field Monte Carlo simulation of coherent backscattering of polarized light by a turbid medium containing Mie scatterers. (United States)

    Sawicki, John; Kastor, Nikolas; Xu, Min


    A method for directly simulating coherent backscattering of polarized light by a turbid medium has been developed based on the Electric field Monte Carlo (EMC) method. Electric fields of light traveling in a pair of time-reversed paths are added coherently to simulate their interference. An efficient approach for computing the electric field of light traveling along a time-reversed path is derived and implemented based on the time-reversal symmetry of electromagnetic waves. Coherent backscattering of linearly and circularly polarized light by a turbid medium containing Mie scatterers is then investigated using this method.

  3. Poly(NIPAM) micro gel particle de-swelling: a light scattering and small-angle neutron scattering study

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Daly, E.; Saunders, B.


    Full text: Small-angle neutron scattering (SANS) has been used to investigate structural changes during the de-swelling of poly(N-isopropylacrylamide) [poly(NIPAM)] micro gel particles induced by temperature variation and the addition of free polymer [poly(ethylene oxide)]. The extent of particle de-swelling was characterized by photon correlation spectroscopy (PCS). Thermally-induced de-swelling of poly(NIPAM) / deuterated water dispersions occurred on increasing the temperature in the region of the lower critical solution temperature (LCST). The latter was found to be 34 deg C, which is 2 deg C higher than the value reported for poly(NIPAM) particles dispersed in water. The SANS data exhibit a Porod form (Q -4 ) of scattering in regard to the size of the colloidal particles. However, in the swollen state, the scattering measured at temperatures less than the LCST, also has a contribution from poly(NIPAM) chains in a solution-like environment (Ornstein-Zernicke scattering). The SANS data confirm earlier PCS measurements showing that addition of free polymer induces particle de-swelling. The SANS data obtained using added free polymer are the first examples of their type to be reported

  4. Systematic analysis of protein–detergent complexes applying dynamic light scattering to optimize solutions for crystallization trials

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Meyer, Arne [University of Hamburg, c/o DESY, Building 22a, Notkestrasse 85, 22603 Hamburg (Germany); Dierks, Karsten [University of Hamburg, c/o DESY, Building 22a, Notkestrasse 85, 22603 Hamburg (Germany); XtalConcepts, Marlowring 19, 22525 Hamburg (Germany); Hussein, Rana [University of Hamburg, c/o DESY, Building 22a, Notkestrasse 85, 22603 Hamburg (Germany); Brillet, Karl [ESBS, Pôle API, 300 Boulevard Sébastien Brant, CS10413, 67412 Illkirch CEDEX (France); Brognaro, Hevila [São Paulo State University, UNESP/IBILCE, Caixa Postal 136, São José do Rio Preto-SP, 15054 (Brazil); Betzel, Christian, E-mail: [University of Hamburg, c/o DESY, Building 22a, Notkestrasse 85, 22603 Hamburg (Germany)


    Application of in situ dynamic light scattering to solutions of protein–detergent complexes permits characterization of these complexes in samples as small as 2 µl in volume. Detergents are widely used for the isolation and solubilization of membrane proteins to support crystallization and structure determination. Detergents are amphiphilic molecules that form micelles once the characteristic critical micelle concentration (CMC) is achieved and can solubilize membrane proteins by the formation of micelles around them. The results are presented of a study of micelle formation observed by in situ dynamic light-scattering (DLS) analyses performed on selected detergent solutions using a newly designed advanced hardware device. DLS was initially applied in situ to detergent samples with a total volume of approximately 2 µl. When measured with DLS, pure detergents show a monodisperse radial distribution in water at concentrations exceeding the CMC. A series of all-transn-alkyl-β-d-maltopyranosides, from n-hexyl to n-tetradecyl, were used in the investigations. The results obtained verify that the application of DLS in situ is capable of distinguishing differences in the hydrodynamic radii of micelles formed by detergents differing in length by only a single CH{sub 2} group in their aliphatic tails. Subsequently, DLS was applied to investigate the distribution of hydrodynamic radii of membrane proteins and selected water-insoluble proteins in presence of detergent micelles. The results confirm that stable protein–detergent complexes were prepared for (i) bacteriorhodopsin and (ii) FetA in complex with a ligand as examples of transmembrane proteins. A fusion of maltose-binding protein and the Duck hepatitis B virus X protein was added to this investigation as an example of a non-membrane-associated protein with low water solubility. The increased solubility of this protein in the presence of detergent could be monitored, as well as the progress of proteolytic

  5. Measuring of filtration efficiency of nonwoven textiles in volume from scattered light by seeding particles

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Sidlof P.


    Full Text Available This paper deals with the method which calculates a filtration efficiency of nonwoven textiles from scattered light intensity by seeding particles. Thefiltration efficiency is commonly measured by particle counters. Samples of liquid or gas are taken during a test in front of and behind a filtration material. The concentration of particles is measured and the filtration efficiency is calculated. The filtration efficiency does not have to be uniform in itswhole surface. The uniformity of filtration is another indicator of a quality of filtration materials. Measurements described in this article were performed on a water filtration setup which enables optical access to the place where the filtration material is mounted. Pictures of illuminated seeding particles are made by a laser sheet and a camera. Visualisation of the filtration process enables measuring of the efficiency of separation versus time and also versus two-dimensional position in case of use of a traverse mechanism. The filtration textiles were tested by 1 μm seeding particles. Mean value of light intensity and number of bright pixels in evaluative areas during image analysis were obtained. On the basis of these data, the filtration efficiency iscalculated. The best image analysis method was chosen.

  6. Electric field-induced transient birefringence and light scattering of synthetic liposomes. (United States)

    Asgharian, N; Schelly, Z A


    The dynamics of electric field-induced transient birefringence Deltan(t) and light scattering (detected as turbidity) of 190 nm diameter unilamellar vesicles of dioleoylphosphatidylcholine are investigated as a function of applied field strength E, length of the square pulse Deltat, lipid concentration, mean hydrodynamic diameter , ionic strength, and temperature. Generally, induced birefringence exclusively is observed at low lipid concentration and below certain threshold values of E and Deltat, whereas concomitant induced turbidity appears at high lipid concentration and above thresholds values of E and Deltat. Turbidity is monitored through the change in transmitted intensity DeltaS parallel(t) and DeltaS perpendicular(t) of light polarized parallel and perpendicular to the applied field E. The field-induced structural changes are reflected in double-exponential forward relaxation and triple-exponential reverse relaxation of the positive birefringence, and in non-exponential relaxations of DeltaS parallel (t) and DeltaS perpendicular(t). Under the field, the associated physical events are interpreted as elongation of the spherical bilayer shells in the direction of E, linear chain formation (pearling) of the induced dipolar liposomes parallel to E, and partial fusion of adjoining vesicles within the chains. Under conditions where electroporation can be detected, pore opening succeeds the elongation of the vesicles. After termination of the field, the vesicles return to their original time average spherical shape, the oriented chains randomize and disintegrate, and the fused structures are converted either to unilamellar or multilamellar vesicles.

  7. Light penetration structures the deep acoustic scattering layers in the global ocean.

    KAUST Repository

    Aksnes, Dag L.


    The deep scattering layer (DSL) is a ubiquitous acoustic signature found across all oceans and arguably the dominant feature structuring the pelagic open ocean ecosystem. It is formed by mesopelagic fishes and pelagic invertebrates. The DSL animals are an important food source for marine megafauna and contribute to the biological carbon pump through the active flux of organic carbon transported in their daily vertical migrations. They occupy depths from 200 to 1000 m at daytime and migrate to a varying degree into surface waters at nighttime. Their daytime depth, which determines the migration amplitude, varies across the global ocean in concert with water mass properties, in particular the oxygen regime, but the causal underpinning of these correlations has been unclear. We present evidence that the broad variability in the oceanic DSL daytime depth observed during the Malaspina 2010 Circumnavigation Expedition is governed by variation in light penetration. We find that the DSL depth distribution conforms to a common optical depth layer across the global ocean and that a correlation between dissolved oxygen and light penetration provides a parsimonious explanation for the association of shallow DSL distributions with hypoxic waters. In enhancing understanding of this phenomenon, our results should improve the ability to predict and model the dynamics of one of the largest animal biomass components on earth, with key roles in the oceanic biological carbon pump and food web.

  8. A Sample of Light Curves of Type II-n and other Unclassified Supernova (United States)

    Mock, Justin; Martin, J. C.; Hambsch, F.; Strickland, W.; Cason, A.


    It has long been speculated that there is a connection between supernova impostors and Type II-n supernovae. The modern Type II-n spectroscopic classification overlaps a great deal with Zwicky’s “Type V” supernovae, which includes several impostors. In late 2012, SN 2009ip, a known impostor, may have exploded as a Type II-n supernova. The decline from that event exhibited unusual fluctuations in brightness that are not evident in other Type II-n light curves. We present the light curves of several more recent Type II-n supernova and compare them with other published samples.

  9. A setup for resonant inelastic soft x ray scattering on liquids at free electron laser light sources


    Kunnus, K.; Rajkovic, I.; Schreck, S.; Quevedo, W.; Eckert, S.; Beye, M.; Suljoti, E.; Weniger, C.; Kalus, C.; Grübel, S.; Scholz, M.; Nordlund, D.; Zhang, W.; Hartsock, R.W.; Gaffney, K.J.


    We present a flexible and compact experimental setup that combines an in vacuum liquid jet with an x-ray emission spectrometer to enable static and femtosecond time-resolved resonant inelastic soft x-ray scattering (RIXS) measurements from liquids at free electron laser (FEL) light sources. We demonstrate the feasibility of this type of experiments with the measurements performed at the Linac Coherent Light Source FEL facility. At the FEL we observed changes in the RIXS spectra at high peak f...

  10. Measurement of Compton scattering cross section during PrimEx-II Experiment at Jefferson Lab (United States)

    Ye, Li; PrimEx Collaboration


    The electron Compton scattering is the most known fundamental QED process, however, a precision measurement of its cross section for the beam energy above 1 GeV has been lacking up to now. An updated high precision measurement of the neutral pion lifetime via the Primakoff effect (PrimEx-II) experiment was performed in Hall B of Jefferson Lab in 2010. The experiment used small angle coherent photoproduction of π0's in the Coulomb field of a nucleus, i.e. the Primakoff effect, to determine the lifetime with a precision of less than 1.5 % . It therefore requires thorough understanding of the underlying systematic uncertainties. To facilitate that data for well known electromagnetic processes were taken concurrently with the photoproduction data. This analysis pertains to measuring the Compton scattering cross section, which occurs at similar kinematics as the primary process. The combination of the well established theory of this process with large collected statistics allowed to extract this cross section with high precision in an energy region of 4-5 GeV for 12C and 28Si targets. The results of this analysis will be presented. This work is supported in part by the U.S. Department of Energy under Contacts No. DE-FG02-03ER41528, NSF MRI PHY-0079840, Thomas Jefferson National Laboratory, Mississippi State University and PrimEx collaboration.

  11. Neutron scattering studies of domain structures in type-II superconductor niobium

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Reimann, Tommy; Schulz, Michael [Heinz Maier-Leibnitz Zentrum (MLZ), TU Muenchen, Garching (Germany); Physikdepartment E21, TU Muenchen, Garching (Germany); Muehlbauer, Sebastian [Heinz Maier-Leibnitz Zentrum (MLZ), TU Muenchen, Garching (Germany); Gruenzweig, Christian [Paul-Scherrer-Institut, Villigen (Switzerland); Boeni, Peter [Physikdepartment E21, TU Muenchen, Garching (Germany)


    In the intermediate mixed state (IMS) of a type II superconductor (SC), the sample splits up into Meissner domains and Shubnikov domains which carry the vortex lattice (VL). A detailed investigation of these domain patterns offers the possibility to study general characteristics of domain nucleation and morphology as well as the physical properties of vortex-vortex and vortex-pinning interactions. In this talk we show that ultra small angle neutron scattering (USANS) can be used for the identification of VL properties. We have studied the VL domain morphology in a Nb single crystal disc that exhibit strong vortex pinning. USANS is sensitive to structures with sizes up to 20 microns and is therefore capable to probe IMS domains which is not possible with the commonly used small angle neutron scattering (SANS). Furthermore, USANS averages over the whole sample and hence probes the bulk of the material in contrast to magneto optical methods. Our investigation on the IMS of Nb reveals a preferred domain size with a strong dependence on magnetic field and sample thickness. Surprisingly, the average domain size is nearly independent of the temperature in a field cooled measurement giving some hint on the nature of field expulsion in the IMS of samples with significant pinning.

  12. Applications of the quasi-elastic light scattering to the study of dynamic properties of charged macro-molecules

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Gouesin-Menez, Renee


    The object of this research thesis is to study the modifications of dynamic properties of a macromolecule under the influence of variations of its medium, by using a frequency analysis of the spectrum of light scattered by a solution of particles. Thus, an important part of this thesis addresses the study and development of the scattering method and of its analysis by 'photon pulses', and the development and adjustment of an electrophoretic device to study light scattering by molecules submitted to an electric field. Then, hydrodynamic characteristics of some macromolecules have been measured with or without electric field. The studied molecular systems have been: calibrated spheres of latex polystyrene, a globular protein (bovine serum albumin), a polysaccharide (under the form of a rigid short stick), a flexible linear polyelectrolyte (polymethacrylate), and two DNA samples

  13. Elastic and inelastic light scattering spectroscopy and its possible use for label-free brain tumor typing. (United States)

    Ostertag, Edwin; Stefanakis, Mona; Rebner, Karsten; Kessler, Rudolf W


    This paper presents an approach for label-free brain tumor tissue typing. For this application, our dual modality microspectroscopy system combines inelastic Raman scattering spectroscopy and Mie elastic light scattering spectroscopy. The system enables marker-free biomedical diagnostics and records both the chemical and morphologic changes of tissues on a cellular and subcellular level. The system setup is described and the suitability for measuring morphologic features is investigated. Graphical Abstract Bimodal approach for label-free brain tumor typing. Elastic and inelastic light scattering spectra are collected laterally resolved in one measurement setup. The spectra are investigated by multivariate data analysis for assigning the tissues to specific WHO grades according to their malignancy.

  14. Primary and secondary contributions to aerosol light scattering and absorption in Mexico City during the MILAGRO 2006 campaign (United States)

    Paredes-Miranda, G.; Arnott, W. P.; Jimenez, J. L.; Aiken, A. C.; Gaffney, J. S.; Marley, N. A.


    A photoacoustic spectrometer, a nephelometer, an aethalometer, and an aerosol mass spectrometer were used to measure at ground level real-time aerosol light absorption, scattering, and chemistry at an urban site located in North East Mexico City (Instituto Mexicano del Petroleo, Mexican Petroleum Institute, denoted by IMP), as part of the Megacity Impact on Regional and Global Environments field experiment, MILAGRO, in March 2006. Photoacoustic and reciprocal nephelometer measurements at 532 nm accomplished with a single instrument compare favorably with conventional measurements made with an aethalometer and a TSI nephelometer. The diurnally averaged single scattering albedo at 532 nm was found to vary from 0.60 to 0.85 with the peak value at midday and the minimum value at 07:00 a.m. local time, indicating that the Mexico City plume is likely to have a net warming effect on local climate. The peak value is associated with strong photochemical generation of secondary aerosol. It is estimated that the photochemical production of secondary aerosol (inorganic and organic) is approximately 75% of the aerosol mass concentration and light scattering in association with the peak single scattering albedo. A strong correlation of aerosol scattering at 532 nm and total aerosol mass concentration was found, and an average mass scattering efficiency factor of 3.8 m2/g was determined. Comparisons of photoacoustic and aethalometer light absorption with oxygenated organic aerosol concentration (OOA) indicate a very small systematic bias of the filter based measurement associated with OOA and the peak aerosol single scattering albedo.

  15. Primary and secondary contributions to aerosol light scattering and absorption in Mexico City during the MILAGRO 2006 campaign

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    G. Paredes-Miranda


    Full Text Available A photoacoustic spectrometer, a nephelometer, an aethalometer, and an aerosol mass spectrometer were used to measure at ground level real-time aerosol light absorption, scattering, and chemistry at an urban site located in North East Mexico City (Instituto Mexicano del Petroleo, Mexican Petroleum Institute, denoted by IMP, as part of the Megacity Impact on Regional and Global Environments field experiment, MILAGRO, in March 2006. Photoacoustic and reciprocal nephelometer measurements at 532 nm accomplished with a single instrument compare favorably with conventional measurements made with an aethalometer and a TSI nephelometer. The diurnally averaged single scattering albedo at 532 nm was found to vary from 0.60 to 0.85 with th